Science.gov

Sample records for operator decision processes

  1. International online support to process optimisation and operation decisions.

    PubMed

    Onnerth, T B; Eriksson, J

    2002-01-01

    The information level at all technical facilities has developed from almost nothing 30-40 years ago to advanced IT--Information Technology--systems based on both chemical and mechanical on-line sensors for process and equipment. Still the basic part of information is to get the right data at the right time for the decision to be made. Today a large amount of operational data is available at almost any European wastewater treatment plant, from laboratory and SCADA. The difficult part is to determine which data to keep, which to use in calculations and how and where to make data available. With the STARcontrol system it is possible to separate only process relevant data to use for on-line control and reporting at engineering level, to optimise operation. Furthermore, the use of IT makes it possible to communicate internationally, with full access to the whole amount of data on the single plant. In this way, expert supervision can be both very local in local language e.g. Polish and at the same time very professional with Danish experts advising on Danish processes in Poland or Sweden where some of the 12 STARcontrol systems are running. PMID:11936670

  2. Assessing the structure of non-routine decision processes in Airline Operations Control.

    PubMed

    Richters, Floor; Schraagen, Jan Maarten; Heerkens, Hans

    2016-03-01

    Unfamiliar severe disruptions challenge Airline Operations Control professionals most, as their expertise is stretched to its limits. This study has elicited the structure of Airline Operations Control professionals' decision process during unfamiliar disruptions by mapping three macrocognitive activities on the decision ladder: sensemaking, option evaluation and action planning. The relationship between this structure and decision quality was measured. A simulated task was staged, based on which think-aloud protocols were obtained. Results show that the general decision process structure resembles the structure of experts working under routine conditions, in terms of the general structure of the macrocognitive activities, and the rule-based approach used to identify options and actions. Surprisingly, high quality of decision outcomes was found to relate to the use of rule-based strategies. This implies that successful professionals are capable of dealing with unfamiliar problems by reframing them into familiar ones, rather than to engage in knowledge-based processing. Practitioner Summary: We examined the macrocognitive structure of Airline Operations Control professionals' decision process during a simulated unfamiliar disruption in relation to decision quality. Results suggest that successful professionals are capable of dealing with unfamiliar problems by reframing them into familiar ones, rather than to engage in knowledge-based processing.

  3. A conceptual framework for automating the operational and strategic decision-making process in the health care delivery system.

    PubMed

    Ruohonen, Toni; Ennejmy, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Making reliable and justified operational and strategic decisions is a really challenging task in the health care domain. So far, the decisions have been made based on the experience of managers and staff, or they are evaluated with traditional methods, using inadequate data. As a result of this kind of decision-making process, attempts to improve operations usually have failed or led to only local improvements. Health care organizations have a lot of operational data, in addition to clinical data, which is the key element for making reliable and justified decisions. However, it is progressively problematic to access it and make usage of it. In this paper we discuss about the possibilities how to exploit operational data in the most efficient way in the decision-making process. We'll share our future visions and propose a conceptual framework for automating the decision-making process.

  4. Challenging Operations: An Ethical Framework to Assist Humanitarian Aid Workers in their Decision-making Processes

    PubMed Central

    Clarinval, Caroline; Biller-Andorno, Nikola

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This paper aims to raise awareness regarding ethical issues in the context of humanitarian action, and to offer a framework for systematically and effectively addressing such issues. Methods: Several cases highlight ethical issues that humanitarian aid workers are confronted with at different levels over the course of their deployments. The first case discusses a situation at a macro-level concerning decisions being made at the headquarters of a humanitarian organization. The second case looks at meso-level issues that need to be solved at a country or regional level. The third case proposes an ethical dilemma at the micro-level of the individual patient-provider relationship. Discussion: These real-life cases have been selected to illustrate the ethical dimension of conflicts within the context of humanitarian action that might remain unrecognized in everyday practice. In addition, we propose an ethical framework to assist humanitarian aid workers in their decision-making process. The framework draws on the principles and values that guide humanitarian action and public health ethics more generally. Beyond identifying substantive core values, the framework also includes a ten-step process modelled on tools used in the clinical setting that promotes a transparent and clear decision-making process and improves the monitoring and evaluation of aid interventions. Finally, we recommend organizational measures to implement the framework effectively. Conclusion: This paper uses a combination of public health/clinical ethics concepts and practices and applies them to the decision-making challenges encountered in relief operations in the humanitarian aid context. PMID:24987575

  5. Analytic hierarchy process as module for productivity evaluation and decision-making of the operation theater.

    PubMed

    Ezzat, Abdelrahman E M; Hamoud, Hesham S

    2016-01-01

    The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is a theory of measurement through pairwise comparisons and relies on the judgments of experts to derive priority scales, these scales that measure intangibles in relative terms. The aim of the article was to develop a model for productivity measurement of the operation theater (OT), which could be applied as a model for quality improvement and decision-making. AHP is used in this article to evolve such a model. The steps consist of identifying the critical success factors for measuring the productivity of OT, identifying subfactors that inflauence the critical factors, comparing the pairwise, deriving their relative importance and ratings, and calculating the cumulative effect according to the attributes in OT. The cumulative productivitycan be calculated by the end and can be compared Ideal productivity to measure the productive of OT in percentage fraction. Hence, the productivity could be calculated. Hence, AHP is a very useful model to measure the productivity in OT. PMID:26955599

  6. IBRD Operational Decision Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwalt, R; Hibbard, W; Raber, E; Carlsen, T; Folks, K; MacQueen, D; Mancieri, S; Bunt, T; Richards, J; Hirabayashi-Dethier, J

    2010-11-12

    The IBRD Operational Decision Framework in this document is an expansion of an emerging general risk management framework under development by an interagency working group. It provides the level of detail necessary to develop a general Consequence Management Guidance Document for biological contamination remediation and restoration. It is the intent of this document to support both wide area and individual site remediation and restoration activities. This product was initiated as a portion of the IBRD Task 1 Systems Analysis to aid in identification of wide area remediation and restoration shortcomings and gaps. The draft interagency general risk management framework was used as the basis for the analysis. The initial Task 1 analysis document expanded the draft interagency framework to a higher level of resolution, building on both the logic structure and the accompanying text explanations. It was then employed in a qualitative manner to identify responsible agencies, data requirements, tool requirements, and current capabilities for each decision and task. This resulted in identifying shortcomings and gaps needing resolution. Several meetings of a joint LLNL/SNL working group reviewed and approved the initial content of this analysis. At the conclusion of Task 1, work continued on the expanded framework to generate this Operational Decision Framework which is consistent with the existing interagency general risk management framework. A large LLNL task group met repeatedly over a three-month period to develop the expanded framework, coordinate the framework with the biological remediation checklist, and synchronize the logic with the Consequence Management Plan table of contents. The expanded framework was briefed at a large table top exercise reviewing the interagency risk management framework. This exercise had representation from major US metropolitan areas as well as national agencies. This product received positive comments from the participants. Upon

  7. Hierarchical decision processes that operate over distinct timescales underlie choice and changes in strategy.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Braden A; Kiani, Roozbeh

    2016-08-01

    Decision-making in a natural environment depends on a hierarchy of interacting decision processes. A high-level strategy guides ongoing choices, and the outcomes of those choices determine whether or not the strategy should change. When the right decision strategy is uncertain, as in most natural settings, feedback becomes ambiguous because negative outcomes may be due to limited information or bad strategy. Disambiguating the cause of feedback requires active inference and is key to updating the strategy. We hypothesize that the expected accuracy of a choice plays a crucial rule in this inference, and setting the strategy depends on integration of outcome and expectations across choices. We test this hypothesis with a task in which subjects report the net direction of random dot kinematograms with varying difficulty while the correct stimulus-response association undergoes invisible and unpredictable switches every few trials. We show that subjects treat negative feedback as evidence for a switch but weigh it with their expected accuracy. Subjects accumulate switch evidence (in units of log-likelihood ratio) across trials and update their response strategy when accumulated evidence reaches a bound. A computational framework based on these principles quantitatively explains all aspects of the behavior, providing a plausible neural mechanism for the implementation of hierarchical multiscale decision processes. We suggest that a similar neural computation-bounded accumulation of evidence-underlies both the choice and switches in the strategy that govern the choice, and that expected accuracy of a choice represents a key link between the levels of the decision-making hierarchy. PMID:27432960

  8. Hierarchical decision processes that operate over distinct timescales underlie choice and changes in strategy.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Braden A; Kiani, Roozbeh

    2016-08-01

    Decision-making in a natural environment depends on a hierarchy of interacting decision processes. A high-level strategy guides ongoing choices, and the outcomes of those choices determine whether or not the strategy should change. When the right decision strategy is uncertain, as in most natural settings, feedback becomes ambiguous because negative outcomes may be due to limited information or bad strategy. Disambiguating the cause of feedback requires active inference and is key to updating the strategy. We hypothesize that the expected accuracy of a choice plays a crucial rule in this inference, and setting the strategy depends on integration of outcome and expectations across choices. We test this hypothesis with a task in which subjects report the net direction of random dot kinematograms with varying difficulty while the correct stimulus-response association undergoes invisible and unpredictable switches every few trials. We show that subjects treat negative feedback as evidence for a switch but weigh it with their expected accuracy. Subjects accumulate switch evidence (in units of log-likelihood ratio) across trials and update their response strategy when accumulated evidence reaches a bound. A computational framework based on these principles quantitatively explains all aspects of the behavior, providing a plausible neural mechanism for the implementation of hierarchical multiscale decision processes. We suggest that a similar neural computation-bounded accumulation of evidence-underlies both the choice and switches in the strategy that govern the choice, and that expected accuracy of a choice represents a key link between the levels of the decision-making hierarchy.

  9. A new intuitionistic fuzzy rule-based decision-making system for an operating system process scheduler.

    PubMed

    Butt, Muhammad Arif; Akram, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    We present a new intuitionistic fuzzy rule-based decision-making system based on intuitionistic fuzzy sets for a process scheduler of a batch operating system. Our proposed intuitionistic fuzzy scheduling algorithm, inputs the nice value and burst time of all available processes in the ready queue, intuitionistically fuzzify the input values, triggers appropriate rules of our intuitionistic fuzzy inference engine and finally calculates the dynamic priority (dp) of all the processes in the ready queue. Once the dp of every process is calculated the ready queue is sorted in decreasing order of dp of every process. The process with maximum dp value is sent to the central processing unit for execution. Finally, we show complete working of our algorithm on two different data sets and give comparisons with some standard non-preemptive process schedulers.

  10. A new intuitionistic fuzzy rule-based decision-making system for an operating system process scheduler.

    PubMed

    Butt, Muhammad Arif; Akram, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    We present a new intuitionistic fuzzy rule-based decision-making system based on intuitionistic fuzzy sets for a process scheduler of a batch operating system. Our proposed intuitionistic fuzzy scheduling algorithm, inputs the nice value and burst time of all available processes in the ready queue, intuitionistically fuzzify the input values, triggers appropriate rules of our intuitionistic fuzzy inference engine and finally calculates the dynamic priority (dp) of all the processes in the ready queue. Once the dp of every process is calculated the ready queue is sorted in decreasing order of dp of every process. The process with maximum dp value is sent to the central processing unit for execution. Finally, we show complete working of our algorithm on two different data sets and give comparisons with some standard non-preemptive process schedulers. PMID:27652120

  11. Decision Support for Operations and Maintenance IV

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-22

    DSOM (Decision Support for Operations and Maintenance) is an expert operations and maintenance system that integrates plant operations, fuel management, and maintenance processes. The DSOM package provides operators with the information they need for cost-effective operating decisions creating savings in fuel, personnel, maintenance, and plant life extension. DSOM provides operators real-time system performance information to allow them to determine if the plant is malfunctioning or running below expectations. By catching potential problems, DSOM enables plants to operate safely at peak efficiency, while providing a higher level of reliability and safety.

  12. Decision Support for Operations and Maintenance IV

    2011-12-22

    DSOM (Decision Support for Operations and Maintenance) is an expert operations and maintenance system that integrates plant operations, fuel management, and maintenance processes. The DSOM package provides operators with the information they need for cost-effective operating decisions creating savings in fuel, personnel, maintenance, and plant life extension. DSOM provides operators real-time system performance information to allow them to determine if the plant is malfunctioning or running below expectations. By catching potential problems, DSOM enables plantsmore » to operate safely at peak efficiency, while providing a higher level of reliability and safety.« less

  13. Formal operational thinking: the role of cognitive-developmental processes in adolescent decision-making about pregnancy and contraception.

    PubMed

    Gordon, D E

    1990-07-01

    The role of formal operational thinking in adolescent decision-making about pregnancy and contraception is explored through an integration of the cognitive-developmental and pregnancy-contraception literatures. The ways in which cognitive-developmental change mechanisms initiate or hinder formal thinking on pregnancy-contraception are considered, and implications for counseling pregnant adolescents are discussed. PMID:2200271

  14. Naturalistic Decision Making For Power System Operators

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Podmore, Robin; Robinson, Marck; Ey, Pamela

    2009-06-23

    Abstract: Motivation -- As indicated by the Blackout of 2003, the North American interconnected electric system is vulnerable to cascading outages and widespread blackouts. Investigations of large scale outages often attribute the causes to the three T’s: Trees, Training and Tools. A systematic approach has been developed to document and understand the mental processes that an expert power system operator uses when making critical decisions. The approach has been developed and refined as part of a capability demonstration of a high-fidelity real-time power system simulator under normal and emergency conditions. To examine naturalistic decision making (NDM) processes, transcripts of operator-to-operator conversations are analyzed to reveal and assess NDM-based performance criteria. Findings/Design -- The results of the study indicate that we can map the Situation Awareness Level of the operators at each point in the scenario. We can also identify clearly what mental models and mental simulations are being performed at different points in the scenario. As a result of this research we expect that we can identify improved training methods and improved analytical and visualization tools for power system operators. Originality/Value -- The research applies for the first time, the concepts of Recognition Primed Decision Making, Situation Awareness Levels and Cognitive Task Analysis to training of electric power system operators. Take away message -- The NDM approach provides an ideal framework for systematic training management and mitigation to accelerate learning in team-based training scenarios with high-fidelity power grid simulators.

  15. Naturalistic Decision Making for Power System Operators

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Podmore, Robin; Robinson, Marck; Ey, Pamela

    2010-02-01

    Motivation – Investigations of large-scale outages in the North American interconnected electric system often attribute the causes to three T’s: Trees, Training and Tools. To document and understand the mental processes used by expert operators when making critical decisions, a naturalistic decision making (NDM) model was developed. Transcripts of conversations were analyzed to reveal and assess NDM-based performance criteria. Findings/Design – An item analysis indicated that the operators’ Situation Awareness Levels, mental models, and mental simulations can be mapped at different points in the training scenario. This may identify improved training methods or analytical/ visualization tools. Originality/Value – This study applies for the first time, the concepts of Recognition Primed Decision Making, Situation Awareness Levels and Cognitive Task Analysis to training of electric power system operators. Take away message – The NDM approach provides a viable framework for systematic training management to accelerate learning in simulator-based training scenarios for power system operators and teams.

  16. Distributed decision-making for space operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornstein, Rhoda Shaller; Gardner, J. A.; Willoughby, J. K.

    1990-01-01

    A programmatic and technical perspective in the context of future space applications is presented, that includes some of the management challenges that arise as the decision-making process becomes increasingly more decentralized. Three challenges are discussed: (1) the degree to which the planners must communicate with each other and with those who are seeking space operations resources, (2) the collection, management, employment and dissemination of the information needed to make decisions, and (3) the challenges connected with schedule integration. The technical perspective presented leads to recommended adaptations to the normal scheduling algorithms that retain the 'degrees of freedom' in the planning result. It is shown that these adaptations are specific technical responses to the programmatic challenges discussed.

  17. Decision Making Processes and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Hicks Patrick, Julie; Steele, Jenessa C.; Spencer, S. Melinda

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine the contributions of individual characteristics and strategic processing to the prediction of decision quality. Data were provided by 176 adults, ages 18 to 93 years, who completed computerized decision-making vignettes and a battery of demographic and cognitive measures. We examined the relations among age, domain-specific experience, working memory, and three measures of strategic information search to the prediction of solution quality using a 4-step hierarchical linear regression analysis. Working memory and two measures of strategic processing uniquely contributed to the variance explained. Results are discussed in terms of potential advances to both theory and intervention efforts. PMID:24282638

  18. Working memory retrieval as a decision process

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Benjamin; Raškevičius, Julius; Bays, Paul M.; Pertzov, Yoni; Husain, Masud

    2014-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is a core cognitive process fundamental to human behavior, yet the mechanisms underlying it remain highly controversial. Here we provide a new framework for understanding retrieval of information from WM, conceptualizing it as a decision based on the quality of internal evidence. Recent findings have demonstrated that precision of WM decreases with memory load. If WM retrieval uses a decision process that depends on memory quality, systematic changes in response time distribution should occur as a function of WM precision. We asked participants to view sample arrays and, after a delay, report the direction of change in location or orientation of a probe. As WM precision deteriorated with increasing memory load, retrieval time increased systematically. Crucially, the shape of reaction time distributions was consistent with a linear accumulator decision process. Varying either task relevance of items or maintenance duration influenced memory precision, with corresponding shifts in retrieval time. These results provide strong support for a decision-making account of WM retrieval based on noisy storage of items. Furthermore, they show that encoding, maintenance, and retrieval in WM need not be considered as separate processes, but may instead be conceptually unified as operations on the same noise-limited, neural representation. PMID:24492597

  19. Probabilistic Risk Assessment for Decision Making During Spacecraft Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meshkat, Leila

    2009-01-01

    , provide insight into the effect of various faults or failures on the risk and failure drivers of the system and the likelihood of possible end case scenarios, thereby facilitating the decision making process during operations. This paper describes the process of adjusting PRA models based on observed spacecraft data, on one hand, and utilizing the models for insight into the future system behavior on the other hand. While PRA models are typically used as a decision aid during the design phase of a space mission, we advocate adjusting them based on the observed behavior of the spacecraft and utilizing them for decision support during the operations phase.

  20. 32 CFR 724.804 - Decision process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decision process. 724.804 Section 724.804... BOARD Procedures of Naval Discharge Review Board § 724.804 Decision process. (a) The NDRB or the NDRB... are not binding on the NDRB in its decision-making process. (k) The preliminary...

  1. 32 CFR 724.804 - Decision process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Decision process. 724.804 Section 724.804... BOARD Procedures of Naval Discharge Review Board § 724.804 Decision process. (a) The NDRB or the NDRB... are not binding on the NDRB in its decision-making process. (k) The preliminary...

  2. 32 CFR 724.804 - Decision process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Decision process. 724.804 Section 724.804... BOARD Procedures of Naval Discharge Review Board § 724.804 Decision process. (a) The NDRB or the NDRB... are not binding on the NDRB in its decision-making process. (k) The preliminary...

  3. 32 CFR 724.804 - Decision process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Decision process. 724.804 Section 724.804... BOARD Procedures of Naval Discharge Review Board § 724.804 Decision process. (a) The NDRB or the NDRB... are not binding on the NDRB in its decision-making process. (k) The preliminary...

  4. Dissociating sensory from decision processes in human perceptual decision making

    PubMed Central

    Mostert, Pim; Kok, Peter; de Lange, Floris P.

    2015-01-01

    A key question within systems neuroscience is how the brain translates physical stimulation into a behavioral response: perceptual decision making. To answer this question, it is important to dissociate the neural activity underlying the encoding of sensory information from the activity underlying the subsequent temporal integration into a decision variable. Here, we adopted a decoding approach to empirically assess this dissociation in human magnetoencephalography recordings. We used a functional localizer to identify the neural signature that reflects sensory-specific processes, and subsequently traced this signature while subjects were engaged in a perceptual decision making task. Our results revealed a temporal dissociation in which sensory processing was limited to an early time window and consistent with occipital areas, whereas decision-related processing became increasingly pronounced over time, and involved parietal and frontal areas. We found that the sensory processing accurately reflected the physical stimulus, irrespective of the eventual decision. Moreover, the sensory representation was stable and maintained over time when it was required for a subsequent decision, but unstable and variable over time when it was task-irrelevant. In contrast, decision-related activity displayed long-lasting sustained components. Together, our approach dissects neuro-anatomically and functionally distinct contributions to perceptual decisions. PMID:26666393

  5. Decision Support for Emergency Operations Centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Craig; Lawhead, Joel; Watts, Zack

    2005-01-01

    The Flood Disaster Mitigation Decision Support System (DSS) is a computerized information system that allows regional emergency-operations government officials to make decisions regarding the dispatch of resources in response to flooding. The DSS implements a real-time model of inundation utilizing recently acquired lidar elevation data as well as real-time data from flood gauges, and other instruments within and upstream of an area that is or could become flooded. The DSS information is updated as new data become available. The model generates realtime maps of flooded areas and predicts flood crests at specified locations. The inundation maps are overlaid with information on population densities, property values, hazardous materials, evacuation routes, official contact information, and other information needed for emergency response. The program maintains a database and a Web portal through which real-time data from instrumentation are gathered into the database. Also included in the database is a geographic information system, from which the program obtains the overlay data for areas of interest as needed. The portal makes some portions of the database accessible to the public. Access to other portions of the database is restricted to government officials according to various levels of authorization. The Flood Disaster Mitigation DSS has been integrated into a larger DSS named REACT (Real-time Emergency Action Coordination Tool), which also provides emergency operations managers with data for any type of impact area such as floods, fires, bomb

  6. Decision support for simulation-based operation planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Johan; Hörling, Pontus

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we develop methods for analyzing large amounts of data from a military ground combat simulation system. Through a series of processes, we focus the big data set on situations that correspond to important questions and show advantageous outcomes. The result is a decision support methodology that provides commanders with results that answer specific questions of interest, such as what the consequences for the Blue side are in various Red scenarios or what a particular Blue force can withstand. This approach is a step toward taking the traditional data farming methodology from its analytical view into a prescriptive operation planning context and a decision making mode.

  7. Judgmental biases in decision support for strike operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulick, Jonathan D.; Davis, Paul K.

    2003-09-01

    Human decisionmaking does not typically fit the classical analytic model, and the heuristics employed may yield a variety of biased judgments. These biases are often considered inherently adverse, but may be functional in some cases. Decision support systems can mitigate some biases, but often introduce others. "Debiasing" decision support systems entails designing DSS to address expected biases, and to preclude inducing new ones. High-level C2 decisionmaking processes are poorly understood, but these general principles and lessons learned in other fields are expected to obtain. A notional air campaign illustrates potential biases in a commander"s judgment during planning and execution, and the role of debiasing operational DSS.

  8. ISHM Decision Analysis Tool: Operations Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The state-of-the-practice Shuttle caution and warning system warns the crew of conditions that may create a hazard to orbiter operations and/or crew. Depending on the severity of the alarm, the crew is alerted with a combination of sirens, tones, annunciator lights, or fault messages. The combination of anomalies (and hence alarms) indicates the problem. Even with much training, determining what problem a particular combination represents is not trivial. In many situations, an automated diagnosis system can help the crew more easily determine an underlying root cause. Due to limitations of diagnosis systems,however, it is not always possible to explain a set of alarms with a single root cause. Rather, the system generates a set of hypotheses that the crew can select from. The ISHM Decision Analysis Tool (IDAT) assists with this task. It presents the crew relevant information that could help them resolve the ambiguity of multiple root causes and determine a method for mitigating the problem. IDAT follows graphical user interface design guidelines and incorporates a decision analysis system. I describe both of these aspects.

  9. Cognitive processes in anesthesiology decision making.

    PubMed

    Stiegler, Marjorie Podraza; Tung, Avery

    2014-01-01

    The quality and safety of health care are under increasing scrutiny. Recent studies suggest that medical errors, practice variability, and guideline noncompliance are common, and that cognitive error contributes significantly to delayed or incorrect diagnoses. These observations have increased interest in understanding decision-making psychology.Many nonrational (i.e., not purely based in statistics) cognitive factors influence medical decisions and may lead to error. The most well-studied include heuristics, preferences for certainty, overconfidence, affective (emotional) influences, memory distortions, bias, and social forces such as fairness or blame.Although the extent to which such cognitive processes play a role in anesthesia practice is unknown, anesthesia care frequently requires rapid, complex decisions that are most susceptible to decision errors. This review will examine current theories of human decision behavior, identify effects of nonrational cognitive processes on decision making, describe characteristic anesthesia decisions in this context, and suggest strategies to improve decision making.

  10. 32 CFR 865.110 - Decision process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and 32 CFR part 70: available official military records, documentary evidence submitted by or on... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decision process. 865.110 Section 865.110...-GENERAL PERSONNEL REVIEW BOARDS Air Force Discharge Review Board § 865.110 Decision process. (a) The...

  11. 32 CFR 865.110 - Decision process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and 32 CFR part 70: available official military records, documentary evidence submitted by or on... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Decision process. 865.110 Section 865.110...-GENERAL PERSONNEL REVIEW BOARDS Air Force Discharge Review Board § 865.110 Decision process. (a) The...

  12. 32 CFR 865.110 - Decision process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and 32 CFR part 70: available official military records, documentary evidence submitted by or on... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Decision process. 865.110 Section 865.110...-GENERAL PERSONNEL REVIEW BOARDS Air Force Discharge Review Board § 865.110 Decision process. (a) The...

  13. 32 CFR 865.110 - Decision process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and 32 CFR part 70: available official military records, documentary evidence submitted by or on... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Decision process. 865.110 Section 865.110...-GENERAL PERSONNEL REVIEW BOARDS Air Force Discharge Review Board § 865.110 Decision process. (a) The...

  14. Operator performance evaluation using multi criteria decision making methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, Ruzanita Mat; Ismail, Wan Rosmanira; Razali, Siti Fatihah

    2014-06-01

    Operator performance evaluation is a very important operation in labor-intensive manufacturing industry because the company's productivity depends on the performance of its operators. The aims of operator performance evaluation are to give feedback to operators on their performance, to increase company's productivity and to identify strengths and weaknesses of each operator. In this paper, six multi criteria decision making methods; Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), fuzzy AHP (FAHP), ELECTRE, PROMETHEE II, Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) and VlseKriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje (VIKOR) are used to evaluate the operators' performance and to rank the operators. The performance evaluation is based on six main criteria; competency, experience and skill, teamwork and time punctuality, personal characteristics, capability and outcome. The study was conducted at one of the SME food manufacturing companies in Selangor. From the study, it is found that AHP and FAHP yielded the "outcome" criteria as the most important criteria. The results of operator performance evaluation showed that the same operator is ranked the first using all six methods.

  15. Contract Management or Self-Operation: A Decision-Making Guide for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CAUSE/EFFECT, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Guidelines are offered for colleges to use in making decisions about self-operation or contracting of campus services. Six primary factors and 10 phases in the decision process are outlined. A matrix incorporating those factors and phases, and specifically designed for decision-making concerning campus computing services is also presented. (MSE)

  16. Nonrational processes in ethical decision making.

    PubMed

    Rogerson, Mark D; Gottlieb, Michael C; Handelsman, Mitchell M; Knapp, Samuel; Younggren, Jeffrey

    2011-10-01

    Most current ethical decision-making models provide a logical and reasoned process for making ethical judgments, but these models are empirically unproven and rely upon assumptions of rational, conscious, and quasilegal reasoning. Such models predominate despite the fact that many nonrational factors influence ethical thought and behavior, including context, perceptions, relationships, emotions, and heuristics. For example, a large body of behavioral research has demonstrated the importance of automatic intuitive and affective processes in decision making and judgment. These processes profoundly affect human behavior and lead to systematic biases and departures from normative theories of rationality. Their influence represents an important but largely unrecognized component of ethical decision making. We selectively review this work; provide various illustrations; and make recommendations for scientists, trainers, and practitioners to aid them in integrating the understanding of nonrational processes with ethical decision making.

  17. 32 CFR 651.35 - Decision process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... as soon as possible. (b) The FNSI is a document (40 CFR 1508.13) that briefly states why an action... ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Assessment § 651.35 Decision process. (a) An...

  18. 32 CFR 651.35 - Decision process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... as soon as possible. (b) The FNSI is a document (40 CFR 1508.13) that briefly states why an action... ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Assessment § 651.35 Decision process. (a) An...

  19. 32 CFR 651.35 - Decision process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... as soon as possible. (b) The FNSI is a document (40 CFR 1508.13) that briefly states why an action... ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Assessment § 651.35 Decision process. (a) An...

  20. 32 CFR 651.35 - Decision process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... as soon as possible. (b) The FNSI is a document (40 CFR 1508.13) that briefly states why an action... ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Assessment § 651.35 Decision process. (a) An...

  1. 32 CFR 651.35 - Decision process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... as soon as possible. (b) The FNSI is a document (40 CFR 1508.13) that briefly states why an action... ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Assessment § 651.35 Decision process. (a) An...

  2. Use of PRA in Shuttle Decision Making Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyer, Roger L.; Hamlin, Teri L.

    2010-01-01

    How do you use PRA to support an operating program? This presentation will explore how the Shuttle Program Management has used the Shuttle PRA in its decision making process. It will reveal how the PRA has evolved from a tool used to evaluate Shuttle upgrades like Electric Auxiliary Power Unit (EAPU) to a tool that supports Flight Readiness Reviews (FRR) and real-time flight decisions. Specific examples of Shuttle Program decisions that have used the Shuttle PRA as input will be provided including how it was used in the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) manifest decision. It will discuss the importance of providing management with a clear presentation of the analysis, applicable assumptions and limitations, along with estimates of the uncertainty. This presentation will show how the use of PRA by the Shuttle Program has evolved overtime and how it has been used in the decision making process providing specific examples.

  3. Cognitive skill training for nuclear power plant operational decision making

    SciTech Connect

    Mumaw, R.J.; Swatzler, D.; Roth, E.M.; Thomas, W.A.

    1994-06-01

    Training for operator and other technical positions in the commercial nuclear power industry traditionally has focused on mastery of the formal procedures used to control plant systems and processes. However, decisionmaking tasks required of nuclear power plant operators involve cognitive skills (e.g., situation assessment, planning). Cognitive skills are needed in situations where formal procedures may not exist or may not be as prescriptive, as is the case in severe accident management (SAM). The Westinghouse research team investigated the potential cognitive demands of SAM on the control room operators and Technical Support Center staff who would be most involved in the selection and execution of severe accident control actions. A model of decision making, organized around six general cognitive processes, was developed to identify the types of cognitive skills that may be needed for effective performance. Also, twelve SAM scenarios were developed to reveal specific decision-making difficulties. Following the identification of relevant cognitive skills, 19 approaches for training individual and team cognitive skills were identified. A review of these approaches resulted in the identification of general characteristics that are important in effective training of cognitive skills.

  4. Decision analysis applications and the CERCLA process

    SciTech Connect

    Purucker, S.T.; Lyon, B.F. |

    1994-06-01

    Quantitative decision methods can be developed during environmental restoration projects that incorporate stakeholder input and can complement current efforts that are undertaken for data collection and alternatives evaluation during the CERCLA process. These decision-making tools can supplement current EPA guidance as well as focus on problems that arise as attempts are made to make informed decisions regarding remedial alternative selection. In examining the use of such applications, the authors discuss the use of decision analysis tools and their impact on collecting data and making environmental decisions from a risk-based perspective. They will look at the construction of objective functions for quantifying different risk-based perspective. They will look at the construction of objective functions for quantifying different risk-based decision rules that incorporate stakeholder concerns. This represents a quantitative method for implementing the Data Quality Objective (DQO) process. These objective functions can be expressed using a variety of indices to analyze problems that currently arise in the environmental field. Examples include cost, magnitude of risk, efficiency, and probability of success or failure. Based on such defined objective functions, a project can evaluate the impact of different risk and decision selection strategies on data worth and alternative selection.

  5. International Students Decision-Making Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cubillo, Jose Maria; Sanchez, Joaquin; Cervino, Julio

    2006-01-01

    Purpose--The purpose of this paper is to propose a theoretical model that integrates the different groups of factors which influence the decision-making process of international students, analysing different dimensions of this process and explaining those factors which determine students' choice. Design/methodology/approach--A hypothetical model…

  6. Operational hydrological projections to aid decision making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnetler, Thomas; Davis, Richard; Waddingham, John; James, Karen

    2014-05-01

    The Environment Agency of England has wide ranging responsibility for environmental regulation that includes both water resources management and flood management. In order to best fulfil its role decisions need to be taken using the best available evidence in the time available. The manipulation of large amounts of hydrological data in a way that best meets the needs of decision makers is a complex challenge. Not only should any analysis be technically robust but it should also be presented in a way that communicates key messages clearly and quickly. The Environment Agency and its predecessor organisations has a long history of working with hydrological data but in recent years there has been a need to better incorporate risk and uncertainty into hydrological analysis so that subsequent decisions can take this into account. In the face of recent extreme weather events, there has been an increasing demand for forward look projections from water resource and flood risk practitioners, decision makers and contingency planners. These assessments are required to give appropriate lead in time to allow risk mitigation measures to be implemented to minimise impact upon people, the environment and infrastructure. This presentation will outline the methodologies developed by the Environment Agency to produce and publish monthly routine forward look projections using both a scenario and climate ensemble approach. It will cover how information is disseminated, providing a good example of communicating science to decision makers and to the public. Examples of practical applications of these methodologies include: • Risk based planning and forecasting of water availability for inter basin water transfers into water stressed catchments. • Assessment of water resources prospects during droughts for people and the environment • The likelihood and medium term risk of high groundwater levels impacting upon people and infrastructure. There are also a number of future challenges

  7. Decision-making processes of youth.

    PubMed

    Moore, J W; Jensen, B; Hauck, W E

    1990-01-01

    Research supports the theory that after administrators make a decision, feedback, both positive and negative, and also the administrators' perceived security vis-à-vis their position affect their level of commitment to a course of action. However, this research fails to recognize that subjects of college age playing administrators in the simulated, experimental treatments which have been presented in the research had nothing personally to lose if they made a bad decision--an orientation contradictory to the reality of most actual administrative positions. Additionally, the research ignores the interactional effects of the personality of decision makers in terms of their anxiety levels and the judgments they make. This study took both of these considerations into account by creating a decision-making situation within which prospective administrators made monetary commitments to long-term goals while their anxiety level, both as a basic personality attribute and an index of the reality of the decision-making process, was monitored under conditions of varying levels of job insecurity and resistance to their policies in relation to their decisions. Analyses revealed that contrary to the results of past research which used college students as subjects: (1) there is a significant negative correlation between levels of anxiety and commitments to previously chosen courses of action; (2) there are no significant effects of job security on commitment; and, most importantly, (3) high resistance to a policy decision leads to significantly less monetary commitments to long-term goals. The findings suggest that the basis for the contradictory results lies with the anxiety level of decision makers and the realism of experiencing a loss by making poor decisions. PMID:2264508

  8. Breast restoration decision making: enhancing the process.

    PubMed

    Reaby, L L

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the breast restoration decision-making patterns used by women who opted to have their breast cancer treated by mastectomy. Sixty-four women wearing external breast prostheses and 31 women with breast reconstructions were interviewed. Modified versions of Simon's notion of "bounded rationality" and Janis and Mann's conflict model provided the conceptual scaffolding for the study. Five breast restoration decision-making patterns emerged from the analysis of the interview data: (a) Enlightened (actively seeks information, considers positive and negative aspects, and demonstrates deliberation on the alternatives), (b) Contented (passively accepts minimum information on alternatives because of a preference toward a particular type), (c) Sideliner (uncritically adopts any alternative that is easy and simple to implement), (d) Shifter (gives over the decision to others), and (e) Panic-stricken (can make no rational decision on alternatives). In the prosthesis group, the major pattern used was the Sideliner, and in the reconstruction group it was the Contented. None of the participants used the Enlightened pattern. The data indicated that there was no evidence of active information-seeking behavior or deliberation on the alternatives as part of the women's decision-making process. The findings suggest a need for a registered nurse oncology specialist to be accessible to women during the period when decisions regarding breast restoration are made. This professional has the knowledge to interact effectively with these women and serve as their advocate during the decision-making process. Implications for professional practice and a model for competent breast restoration decision making are presented.

  9. Decision Support Systems for Launch and Range Operations Using Jess

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar

    2007-01-01

    The virtual test bed for launch and range operations developed at NASA Ames Research Center consists of various independent expert systems advising on weather effects, toxic gas dispersions and human health risk assessment during space-flight operations. An individual dedicated server supports each expert system and the master system gather information from the dedicated servers to support the launch decision-making process. Since the test bed is based on the web system, reducing network traffic and optimizing the knowledge base is critical to its success of real-time or near real-time operations. Jess, a fast rule engine and powerful scripting environment developed at Sandia National Laboratory has been adopted to build the expert systems providing robustness and scalability. Jess also supports XML representation of knowledge base with forward and backward chaining inference mechanism. Facts added - to working memory during run-time operations facilitates analyses of multiple scenarios. Knowledge base can be distributed with one inference engine performing the inference process. This paper discusses details of the knowledge base and inference engine using Jess for a launch and range virtual test bed.

  10. Operant Variability: Procedures and Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machado, Armando; Tonneau, Francois

    2012-01-01

    Barba's (2012) article deftly weaves three main themes in one argument about operant variability. From general theoretical considerations on operant behavior (Catania, 1973), Barba derives methodological guidelines about response differentiation and applies them to the study of operant variability. In the process, he uncovers unnoticed features of…

  11. Evacuation decision-making: process and uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Mileti, D.; Sorensen, J.; Bogard, W.

    1985-09-01

    The purpose was to describe the processes of evacuation decision-making, identify and document uncertainties in that process and discuss implications for federal assumption of liability for precautionary evacuations at nuclear facilities under the Price-Anderson Act. Four major categories of uncertainty are identified concerning the interpretation of hazard, communication problems, perceived impacts of evacuation decisions and exogenous influences. Over 40 historical accounts are reviewed and cases of these uncertainties are documented. The major findings are that all levels of government, including federal agencies experience uncertainties in some evacuation situations. Second, private sector organizations are subject to uncertainties at a variety of decision points. Third, uncertainties documented in the historical record have provided the grounds for liability although few legal actions have ensued. Finally it is concluded that if liability for evacuations is assumed by the federal government, the concept of a ''precautionary'' evacuation is not useful in establishing criteria for that assumption. 55 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  12. Educational Decision-Making Through Operations Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dusseldorp, Ralph A.; And Others

    This book focuses on and utilizes the methodology and tools of systems analysis and operations research to demonstrate their use in planning for the future and meeting public demands for information on how tax money is being spent by educational administrators. The range of possible and relevant applications is demonstrated by a step-by-step…

  13. Nonrational Processes in Ethical Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogerson, Mark D.; Gottlieb, Michael C.; Handelsman, Mitchell M.; Knapp, Samuel; Younggren, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Most current ethical decision-making models provide a logical and reasoned process for making ethical judgments, but these models are empirically unproven and rely upon assumptions of rational, conscious, and quasi-legal reasoning. Such models predominate despite the fact that many nonrational factors influence ethical thought and behavior,…

  14. A Collaborative Decision Environment for UAV Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Ortenzio, Matthew V.; Enomoto, Francis Y.; Johan, Sandra L.

    2005-01-01

    NASA is developing Intelligent Mission Management (IMM) technology for science missions employing long endurance unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV's). The IMM groundbased component is the Collaborative Decision Environment (CDE), a ground system that provides the Mission/Science team with situational awareness, collaboration, and decisionmaking tools. The CDE is used for pre-flight planning, mission monitoring, and visualization of acquired data. It integrates external data products used for planning and executing a mission, such as weather, satellite data products, and topographic maps by leveraging established and emerging Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards to acquire external data products via the Internet, and an industry standard geographic information system (GIs) toolkit for visualization As a Science/Mission team may be geographically dispersed, the CDE is capable of providing access to remote users across wide area networks using Web Services technology. A prototype CDE is being developed for an instrument checkout flight on a manned aircraft in the fall of 2005, in preparation for a full deployment in support of the US Forest Service and NASA Ames Western States Fire Mission in 2006.

  15. Use of Probabilistic Risk Assessment in Shuttle Decision Making Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyer, Roger L.; Hamlin, Teri, L.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) to assist in the decision making for the shuttle design and operation. Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) is a comprehensive, structured, and disciplined approach to identifying and analyzing risk in complex systems and/or processes that seeks answers to three basic questions: (i.e., what can go wrong? what is the likelihood of these occurring? and what are the consequences that could result if these occur?) The purpose of the Shuttle PRA (SPRA) is to provide a useful risk management tool for the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) to identify strengths and possible weaknesses in the Shuttle design and operation. SPRA was initially developed to support upgrade decisions, but has evolved into a tool that supports Flight Readiness Reviews (FRR) and near real-time flight decisions. Examples of the use of PRA for the shuttle are reviewed.

  16. Making Risk Models Operational for Situational Awareness and Decision Support

    SciTech Connect

    Paulson, Patrick R.; Coles, Garill A.; Shoemaker, Steven V.

    2012-06-12

    Modernization of nuclear power operations control systems, in particular the move to digital control systems, creates an opportunity to modernize existing legacy infrastructure and extend plant life. We describe here decision support tools that allow the assessment of different facets of risk and support the optimization of available resources to reduce risk as plants are upgraded and maintained. This methodology could become an integrated part of the design review process and a part of the operations management systems. The methodology can be applied to the design of new reactors such as small nuclear reactors (SMR), and be helpful in assessing the risks of different configurations of the reactors. Our tool provides a low cost evaluation of alternative configurations and provides an expanded safety analysis by considering scenarios while early in the implementation cycle where cost impacts can be minimized. The effects of failures can be modeled and thoroughly vetted to understand their potential impact on risk. The process and tools presented here allow for an integrated assessment of risk by supporting traditional defense in depth approaches while taking into consideration the insertion of new digital instrument and control systems.

  17. The decision-making process for senior cancer patients: treatment allocation of older women with operable breast cancer in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Jenna L.; Richards, Paul; Zaman, Osama; Ward, Sue; Collins, Karen; Robinson, Thompson; Cheung, Kwok-Leung; Audisio, Riccardo A.; Reed, Malcolm W.; Wyld, Lynda

    2015-01-01

    Objective Up to 40% of women over 70 years with primary operable breast cancer in the UK are treated with primary endocrine therapy (PET) as an alternative to surgery. A variety of factors are important in determining treatment for older breast cancer patients. This study aimed to identify the patient and tumor factors associated with treatment allocation in this population. Methods Prospectively collected data on treatment received (surgery vs. PET) were analysed with multivariable logistic regression using the variables age, modified Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), activities of daily living (ADL) score, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score, HER2 status, tumour size, grade and nodal status. Results Data were available for 1,122 cancers in 1,098 patients recruited between February 2013 and June 2015 from 51 UK hospitals. About 78% of the population were treated surgically, with the remainder being treated with PET. Increasing patient age at diagnosis, increasing CCI score, large tumor size (5 cm or more) and dependence in one or more ADL categories were all strongly associated with non-surgical treatment (P<0.05). Conclusion Increasing comorbidity, large tumor size and reduced functional ability are associated with reduced likelihood of surgical treatment of breast cancer in older patients. However, age itself remains a significant factor for non-surgical treatment; reinforcing the need for evidence-based guidelines. PMID:26779368

  18. Information Processing in Decision-Making Systems

    PubMed Central

    van der Meer, Matthijs; Kurth-Nelson, Zeb; Redish, A. David

    2015-01-01

    Decisions result from an interaction between multiple functional systems acting in parallel to process information in very different ways, each with strengths and weaknesses. In this review, the authors address three action-selection components of decision-making: The Pavlovian system releases an action from a limited repertoire of potential actions, such as approaching learned stimuli. Like the Pavlovian system, the habit system is computationally fast but, unlike the Pavlovian system permits arbitrary stimulus-action pairings. These associations are a “forward” mechanism; when a situation is recognized, the action is released. In contrast, the deliberative system is flexible but takes time to process. The deliberative system uses knowledge of the causal structure of the world to search into the future, planning actions to maximize expected rewards. Deliberation depends on the ability to imagine future possibilities, including novel situations, and it allows decisions to be taken without having previously experienced the options. Various anatomical structures have been identified that carry out the information processing of each of these systems: hippocampus constitutes a map of the world that can be used for searching/imagining the future; dorsal striatal neurons represent situation-action associations; and ventral striatum maintains value representations for all three systems. Each system presents vulnerabilities to pathologies that can manifest as psychiatric disorders. Understanding these systems and their relation to neuroanatomy opens up a deeper way to treat the structural problems underlying various disorders. PMID:22492194

  19. Signal and Image Processing Operations

    1995-05-10

    VIEW is a software system for processing arbitrary multidimensional signals. It provides facilities for numerical operations, signal displays, and signal databasing. The major emphasis of the system is on the processing of time-sequences and multidimensional images. The system is designed to be both portable and extensible. It runs currently on UNIX systems, primarily SUN workstations.

  20. Decision Facilitator for Launch Operations using Intelligent Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar; Bardina, Jorge

    2005-01-01

    Launch operations require millions of micro-decisions which contribute to the macro decision of 'Go/No-Go' for a launch. Knowledge workers"(such as managers and technical professionals) need information in a timely precise manner as it can greatly affect mission success. The intelligent agent (web search agent) uses the words of a hypertext markup language document which is connected through the internet. The intelligent agent's actions are to determine if its goal of seeking a website containing a specified target (e.g., keyword or phrase), has been met. There are few parameters that should be defined for the keyword search like "Go" and "No-Go". Instead of visiting launch and range decision making servers individually, the decision facilitator constantly connects to all servers, accumulating decisions so the final decision can be decided in a timely manner. The facilitator agent uses the singleton design pattern, which ensures that only a single instance of the facilitator agent exists at one time. Negotiations could proceed between many agents resulting in a final decision. This paper describes details of intelligent agents and their interaction to derive an unified decision support system.

  1. An Advanced Decision Support Tool for Electricity Infrastructure Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yousu; Huang, Zhenyu; Wong, Pak C.; Mackey, Patrick S.; Allwardt, Craig H.; Ma, Jian; Greitzer, Frank L.

    2010-01-31

    Electricity infrastructure, as one of the most critical infrastructures in the U.S., plays an important role in modern societies. Its failure would lead to significant disruption of people’s lives, industry and commercial activities, and result in massive economic losses. Reliable operation of electricity infrastructure is an extremely challenging task because human operators need to consider thousands of possible configurations in near real-time to choose the best option and operate the network effectively. In today’s practice, electricity infrastructure operation is largely based on operators’ experience with very limited real-time decision support, resulting in inadequate management of complex predictions and the inability to anticipate, recognize, and respond to situations caused by human errors, natural disasters, or cyber attacks. Therefore, a systematic approach is needed to manage the complex operational paradigms and choose the best option in a near-real-time manner. This paper proposes an advanced decision support tool for electricity infrastructure operations. The tool has the functions of turning large amount of data into actionable information to help operators monitor power grid status in real time; performing trend analysis to indentify system trend at the regional level or system level to help the operator to foresee and discern emergencies, studying clustering analysis to assist operators to identify the relationships between system configurations and affected assets, and interactively evaluating the alternative remedial actions to aid operators to make effective and timely decisions. This tool can provide significant decision support on electricity infrastructure operations and lead to better reliability in power grids. This paper presents examples with actual electricity infrastructure data to demonstrate the capability of this tool.

  2. Product assortment and individual decision processes.

    PubMed

    Chernev, Alexander

    2003-07-01

    Research presented in this article examines the impact of product assortment on individuals' decisions. Four experiments report converging evidence that the impact of assortment is moderated by the degree to which individuals have articulated attribute preferences, whereby individuals with an articulated ideal point are more likely to prefer larger assortments than individuals without articulated preferences. The data further show that choices made from large assortments are associated with more selective, alternative-based, and confirmatory processing for individuals with articulated preferences and more comprehensive, attribute-based, and comparative processing for those without articulated preferences.

  3. Transition-Independent Decentralized Markov Decision Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Raphen; Silberstein, Shlomo; Lesser, Victor; Goldman, Claudia V.; Morris, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    There has been substantial progress with formal models for sequential decision making by individual agents using the Markov decision process (MDP). However, similar treatment of multi-agent systems is lacking. A recent complexity result, showing that solving decentralized MDPs is NEXP-hard, provides a partial explanation. To overcome this complexity barrier, we identify a general class of transition-independent decentralized MDPs that is widely applicable. The class consists of independent collaborating agents that are tied up by a global reward function that depends on both of their histories. We present a novel algorithm for solving this class of problems and examine its properties. The result is the first effective technique to solve optimally a class of decentralized MDPs. This lays the foundation for further work in this area on both exact and approximate solutions.

  4. A Flight Deck Decision Support Tool for Autonomous Airborne Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballin, Mark G.; Sharma, Vivek; Vivona, Robert A.; Johnson, Edward J.; Ramiscal, Ermin

    2002-01-01

    NASA is developing a flight deck decision support tool to support research into autonomous operations in a future distributed air/ground traffic management environment. This interactive real-time decision aid, referred to as the Autonomous Operations Planner (AOP), will enable the flight crew to plan autonomously in the presence of dense traffic and complex flight management constraints. In assisting the flight crew, the AOP accounts for traffic flow management and airspace constraints, schedule requirements, weather hazards, aircraft operational limits, and crew or airline flight-planning goals. This paper describes the AOP and presents an overview of functional and implementation design considerations required for its development. Required AOP functionality is described, its application in autonomous operations research is discussed, and a prototype software architecture for the AOP is presented.

  5. Use of intraoperative ultrasound in decision making during spinal operations.

    PubMed

    Theodotou, B C; Powers, S K

    1986-08-01

    The use of intraoperative spinal ultrasonography in 14 cases and its effect on decision making during laminectomy procedures is discussed. The advantages of the technique in operations for syringomyelia, trauma, spondylosis, intramedullary tumors, and neuroablative procedures of the spinal cord are elaborated. PMID:3528907

  6. Hybrid Discrete-Continuous Markov Decision Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feng, Zhengzhu; Dearden, Richard; Meuleau, Nicholas; Washington, Rich

    2003-01-01

    This paper proposes a Markov decision process (MDP) model that features both discrete and continuous state variables. We extend previous work by Boyan and Littman on the mono-dimensional time-dependent MDP to multiple dimensions. We present the principle of lazy discretization, and piecewise constant and linear approximations of the model. Having to deal with several continuous dimensions raises several new problems that require new solutions. In the (piecewise) linear case, we use techniques from partially- observable MDPs (POMDPS) to represent value functions as sets of linear functions attached to different partitions of the state space.

  7. Towards a Decision Support System for Space Flight Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meshkat, Leila; Hogle, Charles; Ruszkowski, James

    2013-01-01

    The Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) has put in place a Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) technological framework for the development and execution of the Flight Production Process (FPP). This framework has provided much added value and return on investment to date. This paper describes a vision for a model based Decision Support System (DSS) for the development and execution of the FPP and its design and development process. The envisioned system extends the existing MBSE methodology and technological framework which is currently in use. The MBSE technological framework currently in place enables the systematic collection and integration of data required for building an FPP model for a diverse set of missions. This framework includes the technology, people and processes required for rapid development of architectural artifacts. It is used to build a feasible FPP model for the first flight of spacecraft and for recurrent flights throughout the life of the program. This model greatly enhances our ability to effectively engage with a new customer. It provides a preliminary work breakdown structure, data flow information and a master schedule based on its existing knowledge base. These artifacts are then refined and iterated upon with the customer for the development of a robust end-to-end, high-level integrated master schedule and its associated dependencies. The vision is to enhance this framework to enable its application for uncertainty management, decision support and optimization of the design and execution of the FPP by the program. Furthermore, this enhanced framework will enable the agile response and redesign of the FPP based on observed system behavior. The discrepancy of the anticipated system behavior and the observed behavior may be due to the processing of tasks internally, or due to external factors such as changes in program requirements or conditions associated with other organizations that are outside of

  8. Teachers and Decision-Making Processes: An Italian Exploratory Study on Individual and Collaborative Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parmigiani, Davide

    2012-01-01

    This research was aimed at highlighting the decision-making processes of Italian teachers; in particular, we have focused on individual and collaborative decisions developed both during meetings and in the classroom. The study has underlined the features of teachers' decisions when decisions are made in groups and individually. A questionnaire was…

  9. Using Simulations to Investigate Decision Making in Airline Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruce, Peter J.; Gray, Judy H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines a range of methods to collect data for the investigation of decision-making in airline Operations Control Centres (OCCs). A study was conducted of 52 controllers in five OCCs of both domestic and international airlines in the Asia-Pacific region. A range of methods was used including: surveys, interviews, observations, simulations, and think-aloud protocol. The paper compares and evaluates the suitability of these techniques for gathering data and provides recommendations on the application of simulations. Keywords Data Collection, Decision-Making, Research Methods, Simulation, Think-Aloud Protocol.

  10. School Board Decision Making: An Analysis of the Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crum, Karen S.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study was to analyze the characteristics in the school board decision-making process and to discover whether school board members are aware of the characteristics surrounding the school board's decision-making process. Specifically, this study examines the decision-making process of a school board in Virginia, and it provides…

  11. Human Decision Processes: Implications for SSA Support Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picciano, P.

    2013-09-01

    Despite significant advances in computing power and artificial intelligence (AI), few critical decisions are made without a human decision maker in the loop. Space Situational Awareness (SSA) missions are both critical and complex, typically adhering to the human-in-the-loop (HITL) model. The collection of human operators injects a needed diversity of expert knowledge, experience, and authority required to successfully fulfill SSA tasking. A wealth of literature on human decision making exists citing myriad empirical studies and offering a varied set of prescriptive and descriptive models of judgment and decision making (Hastie & Dawes, 2001; Baron, 2000). Many findings have been proven sufficiently robust to allow information architects or system/interface designers to take action to improve decision processes. For the purpose of discussion, these concepts are bifurcated in two groups: 1) vulnerabilities to mitigate, and 2) capabilities to augment. These vulnerabilities and capabilities refer specifically to the decision process and should not be confused with a shortcoming or skill of a specific human operator. Thus the framing of questions and orders, the automated tools with which to collaborate, priming and contextual data, and the delivery of information all play a critical role in human judgment and choice. Evaluating the merits of any decision can be elusive; in order to constrain this discussion, ‘rational choice' will tend toward the economic model characteristics such as maximizing utility and selection consistency (e.g., if A preferred to B, and B preferred to C, than A should be preferred to C). Simple decision models often encourage one to list the pros and cons of a decision, perhaps use a weighting schema, but one way or another weigh the future benefit (or harm) of making a selection. The result (sought by the rationalist models) should drive toward higher utility. Despite notable differences in researchers' theses (to be discussed in the full

  12. Legal process, litigation, and judicial decisions.

    PubMed

    Beresford, H Richard

    2013-01-01

    Ethically salient issues in neurologic care may have important legal overtones. This chapter considers some of these, emphasizing how law may influence the outcome of controversies over how best to promote autonomy, beneficence, and justice in the care of individuals with neurologic disorders. Constitutional, statutory, and judicial dimensions are addressed. With respect to autonomy, discussion emphasizes legal dimensions of the doctrine of informed consent and the obligations of medical professionals to protect the privacy and confidentiality of their patients. The discussion of beneficence focuses on issues relating to actual or potential conflicts of interest in the care of patients and on the conduct of research involving human subjects. The section on justice considers how law aims to define protectable rights and interests of individuals and to provide a fair and efficient process for resolving disputes. Applications of legal principles and doctrines are illustrated primarily through the examples afforded by judicial decisions. These cases demonstrate how law both promotes ethical decision-making and protects the rights and interests of those affected. The cases also highlight some of the ethical quandaries that evoke resort to litigation and the limits of law in advancing ethically appropriate outcomes. PMID:24182366

  13. Legal process, litigation, and judicial decisions.

    PubMed

    Beresford, H Richard

    2013-01-01

    Ethically salient issues in neurologic care may have important legal overtones. This chapter considers some of these, emphasizing how law may influence the outcome of controversies over how best to promote autonomy, beneficence, and justice in the care of individuals with neurologic disorders. Constitutional, statutory, and judicial dimensions are addressed. With respect to autonomy, discussion emphasizes legal dimensions of the doctrine of informed consent and the obligations of medical professionals to protect the privacy and confidentiality of their patients. The discussion of beneficence focuses on issues relating to actual or potential conflicts of interest in the care of patients and on the conduct of research involving human subjects. The section on justice considers how law aims to define protectable rights and interests of individuals and to provide a fair and efficient process for resolving disputes. Applications of legal principles and doctrines are illustrated primarily through the examples afforded by judicial decisions. These cases demonstrate how law both promotes ethical decision-making and protects the rights and interests of those affected. The cases also highlight some of the ethical quandaries that evoke resort to litigation and the limits of law in advancing ethically appropriate outcomes.

  14. Intelligent decision support in process environments

    SciTech Connect

    Hollnagel, E.; Mancini, G.; Woods, D.D.

    1986-01-01

    This book deals with the basis for design of intelligent systems to support human decision-making in supervisory control, and provides a view of how human and artificial cognitive systems can interact. It covers the design and development of intelligent decision aiding systems, as well as the testing and evaluation. Topics discussed include: decision theory; cognitive engineering; systems engineering; and artificial intelligence.

  15. The economic valuation of improved process plant decision support technology.

    PubMed

    White, Douglas C

    2007-06-01

    How can investments that would potentially improve a manufacturing plant's decision process be economically justified? What is the value of "better information," "more flexibility," or "improved integration" and the technologies that provide these effects? Technology investments such as improved process modelling, new real time historians and other databases, "smart" instrumentation, better data analysis and visualization software, and/or improved user interfaces often include these benefits as part of their valuation. How are these "soft" benefits to be converted to a quantitative economic return? Quantification is important if rational management decisions are to be made about the correct amount of money to invest in the technologies, and which technologies to choose among the many available ones. Modelling the plant operational decision cycle-detect, analyse, forecast, choose and implement--provides a basis for this economic quantification. In this paper a new economic model is proposed for estimation of the value of decision support investments based on their effect upon the uncertainty in forecasting plant financial performance. This model leads to quantitative benefit estimates that have a realistic financial basis. An example is presented demonstrating the application of the method.

  16. FIESTA: An operational decision aid for space network fault isolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowe, Dawn; Quillin, Bob; Matteson, Nadine; Wilkinson, Bill; Miksell, Steve

    1987-01-01

    The Fault Tolerance Expert System for Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) Applications (FIESTA) is a fault detection and fault diagnosis expert system being developed as a decision aid to support operations in the Network Control Center (NCC) for NASA's Space Network. The operational objectives which influenced FIESTA development are presented and an overview of the architecture used to achieve these goals are provided. The approach to the knowledge engineering effort and the methodology employed are also presented and illustrated with examples drawn from the FIESTA domain.

  17. Information Systems to Support a Decision Process at Stanford.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffee, Ellen Earle

    1982-01-01

    When a rational decision process is desired, information specialists can contribute information and also contribute to the process in which that information is used, thereby promoting rational decision-making. The contribution of Stanford's information specialists to rational decision-making is described. (MLW)

  18. Biomolecular decision-making process for self assembly.

    SciTech Connect

    Osbourn, Gordon Cecil

    2005-01-01

    The brain is often identified with decision-making processes in the biological world. In fact, single cells, single macromolecules (proteins) and populations of molecules also make simple decisions. These decision processes are essential to survival and to the biological self-assembly and self-repair processes that we seek to emulate. How do these tiny systems make effective decisions? How do they make decisions in concert with a cooperative network of other molecules or cells? How can we emulate the decision-making behaviors of small-scale biological systems to program and self-assemble microsystems? This LDRD supported research to answer these questions. Our work included modeling and simulation of protein populations to help us understand, mimic, and categorize molecular decision-making mechanisms that nonequilibrium systems can exhibit. This work is an early step towards mimicking such nanoscale and microscale biomolecular decision-making processes in inorganic systems.

  19. [The decision process in induced abortion].

    PubMed

    Ytterstad, T S; Tollan, A

    1990-06-20

    This study describes the pattern of decision as reported by women undergoing elective abortion. The results are based on interviews with 45 of 67 women admitted to the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital of Tromsø, during a two month period in 1988. All women had informed, and most often consulted, at least one person before making the decision, usually their partner and/or a female friend. The majority of the persons consulted supported her, whatever her decision. According to the women, they made the women, the final decision themselves. Two women were persuaded by their partner to decide to have an elective abortion.

  20. The Contribution of a Simple Decision Process (SDP) to Reducing Biases in Educational Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    The use of intuition in educational decisions disposes educators to emotional arousal and biases. An excessively methodical approach is also criticized. This study tested a decision-making procedure, the Simple Decision Process (SDP), that integrates both approaches. One hundred and seventy four teachers studied a number of dilemmas (i.e.,…

  1. Structural and functional design of WWTP operation decision support system with a case study.

    PubMed

    Xu, J; Shi, H C; Ke, X Y

    2006-01-01

    This paper developes the WWTP operation decision support system (ODSS) to simulate the dynamic behavior of the WWTP treatment process based on ASMs (activated sludge models) and WWTP experiential knowledge. The novel structure and functions of ODSS can offer more flexible and general instructions to the WWTP operations. The three independent sub-systems, namely expert system, simulation system and training system, can cooperate to achieve many more functions such as operation alert, fault diagnosis, process simulation and so forth. The expert system based on the dynamic simulation, an essential part of WWTP ODSS, has been proved to be feasible and effective by the implementation at Fang Zhuang WWTP. Our results indicated that the WWTP ODSS has significant potential for improving plant performance and reducing treatment costs by assisting the operators at the decision-making level.

  2. Approaches to verification/validation of imbedded decision support systems applied to launch vehicle operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szatkowski, G. P.

    A methodology for incorporating expert decision support systems into launch vehicle operations is suggested based on a review of the current state of the art in verification and validation (V & V). Particular attention is given to the following areas that are believed to contribute to the overall V & V process: rapid prototyping, checking toolset utilities, and dynamic simulation analysis. Opportunities in operations that reduce costs and improve autonomy are considered.

  3. Decision Aids for Airborne Intercept Operations in Advanced Aircrafts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madni, A.; Freedy, A.

    1981-01-01

    A tactical decision aid (TDA) for the F-14 aircrew, i.e., the naval flight officer and pilot, in conducting a multitarget attack during the performance of a Combat Air Patrol (CAP) role is presented. The TDA employs hierarchical multiattribute utility models for characterizing mission objectives in operationally measurable terms, rule based AI-models for tactical posture selection, and fast time simulation for maneuver consequence prediction. The TDA makes aspect maneuver recommendations, selects and displays the optimum mission posture, evaluates attackable and potentially attackable subsets, and recommends the 'best' attackable subset along with the required course perturbation.

  4. Use of wind power forecasting in operational decisions.

    SciTech Connect

    Botterud, A.; Zhi, Z.; Wang, J.; Bessa, R.J.; Keko, H.; Mendes, J.; Sumaili, J.; Miranda, V.

    2011-11-29

    The rapid expansion of wind power gives rise to a number of challenges for power system operators and electricity market participants. The key operational challenge is to efficiently handle the uncertainty and variability of wind power when balancing supply and demand in ths system. In this report, we analyze how wind power forecasting can serve as an efficient tool toward this end. We discuss the current status of wind power forecasting in U.S. electricity markets and develop several methodologies and modeling tools for the use of wind power forecasting in operational decisions, from the perspectives of the system operator as well as the wind power producer. In particular, we focus on the use of probabilistic forecasts in operational decisions. Driven by increasing prices for fossil fuels and concerns about greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, wind power, as a renewable and clean source of energy, is rapidly being introduced into the existing electricity supply portfolio in many parts of the world. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has analyzed a scenario in which wind power meets 20% of the U.S. electricity demand by 2030, which means that the U.S. wind power capacity would have to reach more than 300 gigawatts (GW). The European Union is pursuing a target of 20/20/20, which aims to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 20%, increase the amount of renewable energy to 20% of the energy supply, and improve energy efficiency by 20% by 2020 as compared to 1990. Meanwhile, China is the leading country in terms of installed wind capacity, and had 45 GW of installed wind power capacity out of about 200 GW on a global level at the end of 2010. The rapid increase in the penetration of wind power into power systems introduces more variability and uncertainty in the electricity generation portfolio, and these factors are the key challenges when it comes to integrating wind power into the electric power grid. Wind power forecasting (WPF) is an important tool to help

  5. Decision support system for the operating room rescheduling problem.

    PubMed

    van Essen, J Theresia; Hurink, Johann L; Hartholt, Woutske; van den Akker, Bernd J

    2012-12-01

    Due to surgery duration variability and arrivals of emergency surgeries, the planned Operating Room (OR) schedule is disrupted throughout the day which may lead to a change in the start time of the elective surgeries. These changes may result in undesirable situations for patients, wards or other involved departments, and therefore, the OR schedule has to be adjusted. In this paper, we develop a decision support system (DSS) which assists the OR manager in this decision by providing the three best adjusted OR schedules. The system considers the preferences of all involved stakeholders and only evaluates the OR schedules that satisfy the imposed resource constraints. The decision rules used for this system are based on a thorough analysis of the OR rescheduling problem. We model this problem as an Integer Linear Program (ILP) which objective is to minimize the deviation from the preferences of the considered stakeholders. By applying this ILP to instances from practice, we determined that the given preferences mainly lead to (i) shifting a surgery and (ii) scheduling a break between two surgeries. By using these changes in the DSS, the performed simulation study shows that less surgeries are canceled and patients and wards are more satisfied, but also that the perceived workload of several departments increases to compensate this. The system can also be used to judge the acceptability of a proposed initial OR schedule.

  6. Markov decision processes in natural resources management: observability and uncertainty

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Byron K.

    2015-01-01

    The breadth and complexity of stochastic decision processes in natural resources presents a challenge to analysts who need to understand and use these approaches. The objective of this paper is to describe a class of decision processes that are germane to natural resources conservation and management, namely Markov decision processes, and to discuss applications and computing algorithms under different conditions of observability and uncertainty. A number of important similarities are developed in the framing and evaluation of different decision processes, which can be useful in their applications in natural resources management. The challenges attendant to partial observability are highlighted, and possible approaches for dealing with it are discussed.

  7. Markov decision processes in natural resources management: Observability and uncertainty

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, B.K.

    2009-01-01

    The breadth and complexity of stochastic decision processes in natural resources presents a challenge to analysts who need to understand and use these approaches. The objective of this paper is to describe a class of decision processes that are germane to natural resources conservation and management, namely Markov decision processes, and to discuss applications and computing algorithms under different conditions of observability and uncertainty. A number of important similarities are developed in the framing and evaluation of different decision processes, which can be useful in their applications in natural resources management. The challenges attendant to partial observability are highlighted, and possible approaches for dealing with it are discussed.

  8. Naturalistic Decision Making in Power Grid Operations: Implications for Dispatcher Training and Usability Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Podmore, Robin

    2008-11-17

    The focus of the present study is on improved training approaches to accelerate learning and improved methods for analyzing effectiveness of tools within a high-fidelity power grid simulated environment. A theory-based model has been developed to document and understand the mental processes that an expert power system operator uses when making critical decisions. The theoretical foundation for the method is based on the concepts of situation awareness, the methods of cognitive task analysis, and the naturalistic decision making (NDM) approach of Recognition Primed Decision Making. The method has been systematically explored and refined as part of a capability demonstration of a high-fidelity real-time power system simulator under normal and emergency conditions. To examine NDM processes, we analyzed transcripts of operator-to-operator conversations during the simulated scenario to reveal and assess NDM-based performance criteria. The results of the analysis indicate that the proposed framework can be used constructively to map or assess the Situation Awareness Level of the operators at each point in the scenario. We can also identify the mental models and mental simulations that the operators employ at different points in the scenario. This report documents the method, describes elements of the model, and provides appendices that document the simulation scenario and the associated mental models used by operators in the scenario.

  9. Post-event human decision errors: operator action tree/time reliability correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, R E; Fragola, J; Wreathall, J

    1982-11-01

    This report documents an interim framework for the quantification of the probability of errors of decision on the part of nuclear power plant operators after the initiation of an accident. The framework can easily be incorporated into an event tree/fault tree analysis. The method presented consists of a structure called the operator action tree and a time reliability correlation which assumes the time available for making a decision to be the dominating factor in situations requiring cognitive human response. This limited approach decreases the magnitude and complexity of the decision modeling task. Specifically, in the past, some human performance models have attempted prediction by trying to emulate sequences of human actions, or by identifying and modeling the information processing approach applicable to the task. The model developed here is directed at describing the statistical performance of a representative group of hypothetical individuals responding to generalized situations.

  10. Dissociable Neural Processes Underlying Risky Decisions for Self Versus Other

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Daehyun; Sul, Sunhae; Kim, Hackjin

    2013-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies on decision making have mainly focused on decisions on behalf of oneself. Considering that people often make decisions on behalf of others, it is intriguing that there is little neurobiological evidence on how decisions for others differ from those for oneself. The present study directly compared risky decisions for self with those for another person using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants were asked to perform a gambling task on behalf of themselves (decision-for-self condition) or another person (decision-for-other condition) while in the scanner. Their task was to choose between a low-risk option (i.e., win or lose 10 points) and a high-risk option (i.e., win or lose 90 points) with variable levels of winning probability. Compared with choices regarding others, those regarding oneself were more risk-averse at lower winning probabilities and more risk-seeking at higher winning probabilities, perhaps due to stronger affective process during risky decisions for oneself compared with those for other. The brain-activation pattern changed according to the target, such that reward-related regions were more active in the decision-for-self condition than in the decision-for-other condition, whereas brain regions related to the theory of mind (ToM) showed greater activation in the decision-for-other condition than in the decision-for-self condition. Parametric modulation analysis using individual decision models revealed that activation of the amygdala and the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) were associated with value computations for oneself and for another, respectively, during risky financial decisions. The results of the present study suggest that decisions for oneself and for other may recruit fundamentally distinct neural processes, which can be mainly characterized as dominant affective/impulsive and cognitive/regulatory processes, respectively. PMID:23519016

  11. Decision-Making Processes of Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, J. William; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Undergraduates (n=142) participated in study on decision making in which prospective administrators made monetary commitments to long-term goals under varying conditions. Found significant negative correlation between anxiety level and commitments to previously chosen courses of action; no significant effects of job security on commitment; and…

  12. Decision support for operations and maintenance (DSOM) system

    DOEpatents

    Jarrell, Donald B.; Meador, Richard J.; Sisk, Daniel R.; Hatley, Darrel D.; Brown, Daryl R.; Keibel, Gary R.; Gowri, Krishnan; Reyes-Spindola, Jorge F.; Adams, Kevin J.; Yates, Kenneth R.; Eschbach, Elizabeth J.; Stratton, Rex C.

    2006-03-21

    A method for minimizing the life cycle cost of processes such as heating a building. The method utilizes sensors to monitor various pieces of equipment used in the process, for example, boilers, turbines, and the like. The method then performs the steps of identifying a set optimal operating conditions for the process, identifying and measuring parameters necessary to characterize the actual operating condition of the process, validating data generated by measuring those parameters, characterizing the actual condition of the process, identifying an optimal condition corresponding to the actual condition, comparing said optimal condition with the actual condition and identifying variances between the two, and drawing from a set of pre-defined algorithms created using best engineering practices, an explanation of at least one likely source and at least one recommended remedial action for selected variances, and providing said explanation as an output to at least one user.

  13. 44 CFR 9.6 - Decision-making process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.6 Decision-making process. (a) Purpose. The purpose of this section is to set out the floodplain management and wetlands... the decision-making process was initially designed to address the floodplain Order's requirements,...

  14. 44 CFR 9.6 - Decision-making process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.6 Decision-making process. (a) Purpose. The purpose of this section is to set out the floodplain management and wetlands... the decision-making process was initially designed to address the floodplain Order's requirements,...

  15. 44 CFR 9.6 - Decision-making process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.6 Decision-making process. (a) Purpose. The purpose of this section is to set out the floodplain management and wetlands... the decision-making process was initially designed to address the floodplain Order's requirements,...

  16. 44 CFR 9.6 - Decision-making process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.6 Decision-making process. (a) Purpose. The purpose of this section is to set out the floodplain management and wetlands... the decision-making process was initially designed to address the floodplain Order's requirements,...

  17. 44 CFR 9.6 - Decision-making process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.6 Decision-making process. (a) Purpose. The purpose of this section is to set out the floodplain management and wetlands... the decision-making process was initially designed to address the floodplain Order's requirements,...

  18. A decision-making process in shared governance.

    PubMed

    Recker, D; Bess, C; Wellens, H

    1996-05-01

    Shared governance teams require a good decision making process. After identifying the root cause of a problem, finding a solution that addresses the right issues begins. An issues flow chart and decision-making process were developed to help teams better identify and solve problems.

  19. Decision Processes Preferred by Division Chairpersons in a Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Alton L.; And Others

    Six division chairpersons at Central Virginia Community College participated in a study designed to develop a problem situation set which can be used to examine academic managers' preferred decision processes; to identify the existing preferred decision processes of chairpersons within the community college setting; and to ascertain how problem…

  20. Spontaneous decisions and operant conditioning in fruit flies.

    PubMed

    Brembs, Björn

    2011-05-01

    Already in the 1930s Skinner, Konorski and colleagues debated the commonalities, differences and interactions among the processes underlying what was then known as "conditioned reflexes type I and II", but which is today more well-known as classical (Pavlovian) and operant (instrumental) conditioning. Subsequent decades of research have confirmed that the interactions between the various learning systems engaged during operant conditioning are complex and difficult to disentangle. Today, modern neurobiological tools allow us to dissect the biological processes underlying operant conditioning and study their interactions. These processes include initiating spontaneous behavioral variability, world-learning and self-learning. The data suggest that behavioral variability is generated actively by the brain, rather than as a by-product of a complex, noisy input-output system. The function of this variability, in part, is to detect how the environment responds to such actions. World-learning denotes the biological process by which value is assigned to environmental stimuli. Self-learning is the biological process which assigns value to a specific action or movement. In an operant learning situation using visual stimuli for flies, world-learning inhibits self-learning via a prominent neuropil region, the mushroom-bodies. Only extended training can overcome this inhibition and lead to habit formation by engaging the self-learning mechanism. Self-learning transforms spontaneous, flexible actions into stereotyped, habitual responses.

  1. Reducing Post-Decision Dissonance in International Decisions: The Analytic Hierarchy Process Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuBois, Frank L.

    1999-01-01

    Describes use of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) as a teaching tool to illustrate the complexities of decision making in an international environment. The AHP approach uses managerial input to develop pairwise comparisons of relevant decision criteria to efficiently generate an appropriate solution. (DB)

  2. Distinction between Externally vs. Internally Guided Decision-Making: Operational Differences, Meta-Analytical Comparisons and Their Theoretical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Nakao, Takashi; Ohira, Hideki; Northoff, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Most experimental studies of decision-making have specifically examined situations in which a single less-predictable correct answer exists (externally guided decision-making under uncertainty). Along with such externally guided decision-making, there are instances of decision-making in which no correct answer based on external circumstances is available for the subject (internally guided decision-making). Such decisions are usually made in the context of moral decision-making as well as in preference judgment, where the answer depends on the subject’s own, i.e., internal, preferences rather than on external, i.e., circumstantial, criteria. The neuronal and psychological mechanisms that allow guidance of decisions based on more internally oriented criteria in the absence of external ones remain unclear. This study was undertaken to compare decision-making of these two kinds empirically and theoretically. First, we reviewed studies of decision-making to clarify experimental–operational differences between externally guided and internally guided decision-making. Second, using multi-level kernel density analysis, a whole-brain-based quantitative meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies was performed. Our meta-analysis revealed that the neural network used predominantly for internally guided decision-making differs from that for externally guided decision-making under uncertainty. This result suggests that studying only externally guided decision-making under uncertainty is insufficient to account for decision-making processes in the brain. Finally, based on the review and results of the meta-analysis, we discuss the differences and relations between decision-making of these two types in terms of their operational, neuronal, and theoretical characteristics. PMID:22403525

  3. Distinction between Externally vs. Internally Guided Decision-Making: Operational Differences, Meta-Analytical Comparisons and Their Theoretical Implications.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Takashi; Ohira, Hideki; Northoff, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Most experimental studies of decision-making have specifically examined situations in which a single less-predictable correct answer exists (externally guided decision-making under uncertainty). Along with such externally guided decision-making, there are instances of decision-making in which no correct answer based on external circumstances is available for the subject (internally guided decision-making). Such decisions are usually made in the context of moral decision-making as well as in preference judgment, where the answer depends on the subject's own, i.e., internal, preferences rather than on external, i.e., circumstantial, criteria. The neuronal and psychological mechanisms that allow guidance of decisions based on more internally oriented criteria in the absence of external ones remain unclear. This study was undertaken to compare decision-making of these two kinds empirically and theoretically. First, we reviewed studies of decision-making to clarify experimental-operational differences between externally guided and internally guided decision-making. Second, using multi-level kernel density analysis, a whole-brain-based quantitative meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies was performed. Our meta-analysis revealed that the neural network used predominantly for internally guided decision-making differs from that for externally guided decision-making under uncertainty. This result suggests that studying only externally guided decision-making under uncertainty is insufficient to account for decision-making processes in the brain. Finally, based on the review and results of the meta-analysis, we discuss the differences and relations between decision-making of these two types in terms of their operational, neuronal, and theoretical characteristics.

  4. Evolution of quantum-like modeling in decision making processes

    SciTech Connect

    Khrennikova, Polina

    2012-12-18

    The application of the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics to model behavioral patterns in social science and economics is a novel and constantly emerging field. The aim of the so called 'quantum like' models is to model the decision making processes in a macroscopic setting, capturing the particular 'context' in which the decisions are taken. Several subsequent empirical findings proved that when making a decision people tend to violate the axioms of expected utility theory and Savage's Sure Thing principle, thus violating the law of total probability. A quantum probability formula was devised to describe more accurately the decision making processes. A next step in the development of QL-modeling in decision making was the application of Schroedinger equation to describe the evolution of people's mental states. A shortcoming of Schroedinger equation is its inability to capture dynamics of an open system; the brain of the decision maker can be regarded as such, actively interacting with the external environment. Recently the master equation, by which quantum physics describes the process of decoherence as the result of interaction of the mental state with the environmental 'bath', was introduced for modeling the human decision making. The external environment and memory can be referred to as a complex 'context' influencing the final decision outcomes. The master equation can be considered as a pioneering and promising apparatus for modeling the dynamics of decision making in different contexts.

  5. Evolution of quantum-like modeling in decision making processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khrennikova, Polina

    2012-12-01

    The application of the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics to model behavioral patterns in social science and economics is a novel and constantly emerging field. The aim of the so called 'quantum like' models is to model the decision making processes in a macroscopic setting, capturing the particular 'context' in which the decisions are taken. Several subsequent empirical findings proved that when making a decision people tend to violate the axioms of expected utility theory and Savage's Sure Thing principle, thus violating the law of total probability. A quantum probability formula was devised to describe more accurately the decision making processes. A next step in the development of QL-modeling in decision making was the application of Schrödinger equation to describe the evolution of people's mental states. A shortcoming of Schrödinger equation is its inability to capture dynamics of an open system; the brain of the decision maker can be regarded as such, actively interacting with the external environment. Recently the master equation, by which quantum physics describes the process of decoherence as the result of interaction of the mental state with the environmental 'bath', was introduced for modeling the human decision making. The external environment and memory can be referred to as a complex 'context' influencing the final decision outcomes. The master equation can be considered as a pioneering and promising apparatus for modeling the dynamics of decision making in different contexts.

  6. Mitigation of reservoir souring -- Decision process

    SciTech Connect

    Kalpakci, B.; Magri, N.F.; Ravenscroft, P.D.; McTeir, M.D.K.; Arf, G.T.

    1995-11-01

    In this paper a general H{sub 2}S decision strategy, describing the types of information which should be gathered and decisions to be made addressing an existing H{sub 2}S problem, or new field development is presented. Taking H{sub 2}S into consideration in initial facility design, types of monitoring of H{sub 2}S that should be carried out during field development and exploitation will be discussed. The usefulness of computer phase modeling, including equation of state calculations, to determine H{sub 2}S concentrations in all phases from reservoir through the production stream will also be described. From quantification of the souring problem it can then be decided if, and where in the production stream, the use of sulfide scavengers is required. A laboratory based testing procedure will be presented, along with experimental data. In addition to consideration of the basic chemistry, results of an industry survey will be presented on the best applications for commercial sulfide scavenging products.

  7. Using the Analytic Hierarchy Process to Analyze Multiattribute Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spires, Eric E.

    1991-01-01

    The use of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) in assisting researchers to analyze decisions is discussed. The AHP is compared with other decision-analysis techniques, including multiattribute utility measurement, conjoint analysis, and general linear models. Insights that AHP can provide are illustrated with data gathered in an auditing context.…

  8. NEP processing, operations, and disposal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stancati, Mike

    1993-01-01

    Several recent studies by ASAO/NPO staff members at LeRC and by other organizations have highlighted the potential benefits of using Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) as the primary transportation means for some of the proposed missions of the Space Exploration Initiative. These include the potential to reduce initial mass in orbit and Mars transit time. Modular NEP configurations also introduce fully redundant main propulsion to Mars flight systems adding several abort or fall back options not otherwise available. Recent studies have also identified mission operations, such as on orbital assembly, refurbishment, and reactor disposal, as important discriminators for propulsion system evaluation. This study is intended to identify and assess 'end-to-end' operational issues associated with using NEP for transporting crews and cargo between Earth and Mars. We also include some consideration of lunar cargo transfer as well.

  9. Process modeling and control in foundry operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piwonka, T. S.

    1989-02-01

    Initial uses of process modeling were limited to phenomenological descriptions of the physical processes in foundry operations, with the aim of decreasing scrap and rework. It is now clear that process modeling can be used to select, design and optimize foundry processes so that on-line process control can be achieved. Computational, analogue and empirical process models have been developed for sand casting operations, and they are being applied in the foundry with beneficial effects.

  10. Lexical decision in children: sublexical processing or lexical search?

    PubMed

    van den Boer, Madelon; de Jong, Peter F; Haentjens-van Meeteren, Marleen M

    2012-01-01

    Length effects in the lexical decision latencies of children might indicate that children rely on sublexical processing and essentially approach the task as a naming task. We examined this possibility by means of the effects of neighbourhood size and articulatory suppression on lexical decision performance. Sixty-six beginning and 62 advanced readers performed a lexical decision task in a standard, articulatory suppression, or tapping condition. We found length effects on words and nonwords in the children's lexical decisions. However, the effects of neighbourhood size were similar to those reported for adult lexical decisions, rather than the effects previously found in children's naming. In addition, no effect was found of articulatory suppression. Both findings suggest that, despite clear length effects, children do not adopt a naming task approach but, like adults, base lexical decisions mainly on a lexical search. These results pose a challenge for several computational models of reading.

  11. NWS Alaska Sea Ice Program: Operations and Decision Support Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreck, M. B.; Nelson, J. A., Jr.; Heim, R.

    2015-12-01

    The National Weather Service's Alaska Sea Ice Program is designed to service customers and partners operating and planning operations within Alaska waters. The Alaska Sea Ice Program offers daily sea ice and sea surface temperature analysis products. The program also delivers a five day sea ice forecast 3 times each week, provides a 3 month sea ice outlook at the end of each month, and has staff available to respond to sea ice related information inquiries. These analysis and forecast products are utilized by many entities around the state of Alaska and nationally for safety of navigation and community strategic planning. The list of current customers stem from academia and research institutions, to local state and federal agencies, to resupply barges, to coastal subsistence hunters, to gold dredgers, to fisheries, to the general public. Due to a longer sea ice free season over recent years, activity in the waters around Alaska has increased. This has led to a rise in decision support services from the Alaska Sea Ice Program. The ASIP is in constant contact with the National Ice Center as well as the United States Coast Guard (USCG) for safety of navigation. In the past, the ASIP provided briefings to the USCG when in support of search and rescue efforts. Currently, not only does that support remain, but our team is also briefing on sea ice outlooks into the next few months. As traffic in the Arctic increases, the ASIP will be called upon to provide more and more services on varying time scales to meet customer needs. This talk will address the many facets of the current Alaska Sea Ice Program as well as delve into what we see as the future of the ASIP.

  12. Using Google Earth in Marine Research and Operational Decision Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blower, J. D.; Bretherton, D.; Haines, K.; Liu, C.; Rawlings, C.; Santokhee, A.; Smith, I.

    2006-12-01

    A key advantage of Virtual Globes ("geobrowsers") such as Google Earth is that they can display many different geospatial data types at a huge range of spatial scales. In this demonstration and poster display we shall show how marine data from disparate sources can be brought together in a geobrowser in order to support both scientific research and operational search and rescue activities. We have developed the Godiva2 interactive website for browsing and exploring marine data, mainly output from supercomputer analyses and predictions of ocean circulation. The user chooses a number of parameters (e.g. sea temperature at 100m depth on 1st July 2006) and can load an image of the resulting data in Google Earth. Through the use of an automatically-refreshing NetworkLink the user can explore the whole globe at a very large range of spatial scales: the displayed data will automatically be refreshed to show data at increasingly fine resolution as the user zooms in. This is a valuable research tool for exploring these terabyte- scale datasets. Many coastguard organizations around the world use SARIS, a software application produced by BMT Cordah Ltd., to predict the drift pattern of objects in the sea in order to support search and rescue operations. Different drifting objects have different trajectories depending on factors such as their buoyancy and windage and so a computer model, supported by meteorological and oceanographic data, is needed to help rescuers locate their targets. We shall demonstrate how Google Earth is used to display output from the SARIS model (including the search target location and associated error polygon) alongside meteorological data (wind vectors) and oceanographic data (sea temperature, surface currents) from Godiva2 in order to support decision-making. We shall also discuss the limitations of using Google Earth in this context: these include the difficulties of working with time- dependent data and the need to access data securely. essc

  13. Problems in the decision making process: a review.

    PubMed

    Evans, D

    1990-12-01

    Decision making is an integral part of the intensive care nurse's role, but many factors can disrupt this process. It is important that the nurse has an understanding of how defective decision making patterns can develop. Experience, the role of the nurse, uncertainty and conflict all exert major influences on the decision making process. The conditions that determine what type of decision making pattern emerges are; the seriousness of the risks as a result of the decision; if there is hope of finding a better solution; and how much time is available to search for the solution. The patterns that may emerge include vigilance, complacency, defensive avoidance and hypervigilance. Vigilance is said to be the optimum pattern, this is when all alternatives to the decision are analysed and interpreted in an unbiased manner. Defensive avoidance is the decision makers attempt to avoid or postpone the stress of the decision. It is manifested by procrastination, shifting of responsibility or rationalisation. Hypervigilance, or panic, represents a frantic search for a solution and a shifting back and forth between alternatives with a failure to see obvious faults in the possible solutions.

  14. Problems in the decision making process: a review.

    PubMed

    Evans, D

    1990-12-01

    Decision making is an integral part of the intensive care nurse's role, but many factors can disrupt this process. It is important that the nurse has an understanding of how defective decision making patterns can develop. Experience, the role of the nurse, uncertainty and conflict all exert major influences on the decision making process. The conditions that determine what type of decision making pattern emerges are; the seriousness of the risks as a result of the decision; if there is hope of finding a better solution; and how much time is available to search for the solution. The patterns that may emerge include vigilance, complacency, defensive avoidance and hypervigilance. Vigilance is said to be the optimum pattern, this is when all alternatives to the decision are analysed and interpreted in an unbiased manner. Defensive avoidance is the decision makers attempt to avoid or postpone the stress of the decision. It is manifested by procrastination, shifting of responsibility or rationalisation. Hypervigilance, or panic, represents a frantic search for a solution and a shifting back and forth between alternatives with a failure to see obvious faults in the possible solutions. PMID:2273233

  15. Understanding and shifting drug-related decisions: contributions of automatic decision-making processes.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Kenneth M; Bedi, Gillinder; Vadhan, Nehal P

    2015-08-01

    While substance use is common, only a minority of individuals who use drugs or alcohol develop problematic use. An understanding of the factors underlying the transition from substance use to misuse may improve prevention and intervention efforts. A key feature of substance misuse is ongoing decisions to use drugs or alcohol despite escalating negative consequences. Research findings highlight the importance of both relatively automatic, associative cognitive processes and relatively controlled, deliberative, and rational-analytic cognitive processes, for understanding situational decisions to use drugs. In this review, we discuss several cognitive component processes that may contribute to decision-making that promotes substance use and misuse, with a focus on more automatic processes. A growing body of evidence indicates that relative differences in the strength of these component processes can account for individual differences in the transition from substance use to misuse and may offer important avenues for developing novel intervention strategies.

  16. Understanding and shifting drug-related decisions: Contributions of automatic decision-making processes

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Kenneth M.; Bedi, Gillinder; Vadhan, Nehal P.

    2015-01-01

    While substance use is common, only a minority of individuals who use drugs or alcohol develop problematic use. An understanding of the factors underlying the transition from substance use to misuse may improve prevention and intervention efforts. A key feature of substance misuse is ongoing decisions to use drugs or alcohol despite escalating negative consequences. Research findings highlight the importance of both relatively automatic, associative cognitive processes and relatively controlled, deliberative, and rational-analytic cognitive processes, for understanding situational decisions to use drugs. In this review, we discuss several cognitive component processes that may contribute to decision-making that promotes substance use and misuse, with a focus on more automatic processes. A growing body of evidence indicates that relative differences in the strength of these component processes can account for individual differences in the transition from substance use to misuse, and may offer important avenues for developing novel intervention strategies. PMID:26084667

  17. Funding decisions for newborn screening: a comparative review of 22 decision processes in Europe.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Katharina Elisabeth; Rogowski, Wolf Henning

    2014-05-19

    Decision-makers need to make choices to improve public health. Population-based newborn screening (NBS) is considered as one strategy to prevent adverse health outcomes and address rare disease patients' needs. The aim of this study was to describe key characteristics of decisions for funding new NBS programmes in Europe. We analysed past decisions using a conceptual framework. It incorporates indicators that capture the steps of decision processes by health care payers. Based on an internet survey, we compared 22 decisions for which answers among two respondents were validated for each observation. The frequencies of indicators were calculated to elicit key characteristics. All decisions resulted in positive, mostly unrestricted funding. Stakeholder participation was diverse focusing on information provision or voting. Often, decisions were not fully transparent. Assessment of NBS technologies concentrated on expert opinion, literature review and rough cost estimates. Most important appraisal criteria were effectiveness (i.e., health gain from testing for the children being screened), disease severity and availability of treatments. Some common and diverging key characteristics were identified. Although no evidence of explicit healthcare rationing was found, processes may be improved in respect of transparency and scientific rigour of assessment.

  18. Administrator Career Paths and Decision Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farley-Ripple, Elizabeth N.; Raffel, Jeffrey A.; Welch, Jennie Christine

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present qualitative evidence on the processes and forces that shape school administrator career paths. Design/methodology/approach: An embedded case study approach is used to understand more than 100 administrator career transitions within the Delaware education system. Semi-structured interview data were…

  19. Performing process migration with allreduce operations

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles Jens; Peters, Amanda; Wallenfelt, Brian Paul

    2010-12-14

    Compute nodes perform allreduce operations that swap processes at nodes. A first allreduce operation generates a first result and uses a first process from a first compute node, a second process from a second compute node, and zeros from other compute nodes. The first compute node replaces the first process with the first result. A second allreduce operation generates a second result and uses the first result from the first compute node, the second process from the second compute node, and zeros from others. The second compute node replaces the second process with the second result, which is the first process. A third allreduce operation generates a third result and uses the first result from first compute node, the second result from the second compute node, and zeros from others. The first compute node replaces the first result with the third result, which is the second process.

  20. Artificial Intelligence (AI), Operations Research (OR), and Decision Support Systems (DSS): A conceptual framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parnell, Gregory S.; Rowell, William F.; Valusek, John R.

    1987-01-01

    In recent years there has been increasing interest in applying the computer based problem solving techniques of Artificial Intelligence (AI), Operations Research (OR), and Decision Support Systems (DSS) to analyze extremely complex problems. A conceptual framework is developed for successfully integrating these three techniques. First, the fields of AI, OR, and DSS are defined and the relationships among the three fields are explored. Next, a comprehensive adaptive design methodology for AI and OR modeling within the context of a DSS is described. These observations are made: (1) the solution of extremely complex knowledge problems with ill-defined, changing requirements can benefit greatly from the use of the adaptive design process, (2) the field of DSS provides the focus on the decision making process essential for tailoring solutions to these complex problems, (3) the characteristics of AI, OR, and DSS tools appears to be converging rapidly, and (4) there is a growing need for an interdisciplinary AI/OR/DSS education.

  1. Nonword repetition in lexical decision: support for two opposing processes.

    PubMed

    Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan; Zeelenberg, René; Steyvers, Mark; Shiffrin, Richard; Raaijmakers, Jeroen

    2004-10-01

    We tested and confirmed the hypothesis that the prior presentation of nonwords in lexical decision is the net result of two opposing processes: (1) a relatively fast inhibitory process based on global familiarity; and (2) a relatively slow facilitatory process based on the retrieval of specific episodic information. In three studies, we manipulated speed-stress to influence the balance between the two processes. Experiment 1 showed item-specific improvement for repeated nonwords in a standard "respond-when-ready" lexical decision task. Experiment 2 used a 400-ms deadline procedure and showed performance for nonwords to be unaffected by up to four prior presentations. In Experiment 3 we used a signal-to-respond procedure with variable time intervals and found negative repetition priming for repeated nonwords. These results can be accounted for by dual-process models of lexical decision.

  2. Defense waste processing facility radioactive operations. Part 1 - operating experience

    SciTech Connect

    Little, D.B.; Gee, J.T.; Barnes, W.M.

    1997-12-31

    The Savannah River Site`s Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) near Aiken, SC is the nation`s first and the world`s largest vitrification facility. Following a ten year construction program and a 3 year non-radioactive test program, DWPF began radioactive operations in March 1996. This paper presents the results of the first 9 months of radioactive operations. Topics include: operations of the remote processing equipment reliability, and decontamination facilities for the remote processing equipment. Key equipment discussed includes process pumps, telerobotic manipulators, infrared camera, Holledge{trademark} level gauges and in-cell (remote) cranes. Information is presented regarding equipment at the conclusion of the DWPF test program it also discussed, with special emphasis on agitator blades and cooling/heating coil wear. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Decision process for effective system reuse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirchandani, Chandru

    1995-01-01

    The speed of growth in high technology differs for software, hardware and firmware. Hardware innovations come in leaps, as opposed to the gradual improvements in software and firmware technologies. This inhibits the full utilization of the hardware advances and reduces the cost benefit ratio of high technology ventures. The Microelectronics Systems Branch has committed its resources to use the look ahead technique whereby the technology is researched in its use, current development track and its future capabilities. This knowledge is used to meet the requirements of the space program not only in the nineties but also through 2005. This paper illustrates Analytical Hierarchy Process techniques used effectively and very successfully to support projects reusing systems with predicted enhancements.

  4. Symbolic Heuristic Search for Factored Markov Decision Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Robert (Technical Monitor); Feng, Zheng-Zhu; Hansen, Eric A.

    2003-01-01

    We describe a planning algorithm that integrates two approaches to solving Markov decision processes with large state spaces. State abstraction is used to avoid evaluating states individually. Forward search from a start state, guided by an admissible heuristic, is used to avoid evaluating all states. We combine these two approaches in a novel way that exploits symbolic model-checking techniques and demonstrates their usefulness for decision-theoretic planning.

  5. [Decision-making process and health management councils: theoretical approaches].

    PubMed

    Wendhausen, Agueda; Cardoso, Sandra de Mello

    2007-01-01

    With the institutionalization of participation in health, through conferences and management councils at national, state, municipal and local levels, a process of democratization is initiated in the health area. However, in relation to the health councils in particular, there is still much to be done, including improving the quality of the decision-making process. This work aims to place the decision-making process in its theoretical context in terms of participatory democracy, elements which make up, factors which influence its development, and finally, to explore some possibilities of this theoretical basis to analyze the practices of the health councils in the area of health. It is hoped that it will make a theoretical contribution to the analyses carried out in this area, in order to provide a decision-making process that is more inclusive in terms of participation.

  6. A neuroeconomic theory of the decision process

    PubMed Central

    Dickhaut, John; Rustichini, Aldo; Smith, Vernon

    2009-01-01

    We develop a neuronal theory of the choice process (NTCP), which takes a subject from the moment in which two options are presented to the selection of one of the two. The theory is based on an optimal signal detection, which generalizes the signal detection theory by adding the choice of effort as optimal choice for a given informational value of the signal for every effort level and a cost of effort. NTCP predicts the choice made as a stochastic choice: That is, as a probability distribution over two options in a set, the level of effort provided, the error rate, and the time to respond. The theory provides a unified account of behavioral evidence (choices made, error rate, time to respond) as well as neural evidence (represented by the effort rate measured for example by the level of brain activation). The theory also provides a unified explanation of several facts discovered and interpreted in the last decades of experimental economic analysis of choices, which we review. PMID:20080787

  7. Privatized Student Housing and the Decision-Making Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aska, Aaron C.

    2012-01-01

    This study will examine the decision-making process used to construct privatized student housing as well as the factors that contribute to that process among public four-year institutions in New Jersey. A growing number of public universities are exploring ways to develop successful public private partnerships (P3s) in an effort to improve…

  8. Tactical and operational decisions for operating room planning: efficiency and welfare implications.

    PubMed

    Testi, Angela; Tànfani, Elena

    2009-12-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the impact on welfare implications of a 0-1 linear programming model to solve the Operating Room (OR) planning problem, taking a patient perspective. In particular, given a General Surgery Department made up of different surgical sub-specialties sharing a given number of OR block times, the model determines, during a given planning period, the allocation of those blocks to surgical sub-specialties, i.e. the so called Master Surgical Schedule Problem (MSSP), together with the subsets of elective patients to be operated on in each block time, i.e. the so called Surgical Case Assignment Problem (SCAP). The innovation of the model is two-fold. The first is that OR allocation is "optimal" if the available OR blocks are scheduled simultaneously to the proper subspecialty, at the proper time to the proper patient. The second is defining what "proper" means and include that in the objective function. In our approach what is important is not number of patients who can be treated in a given period but how much welfare loss, due to clinical deterioration or other negative consequences related to excessive waiting, can be prevented. In other words we assume a societal perspective in that we focus on "outcome" (health improving or preventing from worsening) rather than on "output" (delivered procedures). The model can be used both to develop weekly OR planning with given resources (operational decision), and to perform "what if" scenario analysis regarding how to increase the amount of OR time available for the entire department (tactical decision). The model performance is verified by applying it to a real scenario, the elective admissions of the General Surgery Department of the San Martino University Hospital in Genova (Italy). Despite the complexity of this NP-hard combinatorial optimization problem, computational results indicate that the model can solve all test problems within 600 s and an average optimality tolerance of less than 0.01%.

  9. Additive and Interactive Effects in Semantic Priming: Isolating Lexical and Decision Processes in the Lexical Decision Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yap, Melvin J.; Balota, David A.; Tan, Sarah E.

    2013-01-01

    The present study sheds light on the interplay between lexical and decision processes in the lexical decision task by exploring the effects of lexical decision difficulty on semantic priming effects. In 2 experiments, we increased lexical decision difficulty by either using transposed letter wordlike nonword distracters (e.g., JUGDE; Experiment 1)…

  10. Gender differences in reward-related decision processing under stress

    PubMed Central

    Sakaki, Michiko; Vasunilashorn, Sarinnapha; Nga, Lin; Somayajula, Sangeetha; Chen, Eric Y.; Samii, Nicole; Mather, Mara

    2012-01-01

    Recent research indicates gender differences in the impact of stress on decision behavior, but little is known about the brain mechanisms involved in these gender-specific stress effects. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to determine whether induced stress resulted in gender-specific patterns of brain activation during a decision task involving monetary reward. Specifically, we manipulated physiological stress levels using a cold pressor task, prior to a risky decision making task. Healthy men (n = 24, 12 stressed) and women (n = 23, 11 stressed) completed the decision task after either cold pressor stress or a control task during the period of cortisol response to the cold pressor. Gender differences in behavior were present in stressed participants but not controls, such that stress led to greater reward collection and faster decision speed in males but less reward collection and slower decision speed in females. A gender-by-stress interaction was observed for the dorsal striatum and anterior insula. With cold stress, activation in these regions was increased in males but decreased in females. The findings of this study indicate that the impact of stress on reward-related decision processing differs depending on gender. PMID:21609968

  11. Off-Farm Labour Decision of Canadian Farm Operators: Urbanization Effects and Rural Labour Market Linkages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alasia, Alessandro; Weersink, Alfons; Bollman, Ray D.; Cranfield, John

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the factors affecting off-farm labour decisions of census-farm operators has significant implications for rural development and farm income support policy. We examine the off-farm labour decisions of Canadian farm operators using micro-level data from the 2001 Census of Agriculture combined with community level data from the 2001…

  12. Clarification process: Resolution of decision-problem conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dieterly, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    A model of a general process which occurs in both decisionmaking and problem-solving tasks is presented. It is called the clarification model and is highly dependent on information flow. The model addresses the possible constraints of individual indifferences and experience in achieving success in resolving decision-problem conditions. As indicated, the application of the clarification process model is only necessary for certain classes of the basic decision-problem condition. With less complex decision problem conditions, certain phases of the model may be omitted. The model may be applied across a wide range of decision problem conditions. The model consists of two major components: (1) the five-phase prescriptive sequence (based on previous approaches to both concepts) and (2) the information manipulation function (which draws upon current ideas in the areas of information processing, computer programming, memory, and thinking). The two components are linked together to provide a structure that assists in understanding the process of resolving problems and making decisions.

  13. Productive Skills for Process Operatives. Skills Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, L.; Kodz, J.; Evans, C.

    A study of process operatives examined the developments in processing work in 20 organizations within the chemical and food and drink processing industries. Seven exploratory interviews were followed by 20 employer interviews. Technological innovations caused job losses and layoffs. Organizational responses adopted to meet increasing competitive…

  14. Research of personal decision process using event-related potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaofeng

    2011-10-01

    To gain insights into the neural basis of such adaptive decision-making processes, we investigated the nature of learning process in humans playing a competitive game with binary choices, using a matching pennies game. As in reinforcement learning, the subject's choice during a competitive game was biased by its choice and reward history, as well as by the strategies of its opponent. Analyses of ERP data focused on the feedback-related negativity (FRN), we found that the magnitude of ERPs after losing to the computer opponent predicted whether subjects would change decision behavior on the subsequent trial. These findings provide novel evidence that humans engage a reinforcement learning process to adjust representations of competing decision options.

  15. Occurrence reporting and processing of operations information

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-21

    DOE O 232.1A, Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information, and 10 CFR 830.350, Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information (when it becomes effective), along with this manual, set forth occurrence reporting requirements for Department of Energy (DOE) Departmental Elements and contractors responsible for the management and operation of DOE-owned and -leased facilities. These requirements include categorization of occurrences related to safety, security, environment, health, or operations (``Reportable Occurrences``); DOE notification of these occurrences; and the development and submission of documented follow-up reports. This Manual provides detailed information for categorizing and reporting occurrences at DOE facilities. Information gathered by the Occurrence Reporting and processing System is used for analysis of the Department`s performance in environmental protection, safeguards and security, and safety and health of its workers and the public. This information is also used to develop lessons learned and document events that significantly impact DOE operations.

  16. Small Employer Decision-Making with Australia's New Apprenticeship System: Process-Oriented Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowlands, Bruce; Chappell, Clive

    2002-01-01

    A qualitative study examined 18 small and medium-sized business owners' decision to adopt or reject Australia's new apprenticeship system. Participation was based on three interconnected processes: psychological commitment, financial justification, and operational choice. Contextual elements in the internal and external environment influenced…

  17. Fuzzy methods in decision making process - A particular approach in manufacturing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coroiu, A. M.

    2015-11-01

    We are living in a competitive environment, so we can see and understand that the most of manufacturing firms do the best in order to accomplish meeting demand, increasing quality, decreasing costs, and delivery rate. In present a stake point of interest is represented by the development of fuzzy technology. A particular approach for this is represented through the development of methodologies to enhance the ability to managed complicated optimization and decision making aspects involving non-probabilistic uncertainty with the reason to understand, development, and practice the fuzzy technologies to be used in fields such as economic, engineering, management, and societal problems. Fuzzy analysis represents a method for solving problems which are related to uncertainty and vagueness; it is used in multiple areas, such as engineering and has applications in decision making problems, planning and production. As a definition for decision making process we can use the next one: result of mental processes based upon cognitive process with a main role in the selection of a course of action among several alternatives. Every process of decision making can be represented as a result of a final choice and the output can be represented as an action or as an opinion of choice. Different types of uncertainty can be discovered in a wide variety of optimization and decision making problems related to planning and operation of power systems and subsystems. The mixture of the uncertainty factor in the construction of different models serves for increasing their adequacy and, as a result, the reliability and factual efficiency of decisions based on their analysis. Another definition of decision making process which came to illustrate and sustain the necessity of using fuzzy method: the decision making is an approach of choosing a strategy among many different projects in order to achieve some purposes and is formulated as three different models: high risk decision, usual risk

  18. Information processing as a paradigm for decision making.

    PubMed

    Oppenheimer, Daniel M; Kelso, Evan

    2015-01-01

    For decades, the dominant paradigm for studying decision making--the expected utility framework--has been burdened by an increasing number of empirical findings that question its validity as a model of human cognition and behavior. However, as Kuhn (1962) argued in his seminal discussion of paradigm shifts, an old paradigm cannot be abandoned until a new paradigm emerges to replace it. In this article, we argue that the recent shift in researcher attention toward basic cognitive processes that give rise to decision phenomena constitutes the beginning of that replacement paradigm. Models grounded in basic perceptual, attentional, memory, and aggregation processes have begun to proliferate. The development of this new approach closely aligns with Kuhn's notion of paradigm shift, suggesting that this is a particularly generative and revolutionary time to be studying decision science. PMID:25559114

  19. Information processing as a paradigm for decision making.

    PubMed

    Oppenheimer, Daniel M; Kelso, Evan

    2015-01-01

    For decades, the dominant paradigm for studying decision making--the expected utility framework--has been burdened by an increasing number of empirical findings that question its validity as a model of human cognition and behavior. However, as Kuhn (1962) argued in his seminal discussion of paradigm shifts, an old paradigm cannot be abandoned until a new paradigm emerges to replace it. In this article, we argue that the recent shift in researcher attention toward basic cognitive processes that give rise to decision phenomena constitutes the beginning of that replacement paradigm. Models grounded in basic perceptual, attentional, memory, and aggregation processes have begun to proliferate. The development of this new approach closely aligns with Kuhn's notion of paradigm shift, suggesting that this is a particularly generative and revolutionary time to be studying decision science.

  20. Decision Processes Among the Elderly: Do They Differ?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodchilds, Jacqueline D.; Bikson, Tora K.

    Decision making processes among older adults were investigated within the context of grocery selection, using a stimulus array involving two product classes (bread and cheese) with 10 items per class. The sample (N=580) was stratified by sex, household status (living alone or with spouse), and age, employing three age groupings: 25-34 (young),…

  1. Insect pest management decisions in food processing facilities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pest management decision making in food processing facilities such as flour mills, rice mills, human and pet food manufacturing facilities, distribution centers and warehouses, and retail stores is a challenging undertaking. Insect pest management programs require an understanding of the food facili...

  2. Development of Encoding and Decision Processes in Visual Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcombe, Nora; MacKenzie, Doris L.

    This experiment examined two processes which might account for developmental increases in accuracy in visual recognition tasks: age-related increases in efficiency of scanning during inspection, and age-related increases in the ability to make decisions systematically during test. Critical details necessary for recognition were highlighted as…

  3. Integrating Turnover Reasons and Shocks with Turnover Decision Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maertz, Carl P., Jr.; Kmitta, Kayla R.

    2012-01-01

    We interviewed and classified 186 quitters from many jobs and organizations via a theoretically-based protocol into five decision process types. We then tested exploratory hypotheses comparing users of these types on their propensity to report certain turnover reasons and turnover shocks. "Impulsive-type quitters," with neither a job offer in hand…

  4. Investigating the Decision-Making Process of Standard Setting Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papageorgiou, Spiros

    2010-01-01

    Despite the growing interest of the language testing community in standard setting, primarily due to the use of the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR-Council of Europe, 2001), the participants' decision-making process in the CEFR standard setting context remains unexplored. This study attempts to fill in this gap by analyzing these…

  5. Intuitionistic linguistic weighted Bonferroni mean operator and its application to multiple attribute decision making.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peide; Rong, Lili; Chu, Yanchang; Li, Yanwei

    2014-01-01

    The intuitionistic linguistic variables are easier to describe the fuzzy information which widely exists in the real world, and Bonferroni mean can capture the interrelationship of the individual arguments. However, the traditional Bonferroni mean can only process the crisp number. In this paper, we will extend Bonferroni mean to the intuitionistic linguistic environment and propose a multiple attribute decision making method with intuitionistic linguistic information based on the extended Bonferroni mean which can consider the interrelationship of the attributes. Firstly, score function and accuracy function of intuitionistic linguistic numbers are introduced. Then, an intuitionistic linguistic Bonferroni mean (ILBM) operator and an intuitionistic linguistic weighted Bonferroni mean (ILWBM) operator are developed, and some desirable characteristics of them are studied. At the same time, some special cases with respect to the parameters p and q in Bonferroni are analyzed. Based on the ILWBM operator, the approach to multiple attribute decision making with intuitionistic linguistic information is proposed. Finally, an illustrative example is given to verify the developed approach and to demonstrate its effectiveness.

  6. Cognitive processes as integrative component for developing expert decision-making systems: a workflow centered framework.

    PubMed

    Jalote-Parmar, Ashis; Badke-Schaub, Petra; Ali, Wajid; Samset, Eigil

    2010-02-01

    The development of expert decision-making systems, which improve task performance and reduce errors within an intra-operative clinical workspace, is critically dependent on two main aspects: (a) Analyzing the clinical requirements and cognitive processes within the workflow and (b) providing an optimal context for accurate situation awareness through effective intra-operative information visualization. This paper presents a workflow centered framework and its theoretical underpinnings to design expert decision-making systems. The framework integrates knowledge of the clinical workflow based on the requirements within the clinical workspace. Furthermore, it builds upon and integrates the theory of situation awareness into system design to improve decision-making. As an application example, this framework has been used to design an intra-operative visualization system (IVS), which provides image guidance to the clinicians to perform minimally invasive procedure. An evaluative study, comparing the traditional ultrasound guided procedure with the new developed IVS, has been conducted with expert intervention radiologists and medical students. The results reveal significant evidence for improved decision-making when using the IVS. Therefore, it can be stated that this study demonstrates the benefits of integrating knowledge of cognitive processes into system development to support clinical decision-making and hence improvement of task performance and prevention of errors.

  7. A Coastal Flood Decision Support Tool for Forecast Operations in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Breukelen, C. M.; Moore, A.; Plumb, E. W.

    2015-12-01

    ABSTRACT Coastal flooding and erosion poses a serious threat to infrastructure, livelihood, and property for communities along Alaska's northern and western coastline. While the National Weather Service Alaska Region (NWS-AR) forecasts conditions favorable for coastal flooding, an improvement can be made in communicating event impacts between NWS-AR and local residents. Scientific jargon used by NWS-AR to indicate the severity of flooding potential is often misconstrued by residents. Additionally, the coastal flood forecasting process is cumbersome and time consuming due to scattered sources of flood guidance. To alleviate these problems, a single coastal flooding decision support tool was created for the Fairbanks Weather Forecast Office to help bridge the communication gap, streamline the forecast and warning process, and take into account both the meteorological and socioeconomic systems at work during a flood event. This tool builds on previous research and data collected by the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (DGGS) and the NWS-AR, using high resolution elevation data to model the impacts of storm tide rise above the mean lower low water level on five of the most at-risk communities along the Alaskan coast. Important local buildings and infrastructure are highlighted, allowing forecasters to relate the severity of the storm tide in terms of local landmarks that are familiar to residents. In this way, this decision support tool allows for a conversion from model output storm tide levels into real world impacts that are easily understood by forecasters, emergency managers, and other stakeholders, helping to build a Weather-Ready Nation. An overview of the new coastal flood decision support tool in NWS-AR forecast operations will be discussed. KEYWORDS Forecasting; coastal flooding; coastal hazards; decision support

  8. A unified framework for addiction: Vulnerabilities in the decision process

    PubMed Central

    Redish, A. David; Jensen, Steve; Johnson, Adam

    2013-01-01

    The understanding of decision-making systems has come together in recent years to form a unified theory of decision-making in the mammalian brain as arising from multiple, interacting systems (a planning system, a habit system, and a situation-recognition system). This unified decision-making system has multiple potential access points through which it can be driven to make maladaptive choices, particularly choices that entail seeking of certain drugs or behaviors. We identify 10 key vulnerabilities in the system: (1) moving away from homeostasis, (2) changing allostatic set points, (3) euphorigenic “reward-like” signals, (4) overvaluation in the planning system, (5) incorrect search of situation-action-outcome relationships, (6) misclassification of situations, (7) overvaluation in the habit system, (8) a mismatch in the balance of the two decision systems, (9) over-fast discounting processes, and (10) changed learning rates. These vulnerabilities provide a taxonomy of potential problems with decision-making systems. Although each vulnerability can drive an agent to return to the addictive choice, each vulnerability also implies a characteristic symptomology. Different drugs, different behaviors, and different individuals are likely to access different vulnerabilities. This has implications for an individual’s susceptibility to addiction and the transition to addiction, for the potential for relapse, and for the potential for treatment. PMID:18662461

  9. Decision making under uncertainty: a neural model based on partially observable markov decision processes.

    PubMed

    Rao, Rajesh P N

    2010-01-01

    A fundamental problem faced by animals is learning to select actions based on noisy sensory information and incomplete knowledge of the world. It has been suggested that the brain engages in Bayesian inference during perception but how such probabilistic representations are used to select actions has remained unclear. Here we propose a neural model of action selection and decision making based on the theory of partially observable Markov decision processes (POMDPs). Actions are selected based not on a single "optimal" estimate of state but on the posterior distribution over states (the "belief" state). We show how such a model provides a unified framework for explaining experimental results in decision making that involve both information gathering and overt actions. The model utilizes temporal difference (TD) learning for maximizing expected reward. The resulting neural architecture posits an active role for the neocortex in belief computation while ascribing a role to the basal ganglia in belief representation, value computation, and action selection. When applied to the random dots motion discrimination task, model neurons representing belief exhibit responses similar to those of LIP neurons in primate neocortex. The appropriate threshold for switching from information gathering to overt actions emerges naturally during reward maximization. Additionally, the time course of reward prediction error in the model shares similarities with dopaminergic responses in the basal ganglia during the random dots task. For tasks with a deadline, the model learns a decision making strategy that changes with elapsed time, predicting a collapsing decision threshold consistent with some experimental studies. The model provides a new framework for understanding neural decision making and suggests an important role for interactions between the neocortex and the basal ganglia in learning the mapping between probabilistic sensory representations and actions that maximize rewards.

  10. Reservoir Operations and Flow Modeling to Support Decision Making in the Delaware River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinodoz, H. A.

    2006-12-01

    About five percent of the US population depends on the waters from the Delaware River Basin for its water supply, including New York City and Philadelphia. Water management in the basin is governed by a compact signed in 1961 by the four basin states and the federal government. The compact created the Delaware River Basin Commission (DRBC) and gave it broad powers to plan, regulate, and manage the development of the basin water resources. The compact also recognized a pre-existing (1954) U.S. Supreme Court Decree that grants the City of New York the right to export up to 800 million gallons per day out of the basin, provided that a prescribed minimum flow is met at Montague, New Jersey for the use of the lower-basin states. The Delaware River Basin Compact also allows the DRBC to adjust the releases and diversions under the Decree, subject to the unanimous consent of the decree parties. This mechanism has been used several times over the last 30 years, to implement and modify rules governing drought operations, instream flows, minimum flow targets, and control of salinity intrusion. In every case, decision makers have relied upon extensive modeling of alternative proposals, using a basin-wide daily flow model. Often, stakeholders have modified and used the same model to test and refine their proposals prior to consideration by the decision makers. The flow model has been modified over the years, to simulate new features and processes in a river system partially controlled by more than ten reservoirs. The flow model has proved to be an adaptable tool, able to simulate the dynamics of a complex system driven by conflicting objectives. This presentation reviews the characteristics of the daily flow model in its current form, discuss how model simulations are used to inform the decision-making process, and provide a case study of a recent modification of the system-wide drought operating plan.

  11. Development of an instrument to understand the child protective services decision-making process, with a focus on placement decisions.

    PubMed

    Dettlaff, Alan J; Christopher Graham, J; Holzman, Jesse; Baumann, Donald J; Fluke, John D

    2015-11-01

    When children come to the attention of the child welfare system, they become involved in a decision-making process in which decisions are made that have a significant effect on their future and well-being. The decision to remove children from their families is particularly complex; yet surprisingly little is understood about this decision-making process. This paper presents the results of a study to develop an instrument to explore, at the caseworker level, the context of the removal decision, with the objective of understanding the influence of the individual and organizational factors on this decision, drawing from the Decision Making Ecology as the underlying rationale for obtaining the measures. The instrument was based on the development of decision-making scales used in prior decision-making studies and administered to child protection caseworkers in several states. Analyses included reliability analyses, principal components analyses, and inter-correlations among the resulting scales. For one scale regarding removal decisions, a principal components analysis resulted in the extraction of two components, jointly identified as caseworkers' decision-making orientation, described as (1) an internal reference to decision-making and (2) an external reference to decision-making. Reliability analyses demonstrated acceptable to high internal consistency for 9 of the 11 scales. Full details of the reliability analyses, principal components analyses, and inter-correlations among the seven scales are discussed, along with implications for practice and the utility of this instrument to support the understanding of decision-making in child welfare.

  12. 30 CFR 933.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 933.764 Section 933.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... Coal Mining Operations, pertaining to petitioning, initial processing, hearing requirements, decisions... surface coal mining and reclamation operations beginning one year after the effective date of this program....

  13. 30 CFR 933.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 933.764 Section 933.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... Coal Mining Operations, pertaining to petitioning, initial processing, hearing requirements, decisions... surface coal mining and reclamation operations beginning one year after the effective date of this program....

  14. Process redesign of production maintenance operations

    SciTech Connect

    Rankin, M.; Lowe, B.; Disney, V. Spilman, K.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes a methodology for the systematic redesign of traditional production maintenance operations as they relate to subsurface failures of sucker rod pumped wells. The paper advocates an organized approach to process definition, refinement and redesign such that improvement objectives are clearly communicated, appropriate human and physical resources are brought to bear, and a system of improvement measurements becomes the overriding focus of the operation. Specific examples of the use of statistical process control tools in the production maintenance quality improvement effort are explored.

  15. Process for operating equilibrium controlled reactions

    DOEpatents

    Nataraj, Shankar; Carvill, Brian Thomas; Hufton, Jeffrey Raymond; Mayorga, Steven Gerard; Gaffney, Thomas Richard; Brzozowski, Jeffrey Richard

    2001-01-01

    A cyclic process for operating an equilibrium controlled reaction in a plurality of reactors containing an admixture of an adsorbent and a reaction catalyst suitable for performing the desired reaction which is operated in a predetermined timed sequence wherein the heating and cooling requirements in a moving reaction mass transfer zone within each reactor are provided by indirect heat exchange with a fluid capable of phase change at temperatures maintained in each reactor during sorpreaction, depressurization, purging and pressurization steps during each process cycle.

  16. Decision-making processes: the case of collective movements.

    PubMed

    Petit, Odile; Bon, Richard

    2010-07-01

    Besides focusing on the adaptive significance of collective movements, it is crucial to study the mechanisms and dynamics of decision-making processes at the individual level underlying the higher-scale collective movements. It is now commonly admitted that collective decisions emerge from interactions between individuals, but how individual decisions are taken, i.e. how far they are modulated by the behaviour of other group members, is an under-investigated question. Classically, collective movements are viewed as the outcome of one individual's initiation (the leader) for departure, by which all or some of the other group members abide. Individuals assuming leadership have often been considered to hold a specific social status. This hierarchical or centralized control model has been challenged by recent theoretical and experimental findings, suggesting that leadership can be more distributed. Moreover, self-organized processes can account for collective movements in many different species, even in those that are characterized by high cognitive complexity. In this review, we point out that decision-making for moving collectively can be reached by a combination of different rules, i.e. individualized (based on inter-individual differences in physiology, energetic state, social status, etc.) and self-organized (based on simple response) ones for any species, context and group size.

  17. Working memory and decision processes in visual area v4.

    PubMed

    Hayden, Benjamin Y; Gallant, Jack L

    2013-01-01

    Recognizing and responding to a remembered stimulus requires the coordination of perception, working memory, and decision-making. To investigate the role of visual cortex in these processes, we recorded responses of single V4 neurons during performance of a delayed match-to-sample task that incorporates rapid serial visual presentation of natural images. We found that neuronal activity during the delay period after the cue but before the images depends on the identity of the remembered image and that this change persists while distractors appear. This persistent response modulation has been identified as a diagnostic criterion for putative working memory signals; our data thus suggest that working memory may involve reactivation of sensory neurons. When the remembered image reappears in the neuron's receptive field, visually evoked responses are enhanced; this match enhancement is a diagnostic criterion for decision. One model that predicts these data is the matched filter hypothesis, which holds that during search V4 neurons change their tuning so as to match the remembered cue, and thus become detectors for that image. More generally, these results suggest that V4 neurons participate in the perceptual, working memory, and decision processes that are needed to perform memory-guided decision-making.

  18. An In-Process Surface Roughness Recognition System in End Milling Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Lieh-Dai; Chen, Joseph C.

    2004-01-01

    To develop an in-process quality control system, a sensor technique and a decision-making algorithm need to be applied during machining operations. Several sensor techniques have been used in the in-process prediction of quality characteristics in machining operations. For example, an accelerometer sensor can be used to monitor the vibration of…

  19. Decision Making Training in the Mission Operations Directorate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Keefe, William S.

    2013-01-01

    At JSC, we train our new flight controllers on a set of team skills that we call Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM). SFRM is akin to Crew Resource Management for the airlines and trains flight controllers to work as an effective team to reduce errors and improve safety. We have developed this training over the years with the assistance of Ames Research Center, Wyle Labs and University of Central Florida. One of the skills we teach is decision making/ problem solving (DM/PS). We teach DM/PS first in several classroom sessions, reinforce it in several part task training environments, and finally practice it in full-mission, full-team simulations. What I am proposing to talk about is this training flow: its content and how we teach it.

  20. Partially observable Markov decision processes for risk-based screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrozack, Alex; Liao, Xuejun; Skatter, Sondre; Carin, Lawrence

    2016-05-01

    A long-term goal for checked baggage screening in airports has been to include passenger information, or at least a predetermined passenger risk level, in the screening process. One method for including that information could be treating the checked baggage screening process as a system-of-systems. This would allow for an optimized policy builder, such as one trained using the methodology of partially observable Markov decision processes (POMDP), to navigate the different sensors available for screening. In this paper we describe the necessary steps to tailor a POMDP for baggage screening, as well as results of simulations for specific screening scenarios.

  1. Combined monitoring, decision and control model for the human operator in a command and control desk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muralidharan, R.; Baron, S.

    1978-01-01

    A report is given on the ongoing efforts to mode the human operator in the context of the task during the enroute/return phases in the ground based control of multiple flights of remotely piloted vehicles (RPV). The approach employed here uses models that have their analytical bases in control theory and in statistical estimation and decision theory. In particular, it draws heavily on the modes and the concepts of the optimal control model (OCM) of the human operator. The OCM is being extended into a combined monitoring, decision, and control model (DEMON) of the human operator by infusing decision theoretic notions that make it suitable for application to problems in which human control actions are infrequent and in which monitoring and decision-making are the operator's main activities. Some results obtained with a specialized version of DEMON for the RPV control problem are included.

  2. Introduction of new vaccines: decision-making process in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Jasim; Sarma, Haribondhu; Bari, Tajul I; Koehlmoos, Tracey P

    2013-06-01

    The understanding of the decision-making process in the introduction of new vaccines helps establish why vaccines are adopted or not. It also contributes to building a sustainable demand for vaccines in a country. The purpose of the study was to map and analyze the formal decision-making process in relation to the introduction of new vaccines within the context of health policy and health systems and identify the ways of making decisions to introduce new vaccines in Bangladesh. During February-April 2011, a qualitative assessment was made at the national level to evaluate the decision-making process around the adoption of new vaccines in Bangladesh. The study population included: policy-level people, programme heads or associates, and key decision-makers of the Government, private sector, non-governmental organizations, and international agencies at the national level. In total, 13 key informants were purposively selected. Data were collected by interviewing key informants and reviewing documents. Data were analyzed thematically. The findings revealed that the actors from different sectors at the policy level were involved in the decision-making process in the introduction of new vaccines. They included policy-makers from the ministries of health and family welfare, finance, and local government and rural development; academicians; researchers; representatives from professional associations; development partners; and members of different committees on EPI. They contributed to the introduction of new vaccines in their own capacity. The burden of disease, research findings on vaccine-preventable diseases, political issues relating to outbreaks of certain diseases, initiatives of international and local stakeholders, pressure of development partners, the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) support, and financial matters were the key factors in the introduction of new vaccines in Bangladesh. The slow introduction and uptake of new vaccines is a concern

  3. Eye Tracking and Pupillometry are Indicators of Dissociable Latent Decision Processes

    PubMed Central

    Cavanagh, James F.; Wiecki, Thomas V.; Kochar, Angad; Frank, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Can you predict what someone is going to do just by watching them? This is certainly difficult: it would require a clear mapping between observable indicators and unobservable cognitive states. In this report we demonstrate how this is possible by monitoring eye gaze and pupil dilation, which predict dissociable biases during decision making. We quantified decision making using the Drift Diffusion Model (DDM), which provides an algorithmic account of how evidence accumulation and response caution contribute to decisions through separate latent parameters of drift rate and decision threshold, respectively. We used a hierarchical Bayesian estimation approach to assess the single trial influence of observable physiological signals on these latent DDM parameters. Increased eye gaze dwell time specifically predicted an increased drift rate toward the fixated option, irrespective of the value of the option. In contrast, greater pupil dilation specifically predicted an increase in decision threshold during difficult decisions. These findings suggest that eye tracking and pupillometry reflect the operations of dissociated latent decision processes. PMID:24548281

  4. Eye tracking and pupillometry are indicators of dissociable latent decision processes.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, James F; Wiecki, Thomas V; Kochar, Angad; Frank, Michael J

    2014-08-01

    Can you predict what people are going to do just by watching them? This is certainly difficult: it would require a clear mapping between observable indicators and unobservable cognitive states. In this report, we demonstrate how this is possible by monitoring eye gaze and pupil dilation, which predict dissociable biases during decision making. We quantified decision making using the drift diffusion model (DDM), which provides an algorithmic account of how evidence accumulation and response caution contribute to decisions through separate latent parameters of drift rate and decision threshold, respectively. We used a hierarchical Bayesian estimation approach to assess the single trial influence of observable physiological signals on these latent DDM parameters. Increased eye gaze dwell time specifically predicted an increased drift rate toward the fixated option, irrespective of the value of the option. In contrast, greater pupil dilation specifically predicted an increase in decision threshold during difficult decisions. These findings suggest that eye tracking and pupillometry reflect the operations of dissociated latent decision processes. PMID:24548281

  5. A decision support system for the operational planning of solid waste collection.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Simonetto, Eugênio; Borenstein, Denis

    2007-01-01

    This study presents the conception, modeling, and implementation of a decision support system applied to the operational planning of solid waste collection systems, called SCOLDSS. The main functionality of the system is the generation of alternatives to the decision processes concerning: (a) the allocation of separate collection vehicles, as well as the determination of their routes and (b) the determination of the daily amount of solid waste to be sent to each sorting unit, in order to avoid waste of labor force and to reduce the amount of waste sent to the landfills. To develop the computer system, a combination of quantitative techniques was used, such as: simulation of discrete events and algorithms/heuristics for vehicle allocation and routing. The system was developed using the Borland Delphi environment and the commercial software Arena to carry out the simulations. We also present a computational study with real-life data from the solid waste collection in Porto Alegre, Brazil, in which we show that the results provided by the computational system outperform the operation planning currently adopted. PMID:17005387

  6. A decision-making process model of young online shoppers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chin-Feng; Wang, Hui-Fang

    2008-12-01

    Based on the concepts of brand equity, means-end chain, and Web site trust, this study proposes a novel model called the consumption decision-making process of adolescents (CDMPA) to understand adolescents' Internet consumption habits and behavioral intention toward particular sporting goods. The findings of the CDMPA model can help marketers understand adolescents' consumption preferences and habits for developing effective Internet marketing strategies.

  7. Processing module operating methods, processing modules, and communications systems

    DOEpatents

    McCown, Steven Harvey; Derr, Kurt W.; Moore, Troy

    2014-09-09

    A processing module operating method includes using a processing module physically connected to a wireless communications device, requesting that the wireless communications device retrieve encrypted code from a web site and receiving the encrypted code from the wireless communications device. The wireless communications device is unable to decrypt the encrypted code. The method further includes using the processing module, decrypting the encrypted code, executing the decrypted code, and preventing the wireless communications device from accessing the decrypted code. Another processing module operating method includes using a processing module physically connected to a host device, executing an application within the processing module, allowing the application to exchange user interaction data communicated using a user interface of the host device with the host device, and allowing the application to use the host device as a communications device for exchanging information with a remote device distinct from the host device.

  8. Ranking of Business Process Simulation Software Tools with DEX/QQ Hierarchical Decision Model.

    PubMed

    Damij, Nadja; Boškoski, Pavle; Bohanec, Marko; Mileva Boshkoska, Biljana

    2016-01-01

    The omnipresent need for optimisation requires constant improvements of companies' business processes (BPs). Minimising the risk of inappropriate BP being implemented is usually performed by simulating the newly developed BP under various initial conditions and "what-if" scenarios. An effectual business process simulations software (BPSS) is a prerequisite for accurate analysis of an BP. Characterisation of an BPSS tool is a challenging task due to the complex selection criteria that includes quality of visual aspects, simulation capabilities, statistical facilities, quality reporting etc. Under such circumstances, making an optimal decision is challenging. Therefore, various decision support models are employed aiding the BPSS tool selection. The currently established decision support models are either proprietary or comprise only a limited subset of criteria, which affects their accuracy. Addressing this issue, this paper proposes a new hierarchical decision support model for ranking of BPSS based on their technical characteristics by employing DEX and qualitative to quantitative (QQ) methodology. Consequently, the decision expert feeds the required information in a systematic and user friendly manner. There are three significant contributions of the proposed approach. Firstly, the proposed hierarchical model is easily extendible for adding new criteria in the hierarchical structure. Secondly, a fully operational decision support system (DSS) tool that implements the proposed hierarchical model is presented. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed hierarchical model is assessed by comparing the resulting rankings of BPSS with respect to currently available results. PMID:26871694

  9. Ranking of Business Process Simulation Software Tools with DEX/QQ Hierarchical Decision Model

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The omnipresent need for optimisation requires constant improvements of companies’ business processes (BPs). Minimising the risk of inappropriate BP being implemented is usually performed by simulating the newly developed BP under various initial conditions and “what-if” scenarios. An effectual business process simulations software (BPSS) is a prerequisite for accurate analysis of an BP. Characterisation of an BPSS tool is a challenging task due to the complex selection criteria that includes quality of visual aspects, simulation capabilities, statistical facilities, quality reporting etc. Under such circumstances, making an optimal decision is challenging. Therefore, various decision support models are employed aiding the BPSS tool selection. The currently established decision support models are either proprietary or comprise only a limited subset of criteria, which affects their accuracy. Addressing this issue, this paper proposes a new hierarchical decision support model for ranking of BPSS based on their technical characteristics by employing DEX and qualitative to quantitative (QQ) methodology. Consequently, the decision expert feeds the required information in a systematic and user friendly manner. There are three significant contributions of the proposed approach. Firstly, the proposed hierarchical model is easily extendible for adding new criteria in the hierarchical structure. Secondly, a fully operational decision support system (DSS) tool that implements the proposed hierarchical model is presented. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed hierarchical model is assessed by comparing the resulting rankings of BPSS with respect to currently available results. PMID:26871694

  10. Ranking of Business Process Simulation Software Tools with DEX/QQ Hierarchical Decision Model.

    PubMed

    Damij, Nadja; Boškoski, Pavle; Bohanec, Marko; Mileva Boshkoska, Biljana

    2016-01-01

    The omnipresent need for optimisation requires constant improvements of companies' business processes (BPs). Minimising the risk of inappropriate BP being implemented is usually performed by simulating the newly developed BP under various initial conditions and "what-if" scenarios. An effectual business process simulations software (BPSS) is a prerequisite for accurate analysis of an BP. Characterisation of an BPSS tool is a challenging task due to the complex selection criteria that includes quality of visual aspects, simulation capabilities, statistical facilities, quality reporting etc. Under such circumstances, making an optimal decision is challenging. Therefore, various decision support models are employed aiding the BPSS tool selection. The currently established decision support models are either proprietary or comprise only a limited subset of criteria, which affects their accuracy. Addressing this issue, this paper proposes a new hierarchical decision support model for ranking of BPSS based on their technical characteristics by employing DEX and qualitative to quantitative (QQ) methodology. Consequently, the decision expert feeds the required information in a systematic and user friendly manner. There are three significant contributions of the proposed approach. Firstly, the proposed hierarchical model is easily extendible for adding new criteria in the hierarchical structure. Secondly, a fully operational decision support system (DSS) tool that implements the proposed hierarchical model is presented. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed hierarchical model is assessed by comparing the resulting rankings of BPSS with respect to currently available results.

  11. Multiple-reason decision making based on automatic processing.

    PubMed

    Glöckner, Andreas; Betsch, Tilmann

    2008-09-01

    It has been repeatedly shown that in decisions under time constraints, individuals predominantly use noncompensatory strategies rather than complex compensatory ones. The authors argue that these findings might be due not to limitations of cognitive capacity but instead to limitations of information search imposed by the commonly used experimental tool Mouselab (J. W. Payne, J. R. Bettman, & E. J. Johnson, 1988). The authors tested this assumption in 3 experiments. In the 1st experiment, information was openly presented, whereas in the 2nd experiment, the standard Mouselab program was used under different time limits. The results indicate that individuals are able to compute weighted additive decision strategies extremely quickly if information search is not restricted by the experimental procedure. In a 3rd experiment, these results were replicated using more complex decision tasks, and the major alternative explanations that individuals use more complex heuristics or that they merely encode the constellation of cues were ruled out. In sum, the findings challenge the fundaments of bounded rationality and highlight the importance of automatic processes in decision making.

  12. 13 CFR 120.837 - SBA decision on application for a new CDC or for an existing CDC to expand Area of Operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... new CDC or for an existing CDC to expand Area of Operations. 120.837 Section 120.837 Business Credit...) Extending A Cdc's Area of Operations § 120.837 SBA decision on application for a new CDC or for an existing CDC to expand Area of Operations. The processing District Office must solicit the comments of...

  13. 13 CFR 120.837 - SBA decision on application for a new CDC or for an existing CDC to expand Area of Operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... new CDC or for an existing CDC to expand Area of Operations. 120.837 Section 120.837 Business Credit...) Extending A Cdc's Area of Operations § 120.837 SBA decision on application for a new CDC or for an existing CDC to expand Area of Operations. The processing District Office must solicit the comments of...

  14. 13 CFR 120.837 - SBA decision on application for a new CDC or for an existing CDC to expand Area of Operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... new CDC or for an existing CDC to expand Area of Operations. 120.837 Section 120.837 Business Credit...) Extending A Cdc's Area of Operations § 120.837 SBA decision on application for a new CDC or for an existing CDC to expand Area of Operations. The processing District Office must solicit the comments of...

  15. 13 CFR 120.837 - SBA decision on application for a new CDC or for an existing CDC to expand Area of Operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... new CDC or for an existing CDC to expand Area of Operations. 120.837 Section 120.837 Business Credit...) Extending A Cdc's Area of Operations § 120.837 SBA decision on application for a new CDC or for an existing CDC to expand Area of Operations. The processing District Office must solicit the comments of...

  16. 13 CFR 120.837 - SBA decision on application for a new CDC or for an existing CDC to expand Area of Operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... new CDC or for an existing CDC to expand Area of Operations. 120.837 Section 120.837 Business Credit...) Extending A Cdc's Area of Operations § 120.837 SBA decision on application for a new CDC or for an existing CDC to expand Area of Operations. The processing District Office must solicit the comments of...

  17. Dissolving decision making? Models and their roles in decision-making processes and policy at large.

    PubMed

    Zeiss, Ragna; van Egmond, Stans

    2014-12-01

    This article studies the roles three science-based models play in Dutch policy and decision making processes. Key is the interaction between model construction and environment. Their political and scientific environments form contexts that shape the roles of models in policy decision making. Attention is paid to three aspects of the wider context of the models: a) the history of the construction process; b) (changes in) the political and scientific environments; and c) the use in policy processes over longer periods of time. Models are more successfully used when they are constructed in a stable political and scientific environment. Stability and certainty within a scientific field seems to be a key predictor for the usefulness of models for policy making. The economic model is more disputed than the ecology-based model and the model that has its theoretical foundation in physics and chemistry. The roles models play in policy processes are too complex to be considered as straightforward technocratic powers. PMID:25549446

  18. Decision process to assess medical equipment for hyperbaric use.

    PubMed

    Burman, F; Sheffield, R; Posey, K

    2009-01-01

    There are very few items of medical equipment specifically designed for hyperbaric use; and little information is available about medical equipment already tested for hyperbaric use. Hyperbaricists are usually left to their own devices in making a determination about the safe and effective use of standard medical equipment in the hyperbaric setting. This article proposes a logical and systematic process to arrive at this determination. The process involves seven steps beginning with a need assessment and ending with endorsement by appropriate individuals. The discussion of decision steps includes identifying risk elements, compliance with safety standards, testing, and documentation.

  19. The activated sludge process: Fundamentals of operation

    SciTech Connect

    Junkins, R.; Deeny, K.J.; Eckhoff, T.H.

    1983-01-01

    The procedures given here - based on extensive and intensive experience. Background information on process mechanics is followed by detailed consideration of control and troubleshooting practices. Contents: PREFACE AND INTRODUCTION; PROCESS MECHANICS; Basic Mechanism of Activated Sludge Systems; Formation of Activated Sludge; Growth of Microorganisms; Classifications of Microorganisms: Type, Environment, Age; Solids Separation and Return; FACTORS AFFECTING OPERATION; Raw Wastewater Strength; Dissolved Oxygen; pH; Temperature; Nutrients; Toxicity; Mixing; Detention Time; Hydraulics; PROCESS MODIFICATIONS; Conventional; Complete Mix; Contact-Stabilization; Extended Aeration; Others; PROCESS MONITORING; Visual; Analytical Indicators; OPERATIONAL CONTROL; Sludge Volume Index; Sludge Age; Mean Cell Residence Time; Food/Microorganism Ratio; Organic Loading Rate; Solids Loading Rate; Clarifier Overflow Rate; Weir Overflow Rate; Sludge Recycle Rate, Sludge Wastage Rate; Chemical Feed Rate; TROUBLESHOOTING; Low BOD Removal; Low D.O. in Aeration Baisn; Poor Settling; PLANT START-UP; Introduction; Pre Start-up Checkup; Wastewater Analysis; Seed Screening; Process Checklist; Mechanical Checklist; Familiarization and Training; Start-up; Seeding; Process Monitoring; Transition; Typical Start-up Problems; Foaming; Settling Problems; Low BOD Removal; INDEX.

  20. A software architecture for automating operations processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Kevin J.

    1994-01-01

    The Operations Engineering Lab (OEL) at JPL has developed a software architecture based on an integrated toolkit approach for simplifying and automating mission operations tasks. The toolkit approach is based on building adaptable, reusable graphical tools that are integrated through a combination of libraries, scripts, and system-level user interface shells. The graphical interface shells are designed to integrate and visually guide a user through the complex steps in an operations process. They provide a user with an integrated system-level picture of an overall process, defining the required inputs and possible output through interactive on-screen graphics. The OEL has developed the software for building these process-oriented graphical user interface (GUI) shells. The OEL Shell development system (OEL Shell) is an extension of JPL's Widget Creation Library (WCL). The OEL Shell system can be used to easily build user interfaces for running complex processes, applications with extensive command-line interfaces, and tool-integration tasks. The interface shells display a logical process flow using arrows and box graphics. They also allow a user to select which output products are desired and which input sources are needed, eliminating the need to know which program and its associated command-line parameters must be executed in each case. The shells have also proved valuable for use as operations training tools because of the OEL Shell hypertext help environment. The OEL toolkit approach is guided by several principles, including the use of ASCII text file interfaces with a multimission format, Perl scripts for mission-specific adaptation code, and programs that include a simple command-line interface for batch mode processing. Projects can adapt the interface shells by simple changes to the resources configuration file. This approach has allowed the development of sophisticated, automated software systems that are easy, cheap, and fast to build. This paper will

  1. What can Natural Language Processing do for Clinical Decision Support?

    PubMed Central

    Demner-Fushman, Dina; Chapman, Wendy W.; McDonald, Clement J.

    2009-01-01

    Computerized Clinical Decision Support (CDS) aims to aid decision making of health care providers and the public by providing easily accessible health-related information at the point and time it is needed. Natural Language Processing (NLP) is instrumental in using free-text information to drive CDS, representing clinical knowledge and CDS interventions in standardized formats, and leveraging clinical narrative. The early innovative NLP research of clinical narrative was followed by a period of stable research conducted at the major clinical centers and a shift of mainstream interest to biomedical NLP. This review primarily focuses on the recently renewed interest in development of fundamental NLP methods and advances in the NLP systems for CDS. The current solutions to challenges posed by distinct sublanguages, intended user groups, and support goals are discussed. PMID:19683066

  2. Decision-making processes: sensitivity to sequentially experienced outcome probabilities.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Ty W

    2007-05-01

    A computerized sequential event sampling decision-making task was administered to 187 5- to 10-year-olds and adults Participants made a series of choices between alternatives that differed in win probability (Study 1) or win and loss probability (Study 2). Intuitive and more explicit measures were used. Study 1 revealed that, across ages, participants demonstrated intuitive sensitivity to probability; however, adult participants evidenced greater sensitivity than did children, and younger children failed to demonstrate more explicit understanding of probability. Study 2 also revealed that children were intuitively sensitive to probability; however, the inclusion of loss had limited impact on decision processes. These findings and their relevance to cognitive developmental theory are discussed.

  3. Review of Current International Decision-Making Processes for Newborn Screening: Lessons for Australia

    PubMed Central

    Metternick-Jones, Selina Carolyne; Lister, Karla Jane; Dawkins, Hugh J. S.; White, Craig Anthony; Weeramanthri, Tarun Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Newborn bloodspot screening has been operating successfully in Australia for almost 50 years. Recently, the development of new technologies and treatments has led to calls for the addition of new conditions to the screening programs. Internationally, it is recognized by governments that national policies for newborn screening should support transparent and evidence-based decision making, and promote consistency between states within a country. Australia is lagging behind the international community, and currently has no national policies or decision-making processes, agreed by government, to support its newborn screening programs. In contrast, New Zealand (NZ), the United Kingdom (UK), and the United States of America (US) have robust and transparent processes to assess conditions for screening, which have been developed by, and have pathways to, government. This review provides detail on the current policy environment for newborn screening in Australia, highlighting that there are a number of risks to the programs resulting from the lack of a decision-making process. It also describes the processes used to assess conditions for newborn screening in the US, UK, and NZ. These examples highlight the benefits of developing a national decision-making process, including ensuring that screening is evidence based and effective. These examples also provide models that might be considered for Australia, as well as other countries currently seeking to introduce or expand newborn bloodspot screening. PMID:26442241

  4. Consumer Education Curriculum Modules: A Spiral-Process Approach. 3. Decision Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Patricia D.; And Others

    The Decision Process curriculum module is part of a consumer education series (grades 9-14; adults, including elderly) that emphasizes a process approach with a spiral organization. The process approach helps the student in a changing consumer world to function rationally and in a manner consistent with personal values, while the spiral…

  5. Decision Gate Process for Assessment of a Technology Development Portfolio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohli, Rajiv; Fishman, Julianna; Hyatt, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Dust Management Project (DMP) was established to provide technologies (to TRL 6 development level) required to address adverse effects of lunar dust to humans and to exploration systems and equipment, which will reduce life cycle cost and risk, and will increase the probability of sustainable and successful lunar missions. The technology portfolio of DMP consisted of different categories of technologies whose final product is either a technology solution in itself, or one that contributes toward a dust mitigation strategy for a particular application. A Decision Gate Process (DGP) was developed to assess and validate the achievement and priority of the dust mitigation technologies as the technologies progress through the development cycle. The DGP was part of continuous technology assessment and was a critical element of DMP risk management. At the core of the process were technology-specific criteria developed to measure the success of each DMP technology in attaining the technology readiness levels assigned to each decision gate. The DGP accounts for both categories of technologies and qualifies the technology progression from technology development tasks to application areas. The process provided opportunities to validate performance, as well as to identify non-performance in time to adjust resources and direction. This paper describes the overall philosophy of the DGP and the methodology for implementation for DMP, and describes the method for defining the technology evaluation criteria. The process is illustrated by example of an application to a specific DMP technology.

  6. A Case Study of the Decision-Making Process of Educational Leaders When Considering Program Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Scott

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to discover what school leaders considered during the decision-making process when adding a transitional kindergarten program and how the decision was made. This study investigated the decision-making process for superintendents and principals by examining decisions made by rural, suburban, and large school…

  7. A systematic development process for patient decision aids

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The original version of the International Patient Decision Aid Standards (IPDAS) recommended that patient decision aids (PtDAs) should be carefully developed, user-tested and open to scrutiny, with a well-documented and systematically applied development process. We carried out a review to check the relevance and scope of this quality dimension and, if necessary, to update it. Methods Our review drew on three sources: a) published papers describing PtDAs evaluated in randomised controlled trials and included in the most recent Cochrane Collaboration review; b) linked papers cited in the trial reports that described how the PtDAs had been developed; and c) papers and web reports outlining the development process used by organisations experienced in developing multiple PtDAs. We then developed an extended model of the development process indicating the various steps on which documentation is required, as well as a checklist to assess the frequency with which each of the elements was publicly reported. Results Key features common to all patient decision aid (PtDA) development processes include: scoping and design; development of a prototype; ‘alpha’ testing with patients and clinicians in an iterative process; ‘beta’ testing in ‘real life’ conditions (field tests); and production of a final version for use and/or further evaluation. Only about half of the published reports on the development of PtDAs that we reviewed appear to have been field tested with patients, and even fewer had been reviewed or tested by clinicians not involved in the development process. Very few described a distribution strategy, and surprisingly few (17%) described a method for reviewing and synthesizing the clinical evidence. We describe a model development process that includes all the original elements of the original IPDAS criterion, expanded to include consideration of format and distribution plans as well as prototype development. Conclusions The case for including

  8. An oculomotor decision process revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Heinen, Stephen J; Rowland, Jess; Lee, Byeong-Taek; Wade, Alex R

    2006-12-27

    It is not known how the brain decides to act on moving objects. We demonstrated previously that neurons in the macaque supplementary eye field (SEF) reflect the rule of ocular baseball, a go/nogo task in which eye movements signal the rule-guided interpretation of the trajectory of a target. In ocular baseball, subjects must decide whether to pursue a moving spot target with an eye movement after discriminating whether the target will cross a distal, visible line segment. Here we identify cortical regions active during the ocular baseball task using event-related human functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and concurrent eye-movement monitoring. Task-related activity was observed in the SEF, the frontal eye field (FEF), the superior parietal lobule (SPL), and the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). The SPL and right VLPFC showed heightened activity only during ocular baseball, despite identical stimuli and oculomotor demands in the control task, implicating these areas in the decision process. Furthermore, the right VLPFC but not the SPL showed the greatest activation during the nogo decision trials. This suggests both a functional dissociation between these areas and a role for the right VLPFC in rule-guided inhibition of behavior. In the SEF and FEF, activity was similar for ocular baseball and a control eye-movement task. We propose that, although the SEF reflects the ocular baseball rule, both areas in humans are functionally closer to motor processing than the SPL and the right VLPFC. By recording population activity with fMRI during the ocular baseball task, we have revealed the cortical substrate of an oculomotor decision process.

  9. Mate choice and uncertainty in the decision process.

    PubMed

    Wiegmann, Daniel D; Angeloni, Lisa M

    2007-12-21

    The behavior of females in search of a mate determines the likelihood that a high quality male is encountered in the search process and alternative search strategies provide different fitness returns to searchers. Models of search behavior are typically formulated on an assumption that the quality of prospective mates is revealed to searchers without error, either directly or by inspection of a perfectly informative phenotypic character. But recent theoretical developments suggest that the relative performance of a search strategy may be sensitive to any uncertainty associated with the to-be-realized fitness benefit of mate choice decisions. Indeed, uncertainty in the decision process is inevitable whenever unobserved male attributes influence the fitness of searchers. In this paper, we derive solutions to the sequential search strategy and the fixed sample search strategy for the general situation in which observed and unobserved male attributes affect the fitness consequences of female mate choice decisions and we determine how the magnitude of various parameters that are influential in the standard models alter these more general solutions. The distribution of unobserved attributes amongst prospective mates determines the uncertainty of mate choice decisions-the reliability of an observed male character as a predictor of male quality-and the realized functional relationship between an observed male character and the fitness return to searchers. The uncertainty of mate choice decisions induced by unobserved male attributes has no influence on the generalized model solutions. Thus, the results of earlier studies of these search models that rely on the use of a perfectly informative male character apply even if an observed male trait does not reveal the quality of prospective mates with certainty. But the solutions are sensitive to any changes of the distribution of unobserved male attributes that alter the realized functional relationship between an observed

  10. Contingency Management and Deliberative Decision-Making Processes.

    PubMed

    Regier, Paul S; Redish, A David

    2015-01-01

    Contingency management is an effective treatment for drug addiction. The current explanation for its success is rooted in alternative reinforcement theory. We suggest that alternative reinforcement theory is inadequate to explain the success of contingency management and produce a model based on demand curves that show how little the monetary rewards offered in this treatment would affect drug use. Instead, we offer an explanation of its success based on the concept that it accesses deliberative decision-making processes. We suggest that contingency management is effective because it offers a concrete and immediate alternative to using drugs, which engages deliberative processes, improves the ability of those deliberative processes to attend to non-drug options, and offsets more automatic action-selection systems. This theory makes explicit predictions that can be tested, suggests which users will be most helped by contingency management, and suggests improvements in its implementation. PMID:26082725

  11. Contingency Management and Deliberative Decision-Making Processes.

    PubMed

    Regier, Paul S; Redish, A David

    2015-01-01

    Contingency management is an effective treatment for drug addiction. The current explanation for its success is rooted in alternative reinforcement theory. We suggest that alternative reinforcement theory is inadequate to explain the success of contingency management and produce a model based on demand curves that show how little the monetary rewards offered in this treatment would affect drug use. Instead, we offer an explanation of its success based on the concept that it accesses deliberative decision-making processes. We suggest that contingency management is effective because it offers a concrete and immediate alternative to using drugs, which engages deliberative processes, improves the ability of those deliberative processes to attend to non-drug options, and offsets more automatic action-selection systems. This theory makes explicit predictions that can be tested, suggests which users will be most helped by contingency management, and suggests improvements in its implementation.

  12. Contingency Management and Deliberative Decision-Making Processes

    PubMed Central

    Regier, Paul S.; Redish, A. David

    2015-01-01

    Contingency management is an effective treatment for drug addiction. The current explanation for its success is rooted in alternative reinforcement theory. We suggest that alternative reinforcement theory is inadequate to explain the success of contingency management and produce a model based on demand curves that show how little the monetary rewards offered in this treatment would affect drug use. Instead, we offer an explanation of its success based on the concept that it accesses deliberative decision-making processes. We suggest that contingency management is effective because it offers a concrete and immediate alternative to using drugs, which engages deliberative processes, improves the ability of those deliberative processes to attend to non-drug options, and offsets more automatic action-selection systems. This theory makes explicit predictions that can be tested, suggests which users will be most helped by contingency management, and suggests improvements in its implementation. PMID:26082725

  13. Active Chemical Sensing With Partially Observable Markov Decision Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosangi, Rakesh; Gutierrez-Osuna, Ricardo

    2009-05-01

    We present an active-perception strategy to optimize the temperature program of metal-oxide sensors in real time, as the sensor reacts with its environment. We model the problem as a partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP), where actions correspond to measurements at particular temperatures, and the agent is to find a temperature sequence that minimizes the Bayes risk. We validate the method on a binary classification problem with a simulated sensor. Our results show that the method provides a balance between classification rate and sensing costs.

  14. Development of a requirements management system for technical decision - making processes in the geological disposal project

    SciTech Connect

    Hiroyoshi Ueda; Katsuhiko Ishiguro; Kazumi Kitayama; Kiyoshi Oyamada; Shoko Sato

    2007-07-01

    NUMO (Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan) has a responsibility for implementing geological disposal of vitrified HLW (High-Level radioactive Waste) in the Japanese nuclear waste management programme. Its staged siting procedure was initiated in 2002 by an open call for volunteer sites. Careful management strategy and methodology for the technical decision-making at every milestone are required to prepare for the volunteer site application and the site investigation stages after that. The formal Requirement Management System (RMS) is planned to support the computerized implementation of the specific management methodology, termed the NUMO Structured Approach (NSA). This planned RMS will help for comprehensive management of the decision-making processes in the geological disposal project, change management towards the anticipated project deviations, efficient project driving such as well programmed R and D etc. and structured record-keeping regarding the past decisions, which leads to soundness of the project in terms of the long-term continuity. The system should have handling/management functions for the database including the decisions/requirements in the project in consideration, their associated information and the structures composed of them in every decision-making process. The information relating to the premises, boundary conditions and time plan of the project should also be prepared in the system. Effective user interface and efficient operation on the in-house network are necessary. As a living system for the long-term formal use, flexibility to updating is indispensable. In advance of the formal system development, two-year activity to develop the preliminary RMS was already started. The purpose of this preliminary system is to template the decision/requirement structure, prototype the decision making management and thus show the feasibility of the innovative RMS. The paper describes the current status of the development, focusing on the

  15. The TESS Science Processing Operations Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Jon; Twicken, Joseph D.; McCauliff, Sean; Campbell, Jennifer; Sanderfer, Dwight; Lung, David; Mansouri-Samani, Masoud; Girouard, Forrest; Tenenbaum, Peter; Klaus, Todd; Smith, Jeffrey C.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Chacon, Aaron; Henze, Christopher; Heiges, Cory A.; Latham, David; Morgan, Edward; Swade, Daryl; Rinehart, Stephen; Vanderspek, Roland

    2016-01-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) will conduct a search for Earth’s closest cousins starting in late 2017. TESS will discover approx.1,000 small planets and measure the masses of at least 50 of these small worlds. The Science Processing Operations Center (SPOC) is being developed based on the Kepler science pipeline and will generate calibrated pixels and light curves on the NAS Pleiades supercomputer. The SPOC will search for periodic transit events and generate validation products for the transit-like features in the light curves. All TESS SPOC data products will be archived to the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes.

  16. A Descriptive Decision Process Model for Hierarchical Management of Interconnected Reservoir Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adigüzel, R. Ä.°Lker; CoşKunoǧLu, Osman

    1984-07-01

    A significant limitation of prescriptive optimization models is that their formulation is disassociated from the behavioral and organizational attributes of the problem addressed. In an attempt to alleviate this limitation a decision process model is formulated directly within a framework of decision agents involved in integrated long- and short-term planning and management of multipurpose and multireservoir system operations. The resulting model is ierarchical, multilevel, multilayer, and decentralized. As such it is descriptive of a reservoir system managed and operated by geographically separated multiple agents with different authorities and responsibilities. Robustness and performance of the model is investigated by using the Shasta-Trinity system of California as an example. Results are encouraging for the descriptive as well as prescriptive relevance of the model.

  17. Corticostriatal Interactions during Learning, Memory Processing, and Decision Making.

    PubMed

    Pennartz, Cyriel M A; Berke, Joshua D; Graybiel, Ann M; Ito, Rutsuko; Lansink, Carien S; van der Meer, Matthijs; Redish, A David; Smith, Kyle S; Voorn, Pieter

    2009-10-14

    This mini-symposium aims to integrate recent insights from anatomy, behavior, and neurophysiology, highlighting the anatomical organization, behavioral significance, and information-processing mechanisms of corticostriatal interactions. In this summary of topics, which is not meant to provide a comprehensive survey, we will first review the anatomy of corticostriatal circuits, comparing different ways by which "loops" of cortical-basal ganglia circuits communicate. Next, we will address the causal importance and systems-neurophysiological mechanisms of corticostriatal interactions for memory, emphasizing the communication between hippocampus and ventral striatum during contextual conditioning. Furthermore, ensemble recording techniques have been applied to compare information processing in the dorsal and ventral striatum to predictions from reinforcement learning theory. We will next discuss how neural activity develops in corticostriatal areas when habits are learned. Finally, we will evaluate the role of GABAergic interneurons in dynamically transforming cortical inputs into striatal output during learning and decision making.

  18. Use of the decision quality process for strategic planning in the Duri Field, Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, L. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    Strategic planning and rigorous decision analysis applications will be primary management tools for upstream companies in the 1990`s. Merging the long term focus of a strategic planning process with the probabilistic output of decision analysis techniques can yield insightful views of the potential successes and failures of a business plan. Even with these insights, comparing and deciding among a group of alternatives will remain a difficult task. In addition to uncertainties, business partners do not always share common value measures. Marketers want more barrels to sell, field supervisors like low operating cost strategies, and stockholders like cashflow. This environment complicates the managers` ability to choose between available options. The Decision Quality Process, a combination of classical decision analysis techniques coupled with Quality Improvement (QI) principles, bridges this gap. The process allows managers to develop and decide between different long term strategic plans, explicitly accounting for uncertainties, unknowns, and differing value measures. Three teams consisting of engineers, geologists, front line managers, and the highest levels of management within Caltex Pacific Indonesia, Texaco, and Chevron, spent 18 months developing and evaluating a multitude of development scenarios for the Duri Field. More than 200,000 cases of economics were run to support the evaluation. The result was a significant increase in expected value for the field regardless of the value measure used.

  19. Decision Support Services provided by the NWS Alaska Regional Operations Center in 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Breukelen, C. M.; Osiensky, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    The NWS Alaska Region's Regional Operations Center (AR ROC) provides a variety of decision support services to partners and customers across the state. The AR ROC is virtual most times but can flex to stand up support for partners as needed. Support can vary from briefings over the phone or in person to dedicated virtual support to providing on-site meteorologist at an Emergency Operations Center or Incident Command Post to provide tailored support services. During 2015 there have been a number of situations where the AR ROC provided unique support services. This presentation will outline a few examples of how these unique support services benefitted partner agency decisions.

  20. Judicial Views of Parole Decision Processes: A Social Science Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metchik, Eric

    1992-01-01

    Notes that future prospects for parole at the federal and state levels are increasingly unclear. Presents a way to integrate various conceptions of parole according to the broader sentencing framework within which board members operate. Discusses implications for due process requirements at parole hearings and guidelines reform efforts. (Author/NB)

  1. The Contribution of a Decision Support System to Educational Decision-Making Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Joseph; Ronen, Herman

    2003-01-01

    In the light of reports of bias, the present study investigated the hypothesis that administrative educational decisions assisted by Decision Support Systems (DSS) are characterized by different pedagogical and organizational orientation than decisions made without computer assistance. One hundred and ten high school teachers were asked to suggest…

  2. 14 CFR 1216.303 - NEPA process in NASA planning and decision making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false NEPA process in NASA planning and decision...) § 1216.303 NEPA process in NASA planning and decision making. (a) NEPA requires the systematic... the NEPA process with NASA project and program planning improves Agency decisions and ensures that:...

  3. 14 CFR § 1216.303 - NEPA process in NASA planning and decision making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false NEPA process in NASA planning and decision... Act (NEPA) § 1216.303 NEPA process in NASA planning and decision making. (a) NEPA requires the... integration of the NEPA process with NASA project and program planning improves Agency decisions and...

  4. Vocationally Mature Coping Strategies and Progress in the Decision-Making Process: A Canonical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Susan D.; Strohmer, Douglas C.

    1983-01-01

    Examined the relationship between factors influencing career development and the decision-making process in 174 students. Results suggested that planning orientation will hinder or facilitate movement beyond the exploratory phase of decision making, and decision-making skills reduce the effort of the prechoice portion of decision making. (WAS)

  5. International Patients’ Travel Decision Making Process- A Conceptual Framework

    PubMed Central

    KHAN, Mohammad Jamal; CHELLIAH, Shankar; HARON, Mahmod Sabri

    2016-01-01

    Background: Role of information source, perceived benefits and risks, and destination image has significantly been examined in travel and tourism literature; however, in medical tourism it is yet to be examined thoroughly. The concept discussed in this article is drawn form well established models in tourism literature. Methods: The purpose of this research was to identify the source of information, travel benefits and perceived risks related to movement of international patients and develop a conceptual model based on well-established theory. Thorough database search (Science Direct, utmj.org, nih.gov, nchu.edu.tw, palgrave-journals, medretreat, Biomedcentral) was performed to fulfill the objectives of the study. Results: International patients always concern about benefits and risks related to travel. These benefits and risks form images of destination in the minds of international patients. Different sources of information make international patients acquaint about the associated benefits and risks, which later leads to development of intention to visit. This conceptual paper helps in establishing model for decision-making process of international patients in developing visit intention. Conclusion: Ample amount of literature is available detailing different factors involved in travel decision making of international patients; however literature explaining relationship between these factors is scarce. PMID:27114978

  6. [Cognitive changes in decision making process underlying prosocial behavior].

    PubMed

    Takemura, K; Takagi, O

    1987-08-01

    Using a method of monitoring information acquisition, 76 subjects were instructed to simulate the information search process in which they selected a behavior from available behavioral alternatives which were expected to occur in a situation where donating behavior was needed. In order to measure the cognitive changes, they were asked to rate the importance of behavioral attributes both before and after the decision task. After the decision task, they were asked to rate the inner states. (1) Defensive cognitive changes were found which increased the importance of behavioral costs and decreased the importance of personal moral obligation feelings. This pattern of changes was consistent with the Schwartz & Howard model (1981, 1982, 1984). (2) The defensive cognitive changes were related to the information search strategies. This pattern of relationship partly confirmed the prediction derived from the Schwartz & Howard model (1981, 1982, 1984). (3) The result that the cognitive changes were not related to the inner states was inconsistent with the model of either Piliavin, Dovidio, Gaertner, & Clark (1981, 1982) or Schwartz & Howard (1981, 1982, 1984). An alternative model was proposed and discussed.

  7. Qualitative modeling of the decision-making process using electrooculography.

    PubMed

    Marandi, Ramtin Zargari; Sabzpoushan, S H

    2015-12-01

    A novel method based on electrooculography (EOG) has been introduced in this work to study the decision-making process. An experiment was designed and implemented wherein subjects were asked to choose between two items from the same category that were presented within a limited time. The EOG and voice signals of the subjects were recorded during the experiment. A calibration task was performed to map the EOG signals to their corresponding gaze positions on the screen by using an artificial neural network. To analyze the data, 16 parameters were extracted from the response time and EOG signals of the subjects. Evaluation and comparison of the parameters, together with subjects' choices, revealed functional information. On the basis of this information, subjects switched their eye gazes between items about three times on average. We also found, according to statistical hypothesis testing-that is, a t test, t(10) = 71.62, SE = 1.25, p < .0001-that the correspondence rate of a subjects' gaze at the moment of selection with the selected item was significant. Ultimately, on the basis of these results, we propose a qualitative choice model for the decision-making task.

  8. Qualitative modeling of the decision-making process using electrooculography.

    PubMed

    Marandi, Ramtin Zargari; Sabzpoushan, S H

    2015-12-01

    A novel method based on electrooculography (EOG) has been introduced in this work to study the decision-making process. An experiment was designed and implemented wherein subjects were asked to choose between two items from the same category that were presented within a limited time. The EOG and voice signals of the subjects were recorded during the experiment. A calibration task was performed to map the EOG signals to their corresponding gaze positions on the screen by using an artificial neural network. To analyze the data, 16 parameters were extracted from the response time and EOG signals of the subjects. Evaluation and comparison of the parameters, together with subjects' choices, revealed functional information. On the basis of this information, subjects switched their eye gazes between items about three times on average. We also found, according to statistical hypothesis testing-that is, a t test, t(10) = 71.62, SE = 1.25, p < .0001-that the correspondence rate of a subjects' gaze at the moment of selection with the selected item was significant. Ultimately, on the basis of these results, we propose a qualitative choice model for the decision-making task. PMID:25515839

  9. Eielson Air Force Base operable unit 2 and other areas record of decision

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, R.E.; Smith, R.M.

    1994-10-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial actions and no action decisions for Operable Unit 2 (OU2) at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB), Alaska, chosen in accordance with state and federal regulations. This document also presents the decision that no further action is required for 21 other source areas at Eielson AFB. This decision is based on the administrative record file for this site. OU2 addresses sites contaminated by leaks and spills of fuels. Soils contaminated with petroleum products occur at or near the source of contamination. Contaminated subsurface soil and groundwater occur in plumes on the top of a shallow groundwater table that fluctuates seasonally. These sites pose a risk to human health and the environment because of ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact with contaminated groundwater. The purpose of this response is to prevent current or future exposure to the contaminated groundwater, to reduce further contaminant migration into the groundwater, and to remediate groundwater.

  10. Keeping Signals Straight: How Cells Process Information and Make Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Laub, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    As we become increasingly dependent on electronic information-processing systems at home and work, it’s easy to lose sight of the fact that our very survival depends on highly complex biological information-processing systems. Each of the trillions of cells that form the human body has the ability to detect and respond to a wide range of stimuli and inputs, using an extraordinary set of signaling proteins to process this information and make decisions accordingly. Indeed, cells in all organisms rely on these signaling proteins to survive and proliferate in unpredictable and sometimes rapidly changing environments. But how exactly do these proteins relay information within cells, and how do they keep a multitude of incoming signals straight? Here, I describe recent efforts to understand the fidelity of information flow inside cells. This work is providing fundamental insight into how cells function. Additionally, it may lead to the design of novel antibiotics that disrupt the signaling of pathogenic bacteria or it could help to guide the treatment of cancer, which often involves information-processing gone awry inside human cells. PMID:27427909

  11. Keeping Signals Straight: How Cells Process Information and Make Decisions.

    PubMed

    Laub, Michael T

    2016-07-01

    As we become increasingly dependent on electronic information-processing systems at home and work, it's easy to lose sight of the fact that our very survival depends on highly complex biological information-processing systems. Each of the trillions of cells that form the human body has the ability to detect and respond to a wide range of stimuli and inputs, using an extraordinary set of signaling proteins to process this information and make decisions accordingly. Indeed, cells in all organisms rely on these signaling proteins to survive and proliferate in unpredictable and sometimes rapidly changing environments. But how exactly do these proteins relay information within cells, and how do they keep a multitude of incoming signals straight? Here, I describe recent efforts to understand the fidelity of information flow inside cells. This work is providing fundamental insight into how cells function. Additionally, it may lead to the design of novel antibiotics that disrupt the signaling of pathogenic bacteria or it could help to guide the treatment of cancer, which often involves information-processing gone awry inside human cells. PMID:27427909

  12. The shared leadership process in decision-making teams.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Jacqueline Z; Rentsch, Joan R; Small, Erika E; Davenport, Shaun W; Bergman, Shawn M

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the process of shared leadership in 45 ad hoc decision-making teams. Each team member's leadership behavior (n = 180) was assessed by behaviorally coding videotapes of the teams' discussions. The within-team patterns of leadership behavior were examined using cluster analysis. Results indicated that the likelihood of a team experiencing a full range of leadership behavior increased to the extent that multiple team members shared leadership, and that teams with shared leadership experienced less conflict, greater consensus, and higher intragroup trust and cohesion than teams without shared leadership. This study supports previous findings that shared leadership contributes to overall team functioning, and begins to delineate the extent to which team members may naturally share leadership.

  13. Malnutrition, child morbidity and the family decision process.

    PubMed

    Heller, P S; Drake, W D

    1979-06-01

    A microeconomic model of the process by which infants and preschoolers are subject to malnourishment, diarrhea and other illnesses in developing countries is given. The model is econometrically based of a cross-section time-series for 1200 children from Candelaria, Colombia. Four primary issues are addressed: economic constraints and intra-family resource allocation decisions impacting on a child's nutritional and health status; the interrelationship between malnutrition, diarrhea, and other diseases; specific policy interventions (maternal-child health education, food supplementation and the encouragement of breast feeding) impacting on health and nutritional status; and the need to distinguish between the effect of different policy variables on a child's height and weight during infancy and preschool age. The observations were taken over a 7 year period during the Promotora maternal-child health program in Colombia.

  14. Artificial intelligent decision support for low-cost launch vehicle integrated mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szatkowski, Gerard P.; Schultz, Roger

    1988-01-01

    The feasibility, benefits, and risks associated with Artificial Intelligence (AI) Expert Systems applied to low cost space expendable launch vehicle systems are reviewed. This study is in support of the joint USAF/NASA effort to define the next generation of a heavy-lift Advanced Launch System (ALS) which will provide economical and routine access to space. The significant technical goals of the ALS program include: a 10 fold reduction in cost per pound to orbit, launch processing in under 3 weeks, and higher reliability and safety standards than current expendables. Knowledge-based system techniques are being explored for the purpose of automating decision support processes in onboard and ground systems for pre-launch checkout and in-flight operations. Issues such as: satisfying real-time requirements, providing safety validation, hardware and Data Base Management System (DBMS) interfacing, system synergistic effects, human interfaces, and ease of maintainability, have an effect on the viability of expert systems as a useful tool.

  15. Artificial intelligent decision support for low-cost launch vehicle integrated mission operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szatkowski, Gerard P.; Schultz, Roger

    1988-11-01

    The feasibility, benefits, and risks associated with Artificial Intelligence (AI) Expert Systems applied to low cost space expendable launch vehicle systems are reviewed. This study is in support of the joint USAF/NASA effort to define the next generation of a heavy-lift Advanced Launch System (ALS) which will provide economical and routine access to space. The significant technical goals of the ALS program include: a 10 fold reduction in cost per pound to orbit, launch processing in under 3 weeks, and higher reliability and safety standards than current expendables. Knowledge-based system techniques are being explored for the purpose of automating decision support processes in onboard and ground systems for pre-launch checkout and in-flight operations. Issues such as: satisfying real-time requirements, providing safety validation, hardware and Data Base Management System (DBMS) interfacing, system synergistic effects, human interfaces, and ease of maintainability, have an effect on the viability of expert systems as a useful tool.

  16. 78 FR 61400 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station, Issuance of Director's Decision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station, Issuance of Director's Decision Notice is hereby given that the Director, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear...

  17. Information Technology Process Improvement Decision-Making: An Exploratory Study from the Perspective of Process Owners and Process Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamp, Sandra A.

    2012-01-01

    There is information available in the literature that discusses information technology (IT) governance and investment decision making from an executive-level perception, yet there is little information available that offers the perspective of process owners and process managers pertaining to their role in IT process improvement and investment…

  18. Distinct and Overlapping Brain Areas Engaged during Value-Based, Mathematical, and Emotional Decision Processing

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chun-Wei; Goh, Joshua O. S.

    2016-01-01

    When comparing between the values of different choices, human beings can rely on either more cognitive processes, such as using mathematical computation, or more affective processes, such as using emotion. However, the neural correlates of how these two types of processes operate during value-based decision-making remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the extent to which neural regions engaged during value-based decision-making overlap with those engaged during mathematical and emotional processing in a within-subject manner. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, participants viewed stimuli that always consisted of numbers and emotional faces that depicted two choices. Across tasks, participants decided between the two choices based on the expected value of the numbers, a mathematical result of the numbers, or the emotional face stimuli. We found that all three tasks commonly involved various cortical areas including frontal, parietal, motor, somatosensory, and visual regions. Critically, the mathematical task shared common areas with the value but not emotion task in bilateral striatum. Although the emotion task overlapped with the value task in parietal, motor, and sensory areas, the mathematical task also evoked responses in other areas within these same cortical structures. Minimal areas were uniquely engaged for the value task apart from the other two tasks. The emotion task elicited a more expansive area of neural activity whereas value and mathematical task responses were in more focal regions. Whole-brain spatial correlation analysis showed that valuative processing engaged functional brain responses more similarly to mathematical processing than emotional processing. While decisions on expected value entail both mathematical and emotional processing regions, mathematical processes have a more prominent contribution particularly in subcortical processes. PMID:27375466

  19. Distinct and Overlapping Brain Areas Engaged during Value-Based, Mathematical, and Emotional Decision Processing.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chun-Wei; Goh, Joshua O S

    2016-01-01

    When comparing between the values of different choices, human beings can rely on either more cognitive processes, such as using mathematical computation, or more affective processes, such as using emotion. However, the neural correlates of how these two types of processes operate during value-based decision-making remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the extent to which neural regions engaged during value-based decision-making overlap with those engaged during mathematical and emotional processing in a within-subject manner. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, participants viewed stimuli that always consisted of numbers and emotional faces that depicted two choices. Across tasks, participants decided between the two choices based on the expected value of the numbers, a mathematical result of the numbers, or the emotional face stimuli. We found that all three tasks commonly involved various cortical areas including frontal, parietal, motor, somatosensory, and visual regions. Critically, the mathematical task shared common areas with the value but not emotion task in bilateral striatum. Although the emotion task overlapped with the value task in parietal, motor, and sensory areas, the mathematical task also evoked responses in other areas within these same cortical structures. Minimal areas were uniquely engaged for the value task apart from the other two tasks. The emotion task elicited a more expansive area of neural activity whereas value and mathematical task responses were in more focal regions. Whole-brain spatial correlation analysis showed that valuative processing engaged functional brain responses more similarly to mathematical processing than emotional processing. While decisions on expected value entail both mathematical and emotional processing regions, mathematical processes have a more prominent contribution particularly in subcortical processes. PMID:27375466

  20. An information theoretic approach for generating an aircraft avoidance Markov Decision Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinert, Andrew J.

    Developing a collision avoidance system that can meet safety standards required of commercial aviation is challenging. A dynamic programming approach to collision avoidance has been developed to optimize and generate logics that are robust to the complex dynamics of the national airspace. The current approach represents the aircraft avoidance problem as Markov Decision Processes and independently optimizes a horizontal and vertical maneuver avoidance logics. This is a result of the current memory requirements for each logic, simply combining the logics will result in a significantly larger representation. The "curse of dimensionality" makes it computationally inefficient and unfeasible to optimize this larger representation. However, existing and future collision avoidance systems have mostly defined the decision process by hand. In response, a simulation-based framework was built to better understand how each potential state quantifies the aircraft avoidance problem with regards to safety and operational components. The framework leverages recent advances in signals processing and database, while enabling the highest fidelity analysis of Monte Carlo aircraft encounter simulations to date. This framework enabled the calculation of how well each state of the decision process quantifies the collision risk and the associated memory requirements. Using this analysis, a collision avoidance logic that leverages both horizontal and vertical actions was built and optimized using this simulation based approach.

  1. Development of a Transparent Interactive Decision Interrogator to Facilitate the Decision-Making Process in Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Bujkiewicz, Sylwia; Jones, Hayley E.; Lai, Monica C.W.; Cooper, Nicola J.; Hawkins, Neil; Squires, Hazel; Abrams, Keith R.; Spiegelhalter, David J.; Sutton, Alex J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Decisions about the use of new technologies in health care are often based on complex economic models. Decision makers frequently make informal judgments about evidence, uncertainty, and the assumptions that underpin these models. Objectives Transparent interactive decision interrogator (TIDI) facilitates more formal critique of decision models by decision makers such as members of appraisal committees of the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence in the UK. By allowing them to run advanced statistical models under different scenarios in real time, TIDI can make the decision process more efficient and transparent, while avoiding limitations on pre-prepared analysis. Methods TIDI, programmed in Visual Basic for applications within Excel, provides an interface for controlling all components of a decision model developed in the appropriate software (e.g., meta-analysis in WinBUGS and the decision model in R) by linking software packages using RExcel and R2WinBUGS. TIDI's graphical controls allow the user to modify assumptions and to run the decision model, and results are returned to an Excel spreadsheet. A tool displaying tornado plots helps to evaluate the influence of individual parameters on the model outcomes, and an interactive meta-analysis module allows the user to select any combination of available studies, explore the impact of bias adjustment, and view results using forest plots. We demonstrate TIDI using an example of a decision model in antenatal care. Conclusion Use of TIDI during the NICE appraisal of tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors (in psoriatic arthritis) successfully demonstrated its ability to facilitate critiques of the decision models by decision makers. PMID:21839417

  2. 36 CFR 1008.20 - Petitions for amendment: Processing and initial decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...: Processing and initial decision. 1008.20 Section 1008.20 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST REQUESTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT § 1008.20 Petitions for amendment: Processing and initial decision. (a... § 1008.4. (b) Authority to decide. A decision on a petition for amendment shall be made by the...

  3. 36 CFR 1008.20 - Petitions for amendment: Processing and initial decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...: Processing and initial decision. 1008.20 Section 1008.20 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST REQUESTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT § 1008.20 Petitions for amendment: Processing and initial decision. (a... § 1008.4. (b) Authority to decide. A decision on a petition for amendment shall be made by the...

  4. 36 CFR 1008.20 - Petitions for amendment: Processing and initial decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...: Processing and initial decision. 1008.20 Section 1008.20 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST REQUESTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT § 1008.20 Petitions for amendment: Processing and initial decision. (a... § 1008.4. (b) Authority to decide. A decision on a petition for amendment shall be made by the...

  5. 36 CFR 1008.20 - Petitions for amendment: Processing and initial decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: Processing and initial decision. 1008.20 Section 1008.20 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST REQUESTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT § 1008.20 Petitions for amendment: Processing and initial decision. (a... § 1008.4. (b) Authority to decide. A decision on a petition for amendment shall be made by the...

  6. 36 CFR 1008.20 - Petitions for amendment: Processing and initial decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...: Processing and initial decision. 1008.20 Section 1008.20 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST REQUESTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT § 1008.20 Petitions for amendment: Processing and initial decision. (a... § 1008.4. (b) Authority to decide. A decision on a petition for amendment shall be made by the...

  7. Integrating Climate Information and Decision Processes for Regional Climate Resilience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buizer, James; Goddard, Lisa; Guido, Zackry

    2015-04-01

    An integrated multi-disciplinary team of researchers from the University of Arizona and the International Research Institute for Climate and Society at Columbia University have joined forces with communities and institutions in the Caribbean, South Asia and West Africa to develop relevant, usable climate information and connect it to real decisions and development challenges. The overall objective of the "Integrating Climate Information and Decision Processes for Regional Climate Resilience" program is to build community resilience to negative impacts of climate variability and change. We produce and provide science-based climate tools and information to vulnerable peoples and the public, private, and civil society organizations that serve them. We face significant institutional challenges because of the geographical and cultural distance between the locale of climate tool-makers and the locale of climate tool-users and because of the complicated, often-inefficient networks that link them. To use an accepted metaphor, there is great institutional difficulty in coordinating the supply of and the demand for useful climate products that can be put to the task of building local resilience and reducing climate vulnerability. Our program is designed to reduce the information constraint and to initiate a linkage that is more demand driven, and which provides a set of priorities for further climate tool generation. A demand-driven approach to the co-production of appropriate and relevant climate tools seeks to meet the direct needs of vulnerable peoples as these needs have been canvassed empirically and as the benefits of application have been adequately evaluated. We first investigate how climate variability and climate change affect the livelihoods of vulnerable peoples. In so doing we assess the complex institutional web within which these peoples live -- the public agencies that serve them, their forms of access to necessary information, the structural constraints

  8. New Tool Improves Processes, Streamlines Operations.

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    A one-page tool has shown promise for facilitating shared decision-making between clinicians and patients who present to the ED with low-risk chest pain. The tool, dubbed Chest Pain Choice, was developed by researchers at the Mayo Clinic. It is designed to more effectively communicate risk to patients so that they can make more informed decisions with their providers regarding treatment options. Investigators devised a study involving 898 low-risk chest pain patients in six EDs in five states. Half the patients were randomized to standard physician consultations and half received consultations facilitated by the Chest Pain Choice tool. A post clinical encounter questionnaire testing patient knowledge showed that patients in the intervention group answered 53% of the questions-correctly vs. 44.9% in the group receiving standard physician consultations. When asked to evaluate their experience of discussing their care with the physician, 68.9% of patients who experienced the decision aid said they would recommend the method used during their discussions while 61.2% of the patients receiving standard consultations recommended the method used in their cases. Researchers noted that patients who discussed their risks using the decision aid tool were substantially less inclined to opt for admission to an ED observation unit for stress testing than patients who received standard physician consultations. PMID:27295818

  9. Space Launch System Complex Decision-Making Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyles, Garry; Flores, Tim; Hundley, Jason; Monk, Timothy; Feldman,Stuart

    2012-01-01

    The Space Shuttle program has ended and elements of the Constellation Program have either been cancelled or transitioned to new NASA exploration endeavors. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has worked diligently to select an optimum configuration for the Space Launch System (SLS), a heavy lift vehicle that will provide the foundation for future beyond low earth orbit (LEO) large-scale missions for the next several decades. From Fall 2010 until Spring 2011, an SLS decision-making framework was formulated, tested, fully documented, and applied to multiple SLS vehicle concepts at NASA from previous exploration architecture studies. This was a multistep process that involved performing figure of merit (FOM)-based assessments, creating Pass/Fail gates based on draft threshold requirements, performing a margin-based assessment with supporting statistical analyses, and performing sensitivity analysis on each. This paper focuses on the various steps and methods of this process (rather than specific data) that allowed for competing concepts to be compared across a variety of launch vehicle metrics in support of the successful completion of the SLS Mission Concept Review (MCR) milestone.

  10. Using online analytical processing to manage emergency department operations.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Bradley D; Asplin, Brent R

    2004-11-01

    The emergency department (ED) is a unique setting in which to explore and evaluate the utility of information technology to improve health care operations. A potentially useful software tool in managing this complex environment is online analytical processing (OLAP). An OLAP system has the ability to provide managers, providers, and researchers with the necessary information to make decisions quickly and effectively by allowing them to examine patterns and trends in operations and patient flow. OLAP software quickly summarizes and processes data acquired from a variety of data sources, including computerized ED tracking systems. It allows the user to form a comprehensive picture of the ED from both system-wide and patient-specific perspectives and to interactively view the data using an approach that meets his or her needs. This article describes OLAP software tools and provides examples of potential OLAP applications for care improvement projects, primarily from the perspective of the ED. While OLAP is clearly a helpful tool in the ED, it is far more useful when integrated into the larger continuum of health information systems across a hospital or health care delivery system. PMID:15528586

  11. Decision tables in process control: a powerful development tool.

    PubMed

    Nixon, J S; McMullen, W L

    1986-01-01

    An automation and control systems development methodology based on the use of decision tables and its major analysis, design, and documentation technique will be discussed. Decision tables are a powerful facility for expressing complex procedures, programs, and control strategies to be implemented in computer-based systems. Their characteristics and advantages will be discussed, and examples of their use will be compared to other traditional tools. Two industrial plant automation projects employing decision tables will be cited.

  12. Gambling with your life: the process of breast cancer treatment decision making in Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Lam, Wendy Wt; Fielding, Richard; Chan, Miranda; Chow, Louis; Or, Amy

    2005-01-01

    Treatment decision making (TDM) studies have primarily focused on assessing TDM quality and predominantly presume rational analytic processes as the gold standard. In a grounded theory study of 22 Hong Kong Chinese women following breast surgery who completed an in-depth interview exploring the process of TDM in breast cancer (BC), narrative data showed that discovery of a breast abnormality and emotional responses to BC diagnosis influence the TDM process. Lack of guidance from surgeons impaired TDM. Decisions were, for the most part, made using intuitive, pragmatic and emotionally driven criteria in the absence of complete information. The experience of TDM, which was likened to gambling, did not end once the decision was made but unfolded while waiting for surgery and the post-operative report. In this waiting period, women were emotionally overwhelmed by fear of death and the uncertainty of the surgical outcome, and equivocated over whether they had made the 'right' choice. This suggests that Chinese women feel they are gambling with their lives during TDM. These women are particularly emotionally vulnerable whilst waiting for their surgery and the post-surgical clinical pathology results. Providing emotional support is particularly important at this time when these women are overwhelmed by uncertainty.

  13. Kennedy Space Center Orion Processing Team Planning for Ground Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Letchworth, Gary; Schlierf, Roland

    2011-01-01

    Topics in this presentation are: Constellation Ares I/Orion/Ground Ops Elements Orion Ground Operations Flow Orion Operations Planning Process and Toolset Overview, including: 1 Orion Concept of Operations by Phase 2 Ops Analysis Capabilities Overview 3 Operations Planning Evolution 4 Functional Flow Block Diagrams 5 Operations Timeline Development 6 Discrete Event Simulation (DES) Modeling 7 Ground Operations Planning Document Database (GOPDb) Using Operations Planning Tools for Operability Improvements includes: 1 Kaizen/Lean Events 2 Mockups 3 Human Factors Analysis

  14. Soft matrices on soft multisets in an optimal decision process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coskun, Arzu Erdem; Aras, Cigdem Gunduz; Cakalli, Huseyin; Sonmez, Ayse

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we introduce a concept of a soft matrix on a soft multiset, and investigate how to use soft matrices to solve decision making problems. An algorithm for a multiple choose selection problem is also provided. Finally, we demonstrate an illustrative example to show the decision making steps.

  15. Who decides? The decision-making process of juvenile judges concerning minors with mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Cappon, Leen

    2016-01-01

    Previous research on juvenile judges' decision-making process has neglected the role of the different actors involved in judicial procedures. The decision can be considered as a result of information exchange between the different actors involved. The process of making a decision is equally important as the decision itself, especially when the decision considers minors with mental disorders. The presence and the type of interaction determine the information available to the juvenile judges to make their final decision. The overall aim of this study is to gain insight into the role of all actors, including the juvenile judge, in the juvenile judge's decision-making process in cases relating to minors with mental disorders. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with professional actors (n=32), minors (n=31) and parents (n=17). The findings indicated that the judge's decision is overall the result of an interaction between the juvenile judge, the social services investigator and the youth psychiatrist. The other professional actors, the minors and the parents had only a limited role in the decision-making process. The research concludes that the judge's decision-making process should be based on dialogue, and requires enhanced collaboration between the juvenile court and youth psychiatrists from mental health services. Future decision-making research should pay more attention to the interactions of the actors that guide a juvenile judge's decision.

  16. Operator decision support system for integrated wastewater management including wastewater treatment plants and receiving water bodies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minsoo; Kim, Yejin; Kim, Hyosoo; Piao, Wenhua; Kim, Changwon

    2016-06-01

    An operator decision support system (ODSS) is proposed to support operators of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in making appropriate decisions. This system accounts for water quality (WQ) variations in WWTP influent and effluent and in the receiving water body (RWB). The proposed system is comprised of two diagnosis modules, three prediction modules, and a scenario-based supporting module (SSM). In the diagnosis modules, the WQs of the influent and effluent WWTP and of the RWB are assessed via multivariate analysis. Three prediction modules based on the k-nearest neighbors (k-NN) method, activated sludge model no. 2d (ASM2d) model, and QUAL2E model are used to forecast WQs for 3 days in advance. To compare various operating alternatives, SSM is applied to test various predetermined operating conditions in terms of overall oxygen transfer coefficient (Kla), waste sludge flow rate (Qw), return sludge flow rate (Qr), and internal recycle flow rate (Qir). In the case of unacceptable total phosphorus (TP), SSM provides appropriate information for the chemical treatment. The constructed ODSS was tested using data collected from Geumho River, which was the RWB, and S WWTP in Daegu City, South Korea. The results demonstrate the capability of the proposed ODSS to provide WWTP operators with more objective qualitative and quantitative assessments of WWTP and RWB WQs. Moreover, the current study shows that ODSS, using data collected from the study area, can be used to identify operational alternatives through SSM at an integrated urban wastewater management level.

  17. Operator decision support system for integrated wastewater management including wastewater treatment plants and receiving water bodies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minsoo; Kim, Yejin; Kim, Hyosoo; Piao, Wenhua; Kim, Changwon

    2016-06-01

    An operator decision support system (ODSS) is proposed to support operators of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in making appropriate decisions. This system accounts for water quality (WQ) variations in WWTP influent and effluent and in the receiving water body (RWB). The proposed system is comprised of two diagnosis modules, three prediction modules, and a scenario-based supporting module (SSM). In the diagnosis modules, the WQs of the influent and effluent WWTP and of the RWB are assessed via multivariate analysis. Three prediction modules based on the k-nearest neighbors (k-NN) method, activated sludge model no. 2d (ASM2d) model, and QUAL2E model are used to forecast WQs for 3 days in advance. To compare various operating alternatives, SSM is applied to test various predetermined operating conditions in terms of overall oxygen transfer coefficient (Kla), waste sludge flow rate (Qw), return sludge flow rate (Qr), and internal recycle flow rate (Qir). In the case of unacceptable total phosphorus (TP), SSM provides appropriate information for the chemical treatment. The constructed ODSS was tested using data collected from Geumho River, which was the RWB, and S WWTP in Daegu City, South Korea. The results demonstrate the capability of the proposed ODSS to provide WWTP operators with more objective qualitative and quantitative assessments of WWTP and RWB WQs. Moreover, the current study shows that ODSS, using data collected from the study area, can be used to identify operational alternatives through SSM at an integrated urban wastewater management level. PMID:26893178

  18. Monitoring in the nearshore: A process for making reasoned decisions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodkin, J.L.; Dean, T.A.

    2003-01-01

    Over the past several years, a conceptual framework for the GEM nearshore monitoring program has been developed through a series of workshops. However, details of the proposed monitoring program, e.g. what to sample, where to sample, when to sample and at how many sites, have yet to be determined. In FY 03 we were funded under Project 03687 to outline a process whereby specific alternatives to monitoring are developed and presented to the EVOS Trustee Council for consideration. As part of this process, two key elements are required before reasoned decisions can be made. These are: 1) a comprehensive historical perspective of locations and types of past studies conducted in the nearshore marine communities within Gulf of Alaska, and 2) estimates of costs for each element of a proposed monitoring program. We have developed a GIS database that details available information from past studies of selected nearshore habitats and species in the Gulf of Alaska and provide a visual means of selecting sites based (in part) on the locations for which historical data of interest are available. We also provide cost estimates for specific monitoring plan alternatives and outline several alternative plans that can be accomplished within reasonable budgetary constraints. The products that we will provide are: 1) A GIS database and maps showing the location and types of information available from the nearshore in the Gulf of Alaska; 2) A list of several specific monitoring alternatives that can be conducted within reasonable budgetary constraints; and 3) Cost estimates for proposed tasks to be conducted as part of the nearshore program. Because data compilation and management will not be completed until late in FY03 we are requesting support for close-out of this project in FY 04.

  19. Expert system decision support for low-cost launch vehicle operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szatkowski, G. P.; Levin, Barry E.

    1991-01-01

    Progress in assessing the feasibility, benefits, and risks associated with AI expert systems applied to low cost expendable launch vehicle systems is described. Part one identified potential application areas in vehicle operations and on-board functions, assessed measures of cost benefit, and identified key technologies to aid in the implementation of decision support systems in this environment. Part two of the program began the development of prototypes to demonstrate real-time vehicle checkout with controller and diagnostic/analysis intelligent systems and to gather true measures of cost savings vs. conventional software, verification and validation requirements, and maintainability improvement. The main objective of the expert advanced development projects was to provide a robust intelligent system for control/analysis that must be performed within a specified real-time window in order to meet the demands of the given application. The efforts to develop the two prototypes are described. Prime emphasis was on a controller expert system to show real-time performance in a cryogenic propellant loading application and safety validation implementation of this system experimentally, using commercial-off-the-shelf software tools and object oriented programming techniques. This smart ground support equipment prototype is based in C with imbedded expert system rules written in the CLIPS protocol. The relational database, ORACLE, provides non-real-time data support. The second demonstration develops the vehicle/ground intelligent automation concept, from phase one, to show cooperation between multiple expert systems. This automated test conductor (ATC) prototype utilizes a knowledge-bus approach for intelligent information processing by use of virtual sensors and blackboards to solve complex problems. It incorporates distributed processing of real-time data and object-oriented techniques for command, configuration control, and auto-code generation.

  20. Commercial Flight Crew Decision-Making during Low-Visibility Approach Operations Using Fused Synthetic/Enhanced Vision Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Bailey, Randall E.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III

    2007-01-01

    NASA is investigating revolutionary crew-vehicle interface technologies that strive to proactively overcome aircraft safety barriers that would otherwise constrain the full realization of the next-generation air transportation system. A fixed-based piloted simulation experiment was conducted to evaluate the complementary use of Synthetic and Enhanced Vision technologies. Specific focus was placed on new techniques for integration and/or fusion of Enhanced and Synthetic Vision and its impact within a two-crew flight deck on the crew's decision-making process during low-visibility approach and landing operations. Overall, the experimental data showed that significant improvements in situation awareness, without concomitant increases in workload and display clutter, could be provided by the integration and/or fusion of synthetic and enhanced vision technologies for the pilot-flying and the pilot-not-flying. During non-normal operations, the ability of the crew to handle substantial navigational errors and runway incursions were neither improved nor adversely impacted by the display concepts. The addition of Enhanced Vision may not, unto itself, provide an improvement in runway incursion detection without being specifically tailored for this application. Existing enhanced vision system procedures were effectively used in the crew decision-making process during approach and missed approach operations but having to forcibly transition from an excellent FLIR image to natural vision by 100 ft above field level was awkward for the pilot-flying.

  1. Interim action record of decision remedial alternative selection: TNX area groundwater operable unit

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, E.R.

    1994-10-01

    This document presents the selected interim remedial action for the TNX Area Groundwater Operable Unit at the Savannah River Site (SRS), which was developed in accordance with CERCLA of 1980, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986, and to the extent practicable, the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution contingency Plan (NCP). This decision is based on the Administrative Record File for this specific CERCLA unit.

  2. Planned versus actual outcomes as a result of animal feeding operation decisions for managing phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Cabot, Perry E; Nowak, Pete

    2005-01-01

    The paper explores how decisions made on animal feeding operations (AFOs) influence the management of manure and phosphorus. Variability among these decisions from operation to operation and from field to field can influence the validity of nutrient loss risk assessments. These assessments are based on assumptions that the decision outcomes regarding manure distribution will occur as they are planned. The discrepancy between planned versus actual outcomes in phosphorus management was explored on nine AFOs managing a contiguous set of 210 fields in south-central Wisconsin. A total of 2611 soil samples were collected and multiple interviews conducted to assign phosphorus index (PI) ratings to the fields. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients (r(S)) indicated that PI ratings were less sensitive to soil test phosphorus (STP) levels (r(S) = 0.378), universal soil loss equation (USLE) (r(S) = 0.261), ratings for chemical fertilizer application (r(S) = 0.185), and runoff class (r(S) = -0.089), and more sensitive to ratings for manure application (r(S) = 0.854). One-way ANOVA indicated that mean field STP levels were more homogenous than field PI ratings between AFOs. Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) tests displayed several nonsignificant comparisons for cumulative distribution functions, S(x), of mean STP levels on AFO fields. On the other hand, the K-S tests of S(x) for PI ratings indicated that the majority of these S(x) functions were significantly different between AFOs at or greater than the 0.05 significance level. Interviews suggested multiple reasons for divergence between planned and actual outcomes in managing phosphorus, and that this divergence arises at the strategic, tactical, and operational levels of decision-making.

  3. Group decision making with the analytic hierarchy process in benefit-risk assessment: a tutorial.

    PubMed

    Hummel, J Marjan; Bridges, John F P; IJzerman, Maarten J

    2014-01-01

    The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) has been increasingly applied as a technique for multi-criteria decision analysis in healthcare. The AHP can aid decision makers in selecting the most valuable technology for patients, while taking into account multiple, and even conflicting, decision criteria. This tutorial illustrates the procedural steps of the AHP in supporting group decision making about new healthcare technology, including (1) identifying the decision goal, decision criteria, and alternative healthcare technologies to compare, (2) structuring the decision criteria, (3) judging the value of the alternative technologies on each decision criterion, (4) judging the importance of the decision criteria, (5) calculating group judgments, (6) analyzing the inconsistency in judgments, (7) calculating the overall value of the technologies, and (8) conducting sensitivity analyses. The AHP is illustrated via a hypothetical example, adapted from an empirical AHP analysis on the benefits and risks of tissue regeneration to repair small cartilage lesions in the knee.

  4. Single- versus Dual-Process Models of Lexical Decision Performance: Insights from Response Time Distributional Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yap, Melvin J.; Balota, David A.; Cortese, Michael J.; Watson, Jason M.

    2006-01-01

    This article evaluates 2 competing models that address the decision-making processes mediating word recognition and lexical decision performance: a hybrid 2-stage model of lexical decision performance and a random-walk model. In 2 experiments, nonword type and word frequency were manipulated across 2 contrasts (pseudohomophone-legal nonword and…

  5. Restorative treatment decision making with unaided visual examination, intraoral camera and operating microscope.

    PubMed

    Erten, Hülya; Uçtasli, Mine Betül; Akarslan, Zühre Zafersoy; Uzun, Ozgür; Semiz, Mustafa

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed the restorative treatment options of the occlusal surfaces of teeth examined with unaided visual assistance, an intraoral camera and an operating microscope. Sixty-eight extracted human molars were mounted to perform mouth models with a premolar in contact on both sides. Four observers examined the models in a phantom head, which simulated clinical conditions, using three techniques: unaided visual examination, intraoral camera and operating microscope. The observers were asked to assess the occlusal surface of each tooth and make a treatment decision based on the following scale: 1) the occlusal surface being sound and "not needing a restoration," 2) the occlusal surface having a subsurface or enamel lesion. No operative treatment was needed at this visit, but special attention was given to this surface at recall visits: "preventive care-defer treatment" and 3) the surface had a carious lesion and "needed a restoration." The teeth were then sectioned in the mesio-distal direction and examined under a stereomicroscope with 10x magnification to determine the true extent of caries. Statistical analysis was conducted by calculating percentages and kappa values of the restorative treatment scores based on examinations by four observers. According to all the observers' treatment decisions, the kappa values were found to be 0.341 (p<0.001), 0.471 (p<0.001) and 0.345 (p<0.001) for unaided visual examination, intra-oral camera and operating microscope, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between the intraoral camera and the other two methods (p<0.05), while there was no significant difference between the unaided visual examination and operating microscope (p>0.05). As a result of a comparison between the unaided visual examination and operating microscope, the use of an intraoral camera improved the restorative treatment decisions of the occlusal surfaces on posterior teeth.

  6. Concept of Operations for Integrated Intelligent Flight Deck Displays and Decision Support Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Randall E.; Prinzel, Lawrence J.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Young, Steve D.

    2011-01-01

    The document describes a Concept of Operations for Flight Deck Display and Decision Support technologies which may help enable emerging Next Generation Air Transportation System capabilities while also maintaining, or improving upon, flight safety. This concept of operations is used as the driving function within a spiral program of research, development, test, and evaluation for the Integrated Intelligent Flight Deck (IIFD) project. As such, the concept will be updated at each cycle within the spiral to reflect the latest research results and emerging developments

  7. Hesitant fuzzy linguistic multicriteria decision-making method based on generalized prioritized aggregation operator.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jia-ting; Wang, Jian-qiang; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Hong-yu; Chen, Xiao-hong

    2014-01-01

    Based on linguistic term sets and hesitant fuzzy sets, the concept of hesitant fuzzy linguistic sets was introduced. The focus of this paper is the multicriteria decision-making (MCDM) problems in which the criteria are in different priority levels and the criteria values take the form of hesitant fuzzy linguistic numbers (HFLNs). A new approach to solving these problems is proposed, which is based on the generalized prioritized aggregation operator of HFLNs. Firstly, the new operations and comparison method for HFLNs are provided and some linguistic scale functions are applied. Subsequently, two prioritized aggregation operators and a generalized prioritized aggregation operator of HFLNs are developed and applied to MCDM problems. Finally, an illustrative example is given to illustrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method, which are then compared to the existing approach.

  8. An Assessment of Decision-Making Processes in Dual-Career Marriages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingsbury, Nancy M.

    As large numbers of women enter the labor force, decision making and power processes have assumed greater importance in marital relationships. A sample of 51 (N=101) dual-career couples were interviewed to assess independent variables predictive of process power, process outcome, and subjective outcomes of decision making in dual-career families.…

  9. Decision-support tools for the assessment process

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, Gene; Pelton, Mitch A.; Dorow, Kevin E.

    2004-06-14

    A new software system is under development that provides a framework to link disparate assessment software and databases for site-specific, regional, or national analyses. This system represents the merger of the Framework for Risk Analysis in Multimedia Environmental Systems (FRAMES), which performs site-specific assessments, and Multi-media, Multi-pathway, Multi-receptor Risk Assessment (3MRA) methodology, which performs regional and national assessments. This Merged System is an icon-driven, site-layout platform, which represents an interactive means by which the user graphically constructs a conceptualization of the problem by visually expressing the assessment, indicating sources of contamination, contaminant travel pathways through the environment, linkages between contamination and people or wildlife, and impacts associated with the contamination. It processes data as part of a systems-based assessment and is an open-architecture, object-oriented framework, which contains ''sockets'' for a collection of databases and computer codes that will transparently simulate elements of transport, exposure, and risk assessment, including contaminant source and release to and through overland soils, vadose and saturated zones, air, surface water, food supply, intake human health impacts, sensitivity/uncertainty, ecological impacts, with the ability to expand into areas including Geographical Information System (GIS), remediation technology, cost analysis, Data Quality Objectives, life-cycle management, and conceptual site design. A user can choose from a list of models, and the assessment path forward can be visually presented, which describes the models and their linkages from source through receptor to the decision-making endpoint.

  10. Decision making in healthy participants on the Iowa Gambling Task: new insights from an operant approach

    PubMed Central

    Bull, Peter N.; Tippett, Lynette J.; Addis, Donna Rose

    2015-01-01

    The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) has contributed greatly to the study of affective decision making. However, researchers have observed high inter-study and inter-individual variability in IGT performance in healthy participants, and many are classified as impaired using standard criteria. Additionally, while decision-making deficits are often attributed to atypical sensitivity to reward and/or punishment, the IGT lacks an integrated sensitivity measure. Adopting an operant perspective, two experiments were conducted to explore these issues. In Experiment 1, 50 healthy participants completed a 200-trial version of the IGT which otherwise closely emulated Bechara et al.'s (1999) original computer task. Group data for Trials 1–100 closely replicated Bechara et al.'s original findings of high net scores and preferences for advantageous decks, suggesting that implementations that depart significantly from Bechara's standard IGT contribute to inter-study variability. During Trials 101–200, mean net scores improved significantly and the percentage of participants meeting the “impaired” criterion was halved. An operant-style stability criterion applied to individual data revealed this was likely related to individual differences in learning rate. Experiment 2 used a novel operant card task—the Auckland Card Task (ACT)—to derive quantitative estimates of sensitivity using the generalized matching law. Relative to individuals who mastered the IGT, persistent poor performers on the IGT exhibited significantly lower sensitivity to magnitudes (but not frequencies) of rewards and punishers on the ACT. Overall, our findings demonstrate the utility of operant-style analysis of IGT data and the potential of applying operant concurrent-schedule procedures to the study of human decision making. PMID:25904884

  11. Decision making in offshore emergencies: Are standard operating procedures the solution?

    SciTech Connect

    Skriver, J.; Flin, R.H.

    1996-12-31

    Emergency situations on offshore installations can have devastating effects as seen in the Piper Alpha disaster in 1988. Offshore installations in the North Sea can be situated more than 100 miles from the coast and it is therefore imperative that personnel have the ability and facilities to deal with an emergency on their own. The offshore installation manager (OIM) is responsible for handling an incident which is likely to be characterized by time pressure, high risk, ambiguous information, unclear goals, and constantly changing conditions. To help the OIM, standard operating procedures (SOPs) have been introduced by the n operating companies, which provide a set of rules to apply in a given crisis. At present there is a trend towards creating SOPs for every predictable offshore crisis. A constant increase in the number of procedures, generated to cover every eventuality, may obviate the need for OIM decision making but also create a problem if a novel emergency is encountered. Moreover, there may be dangers associated with too great a reliance on SOPs as they may become hard and fast rules that must be followed blindly. It is therefore of interest to identify how SOPs are utilized and what knowledge underpins their use. This research is based on interviews with 10 experienced OIMs on UKCS platforms from one major operator. It suggests that experienced OIMs have a repertoire of standard responses which they can apply in a crisis. This intimate knowledge of the emergency procedures has been developed through regular exercises, onshore simulator training, and involvement in the maintenance and improvement of the safety management systems on their installations. That is, decision making in offshore emergencies appears to be based on sound foundations, not on blind application of rules. A comparison is drawn between the decision making of the OIM and that of other emergency commanders, with particular reference to current theories of naturalistic decision making.

  12. Elements of the employee selection process: interviewing operating room staff.

    PubMed

    Coleman, J

    1996-07-01

    Selecting the right staff for employment in an operating room (OR) is critical to the success of any OR manager. Legal considerations limit the ability to gather certain information. However, by applying the correct skills and techniques, the manager can develop an information base that will lead to better decisions when selecting employees who can contribute to an efficiently run department.

  13. Cognitive issues in autonomous spacecraft-control operations: An investigation of software-mediated decision making in a scaled environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Elizabeth Drummond

    As advances in technology are applied in complex, semi-automated domains, human controllers are distanced from the controlled process. This physical and psychological distance may both facilitate and degrade human performance. To investigate cognitive issues in spacecraft ground-control operations, the present experimental research was undertaken. The primary issue concerned the ability of operations analysts who do not monitor operations to make timely, accurate decisions when autonomous software calls for human help. Another key issue involved the potential effects of spatial-visualization ability (SVA) in environments that present data in graphical formats. Hypotheses were derived largely from previous findings and predictions in the literature. Undergraduate psychology students were assigned at random to a monitoring condition or an on-call condition in a scaled environment. The experimental task required subjects to decide on the veracity of a problem diagnosis delivered by a software process on-board a simulated spacecraft. To support decision-making, tabular and graphical data displays presented information on system status. A level of software confidence in the problem diagnosis was displayed, and subjects reported their own level of confidence in their decisions. Contrary to expectations, the performance of on-call subjects did not differ significantly from that of continuous monitors. Analysis yielded a significant interaction of sex and condition: Females in the on-call condition had the lowest mean accuracy. Results included a preference for bar charts over line graphs and faster performance with tables than with line graphs. A significant correlation was found between subjective confidence and decision accuracy. SVA was found to be predictive of accuracy but not speed; and SVA was found to be a stronger predictor of performance for males than for females. Low-SVA subjects reported that they relied more on software confidence than did medium- or high

  14. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 10): Harbor Island (Lead), operable unit 3, Seattle, WA, June 28, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    The decision document presents the selected final remedial action, for soil and groundwater, for the Lockheed Shipyard facility operable unit on the Harbor Island site in Seattle, King County, Washington. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has divided the Harbor Island site into four operable units: (1) the petroleum storage tank facilities (ARCO, Shell and Texaco) operable unit, (2) the marine sediment operable unit, (3) `soil and groundwater` operable unit, and (4) the Lockheed Shipyard facility operable unit. The decision document addresses only the Lockheed Shipyard facility.

  15. Method & apparatus for monitoring plasma processing operations

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Michael Lane; Ward, Pamela Denise; Stevenson, Joel O'Don

    2004-10-19

    The invention generally relates to various aspects of a plasma process and, more specifically, to the monitoring of such plasma processes. One aspect relates to a plasma monitoring module that may be adjusted in at least some manner so as to re-evaluate a previously monitored plasma process. For instance, optical emissions data on a plasma process that was previously monitored by the plasma monitoring module may be replayed through the plasma monitoring module after making at least one adjustment in relation to the plasma monitoring module.

  16. Decision support system for optimal reservoir operation modeling within sediment deposition control.

    PubMed

    Hadihardaja, Iwan K

    2009-01-01

    Suspended sediment deals with surface runoff moving toward watershed affects reservoir sustainability due to the reduction of storage capacity. The purpose of this study is to introduce a reservoir operation model aimed at minimizing sediment deposition and maximizing energy production expected to obtain optimal decision policy for both objectives. The reservoir sediment-control operation model is formulated by using Non-Linear Programming with an iterative procedure based on a multi-objective measurement in order to achieve optimal decision policy that is established in association with the development of a relationship between stream inflow and sediment rate by utilizing the Artificial Neural Network. Trade off evaluation is introduced to generate a strategy for controlling sediment deposition at same level of target ratio while producing hydroelectric energy. The case study is carried out at the Sanmenxia Reservoir in China where redesign and reconstruction have been accomplished. However, this model deals only with the original design and focuses on a wet year operation. This study will also observe a five-year operation period to show the accumulation of sediment due to the impact of reservoir storage capacity.

  17. Development Process for Science Operation Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballester, Pascal

    2015-12-01

    Scientific software development at ESO involves defined processes for the main phases of project inception, monitoring of development performed by instrument consortia, application maintenance, and application support. We discuss the lessons learnt and evolution of the process for the next generation of tools and observing facilities.

  18. The effects of stress on nuclear power plant operational decision making and training approaches to reduce stress effects

    SciTech Connect

    Mumaw, R.J.

    1994-08-01

    Operational personnel may be exposed to significant levels of stress during unexpected changes in plant state an plant emergencies. The decision making that identifies operational actions, which is strongly determined by procedures, may be affected by stress, and performance may be impaired. ER report analyzes potential effects of stress in nuclear power plant (NPP) settings, especially in the context of severe accident management (SAM). First, potential sources of stress in the NPP setting are identified. This analysis is followed by a review of the ways in which stress is likely to affect performance, with an emphasis on performance of cognitive skills that are linked to operational decision making. Finally, potential training approaches for reducing or eliminating stress effects are identified. Several training approaches have the potential to eliminate or mitigate stress effects on cognitive skill performance. First, the use of simulated events for training can reduce the novelty and uncertainty that can lead to stress and performance impairments. Second, training to make cognitive processing more efficient and less reliant on attention and memory resources can offset the reductions in these resources that occur under stressful conditions. Third, training that targets crew communications skills can reduce the likelihood that communications will fail under stress.

  19. Critical decision of operability in congenital heart disease patient with severe pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Raja; Kalra, Rajat; Kumar, Neeraj; Aggarwal, Neeraj; Joshi, Reena K.; Aggarwal, Mridul; Pandey, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    Repair of congenital heart disease in the presence of high pulmonary pressure has always been a contentious issue. Pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) is considered important for establishing operability in these patients. However, PVR estimation is not always accurate and cannot solely be relied upon to make critical decision of operability. Clinical examination, chest X-ray, and echocardiography are also important indicators of pulmonary vascular disease. Knowledge of pits and falls of each investigation is important for appropriate management in these patients. We present a case report of successfully operated, 6-year-old child with anomalous origin of the right pulmonary artery from aorta, deemed inoperable on the basis of PVR estimation. PMID:27716711

  20. Ex post power economic analysis of record of decision operational restrictions at Glen Canyon Dam.

    SciTech Connect

    Veselka, T. D.; Poch, L. A.; Palmer, C. S.; Loftin, S.; Osiek, B; Decision and Information Sciences; Western Area Power Administration

    2010-07-31

    On October 9, 1996, Bruce Babbitt, then-Secretary of the U.S. Department of the Interior signed the Record of Decision (ROD) on operating criteria for the Glen Canyon Dam (GCD). Criteria selected were based on the Modified Low Fluctuating Flow (MLFF) Alternative as described in the Operation of Glen Canyon Dam, Colorado River Storage Project, Arizona, Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) (Reclamation 1995). These restrictions reduced the operating flexibility of the hydroelectric power plant and therefore its economic value. The EIS provided impact information to support the ROD, including an analysis of operating criteria alternatives on power system economics. This ex post study reevaluates ROD power economic impacts and compares these results to the economic analysis performed prior (ex ante) to the ROD for the MLFF Alternative. On the basis of the methodology used in the ex ante analysis, anticipated annual economic impacts of the ROD were estimated to range from approximately $15.1 million to $44.2 million in terms of 1991 dollars ($1991). This ex post analysis incorporates historical events that took place between 1997 and 2005, including the evolution of power markets in the Western Electricity Coordinating Council as reflected in market prices for capacity and energy. Prompted by ROD operational restrictions, this analysis also incorporates a decision made by the Western Area Power Administration to modify commitments that it made to its customers. Simulated operations of GCD were based on the premise that hourly production patterns would maximize the economic value of the hydropower resource. On the basis of this assumption, it was estimated that economic impacts were on average $26.3 million in $1991, or $39 million in $2009.

  1. System and method for integrating hazard-based decision making tools and processes

    DOEpatents

    Hodgin, C. Reed

    2012-03-20

    A system and method for inputting, analyzing, and disseminating information necessary for identified decision-makers to respond to emergency situations. This system and method provides consistency and integration among multiple groups, and may be used for both initial consequence-based decisions and follow-on consequence-based decisions. The system and method in a preferred embodiment also provides tools for accessing and manipulating information that are appropriate for each decision-maker, in order to achieve more reasoned and timely consequence-based decisions. The invention includes processes for designing and implementing a system or method for responding to emergency situations.

  2. Multiple-Reason Decision Making Based on Automatic Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glockner, Andreas; Betsch, Tilmann

    2008-01-01

    It has been repeatedly shown that in decisions under time constraints, individuals predominantly use noncompensatory strategies rather than complex compensatory ones. The authors argue that these findings might be due not to limitations of cognitive capacity but instead to limitations of information search imposed by the commonly used experimental…

  3. Decision-Making Processes: Sensitivity to Sequentially Experienced Outcome Probabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Ty W.

    2007-01-01

    A computerized sequential event sampling decision-making task was administered to 187 5- to 10-year-olds and adults. Participants made a series of choices between alternatives that differed in win probability (Study 1) or win and loss probability (Study 2). Intuitive and more explicit measures were used. Study 1 revealed that, across ages,…

  4. Memory and Processing Limits in Decision-Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klapp, Stuart T.

    According to the classical working memory perspective, tasks such as command and control decision-making should be performed less effectively if extraneous material must be retained in short-term memory. Only marginal support for this prediction was obtained for a simulation involving scheduling trucking and transportation missions, although…

  5. Decision Support Systems to Optimize the Operational Efficiency of Dams and Maintain Regulatory Compliance Criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkinson, S.; Morehead, M. D.; Conner, J. T.; Frye, C.

    2012-12-01

    Increasing demand for water and electricity, increasing variability in weather and climate and stricter requirements for riverine ecosystem health has put ever more stringent demands on hydropower operations. Dam operators are being impacted by these constraints and are looking for methods to meet these requirements while retaining the benefits hydropower offers. Idaho Power owns and operates 17 hydroelectric plants in Idaho and Oregon which have both Federal and State compliance requirements. Idaho Power has started building Decision Support Systems (DSS) to aid the hydroelectric plant operators in maximizing hydropower operational efficiency, while meeting regulatory compliance constraints. Regulatory constraints on dam operations include: minimum in-stream flows, maximum ramp rate of river stage, reservoir volumes, and reservoir ramp rate for draft and fill. From the hydroelectric standpoint, the desire is to vary the plant discharge (ramping) such that generation matches electricity demand (load-following), but ramping is limited by the regulatory requirements. Idaho Power desires DSS that integrate real time and historic data, simulates the rivers behavior from the hydroelectric plants downstream to the compliance measurement point and presents the information in an easily understandable display that allows the operators to make informed decisions. Creating DSS like these has a number of scientific and technical challenges. Real-time data are inherently noisy and automated data cleaning routines are required to filter the data. The DSS must inform the operators when incoming data are outside of predefined bounds. Complex river morphologies can make the timing and shape of a discharge change traveling downstream from a power plant nearly impossible to represent with a predefined lookup table. These complexities require very fast hydrodynamic models of the river system that simulate river characteristics (ex. Stage, discharge) at the downstream compliance point

  6. An Evolutionary Complex Systems Decision-Support Tool for the Management of Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, J. S.; Allen, P. M.; Ridgway, K.

    2011-12-01

    This research aimed to add both to the development of complex systems thinking in the subject area of Operations and Production Management and to the limited number of applications of computational models and simulations from the science of complex systems. The latter potentially offer helpful decision-support tools for operations and production managers. A mechanical engineering firm was used as a case study where a combined qualitative and quantitative methodological approach was employed to extract the required data from four senior managers. Company performance measures as well as firm technologies, practices and policies, and their relation and interaction with one another, were elicited. The data were subjected to an evolutionary complex systems model resulting in a series of simulations. The findings included both reassuring and some unexpected results. The simulation based on the CEO's opinions led the most cohesive and synergistic collection of practices describing the firm, closely followed by the Marketing and R&D Managers. The Manufacturing Manager's responses led to the most extreme evolutionary trajectory where the integrity of the entire firm came into question particularly when considering how employees were utilised. By drawing directly from the opinions and views of managers rather than from logical 'if-then' rules and averaged mathematical representations of agents that characterise agent-based and other self-organisational models, this work builds on previous applications by capturing a micro-level description of diversity and a learning effect that has been problematical not only in terms of theory but also in application. This approach can be used as a decision-support tool for operations and other managers providing a forum with which to explore a) the strengths, weaknesses and consequences of different decision-making capacities within the firm; b) the introduction of new manufacturing technologies, practices and policies; and, c) the

  7. Energy accounting of apple processing operations

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, R.; Singh, R.P.; Brown, D.

    1981-01-01

    A thermal-energy accounting study was conducted at an apple processing plant. An analysis is given of thermal energy use and thermal efficiencies of an apple-juice single-effect evaporator and an apple-sauce cooker. 3 refs.

  8. Processes Operative During Delay of Gratification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, J. Frank; Revelle, Glenda L.

    This study focused on the processes occurring during the waiting period in delay of gratification situations. Sixty-four middle class preschool children chose between waiting for a preferred item and receiving a less desired item immediately. The items were of different classes, i. e., one food and one toy, and subjects waited with one, both, or…

  9. Integrated decision support system for waste minimization analysis in chemical processes.

    PubMed

    Halim, Iskandar; Srinivasan, Rajagopalan

    2002-04-01

    The need to build and operate environmentally friendly plants has challenged the chemical industry to consider waste minimization or even elimination starting from the early stages of process development. A thorough waste minimization analysis requires specialized expertise and is laborious, time-consuming, expensive, and knowledge-intensive. This has caused a major technical barrier for implementing waste minimization programswithin the industry. Previously, we had reported a systematic methodology and a knowledge-based system, called ENVOPExpert, for identifying waste minimization opportunities in chemical processes. In this paper, we propose an integrated qualitative-quantitative methodology to identify waste minimization alternatives and assess their efficacy in terms of environmental impact and process economics. A qualitative analysis is first conducted to identify the sources of wastes and to propose alternatives for eliminating or minimizing them. Environmental impact of each alternative is then calculated by doing a quantitative pollutant balance. The capital expenditure required for implementing the alternative and the resulting plant operating costs are also calculated and used in the evaluation of the waste minimization alternatives. Through this, practical and cost-effective options can be identified. This methodology has been implemented as an integrated decision support system and tested using the hydrodealkylation process case study with satisfactory results.

  10. Difficult Decisions: A Qualitative Exploration of the Statistical Decision Making Process from the Perspectives of Psychology Students and Academics

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Peter J.; Dorozenko, Kate P.; Roberts, Lynne D.

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative research methods are essential to the development of professional competence in psychology. They are also an area of weakness for many students. In particular, students are known to struggle with the skill of selecting quantitative analytical strategies appropriate for common research questions, hypotheses and data types. To begin understanding this apparent deficit, we presented nine psychology undergraduates (who had all completed at least one quantitative methods course) with brief research vignettes, and asked them to explicate the process they would follow to identify an appropriate statistical technique for each. Thematic analysis revealed that all participants found this task challenging, and even those who had completed several research methods courses struggled to articulate how they would approach the vignettes on more than a very superficial and intuitive level. While some students recognized that there is a systematic decision making process that can be followed, none could describe it clearly or completely. We then presented the same vignettes to 10 psychology academics with particular expertise in conducting research and/or research methods instruction. Predictably, these “experts” were able to describe a far more systematic, comprehensive, flexible, and nuanced approach to statistical decision making, which begins early in the research process, and pays consideration to multiple contextual factors. They were sensitive to the challenges that students experience when making statistical decisions, which they attributed partially to how research methods and statistics are commonly taught. This sensitivity was reflected in their pedagogic practices. When asked to consider the format and features of an aid that could facilitate the statistical decision making process, both groups expressed a preference for an accessible, comprehensive and reputable resource that follows a basic decision tree logic. For the academics in particular, this aid

  11. Difficult Decisions: A Qualitative Exploration of the Statistical Decision Making Process from the Perspectives of Psychology Students and Academics.

    PubMed

    Allen, Peter J; Dorozenko, Kate P; Roberts, Lynne D

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative research methods are essential to the development of professional competence in psychology. They are also an area of weakness for many students. In particular, students are known to struggle with the skill of selecting quantitative analytical strategies appropriate for common research questions, hypotheses and data types. To begin understanding this apparent deficit, we presented nine psychology undergraduates (who had all completed at least one quantitative methods course) with brief research vignettes, and asked them to explicate the process they would follow to identify an appropriate statistical technique for each. Thematic analysis revealed that all participants found this task challenging, and even those who had completed several research methods courses struggled to articulate how they would approach the vignettes on more than a very superficial and intuitive level. While some students recognized that there is a systematic decision making process that can be followed, none could describe it clearly or completely. We then presented the same vignettes to 10 psychology academics with particular expertise in conducting research and/or research methods instruction. Predictably, these "experts" were able to describe a far more systematic, comprehensive, flexible, and nuanced approach to statistical decision making, which begins early in the research process, and pays consideration to multiple contextual factors. They were sensitive to the challenges that students experience when making statistical decisions, which they attributed partially to how research methods and statistics are commonly taught. This sensitivity was reflected in their pedagogic practices. When asked to consider the format and features of an aid that could facilitate the statistical decision making process, both groups expressed a preference for an accessible, comprehensive and reputable resource that follows a basic decision tree logic. For the academics in particular, this aid

  12. Operational support considerations in Space Shuttle prelaunch processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuiling, Roelof L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of operational support for Space Shuttle payload processing at the John F. Kennedy Space Center. The paper begins with a discussion of the Shuttle payload processing operation itself. It discusses the major organizational roles and describes the two major classes of payload operations: Spacelab mission payload and vertically-installed payload operations. The paper continues by describing the Launch Site Support Team and the Payload Processing Test Team. Specific areas of operational support are then identified including security and access, training, transport and handling, documentation and scheduling. Specific references for further investigatgion are included.

  13. Role of natural processes and risk in environmental remediation decisions

    SciTech Connect

    Breckenridge, R.P.; Maiers, D.T.; Wichlacz, P.L.

    1996-10-01

    Much attention is currently given to risk-based approaches to managing natural resources and hazardous waste. In order to apply a risk-based approach, input from the various stakeholders needs to be obtained early and updated throughout the effort. Applying a risk-based approach allows decisionmakers to evaluate options based upon sound scientific data. This paper discusses two examples of how risk-based approaches have been used to evaluate remediation options for management of natural resources and hazardous material problems in the Intermountain West. These examples demonstrate that without stakeholder involvement and using a risk-based approach, time and effort would have been wasted and decisions made to correct perceived rather than actual problems. The paper also describes the role that natural attenuation plays in making both risk and remedial action decisions.

  14. Decision Processes in Discrimination: Fundamental Misrepresentations of Signal Detection Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakrishnan, J. D.

    1998-01-01

    In the first part of this article, I describe a new approach to studying decision making in discrimination tasks that does not depend on the technical assumptions of signal detection theory (e.g., normality of the encoding distributions). Applying these new distribution-free tests to data from three experiments, I show that base rate and payoff manipulations had substantial effects on the participants' encoding distributions but no effect on their decision rules, which were uniformly unbiased in equal and unequal base rate conditions and in symmetric and asymmetric payoff conditions. In the second part of the article, I show that this seemingly paradoxical result is readily explained by the sequential sampling models of discrimination. I then propose a new, "model-free" test for response bias that seems to more properly identify both the nature and direction of the biases induced by the classical bias manipulations.

  15. Role of natural processes and risk in environmental remediation decisions

    SciTech Connect

    Breckenridge, R.P.; Maiers, D.T.; Wichlacz, P.L.

    1996-12-31

    Much attention is currently given to risk-based approaches to managing natural resources and hazardous waste. In order to apply a risk-based approach, input from the various stakeholders needs to be obtained early and updated throughout the effort. Applying a risk-based approach allows decisionmakers to evaluate options based upon sound scientific data. This paper discusses two examples of how risk-based approaches have been used to evaluate remediation options for management of natural resources and hazardous material problems in the Intermountain West. These examples demonstrate that without stakeholder involvement and using a risk-based approach, time and effort would have been wasted and decisions made to correct perceived rather than actual problems. The paper also describes the role that natural attenuation plays in making both risk and remedial action decisions.

  16. Quantitative computer simulations of extraterrestrial processing operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, T. L.; Nikravesh, P. E.

    1989-01-01

    The automation of a small, solid propellant mixer was studied. Temperature control is under investigation. A numerical simulation of the system is under development and will be tested using different control options. Control system hardware is currently being put into place. The construction of mathematical models and simulation techniques for understanding various engineering processes is also studied. Computer graphics packages were utilized for better visualization of the simulation results. The mechanical mixing of propellants is examined. Simulation of the mixing process is being done to study how one can control for chaotic behavior to meet specified mixing requirements. An experimental mixing chamber is also being built. It will allow visual tracking of particles under mixing. The experimental unit will be used to test ideas from chaos theory, as well as to verify simulation results. This project has applications to extraterrestrial propellant quality and reliability.

  17. 77 FR 5780 - Record of Decision for the White Elk Military Operations Area White Pine and Elko Counties...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... Department of the Air Force Record of Decision for the White Elk Military Operations Area White Pine and Elko... Decision (ROD). SUMMARY: On November 4, 2011, the United States Air Force signed the ROD for the White Elk... select the Proposed Action to establish the White Elk MOA airspace adjacent to the Utah Test and...

  18. The analysis of the pilot's cognitive and decision processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    Articles are presented on pilot performance in zero-visibility precision approach, failure detection by pilots during automatic landing, experiments in pilot decision-making during simulated low visibility approaches, a multinomial maximum likelihood program, and a random search algorithm for laboratory computers. Other topics discussed include detection of system failures in multi-axis tasks and changes in pilot workload during an instrument landing.

  19. Computerized Aid Improves Safety Decision Process for Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Nancy; Eden, Karen B.; Bloom, Tina; Perrin, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    A computerized safety decision aid was developed and tested with Spanish or English-speaking abused women in shelters or domestic violence (DV) support groups (n = 90). The decision aid provides feedback about risk for lethal violence, options for safety, assistance with setting priorities for safety, and a safety plan personalized to the user. Women reported that the decision aid was useful and provided much-needed privacy for making safety decisions. The majority (69%) reported severe to extreme danger in their relationship as scored by Danger Assessment (DA); only 60% reported having made a safety plan. After using the safety decision aid, the women felt more supported in their decision (p = .012) and had less total decisional conflict (p = .014). The study demonstrated that a computerized safety decision aid improved the safety planning process, as demonstrated by reduced decisional conflict after only one use in a sample of abused women. PMID:20040709

  20. Computerized aid improves safety decision process for survivors of intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Glass, Nancy; Eden, Karen B; Bloom, Tina; Perrin, Nancy

    2010-11-01

    A computerized safety decision aid was developed and tested with Spanish or English-speaking abused women in shelters or domestic violence (DV) support groups (n = 90). The decision aid provides feedback about risk for lethal violence, options for safety, assistance with setting priorities for safety, and a safety plan personalized to the user. Women reported that the decision aid was useful and provided much-needed privacy for making safety decisions. The majority (69%) reported severe to extreme danger in their relationship as scored by Danger Assessment (DA); only 60% reported having made a safety plan. After using the safety decision aid, the women felt more supported in their decision (p = .012) and had less total decisional conflict (p = .014). The study demonstrated that a computerized safety decision aid improved the safety planning process, as demonstrated by reduced decisional conflict after only one use in a sample of abused women.

  1. The Rational Adolescent: Strategic Information Processing during Decision Making Revealed by Eye Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Youngbin; Payne, John W.; Cohen, Andrew L.; Huettel, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is often viewed as a time of irrational, risky decision-making – despite adolescents' competence in other cognitive domains. In this study, we examined the strategies used by adolescents (N=30) and young adults (N=47) to resolve complex, multi-outcome economic gambles. Compared to adults, adolescents were more likely to make conservative, loss-minimizing choices consistent with economic models. Eye-tracking data showed that prior to decisions, adolescents acquired more information in a more thorough manner; that is, they engaged in a more analytic processing strategy indicative of trade-offs between decision variables. In contrast, young adults' decisions were more consistent with heuristics that simplified the decision problem, at the expense of analytic precision. Collectively, these results demonstrate a counter-intuitive developmental transition in economic decision making: adolescents' decisions are more consistent with rational-choice models, while young adults more readily engage task-appropriate heuristics. PMID:26388664

  2. Decision making, procedural compliance, and outcomes definition in U.S. forest service planning processes

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, Marc J.; Predmore, S. Andrew

    2011-04-15

    The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) dictates a process of analyzing and disclosing the likely impacts of proposed agency actions on the human environment. This study addresses two key questions related to NEPA implementation in the U.S. Forest Service: 1) how do Interdisciplinary (ID) team leaders and decision makers conceptualize the outcomes of NEPA processes? And 2), how does NEPA relate to agency decision making? We address these questions through two separate online surveys that posed questions about recently completed NEPA processes - the first with the ID team leaders tasked with carrying out the processes, and the second with the line officers responsible for making the processes' final decisions. Outcomes of NEPA processes include impacts on public relations, on employee morale and team functioning, on the achievement of agency goals, and on the achievement of NEPA's procedural requirements (disclosure) and substantive intent (minimizing negative environmental impacts). Although both tended to view public relations outcomes as important, decision makers' perceptions of favorable outcomes were more closely linked to the achievement of agency goals and process efficiency than was the case for ID team leaders. While ID team leaders' responses suggest that they see decision making closely integrated with the NEPA process, decision makers more commonly decoupled decision making from the NEPA process. These findings suggest a philosophical difference between ID team leaders and decision makers that may pose challenges for both the implementation and the evaluation of agency NEPA. We discuss the pros and cons of integrating NEPA with decision making or separating the two. We conclude that detaching NEPA from decision making poses greater risks than integrating them.

  3. [Clinical decision making and critical thinking in the nursing diagnostic process].

    PubMed

    Müller-Staub, Maria

    2006-10-01

    The daily routine requires complex thinking processes of nurses, but clinical decision making and critical thinking are underestimated in nursing. A great demand for educational measures in clinical judgement related with the diagnostic process was found in nurses. The German literature hardly describes nursing diagnoses as clinical judgements about human reactions on health problems / life processes. Critical thinking is described as an intellectual, disciplined process of active conceptualisation, application and synthesis of information. It is gained through observation, experience, reflection and communication and leads thinking and action. Critical thinking influences the aspects of clinical decision making a) diagnostic judgement, b) therapeutic reasoning and c) ethical decision making. Human reactions are complex processes and in their course, human behavior is interpreted in the focus of health. Therefore, more attention should be given to the nursing diagnostic process. This article presents the theoretical framework of the paper "Clinical decision making: Fostering critical thinking in the nursing diagnostic process through case studies".

  4. Information processing in convex operational theories

    SciTech Connect

    Barnum, Howard Nelch; Wilce, Alexander G

    2008-01-01

    In order to understand the source and extent of the greater-than-classical information processing power of quantum systems, one wants to characterize both classical and quantum mechanics as points in a broader space of possible theories. One approach to doing this, pioneered by Abramsky and Coecke, is to abstract the essential categorical features of classical and quantum mechanics that support various information-theoretic constraints and possibilities, e.g., the impossibility of cloning in the latter, and the possibility of teleportation in both. Another approach, pursued by the authors and various collaborators, is to begin with a very conservative, and in a sense very concrete, generalization of classical probability theory--which is still sufficient to encompass quantum theory--and to ask which 'quantum' informational phenomena can be reproduced in this much looser setting. In this paper, we review the progress to date in this second programme, and offer some suggestions as to how to link it with the categorical semantics for quantum processes developed by Abramsky and Coecke.

  5. Business/Office Occupations Data Processing--Data Processing Concepts, Data Entry Operator, Computer Operator, Computer Programmer, Systems Analyst.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee State Dept. of Education, Nashville. Div. of Vocational-Technical Education.

    This data processing curriculum contains 23 units of instruction for an articulated program in the occupations of data processing. It consists of an introductory mini-series on data-processing concepts, as well as data entry operator, computer operator, programmer, and systems analyst units. Introductory materials include program goals and…

  6. Data quality and processing for decision making: divergence between corporate strategy and manufacturing processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeil, Ronald D.; Miele, Renato; Shaul, Dennis

    2000-10-01

    Information technology is driving improvements in manufacturing systems. Results are higher productivity and quality. However, corporate strategy is driven by a number of factors and includes data and pressure from multiple stakeholders, which includes employees, managers, executives, stockholders, boards, suppliers and customers. It is also driven by information about competitors and emerging technology. Much information is based on processing of data and the resulting biases of the processors. Thus, stakeholders can base inputs on faulty perceptions, which are not reality based. Prior to processing, data used may be inaccurate. Sources of data and information may include demographic reports, statistical analyses, intelligence reports (e.g., marketing data), technology and primary data collection. The reliability and validity of data as well as the management of sources and information is critical element to strategy formulation. The paper explores data collection, processing and analyses from secondary and primary sources, information generation and report presentation for strategy formulation and contrast this with data and information utilized to drive internal process such as manufacturing. The hypothesis is that internal process, such as manufacturing, are subordinate to corporate strategies. The impact of possible divergence in quality of decisions at the corporate level on IT driven, quality-manufacturing processes based on measurable outcomes is significant. Recommendations for IT improvements at the corporate strategy level are given.

  7. Climate Change Scenario Planning in Alaska's National Parks: Stakeholder Involvement in the Decision-Making Process

    SciTech Connect

    Ernst, Kathleen M; Van Riemsdijk, Dr. Micheline

    2013-01-01

    This article studies the participation of stakeholders in climate change decision-making in Alaska s National Parks. We place stakeholder participation within literatures on environmental and climate change decision-making. We conducted participant observation and interviews in two planning workshops to investigate the decision-making process, and our findings are three-fold. First, the inclusion of diverse stakeholders expanded climate change decision-making beyond National Park Service (NPS) institutional constraints. Second, workshops of the Climate Change Scenario Planning Project (CCSPP) enhanced institutional understandings of participants attitudes towards climate change and climate change decision-making. Third, the geographical context of climate change influences the decision-making process. As the first regional approach to climate change decision-making within the NPS, the CCSPP serves as a model for future climate change planning in public land agencies. This study shows how the participation of stakeholders can contribute to robust decisions, may move climate change decision-making beyond institutional barriers, and can provide information about attitudes towards climate change decision-making.

  8. Improving management decision processes through centralized communication linkages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simanton, D. F.; Garman, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    Information flow is a critical element to intelligent and timely decision-making. At NASA's Johnson Space Center the flow of information is being automated through the use of a centralized backbone network. The theoretical basis of this network, its implications to the horizontal and vertical flow of information, and the technical challenges involved in its implementation are the focus of this paper. The importance of the use of common tools among programs and some future concerns related to file transfer, graphics transfer, and merging of voice and data are also discussed.

  9. Benefits to blood banks of a sales and operations planning process.

    PubMed

    Keal, Donald A; Hebert, Phil

    2010-12-01

    A formal sales and operations planning (S&OP) process is a decision making and communication process that balances supply and demand while integrating all business operational components with customer-focused business plans that links high level strategic plans to day-to-day operations. Furthermore, S&OP can assist in managing change across the organization as it provides the opportunity to be proactive in the face of problems and opportunities while establishing a plan for everyone to follow. Some of the key outcomes from a robust S&OP process in blood banking would include: higher customer satisfaction (donors and health care providers), balanced inventory across product lines and customers, more stable production rates and higher productivity, more cooperation across the entire operation, and timely updates to the business plan resulting in better forecasting and fewer surprises that negatively impact the bottom line. PMID:21128950

  10. Guide to good practices for operations aspects of unique processes

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    This Guide to Good Practices is written to enhance understanding of, and provide direction for, Operations Aspects of Facility Chemistry and Unique Processes, Chapter XIII of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.19, Conduct of Operations Requirements for DOE Facilities. The practices in this guide should be considered when planning or reviewing employee training and facility management programs. Contractors are advised to adopt procedures that meet the intent of DOE Order 5480.19. Operations Aspects of Unique Processes is an element of an effective Conduct of Operations program. The complexity and array of activities performed in DOE facilities dictate the necessity for all personnel to coordinate interrelated activities affecting unique processes.

  11. Determinants of judgment and decision making quality: the interplay between information processing style and situational factors.

    PubMed

    Ayal, Shahar; Rusou, Zohar; Zakay, Dan; Hochman, Guy

    2015-01-01

    A framework is presented to better characterize the role of individual differences in information processing style and their interplay with contextual factors in determining decision making quality. In Experiment 1, we show that individual differences in information processing style are flexible and can be modified by situational factors. Specifically, a situational manipulation that induced an analytical mode of thought improved decision quality. In Experiment 2, we show that this improvement in decision quality is highly contingent on the compatibility between the dominant thinking mode and the nature of the task. That is, encouraging an intuitive mode of thought led to better performance on an intuitive task but hampered performance on an analytical task. The reverse pattern was obtained when an analytical mode of thought was encouraged. We discuss the implications of these results for the assessment of decision making competence, and suggest practical directions to help individuals better adjust their information processing style to the situation at hand and make optimal decisions.

  12. Environmental Engineering Unit Operations and Unit Processes Laboratory Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, John T., Ed.

    This manual was prepared for the purpose of stimulating the development of effective unit operations and unit processes laboratory courses in environmental engineering. Laboratory activities emphasizing physical operations, biological, and chemical processes are designed for various educational and equipment levels. An introductory section reviews…

  13. Process Operations Program is the First of Its Kind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elements of Technology, 1973

    1973-01-01

    The goal of the program is to produce a graduate with the technical background and expertise necessary for direct entry into a process operator training program in a petro-chemical plant. It is a unique program offered through Lambton College, Canada, in co-operation with the process industries in Sarnia's "Chemical Valley". (Author/DS)

  14. Free-Choice Learning Suited to Women's Participation Needs in Environmental Decision-Making Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skanavis, Constantina; Sakellari, Maria

    2012-01-01

    United Nations mandates recognize the need to promote the full participation of women in environmental decision-making processes on the basis of gender equality. But, there remains a profound lack of effective women's participation in some sectors of environmental decision-making. Free-choice environmental learning offers an effective educational…

  15. The Use of Art in the Medical Decision-Making Process of Oncology Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czamanski-Cohen, Johanna

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of written informed consent in the 1970s created expectations of shared decision making between doctors and patients that has led to decisional conflict for some patients. This study utilized a collaborative, intrinsic case study approach to the decision-making process of oncology patients who participated in an open art therapy…

  16. Special Education Eligibility: An Examination of the Decision-Making Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkland, Erin K. B.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of private practitioner and educational advocate opinions on school-based administrators' decision-making thought processes when making a recommendation for special education eligibility. Special education eligibility is a school-based team decision that involves multiple…

  17. Stakeholders' Perception of Who Influences the Decision-Making Processes in Ontario's Public Postsecondary Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Billroy

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study conducted on stakeholders' perception of who influences the decision-making processes in Ontario's public postsecondary education institutions. The study identified and interviewed representatives of those stakeholder groups that are frequently written about as the main forces behind decision making in…

  18. Disciplined Decision Making in an Interdisciplinary Environment: Some Implications for Clinical Applications of Statistical Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hantula, Donald A.

    1995-01-01

    Clinical applications of statistical process control (SPC) in human service organizations are considered. SPC is seen as providing a standard set of criteria that serves as a common interface for data-based decision making, which may bring decision making under the control of established contingencies rather than the immediate contingencies of…

  19. Rawlsian maximin rule operates as a common cognitive anchor in distributive justice and risky decisions

    PubMed Central

    Kameda, Tatsuya; Inukai, Keigo; Higuchi, Satomi; Ogawa, Akitoshi; Kim, Hackjin; Matsuda, Tetsuya; Sakagami, Masamichi

    2016-01-01

    Distributive justice concerns the moral principles by which we seek to allocate resources fairly among diverse members of a society. Although the concept of fair allocation is one of the fundamental building blocks for societies, there is no clear consensus on how to achieve “socially just” allocations. Here, we examine neurocognitive commonalities of distributive judgments and risky decisions. We explore the hypothesis that people’s allocation decisions for others are closely related to economic decisions for oneself at behavioral, cognitive, and neural levels, via a concern about the minimum, worst-off position. In a series of experiments using attention-monitoring and brain-imaging techniques, we investigated this “maximin” concern (maximizing the minimum possible payoff) via responses in two seemingly disparate tasks: third-party distribution of rewards for others, and choosing gambles for self. The experiments revealed three robust results: (i) participants’ distributive choices closely matched their risk preferences—“Rawlsians,” who maximized the worst-off position in distributions for others, avoided riskier gambles for themselves, whereas “utilitarians,” who favored the largest-total distributions, preferred riskier but more profitable gambles; (ii) across such individual choice preferences, however, participants generally showed the greatest spontaneous attention to information about the worst possible outcomes in both tasks; and (iii) this robust concern about the minimum outcomes was correlated with activation of the right temporoparietal junction (RTPJ), the region associated with perspective taking. The results provide convergent evidence that social distribution for others is psychologically linked to risky decision making for self, drawing on common cognitive–neural processes with spontaneous perspective taking of the worst-off position. PMID:27688764

  20. Climate change scenario planning in Alaska's National Parks: Stakeholder involvement in the decision-making process

    SciTech Connect

    Ernst, Kathleen M; Van Riemsdijk, Dr. Micheline

    2013-01-01

    This article studies the participation of stakeholders in climate change decision-making in Alaska s National Parks. We place stakeholder participation within literatures on environmental and climate change decision-making. We conducted participant observation and interviews in two planning workshops to investigate the decision-making process, and our findings are three-fold. First, the inclusion of diverse stakeholders expanded climate change decision-making beyond National Park Service (NPS) institutional constraints. Second, workshops of the Climate Change Scenario Planning Project (CCSPP) enhanced institutional understandings of participants attitudes towards climate change and climate change decision-making. Third, the geographical context of climate change influences the decisionmaking process. As the first regional approach to climate change decision-making within the NPS, the CCSPP serves as a model for future climate change planning in public land agencies. This study shows how the participation of stakeholders can contribute to robust decisions, may move climate change decision-making beyond institutional barriers, and can provide information about attitudes towards climate change decision-making.

  1. The Computational Complexity of Valuation and Motivational Forces in Decision-Making Processes.

    PubMed

    Redish, A David; Schultheiss, Nathan W; Carter, Evan C

    2016-01-01

    The concept of value is fundamental to most theories of motivation and decision making. However, value has to be measured experimentally. Different methods of measuring value produce incompatible valuation hierarchies. Taking the agent's perspective (rather than the experimenter's), we interpret the different valuation measurement methods as accessing different decision-making systems and show how these different systems depend on different information processing algorithms. This identifies the translation from these multiple decision-making systems into a single action taken by a given agent as one of the most important open questions in decision making today. We conclude by looking at how these different valuation measures accessing different decision-making systems can be used to understand and treat decision dysfunction such as in addiction. PMID:25981912

  2. A case study of optimization in the decision process: Siting groundwater monitoring wells

    SciTech Connect

    Cardwell, H.; Huff, D.; Douthitt, J.; Sale, M.

    1993-12-01

    Optimization is one of the tools available to assist decision makers in balancing multiple objectives and concerns. In a case study of the siting decision for groundwater monitoring wells, we look at the influence of the optimization models on the decisions made by the responsible groundwater specialist. This paper presents a multi-objective integer programming model for determining the location of monitoring wells associated with a groundwater pump-and-treat remediation. After presenting the initial optimization results, we analyze the actual decision and revise the model to incorporate elements of the problem that were later identified as important in the decision-making process. The results of a revised model are compared to the actual siting plans, the recommendations from the initial optimization runs, and the initial monitoring network proposed by the decision maker.

  3. Decisions beyond boundaries: when more information is processed faster than less.

    PubMed

    Glöckner, Andreas; Betsch, Tilmann

    2012-03-01

    Bounded rationality models usually converge in claiming that decision time and the amount of computational steps needed to come to a decision are positively correlated. The empirical evidence for this claim is, however, equivocal. We conducted a study that tests this claim by adding and omitting information. We demonstrate that even an increase in information amount can yield a decrease in decision time if the added information increases coherence in the information set. Rather than being influenced by amount of information, decision time systematically increased with decreasing coherence. The results are discussed with reference to a parallel constraint satisfaction approach to decision making, which assumes that information integration is operated in an automatic, holistic manner.

  4. Global tree network for computing structures enabling global processing operations

    DOEpatents

    Blumrich; Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Hoenicke, Dirk; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.; Takken, Todd E.; Vranas, Pavlos M.

    2010-01-19

    A system and method for enabling high-speed, low-latency global tree network communications among processing nodes interconnected according to a tree network structure. The global tree network enables collective reduction operations to be performed during parallel algorithm operations executing in a computer structure having a plurality of the interconnected processing nodes. Router devices are included that interconnect the nodes of the tree via links to facilitate performance of low-latency global processing operations at nodes of the virtual tree and sub-tree structures. The global operations performed include one or more of: broadcast operations downstream from a root node to leaf nodes of a virtual tree, reduction operations upstream from leaf nodes to the root node in the virtual tree, and point-to-point message passing from any node to the root node. The global tree network is configurable to provide global barrier and interrupt functionality in asynchronous or synchronized manner, and, is physically and logically partitionable.

  5. Simulation and experimental studies of operators` decision styles and crew composition while using an ecological and traditional user interface for the control room of a nuclear power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Meshkati, N.; Buller, B.J.; Azadeh, M.A.

    1995-04-01

    The goal of this research is threefold: (1) use of the Skill-, Rule-, and Knowledge-based levels of cognitive control -- the SRK framework -- to develop an integrated information processing conceptual framework (for integration of workstation, job, and team design); (2) to evaluate the user interface component of this framework -- the Ecological display; and (3) to analyze the effect of operators` individual information processing behavior and decision styles on handling plant disturbances plus their performance on, and preference for, Traditional and Ecological user interfaces. A series of studies were conducted. In Part I, a computer simulation model and a mathematical model were developed. In Part II, an experiment was designed and conducted at the EBR-II plant of the Argonne National Laboratory-West in Idaho Falls, Idaho. It is concluded that: the integrated SRK-based information processing model for control room operations is superior to the conventional rule-based model; operators` individual decision styles and the combination of their styles play a significant role in effective handling of nuclear power plant disturbances; use of the Ecological interface results in significantly more accurate event diagnosis and recall of various plant parameters, faster response to plant transients, and higher ratings of subject preference; and operators` decision styles affect on both their performance and preference for the Ecological interface.

  6. Evaluation of Pushback Decision-Support Tool Concept for Charlotte Douglas International Airport Ramp Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayashi, Miwa; Hoang, Ty; Jung, Yoon C.; Malik, Waqar; Lee, Hanbong; Dulchinos, Victoria L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a new departure pushback decision-support tool (DST) for airport ramp-tower controllers. It is based on NASA's Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) collaborative decision-making concept, except with the modification that the gate releases now are controlled by tactical pushback (or gate-hold) advisories instead of strategic pre-assignments of target pushback times to individual departure flights. The proposed ramp DST relies on data exchange with the airport traffic control tower (ATCT) to coordinate pushbacks with the ATCT's flow-management intentions under current operational constraints, such as Traffic Management Initiative constraints. Airlines would benefit in reduced taxi delay and fuel burn. The concept was evaluated in a human-in-the-loop simulation experiment with current ramp-tower controllers at the Charlotte Douglas International Airport as participants. The results showed that the tool helped reduce taxi time by one minute per flight and overall departure flight fuel consumption by 10-12% without reducing runway throughput. Expect Departure Clearance Time (EDCT) conformance also was improved when advisories were provided. These benefits were attained without increasing the ramp-tower controllers' workload. Additionally, the advisories reduced the ATCT controllers' workload.

  7. New Windows based Color Morphological Operators for Biomedical Image Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastore, Juan; Bouchet, Agustina; Brun, Marcel; Ballarin, Virginia

    2016-04-01

    Morphological image processing is well known as an efficient methodology for image processing and computer vision. With the wide use of color in many areas, the interest on the color perception and processing has been growing rapidly. Many models have been proposed to extend morphological operators to the field of color images, dealing with some new problems not present previously in the binary and gray level contexts. These solutions usually deal with the lattice structure of the color space, or provide it with total orders, to be able to define basic operators with required properties. In this work we propose a new locally defined ordering, in the context of window based morphological operators, for the definition of erosions-like and dilation-like operators, which provides the same desired properties expected from color morphology, avoiding some of the drawbacks of the prior approaches. Experimental results show that the proposed color operators can be efficiently used for color image processing.

  8. Personal decision-making processes for living related liver transplantation in children.

    PubMed

    Goldschmidt, Imeke; Migal, Katarina; Rückert, Norbert; van Dick, Rolf; Pfister, Eva Doreen; Becker, Thomas; Richter, Nicolas; Lehner, Frank; Baumann, Ulrich

    2015-02-01

    Living related liver transplantation (LRLT) is a valuable transplant option for children with end-stage liver disease who face long waiting times on regular waiting lists. The subjection of a healthy adult to a potentially life-threatening operation can raise issues of freedom of choice, fear, and family conflict for the potential donors. We examined attitudes, fears, and influencing factors in the decision-making process for living liver donation for children in order to identify factors to improve support for living liver donors in the future. In a retrospective, questionnaire-based survey of 93 adults evaluated for living liver donation between 1997 and 2010, 47 of whom actually proceeded to donation, we asked about attitudes, motivation, fears, influencing factors, and well-being during the LRLT evaluation process and during the donation period. Answers were recorded on Likert scales and compared with Pearson's rho correlation and the Mann-Whitney U test as appropriate. Although there was a strong sense of a lack of alternatives among the donors, the majority of the donors felt free in their decision to donate. Donors who were asked to donate for a relative who was not their own child appeared at higher risk of lacking support and of feeling coerced. Family and social support and good and empathic information about the donation process were identified as key factors for donor well-being. In conclusion, potential living liver donors need to have adequate, sufficient, and empathic information, and they need to be provided a supportive framework, including family support, in order to promote their well-being. Care needs to be taken in identifying and counseling potential donors at risk of feeling coerced into donation. PMID:25504770

  9. Value of Information and Prospect theory as tools to involve decision-makers in water-related design, operation and planning of water systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfonso, Leonardo

    2013-04-01

    The role of decision-makers is to take the outputs from hydrological and hydraulic analyses and, in some extent, use them as inputs to make decisions that are related to planning, design and operation of water systems. However, the use of these technical analyses is frequently limited, since there are other non-hydrological issues that must be considered, that may end up in very different solutions than those envisaged by the purely technical ones. A possibility to account for the nature of the human decisions under uncertainty is by exploring the use of concepts from decision theory and behavioural economics, such as Value of Information and Prospect Theory and embed them into the methodologies we use in the hydrology practice. Three examples are presented to illustrate these multidisciplinary interactions. The first one, for monitoring network design, uses Value of Information within a methodology to locate water level stations in a complex canal of networks in the Netherlands. The second example, for operation, shows how the Value of Information concept can be used to formulate alternative methods to evaluate flood risk according to the set of options available for decision-making during a flood event. The third example, for planning, uses Prospect Theory concepts to understand how the "losses hurt more than gains feel good" effect can determine the final decision of urbanise or not a flood-prone area. It is demonstrated that decision theory and behavioural economic principles are promising to evaluate the complex decision-making process in water-related issues.

  10. GREENER CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN ALTERNATIVES ARE REVEALED USING THE WASTE REDUCTION DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM (WAR DSS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Waste Reduction Decision Support System (WAR DSS) is a Java-based software product providing comprehensive modeling of potential adverse environmental impacts (PEI) predicted to result from newly designed or redesigned chemical manufacturing processes. The purpose of this so...

  11. [Woman's participation in the decision process of the pregnancy and puerperal cycle: nursing care integrative review].

    PubMed

    Busanello, Josefine; Lunardi Filho, Wilson Danilo; Kerber, Nalú Pereira da Costa; Lunardi, Valéria Lerch; dos Santos, Silvana Sidnei

    2011-12-01

    This is an integrative review that aims to identify the contribution of nursing care for woman's participation in the decision process of the pregnancy and puerperal cycle, as described in Brazilian scientific publications. The scientific productions were retrieved in May, 2010, from the Virtual Library of Health (Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde) database. From the eight articles reviewed, two themes stood out: Contributions of nursing care to the woman's participation in the decision process of the pregnancy and puerperal cycle; and Limitations of nursing care to the woman's participation in the decision process of the pregnancy and puerperal cycle. The following review supports the production of knowledge in nursing, by identifying a gap in what nurses know and do about this issue, as shown by the lack of nursing researches that concern, specifically, the participation of the woman in the decision process during the pregnancy and puerperal cycle and the possible contributions of nursing care to ensure women of this right.

  12. Multi-Model Long-Range Ensemble Forecast for Decision Support in Hydroelectric Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunkel, M. L.; Parkinson, S.; Blestrud, D.; Holbrook, V. P.

    2014-12-01

    Idaho Power Company (IPC) is a hydroelectric based utility serving over a million customers in southern Idaho and eastern Oregon. Hydropower makes up ~50% of our power generation and accurate predictions of streamflow and precipitation drive our long-term planning and decision support for operations. We investigate the use of a multi-model ensemble approach for mid and long-range streamflow and precipitation forecasts throughout the Snake River Basin. Forecast are prepared using an Idaho Power developed ensemble forecasting technique for 89 locations throughout the Snake River Basin for periods of 3 to 18 months in advance. A series of multivariable linear regression, multivariable non-linear regression and multivariable Kalman filter techniques are combined in an ensemble forecast based upon two data types, historical data (streamflow, precipitation, climate indices [i.e. PDO, ENSO, AO, etc…]) and single value decomposition derived values based upon atmospheric heights and sea surface temperatures.

  13. Combined Economic and Hydrologic Modeling to Support Collaborative Decision Making Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheer, D. P.

    2008-12-01

    For more than a decade, the core concept of the author's efforts in support of collaborative decision making has been a combination of hydrologic simulation and multi-objective optimization. The modeling has generally been used to support collaborative decision making processes. The OASIS model developed by HydroLogics Inc. solves a multi-objective optimization at each time step using a mixed integer linear program (MILP). The MILP can be configured to include any user defined objective, including but not limited too economic objectives. For example, an estimated marginal value for water for crops and M&I use were included in the objective function to drive trades in a model of the lower Rio Grande. The formulation of the MILP, constraints and objectives, in any time step is conditional: it changes based on the value of state variables and dynamic external forcing functions, such as rainfall, hydrology, market prices, arrival of migratory fish, water temperature, etc. It therefore acts as a dynamic short term multi-objective economic optimization for each time step. MILP is capable of solving a general problem that includes a very realistic representation of the physical system characteristics in addition to the normal multi-objective optimization objectives and constraints included in economic models. In all of these models, the short term objective function is a surrogate for achieving long term multi-objective results. The long term performance for any alternative (especially including operating strategies) is evaluated by simulation. An operating rule is the combination of conditions, parameters, constraints and objectives used to determine the formulation of the short term optimization in each time step. Heuristic wrappers for the simulation program have been developed improve the parameters of an operating rule, and are initiating research on a wrapper that will allow us to employ a genetic algorithm to improve the form of the rule (conditions, constraints

  14. Factors Affecting Location Decisions of Food Processing Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turhan, Sule; Canan Ozbag, Basak; Cetin, Bahattin

    The main aim of this study is to examine the determinants of location choices for food processing plants using the results of 59 personal surveys. The 61.3% of the food processing plants that were interviewed are small scale plants, 9.1% are large scale plants and 29.6% are medium scale plants. Sixteen of the firms process vegetables, 12 process poultry, 12 process dairy and 9 process seafood products. Business climate factors are divided into six categories (market, infrastructure, raw material, labor, personal and environmental) and 17 specific location factors are considered. The survey responses are analyzed by types of raw materials processed and by plant size. 43.7, 55.3 and 42.2% of the respondents cited categories of Market, Raw Material and Infrastructure respectively as important, while 44.3, 50.7 and 74.4% of the respondents cited, labor, personal and environmental regulation categories of as not important. Thus survey findings indicate that plant location choices are mainly driven by market, raw material and infra structural factors. Environmental factors such as environmental regulations and permissions are relatively insignificant.

  15. Neural representations of confidence emerge from the process of decision formation during perceptual choices.

    PubMed

    Gherman, Sabina; Philiastides, Marios G

    2015-02-01

    Choice confidence represents the degree of belief that one's actions are likely to be correct or rewarding and plays a critical role in optimizing our decisions. Despite progress in understanding the neurobiology of human perceptual decision-making, little is known about the representation of confidence. Importantly, it remains unclear whether confidence forms an integral part of the decision process itself or represents a purely post-decisional signal. To address this issue we employed a paradigm whereby on some trials, prior to indicating their decision, participants could opt-out of the task for a small but certain reward. This manipulation captured participants' confidence on individual trials and allowed us to discriminate between electroencephalographic signals associated with certain-vs.-uncertain trials. Discrimination increased gradually and peaked well before participants indicated their choice. These signals exhibited a temporal profile consistent with a process of evidence accumulation, culminating at time of peak discrimination. Moreover, trial-by-trial fluctuations in the accumulation rate of nominally identical stimuli were predictive of participants' likelihood to opt-out of the task, suggesting that confidence emerges from the decision process itself and is computed continuously as the process unfolds. Correspondingly, source reconstruction placed these signals in regions previously implicated in decision making, within the prefrontal and parietal cortices. Crucially, control analyses ensured that these results could not be explained by stimulus difficulty, lapses in attention or decision accuracy.

  16. Collaborative distributed sensor management for multitarget tracking using hierarchical Markov decision processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akselrod, D.; Sinha, A.; Kirubarajan, T.

    2007-09-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of collaborative sensor management with particular application to using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for multitarget tracking. The problem of decentralized cooperative control considered in this paper is an optimization of the information obtained by a number of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) equipped with Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) radars, carrying out surveillance over a region which includes a number of confirmed and suspected moving targets. The goal is to track confirmed targets and detect new targets in the area. Each UAV has to decide on the most optimal path with the objective to track as many targets as possible maximizing the information obtained during its operation with the maximum possible accuracy at the lowest possible cost. Limited communication between UAVs and uncertainty in the information obtained by each UAV regarding the location of the ground targets are addressed in the problem formulation. In order to handle these issues, the problem is presented as a decentralized operation of a group of decision-makers lacking full observability of the global state of the system. Markov Decision Processes (MDPs) are incorporated into the solution. Given the MDP model, a local policy of actions for a single agent (UAV) is given by a mapping from a current partial view of a global state observed by an agent to actions. The available probability model regarding possible and confirmed locations of the targets is considered in the computations of the UAVs' policies. The authors present multi-level hierarchy of MDPs controlling each of the UAVs. Each level in the hierarchy solves a problem at a different level of abstraction. Simulation results are presented on a representative multisensor-multitarget tracking problem.

  17. Processes of particle deposition in membrane operation and fabrication.

    PubMed

    Wiesner, M R; Tarabara, V; Cortalezzi, M

    2005-01-01

    The processes that control particle deposition on surfaces that are of interest in understanding operational aspects of membrane filtration, also hold significance in controlling the morphology of particle deposits as intermediate steps in membrane fabrication. This paper summarizes processes controlling particle deposit morphology. The implications of these processes for understanding membrane fouling by particles and in fabricating membranes are then considered.

  18. Processes of particle deposition in membrane operation and fabrication.

    PubMed

    Wiesner, M R; Tarabara, V; Cortalezzi, M

    2005-01-01

    The processes that control particle deposition on surfaces that are of interest in understanding operational aspects of membrane filtration, also hold significance in controlling the morphology of particle deposits as intermediate steps in membrane fabrication. This paper summarizes processes controlling particle deposit morphology. The implications of these processes for understanding membrane fouling by particles and in fabricating membranes are then considered. PMID:16003995

  19. 9 CFR 590.547 - Albumen flake process drying operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Albumen flake process drying operations. 590.547 Section 590.547 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.547 Albumen flake process...

  20. 9 CFR 590.547 - Albumen flake process drying operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Albumen flake process drying operations. 590.547 Section 590.547 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.547 Albumen flake process...

  1. 9 CFR 590.547 - Albumen flake process drying operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Albumen flake process drying operations. 590.547 Section 590.547 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.547 Albumen flake process...

  2. 9 CFR 590.547 - Albumen flake process drying operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Albumen flake process drying operations. 590.547 Section 590.547 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.547 Albumen flake process...

  3. Live and let die: existential decision processes in a fatal disease.

    PubMed

    Lulé, Dorothée; Nonnenmacher, Sonja; Sorg, Sonja; Heimrath, Johanna; Hautzinger, Martin; Meyer, Thomas; Kübler, Andrea; Birbaumer, Niels; Ludolph, Albert C

    2014-03-01

    Decisions and determinants of decisions to prolong or shorten life in the course of fatal diseases like ALS are poorly understood. Decisions and desire for hastened death of N = 93 ALS patients were investigated in a prospective longitudinal approach three times in the course of 1 year. Determinants of decisions were evaluated: quality of life (QoL), depression, feeling of being a burden, physical function, social support and cognitive status. More than half of patients had a positive attitude towards life-sustaining treatments and they had a low desire for hastened death. Of those with undecided or negative attitude, 10 % changed attitudes towards life-sustaining treatments in the course of 1 year. Patients' desire to hasten death was low and decreased significantly within 1 year despite physical function decline. Those with a high desire for hastened death decided against invasive therapeutic treatments. QoL, depression and social support were not predictors for vital decisions and remained stable. Feeling of being a burden was a predictor for decisions against life-supporting treatments. Throughout physical function loss, decisions to prolong life are flexibly adapted while desire to shorten life declines. QoL was stable and not a predictor for vital decisions, even though anticipated low QoL has been reported to be the reason to request euthanasia. In contrast, feeling of being a burden in decision making needs more attention in clinical counselling. Considering a patient's possible adaptation processes in the course of a fatal disease is necessary.

  4. Integrating Strategic and Operational Decision Making Using Data-Driven Dashboards: The Case of St. Joseph Mercy Oakland Hospital.

    PubMed

    Jack Weiner; Balijepally, Venugopal; Tanniru, Mohan

    2015-01-01

    Hospitals have invested and continue to invest heavily in building information systems to support operations at various levels of administration. These systems generate a lot of data but fail to effectively convert these data into actionable information for decision makers. Such ineffectiveness often is attributed to a lack of alignment between strategic planning and information technology (IT) initiatives supporting operational goals. We present a case study that illustrates how the use of digital dashboards at St. Joseph Mercy Oakland (SJMO) Hospital in Pontiac, Michigan, was instrumental in supporting such an alignment. Driven by a focus on key performance indicators (KPIs), dashboard applications also led to other tangible and intangible benefits. An ability to track KPIs over time and against established targets, with drill-down capabilities, allowed leadership to hold staff members accountable for achieving their performance targets. By displaying the dashboards in prominent locations (such as operational unit floors, the physicians' cafeteria, and nursing stations), SJMO ushered in transparency in the planning and monitoring processes. The need to develop KPI metrics and drive data collection efforts became ingrained in the work ethos of people at every level of the organization. Although IT-enabled dashboards have been instrumental in supporting this cultural transformation, the focus of investment was the ability of technology to make collective vision and action the responsibility of all stakeholders.

  5. Integrating Strategic and Operational Decision Making Using Data-Driven Dashboards: The Case of St. Joseph Mercy Oakland Hospital.

    PubMed

    Jack Weiner; Balijepally, Venugopal; Tanniru, Mohan

    2015-01-01

    Hospitals have invested and continue to invest heavily in building information systems to support operations at various levels of administration. These systems generate a lot of data but fail to effectively convert these data into actionable information for decision makers. Such ineffectiveness often is attributed to a lack of alignment between strategic planning and information technology (IT) initiatives supporting operational goals. We present a case study that illustrates how the use of digital dashboards at St. Joseph Mercy Oakland (SJMO) Hospital in Pontiac, Michigan, was instrumental in supporting such an alignment. Driven by a focus on key performance indicators (KPIs), dashboard applications also led to other tangible and intangible benefits. An ability to track KPIs over time and against established targets, with drill-down capabilities, allowed leadership to hold staff members accountable for achieving their performance targets. By displaying the dashboards in prominent locations (such as operational unit floors, the physicians' cafeteria, and nursing stations), SJMO ushered in transparency in the planning and monitoring processes. The need to develop KPI metrics and drive data collection efforts became ingrained in the work ethos of people at every level of the organization. Although IT-enabled dashboards have been instrumental in supporting this cultural transformation, the focus of investment was the ability of technology to make collective vision and action the responsibility of all stakeholders. PMID:26554142

  6. Dual Processing Model for Medical Decision-Making: An Extension to Diagnostic Testing.

    PubMed

    Tsalatsanis, Athanasios; Hozo, Iztok; Kumar, Ambuj; Djulbegovic, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Dual Processing Theories (DPT) assume that human cognition is governed by two distinct types of processes typically referred to as type 1 (intuitive) and type 2 (deliberative). Based on DPT we have derived a Dual Processing Model (DPM) to describe and explain therapeutic medical decision-making. The DPM model indicates that doctors decide to treat when treatment benefits outweigh its harms, which occurs when the probability of the disease is greater than the so called "threshold probability" at which treatment benefits are equal to treatment harms. Here we extend our work to include a wider class of decision problems that involve diagnostic testing. We illustrate applicability of the proposed model in a typical clinical scenario considering the management of a patient with prostate cancer. To that end, we calculate and compare two types of decision-thresholds: one that adheres to expected utility theory (EUT) and the second according to DPM. Our results showed that the decisions to administer a diagnostic test could be better explained using the DPM threshold. This is because such decisions depend on objective evidence of test/treatment benefits and harms as well as type 1 cognition of benefits and harms, which are not considered under EUT. Given that type 1 processes are unique to each decision-maker, this means that the DPM threshold will vary among different individuals. We also showed that when type 1 processes exclusively dominate decisions, ordering a diagnostic test does not affect a decision; the decision is based on the assessment of benefits and harms of treatment. These findings could explain variations in the treatment and diagnostic patterns documented in today's clinical practice.

  7. Dual Processing Model for Medical Decision-Making: An Extension to Diagnostic Testing.

    PubMed

    Tsalatsanis, Athanasios; Hozo, Iztok; Kumar, Ambuj; Djulbegovic, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Dual Processing Theories (DPT) assume that human cognition is governed by two distinct types of processes typically referred to as type 1 (intuitive) and type 2 (deliberative). Based on DPT we have derived a Dual Processing Model (DPM) to describe and explain therapeutic medical decision-making. The DPM model indicates that doctors decide to treat when treatment benefits outweigh its harms, which occurs when the probability of the disease is greater than the so called "threshold probability" at which treatment benefits are equal to treatment harms. Here we extend our work to include a wider class of decision problems that involve diagnostic testing. We illustrate applicability of the proposed model in a typical clinical scenario considering the management of a patient with prostate cancer. To that end, we calculate and compare two types of decision-thresholds: one that adheres to expected utility theory (EUT) and the second according to DPM. Our results showed that the decisions to administer a diagnostic test could be better explained using the DPM threshold. This is because such decisions depend on objective evidence of test/treatment benefits and harms as well as type 1 cognition of benefits and harms, which are not considered under EUT. Given that type 1 processes are unique to each decision-maker, this means that the DPM threshold will vary among different individuals. We also showed that when type 1 processes exclusively dominate decisions, ordering a diagnostic test does not affect a decision; the decision is based on the assessment of benefits and harms of treatment. These findings could explain variations in the treatment and diagnostic patterns documented in today's clinical practice. PMID:26244571

  8. Learning to maximize reward rate: a model based on semi-Markov decision processes.

    PubMed

    Khodadadi, Arash; Fakhari, Pegah; Busemeyer, Jerome R

    2014-01-01

    WHEN ANIMALS HAVE TO MAKE A NUMBER OF DECISIONS DURING A LIMITED TIME INTERVAL, THEY FACE A FUNDAMENTAL PROBLEM: how much time they should spend on each decision in order to achieve the maximum possible total outcome. Deliberating more on one decision usually leads to more outcome but less time will remain for other decisions. In the framework of sequential sampling models, the question is how animals learn to set their decision threshold such that the total expected outcome achieved during a limited time is maximized. The aim of this paper is to provide a theoretical framework for answering this question. To this end, we consider an experimental design in which each trial can come from one of the several possible "conditions." A condition specifies the difficulty of the trial, the reward, the penalty and so on. We show that to maximize the expected reward during a limited time, the subject should set a separate value of decision threshold for each condition. We propose a model of learning the optimal value of decision thresholds based on the theory of semi-Markov decision processes (SMDP). In our model, the experimental environment is modeled as an SMDP with each "condition" being a "state" and the value of decision thresholds being the "actions" taken in those states. The problem of finding the optimal decision thresholds then is cast as the stochastic optimal control problem of taking actions in each state in the corresponding SMDP such that the average reward rate is maximized. Our model utilizes a biologically plausible learning algorithm to solve this problem. The simulation results show that at the beginning of learning the model choses high values of decision threshold which lead to sub-optimal performance. With experience, however, the model learns to lower the value of decision thresholds till finally it finds the optimal values.

  9. Learning to maximize reward rate: a model based on semi-Markov decision processes

    PubMed Central

    Khodadadi, Arash; Fakhari, Pegah; Busemeyer, Jerome R.

    2014-01-01

    When animals have to make a number of decisions during a limited time interval, they face a fundamental problem: how much time they should spend on each decision in order to achieve the maximum possible total outcome. Deliberating more on one decision usually leads to more outcome but less time will remain for other decisions. In the framework of sequential sampling models, the question is how animals learn to set their decision threshold such that the total expected outcome achieved during a limited time is maximized. The aim of this paper is to provide a theoretical framework for answering this question. To this end, we consider an experimental design in which each trial can come from one of the several possible “conditions.” A condition specifies the difficulty of the trial, the reward, the penalty and so on. We show that to maximize the expected reward during a limited time, the subject should set a separate value of decision threshold for each condition. We propose a model of learning the optimal value of decision thresholds based on the theory of semi-Markov decision processes (SMDP). In our model, the experimental environment is modeled as an SMDP with each “condition” being a “state” and the value of decision thresholds being the “actions” taken in those states. The problem of finding the optimal decision thresholds then is cast as the stochastic optimal control problem of taking actions in each state in the corresponding SMDP such that the average reward rate is maximized. Our model utilizes a biologically plausible learning algorithm to solve this problem. The simulation results show that at the beginning of learning the model choses high values of decision threshold which lead to sub-optimal performance. With experience, however, the model learns to lower the value of decision thresholds till finally it finds the optimal values. PMID:24904252

  10. Explanation of Significant Differences for the Record of Decision for the Test Area North Operable Unit 1-10

    SciTech Connect

    D. L. Eaton

    2007-01-18

    This Explanation of Significant Differences (ESD) applies to the remedial actions performed under the Final Record of Decision for Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-1 0, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (DOE-ID 1999) as amended by the Explanation of Significant Differences for the Record of Decision for the Test Area North Operable Unit 1-10 (DOE-ID 2003), the Record of Decision Amendment for the V-Tanks (TSF-09 and TSF-18) and Explanation of Significant Differences for the PM-2A Tanks (TSF-26) and TSF-06, Area IO, at Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-1 0 (DOE-ID 2004a), and the Explanation of Significant Differences for the Record of Decision for the Test Area North Operable Unit 1-10 (DOE-ID 2005). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho Operations Office; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 10; and the Idaho Department of Health and Welfare-now identified as the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ)-signed the Record of Decision (ROD) in December 1999, the 2003 ESD in April 2003, the ROD Amendment/ESD in February 2004, and the 2005 ESD in January 2005. The EPA and DEQ support the need for this ESD.

  11. Data Processing at KAGUYA Operation and Analysis Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, Hirokazu; Yamamoto, Yukio; Sobue, Shin-Ichi; Yonekura, Katsuhide; Ogawa, Mina; Iwana, Yasunori; Matsui, Kai; Okumura, Hayato; Kato, Manabu

    2010-07-01

    The functions of KAGUYA(SELENE) Operation and Analysis Center (SOAC) are to operate three satellites: the main orbiter KAGUYA and two small satellites, Relay satellite OKINA and VRAD (VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometry) RADio source) satellite OUNA; and to process, archive and provide mission data. SOAC has two main functional areas, “Tracking and Control system” and “Mission Operation and Data Analysis system.” The former is for operational planning of bus and mission instruments including satellite navigation, and for the implementation of those plans and for the evaluation of satellite conditions. The latter is the system that processes, archives and provides mission data, and which principal investigators use to generate higher-level data products. Data up to the end of the operation in June 2009 have been processed and the total amount of Level-2 data products reaches about 50 TB. The data products have been released to the public since November 2009.

  12. Assessment of a decision aid to assist genetic testing research participants in the informed consent process.

    PubMed

    Sorenson, J R; Lakon, C; Spinney, T; Jennings-Grant, T

    2004-01-01

    Limited attention has been given to applying decision-making theories from psychology to the content and process of informed consent in genetic testing research. Data are presented from a study that developed and assessed a psychological theory-based decision aid as part of the informed consent process. This innovative approach assisted at-risk women in assessing the consequences of participating in a research project that offered them free hemophilia A genetic carrier testing. Results suggest: (1) the decision aid can be incorporated into the consent process with few problems; (2) women of varying educational backgrounds can complete the decision aid; (3) while women consider many consequences of genetic testing, their primary focus is on the implications for their family; and (4) this is in marked contrast to the typical benefit-harm statements prepared by researchers for genetic testing.

  13. Relative Saliency in Change Signals Affects Perceptual Comparison and Decision Processes in Change Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Cheng-Ta

    2011-01-01

    Change detection requires perceptual comparison and decision processes on different features of multiattribute objects. How relative salience between two feature-changes influences the processes has not been addressed. This study used the systems factorial technology to investigate the processes when detecting changes in a Gabor patch with visual…

  14. Word Processing as Decision-Making: Writers' Choices of Writing Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Christina

    A study examined two writers and their use of word processing and pen and paper in order to set up and draw out the important variables that influence writers' decisions about word processing. Subjects, a college freshman and an engineer, were interviewed about their writing processes and were observed in their natural environment. Results…

  15. 19. VIEW OF PROCESSING ROOM. AFTER 1957, BUILDING 771 OPERATIONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. VIEW OF PROCESSING ROOM. AFTER 1957, BUILDING 771 OPERATIONS CONSISTED PRIMARILY OF AQUEOUS PLUTONIUM RECOVERY FROM SCRAP METAL. (6/20/60) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery & Fabrication Facility, North-central section of plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  16. Systems engineering and integration processes involved with manned mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kranz, Eugene F.; Kraft, Christopher C.

    1993-01-01

    This paper will discuss three mission operations functions that are illustrative of the key principles of operations SE&I and of the processes and products involved. The flight systems process was selected to illustrate the role of the systems product line in developing the depth and cross disciplinary skills needed for SE&I and providing the foundation for dialogue between participating elements. FDDD was selected to illustrate the need for a structured process to assure that SE&I provides complete and accurate results that consistently support program needs. The flight director's role in mission operations was selected to illustrate the complexity of the risk/gain tradeoffs involved in the development of the flight techniques and flight rules process as well as the absolute importance of the leadership role in developing the technical, operational, and political trades.

  17. Involvement of Women in the Governance Process: Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radley, Virginia L.

    This document somewhat humorously deals with the topic of women's participation in the administrative process. The author commences by presenting procedures necessary for women to achieve success in administrative circles acceptable to academic deans of the "old school." Then she presents the qualities necessary to be accepted by the personnel…

  18. Structuring Information to Enhance Human Information Processing and Decision Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harries-Belck, Nancy

    1978-01-01

    A pretest-posttest research design was used to measure changes in three criterion variables of 150 students enrolled in an undergraduate textile class using programmed instructional materials. Findings have implications for the design of organized learning sequences to help individuals process information more efficiently for complex…

  19. METHODS FOR INTEGRATING ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS INTO CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN DECISIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this cooperative agreement was to postulate a means by which an engineer could routinely include environmental considerations in day-to-day conceptual design problems; a means that could easily integrate with existing design processes, and thus avoid massive retr...

  20. Operational Control Procedures for the Activated Sludge Process: Appendix.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Alfred W.

    This document is the appendix for a series of documents developed by the National Training and Operational Technology Center describing operational control procedures for the activated sludge process used in wastewater treatment. Categories discussed include: control test data, trend charts, moving averages, semi-logarithmic plots, probability…

  1. Efficient Nonlinear Programming Algorithms for Chemical Process Control and Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biegler, Lorenz T.

    Optimization is applied in numerous areas of chemical engineering including the development of process models from experimental data, design of process flowsheets and equipment, planning and scheduling of chemical process operations, and the analysis of chemical processes under uncertainty and adverse conditions. These off-line tasks require the solution of nonlinear programs (NLPs) with detailed, large-scale process models. Recently, these tasks have been complemented by time-critical, on-line optimization problems with differential-algebraic equation (DAE) process models that describe process behavior over a wide range of operating conditions, and must be solved sufficiently quickly. This paper describes recent advances in this area especially with dynamic models. We outline large-scale NLP formulations and algorithms as well as NLP sensitivity for on-line applications, and illustrate these advances on a commercial-scale low density polyethylene (LDPE) process.

  2. A neurocognitive model of the ethical decision-making process: implications for study and practice.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Scott J

    2006-07-01

    The field of business ethics is entrenched in a cognitive approach that portrays the ethical decision-making process as a completely deliberate and reasoned exercise. In light of growing concerns about the veracity of this approach, I build upon current knowledge of how the brain functions to present a neurocognitive model of ethical decision making. The model suggests that ethical decision making involves 2 interrelated yet functionally distinct cycles, a reflexive pattern matching cycle and a higher order conscious reasoning cycle, and thereby describes not only reasoned analysis, but also the intuitive and retrospective aspects of ethical decision making. The model sparks research in new areas, holds significant implications for the study of ethical decision making, and provides suggestions for improving ethical behavior in organizations.

  3. [Decision-making process and administrative practice: managing the State Health Secretariat in Bahia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Coelho, Thereza Christina Bahia; Paim, Jairnilson Silva

    2005-01-01

    This case study is based on research performed by the Bahia State Health Secretariat (SESAB), aimed at analyzing management practices during the implementation of a State government administrative reform. The institutional agenda shows evidence of limited participation by civil society and technical and operational staff in problem selection and prioritization, resulting from a work process pressured by high-level executive government staff. Decisions regarding "output" (projects, services, and activities) were made under the responsibility of subordinate operational levels and did not appear as issues in the institutional routine. Concerns related to "input" (financial and human resources) consumed most of the high-level efforts, with internal and external negotiations and compromises to assure access to them. Meanwhile the possible "outcome", namely public health status, represents the "occult subject" of the institutional discourse. Information emerges in institutional disputes as a technical "power resource" in its medical, epidemiological, health, and administrative dimensions. The issue of government "representation" and allied interests is based on ideological dispositions and authoritarian practices, thus contradicting the need for management transparency and modernization. PMID:16158142

  4. Sensor fault diagnosis with a probabilistic decision process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifi, Reza; Langari, Reza

    2013-01-01

    In this paper a probabilistic approach to sensor fault diagnosis is presented. The proposed method is applicable to systems whose dynamic can be approximated with only few active states, especially in process control where we usually have a relatively slow dynamics. Unlike most existing probabilistic approaches to fault diagnosis, which are based on Bayesian Belief Networks, in this approach the probabilistic model is directly extracted from a parity equation. The relevant parity equation can be found using a model of the system or through principal component analysis of data measured from the system. In addition, a sensor detectability index is introduced that specifies the level of detectability of sensor faults in a set of analytically redundant sensors. This index depends only on the internal relationships of the variables of the system and noise level. The method is tested on a model of the Tennessee Eastman process and the result shows a fast and reliable prediction of fault in the detectable sensors.

  5. [A new classification of pancreatic cancer to guide operative decisions and the comparison with the TNM stage].

    PubMed

    Qin, Renyi

    2015-07-01

    Despite the worldwide application of various terminological and classification systems used for pancreatic cancer, such as UICC classification and JPS classification based on the TNM system, however, little information on their use in operative decision-making is available. A new classification system according to the relationship with the tumor and key vasculature around the pancreas is described, and the pancreatic carcinomas are divided into eight types to provide operative decisions for different types of pancreatic cancer. Furthermore, the relationship between the classification system and TNM system is discussed. The new classification is the first time to discuss the classification for the operative decisions for the pancreatic cancer and this formalized type of approach may provide the best chance of achieving R0 resection and providing improved safety results. PMID:26359069

  6. Diagnostic accuracy and receiver-operating characteristics curve analysis in surgical research and decision making.

    PubMed

    Søreide, Kjetil; Kørner, Hartwig; Søreide, Jon Arne

    2011-01-01

    In surgical research, the ability to correctly classify one type of condition or specific outcome from another is of great importance for variables influencing clinical decision making. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis is a useful tool in assessing the diagnostic accuracy of any variable with a continuous spectrum of results. In order to rule a disease state in or out with a given test, the test results are usually binary, with arbitrarily chosen cut-offs for defining disease versus health, or for grading of disease severity. In the postgenomic era, the translation from bench-to-bedside of biomarkers in various tissues and body fluids requires appropriate tools for analysis. In contrast to predetermining a cut-off value to define disease, the advantages of applying ROC analysis include the ability to test diagnostic accuracy across the entire range of variable scores and test outcomes. In addition, ROC analysis can easily examine visual and statistical comparisons across tests or scores. ROC is also favored because it is thought to be independent from the prevalence of the condition under investigation. ROC analysis is used in various surgical settings and across disciplines, including cancer research, biomarker assessment, imaging evaluation, and assessment of risk scores.With appropriate use, ROC curves may help identify the most appropriate cutoff value for clinical and surgical decision making and avoid confounding effects seen with subjective ratings. ROC curve results should always be put in perspective, because a good classifier does not guarantee the expected clinical outcome. In this review, we discuss the fundamental roles, suggested presentation, potential biases, and interpretation of ROC analysis in surgical research.

  7. Record of Decision for Tank Farm Soil and INTEC Groundwater, Operable Unit 3-14

    SciTech Connect

    L. S. Cahn

    2007-05-16

    This decision document presents the selected remedy for Operable Unit (OU) 3-14 tank farm soil and groundwater at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), which is located on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site. The tank farm was initially evaluated in the OU 3-13 Record of Decision (ROD), and it was determined that additional information was needed to make a final decision. Additional information has been obtained on the nature and extent of contamination in the tank farm and on the impact to groundwater. The selected remedy was chosen in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Liability and Compensation Act of 1980 (CERCLA) (42 USC 9601 et seq.), as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) and the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (40 CFR 300). The selected remedy is intended to be the final action for tank farm soil and groundwater at INTEC. The response action selected in this ROD is necessary to protect the public health, welfare, or the environment from actual or threatened releases of hazardous substances into the environment. Such a release or threat of release may present an imminent and substantial endangerment to public health, welfare, or the environment. The remedial actions selected in this ROD are designed to reduce the potential threats to human health and the environment to acceptable levels. In addition, DOE-ID, EPA, and DEQ (the Agencies) have determined that no action is necessary under CERCLA to protect public health, welfare, or the environment at 16 sites located outside the tank farm boundary. The purposes of the selected remedy are to (1) contain contaminated soil as the radionuclides decay in place, (2) isolate current and future workers and biological receptors from contact with contaminated soil, and (3) restore the portion of Snake River Plain Aquifer contaminated by INTEC releases to Idaho Ground Water Quality

  8. Theory of mind and decision-making processes are impaired in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Xi, Chunhua; Zhu, Youling; Mu, Yanfang; Chen, Bing; Dong, Bin; Cheng, Huaidong; Hu, Panpan; Zhu, Chunyan; Wang, Kai

    2015-02-15

    Prefrontal cortex plays a vital role in the theory of mind (ToM) and decision making, as shown in functional brain imaging and lesion studies. Considering the primary neuropathology of Parkinson's disease (PD) involving the frontal lobe system, patients with PD are expected to exhibit deficits in ToM and social decision making. The aim of this study was to investigate affective ToM and decision making in patients with PD and healthy controls (HC) in a task assessing affective ToM (Reading the Mind in the Eyes, RME) and two decision-making tasks (Iowa Gambling Task, IGT; Game of Dice Task, GDT). Consistent with previous findings, patients with PD were impaired in the affective ToM task, and when making decisions under ambiguity and in risk situations. The score of emotion recognition in the RME task was negatively correlated with the severity of the disease and positively correlated with the total number of advantageous cards chosen in the IGT. However, the final capital in the GDT was correlated with memory impairment. The present study implies that affective ToM and decision making under ambiguity may share similar neural mechanisms, while decision making under ambiguity and decision making under risk may involve processing within different neural networks. PMID:25435317

  9. The prediction of breast cancer biopsy outcomes using two CAD approaches that both emphasize an intelligible decision process

    SciTech Connect

    Elter, M.; Schulz-Wendtland, R.; Wittenberg, T.

    2007-11-15

    Mammography is the most effective method for breast cancer screening available today. However, the low positive predictive value of breast biopsy resulting from mammogram interpretation leads to approximately 70% unnecessary biopsies with benign outcomes. To reduce the high number of unnecessary breast biopsies, several computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems have been proposed in the last several years. These systems help physicians in their decision to perform a breast biopsy on a suspicious lesion seen in a mammogram or to perform a short term follow-up examination instead. We present two novel CAD approaches that both emphasize an intelligible decision process to predict breast biopsy outcomes from BI-RADS findings. An intelligible reasoning process is an important requirement for the acceptance of CAD systems by physicians. The first approach induces a global model based on decison-tree learning. The second approach is based on case-based reasoning and applies an entropic similarity measure. We have evaluated the performance of both CAD approaches on two large publicly available mammography reference databases using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, bootstrap sampling, and the ANOVA statistical significance test. Both approaches outperform the diagnosis decisions of the physicians. Hence, both systems have the potential to reduce the number of unnecessary breast biopsies in clinical practice. A comparison of the performance of the proposed decision tree and CBR approaches with a state of the art approach based on artificial neural networks (ANN) shows that the CBR approach performs slightly better than the ANN approach, which in turn results in slightly better performance than the decision-tree approach. The differences are statistically significant (p value <0.001). On 2100 masses extracted from the DDSM database, the CRB approach for example resulted in an area under the ROC curve of A(z)=0.89{+-}0.01, the decision-tree approach in A(z)=0

  10. Detecting fast, online reasoning processes in clinical decision making.

    PubMed

    Flores, Amanda; Cobos, Pedro L; López, Francisco J; Godoy, Antonio

    2014-06-01

    In an experiment that used the inconsistency paradigm, experienced clinical psychologists and psychology students performed a reading task using clinical reports and a diagnostic judgment task. The clinical reports provided information about the symptoms of hypothetical clients who had been previously diagnosed with a specific mental disorder. Reading times of inconsistent target sentences were slower than those of control sentences, demonstrating an inconsistency effect. The results also showed that experienced clinicians gave different weights to different symptoms according to their relevance when fluently reading the clinical reports provided, despite the fact that all the symptoms were of equal diagnostic value according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; American Psychiatric Association, 2000). The diagnostic judgment task yielded a similar pattern of results. In contrast to previous findings, the results of the reading task may be taken as direct evidence of the intervention of reasoning processes that occur very early, rapidly, and online. We suggest that these processes are based on the representation of mental disorders and that these representations are particularly suited to fast retrieval from memory and to making inferences. They may also be related to the clinicians' causal reasoning. The implications of these results for clinician training are also discussed. PMID:24274045

  11. Toward theoretical understanding of the fertility preservation decision-making process: Examining information processing among young women with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hershberger, Patricia E.; Finnegan, Lorna; Altfeld, Susan; Lake, Sara; Hirshfeld-Cytron, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Background Young women with cancer now face the complex decision about whether to undergo fertility preservation. Yet little is known about how these women process information involved in making this decision. Objective The purpose of this paper is to expand theoretical understanding of the decision-making process by examining aspects of information processing among young women diagnosed with cancer. Methods Using a grounded theory approach, 27 women with cancer participated in individual, semi-structured interviews. Data were coded and analyzed using constant-comparison techniques that were guided by five dimensions within the Contemplate phase of the decision-making process framework. Results In the first dimension, young women acquired information primarily from clinicians and Internet sources. Experiential information, often obtained from peers, occurred in the second dimension. Preferences and values were constructed in the third dimension as women acquired factual, moral, and ethical information. Women desired tailored, personalized information that was specific to their situation in the fourth dimension; however, women struggled with communicating these needs to clinicians. In the fifth dimension, women offered detailed descriptions of clinician behaviors that enhance or impede decisional debriefing. Conclusion Better understanding of theoretical underpinnings surrounding women’s information processes can facilitate decision support and improve clinical care. PMID:24552086

  12. Getting ocean acidification on decision makers' to-do lists: dissecting the process through case studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooley, Sarah R.; Jewett, Elizabeth B.; Reichert, Julie; Robbins, Lisa L.; Shrestha, Gyami; Wieczorek, Dan; Weisberg, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    Much of the detailed, incremental knowledge being generated by current scientific research on ocean acidification (OA) does not directly address the needs of decision makers, who are asking broad questions such as: Where will OA harm marine resources next? When will this happen? Who will be affected? And how much will it cost? In this review, we use a series of mainly US-based case studies to explore the needs of local to international-scale groups that are making decisions to address OA concerns. Decisions concerning OA have been made most naturally and easily when information needs were clearly defined and closely aligned with science outputs and initiatives. For decisions requiring more complex information, the process slows dramatically. Decision making about OA is greatly aided (1) when a mixture of specialists participates, including scientists, resource users and managers, and policy and law makers; (2) when goals can be clearly agreed upon at the beginning of the process; (3) when mixed groups of specialists plan and create translational documents explaining the likely outcomes of policy decisions on ecosystems and natural resources; (4) when regional work on OA fits into an existing set of priorities concerning climate or water quality; and (5) when decision making can be reviewed and enhanced.

  13. Patient participation in the medical decision-making process in haemato-oncology--a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Ernst, J; Berger, S; Weißflog, G; Schröder, C; Körner, A; Niederwieser, D; Brähler, E; Singer, S

    2013-09-01

    Cancer patients are showing increased interest in shared decision-making. Patients with haematological illnesses, however, express considerably less desire for shared decision-making as compared with other oncological patient groups. The goal of the current project was to identify the reasons for the lower desire for shared decision-making among patients with haematological illness. We conducted qualitative, semi-structured interviews with 11 haematological patients (39-70 years old) after the beginning of therapy concerning the course and evaluation of medical shared decision-making. The patients were often overwhelmed by the complexity of the illness and the therapy and did not want to assume any responsibility in medical decision-making. They reported a great deal of distress and very traditional paternalistic role expectations with regards to their health care providers, which limited the patients' ability to partake in the decision-making process. In contrast to the socio-cultural support for many other oncological diseases, haematological diseases are not as well supported, e.g. there is a lack of self-help materials, systematic provision of information and support groups for patients, which may be related to a lower empowerment of this patient population. Results show the limits of patient participation in the context of highly complicated medical conditions. In addition to already researched preferences of the physicians and patients for shared decision-making, future research should pay greater attention to the process and other variables relevant to this aspect of the doctor-patient relationship.

  14. Launch processing system operations with a future look to operations analyst (OPERA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heard, Astrid E.

    The launch processing system at Kennedy Space Center is used to process a Shuttle vehicle from its initial arrival in an Orbiter processing facility to a launch pad. This paper describes the launch processing system architecture and the ground support operations required to provide Shuttle system engineers with the capability to safely process and launch an Orbiter. The described ground operations are the culmination of 11 years of experience and redesign. In this paper, I examine some of the "lessons learned" and discuss problem areas which ground support operations have identified over the years as the Shuttle and launch processing systems continue to grow in complexity. As we strive to maintain the efficient level of support currently provided, some benefits have been gained through standard information management and automation techniques. However, problems requiring complex correlational analyses of information have defied resolution until artificial intelligence research developed expert system applications technology. The operational analyst for distributed systems (OPERA), a proposed set of expert systems for launch processing system operational assistance, is discussed along with its extensions to prospective future configurations and components for the launch processing system.

  15. Process for Managing and Customizing HPC Operating Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, David ML

    2014-04-02

    A process for maintaining a custom HPC operating system was developed at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) over the past ten years. This process is generic and flexible to manage continuous change as well as keep systems updated while managing communication through well defined pieces of software.

  16. Onboard Processing and Autonomous Operations on the IPEX Cubesat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve; Doubleday, Joshua; Ortega, Kevin; Flatley, Tom; Crum, Gary; Geist, Alessandro; Lin, Michael; Williams, Austin; Bellardo, John; Puig-Suari, Jordi; Stanton, Eric; Yee, Edmond

    2012-01-01

    IPEX is a 1u Cubesat sponsored by NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO), the goals or which are: (1) Flight validate high performance flight computing, (2) Flight validate onboard instrument data processing product generation software, (3) flight validate autonomous operations for instrument processing, (4) enhance NASA outreach and university ties.

  17. Design requirements for operational earth resources ground data processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, C. J.; Bradford, L. H.; Burnett, E. S.; Hutson, D. E.; Kinsler, B. A.; Kugle, D. R.; Webber, D. S.

    1972-01-01

    Realistic tradeoff data and evaluation techniques were studied that permit conceptual design of operational earth resources ground processing systems. Methodology for determining user requirements that utilize the limited information available from users is presented along with definitions of sensor capabilities projected into the shuttle/station era. A tentative method is presented for synthesizing candidate ground processing concepts.

  18. The purchase decision process and involvement of the elderly regarding nonprescription products.

    PubMed

    Reisenwitz, T H; Wimbish, G J

    1997-01-01

    The elderly or senior citizen is a large and growing market segment that purchases a disproportionate amount of health care products, particularly nonprescription products. This study attempts to examine the elderly's level of involvement (high versus low) and their purchase decision process regarding nonprescription or over-the-counter (OTC) products. Frequencies and percentages are calculated to indicate level of involvement as well as purchase decision behavior. Previous research is critiqued and managerial implications are discussed.

  19. Magnetoencephalographic Signals Identify Stages in Real-Life Decision Processes

    PubMed Central

    Braeutigam, Sven; Stins, John F.; Rose, Steven P. R.; Swithenby, Stephen J.; Ambler, Tim

    2001-01-01

    We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to study the dynamics of neural responses in eight subjects engaged in shopping for day-to-day items from supermarket shelves. This behavior not only has personal and economic importance but also provides an example of an experience that is both personal and shared between individuals. The shopping experience enables the exploration of neural mechanisms underlying choice based on complex memories. Choosing among different brands of closely related products activated a robust sequence of signals within the first second after the presentation of the choice images. This sequence engaged first the visual cortex (80-100 ms), then as the images were analyzed, predominantly the left temporal regions (310-340 ms). At longer latency, characteristic neural activetion was found in motor speech areas (500-520 ms) for images requiring low salience choices with respect to previous (brand) memory, and in right parietal cortex for high salience choices (850-920 ms). We argue that the neural processes associated with the particular brand-choice stimulus can be separated into identifiable stages through observation of MEG responses and knowledge of functional anatomy. PMID:12018772

  20. Natural gas operations: considerations on process transients, design, and control.

    PubMed

    Manenti, Flavio

    2012-03-01

    This manuscript highlights tangible benefits deriving from the dynamic simulation and control of operational transients of natural gas processing plants. Relevant improvements in safety, controllability, operability, and flexibility are obtained not only within the traditional applications, i.e. plant start-up and shutdown, but also in certain fields apparently time-independent such as the feasibility studies of gas processing plant layout and the process design of processes. Specifically, this paper enhances the myopic steady-state approach and its main shortcomings with respect to the more detailed studies that take into consideration the non-steady state behaviors. A portion of a gas processing facility is considered as case study. Process transients, design, and control solutions apparently more appealing from a steady-state approach are compared to the corresponding dynamic simulation solutions.

  1. Tool compensation using statistical process control on complex milling operations

    SciTech Connect

    Reilly, J.M.

    1994-03-01

    In today`s competitive manufacturing environment, many companies increasingly rely on numerical control (NC) mills to produce products at a reasonable cost. Typically, this is done by producing as many features as possible at each machining operation to minimize the total number of shop hours invested per part. Consequently, the number of cutting tools involved in one operation can become quite large since NC mills have the capacity to use in excess of 100 cutting tools. As the number of cutting tools increases, the difficulty of applying optimum tool compensation grows exponentially, quickly overwhelming machine operators and engineers. A systematic method of managing tool compensation is required. The name statistical process control (SPC) suggests a technique in which statistics are used to stabilize and control a machining operation. Feedback and control theory, the study of the stabilization of electronic and mechanical systems, states that control can be established by way of a feedback network. If these concepts were combined, SPC would stabilize and control manufacturing operations through the incorporation of statistically processed feedback. In its simplest application, SPC has been used as a tool to analyze inspection data. In its most mature application, SPC can be the link that applies process feedback. The approach involves: (1) identifying the significant process variables adjusted by the operator; (2) developing mathematical relationships that convert strategic part measurements into variable adjustments; and (3) implementing SPC charts that record required adjustment to each variable.

  2. Using Communication Models to Analyze Decision-Making in the Developmental Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverblank, Francine

    This paper uses two communication models, Goffman's theatrical model and Harris' psychological model, to illustrate the communication process as it occurs in curriculum projects and to analyze the processes by which people influence each other--decision making and nondecision making. It is suggested that viewing such projects from diverse…

  3. An Assessment of Decision-Making Styles/Processes of Consumer Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertelson, Catherine L.

    1986-01-01

    Reports on a study to determine the decision-making processes and styles used by consumer education students when confronted with a consumer credit problem. Tests were administered to 27 secondary students. Findings revealed that gender determines to a great extent the process and style used. (Author/CH)

  4. Superintendents' Perceptions of Utilizing a Democratic Decision-Making Process in Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruppe, Amy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the decision-making processes of superintendents. Using a democratic lens and ethic of care, this researcher used a multiple case study design to examine two superintendents' perceptions of their processes. Analysis of interview data from the two cases showed that superintendents use a deliberative…

  5. A Dual-Process Approach to Health Risk Decision Making: The Prototype Willingness Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerrard, Meg; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Houlihan, Amy E.; Stock, Michelle L.; Pomery, Elizabeth A.

    2008-01-01

    Although dual-process models in cognitive, personality, and social psychology have stimulated a large body of research about analytic and heuristic modes of decision making, these models have seldom been applied to the study of adolescent risk behaviors. In addition, the developmental course of these two kinds of information processing, and their…

  6. Utilising Benchmarking to Inform Decision-Making at the Institutional Level: A Research-Informed Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Benchmarking has traditionally been viewed as a way to compare data only; however, its utilisation as a more investigative, research-informed process to add rigor to decision-making processes at the institutional level is gaining momentum in the higher education sector. Indeed, with recent changes in the Australian quality environment from the…

  7. Anticipatory Emotions in Decision Tasks: Covert Markers of Value or Attentional Processes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Tyler; Love, Bradley C.; Maddox, W. Todd

    2009-01-01

    Anticipatory emotions precede behavioral outcomes and provide a means to infer interactions between emotional and cognitive processes. A number of theories hold that anticipatory emotions serve as inputs to the decision process and code the value or risk associated with a stimulus. We argue that current data do not unequivocally support this…

  8. Constellation Mission Operation Working Group: ESMO Maneuver Planning Process Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moyer, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The Earth Science Mission Operation (ESMO) Project created an Independent Review Board to review our Conjunction Risk evaluation process and Maneuver Planning Process to identify improvements that safely manages mission conjunction risks, maintains ground track science requirements, and minimizes overall hours expended on High Interest Events (HIE). The Review Board is evaluating the current maneuver process which requires support by multiple groups. In the past year, there have been several changes to the processes although many prior and new concerns exist. This presentation will discuss maneuver process reviews and Board comments, ESMO assessment and path foward, ESMO future plans, recent changes and concerns.

  9. A decision support framework for characterizing and managing dermal exposures to chemicals during Emergency Management and Operations.

    PubMed

    Dotson, G Scott; Hudson, Naomi L; Maier, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Emergency Management and Operations (EMO) personnel are in need of resources and tools to assist in understanding the health risks associated with dermal exposures during chemical incidents. This article reviews available resources and presents a conceptual framework for a decision support system (DSS) that assists in characterizing and managing risk during chemical emergencies involving dermal exposures. The framework merges principles of three decision-making techniques: 1) scenario planning, 2) risk analysis, and 3) multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA). This DSS facilitates dynamic decision making during each of the distinct life cycle phases of an emergency incident (ie, preparedness, response, or recovery) and identifies EMO needs. A checklist tool provides key questions intended to guide users through the complexities of conducting a dermal risk assessment. The questions define the scope of the framework for resource identification and application to support decision-making needs. The framework consists of three primary modules: 1) resource compilation, 2) prioritization, and 3) decision. The modules systematically identify, organize, and rank relevant information resources relating to the hazards of dermal exposures to chemicals and risk management strategies. Each module is subdivided into critical elements designed to further delineate the resources based on relevant incident phase and type of information. The DSS framework provides a much needed structure based on contemporary decision analysis principles for 1) documenting key questions for EMO problem formulation and 2) a method for systematically organizing, screening, and prioritizing information resources on dermal hazards, exposures, risk characterization, and management. PMID:26663307

  10. A decision support framework for characterizing and managing dermal exposures to chemicals during Emergency Management and Operations.

    PubMed

    Dotson, G Scott; Hudson, Naomi L; Maier, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Emergency Management and Operations (EMO) personnel are in need of resources and tools to assist in understanding the health risks associated with dermal exposures during chemical incidents. This article reviews available resources and presents a conceptual framework for a decision support system (DSS) that assists in characterizing and managing risk during chemical emergencies involving dermal exposures. The framework merges principles of three decision-making techniques: 1) scenario planning, 2) risk analysis, and 3) multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA). This DSS facilitates dynamic decision making during each of the distinct life cycle phases of an emergency incident (ie, preparedness, response, or recovery) and identifies EMO needs. A checklist tool provides key questions intended to guide users through the complexities of conducting a dermal risk assessment. The questions define the scope of the framework for resource identification and application to support decision-making needs. The framework consists of three primary modules: 1) resource compilation, 2) prioritization, and 3) decision. The modules systematically identify, organize, and rank relevant information resources relating to the hazards of dermal exposures to chemicals and risk management strategies. Each module is subdivided into critical elements designed to further delineate the resources based on relevant incident phase and type of information. The DSS framework provides a much needed structure based on contemporary decision analysis principles for 1) documenting key questions for EMO problem formulation and 2) a method for systematically organizing, screening, and prioritizing information resources on dermal hazards, exposures, risk characterization, and management. PMID:26312660

  11. A decision support framework for characterizing and managing dermal exposures to chemicals during Emergency Management and Operations

    PubMed Central

    Dotson, G. Scott; Hudson, Naomi L.; Maier, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Emergency Management and Operations (EMO) personnel are in need of resources and tools to assist in understanding the health risks associated with dermal exposures during chemical incidents. This article reviews available resources and presents a conceptual framework for a decision support system (DSS) that assists in characterizing and managing risk during chemical emergencies involving dermal exposures. The framework merges principles of three decision-making techniques: 1) scenario planning, 2) risk analysis, and 3) multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA). This DSS facilitates dynamic decision making during each of the distinct life cycle phases of an emergency incident (ie, preparedness, response, or recovery) and identifies EMO needs. A checklist tool provides key questions intended to guide users through the complexities of conducting a dermal risk assessment. The questions define the scope of the framework for resource identification and application to support decision-making needs. The framework consists of three primary modules: 1) resource compilation, 2) prioritization, and 3) decision. The modules systematically identify, organize, and rank relevant information resources relating to the hazards of dermal exposures to chemicals and risk management strategies. Each module is subdivided into critical elements designed to further delineate the resources based on relevant incident phase and type of information. The DSS framework provides a much needed structure based on contemporary decision analysis principles for 1) documenting key questions for EMO problem formulation and 2) a method for systematically organizing, screening, and prioritizing information resources on dermal hazards, exposures, risk characterization, and management. PMID:26312660

  12. A decision support framework for characterizing and managing dermal exposures to chemicals during Emergency Management and Operations.

    PubMed

    Dotson, G Scott; Hudson, Naomi L; Maier, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Emergency Management and Operations (EMO) personnel are in need of resources and tools to assist in understanding the health risks associated with dermal exposures during chemical incidents. This article reviews available resources and presents a conceptual framework for a decision support system (DSS) that assists in characterizing and managing risk during chemical emergencies involving dermal exposures. The framework merges principles of three decision-making techniques: 1) scenario planning, 2) risk analysis, and 3) multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA). This DSS facilitates dynamic decision making during each of the distinct life cycle phases of an emergency incident (ie, preparedness, response, or recovery) and identifies EMO needs. A checklist tool provides key questions intended to guide users through the complexities of conducting a dermal risk assessment. The questions define the scope of the framework for resource identification and application to support decision-making needs. The framework consists of three primary modules: 1) resource compilation, 2) prioritization, and 3) decision. The modules systematically identify, organize, and rank relevant information resources relating to the hazards of dermal exposures to chemicals and risk management strategies. Each module is subdivided into critical elements designed to further delineate the resources based on relevant incident phase and type of information. The DSS framework provides a much needed structure based on contemporary decision analysis principles for 1) documenting key questions for EMO problem formulation and 2) a method for systematically organizing, screening, and prioritizing information resources on dermal hazards, exposures, risk characterization, and management.

  13. Retrospective study of emerging themes in the decision-making process of patients considering amputation.

    PubMed

    Rassin, Michal; Tzevlin, Valeria; Malul, Einat; Harel, Shimrit; Shakhar, Hadar

    2012-06-01

    How patients make decisions about their future treatment has been sparsely study and with respect to limb amputation, a particularly difficult decision, not at all. An examination of this should furnish nurses vital knowledge about how patients come to the decision to give or refuse this consent. To reach as deep understanding as possible of how from the patients' point of view they reach the decision to consent to the amputation of a lower limb. The research was conducted in the qualitative method. Thirty lower-limb amputees (aged 32-88) took part in the study. In-depth interviews were held with the participants. The data were processed by means of content analysis. The main thematic categories identified were, in the chronological order of their appearance: 'The trail of torment leading to the decision to amputate', 'The turning point--taking the decision' "I just couldn't take any more pain" "We opt for life, we don't want to die". The more protracted and pain-filled the 'the trail of torment' the more mentally prepared patients were to give consent to amputation. Asked to look back on their choice, almost all interviewees had no regrets and even found virtues in it. The patients' decisions represented a mix of their grasp of the medical information supplied them by their doctors, their own personal values--opting for life prevailing over the desire for a whole body, and consideration for their family. The patients saw the decision-making process about amputation as a process of achieving consensus between themselves, their doctors and their family.

  14. Science-based HRA: experimental comparison of operator performance to IDAC (Information-Decision-Action Crew) simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Shirley, Rachel; Smidts, Carol; Boring, Ronald; Li, Yuandan; Mosleh, Ali

    2015-02-01

    Information-Decision-Action Crew (IDAC) operator model simulations of a Steam Generator Tube Rupture are compared to student operator performance in studies conducted in the Ohio State University’s Nuclear Power Plant Simulator Facility. This study is presented as a prototype for conducting simulator studies to validate key aspects of Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) methods. Seven student operator crews are compared to simulation results for crews designed to demonstrate three different decision-making strategies. The IDAC model used in the simulations is modified slightly to capture novice behavior rather that expert operators. Operator actions and scenario pacing are compared. A preliminary review of available performance shaping factors (PSFs) is presented. After the scenario in the NPP Simulator Facility, student operators review a video of the scenario and evaluate six PSFs at pre-determined points in the scenario. This provides a dynamic record of the PSFs experienced by the OSU student operators. In this preliminary analysis, Time Constraint Load (TCL) calculated in the IDAC simulations is compared to TCL reported by student operators. We identify potential modifications to the IDAC model to develop an “IDAC Student Operator Model.” This analysis provides insights into how similar experiments could be conducted using expert operators to improve the fidelity of IDAC simulations.

  15. Know the risk, take the win: how executive functions and probability processing influence advantageous decision making under risk conditions.

    PubMed

    Brand, Matthias; Schiebener, Johannes; Pertl, Marie-Theres; Delazer, Margarete

    2014-01-01

    Recent models on decision making under risk conditions have suggested that numerical abilities are important ingredients of advantageous decision-making performance, but empirical evidence is still limited. The results of our first study show that logical reasoning and basic mental calculation capacities predict ratio processing and that ratio processing predicts decision making under risk. In the second study, logical reasoning together with executive functions predicted probability processing (numeracy and probability knowledge), and probability processing predicted decision making under risk. These findings suggest that increasing an individual's understanding of ratios and probabilities should lead to more advantageous decisions under risk conditions. PMID:25252799

  16. Guide to good practices for operations aspects of unique processes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    This Guide to Good Practices is written to enhance understanding of, and provide direction for, Operations Aspects of Facility Chemistry and Unique Process, Chapter 13 of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.19, ``Conduct of Operations Requirements for DOE Facilities.`` The practices in this guide should be considered when planning or reviewing employee training and facility management programs. Contractors are advised to adopt procedures that meet the intent of DOE Order 5480.19.

  17. Methodology for the systems engineering process. Volume 3: Operational availability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, J. H.

    1972-01-01

    A detailed description and explanation of the operational availability parameter is presented. The fundamental mathematical basis for operational availability is developed, and its relationship to a system's overall performance effectiveness is illustrated within the context of identifying specific availability requirements. Thus, in attempting to provide a general methodology for treating both hypothetical and existing availability requirements, the concept of an availability state, in conjunction with the more conventional probability-time capability, is investigated. In this respect, emphasis is focused upon a balanced analytical and pragmatic treatment of operational availability within the system design process. For example, several applications of operational availability to typical aerospace systems are presented, encompassing the techniques of Monte Carlo simulation, system performance availability trade-off studies, analytical modeling of specific scenarios, as well as the determination of launch-on-time probabilities. Finally, an extensive bibliography is provided to indicate further levels of depth and detail of the operational availability parameter.

  18. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 4): Chemform, Inc. , Site, Operable Unit Two, Pompano Beach, FL, September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The decision document presents the selected remedial action for the Chemform, Inc. Site in Pompano Beach, Florida. This remedy applies to Operable Unit Two at the site which pertains to the site-related soil contamination. Due to an extensive cleanup of the site related contaminant sources, and a significant reduction in soil contaminant levels, no further Superfund action is necessary to address Operable Unit Two at the site.

  19. Is There Neural Evidence for an Evidence Accumulation Process in Memory Decisions?

    PubMed Central

    van Vugt, Marieke K.; Beulen, Marijke A.; Taatgen, Niels A.

    2016-01-01

    Models of evidence accumulation have been very successful at describing human decision making behavior. Recent years have also seen the first reports of neural correlates of this accumulation process. However, these studies have mostly focused on perceptual decision making tasks, ignoring the role of additional cognitive processes like memory retrieval that are crucial in real-world decisions. In this study, we tried to find a neural signature of evidence accumulation during a recognition memory task. To do this, we applied a method we have successfully used to localize evidence accumulation in scalp EEG during a perceptual decision making task. This time, however, we applied it to intracranial EEG recordings, which provide a much higher spatial resolution. We identified several brain areas where activity ramps up over time, but these neural patterns do not appear to be modulated by behavioral variables such as the amount of available evidence or response time. This casts doubt on the idea of evidence accumulation as a general decision-making mechanism underlying different types of decisions. PMID:27014024

  20. Decision making by NICE: examining the influences of evidence, process and context.

    PubMed

    Cerri, Karin H; Knapp, Martin; Fernández, José-Luis; Fernandez, Jose-Luis

    2014-04-01

    The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) provides guidance to the National Health Service (NHS) in England and Wales on funding and use of new technologies. This study examined the impact of evidence, process and context factors on NICE decisions in 2004-2009. A data set of NICE decisions pertaining to pharmaceutical technologies was created, including 32 variables extracted from published information. A three-category outcome variable was used, defined as the decision to 'recommend', 'restrict' or 'not recommend' a technology. With multinomial logistic regression, the relative contribution of explanatory variables on NICE decisions was assessed. A total of 65 technology appraisals (118 technologies) were analysed. Of the technologies, 27% were recommended, 58% were restricted and 14% were not recommended by NICE for NHS funding. The multinomial model showed significant associations (p ⩽ 0.10) between NICE outcome and four variables: (i) demonstration of statistical superiority of the primary endpoint in clinical trials by the appraised technology; (ii) the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER); (iii) the number of pharmaceuticals appraised within the same appraisal; and (iv) the appraisal year. Results confirm the value of a comprehensive and multivariate approach to understanding NICE decision making. New factors affecting NICE decision making were identified, including the effect of clinical superiority, and the effect of process and socio-economic factors.

  1. Operation and design of selected industrial process heat field tests

    SciTech Connect

    Kearney, D. W.

    1981-02-01

    The DOE program of solar industrial process heat field tests has shown solar energy to be compatible with numerous industrial needs. Both the operational projects and the detailed designs of systems that are not yet operational have resulted in valuable insights into design and hardware practice. Typical of these insights are the experiences discussed for the four projects reviewed. Future solar IPH systems should benefit greatly not only from the availability of present information, but also from the wealth of operating experience from projects due to start up in 1981.

  2. Models of unit operations used for solid-waste processing

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, G.M.; Glaub, J.C.; Diaz, L.F.

    1984-09-01

    This report documents the unit operations models that have been developed for typical refuse-derived-fuel (RDF) processing systems. These models, which represent the mass balances, energy requirements, and economics of the unit operations, are derived, where possible, from basic principles. Empiricism has been invoked where a governing theory has yet to be developed. Field test data and manufacturers' information, where available, supplement the analytical development of the models. A literature review has also been included for the purpose of compiling and discussing in one document the available information pertaining to the modeling of front-end unit operations. Separate analytics have been done for each task.

  3. Disciplined decision making in an interdisciplinary environment: some implications for clinical applications of statistical process control.

    PubMed Central

    Hantula, D A

    1995-01-01

    This paper explores some of the implications the statistical process control (SPC) methodology described by Pfadt and Wheeler (1995) may have for analyzing more complex performances and contingencies in human services or health care environments at an organizational level. Service delivery usually occurs in an organizational system that is characterized by functional structures, high levels of professionalism, subunit optimization, and organizational suboptimization. By providing a standard set of criteria and decision rules, SPC may provide a common interface for data-based decision making, may bring decision making under the control of the contigencies that are established by these rules rather than the immediate contingencies of data fluctuation, and may attenuate escalation of failing treatments. SPC is culturally consistent with behavior analysis, sharing an emphasis on data-based decisions, measurement over time, and graphic analysis of data, as well as a systemic view of organizations. PMID:7592155

  4. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 2): GCL Tie and Treating Inc., Operable Unit 1, Sidney, NY, September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    This Record of Decision (ROD) documents the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) selection of the remedial action for the GCL Tie and Treating site. The selected remedy pertains to the first of two operable units for the site and addresses the contaminated soils and debris located on the GCL property.

  5. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 10): Bangor Naval Submarine Base, Operable Unit 4, Silverdale, WA, July 19, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    This decision document presents the selected action for Operable Unit 4 (OU 4) at the Naval Submarine Base (SUBASE), Bangor in Silverdale, Washington. No remedial action is necessary to ensure protection of human health and the environment. No further monitoring or investigative studies will be conducted. A 5-year review is not required.

  6. 78 FR 66904 - Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for Naval Air Station Key West Airfield Operations, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... Department of the Navy Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for Naval Air Station Key West Airfield... (NAS) Key West by accomplishing the proposed action as set out in Alternative 2. Alternative 2 will... NAS Key West Airfield Operations, dated July 2013 and supporting documents. Single copies of the...

  7. 78 FR 50050 - Record of Decision for the Construction and Operation of an Infantry Platoon Battle Course at...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... Final EIS published in the Federal Register on April 26, 2013 (78 FR 24734), the Army identified the... Department of the Army Record of Decision for the Construction and Operation of an Infantry Platoon Battle Course at P hakuloa Training Area, Hawai`i AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION: Notice...

  8. Operational decision making for stuck-pipe incidents in the Gulf of Mexico: A risk economics approach

    SciTech Connect

    Shivers, R.M.; Domangue, R.J.

    1993-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the most effective methods to free stuck pipe and to quantify the success rates of these methods under various wellbore conditions on the basis of historical data. This information has been integrated into a decision-making flow chart based on risk economic to determine when to begin and terminate operations to free stuck pipe.

  9. School Based Decision Making: A Prototype Policy Operation Manual for Efficient Management of Learning Opportunities for All Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gover, David B.

    A prototype policy operation manual for the school-based decision-making councils of elementary schools in the school districts of Kentucky is presented in ths document. Guidelines are offered to help the councils adopt policies consistent with the Kentucky Education Reform Act of 1990, which are based on school improvement and extended ownership.…

  10. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 1): Loring Air Force Base, Operable Unit 13, Limestone, ME, June 16, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    The former Loring Air Force Base (LAFB), in northeastern Maine, is bordered on the south and east by the Town of Limestone, on the north by the towns of Caswell and Connor, and on the west by the City of Caribou. This Record of Decision (ROD) relates to OU 13, the basewide surface water and sediment operable unit.

  11. 49 CFR 604.26 - Complaints and decisions regarding removal of private charter operators or qualified human...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Complaints and decisions regarding removal of private charter operators or qualified human service organizations from registration list. 604.26 Section 604.26 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...

  12. 49 CFR 604.26 - Complaints and decisions regarding removal of private charter operators or qualified human...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Complaints and decisions regarding removal of private charter operators or qualified human service organizations from registration list. 604.26 Section 604.26 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...

  13. ASUD2- decision support system on Dnieper reservoirs operations taking into account environmental priorities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iritz, L.; Zheleznyak, M.; Dvorzhak, A.; Nesterov, A.; Zaslavsky, A.

    2003-04-01

    On the European continent the Dnieper is the third largest river basin (509000 sq.km). The Ukrainian part of the drainage basin is 291 400 sq.km. The cascade of 6 reservoirs, that have capacity from 2.5 to 18 cub.km comprises the entire reach of Dnieper River in Ukraine, redistributes the water regime in time. As a result, 17-18 cub. km water can be used, 50% for hydropower production, 30% for agriculture and up to 18% for municipal water supply. The water stress, the pollution load, the insufficient technical conditions require a lot of effort in the water management development. In order to achieve optimal use of water recourses in the Dnieper River basin, it is essential to develop strategies both for the long-term perspective (planning) as well as for the short-term perspective (operation). The Dnieper River basin must be seen as complex of the natural water resources, as well as the human system (water use, social and economic intercourse). In the frame of the project, supported by the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA) the software tool ASUD2 is developed to support reservoir operations provided by the State Committee of Ukraine on Water Management and by the Joint River Commission. ASUD2 includes multicriteria optimization engine that drives the reservoir water balamce models and box models of water quality. A system of supplementary (off-line) tools support more detailed analyses of the water quality parameters of largest reservoirs (Kachovka and Kremechug). The models AQUATOX and WASP ( in the developed 3-D version) are used for these purposes. The Integrated Database IDB-ASUD2 supplies the information such as state of the all reservoirs, hydrological observations and predictions, water demands, measured water quality parameters. ASUD2 is able to give the following information on an operational basis. : - recommended dynamics of the water elevation during the water allocation planning period in all reservoirs calculated on the

  14. Solid Waste Processing. A State-of-the-Art Report on Unit Operations and Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engdahl, Richard B.

    The importance and intricacy of the solid wastes disposal problem and the need to deal with it effectively and economically led to the state-of-the-art survey covered by this report. The material presented here was compiled to be used by those in government and private industry who must make or implement decisions concerning the processing of…

  15. Some implications of the technology assessment function for the effective public decision-making process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayo, L. H.

    1971-01-01

    A preliminary provisional assessment of the prospects for the establishment of an adequate technology assessment function and the implications of the assessment function for the public decision process are presented. Effects of the technology assessment function on each phase of the public decision process and briefly explored. Significant implications during the next decade are projected with respect to the following phases: invention and development of alternative means (technological configurations); evaluation, selection and promotion of preferred courses of action; and modification of statutory scheme or social action program as an outcome of continuing monitoring and appraisal.

  16. Recruit, screen, and hire: staff selection and the decision-making process.

    PubMed

    Melville, S D

    1977-01-01

    This article focuses on the role of the clinician-manager in staff selection. The duties of the clinician-manager in a mental health center include those tasks described as "recruit, screen, and hire" but little or no guidance on the steps involved in this sequence of events is available. The "how" of hiring is transmitted by word of mouth, by following another's example, or by trial and error. This article examines the component parts of staff selection from the assimilation of procedures, rules, and regulation of the public authority under which a particular mental health center operates, to the compilation of a "short list" of those to be screened and finally the risk taking and decision-making process by the clinician-manager who makes the choice. Some speculation on the emotional impact it has on the clinician-manager is examined. The impact of personal value judgments of the selector are considered. Recommendations are made for the inclusion of training in staff selection by academic programs for mental health administrators.

  17. Record of Decision for the Ford Building Waste Unit (643-11G) Operable Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Fraley, S.

    2002-06-13

    This decision document presents the selected remedial for the Ford Building Waste Unit (FBWU), in Aiken, South Carolina, which was chosen in accordance with CERCLA, as amended by SARA, and, to the extent practical, the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). This decision is based on the Administrative Record File for this specific RCRA/CERCLA site.

  18. Determinants of judgment and decision making quality: the interplay between information processing style and situational factors.

    PubMed

    Ayal, Shahar; Rusou, Zohar; Zakay, Dan; Hochman, Guy

    2015-01-01

    A framework is presented to better characterize the role of individual differences in information processing style and their interplay with contextual factors in determining decision making quality. In Experiment 1, we show that individual differences in information processing style are flexible and can be modified by situational factors. Specifically, a situational manipulation that induced an analytical mode of thought improved decision quality. In Experiment 2, we show that this improvement in decision quality is highly contingent on the compatibility between the dominant thinking mode and the nature of the task. That is, encouraging an intuitive mode of thought led to better performance on an intuitive task but hampered performance on an analytical task. The reverse pattern was obtained when an analytical mode of thought was encouraged. We discuss the implications of these results for the assessment of decision making competence, and suggest practical directions to help individuals better adjust their information processing style to the situation at hand and make optimal decisions. PMID:26284011

  19. Gender inequalities in the workplace: the effects of organizational structures, processes, practices, and decision makers' sexism.

    PubMed

    Stamarski, Cailin S; Son Hing, Leanne S

    2015-01-01

    Gender inequality in organizations is a complex phenomenon that can be seen in organizational structures, processes, and practices. For women, some of the most harmful gender inequalities are enacted within human resources (HRs) practices. This is because HR practices (i.e., policies, decision-making, and their enactment) affect the hiring, training, pay, and promotion of women. We propose a model of gender discrimination in HR that emphasizes the reciprocal nature of gender inequalities within organizations. We suggest that gender discrimination in HR-related decision-making and in the enactment of HR practices stems from gender inequalities in broader organizational structures, processes, and practices. This includes leadership, structure, strategy, culture, organizational climate, as well as HR policies. In addition, organizational decision makers' levels of sexism can affect their likelihood of making gender biased HR-related decisions and/or behaving in a sexist manner while enacting HR practices. Importantly, institutional discrimination in organizational structures, processes, and practices play a pre-eminent role because not only do they affect HR practices, they also provide a socializing context for organizational decision makers' levels of hostile and benevolent sexism. Although we portray gender inequality as a self-reinforcing system that can perpetuate discrimination, important levers for reducing discrimination are identified. PMID:26441775

  20. Gender inequalities in the workplace: the effects of organizational structures, processes, practices, and decision makers' sexism.

    PubMed

    Stamarski, Cailin S; Son Hing, Leanne S

    2015-01-01

    Gender inequality in organizations is a complex phenomenon that can be seen in organizational structures, processes, and practices. For women, some of the most harmful gender inequalities are enacted within human resources (HRs) practices. This is because HR practices (i.e., policies, decision-making, and their enactment) affect the hiring, training, pay, and promotion of women. We propose a model of gender discrimination in HR that emphasizes the reciprocal nature of gender inequalities within organizations. We suggest that gender discrimination in HR-related decision-making and in the enactment of HR practices stems from gender inequalities in broader organizational structures, processes, and practices. This includes leadership, structure, strategy, culture, organizational climate, as well as HR policies. In addition, organizational decision makers' levels of sexism can affect their likelihood of making gender biased HR-related decisions and/or behaving in a sexist manner while enacting HR practices. Importantly, institutional discrimination in organizational structures, processes, and practices play a pre-eminent role because not only do they affect HR practices, they also provide a socializing context for organizational decision makers' levels of hostile and benevolent sexism. Although we portray gender inequality as a self-reinforcing system that can perpetuate discrimination, important levers for reducing discrimination are identified.

  1. Determinants of judgment and decision making quality: the interplay between information processing style and situational factors

    PubMed Central

    Ayal, Shahar; Rusou, Zohar; Zakay, Dan; Hochman, Guy

    2015-01-01

    A framework is presented to better characterize the role of individual differences in information processing style and their interplay with contextual factors in determining decision making quality. In Experiment 1, we show that individual differences in information processing style are flexible and can be modified by situational factors. Specifically, a situational manipulation that induced an analytical mode of thought improved decision quality. In Experiment 2, we show that this improvement in decision quality is highly contingent on the compatibility between the dominant thinking mode and the nature of the task. That is, encouraging an intuitive mode of thought led to better performance on an intuitive task but hampered performance on an analytical task. The reverse pattern was obtained when an analytical mode of thought was encouraged. We discuss the implications of these results for the assessment of decision making competence, and suggest practical directions to help individuals better adjust their information processing style to the situation at hand and make optimal decisions. PMID:26284011

  2. Gender inequalities in the workplace: the effects of organizational structures, processes, practices, and decision makers’ sexism

    PubMed Central

    Stamarski, Cailin S.; Son Hing, Leanne S.

    2015-01-01

    Gender inequality in organizations is a complex phenomenon that can be seen in organizational structures, processes, and practices. For women, some of the most harmful gender inequalities are enacted within human resources (HRs) practices. This is because HR practices (i.e., policies, decision-making, and their enactment) affect the hiring, training, pay, and promotion of women. We propose a model of gender discrimination in HR that emphasizes the reciprocal nature of gender inequalities within organizations. We suggest that gender discrimination in HR-related decision-making and in the enactment of HR practices stems from gender inequalities in broader organizational structures, processes, and practices. This includes leadership, structure, strategy, culture, organizational climate, as well as HR policies. In addition, organizational decision makers’ levels of sexism can affect their likelihood of making gender biased HR-related decisions and/or behaving in a sexist manner while enacting HR practices. Importantly, institutional discrimination in organizational structures, processes, and practices play a pre-eminent role because not only do they affect HR practices, they also provide a socializing context for organizational decision makers’ levels of hostile and benevolent sexism. Although we portray gender inequality as a self-reinforcing system that can perpetuate discrimination, important levers for reducing discrimination are identified. PMID:26441775

  3. [Treatment discontinuation and obligation to treat: an extended model for the decision-making process].

    PubMed

    Joppich, R; Elsner, F; Radbruch, L

    2006-05-01

    Social developments and medical progress in the last decades have led to a significant change of values in medicine, which spans from the cornerstone of the patient's autonomy to the increasingly difficult decision-making process related to available medical treatments. This conflict exaggerates with end-of-life situations, where a purely palliative approach to the therapy is applied, or in cases of reduced ability for patient's consent. From a legal point of view, many uncertainties have been clarified in recent years. The patient's autonomy has been strengthened, however, the law requires the doctor to review and carefully balance the treatment options so that a new and modified patient-doctor relationship is often necessary in this difficult decision-making process. The doctor should no longer retreat into the classical role of a neutral advisor and leave the complete responsibility of medical decisions to the patient. Instead, in order for the patient to be able to make a balanced and individually tailored autonomous decision, the doctor needs to bring in his medical expertise along with his own personal experiences and personal opinions, as long as he clearly differentiates between personal and professional views. This way the patient will be empowered to make complex medical decisions, considering his personal situation and previous experiences as well as his own set of values. For complex situations medical practitioners can find support from reflection within the treatment team, or through an external ethical advisory panel. Algorithms can be helpful to illustrate the steps in a decision-making process and thus support medical staff in situations of difficult medical decisions.

  4. Integrating complex business processes for knowledge-driven clinical decision support systems.

    PubMed

    Kamaleswaran, Rishikesan; McGregor, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents in detail the component of the Complex Business Process for Stream Processing framework that is responsible for integrating complex business processes to enable knowledge-driven Clinical Decision Support System (CDSS) recommendations. CDSSs aid the clinician in supporting the care of patients by providing accurate data analysis and evidence-based recommendations. However, the incorporation of a dynamic knowledge-management system that supports the definition and enactment of complex business processes and real-time data streams has not been researched. In this paper we discuss the process web service as an innovative method of providing contextual information to a real-time data stream processing CDSS. PMID:23366138

  5. Integrating complex business processes for knowledge-driven clinical decision support systems.

    PubMed

    Kamaleswaran, Rishikesan; McGregor, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents in detail the component of the Complex Business Process for Stream Processing framework that is responsible for integrating complex business processes to enable knowledge-driven Clinical Decision Support System (CDSS) recommendations. CDSSs aid the clinician in supporting the care of patients by providing accurate data analysis and evidence-based recommendations. However, the incorporation of a dynamic knowledge-management system that supports the definition and enactment of complex business processes and real-time data streams has not been researched. In this paper we discuss the process web service as an innovative method of providing contextual information to a real-time data stream processing CDSS.

  6. Improving operational anodising process performance using simulation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liong, Choong-Yeun; Ghazali, Syarah Syahidah

    2015-10-01

    The use of aluminium is very widespread, especially in transportation, electrical and electronics, architectural, automotive and engineering applications sectors. Therefore, the anodizing process is an important process for aluminium in order to make the aluminium durable, attractive and weather resistant. This research is focused on the anodizing process operations in manufacturing and supplying of aluminium extrusion. The data required for the development of the model is collected from the observations and interviews conducted in the study. To study the current system, the processes involved in the anodizing process are modeled by using Arena 14.5 simulation software. Those processes consist of five main processes, namely the degreasing process, the etching process, the desmut process, the anodizing process, the sealing process and 16 other processes. The results obtained were analyzed to identify the problems or bottlenecks that occurred and to propose improvement methods that can be implemented on the original model. Based on the comparisons that have been done between the improvement methods, the productivity could be increased by reallocating the workers and reducing loading time.

  7. Improving operational anodising process performance using simulation approach

    SciTech Connect

    Liong, Choong-Yeun Ghazali, Syarah Syahidah

    2015-10-22

    The use of aluminium is very widespread, especially in transportation, electrical and electronics, architectural, automotive and engineering applications sectors. Therefore, the anodizing process is an important process for aluminium in order to make the aluminium durable, attractive and weather resistant. This research is focused on the anodizing process operations in manufacturing and supplying of aluminium extrusion. The data required for the development of the model is collected from the observations and interviews conducted in the study. To study the current system, the processes involved in the anodizing process are modeled by using Arena 14.5 simulation software. Those processes consist of five main processes, namely the degreasing process, the etching process, the desmut process, the anodizing process, the sealing process and 16 other processes. The results obtained were analyzed to identify the problems or bottlenecks that occurred and to propose improvement methods that can be implemented on the original model. Based on the comparisons that have been done between the improvement methods, the productivity could be increased by reallocating the workers and reducing loading time.

  8. Process of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation decision making for older adults.

    PubMed

    Randall, J; Keven, K; Atli, T; Ustun, C

    2016-05-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) may be the only curative option for some older adults with hematologic malignancies, and its associated risks of significant morbidity and mortality warrant a clear, informed decision-making process. As older adults have not been transplanted routinely until recent years, younger people have been the prototypical group around whom the current process has developed. Yet, this process is applied to older adults who have different considerations than younger patients when making their transplant decision. Older adults do not have the open-ended lives of younger patients and are entitled to consider how to spend their remaining time. They also possess maturity and experience, and with proper knowledge, they can make informed choices rather than moving forward in the transplant process unaware. Notably, older patients face similar problems with the informed decision-making process in nephrology. Strategies such as providing education about alloHCT gradually and repeatedly during induction, presenting recent knowledge from the literature in plain language, and utilizing a team approach to patient education may help older adults make the best decision about transplant in light of their situation and values. Understanding when and how older adults decide on alloHCT is an important first step to further exploring this problem. PMID:26457910

  9. The role of orbitofrontal cortex in decision making: a component process account.

    PubMed

    Fellows, Lesley K

    2007-12-01

    Clinical accounts of the effects of damage to orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) have provided important clues about the functions of this region in humans. Patients with OFC injury can demonstrate relatively isolated difficulties with decision making, and the development of laboratory tasks that captured these difficulties was an important advance. However, much of the work to date has been limited by the use of a single, complex decision-making task and by a narrow focus on risky decisions. A fuller understanding of the neural basis of decision making requires identification of the simpler components that underlie this complex behavior. Here, I review evidence that OFC lesions disrupt reversal learning in humans, as in animals, and show that this deficit in reversal learning is an important mechanism underlying the difficulties of such patients in the Iowa gambling task. Reversal learning, in turn, can be decomposed into simpler processes: a failure to rapidly learn from negative feedback may be the critical difficulty for OFC patients. OFC damage can also affect forms of decision making that do not require trial-by-trial learning. Preference judgment is a simple form of decision making that requires comparing the relative value of options. Humans with OFC lesions are more inconsistent in their choices, even in very simple preference judgment tasks. These results are broadly consistent with the view that OFC is critically involved in representing the relative value of stimuli, but also raise the possibility that this region plays distinct roles in reinforcement learning and value-based judgment. PMID:17846161

  10. Neural Signatures of Controlled and Automatic Retrieval Processes in Memory-based Decision-making.

    PubMed

    Khader, Patrick H; Pachur, Thorsten; Weber, Lilian A E; Jost, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Decision-making often requires retrieval from memory. Drawing on the neural ACT-R theory [Anderson, J. R., Fincham, J. M., Qin, Y., & Stocco, A. A central circuit of the mind. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 12, 136-143, 2008] and other neural models of memory, we delineated the neural signatures of two fundamental retrieval aspects during decision-making: automatic and controlled activation of memory representations. To disentangle these processes, we combined a paradigm developed to examine neural correlates of selective and sequential memory retrieval in decision-making with a manipulation of associative fan (i.e., the decision options were associated with one, two, or three attributes). The results show that both the automatic activation of all attributes associated with a decision option and the controlled sequential retrieval of specific attributes can be traced in material-specific brain areas. Moreover, the two facets of memory retrieval were associated with distinct activation patterns within the frontoparietal network: The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was found to reflect increasing retrieval effort during both automatic and controlled activation of attributes. In contrast, the superior parietal cortex only responded to controlled retrieval, arguably reflecting the sequential updating of attribute information in working memory. This dissociation in activation pattern is consistent with ACT-R and constitutes an important step toward a neural model of the retrieval dynamics involved in memory-based decision-making.

  11. 19 CFR 10.774 - Direct costs of processing operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Direct costs of processing operations. 10.774 Section 10.774 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United...

  12. 19 CFR 10.774 - Direct costs of processing operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Direct costs of processing operations. 10.774 Section 10.774 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United...

  13. 19 CFR 10.774 - Direct costs of processing operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Direct costs of processing operations. 10.774 Section 10.774 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United...

  14. 19 CFR 10.774 - Direct costs of processing operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Direct costs of processing operations. 10.774 Section 10.774 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United...

  15. Sanitary Engineering Unit Operations and Unit Processes Laboratory Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Professors in Sanitary Engineering.

    This manual contains a compilation of experiments in Physical Operations, Biological and Chemical Processes for various education and equipment levels. The experiments are designed to be flexible so that they can be adapted to fit the needs of a particular program. The main emphasis is on hands-on student experiences to promote understanding.…

  16. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Chemical Process Technical Operators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document, which is intended for workforce preparation program providers, details the Illinois Occupational Skill Standards for programs preparing students for employment as chemical process technical operators. The document begins with a brief overview of the Illinois perspective on occupational skill standards and credentialing, the process…

  17. A Competency-Based Instructional Program for Plant Process Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Joy; Mills, Steven

    This program guide provides materials to prepare learners for employment as Process Plant Operators through classroom instruction and practical shop experience. Contents include instructional goal and subgoals, an instructional analysis that describes development of the materials and instructional equipment and supplies and facilities…

  18. Open Learning for Process Operators. ZIFF Papiere 78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geary, David

    This document describes the development and implementation of an open learning course for shift operators who work in British process industries. The course was developed collaboratively during 1979-82 by B.P. Chemicals Ltd. and Grimsby College of Technology and Arts, using the Business and Technician Education Council certification program.…

  19. The Role of Psychological Adjustment in the Decision-making Process for Voluntary Termination of Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Sereno, Sara; Leal, Isabel; Maroco, João

    2013-01-01

    Background This study's objective was to evaluate the role of psychological adjustment in the decision-making process to have an abortion and explore individual variables that might influence this decision. Methods In this cross-sectional study, we sequentially enrolled 150 women who made the decision to voluntarily terminate a pregnancy in Maternity Dr. Alfredo da Costa, in Lisbon, Portugal, between September 2008 and June 2009. The instruments were the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS), Satisfaction with Social Support Scale (SSSS), Emotional Assessment Scale (EAS), Decision Conflict Scale (DCS), and Beliefs and Values Questionnaire (BVQ). We analyzed the data using Student's T-tests, MANOVA, ANOVA, Tukey's post-hoc tests and CATPCA. Statistically significant effects were accepted for p<0.05. Results The participants found the decision difficult and emotionally demanding, although they also identified it as a low conflict decision. The prevailing emotions were sadness, fear and stress; but despite these feelings, the participants remained psychologically adjusted in the moment they decided to have an abortion. The resolution to terminate the pregnancy was essentially shared with supportive people and it was mostly motivated by socio-economic issues. The different beliefs and values found in this sample, and their possible associations are discussed. Conclusion Despite high levels of stress, the women were psychologically adjusted at the time of making the decision to terminate the pregnancy. However, opposing what has been previously reported, the women presented high levels of sadness and fear, showing that this decision was hard to make, triggering disruptive emotions. PMID:24163799

  20. Decision processes in visual search as a function of target prevalence.

    PubMed

    Peltier, Chad; Becker, Mark W

    2016-09-01

    The probability of missing a target increases in low target prevalence search tasks. Wolfe and Van Wert (2010) propose 2 causes of this effect: reducing the quitting threshold, and conservatively shifting the decision making criterion used to evaluate each item. Reducing the quitting threshold predicts that target absent responses will be made without fully inspecting the display, increasing misses due to never inspecting the target (selection errors). The shift in decision criterion increases the likelihood of failing to recognize an inspected target (identification errors). Though there is robust evidence that target prevalence rates shift quitting thresholds, the proposed shift in decision making criterion has little support. In Experiment 1 we eye-tracked participants during searches of high, medium, and low prevalence. Eye movements were used to classify misses as selection or identification errors. Identification errors increased as prevalence decreased, supporting the claim that decision criterion becomes more conservative as prevalence decreases. In addition, as prevalence decreased, the dwell time on targets increased while dwell times on distractors decreased. We propose that the effect of prevalence on decision making for individual items is best modeled as a shift in criterion in a drift diffusion model, rather than signal detection, as drift diffusion accounts for this pattern of decision times. In Experiment 2 we replicate these findings while presenting stimuli in an rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) stream. Experiments 1 and 2 were consistent with the conclusion that prevalence rate influences the item-by-item decision criterion, and are consistent with a drift diffusion model of this decision process. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27149294

  1. Adolescents' Neural Processing of Risky Decisions: Effects of Sex and Behavioral Disinhibition

    PubMed Central

    Crowley, Thomas J.; Dalwani, Manish S.; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K.; Young, Susan E.; Sakai, Joseph T.; Raymond, Kristen M.; McWilliams, Shannon K.; Roark, Melissa J.; Banich, Marie T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Accidental injury and homicide, relatively common among adolescents, often follow risky behaviors; those are done more by boys and by adolescents with greater behavioral disinhibition (BD). Hypothesis Neural processing during adolescents' risky decision-making will differ in youths with greater BD severity, and in males vs. females, both before cautious behaviors and before risky behaviors. Methodology/Principal Findings 81 adolescents (Patients with substance and conduct problems, and comparison youths (Comparisons)), assessed in a 2 x 2 design (Patients:Comparisons x Male:Female) repeatedly decided between doing a cautious behavior that earned 1 cent, or a risky one that either won 5 or lost 10 cents. Odds of winning after risky responses gradually decreased. Functional magnetic resonance imaging captured brain activity during 4-sec deliberation periods preceding responses. Most neural activation appeared in known decision-making structures. Patients, who had more severe BD scores and clinical problems than Comparisons, also had extensive neural hypoactivity. Comparisons' greater activation before cautious responses included frontal pole, medial prefrontal cortex, striatum, and other regions; and before risky responses, insula, temporal, and parietal regions. Males made more risky and fewer cautious responses than females, but before cautious responses males activated numerous regions more than females. Before risky behaviors female-greater activation was more posterior, and male-greater more anterior. Conclusions/Significance Neural processing differences during risky-cautious decision-making may underlie group differences in adolescents' substance-related and antisocial risk-taking. Patients reported harmful real-life decisions and showed extensive neural hypoactivity during risky-or-cautious decision-making. Males made more risky responses than females; apparently biased toward risky decisions, males (compared with females) utilized many more neural

  2. The optimization of operating parameters on microalgae upscaling process planning.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yu-An; Huang, Hsin-Fu; Yu, Chung-Chyi

    2016-03-01

    The upscaling process planning developed in this study primarily involved optimizing operating parameters, i.e., dilution ratios, during process designs. Minimal variable cost was used as an indicator for selecting the optimal combination of dilution ratios. The upper and lower mean confidence intervals obtained from the actual cultured cell density data were used as the final cell density stability indicator after the operating parameters or dilution ratios were selected. The process planning method and results were demonstrated through three case studies of batch culture simulation. They are (1) final objective cell densities were adjusted, (2) high and low light intensities were used for intermediate-scale cultures, and (3) the number of culture days was expressed as integers for the intermediate-scale culture.

  3. 44 CFR Appendix A to Part 9 - Decision-making Process for E.O. 11988

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Decision-making Process for E.O. 11988 A Appendix A to Part 9 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS Pt....

  4. 44 CFR Appendix A to Part 9 - Decision-making Process for E.O. 11988

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Decision-making Process for E.O. 11988 A Appendix A to Part 9 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS Pt....

  5. 44 CFR Appendix A to Part 9 - Decision-making Process for E.O. 11988

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Decision-making Process for E.O. 11988 A Appendix A to Part 9 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS Pt....

  6. 44 CFR Appendix A to Part 9 - Decision-making Process for E.O. 11988

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Decision-making Process for E.O. 11988 A Appendix A to Part 9 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS Pt....

  7. 44 CFR Appendix A to Part 9 - Decision-making Process for E.O. 11988

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Decision-making Process for E.O. 11988 A Appendix A to Part 9 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS Pt....

  8. Decision Making and Information Processing under Various Uncertainty Conditions. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schipper, Lowell M.; Doherty, Michael

    Seven experiments were conducted concerning decision making and information processing under conditions of uncertainty. Several different experimental tasks were used; all presented the subject with multiple independent sources of information regarding the likelihood that some event would occur. Study 1 subjects were Air Force pilots; all other…

  9. Multiple Case Studies of Public Library Systems in New York State: Service Decision-Making Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ren, Xiaoai

    2012-01-01

    This research examined the functions and roles of public library systems in New York State and the services they provide for individual libraries and the public. The dissertation further studied the service decision-making processes at three selected New York State cooperative public library systems. Public library systems have played an important…

  10. Improving the Process of Career Decision Making: An Action Research Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenbank, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study adopts an action research approach with the aim of improving the process of career decision making among undergraduates in a business school at a "new" university in the UK. Design/methodology/approach: The study utilised unfreezing techniques, multiple case studies in conjunction with the principle of analogical encoding, and…

  11. Quantifying Japanese Residents' Preferences for Public Meetings in Watershed Decision-Making Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakagami, Masaji; Ohno, Tomohiko; Tanaka, Takuya

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we quantified Japanese residents' potential preferences for public participation, specifically public meetings, concerning regional environmental issues in Yodo River watershed decision-making process. We conducted a choice experiments (CE) survey in the Yodo River watershed in Japan. Our findings confirmed that residents assign a…

  12. Group Decision Making in Higher Education Using the Analytic Hierarchy Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liberatore, Matthew J.; Nydick, Robert L.

    1997-01-01

    Examines application of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to group decision-making and evaluation situations in higher education. The approach is illustrated by (1) evaluation of academic research papers at Villanova University (Pennsylvania), and (2) a suggested adaptation for the more complex problem of institutionwide strategic planning.…

  13. Child Care Decision Making: Understanding Priorities and Processes Used by Low-Income Families in Minnesota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forry, Nicole; Isner, Tabitha K.; Daneri, Maria P.; Tout, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: Few studies have described parents' child care decision-making process, yet understanding how parents make child care choices is fundamental to developing effective services to promote the selection of high-quality care. This study used latent profile analysis to distinguish subgroups of low-income parents identified as…

  14. Factors Affecting Christian Parents' School Choice Decision Processes: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prichard, Tami G.; Swezey, James A.

    2016-01-01

    This study identifies factors affecting the decision processes for school choice by Christian parents. Grounded theory design incorporated interview transcripts, field notes, and a reflective journal to analyze themes. Comparative analysis, including open, axial, and selective coding, was used to reduce the coded statements to five code families:…

  15. The Effect of Induced Mood on Children's Social Information Processing: Goal Clarification and Response Decision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Bridgette D.; Lemerise, Elizabeth A.; Caverly, Sarah L.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether induced mood influenced the social information processing steps of goal clarification and response decision in 480 1st-3rd graders, and in more selected groups of low accepted-aggressive (n = 39), average accepted-nonaggressive (n = 103), and high accepted-nonaggressive children (n = 68). Children participated in two…

  16. Domestic Abuse and Child Contact: Positioning Children in the Decision-Making Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on a three-year Irish research study, this paper focuses on the decision-making process in child contact, specifically the assessment and management of risk of continuing abuse to young people previously exposed to domestic abuse. A mixed methodological approach involved the completion of survey questionnaires by 219 mothers and the…

  17. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT IN MANAGEMENT, PRODUCT AND PROCESS DESIGN, AND POLICY DECISION MAKING: A CONFERENCE REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    On 24 September 2003, life cycle assessment (LCA) practitioners and decision makers gathered at the InLCA/LCM Conference in Seattle, Washington, USA (see http://www.lcacenter.org/InLCA-LCM03/index.html) to discuss the role of LCA in management, product design, process development...

  18. Occupational Decision-Related Processes for Amotivated Adolescents: Confirmation of a Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Jae Yup; McCormick, John

    2011-01-01

    This study developed and (statistically) confirmed a new model of the occupational decision-related processes of adolescents, in terms of the extent to which they may be amotivated about choosing a future occupation. A theoretical framework guided the study. A questionnaire that had previously been administered to an Australian adolescent sample…

  19. Thinking Processes in Social Workers' Use of a Clinical Decision Support System: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monnickendam, Menachem; Savaya, Riki; Waysman, Mark

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined the thinking processes in the use of a decision support system (DSS) by social workers in a human services agency to determine whether they used the system to improve their case reasoning. Information was obtained from in-depth interviews with eight social workers who used a DSS in their work and from content analysis of…

  20. Evidence of different underlying processes in pattern recall and decision-making.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Adam D; Abernethy, Bruce; Farrow, Damian

    2015-01-01

    The visual search characteristics of expert and novice basketball players were recorded during pattern recall and decision-making tasks to determine whether the two tasks shared common visual-perceptual processing strategies. The order in which participants entered the pattern elements in the recall task was also analysed to further examine the nature of the visual-perceptual strategies and the relative emphasis placed upon particular pattern features. The experts demonstrated superior performance across the recall and decision-making tasks [see also Gorman, A. D., Abernethy, B., & Farrow, D. (2012). Classical pattern recall tests and the prospective nature of expert performance. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 65, 1151-1160; Gorman, A. D., Abernethy, B., & Farrow, D. (2013a). Is the relationship between pattern recall and decision-making influenced by anticipatory recall? The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 66, 2219-2236)] but a number of significant differences in the visual search data highlighted disparities in the processing strategies, suggesting that recall skill may utilize different underlying visual-perceptual processes than those required for accurate decision-making performance in the natural setting. Performance on the recall task was characterized by a proximal-to-distal order of entry of the pattern elements with participants tending to enter the players located closest to the ball carrier earlier than those located more distal to the ball carrier. The results provide further evidence of the underlying perceptual processes employed by experts when extracting visual information from complex and dynamic patterns. PMID:25662705

  1. Inferential Judgments Affecting the Decision-Making Process in the Attorney General's Commission on Pornography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gouran, Dennis S.

    Although the Attorney General's Commission on Pornography, also known as the Meese Commission, has been criticized excessively at times for threatening freedom of speech and press and individual rights to privacy, an analysis of its "Final Report" reveals numerous deficiencies in the Commission's decision-making process. These deficiencies,…

  2. Effective Decision Making within the Organization: A Comparison of Regular, NGT, and Delphi Group Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, John E.; Cossitt, William B.

    Three group processes--regular face-to-face interacting groups, the nominal group technique (NGT), and Delphi procedures--were compared in terms of their ability to facilitate the quantitative and qualitative productivity of a decision making group. The results unequivocally supported the superiority of the Delphi procedures. Findings also tended…

  3. The Decision-Making Process for Requests for Late Termination of Pregnancy in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagin, Roni; Oded, Ofrah; Cohen, Mimi; Itskovitz, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    This paper outlines and reflects on current procedures in Israel for requesting a late termination of pregnancy (LTP) and the subsequent decision-making processes, using data collected in 1995-97 from 183 women. Discusses the responsibility of the health system and social workers to address the need for enhanced support for women requesting LTPs.…

  4. Towards Understanding the Negotiation and Decision-Making Process of Withdrawal from College: A Qualitative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative research project focused on the interviews of 27 low socio-economic students at a research university in the southwestern United States. The students had already withdrawn from the university or were in the process of withdrawing. The study seeks to provide increased understanding of how students negotiate the decision-making…

  5. Evidence of different underlying processes in pattern recall and decision-making.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Adam D; Abernethy, Bruce; Farrow, Damian

    2015-01-01

    The visual search characteristics of expert and novice basketball players were recorded during pattern recall and decision-making tasks to determine whether the two tasks shared common visual-perceptual processing strategies. The order in which participants entered the pattern elements in the recall task was also analysed to further examine the nature of the visual-perceptual strategies and the relative emphasis placed upon particular pattern features. The experts demonstrated superior performance across the recall and decision-making tasks [see also Gorman, A. D., Abernethy, B., & Farrow, D. (2012). Classical pattern recall tests and the prospective nature of expert performance. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 65, 1151-1160; Gorman, A. D., Abernethy, B., & Farrow, D. (2013a). Is the relationship between pattern recall and decision-making influenced by anticipatory recall? The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 66, 2219-2236)] but a number of significant differences in the visual search data highlighted disparities in the processing strategies, suggesting that recall skill may utilize different underlying visual-perceptual processes than those required for accurate decision-making performance in the natural setting. Performance on the recall task was characterized by a proximal-to-distal order of entry of the pattern elements with participants tending to enter the players located closest to the ball carrier earlier than those located more distal to the ball carrier. The results provide further evidence of the underlying perceptual processes employed by experts when extracting visual information from complex and dynamic patterns.

  6. Method and apparatus for monitoring plasma processing operations

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Michael Lane; Stevenson, Joel O'Don; Ward, Pamela Peardon Denise

    2001-01-01

    The invention generally relates to various aspects of a plasma process, and more specifically the monitoring of such plasma processes. One aspect relates in at least some manner to calibrating or initializing a plasma monitoring assembly. This type of calibration may be used to address wavelength shifts, intensity shifts, or both associated with optical emissions data obtained on a plasma process. A calibration light may be directed at a window through which optical emissions data is being obtained to determine the effect, if any, that the inner surface of the window is having on the optical emissions data being obtained therethrough, the operation of the optical emissions data gathering device, or both. Another aspect relates in at least some manner to various types of evaluations which may be undertaken of a plasma process which was run, and more typically one which is currently being run, within the processing chamber. Plasma health evaluations and process identification through optical emissions analysis are included in this aspect. Yet another aspect associated with the present invention relates in at least some manner to the endpoint of a plasma process (e.g., plasma recipe, plasma clean, conditioning wafer operation) or discrete/discernible portion thereof (e.g., a plasma step of a multiple step plasma recipe). A final aspect associated with the present invention relates to how one or more of the above-noted aspects may be implemented into a semiconductor fabrication facility, such as the distribution of wafers to a wafer production system.

  7. Method and apparatus for monitoring plasma processing operations

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Michael Lane; Stevenson, Joel O'Don; Ward, Pamela Peardon Denise

    2002-07-16

    The invention generally relates to various aspects of a plasma process, and more specifically the monitoring of such plasma processes. One aspect relates in at least some manner to calibrating or initializing a plasma monitoring assembly. This type of calibration may be used to address wavelength shifts, intensity shifts, or both associated with optical emissions data obtained on a plasma process. A calibration light may be directed at a window through which optical emissions data is being obtained to determine the effect, if any, that the inner surface of the window is having on the optical emissions data being obtained therethrough, the operation of the optical emissions data gathering device, or both. Another aspect relates in at least some manner to various types of evaluations which may be undertaken of a plasma process which was run, and more typically one which is currently being run, within the processing chamber. Plasma health evaluations and process identification through optical emissions analysis are included in this aspect. Yet another aspect associated with the present invention relates in at least some manner to the endpoint of a plasma process (e.g., plasma recipe, plasma clean, conditioning wafer operation) or discrete/discernible portion thereof (e.g., a plasma step of a multiple step plasma recipe). A final aspect associated with the present invention relates to how one or more of the above-noted aspects may be implemented into a semiconductor fabrication facility, such as the distribution of wafers to a wafer production system.

  8. Method and apparatus for monitoring plasma processing operations

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Michael Lane; Stevenson, Joel O'Don; Ward, Pamela Peardon Denise

    2000-01-01

    The invention generally relates to various aspects of a plasma process, and more specifically the monitoring of such plasma processes. One aspect relates in at least some manner to calibrating or initializing a plasma monitoring assembly. This type of calibration may be used to address wavelength shifts, intensity shifts, or both associated with optical emissions data obtained on a plasma process. A calibration light may be directed at a window through which optical emissions data is being obtained to determine the effect, if any, that the inner surface of the window is having on the optical emissions data being obtained therethrough, the operation of the optical emissions data gathering device, or both. Another aspect relates in at least some manner to various types of evaluations which may be undertaken of a plasma process which was run, and more typically one which is currently being run, within the processing chamber. Plasma health evaluations and process identification through optical emissions analysis are included in this aspect. Yet another aspect associated with the present invention relates in at least some manner to the endpoint of a plasma process (e.g., plasma recipe, plasma clean, conditioning wafer operation) or discrete/discernible portion thereof (e.g., a plasma step of a multiple step plasma recipe). A final aspect associated with the present invention relates to how one or more of the above-noted aspects may be implemented into a semiconductor fabrication facility, such as the distribution of wafers to a wafer production system.

  9. Method and apparatus for monitoring plasma processing operations

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Michael Lane; Stevenson, Joel O'Don; Ward, Pamela Peardon Denise

    2001-01-01

    The invention generally relates to various aspects of a plasma process, and more specifically the monitoring of such plasma processes. One aspect relates in at least some manner to calibrating or initializing a plasma monitoring assembly. This type of calibration may be used to address wavelength shifts, intensity shifts, or both associated with optical emissions data obtained on a plasma process. A calibration light may be directed at a window through which optical emissions data is being obtained to determine the effect, if any, that the inner surface of the window is having on the optical emissions data being obtained therethrough, the operation of the optical emissions data gathering device, or both. Another aspect relates in at least some manner to various types of evaluations which may be undertaken of a plasma process which was run, and more typically one which is currently being run, within the processing chamber. Plasma health evaluations and process identification through optical emissions analysis are included in this aspect. Yet another aspect associated with the present invention relates in at least some manner to the endpoint of a plasma process (e.g., plasma recipe, plasma clean, conditioning wafer operation) or discrete/discemible portion thereof (e.g., a plasma step of a multiple step plasma recipe). A final aspect associated with the present invention relates to how one or more of the above-noted aspects may be implemented into a semiconductor fabrication facility, such as the distribution of wafers to a wafer production system.

  10. Scoping decision document for HEPA filter differential pressure interlock control installation and tank farm exhauster operation

    SciTech Connect

    GUSTAVSON, R.D.

    2001-06-27

    This document is a decision document regarding the scope of HEPA filter differential pressure interlock system installations at Tank Farm emission units. It is intended to provide supporting information for administration of Baseline Change Request.

  11. Fed-batch and perfusion culture processes: economic, environmental, and operational feasibility under uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Pollock, James; Ho, Sa V; Farid, Suzanne S

    2013-01-01

    This article evaluates the current and future potential of batch and continuous cell culture technologies via a case study based on the commercial manufacture of monoclonal antibodies. The case study compares fed-batch culture to two perfusion technologies: spin-filter perfusion and an emerging perfusion technology utilizing alternating tangential flow (ATF) perfusion. The operational, economic, and environmental feasibility of whole bioprocesses based on these systems was evaluated using a prototype dynamic decision-support tool built at UCL encompassing process economics, discrete-event simulation and uncertainty analysis, and combined with a multi-attribute decision-making technique so as to enable a holistic assessment. The strategies were compared across a range of scales and titres so as to visualize how their ranking changes in different industry scenarios. The deterministic analysis indicated that the ATF perfusion strategy has the potential to offer cost of goods savings of 20% when compared to conventional fed-batch manufacturing processes when a fivefold increase in maximum viable cell densities was assumed. Savings were also seen when the ATF cell density dropped to a threefold increase over the fed-batch strategy for most combinations of titres and production scales. In contrast, the fed-batch strategy performed better in terms of environmental sustainability with a lower water and consumable usage profile. The impact of uncertainty and failure rates on the feasibility of the strategies was explored using Monte Carlo simulation. The risk analysis results demonstrated the enhanced robustness of the fed-batch process but also highlighted that the ATF process was still the most cost-effective option even under uncertainty. The multi-attribute decision-making analysis provided insight into the limited use of spin-filter perfusion strategies in industry. The resulting sensitivity spider plots enabled identification of the critical ratio of weightings of

  12. Operational readiness: an integral part of the facility planning process.

    PubMed

    Kidd, LeeAnne; Howe, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Large capital building projects benefit from an operational readiness strategy prior to new facility occupancy. St. Joseph's Healthcare used a structured approach for their readiness planning that included individual work plan meetings, tools for ensuring integration across programs and services and process improvement support to ensure a smooth transition. Over 1100 staff were oriented using a Train-the-Trainer model. Significant effort was required to co-ordinate the customized training, which involved "staffing up" to ensure sufficient resources for backfill. Operational readiness planning places additional demands on managers, requiring support and assistance from dedicated resources both prior to occupancy and several months post-move.

  13. Orbital transfer vehicle launch operations study. Processing flows. Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV) processing flow and Resource Identification Sheets (RISs) for the ground based orbit transfer vehicle and for the space based orbit transfer vehicle are the primary source of information for the rest of the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) OTV Launch Operations Study. Work is presented which identifies KSC facility requirements for the OTV Program, simplifies or automates either flow though the application technology, revises test practices and identifies crew sizes or skills used. These flows were used as the primary point of departure from current operations and practices. Analyses results were documented by revising the appropriate RIS page.

  14. Preliminary operational results of the industrial process heat field tests

    SciTech Connect

    Kutscher, C.; Davenport, R.

    1980-04-01

    There are currently six DOE-funded solar industrial process heat (IPH) field tests which have been operational for one year or longer. These are all low temperature first generation projects which supply heat at temperatures below 100/sup 0/C - three hot water and three hot air. During the 1979 calendar year, personnel from the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) visited all of these sites; the performance and cost results obtained for each project and the operational problems encountered at each site are discussed.

  15. Operational readiness: an integral part of the facility planning process.

    PubMed

    Kidd, LeeAnne; Howe, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Large capital building projects benefit from an operational readiness strategy prior to new facility occupancy. St. Joseph's Healthcare used a structured approach for their readiness planning that included individual work plan meetings, tools for ensuring integration across programs and services and process improvement support to ensure a smooth transition. Over 1100 staff were oriented using a Train-the-Trainer model. Significant effort was required to co-ordinate the customized training, which involved "staffing up" to ensure sufficient resources for backfill. Operational readiness planning places additional demands on managers, requiring support and assistance from dedicated resources both prior to occupancy and several months post-move. PMID:25906468

  16. Processing and Preparation of Advanced Stirling Convertors for Extended Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oriti, Salvatore M.; Cornell, Paggy A.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Lockheed Martin Space Company (LMSC), Sunpower Inc., and NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) have been developing an Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) for use as a power system on space science missions. This generator will make use of the free-piston Stirling convertors to achieve higher conversion efficiency than currently available alternatives. NASA GRC is supporting the development of the ASRG by providing extended operation of several Sunpower Inc. Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs). In the past year and a half, eight ASCs have operated in continuous, unattended mode in both air and thermal vacuum environments. Hardware, software, and procedures were developed to prepare each convertor for extended operation with intended durations on the order of tens of thousands of hours. Steps taken to prepare a convertor for long-term operation included geometry measurements, thermocouple instrumentation, evaluation of working fluid purity, evacuation with bakeout, and high purity charge. Actions were also taken to ensure the reliability of support systems, such as data acquisition and automated shutdown checkouts. Once a convertor completed these steps, it underwent short-term testing to gather baseline performance data before initiating extended operation. These tests included insulation thermal loss characterization, low-temperature checkout, and full-temperature and power demonstration. This paper discusses the facilities developed to support continuous, unattended operation, and the processing results of the eight ASCs currently on test.

  17. The CONSERT operations planning process for the Rosetta mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogez, Yves; Puget, Pascal; Zine, Sonia; Hérique, Alain; Kofman, Wlodek; Altobelli, Nicolas; Ashman, Mike; Barthélémy, Maud; Biele, Jens; Blazquez, Alejandro; Casas, Carlos M.; Sitjà, Marc Costa; Delmas, Cédric; Fantinati, Cinzia; Fronton, Jean-François; Geiger, Bernhard; Geurts, Koen; Grieger, Björn; Hahnel, Ronny; Hoofs, Raymond; Hubault, Armelle; Jurado, Eric; Küppers, Michael; Maibaum, Michael; Moussi-Souffys, Aurélie; Muñoz, Pablo; O'Rourke, Laurence; Pätz, Brigitte; Plettemeier, Dirk; Ulamec, Stephan; Vallat, Claire

    2016-08-01

    The COmet Nucleus Sounding Experiment by Radio wave Transmission (CONSERT / Rosetta) has been designed to sound the interior of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. This instrument consists of two parts: one onboard Rosetta and the other one onboard Philae. A good CONSERT science measurement sequence requires joint operations of both spacecrafts in a relevant geometry. The geometric constraints to be fulfilled involve the position and the orientation of both Rosetta and Philae. At the moment of planning the post-landing and long-term science operations for Rosetta instruments, the actual comet shape and the landing location remained largely unknown. In addition, the necessity of combining operations of Rosetta spacecraft and Philae spacecraft makes the planning process for CONSERT particularly complex. In this paper, we present the specific methods and tools we developed, in close collaboration with the mission and the science operation teams for both Rosetta and Philae, to identify, rank and plan the operations for CONSERT science measurements. The presented methods could be applied to other missions involving joint operations between two platforms, on a complex shaped object.

  18. Factors Affecting the Corporate Decision-Making Process of Air Transport Manufacturers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ollila, R. G.; Hill, J. D.; Noton, B. R.; Duffy, M. A.; Epstein, M. M.

    1976-01-01

    Fuel economy is a pivotal question influencing the future sale and utilization of commercial aircraft. The NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) Program Office has a program intended to accelerate the readiness of advanced technologies for energy efficient aircraft. Because the decision to develop a new airframe or engine is a major financial hazard for manufacturers, it is important to know what factors influence the decision making process. A method is described for identifying and ranking individuals and organizations involved at each stage of commercial air transport development, and the barriers that must be overcome in adopting new technologies.

  19. Implementing Georeferencing in the Decision-Making Process of a Health Care Provider in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Silva Layes, Elizabeth; Morales, Fernando; Leivas, Julio

    2015-01-01

    Proper management of information is not only essential but also critical in any organization's decision making process. Data integration and spacial visualization are the key features of georeferencial systems, which bring support to decision making in epidemiology as well as sanitary planning.This paper shows the development of a georeferential system that interacts with the data provided by the Health Care System.Thereby allowing creation of viable methods which will help to improve patient care, treatments, and interventions through building space-time relationships.

  20. Emergency end of life operations for CNES remote sensing satellites—Management and operational process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, Régis; Alby, Fernand; Costes, Thierry; Dejoie, Joël; Delmas, Dominique-Roland; Delobette, Damien; Gibek, Isabelle; Gleyzes, Alain; Masson, Françoise; Meyer, Jean-Renaud; Moreau, Agathe; Perret, Lionel; Riclet, François; Ruiz, Hélène; Schiavon, Françoise; Spizzi, Pierre; Viallefont, Pierre; Villaret, Colette

    2012-10-01

    continue its mission using the redundancy, b/. the EOL operations must be planned within a mid-term period, or c/. the EOL operations must be implemented as soon as possible by the operational teams. The paper describes this management and operational process illustrated with study cases of failures on SPOT and PLEIADES satellites corresponding to various emergency situations.

  1. 10 CFR 708.31 - If no hearing is conducted, what is the process for issuing an initial agency decision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false If no hearing is conducted, what is the process for issuing an initial agency decision? 708.31 Section 708.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY DOE CONTRACTOR EMPLOYEE PROTECTION PROGRAM Investigation, Hearing and Decision Process § 708.31 If no hearing is conducted, what is the process for issuing an...

  2. Strategies for optimal operation of the tellurium electrowinning process

    SciTech Connect

    Broderick, G.; Handle, B.; Paschen, P.

    1999-02-01

    Empirical models predicting the purity of electrowon tellurium have been developed using data from 36 pilot-plant trials. Based on these models, a numerical optimization of the process was performed to identify conditions which minimize the total contamination in Pb and Se while reducing electrical consumption per kilogram of electrowon tellurium. Results indicate that product quality can be maintained and even improved while operating at the much higher electroplating production rates obtained at high current densities. Using these same process settings, the electrical consumption of the process can be reduced by up to 10 pct by operating at midrange temperatures of close to 50 C. This is particularly attractive when waste heat is available at the plant to help preheat the electrolyte feed. When both Pb and Se are present as contaminants, the most energy-efficient strategy involves the use of a high current density, at a moderate temperature with high flow, for low concentrations of TeO{sub 2}. If Pb is removed prior to the electrowinning process, the use of a low current density and low electrolyte feed concentration, while operating at a low temperature and moderate flow rates, provides the most significant reduction in Se codeposition.

  3. [Teamwork in the operating theatre. Effect on quality of decision-making].

    PubMed

    Gfrörer, R; Schüpfer, G; Schmidt, C E; Bauer, M

    2005-12-01

    German hospitals face growing economic pressure. Due to the reimbursement system with diagnosis-related groups (DRGs), revenues from capitation fees have to be earned by each clinic. This leads to minimization of resources for every single case. Cost effectiveness is also realised through shorter hospital stays, reduction of hospital beds and a steady rise in cases per year. As a consequence, all employees are confronted with an increasing workload. Compensation of these working conditions can be achieved by human engineering. Despite statements from politicians and hospital leadership in order to cope with this situation, reality is far away: overwork, shorter or missing recreation periods, pressure of time and low income of staff members have turned hospitals into a deterring workplace. If satisfaction of elementary needs such as adherence to break times, is not achieved shortly, politicians and hospital leadership will find out that without motivated and satisfied staff there will not be efficient performance. The present article addresses this issue and gives examples for increasing efficiency through motivation. Focus is on cooperation in the operation room, advantages and risks of teamwork and auxiliary measures for improvement. The aim is to underline how complex and fragile working in an operation room proceeds and how little is done to support this process. Finally, examples are described which improve teamwork, motivation, efficiency and efficacy.

  4. Future electro-optical sensors and processing in urban operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grönwall, Christina; Schwering, Piet B.; Rantakokko, Jouni; Benoist, Koen W.; Kemp, Rob A. W.; Steinvall, Ove; Letalick, Dietmar; Björkert, Stefan

    2013-10-01

    In the electro-optical sensors and processing in urban operations (ESUO) study we pave the way for the European Defence Agency (EDA) group of Electro-Optics experts (IAP03) for a common understanding of the optimal distribution of processing functions between the different platforms. Combinations of local, distributed and centralized processing are proposed. In this way one can match processing functionality to the required power, and available communication systems data rates, to obtain the desired reaction times. In the study, three priority scenarios were defined. For these scenarios, present-day and future sensors and signal processing technologies were studied. The priority scenarios were camp protection, patrol and house search. A method for analyzing information quality in single and multi-sensor systems has been applied. A method for estimating reaction times for transmission of data through the chain of command has been proposed and used. These methods are documented and can be used to modify scenarios, or be applied to other scenarios. Present day data processing is organized mainly locally. Very limited exchange of information with other platforms is present; this is performed mainly at a high information level. Main issues that arose from the analysis of present-day systems and methodology are the slow reaction time due to the limited field of view of present-day sensors and the lack of robust automated processing. Efficient handover schemes between wide and narrow field of view sensors may however reduce the delay times. The main effort in the study was in forecasting the signal processing of EO-sensors in the next ten to twenty years. Distributed processing is proposed between hand-held and vehicle based sensors. This can be accompanied by cloud processing on board several vehicles. Additionally, to perform sensor fusion on sensor data originating from different platforms, and making full use of UAV imagery, a combination of distributed and

  5. Improving petroleum contaminated land remediation decision-making through the MCA weighting process.

    PubMed

    Balasubramaniam, Anopama; Boyle, Alexander Rohan; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2007-01-01

    Internationally petroleum contamination is widespread, posing serious environmental risks including surface and groundwater contamination, thus remediation is essential. The implementation of remediation options is becoming more complex with the increasing influence of stakeholders on the outcome of decision-making processes. Acceptance of remediation schemes during implementation can be increased by involving stakeholders and the public in the decision-making stage. In petroleum remediation involving multiple stakeholders, Multicriteria Analysis has been employed due to its ability to incorporate the preferences of each stakeholder through weighting. The research focused on investigating ways to improve the weighting process. The study demonstrated the utility of SWING, and determined which type of participant and how many participants to include in the decision process, through the application of ELECTRE III and Weighted Summation. It was recommended that a mixture of stakeholders, the public and experts be involved. The total number of participants will be limited by the choice of participatory and weighting methods. The careful selection of participants, as well as the choice of participatory and weighting methods, can minimize the subjectivity involved in MCA weighting, thereby lending decisions in petroleum remediation greater legitimacy.

  6. Reactor options for disposition of excess weapon plutonium: Selection criteria and decision process for assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Edmunds, T.; Buonpane, L.; Sicherman, A.; Sutcliffe, W.; Walter, C.; Holman, G.

    1994-01-01

    DOE is currently considering a wide range of alternatives for disposition of excess weapon plutonium, including using plutonium in mixed oxide fuel for light water reactors (LWRs). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been tasked to assist DOE in its efforts to develop a decision process and criteria for evaluating the technologies and reactor designs that have been proposed for the fission disposition alternative. This report outlines an approach for establishing such a decision process and selection criteria. The approach includes the capability to address multiple, sometimes conflicting, objectives, and to incorporate the impact of uncertainty. The approach has a firm theoretical foundation and similar approaches have been used successfully by private industry, DOE, and other government agencies to support and document complex, high impact technology choice decisions. Because of their similarity and relatively simple technology, this report focuses on three light water reactors studied in Phase 1 of the DOE Plutonium Disposition Study. The decision process can be extended to allow evaluation of other reactor technologies and disposition options such as direct disposal and retrievable storage.

  7. Combination of spatial diversity and parallel decision feedback equalizer in a Single Input Multiple Output underwater acoustic communication system operating at very high frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoro Kaskarovska, Violeta; Beaujean, Pierre-Philippe

    2013-05-01

    Single Input Multiple Output (SIMO) acoustic communication system using an adaptive spatial diversity combined with parallel Decision Feedback Equalizer (DFE) is presented in this document. The SIMO system operates at high frequencies with high data rate over a limited range (less than 200 m) in very shallow waters. The SIMO system consists of a single source transmitting Phase Shift Keying (PSK) messages modulated at 300 kHz and received by multiple receivers. In a first configuration, the symbols collected at each receiver are equalized using a decision feedback equalizer and combined using Maximum Ratio Combining (MRC). In a second configuration, the MRC outputs are used as decision symbols in the DFE. This second configuration is a form of turbo equalization: the process can be repeated over and over, leading to a better estimate of the received message as the number of iterations increases. The adaptive process of diversity is repeated until the best possible result is achieved or a predefined error criterion is met. Bit Error Rate (BER) and Signal-to-Noise-and-Interference Ratio (SNIR) are used as performance metrics of the acoustic channel. Experimental results using SIMO system with three, four or five receivers and pre-processed real recorded data demonstrate ability to improve the performance of the acoustic channel in challenging environments. Using received messages with non-zero BER, adaptive spatial diversity can achieve BER of 0% and increased SNIR of 3 dB with number of iterations depending on the number of receivers used.

  8. Assessment and limits of the existent seasonal forecasts as support for the decision making process in the Sahel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacci, Maurizio; Genesio, Lorenzo; di Vecchia, Andrea; Tarchiani, Vieri; Vignaroli, Patrizio

    2010-05-01

    production of new outputs translating climate forecast in impact forecast. The paper provides an assessment of the existing seasonal forecast products available for West African and highlighting the relevance of information for decision-making process. Moreover, it underlines the actual limits of the seasonal forecast products and the improvements needed to achieve more useful information for the end-user. The operational framework is the Food Crises Prevention Calendar (CPC) , which characterizes the crisis level in order to identify the appropriate information for decision makers in terms of timing, content and format. The study intend to differentiate Regional and National needs, evidencing that working at different scales is not only a resolution problem.

  9. Using decision trees to characterize verbal communication during change and stuck episodes in the therapeutic process.

    PubMed

    Masías, Víctor H; Krause, Mariane; Valdés, Nelson; Pérez, J C; Laengle, Sigifredo

    2015-01-01

    Methods are needed for creating models to characterize verbal communication between therapists and their patients that are suitable for teaching purposes without losing analytical potential. A technique meeting these twin requirements is proposed that uses decision trees to identify both change and stuck episodes in therapist-patient communication. Three decision tree algorithms (C4.5, NBTree, and REPTree) are applied to the problem of characterizing verbal responses into change and stuck episodes in the therapeutic process. The data for the problem is derived from a corpus of 8 successful individual therapy sessions with 1760 speaking turns in a psychodynamic context. The decision tree model that performed best was generated by the C4.5 algorithm. It delivered 15 rules characterizing the verbal communication in the two types of episodes. Decision trees are a promising technique for analyzing verbal communication during significant therapy events and have much potential for use in teaching practice on changes in therapeutic communication. The development of pedagogical methods using decision trees can support the transmission of academic knowledge to therapeutic practice. PMID:25914657

  10. Using decision trees to characterize verbal communication during change and stuck episodes in the therapeutic process

    PubMed Central

    Masías, Víctor H.; Krause, Mariane; Valdés, Nelson; Pérez, J. C.; Laengle, Sigifredo

    2015-01-01

    Methods are needed for creating models to characterize verbal communication between therapists and their patients that are suitable for teaching purposes without losing analytical potential. A technique meeting these twin requirements is proposed that uses decision trees to identify both change and stuck episodes in therapist-patient communication. Three decision tree algorithms (C4.5, NBTree, and REPTree) are applied to the problem of characterizing verbal responses into change and stuck episodes in the therapeutic process. The data for the problem is derived from a corpus of 8 successful individual therapy sessions with 1760 speaking turns in a psychodynamic context. The decision tree model that performed best was generated by the C4.5 algorithm. It delivered 15 rules characterizing the verbal communication in the two types of episodes. Decision trees are a promising technique for analyzing verbal communication during significant therapy events and have much potential for use in teaching practice on changes in therapeutic communication. The development of pedagogical methods using decision trees can support the transmission of academic knowledge to therapeutic practice. PMID:25914657

  11. Decision support systems in water and wastewater treatment process selection and design: a review.

    PubMed

    Hamouda, M A; Anderson, W B; Huck, P M

    2009-01-01

    The continuously changing drivers of the water treatment industry, embodied by rigorous environmental and health regulations and the challenge of emerging contaminants, necessitates the development of decision support systems for the selection of appropriate treatment trains. This paper explores a systematic approach to developing decision support systems, which includes the analysis of the treatment problem(s), knowledge acquisition and representation, and the identification and evaluation of criteria controlling the selection of optimal treatment systems. The objective of this article is to review approaches and methods used in decision support systems developed to aid in the selection, sequencing of unit processes and design of drinking water, domestic wastewater, and industrial wastewater treatment systems. Not surprisingly, technical considerations were found to dominate the logic of the developed systems. Most of the existing decision-support tools employ heuristic knowledge. It has been determined that there is a need to develop integrated decision support systems that are generic, usable and consider a system analysis approach. PMID:19809138

  12. Using decision trees to characterize verbal communication during change and stuck episodes in the therapeutic process.

    PubMed

    Masías, Víctor H; Krause, Mariane; Valdés, Nelson; Pérez, J C; Laengle, Sigifredo

    2015-01-01

    Methods are needed for creating models to characterize verbal communication between therapists and their patients that are suitable for teaching purposes without losing analytical potential. A technique meeting these twin requirements is proposed that uses decision trees to identify both change and stuck episodes in therapist-patient communication. Three decision tree algorithms (C4.5, NBTree, and REPTree) are applied to the problem of characterizing verbal responses into change and stuck episodes in the therapeutic process. The data for the problem is derived from a corpus of 8 successful individual therapy sessions with 1760 speaking turns in a psychodynamic context. The decision tree model that performed best was generated by the C4.5 algorithm. It delivered 15 rules characterizing the verbal communication in the two types of episodes. Decision trees are a promising technique for analyzing verbal communication during significant therapy events and have much potential for use in teaching practice on changes in therapeutic communication. The development of pedagogical methods using decision trees can support the transmission of academic knowledge to therapeutic practice.

  13. Does Positivity Operate When the Stakes are High?: Health Status and Decision-Making Among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    English, Tammy; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2015-01-01

    Research and theory suggest that emotional goals are increasingly prioritized with age. Related empirical work has shown that, compared to younger adults, older adults attend to and remember positive information more than negative information. This age-related positivity effect has been eliminated in experiments that have explicitly demanded processing of both positive and negative information. In the present study, we explored whether a reduction of the preference for positive information over negative information appears when the material being reviewed holds personal relevance for the individual. Older participants whose health varied from poor to very good reviewed written material prior to making decisions about health related and non-health related issues. As predicted, older adults in relatively poor health (compared with those in relatively good health) showed less positivity in review of information while making health-related decisions. In contrast, positivity emerged regardless of health status for decisions that were unrelated to health. Across decision contexts, those individuals who focused more on positive information than negative information reported better post-decisional mood and greater decision satisfaction. Results are consistent with the theoretical argument that the age-related positivity effect reflects goal-directed cognitive processing and, furthermore, suggests that personal relevance and contextual factors determine whether or not positivity emerges. PMID:25894484

  14. Development of Energy Models for Production Systems and Processes to Inform Environmentally Benign Decision-Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz-Elsayed, Nancy

    machining parameters --- these decisions affect how much energy is utilized during production. Therefore, at the facility level a methodology is presented for implementing priority queuing while accounting for a high product mix in a discrete event simulation environment. A baseline case is presented and alternative factory designs are suggested, which lead to energy savings of approximately 9%. At the industry level, the majority of energy consumption for manufacturing facilities is utilized for machine drive, process heating, and HVAC. Numerous studies have characterized the energy of manufacturing processes and HVAC equipment, but energy data is often limited for a facility in its entirety since manufacturing companies often lack the appropriate sensors to track it and are hesitant to release this information for confidentiality purposes. Without detailed information about the use of energy in manufacturing sites, the scope of factory studies cannot be adequately defined. Therefore, the breakdown of energy consumption of sectors with discrete production is presented, as well as a case study assessing the electrical energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, their associated costs, and labor costs for selected sites in the United States, Japan, Germany, China, and India. By presenting energy models and assessments of production equipment, factory operations, and industry, this dissertation provides a comprehensive assessment of energy trends in manufacturing and recommends methods that can be used beyond these case studies and industries to reduce consumption and contribute to an energy-efficient future.

  15. Bayesian deterministic decision making: a normative account of the operant matching law and heavy-tailed reward history dependency of choices

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Hiroshi; Katahira, Kentaro; Okanoya, Kazuo; Okada, Masato

    2014-01-01

    The decision making behaviors of humans and animals adapt and then satisfy an “operant matching law” in certain type of tasks. This was first pointed out by Herrnstein in his foraging experiments on pigeons. The matching law has been one landmark for elucidating the underlying processes of decision making and its learning in the brain. An interesting question is whether decisions are made deterministically or probabilistically. Conventional learning models of the matching law are based on the latter idea; they assume that subjects learn choice probabilities of respective alternatives and decide stochastically with the probabilities. However, it is unknown whether the matching law can be accounted for by a deterministic strategy or not. To answer this question, we propose several deterministic Bayesian decision making models that have certain incorrect beliefs about an environment. We claim that a simple model produces behavior satisfying the matching law in static settings of a foraging task but not in dynamic settings. We found that the model that has a belief that the environment is volatile works well in the dynamic foraging task and exhibits undermatching, which is a slight deviation from the matching law observed in many experiments. This model also demonstrates the double-exponential reward history dependency of a choice and a heavier-tailed run-length distribution, as has recently been reported in experiments on monkeys. PMID:24624077

  16. Investigation of cryosorption vacuum system and operation process for COIL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Liang-zhi; Wang, Jin-qu; Sang, Feng-ting; Zhao, Su-qin; Jin, Yu-qi; Fang, Ben-jie

    2007-05-01

    Cryosorption vacuum system for COIL is researched and developed. Adsorption chiller has been proposed and developed by improving the heat exchanger chiller. Compared with the heat exchanger chiller, the volume and LN II consumption of the new chiller were favourably reduced. In the present work, the new adsorption operation process, cryogenic pressure swing adsorption is adopted. Compared with thermal swing adsorption, regeneration time is shortened and LN II consumption is saved at least 80% in the new operation process. The cryosorption vacuum system was integrated to COIL and tested successfully. The weight of sorbent in adsorption bed is 22Kg, the total gas flowrate is about 0.5mol/s, the COIL's power maintains over 2kW, the total COIL's working time accounts to 100 seconds. It is concluded that the cryosorption vacuum system has the same pressure recovery capability as the large vacuum tank.

  17. Multi-attribute mate choice decisions and uncertainty in the decision process: a generalized sequential search strategy.

    PubMed

    Wiegmann, Daniel D; Weinersmith, Kelly L; Seubert, Steven M

    2010-04-01

    The behavior of females in search of a mate determines the likelihood that high quality males are encountered and adaptive search strategies rely on the effective use of available information on the quality of prospective mates. The sequential search strategy was formulated, like most models of search behavior, on the assumption that females obtain perfect information on the quality of encountered males. In this paper, we modify the strategy to allow for uncertainty of male quality and we determine how the magnitude of this uncertainty and the ability of females to inspect multiple male attributes to reduce uncertainty influence mate choice decisions. In general, searchers are sensitive to search costs and higher costs lower acceptance criteria under all versions of the model. The choosiness of searchers increases with the variability of the quality of prospective mates under conditions of the original model, but under conditions of uncertainty the choosiness of searchers may increase or decrease with the variability of inspected male attributes. The behavioral response depends on the functional relationship between observed male attributes and the fitness return to searchers and on costs associated with the search process. Higher uncertainty often induces searchers to pay more for information and under conditions of uncertainty the fitness return to searchers is never higher than under conditions of the original model. Further studies of the performance of alternative search strategies under conditions of uncertainty may consequently be necessary to identify search strategies likely to be used under natural conditions.

  18. Cochlear Implant: the complexity involved in the decision making process by the family1

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Sheila de Souza; Bevilacqua, Maria Cecília; Ferreira, Noeli Marchioro Liston Andrade; Dupas, Giselle

    2014-01-01

    Objective to understand the meanings the family attributes to the phases of the decision-making process on a cochlear implant for their child. Method qualitative research, using Symbolic Interactionism and Grounded Theory as the theoretical and methodological frameworks, respectively. Data collection instrument: semistructured interview. Nine families participated in the study (32 participants). Results knowledge deficit, difficulties to contextualize benefits and risks and fear are some factors that make this process difficult. Experiences deriving from interactions with health professionals, other cochlear implant users and their relatives strengthen decision making in favor of the implant. Conclusion deciding on whether or not to have the implant involves a complex process, in which the family needs to weigh gains and losses, experience feelings of accountability and guilt, besides overcoming the risk aversion. Hence, this demands cautious preparation and knowledge from the professionals involved in this intervention. PMID:25029052

  19. Lexical familiarity and processing efficiency: individual differences in naming, lexical decision, and semantic categorization.

    PubMed

    Lewellen, M J; Goldinger, S D; Pisoni, D B; Greene, B G

    1993-09-01

    College students were separated into 2 groups (high and low) on the basis of 3 measures: subjective familiarity ratings of words, self-reported language experiences, and a test of vocabulary knowledge. Three experiments were conducted to determine if the groups also differed in visual word naming, lexical decision, and semantic categorization. High Ss were consistently faster than low Ss in naming visually presented words. They were also faster and more accurate in making difficult lexical decisions and in rejecting homophone foils in semantic categorization. Taken together, the results demonstrate that Ss who differ in lexical familiarity also differ in processing efficiency. The relationship between processing efficiency and working memory accounts of individual differences in language processing is also discussed. PMID:8371087

  20. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 10): Fort Wainwright, Operable Unit 1, Fairbanks North Star Borough, AK, June 27, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    This Record of Decision (ROD) presents the selected remedial action for 801 Drum Burial Site Operable Unit 1 (OU-1) at Fort Wainwright in Fairbanks, Alaska. Pesticides and petroleum-related compounds are contaminants of concern in the soil; and benzene, pesticides, solvents, and other petroleum-related compounds are contaminants of concern of groundwater at the 801 Drug Burial Site. This ROD addresses soil and groundwater contamination at OU-1.

  1. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 9): Moffett Naval Air Station, operable unit 5, Mountain View, CA, June 28, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial action - groundwater extraction, treatment of the water using air stripping, and discharge - for Operable Unit 5 (OU5) at Moffett Field in Mountain View, California. The discharge method for OU5 is water reuse for irrigation purposes at the Moffett Field golf course. If water reuse is not possible, the discharge will be sent to a local publicly owned treatment works (POTW) or local off-site surface waters under an NPDES permit.

  2. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 3): Publicker Industries, Inc., operable unit 3, Philadelphia, PA, December 28, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial action for Operable Unit No. 3 of the Publicker Industries Site (the Site) in Philadelphia, Pennsyvlania. The major components of the selected remedy include: Abandonment of on-Site ground water wells; Removal, treatment, and off-Site disposal of liquids and sediments in contaminated electric utilities; Removal, treatment and off-Site disposal of liquids and sediments in contaminated stormwater trenches and utilities; and Removal treatment and off-Site disposal of miscellaneous wastes.

  3. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 4): Agriculture and Nutrition (Montgomery), Operable Unit 2, Montgomery, AL, September 28, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial action for the T.H. Agriculture and Nutrition (THAN) Site, Montgomery, Alabama. Operable Unit Two (OU2) encompasses the remediation of the contaminated soils and sediments on the Site, and also establishes the performance standards for the groundwater remedy. Upon reaching the cleanup standards for groundwater at an established point(s) of compliance, the groundwater pumping system will be shut down.

  4. Process control and risky decision-making: moderation by general mental ability and need for cognition.

    PubMed

    Burkolter, Dina; Kluge, Annette

    2012-01-01

    Human factors and ergonomics research could benefit from focusing more strongly on individual differences--especially trait variables. The present study suggests the analysis of moderator effects as a promising way to enhance understanding of trait variables and process control performance. Process control performance was studied by analysing moderator effects of general mental ability (GMA) and need for cognition (NC) on risky decision-making (RDM) and performance. Fifty engineering students were trained on a process control task using a computer-based simulation for three hours and tested twice thereafter. Risky decision-making was measured using a computerised gambling task while GMA and NC were assessed with questionnaires. Risky decision-making in interaction with each GMA and NC explained variance in performance over and above variance explained by the single effects. In conclusion, the analysis of moderator effects between individual difference variables and process control performance seems promising. Practitioner Summary: Individual difference variables affect learning and performance, but have often not been studied to any great extent in human factors research. This article suggests a promising approach to studying individual differences--moderator analyses--and illustrates how such differences can lead to a better understanding of what determines process control performance. PMID:22897454

  5. Contactless operating table control based on 3D image processing.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Stephan; Loftfield, Nina; Langmann, Benjamin; Frank, Klaus; Reithmeier, Eduard

    2014-01-01

    Interaction with mobile consumer devices leads to a higher acceptance and affinity of persons to natural user interfaces and perceptional interaction possibilities. New interaction modalities become accessible and are capable to improve human machine interaction even in complex and high risk environments, like the operation room. Here, manifold medical disciplines cause a great variety of procedures and thus staff and equipment. One universal challenge is to meet the sterility requirements, for which common contact-afflicted remote interfaces always pose a potential risk causing a hazard for the process. The proposed operating table control system overcomes this process risk and thus improves the system usability significantly. The 3D sensor system, the Microsoft Kinect, captures the motion of the user, allowing a touchless manipulation of an operating table. Three gestures enable the user to select, activate and manipulate all segments of the motorised system in a safe and intuitive way. The gesture dynamics are synchronised with the table movement. In a usability study, 15 participants evaluated the system with a system usability score by Broke of 79. This states a high potential for implementation and acceptance in interventional environments. In the near future, even processes with higher risks could be controlled with the proposed interface, while interfaces become safer and more direct.

  6. Model operating permits for natural gas processing plants

    SciTech Connect

    Arend, C.

    1995-12-31

    Major sources as defined in Title V of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 that are required to submit an operating permit application will need to: Evaluate their compliance status; Determine a strategic method of presenting the general and specific conditions of their Model Operating Permit (MOP); Maintain compliance with air quality regulations. A MOP is prepared to assist permitting agencies and affected facilities in the development of operating permits for a specific source category. This paper includes a brief discussion of example permit conditions that may be applicable to various types of Title V sources. A MOP for a generic natural gas processing plant is provided as an example. The MOP should include a general description of the production process and identify emission sources. The two primary elements that comprise a MOP are: Provisions of all existing state and/or local air permits; Identification of general and specific conditions for the Title V permit. The general provisions will include overall compliance with all Clean Air Act Titles. The specific provisions include monitoring, record keeping, and reporting. Although Title V MOPs are prepared on a case-by-case basis, this paper will provide a general guideline of the requirements for preparation of a MOP. Regulatory agencies have indicated that a MOP included in the Title V application will assist in preparation of the final permit provisions, minimize delays in securing a permit, and provide support during the public notification process.

  7. Contactless operating table control based on 3D image processing.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Stephan; Loftfield, Nina; Langmann, Benjamin; Frank, Klaus; Reithmeier, Eduard

    2014-01-01

    Interaction with mobile consumer devices leads to a higher acceptance and affinity of persons to natural user interfaces and perceptional interaction possibilities. New interaction modalities become accessible and are capable to improve human machine interaction even in complex and high risk environments, like the operation room. Here, manifold medical disciplines cause a great variety of procedures and thus staff and equipment. One universal challenge is to meet the sterility requirements, for which common contact-afflicted remote interfaces always pose a potential risk causing a hazard for the process. The proposed operating table control system overcomes this process risk and thus improves the system usability significantly. The 3D sensor system, the Microsoft Kinect, captures the motion of the user, allowing a touchless manipulation of an operating table. Three gestures enable the user to select, activate and manipulate all segments of the motorised system in a safe and intuitive way. The gesture dynamics are synchronised with the table movement. In a usability study, 15 participants evaluated the system with a system usability score by Broke of 79. This states a high potential for implementation and acceptance in interventional environments. In the near future, even processes with higher risks could be controlled with the proposed interface, while interfaces become safer and more direct. PMID:25569978

  8. [Remarks on operative regulations relating to decision making about inability to work in pension cases].

    PubMed

    Chowaniec, Małgorzata; Chowaniec, Czesław

    2003-01-01

    In years 1996 and 1997 both the Pension Act and the Social Insurance Act were changed in Poland and as a consequence of this, all the regulations relating to decision making about the inability to work. Having suppressed the so-called disability groups, such terms as permanent or temporary inability to work were introduced. Medical boards deciding on disability were replaced by predicative physicians working for the Social Insurance Department. Recently a rise in number of cases relative to the verification of the decisions passed by the SID and sent by either employer or Social Insurance Departments of district courts to the Department of Forensic Medicine Silesian Academy in Katowice has been observed. The authors have tried to analyse the cause of a rise in the number of appeals to a decision of the SID submitted by the insured.

  9. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 1): Peterson/Puritan Site, Operable Unit 1, Cumberland/Lincoln, RI, September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This Decision Document presents the selected remedial action for the Peterson/Puritan, Inc. Superfund Site, Operable Unit 1, in Cumberland and Lincoln, Rhode Island. Operable Unit 1 contains two remediation areas. The CCL remediation area, a source of volatile organic contamination, includes the former Peterson/Puritan, Inc. facility, which is the Site's namesake (currently the CCL Custom Manufacturing facility, and referred to as CCL). The PAC remediation area includes the Pacific Anchor Chemical Corporation (PAC ) facility (formerly the Lonza and Universal Chemical Company facility), which is a source of arsenic and volatile organic contamination. Each remediation area is further split into source and downgradient area components, respectively.

  10. Superfund record of decision (EPA region 6): Vertac Superfund Site, operable unit 3, Jacksonville, AR, September 17, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial action for Operable Unit 3 (OU3), Ground Water, for the Vertac, Incorporated, site in Jacksonville, Arkansas. The remedy selected in this ROD for Operable Unit 3 will contain within the site`s confines dioxin- and herbicide- contaminated ground water that constitutes a low level long term threat, will treat to State of Arkansas water quality standards the ground water extracted from the site in connection with the hydraulic containment of the contaminated ground water plume, and will prioide a legal mechanism by which EPA will reevaluate the remedy selected in five-year intervals from the date the remedy is initiated.

  11. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 7): Former Nebraska Ordnance Plant Site, Operable Unit 1, Mead, NE, August 29, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial action for the former Nebraska Ordnance Plant (NOP) site, in Mead, Nebraska. The former NOP site was used as an ordnance loading, assembly, and packing facility. Operations at the NOP resulted in contamination of soil with explosive compounds. Operable Unit 1 (OU1) encompasses the upper 4 feet of soil contaminated with explosive compounds. The remedial action for OU1 addresses one of the principal threats at the site, explosives-contaminated soil, by thermally treating the contaminated soil on-site.

  12. Clinical errors that can occur in the treatment decision-making process in psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Park, Jake; Goode, Jonathan; Tompkins, Kelley A; Swift, Joshua K

    2016-09-01

    Clinical errors occur in the psychotherapy decision-making process whenever a less-than-optimal treatment or approach is chosen when working with clients. A less-than-optimal approach may be one that a client is unwilling to try or fully invest in based on his/her expectations and preferences, or one that may have little chance of success based on contraindications and/or limited research support. The and the models are two decision-making models that are frequently used within psychology, but both are associated with an increased likelihood of errors in the treatment decision-making process. In particular, these models fail to integrate all three components of the definition of evidence-based practice in psychology (American Psychological Association, 2006). In this article we describe both models and provide examples of clinical errors that can occur in each. We then introduce the shared decision-making model as an alternative that is less prone to clinical errors. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27505457

  13. Cognitive processing and motor execution in the lexical decision task: a developmental study.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Sascha; Verrel, Julius

    2014-04-01

    We investigated lexical decision making in children and adults by analyzing spatiotemporal characteristics of responses involving a hand movement. Children's and adults' movement trajectories were assessed in three tasks: a lexical decision task (LDT), a pointing task that involved minimal cognitive processing, and a symbol task requiring a simple binary decision. Cognitive interference on motor performance was quantified by analyzing movement characteristics in the LDT and symbol task relative to the pointing task. Across age groups, movements in the LDT were less smooth, slower, and more strongly curved to the opposite response option, and these interference effects decreased steadily with age. Older children showed stronger interference effects than did adults, even though their reaction times were similar to adults' performance. No comparable effects were found in the symbol task, indicating that task characteristics such as response mapping and decision selection alone are not able to explain the developmental differences observed in the LDT. Our results indicate substantial overlap between cognitive processing and motor execution in the LDT in children that is not captured by computational models of visual word recognition and cognitive development.

  14. Beyond the lab: observations on the process by which science successfully informs management and policy decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, S.

    2012-12-01

    Scientific findings inform management decisions and policy products through various ways, these include: synthesis reports, white papers, in-person and web-based seminars (webinars), communication from specialized staff, and seminal peer-reviewed journal articles. Scientists are often told that if they want their science to inform management decisions and policy products that they must: clearly and simply articulate discreet pieces of scientific information and avoid attaching advocacy messages to the science; however, solely relying on these tenants does not ensure that scientific products will infuse the realms of management and policy. The process by which science successfully informs management decisions and policy products rarely begins at the time the results come out of the lab, but rather, before the research is carried out. Having an understanding of the political climate, management needs, agency research agendas, and funding limitations, as well as developing a working relationship with the intended managers and policy makers are key elements to developing the kind of science results and products that often make an impact in the management and policy world. In my presentation I will provide case-studies from California (USA) to highlight the type of coastal, ocean and climate science that has been successful in informing management decisions and policy documents, as well as provide a state-level agency perspective on the process by which this occurs.

  15. Diffusion Modelling Reveals the Decision Making Processes Underlying Negative Judgement Bias in Rats.

    PubMed

    Hales, Claire A; Robinson, Emma S J; Houghton, Conor J

    2016-01-01

    Human decision making is modified by emotional state. Rodents exhibit similar biases during interpretation of ambiguous cues that can be altered by affective state manipulations. In this study, the impact of negative affective state on judgement bias in rats was measured using an ambiguous-cue interpretation task. Acute treatment with an anxiogenic drug (FG7142), and chronic restraint stress and social isolation both induced a bias towards more negative interpretation of the ambiguous cue. The diffusion model was fit to behavioural data to allow further analysis of the underlying decision making processes. To uncover the way in which parameters vary together in relation to affective state manipulations, independent component analysis was conducted on rate of information accumulation and distances to decision threshold parameters for control data. Results from this analysis were applied to parameters from negative affective state manipulations. These projected components were compared to control components to reveal the changes in decision making processes that are due to affective state manipulations. Negative affective bias in rodents induced by either FG7142 or chronic stress is due to a combination of more negative interpretation of the ambiguous cue, reduced anticipation of the high reward and increased anticipation of the low reward.

  16. Perceptual grouping does not affect multi-attribute decision making if no processing costs are involved.

    PubMed

    Ettlin, Florence; Bröder, Arndt

    2015-05-01

    Adaptive strategy selection implies that a decision strategy is chosen based on its fit to the task and situation. However, other aspects, such as the way information is presented, can determine information search behavior; especially when the application of certain strategies over others is facilitated. But are such display effects on multi-attribute decisions also at work when the manipulation does not entail differential costs for different decision strategies? Three Mouselab experiments with hidden information and one eye tracking experiment with an open information board revealed that decision behavior is unaffected by purely perceptual manipulations of the display based on Gestalt principles; that is, based on manipulations that induce no noteworthy processing costs for different information search patterns. We discuss our results in the context of previous findings on display effects; specifically, how the combination of these findings and our results reveal the crucial role of differential processing costs for different strategies for the emergence of display effects. This finding describes a boundary condition of the commonly acknowledged influence of information displays and is in line with the ideas of adaptive strategy selection and cost-benefit tradeoffs.

  17. Planetary protection, legal ambiguity and the decision making process for Mars sample return.

    PubMed

    Race, M S

    1996-01-01

    As scientists and mission planners develop planetary protection requirements for future Mars sample return missions, they must recognize the socio-political context in which decisions about the mission will be made and pay careful attention to public concerns about potential back contamination of Earth. To the extent that planetary protection questions are unresolved or unaddressed at the time of an actual mission, they offer convenient footholds for public challenges in both legal and decision making realms, over which NASA will have little direct control. In this paper, two particular non-scientific areas of special concern are discussed in detail: 1) legal issues and 2) the decision making process. Understanding these areas is critical for addressing legitimate public concerns as well as for fulfilling procedural requirements regardless whether sample return evokes public controversy. Legal issues with the potential to complicate future missions include: procedural review under National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA); uncertainty about institutional control and authority; conflicting regulations and overlapping jurisdictions; questions about international treaty obligations and large scale impacts; uncertanities about the nature of the organism; and constitutional and regulatory concerns about quarantine, public health and safety. In light of these important legal issues, it is critical that NASA consider the role and timing of public involvement in the decision making process as a way of anticipating problem areas and preparing for legitimate public questions and challenges to sample return missions.

  18. Diffusion Modelling Reveals the Decision Making Processes Underlying Negative Judgement Bias in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hales, Claire A.; Robinson, Emma S. J.; Houghton, Conor J.

    2016-01-01

    Human decision making is modified by emotional state. Rodents exhibit similar biases during interpretation of ambiguous cues that can be altered by affective state manipulations. In this study, the impact of negative affective state on judgement bias in rats was measured using an ambiguous-cue interpretation task. Acute treatment with an anxiogenic drug (FG7142), and chronic restraint stress and social isolation both induced a bias towards more negative interpretation of the ambiguous cue. The diffusion model was fit to behavioural data to allow further analysis of the underlying decision making processes. To uncover the way in which parameters vary together in relation to affective state manipulations, independent component analysis was conducted on rate of information accumulation and distances to decision threshold parameters for control data. Results from this analysis were applied to parameters from negative affective state manipulations. These projected components were compared to control components to reveal the changes in decision making processes that are due to affective state manipulations. Negative affective bias in rodents induced by either FG7142 or chronic stress is due to a combination of more negative interpretation of the ambiguous cue, reduced anticipation of the high reward and increased anticipation of the low reward. PMID:27023442

  19. Planetary protection, legal ambiguity and the decision making process for Mars sample return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Race, M. S.

    1996-01-01

    As scientists and mission planners develop planetary protection requirements for future Mars sample return missions, they must recognize the socio-political context in which decisions about the mission will be made and pay careful attention to public concerns about potential back contamination of Earth. To the extent that planetary protection questions are unresolved or unaddressed at the time of an actual mission, they offer convenient footholds for public challenges in both legal and decision making realms, over which NASA will have little direct control. In this paper, two particular non-scientific areas of special concern are discussed in detail: 1) legal issues and 2) the decision making process. Understanding these areas is critical for addressing legitimate public concerns as well as for fulfilling procedural requirements regardless whether sample return evokes public controversy. Legal issues with the potential to complicate future missions include: procedural review under National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA); uncertainty about institutional control and authority; conflicting regulations and overlapping jurisdictions; questions about international treaty obligations and large scale impacts; uncertanities about the nature of the organism; and constitutional and regulatory concerns about quarantine, public health and safety. In light of these important legal issues, it is critical that NASA consider the role and timing of public involvement in the decision making process as a way of anticipating problem areas and preparing for legitimate public questions and challenges to sample return missions.

  20. Planetary protection, legal ambiguity and the decision making process for Mars sample return.

    PubMed

    Race, M S

    1996-01-01

    As scientists and mission planners develop planetary protection requirements for future Mars sample return missions, they must recognize the socio-political context in which decisions about the mission will be made and pay careful attention to public concerns about potential back contamination of Earth. To the extent that planetary protection questions are unresolved or unaddressed at the time of an actual mission, they offer convenient footholds for public challenges in both legal and decision making realms, over which NASA will have little direct control. In this paper, two particular non-scientific areas of special concern are discussed in detail: 1) legal issues and 2) the decision making process. Understanding these areas is critical for addressing legitimate public concerns as well as for fulfilling procedural requirements regardless whether sample return evokes public controversy. Legal issues with the potential to complicate future missions include: procedural review under National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA); uncertainty about institutional control and authority; conflicting regulations and overlapping jurisdictions; questions about international treaty obligations and large scale impacts; uncertanities about the nature of the organism; and constitutional and regulatory concerns about quarantine, public health and safety. In light of these important legal issues, it is critical that NASA consider the role and timing of public involvement in the decision making process as a way of anticipating problem areas and preparing for legitimate public questions and challenges to sample return missions. PMID:11538983