Chelminski, Paul R; Ives, Timothy J; Felix, Katherine M; Prakken, Steven D; Miller, Thomas M; Perhac, J Stephen; Malone, Robert M; Bryant, Mary E; DeWalt, Darren A; Pignone, Michael P
Chronic non-cancer pain is a common problem that is often accompanied by psychiatric comorbidity and disability. The effectiveness of a multi-disciplinary pain management program was tested in a 3 month before and after trial. Providers in an academic general medicine clinic referred patients with chronic non-cancer pain for participation in a program that combined the skills of internists, clinical pharmacists, and a psychiatrist. Patients were either receiving opioids or being considered for opioid therapy. The intervention consisted of structured clinical assessments, monthly follow-up, pain contracts, medication titration, and psychiatric consultation. Pain, mood, and function were assessed at baseline and 3 months using the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale scale (CESD) and the Pain Disability Index (PDI). Patients were monitored for substance misuse. Eighty-five patients were enrolled. Mean age was 51 years, 60% were male, 78% were Caucasian, and 93% were receiving opioids. Baseline average pain was 6.5 on an 11 point scale. The average CESD score was 24.0, and the mean PDI score was 47.0. Sixty-three patients (73%) completed 3 month follow-up. Fifteen withdrew from the program after identification of substance misuse. Among those completing 3 month follow-up, the average pain score improved to 5.5 (p = 0.003). The mean PDI score improved to 39.3 (p < 0.001). Mean CESD score was reduced to 18.0 (p < 0.001), and the proportion of depressed patients fell from 79% to 54% (p = 0.003). Substance misuse was identified in 27 patients (32%). A primary care disease management program improved pain, depression, and disability scores over three months in a cohort of opioid-treated patients with chronic non-cancer pain. Substance misuse and depression were common, and many patients who had substance misuse identified left the program when they were no longer prescribed opioids. Effective care of patients with chronic pain
Chelminski, Paul R; Ives, Timothy J; Felix, Katherine M; Prakken, Steven D; Miller, Thomas M; Perhac, J Stephen; Malone, Robert M; Bryant, Mary E; DeWalt, Darren A; Pignone, Michael P
Background Chronic non-cancer pain is a common problem that is often accompanied by psychiatric comorbidity and disability. The effectiveness of a multi-disciplinary pain management program was tested in a 3 month before and after trial. Methods Providers in an academic general medicine clinic referred patients with chronic non-cancer pain for participation in a program that combined the skills of internists, clinical pharmacists, and a psychiatrist. Patients were either receiving opioids or being considered for opioid therapy. The intervention consisted of structured clinical assessments, monthly follow-up, pain contracts, medication titration, and psychiatric consultation. Pain, mood, and function were assessed at baseline and 3 months using the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale scale (CESD) and the Pain Disability Index (PDI). Patients were monitored for substance misuse. Results Eighty-five patients were enrolled. Mean age was 51 years, 60% were male, 78% were Caucasian, and 93% were receiving opioids. Baseline average pain was 6.5 on an 11 point scale. The average CESD score was 24.0, and the mean PDI score was 47.0. Sixty-three patients (73%) completed 3 month follow-up. Fifteen withdrew from the program after identification of substance misuse. Among those completing 3 month follow-up, the average pain score improved to 5.5 (p = 0.003). The mean PDI score improved to 39.3 (p < 0.001). Mean CESD score was reduced to 18.0 (p < 0.001), and the proportion of depressed patients fell from 79% to 54% (p = 0.003). Substance misuse was identified in 27 patients (32%). Conclusions A primary care disease management program improved pain, depression, and disability scores over three months in a cohort of opioid-treated patients with chronic non-cancer pain. Substance misuse and depression were common, and many patients who had substance misuse identified left the program when they were no longer prescribed opioids
Takemoto, Maira L S; Fernandes, R A; Almeida, G R; Monteiro, R D C; Colombini-Neto, M; Bertola-Neto, A
To estimate the prevalence of constipation concomitant to opioid treatment and related resource use and costs from the private payer perspective. In this retrospective database analysis, patients receiving opioid therapy were identified from a longitudinal insurance claims database. An algorithm was used to identify patients receiving opioid therapy with coincident constipation-related claims according to ICD-10 codes, targeted procedures, and opioid use criteria. Resource use and costs were determined for these individuals and compared with patients receiving opioid therapy without constipation, without opioid therapy with constipation, and without both conditions. Results were compared using analysis of variance with a significance level of 0.05. A total of 23,313 patients were classified as opioid-treated patients (2.2%) and 6678 of them had events related to constipation (29.0%). Compared with opioid-treated patients without constipation, incremental mean total costs per month per patient were 261.18 BRL (P < 0.001). The average cost per month for opioid-related constipation patients was 787.84 BRL, significantly higher than other patients (P < 0.001 for all comparisons). Among cancer patients, 24.4% was receiving opioids and 27.0% of those had constipation-related claims. As expected, the opioid therapy prevalence was significantly higher when compared to all patients (2.2% vs. 24.4%, P < 0.001). Cancer patients had, in average, higher costs than did noncancer patients in all four subgroups. Patients with constipation coincident with opioid treatment exhibited a significantly higher economic burden than did patients without the condition. These results indicate that reducing opioid-induced constipation could lead to potential cost savings for the health care system. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Léonard, Guillaume; Cloutier, Christian; Marchand, Serge
Evidence from recent animal studies indicates that the analgesic effect of low-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is reduced in opioid-tolerant animals. The aim of the present study was to compare the analgesic effect of conventional (high frequency) and acupuncture-like (low frequency) TENS between a group of opioid-treated patients and a group of opioid-naive patients in order to determine if this cross-tolerance effect is also present in humans. Twenty-three chronic pain patients (11 who took opioids and 12 who did not) participated in the study. Participants were assigned in a randomized crossover design to receive alternately conventional and acupuncture-like TENS. There was a significant reduction in pain during and after conventional TENS when compared to baseline for both the opioid and nonopioid group (P < .01). For acupuncture-like TENS however, the analgesic effect of TENS was only observed in the nonopioid group (P < .01), with opioid-treated patients showing no change in pain scores during and after TENS when compared to baseline (P > .09). The reduced analgesic effect of acupuncture-like TENS in opioid-treated patients is coherent with previous animal studies and suggests that conventional TENS should be preferred in patients taking opioids on a regular basis. This study shows that patients taking opioids on a regular basis are less susceptible to benefit from acupuncture-like TENS. This phenomenon is probably attributable to the fact that the analgesia induced by acupuncture-like TENS and opioids are mediated by the same receptors (ie, μ opioid receptors). Copyright © 2011 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wallace, Margaret L.; Burzinski, Cindy A.; Cox, Jennifer; Backonja, Miroslav
OBJECTIVE Refractory chronic low back pain (CLBP) often leads to treatment with long-term opioids. Our goal was to describe the pharmaco-toxicological profile of opioid-treated CLBP patients and identify potential areas for care optimization. DESIGN Cross-sectional analysis. SETTING Outpatient primary care. PARTICIPANTS CLBP patients prescribed >30 mg/day of morphine-equivalent dose (MED) for ≥3 months. INTERVENTION N/A OUTCOME MEASURES Self-reported clinical, medication (verified) and substance use, and urine drug testing (UDT) data were collected. RESULTS Participants (N=35) were 51.8±9.7 years old, 80% female with CLBP for 14.2±10.1 years, treated with opioids for 7.9±5.7 years, with severe disability (Oswestry Disability Index score: 66.7±11.4), and average pain score of 5.6±1.5 (0–10 rating scale). Participants reported using tobacco (N=14), alcohol (N=9) and illicit drugs or unprescribed medications (N=10). On average, participants took 13.4±6.8 daily medications, including 4.7±1.8 pain-modulating and 4.7±2.0 sedating medications. Among prescribed opioids, 57.1% were long-acting and 91.4% were short-acting, with a total of 144.5±127.8 mg/day of MED. Sixteen participants were prescribed benzodiazepines and/or zolpidem/zaleplon. Fifteen participants had UDT positive for illicit drugs or unprescribed medications; in addition, 8 tested positive for alcohol and 19 for cotinine. Compared to those with negative UDTs, those with positive UDTs (N=15) received lower daily “total” and “extended release” opioid doses, and were more likely to test positive for cotinine (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS Study findings corroborate existing evidence for high medication burden and high likelihood of substance misuse among opioid-treated CLBP patients. Further research is needed to help understand causality and ways to optimize care and clinical outcomes. PMID:25350474
Nikulina, Valentina; Guarino, Honoria; Acosta, Michelle C; Marsch, Lisa A; Syckes, Cassandra; Moore, Sarah K; Portenoy, Russell K; Cruciani, Ricardo A; Turk, Dennis C; Rosenblum, Andrew
During long-term opioid therapy for chronic noncancer pain, monitoring medication adherence of patients with a history of aberrant opioid medication-taking behaviors (AMTB) is an essential practice. There is limited research, however, into the concordance among existing monitoring tools of self-report, physician report, and biofluid screening. This study examined associations among patient and provider assessments of AMTB and urine drug screening using data from a randomized trial of a cognitive-behavioral intervention designed to improve medication adherence and pain-related outcomes among 110 opioid-treated patients with chronic pain who screened positive for AMTB and were enrolled in a pain program. Providers completed the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) and patients completed the Current Opioid Misuse Measure (COMM) and the Chemical Coping Inventory (CCI). In multivariate analyses, ABC scores were compared with COMM and CCI scores, while controlling for demographics and established risk factors for AMTB, such as pain severity. Based on clinical cutoffs, 84% of patients reported clinically significant levels of AMTB and providers rated 36% of patients at elevated levels. Provider reports of AMTB were not correlated with COMM or CCI scores. However, the ABC ratings of experienced providers (nurse practitioners/attending physicians) were higher than those of less experienced providers (fellows) and were correlated with CCI scores and risk factors for AMTB. Associations between patient- and provider-reported AMTB and urine drug screening results were low and largely nonsignificant. In conclusion, concordance between patient and provider reports of AMTB among patients with chronic pain prescribed opioid medication varied by provider level of training.
Zgierska, Aleksandra E; Burzinski, Cindy A; Cox, Jennifer; Kloke, John; Stegner, Aaron; Cook, Dane B; Singles, Janice; Mirgain, Shilagh; Coe, Christopher L; Bačkonja, Miroslav
To assess benefits of mindfulness meditation and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)-based intervention for opioid-treated chronic low back pain (CLBP). 26-week parallel-arm pilot randomized controlled trial (Intervention and Usual Care versus Usual Care alone). Outpatient. Adults with CLBP, prescribed ≥30 mg/day of morphine-equivalent dose (MED) for at least 3 months. The intervention comprised eight weekly group sessions (meditation and CLBP-specific CBT components) and 30 minutes/day, 6 days/week of at-home practice. Outcome measures were collected at baseline, 8, and 26 weeks: primary-pain severity (Brief Pain Inventory) and function/disability (Oswestry Disability Index); secondary-pain acceptance, opioid dose, pain sensitivity to thermal stimuli, and serum pain-sensitive biomarkers (Interferon-γ; Tumor Necrosis Factor-α; Interleukins 1ß and 6; C-reactive Protein). Thirty-five (21 experimental, 14 control) participants were enrolled and completed the study. They were 51.8 ± 9.7 years old, 80% female, with severe CLBP-related disability (66.7 ± 11.4), moderate pain severity (5.8 ± 1.4), and taking 148.3 ± 129.2 mg/day of MED. Results of the intention-to-treat analysis showed that, compared with controls, the meditation-CBT group reduced pain severity ratings during the study (P = 0.045), with between-group difference in score change reaching 1 point at 26 weeks (95% Confidence Interval: 0.2,1.9; Cohen's d = 0.86), and decreased pain sensitivity to thermal stimuli (P < 0.05), without adverse events. Exploratory analyses suggested a relationship between the extent of meditation practice and the magnitude of intervention benefits. Meditation-CBT intervention reduced pain severity and sensitivity to experimental thermal pain stimuli in patients with opioid-treated CLBP. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
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Maeda, Tsuyoshi; Hayakawa, Toru
This study aimed to determine the range of mean cumulative corticosteroid doses that could effectively palliate dyspnea in opioid-treated patients with terminal cancer and to investigate the demographic or biochemical factors predictive of corticosteroid responsiveness. To this end, responders and nonresponders were compared with regard to corticosteroid dose and whether they had initiated opioid use before or concomitantly with corticosteroid use. A logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the impacts of demographic and biochemical factors on corticosteroid effectiveness. The final sample comprised 20 patients who satisfied the selection criteria. The responders accounted for 70% of the total sample (n = 14) and experienced the strongest effect with regard to dyspnea palliation at a mean cumulative dose equivalent to 64.4 mg prednisolone. However, no factors predictive of response were identified. In summary, this retrospective study identified effective corticosteroid doses for dyspnea alleviation in terminal cancer patients. Although our study sample was limited in size, the results support further prospective research.
Antoun, Sami; Merad, Mansouriah; Raynard, Bruno; Ruffié, Pierre
Malnutrition is common in cancer patients. Many factors contribute to weight loss: some of them can be related to diminished dietary intake, while others are more associated with metabolic changes induced by systemic inflammatory responses. This is why at a specific phase during the course of development, some cancers will benefit from nutritional support, while in theory, and others will benefit from anti-inflammatory treatment. Parenteral nutrition is indicated for severe malnourished surgical patients and for allogenic stem cell transplant patients. Tube feeding (enteral nutrition) should be considered for patients with a functional gut who are unable to ingest sufficient nutrients orally, for example head and neck cancer patients. The value of dietary counselling and oral nutritional support has not been proven in patients undergoing chemotherapy, which is why it is so difficult to propose recommendations. Some arguments seem to favour parenteral nutrition for patients with bowel obstruction suffering from advanced-stage incurable cancer. As the results of studies following omega-3 fatty acid-enriched oral nutritional support in palliative care patients are inconsistent, these products cannot be recommended.
Gomez, Izabella; Szekanecz, Éva; Szekanecz, Zoltán; Bender, Tamás
Physiotherapy of cancer patients is one of the most controversial issues in our country. Malignant diseases are firstly mentioned as a contraindication of physiotherapy. Until now, physiotherapy was not suggested (or only in limited accessibility) for those patients who had malignant disease in medical history. International medical practice was less restrictive in managing this topic. The development of imaging techniques put this question in a new light. On the basis of evidence, the majority of articles have reported beneficial effects of physiotherapy in cancer patients, and only few articles mentioned it as harmful. Of course, each patient requires an individual assessment, however, if we exclude the possibility of tumor recurrence and metastasis, most of physiotherapy procedures can be used safely. One of the aims of this review is to support the physicians' decisions when to prescribe treatments, in such a way, that more patients could receive physiotherapy. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(31), 1224-1231.
Pandey, M; Thomas, B C
With the developments in cancer treatment, more and more patients are surviving their disease. However, very little emphasis is being placed to rehabilitate these cancer survivors. Ignorance, social structure, stigma attached in seeking psychological help, and poor communication skills of oncology staff all contribute to poor rehabilitative efforts. The priority of governmental agencies and health efforts to fight rampant communicable diseases, malnutrition, maternal health, and the frequent natural calamities, puts rehabilitation movements in the back seat. Treatment and prevention of disability and its rehabilitation requires comprehensive and multidisciplinary approach. There is an urgent need to promote physical and psychological rehabilitation.
Cornely, Oliver Andreas; Mellinghoff, Sibylle Christiane
Fever in cancer patients is a medical emergency until a severe infection has been ruled out. In case of neutropenia prompt diagnostic work-up should be paralleled by empiric antibiotic treatment. Underlying malignancy as well as treatments may impair immune response and thus pave the way for less virulent pathogens. So the spectrum of infections comprises both pathogens that cause disease in immunocompetent patients and a variety of rarer organisms. After collecting two pairs of blood cultures, broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment should commence within one to two hours. Depending on the individual patient's risk antimicrobial prophylaxis should be considered. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Sima, Camelia S.; Panageas, Katherine S.; Schrag, Deborah
Context Cancer screening has been integrated into routine primary care but does not benefit patients with limited life expectancy. Objective To evaluate the extent to which patients with advanced cancer continue to be screened for new cancers. Design, Setting, and Participants Utilization of cancer screening procedures (mammography, Papanicolaou test, prostate-specific antigen [PSA], and lower gastrointestinal [GI] endoscopy) was assessed in 87 736 fee-for-service Medicare enrollees aged 65 years or older diagnosed with advanced lung, colorectal, pancreatic, gastroesophageal, or breast cancer between 1998 and 2005, and reported to one of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) tumor registries. Participants were followed up until death or December 31, 2007, whichever came first. A group of 87 307 Medicare enrollees without cancer were individually matched by age, sex, race, and SEER registry to patients with cancer and observed over the same period to evaluate screening rates in context. Demographic and clinical characteristics associated with screening were also investigated. Main Outcome Measure For each cancer screening test, utilization rates were defined as the percentage of patients who were screened following the diagnosis of an incurable cancer. Results Among women following advanced cancer diagnosis compared with controls, at least 1 screening mammogram was received by 8.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.6%-9.1%) vs 22.0% (95% CI, 21.7%-22.5%); Papanicolaou test screening was received by 5.8% (95% CI, 5.6%-6.1%) vs 12.5% (95% CI, 12.2%-12.8%). Among men following advanced cancer diagnosis compared with controls, PSA test was received by 15.0% (95% CI, 14.7%-15.3%) vs 27.2% (95% CI, 26.8%-27.6%). For all patients following advanced diagnosis compared with controls, lower GI endoscopy was received by 1.7% (95% CI, 1.6%-1.8%) vs 4.7% (95% CI, 4.6%-4.9%). Screening was more frequent among patients with a recent history of screening (16.2% [95
Yamamoto, Kazuo; Gemma, Akihiko
Dyspnea occurs in most cancer patients and is often associated with severe pain. Pulmonary rehabilitation has become increasingly important to improve ADL and QOL and to relieve pain that results from dyspnea. Although pulmonary rehabilitation is now provided mainly during the perioperative period, it has been recognized as an effective procedure for patients before, during, or after chemotherapy or radiotherapy. It is also useful for patients with advanced or terminal cancer. However, an evidence-based cancer rehabilitation procedure has to be established.
Skarstein, Jon; Dahl, Alv A; Laading, Jacob; Fosså, Sophie D
Predictors of 'patient satisfaction' with hospitalization at a specialized cancer hospital in Norway are examined in this study. Two weeks after their last hospitalization, 2021 consecutive cancer patients were invited to rate their satisfaction with hospitalization, quality of life, anxiety and depression. Compliance rate was 72% (n = 1453). Cut-off levels separating dissatisfied from satisfied patients were defined. It was found that 92% of the patients were satisfied with their stay in hospital, independent of cancer type and number of previous admissions. Performance of nurses and physicians, level of information perceived, outcome of health status, reception at the hospital and anxiety independently predicted 'patient satisfaction'. The model explained 35% of the variance with an area under the curve of 0.76 of the Receiver Operator Curve. Cancer patients' satisfaction with their hospital stay was high, and predicted by four independently predictive variables related to the performance of caregivers. These suggest areas for further improvement in the healthcare service.
Although weight loss is a frequent, though not invariable, component of the cancer syndrome, the associated malnutrition is a poor prognostic sign among both children and adults. This article describes the possible mechanisms of cancer cachexia; reviews the present state of nutritional support in cancer patients; identifies nutritional problems and workable approaches during the pre- and post-treatment periods; discusses the unconventional nutritional practices commonly encountered and lists resource materials for patients and families. PMID:21274086
Staniszewska, Agnieszka; Kłoszewska, Iwona
Delirium is a frequent complication of cancer. It is the cause of patients' suffering and due to worsening of communication, the impediment to clinical assessment. It lowers the quality of life of family caregivers as well. Instant diagnosis and therapy of delirium are essential in clinical practice. In this review etiology, prevalence, clinical features and management of delirium in cancer patients are described.
Soininen, Leena; Pokhrel, Arun; Dyba, Tadek; Pukkala, Eero; Hakulinen, Timo
The incidence of cancer among the indigenous Sami people of Northern Finland is lower than among the Finnish general population. The survival of Sami cancer patients is not known, and therefore it is the object of this study. The cohort consisted of 2,091 Sami and 4,161 non-Sami who lived on 31 December 1978 in the two Sami municipalities of Inari and Utsjoki, which are located in Northern Finland and are 300-500 km away from the nearest central hospital. The survival experience of Sami and non-Sami cancer patients diagnosed in this cohort during 1979-2009 was compared with that of the Finnish patients outside the cohort. The Sami and non-Sami cancer patients were matched to other Finnish cancer patients for gender, age and year of diagnosis and for the site of cancer. An additional matching was done for the stage at diagnosis. Cancer-specific survival analyses were made using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression modelling. There were 204 Sami and 391 non-Sami cancer cases in the cohort, 20,181 matched controls without matching with stage, and 7,874 stage-matched controls. In the cancer-specific analysis without stage variable, the hazard ratio for Sami was 1.05 (95% confidence interval 0.85-1.30) and for non-Sami 1.02 (0.86-1.20), indicating no difference between the survival of those groups and other patients in Finland. Likewise, when the same was done by also matching the stage, there was no difference in cancer survival. Long distances to medical care or Sami ethnicity have no influence on the cancer patient survival in Northern Finland.
Soininen, Leena; Pokhrel, Arun; Dyba, Tadek; Pukkala, Eero; Hakulinen, Timo
The incidence of cancer among the indigenous Sami people of Northern Finland is lower than among the Finnish general population. The survival of Sami cancer patients is not known, and therefore it is the object of this study. The cohort consisted of 2,091 Sami and 4,161 non-Sami who lived on 31 December 1978 in the two Sami municipalities of Inari and Utsjoki, which are located in Northern Finland and are 300-500 km away from the nearest central hospital. The survival experience of Sami and non-Sami cancer patients diagnosed in this cohort during 1979-2009 was compared with that of the Finnish patients outside the cohort. The Sami and non-Sami cancer patients were matched to other Finnish cancer patients for gender, age and year of diagnosis and for the site of cancer. An additional matching was done for the stage at diagnosis. Cancer-specific survival analyses were made using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression modelling. There were 204 Sami and 391 non-Sami cancer cases in the cohort, 20,181 matched controls without matching with stage, and 7,874 stage-matched controls. In the cancer-specific analysis without stage variable, the hazard ratio for Sami was 1.05 (95% confidence interval 0.85-1.30) and for non-Sami 1.02 (0.86-1.20), indicating no difference between the survival of those groups and other patients in Finland. Likewise, when the same was done by also matching the stage, there was no difference in cancer survival. Long distances to medical care or Sami ethnicity have no influence on the cancer patient survival in Northern Finland.
de Souza, Jonas A.; Wong, Yu-Ning
Novel diagnostic and therapeutic options offer hope to cancer patients with both localized and advanced disease. However, many of these treatments are often costly and even well-insured patients can face high out-of-pocket costs. Families may also be at risk of financial distress due to lost wages and other treatment-related expenses. Research is needed to measure and characterize financial distress in cancer patients and understand how it affects their quality of life. In addition, health care providers need to be trained to counsel patients and their families so they can make patient-centered treatment decisions that reflect their preferences and values. PMID:24349677
Hundsberger, Thomas; Roth, Patrick; Roelcke, Ulrich
Neurological symptoms in cancer patients have a great impact on quality of life and need an interdisciplinary approach. They lead to significant impairment in activities of daily living (gait disorders, dizziness), a loss of patients independency (vegetative disturbances, wheel-chair dependency) and interfere with social activities (ban of driving in case of epilepsy). In this article we describe three main and serious neurological problems in the context of oncological patients. These are chemotherapy-induced polyneuropathy, malignant spinal cord compression and epileptic seizures. Our aim is to increase the awareness of neurological complications in cancer patients to improve patients care.
Cancer cells release various antigens, some of which appear in the urine. Oral autourotherapy is suggested as a new treatment modality for cancer patients. It will provide the intestinal lymphatic system with the many tumor antigens against which antibodies may be produced. These antibodies may be pierced through the blood stream and attack the tumor and its cells.
Tanna, Nuttan; Buijs, Helene; Pitkin, Joan; Reichert, Robert
It is estimated that there are almost half a million women living with or beyond a breast cancer diagnosis in the UK, often referred to as the breast cancer survivor population. We report on the setting up of a dedicated breast cancer and menopause symptoms service (BCMS), and present results from research undertaken with breast cancer survivors with the aim of obtaining their perspectives on the BCMS service. An action-oriented approach incorporating improvement science methodology has been used to help develop and drive changes to support a high standard of NHS patient care delivery for women with breast cancer within the BCMS setting. Evaluation was undertaken of this innovative service using qualitative methodology, and included discussion within a focus group setting, patient consent to record discussion, followed by thematic analysis of transcription. Women who have survived breast cancer identified a need for specialist support to help improve their quality of life, which is also affected by menopause type symptomology. This support can be provided within the BCMS service setting. Our recommendations are that the BCMS service model is incorporated into any regional or national breast cancer patient pathway and service redesign work in place. Breast cancer survivors would support the setting up of a BCMS service, and would actively help raise awareness and market this service.
Salzman, Brooke; Beldowski, Kathryn; de la Paz, Amanda
Although cancer is the second leading cause of death among persons 65 years and older, there is a paucity of clinical trial data about the effectiveness and harms of cancer screening in this population. Given the heterogeneous nature of the older population, cancer screening in these patients should not be based on age alone. Studies suggest that a life expectancy of at least 10 years is necessary to derive a survival benefit from screening for breast and colorectal cancers; therefore, screening for these cancers is not recommended in those with a life expectancy of less than 10 years. Prostate cancer screening, if performed at all, should not be performed after 69 years of age. Cervical cancer screening may be stopped after 65 years of age if the patient has an adequate history of negative screening results. An individualized approach to cancer screening decisions involves estimating life expectancy, determining the potential benefits and harms of screenings, and weighing those benefits and harms in relation to the patient's values and preferences.
Walwyn, M; Nicholson, A; Lee, M G; Wharfe, G; Frankson, M A
Febrile neutropaenia is a common complication of chemotherapy in cancer patients. Empirical antibiotic regimes are based on the epidemiological characteristics of bacterial isolates globally and locally. This study retrospectively reviewed all cases of febrile neutropaenia in patients with confirmed cancer admitted at the University Hospital of the West Indies in the four-year period between, January 1, 2003 and December 31, 2006 and who received chemotherapy. Cases were identified from blood culture records and hospital charts which were reviewed to determine the aetiological agents causing bacteraemia, their antimicrobial susceptibilities and clinicalfeatures. These cases were compared with non-neutropaenic cancer patients admitted with fever. A total of 197 febrile episodes in cancer patients were reviewed. Thirty-seven per cent had febrile neutropaenia while 62% were non-neutropaenic. Acute myeloid leukaemia was the most common haematological malignancy and the most common solid tumour was breast cancer. Twenty-six per cent of patients had a positive blood culture. In febrile neutropaenic patients, Escherichia coli was the most common organism isolated followed by coagulase-negative staphylococci while in non-neutropaenic patients, coagulase-negative staphylococci was most common. Acinetobacter infections was prominent in non-neutropaenic patients but absent in neutropaenic patients. More than one organism was cultured in 9 neutropaenic and 18 non-neutropaenic patients. Mortality was 10.8% in neutropaenic and 24.4% in non-neutropaenic patients. Gram-negative organisms are the predominant isolates in febrile neutropaenic episodes in this cohort of patients. Non-neutropaenic patients had an increased mortality with an increase in Acinetobacter infections and multiple isolates.
Pretorius, H L; Falkson, G
Advances in the field of medical oncology were spurred by the development of cytostatic drugs, and cancer is today one of the most treatable (and most curable) of the chronic diseases. Because of the diversity of neoplastic diseases, classification, staging and the important individual patient discriminants must be taken into account more than ever before because of the availability of drugs that can cure or palliate many forms of cancer. The results obtained in advanced disease acted as an impetus to start chemotherapy at an earlier stage. In highly malignant neoplasms and especially in children with cancer, drug treatment has become of increasing importance, and when given appropriately complements surgery and radiotherapy.
Balducci, Lodovico; Fossa, Sophia Dorothe
Cancer is a disease of aging. With the aging of the population and the improved survival of cancer patients, rehabilitation of older cancer survival is an increasingly common problem. Age may be constructed as a progressive reduction in functional reserve of multiple organ systems leading to decreased life expectancy and reduced stress tolerance. Physiologic age may be different from chronologic age and is best assessed with a comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA). The goals of cancer treatment in the older aged person include prolongation of active life expectancy that is prevention of functional dependence. Cancer and cancer treatment may accelerate physiologic aging. Rehabilitation is especially necessary in the case of curable malignancies or malignancies for which a prolonged survival is likely. Long-term complications of cancer treatment that may compromise life expectancy and functional independence include fatigue cognitive decline and peripheral neuropathy. This paper reviews the risk factors and the management of these complications. The number of older cancer survivors is expected to increase with the aging of the population. Prevention and management of fatigue, cognitive decline and peripheral neuropathy appear as the most important issue to prolong the active life expectancies of these individuals.
Gudiol, Carlota; Carratalà, Jordi
Bacterial infection is one of the most frequent complications in cancer patients and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. In recent years, the emergence of antimicrobial resistance has become a significant problem worldwide, and cancer patients are among those affected. Treatment of infections due to multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria represents a clinical challenge, especially in the case of Gram-negative bacilli, since the therapeutic options are often very limited. As the antibiotics active against MDR bacteria present several disadvantages (limited clinical experience, higher incidence of adverse effects, and less knowledge of the pharmacokinetics of the drug), a thorough acquaintance with the main characteristics of these drugs is mandatory in order to provide safe treatment to cancer patients with MDR bacterial infections. Nevertheless, the implementation of antibiotic stewardship programs and infection control measures is the cornerstone for controlling the development and spread of these MDR pathogens.
Shin, Takeshi; Miyata, Akane; Arai, Gaku; Okada, Hiroshi
Testicular cancer(TC)is the most common and curable cancer affecting men of reproductive age. Successful treatment approaches have resulted in longer life expectancy in TC survivors. The most frequently used treatment for TC is a combination of inguinal orchiectomy, and either radiotherapy or cisplatin-based chemotherapy. In many TC patients, sperm quality is already abnormal and there may even be a lack of viable spermatozoa at the time of diagnosis. Therefore, the effect of cancer treatment on fertility is a potentially significant issue. Fertility preservation in these men has become essential and needs to be discussed prior to the start of cancer treatment. The only currently established fertility preservation method is the cryopreservation of sperm before therapy. For most patients seeking cryopreservation, the semen sample is collected via masturbation. If the patient is unable to ejaculate for any reason, other techniques such as vibratory stimulation and electroejaculation can be performed. In azoospermic or severely oligozoospermic patients, testicular sperm extraction at the time of the inguinal orchiectomy is a useful technique for obtaining spermatozoa before cytotoxic therapy. We herein present an overview of the current topics on fertility in TC patients, including the effects of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. We also describe the strategy for fertility preservation in these patients.
Wiggers, J H; Donovan, K O; Redman, S; Sanson-Fisher, R W
A diagnosis of cancer places considerable stress on patients and requires them to make major adjustments in many areas of their lives. As a consequence, considerable demands are placed on health care providers to satisfy the complex care needs of cancer patients. Currently, there is little available information to indicate the extent to which cancer patients are satisfied with the quality of care they receive. The present study assessed the perceptions of 232 ambulatory cancer patients about the importance of and satisfaction with the following aspects of care: doctors technical competence and interpersonal and communication skills, accessibility and continuity of care, hospital and clinic care, nonmedical care, family care, and finances. The results indicate that all 60 questionnaire items used were considered to reflect important aspects of care, but that greater importance was given to the technical quality of medical care, the interpersonal and communication skills of doctors, and the accessibility of care. Most patients were satisfied with the opportunities provided to discuss their needs with doctors, the interpersonal support of doctors, and the technical competence of doctors. However, few patients were satisfied with the provision of information concerning their disease, treatment, and symptom control and the provision of care in the home and to family and friends.
de Souza, Vinicius Barbosa; Silva, Eduardo Nani; Ribeiro, Mario Luiz; Martins, Wolney de Andrade
There is a known association between chemotherapy and radiotherapy for treatment of cancer patients and development or worsening of hypertension. The aim of this article is to review this association. A literature search was conducted for articles reporting this association on the databases PubMed, SciELO and LILACS between 1993 and 2013. There was a high coprevalence of hypertension and cancer, since both diseases share the same risk factors, such as sedentary lifestyle, obesity, smoking, unhealthy diet and alcohol abuse. The use of chemotherapy and adjuvant drugs effective in the treatment of cancer increased the survival rate of these patients and, consequently, increased the incidence of hypertension. We described the association between the use of angiogenesis inhibitors (bevacizumab, sorafenib and sunitinib), corticosteroids, erythropoietin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with the development of hypertension. We also described the relationship between hypertension and carotid baroreceptor injury secondary to cervical radiotherapy. Morbidity and mortality increased in patients with cancer and hypertension without proper antihypertensive treatment. We concluded that there is need for early diagnosis, effective monitoring and treatment strategies for hypertension in cancer patients in order to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:25742420
Lordick, Florian; Hacker, Ulrich
Cancer patients are regularly affected by malnutrition which often leads to a worsened quality of life and activity in daily living, more side effects and complications during anticancer treatment and shorter survival times. The early diagnosis and treatment of malnutrition are therefore relevant components of oncological treatment. The assessment of the nutritional status and determination of the body-mass-index should be done in every patient with cancer. The clinical examination delivers important findings and indications for malnutrition. Bioimpedance analysis can deliver additional objective information. The treatment of malnutrition should start early and follows a step-wise escalation reaching from nutritional counseling to enteral nutritional support to parenteral nutrition.
Dakof, Gayle A.; And Others
Research has shown that social support is psychologically beneficial to cancer patients, with support from families being especially important. A survey of the social support needs of 407 cancer patients and an in-depth interview study of 55 of those patients were conducted to examine issues concerning family support and cancer patients. Results…
Civilotti, Cristina; Castelli, Lorys; Binaschi, Luca; Cussino, Martina; Tesio, Valentina; Di Fini, Giulia; Veglia, Fabio; Torta, Riccardo
Introduction: The utilization of the post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnostic spectrum is currently being debated to categorize psychological adjustment in cancer patients. The aims of this study were to: (1) evaluate the presence of cancer-related traumatic dissociative symptomatology in a sample of cancer patients; (2) examine the correlation of cancer-related dissociation and sociodemographic and medical variables, anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress symptomatology; (3) investigate the predictors of cancer-related dissociation. Methods: Ninety-two mixed cancer patients (mean age: 58.94, ds = 10.13) recruited from two hospitals in northern Italy were administered a questionnaire on sociodemographic and medical characteristics, the Karnofsky Scale to measure the level of patient activity and medical care requirements, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to evaluate the presence of anxiety and depression, the Impact of Event Scale Revised (IES-R) to assess the severity of intrusion, avoidance, and hypervigilance, and the Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire (PDEQ) to quantify the traumatic dissociative symptomatology. Results: 31.5% of participants report a PDEQ score above the cutoff. The results indicated that dissociative symptomatology was positively correlated with HADS scores (HADS-Anxiety: r = 0.476, p < 0.001; HADS-Depression: r = 0.364, p < 0.001) and with IES-R scores (IES-R-Intrusion: r = 0.698, p < 0.001; IES-R-Avoidance: r = 0.619, p < 0.001; IES-R- Hypervigilance: r = 0.681, p < 0.001). A stepwise regression analysis was performed in order to find the predictors of cancer-related traumatic dissociative symptomatology. The results converged on a three predictor model revealing that IES-R-Intrusion, IES-R-Avoidance, and IES-R-Hyperarousal accounted for 53.9% of the explained variance. Conclusion: These findings allow us to hypothesize a specific psychological reaction which may be ascribed to the traumatic
... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_167297.html Many Terminal Cancer Patients Remain in Denial Not facing reality ... HealthDay News) -- Nearly 10 percent of patients with terminal cancer don't want to know they're ...
Dhobi, Manzoor A.; Wani, Khursheed Alam; Parray, Fazl Qadir; Wani, Rouf A.; Peer, G. Q.; Abdullah, Safiya; Wani, Imtiyaz A.; Wani, Muneer A.; Shah, Mubashir A.; Thakur, Natasha
Aim. The aim of this study was to see the clinical, pathological, and demographic profile of young patients with stomach carcinoma besides association with p53. Patients and Methods. Prospective study of young patients with stomach carcinoma from January 2005 to December 2009. A total of 50 patients with age less than 40 years were studied. Results. Male female ratio was 1 : 1.08 in young patients and 2.5 : 1 in older patients. A positive family history of stomach cancer in the first degree relatives was present in 10% of young patients. Resection was possible only in 50% young patients. 26% young patients underwent only palliative gastrojejunostomy. The most common operation was lower partial gastrectomy in 68%. Amongst the intraoperative findings peritoneal metastasis was seen in 17.4% in young patients. 50% young patients presented in stage IV as per AJCC classification (P value .004; sig.). None of the patients presented as stage 1 disease in young group. Conclusion. Early detection of stomach carcinoma is very important in all patients but in young patients it is of paramount importance. PMID:24381753
The majority of cancer patients becomes malnourished during the course of their disease. Malnutrition deteriorates the efficiency of all kinds of oncologic interventions. As a consequence of it, treatment-related toxicity increases, hospital stay is lengthened, chances of cure and survival as well as the quality of life of the patients worsen. Nutritional status therefore influences all aspects of outcome of oncology care. In spite of this the use of nutritional therapy varies across health care providers but its application is far from being sufficient during active oncology interventions as well as rehabilitation and supportive care. It threatens not only the outcome and quality of life of cancer patients but also the success of oncologic treatments which often demand high input of human and financial resources. Meanwhile application of nutritional therapy is legally regulated in Hungary and a very recent update of the European guideline on cancer patient nutrition published in 2017 is available. Moreover, cost effectiveness of nutritional therapy has been proven in a number of studies. In this review we present the basics of nutritional therapy including nutritional screening and evaluation, nutritional plan, the role of nutrition support teams, oral, enteral and parenteral nutrition, the use of different drugs and special nutrients and the follow-up of the patients.
Diso, Daniele; Onorati, Ilaria; Anile, Marco; Mantovani, Sara; Rendina, Erino A.
There is a worldwide-accepted evidence of a population shift toward older ages. This shift favors an increased risk of developing lung cancer that is primarily a disease of older populations. Decision making is extremely difficult in elderly patients, since this group is under-represented in clinical trials with only 25% of them historically opening to patients older than 65 years. For all these reasons, a “customized” preoperative assessment to identify physiological or pathological frailty should be encouraged since standard tools may be less reliable. The work already done to improve patient selection for lung surgery in the elderly population clearly shows that surgical resection seems the treatment of choice for early stage lung cancer. Further studies are required to improve outcome by reducing postoperative morbidity and mortality. PMID:27942414
Loizidou, A; Aoun, M; Klastersky, J
Fever of unknown origin (FUO) remains a challenging clinical problem, namely in patients with cancer. In cancer patients, FUO may be due to the cancer itself, as it is the case of hematological malignancies; digestive tumors (colon cancer, liver metastases) are significantly associated with FUO and infection can be demonstrated in some cases. Prevention with G-CSF and empirical antimicrobial therapy are essential approaches for the management of FUO in cancer patients. New diagnostic approaches, such as PET imaging, should be further evaluated in cancer patients with FUO. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gyan, Emmanuel; Raynard, Bruno; Durand, Jean-Philippe; Lacau Saint Guily, Jean; Gouy, Sébastien; Movschin, Marie Lespiau; Khemissa, Faiza; Flori, Nicolas; Oziel-Taieb, Sandrine; Bannier Braticevic, Cécile; Zeanandin, Gilbert; Hebert, Christophe; Savinelli, Francesco; Goldwasser, François; Hébuterne, Xavier
Malnutrition is a critical predictor of toxicity and outcome in patients with cancer and may be perceived differently by patients, relatives, and physicians. To assess the prevalence of malnutrition in oncology departments and to compare it with the perceptions of nutrition status by patients themselves, their closest relatives, and attending physicians. A 1-day multicentric cross-sectional survey on the prevalence of malnutrition was conducted in different oncology departments using patient-, relative-, and physician-specific questionnaires. Malnutrition was defined by a weight loss ≥5% within 1 month or ≥10% within 6 months, a body mass index ≤18.5 kg/m(2) in patients aged <70 years or ≤21 kg/m(2) in patients aged ≥70 years, and/or albuminemia <35 g/L. Questionnaires for assessing medical condition, knowledge of nutrition status, and perceptions of the impact of malnutrition on daily life were distributed to consenting patients, attending physicians, and closest relatives. A total of 2197 patients were included, and 2071 and 976 questionnaires were collected from patients and relatives, respectively. Prevalence of malnutrition was 39%. Physicians overestimated malnutrition (44%), whereas patients and relatives underestimated it (22% and 23%, respectively, P < .001). Conversely, malnutrition-associated symptoms were underestimated by physicians compared with patients and relatives. We found a prevalence of malnutrition of 39%: it was underestimated by patients and relatives and overestimated by physicians.
Campbell, G Adam; Hu, Daniel; Okusa, Mark D
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent and significant complication of cancer and cancer therapy. Cancer patients frequently encounter risk factors for AKI including older age, CKD, prerenal conditions, sepsis, exposure to nephrotoxins, and obstructive physiology. AKI can also be secondary to paraneoplastic conditions, including glomerulonephritis and microangiopathic processes. This complication can have significant consequences, including effects on patients' ability to continue to receive therapy for their malignancy. This review will serve to summarize potential etiologies of AKI that present in patients with cancer as well as to highlight specific patient populations, such as the critically ill cancer patient.
Quispe, Dolly; Ruiz, Eloy; Celis, Juan; Berrospi, Francisco; Payet, Eduardo
OBJECTIVE: In order to determine a the clinicopatological features in young patients with gastric cancer and compare them with aged patients.PATIENTS AND METHODS: For this study, we selected the clinical charts from the total of patients with histological proved diagnosis of gastric adenocarcinoma admitted at the INEN between 1980 and 1996 whose age was less than 31 year (Young group, n =92). As a comparison group (Average Group) we chose of the same universe, a random sample of 184 patients between 50 to 70 years of age. Epidemiological, clinical and histological features, operability and resecability, TNM stage, type of surgery and follow-up of both groups were analyzed.RESULTS: In the Young Group in compared with Average Group, females were more frequent (73.9% vs. 50.5% p<0.001); mucocelular type (70% vs. 31.0%, p<0.001) and undifferentiated carcinoma (75% vs. 32.6%, p>0.001). The mean survival time in the Young Group was 74.9 months and in the Average Group was 36.03 months (p=0.26), there were no significant differences in the survival between resecability and sex (p=0.10 and p=0.41).CONCLUSION: The females and undifferentiated carcinoma was the most frequent features in the young patients with gastric cancer. The survival in this group is better than the average group but this was a no significant difference because the diagnosis was made in late stages.
Hindi, Nadia; Cordero, Nazaret; Espinosa, Enrique
Thromboembolic events are common among patients with cancer as a consequence of cancer- and treatment-related factors. As these events are the second most frequent cause of death in this population, their prevention and treatment are important. Venous ultrasonography is the technique of choice for diagnosis, with sensitivity and specificity above 95 % in symptomatic thrombosis. Routine prophylaxis is not recommended for ambulatory patients, although it could be useful in selected cases. On the other hand, all inpatients should receive prophylactic therapy unless contraindicated. Therapy of thromboembolic disease is based on anticoagulants. Clinical trials demonstrate that the use of low-weight heparins is associated with a lower incidence of bleeding and recurrent thrombosis as compared with non-fractionated heparin or warfarin. Options for recurrent thrombosis include change to another anticoagulant agent, increasing doses of the same agent and cava filters.
Ionizing radiation used in treating the head and neck area produces oral side effects such as mucositis, salivary changes, trismus and radiation caries. Sequelae of cancer chemotherapy often include oral stomatitis, myelosuppression and immunosuppression. Infections of dental origin in compromised patients are potentially lethal. Specific programs to eliminate dental pathology before radiation and chemotherapy, and to maintain oral hygiene during and after therapy, will minimize these complications.
Baldwin, Laura-Mae; Cai, Yong; Larson, Eric H.; Dobie, Sharon A.; Wright, George E.; Goodman, David C.; Matthews, Barbara; Hart, L. Gary
Context: Cancer care requires specialty surgical and medical resources that are less likely to be found in rural areas. Purpose: To examine the travel patterns and distances of rural and urban colorectal cancer (CRC) patients to 3 types of specialty cancer care services--surgery, medical oncology consultation, and radiation oncology consultation.…
Baldwin, Laura-Mae; Cai, Yong; Larson, Eric H.; Dobie, Sharon A.; Wright, George E.; Goodman, David C.; Matthews, Barbara; Hart, L. Gary
Context: Cancer care requires specialty surgical and medical resources that are less likely to be found in rural areas. Purpose: To examine the travel patterns and distances of rural and urban colorectal cancer (CRC) patients to 3 types of specialty cancer care services--surgery, medical oncology consultation, and radiation oncology consultation.…
Hemminki, K; Li, X; Sundquist, J; Sundquist, K
Patients diagnosed with Crohn disease (CD) are known to be at an increased risk of bowel cancers and lymphoma. CD is an autoimmune disease and we hypothesize that the patients are predisposed to a wider spectrum of cancers. A CD research database was constructed by identifying hospitalized CD patients from the Hospital Discharge Register and cancer patients from the Swedish Cancer Registry. Follow-up of 21 788 CD patients first hospitalized during the years 1964-2004 identified 1424 cancer cases. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated by comparing cancers in CD patients with subjects without CD. In addition to the known sites, many additional sites were in excess in CD patients. These included liver, pancreatic, lung, prostate, testicular, kidney and skin (squamous cell) cancers; nonthyroid endocrine tumors and leukemia. The previously established sites showed the highest SIRs; however, SIRs >2.0 were noted for the novel sites of the liver, testis and kidney. For testicular cancer, the SIR of seminoma was 2.74. Cancer risks were influences by age at first hospitalization for CD but whether the age effects were increasing or decreasing depending on the cancer type. This large study identified many novel subsequent cancers in CD patients.
Im, Eun-Ok; Lim, Hyun-Ju; Clark, Maresha; Chee, Wonshik
Although very little is known about African American cancer patients' pain experience, a few studies have indicated that their cancer pain experience is unique and somewhat different from that of other ethnic groups. The purpose of the study reported in this article was to explore African American cancer patients' pain experience using an online forum. This study was a qualitative online forum designed from a feminist perspective and conducted among 11 African American cancer patients who were recruited through both Internet and real settings. Nine online forum topics were used to administer the 6-month online forum, and the data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Four themes emerged through the data analysis process. First, participants viewed cancer as a challenge in life that they should fight against. Second, cancer pain was differentiated from ordinary pain because cancer was stigmatized in their culture. Third, participants viewed that African Americans, especially women, were culturally raised to be strong, and this African American cultural heritage inhibited cancer patients from expressing pain and seeking help for pain management. Finally, the findings indicated certain changes in perspectives among African American cancer patients during the disease process, which might make them tolerate pain through praying to God and reading the Bible. Based on the findings, we suggest further studies among diverse groups of African American cancer patients, with a focus on cultural attitudes toward cancer pain and influences of family on cancer pain experience.
Gon, Yasufumi; Okazaki, Shuhei; Terasaki, Yasukazu; Sasaki, Tsutomu; Yoshimine, Toshiki; Sakaguchi, Manabu; Mochizuki, Hideki
To clarify the characteristics of cryptogenic stroke in patients with active cancer. Patients with or without cancer diagnosed with acute ischemic stroke between January 2006 and February 2015 were extracted from a prospectively collected stroke database of Osaka University Hospital. Patients were categorized according to the presence of active cancer and known stroke mechanisms. Among 1191 patients with acute ischemic stroke, 145 (12%) had active cancer. Patients with active cancer were diagnosed more often with cryptogenic stroke than were patients without cancer (47% vs. 12%, P < 0.001). Compared with cryptogenic stroke patients without cancer, cryptogenic stroke patients with active cancer had fewer atherosclerotic risk factors, lower nutrition status, higher plasma D-dimer levels, and multiple vascular lesions. In a multivariate logistic analysis, plasma D-dimer level (odds ratio [OR] per 1 standard deviation increase: 6.30; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.94-15.69; P < 0.001), and the presence of multiple vascular lesions (OR: 6.40; 95% CI: 2.35-18.35; P < 0.001) were independent predictors of active cancer. When comparing active cancer patients who had known stroke mechanisms with those who had cryptogenic stroke, high plasma D-dimer levels, multiple vascular lesions, and receiving chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy were associated with cryptogenic stroke etiology. In cryptogenic stroke, patients with active cancer has a unique pathology characterized by high plasma D-dimer levels and multiple vascular lesions. The hypercoagulable state and malnutrition due to cancer and its treatments potentially influence the development of cryptogenic stroke in cancer patients.
Johnson, B E; Cortazar, P; Chute, J P
The rate of developing second lung cancers and other aerodigestive tumors in patients who have been treated for both small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is approximately 10-fold higher than other adult smokers. The risk of second lung cancers in patients surviving resection of NSCLC is approximately 1% to 2% per year. The series reported show that the patients who develop second NSCLCs tend to have early-stage NSCLC (predominantly stage I and II). The survival of patients after the second resection of lung cancer is similar to that of patients presenting with initial NSCLC. The risk of second lung cancers in patients surviving SCLC is 2% to 14% per patient per year and increases two- to seven-fold with the passage of time from 2 to 10 years. The risk of second lung cancers in patients treated for SCLC appears to be higher than that found in patients with NSCLC who were treated only with surgical resection. In addition, the chances of successful resection of second primary NSCLCs in patients who were treated for SCLC is much less than that for patients with metachronous lung cancers after an initial NSCLC. Patients treated for SCLC who continue to smoke cigarettes increase their rate of developing second lung cancers. The contribution of chest radiation and chemotherapy administration to the risk of developing second lung tumors remain to be defined but may be responsible for some of the increased risk in patients treated for SCLC compared to patients undergoing a surgical resection for NSCLC.
When a patient is diagnosed with cancer, feelings such as fear, anxiety, and hopelessness can negatively affect a person's frame of mind. Hope can help a patient decrease anxiety and increase quality of life. Nurses should assess hope, provide interventions, be empathetic, listen, and treat patients with dignity to help improve hope and quality of life. This article features how hope can have a positive impact and provides specific information about how nurses can promote and foster hope in patients with cancer.
Krakowski, Ivan; Déchelette, Marie; Arbiol, Evelyne; Chvetzoff, Gisèle; Cullet, Danièle; Delorme, Thierry; Fontaine, Alain; Lavillat, Dominique; Marec-Bérard, Perrine; Torloting, Gérard; Vuillemin, Nicole; Brusco, Sylvie; Carretier, Julien; Delavigne, Valérie; Leichtnam-Dugarin, Line; Fervers, Béatrice; Philip, Thierry
Patient information is a major challenge for public health. It has become part of the patients' rights, in response to their need for information and involvement in medical decision-making. Since 1998, the French National Federation of Comprehensive Cancer Centres (FNCLCC) has developed an information and education program dedicated to patients and relatives: the SOR SAVOIR PATIENT program. The methodology of the program adheres to the quality criteria established for the elaboration of documents containing patient information. The SOR SAVOIR PATIENT guide Pain and Cancer aims to answer patients' questions regarding cancer specific pain and to help them become actively involved in their care. It was elaborated by a multidisciplinary workgroup, which included methodologists, one linguist, pain specialists and twenty patients and relatives. Patients' information needs and personal experience of pain were assessed using focus groups, semi-structured interviews and questionnaires. Through eight chapters, which can be read in an independent way, Pain and cancer provides key information on the causes, the mechanisms, the evaluation, the prevention and the treatment of pain. The guide also presents advices and practical tools to facilitate the assessment of the pain and the communication between patients and professionals. Finally, this guide aims to overcome ideas such as that morphine is synonymous of end of life or drug addiction, that pain is a sign of aggravation of cancer and that nurses know how to detect the pain. Intended first for the patients and their close relations, Pain and Cancer is also a useful tool for health professionals. Indeed, it presents knowledge based on the most recent recommendations developed for clinical practice. Thanks to a wide distribution of the guide to patients, their families and the professionals, we trust that this guide will facilitate dialogue around pain, and ultimately its care. This article is an abstract of the guide. The
Kedzierska, Magdalena; Olas, Beata; Wachowicz, Barbara; Jeziorski, Arkadiusz; Piekarski, Janusz
The aim of our study was to estimate oxidative stress (by using different biomarkers of lipid peroxidation--isoprostanes and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)) in patients with invasive breast cancer, patients with benign breast diseases and in a control group. We observed a statistically increased level of TBARS in plasma and isoprostanes in urine of patients with invasive breast cancer in comparison with a control group. The concentration of tested biomarkers in plasma or urine from patients with invasive breast cancer was also higher than in patients with benign breast diseases. Moreover, the levels of tested markers in patients with benign breast diseases and in a control group did not differ. Considering the data presented in this study, we suggest that free radicals induce peroxidation of unsaturated fatty acid in patients with breast cancer.
Seddighzadeh, Ali; Shetty, Ranjith; Goldhaber, Samuel Z
Patients with cancer have an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). To further define the demographics, comorbidities, and risk factors of VTE in these patients, we analyzed a prospective registry of 5,451 patients with ultrasound confirmed deep vein thrombosis (DVT) from 183 hospitals in the United States. Cancer was reported in 1,768 (39%), of whom 1,096 (62.0%) had active cancer. Of these, 599 (54.7%) were receiving chemotherapy, and 226 (20.6%) had metastases. Lung (18.5%), colorectal (11.8%), and breast cancer (9.0%) were among the most common cancer types. Cancer patients were younger (median age 66 years vs. 70 years; p < 0.0001), were more likely to be male (50.4% vs. 44.5%; p = 0.0005), and had a lower average body mass index (26.6 kg/m(2) vs. 28.9 kg/m(2); p < 0.0001). Cancer patients less often received VTE prophylaxis prior to development of DVT compared to those with no cancer (308 of 1,096, 28.2% vs. 1,196 of 3,444, 34.6%; p < 0.0001). For DVT therapy, low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) as monotherapy without warfarin (142 of 1,086, 13.1% vs. 300 of 3,429, 8.7%; p < 0.0001) and inferior vena caval filters (234 of 1,086, 21.5% vs. 473 of 3,429, 13.8%; p < 0.0001) were utilized more often in cancer patients than in DVT patients without cancer. Cancer patients with DVT and neurological disease were twice as likely to receive inferior vena caval filters than those with no cancer (odds ratio 2.17, p = 0.005). In conclusion, cancer patients who develop DVT receive prophylaxis less often and more often receive filters than patients with no cancer who develop DVT. Future studies should focus on ways to improve implementation of prophylaxis in cancer patients and to further define the indications, efficacy, and safety of inferior vena caval filters in this population.
Cancer is known to be one of the worst diseases on the planet; it highly affects Palestinians; it is the third leading cause of death in Palestine. The main purpose of the research is to highlight the concept of Quality of Life (QOL) for Palestinian cancer patients through providing an understanding about influences of cancer and chemotherapy on QOL of cancer patient. QOL was measured using European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer questionnaire EORTC QLQ-C30 (version 3.0) which founded to be valid and reliable in diverse cultures, including, the United Arab Emirates, Iran, Turkey, Japan, India, China, Korea, and Nigeria. Results about QOL were low in all aspects; most of them were less than the half of full function, and, more intense symptoms and negative effects were found to be in Palestinian cancer patients.
Eyigor, Sibel; Akdeniz, Sedef
Exercise and rehabilitation approaches in palliative care programs for cancer patients affect patients’ symptoms, physical functioning, muscle strength, emotional wellbeing, psychological symptoms, functional capacities, quality of life, mortality and morbidity positively. Based on scientific data, palliative cancer patients should be recommended to participate in exercise programs. There is no standard approach to recipe an exercise regimen for a palliative cancer survivor. Studies for demonstrating the positive effects of exercising in palliative care patients are increasing in number day by day. At this point, increasing awareness about exercising in the entire team monitoring the patient and our efforts in this matter seems to be very important. PMID:25114869
Suhami, Norhasmilia; Muhamad, Mazanah Bt; Krauss, Steven Eric
Islamic healing is frequently referred to as the treatment of choice by many Muslim cancer patients in Malaysia. Despite its widespread use, there is limited information relating to patients' healing preferences. With rising cancer rates in the country, this issue has become a concern to public health policy makers. The purpose of this study was to understand why cancer patients seek Islamic healing. This qualitative study utilized in-depth interviews with 18 cancer patients. The findings indicate three main reasons: (1) recommendations from family, friends and doctors; (2) belief in Islamic healing and (3) the perceived ineffectiveness and dissatisfaction with conventional treatments. Islamic healing will likely continue to be popular complementary cancer treatment in Malaysia as it is grounded in strong cultural and religious beliefs.
Pain, Neuropathic; Epilepsy; Renal Pelvis Cancer; Pancreatic Cancer; Breast Cancer; Nervous System Cancer; Chronic Pancreatitis; Stomach Cancer; Renal Cell Carcinoma; Diabetes; Bladder Cancer; Bone and Joint Cancer; Penis Cancer; Anal Cancer; Cancer; Renal Cancer
Ditsch, Nina; Liebhardt, Susanne; Von Koch, Franz; Lenhard, Miriam; Vogeser, Michael; Spitzweg, Christine; Gallwas, Julia; Toth, Bettina
Recent studies indicate a possible relationship between hypothyroidism and breast cancer in vivo. In addition, oestrogen-like effects of thyroid hormones on breast cancer cell growth are seen in vitro. Therefore, this study evaluated thyroid function in breast cancer patients, women with benign breast tumour and healthy controls. Breast cancer patients (n=65), women with carcinoma in situ (n=13) or benign breast tumour (n=27), and healthy controls (n=38) were included in the study. Thyroid history was reported. Thyroid hormones (fT4, fT3, TSH) and thyroid antibodies (TPO, TRAK and TG) were determined. Statistical analysis was performed by Mann-Whitney U and Fisher's exact test (p<0.005 significant). fT3 and fT4 levels were highest in breast cancer patients, and differed significantly from controls (fT3 and fT4: p<0.001) as well as from patients with benign breast tumour (fT3: p=0.021; fT4: p=0.017). TSH was highest in the control group without reaching significance. With regard to TRAK antibodies, breast cancer patients showed the highest levels differing significantly from women with benign breast tumours (p=0.048). Significant differences in fT3/fT4 as well as TRAK levels were observed among breast cancer patients, women with benign breast tumours and healthy controls. Further studies using larger patient groups are part of ongoing research.
Argash, Oz; Caspi, Opher
In recent years there has been an increase in the interest of cancer patients in receiving complementary medicine therapies as supportive measures to cure the disease. In response, medical units that combine conventional and complementary medicine (integrative medicine) have been established in leading cancer centers worldwide. In Israel, a special integrative medicine unit that combines mind-body, Chinese medicine, nutrition, herbs, supplements, and manual therapies (such as shiatsu) before, during and after conventional anti-cancer therapies has been established as an integral part of the Davidoff Comprehensive Cancer Center in 2006. Shiatsu represents a group of manual therapeutic techniques, including acupressure. Shiatsu offers cancer patients a non-pharmacologic method to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life throughout the course of illness. Research indicates that acupressure is relatively effective and safe for common cancer-related symptoms such as nausea, vomiting and insomnia. In our experience, shiatsu is also relatively effective and safe for other common symptoms such as fatigue, muscular pain and body image dissatisfaction. Yet, insufficient evidence exists to delineate the best means by which shiatsu and other manual therapies could or should be integrated into routine cancer care. The purpose of the present paper is to describe what is currently known about this topic in order to support decision-making that is based on facts, rather than on myths and misconceptions. We call for more research that examines the effectiveness and safety of shiatsu and other manual therapies in the care of cancer patients.
Gore, John L
Patient engagement in research has been increasingly prioritized by funders and adopted by health researchers. In this Seminars issue, we explore several different mechanisms of engagement in the reciprocal relationship between patients and researchers. This includes the generation of understandable patient health information, how patients engage in treatment decision-making for urologic cancers, patient involvement in the development of research ideas and research design, and patient engagement in their personalized survivorship care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Braun, Kathryn L.; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Holden, Alan E. C.; Burhansstipanov, Linda; Tran, Jacqueline H.; Seals, Brenda F.; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Tsark, JoAnn U.; Harjo, Lisa; Foo, Mary Anne; Ramirez, Amelie G.
Cancer patient navigation (PN) programs have been shown to increase access to and utilization of cancer care for poor and underserved individuals. Despite mounting evidence of its value, cancer patient navigation is not universally understood or provided. We describe five PN programs and the range of tasks their navigators provide across the cancer care continuum (education and outreach, screening, diagnosis and staging, treatment, survivorship, and end-of-life). Tasks are organized by their potential to make cancer services understandable, available, accessible, affordable, appropriate, and accountable. Although navigators perform similar tasks across the five programs, their specific approaches reflect differences in community culture, context, program setting, and funding. Task lists can inform the development of programs, job descriptions, training, and evaluation. They also may be useful in the move to certify navigators and establish mechanisms for reimbursement for navigation services. PMID:22423178
The author's personal experience as a kidney cancer patient, researcher and founder of a kidney cancer support group forms the basis for consideration of the challenges involved in researching patients' experiences. The researcher needs to understand the variability of those experiences in both clinical and psychological-emotional terms, and in relation to the personal, familial and social contexts of the patient. It is also essential to define the purpose of the research and to show how an understanding of personal experiences of cancer can be used to enhance the quality of care for cancer patients. The research encounter with a patient is also in some respects a therapeutic encounter requiring a considerable degree of sensitivity on the part of the researcher. The person-centred approach of Carl Rogers is of value in supporting such an encounter.
Cheng, Ju-Fen; Lin, Ya-Ching; Huang, Pai-Ho; Wei, Chih-Hsin; Sun, Jia-Ling
Providing spiritual care to patients with advanced cancer may improve the quality of life of these patients and help them experience a good death. Cancer patients are eager for additional spiritual care and for a sense of peace at the end of their life. However, spirituality is an abstract concept. The literature on spiritual care focuses primarily on elaborations of spirituality theory. Thus, first-line medical care professionals lack clear guidelines for managing the spiritual needs of terminal cancer patients. The purposes of this article were to: 1) introduce a spiritual care model based on the concept of repair and recovery of relationships that addresses the relationship between the self and God, others, id, and objects and 2) set out a four-step strategy for this model that consists of understanding, empathizing, guiding, and growing. This article provides operational guidelines for the spiritual care of terminal cancer patients.
Namendys-Silva, Silvio A; Hernández-Garay, Marisol; García-Guillén, Francisco J; Correa-García, Paulina; Herrera Gómez, Angel; Meneses-García, Abelardo
Severe metabolic alterations frequently occur in critically ill cancer patients; hypercalcemia, hypocalcemia, hyponatremia, tumor lysis syndrome, metabolic complications of renal failure and lactic acidosis. Cancer patients with metabolic emergencies should be treated in a medical oncology department or an intensive care unit. Most metabolic emergencies can be treated properly when they are identified early. The clinician should consider that the prognosis of critically ill cancer patients depends on their primary disease, comorbidities and organ failure. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Soler, Silvia; Delgado, Cristina; Ballaz, Aitor; Cisneros, Elena; Malý, Radován; Babalis, Dimitrios; Monréal, Manuel
The natural history of unsuspected pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients with cancer has not been thoroughly studied. We used the RIETE Registry data to compare the clinical characteristics, treatment strategies and outcome in cancer patients with unsuspected PE and in those presenting with symptomatic, acute PE. Up to December 2011, 78 cancer patients with unsuspected PE and 1,994 with symptomatic PE had been enrolled. Patients with unsuspected PE more likely had colorectal cancer than those with symptomatic PE (28% vs. 13%), and less likely had prostate (3.8% vs. 10%) or hematologic (1.3% vs. 6.4%) cancer, or prior venous thromboembolism (3.8% vs. 12%). While the patients were receiving anticoagulant therapy, the incidence of PE recurrences (0% vs. 1.9%) or major bleeding (2.6% vs. 4.8%) were similar. After completion of anticoagulation, recurrent PE developed in 2.6% vs. 1.4% of patients, and major bleeding in 0% vs. 0.4%, respectively. Our findings suggest that the clinical characteristics and outcome in cancer patients with unsuspected PE are quite similar to those in patients with symptomatic PE. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tippett, Donna C; Webster, Kimberly T
Swallowing and swallowing-related impairments present important posttreatment challenges in individuals undergoing organ preservation therapy for head and neck cancer. Literature pertinent to this topic is reviewed. A protocol for treatment of speech and swallowing deficits related to oropharyngeal cancer and treatment performed at Johns Hopkins Hospital is described. Data collected from a sample of oropharyngeal patients with cancer, with and without human papillomavirus-related disease, are summarized. Future directions for further study of this population are discussed.
Shahrokni, Armin; Wu, Abraham; Carter, Jeanne; Lichtman, Stuart M.
Synopsis With earlier cancer diagnosis among older cancer patients, the possibility of curing cancer increases. However, cancer treatment may have long lasting impact on older cancer survivors. It is vital to screen, diagnose and properly manage the long term toxicities of cancer treatment, in order to maintain quality of life of older cancer survivors PMID:26614861
Shahrokni, Armin; Wu, Abraham J; Carter, Jeanne; Lichtman, Stuart M
With earlier cancer diagnosis among older patients with cancer, the possibility of curing cancer increases. However, cancer treatment may have a long-lasting impact on older cancer survivors. It is vital to screen, diagnose, and properly manage the long-term toxicities of cancer treatment in order to maintain the quality of life of older cancer survivors.
Rimer, B; Keintz, M K; Glassman, B
Cancer now attacks one in three Americans, resulting in one in six deaths. Yet, until recently, few patient education programs were directed toward cancer patients. This review examines the status of cancer patient education and suggests future directions. We focus on several aspects of cancer patient education, including needs assessments and programs in treatment, rehabilitation, and continuing care and evaluation. The most comprehensive patient education programs are those directed toward patients in active treatment; one of its tasks is to help patients manage treatment side effects. A major component of rehabilitation programs is counseling patients to help them cope with the effects of cancer. Many patient education programs have performed evaluations; most reflect difficulties in one or more areas, such as selecting appropriate measures or accruing adequate sample sizes. We recommend several directions for the future, including the use of appropriate measurement tools, adequate sample sizes, multimodality programs with incorporation of psychological techniques such as relaxation training and guided imagery, and assessment of the impact of patient education programs on costs.
Teng, Chung-Jen; Hu, Yu-Wen; Yeh, Chiu-Mei; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Liu, Chia-Jen
Abstract This study aimed to evaluate cancer risk and possible risk factors in patients diagnosed with empyema. A total of 31,636 patients with newly diagnosed empyema between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 2010 were included in this study. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated to compare the cancer incidence in these empyema patients to that in the general population. Adjusted hazard ratios were also calculated to investigate whether characteristics increased cancer risk. During the 12-year study period, 2,654 cancers occurred in 31,636 patients with empyema, yielding an SIR of 2.67 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.57–2.78). We excluded cancer that occurred within 1 year to avoid surveillance bias. The cancer risk remained significantly increased (SIR 1.50, 95% CI 1.41–1.58). Specifically, patients with empyema had higher SIR of cancers of the head and neck (1.50, 95% CI 1.41–1.58), esophagus (2.56, 95% CI 1.92–3.33), stomach (1.49, 95% CI 1.16–1.89), liver and biliary tract (2.18, 95% CI 1.93–2.45), and lung and mediastinum (1.62, 95% CI 1.39–1.86). Age ≥ 60, male sex, diabetes mellitus, and liver cirrhosis were independent risk factors for cancer development. Our study demonstrates an increased incidence of cancer development in patients with empyema, and patients’ age ≥ 60, men, and those with diabetes mellitus and liver cirrhosis showed a higher incidence of developing cancer compared to the general population. The association between such kind of infection and secondary malignancy may be elucidated by further study. PMID:26945399
Matsumata, T; Shikada, Y; Hasuda, S; Kishihara, F; Suehiro, T; Funahashi, S; Nagamatsu, Y; Iso, Y; Shima, I; Koga, C; Osamura, S; Ueda, M; Furuya, K; Sakino, I
Married couples share home environments and life style for years. In the case of colorectal cancer, an association with insulin resistance was reported. We determined the presence of the insulin-resistance syndrome (IRS, 1 or more of the following: body mass index of > 25 kg/m2, diabetes, or hyperlipidemia) in 84 colorectal cancer patients, of whom 61 patients (73%) had IRS. The incidence of the distal colorectal cancer, which has been declining in the United States, was significantly higher in the IRS group than in the non-IRS group (75.4 vs 52.2%, p = 0.0400). Some mechanisms may promote the progression of mucosal lesions to invasive cancers in the distal colorectum. There were no significant differences with respect to the age (64.6 +/- 9.4 vs 64.3 +/- 11.3 yr, p = 0.8298), height (159 +/- 9 vs 157 +/- 8 cm, p = 0.1375), and body mass index (22.2 +/- 3.6 vs 22.4 +/- 2.7 kg/m2, p = 0.6364) between the patients and their spouses. In 84 couples in whom colorectal cancer develops at least in one may then not illustrate the nursery rhyme: "Jack Sprat could eat no fat, His wife could eat no lean...". The spouses had been married for an average of 38 years, and in 30 spouses who had been followed in a colorectal cancer screening, 5 developed colorectal cancer. To diminish the incidence of colorectal cancer in Japan, we might advise screening colonoscopy to the spouses of colorectal cancer patients, or déjà vu all over again?
Cintron, Alexie; Hamel, Mary B; Davis, Roger B; Burns, Risa B; Phillips, Russell S; McCarthy, Ellen P
To identify factors associated with hospitalization of elderly hospice patients with cancer and to describe their hospital experiences. Retrospective analysis of the last year of life. Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database. Medicare beneficiaries dying of lung or colorectal cancer between 1988 and 1998 who enrolled in hospice. Hospitalization after hospice entry. For hospitalized patients, we describe admission diagnoses, aggressiveness of care, and in-hospital death. Of the 23608 patients, 1423 (6.0%) were hospitalized after hospice enrollment. Hospitalization declined over time by 7.0% per year of hospice enrollment. Factors associated with higher hospitalization rates were younger age, male gender, black race/ethnicity, local cancer stage at diagnosis, and hospice enrollment within 4 months of cancer diagnosis. The most common reasons for hospital admission were lung cancer, metastatic disease, bone fracture, pneumonia, and volume depletion. Of the 1423 patients hospitalized, 34.6% received aggressive care and 35.8% died in the hospital. The rates of hospitalization for elderly hospice patients with lung or colorectal cancer appear to be declining. However, patients who are hospitalized undergo aggressive care and often die in the hospital rather than at home. This aggressive care may be consistent with changes in patients' care preferences, but could also reflect the current culture of acute care hospitals, which focuses on curative treatment and is ill-equipped to provide palliative care.
Rashid, Yasmin Abdul; Ghafoor, Zahra Abdul; Masood, Nehal; Mehmood, Talha; Awan, Safia; Ansar, Tooba; Mirza, Murtaza; Rashid, Uzma Abdul
To explore the effects of cancer on psychosocial aspects of Pakistani patients and their families, assessing the need for interventions to improve their quality of life. A prospective, Cross-sectional study was performed on 200 patients visiting the oncology outpatient facility of AKUH from December 2010 to May 2011 through an interview. Responses were recorded on pre-designed questionnaires including FACT-G QOL (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General Quality Of Life) component. Out of the 200 patients 52 (26%) were males and 148 (74%) were females. Mean age was 51.8 +/- 14.2 years. Breast cancer accounted for the commonest cancer in females 116 (58%) and lung in males 30 (15%), 100 (50%) patients were currently undergoing chemotherapy. In all 148 (74%) patients were well aware of their diagnosis and were able to cope better and 142 (71%) were well supported by families (majority being financially stable). Major financial impact was found in 42 (21%) cases. Religious/spiritual help was sought by 138 (69%) patients predominantly females- 113 (76%) and 22 (11%) patients consulted a psychiatrist; 20 (94%) subjects of this group felt this intervention was helpful. Responses regarding effect on the patient's sexual life were poor and 126 (63%) denied answering the question. In our study one third of cancer patients were found to be depressed mainly affecting those who were receiving multimodality treatment or facing financial issues. Religious help was the main coping strategy for them.
Utilizing Data from Cancer Patient & Survivor Studies and Understanding the Current State of Knowledge and Developing Future Research Priorities, a 2011 workshop sponsored by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program.
The present study aimed to examine the relationships among barriers to cancer care, perceived social support, and patient navigation services (PNS) for Korean breast cancer patients. For Korean breast cancer patients, PNS are comprised of five services, including emotional, financial, information, transportation, and disease management. The study findings demonstrated that transportation and disease management barriers were directly associated with PNS, whereas emotional and financial barriers were indirectly associated with PNS through perceived social support. The current study provides a preliminary Korean patient navigation model to identify how barriers to cancer care can be reduced through social support and PNS.
Heiskanen, Tarja; Mätzke, Sorjo; Haakana, Soile; Gergov, Merja; Vuori, Erkki; Kalso, Eija
Fentanyl is an opioid with high lipid solubility, suitable for intravenous, spinal, transmucosal and transdermal administration. The transdermal fentanyl patch has become widely used in the treatment of both malignant and non-malignant chronic pain. The absorption of fentanyl from the patch is governed by the surface area of the patch, by skin permeability and by local blood flow. The aim of this study is to find out whether absorption of fentanyl in cachectic patients with cancer-related pain is different from that of normal weight cancer patients. We recruited ten normal weight (mean body mass index (BMI) 23 kg/m(2)) and ten cachectic (mean BMI 16 kg/m(2)) cancer pain patients. A transdermal fentanyl patch with a dose approximately equianalgesic to the patients' previous opioid dose was administered to the upper arm of the patient for 3 days. Prior to patch application, the height, weight and BMI of the patient, as well as upper arm skin temperature, local sweating, thickness of skin fold and local blood flow were measured. Plasma fentanyl concentrations were analyzed from blood samples taken at baseline, 4, 24, 48 and 72 h. Plasma fentanyl concentrations adjusted to dose were significantly lower at 48 and 72 h in cachectic patients than normal weight patients. The cachectic patients had a significantly thinner upper arm skin fold, but no differences were found in local blood flow, sweating, or skin temperature. Absorption of transdermal fentanyl is impaired in cachectic patients compared with that of normal weight cancer pain patients.
Payne, Wyatt G.; Naidu, Deepak K.; Wheeler, Chad K.; Barkoe, David; Mentis, Marni; Salas, R. Emerick; Smith, David J.; Robson, Martin C.
Objective: The treatment of patients with cancer has advanced into a complex, multimodal approach incorporating surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Managing wounds in this population is complicated by tumor biology, the patient's disease state, and additional comorbidities, some of which may be iatrogenic. Radiation therapy, frequently employed for local-regional control of disease following surgical resection, has quantifiable negative healing effects due to local tissue fibrosis and vascular effects. Chemotherapeutic agents, either administered alone or as combination therapy with surgery and radiation, may have detrimental effects on the rapidly dividing tissues of healing wounds. Overall nutritional status, often diminished in patients with cancer, is an important aspect to the ability of patients to heal after surgical procedures and/or treatment regimens. Methods: An extensive literature search was performed to gather pertinent information on the topic of wound healing in patients with cancer. The effects that surgical procedures, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and nutritional deficits play in wound healing in these patients were reviewed and collated. Results: The current knowledge and treatment of these aspects of wound healing in cancer patients are discussed, and observations and recommendations for optimal wound healing results are considered. Conclusion: Although wound healing may proceed in a relatively unimpeded manner for many patients with cancer, there is a potential for wound failure due to the nature and effects of the oncologic disease process and its treatments. PMID:18264518
Cakar, B; Karaca, B; Uslu, R
Cancer is a life-threatening disease despite the advanced therapeutic strategies now available. A common problem is that physicians and patients tend to concentrate on intensive medical treatment options and underestimate the treatment-related adverse effects. In this review, we summarize one of these adverse effects in cancer patients; sexual dysfunction (SD). In addition, current therapeutic choices with optimal doses and patient selection strategies are defined. All patients should be informed about problems associated with therapy-related SD and must be guided toward the most appropriate therapeutic options before starting treatment.
Goodwin, James S; Zhou, Jie; Kuo, Yong-Fang; Baillargeon, Jacques
To compare the risk of jaw osteonecrosis after intravenous (IV) bisphosphonate administered to patients with cancer vs patients without cancer. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of a 5% national sample of Medicare patients administered IV bisphosphonate from January 1, 2008, through December 31, 2013, for cancer vs noncancer indications. Probable jaw osteonecrosis was estimated with an algorithm including diagnoses, surgical procedures, and imaging studies. A non-IV bisphosphonate comparison group included patients prescribed an oral bisphosphonate for 30 days or less. During follow-up, 40 (0.42%) out of 9482 patients with cancer developed probable jaw osteonecrosis compared with 8 (0.05%) out of 16,046 patients without cancer. In a Cox multivariable survival analysis controlling for patient characteristics and number of IV zoledronic infusions, patients without cancer had a hazard ratio of 0.17 (95% CI, 0.06-0.46) for developing jaw osteonecrosis compared with those with cancer. The lower rate of jaw osteonecrosis in patients without cancer was also confirmed in a number of sensitivity analyses. The low rate of jaw osteonecrosis in patients with osteoporosis who receive IV bisphosphonate should be weighed against the benefit of those agents in preventing hip and other fractures. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Riesco, Andres; Leyton, Cecilia
The presence of mucopolysaccharides (MPS) in leucocytes of peripheral blood of 19 cancer patients, 13 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and 14 normal controls, was studied histochemically. MPS was revealed in different proportions in polynuclears and mononuclears. According to the staining technics, the MPS appear to be mainly carboxylated and contain hyaluronic acid and chondroitinsulphate groups. The quantitative analysis revealed that MPS appeared only in around 3% of leucocytes of normal controls, while in the cancer patients 56% of polynuclear and 90% of mononuclears contained it. In the tuberculous patients, 90% of polynuclears and 86% of the mononuclears revealed MPS. The differences between the prevalence of leucocytes containing MPS in controls and in cancer or tuberculous patients are highly significant. The possibility that the difference in MPS content of leucocytes is related with low inmunological activity is postulated. PMID:4256006
Gray, Alan; Ezzat, Adnan
The increasing life expectancy in Saudi Arabia will be accompanied by an alteration of the patterns of disease similar to that in Western countries. One of these will be cancer, the second leading cause of death in the west at present, where 1:3 people develop cancer during their lifetime and 1:4 die of it. Cancer deaths are rarely easy. The distress particularly the pain it can cause is legendary. Palliative care is the care and study of patients with active progressive far advanced disease, where cure is impossible, the prognosis predictably short, and the focus of care is the patient's quality of life. A Palliative Care Program has been developed at KFSH&RC, since 1991. This has broadened the spectrum of health services available to cancer patients. Palliative care needs to be more widely available in the kingdom to relieve an important cause of human suffering. PMID:23008572
Miñana, B; Cózar, J M; Alcaraz, A; Morote, J; Gómez-Veiga, F J; Solsona, E; Rodríguez-Antolín, A; Carballido, J
In patients with prostate cancer, bone health is compromised by advanced age at diagnosis, androgen suppression treatments and the developmentofbone metastases. In this paper the medical literature is reviewed in order to update the state of the art on their incidence, prevention and management. A literature review about bone involvement in patients with prostate cancer in different clinical settings is performed. Decreased bone mineral density is higher in patients diagnosed of prostate cancer before starting treatment than in healthy men with the same age. During the first year of treatment, a severe loss bone density is reported due to androgen suppression therapy. From then on, loss bone density seems to slow down, persisting at long-term. It is important to know the starting point and the dynamics of loss bone in order to prevent its progression. The skeletal events have an important impact on quality of life in patients with prostate cancer. Both Denosumab and Zoledronic Acid have proven effective in reducing loss bone. The prevention and management of bone involvement in patients with prostate cancer is critical to quality of life in these patients and requires an individualized approach. Before starting a prolonged androgen deprivation, baseline risk of fracture should be evaluated in order to adopt the proper protective measures. In patients with metastases, early treatments reducing the risk of bone events should be taken into account. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Wiesner, D A; Sweeley, C C
Gangliosides were isolated from the sera of recently diagnosed breast-cancer patients and from individuals who were apparently free of disease. Quantificative and qualitative analyses were carried out by 2-dimensional high-performance thin-layer chromatography and gas chromatography. The locations of isolated gangliosides on thin-layer chromatograms were determined by visualization with resorcinol, and each spot was quantified by digital image densitometry. The ganglioside profiles of cancer patients were compared to those of the control group, revealing a significant increase in total lipid-bound sialic acid and a specific increase in polysialogangliosides in the patients with breast cancer. Furthermore, an increase was noted in the ratio of gangliosides of the b-series biosynthetic pathway over those of the a-series in the cancer sera, as compared to the controls. Gas chromatographic analysis of the peracetylated methanolysis mixtures derived from the total ganglioside fraction of cancer patients supported the HPTLC data, with an increase in total sialic acid, galactose, and sphingosine residues. No unusual gangliosides were found in the mixture from breast-cancer patients.
Repetto, L; Ausili-Cefaro, G; Gallo, C; Rossi, A; Manzione, L
Increasing age is a major risk factor for developing cancer and the number of older people is rapidly expanding. Therefore, cancer in the geriatric population is becoming an emerging problem. Older patients are extremely heterogeneous. Instruments collecting information related to comorbidity and disability, (which have both been demonstrated to affect the survival of elderly patients) may help treatment decision. The G.I.O.Ger (Gruppo Italiano di Oncologia Geriatrica) has validated a Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA) scale for geriatric cancer patients, and we recommend its use in clinical practice. Our findings suggest that cancer adversely affects physical performance and psychological status less than other comorbidities. Many aspects of physical limitations are not totally recognised by performance status, in particular those aspects of daily life that require instrumental activities and that may affect adherence to diagnostic or therapeutic protocols. Quality of life as a main objective in the management of elderly cancer patients is now recognized by many clinicians. In clinical practice. quality of life means maintenance of function and symptom control, and quality-of-life instruments rated by the patient rather than by clinicians should be preferred. Whether it is preferable to use cancer-specific or generic instruments is an ongoing debate.
Biernacka-Wawrzonek, Dorota; Stępka, Michał; Tomaszewska, Alicja; Ehrmann-Jóśko, Agnieszka; Chojnowska, Natalia; Muszyński, Jacek
Introduction Melanosis coli is a benign lesion affecting the mucosa of the large intestine. There is a relationship between the presence of melanosis and anthraquinone laxative use. Melanosis coli is also observed in patients with colon cancer, but there is doubt whether these two conditions are related. Aim To analyze the correlation between melanosis and colon cancer. Material and methods We analyzed retrospectively 436 patients undergoing colon cancer surgery. There were 246 women and 190 men. Patients were divided into three age groups: under 50 years, between 51 and 65 years, and over 66 years. We analyzed sections of the cancer and intestinal mucosa from the tumor’s proximal (2–5 cm) and distal (8–10 cm) zone. Results Melanosis coli was present in 52 patients, which represents 11.9% of patients with colon cancer. More often it was present in women. The most common location of melanosis and colon cancer was the terminal part of the large intestine. In patients below 50 years of age in both sexes melanosis coli did not occur. In men, melanosis was more common in the age group over 66 years. Intensity of pigmentation was higher in the tumor’s distal zone. Conclusions The incidence of melanosis coli increases with age, similar to that of colon cancer. Melanosis was not present inside tumors, in almost half of the cases it was not present in the proximal zone, and the degree of pigmentation increased in distal zone. The cause-effect relationship between melanosis coli and colon cancer remains uncertain. PMID:28337232
Escoda-Francolí, Jaume; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Araceli; Pérez-García, Silvia; Gargallo-Albiol, Jordi; Gay-Escoda, Cosme
A study is made of the dental implications of oral cancer, with a view to avoiding the complications that appear once oncological treatment is started. The study comprised a total of 22 patients diagnosed with oral cancer according to clinical and histological criteria in the Service of Maxillofacial Surgery (Dental Clinic of the University of Barcelona, Spain) during the period 1996-2005, and posteriorly treated in different hospital centers in Barcelona. Of the 22 patients diagnosed with oral cancer in our Service, the present study finally analyzed the 12 subjects who reported for the dental controls. As regards the remaining 10 patients, 5 had died and 5 could not be located; these subjects were thus excluded from the analysis. All of the smokers had abandoned the habit. The most common tumor location was the lateral margin of the tongue. None of the patients visited the dentist regularly before the diagnosis of oral cancer. T1N0M0 was the most common tumor stage. Surgery was carried out in 50% of the cases, while 8.4% of the patients received radiotherapy and 41.6% underwent surgery with postoperative radiotherapy. In turn, 66.6% of the patients reported treatment sequelae such as dysgeusia, xerostomia or speech difficulties, and one patient suffered osteoradionecrosis. Forty-one percent of the patients did not undergo regular dental controls after cancer treatment. As regards oral and dental health, 16.6% presented caries, and 50% had active periodontal disease. Protocols are available for preventing the complications of oral cancer treatment, and thus for improving patient quality of life. However, important shortcomings in the application of such protocols on the part of the public health authorities make it difficult to reach these objectives.
Hrubisko, M; Sanislo, L; Zuzulova, M; Michalickova, J; Zeleznikova, T; Sedlak, J; Bella, V
Despite the multifactorial pathogenesis of malignant transformation, it is assumed that deficiency in some immune mechanisms plays a considerable role in its development. Chronically activated immune cells exert tumour-promoting effects directly by influencing the proliferation and survival of neoplastic cells, as well as by indirect modulation of neoplastic microenvironments in favour of tumour progression. We refer to results of two separate investigations that aim to monitor the immune functions in patients with breast cancer. In the first investigation, we compare the picture of basic cellular immunity profile of patients in early stage of breast cancer with those suffering from advanced disease; in the second one, we compare the production of Th1-cytokines in patients in different stages of breast cancer and atopic healthy controls. We recognized that the totals of T-lymphocytes and T-helpers were lower and the expression of HLADR on T-lymphocytes were higher in patients with advanced disease; the expression of IL-2 and LFN-gamma by T-lymphocytes was decreased in metastatic breast cancer patients, however IL-2 production was increased in patients in early stage of disease. We conclude that the role of immune system in cancer development is ambivalent as it may be not only protective, but also harmful (Tab. 1, Fig. 3, Ref. 22). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk.
Lee, Yao-Chou; Wong, Tung-Yiu; Shieh, Shyh-Jou; Lee, Jing-Wei
Trismus is a common problem among oral cancer patients. This report aimed to study the inciting factors of trismus and to find out the rationale of trismus release. Between 1996 and 2008, 61 oral cancer patients with retrievable records of interincisor distance (IID) were analyzed by retrospective chart review. The IID decreased from 31.4 (12.4) to 24.9 (12.0) mm in 36 patients undergoing cancer ablation only (P = 0.001). Other variables prompting trismus include buccal cancer (P = 0.017), radiotherapy (P = 0.008), and recurrence (P = 0.001). In contrast, the IID improved from 11.7 (7.1) to 22.7 (11.9) mm in 25 patients receiving cancer ablative and trismus releasing surgeries (P = 0.000). The improvement fared better in individuals with IID less than 15 mm than the others (P = 0.037). In conclusion, involvement of buccal region, ablative surgery, radiotherapy, and recurrence are provocative factors of trismus. Patients with IID less than 15 mm will benefit from releasing surgery significantly. Others may better be handled with conservative managements firstly, and enrolled as candidates of surgical release only until the patients entertained a 28-month period of disease-free interval, by which time the risk of recurrence would be markedly reduced.
End of Life; Advanced Cancer; Lung Neoplasm; Gastric Cancer; Colon Cancer; Glioblastoma Multiforme; Head and Neck Neoplasms; Rectum Cancer; Melanoma; Kidney Cancer; Prostate Cancer; Testicular Neoplasms; Liver Cancer; Cancer of Unknown Origin
Im, Eun-Ok; Chee, Wonshik; Lim, Hyun-Ju; Liu, Yi; Guevara, Enrique; Kim, Kyung Suk
To explore patients' attitudes toward Internet cancer support groups (ICSGs) through an online forum. Qualitative study using a feminist perspective. Internet and real settings. 16 patients with cancer. An online forum was held for one month with six discussion topics. The data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Attitudes toward ICSGs. Through the data-analysis process, four themes were found related to patients' attitudes toward ICSGs. First, the participants universalized patients' needs for and attitudes toward ICSGs. Second, most of the participants wanted to use ICSGs for emotional support, information, and interactions. Third, many of the participants used ICSGs because they could reach out to other patients with cancer without traveling and without interrupting their busy schedules. Finally, many participants were concerned about the security of interactions on ICSGs, so they wanted ICSGs that could ensure privacy and safeguard the anonymity and confidentiality of what they shared online. Patients view ICSGs positively. Additional studies should examine gender-specific and multilanguage ICSGs by recruiting more ethnic minority patients. Despite concerns about the security of Internet interactions, ICSGs would be an excellent source of social support that is acceptable to patients with cancer.
Hasuo, Hideaki; Ishihara, Tatsuhiko; Kanbara, Kenji; Fukunaga, Mikihiko
Myofascial pain syndrome is started to be recognized as one of important factors of pain in cancer patients. However, no reports on features of myofascial trigger points were found in terminally-ill cancer populations. This time, we encountered 5 patients with myofascial pain syndrome and terminal cancer in whom delirium developed due to increased doses of opioid without a diagnosis of myofascial pain syndrome on initial presentation. The delirium subsided with dose reductions of opioid and treatment of myofascial pain syndrome. The common reason for a delayed diagnosis among the patients included an incomplete palpation of the painful sites, which led to unsuccessful myofascial trigger points identification. The features of myofascial trigger points included single onset in the cancer pain management site with opioid and the contralateral abdominal side muscles of the non-common sites. Withdrawal reflexes associated with cancer pain in the supine position, which are increasingly seen in the terminal cancer patients, were considered to have contributed to this siuation. We consider that careful palpation of the painful site is important, in order to obtain greater knowledge and understanding of the features of myofascial trigger points. PMID:26962285
Along with the increasing population of elderly people in developed countries, anesthesiologists have increasing opportunities to anesthetize cancer patients in their routine work. However, no guideline of anesthesia procedures for cancer patients is available even though guidelines of operative procedures have been formulated for different types of cancer. This review provides recent findings related to the optimal choice of anesthetics and adequate anesthesia management for cancer patients. The intrinsic weapon fighting cancer cells is competent immune cells, particularly CD4+ T helper 1-type cells, CD8+ cytotoxic T cells, and natural killer cells. However, surgical inflammation, some anesthetics, and inadvertent anesthesia management suppress these effector cells and induce suppressive immune cells, which render cancer patients susceptible to tumor recurrence and metastasis after surgery. Accumulated basic and clinical data suggest that total intravenous anesthesia with propofol, cyclooxygenase antagonists, and regional anesthesia can decrease negative consequences associated with perioperative immunosuppression. Volatile anesthesia, systemic morphine administration, unnecessary blood transfusions, intraoperative hypoxia, hypotension, hypothermia, and hyperglycemia should be avoided.
Held-Warmkessel, Jeanne; Dell, Deena Damsky
Lactic acidosis is the most common metabolic acidosis in hospitalized patients-the result from an underlying pathogenic process. To successfully manage lactic acid production, its cause needs to be eliminated. Patients with cancer have many risk factors for developing lactic acidosis, including the cancer diagnosis itself. Patients with lactic acidosis are critically ill, requiring an intense level of nursing care with accompanying frequent cardiopulmonary and renal assessments. The mortality rate from lactic acidosis is high. Therefore, appropriate nursing interventions may include end-of-life and palliative care.
Lopes, Joana Pedro; de Castro Cardoso Pereira, Paula Manuela; dos Reis Baltazar Vicente, Ana Filipa; Bernardo, Alexandra; de Mesquita, María Fernanda
The present study intended to evaluate the nutritional status of Portuguese colorectal patients and associated it with surgery type as well as quality of life outcomes. Malnutrition can affect up to 85% of cancer patients and specifically 30-60% in colorectal cancer and can significantly influence health outcomes. A sample of 50 colorectal cancer patients was evaluated in what refers to several anthropometric measures, food intake, clinical history, complications rate before and after surgery procedure. The sample was divided between convention and fast-track procedures. Most of the individuals were overweight or obese but had lost weight on the past six months. Despite mild, there were signs of malnutrition in this sample with high losses of fat free mass, weight and also fat mass during the hospitalization period. These results reinforce the importance of malnutrition assessment in colorectal patients as well as consider weight loss on the past months and body composition in order to complement nutritional status evaluation.
McLaughlin, Laura; Mahon, Suzanne M
Taste dysfunction is a significant but underestimated issue for patients with cancer. Impaired taste results in changes in diet and appetite, early satiety, and impaired social interactions. Nurses can play a key role in educating patients and families on the pathophysiology of taste dysfunction by suggesting interventions to treat the consequences of taste dysfunction, when available, and offering psychosocial support as patients cope with this often devastating consequence of treatment. Taste recognition helps humans identify the nutritional quality of food and signals the digestive tract to begin secreting enzymes. Spoiled or tainted foods typically are recognized by their bad taste. Along with the other sensory systems, taste is crucial for helping patients treated for cancer feel normal. This article will review the anatomy and physiology of taste; define the different types of taste dysfunction, including the underlying pathophysiologic basis related to cancer treatment; and discuss potential nursing interventions to manage the consequences of taste dysfunction.
Thirty years ago, the first article on exercise for patients with cancer appeared in the cancer research literature. The time from that first article to the present has included oncology nurses taking the lead in investigations related to exercise and cancer-related symptoms, most notably cancer-related fatigue (CRF). The Oncology Nursing Society (ONS) has been instrumental in publishing much of the research on exercise and cancer and continues in that tradition by issuing this supplement to the Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing. In addition, ONS has facilitated the translation of research findings to practicing oncology nurses by convening meetings, participating in expert opinion consensus groups, and disseminating evidence through Putting Evidence Into Practice resources.
Garcia, Jose M; Li, Huiling; Mann, Douglas; Epner, Daniel; Hayes, Teresa G; Marcelli, Marco; Cunningham, Glenn R
Patients with cancer often develop anorexia, fatigue, and decreased muscle mass. These signs and symptoms are nonspecific, and they frequently occur in other conditions, including hypogonadism. The objectives of this study were 1) to measure testosterone levels in patients with cancer and 2) to examine the correlations between testosterone, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), ghrelin levels, and appetite in patients with cancer patients and in a noncancer control group. This was designed as a cross-sectional study in the setting of a university-affiliated Veterans Affairs Medical Center. The study population included 31 male patients with cancer and 25 gender-matched noncancer controls of similar age. The variables total testosterone (TT), calculated free testosterone (cFT), calculated bioavailable testosterone (cBT), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), luteinizing hormone (LH), TNF-alpha, IL-6, IGF-1, and active ghrelin were measured in fasting morning plasma samples. Appetite was measured according to a visual analog scale. The main outcome measures were cFT and cBT. Cancer patients had mean TT levels similar to levels in the noncancer control group but significantly lower levels of cFT, cBT, IGF-1, and appetite. SHBG, LH, TNF-alpha, IL-6, and ghrelin levels were increased in patients with cancer compared with the control group. cFT and cBT levels were correlated inversely with IL-6 and ghrelin levels and were correlated directly with IGF-1 levels and appetite. Patients with cancer had lower levels of biologically active testosterone. TT was not adequate for the evaluation of hypogonadism, because SHBG levels were increased. A reliable measurement of FT and/or BT should be used. LH was elevated in the patients with cancer, indicating that low FT levels were caused by primary testicular dysfunction. The authors postulated that high IL-6 or ghrelin levels inhibit testosterone synthesis, although a
Akinosoglou, K S; Karkoulias, K; Marangos, M
Infections remain a part of the natural course of cancer. During the course of their disease, patients with lung cancer frequently present with an infection that can ultimately be fatal. Pathogenesis of infectious syndromes is usually determined by the underlying disease, as well as, the iatrogenic manipulations that occur during its management. Hence, lung cancer infections include lower respiratory tract infections in the context of COPD, aspiration, obstruction and opportunistic infections due to immunosuppression. Moreover, treatment-related infectious syndromes including post operative pneumonia, febrile neutropenia and superimposed infection following radiation/chemotherapy toxicity is common. Importantly, diagnosis of infection in the febrile lung cancer patient is challenging and requires a high index of suspicion in order to distinguish from other causes of fever, including malignant disease and pulmonary embolism. Prompt initiation of treatment is pivotal to avoid increased mortality. Careful consideration of infection pathogenesis can predict most likely pathogens and guide antibiotic management, thus, ensuring most favourable outcome.
van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, Marian A E
A large body of evidence exists, which demonstrates the importance of nutritional support in cancer. The nutritional needs of patients with cancer may differ from those of the healthy population due to hypermetabolism, impaired organ function, increased nutrient losses and therapy-related malnutrition. Patients with cancer often have increased requirements for both macro- and micronutrients due to long periods of undernutrition prior to diagnosis. The aim of nutritional support should be the prevention or reversal of malnutrition, and this should be initiated as early as possible to improve outcomes. Oral supplementation is a simple, non-invasive method of increasing the nutrient intake of those patients who are unable to meet nutritional requirements, despite dietary counselling. Enteral tube feeding is indicated for patients who are unable to meet their nutritional needs by oral intake alone, and has been shown to improve clinical outcomes. Novel approaches in oral supplementation include the use of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), a compound under investigation for its role in preventing and treating cancer-associated malnutrition. Individual studies suggest that EPA attenuates cancer-associated wasting and improves immune function. In addition, it has been shown to have anti-tumour effects and improve clinical outcomes. However, results are not consistent for all patient groups and further research is required.
Skalla, Karen A; Bakitas, Marie; Furstenberg, Charlotte T; Ahles, Tim; Henderson, Joseph V
To obtain detailed information about the preferences of patients with cancer and their need for information about side effects of cancer treatment to design an interactive multimedia educational program. Qualitative. Regional rural academic medical center. 51 patients and 14 spouses of patients who either currently were undergoing or recently had completed chemotherapy or radiation therapy for cancer. Focus groups. Information needs and common and distressing symptoms. Patients wanted information about the process of getting treatment, specific side effects that might occur, and the impact of treatment on their lives. Patients sought information from a variety of sources, but many found that other patients were the most helpful source. Although most patients wanted as much information as possible so they would be prepared for whatever happened, some patients preferred to avoid information about possible side effects. Several obstacles related to information were reported, including access to providers, communication difficulties with providers, informational overload, and problems with retention. Several aspects regarding information needs confirmed previous findings, and new aspects were illuminated. This led to a conclusion that multimedia technology offered many advantages to meet these informational needs. New approaches to patient education that will meet the needs of patients as well as clinicians and educators need to be developed.
Guidelines for psychosocial care of cancer patients. The Italian Association of Medical Oncologists published in 2013 the update of the first edition of the Psychosocial Guidelines for the care of cancer patients. The guidelines, produced by a multidisciplinary group (medical doctors, nurses, oncologists, psychologists and patients) aim at recognizing the importance of psychosocial care in helping the patients and their relatives to overcome the effects of the diagnosis and the treatments on mental health and emotional wellbeing. In some cases the evidences available are not as hard as those supporting drug treatments: many outcomes such as the effectiveness of educational interventions, the patients' wellbeing, thrust, perception of support, for their nature and complexity require both quantitative and qualitative measurements. Lack of robust evidences such as those obtained from clinical trials, does not necessarily correspond to lack of effectiveness of the intervention nor should make us forget that patients' rights (to good care, information and support) should be guaranteed.
Yip, Cheng Har; Samiei, Massoud; Cazap, Eduardo; Rosenblatt, Eduardo; Datta, Niloy Ranjan; Camacho, Rolando; Weller, David; Pannarunothai, Supasit; Goh, Cynthia; Black, Fraser; Kaur, Ranjit; Fitch, Margaret; Sutcliffe, Catherine; Sutcliffe, Simon
integration of these services into national cancer control plans; the need for public education to reduce the fear and stigma associated with cancer so that patients are better able to make informed decisions regarding follow-up care and treatment; and the need to recognize the challenges and needs of survivors, their increasing number, the necessity to integrate survivorship into cancer control plans and the economic and societal value of functional survival after cancer. Discussions highlighted that coordinated care and treatment for cancer patients is both a ' systems'challenge and solution, requiring the consideration of patient and family circumstances, societal values and priorities, the functioning of the health system (access, capacity, resources, etc.) and the importance assigned to health and illness management within public policy.
Lecumberri, Ramón; Feliu, Jesús; Rocha, Eduardo
The association between neoplastic diseases and venous thromboembolism (VTE) is known since long time ago. The nature of this association is bidirectional. On one hand, cancer increases the incidence of venous thrombosis and, on the other hand, the hemostatic system does play a key role in the tumorigenesis process. However, despite recent advances in the field, prophylaxis and treatment of VTE in cancer patients is still a challenge, due to the complexity of this type of patients. This review is focused on some important points regarding management of VTE in cancer patients such as physiopathology, epidemiology, search for hidden malignancy, prognostic impact, prophylaxis in the medical and surgical setting, or initial and long-term treatment.
The aim of this study was to evaluate meaning in life and its predictors in Turkish patients with cancer. A convenience sample of 182 patients with cancer at a Turkish university hospital completed a structured questionnaire including demographic characteristics, disease/treatment characteristics, symptom level, and the meaning in life scale for patients with cancer in 2007. The researcher visited the oncology clinic five work days in every week and conducted interviews with the patients. In analysis of the data, correlation, t-tests, Kruskal-Wallis variance and regression analysis were used. In this study, the mean score of the total meaning in life showed that the patients tended to be undecided concerning meaning in life. Education level, age, and diagnosis duration of the independent variables were effective predictors of meaning in life. Together the independent variables explained 24.3% of the variance of the purpose subscale, 26.2% of the variance of the coherence subscale, 14% of the variance of the choice/responsibleness subscale, and 44.1% of the total variance of the goal seeking subscale. Overall the independent variables explained 19.8% of the total variance of the total meaning in life. The results in this study should increase the awareness of cancer care professionals about a range of the meaning in life and may help them to target particular patient groups for detail support interventions.
Cancer and its treatments frequently have a negative impact on the weight and nutritional status of patients. Weight loss is associated with reduced survival and poorer outcomes of treatment but is not well characterized and frequently confused with cachexia, which may complicate the interpretation of studies of nutritional support. The aims of this review were to examine the impact of cancer on nutritional status and to review the role of simple oral nutritional interventions and novel agents. The terms weight loss, malnutrition and cachexia refer to different entities and new definitions have recently been proposed that take account of the role of the underlying inflammatory processes. Oral nutritional interventions are widely recommended for malnourished cancer patients, but the evidence for their benefits to clinical, nutritional and patient-centred outcomes is limited. Meta-analysis has highlighted the variability in response to simple nutritional interventions of different cohorts of cancer patients and suggested that improvements in nutritional endpoints and aspects of quality of life may be achieved in some patients. Recent research has largely focused on treatments aiming to modulate the inflammatory processes associated with cachexia, but to date has not identified a single treatment with clear efficacy. Studies characterizing the potential for nutritional support in combination with anti-inflammatory agents in defined patient groups are defined to advance the evidence base in this area.
Evans, Scott E.; Ost, David E.
Purpose of review Pneumonia is the leading cause of death among neutropenic cancer patients, particularly those with acute leukemia. Even with empiric therapy, case fatality rates of neutropenic pneumonias remain unacceptably high. However, recent advances in the management of neutropenic pneumonia offer hope for improved outcomes in the cancer setting. This review summarizes recent literature regarding the clinical presentation, microbiologic trends, diagnostic advances and therapeutic recommendations for cancer-related neutropenic pneumonia. Recent findings While neutropenic patients acquire pathogens both in community or nosocomial settings, patients’ obligate healthcare exposures result in the frequent identification of multidrug resistant bacterial organisms on conventional culture-based assessment of respiratory secretions. Modern molecular techniques, including expanded use of galactomannan testing, have further facilitated identification of fungal pathogens, allowing for aggressive interventions that appear to improve patient outcomes. Multiple interested societies have issued updated guidelines for antibiotic therapy of suspected neutropenic pneumonia. The benefit of antibiotic medications may be further enhanced by agents that promote host responses to infection. Summary Neutropenic cancer patients have numerous potential causes for pulmonary infiltrates and clinical deterioration, with lower respiratory tract infections among the most deadly. Early clinical suspicion, diagnosis and intervention for neutropenic pneumonia provide cancer patients’ best hope for survival. PMID:25784246
Zaza, Christine; Sellick, Scott M; Hillier, Loretta M
Although psychosocial coping techniques and supportive care services have been shown to improve cancer patients' quality of life, there is evidence that many of these strategies have not been widely integrated into the routine care of cancer patients. This study examined: (1) the extent to which cancer patients use certain coping strategies; (2) reasons for non-use; (3) perceived effectiveness of the coping strategies; (4) participants' interest in trying the strategies; and (5) if the strategies were recommended to participants. At the Northwestern Ontario Regional Cancer Centre in Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada, 292 outpatients (98% response rate) completed an in-person interview with a research assistant concerning seven individual coping strategies (music, breathing exercises, meditation, prayer, muscle relaxation, visualization/imagery, hypnosis/self-hypnosis) and four coping strategies offered through supportive care services (individual counselling, family counselling, support groups, religious support). Of all the coping strategies presented, prayer was used by the highest number (n = 186) of participants (64%). Music was the next most commonly used strategy, used by 43% (n = 124) of participants, and all other strategies were used by less than 30%of participants. The individualized approaches that are used for disseminating disease and treatment information to cancer patients should also be used to provide them with information on effective coping strategies.
Halverson, Julie; Martinez-Donate, Ana; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Walsh, Matthew C.; Strickland, Jeanne Schaaf; Palta, Mari; Smith, Paul D.; Cleary, James
Purpose Low health literacy is associated with inadequate health care utilization and poor health outcomes, particularly among elderly persons. There is a dearth of research exploring the relationship between health literacy and place of residence (urbanicity). This study examined the association between urbanicity and health literacy, as well as factors related to low health literacy, among cancer patients. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted with a population-based sample of 1,841 cancer patients in Wisconsin. Data on sociodemographics, urbanicity, clinical characteristics, insurance status, and health literacy were obtained from the state’s cancer registry and participants’ answers to a mailed questionnaire. Partially and fully adjusted multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to examine: 1) the association between urbanicity and health literacy, and 2) the role of socioeconomic status as a possible mediator of this relationship. Findings Rural cancer patients had a 33% (95% CI: 1.06–1.67) higher odds of having lower levels of health literacy than their counterparts in more urbanized areas of Wisconsin. The association between urbanicity and health literacy attenuated after controlling for socioeconomic status. Conclusions Level of urbanicity was significantly related to health literacy. Socioeconomic status fully mediated the relationship between urbanicity and health literacy. These results call for policies and interventions to assess and address health literacy barriers among cancer patients in rural areas. PMID:24088213
Ghandourh, Wsam A
Advanced cancer patients commonly have misunderstandings about the intentions of treatment and their overall prognosis. Several studies have shown that large numbers of patients receiving palliative radiation or chemotherapy hold unrealistic hopes of their cancer being cured by such therapies, which can affect their ability to make well-informed decisions about treatment options. This review aimed to explore this discrepancy between patients' and physicians' expectations by investigating three primary issues: (1) the factors associated with patients developing unrealistic expectations; (2) the implications of having unrealistic hopes and the effects of raising patients' awareness about prognosis; and (3) patients' and caregivers' perspective on disclosure and their preferences for communication styles. Relevant studies were identified by searching electronic databases including Pubmed, EMBASE and ScienceDirect using multiple combinations of keywords, which yielded a total of 65 articles meeting the inclusion criteria. The discrepancy between patients' and doctors' expectations was associated with many factors including doctors' reluctance to disclose terminal prognoses and patients' ability to understand or accept such information. The majority of patients and caregivers expressed a desire for detailed prognostic information; however, varied responses have been reported on the preferred style of conveying such information. Communication styles have profound effects on patients' experience and treatment choices. Patients' views on disclosure are influenced by many cultural, psychological and illness-related factors, therefore individuals' needs must be considered when conveying prognostic information. More research is needed to identify communication barriers and the interventions that could be used to increase patients' satisfaction with palliative care.
Golden-Kreutz, Deanna M.; Browne, Michael W.; Frierson, Georita M.; Andersen, Barbara L.
Using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), perceptions of global stress were assessed in 111 women following breast cancer surgery and at 12 and 24 months later. This is the first study to factor analyze the PSS. The PSS data were factor analyzed each time using exploratory factor analysis with oblique direct quartimin rotation. Goodness-of-fit indices (root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA]), magnitude and pattern of factor loadings, and confidence interval data revealed a two-factor solution of positive versus negative stress items. The findings, replicated across time, also indicate factor stability. Hierarchical factor analyses supported a second-order factor of “perceived stress.” This alternative factor model of the PSS is presented along with observations regarding the measure's use in cancer research. PMID:15358877
... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_167104.html Most Breast Cancer Patients Have Help Choosing Treatments Support system can ... News) -- Most women who've been diagnosed with breast cancer don't go it alone. Many breast cancer ...
Wielopolski, L.; Meek, A.G.; Moskowitz, M.; Cohn, S.H.
High energy gamma radiation (8 to 30 MeV) is gaining acceptance for radiation therapy of patients with deep cancers. This radiation is of sufficient energy to induce photonuclear activation of the elements in the human body. Our results of measurements of nitrogen and phosphorus in an anthropomorphic phantom, a cadaver, and a cancer patient with bremsstrahlung radiation from 15 MeV electrons demonstrate the feasibility of a method to monitor these two elements in the human body in vivo by measuring the radioactivity induced in these targets by photonuclear reactions. 14 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.
Fredette, S L
Adjustment to cancer requires modification of behavior that may be aided through patient education. Numerous programs have been developed to meet this need; however, studies show that even after being taught, patients are not well informed. It seems that the process of educating cancer patients needs to be improved. Authors suggest a progression of psychosocial stages of adjustment to serious illness during which specific behaviors are exhibited and coping mechanisms utilized. Understanding the nature of this process forms the basis for effective patient education since theories of adaptation describe behaviors that impact on motivation to learn, information required, and teaching methodology. Failure to attend to this variable of emotional response to the disease can prevent learning. This article integrates the theories of Weisman, Crate, Engle, and Kubler-Ross into an educational model for the cancer patient consisting of six periods. The model suggests nursing approaches, educational topics, and teaching strategies based on the patient's behavioral responses. Use of this model can improve teaching effectiveness in clinical practice by ensuring that the patient is ready to learn prior to teaching and by utilizing teaching strategies appropriate to the educational period. It can further be used as a tool to teach students of nursing how to use the stages of adjustment to chronic illness when planning patient teaching.
Aksoy, Yakup; Kaydu, Ayhan; Sahin, Omer Fatih; Kacar, Cem Kivilcim
OBJECTIVE: The present study is an analysis of cancer patients who received follow-up treatment for either cancer-related complications or treatment-associated side effects while hospitalized in the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: Records of cancer patients treated at Dr. Lütfi Kırdar Kartal Training and Research Hospital ICU between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic data and type of cancer were recorded in prepared forms and subsequently analyzed. RESULTS: Among 2240 ICU patients treated and hospitalized between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2012, 482 cancer patients were identified and included in the study. Percentage of cancer patients in ICU was 23.9%. Male to female ratio was determined to be 1.55. First 3 most common cancers found were colorectal (19.7%), lung (15.7%), and stomach cancers (11.6%). Mortality rate of cancer patients hospitalized in ICU was 46.6%. Larynx, lung, urinary bladder, skin, rectosigmoid, hematological, and kidney cancer were more prevalent in male patients, whereas esophageal cancer was seen in more female patients than male patients. Incidence of stomach, brain, and pancreatic cancers, as well as unclassified tumors, was found to be unrelated to gender. CONCLUSION: Rectosigmoid cancer was most common type of cancer observed in our ICU. Esophageal cancer was observed in more females than males, while larynx cancer was more frequently present in males. PMID:28275754
Chernecky, Cynthia; Macklin, Denise; Walter, Jennifer
To describe computer experience and preferences for multimedia design. Prospective, descriptive. Physician office and outpatient cancer centers in an urban area in the southeastern United States. Convenience sample of 22 volunteer patients with cancer from four racial groups. A questionnaire on computer experiences was followed by a hands-on computer session with questions regarding preferences for seven interface items. Data termination occurred when sample size was obtained. Design of Internet education site for patients. Variables include preferences, computer, cancer, multimedia, and education. Eighty-two percent had personal computers, 41% used a computer daily, and 95% believed that computers would be a good avenue for learning about cancer care. Preferences included display colors in blue and green hues; colored buttons; easy-to-read text; graphics with a simple design and large, clear pictures; serif font in dark type; light-colored background; and larger photo size in a rectangle shape. Most popular graphic icons as metaphors were 911 for emergency, picture of skull and crossbones for danger, and a picture of a string on an index finger representing reminder. The simple layout most preferred for appearances was one that included text and pictures, read from left to right, and was symmetrical in its placement of pictures and text on the page. Preferences are necessary to maintain interest and support navigation through computer designs to enhance the translation of knowledge to patients. Development of multimedia based on patient preferences will enhance education, learning, and, ultimately, quality patient care.
Frascà, Giovanni M; Sandrini, Silvio; Cosmai, Laura; Porta, Camillo; Asch, William; Santoni, Matteo; Salviani, Chiara; D'Errico, Antonia; Malvi, Deborah; Balestra, Emilio; Gallieni, Maurizio
Renal cancer occurs more frequently in renal transplanted patients than in the general population, affecting native kidneys in 90% of cases and the graft in 10 %. In addition to general risk factors, malignancy susceptibility may be influenced by immunosuppressive therapy, the use of calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) as compared with mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors, and the length of dialysis treatment. Acquired cystic kidney disease may increase the risk for renal cancer after transplantation, while autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease does not seem to predispose to cancer development. Annual ultrasound evaluation seems appropriate in patients with congenital or acquired cystic disease or even a single cyst in native kidneys, and every 2 years in patients older than 60 years if they were on dialysis for more than 5 years before transplantation. Immunosuppression should be lowered in patients who develop renal cancer, by reduction or withdrawal of CNI. Although more evidence is still needed, it seems reasonable to shift patients from CNI to everolimus or sirolimus if not already treated with one of these drugs, with due caution in subjects with chronic allograft nephropathy.
Madeira, Nuno; Albuquerque, Emília; Santos, Tiago; Mendes, Alexandre; Roque, Marta
Advances in cancer research and therapy have improved prognosis and the quality of life of many patients. However, previous epidemiological studies in oncologic patients have shown an increased risk of suicide. Suicidal thoughts, relatively well known in those terminally ill, may be just as important for cancer patients who are survivors or are living with the disease. Nonetheless, there is a relative paucity of data about suicidality in this setting. The authors conducted a prospective observational study to identify death thoughts and to explore the factors associated with suicidal ideation in cancer patients. A sample of 130 patients referred for psychiatric consultation was obtained following informed consent and authorization from the local ethics committee. A semistructured interview assessed sociodemographic data, psychosocial support, and information regarding the cancer process and its treatment. Psychometric instruments were used to evaluate psychopathology, namely the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Beck Hopelessness Scale, and the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation. Psychiatric diagnoses were obtained through the application of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Death ideation was identified in 34.6% of patients, yet only 10% had active suicidal thoughts. Risk of suicide was associated with female gender, a psychiatric diagnosis (major depressive disorder, panic disorder, or dysthymia), difficult interpersonal relationships, associated pain, high hopelessness, and depressive and anxiety symptoms. Although suicidal thoughts are frequent in cancer patients at different stages of disease, most are transitory. Risk factors for suicidal ideation have been identified, such as depression, hopelessness, uncontrolled pain, and difficult interpersonal relationships. Further assessment is necessary to identify those at higher risk of attempting suicide, and underlying psychiatric disorders should be vigorously treated.
Varlotto, John . E-mail: email@example.com; Stevenson, Mary Ann
Purpose: To review the impact of anemia/tumor hypoxemia on the quality of life and survival in cancer patients, and to assess the problems associated with the correction of this difficulty. Methods: MEDLINE searches were performed to find relevant literature regarding anemia and/or tumor hypoxia in cancer patients. Articles were evaluated in order to assess the epidemiology, adverse patient effects, anemia correction guidelines, and mechanisms of hypoxia-induced cancer cell growth and/or therapeutic resistance. Past and current clinical studies of radiosensitization via tumor oxygenation/hypoxic cell sensitization were reviewed. All clinical studies using multi-variate analysis were analyzed to show whether or not anemia and/or tumor hypoxemia affected tumor control and patient survival. Articles dealing with the correction of anemia via transfusion and/or erythropoietin were reviewed in order to show the impact of the rectification on the quality of life and survival of cancer patients. Results: Approximately 40-64% of patients presenting for cancer therapy are anemic. The rate of anemia rises with the use of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and hormonal therapy for prostate cancer. Anemia is associated with reductions both in quality of life and survival. Tumor hypoxemia has been hypothesized to lead to tumor growth and resistance to therapy because it leads to angiogenesis, genetic mutations, resistance to apoptosis, and a resistance to free radicals from chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Nineteen clinical studies of anemia and eight clinical studies of tumor hypoxemia were found that used multi-variate analysis to determine the effect of these conditions on the local control and/or survival of cancer patients. Despite differing definitions of anemia and hypoxemia, all studies have shown a correlation between low hemoglobin levels and/or higher amounts of tumor hypoxia with poorer prognosis. Radiosensitization through improvements in tumor oxygenation/hypoxic cell
Kolva, Elissa; Rosenfeld, Barry; Pessin, Hayley; Breitbart, William; Brescia, Robert
Context Anxiety in terminal cancer is linked to diminished quality of life, yet overall it is poorly understood with regard to prevalence and relationship to other aspects of psychological distress. Objectives This study examines anxiety in terminally ill cancer patients, including the prevalence of anxiety symptoms, the relationship between anxiety and depression, differences in anxiety between participants receiving inpatient palliative care and those receiving outpatient care, and characteristics that distinguish highly anxious from less anxious patients. Methods Participants were 194 patients with terminal cancer. Approximately half (n = 103) were receiving inpatient care in a palliative care facility and half (n = 91) were receiving outpatient care in a tertiary care cancer center. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used to assess anxiety and depression, and was administered along with measures of hopelessness, desire for hastened death, and social support. Results Moderately elevated anxiety symptoms were found in 18.6% of participants (n = 36) and 12.4% (n = 24) had clinically significant anxiety symptoms. Level of anxiety did not differ between the two treatment settings. However, participants receiving palliative care reported significantly higher levels of depression and desire for hastened death. A multivariate prediction model indicated that belief in an afterlife, social support, and anxiolytic and antidepressant use were unique, significant predictors of anxiety. Conclusion Severity of anxiety symptoms did not differ between the study sites, suggesting that anxiety may differ from depression and desire for hastened death in the course that it takes over the duration of terminal cancer. PMID:21565460
Sobhani, Iradj; Tap, Julien; Roudot-Thoraval, Françoise; Roperch, Jean P.; Letulle, Sophie; Langella, Philippe; Corthier, Gérard; Van Nhieu, Jeanne Tran; Furet, Jean P.
The composition of the human intestinal microbiota is linked to health status. The aim was to analyze the microbiota of normal and colon cancer patients in order to establish cancer-related dysbiosis. Patients and Methods Stool bacterial DNA was extracted prior to colonoscopy from 179 patients: 60 with colorectal cancer, and 119 with normal colonoscopy. Bacterial genes obtained by pyrosequencing of 12 stool samples (6 Normal and 6 Cancer) were subjected to a validated Principal Component Analysis (PCA) test. The dominant and subdominant bacterial population (C. leptum, C. coccoides, Bacteroides/Prevotella, Lactobacillus/Leuconostoc/Pediococcus groups, Bifidobacterium genus, and E. coli, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii species) were quantified in all individuals using qPCR and specific IL17 producer cells in the intestinal mucosa were characterized using immunohistochemistry. Findings Pyrosequencing (Minimal sequence 200 nucleotide reads) revealed 80% of all sequences could be assigned to a total of 819 taxa based on default parameter of Classifier software. The phylogenetic core in Cancer individuals was different from that in Normal individuals according to the PCA analysis, with trends towards differences in the dominant and subdominant families of bacteria. Consequently, All-bacteria [log10 (bacteria/g of stool)] in Normal, and Cancer individuals were similar [11.88±0.35, and 11.80±0.56, respectively, (P = 0.16)], according to qPCR values whereas among all dominant and subdominant species only those of Bacteroides/Prevotella were higher (All bacteria-specific bacterium; P = 0.009) in Cancer (-1.04±0.55) than in Normal (-1.40±0.83) individuals. IL17 immunoreactive cells were significantly expressed more in the normal mucosa of cancer patients than in those with normal colonoscopy. Conclusion This is the first large series to demonstrate a composition change in the microbiota of colon cancer patients with possible impact on mucosal immune response
Blitzer, A.; Baredes, S.; Kutscher, A.; Seeland, I.B.; Barrett, V.W.; Mossman, K.L.
This book contains 42 chapters divided among six sections. Some of the chapter titles are: The Challenge of Cancer; Communicaton Needs of Head and Neck Cancer Patients; Normal Tissue Effects of the Radiotherapy of Head and Neck Cancer; Chemotherapy in the Treatment of Head and Neck Cancer; and Thyroid Cancer.
Palacios, R; Lebrón, J; Guerrero-León, M; Del Arco, A; Colmenero, J; Márquez, M; Santos, J
Purpose Several studies have shown that HIV patients are at higher risk of lung cancer. Our aim is to analyse the prevalence and features of lung cancer in HIV-infected patients. Methods The clinical charts of 4,721 HIV-infected patients seen in three hospitals of southeast Spain (study period 1992–2012) were reviewed, and all patients with a lung cancer were analysed. Results There were 61 lung cancers, giving a prevalence of 1.2%. There was a predominance of men (82.0%), and smokers (96.6%; mean pack-years 35.2), with a median age of 48.0 (41.7–52.9) years, and their distribution according to risk group for HIV was: intravenous drug use 58.3%, homosexual 20.0%, and heterosexual 16.7%. Thirty-four (56.7%) patients were Aids cases, and 29 (47.5%) had prior pulmonar events: tuberculosis 16, bacterial pneumonia 9, and P. jiroveci pneumonia 4. The median nadir CD4 count was 149/mm3 (42–232), the median CD4 count at the time of diagnosis of the lung cancer was 237/mm3 (85–397), and 66.1%<350/mm3. 66.7% were on ART, and 70% of them had undetectable HIV viral load. The most common histological types of lung cancer were adenocarcinoma and epidermoid, with 24 (40.0%) and 23 (38.3%) cases, respectively. There were 49 (80.3%) cases with advanced stages (III and IV) at diagnosis. The distribution of treatments was: only palliative 23 (39.7%), chemotherapy 14 (24.1%), surgery and chemotherapy 8 (13.8%), radiotherapy 7 (12.1%), surgery 4 (6.9%), and other combined treatments 2 (3.4%). Forty-six (76.7%) patients died, with a median survival time of 3 months. The Kaplan-Meier survival rate at 6 months was 42.7% (at 12 months 28.5%). Conclusions The prevalence of lung cancer in this cohort of HIV-patients is high. People affected are mainly men, smokers, with transmission of HIV by intravenous drug use, and around half of them with prior opportunistic pulmonary events. Most patients had low nadir CD4 count, and were immunosuppressed at the time of diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma
Skeels, Meredith M.; Unruh, Kenton T.; Powell, Christopher; Pratt, Wanda
Social support is a critical, yet underutilized resource when undergoing cancer care. Underutilization occurs in two conditions: (a) when patients fail to seek out information, material assistance, and emotional support from family and friends or (b) when family and friends fail to meet the individualized needs and preferences of patients. Social networks are most effective when kept up to date on the patient’s status, yet updating everyone takes effort that patients cannot always put in. To improve this situation, we describe the results of our participatory design activities with breast cancer patients. During this process, we uncovered the information a social network needs to stay informed as well as a host of barriers to social support that technology could help break down. Our resulting prototype, built using Facebook Connect, includes explicit features to reduce these barriers and thus, promote the healthy outcomes associated with strong social support. PMID:21654894
Lakoski, Susan G.; Eves, Neil D.; Douglas, Pamela S.; Jones, Lee W.
Emerging evidence indicates that patients with cancer have considerable impairments in cardiorespiratory fitness, which is likely to be a result of the direct toxic effects of anticancer therapy as well as the indirect consequences secondary to therapy (for example, deconditioning). This reduced cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with heightened symptoms, functional dependence, and possibly with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Current understanding of the complex interaction between the effects of the tumour and cancer-associated therapies on the organ components that govern cardiorespiratory fitness, and the effects of exercise training on these parameters is limited; further research will be critical for further progress of exercise-based rehabilitation in the oncology setting. We assess the current evidence regarding the level, mechanisms, and clinical importance of diminished cardiorespiratory fitness in patients with cancer. The efficacy and adaptations to exercise training to prevent and/or mitigate dysfunction in conjunction with exercise prescription considerations for clinical use are also discussed. PMID:22392097
Slivka, H H; Magill, L
Through the use of verbal and nonverbal techniques, a social worker and music therapist have combined their fields into an integral therapeutic modality to provide patients with cancer and their children opportunities to experience intimacy in a time of crisis. Skilled verbal interventions and the sensitive application of the expressive and less threatening medium of music create a relaxed environment where families and patients may explore deeply and express freely.
Parenteral nutrition may be considered when oral intake and/or enteral nutrition are not sufficient to maintain nutritional status and the patient is likely to die sooner from starvation than from the cancer. A detailed assessment should be made prior to the decision about whether parenteral nutrition should be started. A follow up plan should be documented with objective and patient centred treatment goals as well as specific time points for evaluation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mongiat-Artus, P; Pfister, C; Théodore, C; De Crevoisier, R; Guillotreau, J
Adjuvant therapies in bladder cancer are based on risk of recurrence and associated comorbidities (renal failure). Lymph node involvement is the most important prognostic factor for decision. Two adjuvant chemotherapies exist: MVAC or GC. In unfit patients, association (Gemcitabine and Taxanes) could be proposed. Indication of adjuvant radiotherapy depends on metastatic risk and resection margins. Concomitant chemotherapy and radiotherapy should be proposed to selected patients who refuse or are not candidate for radical cystectomy.
Lung cancer accounts for 12% of all cancers and has the highest annual rate of mortality in men and women. The overall aim is cure or prolongation of life without evidence of disease. Almost 60% of patients at the moment of diagnosis are not eligible for radical treatment. Therefore soothing and supportive treatment is the only treatment of choice. Patients with lung cancer who have symptoms of dyspnea, chronic cough, severe pain, exhaustion and cachexia syndrome, fear and depression and significantly reduced physical and intellectual activities are qualified for inpatient or home palliative care. Knowledge about various methods used in palliative treatment allows one to alleviate symptoms that occur in an advanced stage of disease with an expected short survival period. Methods of oncological treatment that are often used in patients with advanced lung cancer include radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Drawing attention to the earlier implementation of palliative care is an objective of research carried out during recent years. Advances in surgical and conservative treatment of these patients have contributed to better outcomes and longer survival time. PMID:24596508
Brinton, Louise A.
Aim To evaluate male breast cancer (MBC) risk among Klinefelter Syndrome (KS) patients and relate this to possible biologic explanations. Methods A literature review was conducted to identify case series and epidemiologic studies that have evaluated MBC risk among KS patients. Results Case reports without expected values have often led to false impressions of risk. Problems include that a diagnosis of cancer can prompt a karyotypic evaluation and that many cases of KS are unrecognized, resulting in incomplete denominators. Few carefully conducted epidemiologic studies have been undertaken given that both KS and male breast cancer are rare events. The largest study found 19.2- and 57.8-fold increases in incidence and mortality, respectively, with particularly high risks among 47,XXY mosaics. These risks were still approximately 30% lower than among females, contradicting case reports that KS patients have breast cancer rates similar to females. Altered hormone levels (especially the ratio of estrogens to androgens), administration of exogenous androgens, gynecomastia, and genetic factors have been offered as possible explanations for the high risks. Conclusions Additional well-designed epidemiologic studies are needed to clarify which KS patients are at a high risk of developing MBC and to distinguish between possible predisposing factors, including altered endogenous hormones. PMID:21241366
Kao, Chia-Chan; Lin, Yu-Hua
At least half of patients with cancer experience emotional distress (e.g., posttraumatic stress symptoms). Most of the studies on the emotional distress of Taiwanese cancer patients have focused on issues of depression rather than on posttraumatic stress disorder. The scope of the present article covers the definitions of cancer-related posttraumatic stress disorder (CR-PTSD) and cancer-related posttraumatic stress symptoms (CR-PTSS), identifies the differences and similarities between professional interview and self-administered measurement tools and their applications; analyzes the prevalence of CR-PTSD and CR-PTSS; identifies the possible contributing sociodemographic (younger age, female, low education, low socio-economic status), clinical (advanced stage, undergoing chemotherapy, just completed the therapy), and psychosocial (negative psychological traits, poor social support, and insufficient coping strategies) of CR-PTSD and CR-PTSS; and aggregates the effects of cognitive and psychosocial interventions on CR-PTSD and CR-PTSS. Furthermore, recommendations for clinical practice and research are discussed. This article is expected to provide practicing nurses with a basic concept of caring for emotional distress and to inspire researchers to conduct further study of issues related to CR-PTSD and CR-PTSS.
Expert-reviewed information summary about communicating with the cancer patient and his or her family, including unique aspects of communication with cancer patients, factors affecting communication, and training in communication skills.
Suhag, Virender; Sunita, B. S.; Sarin, Arti; Singh, A. K.; Dashottar, S.
Infertility can arise as a consequence of treatment of oncological conditions. The parallel and continued improvement in both the management of oncology and fertility cases in recent times has brought to the forefront the potential for fertility preservation in patients being treated for cancer. Many survivors will maintain their reproductive potential after the successful completion of treatment for cancer. However total body irradiation, radiation to the gonads, and certain high dose chemotherapy regimens can place women at risk for acute ovarian failure or premature menopause and men at risk for temporary or permanent azoospermia. Providing information about risk of infertility and possible interventions to maintain reproductive potential are critical for the adolescent and young adult population at the time of diagnosis. There are established means of preserving fertility before cancer treatment; specifically, sperm cryopreservation for men and in vitro fertilization and embryo cryopreservation for women. Several innovative techniques are being actively investigated, including oocyte and ovarian follicle cryopreservation, ovarian tissue transplantation, and in vitro follicle maturation, which may expand the number of fertility preservation choices for young cancer patients. Fertility preservation may also require some modification of cancer therapy; thus, patients’ wishes regarding future fertility and available fertility preservation alternatives should be discussed before initiation of therapy. PMID:26942145
Kolva, Elissa; Rosenfeld, Barry; Pessin, Hayley; Breitbart, William; Brescia, Robert
Anxiety in terminal cancer is linked to diminished quality of life, yet overall it is poorly understood with regard to prevalence and relationship to other aspects of psychological distress. This study examines anxiety in terminally ill cancer patients, including the prevalence of anxiety symptoms, the relationship between anxiety and depression, differences in anxiety between participants receiving inpatient palliative care and those receiving outpatient care, and characteristics that distinguish highly anxious from less anxious patients. Participants were 194 patients with terminal cancer. Approximately half (n=103) were receiving inpatient care in a palliative care facility and half (n=91) were receiving outpatient care in a tertiary care cancer center. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used to assess anxiety and depression, and was administered along with measures of hopelessness, desire for hastened death, and social support. Moderately elevated anxiety symptoms were found in 18.6% of participants (n=36) and 12.4% (n=24) had clinically significant anxiety symptoms. Level of anxiety did not differ between the two treatment settings. However, participants receiving palliative care reported significantly higher levels of depression and desire for hastened death. A multivariate prediction model indicated that belief in an afterlife, social support, and anxiolytic and antidepressant use were unique, significant predictors of anxiety. Severity of anxiety symptoms did not differ between the study sites, suggesting that anxiety may differ from depression and desire for hastened death in the course that it takes over the duration of terminal cancer. Copyright Â© 2011 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Torino, Francesco; Bonmassar, Enzo; Bonmassar, Laura; De Vecchis, Liana; Barnabei, Agnese; Zuppi, Cecilia; Capoluongo, Ettore; Aquino, Angelo
The availability of sensitive methods has allowed the detailed study of circulating tumor cells only recently. Evolving evidence support the prognostic and predictive role of these cells in patients affected by several solid tumors, including colorectal cancer. Ongoing studies are aimed at confirming that the molecular characterization of circulating tumor cells in peripheral blood and in bone marrow of patients is a powerful tool to improve the patient risk-stratification, to monitor activity of the drugs, to develop more appropriate targeted therapies and tailored treatments. In parallel, results from these correlative studies promise to gain a better biological understanding of the metastatic process. The clinical utility of the detection of circulating tumor cells in patients affected by colorectal cancer is still hampered by a number of specific hurdles. Improvement in sensitivity and specificity of the available methods of detection, standardization of these methods and functional characterization of circulating tumor cells in well designed and statistically well powered studies are the key steps to reach these ambitious objectives in colorectal cancer patients as well. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rogers, Lisa R
Stroke in the cancer patient is most often caused by disorders of coagulation that are induced by the cancer, by cancer metastatic to the central nervous system, or by coagulation disorders or vascular injury induced by cancer therapy. Nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis with diffuse thrombosis of cerebral vessels is often the cause of cerebral infarction. Venous occlusion is most common in leukemic patients but can also result from growth of solid tumor in the adjacent skull or dura. Chemotherapy administration is associated with a small risk of cerebral arterial or venous thrombosis. Radiation that is administered to the neck can result in delayed carotid atherosclerosis. Tumor embolization to the brain is a rare cause of stroke. Fungal septic cerebral emboli occur most commonly in leukemic patients who have undergone bone marrow transplant. Hemorrhages occur in the brain parenchyma or subdural space and are most commonly caused by acute disseminated intravascular coagulation or metastatic tumor. Hemolysis from chemotherapy administration is a rare cause of brain hemorrhage. Neuroimaging studies, measurement of coagulation function, and echocardiography are the must useful modalities to identify the cause of stroke.
Jacobsen, Paul B
Increased recognition of the problem of fatigue in cancer patients can be attributed, in part, to the development of measures that have provided researchers with the tools necessary for quantifying and characterizing fatigue and exploring its etiology and treatment. Although a consensus regarding the definition of fatigue is lacking, there is general agreement that it is a subjective and multidimensional phenomenon whose assessment requires the use of self-report methods. Consistent with this view, several multidimensional measures of fatigue have been developed and validated for use with cancer patients. These measures differ considerably in their format and content and, as with the definition of fatigue, there is no consensus at the present time regarding the dimensional structure of fatigue. In addition to measuring fatigue on a continuum along one or more dimensions, it may also be possible to assess a clinical syndrome of cancer-related fatigue. Criteria for assessing fatigue in this manner have been proposed and are currently undergoing evaluation. Despite the progress that has been made, there are several important unresolved issues in the assessment of fatigue in cancer patients. These include how to distinguish fatigue from depression, how to use self-reports of fatigue in clinical decision-making, how to capture temporal changes in fatigue, and how best to address the continuing lack of consensus regarding the conceptualization and measurement of fatigue.
Qvortrup, Camilla; Mortensen, John Pløen; Pfeiffer, Per
A new Cochrane meta-analysis evaluated adjuvant chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil (5FU)-based, not modern combination chemotherapy) in almost 10,000 patients with rectal cancer and showed a 17% reduction in mortality corresponding well to the efficacy observed in recent studies, which reported a reduction in mortality just about 20%. The authors recommend adjuvant chemotherapy which is in accordance with the Danish national guidelines where 5-FU-based chemotherapy is recommended for stage III and high-risk stage II rectal cancer.
Hurria, Arti; Li, Daneng; Hansen, Kurt; Patil, Sujata; Gupta, Ravi; Nelson, Christian; Lichtman, Stuart M.; Tew, William P.; Hamlin, Paul; Zuckerman, Enid; Gardes, Jonathan; Limaye, Sewanti; Lachs, Mark; Kelly, Eva
Purpose To determine the predictors of distress in older patients with cancer. Patients and Methods Patients age ≥ 65 years with a solid tumor or lymphoma completed a questionnaire that addressed these geriatric assessment domains: functional status, comorbidity, psychological state, nutritional status, and social support. Patients self-rated their level of distress on a scale of zero to 10 using a validated screening tool called the Distress Thermometer. The relationship between distress and geriatric assessment scores was examined. Results The geriatric assessment questionnaire was completed by 245 patients (mean age, 76 years; standard deviation [SD], 7 years; range, 65 to 95 years) with cancer (36% stage IV; 71% female). Of these, 87% also completed the Distress Thermometer, with 41% (n = 87) reporting a distress score of ≥ 4 on a scale of zero to 10 (mean score, 3; SD, 3; range, zero to 10). Bivariate analyses demonstrated an association between higher distress (≥ 4) and poorer physical function, increased comorbid medical conditions, poor eyesight, inability to complete the questionnaire alone, and requiring more time to complete the questionnaire. In a multivariate regression model based on the significant bivariate findings, poorer physical function (increased need for assistance with instrumental activities of daily living [P = .015] and lower physical function score on the Medical Outcomes Survey [P = .018]) correlated significantly with a higher distress score. Conclusion Significant distress was identified in 41% of older patients with cancer. Poorer physical function was the best predictor of distress. Further studies are needed to determine whether interventions that improve or assist with physical functioning can help to decrease distress in older adults with cancer. PMID:19652074
Ely, John W; Levy, Barcey T; Daly, Jeanette; Xu, Yinghui
Only about half of eligible individuals undergo colon cancer screening. We have limited knowledge about the patient beliefs that adversely affect screening decisions and about which beliefs might be amenable to change through education. As part of a clinical trial, 641 rural Iowans, aged 52 to 79 years, reported their beliefs about colon cancer screening in response to a mailed questionnaire. Consenting subjects were randomized into four groups, which were distinguished by four levels of increasingly intensive efforts to promote screening. Two of the groups received mailed educational materials and completed a follow-up questionnaire, which allowed us to determine whether their beliefs about screening changed following the education. We also completed a factor analysis to identify underlying (latent) factors that might explain the responses to 33 questions about readiness, attitudes, and perceived barriers related to colon cancer screening. The strongest predictors of a patient's stated readiness to be screened were a physician's recommendation to be screened (1 point difference on 10-point Likert scale, 95 % confidence interval [CI], 0.5 to 1.6 point difference), a family history of colon cancer (0.85-point Likert scale difference, 95 % CI, 0.1 to 1.6), and a belief that health-care decisions should be mostly left to physicians rather than patients (Spearman correlation coefficient 0.21, P < .001). Of the 33 questionnaire items about screening beliefs, 11 (33 %) changed favorably following the educational intervention. In the factor analysis, the 33 items were reduced to 8 underlying factors, such as being too busy to undergo screening and worries about screening procedures. We found a limited number of underlying factors that may help explain patient resistance to colon cancer screening.
Fredberg, Ulrich; Vedsted, Peter
Danish cancer patients have more advanced cancer at the time of diagnosis than cancer patients in other Scandinavian countries, probably because of a delay in the diagnosis. Only 50% of the cancer patients have specific cancer symptoms when they initially contact their doctor. In Central Region, Denmark, a specific diagnosing program for patients with suspected serious disease that could be cancer without organ specific symptoms has been established at the Diagnostic Centre in Silkeborg. The diagnosing is planned as a parallel course instead of a serial course. A very close co-operation with all internal medical specialties, radiology, clinical biochemistry and gynecology is necessary.
Juwon, Lee; Jang, Gookhwan; Kim, Sunmin; Kim, Dajung; Lee, Jinwook; Park, Hyunjoon; Lee, Junyeob; Kim, Sangbin; Kim, Yunkyung; Kim, Soo Young; Yang, Joung Wook; Gwoo, Sangeon; Kim, Ye Na; Shin, Ho Sik; Jung, Yeonsoon; Rim, Hark
Incidence of AKI in hospitalized patients with cancer is increasing, but there have been few studies on AKI in patients with cancer. We conducted a retrospective cohort study in a South Korean tertiary care hospital. A total of 2211 consecutive patients (without cancer 61.5%; with cancer 38.5%) were included over a 140-month period. Predictors of all-cause death were examined using the Kaplan-Meier method and the Cox proportional hazards model. The main contributing factors of AKI were sepsis (31.1%) and ischemia (52.7%). AKI was multifactorial in 78% of patients with cancer and in 71% of patients without cancer. Hospital mortality rates were higher in patients with cancer (42.8%) than in patients without cancer (22.5%) (p = 0.014). In multivariate analyses, diabetes mellitus (DM) and cancer diagnosis were associated with hospital mortality. Cancer diagnosis was independently associated with mortality [odds ratio = 3.010 (95% confidence interval, 2.340-3.873), p = 0.001]. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that subjects with DM and cancer (n = 146) had lower survival rates than subjects with DM and without cancer (n = 687) (log rank test, p = 0.001). The presence of DM and cancer was independently associated with mortality in AKI patients both with and without cancer. Studies are warranted to determine whether proactive measures may limit AKI and improve outcomes.
Chermiti Ben Abdallah, Fatma; Ben Saïd, Hanène; Chamkhi, Najiba; Ferchichi, Marwa; Chtourou, Amel; Taktak, Sofia; Ben Kheder, Ali
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Malnutrition is a common problem among patients with cancer, affecting up to 85% of patients with certain cancers and represents a risk factor for poor prognosis. aim: evaluate nutritional status in patients with lung cancer before and during treatment using nutritional risk index. it's a prospective study conducted in pneumology IV department in Abderahman Mami hospital, from January to May 2011. 30 male patients with a lung cancer were included. Nutritional status was assessed before and during treatment based on anthropometric measures, biological markers and nutritional risk index (NRI). Mean age of patients was 58 ± 12 years, ranging from 19 to 82 years. 29 patients had non small cell lung cancer and one patient had small cell cancer. Malnutrition was noted in 14 patients (47%) before treatment according to the NRI. It was noted in 23 patients (77%) after three cycles of chemotherapy with severe malnutrition in 8 patients. Relationship between body mass index (BMI) and the NRI was linear, but NRI tends to evaluate more objectively risk of malnutrition in patients with lung cancer. Nutritional assessment in patient with lung cancer should be performed systematically, early and repeatedly. Several markers can be used such as BMI and NRI. Nutritional support will reduce morbidity and improve quality of life in patients with lung cancer.
Lamont, E B; Siegler, M
To determine the frequency of advance care planning (ACP) in hospitalized cancer patients and to assess their reactions to a proposed policy in which medical housestaff would offer to discuss ACP at the time of hospital admission. Structured interviews with 111 consecutively admitted cancer patients on the oncology inpatient service of a tertiary care medical center. We found that 69% (77/111) of patients had discussed their advance care preferences with someone, usually a family member, and 33% (37/111) had completed at least one formal advance directive (e.g., a living will or durable power of attorney for health care); 32% (36/111) had done both; and 30% (33/111) had done neither. However, only 9% (10/111) of patients reported having discussed their advance care preferences with their clinic oncologists and only 23% (23/101) of the remaining patients stated that they wished to do so. By contrast, 58% (64/110) of patients supported a policy in which medical housestaff would offer to discuss these advance care preferences as a part of the admission history. Our data suggest that while oncology inpatients frequently have ACPs that they discuss with family and/or document in formal advance directives, they rarely discuss or wish to discuss these ACPs with clinic oncologists. We also show that most of the reticent patients would nevertheless consider discussing the same ACPs with admitting housestaff on the day of hospital admission.
MEYER, AARON A.; HWANG, M.; FARASATPOUR, M.; JANARDHAN, R.; MARGENTHALER, J.A.; VIRGO, K.S.; JOHNSON, FRANK E.
Breast cancer is a major health problem worldwide. The median survival duration for patients with metastatic breast cancer is two to three years. Approximately 1% of populations worldwide have schizophrenia. The manner in which schizophrenic patients fare when diagnosed with metastatic breast carcinoma (MBC) was evaluated. We queried the National Department of Veterans Affairs (DVA) datasets using computer codes for a pre-existing diagnosis of schizophrenia and a later diagnosis of breast carcinoma. Chart-based data concerning the identified subjects were then requested. Previously determined inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to select evaluable patients from the medical records, prior to extracting demographic details and data concerning the treatment course in each subject. Ten patients had distant metastases at initial diagnosis, while seven developed MBC following prior curative-intent treatment. Two patients refused therapy. Ten did not comply with recommended management. Five harmed or threatened physicians, other caregivers or themselves. Schizophrenic patients with MBC often fail to understand the nature of their illnesses. Often they do not accept palliative treatment, while a number of them do not comply with therapy, once initiated. They often exhibit behaviors that are detrimental to themselves or others. Formal psychiatric consultation is therefore necessary in patients. Several detrimental behaviors may be predicted reliably by history alone. PMID:24649175
Shen, Megan Johnson; Hamann, Heidi A.; Thomas, Anna J.; Ostroff, Jamie S.
Purpose The majority (95%) of lung cancer patients report stigma, with 48% of lung cancer patients specifically reporting feeling stigmatized by their medical providers. Typically associated with the causal link to smoking and the historically poor prognosis, lung cancer stigma can be seen as a risk factor for poor psychosocial and medical outcomes in the context of lung cancer diagnosis and treatment. Thus, modifiable targets for lung cancer stigma-reducing interventions are needed. The present study sought to test the hypothesis that good patient-provider communication is associated with lower levels of lung cancer stigma. Methods Lung cancer patients (n=231) across varying stages of disease, participated in a cross-sectional, multi-site study designed to understand lung cancer stigma. Patients completed several survey measures, including demographic and clinical characteristics, a measure of patient-provider communication (Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems Program or CAHPS), and a measure of lung cancer stigma (Cataldo Lung Cancer Stigma Scale). Results As hypothesized, results indicated that good patient-provider communication was associated with lower levels of lung cancer stigma (r=-.18, p<.05). These results remained significant, even when controlling for relevant demographic and clinical characteristics (Stan. Β = −.15, p<.05). Conclusions Results indicate that good patient-provider communication is associated with lower levels of lung cancer stigma, suggesting that improving patient-provider communication may be a good intervention target for reducing lung cancer stigma. PMID:26553030
Shen, Megan Johnson; Hamann, Heidi A; Thomas, Anna J; Ostroff, Jamie S
The majority (95 %) of lung cancer patients report stigma, with 48 % of lung cancer patients specifically reporting feeling stigmatized by their medical providers. Typically associated with the causal link to smoking and the historically poor prognosis, lung cancer stigma can be seen as a risk factor for poor psychosocial and medical outcomes in the context of lung cancer diagnosis and treatment. Thus, modifiable targets for lung cancer stigma-reducing interventions are needed. The present study sought to test the hypothesis that good patient-provider communication is associated with lower levels of lung cancer stigma. Lung cancer patients (n = 231) across varying stages of disease participated in a cross-sectional, multisite study designed to understand lung cancer stigma. Patients completed several survey measures, including demographic and clinical characteristics, a measure of patient-provider communication (Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems Program or CAHPS), and a measure of lung cancer stigma (Cataldo Lung Cancer Stigma Scale). As hypothesized, results indicated that good patient-provider communication was associated with lower levels of lung cancer stigma (r = -0.18, p < 0.05). These results remained significant, even when controlling for relevant demographic and clinical characteristics (Stan. β = -0.15, p < 0.05). Results indicate that good patient-provider communication is associated with lower levels of lung cancer stigma, suggesting that improving patient-provider communication may be a good intervention target for reducing lung cancer stigma.
Akyuz, Ruveyda Gelisken; Ugur, Ozlem; Elcigil, Ayfer
The aim of this study was to determine factors affecting sleep quality of 100 patients with advanced stage lung cancer. it was a descriptive study. A variety of assessment tools were used to provide sleep scores to examine the relation between adverse effects caused by the treatment (nausea, vomiting, fatigue) and sleep quality. As a result, no statistically significant relation between coughing and respiratory problems of patients, or existing depression, and average sleep quality score was found (KW:0.872, p=0.646, KW: 3.174, p=0.205, u: 441.000 p=0.916). It was revealed that nausea and loss of appetite experienced also did not affect the sleep quality score (p>0.05), whereas problems such as vomiting and fatigue did exert effects (p<0.01). Patients with advanced stage lung cancer suffer from sleep problems and cancer related symptoms also affect their sleep quality negatively. Nurses should plan interventions that can control symptoms such as pain, vomiting and fatigue, which affect the sleep of patients.
Ajala, Tosin; Rafi, Junaid; Larsen-Disney, Peter; Howell, Richard
Infertility can arise as a consequence of treatment of oncological conditions. The parallel and continued improvement in both the management of oncology and fertility cases in recent times has brought to the fore-front the potential for fertility preservation in patients being treated for cancer. Oncologists must be aware of situations where their treatment will affect fertility in patients who are being treated for cancer and they must also be aware of the pathways available for procedures such as cryopreservation of gametes and/or embryos. Improved cancer care associated with increased cure rates and long term survival, coupled with advances in fertility treatment means that it is now imperative that fertility preservation is considered as part of the care offered to these patients. This can only be approached within a multidisciplinary setting. There are obvious challenges that still remain to be resolved, especially in the area of fertility preservation in prepubertal patients. These include ethical issues, such as valid consent and research in the area of tissue retrieval, cryopreservation, and transplantation. PMID:20379357
Loh, Kah Poh; Janelsins, Michelle C.; Mohile, Supriya G.; Holmes, Holly M.; Hsu, Tina; Inouye, Sharon K.; Karuturi, Meghan S.; Kimmick, Gretchen G.; Lichtman, Stuart M.; Magnuson, Allison; Whitehead, Mary I.; Wong, Melisa L.; Ahles, Tim A.
Chemotherapy-related cognitive impairment (CRCI) can occur during or after chemotherapy and represents a concern for many patients with cancer. Among older patients with cancer, in whom there is little clinical trial evidence examining side effects like CRCI, many unanswered questions remain regarding risk for and resulting adverse outcomes from CRCI. Given the rising incidence of cancer with age, CRCI is of particular concern for older patients with cancer who receive treatment. Therefore, research related to CRCI in older patients with cancers is a high priority. In this manuscript, we discuss current gaps in research highlighting the lack of clinical studies of CRCI in older adults, the complex mechanisms of CRCI, and the challenges in measuring cognitive impairment in older patients with cancer. Although we focus on CRCI, we also discuss cognitive impairment related to cancer itself and other treatment modalities. We highlight several research priorities to improve the study of CRCI in older patients with cancer. PMID:27197918
Ikawa, Hiroaki; Tonogi, Morio; Yamane, Gen-Yuki; Yamauchi, Tomohiro; Tanaka, Yoichi; Sato, Michio; Matsui, Junichi; Ando, Nobutoshi; Katakura, Akira
Against a background of a rapidly aging society, the number of patients with oral cancers in Japan is increasing yearly. The number of double-cancers with oral cancer as the first malignancy is also reportedly on the rise. Esophageal and gastric cancers are the most common second malignancies. At our institution, our policy is to proactively perform upper gastrointestinal (GI) fiberscopy (GIF) in patients with oral cancer. In anticipation of a probable further increase in the number of patients with double-cancers consisting of oral and GI tract malignancies, we retrospectively analyzed the occurrence of upper GI tract cancers in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The cohort consisted of 171 patients in whom OSCC had been diagnosed and who had undergone upper GIF between March 1996 and August 2008. Multivariate analysis was performed. Upper GIF identified 8 patients (7 men, 1 woman, totaling 4.7% of 171 patients) with double-cancer in the upper GI tract. One patient had a triple malignancy consisting of oral, esophageal and gastric cancers. Seven patients had esophageal cancer, while two had gastric cancer. An age of over 65 years was significantly higher in patients with double-cancers including esophageal cancer than in patients without esophageal cancer (OR=10.454, 95% CI=1.143-95.621). None of the other analyzed patient factors (sex, smoking habit, drinking habit, site of OSCC, TNM classification, staging results) showed a significant difference. These results indicate that, when treating elderly patients with oral cancers, physicians need to devise suitable treatment plans which take into account the possibility of upper GI tract cancer, particularly esophageal cancer, as a double-cancer.
Liu, YiHui; Dong, ChunHui; Chen, Ling
Nowadays, the risk of developing second primary cancers among women diagnosed with prior breast cancer represents a public health issue worldwide.Twenty-eight cases of the primary breast cancer with the multiple primary cancers (MPC) between 2008 and 2015 at our hospital were retrospectively analyzed in regards to age of patients, family history, interval time of the 2 cancers, and survival time of these patients.A total 28 cases were analyzed, at the mean age of 44.57 years at the diagnosis of the first primary cancer. The most common primary cancer in these breast cancer patients was contralateral breast cancer. Of 28 patients with breast cancer, 16 developed a second malignant tumor of the opposite breast, there were no significant difference both median age at first breast cancer and second breast cancer (P > .05). The difference of interval time of 2 cancers also had no statistical significance. There was no statistically significant difference in overall survival between the bilateral primary breast cancers (BPBC) group and the group of breast cancer patients who diagnosed with another cancer (P > .05). If we grouped patients age of diagnosed with the first cancer (<45, ≥45 years), no statistical different between 2 groups (P > .05). However, the survival time with positive-node patients was lower than in patients with node-negative, the difference had a notable significant difference (P < .01). And there are 3 cases had a positive family history for malignant tumor in the form of first-degree relative.Multiple primary carcinoma in patients with prior breast cancer is not the influencing factor of prognosis. It is crucial to detect, diagnose, and treat cancers at their early stage for improving the cure rate of cancer and the survival rate of patients.
Kaldrymidis, Dimitrios; Papadakis, Georgios; Tsakonas, Georgios; Kaldrymidis, Philippos; Flaskas, Theofanis; Seretis, Andreas; Pantazi, Eleni; Kostoglou-Athanassiou, Ifigenia; Peppa, Melpomeni; Roussou, Paraskevi; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia
Several studies have suggested that patients with acromegaly have an increased risk of thyroid, colorectal, breast and prostate cancers. In this study we determined the prevalence of malignant neoplasms in patients with acromegaly. Cancer risk was evaluated in a cohort of 110 patients (M/F 48/62, age 58.63±13.8 years, range 30-86) with acromegaly. Mean age at diagnosis of acromegaly was 46.37±13.11 years. Mean period of time since diagnosis of acromegaly was 12.26+9.6 years. From 110 patients, cancer was diagnosed in 26 (23.6%) patients. Thyroid cancer was the most common cancer and was diagnosed in 13 patients (11.8%); other cancers encountered were gastric cancer (N=2), endometrial cancer (N-2), and breast cancer, colon cancer, prostate cancer (N-2), myelodysplastic syndrome, renal cell carcinoma, lung cancer and pancreatic carcinoma, one case each. Age, gender, age at the time of diagnosis of acromegaly, tumor size of pituitary adenoma and duration of disease were not associated with cancer development. This study suggests that patients with acromegaly have an increased risk of thyroid cancer and therefore they should undergo regular screening with hormonal and ultrasound evaluation of the thyroid and FNAB when required.
Gorozhanskaia, É G; Sviridova, S P; Dobrovol'skaia, M M; Zybrikhina, G N; Kashnia, Sh R
In order to identify the features of violations of free-radical processes in blood serum of 94 untreated cancer patients with different localization of the tumor (cancer of the stomach, colon, breast, ovarian, hemoblastoses) were determined selenium levels and indicators of oxidative stress (sum of metabolites of nitrogen--NOx, the level of superoxide dismutase--Cu/ZnSOD and malondiialdehyde-MDA, and the activity of catalase). In addition, 40 patients with malignant liver disease and clinical signs of liver failure in the early postoperative period was carried out a comparative evaluation of the efficacy of selenium-containing drug "Selenaze" (sodium selenite pentahydrate). It was found that selenium levels in cancer patients by 25-30% below the norm of 110-120 mg/l at a rate of 73.0 +/- 2.6 mg/l. Low levels of NOx was detected in patients with all tumor localizations (22.1 +/- 1.1 microM, with normal range 28.4 +/- 0.9 microM). The exceptions were patients with extensive malignant process in the liver, in which the NOx levels were significantly higher than normal (p < 0.001). The high level of NOx has a toxic effect on the hepatocyte, causing metabolic disorders and inflammatory-necrotic changes in the liver. Elevated levels of SOD and MDA in normal values of catalase activity was detected in all patients. The use of "Selenaze" in postoperative patients with tumors of the liver increased selenium levels by 10-12%, which was accompanied by a decrease in the content of SOD and NOx, and contributed to earlier recovery of detoxic and synthetic liver function. These findings point to an intensification of oxidative stress and metabolic disorders in the malignant process, which is the basis for metabolic correction.
Schug, Stephan A; Chandrasena, Chandani
Cancer pain is one of the most important symptoms of malignant disease, which has a major impact on the quality of life of cancer patients. Therefore, it needs to be treated appropriately after a careful assessment of the types and causes of pain. The mainstay of cancer pain management is systemic pharmacotherapy. This is, in principle, still based on the WHO guidelines initially published in 1986. Although these have been validated, they are not evidence-based. The principles are a stepladder approach using non-opioids, weak and then strong opioids. In addition, adjuvants can be added at any step to address specific situations such as bone or neuropathic pain. Patients, even if they are on long-acting opioids, need to be provided with immediate-release opioids for breakthrough pain. In case of inefficacy or severe adverse effects of one opioid, rotation to another opioid is recommended. There is a major need for more and better randomized controlled trials in the setting of cancer pain as the lack of evidence is hampering the improvement of current treatment guidelines.
Magdelijns, Fabienne J H; van den Beuken-van Everdingen, Marieke H J; Courtens, Annemie M; Janssen, Daisy J A
Pain is common in patients with cancer (33-64%) and can be divided into background and breakthrough pain (BTP). BTP is a passing, acute pain that occurs despite the use of analgesia to control background pain. BTP may arise spontaneously or be provoked by certain movements or activities. It lasts 30-60 minutes and is generally self-limiting and is often undertreated. We describe 2 patients aged 68 and 57 years with metastatic disease who were admitted for pain management. BTP was inadequately managed during their hospital stay. Both patients had to wait too long before they received their BTP medication, causing the BTP to have passed its peak. After consultation with their nurses, both patients were allowed to have one dose of breakthrough medication in advance, which resulted in better treatment of their BTP. Every hospitalized patient with BTP should have one dose of breakthrough medication ready for taking in advance.
Twycross, R. G.
Lung cancer is the commonest form of malignant disease seen at St Christopher's Hospice. More than 35% of the male and about 8% of the female cancer patients are admitted with this diagnosis. This means that each year approximately 100 patients with lung cancer are amitted and cared for at the hospice. The more common symptoms experienced by 185 consecutive terminal lung cancer patients admitted to St Christopher's Hospice are listed in Table 1. PMID:4132166
Tangka, Florence K L; Subramanian, Sujha; Sabatino, Susan A; Howard, David H; Haber, Susan; Hoover, Sonja; Richardson, Lisa C
To quantify end-of-life (EOL) medical costs for adult Medicaid beneficiaries diagnosed with cancer. We linked Medicaid administrative data with 2000-2003 cancer registry data to identify 3,512 adult Medicaid beneficiaries who died after a cancer diagnosis and matched them to a cohort of beneficiaries without cancer who died during the same period. We used multivariable regression analysis to estimate incremental per-person EOL cost after controlling for beneficiaries' age, race/ethnicity, sex, cancer site, and state of residence. End-of-life costs during the final 4 months of life were about $10,000 higher for Medicaid cancer patients than for those without cancer. Medicaid cancer patients are more intensive users of inpatient and ambulatory services than are Medicaid patients without cancer. Medicaid cancer patients who die soon after diagnosis have higher costs of care and use inpatient services more intensely than do Medicaid patients without cancer. Medicaid cancer patients incur substantially higher EOL costs than noncancer patients. This increased cost may reflect the cost of palliative care. Future studies should assess the types and timing of services provided to Medicaid cancer patients at the EOL. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
Tangka, Florence KL; Subramanian, Sujha; Sabatino, Susan A; Howard, David H; Haber, Susan; Hoover, Sonja; Richardson, Lisa C
Objectives To quantify end-of-life (EOL) medical costs for adult Medicaid beneficiaries diagnosed with cancer. Data Sources We linked Medicaid administrative data with 2000–2003 cancer registry data to identify 3,512 adult Medicaid beneficiaries who died after a cancer diagnosis and matched them to a cohort of beneficiaries without cancer who died during the same period. Study Design We used multivariable regression analysis to estimate incremental per-person EOL cost after controlling for beneficiaries' age, race/ethnicity, sex, cancer site, and state of residence. Principal Findings End-of-life costs during the final 4 months of life were about $10,000 higher for Medicaid cancer patients than for those without cancer. Medicaid cancer patients are more intensive users of inpatient and ambulatory services than are Medicaid patients without cancer. Medicaid cancer patients who die soon after diagnosis have higher costs of care and use inpatient services more intensely than do Medicaid patients without cancer. Conclusions Medicaid cancer patients incur substantially higher EOL costs than noncancer patients. This increased cost may reflect the cost of palliative care. Future studies should assess the types and timing of services provided to Medicaid cancer patients at the EOL. PMID:25424134
In medicine time is one of the main dimensions used in order to assess the efficacy of a cure. In oncology we measure either the advantage obtained with a treatment or the clinical course of a cancer as time intervals or survival benefit. In the last years we can describe life expectancy in many solid tumors following therapy, not only in terms of median survival, but also in terms of 3-5 years survival. Additional life time, that given by novel drugs, is now a real experience in some solid tumors allowing a reflection on its value and meaning in the personal perception of patients as well in an absolute perspective. The concept of time deformation in physics suggests a metaphorical similarity with rediscovery of the authentic sense of life in an increasing number of patients affected by cancer who experience a significant life prolongation.
Muhamad, Mazanah; Merriam, Sharan; Suhami, Norhasmilia
Traditional healing is a common practice in low and middle income countries such as Malaysia. Eighty percent of Malaysians consult traditional healers or “bomoh” at some time in their life for health-related issues. The purpose of our study was to explore why breast cancer patients visit traditional healers. This is a qualitative study utilizing in-depth interviews with 11 cancer survivors who sought both traditional and Western medicine. The findings revealed the following reasons for which patients seek traditional healers: (1) recommendation from family and friends, (2) sanction from family, (3) perceived benefit and compatibility, (4) healer credibility, and (5) reservation with Western medicine and system delay. These factors work together and are strongly influenced by the Malaysian cultural context. The issue with the Western health system is common in a developing country with limited health facilities. PMID:22295249
Dreizen, S; McCredie, K B; Bodey, G P; Keating, M J
Necrotizing dermatitis in patients being treated with cancer chemotherapeutic agents can be of several types. Microbial causes can include a variety of bacteria and fungi, the most common being Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Gangrene from occlusive causes is not uncommon among cancer patients with coexisting atheromatous, thromboembolic, or obliterative vascular disease. Toxic gangrene is most commonly caused by extravasation of intravenously administered cytotoxic antineoplastic drugs but has also been associated with the use of coumarin congeners and the bite of the brown recluse spider. Pyoderma gangrenosum is an idiopathic condition that has been reported in association with myeloproliferative disorders. Finally, necrosis can be caused by the neoplasm itself, when its growth is so great that blood vessels are compressed and ischemia of the surrounding tissue results.
Muhamad, Mazanah; Merriam, Sharan; Suhami, Norhasmilia
Traditional healing is a common practice in low and middle income countries such as Malaysia. Eighty percent of Malaysians consult traditional healers or "bomoh" at some time in their life for health-related issues. The purpose of our study was to explore why breast cancer patients visit traditional healers. This is a qualitative study utilizing in-depth interviews with 11 cancer survivors who sought both traditional and Western medicine. The findings revealed the following reasons for which patients seek traditional healers: (1) recommendation from family and friends, (2) sanction from family, (3) perceived benefit and compatibility, (4) healer credibility, and (5) reservation with Western medicine and system delay. These factors work together and are strongly influenced by the Malaysian cultural context. The issue with the Western health system is common in a developing country with limited health facilities.
Du, Yan-ping; Li, Ling-ling; He, Qing; Li, Yun; Song, Hu; Lin, Yi-jia; Peng, Jun-sheng
To investigate the nutritional status, and provide evidence for nutritional treatment option. A total of 452 patients with gastrointestinal cancer were selected, including 156 gastric cancer,117 colon cancer, and 180 rectal cancer. The nutritional risk screening 2002(NRS2002) was applied to grade the nutritional risk. A multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to measure the patients' body composition. Albumin (Alb), prealbumin(PA), transferring(Tf), retinol binding protein(RBP), red blood cell(RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), haematocrit(Hct) were measured after fasting. The rate of patients with NRS2002 score more than 3 was 70.5%(110/156) for gastric cancer, 53.8%(63/117) for colon cancer, and 46.7%(86/180) for rectal cancer. The score for impaired nutritional status more than 1 for gastric cancer was higher than that for colorectal cancer(P<0.05), while patients with disease score more than 2 was less for gastric cancer(P<0.05). Body mass index(BMI), obesity degree, fat content, fat percentage, and arm circumference were lower in gastric cancer patients as compared to colorectal cancer patients(P<0.05); but protein percentage, muscle percentage, ratio of muscles of arm, and cell mass percentage were higher in gastric cancer patients(P<0.05). The proportions of patients with low Alb, PA, Tf, BC, Hb, Hct were higher for gastric cancer and colon cancer(P<0.05). Patients with gastric cancer are prone to fat loss and therefore have a higher nutritional risk and malnutrition than those with colorectal cancer. Combination of body composition analysis and laboratory examination may achieve comprehensive evaluation of the nutritional status of patients, and provide the evidence of nutritional therapy by being combined with NRS2002 score.
Invasive therapeutic procedures in elderly patients with advanced breast cancer are usually contraindicated as improvement of the quality of life in this situation is considered more important than increasing life span. In the present case, however, surgical removal of the tumour has led to a significant improvement of the quality of life and could have been even more beneficial if carried out at an earlier stage.
Murthy, Santosh B.; Shastri, Aditi; Merkler, Alexander E.; Hanley, Daniel F.; Ziai, Wendy C.; Fink, Matthew E.; Iadecola, Costantino; Kamel, Hooman; Navi, Babak B.
Background Single-center studies suggest that patients with cancer have similar outcomes after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) compared to patients without cancer. However, these studies were limited by small sample sizes and high rates of intratumoral hemorrhage. Our hypothesis was that systemic cancer patients without brain involvement fare worse after ICH than patients without cancer. Methods We identified all patients diagnosed with spontaneous ICH from 2002 through 2011 in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Our predictor variable was systemic cancer. Our primary outcome was discharge disposition, dichotomized into favorable discharge (home/self-care or rehabilitation) or unfavorable discharge (nursing facility, hospice, or death). We used logistic regression to compare outcomes and performed secondary analyses by cancer subtype (i.e., non-metastatic solid tumors, non-metastatic hematologic tumors, and metastatic solid or hematologic tumors). Results Among 597,046 identified ICH patients, 22,394 (3.8%) had systemic cancer. Stroke risk factors such as hypertension and diabetes were more common in patients without cancer, while anticoagulant use and higher Charlson comorbidity scores were more common among cancer patients. In multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for demographics, comorbidities, and hospital-level characteristics, patients with cancer had higher odds of death (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.56–1.69) and lower odds of favorable discharge (OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.56–0.63) than patients without cancer. Amongst cancer groups, patients with non-metastatic hematologic tumors and those with metastatic disease fared the worst. Conclusions Patients with systemic cancer have higher mortality and less favorable discharge outcomes after ICH than patients without cancer. Cancer subtype may influence outcomes after ICH. PMID:27569708
Cassileth, Barrie R.; And Others
Four audiovisual programs about cancer and cancer treatment were evaluated. Cancer patients, their families, and friends were asked to complete questionnaires before and after watching a program to determine the effects of the program on their knowledge of cancer, anxiety levels, and perceived ability to communicate with the staff. (Author/MLW)
Lymphedema; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IB Vulvar Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIC Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVB Vulvar Cancer
Ferris, Linda W; Farber, Matthew; Guidi, Teri Ursin; Laffey, William J
Cancer leaders assess the impact on the cancer patient of the historic passage of Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (HR 3590) (PPACA). The Association of Cancer Executives, a national organization for leadership development of oncology executives and improvements in patient care delivery, and the Association of Community Cancer Centers, a leading education and advocacy organization for the cancer team, weigh in on the impact of PPACA. Oncology leaders assess the impact of PPACA on cancer patients and families, cancer programs in the United States, and provider relations. The provisions of PPACA most impacting cancer patients are reviewed, including reimbursement changes, expansion of prevention and screening services, the development of accountable care organizations, physician relations, and the implementation of integrated electronic health records. Cancer executives prepare their programs for PPACA by changing the care delivery model to ensure the economic survival of private practices and hospital-based programs.
Palacios, Rosario; Pascual, Javier; Cabrera, Eva; Lebrón, Jose M; Guerrero-León, Miguel A; del Arco, Alfonso; Colmenero, Juan D; Santos, Jesús
Our objective was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of lung cancer (LC) in HIV patients and compare them with LC patients from the general population. All HIV patients diagnosed at three hospitals in Malaga (southern Spain) who developed LC during January 1989-June 2012 were reviewed. They were compared with a sample of patients with LC taken from the Pneumology and Oncology Department of the Hospital Virgen de le Victoria (Malaga) during the same period. Of the 4721 HIV patients (83% men) followed-up during the study period, 61 (1.29%) developed LC: 82% were men, mean age 48 years, all except two were smokers, 47.5% had a prior lung infection, and the median CD4 count was 237 cells/mm(3). Forty (65.5%) patients were on antiretroviral therapy at LC diagnosis (70% had an undetectable viral load). The HIV-negative group was older at diagnosis, contained fewer active smokers, had a greater frequency of the squamous cell carcinoma histological subtype and fewer cases of adenocarcinoma. Presentation was advanced in both groups and the median survival of HIV patients was three months. LC is a common tumour in HIV patients. It affects men and women equally, with a history of smoking and often a prior opportunistic lung disease. Affected patients are often immunosuppressed and have had an AIDS-related diagnosis.
Lin, Yan; Sun, Qiang; Guan, Heng; Zhou, Wei-xun; Xu, Ying; Wang, Bin
To evaluate the feasibility of optimal surgery for breast cancer in elderly patients. The clinical data of 481 patients aged 70 years and above who were treated in our hospital from 1995 to 2009 were retrospectively analyzed. Based on their general conditions and clinical stages, 481 patients were divided into three groups to received different surgical procedures including modified radical mastectomy (MRM group, n=256), tumor extended resection (ER group, n=173), and simple mastectomy (SM group, n=52). The overall 5-and 10-year survival rates were 63.77%and 46.71%, respectively, and the 5-year (p=0.956) and 10-year (p=0.977) survival rates were not significantly among these three groups. However, patients in the ER group had significantly shorter hospital stay, smaller surgical wound, earlier recovery and less complications. It is feasible for female breast cancer patients over 70 years old choose the optimal surgical procedures according to their general conditions and clinical stages.
Ripamonti, C; Bruera, E
Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) is a relatively new technique in which patients are able to self-administer small doses of opioid analgesics when needed. Many different devices are available for opioid infusion, including a syringe pump, disposable plastic cylinder, and battery-operated computer-driven pump. These devices allow patients to choose an intermittent (demand) bolus, continuous infusion, or both modes of administration. Parameters, such as route, drug concentration dose, frequency, and maximum daily or hourly dose, are programmed by the physician. The patient decides whether or not to take a dose. Devices can be used to deliver the drug into a running intravenous infusion, the epidural space, or subcutaneously. Controlled trials indicate that PCA is probably superior to regular opioid administration in postoperative pain. Reported advantages include greater patient satisfaction, decreased sedation and anxiety, and reduced nursing time and hospitalization. Preliminary experience suggests that PCA is also useful and safe for cancer pain, but further research is greatly needed.
Surwillo, Agnieszka; Wawrzyniak, Agata
It is recognised that both nutritional status and an improper diet have significant effects on weakening the outcomes of treatment in cancer patients. As a result, a lowered response to therapy and an increase in untoward side effects is often observed leading to a deteriorating quality of life. The role of an adequately balanced diet is thus regarded as being vital in supporting recovery. To assess the dietary consumption of calories, macro-elements and selected vitamins and minerals for subjects diagnosed with cancers of the breast, lungs and bones or soft tissue. A survey was performed on 100 subjects diagnosed with various tumours between the September and December months of 2011 consisting of 34 with breast cancer, 33 lung cancer and 33 with bone or soft tissue cancer. The questionnaire was devised in-house, which included a three day dietary record. Results. The average daily calorific intake was found to be inadequate at 1608 kcal. In addition, abnormal proportions of energy derived from macro-elements was seen, where the contributions made by fats and proteins were somewhat high at respectively 35.1% and 16.5%, but too low in the case of carbohydrates at 52.1%. Up to 78% subjects had insufficient protein intakes, 88% showed deficiencies in consuming carbohydrates, as were 89% for fibre, 85% vitamin C, 99% calcium, 98% magnesium and 81% for iron. Many dietary shortcomings were observed in the studied subjects. There is therefore a need to educate persons suffering from cancer to adopt an adequate and balanced diet as means of providing vital support for treatment to be more effective.
Beaugerie, Laurent; Carrat, Fabrice; Colombel, Jean-Frédéric; Bouvier, Anne-Marie; Sokol, Harry; Babouri, Abdenour; Carbonnel, Franck; Laharie, David; Faucheron, Jean-Luc; Simon, Tabassome; de Gramont, Aimery; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent
To explore the risk of new or recurrent cancer among patients with IBD and previous cancer, exposed or not to immunosuppressants. Among the 17 047 patients of the CESAME prospective observational cohort who were enrolled from May 2004 to June 2005, and followed-up until December 2007, we identified 405 patients with cancer diagnosed previous to study entry. We calculated the rates of incident cancer in patients with or without previous cancer, and we assessed by survival analysis and nested case-control study the impact of immunosuppressants on the risk of incident new or recurrent cancer in patients with previous cancer. The rate of incident cancer was 21.1/1000 patient-years (PY) and 6.1/1000 PY in patients with and without previous cancer, respectively. The multivariate-adjusted HR of incident cancer between patients with and without previous cancer was 1.9 (95% CI 1.2 to 3.0, p=0.003). Among patients with previous cancer, the rates of new and recurrent cancers were, respectively, 13.2/1000 PY and 6.0/1000 PY in the 312 patients who were not taking immunosuppressant at the time of study entry, and 23.1/1000 PY and 3.9/1000 PY in the 93 patients treated with immunosuppressants at study entry. There was no significant association between the exposure to immunosuppressants and the risk of new or recurrent cancer. Patients with IBD with a history of cancer are at increased risk of developing any (new or recurrent) cancer, with a predominant incidence of new cancers. Treatment with immunosuppressants has no overall major impact per se on this risk. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Baquet, Claudia R.; Ellison, Gary L.; Mishra, Shiraz I.
Purpose We examined the relationship of sociodemographic factors, urban/rural residence, and countylevel socioeconomic factors on accrual of Maryland patients with cancer to National Cancer Institute (NCI)-sponsored cancer treatment clinical trials. Patients and Methods Data were analyzed for the period 1999 to 2002 for 2,240 Maryland patients with cancer accrued onto NCI-sponsored treatment trials. The extent to which Maryland patients with cancer and patients residing in lower socioeconomic and/or rural areas were accrued to cancer trials and were representative of all patients with cancer in Maryland was determined. Data were obtained from several sources, including NCI’s Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program for Maryland patients with cancer in Cooperative Group therapeutic trials, Maryland Cancer Registry data on cancer incidence, and United States Census and the Department of Agriculture. Results For Maryland patients with cancer accrued onto NCI-sponsored treatment trials between 1999 and 2002, subgroups accrued at a higher rate included pediatric and adolescent age groups, white patients, female patients (for sex-specific tumors), patients with private health insurance, and patients residing in the Maryland National Capitol region. Moreover, between 1999 and 2002, there was an estimated annual decline (8.9% per year; P < .05) in the percentage of black patients accrued onto cancer treatment trials. Logistic regression models uncovered different patterns of accrual for female patients and male patients on county-level socioeconomic factors. Conclusion Results highlight disparities in the accrual of Maryland patients with cancer onto NCI-sponsored treatment trials based on patient age, race/ethnicity, geography of residence, and county-level socioeconomic factors. Findings provide the basis for development of innovative tailored and targeted educational efforts to improve trial accrual, particularly for the underserved. PMID:18612153
Baquet, Claudia R.; Ellison, Gary L.; Mishra, Shiraz I.
Purpose We examined the relationship of sociodemographic factors, urban/rural residence, and countylevel socioeconomic factors on accrual of Maryland patients with cancer to National Cancer Institute (NCI)-sponsored cancer treatment clinical trials. Patients and Methods Data were analyzed for the period 1999 to 2002 for 2,240 Maryland patients with cancer accrued onto NCI-sponsored treatment trials. The extent to which Maryland patients with cancer and patients residing in lower socioeconomic and/or rural areas were accrued to cancer trials and were representative of all patients with cancer in Maryland was determined. Data were obtained from several sources, including NCI’s Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program for Maryland patients with cancer in Cooperative Group therapeutic trials, Maryland Cancer Registry data on cancer incidence, and United States Census and the Department of Agriculture. Results For Maryland patients with cancer accrued onto NCI-sponsored treatment trials between 1999 and 2002, subgroups accrued at a higher rate included pediatric and adolescent age groups, white patients, female patients (for sex-specific tumors), patients with private health insurance, and patients residing in the Maryland National Capitol region. Moreover, between 1999 and 2002, there was an estimated annual decline (8.9% per year; P < .05) in the percentage of black patients accrued onto cancer treatment trials. Logistic regression models uncovered different patterns of accrual for female patients and male patients on county-level socioeconomic factors. Conclusion Results highlight disparities in the accrual of Maryland patients with cancer onto NCI-sponsored treatment trials based on patient age, race/ethnicity, geography of residence, and county-level socioeconomic factors. Findings provide the basis for development of innovative tailored and targeted educational efforts to improve trial accrual, particularly for the underserved. PMID:19711497
Stanko, Cynthia A.; Taub, Deborah J.
Cancer affects not just the patient but also the entire family system. The effect of a parent's cancer on young children in the family may lead to emotional distress and school problems. This article describes guidelines for a counseling group for elementary school children of cancer patients to be led by the school counselor and meet in the…
Stanko, Cynthia A.; Taub, Deborah J.
Cancer affects not just the patient but also the entire family system. The effect of a parent's cancer on young children in the family may lead to emotional distress and school problems. This article describes guidelines for a counseling group for elementary school children of cancer patients to be led by the school counselor and meet in the…
Hu, Yapeng; Fu, Liwu
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been defined as cells within tumor that possess the capacity to self-renew and to cause the heterogeneous lineages of cancer cells that comprise the tumor. They have been identified in blood, breast, brain, colon, melanoma, pancreatic, prostate, ovarian, lung cancers and so on. It is often considered to be associated with chemo-resistance and radio-resistance that lead to the failure of traditional therapies. Most therapies are directed at the fast growing tumor mass but not the slow dividing cancer stem cells. Eradicating cancer stem cells, the root of cancer origin and recurrence, has been thought as a promising approach to improve cancer survival or even to cure cancer patients. Understanding the characteristics of cancer stem cells will help to develop novel therapies to eliminate the initiating cancer stem cell, and the relevant patents on the cancer stem cell and cancer therapy by cancer stem cells will be discussed.
De Cicco, Marcello; Bortolussi, Roberto; Fantin, Dario; Matovic, Mira; Fracasso, Augusto; Fabiani, Fabio; Santantonio, Cristina
Elderly cancer patients often require supportive care due to the physiologic decline of organs and apparatus linked with the aging process per se, and for the effects of tumor or of anticancer treatments. Pain and nutritional deficits are some clinical aspects requiring supportive care. Lack of studies on these latter topics does not allow an in depth analysis of the problem. The present review deals with literature concerning pain and nutritional problems in the general cancer population with emphasis on aspects typical for elderly cancer subjects. Physiologic and cancer-related changes in body composition, physical function and cognitive capacity of the elderly are presented and, when appropriate, linked with pathogenetic factors of pain and malnutrition, as well as their treatment. Pain demographic data, pain intensity evaluation and currently available techniques to provide pain relief such as etiologic treatment, analgesic pharmacotherapy and invasive analgesic procedures, are extensively discussed. Causes and assessment of malnutrition as well as available nutritional approaches such as oral, enteral and parenteral nutrition are also debated.
Beikmoradi, Ali; Najafi, Fatemeh; Roshanaei, Ghodratallah; Pour Esmaeil, Zahra; Khatibian, Mahnaz; Ahmadi, Alireza
Background: Anxiety has negative effects on mental and physical performance, quality of life, duration of hospitalization, and even on the treatment of patients with cancer. Objectives: Today acupressure is widely used to treat anxiety. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of acupressure on anxiety in patients with cancer. Patients and Methods: A double-blind randomized clinical trial was conducted on 85 patients hospitalized with 3 groups including acupressure group (n = 27), sham group (n = 28), and control group (n = 30) in the hematologic ward of Shahid Beheshti Hospital of Hamadan, Iran, in 2013. The sampling permuted-block randomization with triple block was used. The anxiety of the patients in the experimental, sham, and control groups were measured with Spielberger’s State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Then, real acupressure was performed in the experimental group and fake acupressure in the sham group, and only routine care was provided for the control group. Anxiety of the patients was also assessed at 5 and 10 days after the intervention. Statistical analysis of the data was performed by SPSS software using repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc least significant difference (LSD) test. Results: According to the findings, the mean level of anxiety before the intervention between groups were matched (P > 0.05). Acupressure had a significant influence on the anxiety in the experimental group at 5 (45.30 ± 7.14) and 10 days (43.48 ± 6.82) after the intervention (P < 0.05). However, it did not have a significant impact on their covert anxiety (45.48 ± 7.92 at 5th day vs 45.63 ± 8.08 at 10th day, P > 0.05). No significant differences were observed in the fake points regarding overt and covert anxiety of patients in the sham group (overt anxiety; 47.57 ± 7.85 at 5th day vs. 46.71 ± 7.32 at 10th day, P > 0.05) (covert anxiety; 47.96 ± 6.33 at 5th day vs. 46.89 ± 6.94 at 10th day, P > 0.05). Moreover, the
A study by the National Cancer Institute indicates extensive newspaper coverage of the subject of cancer. Some of the media presentations on cancer are highly emotional in nature, such as the PBS special, "Joan Robinson: One Woman's Story." Other more optimistic stories may have a negative impact on patients facing more advanced stages of the disease. Yet the media appear to be gradually stripping the mystery from cancer and preparing patients to deal with their treatment and physicians more intelligently and more assertively. Breast and lung cancers are the two sites that get the most attention from the press. Unfortunately, colon and rectum cancers rank quite low in press attention. The American Cancer Society (ACS) has studied public attitudes toward these cancers and is preparing programs to reach the public about them. This paper will deal with these topics and make some observations on the impact of media coverage on cancer patients.
Cruz Jurado, J; Richart Aznar, P; García Mata, J; Fernández Martínez, R; Peláez Fernández, I; Sampedro Gimeno, T; Galve Calvo, E; Murillo Jaso, L; Polo Marqués, E; García Palomo, A
Hormone treatment is one of the key strategies in the management of metastatic breast cancer. Hormone treatment is one of the key strategies in the management of metastatic breast cancer. Aromatase inhibitors (AI) have been extensively studied in this setting. This section summarizes the key data regarding the use of AI in advanced breast cancer. In postmenopausal women, AI are the first line of treatment for untreated patients, or those who had prior AI treatment and progress after 12 months of adjuvant therapy. A longer disease-free interval and absence of visceral disease is associated with a better response. If tumors recur in less than 12 months, it is recommended that tamoxifen (TAM) or the estrogen-receptor antagonist fulvestrant (FUL) treatment be initiated. In the second-line setting, the best option after progression is the administration of either FUL or TAM. In the third-line setting, reintroduction of AI is considered an acceptable option. In premenopausal women who have not received prior treatment or who have progressed after 12 months following adjuvant treatment, it is recommended to initiate therapy with a combination of TAM and a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) analog. If there is treatment failure with the use of this combination, megestrol acetate or an LHRH agonist plus an AI may be reasonable alternatives. Intensive research is ongoing to understand the mechanisms of resistance to hormone therapy. In human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive-patients, combinations with HER2 antagonists are associated with significant clinical activity.
Yoo, Heon Jong; Lim, Myong Cheol; Son, Yedong; Seo, Sang-Soo; Kang, Sokbom; Kim, Sun Ho; Yoo, Chong Woo; Park, Sang-Yoon
A familial history of ovarian cancer/breast cancer is considered a significant prognostic factor for ovarian cancer. We investigated hereditary factors by examining the incidence of synchronous malignancy in patients with endometrial cancer, and assessed the prognostic role of heredity in endometrial cancer. We retrospectively evaluated patients with endometrial cancer who underwent surgery from January 2001 to April 2011. A hereditary background in this study was defined as double primary cancer, that is, endometrial cancer accompanied by colon, ovarian, or breast cancer suggestive of Lynch syndrome, hereditary breast ovarian cancer syndrome, or Cowden syndrome, respectively. Among 282 patients with endometrial cancer in the study population, 20 patients (7.1%) had a hereditary predisposition: 10 patients (3.5%) had ovarian cancer, six patients (2.1%) had breast cancer, and four patients (1.4%) had colon cancer. Age and lower uterine segment involvement were not statistically different between the hereditary and nonhereditary groups. The majority of the women in the hereditary group presented with Stage I cancer; however, there were no significant differences in Stage I cancer between the hereditary group and the sporadic endometrial cancer group (85% and 77%, respectively, p = 0.561). The median follow-up period was 60 months. A 5-year overall survival rate was not different between the two groups (95% and 95%, respectively, p = 0.659). Among a subgroup of patients with Stage I endometrial cancer, the 5-year overall survival rate was lower in the endometrial cancer with a hereditary predisposition group compared with the sporadic endometrial cancer group (94% and 98%, respectively, p = 0.027). Seven percent of the women with endometrial cancer in our study had other malignancies such as ovarian, colon, or breast cancer synchronously. Among a subgroup of patients with Stage I cancer in the endometrial cancer with a hereditary predisposition group, the 5-year
A four-drug chemotherapy regimen has produced the longest improvement in survival ever seen in a phase III clinical trial of patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer, one of the deadliest types of cancer.
... 166103.html Drug Xeloda Prolongs Survival for Some Breast Cancer Patients It cut risk of relapse, death by ... can extend the lives of some women whose breast cancer is not wiped out by standard treatment, a ...
Do, Sung-Im; Lee, Hyoun Wook; Sohn, Jin Hee; Kim, Kyungeun
Gallbladder cancer is the most common biliary tract cancer and the fifth most common cancer of the digestive system. However, the clinicopathologic features of gallbladder cancer in young Korean patients have not been studied. This study included 101 consecutive cases of gallbladder cancer that underwent cholecystectomy at Kangbuk Samsung Hospital from December 1990 to March 2011. The patients were divided into two groups by age at initial diagnosis of gallbladder cancer: a young patient group aged less than 45 years and an old patient group aged 45 or older. The young patient group included 10 patients with mean age of 38 (range, 29-44 years). Compared with the old patient group, the young patient group showed polypoid tumor appearance (p=0.014), lower pT stage (p=0.023), more frequent adenoma background (p=0.009), and less frequent dysplasia in remaining mucosa (p=0.001). The disease-related survival rate after 13.5 months was significantly more favorable for the young patients. Gallbladder cancers in young Korean patients have distinct clinicopathologic features of a high frequency of cancer arising in adenoma, rare association with intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia, and a favorable patient's prognosis. These findings suggest that the adenoma-carcinoma pathway could contribute more to gallbladder cancer carcinogenesis in young Korean patients than the metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma pathway.
Hamashima, Chisato; Shabana, Michiko; Okamoto, Mikizo; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Kishimoto, Takuji
Aims Interval cancer is a key factor that influences the effectiveness of a cancer screening program. To evaluate the impact of interval cancer on the effectiveness of endoscopic screening, the survival rates of patients with interval cancer were analyzed. Methods We performed gastric cancer-specific and all-causes survival analyses of patients with screen-detected cancer and patients with interval cancer in the endoscopic screening group and radiographic screening group using the Kaplan-Meier method. Since the screening interval was 1 year, interval cancer was defined as gastric cancer detected within 1 year after a negative result. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to investigate the risk factors associated with gastric cancer-specific and all-causes death. Results A total of 1,493 gastric cancer patients (endoscopic screening group: n = 347; radiographic screening group: n = 166; outpatient group: n = 980) were identified from the Tottori Cancer Registry from 2001 to 2008. The gastric cancer-specific survival rates were higher in the endoscopic screening group than in the radiographic screening group and the outpatients group. In the endoscopic screening group, the gastric cancer-specific survival rate of the patients with screen-detected cancer and the patients with interval cancer were nearly equal (P = 0.869). In the radiographic screening group, the gastric cancer-specific survival rate of the patients with screen-detected cancer was higher than that of the patients with interval cancer (P = 0.009). For gastric cancer-specific death, the hazard ratio of interval cancer in the endoscopic screening group was 0.216 for gastric cancer death (95%CI: 0.054-0.868) compared with the outpatient group. Conclusion The survival rate and the risk of gastric cancer death among the patients with screen-detected cancer and patients with interval cancer were not significantly different in the annual endoscopic screening. These results suggest the potential of
Lowitz, Barry B.; Benjamin, Robert S.
Nononcologic medical problems are common in patients with cancer. Failure to evaluate and treat these problems leads to considerable morbidity and mortality in people who often have potential for both comfortable and productive lives. While a physician is sometimes powerless to prevent the progression of underlying cancer, he must not allow a diagnostic category to color his approach. By seeing only an end point which is inevitable for all people, one could be inclined not to treat what is treatable. With clinical judgment, information and the eternal question of diagnosticians, “What else could this be?”, a physician can focus not on the inevitability of death but on the quality of life. PMID:878475
Development of bone metastases in patients with advanced cancer is associated with skeletal-related events (SREs) such as pathologic fractures, spinal cord compression, the requirement for surgery or palliative radiotherapy to bone, and hypercalcemia of malignancy. Skeletal morbidity may reduce patient mobility, limit functional independence, and impair quality of life (QOL). Proactive management of new or worsening bone pain or motor impairment is crucial because of the potential for rapid progression of symptoms. Administration of bisphosphonate therapy as a monthly infusion to patients with bone metastases prevents or delays the onset and reduces the frequency of SREs and provides clinically meaningful improvements in bone pain and QOL. In addition to administration of therapy, the monthly infusion visit allows a dedicated team of healthcare professionals to regularly assess SREs, response to therapy, adverse events (AEs), QOL, and adherence to oral medications and supplements. The continuity of care that occurs during the monthly infusion visit provides oncology nurses with an opportunity to educate patients about effective strategies to manage SREs and AEs. In addition, regular interaction provides oncology nurses with an opportunity to recognize and proactively address subtle changes in the patients’ medical condition. Using a multidisciplinary medical team also eliminates barriers between the various healthcare professionals involved in patient management. Consequently, the monthly infusion visit can result in effective patient management and improved clinical outcomes in patients with malignant bone disease. PMID:21206517
Owiredu, W K B A; Donkor, S; Addai, B Wiafe; Amidu, N
The purpose of this study was to carry out a comparative study to investigate the effect of lipid profile, oestradiol and obesity on the risk of a woman developing breast cancer. This study was carried out at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), Peace and Love Hospital, Oduom, Kumasi and Redeemed Clinic, Nima, Accra between May 2002 and March 2003. In this study, 200 consented women comprising 100 breast cancer patients (43 pre- and 57 post-menopausal) and 100 controls (45 pre- and 55 post-menopausal) with similar age range (25 to 80 years) were assessed for lipid profile, oestradiol and BMI. There was a significant increase in Body Mass Index (BMI) (p = 0.011), Total Cholesterol (TC) (p < 0.001), triglyceride (p = 0.026) and low density lipoprotein (LDL-cholesterol) (p = 0.001) of the breast cancer patients compared to the controls. With the exception of oestradiol (EST) that decreased, the lipid profile generally increased with age in both subjects and controls with the subjects having a much higher value than the corresponding control. There was also a significant positive correlation between BMI and TC (r2 = 0.022; p = 0.002) and also between BMI and LDL-cholesterol (r2 = 0.031; p = 0.0003). Apart from EST and LDL-cholesterol that were increased significantly only in the postmenopausal phase in comparison to the controls, BMI, TC and TG were increased in both pre-menopausal and post menopausal phases with HDL-cholesterol remaining unchanged. This study confirms the association between dyslipidaemia, BMI and increased breast cancer risk.
Breast cancer in the elderly is a rising health care challenge. Under-treatment is common. While the proportion of older patients receiving adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) is rising, the proportion undergoing breast-conserving surgery without irradiation has also risen. The evidence base for loco-regional treatment is limited, reflecting the historical exclusion of older patients from randomised trials. The 2011 Oxford overview shows that the risk of first recurrence is halved in all age groups by adjuvant RT after breast-conserving surgery, although the absolute benefit in older 'low-risk' patients is small. There is level 1 evidence that a breast boost after breast-conserving surgery and whole-breast irradiation reduces local recurrence in older as in younger women, although in the former the absolute reduction is modest. Partial breast irradiation (external beam or intraoperative or postoperative brachytherapy) is potentially an attractive option for older patients, but the evidence base is insufficient to recommend it routinely. Similarly, shortened (hypofractionated) dose fraction schedules may be more convenient for older patients and are supported by level 1 evidence. There remains uncertainty about whether there is a subgroup of older low-risk patients in whom postoperative RT can be omitted after breast-conserving surgery. Biomarkers of 'low risk' are needed to refine the selection of patients for the omission of adjuvant RT. The role of postmastectomy irradiation is well established for 'high-risk' patients but uncertain in the intermediate-risk category of patients with 1-3 involved axillary nodes or node-negative patients with other risk factors where its role is investigational.
Bender, Melinda; Clark, Maresha; Guevara, Enrique; Chee, Wonshik; Im, Eun-Ok
Health care inequities continue to plague African Americans. For African American cancer patients these inequities include access to health care, availability of treatment modalities, support groups, and participation in nursing cancer research. A support group setting is better for recruitment than a clinical setting. Referrals to the researcher from individuals who personally know the African American cancer patients generated the best response rates. If the researcher has no previous connection with the potential participant, interest in the study may be generated but recruitment is minimal or absent. Ethnically sensitive recruitment of African American cancer patients is therefore essential to improving participatory responses in cancer nursing research.
A cancer patient undergoes treatment in the Neutron Therapy Treatment Facility, or Cylotron, at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center. After World War II Lewis researchers became interested in nuclear energy for propulsion. The focused their efforts on thermodynamics and strength of materials after radiation. In 1950 an 80-person Nuclear Reactor Division was created, and a cyclotron was built behind the Materials and Structures Laboratory. An in-house nuclear school was established to train these researchers in their new field. NASA cancelled its entire nuclear program in January 1973, just as the cyclotron was about to resume operations after a major upgrade. In 1975 the Cleveland Clinic Foundation partnered with NASA Lewis to use the cyclotron for a new type of radiation treatment for cancer patients. The cyclotron split beryllium atoms which caused neutrons to be released. The neutrons were streamed directly at the patient’s tumor. The facility had a dual-beam system that could target the tumor both vertically and horizontally. Over the course of five years, the cyclotron was used to treat 1200 patients. It was found to be particularly effective on salivary gland, prostrate, and other tumors. It was not as successful with tumors of the central nervous system. The program was terminated in 1980 as the Clinic began concentrating on non-radiation treatments.
Costa, I; Conçalves, F
The treatment of intestinal obstruction (IO) in patients with advanced or terminal cancer represents an open and widely discussed topic in clinical oncology practice. As surgical palliation is a complex issue, the decision to advance with surgery should be made in consultation with the patients and family members. The prognostic factors, mainly the survival time and the surgical risks can be considered guideline indicators. If there is any possibility that surgery will be of benefit, the patient should be treated with intravenous fluids and nasogastric suction while appropriate radiological investigations are performed. When surgical intervention is contraindicated, symptomatic medical treatment should be started through continuous subcutaneous administration of analgesic and antiemetic drugs. Minor episodes of vomiting may occur, which do not trouble patients since the most distressing symptom, nausea, can be controlled. Dehydration may be avoided with a liquid diet in small quantities. In this way, it is possible to manage patients with IO for several weeks without the need of nasogastric suction or intravenous fluids. Percutaneous gastrostomy, nasogastric tube, or hypodermoclysis may be necessary for a small number of patients, principally with high obstruction, who have refractory symptoms.
Anal Cancer; Colorectal Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Gallbladder Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Head and Neck Cancer; Liver Cancer; Lung Cancer; Pancreatic Cancer; Small Intestine Cancer
Benoot, Charlotte; Bilsen, Johan; Grypdonck, Maria; Deschepper, Reginald
The social environment is an important determinant in the overall experience of having cancer. The purpose of this article is to identify how patients experience living alone during their cancer treatment. Using qualitative methods based on grounded theory techniques, we interviewed a sample of 32 cancer patients. Living alone was an ambiguous experience during cancer treatment: patients experienced both a lack of support as well a gain in privacy, freedom, and know-how. Living alone was also seen as a constitutive element of the patients' identity. Consequently, patients saw living alone as either a threat or as a resource for their adjustment to cancer treatment. These divergent meanings of living alone did share one common attribute, which was that staying independent was their key goal during cancer treatment. Health care providers should be attentive to the heterogeneous aspects of the experience of living alone when critically appraising the independence of patients.
Gschwendtner, K M; Klein, G; Güthlin, C; Holmberg, C; Horneber, M; Weis, J
In Germany, many prostate cancer patients use complementary medicine (CM) or have an interest in these treatment approaches; however, the information and consultation situation of cancer patients is insufficient and therefore the Competence Network Complementary Medicine in Oncology (COCON) was launched by the German Cancer Aid Society. One of the projects of the COCON examines the use of CM and the information and counseling needs regarding these topics in various groups of cancer patients. The focus of this article is on the qualitative study reporting selected results for the subgroup of prostate cancer patients. A total of 19 semi-structured qualitative interviews with prostate cancer patients were conducted regarding the use of CM as well as their information and consultation needs. It was found that the patients interviewed discussed various issues surrounding nutrition, particularly a healthy diet, the selective use of certain foods and the use of dietary supplements. Additional themes mentioned by interviewees were physical exercise, psychological well-being, mistletoe therapy, homeopathy and traditional Chinese medicine. Patients indicated that they wanted more information and counseling opportunities with regards to CM. They also expressed a desire for more holistic care. The results show that prostate cancer patients use a range of CM and have a need for information about CM. Prostate cancer patients are in a special situation because of a regular feedback on the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value. This should be taken into consideration in consultation with prostate cancer patients regarding CM.
Huang, Dong-Sheng; Tao, Hou-Quan; He, Xu-Jun; Long, Ming; Yu, Sheng; Xia, Ying-Jie; Wei, Zhang; Xiong, Zikai; Jones, Sian; He, Yiping; Yan, Hai; Wang, Xiaoyue
Besides CDH1, few hereditary gastric cancer predisposition genes have been previously reported. In this study, we discovered two germline ATM mutations (p.Y1203fs and p.N1223S) in a Chinese family with a history of gastric cancer by screening 83 cancer susceptibility genes. Using a published exome sequencing dataset, we found deleterious germline mutations of ATM in 2.7% of 335 gastric cancer patients of different ethnic origins. The frequency of deleterious ATM mutations in gastric cancer patients is significantly higher than that in general population (p=0.0000435), suggesting an association of ATM mutations with gastric cancer predisposition. We also observed biallelic inactivation of ATM in tumors of two gastric cancer patients. Further evaluation of ATM mutations in hereditary gastric cancer will facilitate genetic testing and risk assessment.
Jansen, Jesse; van Weert, Julia; van der Meulen, Nienke; van Dulmen, Sandra; Heeren, Thea; Bensing, Jozien
Purpose: Remembering medical treatment information may be particularly taxing for older cancer patients, but to our knowledge this ability has never been assessed in this specific age group only. Our purpose in this study was to investigate older cancer patients' recall of information after patient education preceding chemotherapy. Design and…
Pandhi, Mithil B; Desai, Kush R; Ryu, Robert K; Lewandowski, Robert J
Cancer induces a hypercoagulable state and renders patients susceptible to venous thromboembolism. While anticoagulation remains the mainstay of treatment, many of these patients require placement of an inferior vena cava (IVC) filter, often due to a contraindication to or failure of anticoagulation. In this article, the available data on IVC filter usage in cancer patients will be reviewed.
Pandhi, Mithil B.; Desai, Kush R.; Ryu, Robert K.; Lewandowski, Robert J.
Cancer induces a hypercoagulable state and renders patients susceptible to venous thromboembolism. While anticoagulation remains the mainstay of treatment, many of these patients require placement of an inferior vena cava (IVC) filter, often due to a contraindication to or failure of anticoagulation. In this article, the available data on IVC filter usage in cancer patients will be reviewed. PMID:27247473
Jansen, Jesse; van Weert, Julia; van der Meulen, Nienke; van Dulmen, Sandra; Heeren, Thea; Bensing, Jozien
Purpose: Remembering medical treatment information may be particularly taxing for older cancer patients, but to our knowledge this ability has never been assessed in this specific age group only. Our purpose in this study was to investigate older cancer patients' recall of information after patient education preceding chemotherapy. Design and…
Konstantis, Apostolos; Exiara, Triada
In a regional hospital, many patients are newly diagnosed with cancer. Breaking the bad news in these patients and their relatives is a tough task. Many doctors are not experienced in talking to patients about death or death-related diseases. In recent years, there have been great efforts to change the current situation. The aim of this study was to investigate the experience and education of medical personnel in breaking bad news in a secondary hospital. 59 doctors from General Hospital of Komotini, Greece were included in the study. All the doctors were in clinical specialties that treated cancer patients. A brief questionnaire was developed based on current guidelines such as Baile/SPIKES framework and the ABCDE mnemonic. Residents are involved in delivering bad news less frequently than specialists. Only 21 doctors (35.59%) had specific training on breaking bad news. 20 doctors (33.90%) were aware of the available techniques and protocols on breaking bad news. 47 doctors (79.66%) had a consistent plan for breaking bad news. 57 (96.61%) delivered bad news in a quiet place, 53 (89.83%) ensured no interruptions and enough time, 53 (89.83%) used simple words and 54 (91.53%) checked for understanding and did not rush through the news. 46 doctors (77.97%) allowed relatives to determine patient's knowledge about the disease. There were low rates of specific training in breaking bad news. However, the selected location, the physician's speech and their plan were according to current guidelines.
Piderman, Katherine M.; Euerle, Terin T.; Frost, Marlene H.; Novotny, Paul J.; Rausch Osian, Sarah M.; Nes, Lise Solberg; Patten, Christi A.; Sloan, Jeff A.; Rummans, Teresa A.; Bronars, Carrie A.; Yang, Ping; Clark, Matthew M.
Patients with lung cancer report more disease burden and lower spiritual well-being (SWB) compared with other cancer patients. Understanding variables that lessen disease burden and improve SWB is essential. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between motivational level for physical activity and SWB in patients with lung cancer. Linear regression showed increased SWB as stage of change for physical activity increased (p<0.0001), even after adjusting for multiple demographic variables. PMID:26463853
Smoczyk, C M; Zhu, W; Whatley, M H
The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable instrument to assess cancer patients' preferences for all types of social support and organizational features of cancer support groups. The content of the instrument was the result of a detailed analysis of four resources: (1) literature relating to cancer support group interventions, (2) program materials from existing groups, (3) interviews with individuals who developed or directed groups, and (4) interviews with patients who have participated in cancer support groups. A jury of six experts was used to establish content validity of the instrument. The reliability of the instrument was examined by measuring a sample of 258 cancer patients. The reliability coefficients of the instrument were all above .80, except for two types of social support (instrumental and informational-educational), which were .72 and .78, respectively. It was concluded that the instrument produces valid and reliable measurements of cancer patients' preferences for cancer support groups.
Baird, Richard; Banks, Ian; Cameron, David; Chester, John; Earl, Helena; Flannagan, Mark; Januszewski, Adam; Kennedy, Richard; Payne, Sarah; Samuel, Emlyn; Taylor, Hannah; Agarwal, Roshan; Ahmed, Samreen; Archer, Caroline; Board, Ruth; Carser, Judith; Copson, Ellen; Cunningham, David; Coleman, Rob; Dangoor, Adam; Dark, Graham; Eccles, Diana; Gallagher, Chris; Glaser, Adam; Griffiths, Richard; Hall, Geoff; Hall, Marcia; Harari, Danielle; Hawkins, Michael; Hill, Mark; Johnson, Peter; Jones, Alison; Kalsi, Tania; Karapanagiotou, Eleni; Kemp, Zoe; Mansi, Janine; Marshall, Ernie; Mitchell, Alex; Moe, Maung; Michie, Caroline; Neal, Richard; Newsom-Davis, Tom; Norton, Alison; Osborne, Richard; Patel, Gargi; Radford, John; Ring, Alistair; Shaw, Emily; Skinner, Rod; Stark, Dan; Turnbull, Sam; Velikova, Galina; White, Jeff; Young, Alison; Joffe, Johnathan; Selby, Peter
The Association of Cancer Physicians in the United Kingdom has developed a strategy to improve outcomes for cancer patients and identified the goals and commitments of the Association and its members. PMID:26913066
Baird, Richard; Banks, Ian; Cameron, David; Chester, John; Earl, Helena; Flannagan, Mark; Januszewski, Adam; Kennedy, Richard; Payne, Sarah; Samuel, Emlyn; Taylor, Hannah; Agarwal, Roshan; Ahmed, Samreen; Archer, Caroline; Board, Ruth; Carser, Judith; Copson, Ellen; Cunningham, David; Coleman, Rob; Dangoor, Adam; Dark, Graham; Eccles, Diana; Gallagher, Chris; Glaser, Adam; Griffiths, Richard; Hall, Geoff; Hall, Marcia; Harari, Danielle; Hawkins, Michael; Hill, Mark; Johnson, Peter; Jones, Alison; Kalsi, Tania; Karapanagiotou, Eleni; Kemp, Zoe; Mansi, Janine; Marshall, Ernie; Mitchell, Alex; Moe, Maung; Michie, Caroline; Neal, Richard; Newsom-Davis, Tom; Norton, Alison; Osborne, Richard; Patel, Gargi; Radford, John; Ring, Alistair; Shaw, Emily; Skinner, Rod; Stark, Dan; Turnbull, Sam; Velikova, Galina; White, Jeff; Young, Alison; Joffe, Johnathan; Selby, Peter
The Association of Cancer Physicians in the United Kingdom has developed a strategy to improve outcomes for cancer patients and identified the goals and commitments of the Association and its members.
Madanat-Harjuoja, Laura-Maria S.; Malila, Nea; Lähteenmäki, Päivi; Pukkala, Eero; Mulvihill, John J; Boice, John D.; Sankila, Risto
Cancer treatments have the potential to cause germline mutations that might increase the risk of cancer in the offspring of former cancer patients. This risk was evaluated in a population-based study of early onset cancer patients in Finland. Using nationwide registry data, 26,331 children of pediatric and early onset cancer patients (diagnosed under age 35 between 1953 and 2004) were compared to 58,155 children of siblings. Cancer occurrence among the children was determined by linkage with the cancer registry, and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated comparing the observed number of cancers with that expected, based on rates in the general population of Finland. Among the 9877 children born after their parent’s diagnosis, cancer risk was increased (SIR 1.67; 95% CI 1.29–2.12). However, after removing those with hereditary cancer syndromes, this increase disappeared (SIR 1.03; 95% CI 0.74–1.40). The overall risk of cancer among the offspring of siblings (SIR 1.07; 95% CI 0.94–1.21) was the same as among the offspring of the patients with non-hereditary cancer. Risk of cancer in offspring born prior to their parents cancer diagnosis was elevated (SIR 1.37, 95% CI 1.20–1.54), but removing hereditary syndromes resulted in a diminished and non-significant association (SIR 1.08, 95% CI 0.93–1.25). This study shows that offspring of cancer patients are not at an increased risk of cancer except when the patient has a cancer-predisposing syndrome. These findings are directly relevant to counseling cancer survivors with regard to family planning. PMID:19728329
Blau, C. Anthony; Liakopoulou, Effie
Patients with cancer face an ever-widening gap between the exponential rate at which technology improves and the linear rate at which these advances are translated into clinical practice. Closing this gap will require the establishment of learning loops that intimately link lab and clinic and enable the immediate transfer of knowledge, thereby engaging highly motivated patients with cancer as true partners in research. Here, we discuss the goal of creating a distributed network that aims to place world-class resources at the disposal of select patients with cancer and their oncologists, and then use these intensively monitored individual patient experiences to improve collective understanding of how cancer works. PMID:23102584
Jeong, Hyun Yong
Background/Aims. To evaluate the incidence of gastric adenoma and gastric cancer in colorectal cancer patients, as well as the clinicopathological features that affect their incidence. Methods. Among patients who underwent surgery after being diagnosed with colorectal cancer between January 2004 and December 2013 at Chungnam National University Hospital, 142 patients who underwent follow-up upper gastrointestinal endoscopy were assigned to the patient group. The control group included 426 subjects randomly selected. The patient group was subdivided into two: one that developed gastric adenoma or cancer and one that did not. Clinicopathological characteristics were compared between these groups. Results. In total, 35 (24.6%) colorectal cancer patients developed a gastric adenoma or gastric cancer, which was higher than the number in the control group (20 [4.7%] patients; p < 0.001). Age, alcohol history, and differentiation of colorectal cancer were associated with higher risks of gastric adenoma or gastric cancer, with odds ratios of 1.062, 6.506, and 5.901, respectively. Conclusions. In colorectal cancer patients, screening with upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is important, even if no lesions are noted in the upper gastrointestinal tract at colorectal cancer diagnosis. Endoscopic screening is particularly important with increasing age, history of alcohol consumption, and poor cancer differentiation. PMID:28105047
Sánchez-Lara, Karla; Ugalde-Morales, Emilio; Motola-Kuba, Daniel; Green, Dan
Cancer patients receiving chemotherapy have a high risk of malnutrition secondary to the disease and treatment, and 40-80 % of cancer patients suffer from different degrees of malnutrition, depending on tumour subtype, location, staging and treatment strategy. Malnutrition in cancer patients affects the patient's overall condition, and it increases the number of complications, the adverse effects of chemotherapy and reduces the quality of life. The aim of the present study was to evaluate weight-loss prevalence depending on the tumour site and the gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms of oncology patients receiving chemotherapy. We included 191 cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Files of all patients were reviewed to identify symptoms that might potentially influence weight loss. The nutritional status of all patients was also determined. The cancer sites in the patients were as follows: breast (31·9 %); non-colorectal GI (18·3 %); colorectal (10·4 %); lung (5·8 %); haematological (13·1 %); others (20·5 %). Of these patients, 58 % experienced some degree of weight loss, and its prevalence was higher among the non-colorectal GI and lung cancer patients. Common symptoms included nausea (59·6 %), anorexia (46 %) and constipation (31·9 %). A higher proportion of patients with ≥ 5 % weight loss experienced anorexia, nausea and vomiting (OR 9·5, 2·15 and 6·1, respectively). In conclusion, these results indicate that GI symptoms can influence weight loss in cancer patients, and they should be included in early nutritional evaluations.
Cheung, Winson Y; Neville, Bridget A; Cameron, Danielle B; Cook, E Francis; Earle, Craig C
To compare expectations for cancer survivorship care between patients and their physicians and between primary care providers (PCPs) and oncologists. Survivors and their physicians were surveyed to evaluate for expectations regarding physician participation in primary cancer follow-up, screening for other cancers, general preventive health, and management of comorbidities. Of 992 eligible survivors and 607 physicians surveyed, 535 (54%) and 378 (62%) were assessable, respectively. Among physician respondents, 255 (67%) were PCPs and 123 (33%) were oncologists. Comparing patients with their oncologists, expectations were highly discrepant for screening for cancers other than the index one (agreement rate, 29%), with patients anticipating significantly more oncologist involvement. Between patients and their PCPs, expectations were most incongruent for primary cancer follow-up (agreement rate, 35%), with PCPs indicating they should contribute a much greater part to this aspect of care. Expectations between patients and their PCPs were generally more concordant than between patients and their oncologists. PCPs and oncologists showed high discordances in perceptions of their own roles for primary cancer follow-up, cancer screening, and general preventive health (agreement rates of 3%, 44%, and 51%, respectively). In the case of primary cancer follow-up, both PCPs and oncologists indicated they should carry substantial responsibility for this task. Patients and physicians have discordant expectations with respect to the roles of PCPs and oncologists in cancer survivorship care. Uncertainties around physician roles and responsibilities can lead to deficiencies in care, supporting the need to make survivorship care planning a standard component in cancer management.
Su, Shu-Chih; Kanarek, Norma; Fox, Michael G; Guseynova, Alla; Crow, Shirley; Piantadosi, Steven
We examined the geographic distribution of patients to better understand the service area of the Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins, a designated National Cancer Institute (NCI) comprehensive cancer center located in an urban center. Like most NCI cancer centers, the Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center serves a population beyond city limits. Urban cancer centers are expected to serve their immediate neighborhoods and to address disparities in access to specialty care. Our purpose was to learn the extent and nature of the cancer center service area. Statistical clustering of patient residence in the continental United States was assessed for all patients and by gender, cancer site, and race using SaTScan. Primary clusters detected for all cases and demographically and tumor-defined subpopulations were centered at Baltimore City and consisted of adjacent counties in Delaware, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia, New Jersey and New York, and the District of Columbia. Primary clusters varied in size by race, gender, and cancer site. Spatial analysis can provide insights into the populations served by urban cancer centers, assess centers' performance relative to their communities, and aid in developing a cancer center business plan that recognizes strengths, regional utility, and referral patterns. Today, 62 NCI cancer centers serve a quarter of the U.S. population in their immediate communities. From the Baltimore experience, we might project that the population served by these centers is actually more extensive and varies by patient characteristics, cancer site, and probably cancer center services offered.
Thorsen, Lene; Gjerset, Gunhild M; Loge, Jon Håvard; Kiserud, Cecilie E; Skovlund, Eva; Fløtten, Tone; Fosså, Sophie D
To examine cancer patients' needs for rehabilitation services and factors associated with such needs, and secondly identify unmet needs for rehabilitation services and related factors. In 2008 persons aged 25-60 years, diagnosed in 2005/2006 with the ten most prevalent cancers in Norway were identified through the Cancer Registry of Norway. These patients were contacted by their treating hospital receiving a mailed questionnaire. Main outcomes for the present study were measured by two questions assessing a) needs for rehabilitation services and b) rehabilitation services offered/used. For each question seven services were listed; physical therapy, physical training, psychological counseling, consultations with social worker, occupational therapy, supportive group sessions and admittance to a convalescent home. The respondents then rated to what extent they had experienced needs and if they had been offered and used each service. Those who reported need for a service that not had been offered were defined as having unmet need. Associations between demographic, health-related and outcome variables were analyzed by multivariate logistic and linear regression analyses. Among the 1 325 respondents, the mean age was 52 years and 70% were women. Sixty-three percent reported need for at least one rehabilitation service. Need for physical therapy was most frequently reported (43%), followed by physical training (34%), psychological counseling (27%), supportive group sessions (24%), admittance to a convalescent home (24%), consultation with social worker (19%) and occupational therapy (6%). Changes in employment status and ongoing or previous chemotherapy were associated with reporting needs for all rehabilitation services. Forty percent reported unmet needs, which most frequently was reported among persons living alone, who had changed their employment status, receiving or had received chemotherapy or reported comorbidities. The majority reported need for at least one
Djukić, V B; Kastratović, D A; Pendjer, I P; Majstorović, B M; Nikolić, Lj I; Boricić, I V; Vujicić, Z N
Etiology of thrombosis in malignant diseases is multifactorial, and mechanisms that lead to thrombosis include release of the procoagulants from tumor cells (PC), factor related to bed rest, infections, as well as oncological therapy --chemotherapy, hormones, radiotherapy and surgical treatment. Thrombocytosis has frequently been found to be associated with various malignancies. 53 years old female patient hospitalised because of hypopharingeal cancer with metastasis in the left neck. Her state was complicated with deep leg vein trombosis and pseudomonas infection. Persistent thrombocitosis in laboratory monitoring indicated more adequate diagnostic procedures, which led to discovering of Chorioidal Malignant Mellanoma as a second cancer. She was treated: surgically, with antibiotics, with anticoagulants and radiotherapy. Patient was discharged from the hospital in good health condition, free of any other symptom of the malignant disease. Presense of thrombocytosis and idiopatic thrombosis can suggest occult malignancy. It would be prudent to further evaluate the relationship of trombotic events, trombocitosis and head and neck tumors. We suggest anticoagulants to prevent thromboembolic complications, affect the angiogenesis and prevent development of metastatic disease. It may lead to lower mortality rate.
Ytterstad, Elinor; Moe, Per C; Hjalmarsen, Audhild
Previous studies have relied on international spirometry criteria to diagnose COPD in patients with lung cancer without considering the effect lung cancer might have on spirometric results. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of COPD and emphysema at the time of primary lung cancer diagnosis and to examine factors associated with survival. Medical records, pulmonary function tests, and computed tomography scans were used to determine the presence of COPD and emphysema in patients diagnosed with primary lung cancer at the University Hospital of North Norway in 2008-2010. Among the 174 lung cancer patients, 69% had COPD or emphysema (39% with COPD, 59% with emphysema; male:female ratio 101:73). Neither COPD nor emphysema were significantly associated with lung cancer mortality, whereas patients with non-small-cell lung cancer other than adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma had a risk of lung cancer mortality that was more than four times higher than that of patients with small-cell lung cancer (hazard ratio [HR] 4.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.56-11.25). Females had a lower risk of lung cancer mortality than males (HR 0.63, 95% CI 0.42-0.94), and patients aged ≥75 years had a risk that was twice that of patients aged <75 years (HR 2.48, 95% CI 1.59-3.87). Low partial arterial oxygen pressure (4.0-8.4 kPa) increased the risk of lung cancer mortality (HR 2.26, 95% CI 1.29-3.96). So did low partial arterial carbon dioxide pressure (3.0-4.9 kPa) among stage IV lung cancer patients (HR 2.23, 95% CI 1.29-3.85). Several patients with respiratory failure had previously been diagnosed with COPD. The observed prevalence of COPD was lower than that in previous studies. Neither COPD nor emphysema were significantly associated with lung cancer mortality.
Yamasaki, Yasushi; Matsushima, Masashi; Tanaka, Hisae; Tajiri, Sakurako; Fukuda, Ryuki; Ozawa, Hideki; Takagi, Atsushi; Hirabayashi, Ken-ichi; Sadahiro, Sohtaro
An 81-year-old woman presented with a chief complaint of swelling of both lower legs. She had a history of surgery for cancers of the stomach, rectum and colon. Among her immediate family members, her son had colon and rectal cancers, and her sister had ovarian cancer. After close examination the patient was diagnosed with small intestine cancer and ascending colon cancer. Gene mutation analyses did not reveal any mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes, but MSH-2 protein expression was lost only in the cancer lesions. Here, we report this rare case of eight metachronous gastrointestinal cancers thought to be HNPCC.
Elliott, Thomas E.; Elliott, Barbara A.; Regal, Ronald R.; Renier, Colleen M.; Haller, Irina V.; Crouse, Byron J.; Witrak, Martha T.; Jensen, Patricia B.
Significant barriers exist in the delivery of state-of-the-art cancer care to rural populations. Rural providers' knowledge and practices, their rural health care delivery systems, and linkages to cancer specialists are not optimal; therefore, rural cancer patient outcomes are less than achievable. Purpose: To test the effects of a strategy…
Elliott, Thomas E.; Elliott, Barbara A.; Regal, Ronald R.; Renier, Colleen M.; Haller, Irina V.; Crouse, Byron J.; Witrak, Martha T.; Jensen, Patricia B.
Significant barriers exist in the delivery of state-of-the-art cancer care to rural populations. Rural providers' knowledge and practices, their rural health care delivery systems, and linkages to cancer specialists are not optimal; therefore, rural cancer patient outcomes are less than achievable. Purpose: To test the effects of a strategy…
Saunders, CL; Abel, GA; Lyratzopoulos, G
Patient experience is a critical dimension of cancer care quality. Understanding variation in experience among patients with different cancers and characteristics is an important first step for designing targeted improvement interventions. We analysed data from the 2011/2012 English Cancer Patient Experience Survey (n = 69 086) using logistic regression to explore inequalities in care experience across 64 survey questions. We additionally calculated a summary measure of variation in patient experience by cancer, and explored inequalities between patients with cancers treated by the same specialist teams. We found that younger and very old, ethnic minority patients and women consistently reported worse experiences across questions. Patients with small intestine/rarer lower gastrointestinal, multiple myeloma and hepatobiliary cancers were most likely to report negative experiences whereas patients with breast, melanoma and testicular cancer were least likely (top-to-bottom odds ratio = 1.91, P < 0.0001). There were also inequalities in experience among patients with cancers treated by the same specialty for five of nine services (P < 0.0001). Specifically, patients with ovarian, multiple myeloma, anal, hepatobiliary and renal cancer reported notably worse experiences than patients with other gynaecological, haematological, gastrointestinal and urological malignancies respectively. Initiatives to improve cancer patient experience across oncology services may be suitably targeted on patients at higher risk of poorer experience. PMID:25327713
Nergiz Avcioglu, Sümeyra; Altinkaya, Sunduz Ozlem; Küçük, Mert; Yüksel, Hasan; Ömürlü, Imran Kurt; Yanik, Serdar
Visfatin is one of the most recent proteins shown to be highly expressed in adipose tissue. The purpose of this study was to determine visfatin levels in patients with endometrial cancer (EC). A total of 90 patients (46 EC patients and 44 healthy controls) were included in the study. Fasting venous blood samples were collected from all patients. Serum visfatin levels were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The correlation between serum visfatin levels and clinicopathologic variables were determined. Serum visfatin levels were found to be higher in patients with EC (p < 0.001). Visfatin concentrations were positively correlated with age (p = 0.002, r = 0.323), body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.001, r = 0.354), fasting insulin (p = 0.002, r = 0.326), total cholesterol (TC) (p = 0.006, r = 0.285), triglyceride (TG) (p < 0.001, r = 0.364) levels and homeostasis model-resistance index (HOMA-IR) (p = 0.007, r = 0.281) of patients. By using classification and regression trees (C&RT) method, we found that visfatin predicted patients with EC 100% and controls 81.8%. Visfatin was the most important risk factor for occurrence of EC other than, age, BMI, Diabetes Mellitus and other biochemical factors like HDL, LDL, TG, TC. Clearly, there are largely unknown aspects of visfatin pathophysiology in EC and require further study.
Cellier, Camille; Charbotel, Barbara; Carretier, Julien; Rebattu, Paul; Fayette, Jérôme; Pérol, Maurice; Claude, Line; Philip, Thierry; Fervers, Béatrice
Despite the rising number of lung cancers recognized as occupational disease, occupational lung cancers are still under-reported. To improve the recognition of occupational lung cancer, we implemented at the Léon-Bérard Cancer Centre, a questionnaire-based process to identify occupational exposures in these patients and improve compensation. Between January 2010 and December 2011, 91 lung cancer patients responded to a questionnaire. An "occupational cancer" consultation was proposed to patients reporting exposure to carcinogens or jobs with risk of exposure. Fifty-one patients were seen in consultation (34 following the questionnaire and 17 directly addressed by the oncologist). A suspicion of high or average imputability was identified in 31 (60.8%) patients and a compensation process seemed possible for 27 (61.4%). Asbestos was the most common carcinogen identified. Among 17 compensation processes engaged, 12 succeeded and one is ongoing. The complexity of the administrative process seems to be an obstacle for patients and perpetuates inequality. The implementation of our approach increased the identification and the compensation of occupational lung cancer. Our approach responds to the objectives of the National Cancer Plan and helps to improve the overall care of patients with cancer. This approach has been awarded by the national label in 2011 "Year of the patients and their rights".
Cororve Gingeret, Michelle; Teo, Irene; Epner, Daniel E
Body image is a critical psychosocial issue for patients with cancer because they often undergo significant changes to appearance and functioning. The primary purpose of this review article was to identify empirically-supported approaches to treat body image difficulties of adult cancer patients that can be incorporated into high-quality comprehensive cancer care. An overview was provided of theoretical models of body image relevant to cancer patients, and findings were presented from published literature on body image and cancer from 2003 to 2013. These data were integrated with information from the patient-doctor communication literature to delineate a practical approach for assessing and treating body image concerns of adult cancer patients. Body image difficulties were found across patients with diverse cancer sites, and were most prevalent in the immediate postoperative and treatment period. Age, body mass index, and specific cancer treatments have been identified as potential risk factors for body image disturbance in cancer patients. Current evidence supports the use of time-limited cognitive behavioral therapy interventions for addressing these difficulties. Other intervention strategies also show promise but require further study. Potential indicators of body image difficulties were identified to alert health care professionals when to refer patients for psychosocial care, and a framework was proposed for approaching conversations about body image that can be used by the oncologic treatment team. Body image issues affect a wide array of cancer patients. Providers can use available evidence combined with information from the health care communication literature to develop practical strategies for treating body image concerns of patients with cancer. © 2013 American Cancer Society.
The purpose of the study is to modify a type of counseling called "Individual Meaning Centered Psychotherapy" to meet the needs of Chinese cancer patients. Many cancer patients use counseling or other resources to help cope with the emotional burden of their illnesses. Counseling often helps them cope with cancer by giving them a place to express their feelings. "Meaning-Centered" counseling aims to teach cancer patients how to maintain or even increase a sense of meaning and purpose in their lives, despite cancer. |
Li, Shaojun; Tian, Bole
Abstract Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a rare manifestation of pancreatic cancer (PC). The relationship between AP and PC remains less distinct. From January 2009 to November 2015, 47consecutive patients with PC who presented with AP were reviewed for this study. Clinical features, clinicopathologic variables, postoperative complications, and follow-up evaluations of patients were documented in detail from our database. In order to identify cutoff threshold time for surgery, receiver operating curve (ROC) was built according to patients with or without postoperative complications. Cumulative rate of survival was calculated by using the Kaplan–Meier method. The study was conducted in accordance with the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki and the guidelines of West China Hospital. This study included 35 men (74.5%) and 12 women (25.5%) (mean age: 52 years), with a median follow-up of 40 months. AP was clinically mild in 45 (95.7%) and severe in 2 (4.3%). The diagnosis of PC was delayed by 2 to 660 days (median 101 days). Thirty-nine (83.0%) cases underwent surgery. Eight (17.0%) cases performed biopsies only. Of 39 patients, radical surgery was performed in 32 (82.1%) cases and palliative in 7 (19.9%) cases. Two (8.0%) patients were needed for vascular resection and reconstruction. Postoperative complications occurred in 12 (30.8%) patients. About 24.5 days was the best cutoff point, with an area under curve (AUC) of 0.727 (P = 0.025, 95% confidence interval: 0.555–0.8999). The survival rate of patients at 1 year was 23.4%. The median survival in patients with vascular resection and reconstruction was 18 months, compared with 10 months in patients without vascular resection (P = 0.042). For the primary stage (T), Tix was identified in 3 patients, the survival of whom were 5, 28, 50 months, respectively. And 2 of them were still alive at the follow-up period. The severity of AP was mainly mild. Surgical intervention after 24.5 days may benefit for
Anal Cancer; Colorectal Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Gallbladder Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Liver Cancer; Pancreatic Cancer; Small Intestine Cancer
Ha, Duc; Mazzone, Peter J; Ries, Andrew L; Malhotra, Atul; Fuster, Mark
The harm associated with lung cancer treatment include perioperative morbidity and mortality and therapy-induced toxicities in various organs, including the heart and lungs. Optimal treatment therefore entails a need for risk assessment to weigh the probabilities of benefits versus harm. Exercise testing offers an opportunity to evaluate a patient's physical fitness/exercise capacity objectively. In lung cancer, it is most often used to risk-stratify patients undergoing evaluation for lung cancer resection. In recent years, its use outside this context has been described, including in nonsurgical candidates and lung cancer survivors. In this article we review the physiology of exercise testing and lung cancer. Then, we assess the utility of exercise testing in patients with lung cancer in four contexts (preoperative evaluation for lung cancer resection, after lung cancer resection, lung cancer prognosis, and assessment of efficiency of exercise training programs) after systematically identifying original studies involving the most common forms of exercise tests in this patient population: laboratory cardiopulmonary exercise testing and simple field testing with the 6-minute walk test, shuttle walk test, and/or stair-climbing test. Lastly, we propose a conceptual framework for risk assessment of patients with lung cancer who are being considered for therapy and identify areas for further studies in this patient population.
Shim, Eun-Jung; Park, Jee Eun; Yi, Myungsun; Jung, Dooyoung; Lee, Kwang-Min; Hahm, Bong-Jin
Doctor-patient communication is a crucial aspect of patient care. This study explored the communication experience of patients in a cancer consultation over the course of the cancer continuum. In-depth interviews with seven breast cancer patients were carried out. Themes related to communication experiences across the five phases of cancer consultation, from diagnosis to recurrence, were identified. The most salient issue is that patients also perceived cancer as 'a disease of the mind', which is not adequately cared for in consultation. This highlights the notion that cancer care providers should provide appropriate care for the psychological dimensions of the cancer experience with an empathic and sincere attitude during consultations. To this end, non-verbal aspects of communication that convey caring, support, and respect seem important. Furthermore, patients perceived that the consultation time was far shorter then they needed and reported that they felt pressured for time. Moreover, the stance taken by patients and the needs and preferences of patients varied across the phases of the cancer trajectory. As patients progressed through the phases of their treatment, they assumed more active roles in the course of their care and the need for more detailed information and questioning increased. Thus, ensuring that patients have opportunities to ask questions in the consultation is important. Current findings suggest that the efficacy of communication varies depending on which phase patients are in and that effective communication should be tailored to these evolving needs and preferences of breast cancer patients. Also, patients perceived that the consultation did not adequately address their need for information related to their care or their emotional issues associated with the cancer experience. It is therefore important to address their needs by paying particular attention to non-verbal aspects of communication that convey empathy and respect toward patients
Geifman, Nophar; Butte, Atul J
Open clinical trial data offer many opportunities for the scientific community to independently verify published results, evaluate new hypotheses and conduct meta-analyses. These data provide a springboard for scientific advances in precision medicine but the question arises as to how representative clinical trials data are of cancer patients overall. Here we present the integrative analysis of data from several cancer clinical trials and compare these to patient-level data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Comparison of cancer type-specific survival rates reveals that these are overall lower in trial subjects. This effect, at least to some extent, can be explained by the more advanced stages of cancer of trial subjects. This analysis also reveals that for stage IV cancer, colorectal cancer patients have a better chance of survival than breast cancer patients. On the other hand, for all other stages, breast cancer patients have better survival than colorectal cancer patients. Comparison of survival in different stages of disease between the two datasets reveals that subjects with stage IV cancer from the trials dataset have a lower chance of survival than matching stage IV subjects from TCGA. One likely explanation for this observation is that stage IV trial subjects have lower survival rates since their cancer is less likely to respond to treatment. To conclude, we present here a newly available clinical trials dataset which allowed for the integration of patient-level data from many cancer clinical trials. Our comprehensive analysis reveals that cancer-related clinical trials are not representative of general cancer patient populations, mostly due to their focus on the more advanced stages of the disease. These and other limitations of clinical trials data should, perhaps, be taken into consideration in medical research and in the field of precision medicine.
Minsky, Bruce D
In the past two decades, substantial progress has been made in the adjuvant management of colorectal cancer. Chemotherapy has improved overall survival in patients with node-positive (N+) disease. In contrast with colon cancer, which has a low incidence of local recurrence, patients with rectal cancer have a higher incidence requiring the addition of pelvic radiation therapy (chemoradiation). Patients with rectal cancer have a number of unique management considerations: for example, the role of short-course radiation, whether postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy is necessary for all patients, and if the type of surgery following chemoradiation should be based on the response rate. More accurate imaging techniques and/or molecular markers may help identify patients with positive pelvic nodes to reduce the chance of overtreatment with preoperative therapy. Will more effective systemic agents both improve the results of radiation as well as modify the need for pelvic radiation? This review will address these and other controversies specific to patients with rectal cancer.
Baranski, Jan; Sinno, Sammy
Background: Lung cancer is the most common cancer worldwide and the leading cause of cancer death. With the development of targeted therapy against causative driver mutations, some patients have experienced dramatic responses that have converted their disease into a chronic, stable form. Shifting concerns away from survival and back to quality-of-life issues has led some of these patients to seek aesthetic surgery. Methods: Three patient examples are presented to illustrate current lung cancer treatment modalities, disease responses, and subsequent experiences with aesthetic surgical procedures. Two patients presented for blepharoplasty and the third for revisional breast augmentation surgery. Results: Two patients were treated for lung cancer with targeted therapy and a third with more traditional chemotherapy before undergoing aesthetic surgery. All 3 patients experienced a normal recovery from surgery without any untoward results. Two remain free of disease and one has chronic stable disease. All have returned to normal, active lives. Conclusions: Recent developments in lung cancer treatment are transforming this entity into a less formidable diagnosis for some patients, much like breast cancer and prostate cancer. Plastic surgeons should be aware of this paradigm shift. Successfully treated patients should be considered as reasonable candidates for aesthetic surgery, particularly when they have the full support of their oncologist. Beyond the typical psychological benefits that plastic surgery can produce, it also provides affirmation in this patient population of a return to normalcy, thereby imparting hope and optimism for the future. PMID:27826480
Zheng, Yu-Fang; Yang, Jun; Zhao, Xin-Jie; Feng, Bo; Kong, Hong-Wei; Chen, Ying-Jie; Lv, Shen; Zheng, Min-Hua; Xu, Guo-Wang
AIM: Fourteen urinary nucleosides, primary degradation products of tRNA, were evaluated to know the potential as biological markers for patients with colorectal cancer. METHODS: The concentrations of 14 kinds of urinary nucleosides from 52 patients with colorectal cancer, 10 patients with intestinal villous adenoma and 60 healthy adults were determined by column switching high performance liquid chromatography method. RESULTS: The mean levels of 12 kinds of urinary nucleosides (except uridine and guanosine) in the patients with colorectal cancer were significantly higher than those in patients with intestinal villous adenoma or the healthy adults. Using the levels of 14 kinds of urinary nucleosides as the data vectors for principal component analysis, 71% (37/52) patients with colorectal cancer were correctly classified from healthy adults, in which the identification rate was much higher than that of CEA method (29%). Only 10% (1/10) of patients with intestinal villous adenoma were indistinguishable from patients with colorectal cancer. The levels of m1G, Pseu and m1A were positively related with tumor size and Duke’s stages of colorectal cancer. When monitoring the changes in urinary nucleoside concentrations of patients with colorectal cancer associated with surgery, it was found that the overall correlations with clinical assessment were 84% (27/32) and 91% (10/11) in response group and progressive group, respectively. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that urinary nucleosides determined by column switching high performance liquid chromatography method may be useful as biological markers for colorectal cancer. PMID:15991285
Godlewski, D; Adamczak, M; Wojtyś, P
Previous studies have failed to explain why the mortality rate of cancer patients is higher in Poland than other countries in the European Union. We aimed to evaluate the health care system in Poland during the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. In this multicentre study, 125 cancer patients treated at 15 centres across Poland participated in focus group interviews in 2014. We identified and assessed crucial elements that affect a patients' experience from the early onset of symptoms, through to diagnosis and treatment. We found that the majority of patients were dissatisfied with the length of time taken to diagnose cancer. Throughout diagnosis, treatment and follow-up, patients reported a lack of communication from health care professionals. While dealings with oncologists and medical staff were viewed favourably, patients felt the cancer centres were not well organised. Patients recommended that having one doctor in charge of an individual's treatment and follow-up would improve patient care and well-being. A late cancer diagnosis may be contributing to the high mortality rate observed in Poland. In the future, new policies should be developed to reduce the time to cancer diagnosis, increase communication with health care professionals and improve the organisation of cancer care for patients.
Newby, Larry G.; And Others
Procedures for the evaluation of patient education programs have been slow to evolve; the majority of programs, in fact, remain unevaluated. Patient education efforts, particularly with cancer patients, are effective in enhancing recovery, alleviating anxiety, and facilitating compliance. Patient education should minimize patient dependence on…
NCI scientists have studied cells of patients with an extremely rare genetic disease that is characterized by drastic premature aging and discovered a new protective cellular mechanism against cancer. They found that cells from patients with Hutchinson Gi
Patients with advanced, recurrent, or persistent cervical cancer that was not curable with standard treatment who received the drug bevacizumab (Avastin) lived 3.7 months longer than patients who did not receive the drug, according to an interim analysis
Zhang, Amy Y.; Gary, Faye; Zhu, Hui
Background Accurately assessing depression in African American cancer patients is difficult because of the similarities of physical symptoms observed in cancer and depression. Aim To identify universal and distinctive depressive symptoms in African American cancer patients. Methods Seventy-four cancer patients (34 depressed and 23 nondepressed African Americans, and 17 depressed Whites) were interviewed. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were conducted. Results Compared to nondepressed African Americans, depressed African Americans reported irritability, social isolation, insomnia, fatigue, and crying (p ≤ .05) more frequently over time. Compared to depressed Whites, they reported sadness, frustration, and intrusive thoughts less frequently (p ≤ .05), but insomnia and fatigue more frequently (p ≤ .05) during cancer treatment. There was little racial difference at the time of interview. Conclusion Depressed African American cancer patients may benefit from more culturally sensitive depression measures that consider symptoms of irritability, social isolation, and altered expressions of depressive mood. PMID:25564890
Lyatskaya, Yulia; James, Steven; Killoran, Joseph H.; Soto, Ricardo; Mamon, Harvey J.; Chin, Lee
Purpose: To evaluate the utility of an infrared-guided patient setup (iGPS) system to reduce the uncertainties in the setup of lung cancer patients. Methods and Materials: A total of 15 patients were setup for lung irradiation using skin tattoos and lateral leveling marks. Daily electronic portal device images and iGPS marker locations were acquired and retrospectively reviewed. The iGPS-based shifts were compared with the daily electronic portal device image shifts using both the central axis iGPS marker and all five iGPS markers. For shift calculation using the five markers, rotational misalignment was included. The level of agreement between the iGPS and portal imaging to evaluate the setup was evaluated as the frequency of the shift difference in the range of 0-5 mm, 5-10 mm, and >10 mm. Results: Data were obtained for 450 treatment sessions for 15 patients. The difference in the isocenter shifts between the weekly vs. daily images was 0-5 mm in 42%, 5-10 mm in 30%, and >10 mm in 10% of the images. The shifts seen using the iGPS data were 0-5 mm in 81%, 5-10 mm in 14%, and >10 mm in 5%. Using only the central axis iGPS marker, the difference between the iGPS and portal images was <5 mm in 77%, 5-10 mm in 16%, and >10 mm in 7% in the left-right direction and 73%, 18%, and 9% in the superoinferior direction, respectively. When all five iGPS markers were used, the disagreements between the iGPS and portal image shifts >10 mm were reduced from 7% to 2% in the left-right direction and 9% to 3% in the superoinferior direction. Larger reductions were also seen (e.g., a reduction from 50% to 0% in 1 patient). Conclusion: The daily iGPS-based shifts correlated well with the daily electronic portal device-based shifts. When patient movement has nonlinear rotational components, a combination of surface markers and portal images might be particularly beneficial to improve the setup for lung cancer patients.
Bal, Manjit Singh; Bodal, Vijay Kumar; Kaur, Jaspreet; Kaur, Mohanvir; Sharma, Swati
The State of Punjab has been in focus because of aperceived increasing rate of cancer. Both print and electronic media have created an impression that Punjab, especially the cotton belt of Malwa Region, has become a high incidence cancer region. Actually the increased number of cancer patients might be at least partly because of increasing population and heightened health awareness and reporting. The purpose of this study is to find out the pattern of cancer amongst patients registered in Mukh Mantri Punjab Cancer Rahat Kosh Scheme (MMPCRKS), under cancer registry at Rajindra Hospital Patiala from the various districts of Punjab. The study covers 500 cancer patients registered under MMPCRKS at Rajindra Hospital Patiala, for free cancer treatment. Information regarding age, gender, religion, method of diagnosis and affected sites was obtained. Results were analyzed statistically. Of the 500 patients, 65% were females and 35% were males. The most affected female age groups were 50-54 and 60-64; while males in the age groups of 65-69 and 60-64 had the highest risk. The leading cancers in females were breast followed by cervix and ovary where as in males they were were colon followed by esophagus and tongue. The commonest histological type was adenocarcinoma followed by squamous cell carcinoma. The increasing trend of cancer in Punjab is alarming. Since this study is a preliminary investigation, it could provide a leading role in prevention, treatment and future planning regarding cancer in Punjab.
Aghdam, Alireza Mohajjel; Rahmani, Azad; Nejad, Zahra Kochaki; Ferguson, Caleb; Mohammadpoorasl, Asghar; Sanaat, Zohreh
Fear of cancer recurrence (FOCR) is one of the most important psychological problems among cancer patients. In extensive review of related literature there were no articles on FOCR among Iranian cancer patients. The aim of present study was to investigation FOCR and its predictive factors among Iranian cancer patients. In this descriptive-correlational study 129 cancer patients participated. For data collection, the demographic checklist and short form of fear of progression questionnaire was used. Logistic regression was used to determine predictive factors of FOCR. Mean score of FOCR among participants was 44.8 and about 50% of them had high level of FOCR. The most important worries of participants were about their family and the future of their children and their lesser worries were about the physical symptoms and fear of physical damage because of cancer treatments. Also, women, breast cancer patient, and patients with lower level of education have more FOCR. There is immediate need for supportive care program designed for Iranian cancer patients aimed at decreasing their FOCR. Especially, breast cancer patients and the patient with low educational level need more attention.
Naumann, Fiona L; Hunt, Mitchell; Hunt, Mitchel; Ali, Dulfikar; Wakefield, Claire E; Moultrie, Kevin; Cohn, Richard J
The improved treatment protocols and subsequent improved survival rates among childhood cancer patients have shifted the focus toward the long-term consequences arising from cancer treatment. Children who have completed cancer treatment are at a greater risk of delayed development, diminished functioning, disability, compromised fundamental movement skill (FMS) attainment, and long-term chronic health conditions. The aim of the study was to compare FMS of childhood cancer patients with an aged matched healthy reference group. Pediatric cancer patients aged 5-8 years (n = 26; median age 6.91 years), who completed cancer treatment (<5 years) at the Sydney Children's Hospital, were assessed performing seven key FMS: sprint, side gallop, vertical jump, catch, over-arm throw, kick, and leap. Results were compared to the reference group (n = 430; 6.56 years). Childhood cancer patients scored significantly lower on three out of seven FMS tests when compared to the reference group. These results equated to a significantly lower overall score for FMS. This study highlighted the significant deficits in FMS within pediatric patients having completed cancer treatment. In order to reduce the occurrence of significant FMS deficits in this population, FMS interventions may be warranted to assist in recovery from childhood cancer, prevent late effects, and improve the quality of life in survivors of childhood cancer. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Quality of Life Among Breast Cancer Patients 5b. GRANT NUMBER DAMD17-03-1-0264 5c. PROGRAM...used approach to manage hot flashes with 44.2% of sample currently exercising . 15. SUBJECT TERMS Breast Cancer , Hot Flashes, Quality of Life ... breast cancer patients who were menopausal prior to treatment, at any of the time-points. b. to examine longitudinally the quality of life
Burton, J. L.; Cunliffe, W. J.; Shuster, Sam
The rate of sebum excretion from the forehead skin of patients with early breast cancer was found to be just significantly higher than in age-matched control women. This may indicate that some breast cancer patients have an increase in circulating or tissue-bound sebotrophic hormones, or a decrease in their inhibitors. PMID:4245733
Dougherty, Kimberly; And Others
Determined the level and change in denial, death anxiety, anxiety, depression, hostility, love, being, and self-esteem over time in terminal cancer patients. Cancer patients had significantly lower death anxiety than the control subjects and a relative increase in the being variable over time. The clinical opinion that denial protects against…
Vahedian Ardakani, Hassan Ali; Moghimi, Mansour; Shayestehpour, Mohammad; Doosti, Masoud; Beigi Sharifabadi, Shamsi
Background: Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine related malignancy in the world. This cancer has increased during recent years in Iran and is the11th most common malignancy in Iranian population. Survival of patients with thyroid carcinoma in the different geographic areas within Iran is not clear. The present study aimed to estimate survival of patients suffering from thyroid cancer in Yazd, Iran. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, data were collected from 80 patients with thyroid cancer registered in Shohadaye Kargar and Shahid Sadoughy hospitals in Yazd between March 2001 and March 2012. The Kaplan-Meier analysis was used for estimation of survival over time and Cox regression method was performed for calculating hazard ratios according to demographic and risk variables. Results: Survival rates at the end of 1, 3, and 5 years in thyroid cancer patients were 99%, 96%, and 91%, respectively. A statistically significant correlation was found between stage of disease, type of cancer and survival time of patients (p<0.05). The worst survival was in peoples with the anaplastic type and stage IV of thyroid carcinoma. Conclusion: The survival of patients with thyroid carcinoma was higher than some areas in Iran. Since type and stage of thyroid cancer were the important factors in survival time, screening of people for cancer diagnosis in early stages, it seems to improve survival of patients. Radioactive iodine therapy can increase the survival rate in patients suffering from thyroid malignancy. Creative Commons Attribution License
Alshemmari, Salem H; Elbasmi, Amani A; Alsirafy, Samy A
The place of death (PoD) has a significant effect on end-of-life care for patients dying of cancer. Little is known about the place of cancer deaths in our region. To identify the PoD of patients with cancer in Kuwait, we reviewed the death certificates submitted to the Kuwait Cancer Registry in 2009. Of 611 cancer deaths, 603 (98.7%) died in hospitals and only 6 (1%) patients died at home. More than half (57.3%) of inhospital deaths were in the Kuwait Cancer Control Center. Among those for whom the exact PoD within the hospital was identified (484 patients), 116 (24%) patients died in intensive care units and 12 (2.5%) patients died in emergency rooms. This almost exclusive inhospital death of patients with cancer in Kuwait is the highest ever reported. Research is needed to identify the reasons behind this pattern of PoD and to explore interventions promoting out-of-hospital death among terminally ill cancer patients in Kuwait. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Walsh, T D; Bowman, K B; Jackson, G P
A state registered dietitian assessed the voluntary dietary intake of 13 advanced cancer inpatients on one ward of St. Christopher's Hospice for five consecutive days. There were 11 females, two males; median age 74 years (range 56 to 83). Two patients died on the fourth day of the study. A partially individualised weighed technique was used. Standard sized scoops and spoons were used to serve the food in small, medium or large standard portions (depending on appetite) and were weighed as served. Individual plate waste (by weight) was subtracted to give estimated individual intake. Foods provided by visitors was not included. The median and range of individual mean daily intakes (estimated) were: energy 5760 (938-8945) kJ, 1376 (224-2137) kcal; protein 44 (11-86) g; fat 52 (9-93) g; carbohydrate 169 (21-194) g; calcium 748 (268-1457) mg; iron 4.8 (0.5-21.0) mg; dietary fibre 5.0 (0.5-21.0) g. Compared to recommended amounts, energy, iron and dietary fibre intakes were low; calcium intake was high. Nutritional status may affect prognosis and/or subjective well-being in advanced cancer. The value of nutritional supplementation and the role of appetite stimulants in improving nutritional status needs investigation.
Durfee, Sara M; Benson, Carol B; Arthaud, Dylan M; Alexander, Erik K; Frates, Mary C
To determine whether the sonographic appearance of thyroid cancer differs in patients with and without Hashimoto thyroiditis. Patients with histologically proven thyroid cancer who had thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies measured and sonography performed preoperatively were included. We evaluated each nodule for size, echogenicity, composition, margins, halo, and vascularity and evaluated the background heterogeneity of the gland. There were 162 thyroid cancers in 145 patients. Forty-two patients (29.0%) had Hashimoto thyroiditis with positive TPO antibodies, and 103 patients (71.0%) had negative TPO antibodies. The background echogenicity was more often heterogeneous in TPO antibody-positive patients compared to those who had negative TPO antibodies (57.1% versus 26.2%; P= .0005). Comparing cancers in TPO antibody-positive to TPO antibody-negative patients, there was no significant difference in the size, echogenicity, composition, margins, halo presence, calcification presence and type, or vascularity of the cancerous nodule (P > .05). Among TPO antibody-positive patients, comparing thyroid cancerous nodules in patients with heterogeneous glands to those with homogeneous glands, there was no significant difference in any sonographic characteristic except the margin of the nodule, which was more often irregular or poorly defined in heterogeneous glands and more often smooth in homogeneous glands (P< .05). Sonographic features of thyroid cancer are similar in patients with and without Hashimoto thyroiditis. Among patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis and thyroid cancer, the sonographic appearance of the cancerous nodule is similar, except that cancerous nodule margins are more likely to be irregular or poorly defined when the gland is heterogeneous. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.
Eliott, Jaklin A; Olver, Ian N
Within developed nations, there is increasing public debate about and apparent endorsement of the appropriateness of euthanasia as an autonomous choice to die in the face of intolerable suffering. Surveys report socio-demographic differences in rates of acceptance of euthanasia, but there is little in-depth analysis of how euthanasia is understood and positioned within the social and moral lives of individuals, particularly those who might be considered suitable candidates-for example, terminally-ill cancer patients. During discussions with 28 such patients in Australia regarding medical decisions at the end of life, euthanasia was raised by 13 patients, with the others specifically asked about it. Twenty-four patients spoke positively of euthanasia, 19 of these voicing some concerns. None identified euthanasia as a currently favoured option. Four were completely against it. Endorsement for euthanasia was in the context of a hypothetical future or for a hypothetical other person, or temporally associated with acute pain. Arguments supporting euthanasia framed the issue as a matter of freedom of choice, as preserving dignity in death, and as curbing intolerable pain and suffering, both of the patient and of those around them. A common analogy featured was that of euthanising a dog. These arguments were typically presented as self-evident justification for euthanasia, construed as an appropriate choice to die, with opposers positioned as morally inferior or ignorant. The difficulties of ensuring 'choice' and the moral connotations of 'choosing to die,' however, worked to problematise the appropriateness of euthanising specific individuals. We recommend further empirical investigation of the moral and social meanings associated with euthanasia.
Carmona, Loreto; Abasolo, Lydia; Descalzo, Miguel A; Pérez-Zafrilla, Beatriz; Sellas, Agustí; de Abajo, Francisco; Gomez-Reino, Juan J
To describe the risk of cancer in patients exposed to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists. The following 2 clinical cohorts were studied: (1) BIOBADASER 2.0: a registry of patients suffering from rheumatic diseases exposed to TNF antagonists (2531 rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 1488 spondyloarthropathies, and 675 other rheumatic conditions); and (2) EMECAR: a cohort of 789 RA patients not exposed to TNF antagonists. Cancer incidence rates (IR) per 1000 patient-years and incidence rate ratios (IRR) were calculated for BIOBADASER 2.0 and EMECAR patients. The IR over time in BIOBADASER 2.0 patients was analyzed by joinpoint regression. The IRR was estimated to compare cancer rates in exposed versus nonexposed RA patients. Standardized incidence and mortality ratios (SIR, SMR) were also estimated. Risk factors for cancer in patients exposed to TNF antagonists were investigated by generalized linear models. The SMR for cancer in BIODASER 2.0 was 0.67 (95% CI: 0.51-0.86), and the SIR was 0.1 (95% CI 0.03-0.23). The IR in RA patients exposed to TNF antagonists was 5.8 (95% CI: 4.4-7.6), and the adjusted IRR was 0.48 (95% CI: 0.09-2.45). The IR in patients with previous cancer was 26.4 (95% CI: 4.1-171.5). Age, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and steroids were associated with a higher risk of developing cancer. The IR decreased after the first 4 months of exposure, without statistical significance. Overall cancer and mortality rates in patients with rheumatic diseases exposed to TNF antagonists are no higher than in the background Spanish population. However special attention should be paid to elderly patients, those with previous cancers, and patients treated with steroids. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Javed, Saba; Javed, Syed A; Mays, Rana M; Tyring, Stephen K
Skin cancer in darker skin is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. We sought to assess the clinical characteristics of cutaneous malignancy amongst Hispanic skin cancer patients and compare them to age-matched non-Hispanic Caucasians. In this retrospective study, 150 Hispanic skin cancer patients were identified from electronic medical records and age-matched to 150 non-Hispanic Caucasian controls with skin cancer. The incidence of actinic keratoses (AKs) in Hispanic skin cancer patients (34.0%) was statistically lower than age-matched non-Hispanic Caucasian skin cancer controls (61.3%, P <0.001; odds ratio, 3.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.92 - 4.93). Moreover, non-Hispanic Caucasian SCC (squamous cell cancer) controls were much more likely to report AKs (36.1%, P = 0.003) than Hispanic SCC patients (25.0%, P = 0.19). This study illustrates a lower incidence of AKs in Hispanic skin cancer patients as compared to their age-matched non-Hispanic Caucasians. The Hispanic skin malignancies present at a more advanced state and there is usually a lack of awareness in such cases. Therefore, patient knowledge and education is crucial for early detection and prevention of skin cancer in the Hispanic population.
Leng, Jennifer C F; Gany, Francesca
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) includes both herbal remedies and non-herbal practices. Chinese cancer patients are particularly at high risk for herb-drug interactions. Providers, both primary care physicians and oncologists, frequently do not ask patients about TCM use, which has potentially dangerous consequences. This study describes an assessment of TCM use while undergoing conventional cancer treatment, among a cohort of Chinese immigrant cancer patients in New York City. The Immigrant Health and Cancer Disparities Service at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center assists underserved cancer patients through a patient navigation program, the Cancer Portal Project. Six questions related to TCM are included in the existing Portal Needs Assessment Intake. Mandarin- or Cantonese-speaking Portal patients enrolled between January 2010 and May 2012 were surveyed. One hundred nine Chinese-speaking patients were enrolled in the Portal Project during the study period. Forty-six completed the TCM questions. Ninety-six percent preferred to speak Mandarin, Cantonese, or Fujianese in the healthcare setting. Thirty-nine percent (n = 18) of the 46 participants reported using TCM since being diagnosed with cancer. Nearly all (n = 16) who used TCM reported using herbal medicines. Ten TCM users did not describe sharing their use with Western doctors. Eight (44%) of TCM users reported concurrently using TCM and conventional cancer treatment. Larger scale studies should further explore the concurrent use of TCM and conventional cancer treatment in this unique population. Future research should also address patient-provider communication related to the concurrent use of TCM and cancer treatment. This is also an important area of education for both patients and providers.
Leng, Jennifer C.F.; Gany, Francesca
Background Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) includes both herbal remedies and non-herbal practices. Chinese cancer patients are at particularly high risk for herb-drug interactions. Providers, both primary care physicians (PCPs) and oncologists, frequently do not ask patients about TCM use, with potentially dangerous consequences. Objective This study describes an assessment of TCM use while undergoing conventional cancer treatment, among a cohort of Chinese immigrant cancer patients in New York City. Design and Participants The Immigrant Health and Cancer Disparities Service at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) assists underserved cancer patients through a patient navigation program, the Cancer Portal Project. Six questions related to TCM are included in the existing Portal Needs Assessment Intake. Mandarin or Cantonese speaking Portal patients enrolled between January 2010 and May 2012 were surveyed. Results 109 Chinese-speaking patients were enrolled in Portal during the study period. 46 completed the TCM questions. 96% preferred to speak Mandarin, Cantonese, or Fujianese in the healthcare setting. 39% (n=18) of the 46 participants reported using TCM since being diagnosed with cancer. Nearly all (n=16) who used TCM reported using herbal medicines. Ten TCM users did not describe sharing their use with Western doctors. Eight (44%) of TCM users reported concurrently using TCM and conventional cancer treatment. Conclusions Larger scale studies should further explore the concurrent use of TCM and conventional cancer treatment in this unique population. Future research should also address patient-provider communication related to concurrent use of TCM and cancer treatment. This is also an important area of education for both patients and providers. PMID:24072455
Dumenci, Levent; Matsuyama, Robin; Riddle, Daniel L; Cartwright, Laura A; Perera, Robert A; Chung, Harold; Siminoff, Laura A
Health literacy is related to a broad range of health outcomes. This study was designed to develop a psychometrically sound instrument designed to measure cancer health literacy along a continuum (CHLT-30), to develop another instrument designed to determine whether a patient has limited cancer health literacy (CHLT-6), and to estimate the prevalence of limited cancer health literacy. The Cancer Health Literacy Study involving 1,306 Black and White cancer patients was conducted between April 2011 and April 2013 in the Virginia Commonwealth University Massey Cancer Center and surrounding oncology clinics. A continuous latent variable modeling framework was adopted to dimensionally represent cancer health literacy, whereas discrete latent variable modeling was used to estimate the prevalence rates of limited cancer health literacy. Self confidence about engaging in health decisions was used as the primary outcome in external validation of new instruments. Results from a comprehensive analysis strongly supported the construct validity and reliability of the CHLT-30 and CHLT-6. For both instruments, measurement invariance tests ruled out item/test bias to explain gender and race/ethnicity differences in test scores. The limited cancer health literacy rate was 18%, a subpopulation consisting of overrepresented Black, undereducated, and low-income cancer patients. Overall, the results supported the conclusion that the CHLT-30 accurately measures cancer health literacy along a continuum and that the CHLT-6 efficiently identifies patients with limited cancer health literacy with high accuracy.
Dumenci, Levent; Matsuyama, Robin; Riddle, Daniel L.; Cartwright, Laura A.; Perera, Robert A.; Chung, Harold; Siminoff, Laura A.
Health literacy is related to a broad range of health outcomes. This study was designed to develop a psychometrically sound instrument designed to measure cancer health literacy along a continuum (CHLT-30), to develop another instrument designed to determine whether a patient has limited cancer health literacy (CHLT-6), and to estimate the prevalence of limited cancer health literacy. The Cancer Health Literacy Study involving 1,306 Black and White cancer patients was conducted between April 2011 and April 2013 in the Virginia Commonwealth University Massey Cancer Center and surrounding oncology clinics. A continuous latent variable modeling framework was adopted to dimensionally represent cancer health literacy, whereas discrete latent variable modeling was used to estimate the prevalence rates of limited cancer health literacy. Self confidence about engaging in health decisions was used as the primary outcome in external validation of new instruments. Results from a comprehensive analysis strongly supported the construct validity and reliability of the CHLT-30 and CHLT-6. For both instruments, measurement invariance tests ruled out item/test bias to explain gender and race/ethnicity differences in test scores. The limited cancer health literacy rate was 18%, a subpopulation consisting of overrepresented Black, undereducated, and low-income cancer patients. Overall, the results supported the conclusion that the CHLT-30 accurately measures cancer health literacy along a continuum and that the CHLT-6 efficiently identifies patients with limited cancer health literacy with high accuracy. PMID:25315594
Sadat Aghahosseini, Shima; Rahmani, Azad; Abdollahzadeh, Farahnaz; Asvadi Kermani, Iraj
Introduction: Disclosure of cancer diagnosis is one the main challenges in caring of patients with cancer since it may have negative effects on the spiritual health of patients. No study has ever been performed in Iran to investigate the relationship between awareness of cancer diagnosis and spiritual health in cancer patients. Therefore, the present study aimed to review the effects of awareness of cancer on spiritual health in patients with cancer. Methods: This was a descriptive-comparative study conducted in Shahid Ghazi Tabatabaei University Hospital in 2009. The subjects included 150 patients aware of their cancer diagnosis and 150 unaware patients. The patients were selected through convenient sampling method. Using a questionnaire, the patient's spiritual health was assessed. Data analysis was conducted in SPSS17 using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: Results showed the mean (SD) of spiritual health among aware and unaware patients to be 75.1 (3.8) and 75.4 (3.9), respectively. Statistically, there was no significant difference between the spiritual health of the two groups (p = 0.96). Conclusion: These findings showed that awareness of cancer diagnosis had no effects on spiritual health of patients. It is not surprising considering Iranian culture. However, confirmation of this finding requires further studies. PMID:25276678
Ñamendys-Silva, Silvio A; González-Herrera, María O; Herrera-Gómez, Angel
Outcomes of critically ill cancer patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) had improved; it could be associated with medical advances in critical care, introduction of new anticancer treatments, and better supportive care. Recent reports have described ICU mortality for critically ill cancer patients ranged from 15.9% to 32%. During the period 2007 to 2011, a total of 1418 critically ill cancer patients were admitted to our ICU with a mortality rate lower (17.5%) than that reported by other centers. The ICUs around the world should consider the improvement in the prognosis of critically ill cancer patients who require critical care and they should not be denied ICU admission only on the basis of a patient having cancer.
Park, Min Geun; Lee, Ji-Won; Chu, Sang Hui; Park, Ji-Hye; Lee, Mi Kyung; Sato, Kaori; Ligibel, Jennifer A.; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A.; Kim, Nam Kyu
Background To evaluate the impact of diabetes on outcomes in colorectal cancer patients and to examine whether this association varies by the location of tumor (colon vs. rectum). Patients and methods This study includes 4,131 stage I-III colorectal cancer patients, treated between 1995 and 2007 (12.5% diabetic, 53% colon, 47% rectal) in South Korea. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to determine the prognostic influence of DM on survival endpoints. Results Colorectal cancer patients with DM had significantly worse disease-free survival (DFS) [hazard ratio (HR) 1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00–1.37] compared with patients without DM. When considering colon and rectal cancer independently, DM was significantly associated with worse overall survival (OS) (HR: 1.46, 95% CI: 1.11–1.92), DFS (HR: 1.45, 95% CI: 1.15–1.84) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) (HR: 1.32, 95% CI: 0.98–1.76) in colon cancer patients. No association for OS, DFS or RFS was observed in rectal cancer patients. There was significant interaction of location of tumor (colon vs. rectal cancer) with DM on OS (P = 0.009) and DFS (P = 0.007). Conclusions This study suggests that DM negatively impacts survival outcomes of patients with colon cancer but not rectal cancer. PMID:23405123
Laohawiriyakamol, Supparerk; Sunpaweravong, Somkiat; Leelamanit, Vitoon; Pruegsanusak, Kowit; Sinkijcharoenchai, Wattana
Routine screening for esophageal cancer in head and neck cancer patients in Thailand is controversial, because of concerns regarding the screening methods and cost effectiveness. Since Lugol dye chromoendoscopy is an effective technique for early detection of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus, the objectives of the present study are to evaluate the synchronous esophageal cancer in head and neck cancer patients and the effectiveness of Lugol dye chromoendoscopy for routine screening. All diagnosed patients with head and neck cancer between September 1, 2009 and June 30, 2011 were enrolled into the study. Both conventional esophagoscopy and Lugol dye chromoendoscopy were done. The incidence of esophageal cancer was calculated. A diagnostic statistical analysis was done to compare the diagnostic properties between conventional esophagoscopy and Lugol dye chromoendoscopy. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to find significant factors associated with esophageal cancer in this study. Eighty-nine head and neck cancer patients were enrolled in this study. The incidence of esophageal cancer in head and neck cancer patients was 12.4% (11/89). Conventional esophagoscopy found a highly suspicious malignant lesion in only six patients, while the Lugol dye chromoendoscopy detected all 11 esophageal cancers. The sensitivity and specificity for conventional esophagoscopy were 54.5% and 100%, respectively, andfor Lugol dye chromoendoscopy were 100% and 70.5%, respectively. The three significant factors that increased the likelihood of synchronous esophageal cancer from univariate analysis were age less than 50 years, presence of dysphagia, and an unstained Lugol dye area ≥10 mm. Howeve, these factors were not statistically significant by multivariate analysis. Lugol dye chromoendoscopy is a promising tool to enhance the diagnosis of esophageal cancer among head and neck cancer patients.
Guveli, Hulya; Guveli, Murat Emin; Sen, Fatma; Oflaz, Serap; Gurdal, Necla; Tambas, Makbule; Kucucuk, Seden; Aydıner, Adnan; Ozkan, Mine
Early identification of patients coping poorly is important for compliance with treatment and control of distress. This study aims to investigate the effect of the childhood trauma experience on the type of reaction and adjustment that the person exhibits to the cancer among the patients with breast cancer. This cross-sectional study enrolled 310 patients with breast cancer. The effect of the childhood trauma and the psychological condition on the adjustment to cancer was investigated by assessing the adjustment to cancer, the experiences of childhood trauma and psychological status of the subjects using mental adjustment to cancer scale (MAC), childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ28), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Beck anxiety inventory (BAI). Majority of the subjects (77.4%) showed positive adjustment to cancer. Fighting spirit (63.9%) was the most commonly seen mechanism of adjustment to cancer. Of the subjects, 54.5% suffered at least one of the childhood trauma types. Among the patients, 47.1% had depression and 58.4% had anxiety. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, emotional neglect and depression, respectively, have an effect on both positive and negative adjustment to cancer. Our study demonstrated that childhood trauma, especially emotional neglect, affects coping and adjustment among the patients with breast cancer. It is necessary to determine the childhood experiences to ensure the development of psychosocial interventions that will increase the adjustment and quality of life after the diagnosis of the cancer.
Tang, Pei-Ling; Mayer, Deborah K; Chou, Fan-Hao; Hsiao, Kuan-Yin
Cancer is the leading cause of death in Taiwan. Because the causes of cancer are often difficult to identify, a diagnosis of cancer is occasionally attributed to karma and the concept of stigma. These feelings lead to a life predicament, and stigma influences these perceptions. This study intended to understand how stigma is formed in the disease-related experiences of women with cancer. Ten participants were interviewed at the time of a confirmed diagnosis of advanced cancer and completed cancer treatment with regular follow-up after treatment, and all subjects underwent 2-3 interviews. The number of interviews conducted was determined by data saturation. A content analysis method was used. The stigma of cancer includes the concepts of "cancer equals death", including the feeling of death approaching and an awareness of disease severity. "Cancer equals menace to social life" suggests that social life is affected and includes other individuals' uncomfortable attitudes toward cancer (shame, sympathy, pity, suffering, and over-cautiousness) and external physical changes. "Cancer equals cancer-ridden life" includes being sensitive to the topics of death and calculating the number of remaining survival days. The process from early diagnosis to the decision to receive treatment is complicated for patients with cancer. After the diagnosis is confirmed, the stigma of diagnosis significantly affects patients. Regarding social stereotypes, educating the public to resolve individuals' negative responses to cancer and further convey social and public information to women in society is necessary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tas, Faruk; Kilic, Leyla; Duranyildiz, Derya
Activated coagulation and fibrinolytic system in cancer patients is associated with tumor stroma formation and metastasis in different cancer types. The aim of this study is to explore the correlation of blood coagulation assays for various clinicopathologic factors in breast cancer patients. A total of 123 female breast cancer patients were enrolled into the study. All the patients were treatment naïve. Pretreatment blood coagulation tests including PT, APTT, PTA, INR, D-dimer, fibrinogen levels, and platelet counts were evaluated. Median age of diagnosis was 51 years old (range 26-82). Twenty-two percent of the group consisted of metastatic breast cancer patients. The plasma level of all coagulation tests revealed statistically significant difference between patient and control group except for PT (p<0.001 for all variables except for PT; p=0.08). Elderly age (>50 years) was associated with higher D-dimer levels (p=0.003). Metastatic patients exhibited significantly higher D-dimer values when compared with early breast cancer patients (p=0.049). Advanced tumor stage (T3 and T4) was associated with higher INR (p=0.05) and lower PTA (p=0.025). In conclusion, coagulation tests show significant differences in patients with breast cancer.
Moghadamyeghaneh, Zhobin; Hanna, Mark H; Hwang, Grace; Mills, Steven; Pigazzi, Alessio; Stamos, Michael J; Carmichael, Joseph C
Patients with advanced colorectal cancer have a high incidence of postoperative complications. We sought to identify outcomes of patients who underwent resection for colon cancer by cancer stage. The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was used to evaluate all patients who underwent colon resection with a diagnosis of colon cancer from 2012 to 2014. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate patient outcomes by cancer stage. A total of 7,786 colon cancer patients who underwent colon resection were identified. Of these, 10.8% had metastasis at the time of operation. Patients with metastatic disease had significantly increased risks of perioperative morbidity (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.44, P = .01) and mortality (AOR: 3.72, P = .01). Patients with metastatic disease were significantly younger (AOR: .99, P < .01) had a higher American Society of Anesthesiologists score (AOR: 1.29, P < .2) and had a higher rate of emergent operation (AOR: 1.40, P < .01). Overall, 10.8% of patients undergoing colectomy for colon cancer have metastatic disease. Postoperative morbidity and mortality are significantly higher than in patients with localized disease. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Liu, Xiao-Hui; Man, Ya-Nan; Wu, Xiong-Zhi
Several studies indicated that the diagnosis season affects the prognosis of some cancers, such as examples in the prostate, colon and breast This retrospective study aimed to investigate whether the diagnosis and recurrent season impacts the prognosis of epithelial ovarian cancer patients. From January 2005 to August 2010, 161 epithelial ovarian cancer patients were analyzed and followed up until August 2013. Kaplan- Meier survival curves and the log-rank test were used to make the survival analysis. Multivariate analysis was conducted to identify independent prognostic factors. The prognostic factors of overall survival in epithelial ovarian cancer patients included age, clinical stage, pathological type, histological grade, residual disease after primary surgery, recurrent season and adjuvant chemotherapy cycles. Moreover, clinical stage, histological grade, residual disease after primary surgery, recurrent season and adjuvant chemotherapy cycles also impacted the progression-free survival of epithelial ovarian cancer patients. The diagnosis season did not have a significantly relationship with the survival of operable epithelial ovarian cancer patients. Median overall survival of patients with recurrent month from April to November was 47 months, which was longer (P < 0.001) than that of patients with recurrence month from December to March (19 months). Median progression-free survival of patients with recurrence month from April to November and December to March was 20 and 8 months, respectively (P < 0.001). The recurrence season impacts the survival of epithelial ovarian cancer patients. However, the diagnosed season does not appear to exert a significant influence.
Lameire, Norbert; Van Biesen, Wim; Vanholder, Raymond
The interrelation between kidney disease and cancer is complex and reciprocal. Among the most frequent cancer-associated kidney diseases are the electrolyte and acid-base disturbances, which occur frequently and often are associated with an ominous prognosis, and acute kidney injury. Tumor lysis syndrome is a potentially life-threatening condition that frequently occurs in patients with a high tumor burden and high cellular turnover after cytotoxic therapy (including steroids in steroid-sensitive hematologic malignancies). Electrolyte and acid-base disturbances are the consequence of neoplastic spread, anticancer treatment, or, more rarely, paraneoplastic phenomena of all types of tumors. This article reviews hyponatremia and hypernatremia, hypokalemia and hyperkalemia, hypomagnesemia, hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia, and the most important disturbances in acid-base balance in cancer patients. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent occurrence in cancer patients and has the potential to substantially alter the outcome of patients with cancer and jeopardize their chances of receiving optimal cancer treatment and a potential cure. As in many other circumstances, the etiology of AKI in cancer patients is multifactorial. Initiation and/or continuation of dialysis in the AKI cancer patient should be based on the general clinical condition and overall life expectancy and the personal patient expectations on quality of life after eventual recovery.
Chang, Eun Hae Estelle; Braith, Andrew; Hitsman, Brian; Schnoll, Robert A
Despite the well-documented harmful effects of smoking, many cancer patients continue to smoke. Smoking cessation is critical to address in this population given the associated increase in treatment toxicity, risk of second primary tumors, decrease in treatment response and higher disease-specific and all-cause mortality with continued smoking following a cancer diagnosis. This review seeks to summarize the latest recommendations and guidelines on smoking cessation treatment for patients diagnosed with cancer, and the evidence behind those recommendations. We reviewed the latest evidence for smoking cessation treatments for cancer patients and the clinical guidelines and recommendation available for oncologists and health care providers. The unique aspects of nicotine dependence among patients diagnosed with cancer, and key challenges and barriers that cancer survivors and health care providers experience when considering smoking cessation treatments, and available clinical resources, are also discussed. Lastly, the authors summarize future directions in the field of smoking cessation treatment for cancer patients. While there are areas of improvement in research of smoking cessation treatment for cancer patients, critical under-explored areas remain. Nonetheless, providers should adhere to the NCCN guidelines and offer a brief counseling intervention to motivate patients to quit smoking when appropriate resources are not available.
Dziewulska, Anna; Janiszewska-Olszowska, Joanna; Bachanek, Teresa; Grocholewicz, Katarzyna
To analyse the mineral content of saliva in patients with oral cancer in order to identify possible markers that might aid the diagnosis of oral cancer. The study group consisted of 34 patients, aged 35-72 years with a diagnosis of oral cancer, including seven women and 27 men, before the start of treatment. Samples of unstimulated saliva were collected in plastic containers. The concentrations of sodium and potassium were assessed using ion selective electrodes, and the concentrations of calcium, magnesium, iron and phosphorus were assessed using colorimetric methods. Statistically significant differences between the study and control groups were found only for the concentration of sodium--higher concentrations were found in the study group. When comparing different cancer localisations, the highest levels of salivary sodium were found in cases of cancer of the floor of the oral cavity, and the lowest levels in tongue or parotid gland cancer. The highest calcium levels were found in cancer of the floor of the oral cavity, and the lowest levels in tongue cancer. The highest levels of magnesium were found in cancer of the floor of the oral cavity, and the lowest in tongue cancer. As regards the different histological types, higher sodium and calcium levels were found in squamous cell carcinomas than in other types. Salivary mineral content in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma is indicative of oral dehydration; however, we found no evidence of any salivary mineral markers that would be useful for the diagnosis of oral cancer.
Chong, Dawn Q; Mehta, Raaj S; Song, Mingyang; Kedrin, Dmitriy; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A; Ng, Kimmie; Wu, Kana; Fuchs, Charles S; Giovannucci, Edward L; Ogino, Shuji; Chan, Andrew T
Circulating adiponectin is inversely related to the risk of colorectal cancer. However, its influence on colorectal cancer survival is unclear. We conducted a prospective study to evaluate the association between prediagnostic plasma levels of adiponectin and mortality in patients with colorectal cancer. We identified 621 incident colorectal cancer cases who provided blood specimens prior to diagnosis within the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS). Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI). After a median follow-up of 9 years, there were 269 (43%) total deaths, of which 181 (67%) were due to colorectal cancer. Compared with participants in the lowest quartile of adiponectin, those in the highest quartile had multivariate HRs of 1.89 (95% CI, 1.21-2.97; P(trend) = 0.01) for colorectal cancer-specific mortality and 1.66 (95% CI, 1.15-2.39; P(trend) = 0.009) for overall mortality. The apparent increased risk in colorectal cancer-specific mortality was more pronounced in patients with metastatic disease (HR, 3.02: 95% CI, 1.50-6.08). Among patients with colorectal cancer, prediagnostic plasma adiponectin is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer-specific and overall mortality and is more apparent in patients with metastatic disease. Adiponectin may be a marker for cancers which develop through specific pathways that may be associated with worsened prognosis. Further studies are needed to validate these findings.
Zhou, Yunhai; Zhang, Xiang; Gu, Chen; Xia, Jiazeng
Breast cancer is one of the most common malignant tumours among women worldwide. Besides, diabetes mellitus is also a major health problem in developed countries. This study explores the association between diabetes mellitus and breast cancer patients' survival outcomes. A systematic literature search in Embase (http://www.embase.com) and MEDLINE (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed) was conducted from January 1960 to April 2014 and systematically identified clinical studies that evaluated the association between breast cancer mortality and diabetes mellitus. Clinical studies investigating the association between diabetes mellitus and breast cancer patients' survival outcomes were included. Twenty publications were chosen for the meta-analysis, of which 16 studies had all-cause mortality data and 12 studies had breast cancer mortality data. Published from 2001 to 2013, all 20 studies followed a total of 2,645,249 patients including more than 207,832 diabetic patients. Pre-existing diabetes mellitus was associated with a 37% increased risk for all-cause mortality in women with breast cancer (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.37; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.34-1.41; P = 0.02). Diabetes mellitus was associated with a 17% increased risk for breast cancer mortality in women with breast cancer (HR = 1.17; 95% CI: 1.11-1.22; P < 0.01). Women with diabetes mellitus are at higher risk of breast cancer-specific and all-cause mortality after initial breast cancer diagnosis. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.
Akl, Elie A; Kahale, Lara A; Hakoum, Maram B; Matar, Charbel F; Sperati, Francesca; Barba, Maddalena; Yosuico, Victor E D; Terrenato, Irene; Synnot, Anneliese; Schünemann, Holger
Anticoagulation may improve survival in patients with cancer through a speculated anti-tumour effect, in addition to the antithrombotic effect, although may increase the risk of bleeding. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of parenteral anticoagulants in ambulatory patients with cancer who, typically, are undergoing chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, immunotherapy or radiotherapy, but otherwise have no standard therapeutic or prophylactic indication for anticoagulation. A comprehensive search included (1) a major electronic search (February 2016) of the following databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2016, Issue 1), MEDLINE (1946 to February 2016; accessed via OVID) and Embase (1980 to February 2016; accessed via OVID); (2) handsearching of conference proceedings; (3) checking of references of included studies; (4) use of the 'related citation' feature in PubMed and (5) a search for ongoing studies in trial registries. As part of the living systematic review approach, we are running searches continually and we will incorporate new evidence rapidly after it is identified. This update of the systematic review is based on the findings of a literature search conducted on 14 August, 2017. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the benefits and harms of parenteral anticoagulation in ambulatory patients with cancer. Typically, these patients are undergoing chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, immunotherapy or radiotherapy, but otherwise have no standard therapeutic or prophylactic indication for anticoagulation. Using a standardized form we extracted data in duplicate on study design, participants, interventions outcomes of interest, and risk of bias. Outcomes of interested included all-cause mortality, symptomatic venous thromboembolism (VTE), symptomatic deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), major bleeding, minor bleeding, and quality of life. We assessed the certainty of evidence for each outcome using the GRADE approach
Patel, Jai N
Cancer pharmacogenomics is an evolving landscape and has the potential to significantly impact cancer care and precision medicine. Harnessing and understanding the genetic code of both the patient (germline) and the tumor (somatic) provides the opportunity for personalized dose and therapy selection for cancer patients. While germline DNA is useful in understanding the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic disposition of a drug, somatic DNA is particularly useful in identifying drug targets and predicting drug response. Molecular profiling of somatic DNA has resulted in the current breadth of targeted therapies available, expanding the armamentarium to battle cancer. This review provides an update on cancer pharmacogenomics and genomics-based medicine, challenges in applying pharmacogenomics to the clinical setting, and patient perspectives on the use of pharmacogenomics to personalize cancer therapy. PMID:27471406
In 2008, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) released its World Cancer Report, which indicated that cancer accounts for approximately 12% of all-cause mortality worldwide. IARC estimated that globally 7.6 million people died from cancer and that 12.4 million new cases were diagnosed in 2008. The report went on to project that, due to increases in life expectancy, improvements in clinical diagnostics, and shifting trends in health behaviors (e.g. increases in smoking and sedentary lifestyles), in the absence of significant efforts to improve global cancer control, cancer mortality could increase to 12.9 million and cancer incidence to 20 million by the year 2030. Looking deeper into the data, it becomes clear that cancer-related stigma and myths about cancer are important problems that must be addressed, although different from a country to another. Stigmas about cancer present significant challenges to cancer control: stigma can have a silencing effect, whereby efforts to increase cancer awareness are negatively affected. The social, emotional, and financial devastation that all too often accompanies a diagnosis of cancer is, in large part, due to the cultural myths and taboos surrounding the disease. Combating stigma, myths, taboos, and overcoming silence will play important roles in changing this provisional trajectory. There are several reasons that cancer is stigmatized. Many people in our area perceived cancer to be a fatal disease. Cancer symptoms or body parts affected by the disease can cultivate stigma. Fears about treatment can also fuel stigma. There was evidence of myths associated with cancer, such as the belief that cancer is contagious, or cancer may be seen as a punishment. After reviewing these different examples of cultural myths and taboos met in cancer care, we can report these lessons learned: 1. Around the world, cancer continues to carry a significant amount of stigma, myths, and taboos; however, there are opportunities to
Campos, Diana; Austerlitz, Carlos; Allison, Ron R; Póvoa, Helion; Sibata, Claudio
This article reviews updates and provides some data related to nutritional and orthomolecular supplementation in oncology patients with an emphasis on lung cancer, a commonly diagnosed tumor with significant nutritional disturbances. Cancer and its treatment play a significant role in nutritional imbalance which likely has negative impact on the patient both in terms of quality and quantity of life. Nutritional supplementation may correct these imbalances with significant clinical benefit both physiologically and psychologically. This review will help assist in providing clinically useful data to assess the cancer patient's nutritional status and to guide nutritional intervention to assist these patients' recovery.
Kaplan, Celia P.; Nápoles, Anna; Davis, Sharon; Lopez, Monica; Pasick, Rena J.; Livaudais-Toman, Jennifer; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J.
Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 Latino cancer patients diagnosed in California; 10 health professionals from the San Francisco Bay Area and Fresno, California; and 10 Cancer Information Services (CIS) information specialists from the regional offices handling calls from Spanish-speakers. Interview guides were designed by the investigators to answer three main research questions: 1) How do Latinos obtain information about cancer and what types of information do they access?; 2) What sources of cancer information do they seek out and find credible?; and 3) What are the barriers and facilitators to Latinos obtaining cancer information? Stakeholders generally viewed health professionals as the most credible source of cancer information. All groups regarded family and friends as important sources of information. Patients and health professionals tended to differ on the value of print materials. Although patients found them generally useful, health professionals tended to view them as inadequate for meeting the informational needs of their Latino patients due to the challenge of low health literacy. Health professionals also tended to undervalue Internet resources compared to patients and CIS specialists. All stakeholders viewed language, ethnic discordance and the impact on patients of the initial diagnosis as barriers to effective communication of cancer information. Health professionals and CIS specialists, but not patients, mentioned low literacy as a barrier. Our findings underscore the importance of the physician-patient relationship as a point of intervention to address the unmet informational and psychosocial needs of Latino cancer patients. PMID:27642542
Kaplan, Celia P; Nápoles, Anna; Davis, Sharon; Lopez, Monica; Pasick, Rena J; Livaudais-Toman, Jennifer; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J
Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 Latino cancer patients diagnosed in California; 10 health professionals from the San Francisco Bay Area and Fresno, California; and 10 Cancer Information Services (CIS) information specialists from the regional offices handling calls from Spanish-speakers. Interview guides were designed by the investigators to answer three main research questions: 1) How do Latinos obtain information about cancer and what types of information do they access?; 2) What sources of cancer information do they seek out and find credible?; and 3) What are the barriers and facilitators to Latinos obtaining cancer information? Stakeholders generally viewed health professionals as the most credible source of cancer information. All groups regarded family and friends as important sources of information. Patients and health professionals tended to differ on the value of print materials. Although patients found them generally useful, health professionals tended to view them as inadequate for meeting the informational needs of their Latino patients due to the challenge of low health literacy. Health professionals also tended to undervalue Internet resources compared to patients and CIS specialists. All stakeholders viewed language, ethnic discordance and the impact on patients of the initial diagnosis as barriers to effective communication of cancer information. Health professionals and CIS specialists, but not patients, mentioned low literacy as a barrier. Our findings underscore the importance of the physician-patient relationship as a point of intervention to address the unmet informational and psychosocial needs of Latino cancer patients.
Lawrenz, B; Neunhoeffer, E; Henes, M; Lessmann-Bechle, S; Krämer, B; Fehm, Tanja
The increase of breast cancer in young women under 40 years and the increasing age of women at the time of the birth of their first child underlines the importance to implement counselling for fertility-preserving strategies in the management of breast cancer care. We present the fertility-preserving procedures performed after routine counselling for primary breast cancer patients in a large certified breast cancer centre. Since November 2006, patients aged below 40 years with histologically confirmed breast cancer are routinely counselled on fertility-preserving possibilities before breast surgery and chemotherapy in the fertility centre of the University Women's Hospital in Tuebingen. The recommendations are based on the treatment recommendations of the network FertiPROTEKT. During the last 40 months, 56 primary breast cancer patients were counselled. Forty-one of these patients were hormone receptor positive. Thirty-four patients (63%) underwent fertility-preserving strategies. The majority of the patients (n = 22) decided on ovarian tissue cryopreservation. GnRH protection was performed in 14 patients. In 12 patients an ovarian stimulation protocol was initiated to cryopreserve fertilized or unfertilized oocytes. A combination of different fertility-preserving methods was performed in 12 patients. The preservation of ovarian function and fertility are of great importance to young breast cancer patients. Counselling on fertility-preserving strategies is therefore critical in these patients and should be routinely performed.
Higashi, Daijiro; Futami, Kitaro; Kojima, Daibo; Futatsuki, Ryo; Ishibashi, Yukiko; Maekawa, Takafumi; Yano, Yutaka; Takatsu, Noritaka; Hirai, Fumihito; Matsui, Toshiyuki; Iwashita, Akinori
Due to an increase in the number of long-term cases of Crohn's disease, the risk of combined cancer in these patients has been assessed in numerous articles. Most of these reports have involved patients with cancer of the large intestine, while cases of cancer of the small intestine combined with Crohn's disease are very rare. We experienced two cases of cancer of the small intestine combined with Crohn's disease. In both cases, the patients had suffered from Crohn's disease for over 10 years and a second operation was performed after a long period without treatment following the first operation, which had achieved a favorable outcome. In both cases of combined cancer, the patients experienced ileus; however, it was difficult to discern this from ileus due to the presence of Crohn's disease. Therefore, making a definitive diagnosis of combined cancer was not possible before surgery, and the definitive diagnosis was obtained based on an intraoperative pathological diagnosis. It is thought that tumor markers transition in a manner parallel to the progression of cancer, providing a clue for cancer diagnosis. In patients with Crohn's disease, there is a pressing need to establish a method for diagnosing cancer of the small intestine at an early stage.
Gurney, Jason; Sarfati, Diana; Stanley, James
Background: It is known that cancer stage is affected by comorbidity, but the evidence regarding the magnitude and even direction of this effect is highly inconsistent and poorly understood. The aims of this study were to establish the impact of comorbidity on cancer stage at diagnosis, using both specific individual comorbid conditions and a global measure of comorbidity; and to assess whether this impact varied by cancer site, level of comorbidity burden and individual comorbidity type. Methods: We examined comorbidity among 14 096 patients with breast, colon, rectal, liver, stomach, ovarian, uterine, bladder or kidney cancer. Patients were identified from cancer registry data, and then linked to hospitalisation data to determine the presence of comorbidity in the 5 years preceding cancer diagnosis. Individual comorbid conditions were identified using ICD-10 codes, and overall burden of comorbidity attributed using a cancer-specific measure of comorbidity (C3 Index). Results: We observed that the presence of patient comorbidity (a) increases the odds of being diagnosed with distant metastases, (b) does not lead to earlier diagnosis and (c) increases the likelihood of a patient receiving no stage of disease at diagnosis. Conclusions: Patient comorbidity has a substantial impact on cancer stage at diagnosis; however, this impact varies considerably by cancer type, individual comorbid condition and overall comorbidity burden. PMID:26461060
Background Cancer patients' knowledge about cancer and experiences with its treatment play an important role in long-term adherence in their disease management. This study aimed to explore cancer patients' knowledge about cancer, their perceptions of conventional therapies and the factors that contribute to medication adherence in the Malaysian population. Methods A qualitative research approach was adopted to gain a better understanding of the current perceptions and knowledge held by cancer patients. Twenty patients were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. A saturation point was reached after the 18th interview, and no new information emerged with the subsequent 2 interviews. All interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed by means of a standard content analysis framework. Results The majority of patients related the cause of their cancer to be God's will. Participants perceived conventional therapies as effective due to their scientific methods of preparations. A fear of side effects was main reasons given for delay in seeking treatment; however, perceptions were reported to change after receiving treatment when effective management to reduce the risk of side effects had been experienced. Conclusions This study provides basic information about cancer patients' perceptions towards cancer and its treatment. These findings can help in the design of educational programs to enhance awareness and acceptances of cancer screening. Priorities for future research should focus on patients who refused the conventional therapies at any stage. PMID:21718547
Shim, Hongjin; Cheong, Jae Ho; Lee, Kang Young; Lee, Hosun; Noh, Sung Hoon
Purpose The presence of gastrointestinal (GI) cancer and its treatment might aggravate patient nutritional status. Malnutrition is one of the major factors affecting the postoperative course. We evaluated changes in perioperative nutritional status and risk factors of postoperative severe malnutrition in the GI cancer patients. Materials and Methods Nutritional status was prospectively evaluated using patient-generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA) perioperatively between May and September 2011. Results A total of 435 patients were enrolled. Among them, 279 patients had been diagnosed with gastric cancer and 156 with colorectal cancer. Minimal invasive surgery was performed in 225 patients. PG-SGA score increased from 4.5 preoperatively to 10.6 postoperatively (p<0.001). Ten patients (2.3%) were severely malnourished preoperatively, increasing to 115 patients (26.3%) postoperatively. In gastric cancer patients, postoperative severe malnourishment increased significantly (p<0.006). In univariate analysis, old age (>60, p<0.001), male sex (p=0.020), preoperative weight loss (p=0.008), gastric cancer (p<0.001), and open surgery (p<0.001) were indicated as risk factors of postoperative severe malnutrition. In multivariate analysis, old age, preoperative weight loss, gastric cancer, and open surgery remained significant as risk factors of severe malnutrition. Conclusion The prevalence of severe malnutrition among GI cancer patients in this study increased from 2.3% preoperatively to 26.3% after an operation. Old age, preoperative weight loss, gastric cancer, and open surgery were shown to be risk factors of postoperative severe malnutrition. In patients at high risk of postoperative severe malnutrition, adequate nutritional support should be considered. PMID:24142640
Shim, Hongjin; Cheong, Jae Ho; Lee, Kang Young; Lee, Hosun; Lee, Jae Gil; Noh, Sung Hoon
The presence of gastrointestinal (GI) cancer and its treatment might aggravate patient nutritional status. Malnutrition is one of the major factors affecting the postoperative course. We evaluated changes in perioperative nutritional status and risk factors of postoperative severe malnutrition in the GI cancer patients. Nutritional status was prospectively evaluated using patient-generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA) perioperatively between May and September 2011. A total of 435 patients were enrolled. Among them, 279 patients had been diagnosed with gastric cancer and 156 with colorectal cancer. Minimal invasive surgery was performed in 225 patients. PG-SGA score increased from 4.5 preoperatively to 10.6 postoperatively (p<0.001). Ten patients (2.3%) were severely malnourished preoperatively, increasing to 115 patients (26.3%) postoperatively. In gastric cancer patients, postoperative severe malnourishment increased significantly (p<0.006). In univariate analysis, old age (>60, p<0.001), male sex (p=0.020), preoperative weight loss (p=0.008), gastric cancer (p<0.001), and open surgery (p<0.001) were indicated as risk factors of postoperative severe malnutrition. In multivariate analysis, old age, preoperative weight loss, gastric cancer, and open surgery remained significant as risk factors of severe malnutrition. The prevalence of severe malnutrition among GI cancer patients in this study increased from 2.3% preoperatively to 26.3% after an operation. Old age, preoperative weight loss, gastric cancer, and open surgery were shown to be risk factors of postoperative severe malnutrition. In patients at high risk of postoperative severe malnutrition, adequate nutritional support should be considered.
Kash, Kathryn M; Mago, Rajnish; Kunkel, Elisabeth J S
Increasing attention is being paid to the emotional and psychosocial needs of cancer patients. As a result of huge advances in early detection and in treatment modalities, there now are millions of cancer survivors in the United States. There has been a realization that cancer survivors have distinct psychosocial needs. As cancer survivors live longer, reduction of psychological distress has been recognized as being an important part of having an improved quality of life. There have been numerous changes in the field of psychosocial oncology since it first began 25 years ago. Guidelines now exist for the definition of distress and decision trees are available for making the appropriate referrals. Advances in pharmacologic treatment for depression and anxiety have made it possible to decrease distress and increase coping in cancer patients undergoing treatment as well as in cancer survivors. Numerous individual and group therapies have demonstrated effectiveness in improving mood and quality of life in cancer patients and those at high risk for developing cancer. Due to the forthright efforts of cancer patients, there are now many organizations and list serves (e-mailing lists) that cancer survivors can turn to for help before, during, and after cancer treatment. Finally, with the rapid expansion of the internet not only are there websites available as resources, but also the creation of interactive online support is becoming a reality. One of the most important issues in providing supportive care to cancer patients in the future is to meet the individual needs of patients and provide the type of psychological therapy that will work best for them.
Gonzalez, Jessica; Marín, Marta; Sánchez-Salcedo, Pablo; Zulueta, Javier J
Lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are two intimately related diseases, with great impact on public health. Annual screening using low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) of the chest significantly reduces mortality due to lung cancer, and several scientific societies now recommend this technique. COPD, defined by the presence of airflow obstruction [forced expiratory volume and forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio less than 0.70], and their clinical phenotypes, namely emphysema and chronic bronchitis, have been associated with increased lung cancer risk. Several epidemiological studies, including lung cancer screening trials, have found a 2- to 4-fold increase in lung cancer risk in patients with COPD when compared to individuals without airflow obstruction. Part of the risk attributed to airflow obstruction appears to be derived from the presence of radiographic emphysema. The latter has proven to be an important lung cancer risk factor in smokers without airflow obstruction and even in never smokers. This evidence supports the idea of including patients with COPD and/or emphysema in lung cancer screening programs. There is evidence that lung cancer screening in this population is effective and can potentially reduce mortality. Specific lung cancer risk scores have been developed for patients with COPD [COPD lung cancer screening score (LUCSS) and COPD-LUCSS-diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO)] to identify those at high risk. A multidisciplinary approach for an adequate patient selection, especially of patients with severe disease, is key to maximize benefits and reduce harms from lung cancer screening in this population. Patients with COPD included in lung cancer screening programs could also benefit from other interventions, such as smoking cessation and adequate treatment.
Lim, Myong Cheol; Lee, Jeong Seon; Nam, Byung Ho; Seo, Sang-Soo; Kang, Sokbom; Park, Sang-Yoon
The objective of this study was to investigate clinical manifestations of lower extremity edema (LEE) in early ovarian cancer. Patients with early ovarian cancer who underwent staging surgery between January 2001 and December 2010. Medical records for LEE and/or responses to the Gynecologic Cancer Lymphedema Questionnaire (GCLQ) were evaluated. Patients had a median age of 46 years. Twenty-nine patients (40.8%) had past (13 patients, 44.8%) and/or current patient-reported LEE (16 patients, 55.2%). Symptoms reported on the GCLQ in over 20% of respondents were numbness, firmness/tightness, swelling, heaviness, limited movement of knee, and aching. GCLQ total symptoms score was significantly higher in patients with current LEE. Most of the LEE (25/29, 86.2%) developed within 12 months after surgery and LEE lasted more than 6 months in approximately two-thirds of the patients (18/29, 62.1%). Only half of the patients (52.1%) indicated knowledge of lymphedema: 86.2% of LEE patients and 28.6% of patients with no LEE. Although a significant proportion of patients with ovarian cancer have LEE after surgery, most are not aware of lymphedema until they develop. Education and analyses for LEE and lymphedema are needed in patients with ovarian cancer.
Background The objective of this study was to investigate clinical manifestations of lower extremity edema (LEE) in early ovarian cancer. Methods Patients with early ovarian cancer who underwent staging surgery between January 2001 and December 2010. Medical records for LEE and/or responses to the Gynecologic Cancer Lymphedema Questionnaire (GCLQ) were evaluated. Results Patients had a median age of 46 years. Twenty-nine patients (40.8%) had past (13 patients, 44.8%) and/or current patient-reported LEE (16 patients, 55.2%). Symptoms reported on the GCLQ in over 20% of respondents were numbness, firmness/tightness, swelling, heaviness, limited movement of knee, and aching. GCLQ total symptoms score was significantly higher in patients with current LEE. Most of the LEE (25/29, 86.2%) developed within 12 months after surgery and LEE lasted more than 6 months in approximately two-thirds of the patients (18/29, 62.1%). Only half of the patients (52.1%) indicated knowledge of lymphedema: 86.2% of LEE patients and 28.6% of patients with no LEE. Conclusions Although a significant proportion of patients with ovarian cancer have LEE after surgery, most are not aware of lymphedema until they develop. Education and analyses for LEE and lymphedema are needed in patients with ovarian cancer. PMID:24602386
Owusu, Cynthia; Berger, Nathan A
Cancer care at the extremes of life, in the young and the old, is characterized by unique issues associated with pediatrics and geriatric medicine, accentuated by the special vulnerabilities of these groups. In response to these needs, the field of pediatric oncology has been well honed to deal with the special problems associated with juvenile cancer patients. While most adult oncologists consider themselves well prepared to deal with older cancer patients, the current expansion of the geriatric population – their variable levels of fitness, frailty and vulnerability, the fact that cancer is primarily a disease of older adults, the significant expansion of agents and approaches to treat cancer, as well as their resultant toxicities and complications – has led to the development of specialized geriatric oncologists. Moreover, the special characteristics and needs of these patients have led to the evolution of new guidelines for evaluation, management and the conduct of research in older patients with cancer. PMID:25642321
Beckman, Emily S; Helft, Paul R; Torke, Alexia M
Although hope is a pervasive concept in cancer treatment, we know little about how ambulatory patients with cancer define or experience hope. We explored hope through semistructured interviews with ten patients with advanced (some curable, some incurable) colon cancer at one Midwestern, university-based cancer center. We conducted a thematic analysis to identify key concepts related to patient perceptions of hope. Although we did ask specifically about hope, patients also often revealed their hopes in response to indirect questions or by telling stories about their cancer experience. We identified four major themes related to hope: 1) hope is essential, 2) a change in perspective, 3) the content of hope, and 4) communicating about hope. The third theme, the content of hope, included three subthemes: a) the desire for normalcy, b) future plans, and c) hope for a cure. We conclude that hope is an essential concept for patients undergoing treatment for cancer as it pertains to their psychological well-being and quality of life, and hope for a cure is not and should not be the only consideration. In a clinical context, the exploration of patients' hopes and aspirations in light of their cancer diagnosis is important because it provides a frame for understanding their goals for treatment. Exploration of the content of patients' hope can not only help to illuminate misunderstandings but also clarify how potential treatments may or may not contribute to achieving patients' goals.
Grant, Stephen R; Walker, Gary V; Guadagnolo, B Ashleigh; Koshy, Matthew; Allen, Pamela K; Mahmood, Usama
In the United States, an estimated 48 million individuals live without health insurance. The purpose of the current study was to explore the Variation in insurance status by patient demographics and tumor site among nonelderly adult patients with cancer. A total of 688,794 patients aged 18 to 64 years who were diagnosed with one of the top 25 incident cancers (representing 95% of all cancer diagnoses) between 2007 and 2010 in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database were analyzed. Patient characteristics included age, race, sex, marital status, and rural or urban residence. County-level demographics included percent poverty level. Insurance status was defined as having non-Medicaid insurance, Medicaid coverage, or no insurance. On multivariate logistic regression analyses, younger age, male sex, nonwhite race, being unmarried, residence in counties with higher levels of poverty, and rural residence were associated with being uninsured versus having non-Medicaid insurance (all P <.001). The highest rates of non-Medicaid insurance were noted among patients with prostate cancer (92.3%), melanoma of the skin (92.5%), and thyroid cancer (89.5%), whereas the lowest rates of non-Medicaid insurance were observed among patients with cervical cancer (64.2%), liver cancer (67.9%), and stomach cancer (70.9%) (P <.001). Among uninsured individuals, the most prevalent cancers were lung cancer (14.9%), colorectal cancer (12.1%), and breast cancer (10.2%) (P <.001). Lung cancer caused the majority of cancer mortality in all insurance groups. Rates of insurance coverage vary greatly by demographics and by cancer type. The expansion of health insurance coverage would be expected to disproportionally benefit certain demographic populations and cancer types. © 2015 American Cancer Society.
Semchuk, William M.; Sperlich, Catherine
Background: Many patients who experience a venous thromboembolic event have cancer, and thrombosis is much more prevalent in patients with cancer than in those without it. Thrombosis is the second most common cause of death in cancer patients and cancer is associated with a high rate of recurrence of venous thromboembolism (VTE), bleeding, requirement for long-term anticoagulation and poorer quality of life. Methods: A literature review was conducted to identify guidelines and evidence pertaining to anticoagulation prophylaxis and treatment for patients with cancer, with the goal of identifying opportunities for pharmacists to advocate for and become more involved in the care of this population. Results: Many clinical trials and several guidelines providing guidance to clinicians in the treatment and prevention of VTE in patients with cancer were identified. Current clinical evidence and guidelines suggest that cancer patients receiving care in hospital with no contraindications should receive VTE prophylaxis with unfractionated heparin (UFH), a low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) or fondaparinux. Patients who require surgery for their cancer should receive prophylaxis with UFH, LMWH or fondaparinux. Cancer patients who have experienced a VTE event should receive prolonged anticoagulant therapy with LMWH (at least 3 months to 6 months). No routine prophylaxis is required for the majority of ambulatory patients with cancer who have not experienced a VTE event. Most publicly funded drug plans in Canada have developed criteria for funding of LMWH therapy for patients with cancer. Conclusions: Evidence suggests that LMWH for 3 to 6 months is the preferred strategy for most cancer patients who have experienced a thromboembolic event and for hospital inpatients, but this is often not implemented in practice. Concerns about adherence with injectable therapy should not prevent use of these agents. Pharmacists should assess cancer patients for their risk of VTE and should
Karadeniz, G; Yanikkerem, E; Altiparmak, S; Sevil, U; Ertem, G; Esen, A
The aim of the present study was to identify what hospitalized cancer patients expect from nurses in terms of the care they receive. The specific aims of this study were: (i) to identify those individuals to whom the patients felt closest in the hospital setting and (ii) to evaluate nurses' management of cancer patients during their stay in the hospital. The sample included patients hospitalized at Ege University Hospital and Suat Seren District Hospital, Izmir, Turkey. We found significant differences between the scores of satisfaction and dissatisfaction and gender age, education, occupation, type of cancer and the mode of treatment (p < 0.05). The majority of the cancer patients reported that nursing management was unsatisfactory. Some demographic factors such as cultural and social status affected patients' expectations.
Martin, P; Brown, M C; Espin-Garcia, O; Cuffe, S; Pringle, D; Mahler, M; Villeneuve, J; Niu, C; Charow, R; Lam, C; Shani, R M; Hon, H; Otsuka, M; Xu, W; Alibhai, S; Jenkinson, J; Liu, G
In this study, we compared cancer patients preference for computerised (tablet/web-based) surveys versus paper. We also assessed whether the understanding of a cancer-related topic, pharmacogenomics is affected by the survey format, and examined differences in demographic and medical characteristics which may affect patient preference and understanding. Three hundred and four cancer patients completed a tablet-administered survey and another 153 patients completed a paper-based survey. Patients who participated in the tablet survey were questioned regarding their preference for survey format administration (paper, tablet and web-based). Understanding was assessed with a 'direct' method, by asking patients to assess their understanding of genetic testing, and with a 'composite' score. Patients preferred administration with tablet (71%) compared with web-based (12%) and paper (17%). Patients <65 years old, non-Caucasians and white-collar professionals significantly preferred the computerised format following multivariate analysis. There was no significant difference in understanding between the paper and tablet survey with direct questioning or composite score. Age (<65 years) and white-collar professionals were associated with increased understanding (both P = 0.03). There was no significant difference in understanding between the tablet and print survey in a multivariate analysis. Patients overwhelmingly preferred computerised surveys and understanding of pharmacogenomics was not affected by survey format. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lecumberri, Ramón; Pegenaute, Carlota; Páramo, José A
There is a well-known close relationship between cancer and the haemostatic system. Plasma D-dimer (DD) is a marker of fibrin generation and lysis. In the clinical practice, its main use is in the diagnostic algorithms of venous thromboembolism (VTE), and it is one of the diagnostic criteria of disseminated intravacular coagulation. In patients with cancer, the specificity of DD is lower than in the general population, reducing its usefulness. However, there is a growing evidence that points out a possible application of DD in the clinical management of cancer patients as a predictor of VTE, marker of hidden cancer in patients with idiopathic VTE, or even as an independent prognostic factor of response to chemotherapy and survival. In this review, the current evidence supporting the use of DD in cancer patients is critically exposed and discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Matthews, Ellyn E; Tanner, J Mark; Dumont, Natalie A
Intensive care units may place acutely ill patients with cancer at additional risk for sleep loss and associated negative effects. Research suggests that communication about sleep in patients with cancer is suboptimal and sleep problems are not regularly assessed or adequately treated throughout the cancer trajectory. However, many sleep problems and fatigue can be managed effectively. This article synthesizes the current literature regarding the prevalence, cause, and risk factors that contribute to sleep disturbance in the context of acute cancer care. It describes the consequences of poor sleep and discusses appropriate assessment and treatment options. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mangosteen is a tropical fruit native to Southeast Asia. It is consumed both as food and medicine. Data from in vitro and animal studies revealed that it has antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and antiproliferative effects against cancer cells. Xanthones, the major components of mangosteen fruit, have been implicated in such effects. It is yet to be studied in humans. However, despite lack of clinical evidence, mangosteen products are marketed to cancer patients as dietary supplements. Cancer patients should use caution before consuming mangosteen products as they can potentially interact with cancer treatments and also affect blood sugar levels.
Management of patients with low socioeconomic status and/or low literacy who have prostate cancer presents a challenge to healthcare professionals. Improving treatment outcomes for these men requires specific educational programs to provide a better understanding of prostate cancer including careful posttreatment follow-up to ensure they have recovered well, that the cancer is not progressing and that complications are not proving troublesome. Practice nurses and health educators/navigators can play an important role in achieving these objectives. Education and knowledgeable advice can lead to earlier diagnosis of prostate cancer, improved patient participation in the treatment decision-making process and effective management of posttreatment complications. PMID:16623064
Akira Kurosawa's 1952 film about a man with a terminal gastric cancer introduces a discussion of hope and faith in the oncology patient. A psychodynamic relationship between hope and faith is explored, using Lawrence LeShan's research in cancer psychotherapy and Erik Erikson's lifespan developmental theory. LeShan describes a cancer personality characterized by hopeless despair, while Erikson formulates a psychogenetic framework for the development of hope and despair. Hope and faith are linked through the individual's earliest strivings toward basic trust in the world and his or her own self-efficacy. Accordingly, cancer psychotherapy may aim at restoring adult patients' faith in life and inner creative resources.
Breast Cancer; Colorectal Cancer; Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Gallbladder Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Head and Neck Cancer; Liver Cancer; Lung Cancer; Metastatic Cancer; Ovarian Cancer; Pancreatic Cancer; Testicular Germ Cell Tumor
Costas-Muniz, Rosario; Sen, Rohini; Leng, Jennifer; Aragones, Abraham; Ramirez, Julia; Gany, Francesca
Having more health knowledge has a crucial and positive impact on cancer outcomes. Patients' cancer knowledge influences their ability to participate actively in decision-making processes for medical care and in treatment choices. The purpose of this study was to determine the demographic and medical correlates of lack of cancer stage knowledge and desire for information among Latino cancer patients. The sample included 271 underserved Latino cancer patients recruited from four cancer clinics in New York City. Participants completed a needs assessment survey in their preferred language, which included sociodemographic and health-related questions. Close to two-thirds of the sample (65%) had no knowledge of their stage, and 38% were unaware of the metastatic state of their tumor. Only 15% of the patients expressed that they would like additional information about their diagnosis and/or treatment. After controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, being an immigrant with limited English proficiency and monolingual in Spanish were predictors of stage unawareness and less desire/need for cancer information. Patients needing interpretation for health care were less likely to know whether their tumor had metastasized and their cancer stage and to desire information about their cancer diagnosis and/or treatment. This study shows considerably low levels of stage awareness among Latinos diagnosed with cancer. This lack of knowledge might adversely impact their treatment decisions and disease management. Future studies should focus on identifying barriers to acquisition of disease information and other disease-specific informational deficits.
Kazaura, Methods R; Kombe, Dominista; Yuma, Safina; Mtiro, Hussein; Mlawa, Genoveva
To characterize cancer patients and to determine the associated health seeking behaviours. Between September 2005 and February 2006, we collected data using structured and semi-structured interviews among new cancer patients attending the ORCI. Findings are summarized using univarite and bivariate analyses. There were 330 cancer patients during the study period. The mean age was 48 (SD = 13.5) years ranging between 21 and 84 years. The majority, 205 (62.1%), were females. More than two thirds of all patients, that is 225 (68.2%), presented at the ORCI at advanced stages of disease. Many patients reported to have neither heard, 193 (58.5%), nor to know cancer symptoms, 203 (61.5%). Only 185 (56.1%) of all patients reported their willingness to disclose and a freedom to talk about the disease. Risk factors for cancer staging were sex, patient's education status, awareness and knowledge of disease symptoms. Interventions targeted to improve health care seeking behaviour among cancer patients need to include health education and sensitization specifically of cancer disease, establish a strong referral mechanisms at primary health level and to start a population cancer registry for monitoring and evaluation purposes.
Saita, L; Polastri, D; De Conno, F
Visual disturbances in advanced cancer patients are very rarely signaled, evaluated, or adequately treated. The main causes of sight disturbances are primary eye tumors, ocular metastases, and some paraneoplastic syndromes. Sight alteration can also be associated with asthenia, fatigue, anemia, and hypovitaminosis. These symptoms can be monocular or binocular, and their gravity and evolution can vary. Based on a survey of 156 patients, we estimate the prevalence of visual disturbances to be 12% in advanced cancer patients.
Walling, Anne M; Weeks, Jane C; Kahn, Katherine L; Tisnado, Diana; Keating, Nancy L; Dy, Sydney M; Arora, Neeraj K; Mack, Jennifer W; Pantoja, Philip M; Malin, Jennifer L
Relatively few data are available about symptoms among cancer patients. To describe the prevalence and severity of symptoms among a large, representative cohort of newly diagnosed cancer patients. We collected survey data about symptoms (pain, fatigue, depression, nausea/vomiting, cough, dyspnea, and diarrhea) from 5422 patients with incident lung and colorectal cancer from the diverse, nationally representative Cancer Care Outcomes Research and Surveillance Consortium cohort. We described the prevalence of any symptoms and moderate/severe symptoms approximately four to six months after diagnosis. We used logistic regression to identify patient and clinical characteristics associated with symptoms, and calculated adjusted proportions of patients with symptoms. In total, 5067 (93.5%) patients reported at least one symptom in the four weeks before their survey, with 51% reporting at least one moderate/severe symptom. Lung cancer patients reported more symptoms than colorectal cancer patients. Patients who received treatment or had more comorbidities were more likely to report symptoms. For example, after adjustment, patients who received chemotherapy during the six weeks before the survey were more likely than others to report at least one symptom (97.3% vs. 90.8%, P<0.001), and at least one moderate/severe symptom (56.8% vs. 46.2%, P<0.001). After adjustment, early- vs. late-stage patients did not differ in reports of at least one symptom (93.6% vs. 93.4%, P=0.853) and differed only slightly in reports of at least one moderate/severe symptom (53.3% vs. 49.6%, P=0.009). Most recently diagnosed lung and colorectal cancer patients have cancer-related symptoms regardless of stage, and more than half have at least one moderate/severe symptom. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Rodríguez Duarte, C; Aguillón, J; Rodríguez, H
The results of a prospective study undertaken in 29 patients with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) are presented. Transrectal ultrasound, ultrasound-guided biopsy and prostate specific antigen (PSA) were utilized in the search for hidden cancer of the prostate. However, no cancer was detected in any patient. Very high values of PSA were found, particularly in patients with an indwelling catheter. Transrectal ultrasound yielded no false negatives and no complications were observed.
Keefe, Dorothy M K
Mucositis is an important toxicity to be aware of in anticancer therapy. It contributes to a reduction in cure rates from cancer. Until recently, it has been poorly understood and therefore has not been well managed. It causes patient distress, delays in treatment administration, and reductions in dose intensity, and it costs the health-care system a large amount of money. Mucositis has traditionally been associated more with hematologic malignancies than with solid tumors, because the incidence of severe mucositis has been much higher with the high-dose chemotherapy regimens used in hematologic malignancies. However, the chemotherapy used in solid tumors also causes mucositis and deserves further study. The separation between oral and gastrointestinal mucositis is potentially false and is being removed, with much research now investigating the entire alimentary canal. There are similarities and differences between radiation therapy- and chemotherapy-induced mucositis, and these have implications for treatment and prevention scheduling and type. Risk prediction is another area that requires more work, but there is real hope that, in the future, we might be able to predict who will suffer from mucositis and in which parts of the alimentary canal, thus enabling us to appropriately target the newer antimucotoxic therapies. The Mucositis Study Goup of the Multinational Association for Supportive Care in Cancer has recently published management guidelines for oral and gastrointestinal mucositis and is in the process of updating them. The guidelines serve as an excellent starting place for future mucositis research because they not only review the available treatments but also discuss mechanisms and epidemiology.
Cho, Juhee; Smith, Katherine; Choi, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Im-Ryung; Chang, Yoon-Jung; Park, Hyun-Young; Guallar, Eliseo; Shim, Young Mog
Regardless of improved survival rate, negative images and myths about cancer still abound. Cancer stigma may reduce patients' life opportunities resulting in social isolation, decreased level of emotional well-being, and poor health outcomes. This study was aimed to evaluate public attitudes toward cancer and cancer patients and people's willingness to disclose cancer diagnosis in South Korea. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in August and September 2009. A nationally representative sample of 1011 men and women with no history of cancer was recruited. A set of 12 questions grouped into three domains (impossibility of recovery, cancer stereotypes, and discrimination) was used to assess public attitudes toward cancer. It was found 58.5% of study participants agreed that it is impossible to treat cancer regardless of highly developed medical science, 71.8% agreed that cancer patients would not be able to make contributions to society, and 23.5% agreed that they would avoid working with persons who have cancer. The proportions of people who said that that they would not disclose a cancer diagnosis to family, friends or neighbors, or coworkers were 30.2%, 47.0%, and 50.7%, respectively. Negative attitudes toward cancer were strongly associated with lower willingness to disclose a cancer diagnosis. Negative attitudes, stereotypes, and discriminating attitudes toward cancer and people affected by the disease were very common in spite of clinical progress and improved survivorship. Our findings emphasize the need for health policy and social changes to provide a more supportive environment for cancer survivors. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Michaud, Laura Boehnke
To discuss trends in breast and prostate cancer prevalence and survival; risk factors for bone loss, osteoporosis, and fractures and the approach to risk assessment in patients with these malignancies; established and investigational drug therapies for managing cancer treatment-induced bone loss and osteoporosis; and the role of health-system pharmacists in promoting bone health in patients with breast or prostate cancer. Breast cancer and prostate cancer are common, deadly diseases, but many survivors are alive today because of improvements in early detection and treatment over the past 10-15 years. Cancer chemotherapy, corticosteroids, hormone-ablation therapy, and other common risk factors place patients with breast or prostate cancer at high risk for bone loss, osteoporosis, and fractures. Most patients with breast or prostate cancer should undergo assessment of risk for bone loss and osteoporosis that involves a bone-related history and physical examination, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning, and the FRAX fracture risk assessment tool from the World Health Organization. A recent National Comprehensive Cancer Network task force report on bone health in cancer care provides recommendations for considering the use of pharmacologic therapy on the basis of the results of this assessment. Bisphosphonates are useful for slowing or preventing bone loss associated with hormone-ablation therapy in women with breast cancer and men with prostate cancer, although fracture data are limited in women and not available in men. The usefulness of other therapies (selective estrogen receptor modulators, teriparatide, calcitonin salmon, and estrogens) is limited by adverse effects, a lack of experience with the drugs in these patient populations, or both. Various drug therapies are in development for managing cancer treatment-induced bone loss and osteoporosis. The agent closest to approval by the Food and Drug Administration, denosumab, has been shown to improve bone
Farge-Bancel, D; Florea, L; Bosquet, L; Debourdeau, P
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) disease, as defined by the occurrence of deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism, occurs among 4 to 20% of patients with cancer and is a leading cause of death among these patients. Use of classical anticoagulation to treat VTE in a cancer patient is associated with a higher risk of major bleeding and of VTE recurrence as compared to noncancer patients. Updated comprehensive and systematic review of current data from the medical literature allows to reconsider the classical approach used for anticoagulant treatment in cancer patients and to implement adapted recommendations. In 2008, the use of daily subcutaneous low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) for at least three to six months is recommended as first line therapy to treat VTE disease in cancer patients. If LMWH are contra-indicated (renal insufficiency), other therapeutic approaches are warranted, such as use of unfractionated heparin (UFH) with early introduction of anti-vitamin K for at least three months or venous cava filter in case of absolute contra-indications to anticoagulation. VTE prophylaxis in cancer patients relies on the same therapeutic approaches as currently used for noncancer patients at high risk of VTE. The definition of more specific prophylactic approaches for patients with cancer considered at higher risks of VTE, will be the subject of many clinical trials in the forthcoming years.
Ozawa, Hiroyuki; Saitou, Hideyuki; Mizutari, Kunio; Takata, Yasunori; Ogawa, Kaoru
We report on 2 cases of hypothyroidism presenting clinical symptoms that occurred after radiotherapy for cancer of the head and neck and on the results of estimating thyroid function in patients with head and neck cancer who received radiotherapy. The first patient underwent total laryngectomy for laryngeal cancer without sacrificing the thyroid gland and partial gastrectomy for gastric cancer. Radiotherapy of the neck was carried out postoperatively. Two years later, the patient developed chest pain; pericardial effusion was detected, leading to a diagnosis of myxedema caused by hypothyroidism. The second patient received radiotherapy alone for laryngeal cancer. Two months later, low serum sodium concentration and anemia were detected in this patient. The cause of these changes was subsequently found to be hypothyroidism. Based on our experience with these 2 cases, we measured thyroid function in 35 patients who had undergone neck radiation for head and neck cancer at our hospital over the past 10 years. Hypothyroidism was observed in 13 of the 35 patients (37%). The prevalence of hypothyroidism was 46% (6/13) for patients treated with both radiation and surgery, as compared with 32% (7/22) for those who received radiation alone. The risk factors responsible for hypothyroidism were not evident from the statistical analysis of these cases. We believe that thyroid function should be evaluated periodically in patients who have undergone neck radiation because it is often difficult to diagnose hypothyroidism only from clinical symptoms.
Crawford, Jeffrey; Wheatley-Price, Paul; Feliciano, Josephine Louella
Outcomes for patients with lung cancer have been improved substantially through the integration of surgery, radiation, and systemic therapy for patients with early-stage disease. Meanwhile, advances in our understanding of molecular mechanisms have substantially advanced our treatment of patients with advanced lung cancer through the introduction of targeted therapies, immune approaches, improvements in chemotherapy, and better supportive care. However, the majority of these advances have occurred among patients with good functional status, normal organ function, and with the social and economic support systems to be able to benefit most from these treatments. The aim of this article is to bring greater attention to management of lung cancer in patients who are medically compromised, which remains a major barrier to care delivery. Impaired performance status is associated with poor outcomes and correlates with the high prevalence of cachexia among patients with advanced lung cancer. CT imaging is emerging as a research tool to quantify muscle loss in patients with cancer, and new therapeutics are on the horizon that may provide important adjunctive therapy in the future. The benefits of cancer therapy for patients with organ failure are poorly understood because of their exclusion from clinical trials. The availability of targeted therapy and immunotherapy may provide alternatives that may be easier to deliver in this population, but clinical trials of these new agents in this population are vital. Patients with lower socioeconomic status are disproportionately affected by lung cancer because of higher rates of tobacco addiction and the impact of socioeconomic status on delay in diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes. For all patients who are medically compromised with lung cancer, multidisciplinary approaches are particularly needed to evaluate these patients and to incorporate rapidly changing therapeutics to improve outcomes.
Campos, Fábio Guilherme C M DE; Figueiredo, Marleny Novaes; Monteiro, Mariane; Nahas, Sérgio Carlos; Cecconello, Ivan
Sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) is traditionally diagnosed after de sixth decade of life, although a small percentage of cases are diagnosed in patients under 40 years of age, and incidence is increasing. There exists a great volume of controversy regarding clinical outcome of young patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC) when compared to elder counterparts. Our aims were to evaluate the rate of CRC in young patients, to review the pertaining literature and to discuss outcomes and clinical prognosis. A retrospective review involving patients with CRC was undertaken, focusing on age at diagnosis. The information extracted from this literature review showed a trend towards a decreased incidence in older people with an opposite effect among adolescents and young adults. Moreover, biological aggressiveness in young adults diagnosed with CRC has not been fully recognized, although it is usually diagnosed later and in association with adverse histological features. Besides that, these features don't affect outcome. These apparent increase in CRC incidence among young patients during the last decades raises the need for a greater suspicious when evaluating common symptoms in this group. Thus, educational programs should widespread information for both population and physicians to improve prevention and early diagnosis results. RESUMO O câncer colorretal (CCR) esporádico é tradicionalmente diagnosticado após a sexta década de vida, embora uma pequena porcentagem de casos seja diagnosticada em doentes abaixo dos 40 anos de idade, e a incidência está aumentando. Existe uma grande controvérsia a respeito da evolução clínica de doentes jovens portadores de CCR em comparação aos mais idosos. Os objetivos deste estudo foram avaliar a prevalência de CCR em doentes jovens, rever a literatura pertinente e discutir suas características mais importantes nesta faixa etária. Para tanto realizou-se revisão da literatura envolvendo doentes com CCR com foco na
Katagiri, Fumihiko; Nagai, Kazuyuki; Kida, Atsushi; Tomita, Kenji; Oishi, Shinya; Takeyama, Masaharu; Doi, Ryuichiro; Fujii, Nobutaka
Metastin, which is a 54-residue peptide coded by KiSS-1 gene, is an endogenous ligand to a G-protein-coupled receptor GPR54. Metastin suppresses a malignant tumor to metastasize and regulates secretion of gonadotropine releasing hormone. Physiological action of metastin has been focused on in oncology. It is reported that less KiSS-1 gene and more hOT7T175 gene which codes GPR54 are expressed in pancreatic cancers than in normal pancreatic tissues; however, there is no study that investigates the relationship between clinicopathological characteristics and plasma metastin concentration in pancreatic cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between plasma metastin-like immunoreactive substance (LI) levels and clinical characteristics in pancreatic cancer patients. Thirty-three patients with pathologically confirmed pancreatic cancer before or just after treatments and 24 healthy volunteers were included in the study. Patients were grouped according to the International Union Against Cancer TNM classification. Plasma metastin-LI was measured by enzyme immunoassay. The plasma metastin-LI levels of cancer patients were significantly higher when compared with healthy volunteers. Significant relationship was not found between the plasma metastin-LI levels and the clinicopathological factors such as tumor size, invasion, lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis. The plasma metastin levels may be a significant biomarker to predict the presence of pancreatic cancer and could be used in pancreatic cancer screening.
Spindler, Meredith; Jacks, Lindsay M; Chen, Xi; Panageas, Katherine; DeAngelis, Lisa M; Avila, Edward K
Determine incidence, clinical presentation, electrographic correlates, and outcome of nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) in cancer patients on whom an EEG was performed. Retrospective review of 947 EEG reports on 658 patients in whom any type of EEG was performed at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (July 2006 to March 2008). Using the Epilepsy Research Foundation criteria, patients were classified as definite or probable NCSE. Medical records were reviewed for diagnosis, causes of NCSE, response to treatment, and outcome. Mortality was determined for patients with NCSE. Twenty-six episodes of NCSE were identified in 25 patients (25/658, 4%). Eleven patients had primary brain tumor, 12 patients systemic cancer, and two had both. At diagnostic EEG, 18 were awake, 3 were lethargic, and 5 patients were comatose. EEG revealed a seizure in 62% of the patients, periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges in 42%, and periodic epileptiform discharges in 7.7%. Neuroimaging revealed new intracranial pathology in 54% of the patients. Seventy-seven percent of the patients achieved control; 65% required ≥3 antiepileptic drugs, and 33% required intubation. Three patients died from NCSE. In our cohort, awake NCSE was more common than comatose NCSE. Treatment was successful in patients with heterogeneous central nervous system disease. EEG evaluation should be considered in patients with cancer because NCSE is treatable despite a high prevalence of structural brain disease. Nonconvulsive status epilepticus control did not always require intubation and burst suppression, but frequently required three or more antiepileptic drugs.
Tran, Elizabeth; Spiceland, Clayton; Sandhu, Nicole P; Jatoi, Aminah
We sought to report incidence, risk factors, and survival related to bowel obstruction in 311 ovarian cancer patients with recurrent disease. A total of 68 (22%) had a documented bowel obstruction during their cancer course, and 49 (16%) developed it after cancer recurrence. Surprisingly, 142 (45%) fit into an "unknown" category (3+ months of data lacking from last contact/death). No risk factors were identified; management included surgery (n = 21), conservative measures (n = 21), and other (n = 7). Documented bowel obstruction was not associated with a statistically significant reduction in survival after cancer recurrence. In conclusion, although bowel obstruction occurs in only a subgroup of patients with ovarian cancer and does not appear to detract from survival after cancer recurrence, limited end-of-life information may be resulting in an underestimation of incidence.
Busaidy, Naifa Lamki; Cabanillas, Maria E.
Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (papillary and follicular) has a favorable prognosis with an 85% 10-year survival. The patients that recur often require surgery and further radioactive iodine to render them disease-free. Five percent of thyroid cancer patients, however, will eventually succumb to their disease. Metastatic thyroid cancer is treated with radioactive iodine if the metastases are radioiodine avid. Cytotoxic chemotherapies for advanced or metastatic noniodine avid thyroid cancers show no prolonged responses and in general have fallen out of favor. Novel targeted therapies have recently been discovered that have given rise to clinical trials for thyroid cancer. Newer aberrations in molecular pathways and oncogenic mutations in thyroid cancer together with the role of angiogenesis in tumor growth have been central to these discoveries. This paper will focus on the management and treatment of metastatic differentiated thyroid cancers that do not take up radioactive iodine. PMID:22530159
Patients with cancer face a high risk of comorbid depressive and anxiety disorders that have to be paradigmatically considered within a complex biopsychosocial context. Several conceptual challenges have to be mastered in arriving at a correct clinical diagnosis. Coexistent affective and anxiety disorders in cancer patients include a more dramatic subjective suffering, reduced psychological coping, possible negative interference with somatic treatment and rehabilitation, impaired quality of life and higher grades of psychosocial disability. They may also lead to an overall increased risk of somatic morbidity, a more rapid progression of cancer and a higher cancer-related mortality in the course of the disease. Manifold psychological, psychosocial and existential, cancer and treatment-related stressors have to be considered with respect to common neurobiological, especially neuroendocrine and neuroinflammatory mechanisms. Complex psychosomatic, somatopsychic and somato-somatic effects must always be considered. Evidence-based approaches in psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy exist for the integrative treatment of comorbid depressive and anxiety disorders in cancer.
Sisk, Angela; Fonteyn, Marsha
Introducing patients with cancer to the practice of yoga can be beneficial for coping with the side effects of treatment and the psychological aspects of cancer that are often difficult and distressing for patients. Oncology nurses can learn to use simple yoga techniques for themselves and as interventions with their patients. This article provides details about the development and implementation of a yoga class for patients with cancer and provides details about other ways nurses can integrate yoga into oncology nursing and cancer care. Current research literature was reviewed and synthesized to provide support for the use of yoga as an evidence-based nursing intervention. A detailed approach for implementing yoga into professional practice was delineated. Yoga techniques can be easily integrated into nursing practice and have been shown to be beneficial for patients and nurses.
Osteoporosis is a major public health issue in the general population, particularly in postmenopausal women. Patients with cancer may not only be at risk for primary osteoporosis, but for secondary osteoporosis related to cancer therapies-particularly therapies that impair gonadal function, lead to loss of serum estrogen, and negatively affect bone turnover. Normal bone remodeling is influenced by the receptor activator for nuclear kappa-B ligand pathway, calcium, vitamin D, and other nutrition factors, as well as modifiable and nonmodifiable factors. Identifying which patients with cancer are at risk for bone mineral density loss is important and may include patients with breast or prostate cancer, some survivors of pediatric malignancies, and adults with other tumors. Nurses play a major role in identifying those patients and their risk for low-impact fractures, which can have a significant effect on patient morbidity and mortality. Counseling and teaching are central nursing functions, as well as safely administering therapies, particularly bisphosphonates and denosumab.
Alexander, Koshy; Goldberg, Jessica; Korc-Grodzicki, Beatriz
SYNOPSIS Older cancer patients are best served by a multidisciplinary approach with Palliative Care (PC) playing an integral role. PC focuses on symptom control irrespective of its cause and should not be associated only with terminal care. It provides an additional layer of support in the care of the cancer patient with an emphasis on quality of life. In this article, we discuss the evaluation and management of pain and other common non-pain symptoms that occur in the elderly cancer patient, as well as end of life care. PMID:26614860
Alexander, Koshy; Goldberg, Jessica; Korc-Grodzicki, Beatriz
Older patients with cancer are best served by a multidisciplinary approach with palliative care (PC) playing an integral role. PC focuses on symptom control irrespective of its cause and should not be associated only with terminal care. It provides an additional layer of support in the care of patients with cancer with an emphasis on quality of life. This article discusses the evaluation and management of pain and other common nonpain symptoms that occur in elderly patients with cancer, as well as end-of-life care.
Durstine, Alessandra; Leitman, Elizabeth
The objective of the this paper is to assess and identify the key strengths and weaknesses for cancer control NGOs in Latin America, with the goal to make recommendations about how to improve thev impact of the patient advocacy movement as it pertains to cancer. The methods included literature review, expert interviews and site visits to Latin American cancer hospitals and NGOs. The overall findings conclude that NGOs currently do not take a leadership role in cancer control in Latin America. The lack of a survivorship movement, faulty patient information services and failure of the governments to include NGOs in policy creation are identified as areas for further project work and collaboration. The stigma of cancer still remains and a burgeoning patient movement can be created to help destigmatize and debunk the myths that surround cancer.
Gastrointestinal Neoplasms; Gynecologic Cancers; Gynecologic Cancers Cervical Cancer; Gastric (Stomach) Cancer; Gastro-Esophageal(GE) Junction Cancer; Gastrointenstinal Stromal Tumor (GIST); Colon/Rectal Cancer; Colon/Rectal Cancer Colon Cancer; Colon/Rectal Cancer Rectal Cancer; Colon/Rectal Cancer Anal Cancer; Anal Cancer; Hepatobiliary Cancers; Hepatobiliary Cancers Liver; Pancreatic Cancer
Warren, Graham W; Cummings, K Michael
Tobacco use, primarily associated with cigarette smoking, is the largest preventable cause of cancer mortality, responsible for approximately one-third of all cancer deaths. Approximately 85% of lung cancers result from smoking, with an additional fraction caused by secondhand smoke exposure in nonsmokers. The risk of lung cancer is dose dependent, but can be dramatically reduced with tobacco cessation, especially if the person discontinues smoking early in life. The increase in lung cancer incidence in different countries around in the world parallels changes in cigarette consumption. Lung cancer risks are not reduced by switching to filters or low-tar/low-nicotine cigarettes. In patients with cancer, continued tobacco use after diagnosis is associated with poor therapeutic outcomes including increased treatment-related toxicity, increased risk of second primary cancer, decreased quality of life, and decreased survival. Tobacco cessation in patients with cancer may improve cancer treatment outcomes, but cessation support is often not provided by oncologists. Reducing the health related effects of tobacco requires coordinated efforts to reduce exposure to tobacco, accurately assess tobacco use in clinical settings, and increase access to tobacco cessation support. Lung cancer screening and coordinated international tobacco control efforts offer the promise to dramatically reduce lung cancer mortality in the coming decades.
Tang, Pei-Ling; Chiou, Chou-Ping; Lin, Huey-Shyan; Wang, Chi; Liand, Shi-Long
Patients with cancer experience the approaching of death, which increases their fear of dying and the intensity of suffering. This study examined relationships among cancer patients' demographic characteristics, sense of purpose in life, and death anxiety. The study used a cross-sectional correlational design. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire, a sense-of-purpose-in-life scale, and a death anxiety scale. The stepwise multiple regression analysis was conducted to identify the factors that influenced the degree of death anxiety. Two hundred nineteen cancer patients who met the criteria for participation in the study completed the questionnaires. Results demonstrated that only 33.8% of participants had a sense of purpose in life, whereas 38.4% were uncertain about sense of purpose in life, and 27.8% indicated that they had no sense of purpose in life. Sense of purpose in life, level of fear of disease relapse, and sex were significant predictors, accounting for 32% of all variance in levels of death anxiety among cancer patients. Sense of purpose in life, level of fear of disease relapse, and sex had detrimental effects on levels of death anxiety among cancer patients. The research results may provide clinicians with an understanding of death anxiety among cancer patients and facilitate improvements in sense of purpose in life among patients, which may reduce death anxiety among such patients.
Laroumagne, Sophie; Lepage, Benoît; Hermant, Christophe; Plat, Gavin; Phelippeau, Michael; Bigay-Game, Laurence; Lozano, Stéphanie; Guibert, Nicolas; Segonds, Christine; Mallard, Valérie; Augustin, Nathalie; Didier, Alain; Mazieres, Julien
Bronchial colonisation is frequently reported in patients with lung cancer, and has a potential impact on therapeutic management and prognosis. We aimed to prospectively define the prevalence and nature of bronchial colonisation in patients at the time of diagnosing lung cancer. 210 consecutive patients with lung cancer underwent a flexible bronchoscopy for lung cancer. The type and frequency of bacterial, mycobacterial and fungal colonisation were analysed and correlated with the patients' and tumours' characteristics. Potential pathogens were found in 48.1% of samples: mainly the Gram-negative bacilli Escherichia coli (8.1%), Haemophilus influenzae (4.3%) and Enterobacter spp. (2.4%); Gram-positive cocci, Staphylococcus spp. (12.9%) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (3.3%); atypical mycobacteria (2.9%); Candida albicans (42.9%); and Aspergillus fumigatus (6.2%). Aged patients (p=0.02) with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (p=0.008) were significantly more frequently colonised; however, tumour stage, atelectasis, bronchial stenosis and abnormalities of chest radiography were not associated with a higher rate of colonisation. Squamous cell carcinoma tended to be more frequently colonised than other histological subtypes. Airway colonisation was reported in almost half of patients presenting with lung cancer, mainly in fragile patients, and was significantly associated with worse survival (p=0.005). Analysing colonisation status of patients at the time of diagnosis may help improve the management of lung cancer.
Meropol, Neal J; Egleston, Brian L; Buzaglo, Joanne S; Benson, Al B; Cegala, Donald J; Diefenbach, Michael A; Fleisher, Linda; Miller, Suzanne M; Sulmasy, Daniel P; Weinfurt, Kevin P
Optimal patient decision making requires integration of patient values, goals, and preferences with information received from the physician. In the case of a life-threatening illness such as cancer, the weights placed on quality of life (QOL) and length of life (LOL) represent critical values. The objective of the current study was to describe cancer patient values regarding QOL and LOL and explore associations with communication preferences. Patients with advanced cancer completed a computer-based survey before the initial consultation with a medical oncologist. Assessments included sociodemographics, physical and mental health state, values regarding quality and length of life, communication preferences, and cancer-related distress. Among 459 patients with advanced cancer, 55% placed equal valued on QOL and LOL, 27% preferred QOL, and 18% preferred LOL. Patients with a QOL preference had lower levels of cancer-related distress (P < .001). A QOL preference was also associated with older age (P = .001), male sex (P = .003), and higher educational level (P = .062). Patients who preferred LOL over QOL desired a more supportive and less pessimistic communication style from their oncologists. These data indicate that a values preference for LOL versus QOL may be simply measured, and is associated with wishes regarding the nature of oncologist communication. Awareness of these values during the clinical encounter could improve decision making by influencing the style and content of the communication between oncologists and their patients.
Lemańska, Agnieszka; Zaborowski, Mikołaj; Spaczyński, Marek; Nowak-Markwitz, Ewa
Since metformin was reported to decrease overall cancer incidence and mortality and to have antiproliferative and antinvasive properties, we investigated the impact of metformin intake on survival in endometrial cancer patients. Medical records and survival data of 126 patients with endometrial cancer were analyzed retrospectively U Mann-Whitney and chi-square tests were applied to compare clinicopathological features. Kaplan Meier model with log-rank test was used to compare survival in the subgroups. Cox proportional hazard model was applied to analyze the relationships between particular factors and overall survival. 107 patients met study criteria and were divided into three groups: 1) patients with type 2 diabetes and metformin users (n = 30), 2) patients with type 2 diabetes and metformin non-users (n = 38), 3) patients without diabetes mellitus (n = 39). No difference in survival between metformin users versus metformin non-users (p = 0.86) was observed. Metformin intake, diabetes mellitus co morbidity, plasma glucose level and BMI appeared without influence on survival. When the analysis was restricted to the subgroup of type I endometrial cancer or to endometroid histological type, still neither metformin intake nor diabetes influenced the prognosis. Metformin intake does not alter overall survival in endometrial cancer patients. Diabetes mellitus has no influence on survival in endometrial cancer patients.
Lee, Chul-Joo; Ramírez, A Susana; Lewis, Nehama; Gray, Stacy W; Hornik, Robert C
The gap in cancer information seeking between high-socioeconomic-status (high-SES) cancer patients and low-SES cancer patients deserves serious attention, considering the importance of information and knowledge in cancer control. We thus explored the association of SES, as measured by education, with cancer patients' overall cancer information seeking, and with seeking from each source (i.e., the Internet, mass media, medical sources, and nonmedical interpersonal sources) and across two topic categories (i.e., treatment, quality of life). We then asked whether the effect of education on treatment information seeking is reduced among those who are particularly motivated to control treatment choices. We conducted a survey with breast, prostate, and colon cancer patients diagnosed in 2005 (n = 2,013), who were randomly drawn from the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry in the fall of 2006. We found that education was more strongly associated with Internet use than with the use of other sources regardless of topics. Also, when information was sought from mass media, education had a greater association with treatment information seeking than with quality-of-life information seeking. Preference for active participation in treatment decision making, however, did not moderate the effect of education on treatment information seeking. The implications of these findings for public health research and cancer patient education were discussed.
Newton, J Tim
Effective communication has benefits for both patients and members of the health care team. Five main communication tasks in head and neck cancer are identified: Screening for head and neck cancer and communicating risk; Communicating the diagnosis of head and neck cancer; Providing information about treatment and pre-treatment; Communicating following treatment and dealing with fear of recurrence; Discussing the end of life. For each specific aspects of the communication situation are discussed. Underpinning each is the use of core communication skills.
Rocke, Daniel J; Lee, Walter T; Beumer, Halton W; Taylor, Donald H; Schulz, Kristine; Thomas, Steven; Puscas, Liana
Little is known about what patients and physicians value in end-of-life care, or how these groups would craft a health plan for those with advanced cancer. The study objective was to assess how otolaryngology, head and neck surgery (OHNS) physicians would structure a Medicare benefit plan for patients with advanced cancer, and to compare this with cancer patient and cancer patient caregiver preferences. OHNS physicians used an online version of a validated tool for assessing preferences for health plans in the setting of limited resources. These data were compared to cancer patient and caregiver preferences. OHNS physicians nationwide were assessed with comparison to similar data obtained in a separate study of cancer patients and their caregivers treated at Duke University Medical Center. Otolaryngology physicians (n=767) completed the online assessment and this was compared with data from 146 patients and 114 caregivers. OHNS physician allocations differed significantly in 14 of the 15 benefit categories when compared with patients and caregivers. Physicians elected more coverage in the Advice, Emotional Care, Palliative Care, and Treatment for Cancer benefit categories. Patients and their caregivers elected more coverage in the Cash, Complementary Care, Cosmetic Care, Dental and Vision, Drug Coverage, Home Improvement, House Calls, Nursing Facility, Other Medical Care, and Primary Care benefit categories. Otolaryngology physicians have significantly different values in end-of-life care than cancer patients and their caregivers. This information is important for efficient allocation of scarce Medicare resources and for effective end-of-life discussions, both of which are key for developing appropriate health policy.
Bauersachs, Rupert M
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is one of the leading causes of death in cancer patients, which are known to have a 5- to 7-fold increased risk for VTE. The anticoagulant treatment of VTE in cancer patients is less effective with a three-fold increased risk of VTE recurrence compared to non-cancer patients, and it is less safe with more than double rates of major bleeding. Compared to vitamin-K antagonists (VKA), long-term secondary prevention with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) has been shown to reduce the risk of recurrent VTE in cancer-associated thrombosis (CAT), and therefore, current international guidelines recommend the use of LMWH over VKA. With increasing age, cancer prevalence and VTE incidence increase while renal function decreases. Anti-cancer treatment may impair renal function additionally. Therefore, renal insufficiency is a frequent challenge in CAT patients, which is associated with a higher risk of both bleeding and recurrent VTE. Both VKA and LMWH may be associated with less efficacy and higher bleeding risk in renal insufficiency. Unfortunately, there is a lack of prospective data on renal insufficiency and CAT. A recent sub-analysis from a large randomized controlled trial shows that the bleeding risk in patients with severe renal insufficiency in CAT is not elevated with the use of LMWH compared to VKA while efficacy is maintained. In addition, LMWH treatment has several practical advantages over VKA, particularly in patients with CAT while they are receiving anti-cancer treatment.
Chong, Poh-Kuan; Lee, Huiyin; Loh, Marie Chiew Shia; Choong, Lee-Yee; Lin, Qingsong; So, Jimmy Bok Yan; Lim, Khong Hee; Soo, Ross Andrew; Yong, Wei Peng; Chan, Siew Pang; Smoot, Duane T.; Ashktorab, Hassan; Yeoh, Khay Guan; Lim, Yoon Pin
Gastric cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Current biomarkers used in the clinic do not have sufficient sensitivity for gastric cancer detection. To discover new and better biomarkers, protein profiling on plasma samples from 25 normal, 15 early-stage and 21 late-stage cancer was performed using an iTRAQ-LC-MS/MS approach. The level of C9 protein was found to be significantly higher in gastric cancer compared with normal subjects. Immunoblotting data revealed a congruent trend with iTRAQ results. The discriminatory power of C9 between normal and cancer states was not due to inter-patient variations and was independent from gastritis and Helicobacter pylori status of the patients. C9 overexpression could also be detected in a panel of gastric cancer cell lines and their conditioned media compared with normal cells, implying that higher C9 levels in plasma of cancer patients could be attributed to the presence of gastric tumor. A subsequent blind test study on a total of 119 plasma samples showed that the sensitivity of C9 could be as high as 90% at a specificity of 74%. Hence, C9 is a potentially useful biomarker for gastric cancer detection. PMID:20707004
Deng, Lin-lin; Chi, Ya-yun; Liu, Lei; Huang, Nai-si; Wang, Lin; Wu, Jiong
Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs in the human genome that involves in breast cancer development and progression. Here, we identify a lncRNA, LINC00978, which is upregulated in breast cancer cell lines and tissues compared with corresponding controls. Furthermore, LINC00978 expression is negatively associated with hormone receptor (HR) status in 195 breast cancer patients studied (p = 0.033). Kaplan–Meier survival analysis shows that patients with high LINC00978 expression have poorer disease-free survival (DFS) than those with low LINC00978 expression (p = 0.012), and multivariate analysis identifies LINC00978 as an independent prognostic factor in breast cancer (p = 0.008, hazard ratio [HR] = 2.270, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.237–4.165). Our study indicates that LINC00978 may be an oncogene in breast cancer, and can serve as a potential biomarker to predict prognosis in breast cancer patients. PMID:27897214
Attiê, Regina; Chinen, Ludmilla Thomé Domingos; Yoshioka, Eliane Muta; Silva, Michele Cristina F; de Lima, Vladmir Cláudio Cordeiro
To assess the impact of bacterial infections on cancer-specific survival in patients with colorectal cancer. This was a retrospective cohort study of colorectal cancer patients treated at the A.C. Camargo Cancer Center between January 2006 and April 2010. The presence of bacterial infection during cancer treatment, or up to one year after, was confirmed by laboratory tests or by the physician. Infections of the urinary, respiratory or digestive tracts, bloodstream, skin or surgical site were defined by testing within a single laboratory. Criteria for exclusion from the study were: chronically immunosuppressed patients; transplant patients (due to chronic immunosuppression); human immunodeficiency virus carriers; chronic use of corticosteroids or other immunosuppressive drugs; patients with autoimmune disease or primary immunodeficiency; known viral or parasitic infections. Patients with infections that did not require hospitalization were not included in the study because of the difficulty of collecting and tracking data related to infectious processes. In addition, patients hospitalized for pulmonary thromboembolism, stroke, acute myocardial infarction, uncontrolled diabetes, malignant hypercalcemia or other serious non-infectious complications not directly related to infection were also excluded. Survival curves were plotted using the Kaplan-Meier method, and log-rank tests (univariate analysis) and a Cox test assuming a proportional hazards model (multivariate analysis) were performed to examine associations between clinical history and characteristics of infection with cancer-specific survival. One-hundred and six patients with colorectal cancer were divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of bacterial infection. Patient ages ranged from 23 to 91 years, with a median of 55 years. The majority of patients were male (57/106, 53.77%) with stage III colorectal cancer (45/106, 44.11%). A total of 86 bacteriologic events were recorded. Results
Torres, Viviane B. L.; Vassalo, Juliana; Silva, Ulysses V. A.; Caruso, Pedro; Torelly, André P.; Silva, Eliezer; Teles, José M. M.; Knibel, Marcos; Rezende, Ederlon; Netto, José J. S.; Piras, Claudio; Azevedo, Luciano C. P.; Bozza, Fernando A.; Spector, Nelson; Salluh, Jorge I. F.; Soares, Marcio
Introduction Cancer patients are at risk for severe complications related to the underlying malignancy or its treatment and, therefore, usually require admission to intensive care units (ICU). Here, we evaluated the clinical characteristics and outcomes in this subgroup of patients. Materials and Methods Secondary analysis of two prospective cohorts of cancer patients admitted to ICUs. We used multivariable logistic regression to identify variables associated with hospital mortality. Results Out of 2,028 patients, 456 (23%) had cancer-related complications. Compared to those without cancer-related complications, they more frequently had worse performance status (PS) (57% vs 36% with PS≥2), active malignancy (95% vs 58%), need for vasopressors (45% vs 34%), mechanical ventilation (70% vs 51%) and dialysis (12% vs 8%) (P<0.001 for all analyses). ICU (47% vs. 27%) and hospital (63% vs. 38%) mortality rates were also higher in patients with cancer-related complications (P<0.001). Chemo/radiation therapy-induced toxicity (6%), venous thromboembolism (5%), respiratory failure (4%), gastrointestinal involvement (3%) and vena cava syndrome (VCS) (2%) were the most frequent cancer-related complications. In multivariable analysis, the presence of cancer-related complications per se was not associated with mortality [odds ratio (OR) = 1.25 (95% confidence interval, 0.94–1.66), P = 0.131]. However, among the individual cancer-related complications, VCS [OR = 3.79 (1.11–12.92), P = 0.033], gastrointestinal involvement [OR = 3.05 (1.57–5.91), P = <0.001] and respiratory failure [OR = 1.96(1.04–3.71), P = 0.038] were independently associated with in-hospital mortality. Conclusions The prognostic impact of cancer-related complications was variable. Although some complications were associated with worse outcomes, the presence of an acute cancer-related complication per se should not guide decisions to admit a patient to ICU. PMID:27764143
Soerjomataram, I; Louwman, W J; Lemmens, V E P P; Coebergh, J W W; de Vries, E
Ultraviolet exposure may reduce the risk of colorectal and breast cancer as the result of rising vitamin D levels. Because skin cancer is positively related to sun exposure, the authors hypothesized a lower incidence of breast and colorectal cancer after skin cancer diagnosis. They analyzed the incidence of colorectal and breast cancer diagnosed from 1972 to 2002 among 26,916 Netherlands skin cancer patients (4,089 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 19,319 basal cell carcinoma (BCC), and 3,508 cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM)). Standardized incidence ratios were calculated. A markedly decreased risk of colorectal cancer was found for subgroups supposedly associated with the highest accumulated sun exposure: men (standardized incidence ratio (SIR) = 0.83, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.71, 0.97); patients with SCC (SIR = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.43, 0.93); older patients at SCC diagnosis (SIR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.37, 0.88); and patients with a SCC or BCC lesion on the head and neck area (SIR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.36, 0.92 for SCC and SIR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.63, 0.97 for BCC). Patients with CMM exhibited an increased risk of breast cancer, especially advanced breast cancer (SIR = 2.20, 95% CI: 1.10, 3.94) and older patients at CMM diagnosis (SIR = 1.87, 95% CI: 1.14, 2.89). Study results suggest a beneficial effect of continuous sun exposure against colorectal cancer. The higher risk of breast cancer among CMM patients may be related to socioeconomic class, both being more common in the affluent group.
Figueiredo Junior, Adiel Goes de; Forones, Nora Manoukian
Capecitabine, an oral drug, is as effective as traditional chemotherapy drugs. To investigate the adhesion to treatment with oral capecitabine in breast and colorectal cancer, and to determine any correlation with changes in patient's quality of life. Patients with colorectal cancer or breast cancer using capecitabine were included. The patients were asked to bring any medication left at the time of scheduled visits. The QLQ-C30 questionnaire was applied at the first visit and 8-12 weeks after treatment. Thirty patients were evaluated. Adherence was 88.3% for metastatic colon cancer, 90.4% for non-metastatic colon cancer, 94.3% for rectal cancer and 96.2% for metastatic breast cancer. No strong correlation between adherence and European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 functional or symptom scale rates had been found. There was no statistically significant correlation between compliance and the functional and symptom scales of the questionnaire before and after chemotherapy, with the exception of dyspnea. Although no absolute adherence to oral capecitabine treatment had been observed, the level of adherence was good. Health professionals therefore need a greater focus in the monitoring the involvement of patients with oral treatment regimens. Patients with lesser degrees of dyspnea had greater compliance.
Ytterstad, Elinor; Moe, Per C; Hjalmarsen, Audhild
Background Previous studies have relied on international spirometry criteria to diagnose COPD in patients with lung cancer without considering the effect lung cancer might have on spirometric results. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of COPD and emphysema at the time of primary lung cancer diagnosis and to examine factors associated with survival. Materials and methods Medical records, pulmonary function tests, and computed tomography scans were used to determine the presence of COPD and emphysema in patients diagnosed with primary lung cancer at the University Hospital of North Norway in 2008–2010. Results Among the 174 lung cancer patients, 69% had COPD or emphysema (39% with COPD, 59% with emphysema; male:female ratio 101:73). Neither COPD nor emphysema were significantly associated with lung cancer mortality, whereas patients with non-small-cell lung cancer other than adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma had a risk of lung cancer mortality that was more than four times higher than that of patients with small-cell lung cancer (hazard ratio [HR] 4.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.56–11.25). Females had a lower risk of lung cancer mortality than males (HR 0.63, 95% CI 0.42–0.94), and patients aged ≥75 years had a risk that was twice that of patients aged <75 years (HR 2.48, 95% CI 1.59–3.87). Low partial arterial oxygen pressure (4.0–8.4 kPa) increased the risk of lung cancer mortality (HR 2.26, 95% CI 1.29–3.96). So did low partial arterial carbon dioxide pressure (3.0–4.9 kPa) among stage IV lung cancer patients (HR 2.23, 95% CI 1.29–3.85). Several patients with respiratory failure had previously been diagnosed with COPD. Conclusion The observed prevalence of COPD was lower than that in previous studies. Neither COPD nor emphysema were significantly associated with lung cancer mortality. PMID:27042050
Hwang, Jong Ha; Yoo, Heon Jong; Lim, Myong Cheol; Seo, Sang-Soo; Kang, Sokbom; Kim, Joo-Young; Park, Sang-Yoon
The purpose of this study was to describe the features of patients with brain metastasis from cervical cancer. The medical records of patients with cervical cancer between February 2001 and June 2011 were reviewed retrospectively. Clinical characteristics, symptoms, treatment and survival in patients with brain metastasis were analyzed. Eleven patients with brain metastasis from cervical cancer were identified, representing an incidence of brain metastasis in the study population of 0.45%. Median patient age at initial diagnosis of cervical cancer was 50 years (range 33-75 years). Non-squamous cell carcinoma was diagnosed in six (54.5%) of the 11 patients, with small cell carcinoma diagnosed in two patients. Ten of the 11 patients had lung-related metastasis at presentation; eight patients had lung metastasis, one had mediastinal lymph node metastasis, and one had pleural metastasis. The median interval from diagnosis of cervical cancer to identification of brain metastasis was 15.4 months (range 3.4-83.3 months). Nine patients presented with neurologic symptoms, such as headache, nausea, vomiting, seizure and extremity weakness. Initially, six patients received whole brain radiotherapy: three patients received chemotherapy; one underwent surgery; and one patient refused treatment. The median survival time after diagnosis of the brain metastases was 5.9 months (range 0.7-19 months). The prognosis after diagnosis of the brain metastasis in patients with uterine cervical cancer is poor. The small cell type and lung metastasis seem to be related with brain metastasis and may be regarded as risk factors. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2012 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Remón, J; Guardeño, R; Badía, A; Cardona, T; Picaza, J M; Lianes, P
Blindness is an unusual symptom in the clinical course of cancer. When it appears it is necessary to differentiate between benign and malign causes. Brain metastases in bladder cancer are extremely rare. MRI is the best diagnostic option. We present a deaf-and-dumb male with subacute blindness, 12 months after the diagnosis of a metastatic bladder cancer. Computerised tomography scan and MRI revealed a mass into the pituitary gland and sella, probably of metastatic origin.
Jansen, Catherine E
To provide a comprehensive review of assessment strategies used to determine cancer- and/or cancer treatment-related cognitive changes. Review and synthesis of review articles, databased resources. Although several assessment strategies have been used to determine cancer- and/or cancer treatment-related cognitive changes, definitive standards have yet to be established. Further studies are needed to provide insight into practical and sensitive assessment tools to recognize cognitive changes that can be used in the clinical setting. The nurse's awareness of cognitive concerns is essential for patient education and determination of when patients may need to be referred for more extensive evaluations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Burge, Frederick I.; Lawson, Beverley; Johnston, Grace
Context: Surveys indicate 50% to 80% of cancer patients would choose to die at home if possible, although far fewer actually do. In Nova Scotia (NS), cancer deaths occurring out-of-hospital increased from 19.8% in 1992 to 30.2% in 1997. The impact of rural residency on this trend has not been studied. Purpose: To determine the association between…
Shimura, Tatsuo; Shibata, Masahiko; Gonda, Kenji; Kofunato, Yasuhide; Okada, Ryo; Ishigame, Teruhide; Kimura, Takashi; Kenjo, Akira; Kono, Koji; Marubashi, Shigeru
Pancreatobiliary cancer is a disease associated with a dismal prognosis and limited treatment options. The aim of the present study was to clarify the usefulness of circulating galectin-3 in pancreatobiliary cancer. We examined serum galectin-3 concentrations in 45 patients with pancreatobiliary cancer. Receiver operating characteristic curves were utilized to evaluate the accuracy of circulating galectin-3 to discriminate pancreatobiliary cancer patients from controls and predict the prognostic outcomes. Circulating galectin-3 had diagnostic value at the cut-off level of 6.2 ng/ml, and the patients' overall survival was predictable at the cut-off level of 10.3 ng/ml. Furthermore, circulating galectin-3 ≥10.3 ng/ml was an independent prognostic marker in pancreatobiliary cancer. Regarding biliary cancer, higher galectin-3 was associated with malnutrition. On the other hand, regarding pancreatic cancer, higher galectin-3 levels were associated with higher inflammatory parameters. Galectin-3 can be a useful biomarker in patients with pancreatobiliary cancer. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.
Gordon, Wayne; And Others
The course of psychosocial adjustment to cancer was examined in 105 adults with cancer of the lung, breast and skin. Half of the patients received a program of systematic psychosocial rehabilitation plus evaluation, and the other half received only an evaluation, consisting of a series of psychometric instruments and a problem-oriented structured…
Gordon, Wayne; And Others
The course of psychosocial adjustment to cancer was examined in 105 adults with cancer of the lung, breast and skin. Half of the patients received a program of systematic psychosocial rehabilitation plus evaluation, and the other half received only an evaluation, consisting of a series of psychometric instruments and a problem-oriented structured…
Keitel, Merle A.; And Others
Discusses impact on the spouse when his or her partner is being treated for cancer. Defines the disease, outlines treatment effects, and describes issues affecting psychological and marital adjustment of spouses. Offers implications for counselors who work with spouses of cancer patients. (Author/NB)
Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Precancerous Condition; Small Intestine Cancer; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific
Chou, Frank H-C; Tsai, Kuan-Yi; Wu, Hung-Chi; Shen, Shih-Pei
People with schizophrenia, who constitute approximately 0.3-1% of the general population, have a nearly 20% shorter life expectancy than the general population. The incidence of varied types of cancers in patients with schizophrenia is controversial. The majority of previous research has demonstrated that patients who have schizophrenia and cancer have early mortality compared to the general population with cancer. The causes of early mortality in patients with schizophrenia and cancer might be attributed to a lower cancer screening rate and lack of effective treatment, including: (i) patient factors, such as poor lifestyle, passive attitude toward treatment, or comorbidity; (ii) physician factors, such as physician bias, which may decrease the delivery of care for individuals with mental disorders; and (iii) hospital administration factors, such as stigma and discrimination. Additional studies on patients with schizophrenia and cancer are warranted and should include the following: a comprehensive review of previous studies; a focus on differentiating the specific types of cancer; and methods for improvement. To decrease the early mortality of patients with schizophrenia, the following measures are proposed: (i) enhance early detection and early treatment, such as increasing the cancer screening rate for patients with schizophrenia; (ii) provide effective, timely treatment and rehabilitation; (iii) improve patients' psychiatric symptoms and cognitive impairment; (iv) promote healthy behavior in the general population and emphasize healthy lifestyles in vulnerable populations; and (v) remove the stigma of schizophrenia. To reduce disparities in physical health, public health strategies and welfare policies must continue to focus on this group of patients. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2016 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.
Mochimaru, Yuko; Ohno, Yuko; Numasaki, Hodaka; Theshima, Teruki; Shibuya, Hitoshi
In Japan, the number of patients that have been treated with radiotherapy (RT), particularly those with breast cancer, has increased in the past decade, and is expected to double in the next decade. There is, however, a shortage of RT resources, particularly personnel, which represents a social problem. The shortage of RT resources might cause a difference in survival rate among treated patients. This study analyzed the characteristics of RT resources in RT facilities from Osaka based on the Japanese Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (JASTRO) database with principle component analysis and cluster analysis. In addition, the relation between RT resources and treatment outcome of breast cancer patients was investigated by linking together Osaka Cancer Registry (OCR) and JASTRO data via a stratified key cord. By using the linked dataset it was shown that the prognosis of breast cancer patients was highly correlated with the scale of RT resources available at the RT facilities collaterally. From cluster analysis, four groups were identified based on RT facility information. The breast cancer survival rates for localized stage patients obtained in classified hospital groups showed a similar pattern, however, large differences (up to 20%) were seen in regional stage patients. Additional findings were: RT facilities with less than 1 radiation oncologist had the poorest outcome; RT was performed primarily at University hospitals; and differences in RT resources within the RT facilities had an effect on breast cancer patient prognosis in Osaka, Japan.
Yoo, Heon Jong; Joo, Jungnam; Seo, Sang-Soo; Kang, Sokbom; Yoo, Chong Woo; Park, Sang-Yoon; Lim, Myong Cheol
The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) in Korean women with endometrial cancer. Among 227 patients with endometrial cancer in the study population, 20 patients (8.8%) had HNPCC. The patients were divided into 2 groups based on the BMI: nonobese (BMI ≤25 kg/m) and obese (BMI >25 kg/m); then the nonobese group was subdivided into 2 groups: normal weight (BMI <23 kg/m) and overweight (BMI, 23-25 kg/m). The distributions of BMI categories were compared between patients with sporadic endometrial cancer and with HNPCC-related endometrial cancer. Among 207 patients with sporadic endometrial cancer, 119 (57.5%) were nonobese and 88 patients (42.5%) were obese. Of 20 patients with endometrial cancer related to HNPCC, 10 (50.0%) were nonobese and 10 (50.0%) were obese. In a subgroup analysis of only nonobese patients, 68 patients with sporadic endometrial cancer had normal weight and 51 were overweight. On the other hand, all 10 patients with HNPCC related to endometrial cancer had normal weight. There was no significant difference between the group with HNPCC-related endometrial cancer and the group with sporadic endometrial cancer according to BMI (P = 0.221). However, BMI proportions in HNPCC related to endometrial cancer were significantly different from those in sporadic endometrial cancer (P = 0.016). Among a subgroup of nonobese patients, the proportion of normal weight was significant higher in patients with HNPCC-related endometrial cancer compared to those in sporadic endometrial cancer (P = 0.006). Body mass index was not different between sporadic endometrial cancer and HNPCC-related endometrial cancer in Koreans. However, BMI proportions in the patients with HNPCC related to endometrial cancer was significantly different from those in sporadic endometrial cancer. Specifically, among nonobese patients, the proportion of normal weight was significantly high
The papers included in this section represent the effort of the Task Force on Nutrition of the International Society of Geriatric Oncology to synthetize the evidence-based concepts on nutritional support of the elderly cancer patients. In the attempt of presenting a comprehensive overview of the topic, the panel included experts from different specialties: basic researchers, nutritionists, geriatricians, nurses, dieticians, gastroenterologists, oncologists. Cancer in elderly people is a growing problem. Not only in almost every country, the proportion of people aged over 60 years is growing faster than any other age group, but cancer per se is also a disease of old adult-elderly people, hence the oncologists face an increasing number of these patients both now and in the next years. The are several studies on nutrition of elderly subjects and many other on nutrition of cancer patients but relatively few specifically devoted to the nutritional support of the elderly cancer patients. However, the awareness that elderly subjects account for a high proportion of the mixed cancer patients population, in some way legitimates us to extend some conclusions of the literature also to the elderly cancer patients. Although the topics of this Experts' Consensus have been written by specialists in different areas of nutrition, the final message is addressed to the oncologists. Not only they should be more directly involved in the simplest steps of the nutritional care (recognition of the potential existence of a "nutritional risk" which can compromise the planned oncologic program, use of some oral supplements, etc.) but, as the true experts of the natural history of their cancer patient, they should also coordinate the process of the nutritional support, integrating this approach in the overall multidisciplinary cancer care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lavdaniti, Maria; Zyga, Sofia; Vlachou, Eugenia; Sapountzi-Krepia, Despina
As life expectancy increases, it is expected that 60% of all cases of cancer will be detected in elderly patients in the next two decades. Cancer treatment for older persons is complicated by a number of factors, thus negatively affecting patients' quality of life. The purpose of this study is to investigate quality of life in elderly cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. This study was descriptive and non-experimental. It was conducted in one large hospital in a major city of Northern Greece. The sample was convenience comprising 53 elderly cancer patients undergoing cycle 3 chemotherapy. The data was collected using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy scale and included questions related to demographic and clinical characteristics. The majority of participants were men (n = 27, 50.9%) who were married (n = 32, 79.5%). Their mean age was 70.07 ± 3.60. Almost half of the sample (n = 30, 56.6%) had colon cancer. There was a statistical significant difference between men and women pertaining to physical wellbeing (p = 0.004) and overall quality of life (p < 0.001). When comparing each subscale with the patients' marital status it was found that there was a statistical difference with respect to social/family wellbeing (p = 0.029), functional wellbeing (p = 0.09) and overall quality of life (p < 0.001). Moreover, the type of cancer affected overall quality of life (p < 0.001) and social/family wellbeing (p = 0.029). These findings call attention to quality of life and its related factors in elderly cancer patients. It is highly recommended to envisage measures for improving quality of life in this group of cancer patients.
Dale, Jon Espen; Sebjørnsen, Sigrun; Leh, Sabine; Rösler, Cornelia; Aaserud, Stein; Møller, Bjørn; Fluge, Øystein; Erichsen, Christian; Nadipour, Saied; Kørner, Hartwig; Pfeffer, Frank; Dahl, Olav
Many patients are diagnosed with an anal cancer in high ages. We here present the outcome after oncological therapy for patients above 80 years compared with younger patients. A series of 213 consecutive patients was diagnosed and treated at a single institution from 1984 to 2009. The patients received similar radiation doses but with different techniques, thus progressively sparing more normal tissues. The majority of patients also had simultaneous [5-fluorouracil (5FU) and mitomycin C] or induction chemotherapy (cisplatin and 5FU). The patients were stratified by age above or below 80 years. Despite that the goal was to offer standard chemoradiation treatment to all, the octo- and nonagenarians could not always be given chemotherapy. In our series 35 of 213 anal cancer patients were above 80 years. After initial therapy similar complete response was observed, 80% above and 87% below 80 years. Local recurrence rate was also similar in both groups, 21% versus 26% (p = .187). Cancer-specific survival and relative survival were significantly lower in patients above 80 years, 60% and 50% versus 83% and 80%, (p = .015 and p = .027), respectively. Patients older than 80 years develop anal cancer, but more often marginal tumors. Even in the oldest age group half of the patients can tolerate standard treatment by a combination of radiation and chemotherapy, and obtain a relative survival of 50% after five years. Fragile patients not considered candidates for chemoradiation may be offered radiation or resection to control local disease.
Porter, Laura S; Keefe, Francis J; Hurwitz, Herbert; Faber, Michelle
This study examined patterns of disclosure about cancer-related concerns between patients with GI cancer and their spouses, and associations between patient and spouse disclosure and patient adjustment, spouse adjustment, and aspects of relationship functioning. A sample of 47 patients and 45 of their spouses completed a measure of disclosure which included ratings of their level of disclosure and level of holding back from disclosure of cancer-related concerns. Patients completed a measure of quality of life, spouses completed a measure of caregiver strain, and all participants completed measures of psychological distress and relationship functioning (intimacy, empathy, and partner avoidance and criticism). Data analyses revealed that patients and spouses reported moderately high levels of disclosure and low levels of holding back, with patients reporting higher levels of disclosure than spouses. Among patients and spouses, low levels of disclosure and high levels of holding back were associated with poorer relationship functioning. There were also some indications that high levels of holding back, and to a lesser extent low levels of disclosure, were associated with increased psychological distress for both patients and spouses. However, there were no indications that patient or spouse disclosure was harmful for the other person. Considered overall, the results of this study suggest that levels of disclosure between cancer patients and their spouses may be important in understanding how they adjust as a couple to the demands of the patient's illness.
Trujillo-Santos, Javier; Nieto, José Antonio; Ruíz-Gamietea, Angeles; López-Jiménez, Luciano; García-Bragado, Ferran; Quintavalla, Roberto; Monreal, Manuel
Cancer patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE) have an increased incidence of bleeding complications while on anticoagulant therapy. RIETE is an ongoing registry of consecutive patients with acute VTE. We tried to identify which cancer patients are at a higher risk for major bleeding. Up to May 2009, 4,709 patients with active cancer had been enrolled in RIETE registry. During the first 3 months of anticoagulant therapy, 200 (4.2%) patients developed major bleeding. Then, 38 (0.8%) further patients bled beyond the first 90 days of therapy, 3 bled after withholding anticoagulant therapy. The most common sites of bleeding were the gastrointestinal tract (118 patients, 49%), genitourinary system (43 patients, 18%) and the brain (27 patients, 11%). In all, 160 patients (66%) died within 30 days after bleeding: 88 (55%) died of bleeding, 3 (1.9%) died of recurrent pulmonary embolism. Major bleeding is a frequent and severe complication in cancer patients with VTE, even beyond the third month. One third of the patients who bled died due the bleeding event.
Auranen, A.; Pukkala, E.; Mäkinen, J.; Sankila, R.; Grénman, S.; Salmi, T.
Cancer incidence was studied among 3072 first-degree relatives of 559 unselected ovarian cancer patients. Among cohort members there were 306 cancer cases. The overall cancer incidence was not increased: the standardised incidence ratio (SIR) in males was 0.9 (95% confidence interval 0.8-1.1) and in females 1.0 (0.8-1.1). The female relatives had a significantly increased risk for ovarian cancer (SIR 2.8, 1.8-4.2). The excess was attributable to sisters only (SIR 3.7, 2.3-5.7). The relative risk for ovarian cancer among sisters decreased both by increasing age of the sister and by increasing age at diagnosis of the index patient: the SIRs were 7.3 (1.5-21.4), 4.5 (1.6-9.8) and 3.1 (1.7-5.4) for sisters of index patients diagnosed in age < 45, 45-54 and 55-75 years respectively. The age dependency of the risk supports the role of genetic factors in familial ovarian cancer. Although the risk of ovarian cancer among sisters from families with breast cancer (SIR 9.2, 3.7-19.0) was significantly higher than among sisters from families with no breast cancer patients (SIR 2.9, 1.6-4.8, rate ratio 3.1, P < 0.05), the excess was not solely attributable to coaggregation of breast and ovarian cancer. Among the 27 families with two or more ovarian cancers, only sisters were affected in 24 families, which might implicate recessive inheritance or shared environmental factors influencing ovarian cancer risk in sisters. PMID:8688336
Kang, Hwi-joong; Yoon, Jung-won; Park, Ji-hye; Cho, Chong-kwan; Yoo, Hwa-seung
Objectives: The purpose of this study is to report a case series of advanced cancer patients whose cancer pain was relieved by using autonomic nerve pharmacopuncture (ANP) treatment. ANP is a subcutaneous injection therapy of mountain ginseng pharmacopuncture (MGP) along the acupoints on the spine (Hua-Tuo-Jia-Ji-Xue; 0.5 cun lateral to the lower border of the spinous processes of vertebrae) to enhance the immune system and to balance autonomic nerve function. Methods: Patients with three different types of cancer (gastric cancer, lung cancer, colon cancer with distant metastases) with cancer pain were treated with ANP. 1 mL of MGP was injected into the bilateral Hua-Tuo-Jia-Ji-Xue on the T1-L5 sites (total 12 ─ 20 mL injection) of each patient’s dorsum by using the principle of symptom differentiation. During ANP treatment, the visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain was used to assess their levels of cancer pain; also, the dosage and the frequency of analgesic use were measured. Results: The cancer pain levels of all three patients improved with treatment using ANP. The VAS scores of the three patients decreased as the treatment progressed. The dosage and the frequency of analgesics also gradually decreased during the treatment period. Significantly, no related adverse events were found. Conclusion: ANP has shown benefit in controlling cancer pain for the three different types of cancer investigated in this study and in reducing the dosage and the frequency of analgesics. ANP is expected to be beneficial for reducing cancer pain and, thus, to be a promising new treatment for cancer pain. PMID:25780711
Parker, P A; Baile, W F; de Moor, C; Lenzi, R; Kudelka, A P; Cohen, L
The goal of this study was to assess patients' preferences regarding the way in which physicians deliver news about their cancer diagnosis and management. A sample of 351 patients with a variety of cancers completed a measure assessing their preferences for how they would like to be told news about their cancer. Patients rated characteristics of the context and content of the conversation as well as physician characteristics. Factor analysis indicated that patients' preferences for how they would like to be told news regarding their cancer can be grouped into the following three categories: (1) content (what and how much information is told); (2) facilitation (setting and context variables); and (3) support (emotional support during the interaction). Women (P =.02) and patients with higher education (P =.05) had significantly higher scores on the Content scale, women (P =.02) had higher scores on the Support scale, and younger patients (P =.001) and those with more education (P =.02) had higher scores on the Message Facilitation scale. Medical variables were not associated with patients' ratings of the importance of the three subscales. Patients rated items addressing the message content as most important, though the supportive and facilitative dimensions were also rated highly. Understanding what is important to patients when told news about their cancer provides valuable information that may help refine how this challenging task is best performed.
Truccolo, Ivana; Cipolat Mis, Chiara; Cervo, Silvia; Dal Maso, Luigino; Bongiovanni, Marilena; Bearz, Alessandra; Sartor, Ivana; Baldo, Paolo; Ferrarin, Emanuela; Fratino, Lucia; Mascarin, Maurizio; Roncadin, Mario; Annunziata, Maria Antonietta; Muzzatti, Barbara; De Paoli, Paolo
In Italy, educational programs for cancer patients are currently provided by the national government, scientific societies, and patient advocate organizations. Several gaps limit their effectiveness, including the lack of coordinated efforts, poor involvement of patient feedback in the planning of programs, as well as a lack of resources on innovative cancer-related topics. This process is parallel to a strong shift in the attitude of patients towards health in general and taking charge of their own health conditions in particular. The National Cancer Institute in the USA and the Organization of European Cancer Institutes encourage comprehensive cancer centers in providing educational programs conceived to overcome these gaps. The goal of this paper is to identify and describe the key elements necessary to develop a global patient education program and provide recommendations for strategies with practical examples for implementation in the daily activities of cancer institutes. A multidisciplinary committee was established for patient education, including patient representatives as equal partners, to define, implement, verify, and evaluate the fundamental steps for establishing a comprehensive education program. Six essential topics were identified for the program: appropriate communication of cancer epidemiology, clinical trial information, new therapeutic technologies, support in the use of medicines, psycho-oncological interventions, age-personalized approaches, and training programs for healthcare providers. Integration of these topics along with patient feedback is the key to a successful model for educational programs. An integrated educational program can transform a comprehensive cancer center to an institution that provides research and care for and with patients.
Cadranel, J; Garfield, D; Lavolé, A; Wislez, M; Milleron, B; Mayaud, C
AIDS related mortality has fallen sharply in industrialised countries since 1996 following the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy. This has been accompanied by an increase in the proportion of deaths attributable to non-AIDS defining solid tumours, especially lung cancer. The risk of developing lung cancer seems to be higher in HIV infected subjects than in the general population of the same age, partly because the former tend more frequently to be smokers and, especially, intravenous drug users. The carcinogenic role of the antiretroviral nucleoside drugs and their interaction with smoking needs to be examined. Interestingly, there is no clear relationship between the degree of immunosuppression and the risk of lung cancer, so the reason for the increased risk is unknown. The mean age of HIV infected patients at the time of lung cancer diagnosis is 45 years and most are symptomatic. Lung cancer is diagnosed when locally advanced or metastatic (stage III-IV) in 75-90% of cases, similar to patients with unknown HIV status. Adenocarcinoma is the most frequent histological type. The prognosis is worse in HIV infected patients than in the general lung cancer population. Efficacy and toxicity data for chemotherapy and radiation therapy are few and imprecise. Surgery remains the treatment of choice for localised disease in patients with adequate pulmonary function and general good health, regardless of immune status. Prospective clinical trials are needed to define the optimal detection and treatment strategies for lung cancer in HIV infected patients.
Listl, Stefan; Jansen, Lina; Stenzinger, Albrecht; Freier, Kolja; Emrich, Katharina; Holleczek, Bernd; Katalinic, Alexander; Gondos, Adam; Brenner, Hermann
The purpose of the present study was to describe the survival of patients diagnosed with oral cavity cancer in Germany. The analyses relied on data from eleven population-based cancer registries in Germany covering a population of 33 million inhabitants. Patients with a diagnosis of oral cavity cancer (ICD-10: C00-06) between 1997 and 2006 are included. Period analysis for 2002–2006 was applied to estimate five-year age-standardized relative survival, taking into account patients' sex as well as grade and tumor stage. Overall five-year relative survival for oral cavity cancer patients was 54.6%. According to tumor localization, five-year survival was 86.5% for lip cancer, 48.1% for tongue cancer and 51.7% for other regions of the oral cavity. Differences in survival were identified with respect to age, sex, tumor grade and stage. The present study is the first to provide a comprehensive overview on survival of oral cavity cancer patients in Germany. PMID:23349710
Listl, Stefan; Jansen, Lina; Stenzinger, Albrecht; Freier, Kolja; Emrich, Katharina; Holleczek, Bernd; Katalinic, Alexander; Gondos, Adam; Brenner, Hermann
The purpose of the present study was to describe the survival of patients diagnosed with oral cavity cancer in Germany. The analyses relied on data from eleven population-based cancer registries in Germany covering a population of 33 million inhabitants. Patients with a diagnosis of oral cavity cancer (ICD-10: C00-06) between 1997 and 2006 are included. Period analysis for 2002-2006 was applied to estimate five-year age-standardized relative survival, taking into account patients' sex as well as grade and tumor stage. Overall five-year relative survival for oral cavity cancer patients was 54.6%. According to tumor localization, five-year survival was 86.5% for lip cancer, 48.1% for tongue cancer and 51.7% for other regions of the oral cavity. Differences in survival were identified with respect to age, sex, tumor grade and stage. The present study is the first to provide a comprehensive overview on survival of oral cavity cancer patients in Germany.
Gudaitytė, Jūratė; Dvylys, Dominykas; Šimeliūnaitė, Indrė
The aim is to present the major effects of cancer treatment (chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surgery) that the anaesthesiologist should consider preoperatively, and to review techniques of the analgesic management of the disease. To summarize the major challenges that cancer patients present for the anaesthesiologists, a literature review was conducted. Articles presenting evidence or reviewing the possible effects of anaesthetics on cancer cells were also included. Online databases of Science Direct, PubMed, and ELSEVIER, as well as reference lists of included studies were searched. Articles published from 2005 to 2016 were selected. Anaesthesiologists should pay attention to patients receiving chemotherapy and its side effects on organ systems. Bleomycin causes pulmonary damage, anthracyclines are cardiotoxic, and platinum-based chemotherapy agents are nephrotoxic. A lot of chemotherapy agents lead to abnormal liver function, vomiting, diarrhoea, etc. Surgery itself is suspected to be associated with an increased risk of metastasis and recurrence of cancer. Regional anaesthesia and general anaesthesia with propofol should be used and volatile agents should be avoided to prevent cancer patients from perioperative immunosuppression that leads to increased risk of cancer recurrence. Pain management for palliative patients remains a major problem. To provide the best treatment for cancer patients, cooperation of anaesthesiologists with oncologists and surgeons becomes imperative. It has been established that anaesthetic techniques and drugs could minimize the perioperative inflammation. However, further research of the perioperative "onco-anaesthetic" is needed.
Holland, Thomas; Fowler, Vance G; Shelburne, Samuel A
Systematic studies have shown that gram-positive organisms are the leading cause of invasive bacterial disease in patients with cancer. A broad range of gram-positive bacteria cause serious infections in the cancer patient with the greatest burden of disease being due to staphylococci, streptococci, and enterococci. The evolution of cancer therapy and the changing epidemiology of major gram-positive pathogens mean that ongoing efforts are needed to understand and mitigate the impact of these bacteria in patients with malignancy. The development of novel antibacterials, optimization of treatment approaches, implementation of improved vaccines, and manipulation of the microbiome are all active areas of investigation in the goal of improving the survival of the cancer patient through amelioration of the disease burden of gram-positive bacteria.
Ali-Shtayeh, Mohammed S; Jamous, Rana M; Jamous, Rania M
This study sought to describe type, frequency, purpose and patterns of herbal medicine used by a sample of patients with cancer in Palestine. A cross-sectional survey of patients attending the outpatient cancer departments at the Governmental Hospitals was undertaken using semi-structured questionnaires. A total of 1260 patients with cancer were interviewed. Of the participants, 60.9% (n = 767) reported using herbs primarily bought from Palestine (92.3%) frequently employed in the form of decoctions (43%). The most common herbal product was Arum palaestinum (22.5%). Most Complementary and Alternative (CAM) users were more than 40 years of age, predominantly female, and living in rural areas of Palestine. Family member's recommendation was cited as the main factor prompting participants to use CAM (43.5%). This study revealed that there is an appreciable prevalence of herbal use among patients with cancer in Palestine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Expert-reviewed information summary about the challenges faced by family caregivers of cancer patients. This summary focuses on typical caregiver roles and concerns, and helpful interventions for caregivers.
Abdollahzadeh, Farahnaz; Sadat Aghahossini, Shima; Rahmani, Azad; Asvadi Kermani, Iraj
Introduction: Despite the importance of quality of life (QOL) in outcomes of cancer pa-tients, there have been a few Iranian studies investigating the Iranian patients’ quality of life. The present study aimed to assess the cancer patients’ QOL and its related factors. Methods: This cross-sectional study conducted in Shahid Ghazi Tabatabaei Hospital affiliated to Tabriz University of Medical Sciences in 2009. The samples included 150 cancer patients aged more than 18 years who were aware of their own diagnosis. They were selected through convenient sampling method and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer–Quality of life questionnaire (EORTC–QOL 30) were completed. Results: Our findings showed that 44.1% of the patients had moderate QOL. QOL had a significant correlation with the level of family support (p = 0.002). Conclusion: Many of cancer patients have a moderate QOL. However, confirmation of such finding requires further investigations. PMID:25276684
... term relief for a throat cancer patient in France The 56-year-old man can now speak ... D., vice president, scientific affairs, Protip Medical, Strasbourg, France; Mark Courey, M.D., division chief, head and ...
Inadequate pain treatment in patients with cancer remains a significant problem and appears to be more frequent among minorities, according to a new study published online April 16, 2012, in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.
Rehder, Douglas S; Nelson, Randall W; Borges, Chad R
On the basis of the results of activity studies, previous reports have suggested that vitamin D binding protein (DBP) is significantly or even completely deglycosylated in cancer patients, eliminating the molecular precursor of the immunologically important Gc macrophage activating factor (GcMAF), a glycosidase-derived product of DBP. The purpose of this investigation was to directly determine the relative degree of O-linked trisaccharide glycosylation of serum-derived DBP in human breast, colorectal, pancreatic, and prostate cancer patients. Results obtained by electrospray ionization-based mass spectrometric immunoassay showed that there was no significant depletion of DBP trisaccharide glycosylation in the 56 cancer patients examined relative to healthy controls. These results suggest that alternative hypotheses regarding the molecular and/or structural origins of GcMAF must be considered to explain the relative inability of cancer patient serum to activate macrophages. PMID:19642159
Rehder, Douglas S; Nelson, Randall W; Borges, Chad R
On the basis of the results of activity studies, previous reports have suggested that vitamin D binding protein (DBP) is significantly or even completely deglycosylated in cancer patients, eliminating the molecular precursor of the immunologically important Gc macrophage activating factor (GcMAF), a glycosidase-derived product of DBP. The purpose of this investigation was to directly determine the relative degree of O-linked trisaccharide glycosylation of serum-derived DBP in human breast, colorectal, pancreatic, and prostate cancer patients. Results obtained by electrospray ionization-based mass spectrometric immunoassay showed that there was no significant depletion of DBP trisaccharide glycosylation in the 56 cancer patients examined relative to healthy controls. These results suggest that alternative hypotheses regarding the molecular and/or structural origins of GcMAF must be considered to explain the relative inability of cancer patient serum to activate macrophages.
Correale, M; Abbate, I; Gargano, G; Catino, A; Musci, M D; Dragone, C D; De Lena, M
The availability of a new rapid and reproducible laboratory test led to an easy dosage of sialic acid (AS) serum levels in neoplastic patients. This substance, involved in tumoral transformation and metastatic spread, has been evaluated in 278 neoplastic patients: 183 patients were affected by lymphoma (96 NHL and 87 HD), 60 by breast cancer and 35 by lung cancer. All groups of patients considered showed mean values of AS higher than healthy controls and the positive percentages, compared with cut-off levels, were respectively: NHL 71%, HD 70%, breast cancer 38%, lung cancer 89%. Even if the low specificity of this marker limits its clinical validity, AS, that seems related to clinical course of disease, could be useful in the monitoring of many neoplasms.
Farge-Bancel, Dominique; Bounameaux, Henri; Brenner, Benjamin; Büller, Harry R.; Kakkar, Ajay; Pabinger, Ingrid; Streiff, Michael; Debourdeau, Philippe
Venous thromboembolism is a frequent and serious complication in patients with cancer. It is an independent prognostic factor of death in cancer patients and the second leading cause of death, but physicians often underestimate its importance, as well as the need for adequate prevention and treatment. Management of venous thromboembolism in patients with cancer requires the coordinated efforts of a wide range of clinicians, highlighting the importance of a multidisciplinary approach. However, a lack of consensus among various national and international clinical practice guidelines has contributed to knowledge and practice gaps among practitioners, and inconsistent approaches to venous thromboembolism. The 2013 international guidelines for thrombosis in cancer have sought to address these gaps by critically re-evaluating the evidence coming from clinical trials and synthesizing a number of guidelines documents. An individualized approach to prophylaxis is recommended for all patients. PMID:25386357
Hoole, J; Kanatas, A; Calvert, A; Rogers, S N; Smith, A B; Mitchell, D A
Problems with intimacy in patients with cancer of the head and neck may not be recognised. Our aim was to review published papers on patient-reported outcomes that record concerns about intimacy, sex, and function, to help develop a tool for use in head and neck cancer. We specifically looked for instruments with evidence of validation in patients with cancer, which could be used to identify problems with intimacy and sexuality. After evaluating 2563 papers, we identified 20 that satisfied our inclusion criteria, and these have been presented in a tabulated form. This review has shown the need to develop a questionnaire on intimacy that is specific to patients with cancer of the head and neck. It is an important issue that must be addressed by clinical and research teams, and will be done most effectively if it is linked to specific interventions.
Results from two phase III randomized clinical trials suggest that, at least for some patients with ovarian cancer, adding the antiangiogenesis agent bevacizumab to chemotherapy increases the time to disease progression and may improve survival.
... Costs Can Be Another Blow to Cancer Patients Obamacare has improved access to therapies, but finances are ... under the Affordable Care Act, also known as Obamacare, expenses such as deductibles, co-pays and co- ...
Hao, Wende; Zhang, Xuhui; Xiu, Bingshui; Yang, Xiqin; Hu, Shuofeng; Liu, Zhiqiang; Duan, Cuimi; Jin, Shujuan; Ying, Xiaomin; Zhao, Yanfeng; Han, Xiaowei; Hao, Xiaopeng; Fan, Yawen; Johnson, Heather; Meng, Di; Persson, Jenny L; Zhang, Heqiu; Feng, XiaoYan; Huang, Yan
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide, identification of new biomarkers for early diagnosis and detection will improve the clinical outcome of breast cancer patients. In the present study, we determined serum levels of vitronectin (VN) in 93 breast cancer patients, 30 benign breast lesions, 9 precancerous lesions, and 30 healthy individuals by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Serum VN level was significantly higher in patients with stage 0-I primary breast cancer than in healthy individuals, patients with benign breast lesion or precancerous lesions, as well as those with breast cancer of higher stages. Serum VN level was significantly and negatively correlated with tumor size, lymph node status, and clinical stage (p < 0.05 in all cases). In addition, VN displayed higher area under curve (AUC) value (0.73, 95 % confidence interval (CI) [0.62-0.84]) than carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) (0.64, 95 % CI [0.52-0.77]) and cancer antigen 15-3 (CA 15-3) (0.69, 95 % CI [0.58-0.81]) when used to distinguish stage 0-I cancer and normal control. Importantly, the combined use of three biomarkers yielded an improvement in receiver operating characteristic curve with an AUC of 0.83, 95 % CI [0.74-0.92]. Taken together, our current study showed for the first time that serum VN is a promising biomarker for early diagnosis of breast cancer when combined with CEA and CA15-3.
Shaharudin, Soraya Hanie; Sulaiman, Suhaina; Shahril, Mohd Razif; Emran, Nor Aina; Akmal, Sharifah Noor
Breast cancer patients often show an interest in making dietary changes after diagnosis of breast cancer to improve their health condition and prevent cancer recurrence. The objective of the study was to determine changes in dietary intake 2 years after diagnosis among breast cancer patients. One hundred sixteen subjects were asked to complete a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, diet recalls, and dietary changes questionnaire to assess dietary intake before and after diagnosis. The information on sociodemographic background, cancer treatment history, and anthropometric indices was also collected. Seventy-two subjects considered diet as a contributing factor to breast cancer, and 67 subjects changed their dietary habits after breast cancer diagnosis. The reasons for changes in diet were physician and dietitian advice and desire to cure cancer. The sources of information were derived from their physician, mass media, and family members. Total energy, protein, total fat, fatty acids, and vitamin E intake were significantly decreased after diagnosis. Meanwhile, the intake of β-carotene and vitamin C increased significantly after diagnosis. The changes included reduction in red meat, seafood, noodles, and poultry intake. An increased consumption of fruits, vegetables, fish, low-fat milk, and soy products was observed. The subjects tended to lower high-fat foods intake and started to eat more fruits and vegetables. Breast cancer patients had changed to a healthier diet after breast cancer diagnosis, although the changes made were small. This will be helpful to dietitians in providing a better understanding of good eating habits that will maintain patients' health after breast cancer diagnosis.
Orive, Miren; Quintana, Jose M; Vrotsou, Kalliopi; Las Hayas, Carlota; Bilbao, Amaia; Barrio, Irantzu; Matellanes, Begoña; Padierna, Jesús A
One of the few instruments to evaluate coping skills among patients with chronic illnesses is the Cuestionario de Afrontamiento al Estrés para Pacientes Oncológicos (CAEPO), created initially for cancer patients. We evaluate how well CAEPO applies to patients with non-cancer chronic illnesses. A total of 344 patients (115 with chronic hepatitis C, 120 with inflammatory bowel disease and 109 with recurrent vertigo) completed the CAEPO. Exploratory factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha provide only partial support for the seven factors suggested by the original CAEPO. A streamlined version with fewer dimensions and items may be a better solution for identifying coping strategies among these patients.
Johnson, Peter; Westcott, Gemma
Peter Johnson speaks to Gemma Westcott, Commissioning Editor: Peter Johnson is Professor of Medical Oncology at the University of Southampton and Chief Clinician for Cancer Research UK. He graduated from Cambridge University and St Thomas's Medical School (UK). He trained in oncology at St Bartholomew's Hospital, London, where he was an Imperial Cancer Research Fund (ICRF) Clinical Research Fellow and completed his doctoral research on the Bcl-2 gene, its potential as a therapeutic target in lymphoma and the effects of CD40 ligation on the B-cell surface. He was subsequently a Senior Lecturer in Medical Oncology in the ICRF Cancer Medicine Research Unit, Leeds and took up the Chair of Medical Oncology in Southampton (UK) in 1998. He is responsible for bringing together a broad multidisciplinary group of basic, translational and clinical researchers, and linking the research of the academic unit to the extensive clinical practice in cancer treatment in the Southampton Cancer Centre. His research interests are in applied immunology and immunotherapy, lymphoma biology and clinical trials. He is Chief Investigator for lymphoma trials ranging from first in man novel antibody therapeutics to international randomized studies, and for the Cancer Research UK Stratified Medicine Programme. He was Chair of the UK National Cancer Research Institute Lymphoma Group from 2005 to 2011 and has been a member of national trials committees for the Medical Research Council, Cancer Research UK and Leukaemia and Lymphoma Research.
Qiao, Yanjie; Qiu, Xiaoming; Zhou, Qinghua
Pulmonary rehabilitation is an evidence-based, multidisciplinary and comprehensive non-medication intervention for patients with chronic respiratory diseases who are symptomatic and often have decreased daily life activities. Applications of pulmonary rehabilitaion in the management of patients with lung cancer are only recently emerging. Preliminary studies showed its effects in improving exercise tolerance, health-related quality of life and surgical candidacy and decreasing surgical morbidity. It shows promise as a therapeutic intervention in the management of lung cancer.
Goforth, Harold W; Davis, Mellar P
Sleep disorders are highly prevalent among cancer patients. These disorders can include disorders of sleep onset or maintenance or disorders of excessive sleepiness. A broad differential diagnosis is required to adequately treat these disorders. This review discusses current diagnoses and treatment associated with sleep difficulties that may be seen in cancer patients. With appropriate diagnosis and treatment, the prognosis is good for sleep improvement and improvements in quality of life.
Nayak, Malathi G; George, Anice; Vidyasagar, M S; Mathew, Stanley; Nayak, Sudhakar; Nayak, Baby S; Shashidhara, Y N; Kamath, Asha
People living with cancer experience wide variety of symptoms. If symptoms are not managed well, it may hamper an individual's ability to continue his or her activities of daily life. Treatment of symptoms relieves suffering and improves the rate of recovery as well as the quality of life. To assess the symptoms of suffering among cancer patients and to identify the perceived barriers to their symptom management. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 768 cancer patients selected by stratified sampling with a proportionate selection from each stratum. Data were collected from cancer patients by interview technique using structured validated questionnaire. Majority of the samples (30.2%) belonged to the age group of 51-60 years, most of them were diagnosed with head and neck cancer (40.1%) and 57.7% had stage III disease. The majority of the patients studied had pain (77%), tiredness (96.5%), disturbed sleep (96.4%), weight loss (63.3%), and irritability (85.7%). Most of the patients had lack of appetite (89.4%), feeling of sadness (96.6%), worry (94.5%), and feeling of nervousness (82.8%). Majority of the patients had some misconception regarding symptoms, that is, increasing pain signifies disease progression (92.7%), medicine to control pain may weaken the immune system (89.9%) and pain is inevitable for cancer patients (78.5%). Seventy-seven percent of samples reported that the anxiety or depression is expected after the diagnosis of cancer. This study provides an overview of symptoms among cancer patients and barriers experienced by them.
Dhingra, Lara K; Lam, Kin; Cheung, William; Shao, Theresa; Li, Zujun; Van de Maele, Sandra; Chang, Victor T; Chen, Jack; Ye, Huiyan; Wong, Rhoda; Lam, Wan Ling; Chan, Selina; Bookbinder, Marilyn; Dieckmann, Nathan F; Portenoy, Russell
Cancer is prevalent in the rapidly growing Chinese American community, yet little is known about the symptom experience to guide comprehensive treatment planning. This study evaluated symptom prevalence and patient subgroups with symptom distress in a large sample of Chinese American cancer patients. Patients were consecutively recruited from 4 oncology practices, and they completed a translated cancer symptom scale. Latent class cluster analysis was used to identify subgroups of patients with distinct symptom distress profiles. There were 1436 patients screened; 94.4% were non-English-speaking, and 45.1% were undergoing cancer therapy. The cancers included breast (32.6%), lung (14.8%), head and neck (12.5%), and hematologic cancer (10.1%). Overall, 1289 patients (89.8%) had 1 or more symptoms, and 1129 (78.6%) had 2 or more. The most prevalent symptoms were a lack of energy (57.0%), dry mouth (55.6%), feeling sad (49.3%), worrying (47.5%), and difficulty sleeping (46.8%). Symptoms causing "quite a bit" or "very much" distress included difficulty sleeping (37.9%), a lack of appetite (37.2%), feeling nervous (35.8%), pain (35.2%), and worrying (34.0%). Four patient subgroups were identified according to the probability of reporting moderate to high symptom distress: very low physical and psychological symptom distress (49.5%), low physical symptom distress and moderate psychological symptom distress (25.2%), moderate physical and psychological symptom distress (17.4%), and high physical and psychological symptom distress (7.8%). Symptom prevalence is high in community-dwelling Chinese American cancer patients, and nearly half experience severe distress (rated as "quite a bit" or "very much" distressing) from physical symptoms, psychological symptoms, or both. These data have important implications for the development of effective symptom control interventions. © 2015 American Cancer Society.
Meropol, Neal J.; Egleston, Brian L.; Buzaglo, Joanne S.; Benson, Al B.; Cegala, Donald J.; Diefenbach, Michael A.; Fleisher, Linda; Miller, Suzanne M.; Sulmasy, Daniel P.; Weinfurt, Kevin P.
Background Optimal patient decision making requires integration of patient values, goals, and preferences with information received from the physician. In the case of life-threatening illness such as cancer, the weights placed on quality of life (QOL) and length of life (LOL) represent critical values. The objective of this study is to describe cancer patient values regarding QOL and LOL, and explore associations with communication preferences. Methods Patients with advanced cancer completed a computer-based survey prior to the initial consultation with a medical oncologist. Assessments included sociodemographics, physical and mental health state, values regarding quality and length of life, communication preferences and cancer-related distress. Results Seven hundred forty three advanced cancer patients were enrolled. Among 459 advanced cancer patients, fifty-five percent of patients equally valued QOL and LOL, 27% preferred QOL, and 18% preferred LOL. Patients with a QOL preference had lower levels of cancer-related distress (p < 0.001). QOL preference was associated with older age (p = 0.001), male gender (p = 0.003), and higher education (p = 0.062). Patients who preferred LOL over QOL desired a more supportive and less pessimistic communication style from their oncologists. Conclusions These data indicate that a values preference for length vs. quality of life may be simply measured, and is associated with wishes regarding the nature of oncologist communication. Awareness of these values during the clinical encounter could improve decision making by influencing the style and content of the communication between oncologists and their patients. PMID:18988231
Shuman, Andrew G; Larkin, Knoll; Thomas, Dorothy; Palmer, Frank L; Fins, Joseph J; Baxi, Shrujal S; Lee, Nancy; Shah, Jatin P; Fagerlin, Angela; Patel, Snehal G
Objective To describe the reflections of patients treated for laryngeal cancer with regard to treatment-related decision making. Study Design Cross-sectional survey-based pilot study. Setting Single-institution tertiary care cancer center. Subjects/Methods Adults with laryngeal carcinoma were eligible to participate (N = 57; 46% treated surgically, 54% nonsurgically). Validated surveys measuring decisional conflict and regret explored patients' reflections on their preferences and priorities regarding treatment-related decision making for laryngeal cancer and how patient-reported functional outcomes, professional referral patterns, and desired provider input influenced these reflections. Results When considering the level of involvement of surgeons, radiation oncologists, and medical oncologists in their care, patients were more likely to believe that the specialist whom they saw first was the most important factor in deciding how to treat their cancer (Fisher's exact, ~χ(2) = 16.2, df = 6, P = .02). Patients who were treated for laryngeal cancer who reported worse voice-related quality of life recalled more decisional conflict ( P = .01) and experienced more decisional regret ( P < .001). Of the patients for whom speech was a top priority prior to treatment, better voice-related quality of life overall scores were correlated with less decision regret about treatment decisions ( P < .02). Of the patients for whom eating and drinking were top priorities prior to treatment, better MD Anderson Dysphagia Inventory global scores were correlated with less decision regret about treatment decisions ( P < .002). Conclusion Patient priorities and attitudes, coupled with functional outcomes and professional referral patterns, influence how patients reflect on their choices regarding management of laryngeal cancer. Better understanding of these variables may assist in ensuring that patients' voices are integrated into individualized laryngeal cancer treatment planning.
Abdel-Razeq, Hikmat N; Mansour, Asem H; Ismael, Yousef M
Background and objectives: Cancer patients undergo routine imaging studies much more than others. The widespread use of the recently introduced multi-detector CT scanners has resulted in an increasing number of incidentally diagnosed pulmonary embolism (PE) in asymptomatic cancer patients. The significance and clinical outcome of such incidental PE is described. Methods: Both radiology department and hospital databases were searched for all cancer patients with a diagnosis of incidental PE. CT scans were performed using a 64-slice scanner with a 5.0 mm slice thickness. Results: During the study period, 34 patients with incidental PE were identified. The mean age (±SD) was 57.7 (±12.4) years. All patients had active cancer, gastric, lung, colorectal, and lymphomas being the most frequent. Most patients had advanced-stage disease at the time of PE diagnosis; 26 (77%) patients had stage IV, whereas only 3 patients had stages I or II disease. Twenty-seven (79%) patients had their PE while undergoing active treatment with chemotherapy (68%) or radiotherapy (12%); none, however, were on hormonal therapy. Most (74%) patients had their PE diagnosed without history of recent hospital admission. Except for 5 (15%), all other patients were anticoagulated. With follow-up, 2 patients developed recurrent PE, 2 others had clinical and echocardiographic evidence of pulmonary hypertension, and 9 (26%) died suddenly within 30 days of the diagnosis of incidental PE; 2 of these where among the 5 patients who were not anticoagulated. Conclusion: Incidental PE in cancer patients is increasingly encountered. Similar to symptomatic PE, many were diagnosed in patients with advanced stage disease and while undergoing active anti-cancer therapy. A significant percentage of patients had recurrent emboli, pulmonary hypertension, and sudden death. PMID:21468175
Izmajłowicz, Barbara; Kornafel, Jan; Błaszczyk, Jerzy
According to the definition by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), primary multiple neoplasms are two or more neoplasms of different histopathological build in one organ, or two or more tumors occurring in one patient, regardless of the time of their occurrence (synchronic - up to 6 months, metachronous - after 6 months), coming from an organ or a tissue and not being an infiltration from another neoplasm, a relapse or a metastasis. It was the aim of the study to analyze the frequency of the occurrence of multiple neoplasms among patients suffering from uterine cervix cancer, with a special interest in coexistent neoplasms, the time of their occurrence and total 5-year survivals. The data from the Lower Silesian Cancer Registry concerning the years 1984-2009 formed the material of the present study. 5.3% of all cervix neoplasms occurred as multiple cancers. Cervix neoplasms were 13.4% of multiple neoplasms. On average, cervical cancer occurred as a subsequent cancer in 6 patients yearly (60.7% of the occurrences of cervical cancer were in the period of 5 years following treatment for the first neoplasm). 5-year survival in patients suffering from primarily multiple cervix neoplasms constituted 57% and was convergent with the results for all patients suffering from cervical cancer. Cervical cancer as the first neoplasm occurred in 287 patients, on average in 11 patients annually. In the period of the first 5 years after the treatment of cervical cancer, there were 42.8% occurrences of other cancers. Cervical neoplasms most frequently coexisted with cancers of the breast, lung and large intestine. The frequency of the occurrence of multiple neoplasm among cervical cancer patients is increasing. Most frequently they coexist with other tobacco-related neoplasms, those related to HPV infections and with secondary post-radiation neoplasms. These facts should be taken into consideration during post-treatment observation and when directing diagnostic
Background In the past few years, the number of clinical trials has increased rapidly in East Asia, especially for gastric and hepatobiliary cancer that are prevalent in Asian populations. However, the actual degree of understanding or perceptions of clinical trials by cancer patients in East Asian countries have seldom been studied. Methods Between July 1st and November 30th of 2011, we conducted a prospective study to survey cancer patients regarding their awareness of, and willingness to participate in, a clinical trial. Patients with gastrointestinal/hepatobiliary cancer who visited the Hematology-Oncology outpatient clinic at Samsung Medical Center (SMC) were enrolled. A total of 21 questions were asked including four questions which used the Visual analogue scale (VAS) score. Results In this survey study, 1,000 patients were asked to participate and 675 patients consented to participate (67.5%). The awareness of clinical trials was substantially higher in patients who had a higher level of education (p<0.001), were married (p=0.004), and had a higher economic status (p=0.001). However, the willingness to participate in a clinical trial was not affected by the level of education or economic status of patients. The most influential factors for patient willingness to participate were a physician recommendation (n=181, 26.8%), limited treatment options (n=178, 26.4%), and expectations of effectiveness of new anti-cancer drugs (n=142, 21.0%). Patients with previous experience in clinical trials had a greater willingness to participate in clinical trials compared to patients without previous experience (p<0.001). Conclusions This large patient cohort survey study showed that Korean cancer patients are more aware of clinical trials, but awareness did not translate into willingness to participate. PMID:23234342
Bjørnslett, Merete; Dahl, Alv A; Sørebø, Øystein; Dørum, Anne
An increasing demand for genetic testing has moved the procedure from highly selected at-risk individuals, now also including cancer patients for treatment associated testing. The heritable fraction of ovarian cancer is more than 10%, and our department has offered BRCA testing to such patients irrespective of family history since 2002. This study examined potential psychosocial distress associated with this procedure using The Multidimensional Impact of Cancer Risk Assessment (MICRA) questionnaire and other patient-rated generic distress instruments. Patients were divided into four groups according to cancer risk: mutation carriers, own history of breast cancer and ovarian cancer, family history of breast cancer and/or ovarian cancer, and patients without family history. In a postal survey, 354 patients responded. Good acceptance of the MICRA was observed, and previously described good psychometric properties were confirmed. A significant association between MICRA total score and receiving a positive BRCA test result was found. No significant between-group differences were observed with generic distress instruments. Time since cancer diagnosis, test result, and survey showed no significant associations with MICRA scores. Internal consistencies of instruments were adequate. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses showed adequate fit indices for a three factor solution of the MICRA, but further refinement of the items should be considered. In conclusion, the specific types of worry and distress most relevant to receiving genetic testing irrespective of family history were not captured by the generic distress instruments. The MICRA was supported as a useful tool for detection of mental distress related to genetic testing and risk evaluation.
Ferroni, P; Palmirotta, R; Martini, F; Riondino, S; Savonarola, A; Spila, A; Ciatti, F; Sini, V; Mariotti, S; Del Monte, G; Roselli, M; Guadagni, F
Homocysteinemia has been associated with oncogenic risk. This study was designed to investigate the homocysteine (Hcy) genotype/phenotype interactions together with the inflammatory and nutritional status of cancer patients. The Hcy levels were analyzed in 47 cancer patients in association with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms, folate and inflammatory markers. The MTHFR C677T and A1298C genotype distributions did not differ from those predicted by the Hardy-Weinberg distribution. Conversely, the Hcy levels were higher in the cancer patients (p=0.04), who were also characterized by low-grade inflammation. The Hcy levels correlated with the interleukin-6 (IL-6) (p=0.001), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) (p=0.042) and folate (p<0.0001) levels of the patients. Multivariate analysis showed that TNF-alpha (p=0.014) and folate (p=0.019) were independent predictors of elevated Hcy levels in the cancer patients. The MTHFR polymorphisms do not significantly contribute to tHcy (total Hcy) levels in cancer patients, and cancer-related inflammation may be associated with elevated tHcy levels, possibly involving a TNF-alpha mediated pathway.
Kang, Hwa Pyoung; Lee, Hosun; Oh, Tak Geun; Lee, Kyong Joo; Park, Soo Jung; Chung, Moon Jae; Kim, Seung Up; Lee, Hyuk; Park, Jun Chul; Hong, Sung Pil; Park, Jun Yong; Park, Jeong Youp; Bang, Seungmin; Kim, Do Young; Cheon, Jae Hee; Ahn, Sang Hoon; Kim, Tae Il; Park, Seung Woo; Song, Si Young
As an adjunct to cancer treatment, the use of health functional foods (HFFs) seems to be increasing. However, little is known for the use of HFFs among cancer patients in Korea. The aims of this study were to investigate the exposure rate of HFF use among gastrointestinal (GI) cancer patients and to examine the relationship of socio-demographic and disease-related characteristics with the use of HFFs. A total of 126 patients diagnosed with GI cancer participated in the study. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a questionnaire. Over a half of all the patients surveyed (n = 67; 53.2%) used HFFs. Patients who were younger, had higher income, or longer duration of disease showed a trend to use HFFs more frequently, even though the tendency was not statistically significant. The most commonly used HFF was vitamin complex (n = 20; 16%), followed by red ginseng (n = 15; 12%), and sweet wormwood (Artemisia annua) (n = 11; 8.8%). About 26% of all responders expressed concerns for using HFFs. The primary concern was 'going against physician's recommendations' (36.8%). About 63% of respondents expressed a desire to consult with their physicians and follow their recommendations. More basic scientific data and educational materials regarding HFFs are required for both health-care professionals and cancer patients. A larger sample and size-controlled groups representing each cancer type will continue to be recruited for participation in this survey.
Riesco, A.; Coke, R. Cruz
The presence or absence of lymphocytic mucopolysaccharides (MPS) is studied in 223 subjects: 100 normals (controls); 8 cancer patients cured for more than 6 years; 30 cancer patients at the start of their treatment; and 85 relatives of first degree consanguinity of these last patients. The data are studied by statistical and genetic analysis. The results confirm the findings reported earlier and show that the difference in the probability of a high frequency of leucocytic MPS between the relatives of cancer patients and the controls is highly significant. Furthermore, this probability in a relative of first degree of consanguinity of a cancer patient is more than three times greater than in an individual of the general population. Genetic segregation analysis shows that the high leucocytic MPS trait segregates in the families of cancer patients after a classic pattern of dominant autosomal inheritance. Applying Falconer's nomogram it is concluded that the whole of this phenotypic variation is of genetic origin. Its interrelationships with cancer are discussed and it is postulated that this disturbance of the lymphocytic MPS represents a subclinical variant, not known until now, of the clinical mucopolysaccaridoses. PMID:4270340
Pokhrel, A; Martikainen, P; Pukkala, E; Rautalahti, M; Seppä, K; Hakulinen, T
Relative survival after cancer in Finland is at the highest level observed in Europe and has, in general, been on a steady increase. The aim of this study is to assess whether the high survival is equally shared by different population subgroups and to estimate the possible gains that might be achieved if equity prevailed. The educational level and occupation before the cancer diagnosis of patients diagnosed in Finland in 1971-2005 was derived from an antecedent population census. The cancers were divided into 27 site categories. Cancer (cause)-specific 5-year survival proportions were calculated for three patient categories based on the educational level and for an occupational group of potentially health-conscious patients (physicians, nurses, teachers etc.). Proportions of avoidable deaths were derived by assuming that the patients from the two lower education categories would have the same mortality owing to cancer, as those from the highest educational category. Estimates were also made by additionally assuming that even the mortalities owing to other causes of death were all equal to those in the highest category. For almost all the sites considered, survival was consistently highest for patients with the highest education and lowest for those with only basic education. The potentially health-conscious patients had an even higher survival. The differences were, in part, attributable to less favourable distributions of tumour stages in the lower education categories. In 1996-2005, 4-7% of the deaths in Finnish cancer patients could have potentially been avoided during the first 5-year period after diagnosis, if all the patients had the same cancer mortality as the patients with the highest educational background. The proportion would have also been much higher, 8-11%, if, in addition, the mortality from other causes had been the same as that in the highest educational category. Even in a potentially equitable society with high health care standards, marked
Pokhrel, A; Martikainen, P; Pukkala, E; Rautalahti, M; Seppä, K; Hakulinen, T
Background: Relative survival after cancer in Finland is at the highest level observed in Europe and has, in general, been on a steady increase. The aim of this study is to assess whether the high survival is equally shared by different population subgroups and to estimate the possible gains that might be achieved if equity prevailed. Materials and method: The educational level and occupation before the cancer diagnosis of patients diagnosed in Finland in 1971–2005 was derived from an antecedent population census. The cancers were divided into 27 site categories. Cancer (cause)-specific 5-year survival proportions were calculated for three patient categories based on the educational level and for an occupational group of potentially health-conscious patients (physicians, nurses, teachers etc.). Proportions of avoidable deaths were derived by assuming that the patients from the two lower education categories would have the same mortality owing to cancer, as those from the highest educational category. Estimates were also made by additionally assuming that even the mortalities owing to other causes of death were all equal to those in the highest category. Results: For almost all the sites considered, survival was consistently highest for patients with the highest education and lowest for those with only basic education. The potentially health-conscious patients had an even higher survival. The differences were, in part, attributable to less favourable distributions of tumour stages in the lower education categories. In 1996–2005, 4–7% of the deaths in Finnish cancer patients could have potentially been avoided during the first 5-year period after diagnosis, if all the patients had the same cancer mortality as the patients with the highest educational background. The proportion would have also been much higher, 8–11%, if, in addition, the mortality from other causes had been the same as that in the highest educational category. Interpretation: Even in a
Survivorship is a complicated notion because people often confuse a process of survivorship with a mythic identity of being a cancer survivor. This confusion may be a distraction to addressing the real-life struggles and challenges experienced by all people diagnosed with cancer. A more expansive perspective of survivorship, one that attends to patients' physical, psychological, social, spiritual, and existential challenges throughout a continuum of care, would be more in line with what is known empirically about people's experiences with cancer. In an effort to gain a patient-centered perspective on cancer, and one that emphasizes multiple dimensions of cancer survivorship, the author reports findings from a non-scientific social media poll (via Facebook and personal emails) in which survivors and colleagues working in the field of cancer survivorship answered the question: What does cancer survivorship mean to you? The comments are enlightening and useful for guiding the development of a patient-centered, and, thus, more comprehensive, approach to caring for people affected by cancer.
Timur, Hakan; Tokmak, Aytekin; Iskender, Cantekin; Yildiz, Elif Sumer; Inal, Hasan Ali; Uygur, Dilek; Danisman, Nuri
Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the obstetric and perinatal outcomes in treated women who were diagnosed with non-gynecologic cancer and to compare these findings with pregnant women with no history of cancer. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted on 21 pregnant women with non-gynecologic cancer who were in remission (study group) and 63 pregnant women with no history of cancer (control group). The women were admitted to the high-risk pregnancy clinic of Zekai Tahir Burak Women’s Health Training and Research Hospital with a diagnosis of pregnancy and cancer between January 2010 and January 2015. Obstetric outcomes and demographic characteristics of the patients were recorded. Age, gravida, parity, abortus, body mass index (BMI), gestational week, smoking, mode of delivery, gestational weight, and perinatal outcomes were examined for each woman. Results: The most common cancer types were thyroid (28.5%) and breast cancers (23.8%), which constituted just over half of the non-gynecologic cancer cases during pregnancy. The time elapsed after the diagnosis was 3.8±2.2 (1–9) years. No statistically significant differences were found between the two groups with regard to age, obstetric history, BMI, gestational week, smoking, and obstetric and perinatal outcomes (p>0.05). Conclusion: Negative perinatal outcomes in non-gynecologic cancer patients in remission were found to be within acceptable levels. PMID:27551177
Pfister, David G.; Rubin, David M.; Elkin, Elena B.; Neill, Ushma S.; Duck, Elaine; Radzyner, Mark; Bach, Peter B.
Importance Instituting widespread measurement of outcomes for cancer hospitals using administrative data is difficult due to the lack of cancer specific information such as disease stage. Objective To evaluate the performance of hospitals that treat cancer patients using Medicare data for outcome ascertainment and risk adjustment, and to assess whether hospital rankings based on these measures are influenced by the addition of cancer-specific information. Design Risk adjusted cumulative mortality of patients with cancer captured in Medicare claims from 2005–2009 nationally were assessed at the hospital level. Similar analyses were conducted in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Result (SEER)-Medicare data for the subset of the US covered by the SEER program to determine whether the exclusion of cancer specific information (only available in cancer registries) from risk adjustment altered measured hospital performance. Setting Administrative claims data and SEER cancer registry data Participants Sample of 729,279 fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries treated for cancer in 2006 at hospitals treating 10+ patients with each of the following cancers, according to Medicare claims: lung, prostate, breast, colon. An additional sample of 18,677 similar patients in SEER-Medicare administrative data. Main Outcomes and Measures Risk-adjusted mortality overall and by cancer type, stratified by type of hospital; measures of correlation and agreement between hospital-level outcomes risk adjusted using Medicare data alone and Medicare data with SEER data. Results There were large outcome differences between different types of hospitals that treat Medicare patients with cancer. At one year, cumulative mortality for Medicare-prospective-payment-system exempt hospitals was 10% lower than at community hospitals (18% versus 28%) across all cancers, the pattern persisted through five years of follow-up and within specific cancer types. Performance ranking of hospitals was
Bol, N; Smets, E M A; Eddes, E H; de Haes, J C J M; Loos, E F; van Weert, J C M
This study aims to investigate the effects of illustrations in online cancer information on older cancer patients' website satisfaction (i.e. satisfaction with the attractiveness, comprehensibility and emotional support from the website) and recall of information. In an online experiment, 174 younger (<65 years) and older (≥65 years) colorectal cancer patients were randomly exposed to a webpage about transanal endoscopic microsurgery consisting of either text-only information, text with two cognitive illustrations or text with two affective illustrations. In general, adding cognitive illustrations compared with text-only information improved the satisfaction with the attractiveness of the website in both younger and older patients. For older patients in particular, cognitive illustrations facilitated recall of cancer information: whereas older patients recalled less information overall compared with younger patients (39% vs. 50%), no statistically significant differences in age on recall were observed when cognitive illustrations were added to text. Furthermore, older patients were more satisfied with the emotional support from the website than younger patients, especially when affective illustrations were present. Our results suggest that effective online cancer communication for ageing populations involves considering both cognitive and affective illustrations to enhance website satisfaction and recall of cancer information. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Male Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer
Kang, Jung Hun; Shin, Seong Hoon; Bruera, Eduardo
Delirium is a frequently under-recognized complication in patients with advanced cancer. Uncontrolled delirium eventually leads to significant distress to patients and their families. However, delirium episodes can be reversed in half of these patients by eliminating precipitating factors and using appropriate interventions. The purpose of this narrative review is to discuss the most recent updates in the literature on the management of delirium in patients with advanced cancer. This article addresses the epidemiology, cause, pathophysiology, clinical characteristics, and assessment of delirium as well as various treatment options, including nonpharmacologic intervention and palliative sedation. PMID:22959227
Pfister, David G; Rubin, David M; Elkin, Elena B; Neill, Ushma S; Duck, Elaine; Radzyner, Mark; Bach, Peter B
Instituting widespread measurement of outcomes for cancer hospitals using administrative data is difficult owing to lack of cancer-specific information such as disease stage. To evaluate the performance of hospitals that treat patients with cancer using Medicare data for outcome ascertainment and risk adjustment and to assess whether hospital rankings based on these measures are altered by the addition of cancer-specific information. Risk-adjusted cumulative mortality rates of patients with cancer were captured in Medicare claims data from 2005 through 2009 nationally and assessed at the hospital level. Similar analyses were conducted using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare data for the subset of the United States covered by the SEER program to determine whether the inclusion of cancer-specific information (only available in cancer registries) in risk adjustment altered measured hospital performance. Data were from 729 279 fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries treated for cancer in 2006 at hospitals treating 10 or more patients with each of the following cancers, according to Medicare claims: lung, prostate, breast, colon, and other. An additional sample of 18 677 similar patients were included from the SEER-Medicare administrative data. Risk-adjusted mortality overall and by cancer category, stratified by type of hospital; measures of correlation and agreement between hospital-level outcomes risk adjusted using Medicare data alone and Medicare data with SEER data. There were large survival differences between different types of hospitals that treat Medicare patients with cancer. At 1 year, mortality for patients treated by hospitals exempt from the Medicare prospective payment system was 10% lower than at community hospitals (18% vs 28%) across all cancers, and the pattern persisted through 5 years of follow-up and within specific cancer categories. Performance ranking of hospitals was consistent with or without SEER-Medicare disease
Gröpper, Sabrina; van der Meer, Elke; Landes, Tom; Bucher, Hubert; Stickel, Anna; Goerling, Ute
The diagnosis of cancer, the symptoms of the illness and its treatment have an influence on how patients and their caregivers experience distress. However, data focusing on caregivers and their cancer-related distress in the outpatient setting is sparse. This study aimed to compare cancer-related distress of caregivers and patients and to derive implications for the system of outpatient psycho-oncological care. One hundred thirty-eight patients and 102 caregivers receiving psycho-oncological counseling completed a standardized interview based on a self-assessment questionnaire (Questionnaire on Stress in Cancer Patients, FBK). Group comparisons for cancer-related distress revealed one statistically significant difference for the subscale 'Fear' of the FBK, Z = 2.308, p = .021, and d = .44. Caregivers showed higher cancer-related fear (M = 2.76, SD = 1.14) than patients (M = 2.41, SD = 1.29). There were no differences in 'psychosomatic complaints', 'information deficit', 'restrictions in everyday life', 'social strains', or the total score of the FBK. Caregivers seem to experience cancer-related distress equal to or even more severely than patients themselves. Results suggest that there is a need for more low-threshold offers of outpatient psycho-oncological counseling for caregivers.
With cancer survival rate climbing up over the past three decades, quality of life for cancer patients has become an issue of major concern. Oral health plays an important part in one's overall quality of life. However, oral health status can be severely hampered by side effects of cancer therapies including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Moreover, prevention and treatment of these complications are often overlooked in clinical practice. The present paper aims at drawing health care professionals' attention to oral complications associated with cancer therapy by giving a comprehensive review. Brief comments on contemporary cancer therapies will be given first, followed by detailed description of oral complications associated with cancer therapy. Finally, a summary of preventive strategies and treatment options for common oral complications including oral mucositis, oral infections, xerostomia, and dysgeusia will be given. PMID:24511293
Kuo, Ming-Chun; Chang, Shun-Jen; Hsieh, Ming-Chia
Abstract Patients with gout are more likely to develop most cancers than subjects without gout. Colchicine has been used for the treatment and prevention of gouty arthritis and has been reported to have an anticancer effect in vitro. However, to date no study has evaluated the relationship between colchicine use and incident cancers in patients with gout. This study enrolled male patients with gout identified in Taiwan's National Health Insurance Database for the years 1998 to 2011. Each gout patient was matched with 4 male controls by age and by month and year of first diagnosis, and was followed up until 2011. The study excluded those who were diagnosed with diabetes or any type of cancer within the year following enrollment. We calculated hazard ratio (HR), aged-adjusted standardized incidence ratio, and incidence of 1000 person-years analyses to evaluate cancer risk. A total of 24,050 male patients with gout and 76,129 male nongout controls were included. Patients with gout had a higher rate of incident all-cause cancers than controls (6.68% vs 6.43%, P = 0.006). A total of 13,679 patients with gout were defined as having been ever-users of colchicine and 10,371 patients with gout were defined as being never-users of colchicine. Ever-users of colchicine had a significantly lower HR of incident all-cause cancers than never-users of colchicine after adjustment for age (HR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.77–0.94; P = 0.001). In conclusion, colchicine use was associated with a decreased risk of incident all-cause cancers in male Taiwanese patients with gout. PMID:26683907
Afsaroglu, E; Okutur, K; Demir, G
To determine the beliefs of Turkish cancer patients about the etiology of carcinogenesis. The study was carried out at Istanbul Bilim University, European Florence Nightingale Hospital, Department of Medical Oncology. The data were collected during April-June 2008 from 39 women and 23 men. Sociodemographic data form and beliefs on the reasons of carcinogenesis rating scale were used while collecting the data. Of the patients recruited in this study 29 (47%) took it as fate, 28 (45%) as a rightful punishment, 28 (45%) as a result of air pollution and toxins in food, 26 (42%) because of losing a beloved person, 26 (42%) as a result of wrong nutrition, smoking and alcohol consumption. In women the most common belief was fate (n=20, 51%), while in men it was air pollution and toxins in food (n=12, 52%). In primary school graduate patients or patients with no education the most common belief was rightful punishment (n=17, 62%), whereas in university graduate patients it was wrong nutrition, smoking and alcohol consumption (n=12, 63%). A considerable proportion of patients behaved in a fatalistic manner. This may cause a risk of taking the responsibility of treatment and control of disease not by the doctor but by other persons. It seems that sex and educational status are important factors in relation with the beliefs of the patients. Meanings attributed to the disease by the patients should be found in order to increase their treatment compliance and be helpful to face off the disease. Patients should also be encouraged to change thoughts that affect treatment process negatively.
Gaindh, Deeya; Kavak, Katelyn S; Teter, Barbara; Vaughn, Caila B; Cookfair, Diane; Hahn, Theresa; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca
Although dysimmunity is considered an important link between multiple sclerosis (MS), family history and cancer risk, their relationship to the use of disease modifying therapies (DMT) is not fully understood. To assess the observed versus expected number of cancers in MS patients, and family history of cancer, among DMT users and DMT naïve patients. Cancer, DMT use, and family history of cancer were assessed using the New York State Multiple Sclerosis Consortium (NYSMSC) registry. Self-reported cancers in MS patients were tested for associations with DMT use, family history of cancer and other factors. Expected number of cancer cases was estimated using age- and gender-specific prevalence and incidence rates from the general population. The prevalence of cancer in males and females in the NYSMSC cohort was lower than expected (p<0.001). Patients with cancer were older at MS diagnosis and more likely to be female (p<0.001). MS patients with a personal history of cancer were more likely to report DMT use (p<0.001) and family history of cancer (p<0.001). Multivariable analysis did not support a higher risk of cancer after DMT initiation. We report a lower than expected number of cancer cases in MS patients compared to the general population. MS patients with a personal history of cancer were more likely to report DMT use suggesting that DMTs may abrogate the lower incidence of cancer in MS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mena, Álvaro; Meijide, Héctor; Marcos, Pedro J
The widespread use of HAART for persons living with HIV since 1996 has resulted in a dramatic decline in AIDS-related mortality. However, other comorbidities are increasing, such as metabolic disturbances or cancers, including solid organ malignancies. Among the latest, lung cancer, especially the adenocarcinoma subtype, is on the rise. HIV infection, even controlling for smoking, is an independent risk factor for developing lung cancer. HIV could promote lung cancers through immunosuppression, chronic inflammation, and a direct oncogenic effect. Smoking, lung infections, and chronic pulmonary diseases are risk factors for lung cancer. All may contribute to the cumulative incidence of lung cancer in persons living with HIV. It is double that in the general population. The role of HAART in lung cancer development in persons living with HIV is not well established. Although data supporting it could be too preliminary, persons living with HIV should be considered within high-risk groups that could benefit from screening strategies with low-dose computed tomography, especially those with airway obstruction and emphysema. Current evidence suggests that quitting smoking strategies in persons living with HIV achieve abstinence rates comparable to those in healthy HIV-negative smokers.
Harley, Clare; Pini, Simon; Bartlett, Yvonne Kiera; Velikova, Galina
Chronic cancer is poorly defined and strategies for supporting patients during this disease phase are lacking. This research defines chronic cancer, explores patient experiences and reviews patients' support needs against those described in the 2007 Department of Health Generic Choice Model for Long-term Conditions (DoH-GCM). Semistructured interviews were audio recorded, transcribed and data explored for emergent themes. The a priori themes from DoH-GCM were applied: clinical support; self-care and self-management; supporting independence; psychological support; and social and economic factors. 56 patients >12 months postdiagnosis of advanced cancer were recruited from five clinics at a Yorkshire cancer centre: breast (n=11); renal (n=11); colorectal/gastrointestinal (n=12); gynaecological (n=12); and prostate (n=10). Most patients aspired to living normal lives. Challenges included frequent and lengthy hospital appointments, long-term symptom control and uncertainty. Only renal and prostate patients reported routine access to specialist nursing. Uptake of support services was varied and there was generally poor understanding of support pathways for non-medical problems and issues occurring when patients were not receiving active treatment. There was variation in coping strategies and ability of patients to attain a positive outlook on life. For patients to do well in this cancer phase requires good self-management of symptoms plus taking an active role in accessing appropriate services as needed. Care planning at the point of transition to the chronic phase of cancer should focus on evaluating patients' needs, clarifying support pathways, increasing the profile and involvement of community services and organisations, and supporting patients and families develop effective self-management skills.
Harley, Clare; Pini, Simon; Bartlett, Yvonne Kiera; Velikova, Galina
Chronic cancer is poorly defined and strategies for supporting patients during this disease phase are lacking. This research defines chronic cancer, explores patient experiences and reviews patients' support needs against those described in the 2007 Department of Health Generic Choice Model for Long-term Conditions (DoH-GCM). Semistructured interviews were audio recorded, transcribed and data explored for emergent themes. The a priori themes from DoH-GCM were applied: clinical support; self-care and self-management; supporting independence; psychological support; and social and economic factors. 56 patients >12 months postdiagnosis of advanced cancer were recruited from five clinics at a Yorkshire cancer centre: breast (n=11); renal (n=11); colorectal/gastrointestinal (n=12); gynaecological (n=12); and prostate (n=10). Most patients aspired to living normal lives. Challenges included frequent and lengthy hospital appointments, long-term symptom control and uncertainty. Only renal and prostate patients reported routine access to specialist nursing. Uptake of support services was varied and there was generally poor understanding of support pathways for non-medical problems and issues occurring when patients were not receiving active treatment. There was variation in coping strategies and ability of patients to attain a positive outlook on life. For patients to do well in this cancer phase requires good self-management of symptoms plus taking an active role in accessing appropriate services as needed. Care planning at the point of transition to the chronic phase of cancer should focus on evaluating patients' needs, clarifying support pathways, increasing the profile and involvement of community services and organisations, and supporting patients and families develop effective self-management skills. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Hoogerwerf, M A; Ninaber, M K; Willems, L N A; Kaptein, A A
Given the high degree of psychosocial problems in patients with lung cancer, quality medical care would benefit from exploring and addressing and providing potential solutions for these problems. Patients with recently diagnosed non-small-cell lung cancer filled out a questionnaire that assessed illness perceptions and made a drawing of how they perceived their diseased lungs look. They also participated in an interview about the impact of lung cancer in their lives. Scores on the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire indicated that patients score low on 'concern', 'emotional response' and 'timeline', indicating they hope to be cured from lung cancer. Patients drew the tumor larger than it is on the chest radiograph. The drawings are moderately accurate representations of the patients' lungs. In the interviews patients often expressed their hopes of being cured and how thinking positively would help. Patients who made a more accurate drawing of their lungs had less optimistic views about their prognosis. These views are more in line with the prognosis their physician would give them. However, few patients made an accurate drawing. This study contributes to a better insight into what patients believe and feel about their disease. Suggestions for taking patient perceptions into account are provided. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Magnano, Mauro; Mola, Patrizia; Machetta, Giacomo; Maffeis, Paola; Forestiero, Ilenia; Cavagna, Roberta; Artino, Elena; Boffano, Paolo
Patients affected by head and neck cancer are particularly at risk for nutritional depletion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional status of patients affected by head and neck cancer at diagnosis. All adult patients with head and neck cancer between January 2009 and December 2013 were included. The following data were recorded: demographics, tobacco and/or alcohol consumption, weight, height, the reference weight 6 months before the diagnosis, tumor site, tumor stage, and laboratory data. Then, Body mass index (BMI), and Buzby nutrition risk index (NRI) were calculated. Statistical analysis was used to search for associations among multiple variables. 122 men and 22 women were enrolled. As for reference BMI, 77 patients were overweight, whereas just 7 subjects were underweight. At diagnosis, 72 subjects were overweight according to BMI, whereas 52 patients were underweight. Instead, according to NRI, 96 patients were severely malnourished, 42 patients were moderately malnourished, whereas just 6 patients had a normal value of NRI. The assessment of nutrition by BMI excluded from a thorough consideration all overweight and obese patients with head and neck cancer. Instead, NRI correctly identified both undernourished and overweight/obese patients as "malnourished" subjects.
Minlikeeva, Albina N; Freudenheim, Jo L; Eng, Kevin H; Cannioto, Rikki A; Friel, Grace; Szender, J Brian; Segal, Brahm; Odunsi, Kunle; Mayor, Paul; Diergaarde, Brenda; Zsiros, Emese; Kelemen, Linda E; Köbel, Martin; Steed, Helen; deFazio, Anna; Jordan, Susan J; Fasching, Peter A; Beckmann, Matthias W; Risch, Harvey A; Rossing, Mary Anne; Doherty, Jennifer A; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Goodman, Marc T; Dörk, Thilo; Edwards, Robert; Modugno, Francesmary; Ness, Roberta B; Matsuo, Keitaro; Mizuno, Mika; Karlan, Beth Y; Goode, Ellen L; Kjær, Susanne K; Høgdall, Estrid; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Terry, Kathryn L; Cramer, Daniel W; Bandera, Elisa V; Paddock, Lisa E; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Massuger, Leon F A G; Sutphen, Rebecca; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Menon, Usha; Gayther, Simon A; Ramus, Susan J; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Pearce, Celeste L; Wu, Anna H; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Jensen, Allan; Webb, Penelope M; Moysich, Kirsten B
Background: Comorbidities can affect survival of ovarian cancer patients by influencing treatment efficacy. However, little evidence exists on the association between individual concurrent comorbidities and prognosis in ovarian cancer patients.Methods: Among patients diagnosed with invasive ovarian carcinoma who participated in 23 studies included in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium, we explored associations between histories of endometriosis; asthma; depression; osteoporosis; and autoimmune, gallbladder, kidney, liver, and neurological diseases and overall and progression-free survival. Using Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusted for age at diagnosis, stage of disease, histology, and study site, we estimated pooled HRs and 95% confidence intervals to assess associations between each comorbidity and ovarian cancer outcomes.Results: None of the comorbidities were associated with ovarian cancer outcome in the overall sample nor in strata defined by histologic subtype, weight status, age at diagnosis, or stage of disease (local/regional vs. advanced).Conclusions: Histories of endometriosis; asthma; depression; osteoporosis; and autoimmune, gallbladder, kidney, liver, or neurologic diseases were not associated with ovarian cancer overall or progression-free survival.Impact: These previously diagnosed chronic diseases do not appear to affect ovarian cancer prognosis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(9); 1470-3. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.
Mazzaferri, Ernest L
Thyroid cancer, the most common endocrine malignancy, increased progressively from 1972 through 2002 largely as the result of an increasing incidence of small papillary thyroid cancers, the majority of which are less than 2 cm and which increased almost 3-fold during the 30-yr study. During this time, thyroid cancer was found to affect women more often than men by a ratio of almost 3 to 1. Moreover, papillary thyroid cancer was found to be the most common form of differentiated thyroid cancer among women of childbearing age, 10% of whom were either pregnant or in the early postpartum period when thyroid cancer was diagnosed. Although the prevalence of thyroid cancer in pregnant women remains high, most are first identified after delivery. Nonetheless, the management of thyroid cancer during pregnancy poses serious diagnostic and therapeutic challenges to both the patient and fetus. The thyroid gland may secrete more thyroid hormone than usual during early pregnancy, which may not only be the cause of this problem but also may be responsible for the higher rate of differentiated thyroid cancer during pregnancy. There is concern about therapy for thyroid cancer during this period, including the timing of surgery, the use of levothyroxine, and the assessment of follow-up during gestation.
Marziliano, Allison; Moyer, Anne
Cancer stigma has undergone an important transformation in recent decades. In general, this disease no longer fits squarely into Goffman’s classic taxonomy of stigmatized conditions. This review will demonstrate that, with important adaptations, an identity-threat model of stigma can be used to organize cancer stigma research post-Goffman. This adapted model postulates that one’s personal attributions, responses to situational threat, and disease/treatment characteristics can be used to predict identity threat and well-being of individuals with cancer. Implications for further research and clinical practice are discussed. PMID:28070343
The purpose of this brief summary is to introduce the concept of cancer prehabilitation and the role of oncology nurses in prehabilitation care. Cancer prehabilitation has been defined by Sliver and Baima (2013) as “a process on the cancer continuum of care that occurs between the time of cancer diagnosis and the beginning of acute treatment.” The evidence supports the notion that prehabilitation programs can improve physical and psychological health outcomes and decrease overall health care costs. The care model for cancer prehabilitation should include timely and efficient assessment throughout the care continuum with a focus on improving outcomes in cancer at every stage. During the cancer journey, three types of assessment with different aims are included: (1) prehabilitation assessment pretreatment, (2) rehabilitation assessment at early post treatment, and (3) health promotion assessment at the end of treatment. Specific prehabilitation assessment and interventions for treatment-related complications or major side-effects should be considered. Teaching, counseling, discharge planning, and coordination should also be part of an oncology nurse's role in cancer prehabilitation. It is suggested that cancer care managers or navigators be trained in the assessment of their patients’ physical and psychological status once the cancer diagnosis has been identified and the patient has decided to receive active treatment, especially for those waiting for surgery at home. Oncology nurses could increase their competence with prehabilitation care by gaining knowledge about cancer-related treatments and their outcomes for specific cancers and by strengthening the ability to assess the functional status and psychological distress of their patients. PMID:27981135
Peiris, H H; Mudduwa, L K B; Thalagala, N I; Jayatilaka, K A P W
Background: Breast cancer continues to be a major cause of morbidity among women in Sri Lanka. Possible effects of etiological risk factors on breast cancer specific survival (BCSS) of the disease is not clear.This study was designed to explore the impact of breast cancer risk factors on the BCSS of patients in Southern Sri Lanka. Method: This retro-prospective study included all breast cancer patients who had sought immunohistochemistry services at our unit from May 2006 to December 2012. A pre-tested, interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to gather information on risk factors. BCSS was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier model. Univariate Cox-regression analysis was performed with 95% confidence intervals using the SPSS statistical package. Results: A total of 944 breast cancer patients were included. Five year BCSS was 78.8%. There was a statistically significant difference between the patients who had a family history of breast cancer and no family history of any cancer in terms of the presence/absence of lymph node metastasis (p=0.011) and pathological stage (p=0.042). The majority of the premenopausal patients had associated DCIS (p<0.001) and large tumours (p=0.015) with positive lymph nodes (p=0.016). There was no statistically significant association between hormone receptor subtypes and hormone related risk factors. Univariate analysis revealed that breast cancer risk factors had no significant effect on the BCSS. Conclusion: Even though family history of breast cancer and premenopausal status are associated with poor prognostic features, they, in line with the other breast cancer risk factors, appear to have no significant effect on the BCSS of patients in Southern Sri Lanka.
McHugh, Gretl; Pateman, Brian; Luker, Karen
Traditionally palliative care of cancer patients has been seen as an important and defining aspect of district nursing. Care of the dying patient has been used to describe the ability and scope of the district nursing service to holistically provide for patient need. However health and social service changes in the last decade have refocused the district nurse's role away from holistic delivery to more specialized care. There is also research evidence that there are several contradictions in referral processes to the district nursing service. We conducted a study to explore district nurses' perceptions and experiences of referral of cancer patients to gain insight into these referral processes. We interviewed 20 nurses from three primary care trusts to explore the referral process of cancer patients to the district nursing service from the district nurses' point of view. The nurses expressed concerns regarding completeness, accuracy and appropriateness of referral and suggested improvements that could be made.
Many complementary and alternatives medicines are offered to patients with cancer. Among them, herbal medicines have a substantial place. These plants are mainly used to reduce adverse effects of anticancer treatments and for specific anticancer properties. Our review shows that only few clinical data support medicinal plants effectiveness in cancer patients. Arguments rely mainly on usual indications and pharmacological data for minimization of treatments toxicity while for the anticancer properties, on epidemiological and preclinical data. To inform and counsel patients and people around, healthcare professionals need to evaluate benefit-risk balance on evidence-based information. Because the medical decision should be shared with the patient, his beliefs and preferences have to be considered. When no adverse effect or drug interaction is associated with herbal medicine, we state that their use is acceptable. This paper discuss of potential risk and benefit of the most used medicinal plants by cancer patients.
Garland, Sheila N; Johnson, Jillian A; Savard, Josee; Gehrman, Philip; Perlis, Michael; Carlson, Linda; Campbell, Tavis
Individuals with cancer are disproportionately affected by sleep disturbance and insomnia relative to the general population. These problems can be a consequence of the psychological, behavioral, and physical effects of a cancer diagnosis and treatment. Insomnia often persists for years and, when combined with already high levels of cancer-related distress, may place cancer survivors at a higher risk of future physical and mental health problems and poorer quality of life. The recommended first-line treatment for insomnia is cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I), a non-pharmacological treatment that incorporates cognitive and behavior-change techniques and targets dysfunctional attitudes, beliefs, and habits involving sleep. This article presents a comprehensive review of the literature examining the efficacy of CBT-I on sleep and psychological outcomes in cancer patients and survivors. The search revealed 12 studies (four uncontrolled, eight controlled) that evaluated the effects of CBT-I in cancer patients or survivors. Results suggest that CBT-I is associated with statistically and clinically significant improvements in subjective sleep outcomes in patients with cancer. CBT-I may also improve mood, fatigue, and overall quality of life, and can be successfully delivered through a variety of treatment modalities, making it possible to reach a broader range of patients who may not have access to more traditional programs. Future research in this area should focus on the translation of evidence into clinical practice in order to increase awareness and access to effective insomnia treatment in cancer care. PMID:24971014
Colorectal cancer is the third commonest malignancy worldwide and the second commonest cause of cancer-related deaths.1,2 Around 15-25% of patients with colorectal cancer have metastases at presentation, and a further 20-25% develop them subsequently.3 Management for metastatic disease is mainly palliative and traditionally 5-year survival has been rare.3-5 In colorectal cancer, metastases mostly occur in the liver and in 30-50% of patients with liver involvement, this is the only site of spread. For those with liver-only metastases, resection of these lesions provides a chance of longer-term survival or even cure (e.g. 5-year survival 25-71%).4,6-13 Here we focus on recent advances in chemotherapy for patients with initially unresectable liver metastases, aimed at rendering such lesions operable, with potential improvements in survival.4,13,14.
Spyropoulos, Alex C; Brotman, Daniel J; Amin, Alpesh N; Deitelzweig, Steven B; Jaffer, Amir K; McKean, Sylvia C
Cancer patients, especially those undergoing surgery for cancer, are at extremely high risk for developing venous thromboembolism (VTE), even with appropriate thromboprophylaxis. Anticoagulant prophylaxis in cancer surgery patients has reduced the incidence of VTE events by approximately one-half in placebo-controlled trials, and extended prophylaxis (for up to 1 month) has also significantly reduced out-of-hospital VTE events in clinical trials in this population. Clinical trials show no difference between low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) and unfractionated heparin in VTE prophylaxis efficacy or bleeding risk in this population, although the incidence of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia is lower with LMWH. The risk-benefit profile of low-dose anticoagulant prophylaxis appears to be favorable even in many cancer patients undergoing neurosurgery, for whom pharmacologic VTE prophylaxis has been controversial because of bleeding risks.
Amoroso, L; De Iuliis, F; Taglieri, L; Vendittozzi, S; Salerno, G; Blasi, L; Lanza, R
Ovarian cancer is the sixth diagnosed cancer among women worldwide, it has a high mortality and in most cases it's diagnosed in advanced stage (stage III-IV). Combination platinum-paclitaxel chemotherapy administered every 3 weeks is considered the gold standard for first-line treatment of patients with advanced ovarian cancer. Elderly patients with ovarian cancer represents a subgroup with poor prognosis because they are often treated less radically for comorbidities and age. In the present article, we report a case of a 85 year old woman who was diagnosed with stage IV ovarian carcinoma for the presence of peritoneal carcinomatosis ab initio, not radically debulked and then treated with weekly schedule platinum-based and paclitaxel. Despite not being able to complete the chemotherapy, the patient achieved excellent results and represents a case of long survival.
Primary Stage IV Hepatobiliary; Esophageal; Colorectal Cancer; Glioblastoma; Cancer of Stomach; Cancer of Pancreas; Melanoma; Head or Neck Cancer; Stage III; Stage IV; Lung Cancers; Pancreatic Cancers
van Laarhoven, Hanneke W M; Schilderman, Johannes; Verhagen, Constans A H H V M; Prins, Judith B
Time perception may be an important factor influencing distress of cancer patients. However, no comparative studies have been performed for cancer patients without evidence of disease and advanced cancer patients in the palliative, end-of-life-care setting. The objectives of the study were to assess time perception in disease-free and advanced cancer patients and examine the relation of time perception with patients' distress. A descriptive research design was used. Ninety-six disease-free and 63 advanced cancer patients filled out Cottle's Circle Test to assess time coherence and time dominance, Cottle's Line Test to assess temporal extension and Bayes' question on speed of time, the European Organisation for Research-and-Treatment of Cancer QOL-Questionnaire version 2.0, Beck's Depression Inventory for primary care, and Beck's Hopelessness-Scale. In patients without evidence of disease, future dominance was most often observed, whereas in advanced cancer patients, the present was the dominant time segment. In both groups, a focus on the past was associated with distress. In contrast with patients without evidence of disease, advanced cancer patients perceived time as moving slowly, and this was correlated with distress. The time perception of cancer patients without evidence of disease and advanced cancer patients is significantly different and is related to distress. The observed relation between a focus on the past and distress gives room for interventions of nurses and other healthcare professionals. Specific attention is needed for differences between cancer patients without evidence of disease and advanced cancer patients.
Pivo, Sarah; Refinetti, Ana Paula; Guth, Amber
Purpose. This study identifies women with breast cancer who utilized chemoprevention agents prior to diagnosis and describes their patterns of disease. Methods. Our database was queried retrospectively for patients with breast cancer who reported prior use of chemoprevention. Patients were divided into primary (no history of breast cancer) and secondary (previous history of breast cancer) groups and compared to patients who never took chemoprevention. Results. 135 (6%) of 2430 women used chemoprevention. In the primary chemoprevention group (n = 18, 1%), 39% had completed >5 years of treatment, and fully 50% were on treatment at time of diagnosis. These patients were overwhelmingly diagnosed with ER/PR positive cancers (88%/65%) and were diagnosed with equal percentages (44%) of IDC and DCIS. 117 (87%) used secondary chemoprevention. Patients in this group were diagnosed with earlier stage disease and had lower rates of ER/PR-positivity (73%/65%) than the nonchemoprevention group (84%/72%). In the secondary group, 24% were on chemoprevention at time of diagnosis; 73% had completed >5 years of treatment. Conclusions. The majority of patients who used primary chemoprevention had not completed treatment prior to diagnosis, suggesting that the timing of initiation and compliance to prevention strategies are important in defining the pattern of disease in these patients. PMID:28078143
Gómez Candela, C; Olivar Roldán, J; García, M; Marín, M; Madero, R; Pérez-Portabella, C; Planás, M; Mokoroa, A; Pereyra, F; Martín Palmero, A
40-80% of cancer patients suffer from diverse degrees of malnutrition, depending on tumor subtype, location and staging and treatment strategy. Malnutrition is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in cancer patients. Both the high prevalence and prognostic significance of malnutrition imply the need for accurate malnutrition screening in cancer patients, which could select those patients at risk of nutritional derangements who would benefit from nutritional therapy. Patient-generated subjective global screening (VSG-GP) remains the reference malnutrition screening method, but its complexity and training requirements prevent wider applicability by oncologists. Thus, easier, more clinic-based malnutrition screening tools are required for cancer patients. In this article we propose a basic screening tool based on three items: weight loss, changes in physical activity and decrease in food intake. Two affirmative responses out of the three questions is considered as a positive response, and would prompt expert nutritional assessment. Our screening interview showed positive correlation with VSG-GP (ROC 0.85, p<0.001) and allowed for a rapid and accurate identification of patients with cancer-related malnutrition.
Schnabel, Freya R; Pivo, Sarah; Chun, Jennifer; Schwartz, Shira; Refinetti, Ana Paula; Axelrod, Deborah; Guth, Amber
Purpose. This study identifies women with breast cancer who utilized chemoprevention agents prior to diagnosis and describes their patterns of disease. Methods. Our database was queried retrospectively for patients with breast cancer who reported prior use of chemoprevention. Patients were divided into primary (no history of breast cancer) and secondary (previous history of breast cancer) groups and compared to patients who never took chemoprevention. Results. 135 (6%) of 2430 women used chemoprevention. In the primary chemoprevention group (n = 18, 1%), 39% had completed >5 years of treatment, and fully 50% were on treatment at time of diagnosis. These patients were overwhelmingly diagnosed with ER/PR positive cancers (88%/65%) and were diagnosed with equal percentages (44%) of IDC and DCIS. 117 (87%) used secondary chemoprevention. Patients in this group were diagnosed with earlier stage disease and had lower rates of ER/PR-positivity (73%/65%) than the nonchemoprevention group (84%/72%). In the secondary group, 24% were on chemoprevention at time of diagnosis; 73% had completed >5 years of treatment. Conclusions. The majority of patients who used primary chemoprevention had not completed treatment prior to diagnosis, suggesting that the timing of initiation and compliance to prevention strategies are important in defining the pattern of disease in these patients.
Baik, Hyun Wook; Lee, Yu Sun; Song, Min-Kyung
Recently, it is reported that intervention of oral nutritional supplement improves the nutritional status of cancer patients, and the effectiveness is affected by the sensory preference of cancer patients on the oral nutritional supplement. However, the variety of oral nutritional supplement is extremely limited and the number of patient's benefits from using the products are restricted mostly due to sensory dislikes. The objective of this study was to provide sensory preference score of trial manufactured products with different accessory ingredients to maximize the use of oral nutritional supplements. Cancer patients (n = 30) and age, sex-matched healthy volunteers (n = 30) participated in the sensory assessments (taste, flavor, viscosity, color and overall preference) of three types of oral supplements (cereal base, cereal base+herb and cereal base+fruit) and a control supplement product with scorched cereal flavor, a top seller in current Korean market. Results indicate that the cancer patients' overall preference was significantly higher for the control supplement, and fruit added supplement was preferred over plain cereal and herb added products, although the difference was insignificant. However, there was no significant preference difference for the supplements among the control group for all sensory factors. These results suggest that cancer patients are more sensitive to sensory preferences compared to the control group, and the patients prefer the flavor of cooked cereal which is a staple food in Korea. PMID:24527420
Smithson, Janet; Paterson, Charlotte; Britten, Nicky; Evans, Maggie; Lewith, George
The use of complementary therapies by people with cancer is commonplace. In a recent synthesis of 26 qualitative studies of patients' experiences of complementary therapy use after a diagnosis of cancer, the emergent theme of 'polarization' was the most notable barrier to a positive experience of complementary therapies. In this paper, we explore the two synthesis concepts of 'polarization' and 'integration', and their relationship to health service policies and guidelines on integrated services. A systematic literature search and a meta-ethnography to synthesize key concepts. The majority of patients who used complementary therapies after a diagnosis of cancer wanted to be certain that the therapies were not interfering with their conventional cancer treatment. They valued the therapies in wider terms including: taking 'a niche of control', relieving symptoms, improving wellbeing, and promoting reconnection and social interaction. The emergent theme of 'polarization' suggested that conventional physicians who are perceived to be poorly informed or negative about complementary approaches induce patient anxiety, safety concerns, and difficulties in access. They may compromise their therapeutic relationship and, rarely, they may trigger patients to abandon conventional medicine altogether. In contrast, integrated advice and/or services were highly valued by patients, although some patients preferred their complementary health care to be provided in a non-medicalized environment. Our findings suggest that the current polarized situation is unhelpful to patients, detrimental to therapeutic relationships and may occasionally be dangerous. They indicate that complementary therapies, in a supportive role, should be integrated into mainstream cancer care.
Gonen, Gokcen; Kaymak, Semra Ulusoy; Cankurtaran, Eylem Sahin; Karslioglu, Ersin Hatice; Ozalp, Elvan; Soygur, Haldun
Suffering comes in many ways for patients confronting cancer. One of these is an unspecifiable fear about death, which is an existential issue. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between death anxiety and its correlates in cancer patients. Seventy cancer patients were assessed using SCID-I, Templer's Death Anxiety Scale, the Hospital Anxiety (A) and Depression (D) Scale, the Distress Thermometer, the Visual Analogue Scale for pain (VAS), the Global Assessment of Functioning, and Glock and Stark's Dimensions of Religious Commitment scales, and these assessments were compared between cancer patients with and without death anxiety. Multiple regression analysis was conducted after correlation analysis between death anxiety and sociodemographic and clinical variables. Axis I psychiatric diagnosis, pain scores, and negative believes about what will happen after death were found to be higher in patients having death anxiety than patients not having death anxiety. Also life expectancy was perceived as shortened in patients with death anxiety. Death anxiety was associated with anxiety, depressive symptoms, and beliefs about what will happen after death. In conclusion, death anxiety could not be regarded as a natural consequence of having cancer; it is associated with the unresolved psychological and physical distress.
Lee, Janghee; Park, Seho; Kim, Sanghwa; Kim, Jeeye; Ryu, Jegyu; Park, Hyung Seok; Kim, Seung Il; Park, Byeong-Woo
Newly developed extra-mammary multiple primary cancers (MPCs) are an issue of concern when considering the management of breast cancer survivors. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of MPCs and to evaluate the implications of MPCs on the survival of breast cancer patients. A total of 8204 patients who underwent surgery at Severance Hospital between 1990 and 2012 were retrospectively selected. Clinicopathologic features and survival over follow-up periods of ≤5 and >5 years were investigated using univariate and multivariate analyses. During a mean follow-up of 67.3 months, 962 MPCs in 858 patients (10.5%) were detected. Synchronous and metachronous MPCs were identified in 23.8% and 79.0% of patients, respectively. Thyroid cancer was the most prevalent, and the second most common was gynecologic cancer. At ≤5 years, patients with MPCs were older and demonstrated significantly worse survival despite a higher proportion of patients with lower-stage MPCs. Nevertheless, an increased risk of death in patients with MPCs did not reach statistical significance at >5 years. The causes of death in many of the patients with MPCs were not related to breast cancer. Stage-matched analysis revealed that the implications of MPCs on survival were more evident in the early stages of breast disease. Breast cancer patients with MPCs showed worse survival, especially when early-stage disease was identified. Therefore, it is necessary to follow screening programs in breast cancer survivors and to establish guidelines for improving prognosis and quality of life.
Clauss, Dorothea; Tjaden, Christine; Hackert, Thilo; Schneider, Lutz; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Wiskemann, Joachim; Steindorf, Karen
Cancer patients frequently experience reduced physical fitness due to the disease itself as well as treatment-related side effects. However, studies on physical fitness in pancreatic cancer patients are missing. Therefore, we assessed cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle strength of pancreatic cancer patients. We included 65 pancreatic cancer patients, mostly after surgical resection. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed using cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and 6-min walk test (6MWT). Hand-held dynamometry was used to evaluate isometric muscle strength. Physical fitness values were compared to reference values of a healthy population. Associations between sociodemographic and clinical variables with patients' physical fitness were analyzed using multiple regression models. Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak, 20.5 ± 6.9 ml/min/kg) was significantly lower (-24%) compared to healthy reference values. In the 6MWT pancreatic cancer patients nearly reached predicted values (555 vs. 562 m). Maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) of the upper (-4.3%) and lower extremities (-13.8%) were significantly lower compared to reference values. Overall differences were larger in men than those in women. Participating in regular exercise in the year before diagnosis was associated with greater VO2peak (p < .05) and MVIC of the knee extensors (p < .05). Pancreatic cancer patients had significantly impaired physical fitness with regard to both cardiorespiratory function and isometric muscle strength, already in the early treatment phase (median 95 days after surgical resection). Our findings underline the need to investigate exercise training in pancreatic cancer patients to counteract the loss of physical fitness.
Ernstmann, N; Neumann, M; Ommen, O; Galushko, M; Wirtz, M; Voltz, R; Hallek, M; Pfaff, H
Cancer patients often experience distress. However, the majority of newly diagnosed patients gradually adapt to the crisis. When symptoms of distress and anxiety persist over months, patients require psychosocial support. The aim of the present study was to determine the proportion of cancer patients who indicate the need for psychosocial support and to identify sociodemographic, psychological and illness-related factors predicting the need for psychosocial support in a German sample. The cross-sectional retrospective study was administered to 710 cancer patients who had been inpatients at the University Hospital of Cologne. The response rate was 49.5%. Patients suffering from bronchial, oesophageal, colorectal, breast, prostate and skin cancer participated in the study. The severity of depressive symptoms was assessed using the German version of the Major Depression Inventory. The level of anxiety was assessed with the state subscale of the German version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. To measure the functional aspects of health-related quality of life, the scales "physical functioning", "role functioning", "emotional functioning", "cognitive functioning" and "role functioning" of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) were used. Of the cancer patients, 18.9% indicate an unmet need for psychosocial support and 9.5% are actually using psychosocial services. In a multiple logistic regression, significant indicators of the need for psychosocial support are gender [p = 0.014; standardised effect coefficient (sc) = 1.615] and emotional functioning (p < 0.001; sc = 1.533). The estimated model has a specificity of 92.2% and a sensitivity of 54.0%. Almost a third of the cancer patient population indicates an unmet need for psychosocial support or is actually using psychosocial services. Emotional functioning is a central predictor of the requirement for psychosocial support. Women are emotionally more
Testing for genetic mutations strongly associated with an increased breast cancer risk has risen dramatically among women younger than age 40 who are diagnosed with the disease, according to a new study.
Wanchai, Ausanee; Beck, Marcia; Stewart, Bob R; Armer, Jane M
The purpose of this paper was to discuss the management of lymphedema in patients with advanced disease. Peer-reviewed literature. Management of lymphedema in patients with advanced cancer is complex because of multi-factorial issues. Basic components of skin care, compression, massage, and exercise can be applied for these patients. Key concepts are: 1) optimizing quality of life, 2) respecting patients' choices, and 3) providing psychological support to the patients and their families. Management plans for patients with lymphedema in advanced disease should be flexible. Holistic and collaborative approaches are essential to achieve the goal of caring for these patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Charalambous, Andreas; Kouta, Christiana
Cancer related fatigue (CRF) is a common and debilitating symptom that can influence quality of life (QoL) in cancer patients. The increase in survival times stresses for a better understanding of how CRF affects patients' QoL. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study with 148 randomly recruited prostate cancer patients aiming to explore CRF and its impact on QoL. Assessments included the Cancer Fatigue Scale, EORTC QLQ-C30, and EORTC QLQ-PR25. Additionally, 15 in-depth structured interviews were performed. Quantitative data were analyzed with simple and multiple regression analysis and independent samples t-test. Qualitative data were analyzed with the use of thematic content analysis. The 66.9% of the patients experienced CRF with higher levels being recorded for the affective subscale. Statistically significant differences were found between the patients reporting CRF and lower levels of QoL (mean = 49.1) and those that did not report fatigue and had higher levels of QoL (mean = 72.1). The interviews emphasized CRF's profound impact on the patients' lives that was reflected on the following themes: “dependency on others,” “loss of power over decision making,” and “daily living disruption.” Cancer related fatigue is a significant problem for patients with advanced prostate cancer and one that affects their QoL in various ways. PMID:26981530
Park, Ji-hye; Jeon, Hyung-jun; Kang, Hwi-joong; Jeong, In-Sook; Cho, Chong-kwan; Yoo, Hwa-seung
The purpose of this study was to observe the effects of autonomic nerve pharmacopuncture (ANP) treatment on cancer-related fatigue (CRF) in patients with advanced cancer. This observational case study was conducted at the East West Cancer Center of Daejeon University's Dunsan Korean Medical Hospital. Two patients were observed. One patient was diagnosed with left thymic cancer metastatic to the left pleura. The other patient had terminal-stage cervical cancer with iliac bone and lumbar 5 metastases. We injected mountain ginseng pharmacopuncture (MGP) into acupoints alongside the spine (Hua-Tuo-Jia-Ji-Xue, EX B2). We examined the patients for CRF using the Korean version of the Revised Piper Fatigue Scale (RPFS-K), which is a self-assessment tool. The scores on the RPFS-K for both patients tended to decrease during the treatment. Laboratory findings, including hematological changes, were also checked. Liver and renal function tests showed that the treatment was safe. Although further large-population studies are necessary, this case study suggests that ANP has a favorable effect on CRF in patients with advanced cancer.
Skinner, Eila C
Treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancer in older patients is challenging. Definitive therapy of localized disease requires either surgery or radiation therapy, ideally combined with systemic chemotherapy. However, current population data suggest that less than half of patients older than age 70 are offered such treatments. We will review tools available to assess the fitness of older patients for surgery, alternatives, and tips for perioperative patient treatment.
Introduction The emotional burden associated with the diagnosis of cancer is sometimes overshadowed by financial burden sustained by patient and the family. This is especially relevant for a developing country as there is limited state support for cancer treatment. We conducted this study to estimate the cost of cancer care for two major types of cancer and to assess the perception of patients and families regarding the burden of the cost for undergoing cancer treatment at a private tertiary care hospital. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted at day care and radiotherapy unit of Aga Khan University, Hospital (AKUH) Karachi, Pakistan. All adult patients with breast and head & neck cancers diagnosed for 3 months or more were included. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire and analysed using SPSS. Results Sixty seven patients were interviewed during the study period. The mean and median monthly income of these patients was 996.4 USD and 562.5 USD respectively. Comparatively the mean and median monthly cost of cancer care was 1093.13 USD and 946.42 USD respectively. The cost of the treatment either fully or partially was borne by the family in most cases (94%). The financial burden of cancer was perceived as significant by 28 (42%) patients and unmanageable by 18 (27%) patients. This perceived level of burden was associated significantly with average monthly income (p = <0.001). Conclusion Our study indicates that the financial burden of cancer care is substantial and can be overwhelming. There is a desperate need for treatment support programs either by the government or other welfare organisations to support individuals and families who are already facing a difficult and challenging situation. PMID:23061477
Rix, B A
The use of metaphors concerning cancer was investigated by interviewing nine Danish cancer patients, aged 30-85 years. Metaphors about the disease were widely used, e.g. personification metaphors. Most patients considered their cancer as a metaphor for a physical and psychological imbalance in the period before the disease. Some patients felt responsible for the disease. The metaphors of cancer patients should be considered when communicating with cancer patients.
Walker, Blake Byron; Schuurman, Nadine; Auluck, Ajit; Lear, Scott A; Rosin, Miriam
Both socioeconomic status and travel time to cancer treatment have been associated with treatment choice and patient outcomes. An improved understanding of the relationship between these two dimensions of access may enable cancer control experts to better target patients with poor access, particularly in isolated suburban and rural communities. Using geographical information systems, head and neck cancer patients across British Columbia, Canada from 1981 to 2009, were mapped and their travel times to the nearest treatment center at their time of diagnosis were modelled. Patients' travel times were analysed by urban, suburban, and rural neighborhood types and an index of multiple socioeconomic deprivation was used to assess the role of socioeconomic status in patients' spatial access. Significant associations between socioeconomic deprivation and spatial access to treatment were identified, with the most deprived quintiles of patients experiencing nearly twice the travel time as the least deprived quintile. The sharpest disparities were observed among the most deprived patient populations in suburban and rural areas. However, the establishment of new treatment centers has decreased overall travel times by 28% in recent decades. Residence in a neighborhood with high socioeconomic deprivation is strongly associated with head and neck cancer patients' spatial access to cancer treatment centers. Patients residing in the most socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods consistently have longer travel times in urban, suburban, and rural communities in the study area.
Karuturi, Meghan; Wong, Melisa L.; Hsu, Tina; Kimmick, Gretchen G.; Lichtman, Stuart M.; Holmes, Holly M.; Inouye, Sharon K.; Dale, William; Loh, Kah P.; Whitehead, Mary I.; Magnuson, Allison; Hurria, Arti; Janelsins, Michelle C.; Mohile, Supriya
Cancer and neurocognitive disorders, such as dementia and delirium, are common and serious diseases in the elderly that are accompanied by high degree of morbidity and mortality. Furthermore, evidence supports the under-diagnosis of both dementia and delirium in older adults. Complex questions exist regarding the interaction of dementia and delirium with cancer, beginning with guidelines on how best measure disease severity, the optimal screening test for either disorder, the appropriate level of intervention in the setting of abnormal findings, and strategies aimed at preventing the development or progression of either process. Ethical concerns emerge in the research setting, pertaining to the detection of cognitive dysfunction in participants, validity of consent, disclosure of abnormal results if screening is pursued, and recommended level of intervention by investigators. Furthermore, understanding the ways in which comorbid cognitive dysfunction and cancer impact both cancer and non-cancer-related outcomes is essential in guiding treatment decisions. In the following article, we will discuss what is presently known of the interactions of pre-existing cognitive impairment and delirium with cancer. We will also discuss identified deficits in our knowledge base, and propose ways in which innovative research may address these gaps. PMID:27282296
Zheng, Yi; Luo, Yun; Lv, Yinxiang; Huang, Chen; Sheng, Qinsong; Zhao, Peng; Ye, Julian; Jiang, Weiqin; Liu, Lulu; Song, Xiaojun; Tong, Zhou; Chen, Wenbin; Lin, Jianjiang; Tang, Yi-Wei; Jin, Dazhi; Fang, Weijia
The entire process of Clostridium difficile colonization to infection develops in large intestine. However, the real colonization pattern of C. difficile in preoperative colorectal cancer patients has not been studied. In this study, 33 C. difficile strains (16.1%) were isolated from stool samples of 205 preoperative colorectal cancer patients. C. difficile colonization rates in lymph node metastasis patients (22.3%) were significantly higher than lymph node negative patients (10.8%) (OR=2.314, 95%CI=1.023-5.235, P =0.025). Meanwhile, patients positive for stool occult blood had lower C. difficile colonization rates than negative patients (11.5% vs. 24.0%, OR=0.300, 95%CI=0.131-0.685, P =0.019). A total of 16 sequence types were revealed by multilocus sequence typing. Minimum spanning tree and time-space cluster analysis indicated that all C. difficile isolates were epidemiologically unrelated. Antibiotic susceptibility testing showed all isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and metronidazole. The results suggested that the prevalence of C. difficile colonization is high in preoperative colorectal cancer patients, and the colonization is not acquired in the hospital. Since lymph node metastasis colorectal cancer patients inevitably require adjuvant chemotherapy and C. difficile infection may halt the ongoing treatment, the call for sustained monitoring of C. difficile in those patients is apparently urgent.
Lv, Yinxiang; Huang, Chen; Sheng, Qinsong; Zhao, Peng; Ye, Julian; Jiang, Weiqin; Liu, Lulu; Song, Xiaojun; Tong, Zhou; Chen, Wenbin; Lin, Jianjiang; Tang, Yi-Wei; Jin, Dazhi; Fang, Weijia
The entire process of Clostridium difficile colonization to infection develops in large intestine. However, the real colonization pattern of C. difficile in preoperative colorectal cancer patients has not been studied. In this study, 33 C. difficile strains (16.1%) were isolated from stool samples of 205 preoperative colorectal cancer patients. C. difficile colonization rates in lymph node metastasis patients (22.3%) were significantly higher than lymph node negative patients (10.8%) (OR=2.314, 95%CI=1.023-5.235, P =0.025). Meanwhile, patients positive for stool occult blood had lower C. difficile colonization rates than negative patients (11.5% vs. 24.0%, OR=0.300, 95%CI=0.131-0.685, P =0.019). A total of 16 sequence types were revealed by multilocus sequence typing. Minimum spanning tree and time-space cluster analysis indicated that all C. difficile isolates were epidemiologically unrelated. Antibiotic susceptibility testing showed all isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and metronidazole. The results suggested that the prevalence of C. difficile colonization is high in preoperative colorectal cancer patients, and the colonization is not acquired in the hospital. Since lymph node metastasis colorectal cancer patients inevitably require adjuvant chemotherapy and C. difficile infection may halt the ongoing treatment, the call for sustained monitoring of C. difficile in those patients is apparently urgent. PMID:28060753
Brandes, Kim; Linn, Annemiek J; Smit, Edith G; van Weert, Julia C M
Little is known about the behavioral determinants that underlie cancer patients' intention to express concerns during a consultation. This information can be relevant to developing effective interventions for cancer patients. In this study, the integrative model of behavioral prediction (IMBP) is used as a framework to unravel the determinants of patients' intention to express concerns. The objectives of this study are to examine which of the IMBP determinants (attitude, perceived social norm, and/or self-efficacy) are significantly related to intention and what content of these determinants can be targeted to effect a change in patients' intention. An online survey based on the IMBP determinants was distributed. A total of 236 cancer patients and cancer survivors participated. The results of the survey showed that patients' attitudes and perceived social norm were the most important determinants of their intention to express concerns. The largest change in patients' intention might be achieved by targeting the affective attitude, referring to the extent to which patients believe that expressing concerns is (un)pleasant, and the social norm, referring to the extent to which patients feel (un)supported by significant others in expressing concerns.
Farooqui, Maryam; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Knight, Aishah; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Farooqui, Muhammad Aslam; Saleem, Fahad; Haq, Noman-ul; Aljadhey, Hisham
Despite the existence of different screening methods, the response to cancer screening is poor among Malaysians. The current study aims to examine cancer patients' perceptions of cancer screening and early diagnosis. A qualitative methodology was used to collect in-depth information from cancer patients. After obtaining institutional ethical approval, patients with different types and stages of cancer from the three major ethnic groups (Malay, Chinese and Indian) were approached. Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted. All interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and translated into English for thematic content analysis. Thematic content analysis yielded four major themes: awareness of cancer screening, perceived benefits of cancer screening, perceived barriers to cancer screening, and cues to action. The majority of respondents had never heard of cancer screening before their diagnosis. Some participants reported hearing about mammogram and Pap smear tests but did not undergo screening due to a lack of belief in personal susceptibility. Those who had negative results from screening prior to diagnosis perceived such tests as untrustworthy. Lack of knowledge and financial constraints were reported as barriers to cancer screening. Finally, numerous suggestions were given to improve screening behaviour among healthy individuals, including the role of mass media in disseminating the message 'prevention is better than cure'. Patients' narratives revealed some significant issues that were in line with the Health Belief Model which could explain negative health behaviour. The description of the personal experiences of people with cancer could provide many cues to action for those who have never encountered this potentially deadly disease, if incorporated into health promotion activities.
Manasco, Leigh; McGoldrick, Devon; Kajana, Kiti; Rosenthal, Lauren; McMikel, Ann; Lins, Nancy
Purpose With the rate of cancer and other noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) growing globally, cancer prevention and control efforts are critical internationally. Moreover, since the 2011 United Nations High-Level Meeting on NCDs, the international health and development community has shifted its awareness to include NCDs as a global health priority, especially in developing countries where mortality rates are disproportionately high. Simultaneously, with the dissemination of the World Cancer Declaration and the evolution of cancer control policies, the international cancer community has recognized the value of engaging patients in reducing the global cancer burden. Cancer advocacy programs that involve patients, survivors, and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have increasing opportunities for global impact. Methods We developed a framework over 4 years through implementation of two pilot projects. We created a series of trainings and tools to build the capacity of local NGOs and patients to plan and implement a forum for patients with cancer and to create and disseminate a national call to action. The framework was piloted in South Africa from 2009 to 2011 and Japan from 2012 to 2014, and results were measured through postproject surveys completed by members of the collaborative working group and interviews with the in-country partner. Results The framework is globally relevant and could be adapted and implemented in low- and middle-income countries to amplify patient voices in the policymaking process, increase grassroots mobilization, and improve health systems and infrastructure through addressing patient needs. Conclusion With the dominant paradigm of global health in developing countries—which has previously focused on HIV/AIDS, maternal and child health, tuberculosis, and malaria—shifting to adapt to the burgeoning NCD burden, effective patient-centered advocacy frameworks are critical to the success of NCD control. PMID:28804777
Turhal, N S; Dane, F; Ulus, C; Sari, S; Senturk, N; Bingol, D
Although there are many myths about cancer in Turkey, there is no study evaluating Turkish public's knowledge about cancer. The goals of our research were to: 1) measure the extent of knowledge of cancer among the Turkish public; 2) determine the differences in extent of cancer-related knowledge between participants who have relatives with cancer and those who do not; and 3) determine the sources of knowledge possessed. Data were obtained from a total of 415 participants (244 female, 171 male), all of them sitting at the Marmara University Faculty of Medicine Hospital (MUFMH) outpatient clinic waiting area for non-cancer-related reasons. Each participant completed a 3-part questionnaire. Appropriate statistical tests were used for comparison. The mean age was 41 years. Of 415 participants, 65.3% stated that they had one or more cancer patient in their immediate family; 70.1% of the participants had a high-school education or greater. The questionnaire showed that, depending on the question, anywhere from 1.7% to 88.5% of the general public possesses some false information; furthermore, the difference in accuracy between relatives of cancer patients and non-relatives was marginal. Only 3 specific questions, related to the following ideas, rendered answers that were statistically significantly different between these 2 groups: breast cancer is only seen in females (p <0.005), cell phones cause cancer (p <0.001), and cancer is always very painful (p <0.001). The proportion of false knowledge about cancer was unacceptably high in our cohort. Broader efforts should be made to inform the Turkish public about cancer.
Sugawara, Yuya; Narimatsu, Hiroto; Hozawa, Atsushi; Shao, Li; Otani, Katsumi; Fukao, Akira
Patients increasingly turn to the Internet for information on medical conditions, including clinical news and treatment options. In recent years, an online patient community has arisen alongside the rapidly expanding world of social media, or "Web 2.0." Twitter provides real-time dissemination of news, information, personal accounts and other details via a highly interactive form of social media, and has become an important online tool for patients. This medium is now considered to play an important role in the modern social community of online, "wired" cancer patients. Fifty-one highly influential "power accounts" belonging to cancer patients were extracted from a dataset of 731 Twitter accounts with cancer terminology in their profiles. In accordance with previously established methodology, "power accounts" were defined as those Twitter accounts with 500 or more followers. We extracted data on the cancer patient (female) with the most followers to study the specific relationships that existed between the user and her followers, and found that the majority of the examined tweets focused on greetings, treatment discussions, and other instances of psychological support. These findings went against our hypothesis that cancer patients' tweets would be centered on the dissemination of medical information and similar "newsy" details. At present, there exists a rapidly evolving network of cancer patients engaged in information exchange via Twitter. This network is valuable in the sharing of psychological support among the cancer community.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the U.S. Improvements in therapy have increased the survival of patients with CRC from 10 months to two years, but for patients who stop responding to treatments, such as irinotecan, options for additional therapy are limited. Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) may offer advantages over traditional therapies if an appropriate target can be identified.
Hagedoorn, Mariët; Kreicbergs, Ulrika; Appel, Charlotte
Cancer affects not only patients but also their loved ones. This paper presents a selective, narrative review of psychosocial consequences of cancer and its treatment for relatives of patients, including parents and siblings of children with cancer, children of parents with cancer and partners of adults with cancer. Remarkably, most relatives adapt well to the cancer of a loved one. That is only a minority appears to be at risk for psychological morbidity. Bereavement has been found to impact psychological well being in the short-term, but it does also not appear to be a major risk factor for severe psychopathology. The exception being the loss of a child; this often appears to have intense and long-lasting effects on the parents. Furthermore, especially women were found to be at risk for distress. Future studies that focus on the interactions between patients and family members - parents, children and partners - are of great importance to fu