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Sample records for operator decision processes

  1. International online support to process optimisation and operation decisions.

    PubMed

    Onnerth, T B; Eriksson, J

    2002-01-01

    The information level at all technical facilities has developed from almost nothing 30-40 years ago to advanced IT--Information Technology--systems based on both chemical and mechanical on-line sensors for process and equipment. Still the basic part of information is to get the right data at the right time for the decision to be made. Today a large amount of operational data is available at almost any European wastewater treatment plant, from laboratory and SCADA. The difficult part is to determine which data to keep, which to use in calculations and how and where to make data available. With the STARcontrol system it is possible to separate only process relevant data to use for on-line control and reporting at engineering level, to optimise operation. Furthermore, the use of IT makes it possible to communicate internationally, with full access to the whole amount of data on the single plant. In this way, expert supervision can be both very local in local language e.g. Polish and at the same time very professional with Danish experts advising on Danish processes in Poland or Sweden where some of the 12 STARcontrol systems are running.

  2. Assessing the structure of non-routine decision processes in Airline Operations Control.

    PubMed

    Richters, Floor; Schraagen, Jan Maarten; Heerkens, Hans

    2016-03-01

    Unfamiliar severe disruptions challenge Airline Operations Control professionals most, as their expertise is stretched to its limits. This study has elicited the structure of Airline Operations Control professionals' decision process during unfamiliar disruptions by mapping three macrocognitive activities on the decision ladder: sensemaking, option evaluation and action planning. The relationship between this structure and decision quality was measured. A simulated task was staged, based on which think-aloud protocols were obtained. Results show that the general decision process structure resembles the structure of experts working under routine conditions, in terms of the general structure of the macrocognitive activities, and the rule-based approach used to identify options and actions. Surprisingly, high quality of decision outcomes was found to relate to the use of rule-based strategies. This implies that successful professionals are capable of dealing with unfamiliar problems by reframing them into familiar ones, rather than to engage in knowledge-based processing. Practitioner Summary: We examined the macrocognitive structure of Airline Operations Control professionals' decision process during a simulated unfamiliar disruption in relation to decision quality. Results suggest that successful professionals are capable of dealing with unfamiliar problems by reframing them into familiar ones, rather than to engage in knowledge-based processing.

  3. Challenging Operations: An Ethical Framework to Assist Humanitarian Aid Workers in their Decision-making Processes.

    PubMed

    Clarinval, Caroline; Biller-Andorno, Nikola

    2014-06-23

    This paper aims to raise awareness regarding ethical issues in the context of humanitarian action, and to offer a framework for systematically and effectively addressing such issues. Several cases highlight ethical issues that humanitarian aid workers are confronted with at different levels over the course of their deployments. The first case discusses a situation at a macro-level concerning decisions being made at the headquarters of a humanitarian organization. The second case looks at meso-level issues that need to be solved at a country or regional level. The third case proposes an ethical dilemma at the micro-level of the individual patient-provider relationship. These real-life cases have been selected to illustrate the ethical dimension of conflicts within the context of humanitarian action that might remain unrecognized in everyday practice. In addition, we propose an ethical framework to assist humanitarian aid workers in their decision-making process. The framework draws on the principles and values that guide humanitarian action and public health ethics more generally. Beyond identifying substantive core values, the framework also includes a ten-step process modelled on tools used in the clinical setting that promotes a transparent and clear decision-making process and improves the monitoring and evaluation of aid interventions. Finally, we recommend organizational measures to implement the framework effectively. This paper uses a combination of public health/clinical ethics concepts and practices and applies them to the decision-making challenges encountered in relief operations in the humanitarian aid context.

  4. Analytic hierarchy process as module for productivity evaluation and decision-making of the operation theater

    PubMed Central

    Ezzat, Abdelrahman E. M.; Hamoud, Hesham S.

    2016-01-01

    The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is a theory of measurement through pairwise comparisons and relies on the judgments of experts to derive priority scales, these scales that measure intangibles in relative terms. The aim of the article was to develop a model for productivity measurement of the operation theater (OT), which could be applied as a model for quality improvement and decision-making. AHP is used in this article to evolve such a model. The steps consist of identifying the critical success factors for measuring the productivity of OT, identifying subfactors that inflauence the critical factors, comparing the pairwise, deriving their relative importance and ratings, and calculating the cumulative effect according to the attributes in OT. The cumulative productivitycan be calculated by the end and can be compared Ideal productivity to measure the productive of OT in percentage fraction. Hence, the productivity could be calculated. Hence, AHP is a very useful model to measure the productivity in OT. PMID:26955599

  5. Analytic hierarchy process as module for productivity evaluation and decision-making of the operation theater.

    PubMed

    Ezzat, Abdelrahman E M; Hamoud, Hesham S

    2016-01-01

    The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is a theory of measurement through pairwise comparisons and relies on the judgments of experts to derive priority scales, these scales that measure intangibles in relative terms. The aim of the article was to develop a model for productivity measurement of the operation theater (OT), which could be applied as a model for quality improvement and decision-making. AHP is used in this article to evolve such a model. The steps consist of identifying the critical success factors for measuring the productivity of OT, identifying subfactors that inflauence the critical factors, comparing the pairwise, deriving their relative importance and ratings, and calculating the cumulative effect according to the attributes in OT. The cumulative productivitycan be calculated by the end and can be compared Ideal productivity to measure the productive of OT in percentage fraction. Hence, the productivity could be calculated. Hence, AHP is a very useful model to measure the productivity in OT.

  6. IBRD Operational Decision Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwalt, R; Hibbard, W; Raber, E; Carlsen, T; Folks, K; MacQueen, D; Mancieri, S; Bunt, T; Richards, J; Hirabayashi-Dethier, J

    2010-11-12

    The IBRD Operational Decision Framework in this document is an expansion of an emerging general risk management framework under development by an interagency working group. It provides the level of detail necessary to develop a general Consequence Management Guidance Document for biological contamination remediation and restoration. It is the intent of this document to support both wide area and individual site remediation and restoration activities. This product was initiated as a portion of the IBRD Task 1 Systems Analysis to aid in identification of wide area remediation and restoration shortcomings and gaps. The draft interagency general risk management framework was used as the basis for the analysis. The initial Task 1 analysis document expanded the draft interagency framework to a higher level of resolution, building on both the logic structure and the accompanying text explanations. It was then employed in a qualitative manner to identify responsible agencies, data requirements, tool requirements, and current capabilities for each decision and task. This resulted in identifying shortcomings and gaps needing resolution. Several meetings of a joint LLNL/SNL working group reviewed and approved the initial content of this analysis. At the conclusion of Task 1, work continued on the expanded framework to generate this Operational Decision Framework which is consistent with the existing interagency general risk management framework. A large LLNL task group met repeatedly over a three-month period to develop the expanded framework, coordinate the framework with the biological remediation checklist, and synchronize the logic with the Consequence Management Plan table of contents. The expanded framework was briefed at a large table top exercise reviewing the interagency risk management framework. This exercise had representation from major US metropolitan areas as well as national agencies. This product received positive comments from the participants. Upon

  7. Hierarchical decision processes that operate over distinct timescales underlie choice and changes in strategy.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Braden A; Kiani, Roozbeh

    2016-08-02

    Decision-making in a natural environment depends on a hierarchy of interacting decision processes. A high-level strategy guides ongoing choices, and the outcomes of those choices determine whether or not the strategy should change. When the right decision strategy is uncertain, as in most natural settings, feedback becomes ambiguous because negative outcomes may be due to limited information or bad strategy. Disambiguating the cause of feedback requires active inference and is key to updating the strategy. We hypothesize that the expected accuracy of a choice plays a crucial rule in this inference, and setting the strategy depends on integration of outcome and expectations across choices. We test this hypothesis with a task in which subjects report the net direction of random dot kinematograms with varying difficulty while the correct stimulus-response association undergoes invisible and unpredictable switches every few trials. We show that subjects treat negative feedback as evidence for a switch but weigh it with their expected accuracy. Subjects accumulate switch evidence (in units of log-likelihood ratio) across trials and update their response strategy when accumulated evidence reaches a bound. A computational framework based on these principles quantitatively explains all aspects of the behavior, providing a plausible neural mechanism for the implementation of hierarchical multiscale decision processes. We suggest that a similar neural computation-bounded accumulation of evidence-underlies both the choice and switches in the strategy that govern the choice, and that expected accuracy of a choice represents a key link between the levels of the decision-making hierarchy.

  8. Hierarchical decision processes that operate over distinct timescales underlie choice and changes in strategy

    PubMed Central

    Purcell, Braden A.; Kiani, Roozbeh

    2016-01-01

    Decision-making in a natural environment depends on a hierarchy of interacting decision processes. A high-level strategy guides ongoing choices, and the outcomes of those choices determine whether or not the strategy should change. When the right decision strategy is uncertain, as in most natural settings, feedback becomes ambiguous because negative outcomes may be due to limited information or bad strategy. Disambiguating the cause of feedback requires active inference and is key to updating the strategy. We hypothesize that the expected accuracy of a choice plays a crucial rule in this inference, and setting the strategy depends on integration of outcome and expectations across choices. We test this hypothesis with a task in which subjects report the net direction of random dot kinematograms with varying difficulty while the correct stimulus−response association undergoes invisible and unpredictable switches every few trials. We show that subjects treat negative feedback as evidence for a switch but weigh it with their expected accuracy. Subjects accumulate switch evidence (in units of log-likelihood ratio) across trials and update their response strategy when accumulated evidence reaches a bound. A computational framework based on these principles quantitatively explains all aspects of the behavior, providing a plausible neural mechanism for the implementation of hierarchical multiscale decision processes. We suggest that a similar neural computation—bounded accumulation of evidence—underlies both the choice and switches in the strategy that govern the choice, and that expected accuracy of a choice represents a key link between the levels of the decision-making hierarchy. PMID:27432960

  9. A synthesis of drug reimbursement decision-making processes in organisation for economic co-operation and development countries.

    PubMed

    Barnieh, Lianne; Manns, Braden; Harris, Anthony; Blom, Marja; Donaldson, Cam; Klarenbach, Scott; Husereau, Don; Lorenzetti, Diane; Clement, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    The use of a restrictive formulary, with placement determined through a drug-reimbursement decision-making process, is one approach to managing drug expenditures. To describe the processes in drug reimbursement decision-making systems currently used in national publicly funded outpatient prescription drug insurance plans. By using the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) nations as the sampling frame, a search was done in the published literature, followed by the gray literature. Collected data were verified by a system expert within the prescription drug insurance plan in each country to ensure the accuracy of key data elements across countries. All but one country provided at least one publicly funded prescription drug formulary. Many systems have adopted similar processes of drug reimbursement decision making. All but three systems required additional consideration of clinical evidence within the decision-making process. Transparency of recommendations varied between systems, from having no information publicly available (three systems) to all information available and accessible to the public (16 systems). Only four countries did not consider cost within the drug reimbursement decision-making process. There were similarities in the decision-making process for drug reimbursement across the systems; however, only five countries met the highest standard of transparency, requirement of evidence, and ability to appeal. Future work should focus on examining how these processes may affect formulary listing decisions for drugs between countries. © 2013 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) Published by International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) All rights reserved.

  10. A new intuitionistic fuzzy rule-based decision-making system for an operating system process scheduler.

    PubMed

    Butt, Muhammad Arif; Akram, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    We present a new intuitionistic fuzzy rule-based decision-making system based on intuitionistic fuzzy sets for a process scheduler of a batch operating system. Our proposed intuitionistic fuzzy scheduling algorithm, inputs the nice value and burst time of all available processes in the ready queue, intuitionistically fuzzify the input values, triggers appropriate rules of our intuitionistic fuzzy inference engine and finally calculates the dynamic priority (dp) of all the processes in the ready queue. Once the dp of every process is calculated the ready queue is sorted in decreasing order of dp of every process. The process with maximum dp value is sent to the central processing unit for execution. Finally, we show complete working of our algorithm on two different data sets and give comparisons with some standard non-preemptive process schedulers.

  11. GPS Decision Analysis Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-23

    712 A/B: GPS Decision Analysis Process Revised title:___________________________________________________________________ Presented in (input and Bold...JUN 2005 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE GPS Decision Analysis Process 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 GPS Decision Analysis Process Nisha Shah The Boeing Company 73rd MORS Symposium US Military Academy – West Point 21-23

  12. Decision Support for Operations and Maintenance IV

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-22

    DSOM (Decision Support for Operations and Maintenance) is an expert operations and maintenance system that integrates plant operations, fuel management, and maintenance processes. The DSOM package provides operators with the information they need for cost-effective operating decisions creating savings in fuel, personnel, maintenance, and plant life extension. DSOM provides operators real-time system performance information to allow them to determine if the plant is malfunctioning or running below expectations. By catching potential problems, DSOM enables plants to operate safely at peak efficiency, while providing a higher level of reliability and safety.

  13. Naturalistic Decision Making For Power System Operators

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Podmore, Robin; Robinson, Marck; Ey, Pamela

    2009-06-23

    Abstract: Motivation -- As indicated by the Blackout of 2003, the North American interconnected electric system is vulnerable to cascading outages and widespread blackouts. Investigations of large scale outages often attribute the causes to the three T’s: Trees, Training and Tools. A systematic approach has been developed to document and understand the mental processes that an expert power system operator uses when making critical decisions. The approach has been developed and refined as part of a capability demonstration of a high-fidelity real-time power system simulator under normal and emergency conditions. To examine naturalistic decision making (NDM) processes, transcripts of operator-to-operator conversations are analyzed to reveal and assess NDM-based performance criteria. Findings/Design -- The results of the study indicate that we can map the Situation Awareness Level of the operators at each point in the scenario. We can also identify clearly what mental models and mental simulations are being performed at different points in the scenario. As a result of this research we expect that we can identify improved training methods and improved analytical and visualization tools for power system operators. Originality/Value -- The research applies for the first time, the concepts of Recognition Primed Decision Making, Situation Awareness Levels and Cognitive Task Analysis to training of electric power system operators. Take away message -- The NDM approach provides an ideal framework for systematic training management and mitigation to accelerate learning in team-based training scenarios with high-fidelity power grid simulators.

  14. Naturalistic Decision Making for Power System Operators

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Podmore, Robin; Robinson, Marck; Ey, Pamela

    2010-02-01

    Motivation – Investigations of large-scale outages in the North American interconnected electric system often attribute the causes to three T’s: Trees, Training and Tools. To document and understand the mental processes used by expert operators when making critical decisions, a naturalistic decision making (NDM) model was developed. Transcripts of conversations were analyzed to reveal and assess NDM-based performance criteria. Findings/Design – An item analysis indicated that the operators’ Situation Awareness Levels, mental models, and mental simulations can be mapped at different points in the training scenario. This may identify improved training methods or analytical/ visualization tools. Originality/Value – This study applies for the first time, the concepts of Recognition Primed Decision Making, Situation Awareness Levels and Cognitive Task Analysis to training of electric power system operators. Take away message – The NDM approach provides a viable framework for systematic training management to accelerate learning in simulator-based training scenarios for power system operators and teams.

  15. Decision Making: A Linear Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewes, Dorothy W.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a linear process of decision making to enhance management skills of day care directors. Includes decision-processing flow chart compiled from several professional disciplines to help managers recognize flexibility of linear system. Provides analysis of flow-chart steps to balance both artistic and pragmatic considerations. (LBT)

  16. The abortion decision: fantasy processes.

    PubMed

    Allanson, S; Astbury, J

    1996-09-01

    This paper considers that features intrinsic to pregnancy and to an unwanted pregnancy/abortion decision heighten the likelihood of the occurrence, and the importance, of fantasy in the decision-maker's thinking. In addition, investigation of fantasy or non-rational processes in an abortion decision emphasizes the complexity of decision-making in a way which may challenge ideas of decision-making in general. The results of a pilot study using a short fantasy inventory with 20 women facing an abortion decision are presented to highlight fantasy, not as irrational or pathological, but as legitimately coexisting with logical, reasoning, non-fantasy thought in the abortion decision. The clinical value of the fantasy inventory is explored.

  17. Piloting decision aid for spacecraft proximity operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, Cole J.

    1991-01-01

    The concept of a decision aid to assist the piloting of a powered vehicle during a near-field (less than 2000 feet) rendezvous to another spacecraft is discussed. Using Space Shuttle rendezvous with an orbiting satellite as an example, extensive practice is normally required to successfully effect such a rendezvous with a minimum of propellant. As a rule, variations on a 'point and shoot' technique are optimized and used as much as possible. A piloting decision aid (PDA) to assist in the pointing process was conceived and is in the preliminary stages of development. This concept may be applied to Space Shuttle proximity operations for berthing with Space Station Freedom (SSF), for Shuttle rendezvous with other spacecraft, or for autonomous rendezvous of any unmanned vehicle with SSF. The concept orginated with a task order from NASA JSC for an automated piloting procedure and was influenced by an early air-to-air missile envelope display.

  18. Writing as a Decision Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Beaugrande, Robert

    A "generative stylistics" approach to writing presents usable, conscious standards for the production, arrangement, and rearrangement of written discourse thereby teaching students how to make appropriate decisions about language usage. Based on research studies that indicate the dependence of the writing process on the decision making…

  19. Operator Decision-Making Characteristics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-01

    functions for possible outcomes. Multi-Attribute Utility Theory ( MAUT ) MAUT involves a conjoint worth measurement in an uncertain environ- ment. The utility ...pp. 460-81. VonWnterfeldt, D., and G. W. Fischer. " Multiattribute Utility Theory : Models and Assessment Procedures," in apt ?’,o’a’f,, , i I Hwman IX...48 Utility Theory ....... ............................... 49 Operator Performance .......... .................... 53

  20. Decision Making Processes and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Hicks Patrick, Julie; Steele, Jenessa C.; Spencer, S. Melinda

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine the contributions of individual characteristics and strategic processing to the prediction of decision quality. Data were provided by 176 adults, ages 18 to 93 years, who completed computerized decision-making vignettes and a battery of demographic and cognitive measures. We examined the relations among age, domain-specific experience, working memory, and three measures of strategic information search to the prediction of solution quality using a 4-step hierarchical linear regression analysis. Working memory and two measures of strategic processing uniquely contributed to the variance explained. Results are discussed in terms of potential advances to both theory and intervention efforts. PMID:24282638

  1. The Influence of Future Command, Control, Communications, and Computers (C4) on Doctrine and the Operational Commander's Decision-Making Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, Michael G.

    1996-01-01

    Future C4 systems will alter the traditional balance between force and information, having a profound influence on doctrine and the operational commander's decision making process. The Joint Staff's future vision of C4 is conceptualized in 'C4I for the Warrior' which envisions a joint C4I architecture providing timely sensor to shoot information direct to the warfighter. C4 system must manage and filter an overwhelming amount of information; deal with interoperability issues; overcome technological limitations; meet emerging security requirements; and protect against 'Information Warfare.' Severe budget constraints necessitate unified control of C4 systems under singular leadership for the common good of all the services. In addition, acquisition policy and procedures must be revamped to allow new technologies to be fielded quickly; and the commercial marketplace will become the preferred starting point for modernization. Flatter command structures are recommended in this environment where information is available instantaneously. New responsibilities for decision making at lower levels are created. Commanders will have to strike a balance between exerting greater control and allowing subordinates enough flexibility to maintain initiative. Clearly, the commander's intent remains the most important tool in striking this balance.

  2. The Influence of Future Command, Control, Communications, and Computers (C4) on Doctrine and the Operational Commander's Decision-Making Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, Michael G.

    1996-01-01

    Future C4 systems will alter the traditional balance between force and information, having a profound influence on doctrine and the operational commander's decision making process. The Joint Staff's future vision of C4 is conceptualized in 'C4I for the Warrior' which envisions a joint C4I architecture providing timely sensor to shoot information direct to the warfighter. C4 system must manage and filter an overwhelming amount of information; deal with interoperability issues; overcome technological limitations; meet emerging security requirements; and protect against 'Information Warfare.' Severe budget constraints necessitate unified control of C4 systems under singular leadership for the common good of all the services. In addition, acquisition policy and procedures must be revamped to allow new technologies to be fielded quickly; and the commercial marketplace will become the preferred starting point for modernization. Flatter command structures are recommended in this environment where information is available instantaneously. New responsibilities for decision making at lower levels are created. Commanders will have to strike a balance between exerting greater control and allowing subordinates enough flexibility to maintain initiative. Clearly, the commander's intent remains the most important tool in striking this balance.

  3. An operational structured decision making framework for ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pressure to develop an operational framework for decision makers to employ the concepts of ecosystem goods and services for assessing changes to human well-being has been increasing since these concepts gained widespread notoriety after the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Report. Many conceptual frameworks have been proposed, but most do not propose methodologies and tools to make this approach to decision making implementable. Building on common components of existing conceptual frameworks for ecosystem services and human well-being assessment we apply a structured decision making approach to develop a standardized operational framework and suggest tools and methods for completing each step. The structured decision making approach consists of six steps: 1) Clarify the Decision Context 2) Define Objectives and Evaluation Criteria 3) Develop Alternatives 4) Estimate Consequences 5) Evaluate Trade-Offs and Select and 6) Implement and Monitor. These six steps include the following activities, and suggested tools, when applied to ecosystem goods and services and human well-being conceptual frameworks: 1) Characterization of decision specific human beneficiaries using the Final Ecosystem Goods and Services (FEGS) approach and Classification System (FEGS-CS) 2) Determine beneficiaries’ relative priorities for human well-being domains in the Human Well-Being Index (HWBI) through stakeholder engagement and identify beneficiary-relevant metrics of FEGS using the Nat

  4. Probabilistic Risk Assessment for Decision Making During Spacecraft Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meshkat, Leila

    2009-01-01

    , provide insight into the effect of various faults or failures on the risk and failure drivers of the system and the likelihood of possible end case scenarios, thereby facilitating the decision making process during operations. This paper describes the process of adjusting PRA models based on observed spacecraft data, on one hand, and utilizing the models for insight into the future system behavior on the other hand. While PRA models are typically used as a decision aid during the design phase of a space mission, we advocate adjusting them based on the observed behavior of the spacecraft and utilizing them for decision support during the operations phase.

  5. Probabilistic Risk Assessment for Decision Making During Spacecraft Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meshkat, Leila

    2009-01-01

    , provide insight into the effect of various faults or failures on the risk and failure drivers of the system and the likelihood of possible end case scenarios, thereby facilitating the decision making process during operations. This paper describes the process of adjusting PRA models based on observed spacecraft data, on one hand, and utilizing the models for insight into the future system behavior on the other hand. While PRA models are typically used as a decision aid during the design phase of a space mission, we advocate adjusting them based on the observed behavior of the spacecraft and utilizing them for decision support during the operations phase.

  6. 43 CFR 36.7 - Decision process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... so notify the applicant in writing. (2) Each appropriate Federal agency in making its decision shall... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Decision process. 36.7 Section 36.7 Public..., AND ACCESS INTO, CONSERVATION SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA § 36.7 Decision process. There are two...

  7. When Family Considerations Influence Work Decisions: Decision-Making Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Gary N.; Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.

    2012-01-01

    The work-family literature has provided an abundance of evidence that various family factors are linked to various work decisions, suggesting that the "family-relatedness" of work decisions is a prevalent phenomenon (Greenhaus & Powell, 2012). However, the cognitive processes by which such linkages occur have received little attention. We offer a…

  8. Dissociating sensory from decision processes in human perceptual decision making

    PubMed Central

    Mostert, Pim; Kok, Peter; de Lange, Floris P.

    2015-01-01

    A key question within systems neuroscience is how the brain translates physical stimulation into a behavioral response: perceptual decision making. To answer this question, it is important to dissociate the neural activity underlying the encoding of sensory information from the activity underlying the subsequent temporal integration into a decision variable. Here, we adopted a decoding approach to empirically assess this dissociation in human magnetoencephalography recordings. We used a functional localizer to identify the neural signature that reflects sensory-specific processes, and subsequently traced this signature while subjects were engaged in a perceptual decision making task. Our results revealed a temporal dissociation in which sensory processing was limited to an early time window and consistent with occipital areas, whereas decision-related processing became increasingly pronounced over time, and involved parietal and frontal areas. We found that the sensory processing accurately reflected the physical stimulus, irrespective of the eventual decision. Moreover, the sensory representation was stable and maintained over time when it was required for a subsequent decision, but unstable and variable over time when it was task-irrelevant. In contrast, decision-related activity displayed long-lasting sustained components. Together, our approach dissects neuro-anatomically and functionally distinct contributions to perceptual decisions. PMID:26666393

  9. Relativized hierarchical decomposition of Markov decision processes.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, B

    2013-01-01

    Reinforcement Learning (RL) is a popular paradigm for sequential decision making under uncertainty. A typical RL algorithm operates with only limited knowledge of the environment and with limited feedback on the quality of the decisions. To operate effectively in complex environments, learning agents require the ability to form useful abstractions, that is, the ability to selectively ignore irrelevant details. It is difficult to derive a single representation that is useful for a large problem setting. In this chapter, we describe a hierarchical RL framework that incorporates an algebraic framework for modeling task-specific abstraction. The basic notion that we will explore is that of a homomorphism of a Markov Decision Process (MDP). We mention various extensions of the basic MDP homomorphism framework in order to accommodate different commonly understood notions of abstraction, namely, aspects of selective attention. Parts of the work described in this chapter have been reported earlier in several papers (Narayanmurthy and Ravindran, 2007, 2008; Ravindran and Barto, 2002, 2003a,b; Ravindran et al., 2007).

  10. Decision Support for Emergency Operations Centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Craig; Lawhead, Joel; Watts, Zack

    2005-01-01

    The Flood Disaster Mitigation Decision Support System (DSS) is a computerized information system that allows regional emergency-operations government officials to make decisions regarding the dispatch of resources in response to flooding. The DSS implements a real-time model of inundation utilizing recently acquired lidar elevation data as well as real-time data from flood gauges, and other instruments within and upstream of an area that is or could become flooded. The DSS information is updated as new data become available. The model generates realtime maps of flooded areas and predicts flood crests at specified locations. The inundation maps are overlaid with information on population densities, property values, hazardous materials, evacuation routes, official contact information, and other information needed for emergency response. The program maintains a database and a Web portal through which real-time data from instrumentation are gathered into the database. Also included in the database is a geographic information system, from which the program obtains the overlay data for areas of interest as needed. The portal makes some portions of the database accessible to the public. Access to other portions of the database is restricted to government officials according to various levels of authorization. The Flood Disaster Mitigation DSS has been integrated into a larger DSS named REACT (Real-time Emergency Action Coordination Tool), which also provides emergency operations managers with data for any type of impact area such as floods, fires, bomb

  11. Cognitive processes in anesthesiology decision making.

    PubMed

    Stiegler, Marjorie Podraza; Tung, Avery

    2014-01-01

    The quality and safety of health care are under increasing scrutiny. Recent studies suggest that medical errors, practice variability, and guideline noncompliance are common, and that cognitive error contributes significantly to delayed or incorrect diagnoses. These observations have increased interest in understanding decision-making psychology.Many nonrational (i.e., not purely based in statistics) cognitive factors influence medical decisions and may lead to error. The most well-studied include heuristics, preferences for certainty, overconfidence, affective (emotional) influences, memory distortions, bias, and social forces such as fairness or blame.Although the extent to which such cognitive processes play a role in anesthesia practice is unknown, anesthesia care frequently requires rapid, complex decisions that are most susceptible to decision errors. This review will examine current theories of human decision behavior, identify effects of nonrational cognitive processes on decision making, describe characteristic anesthesia decisions in this context, and suggest strategies to improve decision making.

  12. From Data to Improved Decisions: Operations Research in Healthcare Delivery.

    PubMed

    Capan, Muge; Khojandi, Anahita; Denton, Brian T; Williams, Kimberly D; Ayer, Turgay; Chhatwal, Jagpreet; Kurt, Murat; Lobo, Jennifer Mason; Roberts, Mark S; Zaric, Greg; Zhang, Shengfan; Schwartz, J Sanford

    2017-11-01

    The Operations Research Interest Group (ORIG) within the Society of Medical Decision Making (SMDM) is a multidisciplinary interest group of professionals that specializes in taking an analytical approach to medical decision making and healthcare delivery. ORIG is interested in leveraging mathematical methods associated with the field of Operations Research (OR) to obtain data-driven solutions to complex healthcare problems and encourage collaborations across disciplines. This paper introduces OR for the non-expert and draws attention to opportunities where OR can be utilized to facilitate solutions to healthcare problems. Decision making is the process of choosing between possible solutions to a problem with respect to certain metrics. OR concepts can help systematically improve decision making through efficient modeling techniques while accounting for relevant constraints. Depending on the problem, methods that are part of OR (e.g., linear programming, Markov Decision Processes) or methods that are derived from related fields (e.g., regression from statistics) can be incorporated into the solution approach. This paper highlights the characteristics of different OR methods that have been applied to healthcare decision making and provides examples of emerging research opportunities. We illustrate OR applications in healthcare using previous studies, including diagnosis and treatment of diseases, organ transplants, and patient flow decisions. Further, we provide a selection of emerging areas for utilizing OR. There is a timely need to inform practitioners and policy makers of the benefits of using OR techniques in solving healthcare problems. OR methods can support the development of sustainable long-term solutions across disease management, service delivery, and health policies by optimizing the performance of system elements and analyzing their interaction while considering relevant constraints.

  13. ISHM Decision Analysis Tool: Operations Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The state-of-the-practice Shuttle caution and warning system warns the crew of conditions that may create a hazard to orbiter operations and/or crew. Depending on the severity of the alarm, the crew is alerted with a combination of sirens, tones, annunciator lights, or fault messages. The combination of anomalies (and hence alarms) indicates the problem. Even with much training, determining what problem a particular combination represents is not trivial. In many situations, an automated diagnosis system can help the crew more easily determine an underlying root cause. Due to limitations of diagnosis systems,however, it is not always possible to explain a set of alarms with a single root cause. Rather, the system generates a set of hypotheses that the crew can select from. The ISHM Decision Analysis Tool (IDAT) assists with this task. It presents the crew relevant information that could help them resolve the ambiguity of multiple root causes and determine a method for mitigating the problem. IDAT follows graphical user interface design guidelines and incorporates a decision analysis system. I describe both of these aspects.

  14. Factors influencing aeromedical decision-making: operational versus research environments.

    PubMed

    Popper, S E; Stevens, M; Fisher, F

    1994-08-01

    The aeromedical research and operational flying communities have at least one common goal; ensuring the optimum combination of mission performance and safety for the aircrew. This is a continual challenge as aerospace technology leaps ahead while the human factor remains relatively constant. However, several issues interfere with the smooth interaction between these communities: 1) perceptions that the research and operational communities have towards human subjects and pilots respectively; 2) the legal and ethical considerations involved in exposing individuals to risk; and 3) the ever-present personality dynamics involved in any decision-making process (e.g., returning individuals to a centrifuge panel or flying duty after a medically disqualifying incident). All of these factors influence decisions made in both communities, and how they interact with each other. It is a dynamic process that varies between countries, individual services (e.g., Navy vs Air Force), and even between different geographical locations within the same service.

  15. Development and Application of a Decision Aid for Tactical Control of Battlefield Operations: Volume III. A Preliminary Evaluation of a Decision Support Complex in SIMTOS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-03-01

    processing Decision style Computerized decision aid ’ Automated tactical decision making Tactical performance measure-• ment 20 STRACT (Continue on reverse...utilize the decision support complex in further studies of tactical decision making . ~~IRA IN Ae 4,4 " i I ii Unclassified -;CCU RITV -CLASSI...information and making decisions within the simulated tactical operations system (SIMTOS) environment. Procedure: Ten experienced tactical decision makers

  16. Measuring Command Post Operations in a Decisive Action Training Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-05-01

    Research Report 2001 Measuring Command Post Operations in a Decisive Action Training Environment Michelle N...the CP Operations Checklist may have resulted from not having a Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for such tasks. There were significant...POST OPERATIONS IN A DECISIVE ACTION TRAINING ENVIRONMENT EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Research Requirement: This report describes research the U.S

  17. Sequential decision analysis for nonstationary stochastic processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, B.

    1974-01-01

    A formulation of the problem of making decisions concerning the state of nonstationary stochastic processes is given. An optimal decision rule, for the case in which the stochastic process is independent of the decisions made, is derived. It is shown that this rule is a generalization of the Bayesian likelihood ratio test; and an analog to Wald's sequential likelihood ratio test is given, in which the optimal thresholds may vary with time.

  18. COGNITIVE PROCESSES IN CAREER DECISION-MAKING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HILTON, THOMAS L.; AND OTHERS

    THE PROBLEM OF THIS LONGITUDINAL STUDY WAS TO IDENTIFY THE COGNITIVE PROCESSES WHICH ARE INVOLVED IN CAREER DECISION-MAKING AND THE LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF THESE PROCESSES ON CAREER DEVELOPMENT. AREAS OF CONCERN WERE (1) IDENTIFICATION OF STRATEGIES BY WHICH AN INDIVIDUAL CAN OVERCOME DECISION-MAKING DIFFICULTY, (2) ASSESSMENT OF THE SHORT-TERM…

  19. 43 CFR 36.7 - Decision process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Decision process. 36.7 Section 36.7 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior TRANSPORTATION AND UTILITY SYSTEMS IN AND ACROSS, AND ACCESS INTO, CONSERVATION SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA § 36.7 Decision process. There are two separate...

  20. 43 CFR 36.7 - Decision process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Decision process. 36.7 Section 36.7 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior TRANSPORTATION AND UTILITY SYSTEMS IN AND ACROSS, AND ACCESS INTO, CONSERVATION SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA § 36.7 Decision process. There are two separate...

  1. 43 CFR 36.7 - Decision process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Decision process. 36.7 Section 36.7 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior TRANSPORTATION AND UTILITY SYSTEMS IN AND ACROSS, AND ACCESS INTO, CONSERVATION SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA § 36.7 Decision process. There are two separate...

  2. 43 CFR 36.7 - Decision process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Decision process. 36.7 Section 36.7 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior TRANSPORTATION AND UTILITY SYSTEMS IN AND ACROSS, AND ACCESS INTO, CONSERVATION SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA § 36.7 Decision process. There are two separate...

  3. 32 CFR 724.804 - Decision process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decision process. 724.804 Section 724.804... BOARD Procedures of Naval Discharge Review Board § 724.804 Decision process. (a) The NDRB or the NDRB... the discharge was inequitable, the provisions as to the characterization in the regulation under which...

  4. 32 CFR 651.35 - Decision process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Decision process. 651.35 Section 651.35 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Assessment § 651.35 Decision process. (a) An EA...

  5. 32 CFR 651.35 - Decision process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Decision process. 651.35 Section 651.35 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Assessment § 651.35 Decision process. (a) An EA...

  6. 32 CFR 651.35 - Decision process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Decision process. 651.35 Section 651.35 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Assessment § 651.35 Decision process. (a) An EA...

  7. How do strategic decisions and operative practices affect operating room productivity?

    PubMed

    Peltokorpi, Antti

    2011-12-01

    Surgical operating rooms are cost-intensive parts of health service production. Managing operating units efficiently is essential when hospitals and healthcare systems aim to maximize health outcomes with limited resources. Previous research about operating room management has focused on studying the effect of management practices and decisions on efficiency by utilizing mainly modeling approach or before-after analysis in single hospital case. The purpose of this research is to analyze the synergic effect of strategic decisions and operative management practices on operating room productivity and to use a multiple case study method enabling statistical hypothesis testing with empirical data. 11 hypotheses that propose connections between the use of strategic and operative practices and productivity were tested in a multi-hospital study that included 26 units. The results indicate that operative practices, such as personnel management, case scheduling and performance measurement, affect productivity more remarkably than do strategic decisions that relate to, e.g., units' size, scope or academic status. Units with different strategic positions should apply different operative practices: Focused hospital units benefit most from sophisticated case scheduling and parallel processing whereas central and ambulatory units should apply flexible working hours, incentives and multi-skilled personnel. Operating units should be more active in applying management practices which are adequate for their strategic orientation.

  8. Operator performance evaluation using multi criteria decision making methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, Ruzanita Mat; Ismail, Wan Rosmanira; Razali, Siti Fatihah

    2014-06-01

    Operator performance evaluation is a very important operation in labor-intensive manufacturing industry because the company's productivity depends on the performance of its operators. The aims of operator performance evaluation are to give feedback to operators on their performance, to increase company's productivity and to identify strengths and weaknesses of each operator. In this paper, six multi criteria decision making methods; Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), fuzzy AHP (FAHP), ELECTRE, PROMETHEE II, Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) and VlseKriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje (VIKOR) are used to evaluate the operators' performance and to rank the operators. The performance evaluation is based on six main criteria; competency, experience and skill, teamwork and time punctuality, personal characteristics, capability and outcome. The study was conducted at one of the SME food manufacturing companies in Selangor. From the study, it is found that AHP and FAHP yielded the "outcome" criteria as the most important criteria. The results of operator performance evaluation showed that the same operator is ranked the first using all six methods.

  9. The Process Batteries Operations Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberger, Elizabeth

    The paper describes the instruments and procedures for collecting process information (information describing components of the planned educational process) for the Management Information System for Occupational Education (MISOE). The selection of variables and the decision to assess interactive rather than isolated process variables are…

  10. Job Aiding/Training Decision Process Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    I[ -, . 1’, oo Ii AL-CR-i1992-0004 AD-A256 947lEE = IIEI ifl ll 1l I JOB AIDING/TRAINING DECISION PROCESS MODEL A R M John P. Zenyuh DTIC S Phillip C...March 1990 - April 1990 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS C - F33615-86-C-0545 Job Aiding/Training Decision Process Model PE - 62205F PR - 1121 6...Components to Process Model Decision and Selection Points ........... 32 13. Summary of Subject Recommendations for Aiding Approaches

  11. Use of PRA in Shuttle Decision Making Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyer, Roger L.; Hamlin, Teri L.

    2010-01-01

    How do you use PRA to support an operating program? This presentation will explore how the Shuttle Program Management has used the Shuttle PRA in its decision making process. It will reveal how the PRA has evolved from a tool used to evaluate Shuttle upgrades like Electric Auxiliary Power Unit (EAPU) to a tool that supports Flight Readiness Reviews (FRR) and real-time flight decisions. Specific examples of Shuttle Program decisions that have used the Shuttle PRA as input will be provided including how it was used in the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) manifest decision. It will discuss the importance of providing management with a clear presentation of the analysis, applicable assumptions and limitations, along with estimates of the uncertainty. This presentation will show how the use of PRA by the Shuttle Program has evolved overtime and how it has been used in the decision making process providing specific examples.

  12. Use of PRA in Shuttle Decision Making Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyer, Roger L.; Hamlin, Teri L.

    2010-01-01

    How do you use PRA to support an operating program? This presentation will explore how the Shuttle Program Management has used the Shuttle PRA in its decision making process. It will reveal how the PRA has evolved from a tool used to evaluate Shuttle upgrades like Electric Auxiliary Power Unit (EAPU) to a tool that supports Flight Readiness Reviews (FRR) and real-time flight decisions. Specific examples of Shuttle Program decisions that have used the Shuttle PRA as input will be provided including how it was used in the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) manifest decision. It will discuss the importance of providing management with a clear presentation of the analysis, applicable assumptions and limitations, along with estimates of the uncertainty. This presentation will show how the use of PRA by the Shuttle Program has evolved overtime and how it has been used in the decision making process providing specific examples.

  13. The Operations Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-26

    preparation of the battlefield (IPB), targeting, composite risk management ( CRM ), and ISR synchronization are integrated throughout the MDMP. RECEIPT OF...chapter 2 for a detailed discussion on verifying assumptions.) Begin Composite Risk Management B-41. CRM is the Army’s primary process for... relationships . Command relationships define superior and subordinate relationships between unit commanders. By specifying a chain of command

  14. Defense Analysis: The Decision Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-01

    that objective. This phase is a research process as well as a method for finding alternatives. The intent is to look for information and relationships...effectiveness of alternatives and the second category is data used to define the cost of resources consumed by each option. The majority of research should...evaluation process. Second , keeping track of missing data will help to focus the research effort on the essential pieces of information. Developing

  15. Cognitive skill training for nuclear power plant operational decision making

    SciTech Connect

    Mumaw, R.J.; Swatzler, D.; Roth, E.M.; Thomas, W.A.

    1994-06-01

    Training for operator and other technical positions in the commercial nuclear power industry traditionally has focused on mastery of the formal procedures used to control plant systems and processes. However, decisionmaking tasks required of nuclear power plant operators involve cognitive skills (e.g., situation assessment, planning). Cognitive skills are needed in situations where formal procedures may not exist or may not be as prescriptive, as is the case in severe accident management (SAM). The Westinghouse research team investigated the potential cognitive demands of SAM on the control room operators and Technical Support Center staff who would be most involved in the selection and execution of severe accident control actions. A model of decision making, organized around six general cognitive processes, was developed to identify the types of cognitive skills that may be needed for effective performance. Also, twelve SAM scenarios were developed to reveal specific decision-making difficulties. Following the identification of relevant cognitive skills, 19 approaches for training individual and team cognitive skills were identified. A review of these approaches resulted in the identification of general characteristics that are important in effective training of cognitive skills.

  16. Operant Variability: Procedures and Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machado, Armando; Tonneau, Francois

    2012-01-01

    Barba's (2012) article deftly weaves three main themes in one argument about operant variability. From general theoretical considerations on operant behavior (Catania, 1973), Barba derives methodological guidelines about response differentiation and applies them to the study of operant variability. In the process, he uncovers unnoticed features of…

  17. Operant Variability: Procedures and Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machado, Armando; Tonneau, Francois

    2012-01-01

    Barba's (2012) article deftly weaves three main themes in one argument about operant variability. From general theoretical considerations on operant behavior (Catania, 1973), Barba derives methodological guidelines about response differentiation and applies them to the study of operant variability. In the process, he uncovers unnoticed features of…

  18. Decision analysis applications and the CERCLA process

    SciTech Connect

    Purucker, S.T.; Lyon, B.F. |

    1994-06-01

    Quantitative decision methods can be developed during environmental restoration projects that incorporate stakeholder input and can complement current efforts that are undertaken for data collection and alternatives evaluation during the CERCLA process. These decision-making tools can supplement current EPA guidance as well as focus on problems that arise as attempts are made to make informed decisions regarding remedial alternative selection. In examining the use of such applications, the authors discuss the use of decision analysis tools and their impact on collecting data and making environmental decisions from a risk-based perspective. They will look at the construction of objective functions for quantifying different risk-based perspective. They will look at the construction of objective functions for quantifying different risk-based decision rules that incorporate stakeholder concerns. This represents a quantitative method for implementing the Data Quality Objective (DQO) process. These objective functions can be expressed using a variety of indices to analyze problems that currently arise in the environmental field. Examples include cost, magnitude of risk, efficiency, and probability of success or failure. Based on such defined objective functions, a project can evaluate the impact of different risk and decision selection strategies on data worth and alternative selection.

  19. Paradoxical Evidence Integration in Rapid Decision Processes

    PubMed Central

    Rüter, Johannes; Marcille, Nicolas; Sprekeler, Henning; Gerstner, Wulfram; Herzog, Michael H.

    2012-01-01

    Decisions about noisy stimuli require evidence integration over time. Traditionally, evidence integration and decision making are described as a one-stage process: a decision is made when evidence for the presence of a stimulus crosses a threshold. Here, we show that one-stage models cannot explain psychophysical experiments on feature fusion, where two visual stimuli are presented in rapid succession. Paradoxically, the second stimulus biases decisions more strongly than the first one, contrary to predictions of one-stage models and intuition. We present a two-stage model where sensory information is integrated and buffered before it is fed into a drift diffusion process. The model is tested in a series of psychophysical experiments and explains both accuracy and reaction time distributions. PMID:22359494

  20. International Students Decision-Making Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cubillo, Jose Maria; Sanchez, Joaquin; Cervino, Julio

    2006-01-01

    Purpose--The purpose of this paper is to propose a theoretical model that integrates the different groups of factors which influence the decision-making process of international students, analysing different dimensions of this process and explaining those factors which determine students' choice. Design/methodology/approach--A hypothetical model…

  1. International Students Decision-Making Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cubillo, Jose Maria; Sanchez, Joaquin; Cervino, Julio

    2006-01-01

    Purpose--The purpose of this paper is to propose a theoretical model that integrates the different groups of factors which influence the decision-making process of international students, analysing different dimensions of this process and explaining those factors which determine students' choice. Design/methodology/approach--A hypothetical model…

  2. Operational hydrological projections to aid decision making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnetler, Thomas; Davis, Richard; Waddingham, John; James, Karen

    2014-05-01

    The Environment Agency of England has wide ranging responsibility for environmental regulation that includes both water resources management and flood management. In order to best fulfil its role decisions need to be taken using the best available evidence in the time available. The manipulation of large amounts of hydrological data in a way that best meets the needs of decision makers is a complex challenge. Not only should any analysis be technically robust but it should also be presented in a way that communicates key messages clearly and quickly. The Environment Agency and its predecessor organisations has a long history of working with hydrological data but in recent years there has been a need to better incorporate risk and uncertainty into hydrological analysis so that subsequent decisions can take this into account. In the face of recent extreme weather events, there has been an increasing demand for forward look projections from water resource and flood risk practitioners, decision makers and contingency planners. These assessments are required to give appropriate lead in time to allow risk mitigation measures to be implemented to minimise impact upon people, the environment and infrastructure. This presentation will outline the methodologies developed by the Environment Agency to produce and publish monthly routine forward look projections using both a scenario and climate ensemble approach. It will cover how information is disseminated, providing a good example of communicating science to decision makers and to the public. Examples of practical applications of these methodologies include: • Risk based planning and forecasting of water availability for inter basin water transfers into water stressed catchments. • Assessment of water resources prospects during droughts for people and the environment • The likelihood and medium term risk of high groundwater levels impacting upon people and infrastructure. There are also a number of future challenges

  3. Decision Support Systems for Launch and Range Operations Using Jess

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar

    2007-01-01

    The virtual test bed for launch and range operations developed at NASA Ames Research Center consists of various independent expert systems advising on weather effects, toxic gas dispersions and human health risk assessment during space-flight operations. An individual dedicated server supports each expert system and the master system gather information from the dedicated servers to support the launch decision-making process. Since the test bed is based on the web system, reducing network traffic and optimizing the knowledge base is critical to its success of real-time or near real-time operations. Jess, a fast rule engine and powerful scripting environment developed at Sandia National Laboratory has been adopted to build the expert systems providing robustness and scalability. Jess also supports XML representation of knowledge base with forward and backward chaining inference mechanism. Facts added - to working memory during run-time operations facilitates analyses of multiple scenarios. Knowledge base can be distributed with one inference engine performing the inference process. This paper discusses details of the knowledge base and inference engine using Jess for a launch and range virtual test bed.

  4. Decision Support Systems for Launch and Range Operations Using Jess

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar

    2007-01-01

    The virtual test bed for launch and range operations developed at NASA Ames Research Center consists of various independent expert systems advising on weather effects, toxic gas dispersions and human health risk assessment during space-flight operations. An individual dedicated server supports each expert system and the master system gather information from the dedicated servers to support the launch decision-making process. Since the test bed is based on the web system, reducing network traffic and optimizing the knowledge base is critical to its success of real-time or near real-time operations. Jess, a fast rule engine and powerful scripting environment developed at Sandia National Laboratory has been adopted to build the expert systems providing robustness and scalability. Jess also supports XML representation of knowledge base with forward and backward chaining inference mechanism. Facts added - to working memory during run-time operations facilitates analyses of multiple scenarios. Knowledge base can be distributed with one inference engine performing the inference process. This paper discusses details of the knowledge base and inference engine using Jess for a launch and range virtual test bed.

  5. An experimental paradigm for team decision processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serfaty, D.; Kleinman, D. L.

    1986-01-01

    The study of distributed information processing and decision making is presently hampered by two factors: (1) The inherent complexity of the mathematical formulation of decentralized problems has prevented the development of models that could be used to predict performance in a distributed environment; and (2) The lack of comprehensive scientific empirical data on human team decision making has hindered the development of significant descriptive models. As a part of a comprehensive effort to find a new framework for multihuman decision making problems, a novel experimental research paradigm was developed involving human terms in decision making tasks. Attempts to construct parts of an integrated model with ideas from queueing networks, team theory, distributed estimation and decentralized resource management are described.

  6. Brief Survey of Operational Decision Support Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-02-01

    aroumi the investigation of the life cycle evolution of the four specified experimental or operational DSS in terms of their operational...provided a rich source of raw- questionaire type data which reflects the opinions of individual users, technicians and managers (1). Further, a growing...four mature and widely publicized DSS over their individual system life cycles. This ap- - 10 - proach was adopted because the four systems of

  7. Evacuation decision-making: process and uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Mileti, D.; Sorensen, J.; Bogard, W.

    1985-09-01

    The purpose was to describe the processes of evacuation decision-making, identify and document uncertainties in that process and discuss implications for federal assumption of liability for precautionary evacuations at nuclear facilities under the Price-Anderson Act. Four major categories of uncertainty are identified concerning the interpretation of hazard, communication problems, perceived impacts of evacuation decisions and exogenous influences. Over 40 historical accounts are reviewed and cases of these uncertainties are documented. The major findings are that all levels of government, including federal agencies experience uncertainties in some evacuation situations. Second, private sector organizations are subject to uncertainties at a variety of decision points. Third, uncertainties documented in the historical record have provided the grounds for liability although few legal actions have ensued. Finally it is concluded that if liability for evacuations is assumed by the federal government, the concept of a ''precautionary'' evacuation is not useful in establishing criteria for that assumption. 55 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  8. Operational Sustainment: The Impact of Critical Decisions upon Operational Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-17

    tension between sustainment and operational design focusing upon the 32 critical sustainment uec sions which interface with comnat activities. It has...Remote Areas." SAMS Monograph, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 1 April 1986, p. 1. 50. Martin Middlebrook, Operation Corporate : The Falklands War, 1982 (London...Falklands. New York, NY: Praeger, 1983. Middlebrook, Martin. Operation Corporate : The Falklands War 1982. London, England: Penquin Books, Ltd, 1985. 53

  9. Educational Decision-Making Through Operations Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dusseldorp, Ralph A.; And Others

    This book focuses on and utilizes the methodology and tools of systems analysis and operations research to demonstrate their use in planning for the future and meeting public demands for information on how tax money is being spent by educational administrators. The range of possible and relevant applications is demonstrated by a step-by-step…

  10. Educational Decision-Making Through Operations Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dusseldorp, Ralph A.; And Others

    This book focuses on and utilizes the methodology and tools of systems analysis and operations research to demonstrate their use in planning for the future and meeting public demands for information on how tax money is being spent by educational administrators. The range of possible and relevant applications is demonstrated by a step-by-step…

  11. The Delphi Decision-Making Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinelli, Teri

    1983-01-01

    Reports generalizations about specific patterns emerging from a panel employing a decision-making Delphi process that attempted to forecast the long-range general environment for higher education in Michigan. Participating were 24 influential persons with knowledge of factors important within the state. (Author/RH)

  12. 32 CFR 865.110 - Decision process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ORGANIZATION AND MISSION-GENERAL PERSONNEL REVIEW BOARDS Air Force Discharge Review Board § 865.110 Decision process. (a) The DRB... submitted to the Director, Air Force Personnel Council. (i) The DRB may request advisory opinions from...

  13. 32 CFR 865.110 - Decision process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ORGANIZATION AND MISSION-GENERAL PERSONNEL REVIEW BOARDS Air Force Discharge Review Board § 865.110 Decision process. (a) The DRB... submitted to the Director, Air Force Personnel Council. (i) The DRB may request advisory opinions from...

  14. Nonrational Processes in Ethical Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogerson, Mark D.; Gottlieb, Michael C.; Handelsman, Mitchell M.; Knapp, Samuel; Younggren, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Most current ethical decision-making models provide a logical and reasoned process for making ethical judgments, but these models are empirically unproven and rely upon assumptions of rational, conscious, and quasi-legal reasoning. Such models predominate despite the fact that many nonrational factors influence ethical thought and behavior,…

  15. The Delphi Decision-Making Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinelli, Teri

    1983-01-01

    Reports generalizations about specific patterns emerging from a panel employing a decision-making Delphi process that attempted to forecast the long-range general environment for higher education in Michigan. Participating were 24 influential persons with knowledge of factors important within the state. (Author/RH)

  16. Joint Operations at Vicksburg: The Decisive Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    41 Musicant, Divided Waters, p. 265. 42 Musicant, Divided Waters, p. 265. 43 Kenneth P. Williams , Grant Rises in the West: From Iuka to...59 Grant, Personal Memoirs of U.S. Grant, p. 288. 60 Williams , Grant Rises in the West, p. 362. 34 Vicksburg, it is important to...commanding officer of the gunboat Ottawa, reported the following to his operational commander, Flag Officer S.F. Dupont. Sir , *** Lieutenant Cogswell, a

  17. Improved process control alarm operation.

    PubMed

    Bristol, E H

    2001-01-01

    Alarms are the main connection from the automation to the operator, when addressing process operation outside of its normal function. They are often as much a source of operator overload and consternation as help. Better engineering of the relative role of the operator and automation would materially help overcome the difficulties. Expert systems have been proposed as a solution. But Expert systems are really another form of automation. There remains that aspect of the alarms, which must address our inability to cover and understand a possibly larger domain of the operation not appropriate to traditional controls or present-day automation. Appropriate tools for this domain must support operator discretion and initiative. The paper suggests a set of such general, computer science based, tools requiring only the most basic configuration. They are viewed as implemented on top of those properly detailed alarm displays and interlocks, which reflect the more formal plant operating policies. They include: (a) Various forms of alarm logging and trending; (b) Short, automatically generated, word summaries of alarm activity, which allow low level data to propagate to the highest levels, including: one word and priority summaries; (c) Causal alarm pattern analyses that help the operator to predict or diagnose alarm behavior; (d) Automatic adaptation of alarms and alarm limits to varying process situations; (e) Uniform use of alarm policies to simplify alarm configuration.

  18. A Collaborative Decision Environment for UAV Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Ortenzio, Matthew V.; Enomoto, Francis Y.; Johan, Sandra L.

    2005-01-01

    NASA is developing Intelligent Mission Management (IMM) technology for science missions employing long endurance unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV's). The IMM groundbased component is the Collaborative Decision Environment (CDE), a ground system that provides the Mission/Science team with situational awareness, collaboration, and decisionmaking tools. The CDE is used for pre-flight planning, mission monitoring, and visualization of acquired data. It integrates external data products used for planning and executing a mission, such as weather, satellite data products, and topographic maps by leveraging established and emerging Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards to acquire external data products via the Internet, and an industry standard geographic information system (GIs) toolkit for visualization As a Science/Mission team may be geographically dispersed, the CDE is capable of providing access to remote users across wide area networks using Web Services technology. A prototype CDE is being developed for an instrument checkout flight on a manned aircraft in the fall of 2005, in preparation for a full deployment in support of the US Forest Service and NASA Ames Western States Fire Mission in 2006.

  19. Use of Probabilistic Risk Assessment in Shuttle Decision Making Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyer, Roger L.; Hamlin, Teri, L.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) to assist in the decision making for the shuttle design and operation. Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) is a comprehensive, structured, and disciplined approach to identifying and analyzing risk in complex systems and/or processes that seeks answers to three basic questions: (i.e., what can go wrong? what is the likelihood of these occurring? and what are the consequences that could result if these occur?) The purpose of the Shuttle PRA (SPRA) is to provide a useful risk management tool for the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) to identify strengths and possible weaknesses in the Shuttle design and operation. SPRA was initially developed to support upgrade decisions, but has evolved into a tool that supports Flight Readiness Reviews (FRR) and near real-time flight decisions. Examples of the use of PRA for the shuttle are reviewed.

  20. Making Risk Models Operational for Situational Awareness and Decision Support

    SciTech Connect

    Paulson, Patrick R.; Coles, Garill A.; Shoemaker, Steven V.

    2012-06-12

    Modernization of nuclear power operations control systems, in particular the move to digital control systems, creates an opportunity to modernize existing legacy infrastructure and extend plant life. We describe here decision support tools that allow the assessment of different facets of risk and support the optimization of available resources to reduce risk as plants are upgraded and maintained. This methodology could become an integrated part of the design review process and a part of the operations management systems. The methodology can be applied to the design of new reactors such as small nuclear reactors (SMR), and be helpful in assessing the risks of different configurations of the reactors. Our tool provides a low cost evaluation of alternative configurations and provides an expanded safety analysis by considering scenarios while early in the implementation cycle where cost impacts can be minimized. The effects of failures can be modeled and thoroughly vetted to understand their potential impact on risk. The process and tools presented here allow for an integrated assessment of risk by supporting traditional defense in depth approaches while taking into consideration the insertion of new digital instrument and control systems.

  1. Information Processing in Decision-Making Systems

    PubMed Central

    van der Meer, Matthijs; Kurth-Nelson, Zeb; Redish, A. David

    2015-01-01

    Decisions result from an interaction between multiple functional systems acting in parallel to process information in very different ways, each with strengths and weaknesses. In this review, the authors address three action-selection components of decision-making: The Pavlovian system releases an action from a limited repertoire of potential actions, such as approaching learned stimuli. Like the Pavlovian system, the habit system is computationally fast but, unlike the Pavlovian system permits arbitrary stimulus-action pairings. These associations are a “forward” mechanism; when a situation is recognized, the action is released. In contrast, the deliberative system is flexible but takes time to process. The deliberative system uses knowledge of the causal structure of the world to search into the future, planning actions to maximize expected rewards. Deliberation depends on the ability to imagine future possibilities, including novel situations, and it allows decisions to be taken without having previously experienced the options. Various anatomical structures have been identified that carry out the information processing of each of these systems: hippocampus constitutes a map of the world that can be used for searching/imagining the future; dorsal striatal neurons represent situation-action associations; and ventral striatum maintains value representations for all three systems. Each system presents vulnerabilities to pathologies that can manifest as psychiatric disorders. Understanding these systems and their relation to neuroanatomy opens up a deeper way to treat the structural problems underlying various disorders. PMID:22492194

  2. Creating operations research models to guide RHIO decision making

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, Michael; Brennan, Patricia Flatley; Tang, Lisa; Marquard, Jenna; Robinson, Stephen; Wright, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Eight years of progress towards the creation of a national health information network has resulted in a plethora of health data exchange relationships, most commonly called regional health information organizations (RHIOs). Various network types reflect both governance decisions and practical aspects, such as the need for a variety of information sharing pathways between and among organizations. Applying systematic business planning approaches will help ensure that decisions about structure, governance, pricing and incentives lead to RHIO arrangements that meet both the RHIOs’ and the participants’ business goals. This paper describes the model formulation stage of an ongoing project that applies operations research methods to RHIO participation decisions. PMID:18693834

  3. Creating operations research models to guide RHIO decision making.

    PubMed

    Ferris, Michael; Brennan, Patricia Flatley; Tang, Lisa; Marquard, Jenna; Robinson, Stephen; Wright, Stephen

    2007-10-11

    Eight years of progress towards the creation of a national health information network has resulted in a plethora of health data exchange relationships, most commonly called regional health information organizations (RHIOs). Various network types reflect both governance decisions and practical aspects, such as the need for a variety of information sharing pathways between and among organizations. Applying systematic business planning approaches will help ensure that decisions about structure, governance, pricing and incentive lead to RHIO arrangements that meet both the RHIOs' and the participants' business goals. This paper describes the model formulation stage of an ongoing project that applies operations research methods to RHIO participation decisions.

  4. An Advanced Decision Support Tool for Electricity Infrastructure Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yousu; Huang, Zhenyu; Wong, Pak C.; Mackey, Patrick S.; Allwardt, Craig H.; Ma, Jian; Greitzer, Frank L.

    2010-01-31

    Electricity infrastructure, as one of the most critical infrastructures in the U.S., plays an important role in modern societies. Its failure would lead to significant disruption of people’s lives, industry and commercial activities, and result in massive economic losses. Reliable operation of electricity infrastructure is an extremely challenging task because human operators need to consider thousands of possible configurations in near real-time to choose the best option and operate the network effectively. In today’s practice, electricity infrastructure operation is largely based on operators’ experience with very limited real-time decision support, resulting in inadequate management of complex predictions and the inability to anticipate, recognize, and respond to situations caused by human errors, natural disasters, or cyber attacks. Therefore, a systematic approach is needed to manage the complex operational paradigms and choose the best option in a near-real-time manner. This paper proposes an advanced decision support tool for electricity infrastructure operations. The tool has the functions of turning large amount of data into actionable information to help operators monitor power grid status in real time; performing trend analysis to indentify system trend at the regional level or system level to help the operator to foresee and discern emergencies, studying clustering analysis to assist operators to identify the relationships between system configurations and affected assets, and interactively evaluating the alternative remedial actions to aid operators to make effective and timely decisions. This tool can provide significant decision support on electricity infrastructure operations and lead to better reliability in power grids. This paper presents examples with actual electricity infrastructure data to demonstrate the capability of this tool.

  5. Decision Facilitator for Launch Operations using Intelligent Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar; Bardina, Jorge

    2005-01-01

    Launch operations require millions of micro-decisions which contribute to the macro decision of 'Go/No-Go' for a launch. Knowledge workers"(such as managers and technical professionals) need information in a timely precise manner as it can greatly affect mission success. The intelligent agent (web search agent) uses the words of a hypertext markup language document which is connected through the internet. The intelligent agent's actions are to determine if its goal of seeking a website containing a specified target (e.g., keyword or phrase), has been met. There are few parameters that should be defined for the keyword search like "Go" and "No-Go". Instead of visiting launch and range decision making servers individually, the decision facilitator constantly connects to all servers, accumulating decisions so the final decision can be decided in a timely manner. The facilitator agent uses the singleton design pattern, which ensures that only a single instance of the facilitator agent exists at one time. Negotiations could proceed between many agents resulting in a final decision. This paper describes details of intelligent agents and their interaction to derive an unified decision support system.

  6. Decision Facilitator for Launch Operations using Intelligent Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar; Bardina, Jorge

    2005-01-01

    Launch operations require millions of micro-decisions which contribute to the macro decision of 'Go/No-Go' for a launch. Knowledge workers"(such as managers and technical professionals) need information in a timely precise manner as it can greatly affect mission success. The intelligent agent (web search agent) uses the words of a hypertext markup language document which is connected through the internet. The intelligent agent's actions are to determine if its goal of seeking a website containing a specified target (e.g., keyword or phrase), has been met. There are few parameters that should be defined for the keyword search like "Go" and "No-Go". Instead of visiting launch and range decision making servers individually, the decision facilitator constantly connects to all servers, accumulating decisions so the final decision can be decided in a timely manner. The facilitator agent uses the singleton design pattern, which ensures that only a single instance of the facilitator agent exists at one time. Negotiations could proceed between many agents resulting in a final decision. This paper describes details of intelligent agents and their interaction to derive an unified decision support system.

  7. Transition-Independent Decentralized Markov Decision Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Raphen; Silberstein, Shlomo; Lesser, Victor; Goldman, Claudia V.; Morris, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    There has been substantial progress with formal models for sequential decision making by individual agents using the Markov decision process (MDP). However, similar treatment of multi-agent systems is lacking. A recent complexity result, showing that solving decentralized MDPs is NEXP-hard, provides a partial explanation. To overcome this complexity barrier, we identify a general class of transition-independent decentralized MDPs that is widely applicable. The class consists of independent collaborating agents that are tied up by a global reward function that depends on both of their histories. We present a novel algorithm for solving this class of problems and examine its properties. The result is the first effective technique to solve optimally a class of decentralized MDPs. This lays the foundation for further work in this area on both exact and approximate solutions.

  8. A Flight Deck Decision Support Tool for Autonomous Airborne Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballin, Mark G.; Sharma, Vivek; Vivona, Robert A.; Johnson, Edward J.; Ramiscal, Ermin

    2002-01-01

    NASA is developing a flight deck decision support tool to support research into autonomous operations in a future distributed air/ground traffic management environment. This interactive real-time decision aid, referred to as the Autonomous Operations Planner (AOP), will enable the flight crew to plan autonomously in the presence of dense traffic and complex flight management constraints. In assisting the flight crew, the AOP accounts for traffic flow management and airspace constraints, schedule requirements, weather hazards, aircraft operational limits, and crew or airline flight-planning goals. This paper describes the AOP and presents an overview of functional and implementation design considerations required for its development. Required AOP functionality is described, its application in autonomous operations research is discussed, and a prototype software architecture for the AOP is presented.

  9. Hybrid Discrete-Continuous Markov Decision Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feng, Zhengzhu; Dearden, Richard; Meuleau, Nicholas; Washington, Rich

    2003-01-01

    This paper proposes a Markov decision process (MDP) model that features both discrete and continuous state variables. We extend previous work by Boyan and Littman on the mono-dimensional time-dependent MDP to multiple dimensions. We present the principle of lazy discretization, and piecewise constant and linear approximations of the model. Having to deal with several continuous dimensions raises several new problems that require new solutions. In the (piecewise) linear case, we use techniques from partially- observable MDPs (POMDPS) to represent value functions as sets of linear functions attached to different partitions of the state space.

  10. Towards a Decision Support System for Space Flight Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meshkat, Leila; Hogle, Charles; Ruszkowski, James

    2013-01-01

    The Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) has put in place a Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) technological framework for the development and execution of the Flight Production Process (FPP). This framework has provided much added value and return on investment to date. This paper describes a vision for a model based Decision Support System (DSS) for the development and execution of the FPP and its design and development process. The envisioned system extends the existing MBSE methodology and technological framework which is currently in use. The MBSE technological framework currently in place enables the systematic collection and integration of data required for building an FPP model for a diverse set of missions. This framework includes the technology, people and processes required for rapid development of architectural artifacts. It is used to build a feasible FPP model for the first flight of spacecraft and for recurrent flights throughout the life of the program. This model greatly enhances our ability to effectively engage with a new customer. It provides a preliminary work breakdown structure, data flow information and a master schedule based on its existing knowledge base. These artifacts are then refined and iterated upon with the customer for the development of a robust end-to-end, high-level integrated master schedule and its associated dependencies. The vision is to enhance this framework to enable its application for uncertainty management, decision support and optimization of the design and execution of the FPP by the program. Furthermore, this enhanced framework will enable the agile response and redesign of the FPP based on observed system behavior. The discrepancy of the anticipated system behavior and the observed behavior may be due to the processing of tasks internally, or due to external factors such as changes in program requirements or conditions associated with other organizations that are outside of

  11. Using Simulations to Investigate Decision Making in Airline Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruce, Peter J.; Gray, Judy H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines a range of methods to collect data for the investigation of decision-making in airline Operations Control Centres (OCCs). A study was conducted of 52 controllers in five OCCs of both domestic and international airlines in the Asia-Pacific region. A range of methods was used including: surveys, interviews, observations, simulations, and think-aloud protocol. The paper compares and evaluates the suitability of these techniques for gathering data and provides recommendations on the application of simulations. Keywords Data Collection, Decision-Making, Research Methods, Simulation, Think-Aloud Protocol.

  12. Human Decision Processes: Implications for SSA Support Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picciano, P.

    2013-09-01

    Despite significant advances in computing power and artificial intelligence (AI), few critical decisions are made without a human decision maker in the loop. Space Situational Awareness (SSA) missions are both critical and complex, typically adhering to the human-in-the-loop (HITL) model. The collection of human operators injects a needed diversity of expert knowledge, experience, and authority required to successfully fulfill SSA tasking. A wealth of literature on human decision making exists citing myriad empirical studies and offering a varied set of prescriptive and descriptive models of judgment and decision making (Hastie & Dawes, 2001; Baron, 2000). Many findings have been proven sufficiently robust to allow information architects or system/interface designers to take action to improve decision processes. For the purpose of discussion, these concepts are bifurcated in two groups: 1) vulnerabilities to mitigate, and 2) capabilities to augment. These vulnerabilities and capabilities refer specifically to the decision process and should not be confused with a shortcoming or skill of a specific human operator. Thus the framing of questions and orders, the automated tools with which to collaborate, priming and contextual data, and the delivery of information all play a critical role in human judgment and choice. Evaluating the merits of any decision can be elusive; in order to constrain this discussion, ‘rational choice' will tend toward the economic model characteristics such as maximizing utility and selection consistency (e.g., if A preferred to B, and B preferred to C, than A should be preferred to C). Simple decision models often encourage one to list the pros and cons of a decision, perhaps use a weighting schema, but one way or another weigh the future benefit (or harm) of making a selection. The result (sought by the rationalist models) should drive toward higher utility. Despite notable differences in researchers' theses (to be discussed in the full

  13. 44 CFR 9.6 - Decision-making process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Decision-making process. 9.6... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.6 Decision-making process... protection decision-making process to be followed by the Agency in applying the Orders to its actions. While...

  14. 44 CFR 9.6 - Decision-making process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Decision-making process. 9.6... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.6 Decision-making process... protection decision-making process to be followed by the Agency in applying the Orders to its actions. While...

  15. 44 CFR 9.6 - Decision-making process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Decision-making process. 9.6... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.6 Decision-making process... protection decision-making process to be followed by the Agency in applying the Orders to its actions. While...

  16. 44 CFR 9.6 - Decision-making process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Decision-making process. 9.6... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.6 Decision-making process... protection decision-making process to be followed by the Agency in applying the Orders to its actions. While...

  17. Role of Hydrological Ensemble Forecasts in Operational Decision Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramaswamy, V.; Saleh, F.; Georgas, N.; Blumberg, A. F.

    2016-12-01

    Considerable importance has been placed on addressing uncertainties in hydrologic forecasts, particularly in regards to operational decision making. This work investigates the utility of short term hydrological ensemble forecasts for operational decision making using meteorological inputs from more than 100 ensemble members from different numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. To this end, an advanced automated hydrologic framework comprising of a regional scale hydrologic model, GIS datasets and the meteorological ensemble predictions from different weather prediction facilities was implemented over the Hudson and Raritan River basins, USA. The uncertainties associated with ensemble streamflow forecasts was analysed for three different flood events classified as minor, moderate and major. This was done by visually and statistically comparing the spread, magnitude and timing of the peak of the hydrologic outputs. Results from this work demonstrate the effectiveness of different NWP models for different operational scenarios, thus providing a better understanding of the uncertainties and risks associated with decision making. In addition to gaining insights into the risks associated with issuing flood alerts, this work also offers useful perspectives on the operationally managing water resources.

  18. The economic valuation of improved process plant decision support technology.

    PubMed

    White, Douglas C

    2007-06-01

    How can investments that would potentially improve a manufacturing plant's decision process be economically justified? What is the value of "better information," "more flexibility," or "improved integration" and the technologies that provide these effects? Technology investments such as improved process modelling, new real time historians and other databases, "smart" instrumentation, better data analysis and visualization software, and/or improved user interfaces often include these benefits as part of their valuation. How are these "soft" benefits to be converted to a quantitative economic return? Quantification is important if rational management decisions are to be made about the correct amount of money to invest in the technologies, and which technologies to choose among the many available ones. Modelling the plant operational decision cycle-detect, analyse, forecast, choose and implement--provides a basis for this economic quantification. In this paper a new economic model is proposed for estimation of the value of decision support investments based on their effect upon the uncertainty in forecasting plant financial performance. This model leads to quantitative benefit estimates that have a realistic financial basis. An example is presented demonstrating the application of the method.

  19. Thinking processes used by nurses in clinical decision making.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Kathryn A Smith; Donald, Janet G

    2002-04-01

    Clinical decision making forms the basis of expert clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to investigate and document the thinking processes used by nurses in clinical decision making situations so the processes could guide educational practice. Clinical data was analyzed to reveal that clinical decision making is complex and requires a variety of thinking processes. Medical and surgical nurses used different thinking processes, showing the importance of context in clinical decision making. The nursing exemplars and working vocabulary developed in this study to describe the thinking processes used in clinical decision making can be used in nursing education.

  20. Intelligent decision support in process environments

    SciTech Connect

    Hollnagel, E.; Mancini, G.; Woods, D.D.

    1986-01-01

    This book deals with the basis for design of intelligent systems to support human decision-making in supervisory control, and provides a view of how human and artificial cognitive systems can interact. It covers the design and development of intelligent decision aiding systems, as well as the testing and evaluation. Topics discussed include: decision theory; cognitive engineering; systems engineering; and artificial intelligence.

  1. Tactical Unit Data and Decision Requirements for Urban Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    decision requirements useful in urban operations. DISCLAIMER: The contents of this report are not to be used for advertising , publication, or...Building Function Verify mosque and identify possi- ble schools or meeting places Identify types of cinema (stage/theatre) or other similar nearby...Determine mosque and residen- tial floor plans Interior layout of cinema and high-rises Layout of power control facilities Improved Dismounted & Mounted

  2. Operational Decisions: What is the Nature of the Information Required?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-21

    ground and a decisive battle would be fought between the Chindwin and Irrawaddy River with the city of Mandalay in the balance, Slim was In error, He...with elements of the IV Corps and continue the advance toward the Irrawaddy River giving every 1r,-.,.:.’tion that Mandalay was the objective of the 14th...Corps would cross the Irrawaddy and seize Mandalay without the threat of the Japanese defense being reinforced. A subsequent phase of the operation was

  3. 30 CFR 941.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Mining Operations, pertaining to petitioning, initial processing, hearing requirements, decisions, data base and inventory systems, public information, and regulatory responsibilities shall apply to surface...

  4. 30 CFR 939.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Mining Operations, pertaining to petitioning, initial processing, hearing requirements, decisions, data base and inventory systems, public information, and regulatory responsibilities shall become applicable...

  5. 30 CFR 939.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Mining Operations, pertaining to petitioning, initial processing, hearing requirements, decisions, data base and inventory systems, public information, and regulatory responsibilities shall become...

  6. 30 CFR 922.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Mining Operations, pertaining to petitioning, initial processing, hearing requirements, decisions, data base and inventory systems, public information, and regulatory responsibilities shall apply to...

  7. 30 CFR 937.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Mining Operations, pertaining to petitioning, initial processing, hearing requirements, decisions, data base and inventory systems, public information, and rith the February 26, 1980, May 16, 1980,...

  8. 30 CFR 947.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Mining Operations, pertaining to petitioning, initial processing, hearing requirements, decisions, data base and inventory systems, public information, and regulatory responsibilities shall apply to...

  9. 30 CFR 903.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Mining Operations, pertaining to petitions, initial processing, hearing requirements, decisions, data base and inventory systems, public information, and regulatory responsibilities, applies to...

  10. 30 CFR 910.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Mining Operations, pertaining to petitioning, initial processing, hearing requirements, decisions, data base and inventory systems, public information, and regulatory responsibilities shall apply to...

  11. 30 CFR 903.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Mining Operations, pertaining to petitions, initial processing, hearing requirements, decisions, data base and inventory systems, public information, and regulatory responsibilities, applies to...

  12. 30 CFR 905.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Mining Operations, pertaining to petitions, initial processing, hearing requirements, decisions, data base and inventory systems, public information, and regulatory responsibilities shall apply to...

  13. 30 CFR 941.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Mining Operations, pertaining to petitioning, initial processing, hearing requirements, decisions, data base and inventory systems, public information, and regulatory responsibilities shall apply to...

  14. 30 CFR 941.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Mining Operations, pertaining to petitioning, initial processing, hearing requirements, decisions, data base and inventory systems, public information, and regulatory responsibilities shall apply to...

  15. 30 CFR 941.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Mining Operations, pertaining to petitioning, initial processing, hearing requirements, decisions, data base and inventory systems, public information, and regulatory responsibilities shall apply to...

  16. 30 CFR 905.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Mining Operations, pertaining to petitions, initial processing, hearing requirements, decisions, data base and inventory systems, public information, and regulatory responsibilities shall apply to...

  17. 30 CFR 905.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Mining Operations, pertaining to petitions, initial processing, hearing requirements, decisions, data base and inventory systems, public information, and regulatory responsibilities shall apply to...

  18. 30 CFR 939.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Mining Operations, pertaining to petitioning, initial processing, hearing requirements, decisions, data base and inventory systems, public information, and regulatory responsibilities shall become...

  19. 30 CFR 947.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Mining Operations, pertaining to petitioning, initial processing, hearing requirements, decisions, data base and inventory systems, public information, and regulatory responsibilities shall apply to...

  20. 30 CFR 922.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Mining Operations, pertaining to petitioning, initial processing, hearing requirements, decisions, data base and inventory systems, public information, and regulatory responsibilities shall apply to...

  1. 30 CFR 941.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Mining Operations, pertaining to petitioning, initial processing, hearing requirements, decisions, data base and inventory systems, public information, and regulatory responsibilities shall apply to...

  2. 30 CFR 912.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Mining Operations, pertaining to petitioning, initial processing, hearing requirements, decisions, data base and inventory systems, public information, and regulatory responsibilities shall apply to...

  3. 30 CFR 903.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Mining Operations, pertaining to petitions, initial processing, hearing requirements, decisions, data base and inventory systems, public information, and regulatory responsibilities, applies to...

  4. FIESTA: An operational decision aid for space network fault isolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowe, Dawn; Quillin, Bob; Matteson, Nadine; Wilkinson, Bill; Miksell, Steve

    1987-01-01

    The Fault Tolerance Expert System for Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) Applications (FIESTA) is a fault detection and fault diagnosis expert system being developed as a decision aid to support operations in the Network Control Center (NCC) for NASA's Space Network. The operational objectives which influenced FIESTA development are presented and an overview of the architecture used to achieve these goals are provided. The approach to the knowledge engineering effort and the methodology employed are also presented and illustrated with examples drawn from the FIESTA domain.

  5. PRODUCT OR PROCESS--IMPLICATIONS FOR DECISION-MAKING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HOSFORD, RAY E.

    THE IMPORTANCE OF ASSISTING STUDENTS IN THE DECISION-MAKING PROCESS IS EXPLORED. COUNSELORS ASSIST STUDENTS IN LEARNING HOW TO MAKE DECISIONS. A DECISION SHOULD BE EVALUATED IN TERMS OF THE PROCESS USED TO ARRIVE AT IT RATHER THAN IN TERMS OF THE RESULTING CHOICE. KNOWLEDGE OF ALTERNATIVES, POSSIBLE OUTCOMES, AND THE PROBABILITY FOR SUCCESS OF…

  6. Biomolecular decision-making process for self assembly.

    SciTech Connect

    Osbourn, Gordon Cecil

    2005-01-01

    The brain is often identified with decision-making processes in the biological world. In fact, single cells, single macromolecules (proteins) and populations of molecules also make simple decisions. These decision processes are essential to survival and to the biological self-assembly and self-repair processes that we seek to emulate. How do these tiny systems make effective decisions? How do they make decisions in concert with a cooperative network of other molecules or cells? How can we emulate the decision-making behaviors of small-scale biological systems to program and self-assemble microsystems? This LDRD supported research to answer these questions. Our work included modeling and simulation of protein populations to help us understand, mimic, and categorize molecular decision-making mechanisms that nonequilibrium systems can exhibit. This work is an early step towards mimicking such nanoscale and microscale biomolecular decision-making processes in inorganic systems.

  7. Consultation and Decision Processes in a Research and Development Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Clagett G.

    1970-01-01

    Study of relationship between consultation and decision processes in an industrial research laboratory showed the efficacy of multidirectional consultation coupled with a pattern of shared, decentralized decision making. (Author/KJ)

  8. Structural and functional design of WWTP operation decision support system with a case study.

    PubMed

    Xu, J; Shi, H C; Ke, X Y

    2006-01-01

    This paper developes the WWTP operation decision support system (ODSS) to simulate the dynamic behavior of the WWTP treatment process based on ASMs (activated sludge models) and WWTP experiential knowledge. The novel structure and functions of ODSS can offer more flexible and general instructions to the WWTP operations. The three independent sub-systems, namely expert system, simulation system and training system, can cooperate to achieve many more functions such as operation alert, fault diagnosis, process simulation and so forth. The expert system based on the dynamic simulation, an essential part of WWTP ODSS, has been proved to be feasible and effective by the implementation at Fang Zhuang WWTP. Our results indicated that the WWTP ODSS has significant potential for improving plant performance and reducing treatment costs by assisting the operators at the decision-making level.

  9. Approaches to verification/validation of imbedded decision support systems applied to launch vehicle operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szatkowski, G. P.

    A methodology for incorporating expert decision support systems into launch vehicle operations is suggested based on a review of the current state of the art in verification and validation (V & V). Particular attention is given to the following areas that are believed to contribute to the overall V & V process: rapid prototyping, checking toolset utilities, and dynamic simulation analysis. Opportunities in operations that reduce costs and improve autonomy are considered.

  10. The Contribution of a Simple Decision Process (SDP) to Reducing Biases in Educational Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    The use of intuition in educational decisions disposes educators to emotional arousal and biases. An excessively methodical approach is also criticized. This study tested a decision-making procedure, the Simple Decision Process (SDP), that integrates both approaches. One hundred and seventy four teachers studied a number of dilemmas (i.e.,…

  11. Teacher Empowerment in the Decision Making Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, George E.; DeWalt, Cassandra Sligh

    2006-01-01

    According to Erlandson and Bifano (1987), teacher empowerment is a vital dimension of the school's organization. Lieberman (1989) defined teacher empowerment as "empowering teachers to participate in group decisions and to have real decision-making roles in the school community" (p. 24). Furthermore, Summers (2006) addressed the need for…

  12. Decision Aids for Airborne Intercept Operations in Advanced Aircrafts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madni, A.; Freedy, A.

    1981-01-01

    A tactical decision aid (TDA) for the F-14 aircrew, i.e., the naval flight officer and pilot, in conducting a multitarget attack during the performance of a Combat Air Patrol (CAP) role is presented. The TDA employs hierarchical multiattribute utility models for characterizing mission objectives in operationally measurable terms, rule based AI-models for tactical posture selection, and fast time simulation for maneuver consequence prediction. The TDA makes aspect maneuver recommendations, selects and displays the optimum mission posture, evaluates attackable and potentially attackable subsets, and recommends the 'best' attackable subset along with the required course perturbation.

  13. Use of wind power forecasting in operational decisions.

    SciTech Connect

    Botterud, A.; Zhi, Z.; Wang, J.; Bessa, R.J.; Keko, H.; Mendes, J.; Sumaili, J.; Miranda, V.

    2011-11-29

    The rapid expansion of wind power gives rise to a number of challenges for power system operators and electricity market participants. The key operational challenge is to efficiently handle the uncertainty and variability of wind power when balancing supply and demand in ths system. In this report, we analyze how wind power forecasting can serve as an efficient tool toward this end. We discuss the current status of wind power forecasting in U.S. electricity markets and develop several methodologies and modeling tools for the use of wind power forecasting in operational decisions, from the perspectives of the system operator as well as the wind power producer. In particular, we focus on the use of probabilistic forecasts in operational decisions. Driven by increasing prices for fossil fuels and concerns about greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, wind power, as a renewable and clean source of energy, is rapidly being introduced into the existing electricity supply portfolio in many parts of the world. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has analyzed a scenario in which wind power meets 20% of the U.S. electricity demand by 2030, which means that the U.S. wind power capacity would have to reach more than 300 gigawatts (GW). The European Union is pursuing a target of 20/20/20, which aims to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 20%, increase the amount of renewable energy to 20% of the energy supply, and improve energy efficiency by 20% by 2020 as compared to 1990. Meanwhile, China is the leading country in terms of installed wind capacity, and had 45 GW of installed wind power capacity out of about 200 GW on a global level at the end of 2010. The rapid increase in the penetration of wind power into power systems introduces more variability and uncertainty in the electricity generation portfolio, and these factors are the key challenges when it comes to integrating wind power into the electric power grid. Wind power forecasting (WPF) is an important tool to help

  14. Markov decision processes in natural resources management: observability and uncertainty

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Byron K.

    2015-01-01

    The breadth and complexity of stochastic decision processes in natural resources presents a challenge to analysts who need to understand and use these approaches. The objective of this paper is to describe a class of decision processes that are germane to natural resources conservation and management, namely Markov decision processes, and to discuss applications and computing algorithms under different conditions of observability and uncertainty. A number of important similarities are developed in the framing and evaluation of different decision processes, which can be useful in their applications in natural resources management. The challenges attendant to partial observability are highlighted, and possible approaches for dealing with it are discussed.

  15. Markov decision processes in natural resources management: Observability and uncertainty

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, B.K.

    2009-01-01

    The breadth and complexity of stochastic decision processes in natural resources presents a challenge to analysts who need to understand and use these approaches. The objective of this paper is to describe a class of decision processes that are germane to natural resources conservation and management, namely Markov decision processes, and to discuss applications and computing algorithms under different conditions of observability and uncertainty. A number of important similarities are developed in the framing and evaluation of different decision processes, which can be useful in their applications in natural resources management. The challenges attendant to partial observability are highlighted, and possible approaches for dealing with it are discussed.

  16. Naturalistic Decision Making in Power Grid Operations: Implications for Dispatcher Training and Usability Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Podmore, Robin

    2008-11-17

    The focus of the present study is on improved training approaches to accelerate learning and improved methods for analyzing effectiveness of tools within a high-fidelity power grid simulated environment. A theory-based model has been developed to document and understand the mental processes that an expert power system operator uses when making critical decisions. The theoretical foundation for the method is based on the concepts of situation awareness, the methods of cognitive task analysis, and the naturalistic decision making (NDM) approach of Recognition Primed Decision Making. The method has been systematically explored and refined as part of a capability demonstration of a high-fidelity real-time power system simulator under normal and emergency conditions. To examine NDM processes, we analyzed transcripts of operator-to-operator conversations during the simulated scenario to reveal and assess NDM-based performance criteria. The results of the analysis indicate that the proposed framework can be used constructively to map or assess the Situation Awareness Level of the operators at each point in the scenario. We can also identify the mental models and mental simulations that the operators employ at different points in the scenario. This report documents the method, describes elements of the model, and provides appendices that document the simulation scenario and the associated mental models used by operators in the scenario.

  17. Decision support system for the operating room rescheduling problem.

    PubMed

    van Essen, J Theresia; Hurink, Johann L; Hartholt, Woutske; van den Akker, Bernd J

    2012-12-01

    Due to surgery duration variability and arrivals of emergency surgeries, the planned Operating Room (OR) schedule is disrupted throughout the day which may lead to a change in the start time of the elective surgeries. These changes may result in undesirable situations for patients, wards or other involved departments, and therefore, the OR schedule has to be adjusted. In this paper, we develop a decision support system (DSS) which assists the OR manager in this decision by providing the three best adjusted OR schedules. The system considers the preferences of all involved stakeholders and only evaluates the OR schedules that satisfy the imposed resource constraints. The decision rules used for this system are based on a thorough analysis of the OR rescheduling problem. We model this problem as an Integer Linear Program (ILP) which objective is to minimize the deviation from the preferences of the considered stakeholders. By applying this ILP to instances from practice, we determined that the given preferences mainly lead to (i) shifting a surgery and (ii) scheduling a break between two surgeries. By using these changes in the DSS, the performed simulation study shows that less surgeries are canceled and patients and wards are more satisfied, but also that the perceived workload of several departments increases to compensate this. The system can also be used to judge the acceptability of a proposed initial OR schedule.

  18. Operating Permits Program Review Process

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Policy and Guidance Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-operating-permit-policy-and-guidance-document-index. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  19. Building a normative decision support system for clinical and operational risk management in hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Cornalba, Chiara; Bellazzi, Roberto G; Bellazzi, Riccardo

    2008-09-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a decision support system for risk management in hemodialysis (HD) departments. The proposed system exploits a domain ontology to formalize the problem as a Bayesian network. It also relies on a software tool, able to automatically collect HD data, to learn the network conditional probabilities. By merging prior knowledge and the available data, the system allows to estimate risk profiles both for patients and HD departments. The risk management process is completed by an influence diagram that enables scenario analysis to choose the optimal decisions that mitigate a patient's risk. The methods and design of the decision support tool are described in detail, and the derived decision model is presented. Examples and case studies are also shown. The tool is one of the few examples of normative system explicitly conceived to manage operational and clinical risks in health care environments.

  20. Post-event human decision errors: operator action tree/time reliability correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, R E; Fragola, J; Wreathall, J

    1982-11-01

    This report documents an interim framework for the quantification of the probability of errors of decision on the part of nuclear power plant operators after the initiation of an accident. The framework can easily be incorporated into an event tree/fault tree analysis. The method presented consists of a structure called the operator action tree and a time reliability correlation which assumes the time available for making a decision to be the dominating factor in situations requiring cognitive human response. This limited approach decreases the magnitude and complexity of the decision modeling task. Specifically, in the past, some human performance models have attempted prediction by trying to emulate sequences of human actions, or by identifying and modeling the information processing approach applicable to the task. The model developed here is directed at describing the statistical performance of a representative group of hypothetical individuals responding to generalized situations.

  1. An Investigation of Operational Decision Making in Situ: Incident Command in the U.K. Fire and Rescue Service.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Hatton, Sabrina R; Butler, Philip C; Honey, Robert C

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to better understand the nature of decision making at operational incidents in order to inform operational guidance and training. Normative models of decision making have been adopted in the guidance and training for emergency services. In these models, it is assumed that decision makers assess the current situation, formulate plans, and then execute the plans. However, our understanding of how decision making unfolds at operational incidents remains limited. Incident commanders, attending 33 incidents across six U.K. Fire and Rescue Services, were fitted with helmet-mounted cameras, and the resulting video footage was later independently coded and used to prompt participants to provide a running commentary concerning their decisions. The analysis revealed that assessment of the operational situation was most often followed by plan execution rather than plan formulation, and there was little evidence of prospection about the potential consequences of actions. This pattern of results was consistent across different types of incident, characterized by level of risk and time pressure, but was affected by the operational experience of the participants. Decision making did not follow the sequence of phases assumed by normative models and conveyed in current operational guidance but instead was influenced by both reflective and reflexive processes. These results have clear implications for understanding operational decision making as it occurs in situ and suggest a need for future guidance and training to acknowledge the role of reflexive processes. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  2. Flexible Decision Variables in Short-term Operation of Reservoirs Using Dimension Reduction Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini, P.; Chen, D.; Leon, A.; Gibson, N. L.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a multi-objective optimization model to find flexible decision variables (e.g., turbine flows) in reservoir operation. Flexible decision variables could give the decision maker a range of options instead of single deterministic optimal solutions. In our formulation, each decision variable is modeled by a random variable, and the eventual decision will be but one realization. The optimal probability distribution is found by maximizing the expected value of the objective. Finding flexible decision variables can be computationally intensive especially for multi-reservoir systems. To increase the computational speed of the optimization, a dimension reduction method is used, namely the Karhunen Loe`ve (KL) expansion. KL expansion is closely related to Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and can be used to efficiently represent the random processes by only a few random variables. When using this method, deterministic optimal Pareto solutions are used as the initial population for the optimization. The Grand Coulee reservoir, located in the Columbia River, is used as the test case. The results show that the decision space can be represented with very few random variables and the computational time can therefore be drastically reduced.

  3. Dissociable Neural Processes Underlying Risky Decisions for Self Versus Other

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Daehyun; Sul, Sunhae; Kim, Hackjin

    2013-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies on decision making have mainly focused on decisions on behalf of oneself. Considering that people often make decisions on behalf of others, it is intriguing that there is little neurobiological evidence on how decisions for others differ from those for oneself. The present study directly compared risky decisions for self with those for another person using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants were asked to perform a gambling task on behalf of themselves (decision-for-self condition) or another person (decision-for-other condition) while in the scanner. Their task was to choose between a low-risk option (i.e., win or lose 10 points) and a high-risk option (i.e., win or lose 90 points) with variable levels of winning probability. Compared with choices regarding others, those regarding oneself were more risk-averse at lower winning probabilities and more risk-seeking at higher winning probabilities, perhaps due to stronger affective process during risky decisions for oneself compared with those for other. The brain-activation pattern changed according to the target, such that reward-related regions were more active in the decision-for-self condition than in the decision-for-other condition, whereas brain regions related to the theory of mind (ToM) showed greater activation in the decision-for-other condition than in the decision-for-self condition. Parametric modulation analysis using individual decision models revealed that activation of the amygdala and the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) were associated with value computations for oneself and for another, respectively, during risky financial decisions. The results of the present study suggest that decisions for oneself and for other may recruit fundamentally distinct neural processes, which can be mainly characterized as dominant affective/impulsive and cognitive/regulatory processes, respectively. PMID:23519016

  4. Implications of Perioperative Team Setups for Operating Room Management Decisions.

    PubMed

    Doll, Dietrich; Kauf, Peter; Wieferich, Katharina; Schiffer, Ralf; Luedi, Markus M

    2017-01-01

    Team performance has been studied extensively in the perioperative setting, but the managerial impact of interprofessional team performance remains unclear. We hypothesized that the interplay between anesthesiologists and surgeons would affect operating room turnaround times, and teams that worked together over time would become more efficient. We analyzed 13,632 surgical cases at our hospital that involved 64 surgeons and 48 anesthesiologists. We detrended and adjusted the data for potential confounders including age, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status, and surgical list (scheduled cases of specific surgical specialties). The surgical lists were categorized as ear, nose, and throat surgery; trauma surgery; general surgery; and gynecology. We assessed the relationship between turnaround times and assignment of different anesthesiologists to specific surgeons using a Monte Carlo simulation. We found significant differences in team performances among the different surgical lists but no team learning. We constructed managerial decision tables for the assignment of anesthesiologists to specific surgeons at our hospital. We defined a decision algorithm based on these tables. Our analysis indicated that had this algorithm been used in staffing the operating room for the surgical cases represented in our data, median turnaround times would have a reduction potential of 6.8% (95% confidence interval 6.3% to 7.1%). A surgeon is usually predefined for scheduled surgeries (surgical list). Allocation of the right anesthesiologist to a list and to a surgeon can affect the team performance; thus, this assignment has managerial implications regarding the operating room efficiency affecting turnaround times and thus potentially overutilized time of a list at our hospital.

  5. Exponential operations and aggregation operators of interval neutrosophic sets and their decision making methods.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jun

    2016-01-01

    An interval neutrosophic set (INS) is a subclass of a neutrosophic set and a generalization of an interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy set, and then the characteristics of INS are independently described by the interval numbers of its truth-membership, indeterminacy-membership, and falsity-membership degrees. However, the exponential parameters (weights) of all the existing exponential operational laws of INSs and the corresponding exponential aggregation operators are crisp values in interval neutrosophic decision making problems. As a supplement, this paper firstly introduces new exponential operational laws of INSs, where the bases are crisp values or interval numbers and the exponents are interval neutrosophic numbers (INNs), which are basic elements in INSs. Then, we propose an interval neutrosophic weighted exponential aggregation (INWEA) operator and a dual interval neutrosophic weighted exponential aggregation (DINWEA) operator based on these exponential operational laws and introduce comparative methods based on cosine measure functions for INNs and dual INNs. Further, we develop decision-making methods based on the INWEA and DINWEA operators. Finally, a practical example on the selecting problem of global suppliers is provided to illustrate the applicability and rationality of the proposed methods.

  6. Analysis of Decisions Made Using the Analytic Hierarchy Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    AHP, and how this information can be utilized, permitting U.S. and allied forces to execute efficient and effective military operations. A case study...military decision-maker who uses the AHP, and how this information can be utilized, permitting U.S. and allied forces to execute efficient and effective ...this information can be utilized, permitting U.S. and allied forces to execute efficient and effective military operations. A case study of a decision

  7. Decision support for operations and maintenance (DSOM) system

    DOEpatents

    Jarrell, Donald B.; Meador, Richard J.; Sisk, Daniel R.; Hatley, Darrel D.; Brown, Daryl R.; Keibel, Gary R.; Gowri, Krishnan; Reyes-Spindola, Jorge F.; Adams, Kevin J.; Yates, Kenneth R.; Eschbach, Elizabeth J.; Stratton, Rex C.

    2006-03-21

    A method for minimizing the life cycle cost of processes such as heating a building. The method utilizes sensors to monitor various pieces of equipment used in the process, for example, boilers, turbines, and the like. The method then performs the steps of identifying a set optimal operating conditions for the process, identifying and measuring parameters necessary to characterize the actual operating condition of the process, validating data generated by measuring those parameters, characterizing the actual condition of the process, identifying an optimal condition corresponding to the actual condition, comparing said optimal condition with the actual condition and identifying variances between the two, and drawing from a set of pre-defined algorithms created using best engineering practices, an explanation of at least one likely source and at least one recommended remedial action for selected variances, and providing said explanation as an output to at least one user.

  8. Nurse managers' decision-making in daily unit operation in peri-operative settings: a cross-sectional descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Siirala, Eriikka; Peltonen, Laura-Maria; Lundgrén-Laine, Heljä; Salanterä, Sanna; Junttila, Kristiina

    2016-09-01

    To describe the tactical and the operational decisions made by nurse managers when managing the daily unit operation in peri-operative settings. Management is challenging as situations change rapidly and decisions are constantly made. Understanding decision-making in this complex environment helps to develop decision support systems to support nurse managers' operative and tactical decision-making. Descriptive cross-sectional design. Data were collected from 20 nurse managers with the think-aloud method during the busiest working hours and analysed using thematic content analysis. Nurse managers made over 700 decisions; either ad hoc (n = 289), near future (n = 268) or long-term (n = 187) by nature. Decisions were often made simultaneously with many interruptions. Ad hoc decisions covered staff allocation, ensuring adequate staff, rescheduling surgical procedures, confirmation tangible resources and following-up the daily unit operation. Decisions in the near future were: planning of surgical procedures and tangible resources, and planning staff allocation. Long-term decisions were: human recourses, nursing development, supplies and equipment, and finances in the unit. Decision-making was vulnerable to interruptions, which sometimes complicated the managing tasks. The results can be used when planning decision support systems and when defining the nurse managers' tasks in peri-operative settings. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. 44 CFR 9.6 - Decision-making process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.6 Decision-making process. (a) Purpose. The purpose of this section is to set out the floodplain management and wetlands... the decision-making process was initially designed to address the floodplain Order's requirements,...

  10. 10 CFR 710.22 - Initial decision process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Initial decision process. 710.22 Section 710.22 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED MATTER OR... Classified Matter or Special Nuclear Material Administrative Review § 710.22 Initial decision process. (a...

  11. 10 CFR 710.22 - Initial decision process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Initial decision process. 710.22 Section 710.22 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED MATTER OR... Classified Matter or Special Nuclear Material Administrative Review § 710.22 Initial decision process. (a...

  12. 10 CFR 710.22 - Initial decision process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Initial decision process. 710.22 Section 710.22 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED MATTER OR... Classified Matter or Special Nuclear Material Administrative Review § 710.22 Initial decision process. (a...

  13. Decision-Making Processes of Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, J. William; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Undergraduates (n=142) participated in study on decision making in which prospective administrators made monetary commitments to long-term goals under varying conditions. Found significant negative correlation between anxiety level and commitments to previously chosen courses of action; no significant effects of job security on commitment; and…

  14. NEP processing, operations, and disposal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stancati, Mike

    1993-01-01

    Several recent studies by ASAO/NPO staff members at LeRC and by other organizations have highlighted the potential benefits of using Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) as the primary transportation means for some of the proposed missions of the Space Exploration Initiative. These include the potential to reduce initial mass in orbit and Mars transit time. Modular NEP configurations also introduce fully redundant main propulsion to Mars flight systems adding several abort or fall back options not otherwise available. Recent studies have also identified mission operations, such as on orbital assembly, refurbishment, and reactor disposal, as important discriminators for propulsion system evaluation. This study is intended to identify and assess 'end-to-end' operational issues associated with using NEP for transporting crews and cargo between Earth and Mars. We also include some consideration of lunar cargo transfer as well.

  15. Spontaneous decisions and operant conditioning in fruit flies.

    PubMed

    Brembs, Björn

    2011-05-01

    Already in the 1930s Skinner, Konorski and colleagues debated the commonalities, differences and interactions among the processes underlying what was then known as "conditioned reflexes type I and II", but which is today more well-known as classical (Pavlovian) and operant (instrumental) conditioning. Subsequent decades of research have confirmed that the interactions between the various learning systems engaged during operant conditioning are complex and difficult to disentangle. Today, modern neurobiological tools allow us to dissect the biological processes underlying operant conditioning and study their interactions. These processes include initiating spontaneous behavioral variability, world-learning and self-learning. The data suggest that behavioral variability is generated actively by the brain, rather than as a by-product of a complex, noisy input-output system. The function of this variability, in part, is to detect how the environment responds to such actions. World-learning denotes the biological process by which value is assigned to environmental stimuli. Self-learning is the biological process which assigns value to a specific action or movement. In an operant learning situation using visual stimuli for flies, world-learning inhibits self-learning via a prominent neuropil region, the mushroom-bodies. Only extended training can overcome this inhibition and lead to habit formation by engaging the self-learning mechanism. Self-learning transforms spontaneous, flexible actions into stereotyped, habitual responses.

  16. Decision Support System for Reservoir Management and Operation in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navar, D. A.

    2016-12-01

    Africa is currently experiencing a surge in dam construction for flood control, water supply and hydropower production, but ineffective reservoir management has caused problems in the region, such as water shortages, flooding and loss of potential hydropower generation. Our research aims to remedy ineffective reservoir management by developing a novel Decision Support System(DSS) to equip water managers with a technical planning tool based on the state of the art in hydrological sciences. The DSS incorporates a climate forecast model, a hydraulic model of the watershed, and an optimization model to effectively plan for the operation of a system of cascade large-scale reservoirs for hydropower production, while treating water supply and flood control as constraints. Our team will use the newly constructed hydropower plants in the Omo Gibe basin of Ethiopia as the test case. Using the basic HIDROTERM software developed in Brazil, the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) utilizes a combination of linear programing (LP) and non-linear programming (NLP) in conjunction with real time hydrologic and energy demand data to optimize the monthly and daily operations of the reservoir system. We compare the DSS model results with the current reservoir operating policy used by the water managers of that region. We also hope the DSS will eliminate the current dangers associated with the mismanagement of large scale water resources projects in Africa.

  17. Development strategies on an integrated operator decision aid support system for nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ki Sig Kang; Han Gon Kim; Soon Heung Chang . Dept of Nuclear Engineering); Jeong, Hee Kyo; Park, S.D.

    1993-08-01

    The development strategies on an integrated operator decision aid support (IODAS) system are discussed by focusing attention on the importance of the operator's role for nuclear power plants. The IODAS is under development to support the operator's decision making process and to enhance the safety of a nuclear power plant by providing the plant operators with timely and proper guideline during abnormal and emergency conditions. The IODAS has capabilities for the signal validation/management, the alarm processing, the failure diagnosis using abnormal operating procedures, and the dynamic tracking of emergency operating procedures using function restoration guidelines and optimal recovery guidelines with a series of complex logic steps covering a broad spectrum of event sequences. The proposed system is being implemented on a SUN-4/75 Workstation using C and Quintus[sup TM] prolog language. For verification studies a full-scope real-time simulator is being used. Test results show that the IODAS is capable of diagnosing a plant failure quickly and of providing an operator guideline with fast response time. After verification, the IODAS will be installed in the main control room of the unit one nuclear power plant at Yeoung Gwang.

  18. Predecisional Processes Involved in the Enlistment Decision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    trucking deliveries, etc.). The females were employed in clerical/service positions (e.g. secretarial work or cosmetology ). Respondents with a...vo-tech cosmetology 7.David Male Post High School junior college employed part-time 8.Mike Male Post High School employed full-time...first. DZ: Has anyone else made any decisions??? Michelle: I want to go into Cosmetology .. DZ: Sounds good. Anyone else????? If you haven’t made

  19. Distinction between Externally vs. Internally Guided Decision-Making: Operational Differences, Meta-Analytical Comparisons and Their Theoretical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Nakao, Takashi; Ohira, Hideki; Northoff, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Most experimental studies of decision-making have specifically examined situations in which a single less-predictable correct answer exists (externally guided decision-making under uncertainty). Along with such externally guided decision-making, there are instances of decision-making in which no correct answer based on external circumstances is available for the subject (internally guided decision-making). Such decisions are usually made in the context of moral decision-making as well as in preference judgment, where the answer depends on the subject’s own, i.e., internal, preferences rather than on external, i.e., circumstantial, criteria. The neuronal and psychological mechanisms that allow guidance of decisions based on more internally oriented criteria in the absence of external ones remain unclear. This study was undertaken to compare decision-making of these two kinds empirically and theoretically. First, we reviewed studies of decision-making to clarify experimental–operational differences between externally guided and internally guided decision-making. Second, using multi-level kernel density analysis, a whole-brain-based quantitative meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies was performed. Our meta-analysis revealed that the neural network used predominantly for internally guided decision-making differs from that for externally guided decision-making under uncertainty. This result suggests that studying only externally guided decision-making under uncertainty is insufficient to account for decision-making processes in the brain. Finally, based on the review and results of the meta-analysis, we discuss the differences and relations between decision-making of these two types in terms of their operational, neuronal, and theoretical characteristics. PMID:22403525

  20. Artificial intelligence framework for simulating clinical decision-making: a Markov decision process approach.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Casey C; Hauser, Kris

    2013-01-01

    In the modern healthcare system, rapidly expanding costs/complexity, the growing myriad of treatment options, and exploding information streams that often do not effectively reach the front lines hinder the ability to choose optimal treatment decisions over time. The goal in this paper is to develop a general purpose (non-disease-specific) computational/artificial intelligence (AI) framework to address these challenges. This framework serves two potential functions: (1) a simulation environment for exploring various healthcare policies, payment methodologies, etc., and (2) the basis for clinical artificial intelligence - an AI that can "think like a doctor". This approach combines Markov decision processes and dynamic decision networks to learn from clinical data and develop complex plans via simulation of alternative sequential decision paths while capturing the sometimes conflicting, sometimes synergistic interactions of various components in the healthcare system. It can operate in partially observable environments (in the case of missing observations or data) by maintaining belief states about patient health status and functions as an online agent that plans and re-plans as actions are performed and new observations are obtained. This framework was evaluated using real patient data from an electronic health record. The results demonstrate the feasibility of this approach; such an AI framework easily outperforms the current treatment-as-usual (TAU) case-rate/fee-for-service models of healthcare. The cost per unit of outcome change (CPUC) was $189 vs. $497 for AI vs. TAU (where lower is considered optimal) - while at the same time the AI approach could obtain a 30-35% increase in patient outcomes. Tweaking certain AI model parameters could further enhance this advantage, obtaining approximately 50% more improvement (outcome change) for roughly half the costs. Given careful design and problem formulation, an AI simulation framework can approximate optimal

  1. Maximizing the Operational Leader’s Potential Towards Intuitive Decision Making

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-01-01

    Maximizing the Operational Leader’s Potential Towards Intuitive Decision Making CSC 1997 Subject Area - Leadership EXECUTIVE SUMMARY...Title: Maximizing the Operational Leader’s Potential Towards Intuitive Decision Making Author: Major Russell W. Scott, III, United States Marine Corps...Thesis: Future Marine leaders can better optimize their intuitive decision making abilities through education and training improvements focused on

  2. Evolution of quantum-like modeling in decision making processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khrennikova, Polina

    2012-12-01

    The application of the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics to model behavioral patterns in social science and economics is a novel and constantly emerging field. The aim of the so called 'quantum like' models is to model the decision making processes in a macroscopic setting, capturing the particular 'context' in which the decisions are taken. Several subsequent empirical findings proved that when making a decision people tend to violate the axioms of expected utility theory and Savage's Sure Thing principle, thus violating the law of total probability. A quantum probability formula was devised to describe more accurately the decision making processes. A next step in the development of QL-modeling in decision making was the application of Schrödinger equation to describe the evolution of people's mental states. A shortcoming of Schrödinger equation is its inability to capture dynamics of an open system; the brain of the decision maker can be regarded as such, actively interacting with the external environment. Recently the master equation, by which quantum physics describes the process of decoherence as the result of interaction of the mental state with the environmental 'bath', was introduced for modeling the human decision making. The external environment and memory can be referred to as a complex 'context' influencing the final decision outcomes. The master equation can be considered as a pioneering and promising apparatus for modeling the dynamics of decision making in different contexts.

  3. Evolution of quantum-like modeling in decision making processes

    SciTech Connect

    Khrennikova, Polina

    2012-12-18

    The application of the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics to model behavioral patterns in social science and economics is a novel and constantly emerging field. The aim of the so called 'quantum like' models is to model the decision making processes in a macroscopic setting, capturing the particular 'context' in which the decisions are taken. Several subsequent empirical findings proved that when making a decision people tend to violate the axioms of expected utility theory and Savage's Sure Thing principle, thus violating the law of total probability. A quantum probability formula was devised to describe more accurately the decision making processes. A next step in the development of QL-modeling in decision making was the application of Schroedinger equation to describe the evolution of people's mental states. A shortcoming of Schroedinger equation is its inability to capture dynamics of an open system; the brain of the decision maker can be regarded as such, actively interacting with the external environment. Recently the master equation, by which quantum physics describes the process of decoherence as the result of interaction of the mental state with the environmental 'bath', was introduced for modeling the human decision making. The external environment and memory can be referred to as a complex 'context' influencing the final decision outcomes. The master equation can be considered as a pioneering and promising apparatus for modeling the dynamics of decision making in different contexts.

  4. Performing process migration with allreduce operations

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles Jens; Peters, Amanda; Wallenfelt, Brian Paul

    2010-12-14

    Compute nodes perform allreduce operations that swap processes at nodes. A first allreduce operation generates a first result and uses a first process from a first compute node, a second process from a second compute node, and zeros from other compute nodes. The first compute node replaces the first process with the first result. A second allreduce operation generates a second result and uses the first result from the first compute node, the second process from the second compute node, and zeros from others. The second compute node replaces the second process with the second result, which is the first process. A third allreduce operation generates a third result and uses the first result from first compute node, the second result from the second compute node, and zeros from others. The first compute node replaces the first result with the third result, which is the second process.

  5. Investigating the Heart Pump Implant Decision Process: Opportunities for Decision Support Tools to Help.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qian; Zimmerman, John; Steinfeld, Aaron; Carey, Lisa; Antaki, James F

    2016-05-01

    Clinical decision support tools (DSTs) are computational systems that aid healthcare decision-making. While effective in labs, almost all these systems failed when they moved into clinical practice. Healthcare researchers speculated it is most likely due to a lack of user-centered HCI considerations in the design of these systems. This paper describes a field study investigating how clinicians make a heart pump implant decision with a focus on how to best integrate an intelligent DST into their work process. Our findings reveal a lack of perceived need for and trust of machine intelligence, as well as many barriers to computer use at the point of clinical decision-making. These findings suggest an alternative perspective to the traditional use models, in which clinicians engage with DSTs at the point of making a decision. We identify situations across patients' healthcare trajectories when decision supports would help, and we discuss new forms it might take in these situations.

  6. Investigating the Heart Pump Implant Decision Process: Opportunities for Decision Support Tools to Help

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qian; Zimmerman, John; Steinfeld, Aaron; Carey, Lisa; Antaki, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical decision support tools (DSTs) are computational systems that aid healthcare decision-making. While effective in labs, almost all these systems failed when they moved into clinical practice. Healthcare researchers speculated it is most likely due to a lack of user-centered HCI considerations in the design of these systems. This paper describes a field study investigating how clinicians make a heart pump implant decision with a focus on how to best integrate an intelligent DST into their work process. Our findings reveal a lack of perceived need for and trust of machine intelligence, as well as many barriers to computer use at the point of clinical decision-making. These findings suggest an alternative perspective to the traditional use models, in which clinicians engage with DSTs at the point of making a decision. We identify situations across patients’ healthcare trajectories when decision supports would help, and we discuss new forms it might take in these situations. PMID:27833397

  7. Markov Decision Processes: A Tool for Sequential Decision Making under Uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    Alagoz, Oguzhan; Hsu, Heather; Schaefer, Andrew J.; Roberts, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    We provide a tutorial on the construction and evaluation of Markov decision processes (MDPs), which are powerful analytical tools used for sequential decision making under uncertainty that have been widely used in many industrial and manufacturing applications but are underutilized in medical decision making (MDM). We demonstrate the use of an MDP to solve a sequential clinical treatment problem under uncertainty. Markov decision processes generalize standard Markov models in that a decision process is embedded in the model and multiple decisions are made over time. Furthermore, they have significant advantages over standard decision analysis. We compare MDPs to standard Markov-based simulation models by solving the problem of the optimal timing of living-donor liver transplantation using both methods. Both models result in the same optimal transplantation policy and the same total life expectancies for the same patient and living donor. The computation time for solving the MDP model is significantly smaller than that for solving the Markov model. We briefly describe the growing literature of MDPs applied to medical decisions. PMID:20044582

  8. Markov decision processes: a tool for sequential decision making under uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Alagoz, Oguzhan; Hsu, Heather; Schaefer, Andrew J; Roberts, Mark S

    2010-01-01

    We provide a tutorial on the construction and evaluation of Markov decision processes (MDPs), which are powerful analytical tools used for sequential decision making under uncertainty that have been widely used in many industrial and manufacturing applications but are underutilized in medical decision making (MDM). We demonstrate the use of an MDP to solve a sequential clinical treatment problem under uncertainty. Markov decision processes generalize standard Markov models in that a decision process is embedded in the model and multiple decisions are made over time. Furthermore, they have significant advantages over standard decision analysis. We compare MDPs to standard Markov-based simulation models by solving the problem of the optimal timing of living-donor liver transplantation using both methods. Both models result in the same optimal transplantation policy and the same total life expectancies for the same patient and living donor. The computation time for solving the MDP model is significantly smaller than that for solving the Markov model. We briefly describe the growing literature of MDPs applied to medical decisions.

  9. Lexical decision in children: sublexical processing or lexical search?

    PubMed

    van den Boer, Madelon; de Jong, Peter F; Haentjens-van Meeteren, Marleen M

    2012-01-01

    Length effects in the lexical decision latencies of children might indicate that children rely on sublexical processing and essentially approach the task as a naming task. We examined this possibility by means of the effects of neighbourhood size and articulatory suppression on lexical decision performance. Sixty-six beginning and 62 advanced readers performed a lexical decision task in a standard, articulatory suppression, or tapping condition. We found length effects on words and nonwords in the children's lexical decisions. However, the effects of neighbourhood size were similar to those reported for adult lexical decisions, rather than the effects previously found in children's naming. In addition, no effect was found of articulatory suppression. Both findings suggest that, despite clear length effects, children do not adopt a naming task approach but, like adults, base lexical decisions mainly on a lexical search. These results pose a challenge for several computational models of reading.

  10. Health-care process improvement decisions: a systems perspective.

    PubMed

    Walley, Paul; Silvester, Kate; Mountford, Shaun

    2006-01-01

    The paper seeks to investigate decision-making processes within hospital improvement activity, to understand how performance measurement systems influence decisions and potentially lead to unsuccessful or unsustainable process changes. A longitudinal study over a 33-month period investigates key events, decisions and outcomes at one medium-sized hospital in the UK. Process improvement events are monitored using process control methods and by direct observation. The authors took a systems perspective of the health-care processes, ensuring that the impacts of decisions across the health-care supply chain were appropriately interpreted. The research uncovers the ways in which measurement systems disguise failed decisions and encourage managers to take a low-risk approach of "symptomatic relief" when trying to improve performance metrics. This prevents many managers from trying higher risk, sustainable process improvement changes. The behaviour of the health-care system is not understood by many managers and this leads to poor analysis of problem situations. Measurement using time-series methodologies, such as statistical process control are vital for a better understanding of the systems impact of changes. Senior managers must also be aware of the behavioural influence of similar performance measurement systems that discourage sustainable improvement. There is a risk that such experiences will tarnish the reputation of performance management as a discipline. Recommends process control measures as a way of creating an organization memory of how decisions affect performance--something that is currently lacking.

  11. Defense Waste Processing Facility -- Radioactive operations -- Part 3 -- Remote operations

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, W.M.; Kerley, W.D.; Hughes, P.D.

    1997-06-01

    The Savannah River Site`s Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) near Aiken, South Carolina is the nation`s first and world`s largest vitrification facility. Following a ten year construction period and nearly three years of non-radioactive testing, the DWPF began radioactive operations in March 1996. Radioactive glass is poured from the joule heated melter into the stainless steel canisters. The canisters are then temporarily sealed, decontaminated, resistance welded for final closure, and transported to an interim storage facility. All of these operations are conducted remotely with equipment specially designed for these processes. This paper reviews canister processing during the first nine months of radioactive operations at DWPF. The fundamental design consideration for DWPF remote canister processing and handling equipment are discussed as well as interim canister storage.

  12. Defense waste processing facility radioactive operations. Part 1 - operating experience

    SciTech Connect

    Little, D.B.; Gee, J.T.; Barnes, W.M.

    1997-12-31

    The Savannah River Site`s Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) near Aiken, SC is the nation`s first and the world`s largest vitrification facility. Following a ten year construction program and a 3 year non-radioactive test program, DWPF began radioactive operations in March 1996. This paper presents the results of the first 9 months of radioactive operations. Topics include: operations of the remote processing equipment reliability, and decontamination facilities for the remote processing equipment. Key equipment discussed includes process pumps, telerobotic manipulators, infrared camera, Holledge{trademark} level gauges and in-cell (remote) cranes. Information is presented regarding equipment at the conclusion of the DWPF test program it also discussed, with special emphasis on agitator blades and cooling/heating coil wear. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  13. 10 CFR 710.22 - Initial decision process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL General Criteria and Procedures for Determining Eligibility for Access to Classified Matter or Special Nuclear Material Administrative Review § 710.22 Initial decision process. (a...

  14. 10 CFR 710.22 - Initial decision process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL General Criteria and Procedures for Determining Eligibility for Access to Classified Matter or Special Nuclear Material Administrative Review § 710.22 Initial decision process. (a...

  15. Toward an operational model of decision making, emotional regulation, and mental health impact.

    PubMed

    Collura, Thomas Francis; Zalaquett, Ronald P; Bonnstetter, Carlos Joyce; Chatters, Seria J

    2014-01-01

    Current brain research increasingly reveals the underlying mechanisms and processes of human behavior, cognition, and emotion. In addition to being of interest to a wide range of scientists, educators, and professionals, as well as laypeople, brain-based models are of particular value in a clinical setting. Psychiatrists, psychologists, counselors, and other mental health professionals are in need of operational models that integrate recent findings in the physical, cognitive, and emotional domains, and offer a common language for interdisciplinary understanding and communication. Based on individual traits, predispositions, and responses to stimuli, we can begin to identify emotional and behavioral pathways and mental processing patterns. The purpose of this article is to present a brain-path activation model to understand individual differences in decision making and psychopathology. The first section discusses the role of frontal lobe electroencephalography (EEG) asymmetry, summarizes state- and trait-based models of decision making, and provides a more complex analysis that supplements the traditional simple left-right brain model. Key components of the new model are the introduction of right hemisphere parallel and left hemisphere serial scanning in rendering decisions, and the proposition of pathways that incorporate both past experiences as well as future implications into the decision process. Main attributes of each decision-making mechanism are provided. The second section applies the model within the realm of clinical mental health as a tool to understand specific human behavior and pathology. Applications include general and chronic anxiety, depression, paranoia, risk taking, and the pathways employed when well-functioning operational integration is observed. Finally, specific applications such as meditation and mindfulness are offered to facilitate positive functioning.

  16. Decision Processes and Determinants of Hospital Evacuation and Shelter-in-Place During Hurricane Sandy.

    PubMed

    McGinty, Meghan D; Burke, Thomas A; Resnick, Beth; Barnett, Daniel J; Smith, Katherine C; Rutkow, Lainie

    Evacuation and shelter-in-place decision making for hospitals is complex, and existing literature contains little information about how these decisions are made in practice. To describe decision-making processes and identify determinants of acute care hospital evacuation and shelter-in-place during Hurricane Sandy. Semistructured interviews were conducted from March 2014 to February 2015 with key informants who had authority and responsibility for evacuation and shelter-in-place decisions for hospitals during Hurricane Sandy in 2012. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and thematically analyzed. Interviewees included hospital executives and state and local public health, emergency management, and emergency medical service officials from Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, and New York. Interviewees identified decision processes and determinants of acute care hospital evacuation and shelter-in-place during Hurricane Sandy. We interviewed 42 individuals from 32 organizations. Decisions makers reported relying on their instincts rather than employing guides or tools to make evacuation and shelter-in-place decisions during Hurricane Sandy. Risk to patient health from evacuation, prior experience, cost, and ability to maintain continuity of operations were the most influential factors in decision making. Flooding and utility outages, which were predicted to or actually impacted continuity of operations, were the primary determinants of evacuation. Evacuation and shelter-in-place decision making for hospitals can be improved by ensuring hospital emergency plans address flooding and include explicit thresholds that, if exceeded, would trigger evacuation. Comparative risk assessments that inform decision making would be enhanced by improved collection, analysis, and communication of data on morbidity and mortality associated with evacuation versus sheltering-in-place of hospitals. In addition, administrators and public officials can improve their preparedness to make

  17. Differential operator approach for Fourier image processing.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Ismael; Ferrari, José A

    2007-08-01

    We present a differential operator approach for Fourier image processing. We demonstrate that when the mask in the processor Fourier plane is an analytical function, it can be described by means of a differential operator that acts directly on the input field to give the processed output image. In many cases (e.g., Schlieren imaging) this approach simplifies the calculations, which usually involve the evaluation of convolution integrals, and gives a new insight into the image-processing procedure.

  18. Time Management and the Military Decision Making Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-18

    This monograph analyzes the military decision making process in terms of time management in order to determine if a timeline will expedite the...process. The monograph begins by establishing the importance of time and time management in planning. This section provides a general discussion of time, an...Perhaps using some of the techniques that other armies use will facilitate time management .... Time management , Decision making, Timeline, Mission analysis, Wargaming, Courses of action, OPORD, Brigade OPS.

  19. NWS Alaska Sea Ice Program: Operations and Decision Support Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreck, M. B.; Nelson, J. A., Jr.; Heim, R.

    2015-12-01

    The National Weather Service's Alaska Sea Ice Program is designed to service customers and partners operating and planning operations within Alaska waters. The Alaska Sea Ice Program offers daily sea ice and sea surface temperature analysis products. The program also delivers a five day sea ice forecast 3 times each week, provides a 3 month sea ice outlook at the end of each month, and has staff available to respond to sea ice related information inquiries. These analysis and forecast products are utilized by many entities around the state of Alaska and nationally for safety of navigation and community strategic planning. The list of current customers stem from academia and research institutions, to local state and federal agencies, to resupply barges, to coastal subsistence hunters, to gold dredgers, to fisheries, to the general public. Due to a longer sea ice free season over recent years, activity in the waters around Alaska has increased. This has led to a rise in decision support services from the Alaska Sea Ice Program. The ASIP is in constant contact with the National Ice Center as well as the United States Coast Guard (USCG) for safety of navigation. In the past, the ASIP provided briefings to the USCG when in support of search and rescue efforts. Currently, not only does that support remain, but our team is also briefing on sea ice outlooks into the next few months. As traffic in the Arctic increases, the ASIP will be called upon to provide more and more services on varying time scales to meet customer needs. This talk will address the many facets of the current Alaska Sea Ice Program as well as delve into what we see as the future of the ASIP.

  20. Using Google Earth in Marine Research and Operational Decision Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blower, J. D.; Bretherton, D.; Haines, K.; Liu, C.; Rawlings, C.; Santokhee, A.; Smith, I.

    2006-12-01

    A key advantage of Virtual Globes ("geobrowsers") such as Google Earth is that they can display many different geospatial data types at a huge range of spatial scales. In this demonstration and poster display we shall show how marine data from disparate sources can be brought together in a geobrowser in order to support both scientific research and operational search and rescue activities. We have developed the Godiva2 interactive website for browsing and exploring marine data, mainly output from supercomputer analyses and predictions of ocean circulation. The user chooses a number of parameters (e.g. sea temperature at 100m depth on 1st July 2006) and can load an image of the resulting data in Google Earth. Through the use of an automatically-refreshing NetworkLink the user can explore the whole globe at a very large range of spatial scales: the displayed data will automatically be refreshed to show data at increasingly fine resolution as the user zooms in. This is a valuable research tool for exploring these terabyte- scale datasets. Many coastguard organizations around the world use SARIS, a software application produced by BMT Cordah Ltd., to predict the drift pattern of objects in the sea in order to support search and rescue operations. Different drifting objects have different trajectories depending on factors such as their buoyancy and windage and so a computer model, supported by meteorological and oceanographic data, is needed to help rescuers locate their targets. We shall demonstrate how Google Earth is used to display output from the SARIS model (including the search target location and associated error polygon) alongside meteorological data (wind vectors) and oceanographic data (sea temperature, surface currents) from Godiva2 in order to support decision-making. We shall also discuss the limitations of using Google Earth in this context: these include the difficulties of working with time- dependent data and the need to access data securely. essc

  1. Decisions to operate: the ASA grade 5 dilemma.

    PubMed

    Horwood, J; Ratnam, S; Maw, A

    2011-07-01

    Deciding to operate on high risk patients suffering catastrophic surgical emergencies can be problematic. Patients are frequently classed as American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade 5 and, as a result, aggressive but potentially lifesaving intervention is withheld. The aim of our study was to review the short-term outcomes in patients who were classed as ASA grade 5 but subsequently underwent surgery despite this and to compare the ASA scoring model to other predictors of surgical outcome. All patients undergoing emergency surgery with an ASA grade of 5 were identified. Patient demographics, indications for surgery, intraoperative findings and outcomes were recorded. In addition to the ASA scores, retrospective Portsmouth Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the enUmeration of Mortality and morbidity (P POSSUM) and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) scores were calculated and compared to the observed outcomes. Nine patients (39%) survived to discharge. ASA grade was a poor predictor of outcome. P POSSUM and APACHE II scores correlated significantly with each other and with observed outcomes when predicting surgical mortality. The median stay for survivors in the intensive care unit was nine days. In times of an ageing population, the number of patients suffering catastrophic surgical events will increase. Intervention, with little hope of a cure, a return to independent living or an acceptable quality of life, leads to unnecessary end-of-life suffering for patients and their relatives, and consumes sparse resources. The accuracy and reliability of ASA grade 5 as an outcome predictor has been questioned. P POSSUM and APACHE II scoring systems are significantly better predictors of outcome and should be used more frequently to aid surgical decision-making in high risk patients.

  2. Decision-Support Infosphere Services for Collaborative Operations and Virtual Environment Requirements (DISCOVER)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    fuselets produce lead to increased process and decision-making effeciency ? If you agree that the information JBI and fuselets produce leads to...TBMCS’s information effectiveness] Does the information JBI and fuselets produce lead to increased process and decision-making effeciency ? What...percent would you rate TBMCS’s process and decision- making effeciency ? What percent would you rate DISCOVER’s process and decision-making

  3. Problems in the decision making process: a review.

    PubMed

    Evans, D

    1990-12-01

    Decision making is an integral part of the intensive care nurse's role, but many factors can disrupt this process. It is important that the nurse has an understanding of how defective decision making patterns can develop. Experience, the role of the nurse, uncertainty and conflict all exert major influences on the decision making process. The conditions that determine what type of decision making pattern emerges are; the seriousness of the risks as a result of the decision; if there is hope of finding a better solution; and how much time is available to search for the solution. The patterns that may emerge include vigilance, complacency, defensive avoidance and hypervigilance. Vigilance is said to be the optimum pattern, this is when all alternatives to the decision are analysed and interpreted in an unbiased manner. Defensive avoidance is the decision makers attempt to avoid or postpone the stress of the decision. It is manifested by procrastination, shifting of responsibility or rationalisation. Hypervigilance, or panic, represents a frantic search for a solution and a shifting back and forth between alternatives with a failure to see obvious faults in the possible solutions.

  4. Dissecting Attending Surgeons' Operating Room Guidance: Factors That Affect Guidance Decision Making.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaodong Phoenix; Williams, Reed G; Smink, Douglas S

    2015-01-01

    The amount of guidance provided by the attending surgeon in the operating room (OR) is a key element in developing residents' autonomy. The purpose of this study is to explore factors that affect attending surgeons' decision making regarding OR guidance provided to the resident. We used video-stimulated recall interviews (VSRI) throughout this 2-phase study. In Phase 1, 3 attending surgeons were invited to review separately 30 to 45 minute video segments of their prerecorded surgical operations to explore factors that influenced their OR guidance decision making. In Phase 2, 3 attending surgeons were observed and documented in the OR (4 operations, 341min). Each operating surgeon reviewed their videotaped surgical performance within 5 days of the operation to reflect on factors that affected their decision making during the targeted guidance events. All VSRI were recorded. Thematic analysis and manual coding were used to synthesize and analyze data from VSRI transcripts, OR observation documents, and field notes. A total of 255 minutes of VSRI involving 6 surgeons and 7 surgical operations from 5 different procedures were conducted. A total of 13 guidance decision-making influence factors from 4 categories were identified (Cohen's κ = 0.674): Setting (case schedule and patient morbidity), content (procedure attributes and case progress), resident (current competency level, trustworthiness, self-confidence, and personal traits), and attending surgeon (level of experience, level of comfort, preferred surgical technique, OR training philosophy, and responsibility as surgeon). A total of 5 factors (case schedule, patient morbidity, procedure attributes, resident current competency level, and trustworthiness) influenced attending surgeons' pre-OR guidance plans. "OR training philosophy" and "responsibility as surgeon" were anchor factors that affected attending surgeons' OR guidance decision-making patterns. Surgeons' OR guidance decision making is a dynamic process

  5. Multi-Objective Markov Decision Processes for Data-Driven Decision Support

    PubMed Central

    Lizotte, Daniel J.; Laber, Eric B.

    2016-01-01

    We present new methodology based on Multi-Objective Markov Decision Processes for developing sequential decision support systems from data. Our approach uses sequential decision-making data to provide support that is useful to many different decision-makers, each with different, potentially time-varying preference. To accomplish this, we develop an extension of fitted-Q iteration for multiple objectives that computes policies for all scalarization functions, i.e. preference functions, simultaneously from continuous-state, finite-horizon data. We identify and address several conceptual and computational challenges along the way, and we introduce a new solution concept that is appropriate when different actions have similar expected outcomes. Finally, we demonstrate an application of our method using data from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness and show that our approach offers decision-makers increased choice by a larger class of optimal policies. PMID:28018133

  6. Understanding and shifting drug-related decisions: Contributions of automatic decision-making processes

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Kenneth M.; Bedi, Gillinder; Vadhan, Nehal P.

    2015-01-01

    While substance use is common, only a minority of individuals who use drugs or alcohol develop problematic use. An understanding of the factors underlying the transition from substance use to misuse may improve prevention and intervention efforts. A key feature of substance misuse is ongoing decisions to use drugs or alcohol despite escalating negative consequences. Research findings highlight the importance of both relatively automatic, associative cognitive processes and relatively controlled, deliberative, and rational-analytic cognitive processes, for understanding situational decisions to use drugs. In this review, we discuss several cognitive component processes that may contribute to decision-making that promotes substance use and misuse, with a focus on more automatic processes. A growing body of evidence indicates that relative differences in the strength of these component processes can account for individual differences in the transition from substance use to misuse, and may offer important avenues for developing novel intervention strategies. PMID:26084667

  7. Productive Skills for Process Operatives. Skills Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, L.; Kodz, J.; Evans, C.

    A study of process operatives examined the developments in processing work in 20 organizations within the chemical and food and drink processing industries. Seven exploratory interviews were followed by 20 employer interviews. Technological innovations caused job losses and layoffs. Organizational responses adopted to meet increasing competitive…

  8. Artificial Intelligence (AI), Operations Research (OR), and Decision Support Systems (DSS): A conceptual framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parnell, Gregory S.; Rowell, William F.; Valusek, John R.

    1987-01-01

    In recent years there has been increasing interest in applying the computer based problem solving techniques of Artificial Intelligence (AI), Operations Research (OR), and Decision Support Systems (DSS) to analyze extremely complex problems. A conceptual framework is developed for successfully integrating these three techniques. First, the fields of AI, OR, and DSS are defined and the relationships among the three fields are explored. Next, a comprehensive adaptive design methodology for AI and OR modeling within the context of a DSS is described. These observations are made: (1) the solution of extremely complex knowledge problems with ill-defined, changing requirements can benefit greatly from the use of the adaptive design process, (2) the field of DSS provides the focus on the decision making process essential for tailoring solutions to these complex problems, (3) the characteristics of AI, OR, and DSS tools appears to be converging rapidly, and (4) there is a growing need for an interdisciplinary AI/OR/DSS education.

  9. Occurrence reporting and processing of operations information

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-21

    DOE O 232.1A, Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information, and 10 CFR 830.350, Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information (when it becomes effective), along with this manual, set forth occurrence reporting requirements for Department of Energy (DOE) Departmental Elements and contractors responsible for the management and operation of DOE-owned and -leased facilities. These requirements include categorization of occurrences related to safety, security, environment, health, or operations (``Reportable Occurrences``); DOE notification of these occurrences; and the development and submission of documented follow-up reports. This Manual provides detailed information for categorizing and reporting occurrences at DOE facilities. Information gathered by the Occurrence Reporting and processing System is used for analysis of the Department`s performance in environmental protection, safeguards and security, and safety and health of its workers and the public. This information is also used to develop lessons learned and document events that significantly impact DOE operations.

  10. Funding Decisions for Newborn Screening: A Comparative Review of 22 Decision Processes in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Katharina Elisabeth; Rogowski, Wolf Henning

    2014-01-01

    Decision-makers need to make choices to improve public health. Population-based newborn screening (NBS) is considered as one strategy to prevent adverse health outcomes and address rare disease patients’ needs. The aim of this study was to describe key characteristics of decisions for funding new NBS programmes in Europe. We analysed past decisions using a conceptual framework. It incorporates indicators that capture the steps of decision processes by health care payers. Based on an internet survey, we compared 22 decisions for which answers among two respondents were validated for each observation. The frequencies of indicators were calculated to elicit key characteristics. All decisions resulted in positive, mostly unrestricted funding. Stakeholder participation was diverse focusing on information provision or voting. Often, decisions were not fully transparent. Assessment of NBS technologies concentrated on expert opinion, literature review and rough cost estimates. Most important appraisal criteria were effectiveness (i.e., health gain from testing for the children being screened), disease severity and availability of treatments. Some common and diverging key characteristics were identified. Although no evidence of explicit healthcare rationing was found, processes may be improved in respect of transparency and scientific rigour of assessment. PMID:24852389

  11. Funding decisions for newborn screening: a comparative review of 22 decision processes in Europe.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Katharina Elisabeth; Rogowski, Wolf Henning

    2014-05-19

    Decision-makers need to make choices to improve public health. Population-based newborn screening (NBS) is considered as one strategy to prevent adverse health outcomes and address rare disease patients' needs. The aim of this study was to describe key characteristics of decisions for funding new NBS programmes in Europe. We analysed past decisions using a conceptual framework. It incorporates indicators that capture the steps of decision processes by health care payers. Based on an internet survey, we compared 22 decisions for which answers among two respondents were validated for each observation. The frequencies of indicators were calculated to elicit key characteristics. All decisions resulted in positive, mostly unrestricted funding. Stakeholder participation was diverse focusing on information provision or voting. Often, decisions were not fully transparent. Assessment of NBS technologies concentrated on expert opinion, literature review and rough cost estimates. Most important appraisal criteria were effectiveness (i.e., health gain from testing for the children being screened), disease severity and availability of treatments. Some common and diverging key characteristics were identified. Although no evidence of explicit healthcare rationing was found, processes may be improved in respect of transparency and scientific rigour of assessment.

  12. The Military Decision Making Process: Making Better Decisions Versus Making Decisions Better

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Background to Decision Making, 103. (No reference listed). 69 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS Bertalanffy , Ludwig von . General Systems Theory...Washington, D.C.: Headquarters, Department of the Army), 1993, 6-3. 30 Carl Von Clausewitz, On War, ed. and trans by Michael Howard and Peter Paret...Field Marshal Helmuth von Moltke’s famous dictum that “no plan survives contact with the enemy.”2 Current keystone doctrine establishes flexibility

  13. Modeling operators' emergency response time for chemical processing operations.

    PubMed

    Murray, Susan L; Harputlu, Emrah; Mentzer, Ray A; Mannan, M Sam

    2014-01-01

    Operators have a crucial role during emergencies at a variety of facilities such as chemical processing plants. When an abnormality occurs in the production process, the operator often has limited time to either take corrective actions or evacuate before the situation becomes deadly. It is crucial that system designers and safety professionals can estimate the time required for a response before procedures and facilities are designed and operations are initiated. There are existing industrial engineering techniques to establish time standards for tasks performed at a normal working pace. However, it is reasonable to expect the time required to take action in emergency situations will be different than working at a normal production pace. It is possible that in an emergency, operators will act faster compared to a normal pace. It would be useful for system designers to be able to establish a time range for operators' response times for emergency situations. This article develops a modeling approach to estimate the time standard range for operators taking corrective actions or following evacuation procedures in emergency situations. This will aid engineers and managers in establishing time requirements for operators in emergency situations. The methodology used for this study combines a well-established industrial engineering technique for determining time requirements (predetermined time standard system) and adjustment coefficients for emergency situations developed by the authors. Numerous videos of workers performing well-established tasks at a maximum pace were studied. As an example, one of the tasks analyzed was pit crew workers changing tires as quickly as they could during a race. The operations in these videos were decomposed into basic, fundamental motions (such as walking, reaching for a tool, and bending over) by studying the videos frame by frame. A comparison analysis was then performed between the emergency pace and the normal working pace operations

  14. The Roles of Decision Makers in Special Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    activities for decision makers: Examining Less Risky Options, Gaining International and Domestic Support, Delegating Authority, Establishing Clear...offering these specific activities for decision makers: Examining Less Risky Options, Gaining International and Domestic Support, Delegating...57  B.  GAINING INTERNATIONAL SUPPORT AND DOMESTIC SUPPORT

  15. Deciding when to intervene: a Markov decision process approach.

    PubMed

    Magni, P; Quaglini, S; Marchetti, M; Barosi, G

    2000-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to point out the difference between static and dynamic approaches to choosing the optimal time for intervention. The paper demonstrates that classical approaches, such as decision trees and influence diagrams, hardly cope with dynamic problems: they cannot simulate all the real-world strategies and consequently can only calculate suboptimal solutions. A dynamic formalism based on Markov decision processes (MPPs) is then proposed and applied to a medical problem: the prophylactic surgery in mild hereditary spherocytosis. The paper compares the proposed approach with a static approach on the same medical problem. The policy provided by the dynamic approach achieved significant gain over the static policy by delaying the intervention time in some categories of patients. The calculations are carried out with DT-Planner, a graphical decision aid specifically built for dealing with dynamic decision processes.

  16. Decision process for effective system reuse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirchandani, Chandru

    1995-01-01

    The speed of growth in high technology differs for software, hardware and firmware. Hardware innovations come in leaps, as opposed to the gradual improvements in software and firmware technologies. This inhibits the full utilization of the hardware advances and reduces the cost benefit ratio of high technology ventures. The Microelectronics Systems Branch has committed its resources to use the look ahead technique whereby the technology is researched in its use, current development track and its future capabilities. This knowledge is used to meet the requirements of the space program not only in the nineties but also through 2005. This paper illustrates Analytical Hierarchy Process techniques used effectively and very successfully to support projects reusing systems with predicted enhancements.

  17. Multidimensional energy operator for image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maragos, Petros; Bovik, Alan C.; Quatieri, Thomas F.

    1992-11-01

    The 1-D nonlinear differential operator (Psi) (f) equals (f')2 - ff' has been recently introduced to signal processing and has been found very useful for estimating the parameters of sinusoids and the modulating signals of AM-FM signals. It is called an energy operator because it can track the energy of an oscillator source generating a sinusoidal signal. In this paper we introduce the multidimensional extension (Phi) (f) equals (parallel)DELf(parallel)2 - fDEL2f of the 1-D energy operator and briefly outline some of its applications to image processing. We discuss some interesting properties of the multidimensional operator and develop demodulation algorithms to estimate the amplitude envelope and instantaneous frequencies of 2-D spatially-varying AM-FM signals, which can model image texture. The attractive features of the multidimensional operator and the related amplitude/frequency demodulation algorithms are their simplicity, efficiency, and ability to track instantaneously- varying spatial modulation patterns.

  18. How Expert Pilots Think Cognitive Processes in Expert Decision Making

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-01

    Dr. Lofaro’s extensive background in crew resource management, cognitive dissonance /consistence and non-linear decision making was critical to... cognitive dissonance associations are triggered. What is intended by the use of intuition in the decision making process is 43 a perception of the essential...specifically cognitive dissonance and consistence) and common psychology agree on one specific problem solving point. People, even pilots, will do

  19. Strategic decision-making processes in health care organizations.

    PubMed

    Rivers, P A; Glover, S H

    1998-01-01

    Health care represents a promising area of research due to its uniqueness. In recent years, considerable progress has been made in strategic decision-making processes research but not the study of health care strategy research. This article reviews strategic decision-making in health care domains. Adopting Rajagopalan, Rusheed, and Datta's (1993) framework, the authors evaluate the theoretical and empirical contributions of this research. The limitations and theoretical implications of these efforts are also explored.

  20. Symbolic Heuristic Search for Factored Markov Decision Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Robert (Technical Monitor); Feng, Zheng-Zhu; Hansen, Eric A.

    2003-01-01

    We describe a planning algorithm that integrates two approaches to solving Markov decision processes with large state spaces. State abstraction is used to avoid evaluating states individually. Forward search from a start state, guided by an admissible heuristic, is used to avoid evaluating all states. We combine these two approaches in a novel way that exploits symbolic model-checking techniques and demonstrates their usefulness for decision-theoretic planning.

  1. 78 FR 61400 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station, Issuance of Director's Decision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station, Issuance of Director's Decision... and ML102210411, respectively), concerns the operation of Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station (Pilgrim... (non- EQ) inaccessible cables at Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station (Pilgrim) are capable of...

  2. Privatized Student Housing and the Decision-Making Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aska, Aaron C.

    2012-01-01

    This study will examine the decision-making process used to construct privatized student housing as well as the factors that contribute to that process among public four-year institutions in New Jersey. A growing number of public universities are exploring ways to develop successful public private partnerships (P3s) in an effort to improve…

  3. Privatized Student Housing and the Decision-Making Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aska, Aaron C.

    2012-01-01

    This study will examine the decision-making process used to construct privatized student housing as well as the factors that contribute to that process among public four-year institutions in New Jersey. A growing number of public universities are exploring ways to develop successful public private partnerships (P3s) in an effort to improve…

  4. 24 CFR 55.20 - Decision making process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Development FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS Procedures for Making Determinations on Floodplain Management and Protection of Wetlands § 55.20 Decision making process. Except for actions covered... wetlands. The steps to be followed in the decisionmaking process are as follows: (a) Step 1. Determine...

  5. Thinking Processes Used by Nurses in Clinical Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higuchi, Kathryn A. Smith; Donald, Janet G.

    2002-01-01

    Interviews with eight medical and surgical nurses and audits of patient charts investigated clinical decision-making processes. Predominant thinking processes were description of facts, selection of information, inference, syntheses, and verification, with differences between medical and surgical specialties. Exemplars of thinking processes…

  6. Enhancing Decision Making during Initial Operations at Surge Events

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    and considered to be a novice when commanding the response to a release of sulfuric acid . The concept of naturalistic decision making was further...Crisis, Disaster and Risk Management, 2002. 261. 41 Ibid., 257. 42 U.S. Department of Commerce. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration...Situation Awareness and Decision-making in a Warning Environment (Washington, DC: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 7. 18 which

  7. Off-Farm Labour Decision of Canadian Farm Operators: Urbanization Effects and Rural Labour Market Linkages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alasia, Alessandro; Weersink, Alfons; Bollman, Ray D.; Cranfield, John

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the factors affecting off-farm labour decisions of census-farm operators has significant implications for rural development and farm income support policy. We examine the off-farm labour decisions of Canadian farm operators using micro-level data from the 2001 Census of Agriculture combined with community level data from the 2001…

  8. Architecture for processing image algebra operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffield, Patrick C.

    1992-06-01

    The proposed architecture is a logical design specifically for image algebra and other matrix related operations. The design is a fine grain SIMD concept consisting of three tightly coupled components: a spatial configuration processor, a weighting processor (point-wise), and an accumulation processor (point-wise). The flow of data and image processing operations are directed by a control buffer and pipe lined to each of the three processing components. The low-level abstraction of the proposed computational system is founded on the mathematical principle of discrete convolution and its geometrical decomposition. This geometrical decomposition combined with array processing requires redefining specific algebraic operations and reorganizing their order of parsing in the abstract syntax. The logical data flow of such an abstraction leads to a division of operations, those defined by point-wise operations, the others in terms of spatial configuration. The effect of this particular decomposition allows convolution type operations to be computed strictly as a function of the number of elements in the template (mask, filter, etc.) instead of the number of picture elements in the image. The potential utility of this architectural design lies in its ability to provide order statistic filtering and all the arithmetic and logic operations of the image algebra's generalized matrix product. The generalized matrix product is the most powerful fundamental formulation in the algebra, thus allowing a wide range of applications.

  9. Transforming Fleet Network Operations with Collaborative Decision Support and Augmented Reality Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    NETWORK OPERATIONS WITH COLLABORATIVE DECISION SUPPORT AND AUGMENTED REALITY TECHNOLOGIES by John J. Fay March 2004 Thesis Advisor: Alex...Network Operations with Collaborative Decision Support and Augmented Reality Technologies 6. AUTHOR(S) John J Fay 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING...management for distributed sea-based forces using existing technologies. Combining a collaborative tool, Decision Support System (DSS), and Augmented Reality (AR

  10. Additive and Interactive Effects in Semantic Priming: Isolating Lexical and Decision Processes in the Lexical Decision Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yap, Melvin J.; Balota, David A.; Tan, Sarah E.

    2013-01-01

    The present study sheds light on the interplay between lexical and decision processes in the lexical decision task by exploring the effects of lexical decision difficulty on semantic priming effects. In 2 experiments, we increased lexical decision difficulty by either using transposed letter wordlike nonword distracters (e.g., JUGDE; Experiment 1)…

  11. Additive and Interactive Effects in Semantic Priming: Isolating Lexical and Decision Processes in the Lexical Decision Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yap, Melvin J.; Balota, David A.; Tan, Sarah E.

    2013-01-01

    The present study sheds light on the interplay between lexical and decision processes in the lexical decision task by exploring the effects of lexical decision difficulty on semantic priming effects. In 2 experiments, we increased lexical decision difficulty by either using transposed letter wordlike nonword distracters (e.g., JUGDE; Experiment 1)…

  12. Some implications of the technology assessment function for the effective public decision making process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayo, L. H.

    1975-01-01

    A study was undertaken to analyze ways in which the institutionalization of the assessment function can affect the following phases of the public decision process: problem perception, problem definition, data assembly, invention of alternatives, evaluation of options, authorization, implementation, operation, appraisal, and modification.

  13. Some implications of the technology assessment function for the effective public decision making process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayo, L. H.

    1975-01-01

    A study was undertaken to analyze ways in which the institutionalization of the assessment function can affect the following phases of the public decision process: problem perception, problem definition, data assembly, invention of alternatives, evaluation of options, authorization, implementation, operation, appraisal, and modification.

  14. Clarification process: Resolution of decision-problem conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dieterly, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    A model of a general process which occurs in both decisionmaking and problem-solving tasks is presented. It is called the clarification model and is highly dependent on information flow. The model addresses the possible constraints of individual indifferences and experience in achieving success in resolving decision-problem conditions. As indicated, the application of the clarification process model is only necessary for certain classes of the basic decision-problem condition. With less complex decision problem conditions, certain phases of the model may be omitted. The model may be applied across a wide range of decision problem conditions. The model consists of two major components: (1) the five-phase prescriptive sequence (based on previous approaches to both concepts) and (2) the information manipulation function (which draws upon current ideas in the areas of information processing, computer programming, memory, and thinking). The two components are linked together to provide a structure that assists in understanding the process of resolving problems and making decisions.

  15. Research of personal decision process using event-related potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaofeng

    2011-10-01

    To gain insights into the neural basis of such adaptive decision-making processes, we investigated the nature of learning process in humans playing a competitive game with binary choices, using a matching pennies game. As in reinforcement learning, the subject's choice during a competitive game was biased by its choice and reward history, as well as by the strategies of its opponent. Analyses of ERP data focused on the feedback-related negativity (FRN), we found that the magnitude of ERPs after losing to the computer opponent predicted whether subjects would change decision behavior on the subsequent trial. These findings provide novel evidence that humans engage a reinforcement learning process to adjust representations of competing decision options.

  16. [Treatment Decision-Making Process of Cancer Patients].

    PubMed

    Lee, Shiu-Yu C Katie

    2016-10-01

    The decision-making process that is used by cancer patients to determine their treatment has become more multi-foci, difficult and complicated in recent years. This has in part been attributed to the increasing incidence rate of cancer in Taiwan and the rapid development of medical technologies and treatment modalities. Oncology nurses must assist patients and family to make informed and value-based treatment decisions. Decision-making is an information process that involves appraising one's own expectation and values based on his/her knowledge on cancer and treatment options. Because cancer treatment involves risks and uncertainties, and impacts quality of life, the treatment decision-making for cancer is often stressful, or even conflicting. This paper discusses the decision-making behaviors of cancer patients and the decisional conflict, participation, and informational needs that are involved in cancer treatment. The trend toward shared decision-making and decisional support will be also explored in order to facilitate the future development of appropriate clinical interventions and research.

  17. Linking process and measurement models of recognition-based decisions.

    PubMed

    Heck, Daniel W; Erdfelder, Edgar

    2017-07-01

    When making inferences about pairs of objects, one of which is recognized and the other is not, the recognition heuristic states that participants choose the recognized object in a noncompensatory way without considering any further knowledge. In contrast, information-integration theories such as parallel constraint satisfaction (PCS) assume that recognition is merely one of many cues that is integrated with further knowledge in a compensatory way. To test both process models against each other without manipulating recognition or further knowledge, we include response times into the r-model, a popular multinomial processing tree model for memory-based decisions. Essentially, this response-time-extended r-model allows to test a crucial prediction of PCS, namely, that the integration of recognition-congruent knowledge leads to faster decisions compared to the consideration of recognition only-even though more information is processed. In contrast, decisions due to recognition-heuristic use are predicted to be faster than decisions affected by any further knowledge. Using the classical German-cities example, simulations show that the novel measurement model discriminates between both process models based on choices, decision times, and recognition judgments only. In a reanalysis of 29 data sets including more than 400,000 individual trials, noncompensatory choices of the recognized option were estimated to be slower than choices due to recognition-congruent knowledge. This corroborates the parallel information-integration account of memory-based decisions, according to which decisions become faster when the coherence of the available information increases. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. LANL Institutional Decision Support By Process Modeling and Analysis Group (AET-2)

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, Steven Richard

    2016-04-04

    AET-2 has expertise in process modeling, economics, business case analysis, risk assessment, Lean/Six Sigma tools, and decision analysis to provide timely decision support to LANS leading to continuous improvement. This capability is critical during the current tight budgetary environment as LANS pushes to identify potential areas of cost savings and efficiencies. An important arena is business systems and operations, where processes can impact most or all laboratory employees. Lab-wide efforts are needed to identify and eliminate inefficiencies to accomplish Director McMillan’s charge of “doing more with less.” LANS faces many critical and potentially expensive choices that require sound decision support to ensure success. AET-2 is available to provide this analysis support to expedite the decisions at hand.

  19. Fuzzy methods in decision making process - A particular approach in manufacturing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coroiu, A. M.

    2015-11-01

    We are living in a competitive environment, so we can see and understand that the most of manufacturing firms do the best in order to accomplish meeting demand, increasing quality, decreasing costs, and delivery rate. In present a stake point of interest is represented by the development of fuzzy technology. A particular approach for this is represented through the development of methodologies to enhance the ability to managed complicated optimization and decision making aspects involving non-probabilistic uncertainty with the reason to understand, development, and practice the fuzzy technologies to be used in fields such as economic, engineering, management, and societal problems. Fuzzy analysis represents a method for solving problems which are related to uncertainty and vagueness; it is used in multiple areas, such as engineering and has applications in decision making problems, planning and production. As a definition for decision making process we can use the next one: result of mental processes based upon cognitive process with a main role in the selection of a course of action among several alternatives. Every process of decision making can be represented as a result of a final choice and the output can be represented as an action or as an opinion of choice. Different types of uncertainty can be discovered in a wide variety of optimization and decision making problems related to planning and operation of power systems and subsystems. The mixture of the uncertainty factor in the construction of different models serves for increasing their adequacy and, as a result, the reliability and factual efficiency of decisions based on their analysis. Another definition of decision making process which came to illustrate and sustain the necessity of using fuzzy method: the decision making is an approach of choosing a strategy among many different projects in order to achieve some purposes and is formulated as three different models: high risk decision, usual risk

  20. 30 CFR 933.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 933.764 Section 933.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... Coal Mining Operations, pertaining to petitioning, initial processing, hearing requirements, decisions... surface coal mining and reclamation operations beginning one year after the effective date of this program....

  1. 30 CFR 933.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 933.764 Section 933.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... Coal Mining Operations, pertaining to petitioning, initial processing, hearing requirements, decisions... surface coal mining and reclamation operations beginning one year after the effective date of this program....

  2. 30 CFR 933.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 933.764 Section 933.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... Coal Mining Operations, pertaining to petitioning, initial processing, hearing requirements, decisions... surface coal mining and reclamation operations beginning one year after the effective date of this program....

  3. 30 CFR 933.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 933.764 Section 933.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... Coal Mining Operations, pertaining to petitioning, initial processing, hearing requirements, decisions... surface coal mining and reclamation operations beginning one year after the effective date of this program....

  4. 30 CFR 933.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 933.764 Section 933.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... Coal Mining Operations, pertaining to petitioning, initial processing, hearing requirements, decisions... surface coal mining and reclamation operations beginning one year after the effective date of this program....

  5. Dual processing model of medical decision-making

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dual processing theory of human cognition postulates that reasoning and decision-making can be described as a function of both an intuitive, experiential, affective system (system I) and/or an analytical, deliberative (system II) processing system. To date no formal descriptive model of medical decision-making based on dual processing theory has been developed. Here we postulate such a model and apply it to a common clinical situation: whether treatment should be administered to the patient who may or may not have a disease. Methods We developed a mathematical model in which we linked a recently proposed descriptive psychological model of cognition with the threshold model of medical decision-making and show how this approach can be used to better understand decision-making at the bedside and explain the widespread variation in treatments observed in clinical practice. Results We show that physician’s beliefs about whether to treat at higher (lower) probability levels compared to the prescriptive therapeutic thresholds obtained via system II processing is moderated by system I and the ratio of benefit and harms as evaluated by both system I and II. Under some conditions, the system I decision maker’s threshold may dramatically drop below the expected utility threshold derived by system II. This can explain the overtreatment often seen in the contemporary practice. The opposite can also occur as in the situations where empirical evidence is considered unreliable, or when cognitive processes of decision-makers are biased through recent experience: the threshold will increase relative to the normative threshold value derived via system II using expected utility threshold. This inclination for the higher diagnostic certainty may, in turn, explain undertreatment that is also documented in the current medical practice. Conclusions We have developed the first dual processing model of medical decision-making that has potential to enrich the current medical

  6. Process for operating equilibrium controlled reactions

    DOEpatents

    Nataraj, Shankar; Carvill, Brian Thomas; Hufton, Jeffrey Raymond; Mayorga, Steven Gerard; Gaffney, Thomas Richard; Brzozowski, Jeffrey Richard

    2001-01-01

    A cyclic process for operating an equilibrium controlled reaction in a plurality of reactors containing an admixture of an adsorbent and a reaction catalyst suitable for performing the desired reaction which is operated in a predetermined timed sequence wherein the heating and cooling requirements in a moving reaction mass transfer zone within each reactor are provided by indirect heat exchange with a fluid capable of phase change at temperatures maintained in each reactor during sorpreaction, depressurization, purging and pressurization steps during each process cycle.

  7. Cognitive Processes in Decisions Under Risk are not the Same as in Decisions Under Uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    Volz, Kirsten G.; Gigerenzer, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    We deal with risk versus uncertainty, a distinction that is of fundamental importance for cognitive neuroscience yet largely neglected. In a world of risk (“small world”), all alternatives, consequences, and probabilities are known. In uncertain (“large”) worlds, some of this information is unknown or unknowable. Most of cognitive neuroscience studies exclusively study the neural correlates for decisions under risk (e.g., lotteries), with the tacit implication that understanding these would lead to an understanding of decision making in general. First, we show that normative strategies for decisions under risk do not generalize to uncertain worlds, where simple heuristics are often the more accurate strategies. Second, we argue that the cognitive processes for making decisions in a world of risk are not the same as those for dealing with uncertainty. Because situations with known risks are the exception rather than the rule in human evolution, it is unlikely that our brains are adapted to them. We therefore suggest a paradigm shift toward studying decision processes in uncertain worlds and provide first examples. PMID:22807893

  8. Some Muirhead Mean Operators for Intuitionistic Fuzzy Numbers and Their Applications to Group Decision Making.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peide; Li, Dengfeng

    2017-01-01

    Muirhead mean (MM) is a well-known aggregation operator which can consider interrelationships among any number of arguments assigned by a variable vector. Besides, it is a universal operator since it can contain other general operators by assigning some special parameter values. However, the MM can only process the crisp numbers. Inspired by the MM' advantages, the aim of this paper is to extend MM to process the intuitionistic fuzzy numbers (IFNs) and then to solve the multi-attribute group decision making (MAGDM) problems. Firstly, we develop some intuitionistic fuzzy Muirhead mean (IFMM) operators by extending MM to intuitionistic fuzzy information. Then, we prove some properties and discuss some special cases with respect to the parameter vector. Moreover, we present two new methods to deal with MAGDM problems with the intuitionistic fuzzy information based on the proposed MM operators. Finally, we verify the validity and reliability of our methods by using an application example, and analyze the advantages of our methods by comparing with other existing methods.

  9. Some Muirhead Mean Operators for Intuitionistic Fuzzy Numbers and Their Applications to Group Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Muirhead mean (MM) is a well-known aggregation operator which can consider interrelationships among any number of arguments assigned by a variable vector. Besides, it is a universal operator since it can contain other general operators by assigning some special parameter values. However, the MM can only process the crisp numbers. Inspired by the MM’ advantages, the aim of this paper is to extend MM to process the intuitionistic fuzzy numbers (IFNs) and then to solve the multi-attribute group decision making (MAGDM) problems. Firstly, we develop some intuitionistic fuzzy Muirhead mean (IFMM) operators by extending MM to intuitionistic fuzzy information. Then, we prove some properties and discuss some special cases with respect to the parameter vector. Moreover, we present two new methods to deal with MAGDM problems with the intuitionistic fuzzy information based on the proposed MM operators. Finally, we verify the validity and reliability of our methods by using an application example, and analyze the advantages of our methods by comparing with other existing methods. PMID:28103244

  10. Information processing as a paradigm for decision making.

    PubMed

    Oppenheimer, Daniel M; Kelso, Evan

    2015-01-03

    For decades, the dominant paradigm for studying decision making--the expected utility framework--has been burdened by an increasing number of empirical findings that question its validity as a model of human cognition and behavior. However, as Kuhn (1962) argued in his seminal discussion of paradigm shifts, an old paradigm cannot be abandoned until a new paradigm emerges to replace it. In this article, we argue that the recent shift in researcher attention toward basic cognitive processes that give rise to decision phenomena constitutes the beginning of that replacement paradigm. Models grounded in basic perceptual, attentional, memory, and aggregation processes have begun to proliferate. The development of this new approach closely aligns with Kuhn's notion of paradigm shift, suggesting that this is a particularly generative and revolutionary time to be studying decision science.

  11. An In-Process Surface Roughness Recognition System in End Milling Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Lieh-Dai; Chen, Joseph C.

    2004-01-01

    To develop an in-process quality control system, a sensor technique and a decision-making algorithm need to be applied during machining operations. Several sensor techniques have been used in the in-process prediction of quality characteristics in machining operations. For example, an accelerometer sensor can be used to monitor the vibration of…

  12. Dissolving decision making? Models and their roles in decision-making processes and policy at large.

    PubMed

    Zeiss, Ragna; van Egmond, Stans

    2014-12-01

    This article studies the roles three science-based models play in Dutch policy and decision making processes. Key is the interaction between model construction and environment. Their political and scientific environments form contexts that shape the roles of models in policy decision making. Attention is paid to three aspects of the wider context of the models: a) the history of the construction process; b) (changes in) the political and scientific environments; and c) the use in policy processes over longer periods of time. Models are more successfully used when they are constructed in a stable political and scientific environment. Stability and certainty within a scientific field seems to be a key predictor for the usefulness of models for policy making. The economic model is more disputed than the ecology-based model and the model that has its theoretical foundation in physics and chemistry. The roles models play in policy processes are too complex to be considered as straightforward technocratic powers.

  13. Flaws in the Decision-Making Process: Assessment and Acceptance in the Decision to Launch Flight 51-L.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renz, Mary Ann; Greg, John

    1988-01-01

    Argues that it was the failure of the decision-making process, rather than the mode of risk assessment, which led to the decision to launch the Space Shuttle Challenger. Identifies the phrasing of the decision question and a shift in the burden of proof as specific problems of the process. (MS)

  14. Flaws in the Decision-Making Process: Assessment and Acceptance in the Decision to Launch Flight 51-L.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renz, Mary Ann; Greg, John

    1988-01-01

    Argues that it was the failure of the decision-making process, rather than the mode of risk assessment, which led to the decision to launch the Space Shuttle Challenger. Identifies the phrasing of the decision question and a shift in the burden of proof as specific problems of the process. (MS)

  15. Intuitionistic linguistic weighted Bonferroni mean operator and its application to multiple attribute decision making.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peide; Rong, Lili; Chu, Yanchang; Li, Yanwei

    2014-01-01

    The intuitionistic linguistic variables are easier to describe the fuzzy information which widely exists in the real world, and Bonferroni mean can capture the interrelationship of the individual arguments. However, the traditional Bonferroni mean can only process the crisp number. In this paper, we will extend Bonferroni mean to the intuitionistic linguistic environment and propose a multiple attribute decision making method with intuitionistic linguistic information based on the extended Bonferroni mean which can consider the interrelationship of the attributes. Firstly, score function and accuracy function of intuitionistic linguistic numbers are introduced. Then, an intuitionistic linguistic Bonferroni mean (ILBM) operator and an intuitionistic linguistic weighted Bonferroni mean (ILWBM) operator are developed, and some desirable characteristics of them are studied. At the same time, some special cases with respect to the parameters p and q in Bonferroni are analyzed. Based on the ILWBM operator, the approach to multiple attribute decision making with intuitionistic linguistic information is proposed. Finally, an illustrative example is given to verify the developed approach and to demonstrate its effectiveness.

  16. Slow cortical potentials capture decision processes during temporal discounting

    PubMed Central

    Oswald, Felix; Sailer, Uta

    2013-01-01

    Various neuroimaging studies have detected brain regions involved in discounting the value of temporally delayed rewards. This study used slow cortical potentials (SCPs) to elaborate the time course of cognitive processing during temporal discounting. Depending on their strength of discounting, subjects were categorised as low and high impulsive. Low impulsives, but not high impulsives, showed faster reaction times for making decisions when the delayed reward was of high amount than when it was of low amount. Both low impulsives and high impulsives chose the delayed reward more often when its amount was high than when it was low, but this behavior was more pronounced for low impulsives. Moreover, only low impulsives showed more negative SCPs for low than for high amounts. All three measures indicated that only low impulsives experienced extended conflict for delayed low amounts than for high amounts. Additionally, the SCPs of low impulsives were more sensitive to the delay of the delayed reward than those of high impulsives, extending seconds after the response. This indicates that they continued evaluating their choices even after the decision. Altogether, the present study demonstrated that SCPs are sensitive to decision-related resource allocation during inter-temporal decision-making. Resource allocation depended both on the choice situation and on impulsivity. Furthermore, the time course of SCPs suggested that decision-related processes occurred both prior to and after the response. PMID:23279189

  17. Integrating SAR and derived products into operational volcano monitoring and decision support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, F. J.; McAlpin, D. B.; Gong, W.; Ajadi, O.; Arko, S.; Webley, P. W.; Dehn, J.

    2015-02-01

    Remote sensing plays a critical role in operational volcano monitoring due to the often remote locations of volcanic systems and the large spatial extent of potential eruption pre-cursor signals. Despite the all-weather capabilities of radar remote sensing and its high performance in monitoring of change, the contribution of radar data to operational monitoring activities has been limited in the past. This is largely due to: (1) the high costs associated with radar data; (2) traditionally slow data processing and delivery procedures; and (3) the limited temporal sampling provided by spaceborne radars. With this paper, we present new data processing and data integration techniques that mitigate some of these limitations and allow for a meaningful integration of radar data into operational volcano monitoring decision support systems. Specifically, we present fast data access procedures as well as new approaches to multi-track processing that improve near real-time data access and temporal sampling of volcanic systems with SAR data. We introduce phase-based (coherent) and amplitude-based (incoherent) change detection procedures that are able to extract dense time series of hazard information from these data. For a demonstration, we present an integration of our processing system with an operational volcano monitoring system that was developed for use by the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO). Through an application to a historic eruption, we show that the integration of SAR into systems such as AVO can significantly improve the ability of operational systems to detect eruptive precursors. Therefore, the developed technology is expected to improve operational hazard detection, alerting, and management capabilities.

  18. The Career Decision-Making Process of Chinese American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okubo, Yuki; Yeh, Christine J.; Lin, Pei-Ying; Fujita, Kotoko; Shea, J. Mun-Yi

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigated how negotiating two cultural expectations may influence the career decision-making process of Chinese youth. In-depth interviews were conducted with 8 participants addressing issues of role models, career interests, and individuals with whom they discussed career concerns. Consensual Qualitative Research (C. E. Hill, B. J.…

  19. The multiple resource inventory decision-making process

    Treesearch

    Victor A. Rudis

    1993-01-01

    A model of the multiple resource inventory decision-making process is presented that identifies steps in conducting inventories, describes the infrastructure, and points out knowledge gaps that are common to many interdisciplinary studies.Successful efforts to date suggest the need to bridge the gaps by sharing elements, maintain dialogue among stakeholders in multiple...

  20. Integrating Turnover Reasons and Shocks with Turnover Decision Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maertz, Carl P., Jr.; Kmitta, Kayla R.

    2012-01-01

    We interviewed and classified 186 quitters from many jobs and organizations via a theoretically-based protocol into five decision process types. We then tested exploratory hypotheses comparing users of these types on their propensity to report certain turnover reasons and turnover shocks. "Impulsive-type quitters," with neither a job offer in hand…

  1. Insect pest management decisions in food processing facilities

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pest management decision making in food processing facilities such as flour mills, rice mills, human and pet food manufacturing facilities, distribution centers and warehouses, and retail stores is a challenging undertaking. Insect pest management programs require an understanding of the food facili...

  2. Developing Holocaust Curricula: The Content Decision-Making Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindquist, David H.

    2008-01-01

    The content decision-making process involved in developing Holocaust curricula is unusually complex and problematic. Educators must consider factors such as historical accuracy, selection of topics covered, potential teaching materials (such as textbooks and literary texts), and graphic materials (such as films and photographs) as they plan their…

  3. Investigating the Decision-Making Process of Standard Setting Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papageorgiou, Spiros

    2010-01-01

    Despite the growing interest of the language testing community in standard setting, primarily due to the use of the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR-Council of Europe, 2001), the participants' decision-making process in the CEFR standard setting context remains unexplored. This study attempts to fill in this gap by analyzing these…

  4. Demystifying the Data-Based Decision-Making Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Elizabeth D.; Little, Mary E.; McHatton, Patricia Alvarez

    2014-01-01

    Across the United States, teachers and teacher educators are facing increased accountability for improved student achievement. Using assessment results to inform instruction provides a catalyst to improve student outcomes and is a key skill for preservice teacher candidates. The process of data-based decision making is integral to performance…

  5. Demystifying the Data-Based Decision-Making Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Elizabeth D.; Little, Mary E.; McHatton, Patricia Alvarez

    2014-01-01

    Across the United States, teachers and teacher educators are facing increased accountability for improved student achievement. Using assessment results to inform instruction provides a catalyst to improve student outcomes and is a key skill for preservice teacher candidates. The process of data-based decision making is integral to performance…

  6. Decision-Making and Thought Processes among Poker Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Germain, Joseph; Tenenbaum, Gershon

    2011-01-01

    This study was aimed at delineating decision-making and thought processing among poker players who vary in skill-level. Forty-five participants, 15 in each group, comprised expert, intermediate, and novice poker players. They completed the Computer Poker Simulation Task (CPST) comprised of 60 hands of No-Limit Texas Hold 'Em. During the CPST, they…

  7. Integrating Turnover Reasons and Shocks with Turnover Decision Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maertz, Carl P., Jr.; Kmitta, Kayla R.

    2012-01-01

    We interviewed and classified 186 quitters from many jobs and organizations via a theoretically-based protocol into five decision process types. We then tested exploratory hypotheses comparing users of these types on their propensity to report certain turnover reasons and turnover shocks. "Impulsive-type quitters," with neither a job offer in hand…

  8. [End-of-life decision-making process].

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Avraham

    2003-10-01

    Since time immemorial the attitude toward the dying patient has been one of the most difficult issues in medical ethics. The diversity of philosophical, religious, social and legal approaches does not enable one to reach a universal consensus to solve the many problems involved in end-of-life decisions. Within the health care system in Israel there is currently no consensual practice concerning the dying patient. Moreover, there is no published information on the actual decision-making processes within hospitals, hospices and geriatric facilities in Israel concerning the dying patient. A group of investigators in Shaare Zedek Medical Center in Jerusalem recently performed a prospective study to explore the decision-making process concerning DNR orders within this hospital. The results of this study demonstrated that the terminally-ill patients never take part in the decision-making process, they are never consulted about their wishes, and there is no effort to discover their previous wishes concerning their treatment at the terminal stages. Moreover, in many instances even the family was not consulted and did not take part in the decision-making process. In a significant minority, the final decision of a DNR order was undertaken by a single physician. This approach represents an extreme form of unethical paternalism, and it requires an urgent societal intervention to establish an ethically sound decision-making process. Recently, a national committee ("Steinberg Committee") formulated a widely agreed upon legislative proposal organizing all the fundamental and practical issues related to the dying patient. This proposal is based upon a balance between opposing values such as autonomy, life, quality-of-life, beneficence, non-maleficence and "slippery-slope" concerns. It relates to various treatment modalities, such as resuscitation, ventilation, dialysis, medication and sustenance. It establishes a clear position on euthanasia, physician-assisted suicide

  9. Processing module operating methods, processing modules, and communications systems

    DOEpatents

    McCown, Steven Harvey; Derr, Kurt W.; Moore, Troy

    2014-09-09

    A processing module operating method includes using a processing module physically connected to a wireless communications device, requesting that the wireless communications device retrieve encrypted code from a web site and receiving the encrypted code from the wireless communications device. The wireless communications device is unable to decrypt the encrypted code. The method further includes using the processing module, decrypting the encrypted code, executing the decrypted code, and preventing the wireless communications device from accessing the decrypted code. Another processing module operating method includes using a processing module physically connected to a host device, executing an application within the processing module, allowing the application to exchange user interaction data communicated using a user interface of the host device with the host device, and allowing the application to use the host device as a communications device for exchanging information with a remote device distinct from the host device.

  10. A logic flowgraph based concept for decision support and management of nuclear plant operation

    SciTech Connect

    Guarro, S.B.

    1987-06-29

    In the US the evolution of automated decision support tools for plant operators has spanned from ''event-oriented'' diagnostic systems to ''symptom-oriented'' computer-based emergency operating procedures. A problem common to both kind of systems is in the initial level of effort required for development of the associated models and software. In the following we will discuss some of the general issues that arise in the development and application of these decision-support systems. We will also propose and discuss an approach founded on the application of an event diagnosis and plant stabilization philosophy. This approach is based on the use of logic flowgraph process-oriented models - arranged in a modular architecture and developed with the aid of an expert-system model builder - as a possible means of achieving the development of an automated and integrated plant management system. This approach should allow the developer to achieve a high process recovery and management capability with a focused and controlled expenditure of development time and resources.

  11. Observations of Distribution Company Decisive Action Operations at the NTC

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-26

    enable disciplined initiative within the commander’s in- tent to empower agile and adaptive leaders in the conduct of unified land operations.” A...Conduct back briefs and confir- mation briefs. Operation order. An operation or- der assists the commander in man- aging and maximizing Soldiers...their sub- ordinate units in order to maximize Soldiers’ time. The inability to anticipate and the failure to enforce the principle of spending no

  12. The Source Selection Decision Process in Aeronautical Systems Division.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    defense systems, and states three primary objectives to be met as a result of the source selection process. 4 The prime objectives of the process are to...The primary purpose of the Cost Panel is to provide an evalua- tion of the most probable cost to the Government of each offeror’s proposal (1:16...applied procurement research S.256]. 13 The primary goal of source selection is to arrive at an objective selection decision. However, several problems

  13. Modeling Human Decision Processes in Command and Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-14

    1982. 32. Simon, H.A., "Rational Decision Making in Business Organizations," maerican Economic Review, Volume 69, Number 4, 1979, pp. 493-513. 1, " 59...MADISOS NC BW A. 0 61749734)66 83~ 023𔃾 S. . . ... . ,. ..- ,,,- ,.-*.,-4 ALPHATECH, INC. % 1 TR-137 MODELING HUMAN DECISION PROCESSES IN COMMAND AND...THIS PAGE~tSebO Vale A.1tot t ALPHATECH, INC. II lCONTENTS 1. Introduction.. .. **0 S*......... 1.1 Net:hodological framework. .0 •.•. 1 ŕ.2 Human

  14. Trouble-shooting process operations, Second Ed

    SciTech Connect

    Lieberman, N.P.

    1984-01-01

    This expanded edition of the bestselling Trouble-shooting Refinery Process, now includes chapters on fluidized catalytic cracking, natural gas production, and delayed coking. Contents include: Crude unit; Delayed coking cycles; Delayed coking process; Amine regeneration and scrubbing; Sulfur recovery; Alkylation; Fluidized catalyst cracking units; FCU product fractionation; Saving energy at reduced feed rates; Refrigeration systems; Centrifugal pumps; Distillation towers; Vacuum towers; Treating liquid hydrocarbons; Process heaters; Water coolers; Alarms and trips; Unstable gas plant operations; Fouled trays; Dehydrating light end towers; Vapor-liquid separation; Refining metallurgy for novices; Unusual noises and vibrations; Natural gas drying; Enhancing natural gas production; Suggestions for new operations engineers; Planning a performance test; Understanding control board instruments; How to make field measurements; The people problem; Calculating dew point, bubble point, and pressure drop; Index.

  15. Operational Design: Distilling Clarity from Complexity for Decisive Action

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    sensory data. Noted developmental psychologist Jean Piaget theorized that the mind either assimilates new sensory data into existing sche- mata or... Piaget , Jean , and Bärbel Inhelder. Memory and Intelligence. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1973. Pike, Douglas. The Viet-Cong Strategy of Terror... Piaget and Inhelder, Memory and Intelligence. 20. Maleki, “Decision Making in Iran’s Foreign Policy.” See also Afrasiabi and Maleki, “Iran’s Foreign

  16. Decision Factors for the Operational Warfighter: Explicit Insights

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    banking … • Social States & Effects Factors include population demographics, human losses and impacts, leadership (community, business, religious, and...but they will acquire more complexity. These factors encompass direct and indirect effects of interactions by all elements of national and...has increased the use of and reliance on warfighting simulations as an effective decision-support tool. However, simulations must change to address

  17. Age differences in decision making: a process methodology for examining strategic information processing.

    PubMed

    Johnson, M M

    1990-03-01

    This study explored the use of process tracing techniques in examining the decision-making processes of older and younger adults. Thirty-six college-age and thirty-six retirement-age participants decided which one of six cars they would purchase on the basis of computer-accessed data. They provided information search protocols. Results indicate that total time to reach a decision did not differ according to age. However, retirement-age participants used less information, spent more time viewing, and re-viewed fewer bits of information than college-age participants. Information search patterns differed markedly between age groups. Patterns of retirement-age adults indicated their use of noncompensatory decision rules which, according to decision-making literature (Payne, 1976), reduce cognitive processing demands. The patterns of the college-age adults indicated their use of compensatory decision rules, which have higher processing demands.

  18. A Coastal Flood Decision Support Tool for Forecast Operations in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Breukelen, C. M.; Moore, A.; Plumb, E. W.

    2015-12-01

    ABSTRACT Coastal flooding and erosion poses a serious threat to infrastructure, livelihood, and property for communities along Alaska's northern and western coastline. While the National Weather Service Alaska Region (NWS-AR) forecasts conditions favorable for coastal flooding, an improvement can be made in communicating event impacts between NWS-AR and local residents. Scientific jargon used by NWS-AR to indicate the severity of flooding potential is often misconstrued by residents. Additionally, the coastal flood forecasting process is cumbersome and time consuming due to scattered sources of flood guidance. To alleviate these problems, a single coastal flooding decision support tool was created for the Fairbanks Weather Forecast Office to help bridge the communication gap, streamline the forecast and warning process, and take into account both the meteorological and socioeconomic systems at work during a flood event. This tool builds on previous research and data collected by the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (DGGS) and the NWS-AR, using high resolution elevation data to model the impacts of storm tide rise above the mean lower low water level on five of the most at-risk communities along the Alaskan coast. Important local buildings and infrastructure are highlighted, allowing forecasters to relate the severity of the storm tide in terms of local landmarks that are familiar to residents. In this way, this decision support tool allows for a conversion from model output storm tide levels into real world impacts that are easily understood by forecasters, emergency managers, and other stakeholders, helping to build a Weather-Ready Nation. An overview of the new coastal flood decision support tool in NWS-AR forecast operations will be discussed. KEYWORDS Forecasting; coastal flooding; coastal hazards; decision support

  19. Examination of the consumer decision process for residential energy use

    SciTech Connect

    Dinan, T.M.

    1987-01-01

    Numerous studies have examined the factors that influence consumers' energy-using behavior. A comprehensive review of these studies was conducted in which articles from different research disciplines (economics, sociology, psychology, and marketing) were examined. This paper provides a discussion of a subset of these studies, and based on findings of the review, offers recommendations for future research. The literature review revealed a need to develop an integrated framework for examining consumers' energy-using behavior. This integrated framework should simultaneously consider both price and nonprice related factors which underlie energy use decisions. It should also examined the process by which decisions are made, as well as the factors that affect the decision outcome. This paper provides a suggested integrated framework for future research and discusses the data required to support this framework. 23 references, 3 figures.

  20. Where should I send it? Optimizing the submission decision process.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Santiago; Munch, Stephan B

    2015-01-01

    How do scientists decide where to submit manuscripts? Many factors influence this decision, including prestige, acceptance probability, turnaround time, target audience, fit, and impact factor. Here, we present a framework for evaluating where to submit a manuscript based on the theory of Markov decision processes. We derive two models, one in which an author is trying to optimally maximize citations and another in which that goal is balanced by either minimizing the number of resubmissions or the total time in review. We parameterize the models with data on acceptance probability, submission-to-decision times, and impact factors for 61 ecology journals. We find that submission sequences beginning with Ecology Letters, Ecological Monographs, or PLOS ONE could be optimal depending on the importance given to time to acceptance or number of resubmissions. This analysis provides some guidance on where to submit a manuscript given the individual-specific values assigned to these disparate objectives.

  1. Reservoir Operations and Flow Modeling to Support Decision Making in the Delaware River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinodoz, H. A.

    2006-12-01

    About five percent of the US population depends on the waters from the Delaware River Basin for its water supply, including New York City and Philadelphia. Water management in the basin is governed by a compact signed in 1961 by the four basin states and the federal government. The compact created the Delaware River Basin Commission (DRBC) and gave it broad powers to plan, regulate, and manage the development of the basin water resources. The compact also recognized a pre-existing (1954) U.S. Supreme Court Decree that grants the City of New York the right to export up to 800 million gallons per day out of the basin, provided that a prescribed minimum flow is met at Montague, New Jersey for the use of the lower-basin states. The Delaware River Basin Compact also allows the DRBC to adjust the releases and diversions under the Decree, subject to the unanimous consent of the decree parties. This mechanism has been used several times over the last 30 years, to implement and modify rules governing drought operations, instream flows, minimum flow targets, and control of salinity intrusion. In every case, decision makers have relied upon extensive modeling of alternative proposals, using a basin-wide daily flow model. Often, stakeholders have modified and used the same model to test and refine their proposals prior to consideration by the decision makers. The flow model has been modified over the years, to simulate new features and processes in a river system partially controlled by more than ten reservoirs. The flow model has proved to be an adaptable tool, able to simulate the dynamics of a complex system driven by conflicting objectives. This presentation reviews the characteristics of the daily flow model in its current form, discuss how model simulations are used to inform the decision-making process, and provide a case study of a recent modification of the system-wide drought operating plan.

  2. A unified framework for addiction: Vulnerabilities in the decision process

    PubMed Central

    Redish, A. David; Jensen, Steve; Johnson, Adam

    2013-01-01

    The understanding of decision-making systems has come together in recent years to form a unified theory of decision-making in the mammalian brain as arising from multiple, interacting systems (a planning system, a habit system, and a situation-recognition system). This unified decision-making system has multiple potential access points through which it can be driven to make maladaptive choices, particularly choices that entail seeking of certain drugs or behaviors. We identify 10 key vulnerabilities in the system: (1) moving away from homeostasis, (2) changing allostatic set points, (3) euphorigenic “reward-like” signals, (4) overvaluation in the planning system, (5) incorrect search of situation-action-outcome relationships, (6) misclassification of situations, (7) overvaluation in the habit system, (8) a mismatch in the balance of the two decision systems, (9) over-fast discounting processes, and (10) changed learning rates. These vulnerabilities provide a taxonomy of potential problems with decision-making systems. Although each vulnerability can drive an agent to return to the addictive choice, each vulnerability also implies a characteristic symptomology. Different drugs, different behaviors, and different individuals are likely to access different vulnerabilities. This has implications for an individual’s susceptibility to addiction and the transition to addiction, for the potential for relapse, and for the potential for treatment. PMID:18662461

  3. Open parallel cooperative and competitive decision processes: a potential provenance for quantum probability decision models.

    PubMed

    Fuss, Ian G; Navarro, Daniel J

    2013-10-01

    In recent years quantum probability models have been used to explain many aspects of human decision making, and as such quantum models have been considered a viable alternative to Bayesian models based on classical probability. One criticism that is often leveled at both kinds of models is that they lack a clear interpretation in terms of psychological mechanisms. In this paper we discuss the mechanistic underpinnings of a quantum walk model of human decision making and response time. The quantum walk model is compared to standard sequential sampling models, and the architectural assumptions of both are considered. In particular, we show that the quantum model has a natural interpretation in terms of a cognitive architecture that is both massively parallel and involves both co-operative (excitatory) and competitive (inhibitory) interactions between units. Additionally, we introduce a family of models that includes aspects of the classical and quantum walk models.

  4. 77 FR 35080 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station; Record of Decision and Issuance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... fossil fuel generation, renewable energy sources, demand-side measures such as energy conservation, and... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station; Record of Decision and Issuance... Operations Inc. (the licensee), the operator of the Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station (PNPS). Renewed...

  5. The activated sludge process: Fundamentals of operation

    SciTech Connect

    Junkins, R.; Deeny, K.J.; Eckhoff, T.H.

    1983-01-01

    The procedures given here - based on extensive and intensive experience. Background information on process mechanics is followed by detailed consideration of control and troubleshooting practices. Contents: PREFACE AND INTRODUCTION; PROCESS MECHANICS; Basic Mechanism of Activated Sludge Systems; Formation of Activated Sludge; Growth of Microorganisms; Classifications of Microorganisms: Type, Environment, Age; Solids Separation and Return; FACTORS AFFECTING OPERATION; Raw Wastewater Strength; Dissolved Oxygen; pH; Temperature; Nutrients; Toxicity; Mixing; Detention Time; Hydraulics; PROCESS MODIFICATIONS; Conventional; Complete Mix; Contact-Stabilization; Extended Aeration; Others; PROCESS MONITORING; Visual; Analytical Indicators; OPERATIONAL CONTROL; Sludge Volume Index; Sludge Age; Mean Cell Residence Time; Food/Microorganism Ratio; Organic Loading Rate; Solids Loading Rate; Clarifier Overflow Rate; Weir Overflow Rate; Sludge Recycle Rate, Sludge Wastage Rate; Chemical Feed Rate; TROUBLESHOOTING; Low BOD Removal; Low D.O. in Aeration Baisn; Poor Settling; PLANT START-UP; Introduction; Pre Start-up Checkup; Wastewater Analysis; Seed Screening; Process Checklist; Mechanical Checklist; Familiarization and Training; Start-up; Seeding; Process Monitoring; Transition; Typical Start-up Problems; Foaming; Settling Problems; Low BOD Removal; INDEX.

  6. Decision Making Under Uncertainty: A Neural Model Based on Partially Observable Markov Decision Processes

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Rajesh P. N.

    2010-01-01

    A fundamental problem faced by animals is learning to select actions based on noisy sensory information and incomplete knowledge of the world. It has been suggested that the brain engages in Bayesian inference during perception but how such probabilistic representations are used to select actions has remained unclear. Here we propose a neural model of action selection and decision making based on the theory of partially observable Markov decision processes (POMDPs). Actions are selected based not on a single “optimal” estimate of state but on the posterior distribution over states (the “belief” state). We show how such a model provides a unified framework for explaining experimental results in decision making that involve both information gathering and overt actions. The model utilizes temporal difference (TD) learning for maximizing expected reward. The resulting neural architecture posits an active role for the neocortex in belief computation while ascribing a role to the basal ganglia in belief representation, value computation, and action selection. When applied to the random dots motion discrimination task, model neurons representing belief exhibit responses similar to those of LIP neurons in primate neocortex. The appropriate threshold for switching from information gathering to overt actions emerges naturally during reward maximization. Additionally, the time course of reward prediction error in the model shares similarities with dopaminergic responses in the basal ganglia during the random dots task. For tasks with a deadline, the model learns a decision making strategy that changes with elapsed time, predicting a collapsing decision threshold consistent with some experimental studies. The model provides a new framework for understanding neural decision making and suggests an important role for interactions between the neocortex and the basal ganglia in learning the mapping between probabilistic sensory representations and actions that maximize

  7. A software architecture for automating operations processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Kevin J.

    1994-01-01

    The Operations Engineering Lab (OEL) at JPL has developed a software architecture based on an integrated toolkit approach for simplifying and automating mission operations tasks. The toolkit approach is based on building adaptable, reusable graphical tools that are integrated through a combination of libraries, scripts, and system-level user interface shells. The graphical interface shells are designed to integrate and visually guide a user through the complex steps in an operations process. They provide a user with an integrated system-level picture of an overall process, defining the required inputs and possible output through interactive on-screen graphics. The OEL has developed the software for building these process-oriented graphical user interface (GUI) shells. The OEL Shell development system (OEL Shell) is an extension of JPL's Widget Creation Library (WCL). The OEL Shell system can be used to easily build user interfaces for running complex processes, applications with extensive command-line interfaces, and tool-integration tasks. The interface shells display a logical process flow using arrows and box graphics. They also allow a user to select which output products are desired and which input sources are needed, eliminating the need to know which program and its associated command-line parameters must be executed in each case. The shells have also proved valuable for use as operations training tools because of the OEL Shell hypertext help environment. The OEL toolkit approach is guided by several principles, including the use of ASCII text file interfaces with a multimission format, Perl scripts for mission-specific adaptation code, and programs that include a simple command-line interface for batch mode processing. Projects can adapt the interface shells by simple changes to the resources configuration file. This approach has allowed the development of sophisticated, automated software systems that are easy, cheap, and fast to build. This paper will

  8. An Intelligent Hierarchical Decision Architecture for Operational Test and Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-05-01

    combination operator proposed by Pelaez , described in Appendix C [97]. 2. Using the global FCM, ignore the linguistic tags associated with each link and...including the FMEA FCM contributed by Bowles and Pelaez , are limited to activating a concept and seeing which concepts result. Although the FMEA work used...proposed, which aid in choosing an appropriate combination operator. Pelaez [97] discusses a knowledge combination function O:K -- K (C-5) to be used when

  9. Development of an instrument to understand the child protective services decision-making process, with a focus on placement decisions.

    PubMed

    Dettlaff, Alan J; Christopher Graham, J; Holzman, Jesse; Baumann, Donald J; Fluke, John D

    2015-11-01

    When children come to the attention of the child welfare system, they become involved in a decision-making process in which decisions are made that have a significant effect on their future and well-being. The decision to remove children from their families is particularly complex; yet surprisingly little is understood about this decision-making process. This paper presents the results of a study to develop an instrument to explore, at the caseworker level, the context of the removal decision, with the objective of understanding the influence of the individual and organizational factors on this decision, drawing from the Decision Making Ecology as the underlying rationale for obtaining the measures. The instrument was based on the development of decision-making scales used in prior decision-making studies and administered to child protection caseworkers in several states. Analyses included reliability analyses, principal components analyses, and inter-correlations among the resulting scales. For one scale regarding removal decisions, a principal components analysis resulted in the extraction of two components, jointly identified as caseworkers' decision-making orientation, described as (1) an internal reference to decision-making and (2) an external reference to decision-making. Reliability analyses demonstrated acceptable to high internal consistency for 9 of the 11 scales. Full details of the reliability analyses, principal components analyses, and inter-correlations among the seven scales are discussed, along with implications for practice and the utility of this instrument to support the understanding of decision-making in child welfare.

  10. Working Memory and Decision Processes in Visual Area V4

    PubMed Central

    Hayden, Benjamin Y.; Gallant, Jack L.

    2013-01-01

    Recognizing and responding to a remembered stimulus requires the coordination of perception, working memory, and decision-making. To investigate the role of visual cortex in these processes, we recorded responses of single V4 neurons during performance of a delayed match-to-sample task that incorporates rapid serial visual presentation of natural images. We found that neuronal activity during the delay period after the cue but before the images depends on the identity of the remembered image and that this change persists while distractors appear. This persistent response modulation has been identified as a diagnostic criterion for putative working memory signals; our data thus suggest that working memory may involve reactivation of sensory neurons. When the remembered image reappears in the neuron’s receptive field, visually evoked responses are enhanced; this match enhancement is a diagnostic criterion for decision. One model that predicts these data is the matched filter hypothesis, which holds that during search V4 neurons change their tuning so as to match the remembered cue, and thus become detectors for that image. More generally, these results suggest that V4 neurons participate in the perceptual, working memory, and decision processes that are needed to perform memory-guided decision-making. PMID:23550043

  11. Initiation and termination of integration in a decision process.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Tobias; Bogacz, Rafal

    2010-04-01

    Experimental data indicate that simple motor decisions in vertebrates are preceded by integration of evidence in certain cortical areas, and that the competition between them is resolved in the basal ganglia. While the occurrence of cortical integration is well established, it is not yet clear exactly how the integration occurs. Several models have been proposed, including the race model, the feed forward inhibition (FFI) model and the leaky competing accumulator (LCA) model. In this paper we establish qualitative and quantitative differences between the above mentioned models, with respect to how they are able to initiate the integration process without integrating noise prior to stimulus onset, as well as the models' ability to terminate the integration after a decision has been made, to ensure the possibility of subsequent decisions. Our results show that the LCA model has advantages over the race model and the FFI model in both respects, leading to shorter decision times and an effective termination process. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Decision-making processes: the case of collective movements.

    PubMed

    Petit, Odile; Bon, Richard

    2010-07-01

    Besides focusing on the adaptive significance of collective movements, it is crucial to study the mechanisms and dynamics of decision-making processes at the individual level underlying the higher-scale collective movements. It is now commonly admitted that collective decisions emerge from interactions between individuals, but how individual decisions are taken, i.e. how far they are modulated by the behaviour of other group members, is an under-investigated question. Classically, collective movements are viewed as the outcome of one individual's initiation (the leader) for departure, by which all or some of the other group members abide. Individuals assuming leadership have often been considered to hold a specific social status. This hierarchical or centralized control model has been challenged by recent theoretical and experimental findings, suggesting that leadership can be more distributed. Moreover, self-organized processes can account for collective movements in many different species, even in those that are characterized by high cognitive complexity. In this review, we point out that decision-making for moving collectively can be reached by a combination of different rules, i.e. individualized (based on inter-individual differences in physiology, energetic state, social status, etc.) and self-organized (based on simple response) ones for any species, context and group size.

  13. Combined monitoring, decision and control model for the human operator in a command and control desk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muralidharan, R.; Baron, S.

    1978-01-01

    A report is given on the ongoing efforts to mode the human operator in the context of the task during the enroute/return phases in the ground based control of multiple flights of remotely piloted vehicles (RPV). The approach employed here uses models that have their analytical bases in control theory and in statistical estimation and decision theory. In particular, it draws heavily on the modes and the concepts of the optimal control model (OCM) of the human operator. The OCM is being extended into a combined monitoring, decision, and control model (DEMON) of the human operator by infusing decision theoretic notions that make it suitable for application to problems in which human control actions are infrequent and in which monitoring and decision-making are the operator's main activities. Some results obtained with a specialized version of DEMON for the RPV control problem are included.

  14. Incorporating risk attitude into Markov-process decision models: importance for individual decision making.

    PubMed

    Cher, D J; Miyamoto, J; Lenert, L A

    1997-01-01

    Most decision models published in the medical literature take a risk-neutral perspective. Under risk neutrality, the utility of a gamble is equivalent to its expected value and the marginal utility of living a given unit of time is the same regardless of when it occurs. Most patients, however, are not risk-neutral. Not only does risk aversion affect decision analyses when tradeoffs between short- and long-term survival are involved, it also affects the interpretation of time-tradeoff measures of health-state utility. The proportional time tradeoff under- or overestimates the disutility of an inferior health state, depending on whether the patient is risk-seeking or risk-averse (it is unbiased if the patient is risk-neutral). The authors review how risk attitude with respect to gambles for survival duration can be incorporated into decision models using the framework of risk-adjusted quality-adjusted life years (RA-QALYs). They present a simple extension of this framework that allows RA-QALYs to be calculated for Markov-process decision models. Using a previously published Markov-process model of surgical vs expectant treatment for benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH), they show how attitude towards risk affects the expected number of QALYs calculated by the model. In this model, under risk neutrality, surgery was the preferred option. Under mild risk aversion, expectant treatment was the preferred option. Risk attitude is an important aspect of preferences that should be incorporated into decision models where one treatment option has upfront risks of morbidity or mortality.

  15. Entering the operative correction machining processes CNC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nekrasov, R. Yu; Starikov, A. I.; Lasukov, A. A.

    2015-09-01

    The article describes the solution to the problem of compensation of errors occurring during machining on CNC machines. We propose a method of mathematical modeling of processes diagnostics and control of technological equipment. The results of the diagnosis of the CNC machine, as well as the mathematical model describing the dependence of the positioning error of the executive bodies of operating component of cutting force PZ, in the range of movement OX.

  16. 13 CFR 120.837 - SBA decision on application for a new CDC or for an existing CDC to expand Area of Operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... new CDC or for an existing CDC to expand Area of Operations. 120.837 Section 120.837 Business Credit...) Extending A Cdc's Area of Operations § 120.837 SBA decision on application for a new CDC or for an existing CDC to expand Area of Operations. The processing District Office must solicit the comments of...

  17. 13 CFR 120.837 - SBA decision on application for a new CDC or for an existing CDC to expand Area of Operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... new CDC or for an existing CDC to expand Area of Operations. 120.837 Section 120.837 Business Credit...) Extending A Cdc's Area of Operations § 120.837 SBA decision on application for a new CDC or for an existing CDC to expand Area of Operations. The processing District Office must solicit the comments of...

  18. 13 CFR 120.837 - SBA decision on application for a new CDC or for an existing CDC to expand Area of Operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... new CDC or for an existing CDC to expand Area of Operations. 120.837 Section 120.837 Business Credit...) Extending A Cdc's Area of Operations § 120.837 SBA decision on application for a new CDC or for an existing CDC to expand Area of Operations. The processing District Office must solicit the comments of...

  19. 13 CFR 120.837 - SBA decision on application for a new CDC or for an existing CDC to expand Area of Operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... new CDC or for an existing CDC to expand Area of Operations. 120.837 Section 120.837 Business Credit...) Extending A Cdc's Area of Operations § 120.837 SBA decision on application for a new CDC or for an existing CDC to expand Area of Operations. The processing District Office must solicit the comments of...

  20. 13 CFR 120.837 - SBA decision on application for a new CDC or for an existing CDC to expand Area of Operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... new CDC or for an existing CDC to expand Area of Operations. 120.837 Section 120.837 Business Credit...) Extending A Cdc's Area of Operations § 120.837 SBA decision on application for a new CDC or for an existing CDC to expand Area of Operations. The processing District Office must solicit the comments of...

  1. Partially observable Markov decision processes for risk-based screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrozack, Alex; Liao, Xuejun; Skatter, Sondre; Carin, Lawrence

    2016-05-01

    A long-term goal for checked baggage screening in airports has been to include passenger information, or at least a predetermined passenger risk level, in the screening process. One method for including that information could be treating the checked baggage screening process as a system-of-systems. This would allow for an optimized policy builder, such as one trained using the methodology of partially observable Markov decision processes (POMDP), to navigate the different sensors available for screening. In this paper we describe the necessary steps to tailor a POMDP for baggage screening, as well as results of simulations for specific screening scenarios.

  2. Introduction of new vaccines: decision-making process in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Jasim; Sarma, Haribondhu; Bari, Tajul I; Koehlmoos, Tracey P

    2013-06-01

    The understanding of the decision-making process in the introduction of new vaccines helps establish why vaccines are adopted or not. It also contributes to building a sustainable demand for vaccines in a country. The purpose of the study was to map and analyze the formal decision-making process in relation to the introduction of new vaccines within the context of health policy and health systems and identify the ways of making decisions to introduce new vaccines in Bangladesh. During February-April 2011, a qualitative assessment was made at the national level to evaluate the decision-making process around the adoption of new vaccines in Bangladesh. The study population included: policy-level people, programme heads or associates, and key decision-makers of the Government, private sector, non-governmental organizations, and international agencies at the national level. In total, 13 key informants were purposively selected. Data were collected by interviewing key informants and reviewing documents. Data were analyzed thematically. The findings revealed that the actors from different sectors at the policy level were involved in the decision-making process in the introduction of new vaccines. They included policy-makers from the ministries of health and family welfare, finance, and local government and rural development; academicians; researchers; representatives from professional associations; development partners; and members of different committees on EPI. They contributed to the introduction of new vaccines in their own capacity. The burden of disease, research findings on vaccine-preventable diseases, political issues relating to outbreaks of certain diseases, initiatives of international and local stakeholders, pressure of development partners, the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) support, and financial matters were the key factors in the introduction of new vaccines in Bangladesh. The slow introduction and uptake of new vaccines is a concern

  3. Process-related factors associated with disciplinary board decisions.

    PubMed

    Birkeland, Søren; Christensen, Rene dePont; Damsbo, Niels; Kragstrup, Jakob

    2013-01-07

    In most health care systems disciplinary boards have been organised in order to process patients' complaints about health professionals. Although, the safe-guarding of the legal rights of the involved parties is a crucial concern, there is limited knowledge about what role the complaint process plays with regard to board decision outcomes. Using complaint cases towards general practitioners, the aim of this study was to identify what process factors are statistically associated with disciplinary actions as seen from the party of the complainant and the defendant general practitioner, respectively. Danish Patient Complaints Board decisions concerning general practitioners completed in 2007 were examined. Information on process factors was extracted from the case files and included complaint delay, complainant's lawyer involvement, the number of general practitioners involved, event duration, expert witness involvement, case management duration and decision outcome (discipline or no discipline). Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed on compound case decisions eventually involving more general practitioners (as seen from the complainant's side) and on separated decisions (as seen from the defendant general practitioner's side). From the general practitioner's side, when the number of general practitioners involved in a complaint case increased, odds of being disciplined significantly decreased (OR=0.661 per additional general practitioner involved, p<0.001). Contrarily, from the complainant's side, no association could be detected between complaining against a plurality of general practitioners and the odds of at least one general practitioner being disciplined. From both sides, longer case management duration was associated with higher odds of discipline (OR=1.038 per additional month, p=0.010). No association could be demonstrated with regard to complaint delay, lawyer involvement, event duration, or expert witness involvement. There was lawyer

  4. Process-related factors associated with disciplinary board decisions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In most health care systems disciplinary boards have been organised in order to process patients’ complaints about health professionals. Although, the safe-guarding of the legal rights of the involved parties is a crucial concern, there is limited knowledge about what role the complaint process plays with regard to board decision outcomes. Using complaint cases towards general practitioners, the aim of this study was to identify what process factors are statistically associated with disciplinary actions as seen from the party of the complainant and the defendant general practitioner, respectively. Methods Danish Patient Complaints Board decisions concerning general practitioners completed in 2007 were examined. Information on process factors was extracted from the case files and included complaint delay, complainant’s lawyer involvement, the number of general practitioners involved, event duration, expert witness involvement, case management duration and decision outcome (discipline or no discipline). Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed on compound case decisions eventually involving more general practitioners (as seen from the complainant’s side) and on separated decisions (as seen from the defendant general practitioner’s side). Results From the general practitioner’s side, when the number of general practitioners involved in a complaint case increased, odds of being disciplined significantly decreased (OR=0.661 per additional general practitioner involved, p<0.001). Contrarily, from the complainant’s side, no association could be detected between complaining against a plurality of general practitioners and the odds of at least one general practitioner being disciplined. From both sides, longer case management duration was associated with higher odds of discipline (OR=1.038 per additional month, p=0.010). No association could be demonstrated with regard to complaint delay, lawyer involvement, event duration, or expert

  5. Introduction of New Vaccines: Decision-making Process in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Sarma, Haribondhu; Bari, Tajul I.; Koehlmoos, Tracey P.

    2013-01-01

    The understanding of the decision-making process in the introduction of new vaccines helps establish why vaccines are adopted or not. It also contributes to building a sustainable demand for vaccines in a country. The purpose of the study was to map and analyze the formal decision-making process in relation to the introduction of new vaccines within the context of health policy and health systems and identify the ways of making decisions to introduce new vaccines in Bangladesh. During February-April 2011, a qualitative assessment was made at the national level to evaluate the decision-making process around the adoption of new vaccines in Bangladesh. The study population included: policy-level people, programme heads or associates, and key decision-makers of the Government, private sector, non-governmental organizations, and international agencies at the national level. In total, 13 key informants were purposively selected. Data were collected by interviewing key informants and reviewing documents. Data were analyzed thematically. The findings revealed that the actors from different sectors at the policy level were involved in the decision-making process in the introduction of new vaccines. They included policy-makers from the ministries of health and family welfare, finance, and local government and rural development; academicians; researchers; representatives from professional associations; development partners; and members of different committees on EPI. They contributed to the introduction of new vaccines in their own capacity. The burden of disease, research findings on vaccine-preventable diseases, political issues relating to outbreaks of certain diseases, initiatives of international and local stakeholders, pressure of development partners, the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) support, and financial matters were the key factors in the introduction of new vaccines in Bangladesh. The slow introduction and uptake of new vaccines is a concern

  6. Planning treatment of ischemic heart disease with partially observable Markov decision processes.

    PubMed

    Hauskrecht, M; Fraser, H

    2000-03-01

    Diagnosis of a disease and its treatment are not separate, one-shot activities. Instead, they are very often dependent and interleaved over time. This is mostly due to uncertainty about the underlying disease, uncertainty associated with the response of a patient to the treatment and varying cost of different diagnostic (investigative) and treatment procedures. The framework of partially observable Markov decision processes (POMDPs) developed and used in the operations research, control theory and artificial intelligence communities is particularly suitable for modeling such a complex decision process. In this paper, we show how the POMDP framework can be used to model and solve the problem of the management of patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD), and demonstrate the modeling advantages of the framework over standard decision formalisms.

  7. Modeling treatment of ischemic heart disease with partially observable Markov decision processes.

    PubMed

    Hauskrecht, M; Fraser, H

    1998-01-01

    Diagnosis of a disease and its treatment are not separate, one-shot activities. Instead they are very often dependent and interleaved over time, mostly due to uncertainty about the underlying disease, uncertainty associated with the response of a patient to the treatment and varying cost of different diagnostic (investigative) and treatment procedures. The framework of Partially observable Markov decision processes (POMDPs) developed and used in operations research, control theory and artificial intelligence communities is particularly suitable for modeling such a complex decision process. In the paper, we show how the POMDP framework could be used to model and solve the problem of the management of patients with ischemic heart disease, and point out modeling advantages of the framework over standard decision formalisms.

  8. Ranking of Business Process Simulation Software Tools with DEX/QQ Hierarchical Decision Model.

    PubMed

    Damij, Nadja; Boškoski, Pavle; Bohanec, Marko; Mileva Boshkoska, Biljana

    2016-01-01

    The omnipresent need for optimisation requires constant improvements of companies' business processes (BPs). Minimising the risk of inappropriate BP being implemented is usually performed by simulating the newly developed BP under various initial conditions and "what-if" scenarios. An effectual business process simulations software (BPSS) is a prerequisite for accurate analysis of an BP. Characterisation of an BPSS tool is a challenging task due to the complex selection criteria that includes quality of visual aspects, simulation capabilities, statistical facilities, quality reporting etc. Under such circumstances, making an optimal decision is challenging. Therefore, various decision support models are employed aiding the BPSS tool selection. The currently established decision support models are either proprietary or comprise only a limited subset of criteria, which affects their accuracy. Addressing this issue, this paper proposes a new hierarchical decision support model for ranking of BPSS based on their technical characteristics by employing DEX and qualitative to quantitative (QQ) methodology. Consequently, the decision expert feeds the required information in a systematic and user friendly manner. There are three significant contributions of the proposed approach. Firstly, the proposed hierarchical model is easily extendible for adding new criteria in the hierarchical structure. Secondly, a fully operational decision support system (DSS) tool that implements the proposed hierarchical model is presented. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed hierarchical model is assessed by comparing the resulting rankings of BPSS with respect to currently available results.

  9. Ranking of Business Process Simulation Software Tools with DEX/QQ Hierarchical Decision Model

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The omnipresent need for optimisation requires constant improvements of companies’ business processes (BPs). Minimising the risk of inappropriate BP being implemented is usually performed by simulating the newly developed BP under various initial conditions and “what-if” scenarios. An effectual business process simulations software (BPSS) is a prerequisite for accurate analysis of an BP. Characterisation of an BPSS tool is a challenging task due to the complex selection criteria that includes quality of visual aspects, simulation capabilities, statistical facilities, quality reporting etc. Under such circumstances, making an optimal decision is challenging. Therefore, various decision support models are employed aiding the BPSS tool selection. The currently established decision support models are either proprietary or comprise only a limited subset of criteria, which affects their accuracy. Addressing this issue, this paper proposes a new hierarchical decision support model for ranking of BPSS based on their technical characteristics by employing DEX and qualitative to quantitative (QQ) methodology. Consequently, the decision expert feeds the required information in a systematic and user friendly manner. There are three significant contributions of the proposed approach. Firstly, the proposed hierarchical model is easily extendible for adding new criteria in the hierarchical structure. Secondly, a fully operational decision support system (DSS) tool that implements the proposed hierarchical model is presented. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed hierarchical model is assessed by comparing the resulting rankings of BPSS with respect to currently available results. PMID:26871694

  10. Decision Making Training in the Mission Operations Directorate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Keefe, William S.

    2013-01-01

    At JSC, we train our new flight controllers on a set of team skills that we call Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM). SFRM is akin to Crew Resource Management for the airlines and trains flight controllers to work as an effective team to reduce errors and improve safety. We have developed this training over the years with the assistance of Ames Research Center, Wyle Labs and University of Central Florida. One of the skills we teach is decision making/ problem solving (DM/PS). We teach DM/PS first in several classroom sessions, reinforce it in several part task training environments, and finally practice it in full-mission, full-team simulations. What I am proposing to talk about is this training flow: its content and how we teach it.

  11. Individual Differences in Information Processing in Networked Decision Making

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-31

    processing in terms of their impact on the timeliness and accuracy of decisions. In this paper, we address this problem by introducing an agent-based model...for corroboration. Based on a novel way of modeling the degree of problem difficulty, we investigate the impact of individual differences in networked...agents mod- els have incorporated the notion of bounded rational- ity [Carley et al., 2009], the impact of individual differ- ences especially in the NC

  12. A decision-making process model of young online shoppers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chin-Feng; Wang, Hui-Fang

    2008-12-01

    Based on the concepts of brand equity, means-end chain, and Web site trust, this study proposes a novel model called the consumption decision-making process of adolescents (CDMPA) to understand adolescents' Internet consumption habits and behavioral intention toward particular sporting goods. The findings of the CDMPA model can help marketers understand adolescents' consumption preferences and habits for developing effective Internet marketing strategies.

  13. A Decision Analysis Tool for the Source Selection Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    contractor for the Air Force. The rational for this type of source selection is based on the guidelines of a Lowest Priced Technically Acceptable...casual empiricism (Weir, 2005; Kirkwood, 1997). This method is usually accomplished by holding large group sessions. The groups will consist of... rational of a decision under the current process is extremely difficult without quantifying numbers – VFT provides quantifying results and clearly

  14. Operational Encirclements: Can the United States Military Decisively Follow Through?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-21

    Office, 1991. Heller, Charles E. and Stofft, William A. America’s First Battles, 1776-1965. Lawrence: University of Kansas Press, 1986. Hooker ...is the secret of successful war.”12 Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson ...operation was planned and designed by General William Westmoreland as a spoiling attack against three NVA regiments in order to prevent a planned

  15. Decision Support Systems for Operational Level Command and Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-30

    will accord the extant materiel is the Soviet automated troop control system. Soviet automated troop control, Automatizirovannaya sistema upravleniya...military operations. 45 For amore detaled explanation of the PERT technique, refer to Chqter 13 of CGSC Student Text 25-1, Resource Plmnina and

  16. Analysis of Special Operations Forces in Decision Aids: Recommendations,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    Soviet-made armored scout cars operated by Malaysian troops. By that time, the United States had lost 102 men-18 killed and 84 wounded. Somali leaders...designation of targets; attack by F-15E and F-16C using CBU-87, -89 Execution and GBU; attack by A-10 using Maverick and 30-mm cannon; attack by B-52 using...patrolling designated areas of the battlefield and attacking individual armored vehicles with precision-guided weapons such as Maverick . Discontinuity

  17. Operational Decision Aids for Exploiting or Mitigating Electromagnetic Propagation Effects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    propagation model for coverage calculation. 41-8 LINE OF SIGHT SS TARGET HEIGHT -100.00 ANTENNA HEIGHT -15.0...are to improve the propagation models , especially for non -standard conditions. In the optical region, this will result in the use of ray- optics...and can perform non - line - of - sight (NLOS) operations. Mine Use products identify optimum locations for the emplacement of mines and provide a

  18. Assessing Sustainment Operations in a Decisive Action Training Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-05-01

    Additional Analyses SOP vs. No SOP In prior research, whether units had an SOP or not was a strong predictor of performance ; units with an SOP...Yes/No) were used as predictor variables. The questions selected from the CP Operations Checklist to assess performance were the continuous...A790 5d. TASK NUMBER 215 5e. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Consortium Universities of

  19. Defining Decisive: Toward Developing a Doctrinal Understanding of Decisive Operations and Decisive Points for the 21st Century Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-05-30

    recounting events millenniums ago, tells the tale of the Trojan War, and the complete and total destruction of Troy after a lengthy siege following the Grecian...gift” of the Trojan Horse.5 The Greeks sought a decisive end to Troy, and they attained it, albeit it after a protracted siege. The Trojan Horse...into a dim religious world in which Neptune was God, mahan his prophet, and the United States Navy the only true Church.’” Crowl, p. 444. 89 Naval

  20. A Practical Decision-Analysis Process for Forest Ecosystem Management

    Treesearch

    H. Michael Rauscher; F. Thomas Lloyd; David L. Loftis; Mark J. Twery

    2000-01-01

    Many authors have pointed out the need to firm up the 'fuzzy' ecosystem management paradigm and develop operationally practical processes to allow forest managers to accommodate more effectively the continuing rapid change in societal perspectives and goals. There are three spatial scales where clear, precise, practical ecosystem management processes are...

  1. Mindless decision making and environmental issues: gestalt/feature-intensive processing and contextual reasoning in environmental decisions.

    PubMed

    Sharps, Matthew J; Hess, Adam B; Ranes, Bethany

    2007-09-01

    In the absence of relevant information in working memory during decision consideration, respondents tend to rely on a style of cognitive processing that may result in premature or inaccurate decision making (M. J. Sharps, 2003). M. J. Sharps and S. S. Martin (2002) demonstrated this effect in executive decision making. In the present study, the authors extended these methods to decisions about environmental issues. Respondents rated decisions about issues such as overpopulation, energy policy, and food production in the presence or absence of simple pertinent information. The presence of such information in the immediate context of environmental decisions, and therefore in working memory, significantly improved respondents' ability to understand negative decision consequences. These results demonstrate the importance of contextual information in environmental decision making.

  2. The TESS Science Processing Operations Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Jon; Twicken, Joseph D.; McCauliff, Sean; Campbell, Jennifer; Sanderfer, Dwight; Lung, David; Mansouri-Samani, Masoud; Girouard, Forrest; Tenenbaum, Peter; Klaus, Todd; Smith, Jeffrey C.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Chacon, Aaron; Henze, Christopher; Heiges, Cory A.; Latham, David; Morgan, Edward; Swade, Daryl; Rinehart, Stephen; Vanderspek, Roland

    2016-01-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) will conduct a search for Earth’s closest cousins starting in late 2017. TESS will discover approx.1,000 small planets and measure the masses of at least 50 of these small worlds. The Science Processing Operations Center (SPOC) is being developed based on the Kepler science pipeline and will generate calibrated pixels and light curves on the NAS Pleiades supercomputer. The SPOC will search for periodic transit events and generate validation products for the transit-like features in the light curves. All TESS SPOC data products will be archived to the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes.

  3. PLANCK LFI Level 1 Processing During Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morisset, N.; Rohlfs, R.; Türler, M.; Meharga, M.; Binko, P.; Beck, M.; Frailis, M.; Zacchei, A.; Galeotta, S.

    2008-08-01

    The PLANCK satellite with two on-board instruments, a Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) and a High Frequency Instrument (HFI) is foreseen to be launched in August 2008 with Ariane 5. The Data Processing Centre (DPC) in Trieste, Italy for LFI is responsible for processing the PLANCK LFI data. The ISDC data centre in Switzerland is responsible for developing/installing and maintaining the software for the LFI Level 1 data processing presented here. The main tasks of the Level 1 processing are to retrieve the daily available consolidated scientific and housekeeping (HK) data of the LFI instrument from the Mission Operation Centre in Darmstadt (MOC); to sort them by time and by type (detector, observing mode, etc...); to extract the spacecraft attitude information from auxiliary files; to flag the data according to several criteria; and to archive the resulting Time Ordered Information (TOI). The TOI data generated by the level 1 pipeline are the input for the more scientific LFI level 2 processing. The TOI are first stored in FITS format and then ingested into the Data Management Component (DMC) system, which is the interface to the LFI DPC database. In addition, the ISDC also developed software tools to display and perform a quick look analysis of the data.

  4. Combining decision support and image processing: a PROforma model.

    PubMed

    Sordo, M; Fox, J; Blum, C; Taylor, P; Lee, R; Alberdi, E

    2001-01-01

    This paper addresses two important problems in medical image interpretation:(1) integration of numeric and symbolic information, (2) access to external sources of medical knowledge. We have developed a prototype in which image processing algorithms are combined with symbolic representations for reasoning, decision making and task management in an integrated, platform-independent system for the differential diagnosis of abnormalities in mammograms. The prototype is based on PROforma, a generic technology for building decision support systems based on clinical guidelines. The PROforma language defines a set of tasks, one of which, the enquiry, is used as means of interaction with the outside world. However, the current enquiry model has proved to be too limited for our purposes. In this paper we outline a more general model, which can be used as an interface between symbolic functions and image or other signal data.

  5. What can Natural Language Processing do for Clinical Decision Support?

    PubMed Central

    Demner-Fushman, Dina; Chapman, Wendy W.; McDonald, Clement J.

    2009-01-01

    Computerized Clinical Decision Support (CDS) aims to aid decision making of health care providers and the public by providing easily accessible health-related information at the point and time it is needed. Natural Language Processing (NLP) is instrumental in using free-text information to drive CDS, representing clinical knowledge and CDS interventions in standardized formats, and leveraging clinical narrative. The early innovative NLP research of clinical narrative was followed by a period of stable research conducted at the major clinical centers and a shift of mainstream interest to biomedical NLP. This review primarily focuses on the recently renewed interest in development of fundamental NLP methods and advances in the NLP systems for CDS. The current solutions to challenges posed by distinct sublanguages, intended user groups, and support goals are discussed. PMID:19683066

  6. Consumer Education Curriculum Modules: A Spiral-Process Approach. 3. Decision Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Patricia D.; And Others

    The Decision Process curriculum module is part of a consumer education series (grades 9-14; adults, including elderly) that emphasizes a process approach with a spiral organization. The process approach helps the student in a changing consumer world to function rationally and in a manner consistent with personal values, while the spiral…

  7. The Modeling of Employment Decisions for Peacetime Contingency Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    normal teachings associated with the military profession" (50:5). Toose teachings, which restrict our understanding of LIC, include cultural stereotypes as...11. A. Bruce Clarke and Ralph L. Disney . Probability and Random Processes: A First Course with Applications. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1985. 12

  8. Decision Gate Process for Assessment of a Technology Development Portfolio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohli, Rajiv; Fishman, Julianna; Hyatt, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Dust Management Project (DMP) was established to provide technologies (to TRL 6 development level) required to address adverse effects of lunar dust to humans and to exploration systems and equipment, which will reduce life cycle cost and risk, and will increase the probability of sustainable and successful lunar missions. The technology portfolio of DMP consisted of different categories of technologies whose final product is either a technology solution in itself, or one that contributes toward a dust mitigation strategy for a particular application. A Decision Gate Process (DGP) was developed to assess and validate the achievement and priority of the dust mitigation technologies as the technologies progress through the development cycle. The DGP was part of continuous technology assessment and was a critical element of DMP risk management. At the core of the process were technology-specific criteria developed to measure the success of each DMP technology in attaining the technology readiness levels assigned to each decision gate. The DGP accounts for both categories of technologies and qualifies the technology progression from technology development tasks to application areas. The process provided opportunities to validate performance, as well as to identify non-performance in time to adjust resources and direction. This paper describes the overall philosophy of the DGP and the methodology for implementation for DMP, and describes the method for defining the technology evaluation criteria. The process is illustrated by example of an application to a specific DMP technology.

  9. Evaluating participatory decision processes: which methods inform reflective practice?

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Sanda; Ozawa, Connie P; Shmueli, Deborah F

    2014-02-01

    Evaluating participatory decision processes serves two key purposes: validating the usefulness of specific interventions for stakeholders, interveners and funders of conflict management processes, and improving practice. However, evaluation design remains challenging, partly because when attempting to serve both purposes we may end up serving neither well. In fact, the better we respond to one, the less we may satisfy the other. Evaluations tend to focus on endogenous factors (e.g., stakeholder selection, BATNAs, mutually beneficial tradeoffs, quality of the intervention, etc.), because we believe that the success of participatory decision processes hinges on them, and they also seem to lend themselves to caeteris paribus statistical comparisons across cases. We argue that context matters too and that contextual differences among specific cases are meaningful enough to undermine conclusions derived solely from comparisons of process-endogenous factors implicitly rooted in the caeteris paribus assumption. We illustrate this argument with an environmental mediation case. We compare data collected about it through surveys geared toward comparability across cases to information elicited through in-depth interviews geared toward case specifics. The surveys, designed by the U.S. Institute of Environmental Conflict Resolution, feed a database of environmental conflicts that can help make the (statistical) case for intervention in environmental conflict management. Our interviews elicit case details - including context - that enable interveners to link context specifics and intervention actions to outcomes. We argue that neither approach can "serve both masters."

  10. Decision making: operative versus nonoperative treatment of acromioclavicular joint injuries.

    PubMed

    Bradley, James P; Elkousy, Hussein

    2003-04-01

    The classification system devised by Allman and Tossy, and revised by Rockwood, defines the extent of injury to the AC joint and helps to guide management of AC joint injuries [1,4,6]. In general, type I and II injuries may be treated nonoperatively with a sling, mainly for comfort, for a short period of time. Once this is removed, strength and motion are regained with rehabilitation. Patients typically have manageable long-term symptoms without any intervention, but some may require a steroid injection or distal clavicle excision for chronic pain from degenerative changes at the AC joint due to the injury. On the other end of the spectrum, type IV, V, and VI injuries nearly always require operative intervention. The surgical procedures for these injuries are performed in the acute phase if possible to minimize symptoms and maximize long-term function. Type III injuries are the center of the controversy for management of AC joint injuries. No perfect study exists which demonstrates clear superiority of surgical or nonsurgical treatment. Most of the studies in the literature support nonoperative treatment for most patients, however. Yet, other factors must be considered, including the patient's occupation and physical demands as well as the age of the injury. Overhead athletes and manual laborers place high demands on their shoulders, prompting some authors to consider acute surgical management for these patients. We, on the other hand, agree with the current consensus opinion that all type III injuries should initially be treated conservatively, regardless of occupation. The only advantage to operative intervention consistently borne out in the literature is an increased probability of anatomic reduction. There is no correlation between reduction and improvement in pain, strength, or motion, however. These patients usually are able to return to full sport with no deficits if rehabilitation is emphasized. For those patients who fail conservative management, a

  11. A Case Study of the Decision-Making Process of Educational Leaders When Considering Program Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Scott

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to discover what school leaders considered during the decision-making process when adding a transitional kindergarten program and how the decision was made. This study investigated the decision-making process for superintendents and principals by examining decisions made by rural, suburban, and large school…

  12. 24 CFR 55.11 - Applicability of subpart C decision making process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Management § 55.11 Applicability of subpart C decision making process. (a) Before reaching the decision... table indicates the applicability, by location and type of action, of the decision making process for... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Applicability of subpart C decision...

  13. 24 CFR 55.11 - Applicability of subpart C decision making process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Management § 55.11 Applicability of subpart C decision making process. (a) Before reaching the decision... table indicates the applicability, by location and type of action, of the decision making process for... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Applicability of subpart C decision...

  14. 24 CFR 55.11 - Applicability of subpart C decision making process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Management § 55.11 Applicability of subpart C decision making process. (a) Before reaching the decision... table indicates the applicability, by location and type of action, of the decision making process for... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicability of subpart C decision...

  15. 24 CFR 55.11 - Applicability of subpart C decision making process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Management § 55.11 Applicability of subpart C decision making process. (a) Before reaching the decision... table indicates the applicability, by location and type of action, of the decision making process for... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Applicability of subpart C decision...

  16. A systematic development process for patient decision aids

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The original version of the International Patient Decision Aid Standards (IPDAS) recommended that patient decision aids (PtDAs) should be carefully developed, user-tested and open to scrutiny, with a well-documented and systematically applied development process. We carried out a review to check the relevance and scope of this quality dimension and, if necessary, to update it. Methods Our review drew on three sources: a) published papers describing PtDAs evaluated in randomised controlled trials and included in the most recent Cochrane Collaboration review; b) linked papers cited in the trial reports that described how the PtDAs had been developed; and c) papers and web reports outlining the development process used by organisations experienced in developing multiple PtDAs. We then developed an extended model of the development process indicating the various steps on which documentation is required, as well as a checklist to assess the frequency with which each of the elements was publicly reported. Results Key features common to all patient decision aid (PtDA) development processes include: scoping and design; development of a prototype; ‘alpha’ testing with patients and clinicians in an iterative process; ‘beta’ testing in ‘real life’ conditions (field tests); and production of a final version for use and/or further evaluation. Only about half of the published reports on the development of PtDAs that we reviewed appear to have been field tested with patients, and even fewer had been reviewed or tested by clinicians not involved in the development process. Very few described a distribution strategy, and surprisingly few (17%) described a method for reviewing and synthesizing the clinical evidence. We describe a model development process that includes all the original elements of the original IPDAS criterion, expanded to include consideration of format and distribution plans as well as prototype development. Conclusions The case for including

  17. Quantifying process tradeoffs in the operation of chromatographic sequences.

    PubMed

    Ngiam, Sheau-Huey; Bracewell, Daniel G; Zhou, Yuhong; Titchener-Hooker, Nigel J

    2003-01-01

    A method for the rapid representation of key process tradeoffs that need to be made during the analysis of chromatographic sequences has been proposed. It involves the construction of fractionation and maximum purification factor versus yield diagrams, which can be completed easily on the basis of chromatographic data. The output of the framework developed reflects the degree of tradeoff between levels of yield and purity and provides a fast and precise prediction of the sample fraction collection strategy needed to meet a desired process specification. The usefulness of this approach for the purposes of product purification and contaminant removal in a single chromatographic step has been successfully demonstrated in an earlier paper and it is now extended by application to a chromatographic sequence: the separation of a hypothetical three-component protein system by hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) followed by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The HIC operation has a strong impact upon the subsequent SEC step. The studies show how the analysis of performance in such a chromatographic sequence can be carried out easily and in a straightforward fashion using the fractionation diagram approach. The methodology proposed serves as a useful tool for identifying the process tradeoffs that must be made during operation of a sequence of chromatographic steps and indicates the impact on further processing of the cut-point decisions that are made.

  18. Evolution of Pediatric Chronic Disease Treatment Decisions: A Qualitative, Longitudinal View of Parents' Decision-Making Process.

    PubMed

    Lipstein, Ellen A; Britto, Maria T

    2015-08-01

    In the context of pediatric chronic conditions, patients and families are called upon repeatedly to make treatment decisions. However, little is known about how their decision making evolves over time. The objective was to understand parents' processes for treatment decision making in pediatric chronic conditions. We conducted a qualitative, prospective longitudinal study using recorded clinic visits and individual interviews. After consent was obtained from health care providers, parents, and patients, clinic visits during which treatment decisions were expected to be discussed were video-recorded. Parents then participated in sequential telephone interviews about their decision-making experience. Data were coded by 2 people and analyzed using framework analysis with sequential, time-ordered matrices. 21 families, including 29 parents, participated in video-recording and interviews. We found 3 dominant patterns of decision evolution. Each consisted of a series of decision events, including conversations, disease flares, and researching of treatment options. Within all 3 patterns there were both constant and evolving elements of decision making, such as role perceptions and treatment expectations, respectively. After parents made a treatment decision, they immediately turned to the next decision related to the chronic condition, creating an iterative cycle. In this study, decision making was an iterative process occurring in 3 distinct patterns. Understanding these patterns and the varying elements of parents' decision processes is an essential step toward developing interventions that are appropriate to the setting and that capitalize on the skills families may develop as they gain experience with a chronic condition. Future research should also consider the role of children and adolescents in this decision process. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Allogeneic cell therapy bioprocess economics and optimization: downstream processing decisions.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Sally; Simaria, Ana S; Varadaraju, Hemanthram; Gupta, Siddharth; Warren, Kim; Farid, Suzanne S

    2015-01-01

    To develop a decisional tool to identify the most cost effective process flowsheets for allogeneic cell therapies across a range of production scales. A bioprocess economics and optimization tool was built to assess competing cell expansion and downstream processing (DSP) technologies. Tangential flow filtration was generally more cost-effective for the lower cells/lot achieved in planar technologies and fluidized bed centrifugation became the only feasible option for handling large bioreactor outputs. DSP bottlenecks were observed at large commercial lot sizes requiring multiple large bioreactors. The DSP contribution to the cost of goods/dose ranged between 20-55%, and 50-80% for planar and bioreactor flowsheets, respectively. This analysis can facilitate early decision-making during process development.

  20. Contingency Management and Deliberative Decision-Making Processes

    PubMed Central

    Regier, Paul S.; Redish, A. David

    2015-01-01

    Contingency management is an effective treatment for drug addiction. The current explanation for its success is rooted in alternative reinforcement theory. We suggest that alternative reinforcement theory is inadequate to explain the success of contingency management and produce a model based on demand curves that show how little the monetary rewards offered in this treatment would affect drug use. Instead, we offer an explanation of its success based on the concept that it accesses deliberative decision-making processes. We suggest that contingency management is effective because it offers a concrete and immediate alternative to using drugs, which engages deliberative processes, improves the ability of those deliberative processes to attend to non-drug options, and offsets more automatic action-selection systems. This theory makes explicit predictions that can be tested, suggests which users will be most helped by contingency management, and suggests improvements in its implementation. PMID:26082725

  1. Contingency Management and Deliberative Decision-Making Processes.

    PubMed

    Regier, Paul S; Redish, A David

    2015-01-01

    Contingency management is an effective treatment for drug addiction. The current explanation for its success is rooted in alternative reinforcement theory. We suggest that alternative reinforcement theory is inadequate to explain the success of contingency management and produce a model based on demand curves that show how little the monetary rewards offered in this treatment would affect drug use. Instead, we offer an explanation of its success based on the concept that it accesses deliberative decision-making processes. We suggest that contingency management is effective because it offers a concrete and immediate alternative to using drugs, which engages deliberative processes, improves the ability of those deliberative processes to attend to non-drug options, and offsets more automatic action-selection systems. This theory makes explicit predictions that can be tested, suggests which users will be most helped by contingency management, and suggests improvements in its implementation.

  2. Markov decision processes with iterated coherent risk measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Shanyun; Zhang, Yi

    2014-11-01

    This paper considers a Markov decision process in Borel state and action spaces with the aggregated (or say iterated) coherent risk measure to be minimised. For this problem, we establish the Bellman optimality equation as well as the value and policy iteration algorithms, and show the existence of a deterministic stationary optimal policy. The cost function, while being allowed to be unbounded from below (in the sense that its negative part needs be bounded by some nonnegative real-valued possibly unbounded weight function), can be arbitrarily unbounded from above and possibly infinitely valued.

  3. Justification pressure in risky decision making: search for risk defusing operators.

    PubMed

    Huber, Oswald; Bär, Arlette S; Huber, Odilo W

    2009-01-01

    Under justification pressure, the decision maker knows in advance that the decision has to be justified to somebody afterwards. The effect of justification pressure on the search for risk defusing operators (RDOs) and the role of RDOs in the justification texts were investigated. An RDO is an action intended by the decision maker to be performed in addition to an otherwise attractive alternative to decrease the risk. As predicted, in Experiment 1 participants (60 non-students) under justification pressure searched more RDOs. Additionally, in Experiment 2 (80 non-students) RDO search success was varied. Under justification pressure, persistence of RDO search was higher when no RDO could be detected. In the justification texts, the existence or non-existence of RDOs played a prominent role. Searching for RDOs supports people in their goal to make a good decision and in their attempt to convince the addressee of their justification that the decision was good.

  4. Dimension reduction of decision variables for multireservoir operation: A spectral optimization model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Duan; Leon, Arturo S.; Gibson, Nathan L.; Hosseini, Parnian

    2016-01-01

    Optimizing the operation of a multireservoir system is challenging due to the high dimension of the decision variables that lead to a large and complex search space. A spectral optimization model (SOM), which transforms the decision variables from time domain to frequency domain, is proposed to reduce the dimensionality. The SOM couples a spectral dimensionality-reduction method called Karhunen-Loeve (KL) expansion within the routine of Nondominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II). The KL expansion is used to represent the decision variables as a series of terms that are deterministic orthogonal functions with undetermined coefficients. The KL expansion can be truncated into fewer significant terms, and consequently, fewer coefficients by a predetermined number. During optimization, operators of the NSGA-II (e.g., crossover) are conducted only on the coefficients of the KL expansion rather than the large number of decision variables, significantly reducing the search space. The SOM is applied to the short-term operation of a 10-reservoir system in the Columbia River of the United States. Two scenarios are considered herein, the first with 140 decision variables and the second with 3360 decision variables. The hypervolume index is used to evaluate the optimization performance in terms of convergence and diversity. The evaluation of optimization performance is conducted for both conventional optimization model (i.e., NSGA-II without KL) and the SOM with different number of KL terms. The results show that the number of decision variables can be greatly reduced in the SOM to achieve a similar or better performance compared to the conventional optimization model. For the scenario with 140 decision variables, the optimal performance of the SOM model is found with six KL terms. For the scenario with 3360 decision variables, the optimal performance of the SOM model is obtained with 11 KL terms.

  5. The TESS science processing operations center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Jon M.; Twicken, Joseph D.; McCauliff, Sean; Campbell, Jennifer; Sanderfer, Dwight; Lung, David; Mansouri-Samani, Masoud; Girouard, Forrest; Tenenbaum, Peter; Klaus, Todd; Smith, Jeffrey C.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Chacon, A. D.; Henze, Christopher; Heiges, Cory; Latham, David W.; Morgan, Edward; Swade, Daryl; Rinehart, Stephen; Vanderspek, Roland

    2016-08-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) will conduct a search for Earth's closest cousins starting in early 2018 and is expected to discover 1,000 small planets with Rp < 4 R⊕ and measure the masses of at least 50 of these small worlds. The Science Processing Operations Center (SPOC) is being developed at NASA Ames Research Center based on the Kepler science pipeline and will generate calibrated pixels and light curves on the NASA Advanced Supercomputing Division's Pleiades supercomputer. The SPOC will also search for periodic transit events and generate validation products for the transit-like features in the light curves. All TESS SPOC data products will be archived to the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST).

  6. The TESS Science Processing Operations Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Jon M.; Twicken, Joseph D.; McCauliff, Sean; Campbell, Jennifer; Sanderfer, Dwight; Lung, David; Mansouri-Samani, Masoud; Girouard, Forrest; Tenenbaum, Peter; Klaus, Todd; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) will conduct a search for Earth's closest cousins starting in early 2018 and is expected to discover approximately 1,000 small planets with R(sub p) less than 4 (solar radius) and measure the masses of at least 50 of these small worlds. The Science Processing Operations Center (SPOC) is being developed at NASA Ames Research Center based on the Kepler science pipeline and will generate calibrated pixels and light curves on the NASA Advanced Supercomputing Division's Pleiades supercomputer. The SPOC will also search for periodic transit events and generate validation products for the transit-like features in the light curves. All TESS SPOC data products will be archived to the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST).

  7. Judicial Views of Parole Decision Processes: A Social Science Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metchik, Eric

    1992-01-01

    Notes that future prospects for parole at the federal and state levels are increasingly unclear. Presents a way to integrate various conceptions of parole according to the broader sentencing framework within which board members operate. Discusses implications for due process requirements at parole hearings and guidelines reform efforts. (Author/NB)

  8. When parsimony is not enough: Considering dual processes and dual levels of influence in sexual decision making

    PubMed Central

    Rendina, H. Jonathon

    2015-01-01

    The literature on sexual decision making that has been used to understand behaviors relevant to HIV and STI risk has relied primarily on cognitive antecedents of behavior. In contrast, several prominent models of decision making outside of the sexual behavior literature rely on dual process models, in which both affective and cognitive processing are considered important precursors to behavior. Moreover, much of the literature on sexual behavior utilizes individual-level traits and characteristics to predict aggregated sexual behavior, despite decision making itself being a situational or event-level process. This paper proposes a framework for understanding sexual decision making as the result of dual processes (affective and cognitive) operating at dual level of influence (individual and situational). Finally, the paper ends with a discussion of the conceptual and methodological benefits and challenges to its use and future directions for research. PMID:26168978

  9. When parsimony is not enough: considering dual processes and dual levels of influence in sexual decision making.

    PubMed

    Rendina, H Jonathon

    2015-10-01

    The literature on sexual decision making that has been used to understand behaviors relevant to HIV and STI risk has relied primarily on cognitive antecedents of behavior. In contrast, several prominent models of decision making outside of the sexual behavior literature rely on dual process models, in which both affective and cognitive processing are considered as important precursors to behavior. Moreover, much of the literature on sexual behavior utilizes individual-level traits and characteristics to predict aggregated sexual behavior, despite decision making itself being a situational or event-level process. This article proposes a framework for understanding sexual decision making as the result of dual processes (affective and cognitive) operating at dual level of influence (individual and situational). Finally, this article ends with a discussion of the conceptual and methodological benefits and challenges to its use and future directions for research.

  10. Pavement maintenance optimization model using Markov Decision Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandiartha, P.; Duffield, C. F.; Razelan, I. S. b. M.; Ismail, A. b. H.

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents an optimization model for selection of pavement maintenance intervention using a theory of Markov Decision Processes (MDP). There are some particular characteristics of the MDP developed in this paper which distinguish it from other similar studies or optimization models intended for pavement maintenance policy development. These unique characteristics include a direct inclusion of constraints into the formulation of MDP, the use of an average cost method of MDP, and the policy development process based on the dual linear programming solution. The limited information or discussions that are available on these matters in terms of stochastic based optimization model in road network management motivates this study. This paper uses a data set acquired from road authorities of state of Victoria, Australia, to test the model and recommends steps in the computation of MDP based stochastic optimization model, leading to the development of optimum pavement maintenance policy.

  11. Trade off relationships: incorporating ecosystem spatial scale and timing issues into the decision making process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beevers, Lindsay; Tilmant, Amaury; Mwelwa, Elenestina

    2010-05-01

    In large hydropower-dominated river basins, reservoirs are mainly operated so as to maximize revenues from energy generation regardless of the consequences of reduced flow fluctuation on downstream ecosystems. Revenue from hydropower plants is essential to a country's economy; however the impact on ecosystems downstream can be large-scale. The timing of flow releases does not mimic natural systems, which has impacts over different temporal and physio-spatial scales to the ecosystem. To inform decision making often hydro-economic modeling is used and it is essential that the response of the system is understood and incorporated adequately into assessment design, to allow for trade-offs to be identified. This requires issues of timing and spatial scale to be understood and incorporated over different planning horizons. Nesting these issues of scale into decisions is complex; where decisions are made on timescales from hours to months and spatially within a basin depending on the operation of the system. Up-scaling the most critical interactions between flow, form and ecosystem into the decision making process, for different time horizons or planning scales, is essential. A proposed framework is illustrated with the Zambezi basin.

  12. Decision Support Services provided by the NWS Alaska Regional Operations Center in 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Breukelen, C. M.; Osiensky, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    The NWS Alaska Region's Regional Operations Center (AR ROC) provides a variety of decision support services to partners and customers across the state. The AR ROC is virtual most times but can flex to stand up support for partners as needed. Support can vary from briefings over the phone or in person to dedicated virtual support to providing on-site meteorologist at an Emergency Operations Center or Incident Command Post to provide tailored support services. During 2015 there have been a number of situations where the AR ROC provided unique support services. This presentation will outline a few examples of how these unique support services benefitted partner agency decisions.

  13. Kennedy Space Center Orion Processing Team Planning for Ground Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Letchworth, Gary; Schlierf, Roland

    2011-01-01

    Topics in this presentation are: Constellation Ares I/Orion/Ground Ops Elements Orion Ground Operations Flow Orion Operations Planning Process and Toolset Overview, including: 1 Orion Concept of Operations by Phase 2 Ops Analysis Capabilities Overview 3 Operations Planning Evolution 4 Functional Flow Block Diagrams 5 Operations Timeline Development 6 Discrete Event Simulation (DES) Modeling 7 Ground Operations Planning Document Database (GOPDb) Using Operations Planning Tools for Operability Improvements includes: 1 Kaizen/Lean Events 2 Mockups 3 Human Factors Analysis

  14. Effects of stochastic interest rates in decision making under risk: A Markov decision process model for forest management

    Treesearch

    Mo Zhou; Joseph Buongiorno

    2011-01-01

    Most economic studies of forest decision making under risk assume a fixed interest rate. This paper investigated some implications of this stochastic nature of interest rates. Markov decision process (MDP) models, used previously to integrate stochastic stand growth and prices, can be extended to include variable interest rates as well. This method was applied to...

  15. Facilitating Administrative Decision-Making and Organizational Change via a Decision-Making Process as Social Enterprise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Arthur S.; And Others

    This paper develops a theory-practice view of administrative and organizational decision making. Its goals are to improve administrative decision-making processes, facilitate organizational change through faculty involvement, and increase the potential for success in education reform efforts. The first sections discuss the nature of theory and…

  16. Learning Decision Making: Specifications to Guide Processes in Future Comprehensive High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pease, Virginia H.; Copa, George H.

    Three ways to think about decision making in public high schools are to think about the types of decisions that are made, the approaches to the decision-making process, and the principles underlying decision making. The Design Group for New Designs for the Comprehensive High School refers to a set of principles as design specifications. They have…

  17. The Contribution of a Decision Support System to Educational Decision-Making Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Joseph; Ronen, Herman

    2003-01-01

    In the light of reports of bias, the present study investigated the hypothesis that administrative educational decisions assisted by Decision Support Systems (DSS) are characterized by different pedagogical and organizational orientation than decisions made without computer assistance. One hundred and ten high school teachers were asked to suggest…

  18. The Contribution of a Decision Support System to Educational Decision-Making Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Joseph; Ronen, Herman

    2003-01-01

    In the light of reports of bias, the present study investigated the hypothesis that administrative educational decisions assisted by Decision Support Systems (DSS) are characterized by different pedagogical and organizational orientation than decisions made without computer assistance. One hundred and ten high school teachers were asked to suggest…

  19. International Patients' Travel Decision Making Process- A Conceptual Framework.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Jamal; Chelliah, Shankar; Haron, Mahmod Sabri

    2016-02-01

    Role of information source, perceived benefits and risks, and destination image has significantly been examined in travel and tourism literature; however, in medical tourism it is yet to be examined thoroughly. The concept discussed in this article is drawn form well established models in tourism literature. The purpose of this research was to identify the source of information, travel benefits and perceived risks related to movement of international patients and develop a conceptual model based on well-established theory. Thorough database search (Science Direct, utmj.org, nih.gov, nchu.edu.tw, palgrave-journals, medretreat, Biomedcentral) was performed to fulfill the objectives of the study. International patients always concern about benefits and risks related to travel. These benefits and risks form images of destination in the minds of international patients. Different sources of information make international patients acquaint about the associated benefits and risks, which later leads to development of intention to visit. This conceptual paper helps in establishing model for decision-making process of international patients in developing visit intention. Ample amount of literature is available detailing different factors involved in travel decision making of international patients; however literature explaining relationship between these factors is scarce.

  20. International Patients’ Travel Decision Making Process- A Conceptual Framework

    PubMed Central

    KHAN, Mohammad Jamal; CHELLIAH, Shankar; HARON, Mahmod Sabri

    2016-01-01

    Background: Role of information source, perceived benefits and risks, and destination image has significantly been examined in travel and tourism literature; however, in medical tourism it is yet to be examined thoroughly. The concept discussed in this article is drawn form well established models in tourism literature. Methods: The purpose of this research was to identify the source of information, travel benefits and perceived risks related to movement of international patients and develop a conceptual model based on well-established theory. Thorough database search (Science Direct, utmj.org, nih.gov, nchu.edu.tw, palgrave-journals, medretreat, Biomedcentral) was performed to fulfill the objectives of the study. Results: International patients always concern about benefits and risks related to travel. These benefits and risks form images of destination in the minds of international patients. Different sources of information make international patients acquaint about the associated benefits and risks, which later leads to development of intention to visit. This conceptual paper helps in establishing model for decision-making process of international patients in developing visit intention. Conclusion: Ample amount of literature is available detailing different factors involved in travel decision making of international patients; however literature explaining relationship between these factors is scarce. PMID:27114978

  1. Qualitative modeling of the decision-making process using electrooculography.

    PubMed

    Marandi, Ramtin Zargari; Sabzpoushan, S H

    2015-12-01

    A novel method based on electrooculography (EOG) has been introduced in this work to study the decision-making process. An experiment was designed and implemented wherein subjects were asked to choose between two items from the same category that were presented within a limited time. The EOG and voice signals of the subjects were recorded during the experiment. A calibration task was performed to map the EOG signals to their corresponding gaze positions on the screen by using an artificial neural network. To analyze the data, 16 parameters were extracted from the response time and EOG signals of the subjects. Evaluation and comparison of the parameters, together with subjects' choices, revealed functional information. On the basis of this information, subjects switched their eye gazes between items about three times on average. We also found, according to statistical hypothesis testing-that is, a t test, t(10) = 71.62, SE = 1.25, p < .0001-that the correspondence rate of a subjects' gaze at the moment of selection with the selected item was significant. Ultimately, on the basis of these results, we propose a qualitative choice model for the decision-making task.

  2. Information Technology Process Improvement Decision-Making: An Exploratory Study from the Perspective of Process Owners and Process Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamp, Sandra A.

    2012-01-01

    There is information available in the literature that discusses information technology (IT) governance and investment decision making from an executive-level perception, yet there is little information available that offers the perspective of process owners and process managers pertaining to their role in IT process improvement and investment…

  3. Information Technology Process Improvement Decision-Making: An Exploratory Study from the Perspective of Process Owners and Process Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamp, Sandra A.

    2012-01-01

    There is information available in the literature that discusses information technology (IT) governance and investment decision making from an executive-level perception, yet there is little information available that offers the perspective of process owners and process managers pertaining to their role in IT process improvement and investment…

  4. Eielson Air Force Base operable unit 2 and other areas record of decision

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, R.E.; Smith, R.M.

    1994-10-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial actions and no action decisions for Operable Unit 2 (OU2) at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB), Alaska, chosen in accordance with state and federal regulations. This document also presents the decision that no further action is required for 21 other source areas at Eielson AFB. This decision is based on the administrative record file for this site. OU2 addresses sites contaminated by leaks and spills of fuels. Soils contaminated with petroleum products occur at or near the source of contamination. Contaminated subsurface soil and groundwater occur in plumes on the top of a shallow groundwater table that fluctuates seasonally. These sites pose a risk to human health and the environment because of ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact with contaminated groundwater. The purpose of this response is to prevent current or future exposure to the contaminated groundwater, to reduce further contaminant migration into the groundwater, and to remediate groundwater.

  5. Keeping Signals Straight: How Cells Process Information and Make Decisions.

    PubMed

    Laub, Michael T

    2016-07-01

    As we become increasingly dependent on electronic information-processing systems at home and work, it's easy to lose sight of the fact that our very survival depends on highly complex biological information-processing systems. Each of the trillions of cells that form the human body has the ability to detect and respond to a wide range of stimuli and inputs, using an extraordinary set of signaling proteins to process this information and make decisions accordingly. Indeed, cells in all organisms rely on these signaling proteins to survive and proliferate in unpredictable and sometimes rapidly changing environments. But how exactly do these proteins relay information within cells, and how do they keep a multitude of incoming signals straight? Here, I describe recent efforts to understand the fidelity of information flow inside cells. This work is providing fundamental insight into how cells function. Additionally, it may lead to the design of novel antibiotics that disrupt the signaling of pathogenic bacteria or it could help to guide the treatment of cancer, which often involves information-processing gone awry inside human cells.

  6. Context-Driven Decision Making in Network-Centric Operations: Agent-Based Intelligent Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    SPIIRAS CKM Workshop (MIT, Cambridge, MA; January 24, 2006 Context-Driven Decision Making in Network-Centric Operations: Agent- Based Intelligent...Operations: Agent- Based Intelligent Support 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK...Enterprise and Multi-Agent Systems (Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, UK, 2003-2005) Ontology- Based New Order Code Generation for

  7. MIO Cortex: Memory Mechanisms for Operator-Expert Networked Decision Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    MIO Cortex: Memory Mechanisms for Operator-Expert Networked Decision Support Dr. Alex Bordetsky, Professor Steven Mullins, PhD student 19 Jun...DATE JUN 2013 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE MIO Cortex: Memory Mechanisms for Operator-Expert...Flow/Transfer • SME Reachback 3 Campaign of Experimentation - MIO We are examining: • Phenomenon and functionality of a memory system capable of

  8. Artificial intelligent decision support for low-cost launch vehicle integrated mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szatkowski, Gerard P.; Schultz, Roger

    1988-01-01

    The feasibility, benefits, and risks associated with Artificial Intelligence (AI) Expert Systems applied to low cost space expendable launch vehicle systems are reviewed. This study is in support of the joint USAF/NASA effort to define the next generation of a heavy-lift Advanced Launch System (ALS) which will provide economical and routine access to space. The significant technical goals of the ALS program include: a 10 fold reduction in cost per pound to orbit, launch processing in under 3 weeks, and higher reliability and safety standards than current expendables. Knowledge-based system techniques are being explored for the purpose of automating decision support processes in onboard and ground systems for pre-launch checkout and in-flight operations. Issues such as: satisfying real-time requirements, providing safety validation, hardware and Data Base Management System (DBMS) interfacing, system synergistic effects, human interfaces, and ease of maintainability, have an effect on the viability of expert systems as a useful tool.

  9. Artificial intelligent decision support for low-cost launch vehicle integrated mission operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szatkowski, Gerard P.; Schultz, Roger

    1988-11-01

    The feasibility, benefits, and risks associated with Artificial Intelligence (AI) Expert Systems applied to low cost space expendable launch vehicle systems are reviewed. This study is in support of the joint USAF/NASA effort to define the next generation of a heavy-lift Advanced Launch System (ALS) which will provide economical and routine access to space. The significant technical goals of the ALS program include: a 10 fold reduction in cost per pound to orbit, launch processing in under 3 weeks, and higher reliability and safety standards than current expendables. Knowledge-based system techniques are being explored for the purpose of automating decision support processes in onboard and ground systems for pre-launch checkout and in-flight operations. Issues such as: satisfying real-time requirements, providing safety validation, hardware and Data Base Management System (DBMS) interfacing, system synergistic effects, human interfaces, and ease of maintainability, have an effect on the viability of expert systems as a useful tool.

  10. Distinct and Overlapping Brain Areas Engaged during Value-Based, Mathematical, and Emotional Decision Processing.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chun-Wei; Goh, Joshua O S

    2016-01-01

    When comparing between the values of different choices, human beings can rely on either more cognitive processes, such as using mathematical computation, or more affective processes, such as using emotion. However, the neural correlates of how these two types of processes operate during value-based decision-making remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the extent to which neural regions engaged during value-based decision-making overlap with those engaged during mathematical and emotional processing in a within-subject manner. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, participants viewed stimuli that always consisted of numbers and emotional faces that depicted two choices. Across tasks, participants decided between the two choices based on the expected value of the numbers, a mathematical result of the numbers, or the emotional face stimuli. We found that all three tasks commonly involved various cortical areas including frontal, parietal, motor, somatosensory, and visual regions. Critically, the mathematical task shared common areas with the value but not emotion task in bilateral striatum. Although the emotion task overlapped with the value task in parietal, motor, and sensory areas, the mathematical task also evoked responses in other areas within these same cortical structures. Minimal areas were uniquely engaged for the value task apart from the other two tasks. The emotion task elicited a more expansive area of neural activity whereas value and mathematical task responses were in more focal regions. Whole-brain spatial correlation analysis showed that valuative processing engaged functional brain responses more similarly to mathematical processing than emotional processing. While decisions on expected value entail both mathematical and emotional processing regions, mathematical processes have a more prominent contribution particularly in subcortical processes.

  11. Distinct and Overlapping Brain Areas Engaged during Value-Based, Mathematical, and Emotional Decision Processing

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chun-Wei; Goh, Joshua O. S.

    2016-01-01

    When comparing between the values of different choices, human beings can rely on either more cognitive processes, such as using mathematical computation, or more affective processes, such as using emotion. However, the neural correlates of how these two types of processes operate during value-based decision-making remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the extent to which neural regions engaged during value-based decision-making overlap with those engaged during mathematical and emotional processing in a within-subject manner. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, participants viewed stimuli that always consisted of numbers and emotional faces that depicted two choices. Across tasks, participants decided between the two choices based on the expected value of the numbers, a mathematical result of the numbers, or the emotional face stimuli. We found that all three tasks commonly involved various cortical areas including frontal, parietal, motor, somatosensory, and visual regions. Critically, the mathematical task shared common areas with the value but not emotion task in bilateral striatum. Although the emotion task overlapped with the value task in parietal, motor, and sensory areas, the mathematical task also evoked responses in other areas within these same cortical structures. Minimal areas were uniquely engaged for the value task apart from the other two tasks. The emotion task elicited a more expansive area of neural activity whereas value and mathematical task responses were in more focal regions. Whole-brain spatial correlation analysis showed that valuative processing engaged functional brain responses more similarly to mathematical processing than emotional processing. While decisions on expected value entail both mathematical and emotional processing regions, mathematical processes have a more prominent contribution particularly in subcortical processes. PMID:27375466

  12. An information theoretic approach for generating an aircraft avoidance Markov Decision Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinert, Andrew J.

    Developing a collision avoidance system that can meet safety standards required of commercial aviation is challenging. A dynamic programming approach to collision avoidance has been developed to optimize and generate logics that are robust to the complex dynamics of the national airspace. The current approach represents the aircraft avoidance problem as Markov Decision Processes and independently optimizes a horizontal and vertical maneuver avoidance logics. This is a result of the current memory requirements for each logic, simply combining the logics will result in a significantly larger representation. The "curse of dimensionality" makes it computationally inefficient and unfeasible to optimize this larger representation. However, existing and future collision avoidance systems have mostly defined the decision process by hand. In response, a simulation-based framework was built to better understand how each potential state quantifies the aircraft avoidance problem with regards to safety and operational components. The framework leverages recent advances in signals processing and database, while enabling the highest fidelity analysis of Monte Carlo aircraft encounter simulations to date. This framework enabled the calculation of how well each state of the decision process quantifies the collision risk and the associated memory requirements. Using this analysis, a collision avoidance logic that leverages both horizontal and vertical actions was built and optimized using this simulation based approach.

  13. Using narratives to understand older people's decision-making processes.

    PubMed

    Tetley, Josephine; Grant, Gordon; Davies, Susan

    2009-09-01

    Despite the availability of health and social care services designed to support people in their own homes, older people often underuse or refuse these services. It is now acknowledged that this phenomenon contributes to older people being admitted to hospital and long-term care in circumstances that could be avoided. To understand how the uptake of supportive and preventative services can be improved, the first author, supervised by the second and third authors, developed a constructivist inquiry to explore what factors enhance or bar service use. This article describes how narratives were used not only to help identify decision- and choice-making influences, but also as a way of enhancing the hermeneutic processes associated with constructivism.

  14. The shared leadership process in decision-making teams.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Jacqueline Z; Rentsch, Joan R; Small, Erika E; Davenport, Shaun W; Bergman, Shawn M

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the process of shared leadership in 45 ad hoc decision-making teams. Each team member's leadership behavior (n = 180) was assessed by behaviorally coding videotapes of the teams' discussions. The within-team patterns of leadership behavior were examined using cluster analysis. Results indicated that the likelihood of a team experiencing a full range of leadership behavior increased to the extent that multiple team members shared leadership, and that teams with shared leadership experienced less conflict, greater consensus, and higher intragroup trust and cohesion than teams without shared leadership. This study supports previous findings that shared leadership contributes to overall team functioning, and begins to delineate the extent to which team members may naturally share leadership.

  15. Accelerated decomposition techniques for large discounted Markov decision processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larach, Abdelhadi; Chafik, S.; Daoui, C.

    2017-03-01

    Many hierarchical techniques to solve large Markov decision processes (MDPs) are based on the partition of the state space into strongly connected components (SCCs) that can be classified into some levels. In each level, smaller problems named restricted MDPs are solved, and then these partial solutions are combined to obtain the global solution. In this paper, we first propose a novel algorithm, which is a variant of Tarjan's algorithm that simultaneously finds the SCCs and their belonging levels. Second, a new definition of the restricted MDPs is presented to ameliorate some hierarchical solutions in discounted MDPs using value iteration (VI) algorithm based on a list of state-action successors. Finally, a robotic motion-planning example and the experiment results are presented to illustrate the benefit of the proposed decomposition algorithms.

  16. Qualitative Analysis of Partially-Observable Markov Decision Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Doyen, Laurent; Henzinger, Thomas A.

    We study observation-based strategies for partially-observable Markov decision processes (POMDPs) with parity objectives. An observation-based strategy relies on partial information about the history of a play, namely, on the past sequence of observations. We consider qualitative analysis problems: given a POMDP with a parity objective, decide whether there exists an observation-based strategy to achieve the objective with probability 1 (almost-sure winning), or with positive probability (positive winning). Our main results are twofold. First, we present a complete picture of the computational complexity of the qualitative analysis problem for POMDPs with parity objectives and its subclasses: safety, reachability, Büchi, and coBüchi objectives. We establish several upper and lower bounds that were not known in the literature. Second, we give optimal bounds (matching upper and lower bounds) for the memory required by pure and randomized observation-based strategies for each class of objectives.

  17. Decision Making for Resilience within the Context of Network Centric Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    Moreover, due to “ubiquitous connectivity” (Alberts, 2010), the highly networked cyber systems can result in losses that may cascade throughout multiple...Multi-Domain Networks Domains are networks and interdependency among individual layers and components needs to be accounted for. Copyright...1 19th ICCRTS Title of Paper: Decision Making for Resilience within the Context of Network Centric Operations

  18. 76 FR 34105 - FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Notice of Issuance of Director's Decision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Notice of Issuance of Director's Decision Notice is hereby...Energy Corporation, hereinafter referred to as FENOC. [NOTE: GPU Nuclear is the license holder for...

  19. Process validation: achieving the Operational Qualification phase.

    PubMed

    Buffaloe, Vera

    2004-01-01

    The OQ phase of process validation is very important and is where the complete understanding of the process is determined by experimentation. This understanding is useful to: * establish optimal process parameters * understand variation that affect the process * aid in investigating process deviations. OQ is an important part of the entire process validation activity and essential to understanding a manufacturing process. The benefits of completing the OQ and overall process validation are the reasons that it makes business sense and receive the long-term benefits of producing high quality product and achieving customer satisfaction.

  20. Integrating Climate Information and Decision Processes for Regional Climate Resilience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buizer, James; Goddard, Lisa; Guido, Zackry

    2015-04-01

    An integrated multi-disciplinary team of researchers from the University of Arizona and the International Research Institute for Climate and Society at Columbia University have joined forces with communities and institutions in the Caribbean, South Asia and West Africa to develop relevant, usable climate information and connect it to real decisions and development challenges. The overall objective of the "Integrating Climate Information and Decision Processes for Regional Climate Resilience" program is to build community resilience to negative impacts of climate variability and change. We produce and provide science-based climate tools and information to vulnerable peoples and the public, private, and civil society organizations that serve them. We face significant institutional challenges because of the geographical and cultural distance between the locale of climate tool-makers and the locale of climate tool-users and because of the complicated, often-inefficient networks that link them. To use an accepted metaphor, there is great institutional difficulty in coordinating the supply of and the demand for useful climate products that can be put to the task of building local resilience and reducing climate vulnerability. Our program is designed to reduce the information constraint and to initiate a linkage that is more demand driven, and which provides a set of priorities for further climate tool generation. A demand-driven approach to the co-production of appropriate and relevant climate tools seeks to meet the direct needs of vulnerable peoples as these needs have been canvassed empirically and as the benefits of application have been adequately evaluated. We first investigate how climate variability and climate change affect the livelihoods of vulnerable peoples. In so doing we assess the complex institutional web within which these peoples live -- the public agencies that serve them, their forms of access to necessary information, the structural constraints

  1. Age Differences in Dual Information-Processing Modes: Implications for Cancer Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Ellen; Diefenbach, Michael A.; Hess, Thomas M.; Västfjäll, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Age differences in affective/experiential and deliberative processes have important theoretical implications for cancer decision making as cancer is often a disease of older adulthood. We examine evidence for adult age differences in affective and deliberative information processes, review the sparse evidence about age differences in decision making and introduce how dual process theories and their findings might be applied to cancer decision making. Age-related declines in the efficiency of deliberative processes predict poorer-quality decisions as we age, particularly when decisions are unfamiliar and the information is numeric. However, age-related adaptive processes, including an increased focus on emotional goals and greater experience, can influence decision making and potentially offset age-related declines. A better understanding of the mechanisms that underlie cancer decision processes in our aging population should ultimately allow us to help older adults to better help themselves. PMID:19058148

  2. User participation in mental health nurse decision-making: a co-operative enquiry.

    PubMed

    Tee, Steve; Lathlean, Judith; Herbert, Lesley; Coldham, Tina; East, Bella; Johnson, Tammy-Jo

    2007-10-01

    This paper is a report of a study to encourage participants to work together to identify strategies for increasing user participation in clinical decisions and to evaluate the value of co-operative inquiry as a vehicle for supporting learning in practice. Service user participation in the clinical practice decisions of mental health nurses is considered essential for good practice. Methods need to be found which enable opportunities for shared learning, facilitate practice development and empower service users. A co-operative inquiry design engaged all participants (n = 17) as co-researchers and involved repeated cycles of action and reflection, using multiple data collection methods. The research was conducted over a two year period in 2004-2005, with mental health nursing students collaborating with service users. Factors inhibiting participation included stigmatizing and paternalistic approaches, where clinical judgments were made solely on the basis of diagnosis. Enhancing factors were a respectful culture which recognized users ''expertise' and communicated belief in individual potential. Inquiry benefits included insight into service users' perspectives, enhanced confidence in decision-making, appreciation of power issues in helping relationships and deconstruction of decision-making within a safe learning environment. Learning from novel approaches which enable nursing students to develop their reflective and reflexive ability is essential to avoid practice which disempowers and potentially harms service users' recovery. Co-operative inquiry is a valuable vehicle for developing professional practice in higher education and practice environments.

  3. Titrating decision processes in the mental rotation task.

    PubMed

    Provost, Alexander; Heathcote, Andrew

    2015-10-01

    Shepard and Metzler's (1971) seminal mental-rotation task-which requires participants to decide if 1 object is a rotated version of another or its mirror image-has played a central role in the study of spatial cognition. We provide the first quantitative model of behavior in this task that is comprehensive in the sense of simultaneously providing an account of both error rates and the full distribution of response times. We used Brown and Heathcote's (2008) model of choice processing to separate out the contributions of mental rotation and decision stages. This model-based titration process was applied to data from a paradigm where converging evidence supported performance being based on rotation rather than other strategies. Stimuli were similar to Shepard and Metzler's block figures except a long major axis made rotation angle well defined for mirror stimuli, enabling comprehensive modeling of both mirror and normal responses. Results supported a mental rotation stage based on Larsen's (2014) model, where rotation takes a variable amount of time with a mean and variance that increase linearly with rotation angle. Differences in response threshold differences were largely responsible for mirror responses being slowed, and for errors increasing with rotation angle for some participants. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Space Launch System Complex Decision-Making Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyles, Garry; Flores, Tim; Hundley, Jason; Monk, Timothy; Feldman,Stuart

    2012-01-01

    The Space Shuttle program has ended and elements of the Constellation Program have either been cancelled or transitioned to new NASA exploration endeavors. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has worked diligently to select an optimum configuration for the Space Launch System (SLS), a heavy lift vehicle that will provide the foundation for future beyond low earth orbit (LEO) large-scale missions for the next several decades. From Fall 2010 until Spring 2011, an SLS decision-making framework was formulated, tested, fully documented, and applied to multiple SLS vehicle concepts at NASA from previous exploration architecture studies. This was a multistep process that involved performing figure of merit (FOM)-based assessments, creating Pass/Fail gates based on draft threshold requirements, performing a margin-based assessment with supporting statistical analyses, and performing sensitivity analysis on each. This paper focuses on the various steps and methods of this process (rather than specific data) that allowed for competing concepts to be compared across a variety of launch vehicle metrics in support of the successful completion of the SLS Mission Concept Review (MCR) milestone.

  5. Optimizing medical device buying. Value analysis models can help you improve decision-making process.

    PubMed

    Feldstein, Josh; Brooks, Elizabeth

    2010-05-01

    Value Analysis Models (VAMs) are a burgeoning analytical tool that can help materials managers, operating room managers, CFOs and others to make comparative value assessments before reaching a critical purchasing decision. Although relatively new to the hospital field, more and more manufacturers are supporting these initiatives to bring critical information to their customers and the health care industry. VAMs aren't designed to conclude that one product is better than another but to be a tool that can help make the product acquisition process much easier.

  6. Analysis of the decision-making process of nurse managers: a collective reflection.

    PubMed

    Eduardo, Elizabete Araujo; Peres, Aida Maris; de Almeida, Maria de Lourdes; Roglio, Karina de Dea; Bernardino, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    to analyze the decision-making model adopted by nurses from the perspective of some decision-making process theories. qualitative approach, based on action research. Semi-structured questionnaires and seminars were conducted from April to June 2012 in order to understand the nature of decisions and the decision-making process of nine nurses in position of managers at a public hospital in Southern Brazil. Data were subjected to content analysis. data were classified in two categories: the current situation of decision-making, which showed a lack of systematization; the construction and collective decision-making, which emphasizes the need to develop a decision-making model. the decision-making model used by nurses is limited because it does not consider two important factors: the limits of human rationality, and the external and internal organizational environments that influence and determine right decisions.

  7. Process Flow Diagrams for Training and Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venter, Jacobus

    This paper focuses on the use of process flow diagrams for training first responders who execute search and seizure warrants at electronic crime scenes. A generic process flow framework is presented, and the design goals and layout characteristics of process flow diagrams are discussed. An evaluation of the process flow diagrams used in training courses indicates that they are beneficial to first responders performing searches and seizures, and they speed up investigations, including those conducted by experienced personnel.

  8. The Military Decision-Making Process and Special Forces Mission Planning: "A Square Peg for a Round Hole?"

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    second step of the Military Decision-Making Process is a staff that has a shared visualization of an operation in time and space consistent with their...organizational functions in a more efficent and timely manner. 19980731 054 14.SUBJECT TERMS MDMP, Special Forces, FOB,SFOB, AOB,SFOD-A,SOCCE,SOLE,JSOTF...multiple and simultaneous operations to perform their organizational functions in a more efficient and timely manner. in ACKNOWLEDGMENTS During the

  9. Operator decision support system for integrated wastewater management including wastewater treatment plants and receiving water bodies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minsoo; Kim, Yejin; Kim, Hyosoo; Piao, Wenhua; Kim, Changwon

    2016-06-01

    An operator decision support system (ODSS) is proposed to support operators of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in making appropriate decisions. This system accounts for water quality (WQ) variations in WWTP influent and effluent and in the receiving water body (RWB). The proposed system is comprised of two diagnosis modules, three prediction modules, and a scenario-based supporting module (SSM). In the diagnosis modules, the WQs of the influent and effluent WWTP and of the RWB are assessed via multivariate analysis. Three prediction modules based on the k-nearest neighbors (k-NN) method, activated sludge model no. 2d (ASM2d) model, and QUAL2E model are used to forecast WQs for 3 days in advance. To compare various operating alternatives, SSM is applied to test various predetermined operating conditions in terms of overall oxygen transfer coefficient (Kla), waste sludge flow rate (Qw), return sludge flow rate (Qr), and internal recycle flow rate (Qir). In the case of unacceptable total phosphorus (TP), SSM provides appropriate information for the chemical treatment. The constructed ODSS was tested using data collected from Geumho River, which was the RWB, and S WWTP in Daegu City, South Korea. The results demonstrate the capability of the proposed ODSS to provide WWTP operators with more objective qualitative and quantitative assessments of WWTP and RWB WQs. Moreover, the current study shows that ODSS, using data collected from the study area, can be used to identify operational alternatives through SSM at an integrated urban wastewater management level.

  10. Launch Processing System operations with a future look to Operations Analyst (OPERA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heard, Astrid E.

    1987-01-01

    The Launch Processing System architecture and the ground support operations required to provide Shuttle System engineers with the capability to safely process and launch an Orbiter are described. The described ground operations are the culmination of eleven years of experience and redesign. Some of the 'lessons learned' are examined, and problem areas which ground support operations have identified over the years as the Shuttle and Launch Processing Systems continue to grow in complexity are discussed. The Operational Analyst for Distributed Systems (OPERA), a proposed set of expert systems for the Launch Processing System Operational assistance, is discussed along with its extensions to prospective future configurations and components for the Launch Processing System.

  11. Commercial Flight Crew Decision-Making during Low-Visibility Approach Operations Using Fused Synthetic/Enhanced Vision Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Bailey, Randall E.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III

    2007-01-01

    NASA is investigating revolutionary crew-vehicle interface technologies that strive to proactively overcome aircraft safety barriers that would otherwise constrain the full realization of the next-generation air transportation system. A fixed-based piloted simulation experiment was conducted to evaluate the complementary use of Synthetic and Enhanced Vision technologies. Specific focus was placed on new techniques for integration and/or fusion of Enhanced and Synthetic Vision and its impact within a two-crew flight deck on the crew's decision-making process during low-visibility approach and landing operations. Overall, the experimental data showed that significant improvements in situation awareness, without concomitant increases in workload and display clutter, could be provided by the integration and/or fusion of synthetic and enhanced vision technologies for the pilot-flying and the pilot-not-flying. During non-normal operations, the ability of the crew to handle substantial navigational errors and runway incursions were neither improved nor adversely impacted by the display concepts. The addition of Enhanced Vision may not, unto itself, provide an improvement in runway incursion detection without being specifically tailored for this application. Existing enhanced vision system procedures were effectively used in the crew decision-making process during approach and missed approach operations but having to forcibly transition from an excellent FLIR image to natural vision by 100 ft above field level was awkward for the pilot-flying.

  12. Telecardiology: supporting the decision-making process in general practice.

    PubMed

    Shanit, D; Cheng, A; Greenbaum, R A

    1996-01-01

    To assess the initial phase of a telecardiology diagnostic service for general practitioners (GPs), we provided 93 GPs in 26 health centres with direct telephone access to a cardiologist, and equipped them with hand-held, automatic standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) transmitters for on-line cardiac consultations and ECG interpretation in their daily practice. Clinical details, reason for consultation and the ECG signal were transmitted from the GPs' practices or the patients' homes. A consultation followed and a full report, including ECG print-out, was then sent to the GP. During an 18-month study period, 2563 consultations were carried out. The system allowed the identification of 479 patients (19%) with urgent cardiac problems and the remaining 2084 (81%) in whom admission or outpatient investigation was unnecessary. Following the study, we distributed a questionnaire asking the GPs to rate the quality, define the use and consider the benefit of the service to their daily practice. We conclude that a telecardiology diagnosis and ECG interpretation service is simple, reliable and efficacious in routine primary care. It offers instant access to cardiac assessment and supports the decision-making process of GPs. A preliminary cost comparison with a conventional referral indicated that a teleconsultation was substantially cheaper. We expect that the future incorporation of teleechocardiography would expand the scope of telecardiology even further and allow comprehensive cardiology consultations.

  13. The application of Markov decision process in restaurant delivery robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yong; Hu, Zhen; Wang, Ying

    2017-05-01

    As the restaurant delivery robot is often in a dynamic and complex environment, including the chairs inadvertently moved to the channel and customers coming and going. The traditional path planning algorithm is not very ideal. To solve this problem, this paper proposes the Markov dynamic state immediate reward (MDR) path planning algorithm according to the traditional Markov decision process. First of all, it uses MDR to plan a global path, then navigates along this path. When the sensor detects there is no obstructions in front state, increase its immediate state reward value; when the sensor detects there is an obstacle in front, plan a global path that can avoid obstacle with the current position as the new starting point and reduce its state immediate reward value. This continues until the target is reached. When the robot learns for a period of time, it can avoid those places where obstacles are often present when planning the path. By analyzing the simulation experiment, the algorithm has achieved good results in the global path planning under the dynamic environment.

  14. Method & apparatus for monitoring plasma processing operations

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Michael Lane; Ward, Pamela Denise; Stevenson, Joel O'Don

    2004-10-19

    The invention generally relates to various aspects of a plasma process and, more specifically, to the monitoring of such plasma processes. One aspect relates to a plasma monitoring module that may be adjusted in at least some manner so as to re-evaluate a previously monitored plasma process. For instance, optical emissions data on a plasma process that was previously monitored by the plasma monitoring module may be replayed through the plasma monitoring module after making at least one adjustment in relation to the plasma monitoring module.

  15. Event-based knowledge elicitation of operating room management decision-making using scenarios adapted from information systems data.

    PubMed

    Dexter, Franklin; Wachtel, Ruth E; Epstein, Richard H

    2011-01-07

    No systematic process has previously been described for a needs assessment that identifies the operating room (OR) management decisions made by the anesthesiologists and nurse managers at a facility that do not maximize the efficiency of use of OR time. We evaluated whether event-based knowledge elicitation can be used practically for rapid assessment of OR management decision-making at facilities, whether scenarios can be adapted automatically from information systems data, and the usefulness of the approach. A process of event-based knowledge elicitation was developed to assess OR management decision-making that may reduce the efficiency of use of OR time. Hypothetical scenarios addressing every OR management decision influencing OR efficiency were created from published examples. Scenarios are adapted, so that cues about conditions are accurate and appropriate for each facility (e.g., if OR 1 is used as an example in a scenario, the listed procedure is a type of procedure performed at the facility in OR 1). Adaptation is performed automatically using the facility's OR information system or anesthesia information management system (AIMS) data for most scenarios (43 of 45). Performing the needs assessment takes approximately 1 hour of local managers' time while they decide if their decisions are consistent with the described scenarios. A table of contents of the indexed scenarios is created automatically, providing a simple version of problem solving using case-based reasoning. For example, a new OR manager wanting to know the best way to decide whether to move a case can look in the chapter on "Moving Cases on the Day of Surgery" to find a scenario that describes the situation being encountered. Scenarios have been adapted and used at 22 hospitals. Few changes in decisions were needed to increase the efficiency of use of OR time. The few changes were heterogeneous among hospitals, showing the usefulness of individualized assessments. Our technical advance is the

  16. Monitoring in the nearshore: A process for making reasoned decisions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodkin, James L.; Dean, T.A.

    2003-01-01

    Over the past several years, a conceptual framework for the GEM nearshore monitoring program has been developed through a series of workshops. However, details of the proposed monitoring program, e.g. what to sample, where to sample, when to sample and at how many sites, have yet to be determined. In FY 03 we were funded under Project 03687 to outline a process whereby specific alternatives to monitoring are developed and presented to the EVOS Trustee Council for consideration. As part of this process, two key elements are required before reasoned decisions can be made. These are: 1) a comprehensive historical perspective of locations and types of past studies conducted in the nearshore marine communities within Gulf of Alaska, and 2) estimates of costs for each element of a proposed monitoring program. We have developed a GIS database that details available information from past studies of selected nearshore habitats and species in the Gulf of Alaska and provide a visual means of selecting sites based (in part) on the locations for which historical data of interest are available. We also provide cost estimates for specific monitoring plan alternatives and outline several alternative plans that can be accomplished within reasonable budgetary constraints. The products that we will provide are: 1) A GIS database and maps showing the location and types of information available from the nearshore in the Gulf of Alaska; 2) A list of several specific monitoring alternatives that can be conducted within reasonable budgetary constraints; and 3) Cost estimates for proposed tasks to be conducted as part of the nearshore program. Because data compilation and management will not be completed until late in FY03 we are requesting support for close-out of this project in FY 04.

  17. Process control strategies key to refining operations

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-22

    Panelists and attendees at the most recent National Petroleum Refiners Association Question and Answer Session on Refining and Petrochemical Technology discussed process control issues in detail. Participants shared their experiences on: personal computers (PCs) in process control; programmable logic control issues; neural networks; fieldbus technology; and statistical analyses of refinery data. Questions and answers on each of these subjects are presented.

  18. Expert system decision support for low-cost launch vehicle operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szatkowski, G. P.; Levin, Barry E.

    1991-01-01

    Progress in assessing the feasibility, benefits, and risks associated with AI expert systems applied to low cost expendable launch vehicle systems is described. Part one identified potential application areas in vehicle operations and on-board functions, assessed measures of cost benefit, and identified key technologies to aid in the implementation of decision support systems in this environment. Part two of the program began the development of prototypes to demonstrate real-time vehicle checkout with controller and diagnostic/analysis intelligent systems and to gather true measures of cost savings vs. conventional software, verification and validation requirements, and maintainability improvement. The main objective of the expert advanced development projects was to provide a robust intelligent system for control/analysis that must be performed within a specified real-time window in order to meet the demands of the given application. The efforts to develop the two prototypes are described. Prime emphasis was on a controller expert system to show real-time performance in a cryogenic propellant loading application and safety validation implementation of this system experimentally, using commercial-off-the-shelf software tools and object oriented programming techniques. This smart ground support equipment prototype is based in C with imbedded expert system rules written in the CLIPS protocol. The relational database, ORACLE, provides non-real-time data support. The second demonstration develops the vehicle/ground intelligent automation concept, from phase one, to show cooperation between multiple expert systems. This automated test conductor (ATC) prototype utilizes a knowledge-bus approach for intelligent information processing by use of virtual sensors and blackboards to solve complex problems. It incorporates distributed processing of real-time data and object-oriented techniques for command, configuration control, and auto-code generation.

  19. Planned versus actual outcomes as a result of animal feeding operation decisions for managing phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Cabot, Perry E; Nowak, Pete

    2005-01-01

    The paper explores how decisions made on animal feeding operations (AFOs) influence the management of manure and phosphorus. Variability among these decisions from operation to operation and from field to field can influence the validity of nutrient loss risk assessments. These assessments are based on assumptions that the decision outcomes regarding manure distribution will occur as they are planned. The discrepancy between planned versus actual outcomes in phosphorus management was explored on nine AFOs managing a contiguous set of 210 fields in south-central Wisconsin. A total of 2611 soil samples were collected and multiple interviews conducted to assign phosphorus index (PI) ratings to the fields. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients (r(S)) indicated that PI ratings were less sensitive to soil test phosphorus (STP) levels (r(S) = 0.378), universal soil loss equation (USLE) (r(S) = 0.261), ratings for chemical fertilizer application (r(S) = 0.185), and runoff class (r(S) = -0.089), and more sensitive to ratings for manure application (r(S) = 0.854). One-way ANOVA indicated that mean field STP levels were more homogenous than field PI ratings between AFOs. Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) tests displayed several nonsignificant comparisons for cumulative distribution functions, S(x), of mean STP levels on AFO fields. On the other hand, the K-S tests of S(x) for PI ratings indicated that the majority of these S(x) functions were significantly different between AFOs at or greater than the 0.05 significance level. Interviews suggested multiple reasons for divergence between planned and actual outcomes in managing phosphorus, and that this divergence arises at the strategic, tactical, and operational levels of decision-making.

  20. Interim action record of decision remedial alternative selection: TNX area groundwater operable unit

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, E.R.

    1994-10-01

    This document presents the selected interim remedial action for the TNX Area Groundwater Operable Unit at the Savannah River Site (SRS), which was developed in accordance with CERCLA of 1980, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986, and to the extent practicable, the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution contingency Plan (NCP). This decision is based on the Administrative Record File for this specific CERCLA unit.

  1. Simulating the Foreign Policy Decision-Making Process in the Undergraduate Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loggins, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    A simulation of the foreign policy decision-making process, as described in this article, can assist an instructor in linking students' abstract understanding of complex political events, circumstances, and decision making to the real-world interplay of the multiple factors involved in decision making. It is this type of active learning that helps…

  2. Group decision making with the analytic hierarchy process in benefit-risk assessment: a tutorial.

    PubMed

    Hummel, J Marjan; Bridges, John F P; IJzerman, Maarten J

    2014-01-01

    The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) has been increasingly applied as a technique for multi-criteria decision analysis in healthcare. The AHP can aid decision makers in selecting the most valuable technology for patients, while taking into account multiple, and even conflicting, decision criteria. This tutorial illustrates the procedural steps of the AHP in supporting group decision making about new healthcare technology, including (1) identifying the decision goal, decision criteria, and alternative healthcare technologies to compare, (2) structuring the decision criteria, (3) judging the value of the alternative technologies on each decision criterion, (4) judging the importance of the decision criteria, (5) calculating group judgments, (6) analyzing the inconsistency in judgments, (7) calculating the overall value of the technologies, and (8) conducting sensitivity analyses. The AHP is illustrated via a hypothetical example, adapted from an empirical AHP analysis on the benefits and risks of tissue regeneration to repair small cartilage lesions in the knee.

  3. Sustaining Operational Resiliency: A Process Improvement Approach to Security Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    5 2 Operational Resiliency Defined....................................................................6 2.1 What is Resiliency...30 4.3.5 Increasing levels of competency............................................... 30 5 A Process Improvement Framework for...mission.................................. 19 Figure 5 : Foundation for operational resiliency ..................................................... 21

  4. Concept of Operations for Integrated Intelligent Flight Deck Displays and Decision Support Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Randall E.; Prinzel, Lawrence J.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Young, Steve D.

    2011-01-01

    The document describes a Concept of Operations for Flight Deck Display and Decision Support technologies which may help enable emerging Next Generation Air Transportation System capabilities while also maintaining, or improving upon, flight safety. This concept of operations is used as the driving function within a spiral program of research, development, test, and evaluation for the Integrated Intelligent Flight Deck (IIFD) project. As such, the concept will be updated at each cycle within the spiral to reflect the latest research results and emerging developments

  5. Force XXI Technology and the Cognitive Approach to the Military Decision Making Process (MDMP)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-05-01

    Force XXI Technology and the Cognitive Approach to the Military Decision Making Process (MDMP) A Monograph By Lieutenant Colonel Michael C. Sevcik... Approach to the Military Decision Making Process (MDMP) by Michael C. Sevcik, US Army, 43 pages. The United States Army has invested millions of dollars...Michael C. Sevcik Title of Monograph: FXXI Technology and the Cognitive Approach to the Military Decision Making Process (MDMP) Approved by

  6. Hesitant Fuzzy Linguistic Multicriteria Decision-Making Method Based on Generalized Prioritized Aggregation Operator

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jia-ting; Wang, Jian-qiang; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Hong-yu; Chen, Xiao-hong

    2014-01-01

    Based on linguistic term sets and hesitant fuzzy sets, the concept of hesitant fuzzy linguistic sets was introduced. The focus of this paper is the multicriteria decision-making (MCDM) problems in which the criteria are in different priority levels and the criteria values take the form of hesitant fuzzy linguistic numbers (HFLNs). A new approach to solving these problems is proposed, which is based on the generalized prioritized aggregation operator of HFLNs. Firstly, the new operations and comparison method for HFLNs are provided and some linguistic scale functions are applied. Subsequently, two prioritized aggregation operators and a generalized prioritized aggregation operator of HFLNs are developed and applied to MCDM problems. Finally, an illustrative example is given to illustrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method, which are then compared to the existing approach. PMID:25258729

  7. Hesitant fuzzy linguistic multicriteria decision-making method based on generalized prioritized aggregation operator.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jia-ting; Wang, Jian-qiang; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Hong-yu; Chen, Xiao-hong

    2014-01-01

    Based on linguistic term sets and hesitant fuzzy sets, the concept of hesitant fuzzy linguistic sets was introduced. The focus of this paper is the multicriteria decision-making (MCDM) problems in which the criteria are in different priority levels and the criteria values take the form of hesitant fuzzy linguistic numbers (HFLNs). A new approach to solving these problems is proposed, which is based on the generalized prioritized aggregation operator of HFLNs. Firstly, the new operations and comparison method for HFLNs are provided and some linguistic scale functions are applied. Subsequently, two prioritized aggregation operators and a generalized prioritized aggregation operator of HFLNs are developed and applied to MCDM problems. Finally, an illustrative example is given to illustrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method, which are then compared to the existing approach.

  8. An Assessment of Decision-Making Processes in Dual-Career Marriages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingsbury, Nancy M.

    As large numbers of women enter the labor force, decision making and power processes have assumed greater importance in marital relationships. A sample of 51 (N=101) dual-career couples were interviewed to assess independent variables predictive of process power, process outcome, and subjective outcomes of decision making in dual-career families.…

  9. Decision making for wildfires: A guide for applying a risk management process at the incident level

    Treesearch

    Mary A. Taber; Lisa M. Elenz; Paul G. Langowski

    2013-01-01

    This publication focuses on the thought processes and considerations surrounding a risk management process for decision making on wildfires. The publication introduces a six element risk management cycle designed to encourage sound risk-informed decision making in accordance with Federal wildland fire policy, although the process is equally applicable to non-Federal...

  10. The dermatology outpatient discharge decision: understanding a critical but neglected process.

    PubMed

    Harun, N A; Salek, S; Piguet, V; Finlay, A Y

    2014-05-01

    Discharge from dermatology outpatients is a critical endpoint of patient care. Despite this, there has been very little research concerning the discharge process and factors influencing the discharge decision. To identify the factors influencing discharge decisions, articles from 1970 to April 2013 were searched in MEDLINE via Ovid, CINAHL, PROQUEST and Google Scholar using the keywords 'patient discharge', 'discharge decision', 'factors influencing discharge', 'clinical decision making', 'discharge decision making', 'process of discharge decision', 'outpatient', 'follow up', 'skin disease' and 'dermatology'. Only articles describing outpatient discharge decisions were included. Seventeen outpatient discharge articles were identified, 12 from the U.K. (seven dermatology) and five from the U.S.A., Canada, Australia and Taiwan (all nondermatology). The main influences on outpatient discharge identified were diagnosis and disease severity, clinician's level of experience and perception, patient's preferences, patient's behaviour and quality of life. These influences affected the clinician's judgement on discharge decisions both in appropriate and in inappropriate ways. Little is known concerning discharge decision making in dermatology. Given the central importance of such decisions in the appropriate care of patients and the efficient running of any dermatology service, greater understanding of the influences on discharge decision making is needed. It is therefore critical for dermatologists to be aware of these influences and to ensure that decisions are taken only in the best interests of patients. Further research is required to inform the training of dermatologists on how to take the most appropriate discharge decisions.

  11. Decision making in healthy participants on the Iowa Gambling Task: new insights from an operant approach

    PubMed Central

    Bull, Peter N.; Tippett, Lynette J.; Addis, Donna Rose

    2015-01-01

    The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) has contributed greatly to the study of affective decision making. However, researchers have observed high inter-study and inter-individual variability in IGT performance in healthy participants, and many are classified as impaired using standard criteria. Additionally, while decision-making deficits are often attributed to atypical sensitivity to reward and/or punishment, the IGT lacks an integrated sensitivity measure. Adopting an operant perspective, two experiments were conducted to explore these issues. In Experiment 1, 50 healthy participants completed a 200-trial version of the IGT which otherwise closely emulated Bechara et al.'s (1999) original computer task. Group data for Trials 1–100 closely replicated Bechara et al.'s original findings of high net scores and preferences for advantageous decks, suggesting that implementations that depart significantly from Bechara's standard IGT contribute to inter-study variability. During Trials 101–200, mean net scores improved significantly and the percentage of participants meeting the “impaired” criterion was halved. An operant-style stability criterion applied to individual data revealed this was likely related to individual differences in learning rate. Experiment 2 used a novel operant card task—the Auckland Card Task (ACT)—to derive quantitative estimates of sensitivity using the generalized matching law. Relative to individuals who mastered the IGT, persistent poor performers on the IGT exhibited significantly lower sensitivity to magnitudes (but not frequencies) of rewards and punishers on the ACT. Overall, our findings demonstrate the utility of operant-style analysis of IGT data and the potential of applying operant concurrent-schedule procedures to the study of human decision making. PMID:25904884

  12. Decision-support tools for the assessment process

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, Gene; Pelton, Mitch A.; Dorow, Kevin E.

    2004-06-14

    A new software system is under development that provides a framework to link disparate assessment software and databases for site-specific, regional, or national analyses. This system represents the merger of the Framework for Risk Analysis in Multimedia Environmental Systems (FRAMES), which performs site-specific assessments, and Multi-media, Multi-pathway, Multi-receptor Risk Assessment (3MRA) methodology, which performs regional and national assessments. This Merged System is an icon-driven, site-layout platform, which represents an interactive means by which the user graphically constructs a conceptualization of the problem by visually expressing the assessment, indicating sources of contamination, contaminant travel pathways through the environment, linkages between contamination and people or wildlife, and impacts associated with the contamination. It processes data as part of a systems-based assessment and is an open-architecture, object-oriented framework, which contains ''sockets'' for a collection of databases and computer codes that will transparently simulate elements of transport, exposure, and risk assessment, including contaminant source and release to and through overland soils, vadose and saturated zones, air, surface water, food supply, intake human health impacts, sensitivity/uncertainty, ecological impacts, with the ability to expand into areas including Geographical Information System (GIS), remediation technology, cost analysis, Data Quality Objectives, life-cycle management, and conceptual site design. A user can choose from a list of models, and the assessment path forward can be visually presented, which describes the models and their linkages from source through receptor to the decision-making endpoint.

  13. An Internationally Consented Standard for Nursing Process-Clinical Decision Support Systems in Electronic Health Records.

    PubMed

    Müller-Staub, Maria; de Graaf-Waar, Helen; Paans, Wolter

    2016-11-01

    Nurses are accountable to apply the nursing process, which is key for patient care: It is a problem-solving process providing the structure for care plans and documentation. The state-of-the art nursing process is based on classifications that contain standardized concepts, and therefore, it is named Advanced Nursing Process. It contains valid assessments, nursing diagnoses, interventions, and nursing-sensitive patient outcomes. Electronic decision support systems can assist nurses to apply the Advanced Nursing Process. However, nursing decision support systems are missing, and no "gold standard" is available. The study aim is to develop a valid Nursing Process-Clinical Decision Support System Standard to guide future developments of clinical decision support systems. In a multistep approach, a Nursing Process-Clinical Decision Support System Standard with 28 criteria was developed. After pilot testing (N = 29 nurses), the criteria were reduced to 25. The Nursing Process-Clinical Decision Support System Standard was then presented to eight internationally known experts, who performed qualitative interviews according to Mayring. Fourteen categories demonstrate expert consensus on the Nursing Process-Clinical Decision Support System Standard and its content validity. All experts agreed the Advanced Nursing Process should be the centerpiece for the Nursing Process-Clinical Decision Support System and should suggest research-based, predefined nursing diagnoses and correct linkages between diagnoses, evidence-based interventions, and patient outcomes.

  14. Energy accounting of apple processing operations

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, R.; Singh, R.P.; Brown, D.

    1981-01-01

    A thermal-energy accounting study was conducted at an apple processing plant. An analysis is given of thermal energy use and thermal efficiencies of an apple-juice single-effect evaporator and an apple-sauce cooker. 3 refs.

  15. Processes Operative During Delay of Gratification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, J. Frank; Revelle, Glenda L.

    This study focused on the processes occurring during the waiting period in delay of gratification situations. Sixty-four middle class preschool children chose between waiting for a preferred item and receiving a less desired item immediately. The items were of different classes, i. e., one food and one toy, and subjects waited with one, both, or…

  16. Cognitive issues in autonomous spacecraft-control operations: An investigation of software-mediated decision making in a scaled environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Elizabeth Drummond

    As advances in technology are applied in complex, semi-automated domains, human controllers are distanced from the controlled process. This physical and psychological distance may both facilitate and degrade human performance. To investigate cognitive issues in spacecraft ground-control operations, the present experimental research was undertaken. The primary issue concerned the ability of operations analysts who do not monitor operations to make timely, accurate decisions when autonomous software calls for human help. Another key issue involved the potential effects of spatial-visualization ability (SVA) in environments that present data in graphical formats. Hypotheses were derived largely from previous findings and predictions in the literature. Undergraduate psychology students were assigned at random to a monitoring condition or an on-call condition in a scaled environment. The experimental task required subjects to decide on the veracity of a problem diagnosis delivered by a software process on-board a simulated spacecraft. To support decision-making, tabular and graphical data displays presented information on system status. A level of software confidence in the problem diagnosis was displayed, and subjects reported their own level of confidence in their decisions. Contrary to expectations, the performance of on-call subjects did not differ significantly from that of continuous monitors. Analysis yielded a significant interaction of sex and condition: Females in the on-call condition had the lowest mean accuracy. Results included a preference for bar charts over line graphs and faster performance with tables than with line graphs. A significant correlation was found between subjective confidence and decision accuracy. SVA was found to be predictive of accuracy but not speed; and SVA was found to be a stronger predictor of performance for males than for females. Low-SVA subjects reported that they relied more on software confidence than did medium- or high

  17. Collaborative distributed sensor management and information exchange flow control for multitarget tracking using Markov decision processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akselrod, Dimitry; Kirubarajan, T.

    2008-04-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of collaborative management of uninhabited aerial vehicles (UAVs) for multitarget tracking. In addition to providing a solution to the problem of controlling individual UAVs, we present a method for controlling the information flow among them. The latter provides a solution to one of the main problems in decentralized tracking, namely, distributed information transfer and fusion among the participating platforms. The problem of decentralized cooperative control considered in this paper is an optimization of the information obtained by a number of UAVs, carrying out surveillance over a region, which includes a number of confirmed and suspected moving targets with the goal to track confirmed targets and detects new targets in the area. Each UAV has to decide on the most optimal path with the objective to track as many targets as possible, maximizing the information obtained during its operation with the maximum possible accuracy at the lowest possible cost. Limited communication between UAVs and uncertainty in the information obtained by each UAV regarding the location of the ground targets are addressed in the problem formulation. In order to handle these issues, the problem is presented as an operation of a group of decision makers. Markov Decision Processes (MDPs) are incorporated into the solution. A decision mechanism for collaborative distributed data fusion provides each UAV with the required data for the fusion process while substantially reducing redundancy in the information flow in the overall system. We consider a distributed data fusion system consisting of UAVs that are decentralized, heterogenous, and potentially unreliable. Simulation results are presented on a representative multisensor-multitarget tracking problem.

  18. The effects of stress on nuclear power plant operational decision making and training approaches to reduce stress effects

    SciTech Connect

    Mumaw, R.J.

    1994-08-01

    Operational personnel may be exposed to significant levels of stress during unexpected changes in plant state an plant emergencies. The decision making that identifies operational actions, which is strongly determined by procedures, may be affected by stress, and performance may be impaired. ER report analyzes potential effects of stress in nuclear power plant (NPP) settings, especially in the context of severe accident management (SAM). First, potential sources of stress in the NPP setting are identified. This analysis is followed by a review of the ways in which stress is likely to affect performance, with an emphasis on performance of cognitive skills that are linked to operational decision making. Finally, potential training approaches for reducing or eliminating stress effects are identified. Several training approaches have the potential to eliminate or mitigate stress effects on cognitive skill performance. First, the use of simulated events for training can reduce the novelty and uncertainty that can lead to stress and performance impairments. Second, training to make cognitive processing more efficient and less reliant on attention and memory resources can offset the reductions in these resources that occur under stressful conditions. Third, training that targets crew communications skills can reduce the likelihood that communications will fail under stress.

  19. Quantitative computer simulations of extraterrestrial processing operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, T. L.; Nikravesh, P. E.

    1989-01-01

    The automation of a small, solid propellant mixer was studied. Temperature control is under investigation. A numerical simulation of the system is under development and will be tested using different control options. Control system hardware is currently being put into place. The construction of mathematical models and simulation techniques for understanding various engineering processes is also studied. Computer graphics packages were utilized for better visualization of the simulation results. The mechanical mixing of propellants is examined. Simulation of the mixing process is being done to study how one can control for chaotic behavior to meet specified mixing requirements. An experimental mixing chamber is also being built. It will allow visual tracking of particles under mixing. The experimental unit will be used to test ideas from chaos theory, as well as to verify simulation results. This project has applications to extraterrestrial propellant quality and reliability.

  20. Flexible and adaptive water systems operations through more informed and dynamic decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelletti, A.; Giuliani, M.

    2016-12-01

    Timely adapting the operations of water systems to be resilient against rapid changes in both hydroclimatic and socioeconomic forcing is generally recommended as a part of planning and managing water resources under uncertain futures. A great opportunity to make the operations more flexible and adaptive is offered by the unprecedented amount of information that is becoming available to water system operators, providing a wide range of data at increasingly higher temporal and spatial resolution. Yet, many water systems are still operated using very simple information systems, typically based on basic statistical analysis and the operator's experience. In this work, we discuss the potential offered by incorporating improved information to enhance water systems operation and increase their ability of adapting to different external conditions and resolving potential conflicts across sectors. In particular, we focus on the use of different variables associated to different dynamics of the system (slow and fast) diversely impacting the operating objectives on the short-, medium- and long-term. The multi-purpose operations of the Hoa Binh reservoir in the Red River Basin (Vietnam) is used to demonstrate our approach. Numerical results show that our procedure is able to automatically select the most valuable information for improving the Hoa Binh operations and mitigating the conflict between short-term objectives, i.e. hydropower production and flood control. Moreover, we also successfully identify low-frequency climate information associated to El-Nino Southern Oscillation for improving the performance in terms of long-term objectives, i.e. water supply. Finally, we assess the value of better informing operational decisions for adapting the system operations to changing conditions by considering different climate change projections.

  1. Operational decision support system for large combined sewage systems: Lisbon/Tagus estuary case study.

    PubMed

    Póvoa, P; Nobre, A; Leitão, P; Galvão, P; Santos, H; Frazão, A; Neves, R; Matos, J S

    2015-01-01

    Managing combined sewage systems in large cities discharging to coastal waters, often bearing recreational activities, remains a challenge. Studying the impacts of such discharges requires the development of specific models. Hydrodynamic and water quality modelling of coastal waters employs numerical methods and algorithms, leading to the design of complex models which require expert use. The use of such models as decision support tools to simulate discharge impacts and define adequate corrective measures could represent a key part in meeting this challenge. In this paper, the authors describe the work undertaken to develop an operational decision support system (ODSS) methodology aiming to enable wastewater utilities' non-expert staff to carry out user-friendly scenario analysis based on computational fluid dynamics simulations. This article depicts the application and validation of the ODSS to the combined sewage system and the Tagus estuary of the city of Lisbon in Portugal. The ODSS was used for simulating the effects in the receiving coastal waters of a discharge caused by a scheduled maintenance operation in the sewage infrastructure. Results show that the use of such ODSS by non-expert staff increases their decision capabilities and knowledge of the wastewater utility's contribution to reducing negative impacts of sewage discharges on the receiving water bodies.

  2. Value judgements in the decision-making process for the elderly patient.

    PubMed

    Ubachs-Moust, J; Houtepen, R; Vos, R; ter Meulen, R

    2008-12-01

    The question of whether old age should or should not play a role in medical decision-making for the elderly patient is regularly debated in ethics and medicine. In this paper we investigate exactly how age influences the decision-making process. To explore the normative argumentation in the decisions regarding an elderly patient we make use of the argumentation model advanced by Toulmin. By expanding the model in order to identify normative components in the argumentation process it is possible to analyse the way that age-related value judgements influence the medical decision-making process. We apply the model to practice descriptions made by medical students after they had attended consultations and meetings in medical practice during their clinical training. Our results show the pervasive character of age-related value judgements. They influence the physician's decision in several ways and at several points in the decision-making process. Such explicit value judgements were not exclusively used for arguments against further diagnosis or treatment of older patients. We found no systematic "ageist" pattern in the clinical decisions by physicians. Since age plays such an important, yet hidden role in the medical decision-making process, we make a plea for revealing such normative argumentation in order to gain transparency and accountability in this process. An explicit deliberative approach will make the medical decision-making process more transparent and improve the physician-patient relationship, creating confidence and trust, which are at the heart of medical practice.

  3. Common Workflow Service: Standards Based Solution for Managing Operational Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinio, A. W.; Hollins, G. A.

    2017-06-01

    The Common Workflow Service is a collaborative and standards-based solution for managing mission operations processes using techniques from the Business Process Management (BPM) discipline. This presentation describes the CWS and its benefits.

  4. Information processing in convex operational theories

    SciTech Connect

    Barnum, Howard Nelch; Wilce, Alexander G

    2008-01-01

    In order to understand the source and extent of the greater-than-classical information processing power of quantum systems, one wants to characterize both classical and quantum mechanics as points in a broader space of possible theories. One approach to doing this, pioneered by Abramsky and Coecke, is to abstract the essential categorical features of classical and quantum mechanics that support various information-theoretic constraints and possibilities, e.g., the impossibility of cloning in the latter, and the possibility of teleportation in both. Another approach, pursued by the authors and various collaborators, is to begin with a very conservative, and in a sense very concrete, generalization of classical probability theory--which is still sufficient to encompass quantum theory--and to ask which 'quantum' informational phenomena can be reproduced in this much looser setting. In this paper, we review the progress to date in this second programme, and offer some suggestions as to how to link it with the categorical semantics for quantum processes developed by Abramsky and Coecke.

  5. A decision support system for quantitative measurement of operational efficiency in a blood collection facility.

    PubMed

    Kros, John F; Yim Pang, Robyn

    2004-04-01

    A decision support system (DSS) is presented that allows users to input, analyze, and output data derived from blood banking operations. The DSS developed is a hybrid system that is both data and model driven. The system provides information, models, and data manipulation tools to assist users in the quantitative measurement of the operational efficiency in a blood collection facility. A relational database was developed to address the four major variables, which impact the cost per unit of blood being collected. Using visual basic, a user interface and mathematical model were developed establishing the relationships to analyze cost per unit of collected blood. Using inputs from users and historical financial data, the DSS calculates the cost per unit as each of the major variables is altered. Real life situations by the mobile operations team at a blood collection facility were used to test the DSS.

  6. Health technology funding decision-making processes around the world: the same, yet different.

    PubMed

    Stafinski, Tania; Menon, Devidas; Philippon, Donald J; McCabe, Christopher

    2011-06-01

    All healthcare systems routinely make resource allocation decisions that trade off potential health gains to different patient populations. However, when such trade-offs relate to the introduction of new, promising health technologies, perceived 'winners' and 'losers' are more apparent. In recent years, public scrutiny over such decisions has intensified, raising the need to better understand how they are currently made and how they might be improved. The objective of this paper is to critically review and compare current processes for making health technology funding decisions at the regional, state/provincial and national level in 20 countries. A comprehensive search for published, peer-reviewed and grey literature describing actual national, state/provincial and regional/institutional technology decision-making processes was conducted. Information was extracted by two independent reviewers and tabulated to facilitate qualitative comparative analyses. To identify strengths and weaknesses of processes identified, websites of corresponding organizations were searched for commissioned reviews/evaluations, which were subsequently analysed using standard qualitative methods. A total of 21 national, four provincial/state and six regional/institutional-level processes were found. Although information on each one varied, they could be grouped into four sequential categories: (i) identification of the decision problem; (ii) information inputs; (iii) elements of the decision-making process; and (iv) public accountability and decision implementation. While information requirements of all processes appeared substantial and decision-making factors comprehensive, the way in which they were utilized was often unclear, as were approaches used to incorporate social values or equity arguments into decisions. A comprehensive inventory of approaches to implementing the four main components of all technology funding decision-making processes was compiled, from which areas for future

  7. A Model for Comparing Game Theory and Artificial Intelligence Decision Making Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    Matrix 7.5 Summary This chapter discussed an initial comparison of the game theory and artiicial intelligence decision techniques. The measure of...00 DTIC V ELECTE INJ DEC 15 1989 ID A MODEL FOR COMPARING C;.GME THEORY AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE DECISION MAKING PROCESSES THESIS ’A Paul R. Andr...lic release: distribution unlii ted A F IT/;SO/ENS,/89D- 1 A MODEL FOR COMPARING GAME THEORY AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE DECISION MAKING PROCESSES

  8. Trait urgency and gambling problems in young people by age: the mediating role of decision-making processes.

    PubMed

    Canale, Natale; Vieno, Alessio; Griffiths, Mark D; Rubaltelli, Enrico; Santinello, Massimo

    2015-07-01

    Although the personality trait of urgency has been linked to problem gambling, less is known about psychological mechanisms that mediate the relationship between urgency and problem gambling. One individual variable of potential relevance to impulsivity and addictive disorders is age. The aims of this study were to examine: (i) a theoretical model associating urgency and gambling problems, (ii) the mediating effects of decision-making processes (operationalized as preference for small/immediate rewards and lower levels of deliberative decision-making); and (iii) age differences in these relationships. Participants comprised 986 students (64% male; mean age=19.51 years; SD=2.30) divided into three groups: 16-17 years, 18-21 years, and 22-25 years. All participants completed measures of urgency, problem gambling, and a delay-discounting questionnaire involving choices between a smaller amount of money received immediately and a larger amount of money received later. Participants were also asked to reflect on their decision-making process. Compared to those aged 16-17 years and 22-25 years, participants aged 18-21 years had a higher level of gambling problems and decreased scores on lower levels of deliberative decision-making. Higher levels of urgency were associated with higher levels of gambling problems. The association was mediated by a lower level of deliberative decision-making and preference for an immediate/small reward. A distinct pathway was observed for lower levels of deliberative decision-making. Young people who tend to act rashly in response to extreme moods, had lower levels of deliberative decision-making, that in turn were positively related to gambling problems. This study highlights unique decision-making pathways through which urgency trait may operate, suggesting that those developing prevention and/or treatment strategies may want to consider the model's variables, including urgency, delay discounting, and deliberative decision

  9. Ex post power economic analysis of record of decision operational restrictions at Glen Canyon Dam.

    SciTech Connect

    Veselka, T. D.; Poch, L. A.; Palmer, C. S.; Loftin, S.; Osiek, B; Decision and Information Sciences; Western Area Power Administration

    2010-07-31

    On October 9, 1996, Bruce Babbitt, then-Secretary of the U.S. Department of the Interior signed the Record of Decision (ROD) on operating criteria for the Glen Canyon Dam (GCD). Criteria selected were based on the Modified Low Fluctuating Flow (MLFF) Alternative as described in the Operation of Glen Canyon Dam, Colorado River Storage Project, Arizona, Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) (Reclamation 1995). These restrictions reduced the operating flexibility of the hydroelectric power plant and therefore its economic value. The EIS provided impact information to support the ROD, including an analysis of operating criteria alternatives on power system economics. This ex post study reevaluates ROD power economic impacts and compares these results to the economic analysis performed prior (ex ante) to the ROD for the MLFF Alternative. On the basis of the methodology used in the ex ante analysis, anticipated annual economic impacts of the ROD were estimated to range from approximately $15.1 million to $44.2 million in terms of 1991 dollars ($1991). This ex post analysis incorporates historical events that took place between 1997 and 2005, including the evolution of power markets in the Western Electricity Coordinating Council as reflected in market prices for capacity and energy. Prompted by ROD operational restrictions, this analysis also incorporates a decision made by the Western Area Power Administration to modify commitments that it made to its customers. Simulated operations of GCD were based on the premise that hourly production patterns would maximize the economic value of the hydropower resource. On the basis of this assumption, it was estimated that economic impacts were on average $26.3 million in $1991, or $39 million in $2009.

  10. AQUATOOL, a generalized decision-support system for water-resources planning and operational management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreu, J.; Capilla, J.; Sanchís, E.

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes a generic decision-support system (DSS) which was originally designed for the planning stage of dicision-making associated with complex river basins. Subsequently, it was expanded to incorporate modules relating to the operational stage of decision-making. Computer-assisted design modules allow any complex water-resource system to be represented in graphical form, giving access to geographically referenced databases and knowledge bases. The modelling capability includes basin simulation and optimization modules, an aquifer flow modelling module and two modules for risk assessment. The Segura and Tagus river basins have been used as case studies in the development and validation phases. The value of this DSS is demonstrated by the fact that both River Basin Agencies currently use a version for the efficient management of their water resources.

  11. Benefits to blood banks of a sales and operations planning process.

    PubMed

    Keal, Donald A; Hebert, Phil

    2010-12-01

    A formal sales and operations planning (S&OP) process is a decision making and communication process that balances supply and demand while integrating all business operational components with customer-focused business plans that links high level strategic plans to day-to-day operations. Furthermore, S&OP can assist in managing change across the organization as it provides the opportunity to be proactive in the face of problems and opportunities while establishing a plan for everyone to follow. Some of the key outcomes from a robust S&OP process in blood banking would include: higher customer satisfaction (donors and health care providers), balanced inventory across product lines and customers, more stable production rates and higher productivity, more cooperation across the entire operation, and timely updates to the business plan resulting in better forecasting and fewer surprises that negatively impact the bottom line.

  12. Shared decision making in transplantation: how patients see their role in the decision process of accepting a donor liver.

    PubMed

    Op den Dries, Sanna; Annema, Coby; Berg, Aad P van den; Ranchor, Adelita V; Porte, Robert J

    2014-09-01

    At the time of the organ offer for transplantation, donor-related risks such as disease transmission and graft failure are weighed against the patient's risk of remaining on the waiting list. The patient's commonly inactive role in decision making and the timing and extent of donor-specific risk information have been discussed in the medical literature. This is the first study revealing the opinions of liver patients on these issues. Forty patients listed for liver transplantation and 179 liver transplant patients participated in an anonymous questionnaire-based survey. The majority of the patients wanted to be informed about donor-related risks (59.8%-74.8%). The preferred timing for being informed about donor-related risks was the time of the organ offer for 53.3% of the patients. Among these patients, 79.8% wished to be involved in making the decision to accept or not accept a liver for transplantation, 10.6% wished to make the final decision alone, and only 9.6% did not want to be involved in the decision-making process. Implementing this knowledge through the standardization of the content, the manner of transfer, and the amount of information that we provide to our patients will improve opportunities for shared decision making at different time points during the transplant allocation process. This will enable us to provide the same opportunities and care to every patient on the waiting list.

  13. Guide to good practices for operations aspects of unique processes

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    This Guide to Good Practices is written to enhance understanding of, and provide direction for, Operations Aspects of Facility Chemistry and Unique Processes, Chapter XIII of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.19, Conduct of Operations Requirements for DOE Facilities. The practices in this guide should be considered when planning or reviewing employee training and facility management programs. Contractors are advised to adopt procedures that meet the intent of DOE Order 5480.19. Operations Aspects of Unique Processes is an element of an effective Conduct of Operations program. The complexity and array of activities performed in DOE facilities dictate the necessity for all personnel to coordinate interrelated activities affecting unique processes.

  14. System and method for integrating hazard-based decision making tools and processes

    DOEpatents

    Hodgin, C Reed [Westminster, CO

    2012-03-20

    A system and method for inputting, analyzing, and disseminating information necessary for identified decision-makers to respond to emergency situations. This system and method provides consistency and integration among multiple groups, and may be used for both initial consequence-based decisions and follow-on consequence-based decisions. The system and method in a preferred embodiment also provides tools for accessing and manipulating information that are appropriate for each decision-maker, in order to achieve more reasoned and timely consequence-based decisions. The invention includes processes for designing and implementing a system or method for responding to emergency situations.

  15. Environmental Engineering Unit Operations and Unit Processes Laboratory Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, John T., Ed.

    This manual was prepared for the purpose of stimulating the development of effective unit operations and unit processes laboratory courses in environmental engineering. Laboratory activities emphasizing physical operations, biological, and chemical processes are designed for various educational and equipment levels. An introductory section reviews…

  16. Environmental Engineering Unit Operations and Unit Processes Laboratory Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, John T., Ed.

    This manual was prepared for the purpose of stimulating the development of effective unit operations and unit processes laboratory courses in environmental engineering. Laboratory activities emphasizing physical operations, biological, and chemical processes are designed for various educational and equipment levels. An introductory section reviews…

  17. Process Operations Program is the First of Its Kind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elements of Technology, 1973

    1973-01-01

    The goal of the program is to produce a graduate with the technical background and expertise necessary for direct entry into a process operator training program in a petro-chemical plant. It is a unique program offered through Lambton College, Canada, in co-operation with the process industries in Sarnia's "Chemical Valley". (Author/DS)

  18. Optimal decision making modeling for copper-matte Peirce-Smith converting process by means of data mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yanpo; Peng, Xiaoqi; Tang, Ying; Hu, Zhikun

    2013-07-01

    To improve the operation level of copper converter, the approach to optimal decision making modeling for coppermatte converting process based on data mining is studied: in view of the characteristics of the process data, such as containing noise, small sample size and so on, a new robust improved ANN (artificial neural network) modeling method is proposed; taking into account the application purpose of decision making model, three new evaluation indexes named support, confidence and relative confidence are proposed; using real production data and the methods mentioned above, optimal decision making model for blowing time of S1 period (the 1st slag producing period) are developed. Simulation results show that this model can significantly improve the converting quality of S1 period, increase the optimal probability from about 70% to about 85%.

  19. Decision Support Systems to Optimize the Operational Efficiency of Dams and Maintain Regulatory Compliance Criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkinson, S.; Morehead, M. D.; Conner, J. T.; Frye, C.

    2012-12-01

    Increasing demand for water and electricity, increasing variability in weather and climate and stricter requirements for riverine ecosystem health has put ever more stringent demands on hydropower operations. Dam operators are being impacted by these constraints and are looking for methods to meet these requirements while retaining the benefits hydropower offers. Idaho Power owns and operates 17 hydroelectric plants in Idaho and Oregon which have both Federal and State compliance requirements. Idaho Power has started building Decision Support Systems (DSS) to aid the hydroelectric plant operators in maximizing hydropower operational efficiency, while meeting regulatory compliance constraints. Regulatory constraints on dam operations include: minimum in-stream flows, maximum ramp rate of river stage, reservoir volumes, and reservoir ramp rate for draft and fill. From the hydroelectric standpoint, the desire is to vary the plant discharge (ramping) such that generation matches electricity demand (load-following), but ramping is limited by the regulatory requirements. Idaho Power desires DSS that integrate real time and historic data, simulates the rivers behavior from the hydroelectric plants downstream to the compliance measurement point and presents the information in an easily understandable display that allows the operators to make informed decisions. Creating DSS like these has a number of scientific and technical challenges. Real-time data are inherently noisy and automated data cleaning routines are required to filter the data. The DSS must inform the operators when incoming data are outside of predefined bounds. Complex river morphologies can make the timing and shape of a discharge change traveling downstream from a power plant nearly impossible to represent with a predefined lookup table. These complexities require very fast hydrodynamic models of the river system that simulate river characteristics (ex. Stage, discharge) at the downstream compliance point

  20. Naturalistic Decision-Making Task Processes in Multiprofessional Assessment of Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartolo, Paul A.; Dockrell, Julie; Lunt, Ingrid

    2001-01-01

    Studies the group decision-making process of the evaluation of preschool children with complex disabilities. Sequential application of processes was found to be influenced by the occurrence of a series of three cycles of decision making within each assessment and the decomposition of the assessment task into distinct subproblems. (Contains 67…

  1. Naturalistic Decision-Making Task Processes in Multiprofessional Assessment of Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartolo, Paul A.; Dockrell, Julie; Lunt, Ingrid

    2001-01-01

    Studies the group decision-making process of the evaluation of preschool children with complex disabilities. Sequential application of processes was found to be influenced by the occurrence of a series of three cycles of decision making within each assessment and the decomposition of the assessment task into distinct subproblems. (Contains 67…

  2. 44 CFR Appendix A to Part 9 - Decision-making Process for E.O. 11988

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Decision-making Process for E.O. 11988 A Appendix A to Part 9 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT..., App. A Appendix A to Part 9—Decision-making Process for E.O. 11988 EC02FE91.074 ...

  3. 44 CFR Appendix A to Part 9 - Decision-making Process for E.O. 11988

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Decision-making Process for E.O. 11988 A Appendix A to Part 9 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT..., App. A Appendix A to Part 9—Decision-making Process for E.O. 11988 EC02FE91.074 ...

  4. 44 CFR Appendix A to Part 9 - Decision-making Process for E.O. 11988

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Decision-making Process for E.O. 11988 A Appendix A to Part 9 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT..., App. A Appendix A to Part 9—Decision-making Process for E.O. 11988 EC02FE91.074 ...

  5. 44 CFR Appendix A to Part 9 - Decision-making Process for E.O. 11988

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Decision-making Process for E.O. 11988 A Appendix A to Part 9 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT..., App. A Appendix A to Part 9—Decision-making Process for E.O. 11988 EC02FE91.074 ...

  6. 44 CFR Appendix A to Part 9 - Decision-making Process for E.O. 11988

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Decision-making Process for E.O. 11988 A Appendix A to Part 9 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT..., App. A Appendix A to Part 9—Decision-making Process for E.O. 11988 EC02FE91.074 ...

  7. Bioinspired decision architectures containing host and microbiome processing units.

    PubMed

    Heyde, K C; Gallagher, P W; Ruder, W C

    2016-09-27

    Biomimetic robots have been used to explore and explain natural phenomena ranging from the coordination of ants to the locomotion of lizards. Here, we developed a series of decision architectures inspired by the information exchange between a host organism and its microbiome. We first modeled the biochemical exchanges of a population of synthetically engineered E. coli. We then built a physical, differential drive robot that contained an integrated, onboard computer vision system. A relay was established between the simulated population of cells and the robot's microcontroller. By placing the robot within a target-containing a two-dimensional arena, we explored how different aspects of the simulated cells and the robot's microcontroller could be integrated to form hybrid decision architectures. We found that distinct decision architectures allow for us to develop models of computation with specific strengths such as runtime efficiency or minimal memory allocation. Taken together, our hybrid decision architectures provide a new strategy for developing bioinspired control systems that integrate both living and nonliving components.

  8. Memory and Processing Limits in Decision-Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klapp, Stuart T.

    According to the classical working memory perspective, tasks such as command and control decision-making should be performed less effectively if extraneous material must be retained in short-term memory. Only marginal support for this prediction was obtained for a simulation involving scheduling trucking and transportation missions, although…

  9. Team effort: the nuclear medicine decision making process. Part II.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiyama, S

    1991-06-01

    This two part article examines the nuclear medicine purchase of Baptist Memorial Hospital in Memphis, the largest private hospital in the nation. Part I (May 1991) focused on what their needs were. This concluding installment looks at the committee mechanism itself and the reasoning that went behind their decisions.

  10. Decision-Oriented Health Technology Assessment: One Step Forward in Supporting the Decision-Making Process in Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Ritrovato, Matteo; Faggiano, Francesco C; Tedesco, Giorgia; Derrico, Pietro

    2015-06-01

    This article outlines the Decision-Oriented Health Technology Assessment: a new implementation of the European network for Health Technology Assessment Core Model, integrating the multicriteria decision-making analysis by using the analytic hierarchy process to introduce a standardized methodological approach as a valued and shared tool to support health care decision making within a hospital. Following the Core Model as guidance (European network for Health Technology Assessment. HTA core model for medical and surgical interventions. Available from: http://www.eunethta.eu/outputs/hta-core-model-medical-and-surgical-interventions-10r. [Accessed May 27, 2014]), it is possible to apply the analytic hierarchy process to break down a problem into its constituent parts and identify priorities (i.e., assigning a weight to each part) in a hierarchical structure. Thus, it quantitatively compares the importance of multiple criteria in assessing health technologies and how the alternative technologies perform in satisfying these criteria. The verbal ratings are translated into a quantitative form by using the Saaty scale (Saaty TL. Decision making with the analytic hierarchy process. Int J Serv Sci 2008;1:83-98). An eigenvectors analysis is used for deriving the weights' systems (i.e., local and global weights' system) that reflect the importance assigned to the criteria and the priorities related to the performance of the alternative technologies. Compared with the Core Model, this methodological approach supplies a more timely as well as contextualized evidence for a specific technology, making it possible to obtain data that are more relevant and easier to interpret, and therefore more useful for decision makers to make investment choices with greater awareness. We reached the conclusion that although there may be scope for improvement, this implementation is a step forward toward the goal of building a "solid bridge" between the scientific evidence and the final decision

  11. Stochastic transitions between neural states in taste processing and decision-making.

    PubMed

    Miller, Paul; Katz, Donald B

    2010-02-17

    Noise, which is ubiquitous in the nervous system, causes trial-to-trial variability in the neural responses to stimuli. This neural variability is in turn a likely source of behavioral variability. Using Hidden Markov modeling, a method of analysis that can make use of such trial-to-trial response variability, we have uncovered sequences of discrete states of neural activity in gustatory cortex during taste processing. Here, we advance our understanding of these patterns in two ways. First, we reproduce the experimental findings in a formal model, describing a network that evinces sharp transitions between discrete states that are deterministically stable given sufficient noise in the network; as in the empirical data, the transitions occur at variable times across trials, but the stimulus-specific sequence is itself reliable. Second, we demonstrate that such noise-induced transitions between discrete states can be computationally advantageous in a reduced, decision-making network. The reduced network produces binary outputs, which represent classification of ingested substances as palatable or nonpalatable, and the corresponding behavioral responses of "spit" or "swallow". We evaluate the performance of the network by measuring how reliably its outputs follow small biases in the strengths of its inputs. We compare two modes of operation: deterministic integration ("ramping") versus stochastic decision-making ("jumping"), the latter of which relies on state-to-state transitions. We find that the stochastic mode of operation can be optimal under typical levels of internal noise and that, within this mode, addition of random noise to each input can improve optimal performance when decisions must be made in limited time.

  12. An Evolutionary Complex Systems Decision-Support Tool for the Management of Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, J. S.; Allen, P. M.; Ridgway, K.

    2011-12-01

    This research aimed to add both to the development of complex systems thinking in the subject area of Operations and Production Management and to the limited number of applications of computational models and simulations from the science of complex systems. The latter potentially offer helpful decision-support tools for operations and production managers. A mechanical engineering firm was used as a case study where a combined qualitative and quantitative methodological approach was employed to extract the required data from four senior managers. Company performance measures as well as firm technologies, practices and policies, and their relation and interaction with one another, were elicited. The data were subjected to an evolutionary complex systems model resulting in a series of simulations. The findings included both reassuring and some unexpected results. The simulation based on the CEO's opinions led the most cohesive and synergistic collection of practices describing the firm, closely followed by the Marketing and R&D Managers. The Manufacturing Manager's responses led to the most extreme evolutionary trajectory where the integrity of the entire firm came into question particularly when considering how employees were utilised. By drawing directly from the opinions and views of managers rather than from logical 'if-then' rules and averaged mathematical representations of agents that characterise agent-based and other self-organisational models, this work builds on previous applications by capturing a micro-level description of diversity and a learning effect that has been problematical not only in terms of theory but also in application. This approach can be used as a decision-support tool for operations and other managers providing a forum with which to explore a) the strengths, weaknesses and consequences of different decision-making capacities within the firm; b) the introduction of new manufacturing technologies, practices and policies; and, c) the

  13. Dissociated Neural Processing for Decisions in Managers and Non-Managers

    PubMed Central

    Caspers, Svenja; Heim, Stefan; Lucas, Marc G.; Stephan, Egon; Fischer, Lorenz; Amunts, Katrin; Zilles, Karl

    2012-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies of decision-making so far mainly focused on decisions under uncertainty or negotiation with other persons. Dual process theory assumes that, in such situations, decision making relies on either a rapid intuitive, automated or a slower rational processing system. However, it still remains elusive how personality factors or professional requirements might modulate the decision process and the underlying neural mechanisms. Since decision making is a key task of managers, we hypothesized that managers, facing higher pressure for frequent and rapid decisions than non-managers, prefer the heuristic, automated decision strategy in contrast to non-managers. Such different strategies may, in turn, rely on different neural systems. We tested managers and non-managers in a functional magnetic resonance imaging study using a forced-choice paradigm on word-pairs. Managers showed subcortical activation in the head of the caudate nucleus, and reduced hemodynamic response within the cortex. In contrast, non-managers revealed the opposite pattern. With the head of the caudate nucleus being an initiating component for process automation, these results supported the initial hypothesis, hinting at automation during decisions in managers. More generally, the findings reveal how different professional requirements might modulate cognitive decision processing. PMID:22927984

  14. 78 FR 66904 - Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for Naval Air Station Key West Airfield Operations, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... Department of the Navy Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for Naval Air Station Key West Airfield... proposed action, announces its decision to support and conduct airfield operations at Naval Air Station... facilities as necessary to meet requirements for next generation aircraft, and will potentially accommodate...

  15. Creating a process for incorporating epidemiological modelling into outbreak management decisions.

    PubMed

    Akselrod, Hana; Mercon, Monica; Kirkeby Risoe, Petter; Schlegelmilch, Jeffrey; McGovern, Joanne; Bogucki, Sandy

    2012-01-01

    Modern computational models of infectious diseases greatly enhance our ability to understand new infectious threats and assess the effects of different interventions. The recently-released CDC Framework for Preventing Infectious Diseases calls for increased use of predictive modelling of epidemic emergence for public health preparedness. Currently, the utility of these technologies in preparedness and response to outbreaks is limited by gaps between modelling output and information requirements for incident management. The authors propose an operational structure that will facilitate integration of modelling capabilities into action planning for outbreak management, using the Incident Command System (ICS) and Synchronization Matrix framework. It is designed to be adaptable and scalable for use by state and local planners under the National Response Framework (NRF) and Emergency Support Function #8 (ESF-8). Specific epidemiological modelling requirements are described, and integrated with the core processes for public health emergency decision support. These methods can be used in checklist format to align prospective or real-time modelling output with anticipated decision points, and guide strategic situational assessments at the community level. It is anticipated that formalising these processes will facilitate translation of the CDC's policy guidance from theory to practice during public health emergencies involving infectious outbreaks.

  16. A decision-support model for evaluating changes in biopharmaceutical manufacturing processes.

    PubMed

    Chhatre, S; Francis, R; O'Donovan, K; Titchener-Hooker, N J; Newcombe, A R; Keshavarz-Moore, E

    2007-01-01

    A simulation is described that evaluates the impacts of altering bio-manufacturing processes. Modifications designed to improve production levels, times and costs were assessed, including increasing feed volumes/titres, replacing initial downstream stages with packed or expanded bed affinity steps and removing ion exchange steps. Options were evaluated for manufactured product mass, COG, batch times and development costs and timescales. Metrics were combined using multi-attribute-decision-making techniques generating a single assessment metric for each option. The utility of this approach was illustrated by application to an FDA-approved process manufacturing rattlesnake anti-venom (Protherics U.K.). Currently, ovine serum containing anti-venom IgG is purified by precipitation/centrifugation, prior to antibody proteolysis by papain. An ion exchanger removes F(C), before affinity chromatography yields the final anti-venom. An expanded bed affinity column operating with an 80% higher IgG titre, 66% higher feed volume and without the ion exchanger delivered the best multi-attribute-decision-making value, potentially providing the most desirable alternative.

  17. Breaking the sound barrier: exploring parents' decision-making process of cochlear implants for their children.

    PubMed

    Chang, Pamara F

    2017-08-01

    To understand the dynamic experiences of parents undergoing the decision-making process regarding cochlear implants for their child(ren). Thirty-three parents of d/Deaf children participated in semi-structured interviews. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed, and coded using iterative and thematic coding. The results from this study reveal four salient topics related to parents' decision-making process regarding cochlear implantation: 1) factors parents considered when making the decision to get the cochlear implant for their child (e.g., desire to acculturate child into one community), 2) the extent to which parents' communities influence their decision-making (e.g., norms), 3) information sources parents seek and value when decision-making (e.g., parents value other parent's experiences the most compared to medical or online sources), and 4) personal experiences with stigma affecting their decision to not get the cochlear implant for their child. This study provides insights into values and perspectives that can be utilized to improve informed decision-making, when making risky medical decisions with long-term implications. With thorough information provisions, delineation of addressing parents' concerns and encompassing all aspects of the decision (i.e., medical, social and cultural), health professional teams could reduce the uncertainty and anxiety for parents in this decision-making process for cochlear implantation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Global tree network for computing structures enabling global processing operations

    DOEpatents

    Blumrich; Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Hoenicke, Dirk; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.; Takken, Todd E.; Vranas, Pavlos M.

    2010-01-19

    A system and method for enabling high-speed, low-latency global tree network communications among processing nodes interconnected according to a tree network structure. The global tree network enables collective reduction operations to be performed during parallel algorithm operations executing in a computer structure having a plurality of the interconnected processing nodes. Router devices are included that interconnect the nodes of the tree via links to facilitate performance of low-latency global processing operations at nodes of the virtual tree and sub-tree structures. The global operations performed include one or more of: broadcast operations downstream from a root node to leaf nodes of a virtual tree, reduction operations upstream from leaf nodes to the root node in the virtual tree, and point-to-point message passing from any node to the root node. The global tree network is configurable to provide global barrier and interrupt functionality in asynchronous or synchronized manner, and, is physically and logically partitionable.

  19. Difficult Decisions: A Qualitative Exploration of the Statistical Decision Making Process from the Perspectives of Psychology Students and Academics.

    PubMed

    Allen, Peter J; Dorozenko, Kate P; Roberts, Lynne D

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative research methods are essential to the development of professional competence in psychology. They are also an area of weakness for many students. In particular, students are known to struggle with the skill of selecting quantitative analytical strategies appropriate for common research questions, hypotheses and data types. To begin understanding this apparent deficit, we presented nine psychology undergraduates (who had all completed at least one quantitative methods course) with brief research vignettes, and asked them to explicate the process they would follow to identify an appropriate statistical technique for each. Thematic analysis revealed that all participants found this task challenging, and even those who had completed several research methods courses struggled to articulate how they would approach the vignettes on more than a very superficial and intuitive level. While some students recognized that there is a systematic decision making process that can be followed, none could describe it clearly or completely. We then presented the same vignettes to 10 psychology academics with particular expertise in conducting research and/or research methods instruction. Predictably, these "experts" were able to describe a far more systematic, comprehensive, flexible, and nuanced approach to statistical decision making, which begins early in the research process, and pays consideration to multiple contextual factors. They were sensitive to the challenges that students experience when making statistical decisions, which they attributed partially to how research methods and statistics are commonly taught. This sensitivity was reflected in their pedagogic practices. When asked to consider the format and features of an aid that could facilitate the statistical decision making process, both groups expressed a preference for an accessible, comprehensive and reputable resource that follows a basic decision tree logic. For the academics in particular, this aid

  20. Difficult Decisions: A Qualitative Exploration of the Statistical Decision Making Process from the Perspectives of Psychology Students and Academics

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Peter J.; Dorozenko, Kate P.; Roberts, Lynne D.

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative research methods are essential to the development of professional competence in psychology. They are also an area of weakness for many students. In particular, students are known to struggle with the skill of selecting quantitative analytical strategies appropriate for common research questions, hypotheses and data types. To begin understanding this apparent deficit, we presented nine psychology undergraduates (who had all completed at least one quantitative methods course) with brief research vignettes, and asked them to explicate the process they would follow to identify an appropriate statistical technique for each. Thematic analysis revealed that all participants found this task challenging, and even those who had completed several research methods courses struggled to articulate how they would approach the vignettes on more than a very superficial and intuitive level. While some students recognized that there is a systematic decision making process that can be followed, none could describe it clearly or completely. We then presented the same vignettes to 10 psychology academics with particular expertise in conducting research and/or research methods instruction. Predictably, these “experts” were able to describe a far more systematic, comprehensive, flexible, and nuanced approach to statistical decision making, which begins early in the research process, and pays consideration to multiple contextual factors. They were sensitive to the challenges that students experience when making statistical decisions, which they attributed partially to how research methods and statistics are commonly taught. This sensitivity was reflected in their pedagogic practices. When asked to consider the format and features of an aid that could facilitate the statistical decision making process, both groups expressed a preference for an accessible, comprehensive and reputable resource that follows a basic decision tree logic. For the academics in particular, this aid

  1. Decision Processes in Discrimination: Fundamental Misrepresentations of Signal Detection Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakrishnan, J. D.

    1998-01-01

    In the first part of this article, I describe a new approach to studying decision making in discrimination tasks that does not depend on the technical assumptions of signal detection theory (e.g., normality of the encoding distributions). Applying these new distribution-free tests to data from three experiments, I show that base rate and payoff manipulations had substantial effects on the participants' encoding distributions but no effect on their decision rules, which were uniformly unbiased in equal and unequal base rate conditions and in symmetric and asymmetric payoff conditions. In the second part of the article, I show that this seemingly paradoxical result is readily explained by the sequential sampling models of discrimination. I then propose a new, "model-free" test for response bias that seems to more properly identify both the nature and direction of the biases induced by the classical bias manipulations.

  2. Decision Processes in Discrimination: Fundamental Misrepresentations of Signal Detection Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakrishnan, J. D.

    1998-01-01

    In the first part of this article, I describe a new approach to studying decision making in discrimination tasks that does not depend on the technical assumptions of signal detection theory (e.g., normality of the encoding distributions). Applying these new distribution-free tests to data from three experiments, I show that base rate and payoff manipulations had substantial effects on the participants' encoding distributions but no effect on their decision rules, which were uniformly unbiased in equal and unequal base rate conditions and in symmetric and asymmetric payoff conditions. In the second part of the article, I show that this seemingly paradoxical result is readily explained by the sequential sampling models of discrimination. I then propose a new, "model-free" test for response bias that seems to more properly identify both the nature and direction of the biases induced by the classical bias manipulations.

  3. Computerized Aid Improves Safety Decision Process for Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Nancy; Eden, Karen B.; Bloom, Tina; Perrin, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    A computerized safety decision aid was developed and tested with Spanish or English-speaking abused women in shelters or domestic violence (DV) support groups (n = 90). The decision aid provides feedback about risk for lethal violence, options for safety, assistance with setting priorities for safety, and a safety plan personalized to the user. Women reported that the decision aid was useful and provided much-needed privacy for making safety decisions. The majority (69%) reported severe to extreme danger in their relationship as scored by Danger Assessment (DA); only 60% reported having made a safety plan. After using the safety decision aid, the women felt more supported in their decision (p = .012) and had less total decisional conflict (p = .014). The study demonstrated that a computerized safety decision aid improved the safety planning process, as demonstrated by reduced decisional conflict after only one use in a sample of abused women. PMID:20040709

  4. The Rational Adolescent: Strategic Information Processing during Decision Making Revealed by Eye Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Youngbin; Payne, John W.; Cohen, Andrew L.; Huettel, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is often viewed as a time of irrational, risky decision-making – despite adolescents' competence in other cognitive domains. In this study, we examined the strategies used by adolescents (N=30) and young adults (N=47) to resolve complex, multi-outcome economic gambles. Compared to adults, adolescents were more likely to make conservative, loss-minimizing choices consistent with economic models. Eye-tracking data showed that prior to decisions, adolescents acquired more information in a more thorough manner; that is, they engaged in a more analytic processing strategy indicative of trade-offs between decision variables. In contrast, young adults' decisions were more consistent with heuristics that simplified the decision problem, at the expense of analytic precision. Collectively, these results demonstrate a counter-intuitive developmental transition in economic decision making: adolescents' decisions are more consistent with rational-choice models, while young adults more readily engage task-appropriate heuristics. PMID:26388664

  5. The analysis of the pilot's cognitive and decision processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    Articles are presented on pilot performance in zero-visibility precision approach, failure detection by pilots during automatic landing, experiments in pilot decision-making during simulated low visibility approaches, a multinomial maximum likelihood program, and a random search algorithm for laboratory computers. Other topics discussed include detection of system failures in multi-axis tasks and changes in pilot workload during an instrument landing.

  6. Visualization of Decision Processes Using a Cognitive Architecture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    Tactics (green), and outlaw Behaviors ( lavender ). Figure 2 also shows all the consequents and antecedents for each node. These labels are for exposition of...Intelligence nodes are blue, Tactics nodes are green, and outlaw Behavior nodes are lavender . Figure 4. A simple interactive exploration of the graph...constraint nodes (three green for Tactics, one lavender for Behaviors) are introduced to the world computed after the user changes a decision that was

  7. New Windows based Color Morphological Operators for Biomedical Image Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastore, Juan; Bouchet, Agustina; Brun, Marcel; Ballarin, Virginia

    2016-04-01

    Morphological image processing is well known as an efficient methodology for image processing and computer vision. With the wide use of color in many areas, the interest on the color perception and processing has been growing rapidly. Many models have been proposed to extend morphological operators to the field of color images, dealing with some new problems not present previously in the binary and gray level contexts. These solutions usually deal with the lattice structure of the color space, or provide it with total orders, to be able to define basic operators with required properties. In this work we propose a new locally defined ordering, in the context of window based morphological operators, for the definition of erosions-like and dilation-like operators, which provides the same desired properties expected from color morphology, avoiding some of the drawbacks of the prior approaches. Experimental results show that the proposed color operators can be efficiently used for color image processing.

  8. Decision making, procedural compliance, and outcomes definition in U.S. forest service planning processes

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, Marc J.; Predmore, S. Andrew

    2011-04-15

    The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) dictates a process of analyzing and disclosing the likely impacts of proposed agency actions on the human environment. This study addresses two key questions related to NEPA implementation in the U.S. Forest Service: 1) how do Interdisciplinary (ID) team leaders and decision makers conceptualize the outcomes of NEPA processes? And 2), how does NEPA relate to agency decision making? We address these questions through two separate online surveys that posed questions about recently completed NEPA processes - the first with the ID team leaders tasked with carrying out the processes, and the second with the line officers responsible for making the processes' final decisions. Outcomes of NEPA processes include impacts on public relations, on employee morale and team functioning, on the achievement of agency goals, and on the achievement of NEPA's procedural requirements (disclosure) and substantive intent (minimizing negative environmental impacts). Although both tended to view public relations outcomes as important, decision makers' perceptions of favorable outcomes were more closely linked to the achievement of agency goals and process efficiency than was the case for ID team leaders. While ID team leaders' responses suggest that they see decision making closely integrated with the NEPA process, decision makers more commonly decoupled decision making from the NEPA process. These findings suggest a philosophical difference between ID team leaders and decision makers that may pose challenges for both the implementation and the evaluation of agency NEPA. We discuss the pros and cons of integrating NEPA with decision making or separating the two. We conclude that detaching NEPA from decision making poses greater risks than integrating them.

  9. Application of a Structured Decision Process for Informing ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Guánica Bay watershed has been a priority for research, assessment and management since the 1970s, and since 2008, has been the focus of a U.S. Coral Reef Task Force (USCRTF) research initiative involving multiple agencies assembled to address the effect of land management decisions on coastal resources. Municipal and agricultural growth in the Guánica Bay watershed has provided social and economic value but has led to changes in forest cover (highly valued for biodiversity, endangered species and ecotourism), declining quality and availability of drinking water, and increased sediment and nutrient runoff that adversely affects coastal seagrasses, mangroves and coral reefs. Communities in the coastal region, such as the city of Guánica, rely partially on fishing and tourism economies, both of which are adversely affected by diminishing coastal water quality. In 2008, with funding from NOAA’s Coral Reef Conservation Program, the Center for Watershed Protection developed a Watershed Management Plan (WMP) that included a suite of proposed management actions to reduce sediment runoff and its harmful effects in the coastal zone. The WMP served as the initial SDM decision context for EPA’s research to generate tools and procedures to better inform the decisions made across the watershed and to facilitate complementary actions.Application of SDM in Guánica Bay included archival research on social and economic history of the region and three workshops with s

  10. Application of a Structured Decision Process for Informing ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Guánica Bay watershed has been a priority for research, assessment and management since the 1970s, and since 2008, has been the focus of a U.S. Coral Reef Task Force (USCRTF) research initiative involving multiple agencies assembled to address the effect of land management decisions on coastal resources. Municipal and agricultural growth in the Guánica Bay watershed has provided social and economic value but has led to changes in forest cover (highly valued for biodiversity, endangered species and ecotourism), declining quality and availability of drinking water, and increased sediment and nutrient runoff that adversely affects coastal seagrasses, mangroves and coral reefs. Communities in the coastal region, such as the city of Guánica, rely partially on fishing and tourism economies, both of which are adversely affected by diminishing coastal water quality. In 2008, with funding from NOAA’s Coral Reef Conservation Program, the Center for Watershed Protection developed a Watershed Management Plan (WMP) that included a suite of proposed management actions to reduce sediment runoff and its harmful effects in the coastal zone. The WMP served as the initial SDM decision context for EPA’s research to generate tools and procedures to better inform the decisions made across the watershed and to facilitate complementary actions.Application of SDM in Guánica Bay included archival research on social and economic history of the region and three workshops with s

  11. Abnormal emotion processing, but intact fairness and intentionality considerations during social decision-making in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    de la Asuncion, Javier; Docx, Lise; Sabbe, Bernard; Morrens, Manuel; de Bruijn, Ellen R A

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder that is highly characterized by social cognitive impairments. Most studies investigating these impairments focus on one specific social domain such as emotion recognition. However, in daily life, processing complex social situations relies on the combination of several social cognitive and affective processes simultaneously rather than one process alone. A modified version of the economically based Ultimatum Game was used to measure the interplay between fairness, intentionality, and emotion considerations during social decision-making. In this task, participants accept or reject fair and unfair monetary offers proposed intentionally or unintentionally by either angry, happy, neutral, or sad proposers. Behavioral data was collected from a group of schizophrenia patients (N = 35) and a group of healthy individuals (N = 30). Like healthy participants, schizophrenia patients differentiated between fair and unfair offers by rejecting unfair offers more compared to fair offers. However, overall patients did reject more fair offers, indicating that their construct of fairness operates within different margins. In both groups, intentional unfair offers were rejected more compared to unintentional ones, indicating a normal integration of intentionality considerations in schizophrenia. Importantly, healthy subjects also differentiated between proposers' emotion when rejecting unfair offers (more rejections from proposers depicting angry faces compared to proposers depicting, happy, neutral, or sad faces). Schizophrenia patients' decision behavior on the other hand, was not affected by the proposers' emotions. The current study thus shows that schizophrenia patients have specific problems with processing and integrating emotional information. Importantly, the finding that patients display normal fairness and intentionality considerations emphasizes preservation of central social cognitive processes in schizophrenia.

  12. Strategic Calculation in Estonia’s Decision to Enter the Coalition of the Willing for Operation Iraqi Freedom in 2003

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-21

    Strategic Calculation in Estonia’s Decision to Enter the Coalition of the Willing for Operation Iraqi Freedom in 2003 A... Freedom in 2003 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) LTC Janno Märk 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e...study concerns itself with Estonia’s security policy and decision to enter the Coalition of the Willing for Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) in 2003

  13. Applications of neural networks to monitoring and decision making in the operation of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Uhrig, R.E. Oak Ridge National Lab., TN )

    1990-01-01

    Application of neural networks to monitoring and decision making in the operation of nuclear power plants is being investigated under a US Department of Energy sponsored program at the University of Tennessee. Projects include the feasibility of using neural networks for the following tasks: (1) diagnosing specific abnormal conditions or problems in nuclear power plants, (2) detection of the change of mode of operation of the plant, (3) validating signals coming from detectors, (4) review of noise'' data from TVA's Sequoyah Nuclear Power Plant, and (5) examination of the NRC's database of Letter Event Reports'' for correlation of sequences of events in the reported incidents. Each of these projects and its status are described briefly in this paper. This broad based program has as its objective the definition of the state-of-the-art in using neural networks to enhance the performance of commercial nuclear power plants.

  14. Hesitant Triangular Fuzzy Information Aggregation Operators Based on Bonferroni Means and Their Application to Multiple Attribute Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaoqiang; Yang, Tian

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the multiple attribute decision-making (MADM) problems with hesitant triangular fuzzy information. Firstly, definition and some operational laws of hesitant triangular fuzzy elements are introduced. Then, we develop some hesitant triangular fuzzy aggregation operators based on Bonferroni means and discuss their basic properties. Some existing operators can be viewed as their special cases. Next, we apply the proposed operators to deal with multiple attribute decision-making problems under hesitant triangular fuzzy environment. Finally, an illustrative example is given to show the developed method and demonstrate its practicality and effectiveness. PMID:25140338

  15. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 4): T, H, Agriculture and Nutrition Site, Operable Unit 1, Albany, GA, May 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-21

    This decision document (Record of Decision), presents the selected remedial action for Operable Unit One for the T H Agriculture and Nutrition (THAN) Site, Albany, Georgia. This operable unit is the first of two that are planned for the Site. The first operable unit addresses the source of the contamination on the western parcel of the Site as well as the principle threat of groundwater contamination across the entire Site. While this remedy does address the principal threats at the Site, the second operable unit will involve continued study and remediation of a second source of contamination on the eastern parcel of the Site.

  16. On the Controller Synthesis for Markov Decision Process of Conflict Tolerant Specification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junhua; Huang, Zhiqiu; Cao, Zining

    For an embedded control system, different requirements often need be satisfied at same time, and some of them make the system to act conflicted. Conflict tolerant specification is provided to denote this situation. In such a system, there often exist probabilistic and non-deterministic behaviors. We use Markov Decision Process (MDP) to denote these features. We study the controller synthesis for MDP over conflict tolerant specification. We extend PCTL star by adding past operator to denote the conflict tolerant specification succinctly. We use CT-PLTL to denote conflicted actions and PCTL to denote the specification for probability demand. We first synthesize a controller on a base system over CT-PLTL and then use it to prune the corresponding MDP of the system model. We use the resulting sub-MDP as the model to further synthesis a controller over PCTL. The whole controller for MDP is a conjunction of the two controllers obtained.

  17. Modelling farmers' action: decision rules capture methodology and formalisation structure: a case of biomass flow operations in dairy farms of a tropical island.

    PubMed

    Vayssières, J; Lecomte, P; Guerrin, F; Nidumolu, U B

    2007-06-01

    Studies on decision-making processes are generally aimed at identifying farmers' needs and predicting farmers' reactions to technical innovations. In the present paper we study these decision-making processes, with reference to dairy farms, to build a whole-farm computer model (WFM) which simulates farmers' actions. In this study, (i) a multi-tool and multi-step methodology is proposed, which can also be qualified as an iterative and interactive methodology to reveal decision rules and (ii) a generic structure to formalise how action is conducted, termed 'structure for action modelling' (SAM). In the case of forage crop-dairy cattle systems, we have tested the current methodology to capture the decision rules and the SAM to represent action concerning farm management. An 'immersion' approach, inspired by the ethnographic approach has been adapted to access operational technical decisions (taken on a daily basis). This study helped in understanding how detailed and large approaches can be complementary and can facilitate identification of what can be generalised in a conceptual model. To define the generic structure (SAM), a set of descriptive variables concerning technical operations has been selected. The conceptual model generated is composed of decision rules reconstructed by researchers with farmers' committed participation. The validation method is based on participatory approaches and on comparing of actions simulated by the model with practices on the ground. Not contesting the fact that farmers plan their action, this study also revealed the importance of adjustments in action. For example, 20 to 55% of the time the planned food ration is not distributed to the milking cows because of forage unavailability. We also discuss how this structure can facilitate integration of decision mechanisms in biophysical models and how such an integration of adjustment decision rules can produce more realistic simulations of technical actions. Error of biotechnical

  18. Climate Change Scenario Planning in Alaska's National Parks: Stakeholder Involvement in the Decision-Making Process

    SciTech Connect

    Ernst, Kathleen M; Van Riemsdijk, Dr. Micheline

    2013-01-01

    This article studies the participation of stakeholders in climate change decision-making in Alaska s National Parks. We place stakeholder participation within literatures on environmental and climate change decision-making. We conducted participant observation and interviews in two planning workshops to investigate the decision-making process, and our findings are three-fold. First, the inclusion of diverse stakeholders expanded climate change decision-making beyond National Park Service (NPS) institutional constraints. Second, workshops of the Climate Change Scenario Planning Project (CCSPP) enhanced institutional understandings of participants attitudes towards climate change and climate change decision-making. Third, the geographical context of climate change influences the decision-making process. As the first regional approach to climate change decision-making within the NPS, the CCSPP serves as a model for future climate change planning in public land agencies. This study shows how the participation of stakeholders can contribute to robust decisions, may move climate change decision-making beyond institutional barriers, and can provide information about attitudes towards climate change decision-making.

  19. FINDER, A system providing complex decision support for commercial transport replanning operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittermann, Vincent; Deker, Guy; Sassus, Pierre; Mielnik, Jean-Christophe; Jud, Jean-Marie

    1994-03-01

    Decision-aid systems, likely to appear in future aircraft generations, could play a central role in the cockpit thanks to the broad spectrum of functionalities and decision support facilities they will offer to the crew. As part of such systems, the exploratory FINDER mock-up is a knowledge based system (KBS) designed to help crew members continually optimize their flight plan by suggesting solutions considering exhaustive information related to flight context, either on pilot request or upon external information occurrence. The successful evaluation by Air France pilots of that first mock-up dedicated to diversion procedure on pilot request has led to the current development of an enhanced system with nominal enroute operations and real-time capabilities. Nominal enroute operations concern the optimization with respect to an evolutive constraining of favoring environment (due to weather, traffic or regulated areas, and ETOPS constraints). This study paves the way for a future flight assistant system concept which is already under investigation and may take place in SEXTANT Avionique's future development steps.

  20. Processes of particle deposition in membrane operation and fabrication.

    PubMed

    Wiesner, M R; Tarabara, V; Cortalezzi, M

    2005-01-01

    The processes that control particle deposition on surfaces that are of interest in understanding operational aspects of membrane filtration, also hold significance in controlling the morphology of particle deposits as intermediate steps in membrane fabrication. This paper summarizes processes controlling particle deposit morphology. The implications of these processes for understanding membrane fouling by particles and in fabricating membranes are then considered.

  1. 9 CFR 590.547 - Albumen flake process drying operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Albumen flake process drying... INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.547 Albumen flake process drying operations. (a) The fermentation, drying, and curing rooms shall be kept in a dust-free clean condition and...

  2. 9 CFR 590.547 - Albumen flake process drying operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Albumen flake process drying... INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.547 Albumen flake process drying operations. (a) The fermentation, drying, and curing rooms shall be kept in a dust-free clean condition and...

  3. 9 CFR 590.547 - Albumen flake process drying operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Albumen flake process drying... INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.547 Albumen flake process drying operations. (a) The fermentation, drying, and curing rooms shall be kept in a dust-free clean condition and...

  4. 9 CFR 590.547 - Albumen flake process drying operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Albumen flake process drying... INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.547 Albumen flake process drying operations. (a) The fermentation, drying, and curing rooms shall be kept in a dust-free clean condition and...

  5. 9 CFR 590.547 - Albumen flake process drying operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Albumen flake process drying operations. 590.547 Section 590.547 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.547 Albumen flake process drying...

  6. Integrating Ensemble Forecasts of Precipitation and Streamflow into Decision Support for Reservoir Operations in North Central Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Limon, R. A.; Alizadeh, B.; Seo, D. J.; Fincannon, T. J.; Winguth, A. M. E.; Brown, J.; Blaylock, L.; Lampe, M.; Philpott, A.; Bell, F.

    2016-12-01

    North Central Texas relies heavily on surface water for water supply. To meet the growing demand, large raw water suppliers, such as the Tarrant Regional Water District (TRWD), operate systems of reservoirs that are connected by extensive networks of pipelines over long distances. To ensure water supply at all times, while minimizing flooding risks and pumping cost, TRWD utilizes a suite of decision support tools. This research aims to improve the operating efficiency of the water delivery system by providing skillful ensemble precipitation and inflow forecasts that can be used to optimize the water supply operations under uncertain environmental conditions. To assess the value of medium- and long-range forecasts of precipitation and inflow to operation and management of the TRWD's reservoir-pipeline system, a set of hindcasting and verification experiments is being carried out. The hindcasting experiments use weather and climate reforecasts from the Global Ensemble Forecast System and the Climate Forecast System Version 2, and the forecasting and verification tools of the National Weather Service's Hydrologic Ensemble Forecast Service, the Community Hydrologic Prediction System, and the Ensemble Verification System. The value of ensemble forecasts will be demonstrated via the TRWD forecasting model, which uses RiverWare. We also present a multiscale bias correction procedure for post-processing the raw streamflow ensembles.

  7. Sources of variability in uncertain medical decisions in the ICU: a process tracing study

    PubMed Central

    Kostopoulou, O; Wildman, M

    2004-01-01

    Background: Consistency of medical decision making (equity) is an important component of quality of care. When patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) present with an exacerbation needing respiratory support they may die if it is not provided. However, if the disease has reached its terminal stage, ventilation will prolong the process of dying. The ventilation outcome is uncertain and there is evidence of variability when this decision is made, the sources of which are not well understood. Objectives: To identify sources of variability and propose ways of tackling them in order to promote equity in this type of medical decision. Methods: Six case histories were selected from hospital records of COPD patients. Fourteen senior doctors from seven hospitals in the West Midlands participated. A process tracing approach was used which consisted of (1) withholding case information until specifically requested by the doctors, (2) estimating survival during the decision making process, and (3) concurrent questioning regarding information interpretation and its impact on survival estimates and decisions. Results: The observed decision variability was attributed to doctors attaching importance to different information, gathering different information, and interpreting information differently. There were significant differences between doctors in the amount of information requested. Conclusions: Differences in information gathering and interpretation by clinicians can result in different decisions being made about the same patient. This variation may exist for other uncertain medical decisions and may be tackled by providing clinicians with prognostic models in the form of usable decision aids. PMID:15289630

  8. Theoretical aspects of cellular decision-making and information-processing.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Tetsuya J; Kamimura, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    Microscopic biological processes have extraordinary complexity and variety at the sub-cellular, intra-cellular, and multi-cellular levels. In dealing with such complex phenomena, conceptual and theoretical frameworks are crucial, which enable us to understand seemingly different intra- and inter-cellular phenomena from unified viewpoints. Decision-making is one such concept that has attracted much attention recently. Since a number of cellular behavior can be regarded as processes to make specific actions in response to external stimuli, decision-making can cover and has been used to explain a broad range of different cellular phenomena [Balázsi et al. (Cell 144(6):910, 2011), Zeng et al. (Cell 141(4):682, 2010)]. Decision-making is also closely related to cellular information-processing because appropriate decisions cannot be made without exploiting the information that the external stimuli contain. Efficiency of information transduction and processing by intra-cellular networks determines the amount of information obtained, which in turn limits the efficiency of subsequent decision-making. Furthermore, information-processing itself can serve as another concept that is crucial for understanding of other biological processes than decision-making. In this work, we review recent theoretical developments on cellular decision-making and information-processing by focusing on the relation between these two concepts.

  9. Improving management decision processes through centralized communication linkages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simanton, D. F.; Garman, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    Information flow is a critical element to intelligent and timely decision-making. At NASA's Johnson Space Center the flow of information is being automated through the use of a centralized backbone network. The theoretical basis of this network, its implications to the horizontal and vertical flow of information, and the technical challenges involved in its implementation are the focus of this paper. The importance of the use of common tools among programs and some future concerns related to file transfer, graphics transfer, and merging of voice and data are also discussed.

  10. The Computer-Aided Analytic Process Model. Operations Handbook for the Analytic Process Model Demonstration Package

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    Research Note 86-06 THE COMPUTER-AIDED ANALYTIC PROCESS MODEL : OPERATIONS HANDBOOK FOR THE ANALYTIC PROCESS MODEL DE ONSTRATION PACKAGE Ronald G...ic Process Model ; Operations Handbook; Tutorial; Apple; Systems Taxonomy Mod--l; Training System; Bradl1ey infantry Fighting * Vehicle; BIFV...8217. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . * - ~ . - - * m- .. . . . . . . item 20. Abstract -continued companion volume-- "The Analytic Process Model for

  11. Material instability hazards in mine-processing operations

    SciTech Connect

    Fredland, J.W.; Wu, K.K.; Kirkwood, D.W.

    1993-10-01

    Many accidents occur in the mining industry as a result of the instability of material during handling and processing operation. Accidents due to dump point instability at stockpiles, and at spoil or waste piles, for example, occur with alarming frequency. Miners must be trained to be better aware of these hazards. Information on safe working procedures at stockpiles and surge piles is provided. Mine operators must review their training and operating procedures regularly to ensure that hazardous conditions are avoided.

  12. A Decision Process and Classification System for Use by Title I Project Directors in Planning Educational Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ott, Jack M.

    This study attempts to develop a decision framework to aid project directors in planning change under Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. Literature on change, the change process, decisions, and the decision process is reviewed and a framework within which to study planned change is constructed. Decision making, in the change…

  13. Determinants of judgment and decision making quality: the interplay between information processing style and situational factors.

    PubMed

    Ayal, Shahar; Rusou, Zohar; Zakay, Dan; Hochman, Guy

    2015-01-01

    A framework is presented to better characterize the role of individual differences in information processing style and their interplay with contextual factors in determining decision making quality. In Experiment 1, we show that individual differences in information processing style are flexible and can be modified by situational factors. Specifically, a situational manipulation that induced an analytical mode of thought improved decision quality. In Experiment 2, we show that this improvement in decision quality is highly contingent on the compatibility between the dominant thinking mode and the nature of the task. That is, encouraging an intuitive mode of thought led to better performance on an intuitive task but hampered performance on an analytical task. The reverse pattern was obtained when an analytical mode of thought was encouraged. We discuss the implications of these results for the assessment of decision making competence, and suggest practical directions to help individuals better adjust their information processing style to the situation at hand and make optimal decisions.

  14. "The Gaze Heuristic:" Biography of an Adaptively Rational Decision Process.

    PubMed

    Hamlin, Robert P

    2017-02-21

    This article is a case study that describes the natural and human history of the gaze heuristic. The gaze heuristic is an interception heuristic that utilizes a single input (deviation from a constant angle of approach) repeatedly as a task is performed. Its architecture, advantages, and limitations are described in detail. A history of the gaze heuristic is then presented. In natural history, the gaze heuristic is the only known technique used by predators to intercept prey. In human history the gaze heuristic was discovered accidentally by Royal Air Force (RAF) fighter command just prior to World War II. As it was never discovered by the Luftwaffe, the technique conferred a decisive advantage upon the RAF throughout the war. After the end of the war in America, German technology was combined with the British heuristic to create the Sidewinder AIM9 missile, the most successful autonomous weapon ever built. There are no plans to withdraw it or replace its guiding gaze heuristic. The case study demonstrates that the gaze heuristic is a specific heuristic type that takes a single best input at the best time (take the best(2) ). Its use is an adaptively rational response to specific, rapidly evolving decision environments that has allowed those animals/humans/machines who use it to survive, prosper, and multiply relative to those who do not.

  15. 19. VIEW OF PROCESSING ROOM. AFTER 1957, BUILDING 771 OPERATIONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. VIEW OF PROCESSING ROOM. AFTER 1957, BUILDING 771 OPERATIONS CONSISTED PRIMARILY OF AQUEOUS PLUTONIUM RECOVERY FROM SCRAP METAL. (6/20/60) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery & Fabrication Facility, North-central section of plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  16. Process control strategy for ITER central solenoid operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maekawa, R.; Takami, S.; Iwamoto, A.; Chang, H.-S.; Forgeas, A.; Chalifour, M.

    2016-12-01

    ITER Central Solenoid (CS) pulse operation induces significant flow disturbance in the forced-flow Supercritical Helium (SHe) cooling circuit, which could impact primarily on the operation of cold circulator (SHe centrifugal pump) in Auxiliary Cold Box (ACB). Numerical studies using Venecia®, SUPERMAGNET and 4C have identified reverse flow at the CS module inlet due to the substantial thermal energy deposition at the inner-most winding. To assess the reliable operation of ACB-CS (dedicated ACB for CS), the process analyses have been conducted with a dynamic process simulation model developed by Cryogenic Process REal-time SimulaTor (C-PREST). As implementing process control of hydrodynamic instability, several strategies have been applied to evaluate their feasibility. The paper discusses control strategy to protect the centrifugal type cold circulator/compressor operations and its impact on the CS cooling.

  17. Systems engineering and integration processes involved with manned mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kranz, Eugene F.; Kraft, Christopher C.

    1993-01-01

    This paper will discuss three mission operations functions that are illustrative of the key principles of operations SE&I and of the processes and products involved. The flight systems process was selected to illustrate the role of the systems product line in developing the depth and cross disciplinary skills needed for SE&I and providing the foundation for dialogue between participating elements. FDDD was selected to illustrate the need for a structured process to assure that SE&I provides complete and accurate results that consistently support program needs. The flight director's role in mission operations was selected to illustrate the complexity of the risk/gain tradeoffs involved in the development of the flight techniques and flight rules process as well as the absolute importance of the leadership role in developing the technical, operational, and political trades.

  18. Disciplined Decision Making in an Interdisciplinary Environment: Some Implications for Clinical Applications of Statistical Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hantula, Donald A.

    1995-01-01

    Clinical applications of statistical process control (SPC) in human service organizations are considered. SPC is seen as providing a standard set of criteria that serves as a common interface for data-based decision making, which may bring decision making under the control of established contingencies rather than the immediate contingencies of…

  19. Auburn, Maine Curriculum Improvement Model. Processes and Procedures for Decision Making. No. 163.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goddu, Roland

    This paper outlines the decision-making processes and procedures that affect curriculum and identifies the leadership role of different school personnel and the steps involved in making decisions. The following areas of curriculum planning are discussed: (1) what is to be taught to different learners and in what order; (2) what textbooks, media,…

  20. The Use of Art in the Medical Decision-Making Process of Oncology Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czamanski-Cohen, Johanna

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of written informed consent in the 1970s created expectations of shared decision making between doctors and patients that has led to decisional conflict for some patients. This study utilized a collaborative, intrinsic case study approach to the decision-making process of oncology patients who participated in an open art therapy…

  1. Stakeholders' Perception of Who Influences the Decision-Making Processes in Ontario's Public Postsecondary Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Billroy

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study conducted on stakeholders' perception of who influences the decision-making processes in Ontario's public postsecondary education institutions. The study identified and interviewed representatives of those stakeholder groups that are frequently written about as the main forces behind decision making in…

  2. Special Education Eligibility: An Examination of the Decision-Making Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkland, Erin K. B.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of private practitioner and educational advocate opinions on school-based administrators' decision-making thought processes when making a recommendation for special education eligibility. Special education eligibility is a school-based team decision that involves multiple…

  3. Examination of Children Decision Making Using Clues during the Logical Reasoning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çelik, Meryem

    2017-01-01

    Logical reasoning is the process of thinking about a problem and finding the most effective solution. Children's decision-making skills are part of their cognitive development and are also indicative. The purpose of this study was to examine children's decision-making skills using clues in logical reasoning based on various variables. The study…

  4. Parents and Peers: Their Importance in the Career Decision Making Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, M. Harry; And Others

    This paper examines the role played by parents in their children's career decision-making process. Parents are identified as preeminent influences of adolescents' career decision making, a fact that has been largely unrecognized by career guidance personnel and school administrators, as evidenced by the lack of programs designed to enable parents…

  5. Risk aversion and risk seeking in multicriteria forest management: a Markov decision process approach

    Treesearch

    Joseph Buongiorno; Mo Zhou; Craig Johnston

    2017-01-01

    Markov decision process models were extended to reflect some consequences of the risk attitude of forestry decision makers. One approach consisted of maximizing the expected value of a criterion subject to an upper bound on the variance or, symmetrically, minimizing the variance subject to a lower bound on the expected value.  The other method used the certainty...

  6. Due Process and Higher Education: A Systemic Approach to Fair Decision Making. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Ed

    University officials and faculty are frequently required to make decisions based on interpretations of disputed facts. By applying the concept of due process within the context of higher education, they can meet legal challenges of contract and constitutional law and the pedagogical demand for justice. To guide their efforts, decision makers can…

  7. Stakeholders' Perception of Who Influences the Decision-Making Processes in Ontario's Public Postsecondary Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Billroy

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study conducted on stakeholders' perception of who influences the decision-making processes in Ontario's public postsecondary education institutions. The study identified and interviewed representatives of those stakeholder groups that are frequently written about as the main forces behind decision making in…

  8. The Use of Art in the Medical Decision-Making Process of Oncology Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czamanski-Cohen, Johanna

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of written informed consent in the 1970s created expectations of shared decision making between doctors and patients that has led to decisional conflict for some patients. This study utilized a collaborative, intrinsic case study approach to the decision-making process of oncology patients who participated in an open art therapy…

  9. Free-Choice Learning Suited to Women's Participation Needs in Environmental Decision-Making Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skanavis, Constantina; Sakellari, Maria

    2012-01-01

    United Nations mandates recognize the need to promote the full participation of women in environmental decision-making processes on the basis of gender equality. But, there remains a profound lack of effective women's participation in some sectors of environmental decision-making. Free-choice environmental learning offers an effective educational…

  10. 10 CFR 708.34 - What is the process for issuing an appeal decision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What is the process for issuing an appeal decision? 708.34 Section 708.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY DOE CONTRACTOR EMPLOYEE PROTECTION PROGRAM Investigation... appeal decision to all parties and to the Head of Field Element or EC Director having jurisdiction over...

  11. Free-Choice Learning Suited to Women's Participation Needs in Environmental Decision-Making Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skanavis, Constantina; Sakellari, Maria

    2012-01-01

    United Nations mandates recognize the need to promote the full participation of women in environmental decision-making processes on the basis of gender equality. But, there remains a profound lack of effective women's participation in some sectors of environmental decision-making. Free-choice environmental learning offers an effective educational…

  12. Implications of Patient Age and ASA Physical Status for Operating Room Management Decisions.

    PubMed

    Luedi, Markus M; Kauf, Peter; Mulks, Lisa; Wieferich, Katharina; Schiffer, Ralf; Doll, Dietrich

    2016-04-01

    In elderly, high-risk patients, operating room (OR) turnaround times are especially difficult to estimate, and the managerial implications of patient age and ASA physical status for OR management decisions remain unclear. We hypothesized that evaluating patient age and ASA physical status in the right model would improve accuracy of turnaround time estimates and, thus, would have decisive implications for OR management. By using various multivariate techniques, we modeled turnaround times of 13,632 OR procedures with respect to multiple variables including surgical list, age, ASA physical status, duration of the procedure, and duration of the preceding procedure. We first assessed correlations and general descriptive features of the data. Then, we constructed decision tables for OR management consisting of 50th and 95th percentiles of age/ASA-dependent estimates of turnaround times. In addition, we applied linear and generalized linear multivariate models to predict turnaround times. The forecasting power of the models was assessed in view of single cases but also in view of critical managerial key figures (50th and 95th percentile turnaround times). The models were calibrated on 80% of the data, and their predictive value was tested on the remaining 20%. We considered our data in a Monte Carlo simulation to deduce actual reductions of overutilized OR time when applying the results as presented in this work. Using the best models, we achieved an increase in predictive accuracy of 7.7% (all lists), ranging from 2.5% (general surgery) to 21.0% (trauma surgery) relative to age/ASA-independent medians of turnaround times. All models decreased the forecasting error, signifying a relevant increase in planning accuracy. We constructed a management decision table to estimate age/ASA-dependent turnaround time for OR scheduling at our hospital. The decision tables allow OR managers at our hospital to schedule procedures more accurately. Evaluation of patient age and ASA

  13. Simulation and experimental studies of operators` decision styles and crew composition while using an ecological and traditional user interface for the control room of a nuclear power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Meshkati, N.; Buller, B.J.; Azadeh, M.A.

    1995-04-01

    The goal of this research is threefold: (1) use of the Skill-, Rule-, and Knowledge-based levels of cognitive control -- the SRK framework -- to develop an integrated information processing conceptual framework (for integration of workstation, job, and team design); (2) to evaluate the user interface component of this framework -- the Ecological display; and (3) to analyze the effect of operators` individual information processing behavior and decision styles on handling plant disturbances plus their performance on, and preference for, Traditional and Ecological user interfaces. A series of studies were conducted. In Part I, a computer simulation model and a mathematical model were developed. In Part II, an experiment was designed and conducted at the EBR-II plant of the Argonne National Laboratory-West in Idaho Falls, Idaho. It is concluded that: the integrated SRK-based information processing model for control room operations is superior to the conventional rule-based model; operators` individual decision styles and the combination of their styles play a significant role in effective handling of nuclear power plant disturbances; use of the Ecological interface results in significantly more accurate event diagnosis and recall of various plant parameters, faster response to plant transients, and higher ratings of subject preference; and operators` decision styles affect on both their performance and preference for the Ecological interface.

  14. How Accumulated Real Life Stress Experience and Cognitive Speed Interact on Decision-Making Processes.

    PubMed

    Friedel, Eva; Sebold, Miriam; Kuitunen-Paul, Sören; Nebe, Stephan; Veer, Ilya M; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Smolka, Michael N; Rapp, Michael; Walter, Henrik; Heinz, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Rationale: Advances in neurocomputational modeling suggest that valuation systems for goal-directed (deliberative) on one side, and habitual (automatic) decision-making on the other side may rely on distinct computational strategies for reinforcement learning, namely model-free vs. model-based learning. As a key theoretical difference, the model-based system strongly demands cognitive functions to plan actions prospectively based on an internal cognitive model of the environment, whereas valuation in the model-free system relies on rather simple learning rules from operant conditioning to retrospectively associate actions with their outcomes and is thus cognitively less demanding. Acute stress reactivity is known to impair model-based but not model-free choice behavior, with higher working memory capacity protecting the model-based system from acute stress. However, it is not clear which impact accumulated real life stress has on model-free and model-based decision systems and how this influence interacts with cognitive abilities. Methods: We used a sequential decision-making task distinguishing relative contributions of both learning strategies to choice behavior, the Social Readjustment Rating Scale questionnaire to assess accumulated real life stress, and the Digit Symbol Substitution Test to test cognitive speed in 95 healthy subjects. Results: Individuals reporting high stress exposure who had low cognitive speed showed reduced model-based but increased model-free behavioral control. In contrast, subjects exposed to accumulated real life stress with high cognitive speed displayed increased model-based performance but reduced model-free control. Conclusion: These findings suggest that accumulated real life stress exposure can enhance reliance on cognitive speed for model-based computations, which may ultimately protect the model-based system from the detrimental influences of accumulated real life stress. The combination of accumulated real life stress exposure

  15. Experimental optimization of a real time fed-batch fermentation process using Markov decision process.

    PubMed

    Saucedo, V M; Karim, M N

    1997-07-20

    This article describes a methodology that implements a Markov decision process (MDP) optimization technique in a real time fed-batch experiment. Biological systems can be better modeled under the stochastic framework and MDP is shown to be a suitable technique for their optimization. A nonlinear input/output model is used to calculate the probability transitions. All elements of the MDP are identified according to physical parameters. Finally, this study compares the results obtained when optimizing ethanol production using the infinite horizon problem, with total expected discount policy, to previous experimental results aimed at optimizing ethanol production using a recombinant Escherichia coli fed-batch cultivation. (c) 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 55: 317-327, 1997.

  16. Climate change scenario planning in Alaska's National Parks: Stakeholder involvement in the decision-making process

    SciTech Connect

    Ernst, Kathleen M; Van Riemsdijk, Dr. Micheline

    2013-01-01

    This article studies the participation of stakeholders in climate change decision-making in Alaska s National Parks. We place stakeholder participation within literatures on environmental and climate change decision-making. We conducted participant observation and interviews in two planning workshops to investigate the decision-making process, and our findings are three-fold. First, the inclusion of diverse stakeholders expanded climate change decision-making beyond National Park Service (NPS) institutional constraints. Second, workshops of the Climate Change Scenario Planning Project (CCSPP) enhanced institutional understandings of participants attitudes towards climate change and climate change decision-making. Third, the geographical context of climate change influences the decisionmaking process. As the first regional approach to climate change decision-making within the NPS, the CCSPP serves as a model for future climate change planning in public land agencies. This study shows how the participation of stakeholders can contribute to robust decisions, may move climate change decision-making beyond institutional barriers, and can provide information about attitudes towards climate change decision-making.

  17. The Computational Complexity of Valuation and Motivational Forces in Decision-Making Processes

    PubMed Central

    Schultheiss, Nathan W.; Carter, Evan C.

    2015-01-01

    The concept of value is fundamental to most theories of motivation and decision making. However, value has to be measured experimentally. Different methods of measuring value produce incompatible valuation hierarchies. Taking the agent’s perspective (rather than the experimenter’s), we interpret the different valuation measurement methods as accessing different decision-making systems and show how these different systems depend on different information processing algorithms. This identifies the translation from these multiple decision-making systems into a single action taken by a given agent as one of the most important open questions in decision making today. We conclude by looking at how these different valuation measures accessing different decision-making systems can be used to understand and treat decision dysfunction such as in addiction. PMID:25981912

  18. Decision-making processes for the self-management of persistent pain: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Fenwick, Clare; Chaboyer, Wendy; St John, Winsome

    2012-08-01

    Persistent pain negatively impacts upon the individual suffering this condition. Almost all care related to persistent pain is self-managed. Decision-making is a critical skill of the self-manager and without these skills it would be improbable that effective self-management would emerge. However, current theories regarding decision-making and self-management have not adequately accounted for the many difficulties faced by individuals enduring persistent pain and the consequences of these experiences for the decision-maker. This grounded theory study revealed that individuals will transform into three distinct types of decision-makers using three different styles of decision-making in response to the many and varied problems related to the experience of persistent pain. These findings will provide nurses with valuable information to better equip individuals with persistent pain through the decision-making processes necessary for successful self-management.

  19. The Computational Complexity of Valuation and Motivational Forces in Decision-Making Processes.

    PubMed

    Redish, A David; Schultheiss, Nathan W; Carter, Evan C

    2016-01-01

    The concept of value is fundamental to most theories of motivation and decision making. However, value has to be measured experimentally. Different methods of measuring value produce incompatible valuation hierarchies. Taking the agent's perspective (rather than the experimenter's), we interpret the different valuation measurement methods as accessing different decision-making systems and show how these different systems depend on different information processing algorithms. This identifies the translation from these multiple decision-making systems into a single action taken by a given agent as one of the most important open questions in decision making today. We conclude by looking at how these different valuation measures accessing different decision-making systems can be used to understand and treat decision dysfunction such as in addiction.

  20. Rawlsian maximin rule operates as a common cognitive anchor in distributive justice and risky decisions

    PubMed Central

    Kameda, Tatsuya; Inukai, Keigo; Higuchi, Satomi; Ogawa, Akitoshi; Kim, Hackjin; Matsuda, Tetsuya; Sakagami, Masamichi

    2016-01-01

    Distributive justice concerns the moral principles by which we seek to allocate resources fairly among diverse members of a society. Although the concept of fair allocation is one of the fundamental building blocks for societies, there is no clear consensus on how to achieve “socially just” allocations. Here, we examine neurocognitive commonalities of distributive judgments and risky decisions. We explore the hypothesis that people’s allocation decisions for others are closely related to economic decisions for oneself at behavioral, cognitive, and neural levels, via a concern about the minimum, worst-off position. In a series of experiments using attention-monitoring and brain-imaging techniques, we investigated this “maximin” concern (maximizing the minimum possible payoff) via responses in two seemingly disparate tasks: third-party distribution of rewards for others, and choosing gambles for self. The experiments revealed three robust results: (i) participants’ distributive choices closely matched their risk preferences—“Rawlsians,” who maximized the worst-off position in distributions for others, avoided riskier gambles for themselves, whereas “utilitarians,” who favored the largest-total distributions, preferred riskier but more profitable gambles; (ii) across such individual choice preferences, however, participants generally showed the greatest spontaneous attention to information about the worst possible outcomes in both tasks; and (iii) this robust concern about the minimum outcomes was correlated with activation of the right temporoparietal junction (RTPJ), the region associated with perspective taking. The results provide convergent evidence that social distribution for others is psychologically linked to risky decision making for self, drawing on common cognitive–neural processes with spontaneous perspective taking of the worst-off position. PMID:27688764