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Sample records for ophthalmic radiation side

  1. 21 CFR 886.5100 - Ophthalmic beta radiation source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ophthalmic beta radiation source. 886.5100 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5100 Ophthalmic beta radiation source. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic beta radiation source is a device intended to apply...

  2. 21 CFR 886.5100 - Ophthalmic beta radiation source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ophthalmic beta radiation source. 886.5100 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5100 Ophthalmic beta radiation source. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic beta radiation source is a device intended to apply...

  3. 21 CFR 886.5100 - Ophthalmic beta radiation source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic beta radiation source. 886.5100 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5100 Ophthalmic beta radiation source. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic beta radiation source is a device intended to apply...

  4. 21 CFR 886.5100 - Ophthalmic beta radiation source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ophthalmic beta radiation source. 886.5100 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5100 Ophthalmic beta radiation source. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic beta radiation source is a device intended to apply...

  5. 21 CFR 886.5100 - Ophthalmic beta radiation source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ophthalmic beta radiation source. 886.5100 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5100 Ophthalmic beta radiation source. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic beta radiation source is a device intended to apply...

  6. Dosimetric Benefit of a New Ophthalmic Radiation Plaque

    SciTech Connect

    Marwaha, Gaurav; Wilkinson, Allan; Bena, James; Macklis, Roger; Singh, Arun D.

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the computed dosimetry of a new ophthalmic plaque, EP917, when compared with the standard Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) plaques, could reduce radiation exposure to vision critical structures of the eye. Methods and Materials: One hundred consecutive patients with uveal melanoma treated with COMS radiation plaques between 2007 and 2010 were included in this study. These treatment plans were generated with the use of Bebig Plaque Simulator treatment-planning software, both for COMS plaques and for EP917 plaques using I-125. Dose distributions were calculated for a prescription of 85 Gy to the tumor apex. Doses to the optic disc, opposite retina, lens, and macula were obtained, and differences between the 2 groups were analyzed by standard parametric methods. Results: When compared with the COMS plaques, the EP917 plaques used fewer radiation seeds by an average difference of 1.94 (P<.001; 95% confidence interval [CI], -2.8 to -1.06) and required less total strength of radiation sources by an average of 17.74 U (air kerma units) (P<.001; 95% CI, -20.16 to -15.32). The total radiation doses delivered to the optic disc, opposite retina, and macula were significantly less by 4.57 Gy, 0.50 Gy, and 11.18 Gy, respectively, with the EP917 plaques vs the COMS plaques. Conclusion: EP917 plaques deliver less overall radiation exposure to critical vision structures than COMS treatment plaques while still delivering the same total therapeutic dose to the tumor.

  7. Prednisolone Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    Ophthalmic prednisolone reduces the irritation, redness, burning, and swelling of eye inflammation caused by chemicals, heat, radiation, infection, allergy, or foreign bodies in the eye. It sometimes is used ...

  8. Ophthalmic Metastasis of Breast Cancer and Ocular Side Effects from Breast Cancer Treatment and Management: Mini Review

    PubMed Central

    Paraskevopoulos, Theodore; Koutsandrea, Chryssanthi; Kardara, Evgenia; Ladas, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common malignant diseases occurring in women, and its incidence increases over the years. It is the main site of origin in ocular metastatic disease in women, and, due to its hematogenous nature of metastatic spread, it affects mainly the uveal tissue. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the clinical manifestations of the breast cancer ocular metastatic disease, alongside the side effects of the available treatment options for the management and regression of the systematic and ophthalmic disease. PMID:26078956

  9. Risk Factors for Cataract After Palladium-103 Ophthalmic Plaque Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, Paul T.; Chin, Kimberly J.; Yu Guopei; Patel, Neil S.

    2011-07-01

    Purpose: To examine how tumor characteristics and dose affect cataract development after plaque radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Three hundred and eighty-four patients were diagnosed with uveal melanoma and treated with palladium-103 ({sup 103}Pd) plaque radiation therapy. Of these, 282 (74%) inclusion met exclusion criteria for follow-up time, tumor location, and phakic status. Then patient-, ophthalmic-, and radiation-specific factors (patient age, diabetes, hypertension, tumor location, tumor dimensions, and lens dose) were examined (by a Cox proportional regression model) as predictors for the development of radiation-related cataract. Results: Radiation cataract developed in 76 (24%) of patients at a mean follow-up of 39.8 months (range, 1-192). Patients with anteriorly located tumors were noted to have a higher incidence of cataract at 43.0% (43 of 100 patients) vs. 18.1% (33 cataracts per 182 patients) for posteriorly located tumors (p <0.0001). However, multivariate Cox proportional modeling showed that increasing patient age at time of treatment (p for trend = 0.0003) and higher lens dose (p for trend = 0.001) were the best predictors (biomarkers) for radiation cataract. Conclusions: Although anterior tumor location, greater tumor height, and increased patient age (at treatment) were associated with significantly greater risk for radiation cataract, dose to lens was the most significant factor.

  10. Radiation Therapy: Preventing and Managing Side Effects

    MedlinePlus

    ... who share your problems and concerns. Will side effects limit my activity? Side effects might limit your ... that might irritate the area being treated. Side effects can vary. Your cancer care team can tell ...

  11. Retrospective study and review of ocular radiation side effects following external-beam Cobalt-60 radiation therapy in 37 dogs and 12 cats.

    PubMed

    Pinard, Chantale L; Mutsaers, Anthony J; Mayer, Monique N; Woods, J Paul

    2012-12-01

    This retrospective study evaluated the ocular side effects of cancer-bearing dogs and cats treated with external-beam Cobalt-60 (Co-60) radiation in which one or both orbit(s) were included in the radiation field. A total of 37 dogs and 12 cats presented to the Ontario Veterinary College during the 10-year study period (1999-2009) were evaluated. The radiation protocols ranged from a maximum of 60 Gray (Gy) in 24 fractions for curative intent to a minimum of 8 Gy in 1 fraction for palliative treatment. The main ocular side effect reported in both dogs and cats was conjunctivitis (79% and 55%, respectively). Other common ocular side effects included eyelid lesions in dogs (44%), ulcerative keratitis in cats (36%), and keratoconjunctivitis sicca in both dogs and cats (44% and 27%, respectively). The high incidence of ocular side effects in both patient populations indicates a need for regular ophthalmic examinations as a component of routine follow-up for radiation therapy involving the orbit. Radiation damage to ocular tissues is also reviewed.

  12. Bromfenac Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    ... redness (inflammation) and pain that can occur after cataract surgery. Bromfenac ophthalmic is in a class of ... eye(s) once a day beginning one day before cataract surgery, on the day of the surgery, and ...

  13. Lodoxamide Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    Ophthalmic lodoxamide is used to treat redness, burning, itching, and swelling of the eyes that is caused by allergic reactions. Lodoxamide is in a class of medications called mast cell stabilizers. ...

  14. Cyclosporine Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    Ophthalmic cyclosporine is used to increase tear production in people with dry eye disease. Cyclosporine is in a class of medications called immunomodulators. It works by decreasing swelling in the eye ...

  15. Brimonidine Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    Ophthalmic brimonidine is used to lower pressure in the eyes in patients who have glaucoma (high pressure in the ... but not high enough to cause vision loss). Brimonidine is in a class of drugs called alpha ...

  16. Ciprofloxacin Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat bacterial infections of the eye including conjunctivitis (pinkeye; infection of the membrane that covers the outside ... eye). Ciprofloxacin ophthalmic ointment is used to treat conjunctivitis. Ciprofloxacin is in a class of antibiotics called ...

  17. Gatifloxacin Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    Gatifloxacin ophthalmic solution is used to treat bacterial conjunctivitis (pinkeye; infection of the membrane that covers the outside ... contact lenses while you have symptoms of bacterial conjunctivitis or while you are applying eye drops. you ...

  18. Tafluprost Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    ... your doctor.Tafluprost ophthalmic comes in single-use containers. The solution from one container should be used immediately after opening for one or both eyes. Dispose of each single-use container and any remaining solution after one use.Tafluprost ...

  19. Complementary Strategies for the Management of Radiation Therapy Side Effects

    PubMed Central

    Stubbe, Christine E.; Valero, Meighan

    2013-01-01

    Patients with cancer utilize complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for a variety of purposes, one of which is the reduction of side effects of conventional treatment. With a large number of their patients using CAM, it is important for advanced practitioners in oncology to have an understanding of these therapies to better guide their patients. Side effects of radiation therapy that may have dose-limiting poten­tial include diarrhea, mucositis, skin toxicity, and xerostomia. A com­mon side effect that is not necessarily dose-limiting but considerably troublesome to patients is cancer- and treatment-related fatigue. The CAM therapies that may alleviate some of the side effects of radiation therapy include probiotics, psyllium, exercise, melatonin, honey, acu­puncture, and calendula. Therapies that require more research or have been shown to be ineffective include aloe vera, glutamine, and deglyc­yrrhizinated licorice. This article provides an overview of these thera­pies as well as related research and analysis. PMID:25032003

  20. A dual-sided coded-aperture radiation detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penny, R. D.; Hood, W. E.; Polichar, R. M.; Cardone, F. H.; Chavez, L. G.; Grubbs, S. G.; Huntley, B. P.; Kuharski, R. A.; Shyffer, R. T.; Fabris, L.; Ziock, K. P.; Labov, S. E.; Nelson, K.

    2011-10-01

    We report the development of a large-area, mobile, coded-aperture radiation imaging system for localizing compact radioactive sources in three dimensions while rejecting distributed background. The 3D Stand-Off Radiation Detection System (SORDS-3D) has been tested at speeds up to 95 km/h and has detected and located sources in the millicurie range at distances of over 100 m. Radiation data are imaged to a geospatially mapped world grid with a nominal 1.25- to 2.5-m pixel pitch at distances out to 120 m on either side of the platform. Source elevation is also extracted. Imaged radiation alarms are superimposed on a side-facing video log that can be played back for direct localization of sources in buildings in urban environments. The system utilizes a 37-element array of 5×5×50 cm 3 cesium-iodide (sodium) detectors. Scintillation light is collected by a pair of photomultiplier tubes placed at either end of each detector, with the detectors achieving an energy resolution of 6.15% FWHM (662 keV) and a position resolution along their length of 5 cm FWHM. The imaging system generates a dual-sided two-dimensional image allowing users to efficiently survey a large area. Imaged radiation data and raw spectra are forwarded to the RadioNuclide Analysis Kit (RNAK), developed by our collaborators, for isotope ID. An intuitive real-time display aids users in performing searches. Detector calibration is dynamically maintained by monitoring the potassium-40 peak and digitally adjusting individual detector gains. We have recently realized improvements, both in isotope identification and in distinguishing compact sources from background, through the installation of optimal-filter reconstruction kernels.

  1. Managing Radiation Therapy Side Effects: What to Do When You Have Loose Stools (Diarrhea)

    MedlinePlus

    ... rice • White toast Fruits and other foods • Applesauce • Bananas • Canned fruit, such as peaches and pears • Gelatin ( ... series of 9 Radiation Therapy Side Effects Fact Sheets at: www. cancer. gov/ radiation- side- effects

  2. Geometrical assessment of ocular exposure to environmental UV radiation--implications for ophthalmic epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Sliney, D H

    1999-12-01

    Epidemiological studies of the influence of environmental ultraviolet radiation (UVR) in the development of cataract, pterygium, droplet keratopathies and age-related macular degeneration have produced inconsistent findings. The lack of consistent results may be due largely to either incomplete or erroneous estimates of outdoor UV exposure dose. Geometrical factors dominate the determination of UVR exposure of the eye. The degree of lid opening limits ocular exposure to only those rays entering at angles near the horizon. Clouds redistribute overhead UVR to the horizon sky. Mountains, trees and building shield the eye from direct sky exposure. Most ground surfaces reflect little UVR. The result is that the highest UVR exposure occurs during light overcast where the horizon is visible and ground surface reflection is high. By contrast, exposure in a high mountain valley with green foliage results in a much lower ocular dose. Other findings of these studies show that retinal exposure to light and UVR in daylight occurs largely in the superior retina.

  3. [{sup 18}F]Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (PET/CT) Physiologic Imaging of Choroidal Melanoma: Before and After Ophthalmic Plaque Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, Paul T.; Chin, Kimberly J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate changes in [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) standardized uptake values (SUV) in uveal melanoma before and after plaque brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 217 patients diagnosed with uveal melanoma and eligible for ophthalmic plaque brachytherapy underwent preoperative PET/CT to evaluate their intraocular tumor and screen for metastasis. Subsequent to undergoing plaque brachytherapy, patients' PET/CT SUV were periodically reevaluated over 42 months. Results: In this series, 37 (17%) choroidal melanoma patients were found to have an SUV of >2.0. Of these, 18 patients were able to undergo interval follow-up PET/CT scanning. There were 3 patients with T2, 11 patients with T3, and 4 patients with T4 melanomas according to 7th edition AJCC-UICC criteria. Mean apical thickness was 8.8 mm (range, 3-12.3 mm), and the largest mean tumor diameter was 15.1 mm (range, 12-19.9 mm). The mean initial SUV was 3.7 (range, 2.1-7.3). Patients were followed for a median 16 months (range, 6-42 months). The median time to a tumor SUV of 0 was 8.0 months (range, 6-18 months). There was one case of one interval increase in SUV that diminished after circumferential laser treatment. Conclusions: Intraocular PET/CT imaging provides a physiological assessment of tumor metabolism that can be used to evaluate changes after treatment. In this study, ophthalmic plaque radiation therapy was associated with extinguished tumor PET/CT SUV over time. PET/CT imaging can be used to assess choroidal melanomas for their response to treatment.

  4. When the Patient Seeks Cure: Challenging Chemotherapy and Radiation Side Effects Requiring Creative Solutions.

    PubMed

    Cormier, Aurelie C; Drapek, Lorraine; Fahey, Jean; Rowen, Brenna; Burns-Britton, Betty; Lavadinho-Lemos, Maria; Hultman, Todd

    2016-04-01

    When undergoing concomitant chemotherapy and radiation therapy for anal cancer, patients often experience significant side effects, including grade 1 or 2 radiation dermatitis, pain, exudate, and diarrhea. This case study presents a grade 3 reaction complicated by complex medical conditions. In addition to an evidence-based skin care treatment and side effect management plan that support patients during this intense period, this article offers creative strategies to provide a cost-effective healing option.

  5. Managing Radiation Therapy Side Effects: What to Do about Feeling Sick to Your Stomach and Throwing Up (Nausea and ...

    MedlinePlus

    ... because it makes them feel sick. ■ ■ Listen to music or an audiobook before treatment, to help relax. ... livehelp NCI has a series of 9 Radiation Therapy Side Effects Sheets at: www.cancer.gov/radiation- ...

  6. The protective effects of trace elements against side effects induced by ionizing radiation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Trace elements play crucial role in the maintenance of genome stability in the cells. Many endogenous defense enzymes are containing trace elements such as superoxide dismutase and metalloproteins. These enzymes are contributing in the detoxification of reactive oxidative species (ROS) induced by ionizing radiation in the cells. Zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium are main trace elements that have protective roles against radiation-induced DNA damages. Trace elements in the free salt forms have protective effect against cell toxicity induced by oxidative stress, metal-complex are more active in the attenuation of ROS particularly through superoxide dismutase mimetic activity. Manganese-complexes in protection of normal cell against radiation without any protective effect on cancer cells are more interesting compounds in this topic. The aim of this paper to review the role of trace elements in protection cells against genotoxicity and side effects induced by ionizing radiation. PMID:26157675

  7. Cognitive effects of radiation emitted by cellular phones: the influence of exposure side and time.

    PubMed

    Luria, Roy; Eliyahu, Ilan; Hareuveny, Ronen; Margaliot, Menachem; Meiran, Nachshon

    2009-04-01

    This study examined the time dependence effects of exposure to radiofrequency radiation (RFR) emitted by standard GSM cellular phones on the cognitive functions of humans. A total of 48 healthy right-handed male subjects performed a spatial working memory task (that required either a left-hand or a right-hand response) while being exposed to one of two GSM phones placed at both sides of the head. The subjects were randomly divided into three groups. Each group was exposed to one of three exposure conditions: left-side of the head, right-side, or sham-exposure. The experiment consisted of 12 blocks of trials. Response times (RTs) and accuracy of the responses were recorded. It was found that the average RT of the right-hand responses under left-side exposure condition was significantly longer than those of the right-side and sham-exposure groups averaged together during the first two time blocks. These results confirmed the existence of an effect of exposure on RT, as well as the fact that exposure duration (together with the responding hand and the side of exposure) may play an important role in producing detectable RFR effects on performance. Differences in these parameters might be the reason for the failure of certain studies to detect or replicate RFR effects.

  8. Suppressing side-lobe radiations of horn antenna by loading metamaterial lens.

    PubMed

    Qi, Mei Qing; Tang, Wen Xuan; Ma, Hui Feng; Pan, Bai Cao; Tao, Zui; Sun, Yong Zhi; Cui, Tie Jun

    2015-03-13

    We propose a new approach to control the amplitude and phase distributions of electromagnetic fields over the aperture of a horn antenna. By loading a metamaterial lens inside the horn antenna, a tapered amplitude distribution of the aperture field is achieved, which can suppress the side-lobe radiations of the antenna. The metamaterial is further manipulated to achieve a flat phase distribution on the horn aperture to avoid the gain reduction that usually suffers in the conventional low-sidelobe antenna designs. A prototype of the metamaterial-loaded horn antenna is designed and fabricated. Both numerical simulations and measured results demonstrate the tapered aperture-field distribution and significant reduction of side-lobe and back-lobe radiations in the operating frequency band.

  9. Suppressing Side-Lobe Radiations of Horn Antenna by Loading Metamaterial Lens

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Mei Qing; Tang, Wen Xuan; Ma, Hui Feng; Pan, Bai Cao; Tao, Zui; Sun, Yong Zhi; Cui, Tie Jun

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new approach to control the amplitude and phase distributions of electromagnetic fields over the aperture of a horn antenna. By loading a metamaterial lens inside the horn antenna, a tapered amplitude distribution of the aperture field is achieved, which can suppress the side-lobe radiations of the antenna. The metamaterial is further manipulated to achieve a flat phase distribution on the horn aperture to avoid the gain reduction that usually suffers in the conventional low-sidelobe antenna designs. A prototype of the metamaterial-loaded horn antenna is designed and fabricated. Both numerical simulations and measured results demonstrate the tapered aperture-field distribution and significant reduction of side-lobe and back-lobe radiations in the operating frequency band. PMID:25766083

  10. Radiation tolerance studies of neutron irradiated double sided silicon microstrip detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singla, M.; Larionov, P.; Balog, T.; Heuser, J.; Malygina, H.; Momot, I.; Sorokin, I.; Sturm, C.

    2016-07-01

    Radiation tolerance studies were made on double-sided silicon microstrip detectors for the Silicon Tracking System of the Compressed Baryonic Matter experiment at FAIR. The prototype detectors from two different vendors were irradiated to twice the highest expected fluence (1 ×1014 1 MeVneqcm-2) in the CBM experimental runs of several years. Test results from these prototype detectors both before and after irradiations have been discussed.

  11. Heavy ion radiation damage in double-sided silicon strip detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livingston, K.; Woods, P. J.; Davinson, T.; Shotter, A. C.

    1996-02-01

    A 252Cf fission fragment source was used to produce heavy-ion radiation damage in a double-sided silicon strip detector. It was found that a good quality fission fragment spectrum (as determined by the peak to valley ration {N L}/{N V}) could not be achieved for radiation incident on the p + face of the detector. However, for radiation incident on the n + face, the ratio {N L}/{N V} remained adequate up to an accumulated dose of ˜4×10 6 fragments mm -2. For the measurement of alphas, typical resolution deteriorated from an initial 30 keV FWHM to 50 keV FWHM at a dose of ˜8×10 6 fragments mm -2 for incident on the n + face, and ˜6×10 6 for radiation incident on the p + face. The interstrip resistance in one region of the n + face broke down completely after a relatively small radiation doses incident on that face. Further investigation of this is still required.

  12. Ion exchange tempering of glass ophthalmic lenses.

    PubMed

    Keeney, A H; Duerson, H L

    1975-08-01

    We performed low velocity drop-ball tests using 5/8-, 7/8-, and 1-inch diameter steel balls on ophthalmic crown glass lenses chemically tempered by the ion exchange process. Four representative dioptric strengths (+ 2.50 spherical, - 2.50 spherical, -2.50 cylindrical, and plano) were studied with the isolated lenses mounted, convex side up, on the American National Standards Institute Z80 test block. New ion exchange lenses exhibited a 100 to 350% greater capacity for attenuation of energy from low velocity, large size missiles than matched lenses of similar strength prepared by the conventional heat-treating and air-quenching process.

  13. 21 CFR 886.4390 - Ophthalmic laser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic laser. 886.4390 Section 886.4390 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4390 Ophthalmic laser. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic laser is an AC-powered device intended to coagulate or cut tissue of the eye, orbit, or surrounding...

  14. 21 CFR 886.4790 - Ophthalmic sponge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ophthalmic sponge. 886.4790 Section 886.4790 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4790 Ophthalmic sponge. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic sponge is a device that is an absorbant sponge, pad, or spear made of folded gauze,...

  15. 21 CFR 886.4790 - Ophthalmic sponge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ophthalmic sponge. 886.4790 Section 886.4790 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4790 Ophthalmic sponge. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic sponge is a device that is an absorbant sponge, pad, or spear made of folded gauze,...

  16. 21 CFR 886.4790 - Ophthalmic sponge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic sponge. 886.4790 Section 886.4790 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4790 Ophthalmic sponge. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic sponge is a device that is an absorbant sponge, pad, or spear made of folded gauze,...

  17. 21 CFR 886.4790 - Ophthalmic sponge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ophthalmic sponge. 886.4790 Section 886.4790 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4790 Ophthalmic sponge. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic sponge is a device that is an absorbant sponge, pad, or spear made of folded gauze,...

  18. 21 CFR 886.4790 - Ophthalmic sponge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ophthalmic sponge. 886.4790 Section 886.4790 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4790 Ophthalmic sponge. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic sponge is a device that is an absorbant sponge, pad, or spear made of folded gauze,...

  19. 21 CFR 886.4390 - Ophthalmic laser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ophthalmic laser. 886.4390 Section 886.4390 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4390 Ophthalmic laser. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic laser is an AC-powered device intended to coagulate or cut tissue of the eye, orbit, or surrounding...

  20. 21 CFR 886.4390 - Ophthalmic laser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ophthalmic laser. 886.4390 Section 886.4390 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4390 Ophthalmic laser. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic laser is an AC-powered device intended to coagulate or cut tissue of the eye, orbit, or surrounding...

  1. 21 CFR 886.4390 - Ophthalmic laser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ophthalmic laser. 886.4390 Section 886.4390 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4390 Ophthalmic laser. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic laser is an AC-powered device intended to coagulate or cut tissue of the eye, orbit, or surrounding...

  2. 21 CFR 886.4390 - Ophthalmic laser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ophthalmic laser. 886.4390 Section 886.4390 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4390 Ophthalmic laser. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic laser is an AC-powered device intended to coagulate or cut tissue of the eye, orbit, or surrounding...

  3. Ophthalmic manifestations postlightning strike

    PubMed Central

    Dhillon, Permesh Singh; Gupta, Mohit

    2015-01-01

    Various ophthalmic complications affecting the anterior and posterior segments have been identified due to lightning strike. We report the first case of an indirect lightning-induced full thickness macular hole formation in the UK as evidenced by slit lamp examination and optical coherence tomography (OCT) scan in a 77-year-old woman presenting with sudden visual loss in her right eye and thermal skin injury affecting her scalp. Her best corrected visual acuities were LogMAR 0.46 and 0.12 in the right and left eyes, respectively. There were no other ocular manifestations observed in either eye. She was initially managed conservatively with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug eye drops but surgery was later advised due to minimal changes in the visual acuity and macular hole on follow-up. OCT scanning is important in diagnosing macular holes, which usually warrant surgical intervention. PMID:25827914

  4. The long-term side effects of radiation therapy for benign brain tumors in adults

    SciTech Connect

    al-Mefty, O.; Kersh, J.E.; Routh, A.; Smith, R.R. )

    1990-10-01

    Radiation therapy plays an integral part in managing intracranial tumors. While the risk:benefit ratio is considered acceptable for treating malignant tumors, risks of long-term complications of radiotherapy need thorough assessment in adults treated for benign tumors. Many previously reported delayed complications of radiotherapy can be attributed to inappropriate treatment or to the sensitivity of a developing child's brain to radiation. Medical records, radiological studies, autopsy findings, and follow-up information were reviewed for 58 adult patients (31 men and 27 women) treated between 1958 and 1987 with radiotherapy for benign intracranial tumors. Patient ages at the time of irradiation ranged from 21 to 87 years (mean 47.7 years). The pathology included 46 pituitary adenomas, five meningiomas, four glomus jugulare tumors, two pineal area tumors, and one craniopharyngioma. Average radiation dosage was 4984 cGy (range 3100 to 7012 cGy), given in an average of 27.2 fractions (range 15 to 45 fractions), over a period averaging 46.6 days. The follow-up period ranged from 3 to 31 years (mean 8.1 years). Findings related to tumor recurrence or surgery were excluded. Twenty-two patients had complications considered to be delayed side effects of radiotherapy. Two patients had visual deterioration developing 3 and 6 years after treatment; six had pituitary dysfunction; and 17 had varying degrees of parenchymal changes of the brain, occurring mostly in the temporal lobes and relating to the frequent presentation of pituitary tumors. One clival tumor with the radiographic appearance of a meningioma, developed 30 years post-irradiation for acromegaly. This study unveils considerable delayed sequelae of radiotherapy in a series of adult patients receiving what is considered safe treatment for benign brain tumors. 163 refs.

  5. Ophthalmic Disparities in Transgender Patients.

    PubMed

    Hollar, Matthew W; Zhang, Matthew M; Mawn, Louise A

    2016-01-01

    Transgender individuals experience unique challenges with regards to discrimination and access to health care. Further, their unique health-care needs and challenges lead to greater rates of morbidity. This article seeks to review the unique biology of transgender patients and the effects of cross-sex hormone therapy on ophthalmic and non-ophthalmic pathology. Attention is given to topics in neuro-ophthalmology, oculoplastics, and retinal disease.

  6. Fast linear solver for radiative transport equation with multiple right hand sides in diffuse optical tomography

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Jingfei

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that radiative transfer equation (RTE) provides more accurate tomographic results than its diffusion approximation (DA). However, RTE-based tomographic reconstruction codes have limited applicability in practice due to their high computational cost. In this article, we propose a new efficient method for solving the RTE forward problem with multiple light sources in an all-at-once manner instead of solving it for each source separately. To this end, we introduce here a novel linear solver called block biconjugate gradient stabilized method (block BiCGStab) that makes full use of the shared information between different right hand sides to accelerate solution convergence. Two parallelized block BiCGStab methods are proposed for additional acceleration under limited threads situation. We evaluate the performance of this algorithm with numerical simulation studies involving the Delta-Eddington approximation to the scattering phase function. The results show that the single threading block RTE solver proposed here reduces computation time by a factor of 1.5~3 as compared to the traditional sequential solution method and the parallel block solver by a factor of 1.5 as compared to the traditional parallel sequential method. This block linear solver is, moreover, independent of discretization schemes and preconditioners used; thus further acceleration and higher accuracy can be expected when combined with other existing discretization schemes or preconditioners. PMID:26345531

  7. Fast linear solver for radiative transport equation with multiple right hand sides in diffuse optical tomography.

    PubMed

    Jia, Jingfei; Kim, Hyun K; Hielscher, Andreas H

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that radiative transfer equation (RTE) provides more accurate tomographic results than its diffusion approximation (DA). However, RTE-based tomographic reconstruction codes have limited applicability in practice due to their high computational cost. In this article, we propose a new efficient method for solving the RTE forward problem with multiple light sources in an all-at-once manner instead of solving it for each source separately. To this end, we introduce here a novel linear solver called block biconjugate gradient stabilized method (block BiCGStab) that makes full use of the shared information between different right hand sides to accelerate solution convergence. Two parallelized block BiCGStab methods are proposed for additional acceleration under limited threads situation. We evaluate the performance of this algorithm with numerical simulation studies involving the Delta-Eddington approximation to the scattering phase function. The results show that the single threading block RTE solver proposed here reduces computation time by a factor of 1.5~3 as compared to the traditional sequential solution method and the parallel block solver by a factor of 1.5 as compared to the traditional parallel sequential method. This block linear solver is, moreover, independent of discretization schemes and preconditioners used; thus further acceleration and higher accuracy can be expected when combined with other existing discretization schemes or preconditioners.

  8. Synchronized vortex shedding and sound radiation from two side-by-side rectangular cylinders of different cross-sectional aspect ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Octavianty, Ressa Asai, Masahito

    2015-10-15

    Synchronized vortex shedding from two side-by-side cylinders and the associated sound radiation were examined experimentally at Reynolds numbers of the order of 10{sup 4} in low-Mach-number flows. In addition to a pair of square cylinders, a pair of rectangular cylinders, one with a square cross section (d × d) and the other with a rectangular cross section (d × c) having a cross-sectional aspect ratio (c/d) of 1.2–1.5, was considered. The center-to-center distance between the two cylinders L/d was 3.6, 4.5, and 6.0; these settings were within the non-biased flow regime for side-by-side square cylinders. In case of a square cylinder pair, anti-phase synchronized vortex shedding occurring for L/d = 3.6 and 4.5 generated a quadrupole-like sound source which radiated in-phase, planar-symmetric sound in the far field. Synchronized vortex shedding from the two rectangular cylinders with different c/d also occurred with almost the same frequency as the characteristic frequency of the square-cylinder wake in the case of the small center-to-center distance, L/d = 3.6, for all the cylinder pairs examined. The synchronized sound field was anti-phase and asymmetric in amplitude, unlike the case of a square cylinder pair. For larger spacing L/d = 4.5, synchronized vortex shedding and anti-phase sound still occurred, but only for close cross-sectional aspect ratios (c/d = 1.0 and 1.2), and highly modulated sound was radiated with two different frequencies due to non-synchronized vortex shedding from the two cylinders for larger differences in c/d. It was also found that when synchronized vortex shedding occurred, near-wake velocity fluctuations exhibited high spanwise-coherency, with a very sharp spectral peak compared with the single-cylinder case.

  9. Solar radiation management - on feasibility, side effects, and reaching the 2 degree target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korhonen, Hannele; Laakso, Anton; Ekholm, Tommi; Maalick, Zubair; Partanen, Antti-Ilari; Kokkola, Harri; Romakkaniemi, Sami

    2015-04-01

    Solar radiation management (SRM), i.e. artificially increasing the reflectivity of the Earth, has been suggested as a fast-response, low-cost method to mitigate the impacts of potential rapid future climate change. We have used 1) large eddy simulations as well as an aerosol-climate model and an earth system model to investigate the feasibility and side effects of two types of SRM (marine cloud brightening and stratospheric sulfur injections) and 2) a sequential decision-making approach to determine strategies that combine emission reductions and an uncertain SRM option to limit global mean temperature increase to 2 degree. Regarding stratospheric injections, we find that a large explosive volcanic eruption taking place while SRM is in full force would result in overcooling of the planet, as expected; however, the radiative and climate effects would be clearly smaller than could be expected from the sum of the effects from volcanic eruption alone or SRM alone. In addition, the stratospheric sulphur load would recover from the eruption faster under SRM and natural conditions. If the eruption took place in the high latitudes, the resulting global forcing would be highly dependent on the season of the eruption. Furthermore, regarding marine cloud brightening we find that the spraying of sea water drops leads to cooling due to evaporation and leads to delay in particle dispersion. This delay enhances particle scavenging, and can influence the efficacy of cloud seeding. In terms of combining emission reductions and SRM to reach the 2° C warming target, we find that before the termination risk for SRM can be completely excluded, the acceptable greenhouse gas emission pathways remain only slightly higher than in scenarios without SRM. More generally, the uncertainties in SRM start time, acceptable magnitude and sustainability mean that it can be only a limited substitute to greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions. If an additional constraint for CO2 concentration to

  10. Potential bias in ophthalmic pharmaceutical clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Varner, Paul

    2008-01-01

    To make clinicians aware of potential sources of error in ophthalmic pharmaceutical clinical trials that can lead to erroneous interpretation of results, a critical review of the study design of various pharmaceutical ophthalmic clinical trials was completed. Discrepancies as a result of study shortcomings may explain observed differences between reported ophthalmic trial data and observed clinical results. PMID:19668731

  11. Ophthalmic Surgery in Prion Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Noguchi-Shinohara, Moeko; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Sato, Takeshi; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki; Mizusawa, Hidehiro

    2007-01-01

    Eleven (1.8%) of 597 patients underwent ophthalmic surgery within 1 month before the onset of prion disease or after the onset. All ophthalmologists reused surgical instruments that had been incompletely sterilized to eliminate infectious prion protein. Ophthalmologists should be aware of prion diseases as a possible cause of visual symptoms and use disposable instruments whenever possible. PMID:17370537

  12. Double side read-out technique for mitigation of radiation damage effects in PbWO4 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucchini, M. T.; Auffray, E.; Benaglia, A.; Cavallari, F.; Cockerill, D.; Dolgopolov, A.; Faure, J. L.; Golubev, N.; Hobson, P. R.; Jain, S.; Korjik, M.; Mechinski, V.; Singovski, A.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Tarasov, I.; Zahid, S.

    2016-04-01

    Test beam results of a calorimetric module based on 3×3×22 cm3 PbWO4 crystals, identical to those used in the CMS ECAL Endcaps, read out by a pair of photodetectors coupled to the two opposite sides (front and rear) of each crystal are presented. Nine crystals with different level of induced absorption, from 0 to 20 m-1, have been tested using electrons in the 50-200 GeV energy range. Photomultiplier tubes have been chosen as photodetectors to allow for a precise measurement of highly damaged crystals. The information provided by this double side read-out configuration allows to correct for event-by-event fluctuations of the longitudinal development of electromagnetic showers. By strongly mitigating the effect of non-uniform light collection efficiency induced by radiation damage, the double side read-out technique significantly improves the energy resolution with respect to a single side read-out configuration. The non-linearity of the response arising in damaged crystals is also corrected by a double side read-out configuration and the response linearity of irradiated crystals is restored. In high radiation environments at future colliders, as it will be the case for detectors operating during the High Luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider, defects can be created inside the scintillator volume leading to a non-uniform response of the calorimetric cell. The double side read-out technique presented in this study provides a valuable way to improve the performance of calorimeters based on scintillators whose active volumes are characterized by high aspect ratio cells similar to those used in this study.

  13. Current Perspectives on Ophthalmic Mycoses

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Philip A.

    2003-01-01

    Fungi may infect the cornea, orbit and other ocular structures. Species of Fusarium, Aspergillus, Candida, dematiaceous fungi, and Scedosporium predominate. Diagnosis is aided by recognition of typical clinical features and by direct microscopic detection of fungi in scrapes, biopsy specimens, and other samples. Culture confirms the diagnosis. Histopathological, immunohistochemical, or DNA-based tests may also be needed. Pathogenesis involves agent (invasiveness, toxigenicity) and host factors. Specific antifungal therapy is instituted as soon as the diagnosis is made. Amphotericin B by various routes is the mainstay of treatment for life-threatening and severe ophthalmic mycoses. Topical natamycin is usually the first choice for filamentous fungal keratitis, and topical amphotericin B is the first choice for yeast keratitis. Increasingly, the triazoles itraconazole and fluconazole are being evaluated as therapeutic options in ophthalmic mycoses. Medical therapy alone does not usually suffice for invasive fungal orbital infections, scleritis, and keratitis due to Fusarium spp., Lasiodiplodia theobromae, and Pythium insidiosum. Surgical debridement is essential in orbital infections, while various surgical procedures may be required for other infections not responding to medical therapy. Corticosteroids are contraindicated in most ophthalmic mycoses; therefore, other methods are being sought to control inflammatory tissue damage. Fungal infections following ophthalmic surgical procedures, in patients with AIDS, and due to use of various ocular biomaterials are unique subsets of ophthalmic mycoses. Future research needs to focus on the development of rapid, species-specific diagnostic aids, broad-spectrum fungicidal compounds that are active by various routes, and therapeutic modalities which curtail the harmful effects of fungus- and host tissue-derived factors. PMID:14557297

  14. Stimuli sensitive hydrogels for ophthalmic drug delivery: A review.

    PubMed

    Kushwaha, Swatantra Ks; Saxena, Prachi; Rai, Ak

    2012-04-01

    Amongst the various routes of drug delivery, the field of ocular drug delivery is one of the most interesting and challenging endeavors facing the pharmaceutical scientist for past 10-20 years. As an isolated organ, eye is very difficult to study from a drug delivery point of view. Despite this limitation, improvements have been made with the objective of maintaining the drug in the biophase for an extended period. A major problem in ocular therapeutics is the attainment of an optimal drug concentration at the site of action. To achieve effective ophthalmic therapy, an adequate amount of active ingredient must be delivered and maintained within the eye. The most frequently used dosage forms, i.e., eye solution, eye ointments, eye gels, and eye suspensions are compromised in their effectiveness by several limitations leading to poor ocular bioavailability. Ophthalmic use of viscosity-enhancing agents, penetration enhancers, cyclodextrins, prodrug approaches, and ocular inserts, and the ready existing drug carrier systems along with their application to ophthalmic drug delivery are common to improve ocular bioavailability. Amongst these hydrogel (stimuli sensitive) systems are important, which undergo reversible volume and/or sol-gel phase transitions in response to physiological (temperature, pH and present of ions in organism fluids, enzyme substrate) or other external (electric current, light) stimuli. They help to increase in precorneal residence time of drug to a sufficient extent that an ocularly delivered drug can exhibit its maximum biological action. The concept of this innovative ophthalmic delivery approach is to decrease the systemic side effects and to create a more pronounced effect with lower doses of the drug. The present article describes the advantages and use stimuli sensitive of hydrogel systems in ophthalmic drug delivery.

  15. Stimuli sensitive hydrogels for ophthalmic drug delivery: A review

    PubMed Central

    Kushwaha, Swatantra KS; Saxena, Prachi; Rai, AK

    2012-01-01

    Amongst the various routes of drug delivery, the field of ocular drug delivery is one of the most interesting and challenging endeavors facing the pharmaceutical scientist for past 10-20 years. As an isolated organ, eye is very difficult to study from a drug delivery point of view. Despite this limitation, improvements have been made with the objective of maintaining the drug in the biophase for an extended period. A major problem in ocular therapeutics is the attainment of an optimal drug concentration at the site of action. To achieve effective ophthalmic therapy, an adequate amount of active ingredient must be delivered and maintained within the eye. The most frequently used dosage forms, i.e., eye solution, eye ointments, eye gels, and eye suspensions are compromised in their effectiveness by several limitations leading to poor ocular bioavailability. Ophthalmic use of viscosity-enhancing agents, penetration enhancers, cyclodextrins, prodrug approaches, and ocular inserts, and the ready existing drug carrier systems along with their application to ophthalmic drug delivery are common to improve ocular bioavailability. Amongst these hydrogel (stimuli sensitive) systems are important, which undergo reversible volume and/or sol-gel phase transitions in response to physiological (temperature, pH and present of ions in organism fluids, enzyme substrate) or other external (electric current, light) stimuli. They help to increase in precorneal residence time of drug to a sufficient extent that an ocularly delivered drug can exhibit its maximum biological action. The concept of this innovative ophthalmic delivery approach is to decrease the systemic side effects and to create a more pronounced effect with lower doses of the drug. The present article describes the advantages and use stimuli sensitive of hydrogel systems in ophthalmic drug delivery. PMID:23119233

  16. 21 CFR 886.4230 - Ophthalmic knife test drum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ophthalmic knife test drum. 886.4230 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4230 Ophthalmic knife test drum. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic knife test drum is a device intended to test the keenness of ophthalmic...

  17. 21 CFR 886.4230 - Ophthalmic knife test drum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ophthalmic knife test drum. 886.4230 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4230 Ophthalmic knife test drum. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic knife test drum is a device intended to test the keenness of ophthalmic...

  18. 21 CFR 886.4230 - Ophthalmic knife test drum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ophthalmic knife test drum. 886.4230 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4230 Ophthalmic knife test drum. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic knife test drum is a device intended to test the keenness of ophthalmic...

  19. 21 CFR 886.4230 - Ophthalmic knife test drum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic knife test drum. 886.4230 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4230 Ophthalmic knife test drum. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic knife test drum is a device intended to test the keenness of ophthalmic...

  20. 21 CFR 886.4230 - Ophthalmic knife test drum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ophthalmic knife test drum. 886.4230 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4230 Ophthalmic knife test drum. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic knife test drum is a device intended to test the keenness of ophthalmic...

  1. 21 CFR 886.4855 - Ophthalmic instrument table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ophthalmic instrument table. 886.4855 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4855 Ophthalmic instrument table. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic instrument table is an AC-powered or manual device on which ophthalmic...

  2. Ophthalmic halo reduced lenses design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limon, Ofer; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2015-05-01

    The halo effect is a very problematic visual artifact occurring in extended depth of focus or multi-focal ophthalmic lenses such as e.g. intra-ocular (after cataract surgery) or contact lenses when used in dark illumination conditions. This artifact is generated due to surface structures added on top of those lenses in order to increase their depth of focus or to realize multiple focal lengths. In this paper we present novel solution that can resolve this major problem of ophthalmic lenses. The proposed solution involves modification to the surface structure that realizes the extended depth of focus. Our solution is fabricated and numerically and experimentally validated also in preliminary in-vivo trials.

  3. Human Microbiota and Ophthalmic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Louise J.; Liu, Ji

    2016-01-01

    The human ocular surface, consisting of the cornea and conjunctiva, is colonized by an expansive, diverse microbial community. Molecular-based methods, such as 16S rRNA sequencing, has allowed for more comprehensive and precise identification of the species composition of the ocular surface microbiota compared to traditional culture-based methods. Evidence suggests that the normal microbiota plays a protective immunological role in preventing the proliferation of pathogenic species and thus, alterations in the homeostatic microbiome may be linked to ophthalmic pathologies. Further investigation of the ocular surface microbiome, as well as the microbiome of other areas of the body such as the oral mucosa and gut, and their role in the pathophysiology of diseases is a significant, emerging field of research, and may someday enable the development of novel probiotic approaches for the treatment and prevention of ophthalmic diseases. PMID:27698616

  4. Shining light on skin pigmentation: the darker and the brighter side of effects of UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Maddodi, Nityanand; Jayanthy, Ashika; Setaluri, Vijayasaradhi

    2012-01-01

    The term barrier function as applied to human skin often connotes the physical properties of this organ that provides protection from its surrounding environment. This term does not generally include skin pigmentation. However, skin pigmentation, which is the result of melanin produced in melanocytes residing in the basal layer of the skin and exported to the keratinocytes in the upper layers, serves equally important protective function. Indeed, changes in skin pigmentation are often the most readily recognized indicators of exposure of skin to damaging agents, especially to natural and artificial radiation in the environment. Several recent studies have shed new light on (1) the mechanisms involved in selective effects of subcomponents of UV radiation on human skin pigmentation and (2) the interactive influences between keratinocytes and melanocytes, acting as "epidermal melanin unit," that manifest as changes in skin pigmentation in response to exposure to various forms of radiation. This article provides a concise review of our current understanding of the effects of the nonionizing solar radiation, at cellular and molecular levels, on human skin pigmentation.

  5. Alternative methods of ophthalmic treatment in Russia.

    PubMed

    Vader, L

    1994-04-01

    Russian ophthalmic nurses and physicians are using alternative methods of treatment to supplement traditional eye care. As acupuncture and iridology become more popular in the United States, ophthalmic nurses need to be more knowledgeable about these treatments and the implications for patients.

  6. A Drosophila model to investigate the neurotoxic side effects of radiation exposure

    PubMed Central

    Sudmeier, Lisa J.; Howard, Steven P.; Ganetzky, Barry

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Children undergoing cranial radiation therapy (CRT) for pediatric central nervous system malignancies are at increased risk for neurological deficits later in life. We have developed a model of neurotoxic damage in adult Drosophila following irradiation during the juvenile stages with the goal of elucidating underlying neuropathological mechanisms and of ultimately identifying potential therapeutic targets. Wild-type third-instar larvae were irradiated with single doses of γ-radiation, and the percentage that survived to adulthood was determined. Motor function of surviving adults was examined with a climbing assay, and longevity was assessed by measuring lifespan. Neuronal cell death was assayed by using immunohistochemistry in adult brains. We also tested the sensitivity at different developmental stages by irradiating larvae at various time points. Irradiating late third-instar larvae at a dose of 20 Gy or higher impaired the motor activity of surviving adults. A dose of 40 Gy or higher resulted in a precipitous reduction in the percentage of larvae that survive to adulthood. A dose-dependent decrease in adult longevity was paralleled by a dose-dependent increase in activated Death caspase-1 (Dcp1) in adult brains. Survival to adulthood and adult lifespan were more severely impaired with decreasing larval age at the time of irradiation. Our initial survey of the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel demonstrated that differences in genotype can confer phenotypic differences in radio-sensitivity for developmental survival and motor function. This work demonstrates the usefulness of Drosophila to model the toxic effects of radiation during development, and has the potential to unravel underlying mechanisms and to facilitate the discovery of novel therapeutic interventions. PMID:26092528

  7. A Drosophila model to investigate the neurotoxic side effects of radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Sudmeier, Lisa J; Howard, Steven P; Ganetzky, Barry

    2015-07-01

    Children undergoing cranial radiation therapy (CRT) for pediatric central nervous system malignancies are at increased risk for neurological deficits later in life. We have developed a model of neurotoxic damage in adult Drosophila following irradiation during the juvenile stages with the goal of elucidating underlying neuropathological mechanisms and of ultimately identifying potential therapeutic targets. Wild-type third-instar larvae were irradiated with single doses of γ-radiation, and the percentage that survived to adulthood was determined. Motor function of surviving adults was examined with a climbing assay, and longevity was assessed by measuring lifespan. Neuronal cell death was assayed by using immunohistochemistry in adult brains. We also tested the sensitivity at different developmental stages by irradiating larvae at various time points. Irradiating late third-instar larvae at a dose of 20 Gy or higher impaired the motor activity of surviving adults. A dose of 40 Gy or higher resulted in a precipitous reduction in the percentage of larvae that survive to adulthood. A dose-dependent decrease in adult longevity was paralleled by a dose-dependent increase in activated Death caspase-1 (Dcp1) in adult brains. Survival to adulthood and adult lifespan were more severely impaired with decreasing larval age at the time of irradiation. Our initial survey of the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel demonstrated that differences in genotype can confer phenotypic differences in radio-sensitivity for developmental survival and motor function. This work demonstrates the usefulness of Drosophila to model the toxic effects of radiation during development, and has the potential to unravel underlying mechanisms and to facilitate the discovery of novel therapeutic interventions.

  8. Ophthalmic applications of femtosecond lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtz, Ron M.; Spooner, Greg J. R.; Sletten, Karin R.; Yen, Kimberly G.; Sayegh, Samir I.; Loesel, Frieder H.; Horvath, Christopher; Liu, HsiaoHua; Elner, Victor; Cabrera, Delia; Muenier, Marie-Helene; Sacks, Zachary S.; Juhasz, Tibor; Miller, Doug L.; Williams, A. R.

    1999-06-01

    We investigated three potential femtosecond laser ophthalmic procedures: intrastromal refractive surgery, transcleral photodisruptive glaucoma surgery and photodisruptive ultrasonic lens surgery. A highly reliable, all-solid-state system was used to investigate tissue effects and demonstrate clinical practicality. Compared with longer duration pulses, femtosecond laser-tissue interactions are characterized by smaller and more deterministic photodisruptive energy thresholds, smaller shock wave and cavitation bubble sizes. Scanning a 5 (mu) spot below the target tissue surface produced contiguous tissue effects. Various scanning patterns were used to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and stability of three intrastromal refractive procedures in animal eyes: corneal flap cutting, keratomileusis, and intrastromal vision correction (IVC). Superior dissection and surface quality results were obtained for the lamellar procedures. IVC in rabbits revealed consistent, stable pachymetric changes, without significant inflammation or corneal transparency degradation. Transcleral photodisruption was evaluated as a noninvasive method for creating partial thickness scleral channels to reduce elevated intraocular pressure associated with glaucoma. Photodisruption at the internal scleral surface was demonstrated by focusing through tissue in vitro without collateral damage. Femtosecond photodisruptions nucleated ultrasonically driven cavitation to demonstrate non-invasive destruction of in vitro lens tissue. We conclude that femtosecond lasers may enable practical novel ophthalmic procedures, offering advantages over current techniques.

  9. Protective effect of Yashtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra) against side effects of radiation/chemotherapy in head and neck malignancies.

    PubMed

    Das, Debabrata; Agarwal, S K; Chandola, H M

    2011-04-01

    One of the very common side effects of Radiation/Chemotherapy especially of the head and neck malignancies is mucositis. Cancer therapy or the cancer itself may cause changes in the body chemistry that results in loss of appetite, pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and very common mucositis which makes eating difficult. Loss of appetite is followed by an undesirable loss of weight due to insufficient amount of calories every day which can lead to loss of muscle mass and strength and other complications by causing interruptions of medical therapy, impeding effective cancer therapy. Mucositis cause decreased immunity and quality of life as well as poor tolerance to surgery and altered efficacy of Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy. The present study is designed with the objective to minimize the radiation induced mucositis, skin reaction, xerostomia, change in voice etc. with an Ayurvedic preparation Yashtimadhu Ghrita (processed ghee). Total 75 patients were randomly divided into four groups and drugs were administered: Group A with local application of Yashtimadhu powder and honey in the oral cavity for few minutes prior to radiotherapy along with oral intake of Yashtimadhu Ghrita; Group B with only local application of the Yashtimadhu powder and honey in the oral cavity; Group C patients administered with only local application of honey in the oral cavity; Group D on conventional modern medication controlled group. All these patients under four groups had received Radiotherapy and Chemotherapy for maximum duration of 7 weeks. Mucositis and Skin reactions were observed in 100% of patients with varying degree. The intensity of Radiation and Chemotherapy induced mucositis was reduced to a great extent by the trial drug. Yashtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra) can be used effectively in prevention and treatment of oral mucositis post radiation and chemotheraphy in patients of cancer, especially of the head and neck region. It proves beneficial in two ways: (i) there were no

  10. 21 CFR 886.3100 - Ophthalmic tantalum clip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ophthalmic tantalum clip. 886.3100 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3100 Ophthalmic tantalum clip. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic tantalum clip is a malleable metallic device intended to be implanted...

  11. 21 CFR 886.3100 - Ophthalmic tantalum clip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ophthalmic tantalum clip. 886.3100 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3100 Ophthalmic tantalum clip. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic tantalum clip is a malleable metallic device intended to be implanted...

  12. 21 CFR 886.3100 - Ophthalmic tantalum clip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ophthalmic tantalum clip. 886.3100 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3100 Ophthalmic tantalum clip. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic tantalum clip is a malleable metallic device intended to be implanted...

  13. 21 CFR 886.3100 - Ophthalmic tantalum clip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ophthalmic tantalum clip. 886.3100 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3100 Ophthalmic tantalum clip. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic tantalum clip is a malleable metallic device intended to be implanted...

  14. 21 CFR 886.3100 - Ophthalmic tantalum clip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic tantalum clip. 886.3100 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3100 Ophthalmic tantalum clip. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic tantalum clip is a malleable metallic device intended to be implanted...

  15. 21 CFR 886.1650 - Ophthalmic bar prism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar prism. 886.1650 Section 886.1650...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1650 Ophthalmic bar prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar prism is a device that is a bar composed of fused prisms of gradually...

  16. 21 CFR 886.1665 - Ophthalmic rotary prism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic rotary prism. 886.1665 Section 886.1665...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1665 Ophthalmic rotary prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic rotary prism is a device with various prismatic powers intended to be handheld...

  17. 21 CFR 886.1655 - Ophthalmic Fresnel prism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ophthalmic Fresnel prism. 886.1655 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1655 Ophthalmic Fresnel prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic Fresnel prism is a device that is a thin plastic sheet with embossed rulings...

  18. 21 CFR 886.1665 - Ophthalmic rotary prism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ophthalmic rotary prism. 886.1665 Section 886.1665...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1665 Ophthalmic rotary prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic rotary prism is a device with various prismatic powers intended to be handheld...

  19. 21 CFR 886.1655 - Ophthalmic Fresnel prism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ophthalmic Fresnel prism. 886.1655 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1655 Ophthalmic Fresnel prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic Fresnel prism is a device that is a thin plastic sheet with embossed rulings...

  20. 21 CFR 886.1665 - Ophthalmic rotary prism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ophthalmic rotary prism. 886.1665 Section 886.1665...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1665 Ophthalmic rotary prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic rotary prism is a device with various prismatic powers intended to be handheld...

  1. 21 CFR 886.1665 - Ophthalmic rotary prism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ophthalmic rotary prism. 886.1665 Section 886.1665...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1665 Ophthalmic rotary prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic rotary prism is a device with various prismatic powers intended to be handheld...

  2. 21 CFR 886.1650 - Ophthalmic bar prism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar prism. 886.1650 Section 886.1650...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1650 Ophthalmic bar prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar prism is a device that is a bar composed of fused prisms of gradually...

  3. 21 CFR 886.5810 - Ophthalmic prism reader.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ophthalmic prism reader. 886.5810 Section 886.5810...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5810 Ophthalmic prism reader. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic prism reader is a device intended for use by a patient who is in a supine...

  4. 21 CFR 886.1650 - Ophthalmic bar prism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar prism. 886.1650 Section 886.1650...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1650 Ophthalmic bar prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar prism is a device that is a bar composed of fused prisms of gradually...

  5. 21 CFR 886.1655 - Ophthalmic Fresnel prism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic Fresnel prism. 886.1655 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1655 Ophthalmic Fresnel prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic Fresnel prism is a device that is a thin plastic sheet with embossed rulings...

  6. 21 CFR 886.5810 - Ophthalmic prism reader.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic prism reader. 886.5810 Section 886.5810...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5810 Ophthalmic prism reader. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic prism reader is a device intended for use by a patient who is in a supine...

  7. 21 CFR 886.1665 - Ophthalmic rotary prism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ophthalmic rotary prism. 886.1665 Section 886.1665...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1665 Ophthalmic rotary prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic rotary prism is a device with various prismatic powers intended to be handheld...

  8. 21 CFR 886.5810 - Ophthalmic prism reader.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ophthalmic prism reader. 886.5810 Section 886.5810...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5810 Ophthalmic prism reader. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic prism reader is a device intended for use by a patient who is in a supine...

  9. 21 CFR 886.5810 - Ophthalmic prism reader.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ophthalmic prism reader. 886.5810 Section 886.5810...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5810 Ophthalmic prism reader. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic prism reader is a device intended for use by a patient who is in a supine...

  10. 21 CFR 886.5810 - Ophthalmic prism reader.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ophthalmic prism reader. 886.5810 Section 886.5810...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5810 Ophthalmic prism reader. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic prism reader is a device intended for use by a patient who is in a supine...

  11. 21 CFR 886.1410 - Ophthalmic trial lens clip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ophthalmic trial lens clip. 886.1410 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1410 Ophthalmic trial lens clip. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic trial lens clip is a device intended to hold prisms, spheres, cylinders,...

  12. 21 CFR 886.1420 - Ophthalmic lens gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ophthalmic lens gauge. 886.1420 Section 886.1420...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1420 Ophthalmic lens gauge. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic lens gauge is a calibrated device intended to manually measure the curvature of...

  13. 21 CFR 886.1420 - Ophthalmic lens gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ophthalmic lens gauge. 886.1420 Section 886.1420...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1420 Ophthalmic lens gauge. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic lens gauge is a calibrated device intended to manually measure the curvature of...

  14. 21 CFR 886.1420 - Ophthalmic lens gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ophthalmic lens gauge. 886.1420 Section 886.1420...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1420 Ophthalmic lens gauge. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic lens gauge is a calibrated device intended to manually measure the curvature of...

  15. 21 CFR 886.1410 - Ophthalmic trial lens clip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ophthalmic trial lens clip. 886.1410 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1410 Ophthalmic trial lens clip. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic trial lens clip is a device intended to hold prisms, spheres, cylinders,...

  16. 21 CFR 886.1410 - Ophthalmic trial lens clip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ophthalmic trial lens clip. 886.1410 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1410 Ophthalmic trial lens clip. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic trial lens clip is a device intended to hold prisms, spheres, cylinders,...

  17. 21 CFR 886.1420 - Ophthalmic lens gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ophthalmic lens gauge. 886.1420 Section 886.1420...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1420 Ophthalmic lens gauge. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic lens gauge is a calibrated device intended to manually measure the curvature of...

  18. 21 CFR 886.1405 - Ophthalmic trial lens set.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ophthalmic trial lens set. 886.1405 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1405 Ophthalmic trial lens set. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic trial lens set is a device that is a set of lenses of various dioptric...

  19. 21 CFR 886.1405 - Ophthalmic trial lens set.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ophthalmic trial lens set. 886.1405 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1405 Ophthalmic trial lens set. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic trial lens set is a device that is a set of lenses of various dioptric...

  20. 21 CFR 886.1405 - Ophthalmic trial lens set.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ophthalmic trial lens set. 886.1405 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1405 Ophthalmic trial lens set. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic trial lens set is a device that is a set of lenses of various dioptric...

  1. 21 CFR 886.1405 - Ophthalmic trial lens set.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ophthalmic trial lens set. 886.1405 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1405 Ophthalmic trial lens set. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic trial lens set is a device that is a set of lenses of various dioptric...

  2. 21 CFR 886.4750 - Ophthalmic eye shield.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ophthalmic eye shield. 886.4750 Section 886.4750...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4750 Ophthalmic eye shield. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic eye shield is a device that consists of a plastic or aluminum eye covering intended...

  3. 21 CFR 886.4750 - Ophthalmic eye shield.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic eye shield. 886.4750 Section 886.4750...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4750 Ophthalmic eye shield. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic eye shield is a device that consists of a plastic or aluminum eye covering intended...

  4. 21 CFR 886.4750 - Ophthalmic eye shield.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ophthalmic eye shield. 886.4750 Section 886.4750...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4750 Ophthalmic eye shield. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic eye shield is a device that consists of a plastic or aluminum eye covering intended...

  5. 21 CFR 886.4750 - Ophthalmic eye shield.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ophthalmic eye shield. 886.4750 Section 886.4750...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4750 Ophthalmic eye shield. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic eye shield is a device that consists of a plastic or aluminum eye covering intended...

  6. 21 CFR 886.4750 - Ophthalmic eye shield.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ophthalmic eye shield. 886.4750 Section 886.4750...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4750 Ophthalmic eye shield. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic eye shield is a device that consists of a plastic or aluminum eye covering intended...

  7. Ophthalmic statistics note 5: diagnostic tests—sensitivity and specificity.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Luke J; Zhu, Haogang; Bunce, Catey; Doré, Caroline J; Freemantle, Nick; Crabb, David P

    2015-09-01

    This is the fifth statistics note produced by the Ophthalmic Statistics Group (OSG) which is designed to be a simple guide to ophthalmic researchers on a statistical issue with an applied ophthalmic example. The OSG is a collaborative group of statisticians who have come together with a desire to raise the statistical standards of ophthalmic researcher by increasing statistical awareness of common issues.

  8. 21 CFR 886.4350 - Manual ophthalmic surgical instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual ophthalmic surgical instrument. 886.4350... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4350 Manual ophthalmic surgical instrument. (a) Identification. A manual ophthalmic surgical instrument is a nonpowered, handheld...

  9. 21 CFR 886.1410 - Ophthalmic trial lens clip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic trial lens clip. 886.1410 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1410 Ophthalmic trial lens clip. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic trial lens clip is a device intended to hold prisms, spheres, cylinders,...

  10. 21 CFR 886.1405 - Ophthalmic trial lens set.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic trial lens set. 886.1405 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1405 Ophthalmic trial lens set. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic trial lens set is a device that is a set of lenses of various dioptric...

  11. 21 CFR 886.1420 - Ophthalmic lens gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic lens gauge. 886.1420 Section 886.1420...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1420 Ophthalmic lens gauge. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic lens gauge is a calibrated device intended to manually measure the curvature of...

  12. 21 CFR 886.1410 - Ophthalmic trial lens clip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ophthalmic trial lens clip. 886.1410 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1410 Ophthalmic trial lens clip. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic trial lens clip is a device intended to hold prisms, spheres, cylinders,...

  13. 21 CFR 886.4250 - Ophthalmic electrolysis unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic electrolysis unit. 886.4250 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4250 Ophthalmic electrolysis unit. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic electrolysis unit is an AC-powered or battery-powered device intended to...

  14. 21 CFR 886.4250 - Ophthalmic electrolysis unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ophthalmic electrolysis unit. 886.4250 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4250 Ophthalmic electrolysis unit. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic electrolysis unit is an AC-powered or battery-powered device intended to...

  15. 21 CFR 886.4250 - Ophthalmic electrolysis unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ophthalmic electrolysis unit. 886.4250 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4250 Ophthalmic electrolysis unit. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic electrolysis unit is an AC-powered or battery-powered device intended to...

  16. 21 CFR 886.4250 - Ophthalmic electrolysis unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ophthalmic electrolysis unit. 886.4250 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4250 Ophthalmic electrolysis unit. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic electrolysis unit is an AC-powered or battery-powered device intended to...

  17. 21 CFR 886.4250 - Ophthalmic electrolysis unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ophthalmic electrolysis unit. 886.4250 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4250 Ophthalmic electrolysis unit. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic electrolysis unit is an AC-powered or battery-powered device intended to...

  18. Association Between Tangential Beam Treatment Parameters and Cardiac Abnormalities After Definitive Radiation Treatment for Left-Sided Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Correa, Candace R.; Das, Indra J. Litt, Harold I.; Ferrari, Victor; Hwang, W.-T.; Solin, Lawrence J.; Harris, Eleanor E.

    2008-10-01

    Purpose: To examine the association between radiation treatment (RT) parameters, cardiac diagnostic test abnormalities, and clinical cardiovascular diagnoses among patients with left-sided breast cancer after breast conservation treatment with tangential beam RT. Methods and Materials: The medical records of 416 patients treated between 1977 and 1995 with RT for primary left-sided breast cancer were reviewed for myocardial perfusion imaging and echocardiograms. Sixty-two patients (62/416, 15%) underwent these cardiac diagnostic tests for cardiovascular symptoms and were selected for further study. Central lung distance and maximum heart width and length in the treatment field were determined for each patient. Medical records were reviewed for cardiovascular diagnoses and evaluation of cardiac risk factors. Results: At a median of 12 years post-RT the incidence of cardiac diagnostic test abnormalities among symptomatic left-sided irradiated women was significantly higher than the predicted incidence of cardiovascular disease in the patient population, 6/62 (9%) predicted vs. 24/62 (39%) observed, p 0.001. As compared with patients with normal tests, patients with cardiac diagnostic test abnormalities had a larger median central lung distance (2.6 cm vs. 2.2 cm, p = 0.01). Similarly, patients with vs. without congestive heart failure had a larger median central lung distance (2.8 cm vs. 2.3 cm, p = 0.008). Conclusions: Contemporary RT for early breast cancer may be associated with a small, but potentially avoidable, risk of cardiovascular morbidity that is associated with treatment technique.

  19. Transcutaneous Puncture of the Superior Ophthalmic Vein for Embolization of Dural Carotid-Ophthalmic Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wen-Hsien; Tsai, I-Chen; Huang, Hou-Chi; Lin, Chun-Han; Hung, Hao-Chun; Wu, Chen-Hao; Chi-Chang Chen, Clayton

    2008-01-01

    Summary Carotid-ophthalmic fistula is a rare disease, which can be treated by transvenous endovascular embolization. Here, we report a unique case with draining vein thrombosed, making a transvenous approach impossible. An old but valuable technique, direct transcutaneous puncture of the superior ophthalmic vein, was used to save the patient's right eye. The old technique, direct puncture of the superior ophthalmic vein, retains its irreplaceable usefulness in this special situation. Thus, interventional neuroradiologists should equip themselves with this essential technique. PMID:20557794

  20. Regression of a Flow-Related Ophthalmic Artery Aneurysm After Treatment of a Frontal DAVS

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, T.; Kihlström, L.; Söderman, M.

    2004-01-01

    Summary We report a case of a frontal dural arteriovenous shunt or fistula (DAVS) adjacent to the left side of the cribriform plate, with bilateral supply from multiple arteries, the most prominent being the dural branches originating from the anterior ethmoidal artery coming from the left ophthalmic artery. Before treatment there was an eight mm flow-related arterial aneurysm proximally on the left ophthalmic artery. After transarterial embolization of the DAVS with N-butyl cyanoacrylate and polyvinyl alcohol, minimal shunting still remained. At follow-up angiography six months after the treatment, the shunt was obliterated and the ophthalmic artery aneurysm had regressed completely. Our case illustrates that complete obliteration of a DAVS may be achieved even though arteriovenous shunting remains at the end of the procedure. Furthermore, a flow-related arterial aneurysm, may not warrant any specific treatment. Elimination of the high flow situation can lead to complete regression of these aneurysms. PMID:20587240

  1. Dry Eye and Designer Ophthalmics

    PubMed Central

    Laurie, Gordon W.; Olsakovsky, Leslie A.; Conway, Brian P.; McKown, Robert L.; Kitagawa, Kazuko; Nichols, Jason J.

    2009-01-01

    EST, proteomic, and antibody capture assays are revealing a level of tear film protein complexity far greater than previously appreciated. A systems biology approach will be needed to fully appreciate function as tear protein doses fluctuate in time through different conditions. Although consensus is growing on what fully constitutes the human tear proteome, questions remain about the source and significance of the ∼256 tear proteins designated as ‘intracellular’. Many of these may derive from normal cellular turnover and could therefore be informative. A further >183 are designated as ‘extracellular’. Surprisingly, only 4 – 5% of these appear to be dysregulated in the three forms of dry eye preliminarily examined to date. Some differ and a couple overlap, suggesting that disease-specific signatures could be identified. Future dry eye treatment might include recombinant tear protein rescue as a personalized ophthalmic approach to ocular surface disease. PMID:18677231

  2. Big data and ophthalmic research.

    PubMed

    Clark, Antony; Ng, Jonathon Q; Morlet, Nigel; Semmens, James B

    2016-01-01

    Large population-based health administrative databases, clinical registries, and data linkage systems are a rapidly expanding resource for health research. Ophthalmic research has benefited from the use of these databases in expanding the breadth of knowledge in areas such as disease surveillance, disease etiology, health services utilization, and health outcomes. Furthermore, the quantity of data available for research has increased exponentially in recent times, particularly as e-health initiatives come online in health systems across the globe. We review some big data concepts, the databases and data linkage systems used in eye research-including their advantages and limitations, the types of studies previously undertaken, and the future direction for big data in eye research.

  3. Paradigm Shifts in Ophthalmic Diagnostics*

    PubMed Central

    Sebag, J.; Sadun, Alfredo A.; Pierce, Eric A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Future advances in ophthalmology will see a paradigm shift in diagnostics from a focus on dysfunction and disease to better measures of psychophysical function and health. Practical methods to define genotypes will be increasingly important and non-invasive nanotechnologies are needed to detect molecular changes that predate histopathology. Methods This is not a review nor meant to be comprehensive. Specific topics have been selected to illustrate the principles of important paradigm shifts that will influence the future of ophthalmic diagnostics. It is our impression that future evaluation of vision will go beyond visual acuity to assess ocular health in terms of psychophysical function. The definition of disease will incorporate genotype into what has historically been a phenotype-centric discipline. Non-invasive nanotechnologies will enable a paradigm shift from disease detection on a cellular level to a sub-cellular molecular level. Results Vision can be evaluated beyond visual acuity by measuring contrast sensitivity, color vision, and macular function, as these provide better insights into the impact of aging and disease. Distortions can be quantified and the psychophysical basis of vision can be better evaluated than in the past by designing tests that assess particular macular cell function(s). Advances in our understanding of the genetic basis of eye diseases will enable better characterization of ocular health and disease. Non-invasive nanotechnologies can assess molecular changes in the lens, vitreous, and macula that predate visible pathology. Oxygen metabolism and circulatory physiology are measurable indices of ocular health that can detect variations of physiology and early disease. Conclusions This overview of paradigm shifts in ophthalmology suggests that the future will see significant improvements in ophthalmic diagnostics. The selected topics illustrate the principles of these paradigm shifts and should serve as a guide to further

  4. Extemporaneous preparation of antibiotic ophthalmic solutions.

    PubMed

    Hammond, R W; Walker, T P; McClung, H F; Edmondson, W

    1996-03-01

    Until the introduction of ocular ciprofloxacin, the standard of practice in treating bacterial corneal ulcers required topical antibiotic ophthalmic solutions that were either not commercially available or not available in the higher concentrations needed. A survey was mailed to 125 hospital pharmacies and 125 community pharmacies in Oklahoma to determine the availability of extemporaneously prepared antibiotic ophthalmic solutions. Of 72 hospital pharmacies and 60 community pharmacies that responded, 17 hospital and 2 community pharmacies reported that they do compound these solutions. The main reasons given by the other pharmacies for not offering this service were the lack of a laminar flow hood or other equipment and lack of an aseptic environment. If extemporaneously prepared antibiotic ophthalmic solutions are needed to treat corneal ulcers, then pharmacists have a responsibility to prepare them. The recent publication of a handbook providing formulations for those products and the "ASHP Technical Assistance Bulletin on Pharmacy-Prepared Ophthalmic Products" may encourage more pharmacies to provide this needed service.

  5. [Contemporary aspects of aviation ophthalmic ergonomics].

    PubMed

    Ushakov, I B; Ovechkin, I G; Prokofiev, A B; Arutiunova, O V; Man'ko, O M; Tkachenko, V K

    2002-01-01

    The article tackle problems of ophthalmic ergonomics in contemporary aviation. The authors necessitate PC software to be put into practice of medical examination in pilots, stress efficacy of photorefraction surgery for vision rehabilitation and better occupational adequacy of pilots.

  6. A Case of Hydranencephaly in Which Ophthalmic Examinations Were Performed

    PubMed Central

    Eda, Shohei; Terai, Tomoko; Nishikawa, Yuko; Tonari, Masahiro; Kida, Teruyo; Oku, Hidehiro; Sugasawa, Jun; Shimakawa, Shuichi; Hasegawa, Masashi; Ogihara, Tohru; Ikeda, Tsunehiko

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We performed ophthalmic examinations, including optical coherence tomography (OCT), on a case diagnosed with hydranencephaly. Case Report This case involved a female infant born at the gestational age of 35 weeks and 4 days, with the birth weight of 2,152 g, who was one of monochorionic diamniotic twins, and the identical twin died in utero at the gestational age of 24 weeks. After that, examination by fetal echo indicated that she had microcephaly and ventriculomegaly. Postnatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of her head indicated microcephaly and significant enlargement of the lateral ventricle on both sides, with no obvious signs of elevated intracranial pressure. The brain parenchyma of both sides of the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, and occipital lobe had marked thinning, yet that of the temporal lobe, basal ganglia, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum had been maintained. Moreover, no obvious hematoma or neoplastic lesions were observed. Ophthalmic examinations indicated that both of her eyes had slight light reflex, attributed to optic nerve atrophy. Examination by use of a hand-held OCT system indicated a layered structure of the retina and thinning of the ganglion cell layer. Flicker electroretinogram (ERG) examination by use of a hand-held ERG system indicated an almost normal wave. However, no clear visual reaction was observed when she was 10 months old. Conclusion Our findings in this case of hydranencephaly revealed that even though the outer layer functions of the patient's retina were maintained, extensive damage to her cerebral cortex resulted in poor visual function. PMID:27790130

  7. Microsurgical treatment of ophthalmic segment aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Gross, Bradley A; Du, Rose

    2013-08-01

    Ophthalmic segment aneurysms refer to superior hypophyseal artery aneurysms, true ophthalmic artery aneurysms, and their dorsal variant. Indications for treatment of these aneurysms include concerning morphological features, large size, visual loss, or rupture. Although narrow-necked aneurysms are ideal endovascular targets, more complex and larger lesions necessitating adjunctive stent or flow-diversion techniques may be suitably treated with long-lasting, effective clip ligation instead. This is particularly relevant in the consideration of ruptured ophthalmic segment aneurysms. This article provides a depiction of microsurgical treatment of ophthalmic segment aneurysms with an accompanying video demonstration. Emphasis is placed on microsurgical anatomy, the intradural anterior clinoidectomy and clipping technique. The intradural anterior clinoidectomy, demonstrated in detail in our Supplementary video, provides significant added exposure of the ophthalmic segment of the internal carotid artery, allowing for improved aneurysm visualization. In the management of superior hypophyseal artery aneurysms, emphasis is placed on identifying and preserving superior hypophyseal artery perforators, using serial fenestrated straight clips rather than a single right-angled fenestrated clip to obliterate the aneurysm. Post-clipping indocyanine green dye angiography is a crucial tool to confirm aneurysm obliteration and the preservation of the parent vasculature and adjacent superior hypophyseal artery perforators. With careful attention to the nuances of microsurgical clipping of ophthalmic segment aneurysms, rewarding results can be obtained.

  8. Ophthalmic evaluation of long-term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, R.G. Jr.; Chauvenet, A.R.; Smith, T.J.; Schwartz, A.C.

    1986-08-15

    Thirty-four long-term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) underwent comprehensive ophthalmic examinations to detect retinopathy or other ocular sequelae. Sixteen of the 34 patients received whole brain radiation (greater than or equal to 2400 rad). All 18 patients in the non-radiated group had normal eye examinations, while 4 of 16 in the radiated group had ocular abnormalities. None of the ocular abnormalities could be definitely attributed to radiation and all patients had normal visual acuity. No radiation retinopathy was found in either group.

  9. Case Report: A Troublesome Ophthalmic Artery Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Meling, T. R.; Sorteberg, W.; Bakke, S. J.; Jacobsen, E. A.; Lane, P.; Vajkoczy, P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective and Importance When treating large unruptured ophthalmic artery (OA) aneurysms causing progressive blindness, surgical clipping is still the preferred method because aneurysm sac decompression may relieve optic nerve compression. However, endovascular treatment of OA aneurysms has made important progress with the introduction of stents. Although this development is welcomed, it also makes the choice of treatment strategy less straightforward than in the past, with the potential of missteps. Clinical Presentation A 56-year-old woman presented with a long history of progressive unilateral visual loss and magnetic resonance imaging showing a 20-mm left-sided OA aneurysm. Intervention Because of her long history of very poor visual acuity, we considered her left eye to be irredeemable and opted for endovascular therapy. The OA aneurysms was treated with stent and coils but continued to grow, threatening the contralateral eye. Because she failed internal carotid artery (ICA) balloon test occlusion, we performed a high-flow extracranial-intracranial bypass with proximal ICA occlusion in the neck. However, aneurysm growth continued due to persistent circulation through reversed blood flow in distal ICA down to the OA and the cavernous portion of the ICA. Due to progressive loss of her right eye vision, we surgically occluded the ICA proximal to the posterior communicating artery and excised the coiled, now giant, OA aneurysm. This improved her right eye vision, but her left eye was permanently blind. Conclusion This case report illustrates complications of the endovascular and surgical treatment of a large unruptured OA aneurysm. PMID:25485220

  10. 21 CFR 886.1860 - Ophthalmic instrument stand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Identification. An ophthalmic instrument stand is an AC-powered or nonpowered device intended to store ophthalmic instruments in a readily accessible position. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The...

  11. 21 CFR 886.4855 - Ophthalmic instrument table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Identification. An ophthalmic instrument table is an AC-powered or manual device on which ophthalmic instruments are intended to be placed. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The AC-powered device...

  12. 75 FR 36101 - Dermatologic and Ophthalmic Drugs Advisory Committee; Cancellation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Dermatologic and Ophthalmic Drugs Advisory Committee; Cancellation AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The meeting of the Dermatologic and Ophthalmic Drugs Advisory Committee scheduled for June 28, 2010, is cancelled. This...

  13. 21 CFR 886.5800 - Ophthalmic bar reader.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar reader. 886.5800 Section 886.5800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5800 Ophthalmic bar reader....

  14. 21 CFR 886.5800 - Ophthalmic bar reader.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar reader. 886.5800 Section 886.5800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5800 Ophthalmic bar reader....

  15. 21 CFR 886.5800 - Ophthalmic bar reader.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar reader. 886.5800 Section 886.5800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5800 Ophthalmic bar reader....

  16. 21 CFR 886.5800 - Ophthalmic bar reader.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar reader. 886.5800 Section 886.5800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5800 Ophthalmic bar reader....

  17. 21 CFR 886.5800 - Ophthalmic bar reader.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar reader. 886.5800 Section 886.5800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5800 Ophthalmic bar reader....

  18. 21 CFR 886.1415 - Ophthalmic trial lens frame.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ophthalmic trial lens frame. 886.1415 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1415 Ophthalmic trial lens frame. (a) Identification. An opthalmic trial lens frame is a mechanical device intended to hold trial lenses for...

  19. 21 CFR 886.1415 - Ophthalmic trial lens frame.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ophthalmic trial lens frame. 886.1415 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1415 Ophthalmic trial lens frame. (a) Identification. An opthalmic trial lens frame is a mechanical device intended to hold trial lenses for...

  20. 21 CFR 886.1415 - Ophthalmic trial lens frame.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ophthalmic trial lens frame. 886.1415 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1415 Ophthalmic trial lens frame. (a) Identification. An opthalmic trial lens frame is a mechanical device intended to hold trial lenses for...

  1. 21 CFR 886.1415 - Ophthalmic trial lens frame.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ophthalmic trial lens frame. 886.1415 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1415 Ophthalmic trial lens frame. (a) Identification. An opthalmic trial lens frame is a mechanical device intended to hold trial lenses for...

  2. 21 CFR 886.1860 - Ophthalmic instrument stand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... instruments in a readily accessible position. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The AC-powered... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ophthalmic instrument stand. 886.1860 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1860 Ophthalmic instrument stand....

  3. 21 CFR 886.1415 - Ophthalmic trial lens frame.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic trial lens frame. 886.1415 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1415 Ophthalmic trial lens frame. (a) Identification. An opthalmic trial lens frame is a mechanical device intended to hold trial lenses for...

  4. Light Levels In Ophthalmic Diagnostic Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delori, Francois C.; Pomerantzeff, Oleg; Mainster, Martin A.

    1980-10-01

    Methods are presented for determining the retinal exposures produced by broad-band ophthalmic light sources and for comparing these results with safety standards developed for the safe use of lasers (ANSI, Z136.1). Measurements of exposures produced by fundus cameras and indirect ophthalmoscopes are compared with both Z136.1 maximum permissible exposure levels (MPE) and experimental retinal damage thresholds. It is found that while the retinal exposures used in fundus photography are below MPEs, the irradiances used in indirect ophthalmoscopy may actually equal or exceed current MPEs. Methods are suggested for reducing retinal irradiance while maintaining retinal image luminance, and emphasis is placed on the importance of both acquainting the users of ophthalmic devices with any potential retinal hazard and providing the users and designers of ophthalmic devices with realistic protection standards.

  5. Ophthalmic masquerades of the atherosclerotic carotids

    PubMed Central

    Arthur, Anupriya; Alexander, Anika; Bal, Simerpreet; Sivadasan, Ajith; Aaron, Sanjith

    2014-01-01

    Patients with carotid atherosclerosis can present with ophthalmic symptoms. These symptoms and signs can be due to retinal emboli, hypoperfusion of the retina and choroid, opening up of collateral channels, or chronic hypoperfusion of the globe (ocular ischemic syndrome). These pathological mechanisms can produce many interesting signs and a careful history can bring out important past symptoms pointing toward the carotid as the source of the patient's presenting symptom. Such patients are at high risk for an ischemic stroke, especially in the subsequent few days following their first acute symptom. It is important for clinicians to be familiar with these ophthalmic symptoms and signs caused by carotid atherosclerosis for making an early diagnosis and to take appropriate measures to prevent a stroke. This review elaborates the clinical features, importance, and implications of various ophthalmic symptoms and signs resulting from atherosclerotic carotid artery disease. PMID:24817748

  6. 21 CFR 886.1140 - Ophthalmic chair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... ophthalmic chair is an AC-powered or manual device with adjustable positioning in which a patient is to sit... the current good manufacturing practice requirements of the quality system regulation in part 820...

  7. 21 CFR 886.1140 - Ophthalmic chair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... ophthalmic chair is an AC-powered or manual device with adjustable positioning in which a patient is to sit... the current good manufacturing practice requirements of the quality system regulation in part 820...

  8. Development of micro-CT protocols for in vivo follow-up of mouse bone architecture without major radiation side effects.

    PubMed

    Laperre, K; Depypere, M; van Gastel, N; Torrekens, S; Moermans, K; Bogaerts, R; Maes, F; Carmeliet, G

    2011-10-01

    In vivo micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) will offer unique information on the time-related changes in bone mass and structure of living mice, provided that radiation-induced side effects are prevented. Lowering the radiation dose, however, inevitably decreases the image quality. In this study we developed and validated a protocol for in vivo micro-CT imaging of mouse bone architecture that retains high quality images but avoids radiation-induced side effects on bone structure and hematological parameters. The left hindlimb of male C57Bl/6 mice was scanned in vivo at 3 consecutive time points, separated each time by a 2-week interval. Two protocols for in vivo micro-CT imaging were evaluated, with pixel sizes of 9 and 18 μm and administered radiation doses of 434 mGy and 166 mGy per scan, respectively. These radiation doses were found not to influence trabecular or cortical bone architecture in pre-pubertal or adult mice. In addition, there was no evidence for hematological side effects as peripheral blood cell counts and the colony-forming capacity of hematopoietic progenitor cells from bone marrow and spleen were not altered. Although the images obtained with these in vivo micro-CT protocols were more blurred than those obtained with high resolution (5 μm) ex vivo CT imaging, longitudinal follow-up of trabecular bone architecture in an orchidectomy model proved to be feasible using the 9 μm pixel size protocol in combination with a suitable bone segmentation technique (i.e. local thresholding). The image quality of the 18 μm pixel size protocol was too degraded for accurate bone segmentation and the use of this protocol is therefore restricted to monitor marked changes in bone structure such as bone metastatic lesions or fracture healing. In conclusion, we developed two micro-CT protocols which are appropriate for detailed as well as global longitudinal studies of mouse bone architecture and lack noticeable radiation-induced side effects.

  9. Simulation of Ophthalmic Alterations at the Arctic, Antarctica and the International Space Station for Long-Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Morais Mendonca Teles, Antonio; Gonçalves, Cristiane

    2016-07-01

    Well, we propose a series of long-period medical simulations in scientific bases at the Arctic, at Antarctica and aboard the International Space Station (ISS), involving natural ophthalmic diseases such as radiation, solar and trauma retinopathy, keratoconus, cataract, glaucoma, etc., and ophthalmic alterations by accidental injuries. These natural diseases, without a previous diagnosis, specially those specific retinopathy, appear after 1 month to 1.5 year, in average. Such studies will be valuable for the human deep-space exploration because during long-duration spaceflight, such as staying at the ISS, a Moon base and a manned trip to planet Mars, requires several months within such environments, and during such periods ophthalmic diseases and accidents might eventually occur, which could seriously affect the 'round-the-clock' work schedule of the astronauts and the long-duration spaceflight manned program.

  10. Anatomy of the Ophthalmic Artery: Embryological Consideration

    PubMed Central

    TOMA, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    There are considerable variations in the anatomy of the human ophthalmic artery (OphA), such as anomalous origins of the OphA and anastomoses between the OphA and the adjacent arteries. These anatomical variations seem to attribute to complex embryology of the OphA. In human embryos and fetuses, primitive dorsal and ventral ophthalmic arteries (PDOphA and PVOphA) form the ocular branches, and the supraorbital division of the stapedial artery forms the orbital branches of the OphA, and then numerous anastomoses between the internal carotid artery (ICA) and the external carotid artery (ECA) systems emerge in connection with the OphA. These developmental processes can produce anatomical variations of the OphA, and we should notice these variations for neurosurgical and neurointerventional procedures. PMID:27298261

  11. Ophthalmic plastic and orbital surgery in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chi-Hsin; Lin, I-Chan; Shen, Yun-Dun; Hsu, Wen-Ming

    2014-06-01

    We describe in this paper the current status of ophthalmic plastic and orbital surgery in Taiwan. Data were collected from the Bureau of National Health Insurance of Taiwan, the Bulletin of the Taiwan Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Society, and the Statistics Yearbook of Practicing Physicians and Health Care Organizations in Taiwan by the Taiwan Medical Association. We ascertained that 94 ophthalmologists were oculoplastic surgeons and accounted for 5.8% of 1621 ophthalmologists in Taiwan. They had their fellowship training abroad (most ophthalmologists trained in the United States of America) or in Taiwan. All ophthalmologists were well trained and capable of performing major oculoplastic surgeries. The payment rates by our National Health Insurance for oculoplastic and orbital surgeries are relatively low, compared to Medicare payments in the United States. Ophthalmologists should promote the concept that oculoplastic surgeons specialize in periorbital plastic and aesthetic surgeries. However, general ophthalmologists should receive more educational courses on oculoplastic and cosmetic surgery.

  12. [Immunohistochemistry in ophthalmic pathology: applications and limitations].

    PubMed

    Pluot, M; Cahn, V; Ducasse, A

    2006-10-01

    We evaluate the applications of immunohistochemistry (IHC) in ophthalmic cytology and pathology. The principles of the techniques used in IHC are described. Recent improvements are highlighted, such as the polymeric labeling two-step method, tyramine signal amplification, rabbit monoclonal antibodies, and labeled nanocrystals. The results of the immunohistochemical methods are collected in bacterial and viral diseases and in tumors of the eye and its adnexa, the pathology of which varies greatly. The results in lymphomas, melanomas, and palpebral tumors were more details for practical reasons. There are widespread applications of IHC in ophthalmic pathology, extending from viral ocular and general diseases to the diagnosis of tumors. In some conditions, this technique needs to be associated with molecular biology investigations. Automation helps establish standard protocols, but IHC is a multistep diagnostic method requiring proper selection, fixation, processing, and staining procedures. From a general standpoint, good communication between pathologists and ophthalmologists is the best guarantee of satisfying results.

  13. CONTROL OF LASER RADIATION PARAMETERS: Beam structure of a diode-side-pumped Nd:YVO4 slab laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, A. A.; Zinov'ev, A. P.; Antipov, Oleg L.

    2009-11-01

    The beam spatial structure of a diode-side-pumped Nd:YVO4 slab laser with grazing-incidence bounce geometry is studied. It is found how the mode structure changes with changing the cavity parameters in the cw and active Q-switching regimes. The parameters that allow one to improve the output beam quality retaining high output laser power are found.

  14. Ophthalmic regional blocks: management, challenges, and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Palte, Howard D

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade ophthalmic anesthesia has witnessed a major transformation. The sun has set on the landscape of ophthalmic procedures performed under general anesthesia at in-hospital settings. In its place a new dawn has ushered in the panorama of eye surgeries conducted under regional and topical anesthesia at specialty eye care centers. The impact of the burgeoning geriatric population is that an increasing number of elderly patients will present for eye surgery. In order to accommodate increased patient volumes and simultaneously satisfy administrative initiatives directed at economic frugality, administrators will seek assistance from anesthesia providers in adopting measures that enhance operating room efficiency. The performance of eye blocks in a holding suite meets many of these objectives. Unfortunately, most practicing anesthesiologists resist performing ophthalmic regional blocks because they lack formal training. In future, anesthesiologists will need to block eyes and manage common medical conditions because economic pressures will eliminate routine preoperative testing. This review addresses a variety of topical issues in ophthalmic anesthesia with special emphasis on cannula and needle-based blocks and the new-generation antithrombotic agents. In a constantly evolving arena, the sub-Tenon’s block has gained popularity while the deep angulated intraconal (retrobulbar) block has been largely superseded by the shallower extraconal (peribulbar) approach. Improvements in surgical technique have also impacted anesthetic practice. For example, phacoemulsification techniques facilitate the conduct of cataract surgery under topical anesthesia, and suture-free vitrectomy ports may cause venous air embolism during air/fluid exchange. Hyaluronidase is a useful adjuvant because it promotes local anesthetic diffusion and hastens block onset time but it is allergenic. Ultrasound-guided eye blocks afford real-time visualization of needle position and local

  15. Ophthalmic regional blocks: management, challenges, and solutions.

    PubMed

    Palte, Howard D

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade ophthalmic anesthesia has witnessed a major transformation. The sun has set on the landscape of ophthalmic procedures performed under general anesthesia at in-hospital settings. In its place a new dawn has ushered in the panorama of eye surgeries conducted under regional and topical anesthesia at specialty eye care centers. The impact of the burgeoning geriatric population is that an increasing number of elderly patients will present for eye surgery. In order to accommodate increased patient volumes and simultaneously satisfy administrative initiatives directed at economic frugality, administrators will seek assistance from anesthesia providers in adopting measures that enhance operating room efficiency. The performance of eye blocks in a holding suite meets many of these objectives. Unfortunately, most practicing anesthesiologists resist performing ophthalmic regional blocks because they lack formal training. In future, anesthesiologists will need to block eyes and manage common medical conditions because economic pressures will eliminate routine preoperative testing. This review addresses a variety of topical issues in ophthalmic anesthesia with special emphasis on cannula and needle-based blocks and the new-generation antithrombotic agents. In a constantly evolving arena, the sub-Tenon's block has gained popularity while the deep angulated intraconal (retrobulbar) block has been largely superseded by the shallower extraconal (peribulbar) approach. Improvements in surgical technique have also impacted anesthetic practice. For example, phacoemulsification techniques facilitate the conduct of cataract surgery under topical anesthesia, and suture-free vitrectomy ports may cause venous air embolism during air/fluid exchange. Hyaluronidase is a useful adjuvant because it promotes local anesthetic diffusion and hastens block onset time but it is allergenic. Ultrasound-guided eye blocks afford real-time visualization of needle position and local

  16. Aberrations of sphero-cylindrical ophthalmic lenses.

    PubMed

    Malacara, Z; Malacara, D

    1990-04-01

    The authors have presented in two previous articles the graphic solutions resembling Tscherning ellipses, for spherical as well as for aspherical ophthalmic lenses free of astigmatism or power error. These solutions were exact, inasmuch as they were based on exact ray tracing, and not third-order theory as frequently done. In this paper sphero-cylindrical lenses are now analyzed, also using exact ray tracing. The functional dependence of the astigmatism and the power error for these lenses is described extensively.

  17. Determination of permeability coefficients of ophthalmic drugs through different layers of porcine, rabbit and bovine eyes.

    PubMed

    Loch, Christian; Zakelj, Simon; Kristl, Albin; Nagel, Stefan; Guthoff, Rudolf; Weitschies, Werner; Seidlitz, Anne

    2012-08-30

    To treat ophthalmic diseases like glaucoma or inflammatory disorders topically applied ophthalmic formulations such as eye drops are usually used. In addition, novel ophthalmic implants releasing drug substances locally into different parts of the eye are available today. In the work presented here, the permeability coefficients of selected drugs (ciprofloxacin hydrochloride, lidocaine hydrochloride, timolol maleate) for ophthalmic tissues were determined using side-by-side diffusion chambers (so-called Ussing chambers). Sclera, conjunctiva, cornea, choroidea-retina-complex and a complex of conjunctiva-sclera-choroidea-retina were excised from fresh porcine, rabbit and bovine eyes. In the porcine eye tissues the highest P(app) values were obtained for conjunctiva with the exception of lidocaine. Therefore, it can be estimated that a certain amount of drug diffuses or is transported through conjunctiva after application. The P(app) values for sclera were also higher than those for cornea and even more, the surface area of sclera which is available for drug absorption is much larger than that of cornea when applying an implant. The obtained permeability coefficients for sclera and conjunctiva indicate that the administration of periocular implants can be an alternative to topically applied formulations. The complexes of the tissues were a significantly (p<0.01) stronger barrier to the investigated substances than the separated tissues. Distinct differences in permeability coefficients between the investigated animal tissues were observed. Overall the highest P(app) values for all mounted tissues were obtained with the rabbit, followed by porcine and bovine eyes. Because of these distinct interspecies differences one must be very careful when selecting the proper animal model for the permeability experiments.

  18. A comparative analysis of 3D conformal deep inspiratory-breath hold and free-breathing intensity-modulated radiation therapy for left-sided breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Reardon, Kelli A; Read, Paul W; Morris, Monica M; Reardon, Michael A; Geesey, Constance; Wijesooriya, Krishni

    2013-01-01

    Patients undergoing radiation for left-sided breast cancer have increased rates of coronary artery disease. Free-breathing intensity-modulated radiation therapy (FB-IMRT) and 3-dimensional conformal deep inspiratory-breath hold (3D-DIBH) reduce cardiac irradiation. The purpose of this study is to compare the dose to organs at risk in FB-IMRT vs 3D-DIBH for patients with left-sided breast cancer. Ten patients with left-sided breast cancer had 2 computed tomography scans: free breathing and voluntary DIBH. Optimization of the IMRT plan was performed on the free-breathing scan using 6 noncoplanar tangential beams. The 3D-DIBH plan was optimized on the DIBH scan and used standard tangents. Mean volumes of the heart, the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), the total lung, and the right breast receiving 5% to 95% (5% increments) of the prescription dose were calculated. Mean volumes of the heart and the LAD were lower (p<0.05) in 3D-DIBH for volumes receiving 5% to 80% of the prescription dose for the heart and 5% for the LAD. Mean dose to the LAD and heart were lower in 3D-DIBH (p≤0.01). Mean volumes of the total lung were lower in FB-IMRT for dose levels 20% to 75% (p<0.05), but mean dose was not different. Mean volumes of the right breast were not different for any dose; however, mean dose was lower for 3D-DIBH (p = 0.04). 3D-DIBH is an alternative approach to FB-IMRT that provides a clinically equivalent treatment for patients with left-sided breast cancer while sparing organs at risk with increased ease of implementation.

  19. A comparative analysis of 3D conformal deep inspiratory–breath hold and free-breathing intensity-modulated radiation therapy for left-sided breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Reardon, Kelli A.; Read, Paul W.; Morris, Monica M.; Reardon, Michael A.; Geesey, Constance; Wijesooriya, Krishni

    2013-07-01

    Patients undergoing radiation for left-sided breast cancer have increased rates of coronary artery disease. Free-breathing intensity-modulated radiation therapy (FB-IMRT) and 3-dimensional conformal deep inspiratory–breath hold (3D-DIBH) reduce cardiac irradiation. The purpose of this study is to compare the dose to organs at risk in FB-IMRT vs 3D-DIBH for patients with left-sided breast cancer. Ten patients with left-sided breast cancer had 2 computed tomography scans: free breathing and voluntary DIBH. Optimization of the IMRT plan was performed on the free-breathing scan using 6 noncoplanar tangential beams. The 3D-DIBH plan was optimized on the DIBH scan and used standard tangents. Mean volumes of the heart, the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), the total lung, and the right breast receiving 5% to 95% (5% increments) of the prescription dose were calculated. Mean volumes of the heart and the LAD were lower (p<0.05) in 3D-DIBH for volumes receiving 5% to 80% of the prescription dose for the heart and 5% for the LAD. Mean dose to the LAD and heart were lower in 3D-DIBH (p≤0.01). Mean volumes of the total lung were lower in FB-IMRT for dose levels 20% to 75% (p<0.05), but mean dose was not different. Mean volumes of the right breast were not different for any dose; however, mean dose was lower for 3D-DIBH (p = 0.04). 3D-DIBH is an alternative approach to FB-IMRT that provides a clinically equivalent treatment for patients with left-sided breast cancer while sparing organs at risk with increased ease of implementation.

  20. Design of a distributed radiator target for inertial fusion driven from two sides with heavy ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Tabak, M.; Callahan-Miller, D.

    1997-11-10

    We describe the status of a distributed radiator heavy ion target design. In integrated calculations this target ignited and produced 390-430 MJ of yieldwhen driven with 5.8-6.5 MJ of 3-4 GeV Pb ions. The target has cylindrical symmetry with disk endplates. The ions uniformly illuminate these endplates in a 5mm radius spot. We discuss the considerations which led to this design together with some previously unused design features: low density hohlraum walls in approximate pressure balance with internal low-Z fill materials, radiationsymmetry determined by the position of the radiator materials and particle ranges, and early time pressure symmetry possibly influenced by radiation shims. We discuss how this target scales to lower input energy or to lower beam power. Variant designs with more realistic beam focusing strategies are also discussed. We show the tradeoffs required for targets which accept higher particle energies.

  1. 21 CFR 200.50 - Ophthalmic preparations and dispensers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ophthalmic preparations and dispensers. 200.50... preparations and dispensers. (a)(1) Informed medical opinion is in agreement that all preparations offered or intended for ophthalmic use, including preparations for cleansing the eyes, should be sterile. It...

  2. 21 CFR 200.50 - Ophthalmic preparations and dispensers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic preparations and dispensers. 200.50... preparations and dispensers. (a)(1) Informed medical opinion is in agreement that all preparations offered or intended for ophthalmic use, including preparations for cleansing the eyes, should be sterile. It...

  3. 21 CFR 200.50 - Ophthalmic preparations and dispensers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ophthalmic preparations and dispensers. 200.50... preparations and dispensers. (a)(1) Informed medical opinion is in agreement that all preparations offered or intended for ophthalmic use, including preparations for cleansing the eyes, should be sterile. It...

  4. 21 CFR 200.50 - Ophthalmic preparations and dispensers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ophthalmic preparations and dispensers. 200.50... preparations and dispensers. (a)(1) Informed medical opinion is in agreement that all preparations offered or intended for ophthalmic use, including preparations for cleansing the eyes, should be sterile. It...

  5. 21 CFR 524.1200a - Kanamycin ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Kanamycin ophthalmic ointment. 524.1200a Section... § 524.1200a Kanamycin ophthalmic ointment. (a) Specifications. The drug, which is in a suitable and harmless ointment base, contains 3.5 milligrams of kanamycin activity (as the sulfate) per gram of...

  6. 21 CFR 524.1200a - Kanamycin ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Kanamycin ophthalmic ointment. 524.1200a Section... § 524.1200a Kanamycin ophthalmic ointment. (a) Specifications. The drug, which is in a suitable and harmless ointment base, contains 3.5 milligrams of kanamycin activity (as the sulfate) per gram of...

  7. 21 CFR 524.1200b - Kanamycin ophthalmic aqueous solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Kanamycin ophthalmic aqueous solution. 524.1200b... § 524.1200b Kanamycin ophthalmic aqueous solution. (a) Specifications. The drug, which is in an aqueous... kanamycin activity (as the sulfate) per milliliter of solution. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000856 in §...

  8. 21 CFR 524.1200b - Kanamycin ophthalmic aqueous solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Kanamycin ophthalmic aqueous solution. 524.1200b... § 524.1200b Kanamycin ophthalmic aqueous solution. (a) Specifications. The drug, which is in an aqueous... kanamycin activity (as the sulfate) per milliliter of solution. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000856 in §...

  9. 21 CFR 524.1200a - Kanamycin ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Kanamycin ophthalmic ointment. 524.1200a Section... § 524.1200a Kanamycin ophthalmic ointment. (a) Specifications. The drug, which is in a suitable and harmless ointment base, contains 3.5 milligrams of kanamycin activity (as the sulfate) per gram of...

  10. 21 CFR 524.1200a - Kanamycin ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Kanamycin ophthalmic ointment. 524.1200a Section... § 524.1200a Kanamycin ophthalmic ointment. (a) Specifications. The drug, which is in a suitable and harmless ointment base, contains 3.5 milligrams of kanamycin activity (as the sulfate) per gram of...

  11. 21 CFR 524.1200b - Kanamycin ophthalmic aqueous solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Kanamycin ophthalmic aqueous solution. 524.1200b... § 524.1200b Kanamycin ophthalmic aqueous solution. (a) Specifications. The drug, which is in an aqueous... kanamycin activity (as the sulfate) per milliliter of solution. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000856 in §...

  12. 21 CFR 524.1200b - Kanamycin ophthalmic aqueous solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Kanamycin ophthalmic aqueous solution. 524.1200b... § 524.1200b Kanamycin ophthalmic aqueous solution. (a) Specifications. The drug, which is in an aqueous... kanamycin activity (as the sulfate) per milliliter of solution. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000856 in §...

  13. 21 CFR 886.4350 - Manual ophthalmic surgical instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manual ophthalmic surgical instrument. 886.4350... instrument. (a) Identification. A manual ophthalmic surgical instrument is a nonpowered, handheld device... trephine. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the...

  14. Ophthalmic contributions of Raja Serfoji II (1798–1832)

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Jyotirmay; Badrinath, Vasanthi; Badrinath, Sengamedu S

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate and describe the ophthalmic contribution of Raja Serfoji II (1798-1832). Materials and Method: A team of 2 ophthalmologists, director of laboratory services, one archeologist and a photographer visited Sarasvathi Mahal Library, March 2004. Photographs of ophthalmic records were taken and analysed. An interview of the present prince, S Babaji Rajah Bhonsle was taken. Ophthalmologic case sheets of 44 patients, 18 pictures were found. Results: Forty-four patient's ophthalmic records were found. Six records were written in Modi script, 38 were written in English and 18 drawings were found. Conclusion: In Thanjavur, King Serfoji II carried out methodical ophthalmic practices between 1798 and 1832. Both European and Indian medicines were used. Cataract Surgery was performed. Detailed ophthalmic records were maintained. The only evidence of Serfoji's amazing contribution to medicine lies in 50 charts and manuscripts. PMID:22824599

  15. Occult glove perforation during ophthalmic surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Apt, L; Miller, K M

    1992-01-01

    We examined the latex surgical gloves used by 56 primary surgeons in 454 ophthalmic surgical procedures performed over a 7-month period. Of five techniques used to detect pinholes, air inflation with water submersion and compression was found to be the most sensitive, yielding a 6.80% prevalence in control glove pairs and a 21.8% prevalence in postoperative study glove pairs, for a 15.0% incidence of surgically induced perforations (P = 0.000459). The lowest postoperative perforation rate was 11.4% for cataract and intraocular lens surgery, and the highest was 41.7% for oculoplastic procedures. Factors that correlated significantly with the presence of glove perforations as determined by multiple logistic regression analysis were oculoplastic and pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus surgical procedures, surgeon's status as a fellow in training, operating time, and glove size. The thumb and index finger of the nondominant hand contained the largest numbers of pinholes. These data suggest strategies for reducing the risk of cross-infection during ophthalmic surgery. PMID:1494836

  16. Programmable diffractive lens for ophthalmic application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millán, María S.; Pérez-Cabré, Elisabet; Romero, Lenny A.; Ramírez, Natalia

    2014-06-01

    Pixelated liquid crystal displays have been widely used as spatial light modulators to implement programmable diffractive optical elements, particularly diffractive lenses. Many different applications of such components have been developed in information optics and optical processors that take advantage of their properties of great flexibility, easy and fast refreshment, and multiplexing capability in comparison with equivalent conventional refractive lenses. We explore the application of programmable diffractive lenses displayed on the pixelated screen of a liquid crystal on silicon spatial light modulator to ophthalmic optics. In particular, we consider the use of programmable diffractive lenses for the visual compensation of refractive errors (myopia, hypermetropia, astigmatism) and presbyopia. The principles of compensation are described and sketched using geometrical optics and paraxial ray tracing. For the proof of concept, a series of experiments with artificial eye in optical bench are conducted. We analyze the compensation precision in terms of optical power and compare the results with those obtained by means of conventional ophthalmic lenses. Practical considerations oriented to feasible applications are provided.

  17. Pulsed UV laser technologies for ophthalmic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razhev, A. M.; Chernykh, V. V.; Bagayev, S. N.; Churkin, D. S.; Kargapol’tsev, E. S.; Iskakov, I. A.; Ermakova, O. V.

    2017-01-01

    The paper provides an overview of the results of multiyear joint researches of team of collaborators of Institute of Laser Physics SB RAS together with NF IRTC “Eye Microsurgery” for the period from 1988 to the present, in which were first proposed and experimentally realized laser medical technologies for correction of refractive errors of known today as LASIK, the treatment of ophthalmic herpes and open-angle glaucoma. It is proposed to carry out operations for the correction of refractive errors the use of UV excimer KrCl laser with a wavelength of 222 nm. The same laser emission is the most suitable for the treatment of ophthalmic herpes, because it has a high clinical effect, combined with many years of absence of recrudescence. A minimally invasive technique of glaucoma operations using excimer XeCl laser (λ=308 nm) is developed. Its wavelength allows perform all stages of glaucoma operations, while the laser head itself has high stability and lifetime, will significantly reduce operating costs, compared with other types of lasers.

  18. 21 CFR 886.1430 - Ophthalmic contact lens radius measuring device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ophthalmic contact lens radius measuring device... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1430 Ophthalmic contact lens radius measuring device. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic contact lens radius measuring device...

  19. 21 CFR 886.1430 - Ophthalmic contact lens radius measuring device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ophthalmic contact lens radius measuring device... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1430 Ophthalmic contact lens radius measuring device. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic contact lens radius measuring device...

  20. Use of azithromycin ophthalmic solution in the treatment of chronic mixed anterior blepharitis.

    PubMed

    John, Thomas; Shah, Ami A

    2008-01-01

    We tested the efficacy of azithromycin ophthalmic solution for the treatment of chronic mixed anterior blepharitis. The findings suggest that patients with chronic mixed anterior blepharitis can be more effectively treated with azithromycin ophthalmic solution than erythromycin ophthalmic ointment. Patients treated with azithromycin ophthalmic solution show an extraordinary clinical response with shorter treatment duration.

  1. 21 CFR 886.1430 - Ophthalmic contact lens radius measuring device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ophthalmic contact lens radius measuring device... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1430 Ophthalmic contact lens radius measuring device. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic contact lens radius measuring device...

  2. 21 CFR 886.1430 - Ophthalmic contact lens radius measuring device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ophthalmic contact lens radius measuring device... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1430 Ophthalmic contact lens radius measuring device. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic contact lens radius measuring device...

  3. THE CHEMICAL AND RADIATION RESISTANCE OF POLYPHENYLENE SULFIIDE AS ENCOUNTERED IN THE MODULAR CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    Fondeur, F.; Herman, D.; Poirier, M.; Fink, S.

    2011-06-30

    Polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) is a semicrystalline polymer with excellent engineering plastic properties and suitable processing temperatures. PPS can also be made containing branches (using a trifunctional monomer) and with crosslinked microstructure (when curing the monomer at high temperature in the presence of oxygen). PPS is made from the condensation reaction between para-dichlorobenzene and sodium sulfide with the assistance of a catalyst (to lower the activation barrier). The synthesis conditions for making PPS has evolved since its invention in the 1960's to the optimal conditions developed by the Philips Corporation in the 1970's. The resulting polymer consists of chemically stable molecular moieties such as benzene rings and ether like sulfur linkages between the aromatic rings. Polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) is extremely resistant to gamma irradiation, caustic solution, and dilute nitric acid. PPS is the material of construction for the coalescers used in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). After applying the equivalent of 3.3 E8 rad (330 Mrad), or the equivalent of 11 years of gamma irradiation (assuming a stripping solution concentration of 7.5 Ci/gal), and several months of exposures to 3M caustic solution and caustic salt simulant, no dimensional changes nor chemical changes were detected in PPS whether the PPS was in fiber form or in a composite with E-glass fibers. However, PPS acts as a media for heterogeneous nucleation. In particular, PPS appears to favor aluminosilicate formation in saturated solutions of aluminum and silicon in caustic environments. Parallel testing, in progress, is examining the stability of PPS when exposed to the new solvent formulation under development for MCU. Preliminary data, after two months of exposure, demonstrates PPS is stable to the new solvent.

  4. Side-effects of a bad attitude: How GNSS spacecraft orientation errors affect solar radiation pressure modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dilssner, Florian; Springer, Tim; Schönemann, Erik; Zandbergen, Rene; Enderle, Werner

    2015-04-01

    Solar radiation pressure (SRP) is the largest non-gravitational perturbation for Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) satellites, and can therefore have substantial impact on their orbital dynamics. Various SRP force models have been developed over the past 30 years for the purpose of precise orbit determination. They all rely upon the assumption that the satellites continuously maintain a Sun-Nadir pointing attitude with the navigation antenna boresight (body-fixed z-axis) pointing towards Earth center, and the solar panel rotation axis (body-fixed y-axis) being normal to the Sun direction. However, in reality, this is not perfectly the case. Reasons for a non-nominal spacecraft attitude may be eclipse maneuvers, commanded attitude biases and Sun/horizon sensor measurement errors, for example due to mounting misalignment or incorrectly calibrated sensor electronics. In this work the effect of GNSS spacecraft orientation errors on SRP modelling is investigated. Simplified mathematical functions describing the SRP force acting on the solar arrays in the presence of yaw-, pitch- and roll-biases are derived. Special attention is paid to the yaw-bias and its relationship to the SRP dynamics, particular in direction of the spacecraft y-axis ("y-bias force"). Analytical and experimental results gathered from orbit and attitude analyses of GPS Block II/IIA/IIF satellites demonstrate how sensitive the SRP coefficients are to changes in yaw.

  5. Ophthalmic manifestations of atypical IgD multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Edmunds, Matthew R; Cikatricis, Peter; Mukherji, Subhanjan; Bowyer, Jeremy D

    2012-07-19

    A previously healthy 32-year-old Caucasian female presented with sudden-onset horizontal diplopia following a paroxysm of coughing. She had recently sustained a pubic ramus fracture during an innocuous fall and had also noted a firm lump developing at the right side of her forehead. On examination, she had a right fronto-temporal mass. Visual acuities were 6/6 bilaterally. There was reduced abduction of the right eye, bilateral white, granular corneal opacities and evidence of bilateral optic disc swelling. Haematological investigations revealed normocytic anaemia, hypercalcaemia and raised erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). CT showed lytic foci throughout the skull, ribs, scapulae, spine, pelvis and upper femora. Serum protein electrophoresis revealed immunoglobulin D (IgD)-kappa paraproteinaemia; urine electrophoresis showed free light chain kappa and bone marrow biopsy demonstrated 87% plasma cells. A diagnosis of IgD multiple myeloma was made, with subsequent chemotherapeutic treatment and eventual autologous stem cell transplant resulting in resolution of neuro-ophthalmic manifestations and prolonged disease remission.

  6. Neuro-Ophthalmic Syndromes and Processing Speed in Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Costa, Silvana L; Gonçalves, Óscar F; Chiaravalloti, Nancy D; DeLuca, John; Almeida, Jorge

    2016-03-01

    The impact of prior neuro-ophthalmic syndromes on the performance on vision-based neuropsychological tasks in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) is unknown. Two groups of MS participants, one with (Msos+) and the other without (Msos-), a history of neuro-ophthalmic syndromes, underwent neuropsychological assessment and were compared with healthy age- and education-matched controls (HC). Participants with Msos+ performed significantly worse on the symbol digit modalities test than the Msos- (P < 0.03) and the HC groups (P < 0.01) and coding (P < 0.01). A clinical history of neuro-ophthalmic syndromes is associated with reduced performance on visual processing speed tasks.

  7. [Oclusion of upper ophthalmic vein--a case report].

    PubMed

    Kácerik, M; Alexík, M; Lipková, B

    2009-07-01

    Thrombosis of upper ophthalmic vein is both rare and serious pathologic event. Authors present a case of isolated unilateral upper ophthalmic vein thrombosis in 76-year-old woman, who despite treatment ended with amaurosis and secondary neovascular glaucoma. In differential diagnosis authors focused on searching for inflammatory process of orbit with adjacent structures as well as local and general causes leading to venous thrombosis. None of these were proven; it was a rare case of a patient with isolated upper ophthalmic vein thrombosis.

  8. Radiation Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Radiation Therapy KidsHealth > For Teens > Radiation Therapy A A ... how to cope with side effects. What Is Radiation Therapy? Cancer is a disease that causes cells ...

  9. Coherent methods for measuring ophthalmic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rottenkolber, Matthias; Podbielska, Halina

    1996-01-01

    Topographic analysis of the ophthalmic surfaces is an important task. Especially recently, when a laser assisted refractive surgery becomes more and more popular in a daily clinical praxis. Ophthalmologists need to know exact corneal parameters as a basis for proper operational approach, as well as for monitoring of the post-operative process. The fitting of the contact lenses can be more accurate when topography of both, cornea and contacts, can be precisely measured. We develop new coherent methods for measuring of the topography of curved optical surfaces. One of the proposed techniques is based on interferometry with a special distance measurement unit and spatial phase shifting interferogram evaluation. The other one uses deflectometry with spatial carrier frequency. The sensitivity of this method is adjustable and thus it closes the gap between the white light and interferometric measuring methods. The techniques proposed here can be suitable for measurement of the contact lenses or corneal surface.

  10. Numerical Modeling of Ophthalmic Response to Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, E. S.; Myers, J. G.; Mulugeta, L.; Vera, J.; Raykin, J.; Feola, A.; Gleason, R.; Samuels, B.; Ethier, C. R.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate ophthalmic changes in spaceflight, we would like to predict the impact of blood dysregulation and elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) on Intraocular Pressure (IOP). Unlike other physiological systems, there are very few lumped parameter models of the eye. The eye model described here is novel in its inclusion of the human choroid and retrobulbar subarachnoid space (rSAS), which are key elements in investigating the impact of increased ICP and ocular blood volume. Some ingenuity was required in modeling the blood and rSAS compartments due to the lack of quantitative data on essential hydrodynamic quantities, such as net choroidal volume and blood flowrate, inlet and exit pressures, and material properties, such as compliances between compartments.

  11. A Biorepository for Ophthalmic Surgical Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Skeie, Jessica M.; Tsang, Stephen H.; Zande, Ryan Vande; Fickbohm, Macy M.; Shah, Shaival S.; Vallone, John G.; Mahajan, Vinit B.

    2014-01-01

    Biorepositories are collections of surgically obtained human tissues for current and future investigations of disease mechanisms, therapeutics, and diagnostics. In ophthalmology, a critical challenge is how to interface the operating room with the laboratory. To attain standards required for basic research, clinical and research teams must cooperate to collect, annotate, and store specimens that yield consistent results required for advanced molecular techniques. We developed an efficient platform for obtaining vitreous and other eye tissues from the operating room and transferring them to the lab. The platform includes a mobile lab cart for on-site tissue processing, a multi-user, web-based database for point-of-care phenotypic capture, and an integrated data tracking system for long-term storage. These biorepository instruments have proven essential for our studies in ophthalmic disease proteomics. This system can be implemented in other operating rooms and laboratories for a variety of biological tissues. PMID:24115637

  12. Ophthalmic microsurgical robot and surgical simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, Ian W.; Jones, Lynette; Doukoglou, Tilemachos; Lafontaine, Serge; Hunter, Peter J.; Sagar, Mark

    1995-12-01

    A teleoperated microsurgical robot has been developed together with a virtual environment for microsurgery on the eye. Visual and mechanical information is relayed via bidirectional pathways between the slave and master of the microsurgical robot. The system permits surgeons to operate in one of three alternative modes: on real tissue, on physically simulated tissue in a mannequin, or on a computer based physical model contained within the ophthalmic virtual environment. In all three modalities, forces generated during tissue manipulation (i.e. resecting, probing) are fed back to the surgeon via a force reflecting interface to give the haptic sensations (i.e. `feel') appropriate to the actions being performed. The microsurgical robot has been designed so that the master and slave systems can be in physically separate environments which permits remote surgery to be performed. The system attempts to create an immersive environment for the operator by including not only visual and haptic feedback, but also auditory, cutaneous, and, ultimately, olfactory sensations.

  13. 21 CFR 200.50 - Ophthalmic preparations and dispensers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... preparations offered or intended for ophthalmic use that are not sterile may be regarded as adulterated within... be deemed misbranded within the meaning of section 502(j) of the act. This ruling is extended...

  14. 21 CFR 524.1982 - Proparacaine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Conditions of use. (1) The drug is indicated for use as a topical ophthalmic anesthetic in animals. It is used as an anesthetic in cauterization of corneal ulcers, removal of foreign bodies and sutures...

  15. 21 CFR 524.1982 - Proparacaine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Conditions of use. (1) The drug is indicated for use as a topical ophthalmic anesthetic in animals. It is used as an anesthetic in cauterization of corneal ulcers, removal of foreign bodies and sutures...

  16. 21 CFR 524.1982 - Proparacaine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Conditions of use. (1) The drug is indicated for use as a topical ophthalmic anesthetic in animals. It is used as an anesthetic in cauterization of corneal ulcers, removal of foreign bodies and sutures...

  17. 21 CFR 524.1982 - Proparacaine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Conditions of use. (1) The drug is indicated for use as a topical ophthalmic anesthetic in animals. It is used as an anesthetic in cauterization of corneal ulcers, removal of foreign bodies and sutures...

  18. Dosimetric comparison of hybrid volumetric-modulated arc therapy, volumetric-modulated arc therapy, and intensity-modulated radiation therapy for left-sided early breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jia-Fu; Yeh, Dah-Cherng; Yeh, Hui-Ling; Chang, Chen-Fa; Lin, Jin-Ching

    2015-10-01

    To compare the dosimetric performance of 3 different treatment techniques: hybrid volumetric-modulated arc therapy (hybrid-VMAT), pure-VMAT, and fixed-field intensity-modulated radiation therapy (F-IMRT) for whole-breast irradiation of left-sided early breast cancer. The hybrid-VMAT treatment technique and 2 other treatment techniques—pure-VMAT and F-IMRT—were compared retrospectively in 10 patients with left-sided early breast cancer. The treatment plans of these patients were replanned using the same contours based on the original computed tomography (CT) data sets. Dosimetric parameters were calculated to evaluate plan quality. Total monitor units (MUs) and delivery time were also recorded and evaluated. The hybrid-VMAT plan generated the best results in dose coverage of the target and the dose uniformity inside the target (p < 0.0001 for conformal index [CI]; p = 0.0002 for homogeneity index [HI] of planning target volume [PTV]{sub 50.4} {sub Gy} and p < 0.0001 for HI of PTV{sub 62} {sub Gy}). Volumes of ipsilateral lung irradiated to doses of 20 Gy (V{sub 20} {sub Gy}) and 5 Gy (V{sub 5} {sub Gy}) by the hybrid-VMAT plan were significantly less than those of the F-IMRT and the pure-VMAT plans. The volume of ipsilateral lung irradiated to a dose of 5 Gy was significantly less using the hybrid-VMAT plan than that using the F-IMRT or the pure-VMAT plan. The total mean MUs for the hybrid-VMAT plan were significantly less than those for the F-IMRT or the pure-VMAT plan. The mean machine delivery time was 3.23 ± 0.29 minutes for the hybrid-VMAT plans, which is longer than that for the pure-VMAT plans but shorter than that for the F-IMRT plans. The hybrid-VMAT plan is feasible for whole-breast irradiation of left-sided early breast cancer.

  19. Future of ophthalmic anti-infective therapy and the role of moxifloxacin ophthalmic solution 0.5% (VIGAMOX).

    PubMed

    Schlech, Barry A; Blondeau, Joseph

    2005-11-01

    The vintage antibiotics that were available in the 1950s-1980s were sometimes toxic, had limited spectra, and were bacteriostatic agents, and they have been replaced by significantly broader-spectrum therapies. We ask more of our future antibiotic products for ophthalmology: they must be 1) broad spectrum, 2) convenient to use, 3) useful prophylactically, 4) effective therapeutically, 5) benzalkonium chloride-free, 6) comfortable, and 7) nontoxic. The emergence of antibiotic resistance has focused us on more potent agents effective against resistant strains of bacteria. Fluoroquinolones have become a dominant family of ophthalmic antibiotics. But even the older fluoroquinolones (e.g., ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin) have lost much of their effectiveness against some important ocular isolates. Considering all of the characteristics for an ideal ophthalmic antibiotic product available today, moxifloxacin ophthalmic solution 0.5% represents a primary antibiotic product of choice for treating and preventing ophthalmic infections.

  20. Exploring Leptin Antagonism in Ophthalmic Cell Models

    PubMed Central

    Coroniti, Roberta; Otvos, Laszlo; Surmacz, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Background Emerging evidence suggests that angiogenic and pro-inflammatory cytokine leptin might be implicated in ocular neovascularization. However, the potential of inhibiting leptin function in ophthalmic cells has never been explored. Here we assessed mitogenic, angiogenic, and signaling leptin activities in retinal and corneal endothelial cells and examined the capability of a specific leptin receptor (ObR) antagonist, Allo-aca, to inhibit these functions. Methods and Results The experiments were carried out in monkey retinal (RF/6A) and bovine corneal (BCE) endothelial cells. Leptin at 50-250 ng/mL stimulated the growth of both cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. The maximal mitogenic response (35±7 and 27±3% in RF6A and BCE cells, respectively) was noted at 24 h of 250 ng/mL leptin treatments. Leptin-dependent proliferation was reduced to base levels with 10 and 100 nM Allo-aca in BCE and RF6A cells, respectively. In both cell lines, leptin promoted angiogenic responses, with the maximal increase in tube formation (163±10 and 133±8% in RF6A and BCE cultures, respectively) observed under a 250 ng/mL leptin treatment for 3 h. Furthermore, in both cell lines 250 ng/mL leptin modulated the activity or expression of several signaling molecules involved in proliferation, inflammatory activity and angiogenesis, such as STAT3, Akt, and ERK1/2, COX2, and NFκB. In both cell lines, leptin-induced angiogenic and signaling responses were significantly inhibited with 100 nM Allo-aca. We also found that leptin increased its own mRNA and protein expression in both cell lines, and this autocrine effect was abolished by 100-250 nM Allo-aca. Conclusions Our data provide new insights into the role of leptin in ocular endothelial cells and represent the first original report on targeting ObR in ophthalmic cell models. PMID:24098500

  1. Surfactant-laden soft contact lenses for extended delivery of ophthalmic drugs.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Yash; Thomas, Justin C; Tan, Grace; John, Vijay T; Chauhan, Anuj

    2009-02-01

    Eye drops are inefficient means of delivering ophthalmic drugs because of limited bioavailability and these can cause significant side effects due to systemic uptake of the drug. The bioavailability for ophthalmic drugs can be increased significantly by using contact lenses. This study focuses on the development of surfactant-laden poly-hydroxy ethyl methacrylate (p-HEMA) contact lenses that can release Cyclosporine A (CyA) at a controlled rate for extended periods of time. We focus on various Brij surfactants to investigate the effects of chain length and the presence of an unsaturated group on the drug release dynamics and partitioning inside the surfactant domains inside the gel. The gels were imaged by cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) to obtain direct evidence of the presence of surfactant aggregates in the gel, and to investigate the detailed microstructure for different surfactants. The images show a distribution of nano pores inside the surfactant-laden hydrogels which we speculate are regions of surfactant aggregates, possibly vesicles that have a high affinity for the hydrophobic drug molecule. The gels are further characterized by studying their mechanical and physical properties such as transparency, surface contact angle and equilibrium water content to determine their suitability as extended wear contact lenses. Results show that Brij surfactant-laden p-HEMA gels provide extended release of CyA, and possess suitable mechanical and optical properties for contact lens applications. The gels are not as effective for extended release of two other hydrophobic ophthalmic drugs, dexamethasone (DMS) and dexamethasone 21 acetate (DMSA) because of insufficient partitioning inside the surfactant aggregates.

  2. Ophthalmic microsurgical robot and associated virtual environment.

    PubMed

    Hunter, I W; Jones, L A; Sagar, M A; Lafontaine, S R; Hunter, P J

    1995-03-01

    An ophthalmic virtual environment has been developed as part of a teleoperated microsurgical robot built to perform surgery on the eye. The virtual environment is unique in that it incorporates a detailed continuum model of the anatomical structures of the eye, its mechanics and optical properties, together with a less detailed geometric-mechanical model of the face. In addition to providing a realistic visual display of the eye being operated on, the virtual environment simulates tissue properties during manipulation and cutting and the forces involved are determined by solving a mechanical finite element model of the tissue. These forces are then fed back to the operator via a force reflecting master and so the surgeon can experience both the visual and mechanical sensations associated with performing surgery. The virtual environment can be used to enhance the images produced by the camera on the microsurgical slave robot during surgery and as a surgical simulator in which it replaces these images with computer graphics generated from the eye model.

  3. New eye phantom for ophthalmic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogli, Gessica; Orsi, Gianni; De Maria, Carmelo; Montemurro, Francesca; Palla, Michele; Rizzo, Stanislao; Vozzi, Giovanni

    2014-06-01

    In this work, we designed and realized a new phantom able to mimic the principal mechanical, rheological, and physical cues of the human eye and that can be used as a common benchmark to validate new surgical procedures, innovative vitrectomes, and as a training system for surgeons. This phantom, in particular its synthetic humor vitreous, had the aim of reproducing diffusion properties of the natural eye and can be used as a system to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of drugs and optimization of their dose, limiting animal experiments. The eye phantom was built layer-by-layer starting from the sclera up to the retina, using low cost and easy to process polymers. The validation of the phantom was carried out by mechanical characterization of each layer, by diffusion test with commercial drugs into a purposely developed apparatus, and finally by a team of ophthalmic surgeons. Experiments demonstrated that polycaprolactone, polydimethylsiloxane, and gelatin, properly prepared, are the best materials to mimic the mechanical properties of sclera, choroid, and retina, respectively. A polyvinyl alcohol-gelatin polymeric system is the best for mimicking the viscosity of the human humor vitreous, even if the bevacizumab half-life is lower than in the human eye.

  4. Walking simulator for evaluation of ophthalmic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barabas, James; Woods, Russell L.; Peli, Eli

    2005-03-01

    Simulating mobility tasks in a virtual environment reduces risk for research subjects, and allows for improved experimental control and measurement. We are currently using a simulated shopping mall environment (where subjects walk on a treadmill in front of a large projected video display) to evaluate a number of ophthalmic devices developed at the Schepens Eye Research Institute for people with vision impairment, particularly visual field defects. We have conducted experiments to study subject's perception of "safe passing distance" when walking towards stationary obstacles. The subject's binary responses about potential collisions are analyzed by fitting a psychometric function, which gives an estimate of the subject's perceived safe passing distance, and the variability of subject responses. The system also enables simulations of visual field defects using head and eye tracking, enabling better understanding of the impact of visual field loss. Technical infrastructure for our simulated walking environment includes a custom eye and head tracking system, a gait feedback system to adjust treadmill speed, and a handheld 3-D pointing device. Images are generated by a graphics workstation, which contains a model with photographs of storefronts from an actual shopping mall, where concurrent validation experiments are being conducted.

  5. Patient education preferences in ophthalmic care

    PubMed Central

    Rosdahl, Jullia A; Swamy, Lakshmi; Stinnett, Sandra; Muir, Kelly W

    2014-01-01

    Background The learning preferences of ophthalmology patients were examined. Methods Results from a voluntary survey of ophthalmology patients were analyzed for education preferences and for correlation with race, age, and ophthalmic topic. Results To learn about eye disease, patients preferred one-on-one sessions with providers as well as printed materials and websites recommended by providers. Patients currently learning from the provider were older (average age 59 years), and patients learning from the Internet (average age 49 years) and family and friends (average age 51 years) were younger. Patients interested in cataracts, glaucoma, macular degeneration, and dry eye were older; patients interested in double vision and glasses were younger. There were racial differences regarding topic preferences, with Black patients most interested in glaucoma (46%), diabetic retinopathy (31%), and cataracts (28%) and White patients most interested in cataracts (22%), glaucoma (22%), and macular degeneration (19%). Conclusion Most ophthalmology patients preferred personalized education: one-on-one with their provider or a health educator and materials (printed and electronic) recommended by their provider. Age-related topics were more popular with older patients, and diseases with racial risk factors were more popular with high risk racial groups. PMID:24812493

  6. New eye phantom for ophthalmic surgery.

    PubMed

    Fogli, Gessica; Orsi, Gianni; De Maria, Carmelo; Montemurro, Francesca; Palla, Michele; Rizzo, Stanislao; Vozzi, Giovanni

    2014-06-01

    In this work, we designed and realized a new phantom able to mimic the principal mechanical, rheological, and physical cues of the human eye and that can be used as a common benchmark to validate new surgical procedures, innovative vitrectomes, and as a training system for surgeons. This phantom, in particular its synthetic humor vitreous, had the aim of reproducing diffusion properties of the natural eye and can be used as a system to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of drugs and optimization of their dose, limiting animal experiments. The eye phantom was built layer-by-layer starting from the sclera up to the retina, using low cost and easy to process polymers. The validation of the phantom was carried out by mechanical characterization of each layer, by diffusion test with commercial drugs into a purposely developed apparatus, and finally by a team of ophthalmic surgeons. Experiments demonstrated that polycaprolactone, polydimethylsiloxane, and gelatin, properly prepared, are the best materials to mimic the mechanical properties of sclera, choroid, and retina, respectively. A polyvinyl alcohol-gelatin polymeric system is the best for mimicking the viscosity of the human humor vitreous, even if the bevacizumab half-life is lower than in the human eye.

  7. TU-EF-304-12: Proton Radiation Therapy for Left-Sided Breast Cancer: LET and RBE Considerations for Cardiac Toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Giantsoudi, D; Jee, K; MacDonald, S; Paganetti, H; Rose, B

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Increased risk of coronary artery disease has been documented for patients treated with radiation for left-sided breast cancer. Proton therapy (PRT) has been shown to significantly decrease cardiac irradiation, however variations in relative biological effectiveness (RBE) have been ignored so far. In this study we evaluate the impact of accounting for RBE variations on sensitive structures located within high linear energy transfer (LET) areas (distal end) of the proton treatment fields, for this treatment site. Methods: Three patients treated in our institution with PRT for left-sided breast cancer were selected. All patients underwent reconstructive surgery after mastectomy and treated to a total dose of 50.4Gy with beam(s) vertical to the chest wall. Dose and LET distributions were calculated using Monte Carlo (MC-TOPAS - TOol for PArticle Simulation). The LET-based, variable-RBE-weighted dose was compared to the analytical calculation algorithm (ACA) and MC dose distributions for a constant RBE of 1.1, based on volume histograms and mean values for the target, heart and left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). Results: Assuming a constant RBE and compared to the ACA dose, MC predicted lower mean target and heart doses by 0.5% to 2.7% of the prescription dose. For variable RBE, plan evaluation showed increased mean target dose by up to 5%. Mean variable-RBE-weighted doses for the LAD ranged from 2.7 to 5.9Gy(RBE) among patients increased by 41%–64.2% compared to constant RBE ACA calculation (absolute dose: 1.7–3.9Gy(RBE)). Smaller increase in mean heart doses was noticed. Conclusion: ACA overestimates the target mean dose by up to 2.7%. However, disregarding variations in RBE may lead to significant underestimation of the dose to sensitive structures at the distal end of the proton treatment field and could thus impact outcome modeling for cardiac toxicities after proton therapy. These results are subject to RBE model and parameter

  8. Simultaneous-integrated boost intensity-modulated radiation therapy (SIB-IMRT) in the treatment of early-stage left-sided breast carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Singla, Rajanish; King, Stephanie C.; Albuquerque, Kevin . E-mail: kalbuqu@lumc.edu; Creech, Steve M.S.; Dogan, Nesrin

    2006-10-01

    We assessed the feasibility and impact of simultaneous-integrated boost intensity-modulated radiation therapy (SIB-IMRT) in the treatment of left breast carcinoma and compared target coverage and normal tissue doses with SIB-IMRT and 3-dimensional (3D) conformal RT using opposed tangential fields. For each of 10 patients with early-stage left-sided invasive breast carcinoma, 5 plans were generated; the first 4 were 3D conformal opposed tangential fields-2 with wedges, 2 with compensators and either photon or electron boost. A dose of 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions was prescribed to the left breast and an additional 16 Gy in 8 fractions to the lumpectomy bed. When compared to the tangential plans, SIB-IMRT maintained coverage (V{sub 95%}) to the left breast and lumpectomy bed without significantly increasing the left breast maximum dose. SIB-IMRT was able to reduce the lung mean dose, maximum dose, and the V{sub 20} by 55-104 cGy, 983-1298 cGy (p < 0.001), and 3.7-4.4%, respectively. In addition, SIB-IMRT reduced the maximum heart dose by 1032-1173 cGy and contralateral breast dose was increased (although p = NS). The mean and maximum dose to the unspecified tissues was also significantly reduced by 81-88 cGy and 516-942 cGy, respectively. SIB-IMRT resulted in a significant improvement in target dose conformality by up to 67%. Our findings that SIB-IMRT could improve dose conformality, reduce total treatment times, and reduce some of the normal structure doses presents it as an alternative technique for adjuvant breast radiotherapy; however this needs to be studied further in the clinic setting.

  9. Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Ophthalmic Medications: Relevant Allergens and Alternative Testing Methods.

    PubMed

    Grey, Katherine R; Warshaw, Erin M

    Allergic contact dermatitis is an important cause of periorbital dermatitis. Topical ophthalmic agents are relevant sensitizers. Contact dermatitis to ophthalmic medications can be challenging to diagnose and manage given the numerous possible offending agents, including both active and inactive ingredients. Furthermore, a substantial body of literature reports false-negative patch test results to ophthalmic agents. Subsequently, numerous alternative testing methods have been described. This review outlines the periorbital manifestations, causative agents, and alternative testing methods of allergic contact dermatitis to ophthalmic medications.

  10. Dose uniformity of loteprednol etabonate ophthalmic gel (0.5%) compared with branded and generic prednisolone acetate ophthalmic suspension (1%)

    PubMed Central

    Marlowe, Zora T; Davio, Stephen R

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Loteprednol etabonate (LE) ophthalmic gel 0.5% (Lotemax®) is a new polycarbophil-based, nonsettling topical ophthalmic formulation. The formulation is a semisolid gel at rest and a shear thinning fluid when expressed through a dropper tip. The present study was undertaken to determine how the nonsettling character of LE ophthalmic gel affects dose uniformity. Prednisolone acetate ophthalmic suspension 1% (Pred Forte®) and a generic prednisolone acetate suspension 1% were used as comparators. Methods Drug concentrations of LE ophthalmic gel, Pred Forte, and a generic prednisolone acetate suspension were determined following simulated dosing – consisting of 2 drops, expressed four times daily for 2 weeks, with bottles that were shaken or not shaken immediately prior to expressing the drops. Drug concentrations were determined using a reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method and reported as a percentage of the declared (labeled) concentration. Comparative kinetics of drug particle sedimentation were also determined for each formulation, using dispersion analysis under gravity. Results Mean drug concentrations in drops of all three formulations were within a few percentage points of the declared concentration when the bottles were shaken for 5 seconds prior to dispensing. Only LE ophthalmic gel showed consistent and on-target concentrations when the bottles were unshaken prior to dispensing, with a mean (standard deviation [SD]) percent declared concentration of 102% (1.92%) over the 2-week dosing regimen. Drug concentrations for the branded and generic prednisolone acetate suspensions following expression from unshaken bottles were highly variable (overall relative SDs of 16.8% and 20.3%, respectively), with mean concentrations for both falling significantly below the declared concentration for drops expressed at the beginning of the 2-week dosing regimen and significantly above the declared concentration for drops expressed

  11. Optical coherence tomography in ophthalmic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jay; Zhao, Yonghua; Kulkarni, Manish D.; Kirschbaum, Alan R.; Everett, Matthew J.; Harman, Jonathan W.; Pedersen, Per

    2003-07-01

    Image resolution, tissue penetration, and scan speed are among the most important parameters when designing an OCT system for ophthalmic use. Human retinal tissue is highly reflective in the near infrared spectrum range. A SLD at 820nm with 25nm FWHM spectral bandwidth provides 10μm coherence length in retinal tissue. Its appropriate power level, simplicity of use, high resolution, and relatively low cost, make the 820nm SLD the best choice light source for retinal OCT. A 1300nm SLD can penetrate deeper into the sclera tissue and since the 1300nm wavelength is highly absorbed in the vitreous, the ANSI laser safety standard allows higher maximum permissible power to the human eye. Higher scan speed can also be achieved. In this paper, we report two OCT systems that are designed specifically for retinal and anterior segment imaging of the human eye. Retinal OCT scans 400 A-scans per second, 2mm depth in tissue, and 10 μm image resolution with an 820nm SLD. Anterior segment OCT (AC-OCT) scans 2000 A-scans per second, 6mm depth in tissue, and 16μm image resolution with a 1300nm SLD. Benefits of suitable wavelength selection in scanning different tissue are clearly seen in the OCT images. Retinal OCT (OCT3) demonstrates significant improvement over the previous generation (OCT1/OCT2) from both a technical and cost point of view. AC-OCT performs 8 frames of 256 A-scans per second and is capable of imaging the human eye in vivo with minimum eye motion artifacts. It has potential use in refractive surgery, angle-closure glaucoma, and cataract surgery.

  12. 21 CFR 524.390 - Chloramphenicol ophthalmic and topical dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chloramphenicol ophthalmic and topical dosage... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.390 Chloramphenicol ophthalmic and topical dosage forms....

  13. 10 CFR 35.491 - Training for ophthalmic use of strontium-90.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Training for ophthalmic use of strontium-90. 35.491... § 35.491 Training for ophthalmic use of strontium-90. Except as provided in § 35.57, the licensee shall require the authorized user of strontium-90 for ophthalmic radiotherapy to be a physician who— (a) Is...

  14. 10 CFR 35.491 - Training for ophthalmic use of strontium-90.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Training for ophthalmic use of strontium-90. 35.491... § 35.491 Training for ophthalmic use of strontium-90. Except as provided in § 35.57, the licensee shall require the authorized user of strontium-90 for ophthalmic radiotherapy to be a physician who— (a) Is...

  15. 10 CFR 35.491 - Training for ophthalmic use of strontium-90.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Training for ophthalmic use of strontium-90. 35.491... § 35.491 Training for ophthalmic use of strontium-90. Except as provided in § 35.57, the licensee shall require the authorized user of strontium-90 for ophthalmic radiotherapy to be a physician who— (a) Is...

  16. 10 CFR 35.491 - Training for ophthalmic use of strontium-90.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Training for ophthalmic use of strontium-90. 35.491... § 35.491 Training for ophthalmic use of strontium-90. Except as provided in § 35.57, the licensee shall require the authorized user of strontium-90 for ophthalmic radiotherapy to be a physician who— (a) Is...

  17. 10 CFR 35.491 - Training for ophthalmic use of strontium-90.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Training for ophthalmic use of strontium-90. 35.491... § 35.491 Training for ophthalmic use of strontium-90. Except as provided in § 35.57, the licensee shall require the authorized user of strontium-90 for ophthalmic radiotherapy to be a physician who— (a) Is...

  18. Ophthalmic Drug Dosage Forms: Characterisation and Research Methods

    PubMed Central

    Baranowski, Przemysław; Karolewicz, Bożena; Gajda, Maciej; Pluta, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes hitherto developed drug forms for topical ocular administration, that is, eye drops, ointments, in situ gels, inserts, multicompartment drug delivery systems, and ophthalmic drug forms with bioadhesive properties. Heretofore, many studies have demonstrated that new and more complex ophthalmic drug forms exhibit advantage over traditional ones and are able to increase the bioavailability of the active substance by, among others, reducing the susceptibility of drug forms to defense mechanisms of the human eye, extending contact time of drug with the cornea, increasing the penetration through the complex anatomical structure of the eye, and providing controlled release of drugs into the eye tissues, which allows reducing the drug application frequency. The rest of the paper describes recommended in vitro and in vivo studies to be performed for various ophthalmic drugs forms in order to assess whether the form is acceptable from the perspective of desired properties and patient's compliance. PMID:24772038

  19. Ophthalmic drug dosage forms: characterisation and research methods.

    PubMed

    Baranowski, Przemysław; Karolewicz, Bożena; Gajda, Maciej; Pluta, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes hitherto developed drug forms for topical ocular administration, that is, eye drops, ointments, in situ gels, inserts, multicompartment drug delivery systems, and ophthalmic drug forms with bioadhesive properties. Heretofore, many studies have demonstrated that new and more complex ophthalmic drug forms exhibit advantage over traditional ones and are able to increase the bioavailability of the active substance by, among others, reducing the susceptibility of drug forms to defense mechanisms of the human eye, extending contact time of drug with the cornea, increasing the penetration through the complex anatomical structure of the eye, and providing controlled release of drugs into the eye tissues, which allows reducing the drug application frequency. The rest of the paper describes recommended in vitro and in vivo studies to be performed for various ophthalmic drugs forms in order to assess whether the form is acceptable from the perspective of desired properties and patient's compliance.

  20. Smart ophthalmics: the future in tele-ophthalmology has arrived

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, Wolfgang; Tarbell, Mark A.; Garcia, Kevin

    2016-05-01

    Smart Ophthalmics© extends ophthalmic healthcare to people who operate/live in austere environments (e.g., military, third world, natural disaster), or are geographically dispersed (e.g., rural populations), where time, cost, and the possibility of travel/transportation make access to even adequate medical care difficult, if at all possible. Operators attach optical devices that act as ophthalmic examination extensions to smartphones and run custom apps to perform examinations of specific areas of the eye. The smartphone apps submit over wireless networks the collected examination data to a smart remote expert system, which provides in-depth medical analyses that are sent back in near real-time to the operators for subsequent triage.

  1. Challenges Encountered Using Ophthalmic Anesthetics in Space Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayuse, T.; Law, J.; Alexander, D.; Moynihan, S.; LeBlanc, C.; Langford, K.; Magalhaes, L.

    2015-01-01

    On orbit, ophthalmic anesthetics are used for tonometry and off-nominal corneal examinations. Proparacaine has been flown traditionally. However, the manufacturers recently changed its storage requirements from room temperature storage to refrigerated storage to preserve stability and prolong the shelf-life. Since refrigeration on orbit is not readily available and there were stability concerns about flying proparacaine unrefrigerated, tetracaine was selected as an alternative ophthalmic anesthetic in 2013. We will discuss the challenges encountered flying and using these anesthetics on the International Space Station.

  2. Long-term follow-up of ophthalmic Graves' disease.

    PubMed Central

    Agapitos, P J; Hart, I R

    1987-01-01

    Sixteen patients with ophthalmic Graves' disease (clinically euthyroid with ophthalmopathy or exophthalmos) were followed up for 4.3 to 14.3 (mean 9.1) years to determine whether thyroid dysfunction developed and whether their ophthalmopathy progressed, regressed or remained stable. Five patients (31%) manifested hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism, all before the end of the fifth year of follow-up. The ophthalmopathy was mild, and none of the patients required specific treatment. The thyroid function of patients with ophthalmic Graves' disease should be periodically monitored for at least 5 years. PMID:3815199

  3. Review of moxifloxacin hydrochloride ophthalmic solution in the treatment of bacterial eye infections

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Darlene

    2008-01-01

    Moxifloxacin hydrochloride ophthalmic solution 0.5% (Vigamox®) is the ocular formulation/adaptation of moxifloxacin. Moxifloxacin is a broad spectrum 8-methoxyfluoroquinolone which terminates bacterial growth by binding to DNA gyrase (topoisomerase II) and topoisomerase IV, essential bacterial enzymes involved in the replication, translation, repair and recombination of deoxyribonucleic acid. Affinity for both enzymes improves potency and reduces the probability of selecting resistant bacterial subpopulations. Vigamox is a bactericidal, concentration dependent, anti-infective. It is preservative free, and well tolerated with minimal ocular side effects. It provides increased penetration into ocular tissues and fluids with improved activity against Streptococci and Staphylococci species and moderate to excellent activity against clinically relevant, gram-negative ocular pathogens. PMID:19668391

  4. Looking at the other side of the coin: the search for possible biopositive cognitive effects of the exposure to 900 MHz GSM mobile phone radiofrequency radiation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Although exposure to electromagnetic radiation in radiofrequency range has caused a great deal of concern globally, radiofrequency radiation has many critical applications in both telecommunication and non-communication fields. The induction of adaptive response phenomena by exposure to radiofrequency radiation as either increased resistance to a subsequent dose of ionizing radiation or resistance to a bacterial infection has been reported recently. Interestingly, the potential beneficial effects of mobile phone radiofrequency radiation are not only limited to the induction of adaptive phenomena. It has previously been indicated that the visual reaction time of university students significantly decreased after a 10 min exposure to radiofrequency radiation emitted by a mobile phone. Furthermore, it has been revealed that occupational exposures to radar radiations decreased the reaction time in radar workers. Based on these findings, it can be hypothesized that in special circumstances, these exposures might lead to a better response of humans to different hazards. Other investigators have also provided evidence that confirms the induction of RF-induced cognitive benefits. Furthermore, some recent reports have indicated that RF radiation may play a role in protecting against cognitive impairment in Alzheimer’s disease. In this light, a challenging issue will arise if there are other RF-induced stimulating effects. It is also challenging to explore the potential applications of these effects. Further research may shed light on dark areas of the health effects of short and long-term human exposure to radiofrequency radiation. PMID:24843789

  5. Radiation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Outside the protective cocoon of Earth's atmosphere, the universe is full of harmful radiation. Astronauts who live and work in space are exposed not only to ultraviolet rays but also to space radi...

  6. Bilateral Ophthalmic Artery Dissecting Aneurysms Presenting with Recurrent Epistaxis

    PubMed Central

    Al Balushi, Ali; Kitchener, Jacob; Edgell, Randall C.

    2017-01-01

    We present a rare case of bilateral expanding traumatic pseudoaneurysms of the ophthalmic arteries, due to a gunshot. The aneurysms presented with epistaxis. After a failure of conservative management, coil embolization of the aneurysms resulted in complete occlusion, with preservation of flow in the parent vessels. PMID:28243345

  7. 21 CFR 524.390b - Chloramphenicol ophthalmic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS...) Limitations. Therapy for cats should not exceed 7 days. As with other antibiotics, prolonged use may result in... animals. The length of time that residues persist in milk or tissues has not been determined. Federal...

  8. 21 CFR 349.50 - Labeling of ophthalmic drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., discard.” (3) For ophthalmic drug products containing mercury compounds used as a preservative. “This product contains (name and quantity of mercury-containing ingredient) as a preservative. Do not use this product if you are sensitive to” (select one of the following: “mercury” or “(insert name of...

  9. 21 CFR 524.1982 - Proparacaine ophthalmic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... stitches. (ii) For removal of foreign bodies from eye, ear, and nose: For ophthalmic use, instill three to five drops in the eye prior to examination; for otic use, instill five to ten drops in the ear; for... away from eyes or other mucous membranes; avoid inhaling; use with adequate ventilation; in case...

  10. 21 CFR 886.1655 - Ophthalmic Fresnel prism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ophthalmic Fresnel prism. 886.1655 Section 886.1655 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... provides the optical effect of a prism. The device is intended to be applied to spectacle lenses to give...

  11. 21 CFR 886.1655 - Ophthalmic Fresnel prism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ophthalmic Fresnel prism. 886.1655 Section 886.1655 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... provides the optical effect of a prism. The device is intended to be applied to spectacle lenses to give...

  12. 21 CFR 349.50 - Labeling of ophthalmic drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., discard.” (3) For ophthalmic drug products containing mercury compounds used as a preservative. “This product contains (name and quantity of mercury-containing ingredient) as a preservative. Do not use this product if you are sensitive to” (select one of the following: “mercury” or “(insert name of...

  13. 21 CFR 349.50 - Labeling of ophthalmic drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., discard.” (3) For ophthalmic drug products containing mercury compounds used as a preservative. “This product contains (name and quantity of mercury-containing ingredient) as a preservative. Do not use this product if you are sensitive to” (select one of the following: “mercury” or “(insert name of...

  14. Stability of fumagillin in an extemporaneously prepared ophthalmic solution.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rahman, S M; Nahata, M C

    1999-03-15

    The stability of fumagillin 70 microg/mL (as the bicyclohexylammonium crystal) in an extemporaneously prepared ophthalmic solution was studied. An ophthalmic solution of fumagillin 70 microg/mL was prepared by combining 120 mg of fumagillin bicyclohexylammonium crystals with 20 mL of 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP, and 20 mL of an ophthalmic irrigating solution. The solution was stored in 12 sterile semi-opaque dropper bottles; 4 bottles were stored at 25 degrees C exposed to light, 4 were stored at 25 degrees C in the dark, and 4 were stored at 4 degrees C in the dark. Samples were taken on days 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Sterility was tested as well. In the solutions stored at 25 degrees C, 17-30% of the initial drug concentration was lost during the first week. The solution protected from light and stored at 4 degrees C lost about 12% of active drug by week 4. There was no change in color or odor in any of the solutions and only a minor change in pH over the study period. There was no evidence of microbial growth in any of the solutions tested. Fumagillin 70 microg/mL (as the bicyclohexylammonium crystal) in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and an ophthalmic irrigating solution containing benzalkonium chloride was stable in the dark for 14 days at 4 degrees C.

  15. Numerical implementation of generalized Coddington equations for ophthalmic lens design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojo, P.; Royo, S.; Ramírez, J.; Madariaga, I.

    2014-02-01

    A method for general implementation in any software platform of the generalized Coddington equations is presented, developed, and validated within a Matlab environment. The ophthalmic lens design strategy is presented thoroughly, and the basic concepts of generalized ray tracing are introduced. The methodology for ray tracing is shown to include two inter-related processes. Firstly, finite ray tracing is used to provide the main direction of propagation of the considered ray at the incidence point of interest. Afterwards, generalized ray tracing provides the principal curvatures of the local wavefront at that point, and its orientation after being refracted by the lens. The curvature values of the local wavefront are interpreted as the sagital and tangential powers of the lens at the point of interest. The proposed approach is validated using a double-check of the calculated lens performance in the spherical lens case: while finite ray tracing is validated using a commercial ray tracing software, generalized ray tracing is validated using a software application for ophthalmic lens design based on the classical version of Coddington equations. Equations of the complete tracing process are developed in detail for the case of generic astigmatic ophthalmic lenses as an example. Three-dimensional representation of the sagital and tangential powers of the ophthalmic lens at all directions of gaze then becomes possible, and results are presented for lenses with different geometries.

  16. Inhibiting the effect of 90Sr-90Y ophthalmic applicators on rat corneal neovascularization induced by sutures

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hong-Yan; Wang, Shuang; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Ling; Zhang, Wen-Song

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate a practical technique used to inhibit corneal angiogenesis with a 90Sr-90Y ophthalmic applicator. METHODS A 90Sr-90Y ophthalmic applicator was detected with a radioactive nuclide application treatment healthy protection standard. The applicator used was produced through medical dosimetry research; it had a concave applicator add measured the applicator temperature, serviceable humidity range, applicator appearance status, applicator radiation homogeneity, radioautography, and radiological safety of the original applicator surface. A vessel model was established using newborn rats, with sutures around the corneal limbus. Corneal neovascularization (CNV) were observed with a slit lamp. The new vessel length and response area were measured. RESULTS Low-dose radiation can inhibit CNV after corneal sutures. The absorbed dose of the applicator (0.046 Gy/s) was safe for the treatment of it. The lengths of new vessels and the areas of new vessels were lower than the new born vessel rat group (P<0.01). CONCLUSION The optimal radiation dose emitting from the applicator can be safe and potentially used in humans. PMID:27672586

  17. Rapid determination of total benzalkonium chloride content in ophthalmic formulation.

    PubMed

    Labranche, Louis-Philippe; Dumont, Suzanne N; Levesque, Suzanne; Carrier, Alain

    2007-02-19

    A simple and rapid reversed-phase HPLC method was developed for routine analysis of total benzalkonium chloride in ophthalmic formulations. The analysis involves simple sample preparation using the mobile phase as the diluent. The method uses a Waters SymmetryShield RP-18 (75 mm x 4.6 mm, 3.5 microm particle size) column and a mobile phase consisting of a mixture of methanol-potassium phosphate (pH 3.0; 7.5 mM) (68:32, v/v). Using these conditions, three major homologs of the benzalkonium chloride (C(12), C(14) and C(16)) were separated in less then 7 min. Furthermore, recoveries ranging from 97% to 99% at three levels of the label claim of total benzalkonium chloride content were obtained for different ophthalmic formulations. Data supporting the development and validation of this method are presented.

  18. Perspective on ophthalmic support in countries of the developing world.

    PubMed

    Muecke, James; Sia, David I T; Newland, Henry; Casson, Robert J; Selva, Dinesh

    2013-04-01

    There are over 300 million people living in the world today who are visually impaired and a further 45 million who are blind. The large majority (90%) of these people live in developing countries, and up to 75% of blindness are avoidable. With cataracts being the major cause of blindness and visual impairment, many ophthalmic aid programmes are aimed at alleviating the enormous burden caused by this readily treatable disease. Having said that, caution should be exercised that short surgical visits to remote rural areas that are not coordinated with local national eye care managers should be discouraged because they do little for the development of sustainable eye care programmes. With this in view, it has become imperative to design blindness prevention and ophthalmic support programmes that are workable, comprehensive, economical and sustainable.

  19. Development of Absorbable, Antibiotic-Eluting Sutures for Ophthalmic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kashiwabuchi, Fabiana; Parikh, Kunal S.; Omiadze, Revaz; Zhang, Shuming; Luo, Lixia; Patel, Himatkumar V.; Xu, Qingguo; Ensign, Laura M.; Mao, Hai-Quan; Hanes, Justin; McDonnell, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To develop and evaluate an antibiotic-eluting suture for ophthalmic surgery. Methods Wet electrospinning was used to manufacture sutures composed of poly(L-lactide), polyethylene glycol (PEG), and levofloxacin. Size, morphology, and mechanical strength were evaluated via scanning electron microscopy and tensile strength, respectively. In vitro drug release was quantified using high performance liquid chromatography. In vitro suture activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis was investigated through bacterial inhibition studies. Biocompatibility was determined via histological analysis of tissue sections surrounding sutures implanted into Sprague-Dawley rat corneas. Results Sutures manufactured via wet electrospinning were 45.1 ± 7.7 μm in diameter and 0.099 ± 0.007 newtons (N) in breaking strength. The antibiotic release profile demonstrated a burst followed by sustained release for greater than 60 days. Increasing PEG in the polymer formulation, from 1% to 4% by weight, improved drug release without negatively affecting tensile strength. Sutures maintained a bacterial zone of inhibition for at least 1 week in vitro and elicited an in vivo tissue reaction comparable to a nylon suture. Conclusions There is a need for local, postoperative delivery of antibiotics following ophthalmic procedures. Wet electrospinning provides a suitable platform for the development of sutures that meet size requirements for ophthalmic surgery and are capable of sustained drug release; however, tensile strength must be improved prior to clinical use. Translational Relevance No antibiotic-eluting suture exists for ophthalmic surgery. A biocompatible, high strength suture capable of sustained antibiotic release could prevent ocular infection and preclude compliance issues with topical eye drops. PMID:28083445

  20. Corneal contact times of ophthalmic vehicles. Evaluation by microscintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Trueblood, J H; Rossomondo, R M; Wilson, L A; Carlton, W H

    1975-02-01

    Lacrimal microscintigraphy, in conjunction with a recently developed computer system, was used to evaluate the corneal contact time of three ophthalmic vehicles in 18 humans. The percentage of a radioactively labeled vehicle remaining over the cornea after 90 seconds was 2.9% plus and minus 2.2% for saline, 4.3% plus and minus 2.4% for polyvinyl alcohol, and 8.8% plus and minus 4.1% for hydroxypropyl methylcellulose.

  1. Regional ophthalmic anesthesia: safe techniques and avoidance of complications.

    PubMed

    Troll, G F

    1995-03-01

    In the last decade, anesthesiologists have become increasingly involved in administering regional eye blocks, while providing care for patients undergoing ophthalmic surgery. This article describes the two major approaches to regional eye block, namely retrobulbar and peribulbar, with special consideration given to relevant orbital anatomy and technical guidelines. Potential complications, ocular and systemic, with their risk factors, are reviewed. Anesthesiologists wishing to acquire skill in administering safe regional blockade are encouraged to familiarize themselves with regional anatomy and specific guidelines suggested herein.

  2. Gradient-index ophthalmic lens design and polymer material studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, David Joel

    Unifocal ophthalmic lenses are conventionally designed using homogeneous glass or plastic materials and aspheric surfaces. The desired power and aberration correction are provided by selection of surface shape and refractive index. This thesis studies the design of ophthalmic lenses utilizing gradient-index (GRIN) materials for both the optical power and aberration control. This is done using geometrical optical theory and ray-tracing simulations. Progressive addition lenses (PALS) are vision correction lenses with a continuous change in power used to treat presbyopia. The power variation is typically located in the lower half of the lens. Progressive addition lenses are currently made with aspheric surfaces to achieve the focal power transition and aberration control. These surfaces have at most, mirror symmetry about the vertical axis. The possible design of progressive addition lenses with GRIN materials has not been well studied. This thesis studies PALS and identifies how gradient-index materials can be used to provide both the power progression and aberration control. The optical theory for rotationally symmetric and asymmetric power additions is given. Analytical and numerical methods for calculating the index profile are used, and the results examined using ray-tracing simulations. The theory developed for ophthalmic lenses is applied to the design of GRIN axicon. This is the first GRIN axicon manufactured, and is fabricated using ion-exchanged GRIN glass. Experimental measurements of its performance are compared and found to match theoretical predictions. This demonstrates the generality of the theory developed: it may be applied to non-visual applications, and even to non-imaging applications. Realistic implementation of GRIN technology to ophthalmic application requires the fabrication of large scale refractive index gradients in polymer material systems. The methyl-methacrylate/styrene copolymer system is studied to develop an empirical model of its

  3. Instrument for assaying radiation

    DOEpatents

    Coleman, Jody Rustyn; Farfan, Eduardo B.

    2016-03-22

    An instrument for assaying radiation includes a flat panel detector having a first side opposed to a second side. A collimated aperture covers at least a portion of the first side of the flat panel detector. At least one of a display screen or a radiation shield may cover at least a portion of the second side of the flat panel detector.

  4. Stability of acetylcysteine in an extemporaneously compounded ophthalmic solution.

    PubMed

    Anaizi, N H; Swenson, C F; Dentinger, P J

    1997-03-01

    The stability of acetylcysteine in an extemporaneously compounded ophthalmic solution was studied. Acetylcysteine 10% ophthalmic solution containing 0.025% disodium edetate and 0.5% chlorobutanol in an artificial tears base was prepared and stored at 2-8 degrees C in clear, 15-mL, low-density polyethylene dropper bottles. At 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 60 days, a 1-mL sample was removed from each bottle and analyzed for acetylcysteine concentration by high-performance liquid chromatography. Another set of 10% acetylcysteine solutions containing 0.025%, 0.050%, 0.075%, or 0.10% disodium edetate were prepared, stored at room temperature (23-25 degrees C), and analyzed at 0, 7, 15, 30, 40, and 50 days. In the solutions containing 0.025% disodium edetate, acetylcysteine was stable for 60 days at 2-8 degrees C but for less than 7 days at 23-25 degrees C. In the solutions containing 0.75% and 0.10% disodium edetate, acetylcysteine was stable for 40 and 50 days, respectively, at 23-25 degrees C. Acetylcysteine in a 10% acetylcysteine ophthalmic solution containing 0.025% disodium edetate and 0.5% chlorobutanol in an artificial tears base was stable for 60 days at 2-8 degrees C.

  5. Stability studies on aqueous and oily ophthalmic solutions of diclofenac.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Munish; Dhake, Avinash Shridhar; Sharma, Surendra Kumar; Majumdar, Dipak Kanti

    2009-04-01

    Various aqueous and oily diclofenac ophthalmic formulations were subjected to accelerated and long term stability studies. Degradation of diclofenac was found to follow first-order kinetics. Among the aqueous formulations containing preservative, formulation with PMA, PMN, SA, MP/PP and SMS showed diclofenac content above 90% after 6 months of accelerated and 12 months of room temperature storage. Diclofenac 0.1%, w/v aqueous formulation (pH 7.4), with 5-10% overages, containing SMS, MP/PP or PMN look promising taking both stability and corneal permeability in view. However, for use in cataract surgery formulation without preservative appears ideal. Oily ophthalmic formulations except those in olive and mustard oil, had more than 90% drug content after 6 months of accelerated and 12 months of room temperature storage. Diclofenac (0.2%, w/v) ophthalmic solution in sesame oil with 3% overage and containing benzyl alcohol (0.5%, v/v) as preservative, appears ideal, taking both stability and corneal permeability in view.

  6. SU-E-T-317: The Development of a DIBH Technique for Left Sided Breast Patients Undergoing Radiation Therapy Utilizing Varians RPM System in a Community Hospital

    SciTech Connect

    Hasson, B; Young, M; Workie, D; Geraghty, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To develop and implement a Deep Inhalation Breath Hold program (DIBH) for treatment of patients with Left-sided breast cancer in a community hospital. Methods: All patients with left sided breast cancer underwent a screening free breathing CT. Evaluation of the conventional tangent treatment fields and the heart was conducted. If the heart would not be excluded using tangents, the patient then received DIBH breathe coaching. The patients returned for a 4D CT simulation. The patients breathing cycle was monitored using the Varian Real-Time position ManagementTM (RPM) system to assess duration of DIBH, amplitude, phase and recovery time to normal breathing. Then a DIBH CT was obtained at the desired amplitude. Duplicate plans were developed for both free breathing and DIBH on the Eclipse planning system and comparison DVH's were created. The plan that provided the prescribed treatment coverage and the least doses to the OAR (heart, Lt. Lung) was determined. Those patients selected to receive treatment with DIBH were set up for treatment, and breathing was monitored using the RPM system. Practice trials were used to confirm that the amplitude, phase and recovery were consistent with findings from simulation. Results: 10 patients have been treated using the DIBH procedure in our clinic. The DIBH patients had an average increase of 80% lung volume on DIBH, decreased lung volume receiving 50% of the dose, and decreases in the V20 dose. Significant reduction in the maximum and mean dose to the heart, as well as the dose to 1CC of the volume for the DIBH plans. Conclusion: Using the RPM system already available in the clinic, staff training, and patient coaching a simple DIBH program was setup. The use of DIBH has shown promise in reducing doses to the critical organs while maintaining PTV coverage for left sided breast treatments.

  7. Radiation Therapy for Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Radiation therapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses high doses of radiation to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. Learn about the types of radiation, why side effects happen, which ones you might have, and more.

  8. Novel mono-static arrangement of the ASDEX Upgrade high field side reflectometers compatible with electron cyclotron resonance heating stray radiation.

    PubMed

    Silva, A; Varela, P; Meneses, L; Manso, M

    2012-10-01

    The ASDEX Upgrade frequency modulated continuous wave broadband reflectometer system uses a mono-static antenna configuration with in-vessel hog-horns and 3 dB directional couplers. The operation of the new electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) launcher and the start of collective Thomson scattering experiments caused several events where the fragile dummy loads inside the high field side directional couplers were damaged, due to excessive power resulting from the ECRH stray fields. In this paper, we present a non-conventional application of the existing three-port directional coupler that hardens the system to the ECRH stray fields and at the same time generates the necessary reference signal. Electromagnetic simulations and laboratory tests were performed to validate the proposed solution and are compared with the in-vessel calibration tests.

  9. 21 CFR 524.1484e - Neomycin and polymyxin B ophthalmic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Neomycin and polymyxin B ophthalmic solution. 524.1484e Section 524.1484e Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484e Neomycin and polymyxin B ophthalmic solution. (a) Specifications....

  10. 21 CFR 524.1044i - Gentamicin and betamethasone ophthalmic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gentamicin and betamethasone ophthalmic solution... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1044i Gentamicin and betamethasone ophthalmic solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter (mL) of solution contains gentamicin sulfate equivalent to 3 milligrams (mg)...

  11. 21 CFR 524.1044i - Gentamicin and betamethasone ophthalmic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gentamicin and betamethasone ophthalmic solution... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1044i Gentamicin and betamethasone ophthalmic solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter (mL) of solution contains gentamicin sulfate equivalent to 3 milligrams (mg)...

  12. 21 CFR 524.1883 - Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1883 Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment. (a) Specifications. Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment...

  13. 21 CFR 524.1883 - Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1883 Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment. (a) Specifications. Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment...

  14. 21 CFR 524.1883 - Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1883 Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment. (a) Specifications. Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment...

  15. 21 CFR 524.1883 - Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1883 Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment. (a) Specifications. Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment...

  16. 21 CFR 886.1430 - Ophthalmic contact lens radius measuring device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic contact lens radius measuring device... lens radius measuring device. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic contact lens radius measuring device is an AC-powered device that is a microscope and dial gauge intended to measure the radius of a...

  17. 77 FR 42503 - Ophthalmic Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Ophthalmic Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory...). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Ophthalmic Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice and recommendations...

  18. 78 FR 77688 - Ophthalmic Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Ophthalmic Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory...). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Ophthalmic Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice and recommendations...

  19. 21 CFR 524.1484e - Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484e Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution. (a... nonsusceptible to the antibiotics incorporated in the drug. (4) Federal law restricts this drug to use by or...

  20. 21 CFR 524.390d - Chloramphenicol-prednisolone ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.390d Chloramphenicol-prednisolone ophthalmic ointment. (a) Specifications. Each gram... with other antibiotics, prolonged use may result in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms....

  1. 21 CFR 524.1200 - Kanamycin ophthalmic and topical dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Kanamycin ophthalmic and topical dosage forms. 524.1200 Section 524.1200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1200 Kanamycin ophthalmic and topical dosage forms....

  2. 21 CFR 524.1200 - Kanamycin ophthalmic and topical dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Kanamycin ophthalmic and topical dosage forms. 524.1200 Section 524.1200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1200 Kanamycin ophthalmic and topical dosage forms....

  3. 21 CFR 524.1200 - Kanamycin ophthalmic and topical dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Kanamycin ophthalmic and topical dosage forms. 524.1200 Section 524.1200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1200 Kanamycin ophthalmic and topical dosage forms....

  4. 21 CFR 524.1200 - Kanamycin ophthalmic and topical dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Kanamycin ophthalmic and topical dosage forms. 524.1200 Section 524.1200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1200 Kanamycin ophthalmic and topical dosage forms....

  5. 21 CFR 524.1200 - Kanamycin ophthalmic and topical dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Kanamycin ophthalmic and topical dosage forms. 524.1200 Section 524.1200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1200 Kanamycin ophthalmic and topical dosage forms....

  6. Selective thrombolysis performed through meningo-ophthalmic artery in central retinal artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Cohen, José E; Moscovici, Samuel; Halpert, Michael; Itshayek, Eyal

    2012-03-01

    The poor natural history of central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is usually not modified with conventional, conservative management techniques. Guidelines for selective intraarterial ophthalmic thrombolysis are still lacking. While many centers continue to perform this procedure with promising results, others are reluctant due to conflicting findings in recent studies. We present our experience in a 36-year-old male with CRAO. Based on the patient's clinical presentation, we planned to perform selective intraarterial ophthalmic thrombolysis via the ophthalmic artery. When angiography demonstrated that the retina was not supplied by the ophthalmic artery, but by a meningo-ophthalmic artery branching from the internal maxillary artery, we instead administered thrombolytic agents via the meningo-ophthalmic artery. The patient's vision recovered completely, with visual acuity and visual field examination at 30 day follow up comparable to his pre-treatment status. This case emphasizes the need for external carotid artery examination in cases of nonvisualization of the ophthalmic artery. In addition, it illustrates the successful use of the meningo-ophthalmic artery to perform selective intraarterial thrombolysis for CRAO.

  7. 10 CFR 35.2433 - Records of decay of strontium-90 sources for ophthalmic treatments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records of decay of strontium-90 sources for ophthalmic... Records § 35.2433 Records of decay of strontium-90 sources for ophthalmic treatments. (a) A licensee shall maintain a record of the activity of a strontium-90 source required by § 35.433 for the life of the...

  8. 10 CFR 35.433 - Decay of strontium-90 sources for ophthalmic treatments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Decay of strontium-90 sources for ophthalmic treatments... Brachytherapy § 35.433 Decay of strontium-90 sources for ophthalmic treatments. (a) Only an authorized medical physicist shall calculate the activity of each strontium-90 source that is used to determine the...

  9. 10 CFR 35.2433 - Records of decay of strontium-90 sources for ophthalmic treatments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Records of decay of strontium-90 sources for ophthalmic... Records § 35.2433 Records of decay of strontium-90 sources for ophthalmic treatments. (a) A licensee shall maintain a record of the activity of a strontium-90 source required by § 35.433 for the life of the...

  10. 10 CFR 35.2433 - Records of decay of strontium-90 sources for ophthalmic treatments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Records of decay of strontium-90 sources for ophthalmic... Records § 35.2433 Records of decay of strontium-90 sources for ophthalmic treatments. (a) A licensee shall maintain a record of the activity of a strontium-90 source required by § 35.433 for the life of the...

  11. 10 CFR 35.433 - Decay of strontium-90 sources for ophthalmic treatments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Decay of strontium-90 sources for ophthalmic treatments... Brachytherapy § 35.433 Decay of strontium-90 sources for ophthalmic treatments. (a) Only an authorized medical physicist shall calculate the activity of each strontium-90 source that is used to determine the...

  12. 10 CFR 35.2433 - Records of decay of strontium-90 sources for ophthalmic treatments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Records of decay of strontium-90 sources for ophthalmic... Records § 35.2433 Records of decay of strontium-90 sources for ophthalmic treatments. (a) A licensee shall maintain a record of the activity of a strontium-90 source required by § 35.433 for the life of the...

  13. 10 CFR 35.433 - Decay of strontium-90 sources for ophthalmic treatments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Decay of strontium-90 sources for ophthalmic treatments... Brachytherapy § 35.433 Decay of strontium-90 sources for ophthalmic treatments. (a) Only an authorized medical physicist shall calculate the activity of each strontium-90 source that is used to determine the...

  14. 10 CFR 35.433 - Decay of strontium-90 sources for ophthalmic treatments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Decay of strontium-90 sources for ophthalmic treatments... Brachytherapy § 35.433 Decay of strontium-90 sources for ophthalmic treatments. (a) Only an authorized medical physicist shall calculate the activity of each strontium-90 source that is used to determine the...

  15. 10 CFR 35.2433 - Records of decay of strontium-90 sources for ophthalmic treatments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Records of decay of strontium-90 sources for ophthalmic... Records § 35.2433 Records of decay of strontium-90 sources for ophthalmic treatments. (a) A licensee shall maintain a record of the activity of a strontium-90 source required by § 35.433 for the life of the...

  16. 10 CFR 35.433 - Decay of strontium-90 sources for ophthalmic treatments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Decay of strontium-90 sources for ophthalmic treatments... Brachytherapy § 35.433 Decay of strontium-90 sources for ophthalmic treatments. (a) Only an authorized medical physicist shall calculate the activity of each strontium-90 source that is used to determine the...

  17. Ophthalmic manifestations in IgG4-related disease

    PubMed Central

    Ebbo, Mikael; Patient, Matthieu; Grados, Aurelie; Groh, Matthieu; Desblaches, Julien; Hachulla, Eric; Saadoun, David; Audia, Sylvain; Rigolet, Aude; Terrier, Benjamin; Perlat, Antoinette; Guillaud, Constance; Renou, Frederic; Bernit, Emmanuelle; Costedoat-Chalumeau, Nathalie; Harlé, Jean-Robert; Schleinitz, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Abstract IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is characterized by variable tissue or organ involvements sharing common pathological findings. Orbital or orbital adnexa involvement of the disease has been reported in a few case series. The aim of our study was to characterize and analyze ophthalmic manifestations from a nationwide French case-series. Patients with IgG4-RD and orbital or orbital adnexa involvement included in the French multicentric IgG4-RD case-registry were identified. Only patients fulfilling “modified” comprehensive diagnostic criteria with pathological documentation were retained for the study. Clinical, biological, pathological, radiological findings and data regarding the response to treatment were retrospectively analyzed. According to our data registry, the frequency of IgG4-related ophthalmic disease (IgG4-ROD) was 17%. Mean age at diagnosis was 55.1 ± 7.1 years with a male/female ratio of 2.2. The 19 cases of IgG4-ROD consisted of lacrimal gland (68.4%), soft tissue (57.9%), extra-ocular muscles (36.8%), palpebral (21.1%), optical nerve (10.5%), orbital bone (10.5%), and mononeuritis (V1 and/or V2, 10.5%) involvements. IgG4-ROD was bilateral in 57.9% of cases. Extra-ophthalmic manifestations were reported in 78.9% of cases. All patients responded to prednisone but two-thirds of patients relapsed within a mean (SD) of 9.8 (3.5) months and 72.2% required long-term glucocorticoids and/or immunosuppressive agents. Eight patients were treated by rituximab with a favorable response in 87.5% of cases. Lacrimal involvement is the most frequent ophthalmic manifestation of IgG4-RD and is frequently associated with extra-orbital manifestations. Despite initial favorable response to steroids, the long-term management of relapsing patients needs to be improved. PMID:28272212

  18. Dual-thread parallel control strategy for ophthalmic adaptive optics.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yongxin; Zhang, Yuhua

    To improve ophthalmic adaptive optics speed and compensate for ocular wavefront aberration of high temporal frequency, the adaptive optics wavefront correction has been implemented with a control scheme including 2 parallel threads; one is dedicated to wavefront detection and the other conducts wavefront reconstruction and compensation. With a custom Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor that measures the ocular wave aberration with 193 subapertures across the pupil, adaptive optics has achieved a closed loop updating frequency up to 110 Hz, and demonstrated robust compensation for ocular wave aberration up to 50 Hz in an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope.

  19. External ocular motor palsies in ophthalmic zoster: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, R J; Dulley, B; Kelly, V

    1977-01-01

    Seventy-seven new patients suffering from ophthalmic zoster and a selected group of 69 old patients were carefully examined with regard to external ocular movements. An incidence of 31% of ocular pareses was found in the new patients, and 58 in all were analysed. We were surprised to find several of these were contralateral and bilateral palsies. 28% of the palsies were asymptomatic, due to diplopia being present only in extremes of gaze and the rapid development of suppression in the affected eye. The theories of aetiology of these pareses are discussed. PMID:338027

  20. Ophthalmic manifestations of tuberous sclerosis: a population based study

    PubMed Central

    Rowley, S; O'Callaghan, F; Osborne, J

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) has retinal and non-retinal ophthalmic manifestations. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of the ophthalmic manifestations and of refractive errors in a population of patients with TSC.
METHODS—179 patients identified were in a prevalence study of TSC in the south of England and 107 of these agreed to full ophthalmic examination which was successful in 100. Ophthalmic examination included examination of the eyelids, cover test, examination of the irides, dilation funduscopy using both direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy, and refraction using retinoscopy. Myopia was defined as a spherical equivalent <−0.5D and hyperopia as a spherical equivalent >+0.5D.
RESULTS—Retinal hamartomas were seen in 44 of the 100 patients. The commonest morphological type of hamartoma seen was the flat, translucent lesion in 31 of the 44 patients (70%). The multinodular "mulberry" lesion was seen in 24 of the 44 patients (55%) and the transitional type lesion was seen in four of the 44 patients (9%). Punched out areas of retinal depigmentation were seen in 39 of the 100 patients but only six of 100 controls. 27% of eyes were myopic, 22% were hyperopic, and 27% had astigmatism >0.75D. Of the non-retinal findings, 39 patients had angiofibromas of the eyelids, five had non-paralytic strabismus, and three had colobomas.
CONCLUSION—Apart from the higher prevalence of flat retinal hamartomas, the findings of this study compare closely with previous large clinic based series of TSC patients. Refractive findings were similar to previous studies of a similarly aged non-TSC population. This is the first series to document the statistically significant association of punched out chorioretinal depigmentation with TSC and the authors believe that it should be looked for as an aid to diagnosis.

 PMID:11264130

  1. Resistance to fluoroquinolones and methicillin in ophthalmic isolates of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius from companion animals.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min-Hee; Chae, Min-Joo; Yoon, Jang-Won; Lee, So-Young; Yoo, Jong-Hyun; Park, Hee-Myung

    2014-07-01

    Resistance to fluoroquinolones and methicillin was determined for 49 ophthalmic isolates of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius from dogs with and without ophthalmic disease. Resistance was observed for ciprofloxacin (40.8%), ofloxacin (38.8%), enrofloxacin (38.8%), levofloxacin (34.7%), and moxifloxacin (4.1%). Eighteen isolates, 16 of which were resistant to oxacillin, were mecA-positive. Nine of the 16 oxacillin-resistant mecA-positive S. pseudintermedius isolates were resistant to more than one fluoroquinolone and 2 isolates were resistant to 5 fluoroquinolones. The frequency of mecA gene occurrence and fluoroquinolone resistance was twice as high among S. pseudintermedius isolates derived from dogs with ophthalmic disease compared with isolates for dogs without ophthalmic disease. The high prevalence of methicillin and fluoroquinolone resistance in S. pseudintermedius from dogs with ophthalmic disease is a concern.

  2. Hybrid radiator cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    France, David M.; Smith, David S.; Yu, Wenhua; Routbort, Jules L.

    2016-03-15

    A method and hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus for implementing enhanced radiator-cooling are provided. The hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus includes an air-side finned surface for air cooling; an elongated vertically extending surface extending outwardly from the air-side finned surface on a downstream air-side of the hybrid radiator; and a water supply for selectively providing evaporative cooling with water flow by gravity on the elongated vertically extending surface.

  3. Development of the Veterans Healthcare Administration (VHA) Ophthalmic Surgical Outcome Database (OSOD) project and the role of ophthalmic nurse reviewers.

    PubMed

    Lara-Smalling, Agueda; Cakiner-Egilmez, Tulay; Miller, Dawn; Redshirt, Ella; Williams, Dale

    2011-01-01

    Currently, ophthalmic surgical cases are not included in the Veterans Administration Surgical Quality Improvement Project data collection. Furthermore, there is no comprehensive protocol in the health system for prospectively measuring outcomes for eye surgery in terms of safety and quality. There are 400,000 operative cases in the system per year. Of those, 48,000 (12%) are ophthalmic surgical cases, with 85% (41,000) of those being cataract cases. The Ophthalmic Surgical Outcome Database Pilot Project was developed to incorporate ophthalmology into VASQIP, thus evaluating risk factors and improving cataract surgical outcomes. Nurse reviewers facilitate the monitoring and measuring of these outcomes. Since its inception in 1778, the Veterans Administration (VA) Health System has provided comprehensive healthcare to millions of deserving veterans throughout the U.S. and its territories. Historically, the quality of healthcare provided by the VA has been the main focus of discussion because it did not meet a standard of care comparable to that of the private sector. Information regarding quality of healthcare services and outcomes data had been unavailable until 1986, when Congress mandated the VA to compare its surgical outcomes to those of the private sector (PL-99-166). 1 Risk adjustment of VA surgical outcomes began in 1987 with the Continuous Improvement in Cardiac Surgery Program (CICSP) in which cardiac surgical outcomes were reported and evaluated. 2 Between 1991 and 1993, the National VA Surgical Risk Study (NVASRS) initiated a validated risk-adjustment model for predicting surgical outcomes and comparative assessment of the quality of surgical care in 44 VA medical centers. 3 The success of NVASRS encouraged the VA to establish an ongoing program for monitoring and improving the quality of surgical care, thus developing the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) in 1994. 4 According to a prospective study conducted between 1991-1997 in 123

  4. Microgravity-Induced Fluid Shift and Ophthalmic Changes

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Emily S.; Mulugeta, Lealem; Myers, Jerry G.

    2014-01-01

    Although changes to visual acuity in spaceflight have been observed in some astronauts since the early days of the space program, the impact to the crew was considered minor. Since that time, missions to the International Space Station have extended the typical duration of time spent in microgravity from a few days or weeks to many months. This has been accompanied by the emergence of a variety of ophthalmic pathologies in a significant proportion of long-duration crewmembers, including globe flattening, choroidal folding, optic disc edema, and optic nerve kinking, among others. The clinical findings of affected astronauts are reminiscent of terrestrial pathologies such as idiopathic intracranial hypertension that are characterized by high intracranial pressure. As a result, NASA has placed an emphasis on determining the relevant factors and their interactions that are responsible for detrimental ophthalmic response to space. This article will describe the Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure syndrome, link it to key factors in physiological adaptation to the microgravity environment, particularly a cephalad shifting of bodily fluids, and discuss the implications for ocular biomechanics and physiological function in long-duration spaceflight. PMID:25387162

  5. Recent patents on ophthalmic nanoformulations and therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Ako-Adounvo, Ann-Marie; Nagarwal, Ramesh C; Oliveira, Lais; Boddu, Sai H S; Wang, Xiang S; Dey, Surajit; Karla, Pradeep K

    2014-01-01

    Nanoformulations (NF) are widely explored as potential alternatives for traditional ophthalmic formulation approaches. The effective treatment of ocular diseases using conventional eye drops is often hampered by factors such as: physiological barriers, rapid elimination, protein binding, and enzymatic drug degradation. Combined, these factors are known to contribute to reduced ocular residence time and poor bioavailability. Recent research studies demonstrated that NF can significantly enhance the therapeutic efficacy and bioavailability of ocular drugs, compared to the established ophthalmic drug delivery strategies. The research studies resulted in a number of patent inventions, reporting a significant increase in therapeutic efficacy for various chronic ocular disease states of both the anterior and posterior ocular segments. This article reviews these patent disclosures in detail and emphasizes the therapeutic advantages conferred by the following nanoformulation approaches: Calcium Phosphate (CaP) nanoparticles, Liposomes, Nanoemulsions, Nanomicelles, and Hydrogels. The nanoformulation approaches were shown to enhance the ocular bioavailability by reducing the drugprotein binding, increasing the corneal resident time, enhancing the drug permeability and providing a sustained drug release. Further, the article discusses United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) approved ocular drugs employing nanotechnology and future developments. It should be noted that, despite the potential therapeutic promise demonstrated by nanotechnology for ocular drug delivery, the bench to bed transition from patent inventions to marketed drug products has been insignificant. Majority of the discussed technologies are still in development and testing phase for commercial viability. Further, studies are in progress to assess ocular tolerance and nanotoxicity for prolonged use of NF.

  6. Neurofibromatosis Type 1 Presenting with Ophthalmic Features: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Gunjan; Sharma, Indra Kumar; Sharma, Reena; Saraswat, Neeraj

    2016-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) is an autosomal dominant disorder involving multiple systems and affects approximately 1 out of 3000 persons. Ocular manifestations are lisch nodules, plexiform neurofibroma, optic pathway gliomas. The proper diagnosis of NF-1 is a crucial task for a clinician due to the various clinical manifestations including vision and life threatening malignancies in few patients, which may arise in the different phases of life. The authors report three cases of NF-1, presenting with ophthalmic symptoms in teenager boys. On further ophthalmic and paediatric evaluation the diagnosis of NF-1 was confirmed on the basis of clinical criteria. This series also describe the abnormal facial features like telecanthus and broad nose which has been reported rarely. Case 1 was kept under regular follow-up and Case 2 and Case 3 were planned for the debulking surgery for plexiform neurofibroma of upper eye lid. A multidisciplinary approach is required to diagnose and treat such patients keeping in mind the myriad of clinical manifestations and life-long follow-up is required. PMID:28050470

  7. Ophthalmic knowledge and beliefs among women with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Pasagian-Macaulay, A; Basch, C E; Zybert, P; Wylie-Rosett, J

    1997-01-01

    Many patients with diabetes do not obtain the recommended annual dilated eye exam that is necessary for early detection of diabetic retinopathy. In this study, 150 suburban, low-income women with diabetes were interviewed using a structured telephone questionnaire that included subscales of ophthalmic knowledge and beliefs regarding barriers, benefits, concerns, and self-efficacy related to receiving recommended ophthalmic screening. The data revealed significant gaps in knowledge about diabetes-related eye complications. More than half of the subjects did not know that eye complications may be asymptomatic and that there are ways to lower the risk of eye problems. Over three quarters did not mention having drops put in their eyes as part of an eye exam, one fifth did not know what type of health provider should perform an eye exam, and 17% did not know that annual eye exams were recommended. Subjects were concerned about eye complications associated with diabetes, were aware of the benefits of eye exams, and reported high levels of self-efficacy for receiving an annual eye exam.

  8. Ophthalmic corticosteroid therapy: systemic effects in the dog.

    PubMed

    Glaze, M B; Crawford, M A; Nachreiner, R F; Casey, H W; Nafe, L A; Kearney, M T

    1988-01-01

    Degenerative myopathy suggestive of glucocorticoid-induced myopathy was diagnosed in a 10-year-old female Poodle X Pekingese dog with a history of progressive lameness. Electromyography revealed bizarre high-frequency discharges. Evidence of adrenal suppression was obtained in response to exogenous ACTH. The predominant source of corticosteroid was an ophthalmic preparation used in the management of keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Considering the apparent adverse effects of the corticosteroid in this case, a study was undertaken to determine the systemic effects, if any, induced by long-term ophthalmic administration of 0.1% dexamethasone suspension in healthy adult dogs. Dogs in one group (n = 5) were treated 4 times daily for 8 weeks, and dogs in another group (n = 5) were treated 4 times daily for 16 weeks. All dogs remained healthy throughout the study, but dexamethasone-treated dogs developed marked adrenal suppression, beginning the second week of treatment and intensifying throughout the treatment period. Histopathologic changes in the liver of dexamethasone-treated dogs included scattered foci of vacuolated hepatocytes, increased hepatocytic glycogen content, and ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes. Muscle specimens were histologically, histochemically, and electromyographically normal.

  9. Recent Patents on Ophthalmic Nanoformulations and Therapeutic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Ako-Adounvo, Ann-Marie; Nagarwal, Ramesh C.; Oliveira, Lais; Boddu, Sai H.S.; Wang, Xiang S.; Dey, Surajit; Karla, Pradeep K.

    2015-01-01

    Nanoformulations (NF) are widely explored as potential alternatives for traditional ophthalmic formulation approaches. The effective treatment of ocular diseases using conventional eye drops is often hampered by factors such as: physiological barriers, rapid elimination, protein binding, and enzymatic drug degradation. Combined, these factors are known to contribute to reduced ocular residence time and poor bioavailability. Recent research studies demonstrated that NF can significantly enhance the therapeutic efficacy and bioavailability of ocular drugs, compared to the established ophthalmic drug delivery strategies. The research studies resulted in a number of patent inventions, reporting a significant increase in therapeutic efficacy for various chronic ocular disease states of both the anterior and posterior ocular segments. This article reviews these patent disclosures in detail and emphasizes the therapeutic advantages conferred by the following nanoformulation approaches: Calcium Phosphate (CaP) nanoparticles, Liposomes, Nanoemulsions, Nanomicelles, and Hydrogels. The nanoformulation approaches were shown to enhance the ocular bioavailability by reducing the drugprotein binding, increasing the corneal resident time, enhancing the drug permeability and providing a sustained drug release. Further, the article discusses United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) approved ocular drugs employing nanotechnology and future developments. It should be noted that, despite the potential therapeutic promise demonstrated by nanotechnology for ocular drug delivery, the bench to bed transition from patent inventions to marketed drug products has been insignificant. Majority of the discussed technologies are still in development and testing phase for commercial viability. Further, studies are in progress to assess ocular tolerance and nanotoxicity for prolonged use of NF. PMID:25262835

  10. Immunoglobulin G4-related ophthalmic disease presenting as uveitis.

    PubMed

    Prayson, Richard A

    2015-11-01

    This report documents a 47-year-old man who presented with back pain, uveitis and an elevated Westergren sedimentation rate. On biopsy, a paraspinal lesion showed a nonspecific chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate. The eye symptoms, after initially responding to immunosuppressive therapy, worsened and progressed to pain, resulting in an extirpation of the right eye. The histopathology of the excised eye showed an inflammatory pseudotumor marked by a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, areas of fibrosis, rare evidence of obliterative phlebitis and, focally, over 20 Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-positive staining cells per high power microscopic field. IgG4-related ophthalmic disease is a relatively rare inflammatory lesion involving the eye and periorbital region. It is defined by a marked lymphoplasmacytic cell infiltrate, fibrosis obliterative phlebitis and increased IgG4 immunostaining (at least 10 cells per high power microscopic field in excised tissue). The entity is not unique to the eye, and has been described in other organs including the brain, endocrine organs, liver and kidney. The clinical presentation is often related to the location of the inflammatory infiltrates, and treatment involves the use of corticosteroids and other immunosuppressive agents. It is important to recognize IgG4-related ophthalmic disease because the condition appears to put patients at increased risk of developing lymphoma.

  11. Antireflection coating standards of ophthalmic resin lens materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porden, Mark

    1991-12-01

    Current estimates of the percentage of anti-reflection coated lenses verses uncoated in the market today range from 3% in the United States (US.), to 60% in Europe, to 80% in Japan. Currently upwards of 80% of all prescription eyewear lenses dispensed are resin. Glass lenses lose market share yearly, as scratch resistant coatings on resin lenses are improved. Photochromic resin materials are also improving and will shortly equal the performance of glass photockromics. Until recently, the performance characteristics of ophthalmic lenses were divided into two schools. In Europe, the emphasis was on keeping the reflections to an absolute minimum, while in the Asian market the emphasis was on producing a lens, which had exceptional scratch resistance. A typical European lens may average .4% reflection across the visible spectrum (400 to 700 urn.), while the Asian lenses averaged in the 1.5% range. The growth ofAR coating in the U.S. 80 million pair a year total ophthalmic market has been lagging foreign markets for several reasons.

  12. SU-E-T-79: A Study of the Effect of Clinical Tumor Volume Displacement On the Dosage of Post Modified Radical Mastectomy Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy Plans for Left-Sided Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, W; Ma, C; Li, D; Wu, F

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To explore the effect of clinical tumor volume (CTV) displacement on the dosage of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans for left-sided breast cancer after modified radical mastectomy. Methods: We created 2 sets of IMRT plans based on PTV0.5 and PTV0.7 (with CTV displacement of 0.5cm and 0.7cm respectively) for each of the ten consecutive left-sided breast cancer patients after modified radical mastectomy, and compared the difference in PTV coverage and organ at risk (OAR) sparing between the two groups. And then, we compared the difference in PTV coverage in IMRT plans based on PTV0.5 between the group with properly estimated CTV displacement (presuming the actual CTV displacement was 0.5cm) and the one with underestimated CTV displacement (presuming the actual CTV displacement was 0.7cm). The difference in results between the corresponding two groups was compared using paired-sample t-test. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: IMRT plans derived from PTV0.5 had more homogenous PTV coverage, and less heart, left lung, right breast, right lung, left humeral head and B-P radiation exposure, as well as less total Mu as compared with the ones stemmed from PTV0.7 (all p<0.05). IMRT plans with appropriate estimation of CTV displacement had better PTV coverage compared with the ones with underestimated CTV displacement (all p<0.01). Conclusion: The IMRT plans with smaller CTV displacement in post modified radical mastectomy radiotherapy for left-sided breast cancer has dosimetrical advantages over the ones with larger CTV displacement. Underestimation of CTV displacement can lead to significant reduction of PTV coverage. Individually quantifying and minimizing CTV displacement can significantly improve PTV coverage and OAR (including heart and left lung) sparing. This work was supported by the Medical Scientific Research Foundation of Guangdong Procvince (A2014455 to Changchun Ma)

  13. Pivotal clinical trials of novel ophthalmic drugs and medical devices: retrospective observational study, 2002–2012

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jenny; Ciolino, Joseph B

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Novel therapeutics are an important part of ophthalmologists’ armamentarium, and the risks and benefits of these therapies must be carefully evaluated. We sought to quantify the characteristics of the pivotal clinical trials supporting the regulatory approval of new ophthalmic drugs and medical devices. Design Retrospective observational study. Setting and data source Medical review dossiers for new ophthalmic drug and high-risk device approvals released publicly by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Main outcome measures Proportion of pivotal trials with randomisation, masking, active or placebo controls and subgroup analyses; total and median number of trial enrollees; and the number of drugs and devices approved with required postapproval studies. Results From 2002 to 2012, the FDA approved 11 ophthalmic drugs and 25 devices. The pivotal trials underlying the approvals of ophthalmic drugs in our study cohort enrolled a median of 809 patients. Virtually all drug trials were randomised and masked (91%), of which 7 (70%) used a placebo control. Pivotal trials for ophthalmic devices enrolled 324 patients on average, and significantly fewer trials for ophthalmic devices versus drugs were randomised (16% vs 91%; p<0.001) or masked (12% vs 91%; p<0.001). 8 (32%) ophthalmic devices and 6 (55%) ophthalmic drugs were approved with required postapproval studies. Conclusions Ophthalmic therapeutics were approved based on varying levels of evidence. Postapproval studies could be used to confirm or refute early indications of safety and effectiveness of these therapeutics, with the study results accessible to patients and clinicians who need to make informed treatment decisions. PMID:26044760

  14. Cerebral Angiographic Findings of Cosmetic Facial Filler-related Ophthalmic and Retinal Artery Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Cosmetic facial filler-related ophthalmic artery occlusion is rare but is a devastating complication, while the exact pathophysiology is still elusive. Cerebral angiography provides more detailed information on blood flow of ophthalmic artery as well as surrounding orbital area which cannot be covered by fundus fluorescein angiography. This study aimed to evaluate cerebral angiographic features of cosmetic facial filler-related ophthalmic artery occlusion patients. We retrospectively reviewed cerebral angiography of 7 patients (4 hyaluronic acid [HA] and 3 autologous fat-injected cases) showing ophthalmic artery and its branches occlusion after cosmetic facial filler injections, and underwent intra-arterial thrombolysis. On selective ophthalmic artery angiograms, all fat-injected patients showed a large filling defect on the proximal ophthalmic artery, whereas the HA-injected patients showed occlusion of the distal branches of the ophthalmic artery. Three HA-injected patients revealed diminished distal runoff of the internal maxillary and facial arteries, which clinically corresponded with skin necrosis. However, all fat-injected patients and one HA-injected patient who were immediately treated with subcutaneous hyaluronidase injection showed preserved distal runoff of the internal maxillary and facial arteries and mild skin problems. The size difference between injected materials seems to be associated with different angiographic findings. Autologous fat is more prone to obstruct proximal part of ophthalmic artery, whereas HA obstructs distal branches. In addition, hydrophilic and volume-expansion property of HA might exacerbate blood flow on injected area, which is also related to skin necrosis. Intra-arterial thrombolysis has a limited role in reconstituting blood flow or regaining vision in cosmetic facial filler-associated ophthalmic artery occlusions. PMID:26713062

  15. Bevacizumab in Reducing CNS Side Effects in Patients Who Have Undergone Radiation Therapy to the Brain for Primary Brain Tumor, Meningioma, or Head and Neck Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-04-21

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Meningioma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Adult Choroid Plexus Tumor; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Grade III Meningioma; Adult Malignant Hemangiopericytoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Papillary Meningioma; Adult Pineocytoma; Malignant Neoplasm; Meningeal Melanocytoma; Radiation Toxicity; Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor; Recurrent Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Recurrent Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Inverted Papilloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Midline Lethal Granuloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Stage I Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage I Inverted Papilloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage I Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage I Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Midline Lethal Granuloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage I Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  16. Cancer treatment: fertility and sexual side effects in women

    MedlinePlus

    Radiotherapy - fertility; Radiation - fertility; Chemotherapy - fertility; Sexual dysfunction - cancer treatment ... Many cancer treatments can cause sexual side effects. But you are more likely to have these side effects if ...

  17. Dr. William Briggs: ophthalmic physician at St. Thomas' Hospital, London.

    PubMed

    Winstanley, J

    2001-01-01

    William Briggs, MD, established himself as one of the first ophthalmic physicians, whom today we would call a neuro-ophthalmologist, to practice in the United Kingdom. After graduating with an MD from Cambridge in 1677, and while a Fellow of Corpus Christi College, he carried out original studies in visual anatomy and physiology. He described and named the optic papilla and the retinal nerve fibers in his book Ophthalmographia, published in 1676. He published his New Theory of Vision in 1682. While at Cambridge, he was a contemporary and a friend of Isaac Newton, with whom Briggs worked but who, in matters of visual anatomy and physiology, came to reach different conclusions from Briggs. In 1683, Briggs came to London to practice as a physician at St. Thomas' Hospital, where he established a considerable reputation as an ophthalmologist. For political reasons he was forced to resign from the Hospital prematurely.

  18. The Use of Optical Coherence Tomography in Intraoperative Ophthalmic Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Paul; Migacz, Justin; O’Connell, Rachelle; Maldonado, Ramiro S.; Izatt, Joseph A.; Toth, Cynthia A.

    2012-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has transformed diagnostic ophthalmic imaging but until recently has been limited to the clinic setting. The development of spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT), with its improved speed and resolution, along with the development of a handheld OCT scanner, enabled portable imaging of patients unable to sit in a conventional tabletop scanner. This handheld SD-OCT unit has proven useful in examinations under anesthesia and, more recently, in intraoperative imaging of preoperative and postoperative manipulations. Recently, several groups have pioneered the development of novel OCT modalities, such as microscope-mounted OCT systems. Although still immature, the development of these systems is directed toward real-time imaging of surgical maneuvers in the intraoperative setting. This article reviews intraoperative imaging of the posterior and anterior segment using the handheld SD-OCT and recent advances toward real-time microscope-mounted intrasurgical imaging. PMID:21790116

  19. Emily Dickinson's ophthalmic consultation with Henry Willard Williams, MD.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Donald L

    2012-12-01

    Emily Dickinson is one of America's premier poets of the 19th century. Henry Willard Williams, MD, was one of the very first physicians to limit his practice to ophthalmology and was the established leader in his field in Boston, Massachusetts. They met during the time of the Civil War, when Emily consulted him about her ophthalmic disorder. No records of the diagnosis survive. Photophobia, aching eyes, and a restriction in her ability to work up close were her main symptoms. Iritis, exotropia, or psychiatric problems are the most frequent diagnoses offered to explain her difficulties. Rather than attempt a definitive conclusion, this article will offer an additional possibility that Dr Williams likely considered (ie, hysterical hyperaesthesia of the retina). This was a common diagnosis at that time, although it has currently faded from use.

  20. In Vitro Cell Models for Ophthalmic Drug Development Applications

    PubMed Central

    Shafaie, Sara; Hutter, Victoria; Cook, Michael T.; Brown, Marc B.; Chau, David Y.S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Tissue engineering is a rapidly expanding field that aims to establish feasible techniques to fabricate biologically equivalent replacements for diseased and damaged tissues/organs. Emerging from this prospect is the development of in vitro representations of organs for drug toxicity assessment. Due to the ever-increasing interest in ocular drug delivery as a route for administration as well as the rise of new ophthalmic therapeutics, there is a demand for physiologically accurate in vitro models of the eye to assess drug delivery and safety of new ocular medicines. This review summarizes current existing ocular models and highlights the important factors and limitations that need to be considered during their use. PMID:27158563

  1. Diagnostic criteria for IgG4-related ophthalmic disease.

    PubMed

    Goto, Hiroshi; Takahira, Masayuki; Takahira, Masahiro; Azumi, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease is a novel clinical entity characterized by infiltration of IgG4-immunopositive plasmacytes and elevated serum IgG4 concentration accompanied by enlargement of and masses in various organs, including the lacrimal gland, salivary gland, and pancreas. Recent studies have clarified that conditions previously diagnosed as Mikulicz disease as well as various types of lymphoplasmacytic infiltrative disorders of the ocular adnexa are consistent with a diagnosis of IgG4-related disease. Against this background, the diagnostic criteria for IgG4-related ophthalmic disease have recently been established, based on both the clinical and the histopathologic features of the ocular lesions. This article reviews these new criteria with reference to the comprehensive diagnostic criteria for IgG4-related disease for all systemic conditions reported in 2012.

  2. Fast and robust estimation of ophthalmic wavefront aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillon, Keith

    2016-12-01

    Rapidly rising levels of myopia, particularly in the developing world, have led to an increased need for inexpensive and automated approaches to optometry. A simple and robust technique is provided for estimating major ophthalmic aberrations using a gradient-based wavefront sensor. The approach is based on the use of numerical calculations to produce diverse combinations of phase components, followed by Fourier transforms to calculate the coefficients. The approach does not utilize phase unwrapping nor iterative solution of inverse problems. This makes the method very fast and tolerant to image artifacts, which do not need to be detected and masked or interpolated as is needed in other techniques. These features make it a promising algorithm on which to base low-cost devices for applications that may have limited access to expert maintenance and operation.

  3. Famciclovir for ophthalmic zoster: a randomised aciclovir controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Tyring, S.; Engst, R.; Corriveau, C.; Robillard, N.; Trottier, S.; Van Slycken, S.; Crann, R.; Locke, L.; Saltzman, R.; Palestine, A.

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—To compare the efficacy and safety of famciclovir with aciclovir for the treatment of ophthalmic zoster.
METHODS—Randomised, double masked, aciclovir controlled, parallel group in 87 centres worldwide including 454 patients with ophthalmic zoster of trigeminal nerve (V1) comprised the intent to treat population. Oral famciclovir 500 mg three times daily or oral aciclovir 800 mg five times daily for 7 days. Assessments included day 0 (screening), days 3 and 7 (during treatment), days 10, 14, 21, 28 and monthly thereafter, up to 6 months (follow up). Proportion of patients who experienced ocular manifestations, severe manifestations and non-severe manifestations; loss of visual acuity was the main outcome measure.
RESULTS—The percentage of patients who experienced one or more ocular manifestations was similar for famciclovir (142/245, 58.0%) and aciclovir (114/196, 58.2%) recipients, with no significant difference between groups (OR 0.99; 95% CI 0.68, 1.45). The percentage of patients who experienced severe and non-severe manifestations was similar between groups, with no significant difference. The prevalence of individual ocular manifestations was comparable between groups. There was no significant difference between groups for visual acuity loss.
CONCLUSION—Famciclovir 500 mg three times daily was well tolerated and demonstrated efficacy similar to aciclovir 800 mg five times daily.

 PMID:11316720

  4. Identifying fallers among ophthalmic patients using classification tree methodology

    PubMed Central

    Chirico, Franco; Pecchia, Leandro; Rossi, Settimio; Testa, Francesco; Simonelli, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To develop and validate a tool aiming to support ophthalmologists in identifying, during routine ophthalmologic visits, patients at higher risk of falling in the following year. Methods A group of 141 subjects (age: 73.2 ± 11.4 years), recruited at our Eye Clinic, underwent a baseline ophthalmic examination and a standardized questionnaire, including lifestyles, general health, social engagement and eyesight problems. Moreover, visual disability was assessed by the Activity of Daily Vision Scale (ADVS). The subjects were followed up for 12 months in order to record prospective falls. A subject who reported at least one fall within one year from the baseline assessment was considered as faller, otherwise as non-faller. Different tree-based algorithms (i.e., C4.5, AdaBoost and Random Forests) were used to develop automatic classifiers and their performances were evaluated by the cross-validation approach. Results Over the follow-up, 25 falls were referred by 13 patients. The logistic regression analysis showed the following variables as significant predictors of prospective falls: pseudophakia and use of prescribed eyeglasses as protective factors, recent worsening of visual acuity as risk factor. Random Forest ranked best corrected visual acuity, number of sleeping hours and job type as the most important features. Finally, AdaBoost enabled the identification of subjects at higher risk of falling in the following 12 months with a sensitivity rate of 69.2% and a specificity rate of 76.6%. Conclusions The current study proposes a novel method, based on classification trees applied to self-reported factors and health information assessed by a standardized questionnaire during ophthalmological visits, to identify ophthalmic patients at higher risk of falling in the following 12 months. The findings of the current study pave the way to the validation of the proposed novel tool for fall risk screening on a larger cohort of patients with visual impairment referred

  5. Radiation Retinopathy Is Treatable With Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Bevacizumab (Avastin)

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, Paul T.

    2008-03-15

    Purpose: To report on bevacizumab treatment for radiation retinopathy affecting the macula. Patients and Methods: Twenty-one patients with radiation retinopathy (edema, hemorrhages, capillary dropout, and neovascularization) and a subjective or objective loss of vision were treated. Treatment involved intravitreal injection of bevacizumab (1.25 mg in 0.05 mL) every 6-12 weeks. Treatment was discontinued at patient request or if there was no measurable response to therapy. Main outcome measures included best corrected visual acuity, ophthalmic examination, retinal photography, and angiography. Results: Bevacizumab treatment was followed by reductions in retinal hemorrhage, exudation, and edema. Visual acuities were stable or improved in 86% (n = 18). Three patients discontinued therapy. Each was legally blind before treatment (n = 1), experienced little to no subjective improvement (n = 2), or was poorly compliant (n = 2). Three patients (14%) regained 2 or more lines of visual acuity. No ocular or systemic bevacizumab-related side effects were observed. Conclusions: Intravitreal bevacizumab can be used to treat radiation retinopathy. In most cases treatment was associated with decreased vascular leakage, stabilization, or improved vision. An anti-vascular endothelial growth factor strategy may reduce tissue damage associated with radiation vasculopathy and neuropathy.

  6. 21 CFR 524.390d - Chloramphenicol-prednisolone ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... bacterial conjunctivitis and ocular inflammation caused by organisms susceptible to chloramphenicol. (3) Limitations. Therapy for cats should not exceed 7 days, prolonged use in cats may produce blood dyscrasia. As... institute appropriate therapy. All topical ophthalmic preparations containing corticosteroids, with...

  7. Stability of latanoprost in an ophthalmic lipid emulsion using polyvinyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Yusuke; Yasueda, Shin-Ichi; Ohtori, Akira

    2005-11-23

    Latanoprost in water is not stable against heat stress due to hydrolysis of the isopropyl ester in the latanoprost molecule. Therefore, the storage condition of latanoprost ophthalmic solution, Xalatan brand, was in a low temperature (2-8 degrees C). We formulated a favorable ophthalmic lipid emulsion of latanoprost using polyvinyl alcohol as emulsifier which showed a good heat stability. The assays of the latanoprost ophthalmic lipid emulsions adjusted to pH 5.0, 6.0 and 7.0 were 100.4%, 100.7% and 99.2% after storage for 4 weeks at 60 degrees C, respectively. The possibility of room temperature storage for the latanoprost ophthalmic lipid emulsion was demonstrated.

  8. In vitro testing of thiolated poly(aspartic acid) from ophthalmic formulation aspects.

    PubMed

    Budai-Szű Cs, Mária; Horvát, Gabriella; Gyarmati, Benjámin; Szilágyi, Barnabás Áron; Szilágyi, András; Csihi, Tímea; Berkó, Szilvia; Szabó-Révész, Piroska; Mori, Michela; Sandri, Giuseppina; Bonferoni, Maria Cristina; Caramella, Carla; Csányi, Erzsébet

    2016-08-01

    Ocular drug delivery formulations must meet anatomical, biopharmaceutical, patient-driven and regulatory requirements. Mucoadhesive polymers can serve as a better alternative to currently available ophthalmic formulations by providing improved bioavailability. If all requirements are addressed, a polymeric formulation resembling the tear film of the eye might be the best solution. The optimum formulation must not have high osmotic activity, should provide appropriate surface tension, pH and refractive index, must be non-toxic and should be transparent and mucoadhesive. We would like to highlight the importance of in vitro polymer testing from a pharmaceutical aspect. We, therefore, carried out physical-chemical investigations to verify the suitability of certain systems for ophthalmic formulations. In this work, in situ gelling, mucoadhesive thiolated poly(aspartic acid)s were tested from ophthalmic formulation aspects. The results of preformulation measurements indicate that these polymers can be used as potential carriers in ophthalmic drug delivery.

  9. 75 FR 35495 - Ophthalmic Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Ophthalmic Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory... should have normal gonioscopic anatomy and a visually significant cataract eligible...

  10. Clinical, Pharmacokinetic, and In Vitro Studies to Support Bioequivalence of Ophthalmic Drug Products.

    PubMed

    Choi, Stephanie H; Lionberger, Robert A

    2016-07-01

    For ophthalmic drug products, the determination of bioequivalence can be challenging, as drug concentrations at the site of action cannot always be measured. The FDA has recommended a variety of studies that can be used to demonstrate bioequivalence for different ophthalmic drug products. Product-specific bioequivalence recommendations for 28 ophthalmic products have been posted on FDA's website as of May 2016, outlining the specific tests which should be performed to demonstrate bioequivalence. The type of study that can be used to demonstrate bioequivalence depends on the drug product's active pharmaceutical ingredient(s), dosage form, indication, site of action, mechanism of action, and scientific understanding of drug release/drug availability and drug product characteristics. This article outlines the FDA's current guidance on studies to demonstrate bioequivalence through clinical endpoint studies, pharmacokinetic studies, and in vitro studies for generic ophthalmic drug products.

  11. Radiation detector

    DOEpatents

    Fultz, B.T.

    1980-12-05

    Apparatus is provided for detecting radiation such as gamma rays and x-rays generated in backscatter Moessbauer effect spectroscopy and x-ray spectrometry, which has a large window for detecting radiation emanating over a wide solid angle from a specimen and which generates substantially the same output pulse height for monoenergetic radiation that passes through any portion of the detection chamber. The apparatus includes a substantially toroidal chamber with conductive walls forming a cathode, and a wire anode extending in a circle within the chamber with the anode lying closer to the inner side of the toroid which has the least diameter than to the outer side. The placement of the anode produces an electric field, in a region close to the anode, which has substantially the same gradient in all directions extending radially from the anode, so that the number of avalanche electrons generated by ionizing radiation is independent of the path of the radiation through the chamber.

  12. Radiation detector

    DOEpatents

    Fultz, Brent T.

    1983-01-01

    Apparatus is provided for detecting radiation such as gamma rays and X-rays generated in backscatter Mossbauer effect spectroscopy and X-ray spectrometry, which has a large "window" for detecting radiation emanating over a wide solid angle from a specimen and which generates substantially the same output pulse height for monoenergetic radiation that passes through any portion of the detection chamber. The apparatus includes a substantially toroidal chamber with conductive walls forming a cathode, and a wire anode extending in a circle within the chamber with the anode lying closer to the inner side of the toroid which has the least diameter than to the outer side. The placement of the anode produces an electric field, in a region close to the anode, which has substantially the same gradient in all directions extending radially from the anode, so that the number of avalanche electrons generated by ionizing radiation is independent of the path of the radiation through the chamber.

  13. [Double-blind method of using solcoseryl ophthalmic gel and 2,4% cysteine in ophthalmic gel in patients with chronic recurrent keratitis and keratitis sicca].

    PubMed

    Krzystkowa, K M; Hydzikowa, M; Szpytma, R

    1991-06-01

    A double blind study with Solcoseryl compounds in ophthalmic gel and with 2.4% cystein in ophthalmic gel was performed in the period 1985-1988; it was used in 18 cases: with chronic recurrent keratitis (11 patients) and sicca keratitis (7 patients). Observed was the influence of these compounds on the epithelialization of the cornea, on the improvement of corneal transparency, the diminutation of the troubles connected with dessication of the eye in sicca keratitis. In spite of the small number of cases the observations were interesting. In patients with a chronic recurrent keratitis the influence of both compounds showed to be beneficial for the condition of the cornea. In patients with keratitis sicca one could observe a better tolerance of the Solcoseryl ophthalmic gel which could be applied for a longer period in comparison with cystein in gel.

  14. Requirements and characteristics of 500 consecutive patients consulting an ophthalmic medical practitioner.

    PubMed Central

    Claoué, C M

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a prospective survey on 500 consecutive patients consulting an ophthalmic medical practitioner. The reason for consultation, and results of refraction and examination were analysed. The majority required only a refraction. One in 8 visits was for primary ophthalmic health care other than refraction. An abnormality of the visual system (other than refractive error) was present in 19% of patients. Five per cent required referral to their general practitioner. PMID:3411589

  15. Comparison of systemic absorption between ofloxacin ophthalmic in situ gels and ofloxacin conventional ophthalmic solutions administration to rabbit eyes by HPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiawei; Zhao, Hainan; Okeke, Chukwunweike Ikechukwu; Li, Lin; Liu, Zhidong; Yin, Zhongpeng; Zhuang, Pengwei; Sun, Jingtong; Wu, Tao; Wang, Meng; Li, Nan; Pi, Jiaxin; Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Rui; Ma, Li; Pang, Xiaochen; Liu, Zhanbiao; Zhang, Li; Fan, Lili

    2013-06-25

    In recent years, many pharmaceutical scientists have focused on developing the in situ gel-forming systems to overcome the poor bioavailability and therapeutic response exhibited by conventional ophthalmic solutions due to rapid pre-corneal elimination of the drug. The present work was to compare the systemic absorptions of ophthalmic ofloxacin in situ gel with the conventional ofloxacin eye drop after topical instillation to rabbit eyes by HPLC-MS/MS method and also determine the relative contribution of the nasal and the conjunctival mucosae to systemic ofloxacin absorption following topical instillation. The systemic AUC, Cmax, Tmax and Ke for ophthalmic in situ gel and ophthalmic solution after ocular instillation were 202.63±118.85 and 202.25±57.74 ng mL(-1) h, 54.22±28.31 and 48.4±25.97 ng mL(-1), 1.08±0.20 and 1.25±0.88 h, 0.0576±0.0207 and 0.0388±0.0248, respectively. And the values for the ratios of the AUC of anterior chamber of rabbit eye to blood plasma, AUCac/AUCpl, for ofloxacin conventional eye drop and in situ gel were 0.25 and 0.52, respectively. Statistic results showed that there was no significant difference in systemic absorption between the test groups and the reference groups (P>0.05) as both formulations have an AUCsa/AUCpl of 0.35. Therefore, the ophthalmic in situ gel may not decrease the drugs systemic absorption when administered in an equivalent dose as ophthalmic solutions into the rabbit eyes.

  16. Olopatadine ophthalmic solution suppresses substance P release in the conjunctivitis models

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Olopatadine hydrochloride ophthalmic solutions are treated for allergic conjunctival diseases that are a selective histamine H1 receptor antagonist and an inhibitor of the release of mediators including histamine from the human mast cells. Substance P (SP) levels are increased in tears of patients with allergic conjunctivitis. However, little is known about the regulation of SP release by anti-allergic ophthalmic solutions. Objective We investigated that the effect of olopatadine hydrochloride ophthalmic solutions (olopatadine 0.1% and olopatadine 0.2%) on rat conjunctivitis models compared with other anti-allergic ophthalmic solutions. Methods Conjunctivitis was induced by subconjunctival injection of histamine or intravenous injection of ovalbumin in rats passively sensitized with anti-ovalbumin anti-serum. The releases of SP were determined in the conjunctiva and tears using rat antigen-induced conjunctivitis models. Results Olopatadine 0.1% and 0.2% significantly inhibited the increased conjunctival dye leaked in the histamine- or antigen-induced hyperpermeability. The inhibitory effects by olopatadine were more potent than by other tested anti-allergic ophthalmic solutions. Moreover, olopatadine significantly inhibited the release of SP from the conjunctiva. Conclusion These results indicate that olopatadine ophthalmic solutions appear to exert additional SP release inhibition besides dual-action such as selective histamine H1 receptor antagonistic action and mast cell stabilization action. PMID:22701861

  17. Vasculature of the ophthalmic rete in night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax): scanning electron microscopy of corrosion casts.

    PubMed

    Ninomiya, Hiroyoshi

    2002-09-01

    Vasculature of the ophthalmic rete (rete ophthalmicum) in the night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) was studied using scanning electron microscopy of vascular corrosion casts and light microscopy on tissue sections. Most blood to the eyeball and a lesser volume of blood to the brain passed through the ophthalmic rete via the external ophthalmic artery. The collateral retial arterioles originated from the external ophthalmic artery forming a flat and fusiform-shaped arterial network at the ventrotemporal region of the eyeball. The arterial network was intermixed with a similar complex of the veins from the eye. The ophthalmotemporal artery, which supplied the eyeball posteriorly, and supraorbital and infraorbital arteries, which supplied the eyeball anteriorly, originated from the rete. Blood from the eye, which is a site of potential heat loss, drained into the ophthalmic rete via the ophthalmotemporal vein. On the casts of retial arterioles, slit-like cleavages at branching sites representing flap valves, which might play a role as sluice valves, were seen. In addition, marks of circularly running grooves, which might represent tufts of smooth muscle cells and might contribute to a sphincter activity, were observed. These anatomical specializations of the avian ophthalmic rete, involving parallel arrangement of arteries and veins, may function to facilitate counter-current heat exchange and to regulate blood pressure and volume to the eye and the brain.

  18. Systemic side effects of eye drops: a pharmacokinetic perspective

    PubMed Central

    Farkouh, Andre; Frigo, Peter; Czejka, Martin

    2016-01-01

    When administering eye drops, even when completely correctly applied, several routes of absorption are possible and excess amounts can sometimes cause an unwanted systemic bioavailability of the drops when not completely absorbed into the eye. Furthermore, the concentration of active ingredients in such medicinal preparations is usually very high, so that despite the correct application of the recommended dose, considerable amounts may be absorbed in an unwanted manner through various routes. Children are subject to a much higher risk of systemic side effects because ocular dosing is not weight adjusted and physiological development (eg, liver status) differs from that of adults. There is a lack of information about pediatric dosing in the current literature. This review summarizes the most important clinically relevant systemic side effects that may occur during ophthalmic eye treatments. In this review, we discuss general pharmacokinetic considerations as well as the advantages, disadvantages, and consequences of administering drugs from some important drug groups to the eye. PMID:27994437

  19. Clinico-Pathological Spectrum of Ophthalmic Lesions: An Experience in Tertiary Care Hospital of Central India

    PubMed Central

    Gahine, Renuka; Hussain, Nighat; Memon, Mohd Jafar

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Ophthalmic lesions show varied distribution on the basis of geographical location. Eye being a unique sensory organ needs to be studied both clinically and pathologically. Aim This study was aimed to evaluate the histomorphological and clinico-pathlological spectrum of ophthalmic lesions at a tertiary care hospital of Central India. Materials and Methods We reviewed all the ophthalmic biopsies performed in the Department of Pathology of our institute between January 2008 and November 2014. Total 488 biopsies of the orbito-ocular region were obtained from patients attending the ophthalmology department. Ophthalmic biopsies were studied as per epidemiological and histomorphological data. Results The patients ranged in age from one month to 85 years with bimodal distribution. With a male to female ratio of 1:1. Ophthalmic lesions were highest (44.8%) in less than 20 years age group. Eyelid (33.6%) was the most commonly involved site. Clinical diagnosis was consistent with histopathological diagnosis in approximately 76% cases. The non-neoplastic, benign and malignant lesions were 61.1%, 7.8% and 31.1% respectively. Retinoblastoma formed 40.1% of all malignant lesions followed by sebaceous carcinoma (19.1%) and Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) (10.5%). Rare lesions were primary neuroblastoma of orbit and rhabdomyosarcoma of eyelid. Conclusion Findings suggest that among neoplastic lesions the most common ophthalmic malignancies were retinoblastoma in children and sebaceous carcinoma in adults. Among non-neoplastic lesions, 89% cases of infectious aetiology were of rhinosporidiosis in our study making it an important differential diagnosis among ophthalmic lesions. PMID:28273971

  20. Development and Evaluation of Diclofenac Sodium Loaded-N-Trimethyl Chitosan Nanoparticles for Ophthalmic Use.

    PubMed

    Asasutjarit, Rathapon; Theerachayanan, Thitaree; Kewsuwan, Prartana; Veeranodha, Sukitaya; Fuongfuchat, Asira; Ritthidej, Garnpimol C

    2015-10-01

    The ophthalmic preparation of diclofenac sodium (DC) for relieving ocular inflammation is presently available in the market only as an eye drop solution. Due to its low occular bioavailability, it requires frequent application leading to low patients' compliance and quality of life. This study was conducted to develop formulations of DC loaded-N-trimethyl chitosan nanoparticles (DC-TMCNs) for ophthalmic use to improve ocular biavailabiltiy of DC. DC-TMCNs varied in formulation compositions were prepared using ionic gelation technique and evaluated for their physicochemical properties, drug release, eye irritation potential, and ophthalmic absorption of diclofenac sodium. N-Trimethyl chitosan (TMC) with a 49.8% degree of quaternization was synthesized and used for DC-TMCNs production. The obtained DC-TMCNs had particle size in a range of 130-190 nm with zeta potential values of +4 to +9 mV and drug entrapment efficiencies of more than 70% depending on the content of TMC and sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP). The optimized DC-TMCNs formulation contained TMC, DC, and TPP at a weight ratio of TMC/DC/TPP = 3:1:1. Their lyophilized product reconstituted with phosphate buffer solution pH 5.5 possessed a drug release pattern that fitted within the zero-order model. The eye irritation tests showed that DC-TMCNs were safe for ophthalmic use. The in vivo ophthalmic drug absorption study performed on rabbits indicated that DC-TMCNs could improve ophthalmic bioavailability of DC. Results of this study suggested that DC-TMCNs had potential for use as an alternative to conventional DC eye drops for ophthalmic inflammation treatment.

  1. Comparison of VF-14 scores among different ophthalmic surgical interventions.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Fumiko; Ohtsuki, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    To clarify surgical outcomes for 5 ophthalmic diseases in terms of vision-related quality of life (QOL), we sent a self-administered Visual Function Questionnaire-14 (VF-14) to patients 3 months postoperatively, and the VF-14 scores for the surgical outcome of strabismus were compared with those of patients with diabetic macular edema (DME), cataract, glaucoma, and epiretinal membrane (ERM). Test-retest repeatability of VF-14 was evaluated with Bland-Altman analysis. Of the 625 eligible patients who were referred for enrollment, 48 with comitant strabismus, 50 with incomitant strabismus, 45 with DME, 38 with cataract, 129 with glaucoma, and 73 with ERM agreed to answer. Eighty percent of subjects showed 95% limits of agreement with the VF-14 evaluated by repeated measurements. The gain by surgery for incomitant strabismus was not different from that of cataract (p = 0.5551), but it was significantly better than those of DME (p = 0.0266), comitant strabismus (p = 0.0128), ERM (p = 0.0021), glaucoma with cataract (p < 0.0001), and glaucoma alone (p < 0.0001). The surgical outcome in terms of QOL for patients with incomitant strabismus was good and comparable to that of patients with cataract surgery.

  2. Selected diagnostic ophthalmic tests in the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus).

    PubMed

    Takle, Ginger L; Suedmeyer, W Kirk; Hunkeler, Amy

    2010-06-01

    The following tests were performed on a total of 20 eyes: Schirmer tear test, intraocular pressure (IOP), assessment of conjunctival flora, and pupillary diameter with application of topical tropicamide in 10 healthy captive red kangaroos (Macropus rufus) under manual restraint. The mean Schirmer tear test value was 22.6 +/- 6.07 mm/min. The mean intraocular pressure was 17.45 +/- 7.23 mm Hg. Values did not differ between eyes or gender for either test, but significant differences were identified for IOP values according to age. The most common bacteria isolated from the conjunctival fornix were Staphylococcus epidermidis (54.5%) and Corynebacterium sp. (18.2%). The mean onset of mydriasis after instillation of 1% tropicamide ophthalmic solution was 16.7 +/- 3.34 min and the mean duration of effect was 17.6 +/- 8.26 hr. The data obtained in this investigation will aid veterinary ophthalmologists and zoo veterinarians to diagnose ocular diseases in the red kangaroo accurately.

  3. Interferometry and ophthalmics at the College of Optical Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greivenkamp, John E.; Williby, Gregory A.; Goodwin, Eric P.; Primeau, Brian C.; Heideman, Kyle C.; Micali, Jason D.; Spaulding, Russell T.

    2014-09-01

    A long-term research program has been in place at the College of Optical Sciences to apply interferometry to ophthalmic applications. These unique systems have been developed in response to industrial need. The first system is a transmission Mach-Zehnder interferometer used to measure the transmitted wavefront of a contact lens while it is submersed in saline. This interferometer allows the refractive power distribution of the lens to be measured. A second system makes use of a low-coherence interferometer to measure the index of refraction of contact lens materials. This task is complicated by the fact that the material is only available in very thin, flexible samples, and because the sample must remain hydrated in saline during the measurement. A third system also makes use of low-coherence interferometry to characterize the surface profile of both surfaces of a contact lens. Combined with index information, a complete model of the contact lens can be produced. Two additional interferometers examine the dynamics of fluid layers on the surface of a contact lens (in vitro) and of the tear film on the surface of the cornea (in vivo). Both systems are instantaneous phase shifting Twyman-Green interferometers. The evolution and changes to the fluid surface is measured at video rates with sub-wavelength precision. This paper tells the story of this research program.

  4. [Applications of novel stereomicroscopic spectacles in ophthalmic surgery (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Jaeger, W; Merté, H J; Reiner, J; Kratzer, B

    1979-07-01

    The previous magnifying spectacles and telescopic spectacles designed on the principle of the Galilean telescope have a magnification of only 2.5 x to 3 x for good image quality. New magnifying systems from Zeiss based on the Kepler telescope principle offer 3 x to 8 x magnification and thus cover the range between magnifying spectacles and operation microscopes and even come into the latter range. The following versions are available for ocular surgery: 1. Mounted on headband. 2. Fastened to the frame in front of the lenses. 3. Cemented into drilled holes in the lenses with additional horizontal connection of the magnifying systems. 4. Cemented into drilled holes in the lenses without horizontal connection. These versions offer different advantages and are selected according to the particular field of application and the refraction of the surgeon. With these compact and easily transportable stereomicroscopic systems the surgeon has complete freedom of movement being able to select the most convenient position at any stage of the examination or operation. Further applications of such stereomicroscopic spectacles beyond the field of ophthalmic surgery are mentioned.

  5. Space Flight-Induced Intracranial Hypertension: An Ophthalmic Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Charles Robert; Mader, Thomas H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Although physiologic and pathologic changes associated with microgravity exposure have been studied extensively, the effect of this environment on the eye is largely unknown. Over the last several years, NASA s Space Medicine Division has documented astronauts presenting with varying degrees of disc edema, globe flattening, choroidal folds, cotton wool spots, and hyperopic shifts after long-duration space flight. Methods: Before and after long-duration space flight, six astronauts underwent complete eye examinations to include cycloplegic and/or manifest refraction and fundus photography. Five of these astronauts had Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) performed following their missions. Results: Following exposure to space flight of approximately 6-months duration, six astronauts had neuro-ophthalmic findings. These consisted of disc edema in four astronauts, globe flattening in four astronauts, choroidal folds in four astronauts, cotton wool spots in three astronauts, nerve fiber layer thickening by OCT in five astronauts, and decreased near vision in five astronauts. Four of the astronauts with near vision complaints had a hyperopic shift equal to or greater than + 0.50D between pre- and post-mission spherical equivalent refraction in one or both eyes (range +0.50D to +1.50D). These same four had globe flattening by MRI. Conclusions: The findings we describe may have resulted from a rise in intracranial pressure caused by microgravity fluid shifts, and could represent parts of a spectrum of ocular and cerebral responses to extended microgravity.

  6. Automated illumination control for use in ophthalmic endoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blessing, Patrick; Niederer, Peter F.; Rol, Pascal O.; Hafliger, J.

    2000-05-01

    In endoscopic ophthalmic procedures care has to be exercised that the retina is protected from overexposure. Accordingly, it is advantageous if the endoscope is equipped with a stable and reliable automatic illumination control. To this end, an illumination control system has been devised, which consists of a mechanical iris and a digital control algorithm. The iris is designed such that it influences neither the spectral composition of the lightsource nor its aperture. It is furthermore linear with respect to the light intensity such that a fast control algorithm based on the data of a digital video camera used for observation purposes can be implemented. In order that no false signals are induced from specular reflections caused, e.g., by operating tools held in front of the camera, the control algorithm is designed such that reflections and true overexposure are distinguished from each other. For this purpose, the field of view is subdivided into small sectors and a statistical evaluation is made. The application under realistic conditions shows that the unit provides the user with a well illuminated image while the retina is reliably protected from overexposure.

  7. New developments in ophthalmic coatings on plastic lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eigenmann, H. P.; Lobsiger, W.; Suter, R.

    1998-02-01

    The origin of vision aids such as eyeglasses, magnifying glasses, telescopes and so forth lies in the distant past and cannot be dated with precision. However, such aids certainly came into use at different times in different cultures. Early portraits and other pictures prove to a certainty, however, that remarkable well-made spectacles were in use by the end of the Middle Ages. Glass was employed for optical lenses from the very beginning, and quality improved continuously with advances in glassmaking and polishing techniques. Starting around 1970, this continuing development received new impetus from the introduction of plastics as a new material for ophthalmic lenses. Rapid progress in plastics chemistry had epoch-making effects on lens technology, and today a wide variety of materials such as CR39, PMMA and polycarbonates, with refractive indices ranging from 1.52 to 1.65, are used for this purpose. Eyeglasses have long been important on other grounds than vision correction; people wear them as adornment, because they are fashionable, to express their personality, and for other reasons. This dramatic history shows no signs of coming to an end, and more innovations are definitely ahead.

  8. Optical testing of progressive ophthalmic glasses based on galvo mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuerwald, S.; Schmitt, R.

    2014-03-01

    In production of ophthalmic freeform optics like progressive eyeglasses, the specimens are tested according to a standardized method which is based on the measurement of the vertex power on usually less than 10 points. For a better quality management and thus to ensure more reliable and valid tests, a more comprehensive measurement approach is required. For Shack Hartmann Sensors (SHS) the dynamic range is defined by the number of micro-lenses and the resolution of the imaging sensor. Here, we present an approach for measuring wavefronts with increased dynamic range and lateral resolution by the use of a scanning procedure. Therefore, the proposed innovative setup is based on galvo mirrors that are capable of measuring the vertex power with a lateral resolution below one millimeter since this is sufficient for a functional test of progressive eyeglasses. Expressed in a more abstract way, the concept is based on a selection and thereby encoding of single sub-apertures of the wave front under test. This allows measuring the wave fronts slope consecutively in a scanning procedure. The use of high precision galvo systems allows a lateral resolution below one millimeter as well as a significant fast scanning ability. The measurement concept and performance of this method will be demonstrated for different spherical and freeformed specimens like progressive eye glasses. Furthermore, approaches for calibration of the measurement system will be characterized and the optical design of the detector will be discussed.

  9. Emotional Side Effects

    MedlinePlus

    ... En Español Category Treatment & Support Treatments and Side Effects Coping with Cancer In this section you can ... Finding and Paying for Treatment Treatments and Side Effects Survivorship: During and After Treatment Caregivers and Family ...

  10. Side Effects (Management)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer is Treated Side Effects Dating, Sex, and Reproduction Advanced Cancer For Children For Teens For Young ... Cancer is Treated Side Effects Dating, Sex, and Reproduction Advanced Cancer For Children For Teens For Young ...

  11. Unusual origin of the left ophthalmic artery from the basilar trunk.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Rodrigo; Choi, In Sup; Sordo, Juan Gabriel; Giacaman, Pablo; Badilla, Lautaro; Bravo, Eduardo; Echeverria, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    The formation of the ophthalmic artery (OA) is a complex process with two different proposed embryological steps for its development. Several anatomical variants have been described. We present a very unusual origin of the ophthalmic artery from the basilar trunk, in a 45-year-old male with a history of pontine hemorrhagic stroke. MRI and CTA showed evidence of previous hemorrhage in the pons and several intracranial arterial dysplastic dilatations. DSA confirmed several fusiform dilatations of the basilar trunk. In the left ICA, no ophthalmic artery was seen arising from the carotid siphon. The left ophthalmic artery arises from the basilar trunk and runs lateral to the cavernous sinus through the middle cranial fossa, entering the left orbit at the superior orbital fissure. The patient was treated conservatively. Two main theories for this anomaly are known, one from Lasjaunias and the other from Paget. To our knowledge, this basilar origin of the OA has only been described three times in the literature. For its origin, we propose a partial persistence of the trigeminal artery together with a dominance of the dorsal ophthalmic artery.

  12. Surgical glove perforation among nurses in ophthalmic surgery: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Shek, Karen Mei-Yan; Chau, Janita Pak-Chun

    2014-04-01

    Many of the ophthalmic surgical instruments are extremely fine and sharp. Due to the dim light environment required for ophthalmic surgical procedures, the passing of sharp instruments among surgeons and scrub nurses also poses a risk for glove perforations. A case-control study was performed to determine the number and site of perforations in the surgical gloves used by a group of scrub nurses during ophthalmic surgery. All six nurses working in an eye and refractive surgery centre in Hong Kong participated in the study. A total of 100 (50 pairs) used surgical gloves were collected following 50 ophthalmic surgeries. Fifty pairs of new surgical gloves were also collected. Every collected surgical glove underwent the water leak test. The surgical procedure perforation rate was 8%, and none of the perforations were detected by the scrub nurses. No perforations were found in any unused gloves. The findings indicate that glove perforations for scrub nurses during ophthalmic surgery do occur and mostly go unnoticed. Future studies should continue to explore factors contributing to surgical glove perforation.

  13. 78 FR 27971 - Determination That REV-EYES (Dapiprazole Hydrochloride Ophthalmic Solution), 0.5%, Was Not...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination That REV-EYES (Dapiprazole Hydrochloride... determined that REV-EYES (dapiprazole hydrochloride ophthalmic solution), 0.5%, was not withdrawn from sale... refer to a listed drug. REV-EYES (dapiprazole hydrochloride ophthalmic solution), 0.5%, is the...

  14. Ultrahigh speed spectral/Fourier domain ophthalmic OCT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potsaid, Benjamin; Gorczynska, Iwona; Srinivasan, Vivek J.; Chen, Yueli; Liu, Jonathan; Jiang, James; Cable, Alex; Duker, Jay S.; Fujimoto, James G.

    2009-02-01

    Ultrahigh speed spectral / Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging using a CMOS line scan camera with acquisition rates of 70,000 - 312,500 axial scans per second is investigated. Several design configurations are presented to illustrate trade-offs between acquisition speed, sensitivity, resolution and sensitivity roll-off performance. We demonstrate: extended imaging range and improved sensitivity roll-off at 70,000 axial scans per second , high speed and ultrahigh resolution imaging at 106,382 axial scans per second, and ultrahigh speed imaging at 250,000-312,500 axial scans per second. Each configuration is characterized through optical testing and the trade-offs demonstrated with in vivo imaging of the fovea and optic disk in the human retina. OCT fundus images constructed from 3D-OCT data acquired at 250,000 axial scans per second have no noticeable discontinuity of retinal features and show that there are minimal motion artifacts. The fine structures of the lamina cribrosa can be seen. Long cross sectional scans are acquired at 70,000 axial scans per second for imaging large areas of the retina, including the fovea and optic disk. Rapid repeated imaging of a small volume (4D-OCT) enables time resolved visualization of the capillary network surrounding the INL and may show individual red blood cells. The results of this study suggest that high speed CMOS cameras can achieve a significant improvement in performance for ophthalmic imaging. This promises to have a powerful impact in clinical applications by improving early diagnosis, reproducibility of measurements and enabling more sensitive assessment of disease progression or response to therapy.

  15. Transvenous embolization of a dural carotid-cavernous sinus fistula via the inferior ophthalmic vein.

    PubMed

    Michels, Kevin S; Ng, John D; Falardeau, Julie; Roberts, Warren G; Petersen, Bryan; Nesbit, Gary M; Barnwell, Stanley L

    2007-01-01

    A 76-year-old woman presented with an acute onset of right periocular pain, diplopia, ocular injection, progressive proptosis, and periocular swelling. She had an unremarkable past medical history, and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and complete blood count were normal. A carotid-cavernous sinus fistula was suspected, and an MRI demonstrated enlargement of the superior ophthalmic vein posterior to the globe and enlargement of the inferior ophthalmic vein throughout its entire course. Cerebral arteriography demonstrated a dural cavernous sinus fistula. The inferior ophthalmic vein was accessed via the inferonasal orbital space and was catheterized for delivery of multiple platinum coils to the cavernous sinus fistula. Follow-up venograms demonstrated occlusion of the fistula. At 2-month follow-up, there was a residual sixth nerve palsy and resolution of symptoms, including proptosis and periocular swelling.

  16. Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery: Indications and Complications in the Ophthalmic Field

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mujaini, Abdullah; Wali, Upender; Alkhabori, Mazin

    2009-01-01

    Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (FESS) is a highly sophisticated type of surgery, which has revolutionized the surgical management of chronic sinus diseases. In the ophthalmic field, FESS plays a crucial role in the management of a few conditions, but not without risks. Ophthalmic complications associated with FESS are well documented. They mainly occur due to the shared common anatomic areas between ophthalmology and otolaryngology. Ophthalmic complications can vary in severity from very trivial cases such as localized hematoma collection, which is not very problematic to very devastating cases, such as optic nerve damage, which can lead to complete blindness. In order to minimize such complications, safety measures need to be considered prio to the surgery, these include; precise knowledge of detailed anatomy, the operating surgeon’s ability to interpret precisely the para nasal sinus CT scan and experienced procedural surgical skills. PMID:22334848

  17. Real-time and static in vivo ophthalmic imaging by spectral optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojtkowski, Maciej; Bajraszewski, Tomasz; Targowski, Piotr; Kowalczyk, Andrzej

    2004-07-01

    Fast Spectral Optical Coherence Tomography (SOCT) technique is used to perform cross sectional and three-dimensional ophthalmic images. Static, real-time and 3-D in vivo images of the human cornea, lens, iris, corneo-scleral junction, retinal layers, optic disc and macula lutea are presented. The ophthalmic application of SOCT is promising because this technique ensures fast acquisition with relatively low optical power of incident light. All demonstrated images are obtained with the aid of SOCT instrument, which was constructed in the optical laboratory of medical physics group at Nicolaus Copernicus University (Torun, Poland). What is to our knowledge there are the first good quality (>90dB sensitivity) ophthalmic OCT images obtained by technique, which is different than time domain OCT.

  18. Ion-activated in situ gelling systems for sustained ophthalmic delivery of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Balasubramaniam, J; Pandit, J K

    2003-01-01

    The poor bioavailability and therapeutic response exhibited by the conventional ophthalmic solutions due to precorneal elimination of the drug may be overcome by the use of in situ gel forming systems that are instilled as drops into the eye and undergo a sol-gel transition in the cul-de-sac. Our present work describes the formulation and evaluation of an ophthalmic delivery system of an antibacterial agent, CPH, based on the concept of ion-activated in situ gelation. Gelrite gellan gum, a novel ophthalmic vehicle that gels in the presence of mono or divalent cations, present in the lacrimal fluid was used alone and in combinations with sodium alginate as the gelling agent. The developed formulations were therapeutically efficacious and provided sustained release of the drug over an 8-hr period in vitro.

  19. Persistent corneal epithelial defect responding to rebamipide ophthalmic solution in a patient with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Yusuke; Toshida, Hiroshi; Matsuzaki, Yusuke; Matsui, Asaki; Ohta, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Objective Rebamipide ophthalmic suspension was developed for the treatment of dry eyes and for other corneal diseases, promoting the secretion of both mucin in tear fluid and membrane-associated mucin, increasing the number of goblet cells, and restoring the barrier function of the corneal epithelium. We report a case of a persistent corneal epithelial defect in a patient with diabetes treated with topical application of rebamipide ophthalmic suspension. Case presentation A 73-year-old woman had a history of type 2 diabetes for 35 years and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy for 23 years. She presented to our department with discharge and ophthalmalgia in the left eye. A corneal ulcer was detected, and culture of corneal scrapings was performed, with Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus canis being isolated. The infection was treated with levofloxacin eye drops and ofloxacin ophthalmic ointment based on the sensitivity profile of the isolate. However, a corneal epithelial defect persisted for approximately 2 months despite continuing treatment with 0.1% hyaluronic acid ophthalmic suspension and 0.3% ofloxacin eye ointment. Her hemoglobin A1c was 7.3%. The persistent corneal epithelial defect showed improvement at 2 weeks after treatment with rebamipide unit dose 2% ophthalmic suspension, and it did not recur even when vitrectomy was subsequently performed for vitreous hemorrhage due to progression of diabetic retinopathy. Conclusion This is the first report about efficacy of rebamipide unit dose 2% ophthalmic suspension for presenting persistent corneal epithelial defect in a patient with diabetes. In the present case, the suggested mechanisms are the following: improving the corneal barrier function, stabilization of mucin on the keratoconjunctival epithelium, and improving the wettability and stability of the tear film, which resulted in the promotion of healing of the corneal epithelial defect in a short time period. PMID:27257394

  20. Radiation retinopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Zamber, R W; Kinyoun, J L

    1992-01-01

    Radiation therapy is effective against many cancerous and noncancerous disease processes. As with other therapeutics, side effects must be anticipated, recognized, and managed appropriately. Radiation retinopathy is a vision-threatening complication of ocular, orbital, periorbital, facial, nasopharyngeal, and cranial irradiation. Factors that appear important in the pathogenesis of radiation retinopathy include total radiation dosage, fraction size, concomitant chemotherapy, and preexisting vascular disorders. Clinical manifestations of the disorder include macular edema and nonproliferative and proliferative retinopathy, similar to changes seen in diabetic retinopathy. Argon laser photocoagulation has proved efficacious for managing macular edema and fibrovascular proliferation in some of these patients. Ongoing basic laboratory and clinical research efforts have led to a better understanding of the pathogenesis, natural history, and treatment response of radiation retinopathy. The ultimate goal of this knowledge is to improve the prevention, recognition, and management of this vision-threatening complication. Images PMID:1441494

  1. Radiation | Smokefree.gov

    Cancer.gov

    About half of all cancer patients get radiation therapy. This treatment can damage healthy cells, which can cause uncomfortable side effects. Use this action deck to get information on common symptoms that affect people going through radiation and learn how to manage them. The side effects of radiation may depend on the part of your body being treated. If you don’t see the symptom cards that describe what you are going through, try building your own deck.

  2. Ophthalmic applicators: an overview of calibrations following the change to SI units.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Shannon M; Micka, John A; DeWerd, Larry A

    2009-05-01

    Since the NIST dose to water standard for 90Sr/90Y ophthalmic applicators was introduced, numerous sources have undergone calibration either at NIST or at the University of Wisconsin Accredited Dosimetry Calibration Laboratory (UWADCL). From 1997 to 2008, 222 of these beta-emitting sources were calibrated at the UWADCL, and prior reference source strength values were available for 149 of these sources. A survey of UWADCL ophthalmic applicator calibrations is presented here, demonstrating an average discrepancy of -19% with a standard deviation of +/- 16% between prior reference values and the NIST-traceable UWADCL absorbed dose to water calibrations. Values ranged from -49% to +42%.

  3. Anatomy of the Ophthalmic Artery: A Review concerning Its Modern Surgical and Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Michalinos, Adamantios; Zogana, Sofia; Kotsiomitis, Evangelos; Mazarakis, Antonios; Troupis, Theodore

    2015-01-01

    Anatomy of ophthalmic artery has been thoroughly studied and reviewed in many anatomical and surgical textbooks and papers. Issues of interest are its intracranial and extracranial course, its branches, its importance for vision, and its interaction with various intracranial pathologies. Improvement of our understanding about pathophysiology of certain diseases like aneurysm formation, central retinal artery occlusion, and retinoblastoma and also invention of new therapeutic modalities like superselective catheterization, intra-arterial fibrinolysis, and intra-arterial chemotherapy necessitate a reappraisal of its anatomy from a clinical point of view. The aim of this review is to examine clinical anatomy of ophthalmic artery and correlate it with new diagnostic and therapeutic applications. PMID:26635976

  4. Side Effects of Chemotherapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... effects are being addressed. Many of these side effects, especially fever and inability to keep food/drink down, need to be addressed right away – don’t wait until your next appointment to tell your provider Terms ... from this article: Side Effect A problem that occurs when treatment affects tissues ...

  5. Medications and Side Effects

    MedlinePlus

    ... medication without first talking with your doctor. SIDE EFFECT Lack of energy/ fatigue/ sleepiness Dry mouth Weight gain ... 16 © 2004 Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance SIDE ... of day take medication is taken. I Go to sleep and wake up at the same time every ...

  6. [Side effects of antibiotics].

    PubMed

    Hoigné, R

    1975-03-01

    The clinically severe and newer forms of antibiotic side effects are reviewed. The study covers the following antibiotics: penicillins, cephalosporins, aminoglycosides and polymyxins, tetracyclines, chloramphenicol and thiamphenicol, macrolides and lincomycin, rifamycins and sulfonamides. Special reference is made to (1) hematologic side effects, and (2) general evaluation of drug reactions. The relationship between reaction time and clinical symptoms is of particular practical significance.

  7. Efficacy of Detergent and Water Versus Bleach for the Disinfection of Direct Contact Ophthalmic Lenses

    PubMed Central

    Abbey, Ashkan M.; Gregori, Ninel Z.; Surapaneni, Krishna; Miller, Darlene

    2014-01-01

    Purpose While manufacturers recommend cleaning ophthalmic lenses with detergent and water and then a specific disinfectant, disinfectants are rarely used in ophthalmic practices. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the efficacy of detergent and water versus bleach, a recommended disinfectant, to eliminate common ocular bacteria and viruses from ophthalmic lenses. Methods Three bacterial strains (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Corynebacterium straitum, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and two viral strains (adenovirus and herpes simplex virus (HSV) type-1) were individually inoculated to 20 gonioscopy and laser lenses. Lenses were washed with detergent and water and then disinfected with 10% bleach. All lenses were cultured after inoculation, after detergent and water, and after the bleach. Bacterial cultures in thioglycollate broth were observed for 3 weeks and viral cultures for 2 weeks. The presence of viruses was also detected by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results All 20 lenses inoculated with Staphylococcus epidermidis, Corynebacterium straitum, adenovirus, and HSV-1 showed growth after inoculation, but no growth after detergent/water and after the bleach. All lenses showed positive HSV and adenovirus PCR after inoculation and negative PCR after detergent/water and after bleach. All MRSA contaminated lenses showed growth after inoculation and no growth after detergent and water. However, one lens showed positive growth after bleach. Conclusions Cleaning with detergent and water appeared to effectively eliminate bacteria and viruses from the surface of contaminated ophthalmic lenses. Further studies are warranted to design practical disinfection protocols that minimize lens damage. PMID:24747806

  8. Comparative analysis of image classification methods for automatic diagnosis of ophthalmic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liming; Zhang, Kai; Liu, Xiyang; Long, Erping; Jiang, Jiewei; An, Yingying; Zhang, Jia; Liu, Zhenzhen; Lin, Zhuoling; Li, Xiaoyan; Chen, Jingjing; Cao, Qianzhong; Li, Jing; Wu, Xiaohang; Wang, Dongni; Li, Wangting; Lin, Haotian

    2017-01-01

    There are many image classification methods, but it remains unclear which methods are most helpful for analyzing and intelligently identifying ophthalmic images. We select representative slit-lamp images which show the complexity of ocular images as research material to compare image classification algorithms for diagnosing ophthalmic diseases. To facilitate this study, some feature extraction algorithms and classifiers are combined to automatic diagnose pediatric cataract with same dataset and then their performance are compared using multiple criteria. This comparative study reveals the general characteristics of the existing methods for automatic identification of ophthalmic images and provides new insights into the strengths and shortcomings of these methods. The relevant methods (local binary pattern +SVMs, wavelet transformation +SVMs) which achieve an average accuracy of 87% and can be adopted in specific situations to aid doctors in preliminarily disease screening. Furthermore, some methods requiring fewer computational resources and less time could be applied in remote places or mobile devices to assist individuals in understanding the condition of their body. In addition, it would be helpful to accelerate the development of innovative approaches and to apply these methods to assist doctors in diagnosing ophthalmic disease.

  9. Internet-based tools to observe progressive changes in ophthalmic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eikelboom, Robert H.; Barry, Christopher J.; Yogesan, Kanagasingam

    2000-04-01

    Imaging plays a vital role in the diagnosis and recording of ophthalmic disease and pathology. Of particular interest to ophthalmologists is disease progression. Using conventional viewing techniques this is often difficult to determine. This paper discusses and demonstrates some simple Internet tools that can be used to aid in the dynamic visualization of changes in photographs of the retina and cornea.

  10. Comparative analysis of image classification methods for automatic diagnosis of ophthalmic images

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liming; Zhang, Kai; Liu, Xiyang; Long, Erping; Jiang, Jiewei; An, Yingying; Zhang, Jia; Liu, Zhenzhen; Lin, Zhuoling; Li, Xiaoyan; Chen, Jingjing; Cao, Qianzhong; Li, Jing; Wu, Xiaohang; Wang, Dongni; Li, Wangting; Lin, Haotian

    2017-01-01

    There are many image classification methods, but it remains unclear which methods are most helpful for analyzing and intelligently identifying ophthalmic images. We select representative slit-lamp images which show the complexity of ocular images as research material to compare image classification algorithms for diagnosing ophthalmic diseases. To facilitate this study, some feature extraction algorithms and classifiers are combined to automatic diagnose pediatric cataract with same dataset and then their performance are compared using multiple criteria. This comparative study reveals the general characteristics of the existing methods for automatic identification of ophthalmic images and provides new insights into the strengths and shortcomings of these methods. The relevant methods (local binary pattern +SVMs, wavelet transformation +SVMs) which achieve an average accuracy of 87% and can be adopted in specific situations to aid doctors in preliminarily disease screening. Furthermore, some methods requiring fewer computational resources and less time could be applied in remote places or mobile devices to assist individuals in understanding the condition of their body. In addition, it would be helpful to accelerate the development of innovative approaches and to apply these methods to assist doctors in diagnosing ophthalmic disease. PMID:28139688

  11. 76 FR 72619 - Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Eprinomectin

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 524 Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Eprinomectin AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule; technical amendment. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations...

  12. Characterization of novel microsphere chain fiber optic tips for potential use in ophthalmic laser surgery.

    PubMed

    Hutchens, Thomas C; Darafsheh, Arash; Fardad, Amir; Antoszyk, Andrew N; Ying, Howard S; Astratov, Vasily N; Fried, Nathaniel M

    2012-06-01

    Ophthalmic surgery may benefit from use of more precise fiber delivery systems during laser surgery. Some current ophthalmic surgical techniques rely on tedious mechanical dissection of tissue layers. In this study, chains of sapphire microspheres integrated into a hollow waveguide distal tip are used for erbium:YAG laser ablation studies in contact mode with ophthalmic tissues, ex vivo. The laser's short optical penetration depth combined with the small spot diameters achieved with this fiber probe may provide more precise tissue removal. One-, three-, and five-microsphere chain structures were characterized, resulting in FWHM diameters of 67, 32, and 30 μm in air, respectively, with beam profiles comparable to simulations. Single Er:YAG pulses of 0.1 mJ and 75-μs duration produced ablation craters with average diameters of 44, 30, and 17 μm and depths of 26, 10, and 8 μm, for one-, three-, and five-sphere structures, respectively. Microsphere chains produced spatial filtering of the multimode Er:YAG laser beam and fiber, providing spot diameters not otherwise available with conventional fiber systems. Because of the extremely shallow treatment depth, compact focused beam, and contact mode operation, this probe may have potential for use in dissecting epiretinal membranes and other ophthalmic tissues without damaging adjacent retinal tissue.

  13. Review of Azithromycin Ophthalmic 1% Solution (AzaSite®) for the Treatment of Ocular Infections

    PubMed Central

    Opitz, Dominick L.; Harthan, Jennifer S.

    2012-01-01

    AzaSite® (azithromomycin 1.0%) ophthalmic solution was approved in 2007 by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as the first commercially available formulation of ophthalmic azithromycin for the treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis. AzaSite® utilizes a vehicle delivery system called DuraSite®, which stabilizes and sustains the release of azithromycin to the ocular surface, leading to a longer drug residence time, less frequent dosing, and an increase in patient compliance. AzaSite® is a broad spectrum antibiotic, effective against Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and atypical bacteria. AzaSite® has been studied for the treatment of ocular conditions beyond its clinical indication. A number of clinical studies have evaluated its efficacy and safety in the management of ocular conditions such as bacterial conjunctivitis and blepharitis on both the pediatric and adult populations. This article aims to evaluate the peer-reviewed published literature on the use of azithromycin 1.0% ophthalmic for current and possible future ophthalmic uses. PMID:23650453

  14. Electrophysiological characterization of tight junctional pathway of rabbit cornea treated with ophthalmic ingredients.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Tadahiro; Yamada, Mikiko; Teshima, Mugen; Nakashima, Mikiro; To, Hideto; Ichikawa, Nobuhiro; Sasaki, Hitoshi

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the continuous and real-time influence of ophthalmic ingredients on rabbit cornea by monitoring electrophysiological characteristics. The tight junctional permeabilities of FITC-dextran 4,400 (FD-4) was also determined through the cornea in the presence of ophthalmic ingredients. Intact cornea showed approximately one k-ohmxcm(2) of transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and extremely low permeability of FD-4. The ophthalmic ingredients used in the present study were benzalkonium chloride (BK; 0.002%, 0.01%, 0.05%), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA; 0.5%), capric acid (C10; 0.25%), saponin (SP; 0.1%), taurocholic acid (TA; 1.0%) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS; 0.01%). They were previously reported to be effective on corneal penetrations of various drugs at those concentrations without severe toxicity. These ingredients decreased TEER and increased corneal permeability of FD-4. BK reduced TEER in a concentration-dependent manner. There was a significant correlation (gamma=0.860) between the permeability coefficient (Papp) of FD-4 and conductance (Gm), which is the reciprocal value of TEER. It was also indicated that Papp and Gm have a relationship with the corneal cytotoxicity of the ingredients. In conclusion, an electrophysiological method using isolated cornea was very useful to determine the continuous and real-time influence of ophthalmic ingredients on the cornea. In this method, electrophysiological conductance must be able to predict corneal tight junction permeability and the corneal cytotoxicity of ingredients.

  15. Genotype, B-vitamin status, and androgens affect spaceflight-induced ophthalmic changes.

    PubMed

    Zwart, Sara R; Gregory, Jesse F; Zeisel, Steven H; Gibson, Charles R; Mader, Thomas H; Kinchen, Jason M; Ueland, Per M; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Heer, Martina A; Smith, Scott M

    2016-01-01

    Ophthalmic changes have occurred in a subset of astronauts on International Space Station missions. Visual deterioration is considered the greatest human health risk of spaceflight. Affected astronauts exhibit higher concentrations of 1-carbon metabolites (e.g., homocysteine) before flight. We hypothesized that genetic variations in 1-carbon metabolism genes contribute to susceptibility to ophthalmic changes in astronauts. We investigated 5 polymorphisms in the methionine synthase reductase (MTRR), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT), and cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) genes and their association with ophthalmic changes after flight in 49 astronauts. The number of G alleles of MTRR 66 and C alleles of SHMT1 1420 both contributed to the odds of visual disturbances. Preflight dehydroepiandrosterone was positively associated with cotton wool spots, and serum testosterone response during flight was associated with refractive change. Block regression showed that B-vitamin status and genetics were significant predictors of many of the ophthalmic outcomes that we observed. In one example, genetics trended toward improving (P = 0.10) and B-vitamin status significantly improved (P < 0.001) the predictive model for refractive change after flight. We document an association between MTRR 66 and SHMT1 1420 polymorphisms and spaceflight-induced vision changes. This line of research could lead to therapeutic options for both space travelers and terrestrial patients.

  16. [Semax in the treatment of glaucomatous optic neuropathy in patients with normalized ophthalmic tone].

    PubMed

    Kurysheva, N I; Shpak, A A; Ioĭleva, E E; Galanter, L I; Nagornova, N D; Shubina, N Iu; Shlyshalova, N N

    2001-01-01

    A complex of neuroprotective therapy, including a new Russian neuropeptide semax, was used in the treatment of glaucoma patients with normalized ophthalmic tone. Electrophysiological and computer methods of examination demonstrated the advantages of new therapy over traditional neuroprotective treatment for glaucoma. The efficiency is due to pathogenetic activity of semax possessing both neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects.

  17. Ophthalmic dysfunction in a community-based sample: influence of race/ethnicity.

    PubMed Central

    Jean-Louis, Girardin; Zizi, Ferdinand; Dweck, Monica; McKenzie, Dexter; Lazzaro, Douglass R.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few studies have characterized ethnic variations in standard ophthalmic measures. We tested the hypothesis that nerve fiber layer thickness would show characteristic differences between white and black individuals. We also examined whether ophthalmic measures would show intraethnic differences. METHODS: Seventy participants (mean age: 68.27+/- 5.97 years; blacks: 59% and whites: 41%) were recruited from Brooklyn communities. Sociodemographic and medical data were obtained, and eligible volunteers underwent eye examinations at SUNY Downstate Medical Center. RESULTS: ANCOVA showed that blacks were characterized by significantly worse visual acuity (F=4.14, p=0.05), larger horizontal and vertical cup-to-disk ratios (F=4.53, p=0.04; F=6.08, p=0.02, respectively), and thinner nerve fiber layer than their white counterparts (F=22.61, p=0.009). Within the black ethnicity itself, Caribbean Americans showed significantly thinner nerve fiber layer than did African Americans (F=7.52, p=0.01). CONCLUSION: Findings are consistent with previous reports of racial/ethnic differences in ophthalmic measures. Moreover, they suggest that black ethnicity may not be homogeneous regarding ophthalmic variables, particularly when examining nerve fiber layer thickness. Studies investigating ethnic differences in eye diseases should examine intragroup factors that could influence interpretation of clinical data. PMID:17366950

  18. Can ophthalmic drops cause central nervous system depression and cardiogenic shock in infants?

    PubMed

    Kiryazov, Kiril; Stefova, Mariyka; Iotova, Violeta

    2013-11-01

    Topical ocular medications have been widely prescribed and successfully used in children for the management of different ophthalmic disorders. We present 2 infants admitted to our pediatric intensive care unit who developed altered state of consciousness, hypotonia, hypothermia, bradycardia, and apnea after instillation of ophthalmic drops. The second infant also had hypotension and broncho-obstruction. Few days before admission, both infants were diagnosed with congenital glaucoma, and topical antiglaucoma treatment was initiated. Ophthalmic drops with brimonidine and brinzolamide were prescribed to both patients, whereas the second infant also received topical timolol. After elimination of other possible causes, the diagnosis of intoxication with topical antiglaucoma medications was established. After discontinuation of eye drops and vigorous symptomatic treatment, both infants recovered without sequels. Topically applied ophthalmic drops may cause life-threatening systemic adverse effects in infants, such as central nervous system depression and cardiogenic shock. Moreover, these 2 patients illustrate the importance of careful evaluation of all topical medications and their consideration as possible causes of the derangements in critically ill infants.

  19. Vitamin B2-sensitised photooxidation of the ophthalmic drugs Timolol and Pindolol: kinetics and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Criado, Susana; García, Norman A

    2004-01-01

    The kinetics and mechanistic aspects of the riboflavin-photosensitised oxidation of the topically administrable ophthalmic drugs Timolol (Tim) and Pindolol (Pin) were investigated in water-MeOH (9:1, v/v) solution employing light of wavelength > 400 nm. riboflavin, belonging to the vitamin B(2) complex, is a known human endogenous photosensitiser. The irradiation of riboflavin in the presence of ophthalmic drugs triggers a complex picture of competitive reactions which produces the photodegradation of both the drugs and the pigment itself. The mechanism was elucidated employing stationary photolysis, polarographic detection of dissolved oxygen, stationary and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, and laser flash photolysis. Ophthalmic drugs quench riboflavin-excited singlet and triplet states. From the quenching of excited triplet riboflavin, the semireduced form of the pigment is generated, through an electron transfer process from the drug, with the subsequent production of superoxide anion radical (O(2)(*-)) by reaction with dissolved molecular oxygen. Through the interaction of dissolved oxygen with excited triplet riboflavin, the species singlet oxygen (O(2)((1)Delta(g))) is also generated to a lesser extent. Both O(2)(*-) and O(2)((1)Delta(g)) induce photodegradation of ophthalmic drugs, Tim being approximately 3-fold more easily photooxidisable than Pin, as estimated by oxygen consumption experiments.

  20. Generalized ray tracing method for the calculation of the peripheral refraction induced by an ophthalmic lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojo, Pilar; Royo, Santiago; Caum, Jesus; Ramírez, Jorge; Madariaga, Ines

    2015-02-01

    Peripheral refraction, the refractive error present outside the main direction of gaze, has lately attracted interest due to its alleged relationship with the progression of myopia. The ray tracing procedures involved in its calculation need to follow an approach different from those used in conventional ophthalmic lens design, where refractive errors are compensated only in the main direction of gaze. We present a methodology for the evaluation of the peripheral refractive error in ophthalmic lenses, adapting the conventional generalized ray tracing approach to the requirements of the evaluation of peripheral refraction. The nodal point of the eye and a retinal conjugate surface will be used to evaluate the three-dimensional distribution of refractive error around the fovea. The proposed approach enables us to calculate the three-dimensional peripheral refraction induced by any ophthalmic lens at any direction of gaze and to personalize the lens design to the requirements of the user. The complete evaluation process for a given user prescribed with a -5.76D ophthalmic lens for foveal vision is detailed, and comparative results obtained when the geometry of the lens is modified and when the central refractive error is over- or undercorrected. The methodology is also applied for an emmetropic eye to show its application for refractive errors other than myopia.

  1. 77 FR 8262 - Dermatologic and Ophthalmic Drugs Advisory Committee; Amendment of Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Dermatologic and Ophthalmic Drugs Advisory Committee; Amendment of Notice AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. The Food and Drug... portion of the meeting (Topic 2), relating to the appropriateness of marketing a single bottle of...

  2. 76 FR 81806 - Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Ivermectin Topical Solution

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... December 29, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: John K. Harshman, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV... for Veterinary Medicine, 21 CFR part 524 is amended as follows: PART 524--OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL.... Vaughn, Director, Office of New Animal Drug Evaluation, Center for Veterinary Medicine. BILLING CODE...

  3. Characterization of novel microsphere chain fiber optic tips for potential use in ophthalmic laser surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hutchens, Thomas C.; Darafsheh, Arash; Fardad, Amir; Antoszyk, Andrew N.; Ying, Howard S.; Astratov, Vasily N.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. Ophthalmic surgery may benefit from use of more precise fiber delivery systems during laser surgery. Some current ophthalmic surgical techniques rely on tedious mechanical dissection of tissue layers. In this study, chains of sapphire microspheres integrated into a hollow waveguide distal tip are used for erbium:YAG laser ablation studies in contact mode with ophthalmic tissues, ex vivo. The laser’s short optical penetration depth combined with the small spot diameters achieved with this fiber probe may provide more precise tissue removal. One-, three-, and five-microsphere chain structures were characterized, resulting in FWHM diameters of 67, 32, and 30 μm in air, respectively, with beam profiles comparable to simulations. Single Er:YAG pulses of 0.1 mJ and 75-μs duration produced ablation craters with average diameters of 44, 30, and 17 μm and depths of 26, 10, and 8 μm, for one-, three-, and five-sphere structures, respectively. Microsphere chains produced spatial filtering of the multimode Er:YAG laser beam and fiber, providing spot diameters not otherwise available with conventional fiber systems. Because of the extremely shallow treatment depth, compact focused beam, and contact mode operation, this probe may have potential for use in dissecting epiretinal membranes and other ophthalmic tissues without damaging adjacent retinal tissue. PMID:22734790

  4. Characterization of novel microsphere chain fiber optic tips for potential use in ophthalmic laser surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchens, Thomas C.; Darafsheh, Arash; Fardad, Amir; Antoszyk, Andrew N.; Ying, Howard S.; Astratov, Vasily N.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2012-06-01

    Ophthalmic surgery may benefit from use of more precise fiber delivery systems during laser surgery. Some current ophthalmic surgical techniques rely on tedious mechanical dissection of tissue layers. In this study, chains of sapphire microspheres integrated into a hollow waveguide distal tip are used for erbium:YAG laser ablation studies in contact mode with ophthalmic tissues, ex vivo. The laser's short optical penetration depth combined with the small spot diameters achieved with this fiber probe may provide more precise tissue removal. One-, three-, and five-microsphere chain structures were characterized, resulting in FWHM diameters of 67, 32, and 30 μm in air, respectively, with beam profiles comparable to simulations. Single Er:YAG pulses of 0.1 mJ and 75-μs duration produced ablation craters with average diameters of 44, 30, and 17 μm and depths of 26, 10, and 8 μm, for one-, three-, and five-sphere structures, respectively. Microsphere chains produced spatial filtering of the multimode Er:YAG laser beam and fiber, providing spot diameters not otherwise available with conventional fiber systems. Because of the extremely shallow treatment depth, compact focused beam, and contact mode operation, this probe may have potential for use in dissecting epiretinal membranes and other ophthalmic tissues without damaging adjacent retinal tissue.

  5. Root Cellar: Plan, Southeast/Side Elevation, Northwest/Side Elevation, Northeast/Side Elevation, Southwest/Side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Root Cellar: Plan, Southeast/Side Elevation, Northwest/Side Elevation, Northeast/Side Elevation, Southwest/Side Elevation - Driapsa Centennial Farm, Potts Hill European Community, 4511 Potts Hill Road, Bainbridge, Ross County, OH

  6. Unique neuro-ophthalmic presentation of gun pellet injury.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Reena; Sharma, Sanjay; Phuljhele, Swati; Saxena, Rohit

    2016-01-01

    We describe a unique case of orbital gunshot injury with isolated intraorbital pellets lodged symmetrically in the two apices, causing identical clinical presentation, and absence of any associated globe or cerebral injury. He developed bilateral complete third nerve palsy with bilateral traumatic optic neuropathy. The optic nerve strut prevented the pellets from going into the brain on both the sides.

  7. Unique neuro-ophthalmic presentation of gun pellet injury

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Reena; Sharma, Sanjay; Phuljhele, Swati; Saxena, Rohit

    2016-01-01

    We describe a unique case of orbital gunshot injury with isolated intraorbital pellets lodged symmetrically in the two apices, causing identical clinical presentation, and absence of any associated globe or cerebral injury. He developed bilateral complete third nerve palsy with bilateral traumatic optic neuropathy. The optic nerve strut prevented the pellets from going into the brain on both the sides. PMID:27843239

  8. Safety of Besifloxacin Ophthalmic Suspension 0.6% in Cataract and LASIK Surgery Patients

    PubMed Central

    Clinch, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate the safety of besifloxacin ophthalmic suspension 0.6% as antibacterial prophylaxis in the surgical setting. Methods: Two prospective safety surveillance studies were conducted—one in the cataract surgery setting and the other in the laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) surgery setting. Cases from patients aged 18 years and above were eligible for inclusion. In both surveillance studies, data were collected from consecutive cases of routine primary cataract surgery and LASIK surgery, respectively, in which besifloxacin ophthalmic suspension 0.6% or moxifloxacin ophthalmic solution 0.5% was used as the topical perioperative prophylactic antibacterial medication as part of the clinician's routine standard of care. The primary safety endpoint was the incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs). Results: The cataract surgery surveillance study included 485 cases/eyes (besifloxacin, n = 333; moxifloxacin, n = 152), whereas the LASIK surveillance study included 456 cases/eyes (besifloxacin, n = 344; moxifloxacin, n = 112). In the cataract study, only 1 TEAE was reported in a besifloxacin case (mild hypersensitivity/allergic reaction considered possibly related to besifloxacin). No TEAEs were reported in the LASIK study. In both studies, surgical outcomes were similar with both treatments. The frequency of preoperative and/or postoperative dosing was generally lower for besifloxacin than that for moxifloxacin. Conclusions: In prospective safety surveillance studies of patients undergoing cataract extraction or LASIK, TEAEs associated with prophylactic use of besifloxacin ophthalmic suspension 0.6% were rare, and surgical outcomes with besifloxacin were similar to those with moxifloxacin ophthalmic solution 0.5%. PMID:24637269

  9. Evaluation of Ophthalmic Artery Branch Retrograde Intervention in the Treatment of Central Retinal Artery Occlusion (CRAO)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Runsheng; Qian, Lu; Wang, Yi; Zheng, Yi; Du, Shanshuang; Lei, Tao; Lv, Peilin; Long, Tan; Wang, Wenjun

    2017-01-01

    Background Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is the occlusion of the central retinal artery resulting in retinal infarction and acute vision loss. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA)–guided superselective ophthalmic artery or selective carotid thrombolysis remains the preferred treatment method for CRAO. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and clinical efficacy of the novel ophthalmic artery branch retrograde thrombolytic intervention for CRAO. Material/Methods Fifty patients with monocular CRAO were enrolled, including 28 males and 22 females (mean age: 55.7±2.3 years). The patients were randomly divided into two groups for thrombolysis with urokinase (400,000 U) and papaverine (30 mg) by either ophthalmic artery branch retrograde intervention (group A, n=26) or superselective ophthalmic artery/selective carotid intervention (group B, n=24). There was no significant difference in age (P=0.58), gender ratio (P=0.49), and time to onset (P=1.00) between the two groups. The adverse reactions and clinical efficacy were evaluated by postoperative DSA, fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA), and visual acuity tests. Results No serious complications, abnormal eye movement, or vitreous hemorrhage occurred in either group. DSA showed that group A had an effective rate (92.30%) comparable to that of group B (100%, χ2=2.08, P=0.25). FFA suggested that both groups had similar treatment efficacy (χ2=3.09, P=0.21). Visual acuity tests also confirmed a similar efficacy of the two intervention approaches (χ2=0.25, P=0.88). Conclusions The developed novel ophthalmic artery branch retrograde intervention is highly effective and safe for CRAO, and may be a superior method compared with the conventional approach. PMID:28064304

  10. Genotype, B-vitamin status, and androgens affect spaceflight-induced ophthalmic changes

    PubMed Central

    Zwart, Sara R.; Gregory, Jesse F.; Zeisel, Steven H.; Gibson, Charles R.; Mader, Thomas H.; Kinchen, Jason M.; Ueland, Per M.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Heer, Martina A.; Smith, Scott M.

    2016-01-01

    Ophthalmic changes have occurred in a subset of astronauts on International Space Station missions. Visual deterioration is considered the greatest human health risk of spaceflight. Affected astronauts exhibit higher concentrations of 1-carbon metabolites (e.g., homocysteine) before flight. We hypothesized that genetic variations in 1-carbon metabolism genes contribute to susceptibility to ophthalmic changes in astronauts. We investigated 5 polymorphisms in the methionine synthase reductase (MTRR), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT), and cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) genes and their association with ophthalmic changes after flight in 49 astronauts. The number of G alleles of MTRR 66 and C alleles of SHMT1 1420 both contributed to the odds of visual disturbances. Preflight dehydroepiandrosterone was positively associated with cotton wool spots, and serum testosterone response during flight was associated with refractive change. Block regression showed that B-vitamin status and genetics were significant predictors of many of the ophthalmic outcomes that we observed. In one example, genetics trended toward improving (P = 0.10) and B-vitamin status significantly improved (P < 0.001) the predictive model for refractive change after flight. We document an association between MTRR 66 and SHMT1 1420 polymorphisms and spaceflight-induced vision changes. This line of research could lead to therapeutic options for both space travelers and terrestrial patients.—Zwart, S. R., Gregory, J. F., Zeisel, S. H., Gibson, C. R., Mader, T. H., Kinchen, J. M., Ueland, P. M., Ploutz-Snyder, R., Heer, M. A., Smith, S. M. Genotype, B-vitamin status, and androgens affect spaceflight-induced ophthalmic changes. PMID:26316272

  11. Sorption of benzalkonium chloride to various filters used in processing ophthalmics.

    PubMed

    Prince, S J; Allen, L V

    1998-01-01

    Benzalkonium chloride is widely used as a preservative in ophthalmic formulations. The United Stated Pharmacopeia XXIII/National Formulary 18 states that "sterile membrane filtration under aseptic conditions is the preferred method" for sterilization of ophthalmic products, and sorption of benzalkonium chloride to filters has presented a problem in ophthalmic processing. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of, and factors affecting, benzalkonium chloride sorption to filters. An aqueous solution of benzalkonium chloride 0.2 mg/mL was passed through syringe filters of various sizes, filter membrane media and manufacturers. The filters were of four sizes: 13- or 25-mm diameter with 0.2- or 0.45-micrometer pores. The filter membrane media were nylon, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), polyethersulfone (PES) or polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) manufactured by Gelman Sciences or Micron Separations, Inc. A total volume of 3.6 mL in 0.6-mL increments was filtered, followed by a 1.8-mL water rinse. Samples were then analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The results showed a significant difference in sorption based on all three variables. The 13-mm diameter filters absorbed less drug than the 25-mm filters, and filters with 0.45-micrometer pores adsorbed less drug than those with 0.2-micrometer pores because of smaller surface area exposed. The following sorption pattern was observed for the filter media: PVDF greater than PTFE greater than nylon greater than PES, with Micron Separations nylon filters showing a higher degree of sorption than Gelman Sciences nylon filters. The appropriate filter media and size should be chosen for ophthalmic product filtration to minimize loss of benzalkonium chloride in processing ophthalmic products.

  12. Two Droplets Burning Side by Side

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Fiber-Supported Droplet Combustion (FSDC) experiment team got more than twice as many burns have been completed as were originally scheduled for STS-95. This image was taken July 12, 1997, MET:10/08:13 (approximate). As shown here, scientists were able to burn two droplets side by side, more closely mimicking behavior of burning fuel in an engine. This shows ignition of a single drop that subsequently burned while a fan blew through the chamber, giving the scientists data on burning with convection, but no buoyancy -- an important distinction when you're trying to solve a problem by breaking it into parts. FSDC-2 studied fundamental phenomena related to liquid fuel droplet combustion in air. Pure fuels and mixtures of fuels were burned as isolated single and dual droplets with and without forced air convection. The FSDC guest investigator was Forman Williams, University of California, San Diego. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (1.1 MB, 11-second MPEG, screen 320 x 240 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) A still JPG composite of this movie is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300176.html.

  13. Junction-side illuminated silicon detector arrays

    DOEpatents

    Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Patt, Bradley E.; Tull, Carolyn

    2004-03-30

    A junction-side illuminated detector array of pixelated detectors is constructed on a silicon wafer. A junction contact on the front-side may cover the whole detector array, and may be used as an entrance window for light, x-ray, gamma ray and/or other particles. The back-side has an array of individual ohmic contact pixels. Each of the ohmic contact pixels on the back-side may be surrounded by a grid or a ring of junction separation implants. Effective pixel size may be changed by separately biasing different sections of the grid. A scintillator may be coupled directly to the entrance window while readout electronics may be coupled directly to the ohmic contact pixels. The detector array may be used as a radiation hardened detector for high-energy physics research or as avalanche imaging arrays.

  14. 9. DETAIL OF WEST SIDE STAIR, STRAIGHT DOWN VIEW, FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. DETAIL OF WEST SIDE STAIR, STRAIGHT DOWN VIEW, FROM OVER THIRD FLOOR RAILING. NOTE SECOND FLOOR LANDING AND STEAM RADIATOR ON FIRST FLOOR. (THE LANDINGS ARE ATTACHED TO THE EXTERIOR WALLS) - Talladega College, Swayne Hall, Talladega, Talladega County, AL

  15. [Psychoanalysis and Side Effect].

    PubMed

    Shirahase, Joichiro

    2015-01-01

    A study of psychoanalysis from the perspective of side effects reveals that its history was a succession of measures to deal with its own side effects. This, however, does not merely suggest that, as a treatment method, psychoanalysis is incomplete and weak: rather, its history is a record of the growth and development of psychoanalysis that discovered therapeutic significance from phenomena that were initially regarded as side effects, made use of these discoveries, and elaborated them as a treatment method. The approach of research seen during the course of these developments is linked to the basic therapeutic approach of psychoanalysis. A therapist therefore does not draw conclusions about a patient's words and behaviors from a single aspect, but continues to make efforts to actively discover a variety of meanings and values from them, and to make the patient's life richer and more productive. This therapeutic approach is undoubtedly one of the unique aspects of psychoanalysis. I discuss the issue of psychoanalysis and side effects with the aim of clarifying this unique characteristic of psychoanalysis. The phenomenon called resistance inevitably emerges during the process of psychoanalytic treatment. Resistance can not only obstruct the progress of therapy; it also carries the risk of causing a variety of disadvantages to the patient. It can therefore be seen as an adverse effect. However, if we re-examine this phenomenon from the perspective of transference, we find that resistance is in fact a crucial tool in psychoanalysis, and included in its main effect, rather than a side effect. From the perspective of minimizing the character of resistance as a side effect and maximizing its character as a main effect, I have reviewed logical organization, dynamic evaluation, the structuring of treatment, the therapist's attitudes, and the training of therapists. I conclude by stating that psychoanalysis has aspects that do not match the perspective known as a side

  16. Dual-sided coded-aperture imager

    DOEpatents

    Ziock, Klaus-Peter

    2009-09-22

    In a vehicle, a single detector plane simultaneously measures radiation coming through two coded-aperture masks, one on either side of the detector. To determine which side of the vehicle a source is, the two shadow masks are inverses of each other, i.e., one is a mask and the other is the anti-mask. All of the data that is collected is processed through two versions of an image reconstruction algorithm. One treats the data as if it were obtained through the mask, the other as though the data is obtained through the anti-mask.

  17. 3. VIEW NORTH, SOUTHWEST FRONT, SOUTHEAST SIDE Front and side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW NORTH, SOUTHWEST FRONT, SOUTHEAST SIDE Front and side elevation. Note gasoline sign post added. Flush store window not altered, 1900 clapboard siding and panelling remaining. - 510 Central Avenue (Commercial Building), Ridgely, Caroline County, MD

  18. Oblique view of east side mechanical additions and south side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of east side mechanical additions and south side of 1955 addition, facing northwest. - Albrook Air Force Station, Dispensary, East side of Canfield Avenue, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  19. Oxidative-stress detoxification and signalling in cyanobacteria: the crucial glutathione synthesis pathway supports the production of ergothioneine and ophthalmate.

    PubMed

    Narainsamy, Kinsley; Farci, Sandrine; Braun, Emilie; Junot, Christophe; Cassier-Chauvat, Corinne; Chauvat, Franck

    2016-04-01

    Using genetics and metabolomics we investigated the synthesis (gshA and gshB genes) and catabolism (ggt) of the conserved antioxidant glutathione in the model cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC6803. These three genes are crucial to Synechocystis, in agreement with the proposed invention of glutathione by ancient cyanobacteria to protect themselves against the toxicity of oxygen they produced through photosynthesis. Consistent with their indispensability, gshA and gshB also operate in the production of another antioxidant, ergothioneine, as well as of the glutathione analogues ophthalmate and norophthalmate. Furthermore, we show that glutathione, ophthalmate and norophthalmate are accumulated in cells stressed by glucose, and that the two glutathione-dependent glyoxalase enzymes operate in the protection against glucose and its catabolite methylglyoxal. These findings are interesting because ophthalmate and norophthalmate were observed only in mammals so far, where ophthalmate is regarded as a biomarker of glutathione depletion. Instead, our data suggest that ophthalmate and norophthalmate are stress-induced markers of cysteine depletion triggered by its accelerated incorporation into glutathione, to face its increased demand for detoxification purposes. Hence, Synechocystis is an attractive model for the analysis of the role of glutathione, ergothioneine, ophthalmate and norophthalmate, in signalling and detoxification of oxidants and metabolic by-products.

  20. Ophthalmic artery aneurysm treated by surgical clipping and balloon-assisted temporary carotid occlusion.

    PubMed

    Dehdashti, Amir R

    2015-07-01

    A 29-year-old woman is diagnosed with a large broad-base right ophthalmic artery aneurysm. Despite an intact visual field, she complained of mild right visual blurriness. Between endovascular and surgical treatments, surgery was favored due to her young age. It was decided to perform the surgery with simultaneous endovascular temporary carotid balloon occlusion. A right pterional craniotomy and intradural anterior clinoidectomy were performed, the balloon was positioned in the petrous carotid, and the distal durai ring was opened exposing the proximal neck. Under temporary proximal carotid balloon occlusion and distal carotid clip occlusion, the aneurysm was fully dissected and clipped. Intraoperative angiogram confirmed complete aneurysm occlusion and patency of the ophthalmic artery. The patient's neurological exam remained unchanged. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/BIQKTl9bDqA .

  1. Effect of methyl cellulose on gelation behavior and drug release from poloxamer based ophthalmic formulations.

    PubMed

    Dewan, Mitali; Bhowmick, Biplab; Sarkar, Gunjan; Rana, Dipak; Bain, Mrinal Kanti; Bhowmik, Manas; Chattopadhyay, Dipankar

    2015-01-01

    The effect of weight average molecular weight (Mw) of methyl cellulose (MC) on the gelation behavior of Poloxamer 407 (PM) and in vitro release of Ketorolac Tromethamine (KT) from different ophthalmic formulations based on PM is examined. A drop of gelation temperature of PM is observed using MC of various M(w) by test tube tilting method, UV-vis spectroscopy, viscometry and rheometry. It is also observed that the viscosity and gel strength of all the formulations are increased with the increase in Mw of MC. PM with highest Mw of MC provides best drug release property among all the formulations. It is evident from this investigation that there is a distinct effect of M(w) of MC on the gelation behavior of PM as well as on the drug release profile of KT from PM-MC based ophthalmic formulations.

  2. Seven-day viable analysis of some ophthalmic preparations with different concentrations of benzalkonium chloride.

    PubMed

    Adil, H; Sheikh, D; Ahmed, I; Sheikh, M R; Ali, G

    1995-07-01

    The efficacy of zinc sulphate and boric acid ophthalmic preparations, containing benzalkonium chloride as preservative have been investigated against Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. The viability of bacteria was checked after 7 days though they were completely suppressed after 24 hours of inoculation. Zinc sulphate increased the antimicrobial activity of benzalkonium chloride, whereas the boric acid or its combination with zinc sulphate reduced the same. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found to be viable against zinc sulphate, boric acid or its combination at a concentration of 0.01% to 0.005% of the preservative. Escherichia coil and Staphylococcus aureus also exhibited resistance but to a lesser extent than Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This viability may be dangerous in case of multidose ophthalmic preparations.

  3. Flow diverter assisted coil embolization of a very small ruptured ophthalmic artery aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Dornbos, David; Pillai, Promod; Sauvageau, Eric

    2016-06-01

    Small ruptured aneurysms present a unique problem to endovascular therapy. We report a case in which a patient presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage and a very small ruptured ophthalmic artery aneurysm, for which endovascular therapy was preferred secondary to severe cardiac comorbidities. Due to the aneurysm size, a small 1.5 mm coil was needed, but presented a significant risk of migration. Conventional stent assisted coiling was considered suboptimal as the small coil could have easily migrated through the strut. We present a novel technique of flow diverter assisted coil embolization in which a coil was placed within the aneurysm and a pipeline embolization device was then partially deployed, jailing the microcatheter and coil mass. Once in place, the coil was detached, securing the aneurysm, and preventing coil migration. Through the use of a flow diverter, some degree of aneurysm protection would still be expected in the event of coil migration toward the ophthalmic artery origin.

  4. An alternative to the Drop Ball Test for the measurement of ophthalmic glass fracture resistance.

    PubMed

    Scaief, A L

    1975-11-01

    The Drop Ball Test (DBT) has some distinct disadvantages both as a standard measurement for ophthalmic lens fracture resistance and as a research tool. The Static Test (ST) was devised to allow a load and enzrgy analysis of the DBT and enable more rapid and accurate testing of large ophthalmic lens samples. It was found that over 50% of the energy generated in the DBT is absorbed by the lens mount instead of the test lens. This means that the standard DBT height of 50 inches is more an indication of DBT components than lens fracture resistance. Static testing of non-tempered, heat tempered and chemically tempered lenses correlated well with former DBT studies. The ST, however, allowed lens fracture resistance to be represented in pounds-load, a value better understood practically and mathematically.

  5. Preformulation of cysteamine gels for treatment of the ophthalmic complications in cystinosis.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Barbara; Kay, Graeme; Matthews, Kerr H; Knott, Rachel; Cairns, Donald

    2016-12-30

    Nephropathic cystinosis is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterised by raised lysosomal levels of cystine in the cells of all organs. It is treated by regular administration of the aminothiol, cysteamine. Corneal crystal deposition is one of the most troublesome complications affecting patients and requires the hourly administration of cysteamine eye drops. In an attempt to reduce this frequency and improve the treatment, the preformulation and evaluation of cysteamine containing gels is reported. Suitability for ophthalmic delivery was determined by analysis of rheology, bioadhesion, dissolution and stability. The results demonstrated that three polymers were suitable for ophthalmic delivery of cysteamine; namely sodium hyaluronate, hydroxyethyl cellulose and carbomer 934. Sodium hyaluronate displayed optimum performance in the preformulation tests, being pseudoplastic (reduction in apparent viscosity under increasing shear rate), bioadhesive, releasing cysteamine over 40min and displaying stability over time. In conclusion these results offer the possibility to formulate cysteamine in an ocular applicable gel formulation.

  6. HIV Medicines and Side Effects

    MedlinePlus

    ... on a person’s individual needs. Can HIV medicines cause side effects? HIV medicines help people with HIV live longer, healthier lives. Sometimes HIV medicines can also cause side effects. Most side effects from HIV medicines are manageable, ...

  7. Huntsville South Side Square

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1940-01-01

    This 1940s photo of the South side of Square in downtown Huntsville, Alabama, looking west, shows a historical bank in the background with cars parked just South of the Courthouse (not shown in photo). (Courtesy of Huntsville/Madison County Public Library)

  8. 4D microscope-integrated OCT improves accuracy of ophthalmic surgical maneuvers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco-Zevallos, Oscar; Keller, Brenton; Viehland, Christian; Shen, Liangbo; Todorich, Bozho; Shieh, Christine; Kuo, Anthony; Toth, Cynthia; Izatt, Joseph A.

    2016-03-01

    Ophthalmic surgeons manipulate micron-scale tissues using stereopsis through an operating microscope and instrument shadowing for depth perception. While ophthalmic microsurgery has benefitted from rapid advances in instrumentation and techniques, the basic principles of the stereo operating microscope have not changed since the 1930's. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) has revolutionized ophthalmic imaging and is now the gold standard for preoperative and postoperative evaluation of most retinal and many corneal procedures. We and others have developed initial microscope-integrated OCT (MIOCT) systems for concurrent OCT and operating microscope imaging, but these are limited to 2D real-time imaging and require offline post-processing for 3D rendering and visualization. Our previously presented 4D MIOCT system can record and display the 3D surgical field stereoscopically through the microscope oculars using a dual-channel heads-up display (HUD) at up to 10 micron-scale volumes per second. In this work, we show that 4D MIOCT guidance improves the accuracy of depth-based microsurgical maneuvers (with statistical significance) in mock surgery trials in a wet lab environment. Additionally, 4D MIOCT was successfully performed in 38/45 (84%) posterior and 14/14 (100%) anterior eye human surgeries, and revealed previously unrecognized lesions that were invisible through the operating microscope. These lesions, such as residual and potentially damaging retinal deformation during pathologic membrane peeling, were visualized in real-time by the surgeon. Our integrated system provides an enhanced 4D surgical visualization platform that can improve current ophthalmic surgical practice and may help develop and refine future microsurgical techniques.

  9. [Internal medicine and cardiovascular evaluation of preoperative and perioperative patients undergoing ophthalmic surgery].

    PubMed

    Soldini, M

    2013-01-01

    Ophthalmic surgery would a surgical practice with fewer complications compared to other types of surgery. This is only true in part, because of the elderly population of reference. So, in cataract surgery we are faced with a patient with heart disease which carries the signs of aging and degenerative consequences linked to it. The interventions performed in patients with heart disease are still potentially have a greater risk, although site preparation and monitoring during and after surgery in recent years have allowed greater safety for patients and an overall reduction in morbidity and mortality. It is stressed so the importance of a correct clinical diagnosis of the general patient for a better stratification of cardiovascular risk for ophthalmic surgery. It must therefore avoid the most frequent sequelae, such as the ICC, arrhythmias and hypertensive crises. One purpose of a Service of Internal Medicine, like ours, totally dedicated to the functional requirements of the assistance of ophthalmologic patients, both during hospitalization, and in prehospitalization, and especially in Day Hospital and in Day Service, for the cardiac risk stratification in ophthalmic surgery, is to ensure firstly to the patient and then to colleagues ophthalmologist and surgeons and anesthetists the greater security on the plane predictive for reducing perioperative and postoperative morbidity and mortality.

  10. The Gatekeepers in the Mouse Ophthalmic Artery: Endothelium-Dependent Mechanisms of Cholinergic Vasodilation.

    PubMed

    Manicam, Caroline; Staubitz, Julia; Brochhausen, Christoph; Grus, Franz H; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Gericke, Adrian

    2016-02-02

    Cholinergic regulation of arterial luminal diameter involves intricate network of intercellular communication between the endothelial and smooth muscle cells that is highly dependent on the molecular mediators released by the endothelium. Albeit the well-recognized contribution of nitric oxide (NO) towards vasodilation, the identity of compensatory mechanisms that maintain vasomotor tone when NO synthesis is deranged remain largely unknown in the ophthalmic artery. This is the first study to identify the vasodilatory signalling mechanisms of the ophthalmic artery employing wild type mice. Acetylcholine (ACh)-induced vasodilation was only partially attenuated when NO synthesis was inhibited. Intriguingly, the combined blocking of cytochrome P450 oxygenase (CYP450) and lipoxygenase (LOX), as well as CYP450 and gap junctions, abolished vasodilation; demonstrating that the key compensatory mechanisms comprise arachidonic acid metabolites which, work in concert with gap junctions for downstream signal transmission. Furthermore, the voltage-gated potassium ion channel, Kv1.6, was functionally relevant in mediating vasodilation. Its localization was found exclusively in the smooth muscle. In conclusion, ACh-induced vasodilation of mouse ophthalmic artery is mediated in part by NO and predominantly via arachidonic acid metabolites, with active involvement of gap junctions. Particularly, the Kv1.6 channel represents an attractive therapeutic target in ophthalmopathologies when NO synthesis is compromised.

  11. Diffusion-Based Design of Multi-Layered Ophthalmic Lenses for Controlled Drug Release.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Andreia F R; Serro, Ana Paula; Paradiso, Patrizia; Saramago, Benilde; Colaço, Rogério

    2016-01-01

    The study of ocular drug delivery systems has been one of the most covered topics in drug delivery research. One potential drug carrier solution is the use of materials that are already commercially available in ophthalmic lenses for the correction of refractive errors. In this study, we present a diffusion-based mathematical model in which the parameters can be adjusted based on experimental results obtained under controlled conditions. The model allows for the design of multi-layered therapeutic ophthalmic lenses for controlled drug delivery. We show that the proper combination of materials with adequate drug diffusion coefficients, thicknesses and interfacial transport characteristics allows for the control of the delivery of drugs from multi-layered ophthalmic lenses, such that drug bursts can be minimized, and the release time can be maximized. As far as we know, this combination of a mathematical modelling approach with experimental validation of non-constant activity source lamellar structures, made of layers of different materials, accounting for the interface resistance to the drug diffusion, is a novel approach to the design of drug loaded multi-layered contact lenses.

  12. Diffusion-Based Design of Multi-Layered Ophthalmic Lenses for Controlled Drug Release

    PubMed Central

    Pimenta, Andreia F. R.; Serro, Ana Paula; Paradiso, Patrizia; Saramago, Benilde

    2016-01-01

    The study of ocular drug delivery systems has been one of the most covered topics in drug delivery research. One potential drug carrier solution is the use of materials that are already commercially available in ophthalmic lenses for the correction of refractive errors. In this study, we present a diffusion-based mathematical model in which the parameters can be adjusted based on experimental results obtained under controlled conditions. The model allows for the design of multi-layered therapeutic ophthalmic lenses for controlled drug delivery. We show that the proper combination of materials with adequate drug diffusion coefficients, thicknesses and interfacial transport characteristics allows for the control of the delivery of drugs from multi-layered ophthalmic lenses, such that drug bursts can be minimized, and the release time can be maximized. As far as we know, this combination of a mathematical modelling approach with experimental validation of non-constant activity source lamellar structures, made of layers of different materials, accounting for the interface resistance to the drug diffusion, is a novel approach to the design of drug loaded multi-layered contact lenses. PMID:27936138

  13. Wideband Electrically-Pumped 1050 nm MEMS-Tunable VCSEL for Ophthalmic Imaging

    PubMed Central

    John, Demis D.; Burgner, Christopher B.; Potsaid, Benjamin; Robertson, Martin E.; Lee, Byung Kun; Choi, Woo Jhon; Cable, Alex E.; Fujimoto, James G.; Jayaraman, Vijaysekhar

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a 1050 nm electrically-pumped micro-electro-mechanically-tunable vertical-cavity-surface-emitting-laser (MEMS-VCSEL) with a record dynamic tuning bandwidth of 63.8 nm, suitable for swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) imaging. These devices provide reduced cost & complexity relative to previously demonstrated optically pumped devices by obviating the need for a pump laser and associated hardware. We demonstrate ophthalmic SS-OCT imaging with the electrically-pumped MEMS-VCSEL at a 400 kHz axial scan rate for wide field imaging of the in vivo human retina over a 12 mm × 12 mm field and for OCT angiography of the macula over 6 mm × 6 mm & 3 mm × 3 mm fields to show retinal vasculature and capillary structure near the fovea. These results demonstrate the feasibility of electrically pumped MEMS-VCSELs in ophthalmic instrumentation, the largest clinical application of OCT. In addition, we estimate that the 3 dB coherence length in air is 225 meters ± 51 meters, far greater than required for ophthalmic SS-OCT and suggestive of other distance ranging applications. PMID:26594089

  14. Optimization and evaluation of thermoresponsive diclofenac sodium ophthalmic in situ gels.

    PubMed

    Asasutjarit, Rathapon; Thanasanchokpibull, Suthira; Fuongfuchat, Asira; Veeranondha, Sukitaya

    2011-06-15

    This work was conducted to optimize and evaluate Pluronic F127-based thermoresponsive diclofenac sodium ophthalmic in situ gels (DS in situ gel). They were prepared by cold method and investigated their physicochemical properties i.e., pH, flow ability, sol-gel transition temperature, gelling capacity and rheological properties. An optimized formulation was selected and investigated its physicochemical properties before and after autoclaving, eye irritation potency in SIRC cells and rabbits. In vivo ophthalmic absorption was performed in rabbits. It was found that physicochemical properties of DS in situ gels were affected by formulation compositions. Increment of Pluronic F127 content decreased sol-gel transition temperature of the products while increase in Pluronic F68 concentration tended to increase sol-gel transition temperature. In this study, Carbopol 940 did not affect sol-gel transition temperature but it affected transparency, pH, and gelling capacity of the products. The optimized formulation exhibited sol-gel transition at 32.6 ± 1.1 °C with pseudoplastic flow behavior. It was lost diclofenac sodium content during autoclaving. However, it was accepted as safe for ophthalmic use and could increase diclofenac sodium bioavailability in aqueous humor significantly. In conclusion, the optimized DS in situ gel had potential for using as an alternative to the conventional diclofenac sodium eye drop. However, autoclaving was not a suitable sterilization method for this product.

  15. Penicillin susceptibility of non-serotypeable Streptococcus pneumoniae from ophthalmic specimens.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Fumiko; Nakagami, Yoshiko; Takemori, Koichi; Iwatani, Yoshinori; Fujimoto, Shuji

    2006-01-01

    Nontypeable (NT) Streptococcus pneumoniae strains isolated from eyes were examined for both penicillin susceptibility by E-test and penicillin-binding protein (PBP) gene alterations using PCR. Of the 25 ophthalmic isolates, 15 proved to be sensitive (PSSP, MIC < or = 0.06 microg/ml) and 10 were shown as intermediately resistant to penicillin (PISP, MIC = 0.1-1 microg/ml). No penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (PRSP, MIC > or = 2 microg/ml) were found. PBP gene (pbp1a and pbp2b) alteration PCR indicated that 12 (80.0%) of the 15 ophthalmic PSSPs had unaltered pbp genes and that 3 (20.0%) had alterations in either pbp1a or pbp2b, whereas 8 (80.0%) of the 10 PISPs had unaltered pbp genes and 2 (20.0%) had alterations in both pbp1a and pbp2b. These data suggest that penicillin resistance is spread among NT pneumococci typically associated with ophthalmic infections.

  16. Enduring Influence of Elizabethan Ophthalmic Texts of the 1580s: Bailey, Grassus, and Guillemeau

    PubMed Central

    Leffler, Christopher T; Schwartz, Stephen G; Davenport, Byrd; Randolph, Jessica; Busscher, Joshua; Hadi, Tamer

    2014-01-01

    Three English ophthalmic texts of the 1580s were frequently republished: 1) Walter Bailey’s A Briefe Treatise Touching the Preseruation of the Eie Sight, 2) The Method of Phisicke, an adaptation of the medieval treatise of Benevenutus Grassus, and 3) A Worthy Treatise of the Eyes, a translation of Jacques Guillemeau’s treatise. Their history is intertwined through composite publications, some of which lacked clear attribution. At least 21 editions incorporated these texts. Although not previously realized, major elements of all 3 works are found in Two Treatises Concerning the Preseruation of Eie-sight, first published in 1616. To preserve eyesight, Bailey recommended eyebright (Euphrasia officinalis), fennel (Fæniculum vulgare), and a moderate lifestyle incorporating wine. In the works of Grassus and Guillemeau, cataracts were believed to lie anterior to the ‘crystalline humor,’ and were treated by the ‘art of the needle,’ or couching. Links are found between Grassus, Guillemeau, and eighteenth century glaucoma concepts. Although one of his students has traditionally received credit, it was English oculist John Thomas Woolhouse who first combined the early concepts and used the term glaucoma to describe the palpably hard eye in the early eighteenth century. The three primary ophthalmic texts of 1580s England influenced ophthalmic thought for over a century. PMID:24959303

  17. Ophthalmic Artery Embolization as Pretreatment of Orbital Exenteration for Conjunctival Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuo, Toshihiko; Ohara, Nobuya; Namba, Yuzaburo

    2009-05-15

    The aim of this study is to describe the effect of transarterial embolization from the ophthalmic artery as a pretreatment for orbital exenteration. A 75-year-old Chinese man with a 7-year history of gradual increase of the left eye swelling showed a massive conjunctival tumor growing outwardly from the interpalpebral fissure and had no light perception in the left eye. Magnetic resonance imaging showed orbital invasion of the tumor around the left eyeglobe. The initial surgery for the planned orbital exenteration was discontinued after skin incision around the orbital margin due to massive hemorrhage. The patient underwent transarterial embolization with gelatin sponge (Spongel) of the feeding arteries from the left ophthalmic artery and, the next day, had orbital exenteration with well-controllable bleeding and reconstruction with free vascularized anterolateral thigh cutaneous flap transfer. Pathologically, well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma proliferated in exophytic, papillary, and nested fashions, arising from the bulbar conjunctiva. Tumor cells were also found in the conjunctival stroma around the vessels. The sclera at the equator had a perforated site with tumor cell invasion, but no intraocular invasion was found. Hematoxylin-positive gelatin sponges were found inside the orbital vessels and large choroidal vessels. In conclusion, transarterial embolization of feeding arteries arising from the ophthalmic artery is a useful pretreatment to control bleeding at orbital exenteration for malignancy.

  18. Optimization and evaluation of a thermoresponsive ophthalmic in situ gel containing curcumin-loaded albumin nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Jie; Hu, Wenjing; Tian, Rui; Zhang, Hua; Jia, Yuntao; Zhang, Jingqing; Zhang, Liangke

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to optimize and evaluate a thermoresponsive ophthalmic in situ gel containing curcumin-loaded albumin nanoparticles (Cur-BSA-NPs-Gel). Albumin nanoparticles were prepared via a desolvation method, and the gels were prepared via a cold method. The central composite design and response surface method was used to evaluate the effects of varying Pluronic® F127 and Pluronic® F68 concentrations on the sol–gel transition temperature, which is an indicator of optimum formulations. The optimized formulation was a free-flowing liquid below 30.9°C that transformed into a semi-solid gel above 34.2°C after dilution with simulated tear fluid. Results of the in vitro release and erosion behavior study indicated that Cur-BSA-NPs-Gel achieved superior sustained-release effects and that incorporation of albumin nanoparticles exerted minimal effects on the gel structure. In addition, in vivo ophthalmic experiments employing Cur-BSA-NPs-Gel were subsequently performed in rabbits. In vivo eye irritation results showed that Cur-BSA-NPs-Gel might be considered safe for ophthalmic drug delivery. The in vivo study also revealed that the formulation could significantly increase curcumin bioavailability in the aqueous humor. In conclusion, the optimized in situ gel formulation developed in this work has significant potential for ocular application. PMID:24904211

  19. Ophthalmic immunoglobulin G4-related disease IgG4-RD Current concepts.

    PubMed

    Mulay, Kaustubh; Wick, Mark R

    2016-05-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a distinct entity that frequently occurs in an ophthalmic location. As such, IgG4-RD is not limited to the orbit but may also involve other anatomical structures in and around the eye. Hence, the term 'ophthalmic IgG4-RD' is preferred over 'orbital IgG4-RD.' A high level of suspicion for the diagnosis can be derived from careful clinicoradiologic examination; the use of immunohistochemical staining for IgG4 in the context of characteristic histopathologic features is needed to reach a correct diagnosis. Recently described diagnostic criteria for ophthalmic IgG4-RD address subtle, yet significant, differences from IgG4-RD as seen in other systemic sites. Serum IgG4 titers are neither sensitive nor specific for the diagnosis of IgG4-RD and should not relied upon solely. Although most cases respond well to therapy with glucocorticoids, refractoriness to treatment and relapses are common. They necessitate the use of additional immunotherapy in such patients.

  20. Simple HPLC determination of benzalkonium chloride in ophthalmic formulations containing antazoline and tetrahydrozoline.

    PubMed

    Rojsitthisak, Pornchai; Wichitnithad, Wisut; Pipitharome, Ongart; Sanphanya, Kingkan; Thanawattanawanich, Peeracha

    2005-01-01

    A simple and rapid analytical procedure for routine quantification of n-C12H25 and n-C14H29 benzalkonium chloride (C-12 and C-14 BKC) homologs in ophthalmic formulations containing antazoline HCl and tetrahydrozoline HCl by high-performance liquid chromatography was developed and validated. The ophthalmic solution samples can be directly analyzed by reversed-phase on HiQ-Sil C18 column (4.6 mm x 150 mm, i.d., 5-microm particle size) with acetonitrile-sodium acetate buffer (pH 5.0; 0.2 M) (70:30, v/v) as mobile phase. UV Detection was carried out at 262 nm. The method was linear over the selected concentration and ranged from 0.03 to 0.10 mg/ml (r2 = 0.9999) and from 0.01 to 0.05 mg/ml (r2 = 0.9979) for C-12 and C-14 BKC homologs, respectively. The mean percent recoveries were 100.2 and 102.6 and the percent CV values were 1.3 and 3.5 for C-12 and C-14 BKC homologs, respectively. The results demonstrated the good linearity, accuracy, and precision. The method was applied to determine two commercial ophthalmic formulations, and the percent label amounts of total BKC contents were found to be 99.7 and 103.2.

  1. Enduring influence of elizabethan ophthalmic texts of the 1580s: bailey, grassus, and guillemeau.

    PubMed

    Leffler, Christopher T; Schwartz, Stephen G; Davenport, Byrd; Randolph, Jessica; Busscher, Joshua; Hadi, Tamer

    2014-01-01

    Three English ophthalmic texts of the 1580s were frequently republished: 1) Walter Bailey's A Briefe Treatise Touching the Preseruation of the Eie Sight, 2) The Method of Phisicke, an adaptation of the medieval treatise of Benevenutus Grassus, and 3) A Worthy Treatise of the Eyes, a translation of Jacques Guillemeau's treatise. Their history is intertwined through composite publications, some of which lacked clear attribution. At least 21 editions incorporated these texts. Although not previously realized, major elements of all 3 works are found in Two Treatises Concerning the Preseruation of Eie-sight, first published in 1616. To preserve eyesight, Bailey recommended eyebright (Euphrasia officinalis), fennel (Fæniculum vulgare), and a moderate lifestyle incorporating wine. In the works of Grassus and Guillemeau, cataracts were believed to lie anterior to the 'crystalline humor,' and were treated by the 'art of the needle,' or couching. Links are found between Grassus, Guillemeau, and eighteenth century glaucoma concepts. Although one of his students has traditionally received credit, it was English oculist John Thomas Woolhouse who first combined the early concepts and used the term glaucoma to describe the palpably hard eye in the early eighteenth century. The three primary ophthalmic texts of 1580s England influenced ophthalmic thought for over a century.

  2. Formulation and process factors influencing product quality and in vitro performance of ophthalmic ointments.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoming; Al-Ghabeish, Manar; Rahman, Ziyaur; Krishnaiah, Yellela S R; Yerlikaya, Firat; Yang, Yang; Manda, Prashanth; Hunt, Robert L; Khan, Mansoor A

    2015-09-30

    Owing to its unique anatomical and physiological functions, ocular surface presents special challenges for both design and performance evaluation of the ophthalmic ointment drug products formulated with a variety of bases. The current investigation was carried out to understand and identify the appropriate in vitro methods suitable for quality and performance evaluation of ophthalmic ointment, and to study the effect of formulation and process variables on its critical quality attributes (CQA). The evaluated critical formulation variables include API initial size, drug percentage, and mineral oil percentage while the critical process parameters include mixing rate, temperature, time and cooling rate. The investigated quality and performance attributes include drug assay, content uniformity, API particle size in ointment, rheological characteristics, in vitro drug release and in vitro transcorneal drug permeation. Using design of experiments (DoE) as well as a novel principle component analysis approach, five of the quality and performance attributes (API particle size, storage modulus of ointment, high shear viscosity of ointment, in vitro drug release constant and in vitro transcorneal drug permeation rate constant) were found to be highly influenced by the formulation, in particular the strength of API, and to a lesser degree by processing variables. Correlating the ocular physiology with the physicochemical characteristics of acyclovir ophthalmic ointment suggested that in vitro quality metrics could be a valuable predictor of its in vivo performance.

  3. Preparation, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ophthalmic thermosensitive in situ hydrogel of betaxolol hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Huang, Weiwei; Zhang, Nan; Hua, Haiying; Liu, Tuanbing; Tang, Yafang; Fu, Lingling; Yang, Yanan; Ma, Xiujie; Zhao, Yongxing

    2016-10-01

    Conventional ophthalmic formulations often eliminate rapidly after administration and cannot provide and maintain an adequate concentration of the drug in the precorneal area. To solve those problems, a thermosensitive in situ gelling and mucoadhesive ophthalmic drug delivery system was prepared and evaluated, the system was composed of poloxamer analogs and polycarbophil (PCP) and betaxolol hydrochloride (BH) was selected as model drug. The concentrations of poloxamer 407 (P407) (22% (w/v)) and poloxamer 188 (P188) (3.5% (w/v)) were identified through central composite design-response surface methodology (CCD-RSM). The BH in situ hydrogel (BH-HG) was liquid solution at low temperature and turned to semisolid at eye temperature. BH-HG showed good stability and biocompatibility, which fulfilled the requirements of ocular application. In vitro studies indicated that addition of PCP enhanced the viscosity of BH-HG and the release results of BH from BH-HG demonstrated a sustained release behavior of BH because of the gel dissolution. In vivo pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics studies indicated that the BH-HG formulation resulted in an improved bioavailability and a significantly lower intraocular pressure (IOP). The results suggested BH-HG could be potentially used as an in situ gelling system for ophthalmic delivery to enhance the bioavailability and efficacy.

  4. Sustained ophthalmic delivery of ofloxacin from an ion-activated in situ gelling system.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Sindhu; Furtado, Sharon; Bharath, S; Basavaraj, B V; Deveswaran, R; Madhavan, V

    2009-04-01

    The poor bioavailability and therapeutic response exhibited by conventional ophthalmic solutions due to rapid pre-corneal elimination of the drug may be overcome by the use of in situ gel forming systems that are instilled as drops into the eye and then undergo a sol-gel transition in the cul-de-sac. The present work describes the formulation and evaluation of an ophthalmic delivery system of an antibacterial agent ofloxacin, based on the concept of ion-activated in situ gelation. Sodium alginate was used as the gelling agent in combination with HPC (Hydroxy Propyl Cellulose) that acted as a viscosity-enhancing agent. In vitro release studies indicated that the alginate/HPC solution retained the drug better than the alginate or HPC solutions alone. The formulations were therapeutically efficacious, sterile, stable and provided sustained release of the drug over a period of time. These results demonstrate that the developed system is an alternative to conventional ophthalmic drops, patient compliance, industrially oriented and economical.

  5. Novel microsphere chain fiber tips for use in mid-infrared ophthalmic laser surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchens, Thomas C.; Darafsheh, Arash; Fardad, Amir; Antoszyk, Andrew N.; Ying, Howard S.; Astratov, Vasily N.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2012-01-01

    Ophthalmic surgery may benefit from the use of more precise fiber delivery systems for laser surgery. In this study, chains of sapphire microspheres integrated into the distal tip of a hollow waveguide are used for preliminary mid-infrared, Erbium:YAG laser ablation studies in contact mode with ophthalmic tissues, ex vivo. The combination of the Er:YAG laser's short optical penetration depth and small spot diameters achieved with this novel fiber probe may provide more precise tissue removal. One, three, and five microsphere chain structures were assembled and compared, resulting in spot diameters of 67, 32, and 30 μm, respectively. Single laser pulses of 0.1 mJ energy and 75 μs duration produced craters with average widths of 44, 30, and 17 μm and depths of 26, 10, and 8 μm, for one, three, and five sphere structures, respectively. Chains of microspheres produced spatial filtering of the multimode Er:YAG laser beam and fiber, thus providing spot diameters not otherwise available for precise tissue ablation using conventional fiber delivery systems. With further probe development, this novel approach to mid-IR laser ablation may provide an alternative to mechanical tools for ultra-precise surgical dissection and removal of ophthalmic tissues.

  6. Antibiotic resistance and molecular characterization of ophthalmic Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates from dogs.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min-Hee; Chae, Min-Joo; Yoon, Jang-Won; Kim, Seung-Gon; Lee, So-Young; Yoo, Jong-Hyun; Park, Hee-Myung

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence, virulence potential, and antibiotic resistance of ophthalmic Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (SP) isolated from dogs were examined. Sixty-seven Staphylococcus species were isolated from ophthalmic samples and surveyed for species-specific sequences in the Staphylococcus intermedius group (SIG) nuclease gene (SInuc), exfoliative toxin gene for SIG (siet), and antibiotic resistance genes (blaZ and mecA). PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the pta gene was also performed. Fifty isolates were identified as SIG strains, all of which were found to be SP. The blaZ gene was detected in 42 of the 50 SP strains and mecA gene was observed in 18 of the 50 SP strains. The 50 SP strains were most susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (94%) and chlorampenicol (70%), and highly resistant to tetracycline (94%) and penicillin (92%). It was also found that 16 (88.9%) mecA-positive SP strains were resistant to oxacillin, tetracycline and penicillin. All mecA-positive SP were resistant to more than four of the eight tested antibiotics and therefore considered SP with multi-drug resistance (MDR). Our results indicate a high prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes in ophthalmic SP along with a close relationship between MDR SP strains and the mecA gene. Based on our findings, judicious administration of antibiotics to companion dogs is necessary.

  7. Evaluation of the cytotoxic effects of ophthalmic solutions containing benzalkonium chloride on corneal epithelium using an organotypic 3-D model

    PubMed Central

    Khoh-Reiter, Su; Jessen, Bart A

    2009-01-01

    Background Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) is a common preservative used in ophthalmic solutions. The aim of this study was to compare the cytotoxic effects of BAC-containing ophthalmic solutions with a BAC-free ophthalmic solution using an organotypic 3-dimensional (3-D) corneal epithelial model and to determine the effects of latanoprost ophthalmic solution and its BAC-containing vehicle on corneal thickness in a monkey model. Methods The cytotoxicity of commercially available BAC-containing ophthalmic formulations of latanoprost (0.02% BAC) and olopatadine (0.01% BAC) was compared to that of BAC-free travoprost and saline in a corneal organotypic 3-D model using incubation times of 10 and 25 minutes. To compare the extent of differentiation of 3-D corneal cultures to monolayer transformed human corneal epithelial (HCE-T) cell cultures, expression levels (mRNA and protein) of the corneal markers epidermal growth factor receptor, transglutaminase 1 and involucrin were quantified. Finally, latanoprost ophthalmic solution or its vehicle was administered at suprapharmacologic doses (two 30 μL drops twice daily in 1 eye for 1 year) in monkey eyes, and corneal pachymetry was performed at baseline and at weeks 4, 13, 26 and 52. Results In the 3-D corneal epithelial culture assays, there were no significant differences in cytotoxicity between the BAC-containing latanoprost and olopatadine ophthalmic solutions and BAC-free travoprost ophthalmic solution at either the 10- or 25-minute time points. The 3-D cultures expressed higher levels of corneal epithelial markers than the HCE-T monolayers, indicating a greater degree of differentiation. There were no significant differences between the corneal thickness of monkey eyes treated with latanoprost ophthalmic solution or its vehicle (both containing 0.02% BAC) and untreated eyes. Conclusion The lack of cytotoxicity demonstrated in 3-D corneal cultures and in monkey studies suggests that the levels of BAC contained in ophthalmic

  8. 4. VIEW EAST, SOUTHWEST FRONT, NORTHWEST SIDE Side elevation. Note ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW EAST, SOUTHWEST FRONT, NORTHWEST SIDE Side elevation. Note the ground floor windows which were added. Siding is vinyl, but the burned area exposes asbestos siding added when the rear and upper areas were converted to living spaces. - 510 Central Avenue (Commercial Building), Ridgely, Caroline County, MD

  9. Ocular and systemic pharmacokinetics of lidocaine hydrochloride ophthalmic gel in rabbits after topical ocular administration.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bing; Ding, Li; Xu, Xiaowen; Lin, Hongda; Sun, Chenglong; You, Linjun

    2015-12-01

    Lidocaine hydrochloride ophthalmic gel is a novel ophthalmic preparation for topical ocular anesthesia. The study is aimed at evaluating the ocular and systemic pharmacokinetics of lidocaine hydrochloride 3.5 % ophthalmic gel in rabbits after ocular topical administration. Thirty-six rabbits were randomly placed in 12 groups (3 rabbits per group). The rabbits were quickly killed according to their groups at 0 (predose), 0.0833, 0.167, 0.333, 0.667, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 h postdose and then the ocular tissue and plasma samples were collected. All the samples were analyzed by a validated LC-MS/MS method. The test result showed that the maximum concentration (C max) of lidocaine in different ocular tissues and plasma were all achieved within 20 min after drug administration, and the data of C max were (2,987 ± 1814) μg/g, (44.67 ± 12.91) μg/g, (26.26 ± 7.19) μg/g, (11,046 ± 2,734) ng/mL, and (160.3 ± 61.0) ng/mL for tear fluid, cornea, conjunctiva, aqueous humor, and plasma, respectively. The data of the elimination half-life in these tissues were 1.5, 3.2, 3.5, 1.9, and 1.7 h for tear fluid, cornea, conjunctiva, aqueous humor, and plasma, respectively. The intraocular lidocaine levels were significantly higher than that in plasma, and the elimination half-life of lidocaine in cornea, conjunctiva, and aqueous humor was relatively longer than that in tear fluid and plasma. The high intraocular penetration, low systemic exposure, and long duration in the ocular tissues suggested lidocaine hydrochloride 3.5 % ophthalmic gel as an effective local anesthetic for ocular anesthesia during ophthalmic procedures.

  10. Simulations: The dark side

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenkel, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the Monte Carlo and Molecular Dynamics methods. Both methods are, in principle, simple. However, simple does not mean risk-free. In the literature, many of the pitfalls in the field are mentioned, but usually as a footnote --and these footnotes are scattered over many papers. The present paper focuses on the "dark side" of simulation: it is one big footnote. I should stress that "dark", in this context, has no negative moral implication. It just means: under-exposed.

  11. X-ray imaging in advanced studies of ophthalmic diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Antunes, Andrea; Safatle, Angelica M. V.; Barros, Paulo S. M.; Morelhao, Sergio L.

    2006-07-15

    Microscopic characterization of pathological tissues has one major intrinsic limitation, the small sampling areas with respect to the extension of the tissues. Mapping possible changes on vast tissues and correlating them with large ensembles of clinical cases is not a feasible procedure for studying most diseases, as for instance vision loss related diseases and, in particular, the cataract. Although intraocular lens implants are successful treatments, cataract still is a leading public-health issue that grows in importance as the population increases and life expectancy is extended worldwide. In this work we have exploited the radiation-tissue interaction properties of hard x-rays--very low absorption and scattering--to map distinct lesions on entire eye lenses. At the used synchrotron x-ray photon energy of 20 keV (wavelength {lambda}=0.062 nm), scattering and refraction are angular resolved effects. It allows the employed x-ray image technique to efficiently characterize two types of lesions in eye lenses under cataractogenesis: distributions of tiny scattering centers and extended areas of fiber cell compaction. The data collection procedure is relatively fast; allowing dozens of samples to be totally imaged (scattering, refraction, and mass absorption images) in a single day of synchrotron beam time. More than 60 cases of canine cataract, not correlated to specific causes, were investigated in this first application of x-rays to image entire lenses. Cortical opacity cases, or partial opacity, could be related to the presence of calcificated tissues at the cortical areas, clearly visible in the images, whose elemental contents were verified by micro x-ray fluorescence as very rich in calcium. Calcificated tissues were also observed at nuclear areas in some cases of hypermature cataract. Total opacity cases without distinguishable amount of scattering centers consist in 70% of the analyzed cases, where remarkable fissure marks owing to extended areas of fiber

  12. Retinal phototoxicity: a review of standard methodology for evaluating retinal optical radiation hazards.

    PubMed

    Landry, Robert J; Bostrom, Robert G; Miller, Sharon A; Shi, Dexiu; Sliney, David H

    2011-04-01

    Optical radiation (light) safety standards can be difficult to use for the evaluation of light hazards to the retina, even for persons experienced in radiometry and photometry. This paper reviews terminology and methodology for evaluating optical radiation hazards to the retina in accordance with international standard ISO 15004-2 Ophthalmic instruments-Fundamental requirements and test methods, Part 2: Light hazard protection (2007). All optical radiation safety standards use similar methods. Specifically, this paper illustrates how to evaluate the retinal hazards from various ophthalmic instruments including the following: diffuse illumination of the cornea; incident light diverging at the cornea (direct ophthalmoscope, operation microscope, fixation lamp); and incident light converging at the cornea (indirect ophthalmoscope, fundus camera, slit lamp biomicroscope). A brief review of radiometry and the use of certified optical components by manufacturers as specified by the ISO standard is also provided. Finally, the authors provide examples of the use of photometric measurements in hazard evaluation.

  13. Evaluation of analgesic efficacy of bromfenac sodium ophthalmic solution 0.09% versus ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solution 0.5% following LASEK or Epi-LASIK

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao Jing; Wong, Sze H; Givergis, Roshan; Chynn, Emil W

    2011-01-01

    Background To evaluate the analgesic efficacy of bromfenac sodium ophthalmic solution 0.09% compared with ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solution 0.5% in laser epithelial keratomileusis (LASEK) or epithelial keratomileusis (epi-LASEK), sometimes referred to as epi-LASIK. Methods Eighty eyes (from 40 patients, 18 men and 22 women) undergoing bilateral simultaneous LASEK or epi-LASEK were randomized to receive ketorolac in one eye and bromfenac in the other. Mean age was 33.13 ± 9.34 years. One drop of bromfenac or ketorolac was instilled in each eye 15 minutes and one minute prior to surgery, and two and four hours following surgery. Patients were instructed to instill the medications on-label each day through postoperative day 4. The subjects completed pain and visual blurriness assessments from day of surgery to postoperative day 4. Uncorrected visual acuity was tested on postoperative days 1 and 6. Results For each of the five days, pain scores for bromfenac-treated eyes were significantly less than that for ketorolac-treated eyes (P < 0.01). Of the 40 patients, 32 (80%) said bromfenac provided better postoperative analgesia than ketorolac. There was no statistically significant difference in visual blurriness scores between the two groups (P > 0.1). Uncorrected visual acuity did not vary significantly between the treatment groups (P > 0.1). No serious adverse events were noted. Conclusion Bromfenac is subjectively superior to ketorolac in reducing postoperative pain following LASEK or epi-LASEK. The subjects tolerated the drugs well with no serious adverse outcomes and no difference in uncorrected visual acuity. PMID:22034570

  14. 4. VIEW TO NORTH; SIDE SIDE OF RAMP IN FRONT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW TO NORTH; SIDE SIDE OF RAMP IN FRONT OF U.S. POST OFFICE TERMINAL ANNEX BUILDING (Dobson) - Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal, Mail, Baggage, & Express Building, 800 North Alameda Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. South (front) side. Metal railing to either side supports a ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South (front) side. Metal railing to either side supports a door when it is open. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Root Cellar, West Pennington Avenue, North of Building No. 121, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  16. VIEW OF FRONT SIDE OF BUILDING 23 FROM EAST SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF FRONT SIDE OF BUILDING 23 FROM EAST SIDE OF COURTYARD UNDER ARCADE, FACING WEST - Roosevelt Base, Auditorium-Gymnasium, West Virginia Street between Richardson & Reeves Avenues, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. Front (west side) and north side of building with incinerator ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Front (west side) and north side of building with incinerator smokestack (building 615) in right background - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Incinerator Building, 540 feet East-Northeast of intersection of East Bushnell Avenue & South Van Valzah Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  18. 14. CO'S STATEROOM, STERN SIDE (LEFT) AND STARBOARD SIDE. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. CO'S STATEROOM, STERN SIDE (LEFT) AND STARBOARD SIDE. NOTE WOODEN WINDOW FRAMES. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  19. 1. SOUTH VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE, WITH NORTHEAST SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SOUTH VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE, WITH NORTHEAST SIDE OF MINE OFFICE ON RIGHT OF PHOTO - Juniata Mill Complex, Assay Office, 22.5 miles Southwest of Hawthorne, between Aurora Crater & Aurora Peak, Hawthorne, Mineral County, NV

  20. FACILITY 858, PORTION OF NORTHEAST SIDE (APRON AVENUE SIDE), SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 858, PORTION OF NORTHEAST SIDE (APRON AVENUE SIDE), SHOWING CHEVRON DESIGN OVER FORMER PASSAGEWAY, OBLIQUE VIEW FACING WEST. - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Quadrangle K Barracks Type, Between Wilson Street & Capron Avenue near Williston Avenue, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  1. FACILITY 859, DETAIL OF SOUTHWEST SIDE (WILSON STREET SIDE), SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 859, DETAIL OF SOUTHWEST SIDE (WILSON STREET SIDE), SHOWING CHEVRON DESIGN OVER FORMER PASSAGEWAY, VIEW FACING NORTHEAST. - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Quadrangle K Barracks Type, Between Wilson Street & Capron Avenue near Williston Avenue, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  2. Reduction of Flap Side Edge Noise - the Blowing Flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutcheson, Florence V.; Brooks, THomas F.

    2005-01-01

    A technique to reduce the noise radiating from a wing-flap side edge is being developed. As an airplane wing with an extended flap is exposed to a subsonic airflow, air is blown outward through thin rectangular chord-wise slots at various locations along the side edges and side surface of the flap to weaken and push away the vortices that originate in that region of the flap and are responsible for important noise emissions. Air is blown through the slots at up to twice the local flow velocity. The blowing is done using one or multiple slots, where a slot is located along the top, bottom or side surface of the flap along the side edge, or also along the intersection of the bottom (or top) and side surfaces.

  3. SOUTH SIDE OF SECOND STREET, LOOKING WESTSOUTHWEST FROM NORTH SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH SIDE OF SECOND STREET, LOOKING WEST-SOUTHWEST FROM NORTH SIDE OF SECOND STREET NEAR INTERSECTION OF DOWELL AND SECOND STREETS - Pacific Coast Torpedo Station, Keyport Industrial District, Both sides of Second Street, between Dedrick Drive and Liberty Bay and one building west of Dedrick Drive and south of Second Street, Keyport, Kitsap County, WA

  4. SOUTH SIDE OF SECOND STREET, LOOKING WESTSOUTHWEST FROM NORTH SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH SIDE OF SECOND STREET, LOOKING WEST-SOUTHWEST FROM NORTH SIDE OF SECOND STREET NEAR BUILDING 489 - Pacific Coast Torpedo Station, Keyport Industrial District, Both sides of Second Street, between Dedrick Drive and Liberty Bay and one building west of Dedrick Drive and south of Second Street, Keyport, Kitsap County, WA

  5. Night Side Jovian Aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Jovian aurora on the night side of the planet. The upper bright arc is auroral emission seen 'edge on' above the planetary limb with the darkness of space as a background. The lower bright arc is seen against the dark clouds of Jupiter. The aurora is easier to see on the night side of Jupiter because it is fainter than the clouds when they are illuminated by sunlight. Jupiter's north pole is out of view to the upper right. The images were taken in the clear filter (visible light) and are displayed in shades of blue.

    As on Earth, the auroral emission is caused by electrically charged particles striking the upper atmosphere from above. The particles travel along the magnetic field lines of the planet, but their origin is not fully understood. The field lines where the aurora is most intense cross the Jovian equator at large distances (many Jovian radii) from the planet. The faint background throughout the image is scattered light in the camera. This stray light comes from the sunlit portion of Jupiter, which is out of the image to the right. In multispectral observations the aurora appears red, consistent with glow from atomic hydrogen in Jupiter's atmosphere. Galileo's unique perspective allows it to view the night side of the planet at short range, revealing details that cannot be seen from Earth. These detailed features are time dependent, and can be followed in sequences of Galileo images.

    North is at the top of the picture. A grid of planetocentric latitude and west longitude is overlain on the images. The images were taken on November 5, 1997 at a range of 1.3 million kilometers by the Solid State Imaging (SSI) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the

  6. Review of null hypothesis significance testing in the ophthalmic literature: are most 'significant' P values false positives?

    PubMed

    Sanfilippo, Paul G; Casson, Robert J; Yazar, Seyhan; Mackey, David A; Hewitt, Alex W

    2016-01-01

    P values associated with null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) are almost universal in the ophthalmic literature. A P value < 0.05 is traditionally considered 'significant'. This concept may deflect further thought about the veracity of the results. P values influence the publishability of the data and have flow-on effects for funding success and the direction of future research. Despite their importance, the problems inherent in P values have been recognized since their inception, and in more recent years have been increasingly highlighted in some scientific fields. In this review, we aim to bring the problems associated with P values and NHST to the attention of the ophthalmic research community. We do not offer a universal solution to the problem of determining the veracity of a scientific claim; however, we demonstrate the need for caution in interpreting 'significant' P values by performing a Bayesian re-analysis of t-tests in the ophthalmic literature.

  7. Microscope-integrated intraoperative OCT with electrically tunable focus and heads-up display for imaging of ophthalmic surgical maneuvers.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yuankai K; Srivastava, Sunil K; Ehlers, Justis P

    2014-06-01

    We present novel optical and mechanical designs for a microscope-integrated intraoperative optical coherence tomography (iOCT) system with enhanced function and ergonomics for visualization of ophthalmic surgical maneuvers. Integration of an electrically tunable lens allows rapid focal plane adjustment and iOCT imaging of both anterior and posterior segment tissue microstructures while maintaining parfocality with the ophthalmic surgical microscope. We demonstrate novel visualization of instrument positions relative to tissue layers of interest as colormap overlays onto en face OCT data, which may provide integrative display of volumetric information during surgical maneuvers. Finally, we implement a heads-up display system to provide real-time feedback as proof-of-principle for iOCT-guided ophthalmic surgery.

  8. Local toxicity of benzalkonium chloride in ophthalmic solutions following repeated applications.

    PubMed

    Okahara, Akihiko; Kawazu, Kouichi

    2013-01-01

    We performed repeated toxicity studies of benzalkonium chloride (BAK)-containing vehicles of ophthalmic solutions in monkeys and rabbits to assess the local toxicity of BAK after repeated applications on the ocular surface. Local toxicity of BAK was evaluated by toxicity studies in which a 0.01% BAK-containing vehicle was applied twice/day for 52 weeks, 4 times/day for 39 weeks, or 6 times/day for 13 weeks, or in which a 0.005% BAK-containing vehicle was applied 6 times/day for 52 weeks or twice/day for 4 weeks in monkeys. Local toxicity of BAK was also evaluated where a 0.01% BAK-containing vehicle was applied 6 times/day for 6 weeks, or a 0.005% BAK-containing vehicle was applied twice/day for 39 weeks or 8 times/day for 4 weeks in rabbits. These doses were chosen because BAK is generally used at concentrations up to 0.01% in ophthalmic solutions. The BAK-containing vehicle did not cause ophthalmological changes suggestive of irritation, allergy, or corneal damage. We also did not observe any histopathological changes in the eyeball, eyelid, lacrimal gland, and nasal cavity, with repeated applications of BAK for up to 52 weeks, up to 8 times/day, or at concentrations up to 0.01%, in monkeys and rabbits. Our results suggest that BAK in concentrations up to 0.01% in ophthalmic solution is non-toxic to the eyeball, its accessory organs, and the nasal cavity after long repeated applications.

  9. Characterisation and comparison of ophthalmic instrument quality using a model eye with reverse ray-tracing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheil, Conor; Goncharov, Alexander V.

    2013-05-01

    A physical model eye was constructed to test the quality of ophthalmic instruments. The accuracy and precision of two commercially available instruments were analysed. For these instruments, a particular model eye was obtained which mimicked the physical properties that would be usually measured e.g. corneal topography or optical path within the human eye. The model eye was designed using relatively simple optical components (e.g. plano-convex lenses) separated by appropriate intraocular distances taken from the literature. The dimensions of the model eye were known a priori: The lenses used in the construction of the model eye were characterised ac­ cording to values given in the manufacturers' data sheets and also through measurement using an interferometer. The distances between the lens surfaces were calculated using the interferometric data with reverse ray-tracing. Optical paths were calculated as the product of refractive index and axial distance. The errors inherent in mea­ suring these ocular parameters by different ophthalmic instruments can be considered as producing an erroneous value for the overall refractive power of the eye. The latter is a useful metric for comparing various ophthalmic devices where the direct comparison of quality is not possible or is not practical. For example, a 1% error in anterior corneal radius of curvature will have a more detrimental effect than the same error in posterior corneal radius, due to the relative differences in refractive indices at those surface boundaries. To quantify the error in ocular refractive power, a generic eye model was created in ZEMAX optical design software. The parametric errors were then used to compute the overall error in predicting ocular refractive power, thus highlighting the relative importance of individual errors. This work will help in future determination of acceptable levels of metrological errors in ocular instrumentation.

  10. Antiviral activity of salivary microRNAs for ophthalmic herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Irmak, M Kemal; Erdem, Uzeyir; Kubar, Ayhan

    2012-06-07

    Ophthalmic herpes zoster is a common ocular infection caused by the varicella-zoster virus (VZV). Viral mRNA transcripts play a major role in the replicative cycle of the virus and current antiviral agents have little effect in preventing and treating the complications. Therapeutic use of saliva for certain painful ocular diseases such as ophthalmic herpes zoster is a well-known public practice in our region. We thought that antiviral activity of saliva may stem from salivary microvesicles and we aimed to look for molecules with antiviral activity in these vesicles. As a possible candidate for antiviral activity, salivary microvesicles contain at least 20 microRNAs (miRNAs), small noncoding RNAs, which suppress the translation of target mRNAs. miRNAs not only participate in maintenance of normal cell functions, but are also involved in host-virus interactions and limit the replication of certain virus types. Thus, miRNA gene therapy by targeting mRNAs required for VZV survival may find a niche in the treatment of ophthalmic herpes zoster. But, how could salivary microvesicles reach into the corneal cells to demonstrate their antiviral activity. We suggest that human salivary microvesicles can be effective carriers of miRNA for corneal cells, because they contain a molecular machinery for vesicle trafficking and fusion allowing them to be endocytosed by target cells. After binding to the plasma membrane, microvesicles seem to enter into the corneal cells through the clathrin-mediated endocytosis. In the cytosol, human salivary miRNAs base-pair with specific viral mRNAs and inhibit their translation, thus limiting the replication of the virus.

  11. Determination of benzalkonium chloride in aqueous ophthalmic preparations by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Gomar, A; Gonzalez-Aubert, M M; Garces-Torrents, J; Costa-Segarra, J

    1990-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method is described for the determination of homologues of benzalkonium chloride in aqueous ophthalmic preparations. The technique involves direct injection of the sample on a 5-microns Spherisorb-CN column. The mobile phase is acetonitrile-triethylamine (0.1%, v/v) in water (pH 2.5; 40:60, v/v). Detection is carried out at 215 nm. The method is rapid, specific, reproducible and simple, and is especially useful for the assay of this preservative in stability studies and quality control procedures.

  12. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Pain It’s important to treat pain. If you ... to pay for pain medicine. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Pain Keep track of the pain. Each day, ...

  13. Automated stereo vision instrument tracking for intraoperative OCT guided anterior segment ophthalmic surgical maneuvers

    PubMed Central

    El-Haddad, Mohamed T.; Tao, Yuankai K.

    2015-01-01

    Microscope-integrated intraoperative OCT (iOCT) enables imaging of tissue cross-sections concurrent with ophthalmic surgical maneuvers. However, limited acquisition rates and complex three-dimensional visualization methods preclude real-time surgical guidance using iOCT. We present an automated stereo vision surgical instrument tracking system integrated with a prototype iOCT system. We demonstrate, for the first time, automatically tracked video-rate cross-sectional iOCT imaging of instrument-tissue interactions during ophthalmic surgical maneuvers. The iOCT scan-field is automatically centered on the surgical instrument tip, ensuring continuous visualization of instrument positions relative to the underlying tissue over a 2500 mm2 field with sub-millimeter positional resolution and <1° angular resolution. Automated instrument tracking has the added advantage of providing feedback on surgical dynamics during precision tissue manipulations because it makes it possible to use only two cross-sectional iOCT images, aligned parallel and perpendicular to the surgical instrument, which also reduces both system complexity and data throughput requirements. Our current implementation is suitable for anterior segment surgery. Further system modifications are proposed for applications in posterior segment surgery. Finally, the instrument tracking system described is modular and system agnostic, making it compatible with different commercial and research OCT and surgical microscopy systems and surgical instrumentations. These advances address critical barriers to the development of iOCT-guided surgical maneuvers and may also be translatable to applications in microsurgery outside of ophthalmology. PMID:26309764

  14. Automated stereo vision instrument tracking for intraoperative OCT guided anterior segment ophthalmic surgical maneuvers.

    PubMed

    El-Haddad, Mohamed T; Tao, Yuankai K

    2015-08-01

    Microscope-integrated intraoperative OCT (iOCT) enables imaging of tissue cross-sections concurrent with ophthalmic surgical maneuvers. However, limited acquisition rates and complex three-dimensional visualization methods preclude real-time surgical guidance using iOCT. We present an automated stereo vision surgical instrument tracking system integrated with a prototype iOCT system. We demonstrate, for the first time, automatically tracked video-rate cross-sectional iOCT imaging of instrument-tissue interactions during ophthalmic surgical maneuvers. The iOCT scan-field is automatically centered on the surgical instrument tip, ensuring continuous visualization of instrument positions relative to the underlying tissue over a 2500 mm(2) field with sub-millimeter positional resolution and <1° angular resolution. Automated instrument tracking has the added advantage of providing feedback on surgical dynamics during precision tissue manipulations because it makes it possible to use only two cross-sectional iOCT images, aligned parallel and perpendicular to the surgical instrument, which also reduces both system complexity and data throughput requirements. Our current implementation is suitable for anterior segment surgery. Further system modifications are proposed for applications in posterior segment surgery. Finally, the instrument tracking system described is modular and system agnostic, making it compatible with different commercial and research OCT and surgical microscopy systems and surgical instrumentations. These advances address critical barriers to the development of iOCT-guided surgical maneuvers and may also be translatable to applications in microsurgery outside of ophthalmology.

  15. Determination of benzalkonium chloride in viscous ophthalmic drops of azithromycin by high-performance liquid chromatography *

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yan; Xu, Sheng-jie; Wang, Shi-chun; Tu, Jia-sheng

    2009-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system was used in the reversed phase mode for the determination of benzalkonium chloride (BKC) in azithromycin viscous ophthalmic drops. A Venusil-XBP(L)-C18 (150 mm×4.6 mm, 5 μm) column was used at 50 °C. The mobile phase consisted of a mixture of methanol-potassium phosphate (16:5, v/v). Two sample preparation methods were compared. The results suggested that, compared with an extraction procedure, a deproteinization procedure was much quicker and more convenient. Using the deproteinization procedure for sample preparation, calibration curves were linear in the range 5.0~50 μg/ml. The within-day and inter-day coefficients of variation were less than 10%. The average recoveries were determined as 96.70%, 98.52%, and 97.96% at concentrations of 10.0, 30.0, and 50.0 μg/ml, respectively. Variability in precision did not exceed 5%. In conclusion, this HPLC method using a simple sample treatment procedure appears suitable for monitoring BKC content in azithromycin viscous ophthalmic drops. PMID:19946951

  16. Telemedicine for ophthalmic consultation services: use of a portable device and layering information for graders.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Maria A; Bavinger, J Clay; Amin, Sejal; Blachley, Taylor S; Musch, David C; Lee, Paul P; Newman-Casey, Paula Anne

    2017-02-01

    Introduction We compared remote, image-based patient consultations to in-person consultations at emergency department and inpatient hospital settings. Methods Patients evaluated by the ophthalmic consultation services (gold standard) were imaged over a two-week period. A trained study coordinator took anterior segment photographs (AS) and posterior segment photographs (PS) with a portable camera (PictorPlus, Volk Optical, Cleveland, OH). Ophthalmologists (graders) determined photograph quality, presence of pathology, and their confidence in disease detection. At a separate session, graders reassessed photographs accompanied by a one-sentence summary of demographics and chief complaint (CHx). We computed accuracy and reliability statistics. Results We took AS photographs of 24 eyes of 15 patients and PS photographs of 39 eyes of 20 patients. The majority of images were rated as acceptable or excellent in quality (AS: 89-96%; PS: 70-75%). Graders detected AS pathology with 62-81% sensitivity based on photographs, increasing to 87-88% sensitivity with photographs plus CHx. Graders detected PS pathology with 79-86% sensitivity based on a photograph only, increasing to 100% sensitivity with photographs plus CHx. Discussion In this pilot study, there is evidence that portable ophthalmic imaging technologies could enable ophthalmologists to remotely evaluate anterior and posterior segment eye diseases with good sensitivity. The ophthalmologist could detect ocular pathology on photographs more accurately if they were provided brief clinical information.

  17. Ganciclovir ophthalmic gel, 0.15%: a valuable tool for treating ocular herpes

    PubMed Central

    Colin, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Ocular herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection remains a major cause of corneal blindness. Several topical and oral antiviral medications have been used to treat herpetic keratitis. Advances in topical ophthalmic antivirals have been made over the past several decades. The first antivirals that were discovered were cytotoxic, while the antivirals developed more recently, such as acyclovir and ganciclovir, have exceeded these drugs in both efficacy and tolerability. Commercially available outside of the US since 1996, ganciclovir ophthalmic gel, 0.15% (GCV 0.15%, European tradename: Virgan®) is sold in more than 30 countries and has become the standard of care in treating acute herpetic keratitis. GCV 0.15% has been studied in animal models of ocular herpes, in healthy volunteers, and in several clinical studies. It has been found to be safe and effective at treating acute superficial herpetic keratitis. Previous preclinical studies of ganciclovir have shown activity against several common adenovirus strains and one recent clinical study demonstrated clinical effect against adenoviral conjunctivitis. This review is intended to provide a comprehensive overview of the GCV 0.15%, including a brief summary of the etiology and available treatments for ocular HSV, an explanation of GCV 0.15% mechanism of action, a compendium of preclinical and clinical GCV 0.15% studies, and an introduction into new areas of interest involving this drug. PMID:19668521

  18. Quality by design approach for understanding the critical quality attributes of cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Ziyaur; Xu, Xiaoming; Katragadda, Usha; Krishnaiah, Yellela S R; Yu, Lawrence; Khan, Mansoor A

    2014-03-03

    Restasis is an ophthalmic cyclosporine emulsion used for the treatment of dry eye syndrome. There are no generic products for this product, probably because of the limitations on establishing in vivo bioequivalence methods and lack of alternative in vitro bioequivalence testing methods. The present investigation was carried out to understand and identify the appropriate in vitro methods that can discriminate the effect of formulation and process variables on critical quality attributes (CQA) of cyclosporine microemulsion formulations having the same qualitative (Q1) and quantitative (Q2) composition as that of Restasis. Quality by design (QbD) approach was used to understand the effect of formulation and process variables on critical quality attributes (CQA) of cyclosporine microemulsion. The formulation variables chosen were mixing order method, phase volume ratio, and pH adjustment method, while the process variables were temperature of primary and raw emulsion formation, microfluidizer pressure, and number of pressure cycles. The responses selected were particle size, turbidity, zeta potential, viscosity, osmolality, surface tension, contact angle, pH, and drug diffusion. The selected independent variables showed statistically significant (p < 0.05) effect on droplet size, zeta potential, viscosity, turbidity, and osmolality. However, the surface tension, contact angle, pH, and drug diffusion were not significantly affected by independent variables. In summary, in vitro methods can detect formulation and manufacturing changes and would thus be important for quality control or sameness of cyclosporine ophthalmic products.

  19. Ophthalmic compensation of visual ametropia based on a programmable diffractive lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millán, Maria S.; Pérez-Cabré, Elisabet; Romero, Lenny A.; Ramírez, Natalia

    2013-11-01

    Pixelated liquid crystal displays have been widely used as spatial light modulators to implement programmable diffractive optical elements (DOEs), particularly diffractive lenses. Many different applications of such components have been developed in information optics and optical processors that take advantage of their properties of great flexibility, easy and fast refreshment, and multiplexing capability in comparison with equivalent conventional refractive lenses. In this paper, we explore the application of programmable diffractive lenses displayed on the pixelated screen of a liquid crystal on silicon spatial light modulator (LCoS-SLM) to ophthalmic optics. In particular, we consider the use of programmable diffractive lenses for the visual compensation of some refractive errors (myopia, hyperopia). The theoretical principles of compensation are described and sketched using geometrical optics and paraxial ray tracing. A series of experiments with artificial eye in optical bench are conducted to analyze the compensation accuracy in terms of optical power and to compare the results with those obtained by means of conventional ophthalmic lenses. Practical considerations oriented to feasible applications are provided.

  20. The rule of five for non-oral routes of drug delivery: ophthalmic, inhalation and transdermal.

    PubMed

    Choy, Young Bin; Prausnitz, Mark R

    2011-05-01

    The Rule of Five predicts suitability of drug candidates, but was developed primarily using orally administered drugs. Here, we test whether the Rule of Five predicts drugs for delivery via non-oral routes, specifically ophthalmic, inhalation and transdermal. We assessed 111 drugs approved by FDA for those routes of administration and found that >98% of current non-oral drugs have physicochemical properties within the limits of the Rule of Five. However, given the inherent bias in the dataset, this analysis was not able to assess whether drugs with properties outside those limits are poor candidates. Indeed, further analysis indicates that drugs well outside the Rule of Five limits, including hydrophilic macromolecules, can be delivered by inhalation. In contrast, drugs currently administered across skin fall within more stringent limits than predicted by the Rule of Five, but new transdermal delivery technologies may make these constraints obsolete by dramatically increasing skin permeability. The Rule of Five does appear to apply well to ophthalmic delivery. We conclude that although current non-oral drugs mostly have physicochemical properties within the Rule of Five thresholds, the Rule of Five should not be used to predict non-oral drug candidates, especially for inhalation and transdermal routes.

  1. Preparation of dexamethasone ophthalmic implants: a comparative study of in vitro release profiles.

    PubMed

    Prata, Ana I; Coimbra, Patrícia; Pina, M Eugénia

    2017-03-16

    Diseases affecting the posterior segment of the eye are the most common cause of visual disorders in industrialized countries. This scenario has encouraged the development of new treatment modalities for these diseases, such as drug loaded implants with prolonged drug release. The aim of the present work was to create a polymeric based biodegradable ophthalmic implant for the delivery of dexamethasone. For this purpose, we prepared and compared the in vitro release profiles of dexamethasone ophthalmic implants produced by two methods: melting casting and solvent casting. The type of the biodegradable polymer used - poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA); the drug loading (10% and 25%, w/w), the molecular weight of PCL (37 kDa and 14 kDa) and the form of the drug (dexamethasone and dexamethasone disodium phosphate) were also investigated. The results show that the preparation method has little influence on the obtained release profiles, being the type of polymer the most significant factor affecting the release profiles; nonetheless, a better distribution of dexamethasone was obtained for the devices prepared by melting casting.

  2. Ion-activated In Situ Gelling Ophthalmic Delivery Systems of Azithromycin

    PubMed Central

    Vijaya, C.; Goud, K. Swetha

    2011-01-01

    Gelation of pectin caused by divalent cations especially calcium ions has been applied to develop an ophthalmic formulation of azithromycin in the present study. Rapid elimination of drug on instillation into cul de sac would be minimal with in situ gelling ophthalmic solution leading to increased precorneal contact time and prolonged drug delivery. In the formulation development studies pectin was used in different concentrations (1-5% w/v) and different proportions of the hydrocolloids hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose of different grades of viscosity were used. The primary criteria for formulation optimization were gelling capacity and rheological behaviour. In addition, formulations were evaluated for pH, and antimicrobial efficacy and drug release. The clarity, pH, gelation in simulated tear fluid and rheological properties of the optimized formulations were satisfactory. The formulations inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus effectively in cup–plate method and were proved to be safe and non irritant on rabbit eyes. The results indicate that pectin based in situ gels can be successfully used to prolong the duration of action of azithromycin. PMID:23112394

  3. Determination of benzalkonium chloride in viscous ophthalmic drops of azithromycin by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yan; Xu, Sheng-jie; Wang, Shi-chun; Tu, Jia-sheng

    2009-12-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system was used in the reversed phase mode for the determination of benzalkonium chloride (BKC) in azithromycin viscous ophthalmic drops. A Venusil-XBP(L)-C(18) (150 mmx4.6 mm, 5 microm) column was used at 50 degrees C. The mobile phase consisted of a mixture of methanol-potassium phosphate (16:5, v/v). Two sample preparation methods were compared. The results suggested that, compared with an extraction procedure, a deproteinization procedure was much quicker and more convenient. Using the deproteinization procedure for sample preparation, calibration curves were linear in the range 5.0 to approximately 50 microg/ml. The within-day and inter-day coefficients of variation were less than 10%. The average recoveries were determined as 96.70%, 98.52%, and 97.96% at concentrations of 10.0, 30.0, and 50.0 microg/ml, respectively. Variability in precision did not exceed 5%. In conclusion, this HPLC method using a simple sample treatment procedure appears suitable for monitoring BKC content in azithromycin viscous ophthalmic drops.

  4. The retina in forensic medicine: applications of ophthalmic endoscopy: the first 100 cases.

    PubMed

    Davis, Neil L; Wetli, Charles V; Shakin, Jeffrey L

    2006-03-01

    The retina reflects a variety of diseases in the living patient. However, the retina is not routinely examined in deceased persons, and therefore it is unknown if routine retinal examination would be a useful adjunct to the forensic autopsy. To examine this issue, the retinae of routine medical examiner cases were examined utilizing an ophthalmic endoscope. The results of the first 100 examinations are reported. Specific attention was given to changes that reflected the postmortem interval, the development of petechiae as related to cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and the association of retinal hemorrhages to subconjunctival hemorrhages. The procedure was helpful in cases of suspected shaken baby syndrome, exsanguination, and carbon monoxide poisoning and in cases with sudden increased intracranial pressure (Terson syndrome). It appears that lividity patterns exist in the retina, and this may be potentially useful in determining body position after death. Some natural disease processes, such as hypertension, were also identified. Finally, the utility of the ophthalmic endoscope as a means of circumventing the problem of corneal clouding is discussed, and ideas for further research using this technology are presented.

  5. Voriconazole Composited Polyvinyl Alcohol/Hydroxypropyl-β-Cyclodextrin Nanofibers for Ophthalmic Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaoyi; Cai, Zhengyuan; Yu, Lingyan; Lv, Yuanyuan

    2016-01-01

    Voriconazole (VRC) incorporated in composited polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) blended nanofibers were produced via electrospinning for efficient ophthalmic delivery. The VRC loading capacity increased with increasing HPβCD content. The optimal solution for electrospinning consisted of 8% (w/v) PVA, 4% (w/v) HPβCD and 0.5% (w/v) VRC. The nanofibers exhibited bead-free average fiber diameters of 307±31 nm and VRC was released in vitro in a sustained manner. The VRC nanofibers were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) was used to analyze the molar ratio of HPβCD/VRC in the nanofibers. Compared with a VRC solution, the nanofibers significantly prolonged the half life, and increased the bioavailability of VRC in rabbit tears. No obvious signs of irritation were observed after application in the conjunctival sac. VRC nanofibers are promising for ophthalmic drug delivery and further pharmacodynamics studies are needed. PMID:27974859

  6. Absorption of 308-nm excimer laser radiation by balanced salt solution, sodium hyaluronate, and human cadaver eyes

    SciTech Connect

    Keates, R.H.; Bloom, R.T.; Schneider, R.T.; Ren, Q.; Sohl, J.; Viscardi, J.J. )

    1990-11-01

    Absorption of the excimer laser radiations of 193-nm argon fluorine and 308-nm xenon chloride in balanced salt solution, sodium hyaluronate, and human cadaver eyes was measured. The absorption of these materials as considerably different for the two wavelengths; we found that 308-nm light experienced much less absorption than the 193-nm light. The extinction coefficient (k) for 308 nm was k = 0.19/cm for balanced salt solution and k = 0.22/cm for sodium hyaluronate. In contrast to this, the extinction coefficient for 193 nm was k = 140/cm for balanced salt solution and k = 540/cm for sodium hyaluronate. Two 1-day-old human phakic cadaver eyes showed complete absorption with both wavelengths. Using aphakic eyes, incomplete absorption was noted at the posterior pole with 308 nm and complete absorption was noted with 193 nm. The extinction in the anterior part of aphakic eyes (the first 6 mm) was 4.2/cm for 308 nm, meaning that the intensity of the light is reduced by a factor of 10 after traveling the first 5.5 mm. However, we observed that the material in the eye fluoresces, meaning the 308 nm is transformed into other (longer) wavelengths that travel through the total eye with minimal absorption. Conclusions drawn from this experiment are that the use of the 308-nm wavelength may have undesirable side effects, while the use of the 193-nm wavelength should be consistent with ophthalmic use on both the cornea and the lens.

  7. Comparison of Drug Concentrations in Human Aqueous Humor after the Administration of 0.3% Gatifloxacin Ophthalmic Gel, 0.3% Gatifloxacin and 0.5% Levofloxacin Ophthalmic Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Wenting; Ni, Weiling; Chen, Huilian; Yuan, Jingqun; Huang, Xiaodan; Zhang, Zheng; Wang, Yao; Yu, Yibo; Yao, Ke

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the penetration of 0.3% gatifloxacin ophthalmic gel, 0.3% gatifloxacin ophthalmic solution and 0.5% levofloxacin ophthalmic solution into aqueous humor after topical application. Materials and Methods: Age-related cataract patients (150 eyes in 150 cases) receiving phacoemulsification were randomly divided into three groups: a 0.3% gatifloxacin gel group (n=50), a 0.3% gatifloxacin solution group (n=50), and a 0.5% levofloxacin solution group (n=50). Each group was administered one drop of gel or solution every 15 minutes for four doses. Aqueous samples were collected at different time points after the last drop. High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) was applied to determine the concentrations. The one-way ANOVA analysis was performed. Results: Our data indicated that the concentration of the gatifloxacin gel group was higher than that of the gatifloxacin solution group at all time points (P <0.05); moreover, the gatifloxacin gel group exhibited higher levels than the levofloxacin solution group at 120.0 min and 180.0 min (P<0.05). Furthermore, the gatifloxacin gel produced the highest concentration at 120.0 min, and the gatifloxacin and levofloxacin solutions reached their peak values at 60.0 min. Conclusions: 0.3% gatifloxacin ophthalmic gel application produced highest aqueous humor drug concentration, maintained the longest time, had the best penetration and bioavailability. PMID:26078713

  8. Relationship between the Direction of Ophthalmic Artery Blood Flow and Ocular Microcirculation before and after Carotid Artery Stenting

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Kenichiro

    2016-01-01

    When internal carotid artery stenosis is accompanied by ocular ischemic syndrome, intervention is recommended to prevent irreversible visual loss. In this study, we used laser speckle flowgraphy to measure the ocular microcirculation in the optic nerve head before and after carotid artery stenting (CAS) of 40 advanced internal carotid stenosis lesions from 37 patients. The aim was to investigate the relationship between ocular microcirculation and the direction of ophthalmic artery blood flow obtained by angiography. We found that there was a significant increase in blood flow after CAS (P = 0.003). Peak systolic velocity as an indicator of the rate of stenosis was also significantly higher in the group with retrograde/undetected flow of the ophthalmic artery than in the group with antegrade flow (P = 0.002). In all cases where retrograde flow of the ophthalmic artery was observed before stenting, the flow changed to antegrade after stenting. Through the use of laser speckle flowgraphy, this study found that CAS can improve ocular microcirculation. Furthermore, while patients displaying retrograde flow of the ophthalmic artery before stenting have a poor prognosis, CAS corrected the flow to antegrade, suggesting that visual loss can be prevented by improving the ocular microcirculation. PMID:28070413

  9. Mutual repression between Pax3 and Pax6 is involved in the positioning of ophthalmic trigeminal placode in avian embryo.

    PubMed

    Wakamatsu, Yoshio

    2011-12-01

    Cranial sense organs and a subset of cranial sensory neurons are generated from placodes, thickenings of the ectoderm. Pax3 has been known as a marker for ophthalmic trigeminal placode specification, and also an important regulator of trigeminal placode neuron differentiation. In this study, I show that Pax6 is initially expressed in the preplacodal region at the level of ophthalmic trigeminal placode, and that this expression gradually regresses in a medial-to-lateral direction as Pax3 expression expands in the same direction. Misexpression studies revealed that Pax6 represses Pax3 expression indirectly as a transcriptional activator in a cell-autonomous manner. Pax3-misexpression represses Pax6 expression in an indirect fashion, suggesting that unknown factor(s) downstream of Pax3 may repress Pax6 expression, and thereby allow an expansion of Pax3-positive ophthalmic trigeminal placode region. These results indicate that the mutual repression between Pax3 and Pax6 has important roles in the specification and the positioning of the ophthalmic trigeminal placode.

  10. Ophthalmic acid accumulation in an Escherichia coli mutant lacking the conserved pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-binding protein YggS.

    PubMed

    Ito, Tomokazu; Yamauchi, Ayako; Hemmi, Hisashi; Yoshimura, Tohru

    2016-12-01

    Escherichia coli YggS is a highly conserved pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-binding protein whose biochemical function is currently unknown. A previous study with a yggS-deficient E. coli strain (ΔyggS) demonstrated that YggS controls l-Ile- and l-Val-metabolism by modulating 2-ketobutyrate (2-KB), l-2-aminobutyrate (l-2-AB), and/or coenzyme A (CoA) availability in a PLP-dependent fashion. In this study, we found that ΔyggS accumulates an unknown metabolite as judged by amino acid analyses. LC/MS and MS/MS analyses of the compound with propyl chloroformate derivatization, and co-chromatography analysis identified this compound as γ-l-glutamyl-l-2-aminobutyryl-glycine (ophthalmic acid), a glutathione (GSH) analogue in which the l-Cys moiety is replaced by l-2-AB. We also determine the metabolic consequence of the yggS mutation. Absence of YggS initially increases l-2-AB availability, and then causes ophthalmic acid accumulation and CoA limitation in the cell. The expression of a γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase and a glutathione synthetase in a ΔyggS background causes high-level accumulation of ophthalmic acid in the cells (∼1.2 nmol/mg cells) in a minimal synthetic medium. This opens the possibility of a first fermentative production of ophthalmic acid.

  11. 78 FR 68854 - Over-the-Counter Ophthalmic Drug Products-Emergency Use Eyewash Products; Rescheduling of Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Over-the-Counter Ophthalmic Drug Products--Emergency Use... Wednesday, September 18, 2013. Based on a request received by the Agency, we are rescheduling the public... Webcast location will be posted on the Web page at http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/NewsEvents/ucm356526.htm...

  12. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, Robert; Curcija, Charlie; Arasteh, Dariush; Goudey, Howdy; Kohler, Christian; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2011-07-07

    The subject of glass solar reflectance and its contribution to permanent vinyl siding distortion has not been extensively studied, and some phenomena are not yet well understood. This white paper presents what is known regarding the issue and identifies where more research is needed. Three primary topics are discussed: environmental factors that control the transfer of heat to and from the siding surface; vinyl siding properties that may affect heat build-up and permanent distortion; and factors that determine the properties of reflected solar radiation from glass surfaces, including insulating window glass. Further research is needed to fully characterize the conditions associated with siding distortion, the scope of the problem, physical properties of vinyl siding, insulating window glass reflection characteristics, and possible mitigation or prevention strategies.

  13. Microsurgical anatomy of the ophthalmic artery and the distal dural ring for the juxta-dural ring aneurysms via the pterional approach.

    PubMed

    Hokama, M; Hongo, K; Gibo, H; Kyoshima, K; Kobayashi, S

    2001-06-01

    Microsurgical anatomy for the pterional approach was studied regarding the origin and the course of the ophthalmic artery and the distal dural ring using human cadaveric specimens, with special reference to the surrounding bony structures. In 50 human adult formalin-fixed cadaveric cerebral hemispheres and 10 block specimens of the skull base region including the ophthalmic artery and the carotid dural ring were examined under magnification using an operating microscope. The ophthalmic artery originated from the intradural portion of the internal carotid artery (ICA), except in 5% where the ophthalmic artery originated extradurally. The extradural origin had two patterns: one was that the ophthalmic artery penetrated the bony optic strut (trans-optic strut pattern) and the other was that it coursed into the optic canal proximally to the optic strut without bone penetration (supra-optic strut pattern). The origin of the intradural ophthalmic artery was commonly located at the medial third of the superior wall of the ICA (78%). The ophthalmic artery was commonly taking an S-shaped course in the intradural portion and entered the optic canal over the optic strut. The distal dural ring was tightly adherent to the internal carotid artery; circumferential sectioning of the dural ring is required to mobilize the internal carotid artery. When approaching juxtadural ring ICA aneurysms via the pterional route, it is important to recognize the extradural origin, especially the trans-optic strut type, and to precisely understand the microsurgical anatomy around the dural ring.

  14. The DarkSide awakens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davini, S.; Agnes, P.; Agostino, L.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Alexander, T.; Alton, A. K.; Arisaka, K.; Back, H. O.; Baldin, B.; Biery, K.; Bonfini, G.; Bossa, M.; Bottino, B.; Brigatti, A.; Brodsky, J.; Budano, F.; Bussino, S.; Cadeddu, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cadoni, M.; Calaprice, F.; Canci, N.; Candela, A.; Cao, H.; Cariello, M.; Carlini, M.; Catalanotti, S.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; Cocco, A. G.; Covone, G.; D'Angelo, D.; D'Incecco, M.; De Cecco, S.; De Deo, M.; De Vincenzi, M.; Derbin, A.; Devoto, A.; Di Eusanio, F.; Di Pietro, G.; Edkins, E.; Empl, A.; Fan, A.; Fiorillo, G.; Fomenko, K.; Foster, G.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Giganti, C.; Goretti, A. M.; Granato, F.; Grandi, L.; Gromov, M.; Guan, M.; Guardincerri, Y.; Hackett, B. R.; Herner, K. R.; Hungerford, E. V.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; James, I.; Jollet, C.; Keeter, K.; Kendziora, C. L.; Kobychev, V.; Koh, G.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kubankin, A.; Li, X.; Lissia, M.; Lombardi, P.; Luitz, S.; Ma, Y.; Machulin, I. N.; Mandarano, A.; Mari, S. M.; Maricic, J.; Marini, L.; Martoff, C. J.; Meregaglia, A.; Meyers, P. D.; Miletic, T.; Milincic, R.; Montanari, D.; Monte, A.; Montuschi, M.; Monzani, M. E.; Mosteiro, P.; Mount, B. J.; Muratova, V. N.; Musico, P.; Napolitano, J.; Orsini, M.; Ortica, F.; Pagani, L.; Pallavicini, M.; Pantic, E.; Parmeggiano, S.; Pelczar, K.; Pelliccia, N.; Perasso, S.; Pocar, A.; Pordes, S.; Pugachev, D. A.; Qian, H.; Randle, K.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Reinhold, B.; Renshaw, A. L.; Romani, A.; Rossi, B.; Rossi, N.; Rountree, S. D.; Sablone, D.; Saggese, P.; Saldanha, R.; Sands, W.; Sangiorgio, S.; Savarese, C.; Segreto, E.; Semenov, D. A.; Shields, E.; Singh, P. N.; Skorokhvatov, M. D.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Stanford, C.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Tatarowicz, J.; Testera, G.; Tonazzo, A.; Trinchese, P.; Unzhakov, E. V.; Vishneva, A.; Vogelaar, B.; Wada, M.; Walker, S.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y.; Watson, A. W.; Westerdale, S.; Wilhelmi, J.; Wojcik, M. M.; Xiang, X.; Xu, J.; Yang, C.; Yoo, J.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zec, A.; Zhong, W.; Zhu, C.; Zuzel, G.

    2016-05-01

    The DarkSide program at LNGS aims to perform background-free WIMP searches using two phase liquid argon time projection chambers, with the ultimate goal of covering all parameters down to the so-called neutrino floor. One of the distinct features of the program is the use of underground argon with has a reduced content of the radioactive 39Ar compared to atmospheric argon. The DarkSide Collaboration is currently operating the DarkSide-50 experiment, the first such WIMP detector using underground argon. Operations with underground argon indicate a suppression of 39Ar by a factor (1.4 ± 0.2) × 103 relative to atmospheric argon. The new results obtained with DarkSide-50 and the plans for the next steps of the DarkSide program, the 20t fiducial mass DarkSide-20k detector and the 200 t fiducial Argo, are reviewed in this proceedings.

  15. Degree of corneal anesthesia after topical application of 0.4% oxybuprocaine ophthalmic solution in normal equids.

    PubMed

    Little, Erika; Yvorchuk-St Jean, Kathy; Little, William; Sithole, Fortune; St Jean, Guy

    2016-10-01

    Oxybuprocaine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution has been widely used off-label in horses and donkeys, despite lack of data demonstrating efficacy and safety in these species. The objective of this study was to assess anesthetic efficacy of 0.4% oxybuprocaine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution in horses (n = 5) and donkeys (n = 24) and compare the effects with 0.5% proparacaine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution. The baseline corneal touch threshold (CTT) was measured with a Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer. Donkeys (n = 12) and horses (n = 5) in group A received sterile ophthalmic solutions 0.4% oxybuprocaine with fluorescein (also termed benoxinate with fluorescein, abbreviated as ben + flu) instilled in one eye and 0.9% sterile sodium chloride solution (NaCl) with fluorescein (Na + flu) in the contralateral eye. Donkeys (n = 12) and horses (n = 5) in group B received sterile ophthalmic solutions (ben + flu) in one eye and 0.5% proparacaine with fluorescein (prop + flu) in the contralateral eye. The CTT was measured at 1 and 5 min post-application and at 5-minute intervals until 75 min after treatment. The CTT changes over time differed significantly between oxybuprocaine-treated and control eyes (P < 0.001). The CTT continued to decrease throughout the duration of the study when compared with baseline values. No statistically significant difference in onset, depth, or duration of corneal anesthesia was found between oxybuprocaine and proparacaine treated eyes during the time of the study. Interestingly, horses were shown to have a significantly more sensitive cornea than donkeys (P = 0.002). Oxybuprocaine and proparacaine reduced corneal sensitivity in donkeys and horses. No local irritation was observed with 0.4% oxybuprocaine.

  16. PACIFIC NORTHWEST SIDE-BY-SIDE PROTOCOL COMPARISON TEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eleven state, tribal, and federal agencies participated during summer 2005 in a side-by-side comparison of protocols used to measure common in-stream physical attributes to help determine which protocols are best for determining status and trend of stream/watershed condition. Th...

  17. View northeast, west side, and south side (showing National Defense ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northeast, west side, and south side (showing National Defense University Academic Operations Center Building in background) - Fort McNair, Film Store House, Fort Lesley J. McNair, P Street between Third & Fourth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  18. 3. VIEW OF INTERIOR, EAST SIDE (SIDE A) OF BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF INTERIOR, EAST SIDE (SIDE A) OF BUILDING 883. INSTALLATION OF EQUIPMENT FOR THE MOLTEN SALT BATHS AND ROLLING MILLS PROCESSES. (4/25/57) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  19. An introduction to patient-reported outcome measures in ophthalmic research

    PubMed Central

    Denniston, A K; Kyte, D; Calvert, M; Burr, J M

    2014-01-01

    Clinical outcomes, such as quantifying the extent of visual field loss by automated perimetry, are valued highly by health professionals, but such measures do not capture the impact of the condition on a patient's life. Patient-reported outcomes describe any report or measure of health reported by the patient, without external interpretation by a clinician or researcher. In this review, we discuss the value of the measures that capture this information (patient-reported outcome measures; PROMs), and why they are important to both the clinician and the researcher. We also consider issues around developing or selecting a PROM for ophthalmic research, the emerging challenges around conducting and reporting PROMs in clinical trials and highlight best practice for their use. Search terms for this review comprised: (1) (patient-reported outcomes OR patient-reported outcome measures) AND (2) randomised controlled trials AND (3) limited to ophthalmic conditions. These terms were expanded as follows: (((‘patients'(MeSH Terms) OR ‘patients'(All Fields) OR ‘patient'(All Fields)) AND (‘research report'(MeSH Terms) OR (‘research'(All Fields) AND ‘report'(All Fields)) OR ‘research report'(All Fields) OR ‘reported'(All Fields)) AND outcomes(All Fields)) OR ((‘patients'(MeSH Terms) OR ‘patients'(All Fields) OR ‘patient'(All Fields)) AND (‘research report'(MeSH Terms) OR (‘research'(All Fields) AND ‘report'(All Fields)) OR ‘research report'(All Fields) OR ‘reported'(All Fields) AND (‘outcome assessment (health care)'(MeSH Terms) OR (‘outcome'(All Fields) AND ‘assessment'(All Fields) AND ‘(health'(All Fields) AND ‘care)'(All Fields)) OR ‘outcome assessment (health care)'(All Fields) OR (‘outcome'(All Fields) AND ‘measures'(All Fields)) OR ‘outcome measures'(All Fields)))) AND (‘randomized controlled trial'(Publication Type) OR ‘randomized controlled trials as topic'(MeSH Terms) OR ‘randomised controlled trials'(All Fields) OR

  20. Apraclonidine Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    ... the eye during and after certain types of laser eye surgery. Apraclonidine is in a class of ... eye that is being treated 1 hour before laser eye surgery and again immediately after the surgery. ...

  1. Dipivefrin Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor if you have or have ever had high blood pressure, heart or blood vessel disease, irregular heartbeat, or asthma.tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. If you become pregnant while using dipivefrin eye ...

  2. Tetrahydrozoline Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    ... have any eye disease or infection, heart disease, high blood pressure, or an overactive thyroid gland.tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. If you become pregnant while using tetrahydrozoline eye ...

  3. Nepafenac Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    ... and swelling in patients who are recovering from cataract surgery (procedure to treat clouding of the lens ... three times a day beginning one day before cataract surgery, on the day of the surgery, and ...

  4. Ketorolac Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    ... swelling and redness (inflammation) that can occur after cataract surgery. Ketorolac is in a class of medications ... eyes four times a day. For inflammation after cataract surgery, one drop is usually instilled in the ...

  5. Atropine Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    ... eye examinations to dilate (open) the pupil, the black part of the eye through which you see. ... hands thoroughly with soap and water. Use a mirror or have someone else apply the ointment. Avoid ...

  6. Besifloxacin Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    ... medications called fluoroquinolones. It works by killing the bacteria that cause infection. ... infection may not be completely treated and the bacteria may become resistant to antibiotics.When you use ...

  7. Moxifloxacin Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    ... antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. It works by killing the bacteria that cause infection. ... infection may not be completely cured and the bacteria may become resistant to antibiotics.When you use ...

  8. Diclofenac Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    ... to temporarily relieve eye pain and sensitivity to light in patients who are recovering from corneal refractive ... that something is in the eye sensitivity to light blurred or decreased vision teary eyes eye discharge ...

  9. Cyclopentolate Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    ... half an hour or more to fully work after instillation. Effects generally may last for up to 24 hours, but may last several days in some people. People with dark eye colors may require increased cyclopentolate doses.If ...

  10. Ofloxacin Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Replace and tighten the cap on the dropper bottle. Do not wipe or rinse the dropper tip. ... to your pharmacist or contact your local garbage/recycling department to learn about take-back programs in ...

  11. Azelastine Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Replace and tighten the cap on the dropper bottle. Do not wipe or rinse the dropper tip. ... to your pharmacist or contact your local garbage/recycling department to learn about take-back programs in ...

  12. Lifitegrast Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    ... eye drops come in single-use containers (small bottles to be used for one dose). Use the ... to your pharmacist or contact your local garbage/recycling department to learn about take-back programs in ...

  13. Ketotifen Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Replace and tighten the cap on the dropper bottle. Do not wipe or rinse the dropper tip. ... to your pharmacist or contact your local garbage/recycling department to learn about take-back programs in ...

  14. Nedocromil Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Replace and tighten the cap on the dropper bottle. Do not wipe or rinse the dropper tip. ... to your pharmacist or contact your local garbage/recycling department to learn about take-back programs in ...

  15. Flurbiprofen Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Replace and tighten the cap on the dropper bottle. Do not wipe or rinse the dropper tip. ... to your pharmacist or contact your local garbage/recycling department to learn about take-back programs in ...

  16. Alcaftadine Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Replace and tighten the cap on the dropper bottle. Do not wipe or rinse the dropper tip. ... to your pharmacist or contact your local garbage/recycling department to learn about take-back programs in ...

  17. Metipranolol Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Talk to your pharmacist or contact your local garbage/recycling department to learn about take-back programs in your community. See the FDA's Safe Disposal of Medicines website (http://goo.gl/c4Rm4p) for ...

  18. Sulfacetamide Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Talk to your pharmacist or contact your local garbage/recycling department to learn about take-back programs in your community. See the FDA's Safe Disposal of Medicines website (http://goo.gl/c4Rm4p) for ...

  19. Idoxuridine Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Talk to your pharmacist or contact your local garbage/recycling department to learn about take-back programs in your community. See the FDA's Safe Disposal of Medicines website (http://goo.gl/c4Rm4p) for ...

  20. Pilocarpine Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    ... hands thoroughly with soap and water. Use a mirror or have someone else apply the gel. Remove ... not go away: blurred or dim vision stinging, burning, or discomfort in the eye itching or redness ...

  1. Bacitracin Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    ... hands thoroughly with soap and water. Use a mirror or have someone else apply the ointment. Avoid ... or do not go away: itching, stinging, or burning of the eye Bacitracin eye ointment may cause ...

  2. Tobramycin Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    ... hands thoroughly with soap and water. Use a mirror or have someone else apply the ointment. Avoid ... not go away: eye tearing itching, stinging, or burning of the eye swelling of the eye temporary ...

  3. Olopatadine Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    ... and pharmacist if you are allergic to olopatadine, benzalkonium chloride, or any other medications.tell your doctor and ... lenses, you should know that olopatadine solution contains benzalkonium chloride, which can be absorbed by soft contact lenses. ...

  4. Travoprost Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    ... and pharmacist if you are allergic to travoprost, benzalkonium chloride, or any other medications.tell your doctor and ... you should know that travoprost eye drops contain benzalkonium chloride, which can be absorbed by soft contact lenses. ...

  5. Epinastine Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    ... prevent itching of the eyes caused by allergic conjunctivitis (a condition in which the eyes become itchy, ... Epinastine eye drops control the itching of allergic conjunctivitis only when they are used regularly. Epinastine eye ...

  6. Unoprostone Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    ... immediately: redness, swelling, discharge, or pain of the eye or eyelid changes in color vision, blurred vision, or other changes in vision Unoprostone may change your eye color to brown or a deeper shade of brown. ...

  7. Bimatoprost Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    ... eye redness or swelling of the eyelid Bimatoprost eye drops may change the color of your eye (to brown) and darken the skin around the eye. It may also cause your eyelashes to grow longer and thicker and darken in color. These changes usually occur slowly, but they may be permanent. ...

  8. Latanoprost Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    ... the brown pigmentation in your iris, changing your eye color to brown. The pigmentation changes may be more noticeable in patients who already have some brown eye coloring. Latanoprost may also cause your eyelashes to ... in color. These changes usually occurs slowly, but they may be permanent. ...

  9. Erythromycin Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    ... prevent bacterial infections of the eye in newborn babies. Erythromycin is in a class of medications called ... after delivery to prevent eye infections in newborn babies. Follow the directions on your prescription label carefully, ...

  10. Dexamethasone Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    ... as a combination product containing Dexamethasone, Neomycin, Polymyxin B) ... as a combination product containing Dexamethasone, Neomycin, Polymyxin B) ... as a combination product containing Dexamethasone, Neomycin, Polymyxin B)

  11. Betaxolol Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Betaxolol is in a class of medications called beta blockers. It works by decreasing the pressure in the ... medications you are taking, especially other eye medications; beta blockers such as atenolol (Tenormin), carteolol (Cartrol), labetalol (Normodyne, ...

  12. Timolol Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Timolol is in a class of medications called beta-blockers. It works by decreasing the pressure in the ... and pharmacist if you are allergic to timolol, beta blockers, or any other drugs.tell your doctor and ...

  13. Levobunolol Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Levobunolol is in a class of medications called beta blockers. It works by decreasing the pressure in the ... pharmacist if you are allergic to levobunolol, other beta blockers, sulfites, or any other drugs.tell your doctor ...

  14. Medical Surveillance Requirements For Nonionizing Radiation Workers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hathaway, James A.

    1980-10-01

    The potential value of medical surveillance examinations for laser workers and other workers potentially exposed to high intensity optical radiation is evaluated. A review of the known adverse biological effects leads to the conclusion that most effects are related to acute and subacute exposures which do not lend themselves to effective medical surveillance. In addition, surveys of thousands of laser workers conducted since 1965 demonstrated that routine periodic medical surveillance has been unnecessary and/or impractical using currently available ophthalmic screening methods. Examination techniques to detect early changes in cataract formation or retinal degeneration (two potential chronic effects of optical radiation) are not sufficiently reliable or specific to be of value as routine screening tests. Epidemiologic studies of large worker groups are suggested to evaluate the potential for these chronic conditions to develop as the result of job exposure; however, specific recommendations for routine medical surveillance are limited to preplacement and termination examinations with appropriate evaluation of individuals following acute injury.

  15. Interdependence of design, optical evaluation, and visual performance of ophthalmic lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Michael H.

    1991-12-01

    The evolution of a new ophthalmic lens has a development cycle: design, manufacturing, optical evaluation, visual performance. At some point in this cycle a decision must be made to 'go to market.' Often this involves the manufacturing and optical evaluation (quality assurance) more than the design and visual performance aspects, although these latter contribute to the explanation of benefits which can be crucial to a technically innovative design. In this paper the manufacturing aspects of any specific designs will not be considered. However, the inter-relationship between the remaining three items are so strong that it is not possible to treat each one in isolation. In order to cover these relationships this paper will progress through 2.5 cycles starting with the design aspects.

  16. Electrically tunable-focusing and polarizer-free liquid crystal lenses for ophthalmic applications.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Hsin; Chen, Hung-Shan

    2013-04-22

    An electrically tunable-focusing and polarizer-free liquid crystal (LC) lens for ophthalmic applications is demonstrated. The optical mechanism of a LC lens used in human eye system is introduced. The polarizer-free LC lens for myopia-presbyopia based on artificial accommodation is demonstrated. The continuously tunable-focusing properties of the LC lenses are more practical in applications for different visional conditions of people. The concept we proposed can also be applied to another types of lenses as long as the focusing properties are tunable. The concept in this paper can also be extensively applied to imaging systems, and projection systems, such as cameras in cell phones, pico projectors, and endoscopes.

  17. Automatic segmentation of closed-contour features in ophthalmic images using graph theory and dynamic programming.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Stephanie J; Toth, Cynthia A; Bowes Rickman, Catherine; Izatt, Joseph A; Farsiu, Sina

    2012-05-01

    This paper presents a generalized framework for segmenting closed-contour anatomical and pathological features using graph theory and dynamic programming (GTDP). More specifically, the GTDP method previously developed for quantifying retinal and corneal layer thicknesses is extended to segment objects such as cells and cysts. The presented technique relies on a transform that maps closed-contour features in the Cartesian domain into lines in the quasi-polar domain. The features of interest are then segmented as layers via GTDP. Application of this method to segment closed-contour features in several ophthalmic image types is shown. Quantitative validation experiments for retinal pigmented epithelium cell segmentation in confocal fluorescence microscopy images attests to the accuracy of the presented technique.

  18. The effects of variations in the density and composition of eye materials on ophthalmic brachytherapy dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Asadi, Somayeh; Masoudi, Seyed Farhad; Shahriari, Majid

    2012-04-01

    In ophthalmic brachytherapy dosimetry, it is common to consider the water phantom as human eye anatomy. However, for better clinical analysis, there is a need for the dose determination in different parts of the eye. In this work, a full human eye is simulated with MCNP-4C code by considering all parts of the eye, i.e., the lens, cornea, retina, choroid, sclera, anterior chamber, optic nerve, and bulk of the eye comprising vitreous body and tumor. The average dose in different parts of this full model of the human eye is determined and the results are compared with the dose calculated in water phantom. The central axes depth dose and the dose in whole of the tumor for these 2 simulated eye models are calculated as well, and the results are compared.

  19. A New Generation Fiber Optic Probe: Characterization of Biological Fluids, Protein Crystals and Ophthalmic Diseases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; Suh, Kwang I.

    1996-01-01

    A new fiber optic probe developed for determining transport properties of sub-micron particles in fluids experiments in a microgravity environment has been applied to characterize particulate dispersions/suspensions in various challenging environments which have been hitherto impossible. The probe positioned in front of a sample delivers a low power light (few nW - 3mW) from a laser and guides the light which is back scattered by the suspended particles through a receiving optical fiber to a photo detector and to a digital correlator. The probe provides rapid determination of macromolecular diffusivities and their respective size distributions. It has been applied to characterize various biological fluids, protein crystals, and ophthalmic diseases.

  20. [Photic sneeze reflex or autosomal dominant compelling helio-ophthalmic outburst syndrome].

    PubMed

    García-Moreno, J M

    2006-01-01

    Sneeze is an ubiquitous phenomenon that happens to everyone. In spite of this, little attention has been paid to it, among medical literature in general, and even less in neurologic texts. A curious entity, called photic sneeze reflex, solar sneeze reflex, light sneeze reflex or autosomal dominant compelling helio-ophthalmic outburst syndrome, known perhaps since ancient Greek, has been scarcely described in the scientific literature, mainly as clinical notes and letters to the editor, but in a detailed way, we can find just a few reports. This reflex appears when subjects are exposed suddenly to intense sunlight and it consists of long incoercible sneeze bursts. It is usually ignored by its sufferers, who report it as a curiosity or a minor complaint, and its importance has been neglected in spite of its hereditary nature and its apparently high prevalence. We review the history, epidemiology, genetics, neuroanatomy, neurophysiology and physiopathology of this reflex hereditary response.