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Sample records for opis ukladu spinowego

  1. The structural requirements of organophosphorus insecticides (OPI) for reducing chicken embryo NAD(+) content in OPI-induced teratogenesis in chickens.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Josef

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the structural requirements of organophosphorus insecticides (OPI) for reducing chicken embryo nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) content in OPI-induced teratogenesis and compare them with those needed for OPI inhibition of yolk sac membrane kynurenine formamidase (KFase), the proposed primary target for OPI teratogens in chicken embryos. The comparative molecular field analysis (COMFA) of three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D QSAR) revealed the electrostatic and steric fields as good predictors of OPI structural requirements to reduce NAD(+) content in chicken embryos. The dominant electrostatic interactions were localized at nitrogen-1, nitrogen-3, nitrogen of 2-amino substituent of the pyrimidinyl of pyrimidinyl phosphorothioates, and at the oxygen of crotonamide carbonyl in crotonamide phosphates. Bulkiness of the substituents at carbon-6 of the pyrimidinyls and/or N-substituents of crotonamides was the steric structural component that contributed to superiority of those OPI for reducing embryonic NAD(+) levels. Both electrostatic and steric requirements are similar to those defined in our previous study for OPI inhibition of chicken embryo yolk sac membrane KFase. The findings of this study provide another piece of evidence for the cause-and-effect relationship between yolk sac membrane KFase inhibition and reduced embryo NAD(+) content in NAD-associated OPI-induced teratogenesis in chickens.

  2. Induction of intranuclear membranes by overproduction of Opi1p and Scs2p, regulators for yeast phospholipid biosynthesis, suggests a mechanism for Opi1p nuclear translocation.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Miki; Oshima, Ayaka; Noguchi, Tetsuko; Kagiwada, Satoshi

    2016-03-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the expression of phospholipid biosynthetic genes is suppressed by the Opi1p negative regulator. Opi1p enters into the nucleoplasm from the nuclear membrane to suppress the gene expression under repressing conditions. The binding of Opi1p to the nuclear membrane requires an integral membrane protein, Scs2p and phosphatidic acid (PA). Although it is demonstrated that the association of Opi1p with membranes is affected by PA levels, how Opi1p dissociates from Scs2p is unknown. Here, we found that fluorescently labelled Opi1p accumulated on a perinuclear region in an Scs2p-dependent manner. Electron microscopic analyses indicated that the perinuclear region consists of intranuclear membranes, which may be formed by the invagination of the nuclear membrane due to the accumulation of Opi1p and Scs2p in a restricted area. As expected, localization of Opi1p and Scs2p in the intranuclear membranes was detected by immunoelectron microscopy. Biochemical analysis showed that Opi1p recovered in the membrane fraction was detergent insoluble while Scs2p was soluble, implying that Opi1p behaves differently from Scs2p in the fraction. We hypothesize that Opi1p dissociates from Scs2p after targeting to the nuclear membrane, making it possible to be released from the membrane quickly when PA levels decrease. PMID:26590299

  3. Architecture and Functionality of the Advanced Life Support On-Line Project Information System (OPIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogan, John A.; Levri, Julie A.; Morrow, Rich; Cavazzoni, Jim; Rodriquez, Luis F.; Riano, Rebecca; Whitaker, Dawn R.

    2004-01-01

    An ongoing effort is underway at NASA Amcs Research Center (ARC) tu develop an On-line Project Information System (OPIS) for the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. The objective of this three-year project is to develop, test, revise and deploy OPIS to enhance the quality of decision-making metrics and attainment of Program goals through improved knowledge sharing. OPIS will centrally locate detailed project information solicited from investigators on an annual basis and make it readily accessible by the ALS Community via a web-accessible interface. The data will be stored in an object-oriented relational database (created in MySQL(Trademark) located on a secure server at NASA ARC. OPE will simultaneously serve several functions, including being an R&TD status information hub that can potentially serve as the primary annual reporting mechanism. Using OPIS, ALS managers and element leads will be able to carry out informed research and technology development investment decisions, and allow analysts to perform accurate systems evaluations. Additionally, the range and specificity of information solicited will serve to educate technology developers of programmatic needs. OPIS will collect comprehensive information from all ALS projects as well as highly detailed information specific to technology development in each ALS area (Waste, Water, Air, Biomass, Food, Thermal, and Control). Because the scope of needed information can vary dramatically between areas, element-specific technology information is being compiled with the aid of multiple specialized working groups. This paper presents the current development status in terms of the architecture and functionality of OPIS. Possible implementation approaches for OPIS are also discussed.

  4. Classification of SN 2016gmg (=PTSS-16opy), as a Type Ia Supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jujia; Xin, Yuxin; Chang, Liang; Wang, Jianguo; Wang, Xiaofeng; Li, Wenxiong; Yang, Zesheng; Li, Bin; Xu, Zhijian; Zhao, Haibin; Wang, Lifan

    2016-09-01

    We obtained an optical spectrum (range 340-900 nm) of SN 2016gmg (=PTSS-16opy), discovered by the PMO-Tsinghua Supernova Survey (PTSS: http://119.78.210.3/ptss2/), on UT Sep. 29.55 2016 with the 2.4 m telescope (LJT + YFOSC) at LiJiang Observatory of Yunnan Observatories (YNAO).

  5. Changes in mouse liver and chicken embryo yolk sac membrane soluble proteins due to an organophosphorous insecticide (OPI) diazinon linked to several noncholinergic OPI effects in mice and chicken embryos.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Josef

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to identify proteins in mouse livers and chicken embryo yolk sac membranes whose quantities were altered by an organophosphorous insecticide (OPI) treatment and which might be linked, based on their functionality, to the recognized noncholinergic effects of OPI. Mice and fertile chicken eggs were treated with an OPI representative diazinon. The quantitative changes in mouse liver and chicken embryo yolk sac membrane soluble proteins caused by diazinon were determined by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Proteins whose quantity was affected by diazinon were identified by the mass spectrometry. In mouse livers, the altered levels of several enzymes of glucose metabolism were considered with regards to amelioration of hyperglycemia due to diazinon; the reduced levels of 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase to the changes in the l-tryptophan to NAD metabolism caused by pyrimidinyl and crotonamide OPI; the reduced levels of catalase, peroxiredoxin and superoxide dismutase to OPI-increased lipid and/or kynurenine oxidation, the latter effect resulting also in increased urinary excretion of xanthurenic and kynurenic acids; and an increase in glutathione S-methyltransferase to OPI detoxification. In chicken embryo yolk sac membranes, the reduced availability of procollagen-proline dioxygenase may be the factor in micromelia caused by OPI in chicken embryos.

  6. Improved ethyl caproate production of Chinese liquor yeast by overexpressing fatty acid synthesis genes with OPI1 deletion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yefu; Luo, Weiwei; Gong, Rui; Xue, Xingxiang; Guan, Xiangyu; Song, Lulu; Guo, Xuewu; Xiao, Dongguang

    2016-09-01

    During yeast fermentation, ethyl esters play a key role in the development of the flavor profiles of Chinese liquor. Ethyl caproate, an ethyl ester eliciting apple-like flavor, is the characteristic flavor of strong aromatic liquor, which is the best selling liquor in China. In the traditional fermentation process, ethyl caproate is mainly produced at the later fermentation stage by aroma-producing yeast, bacteria, and mold in a mud pit instead of Saccharomyces cerevisiae at the expense of grains and fermentation time. To improve the production of ethyl caproate by Chinese liquor yeast (S. cerevisiae) with less food consumption and shorter fermentation time, we constructed three recombinant strains, namely, α5-ACC1ΔOPI1, α5-FAS1ΔOPI1, and α5-FAS2ΔOPI1 by overexpressing acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC1), fatty acid synthase 1 (FAS1), and fatty acid synthase 2 (FAS2) with OPI1 (an inositol/choline-mediated negative regulatory gene) deletion, respectively. In the liquid fermentation of corn hydrolysate, the contents of ethyl caproate produced by α5-ACC1ΔOPI1, α5-FAS1ΔOPI1, and α5-FAS2ΔOPI1 increased by 0.40-, 1.75-, and 0.31-fold, correspondingly, compared with the initial strain α5. The contents of other fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) (C8:0, C10:0, C12:0) also increased. In comparison, the content of FAEEs produced by α5-FAS1ΔOPI1 significantly improved. Meanwhile, the contents of acetyl-CoA and ethyl acetate were enhanced by α5-FAS1ΔOPI1. Overall, this study offers a promising platform for the development of pure yeast culture fermentation of Chinese strong aromatic liquor without the use of a mud pit. PMID:27344573

  7. Determining the effects of inositol supplementation and the opi1 mutation on ethanol tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Erin L.; Villa-García, Manuel J.; Henry, Susan A.

    2009-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an important microorganism for the ethanol fuel industry. As with many microorganisms, the production and accumulation of certain metabolites, such as ethanol, can have a detrimental effect on cell growth and productivity. Yeast cells containing a higher concentration of phosphatidylinositol (PI) in the cellular membrane, due to inositol supplementation in the growth media, have been shown to tolerate and produce higher concentrations of ethanol. The specific goal of our research was to assess the effects of inositol supplementation in the growth media as well as to compare the ethanol tolerance of the wild-type S. cerevisiae to a mutant, the opi1 strain (opi=overproduction of inositol). The OPI1 gene product is a negative regulatory factor that controls the transcription of the INO1 structural gene, which encodes the enzyme catalyzing the limiting step in the biosynthesis of inositol, that is, the conversion of glucose-6-phosphate to inositol-3-phosphate. Upon the deletion of the OPI1 gene, the cell will constitutively produce inositol, regardless of the extracellular inositol concentration. Inositol supplementation in cultures of wild-type cells increased ethanol tolerance in terms of cell viability. Cells grown in −I media had a 20% higher specific death rate than cells grown in +I media when exposed to 15% ethanol. The opi1 strain, with the ability to constitutively produce inositol regardless of media composition, showed less inhibition of cell growth in the presence of ethanol than did the wild-type strain, particularly in inositol-free media. We conclude that the introduction of an opi1 mutation in yeast results in an inherent increase in PI levels and constitutive biosynthesis of inositol that, in turn, will reduce the cost of supplementing inositol into the media to achieve a higher ethanol tolerance. PMID:19812714

  8. Comparing the OPI and the OPIc: The Effect of Test Method on Oral Proficiency Scores and Student Preference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Gregory L.; Cox, Troy L.; Knapp, Nieves

    2016-01-01

    While studies have been done to rate the validity and reliability of the Oral Proficiency Interview (OPI) and Oral Proficiency Interview-Computer (OPIc) independently, a limited amount of research has analyzed the interexam reliability of these tests, and studies have yet to be conducted comparing the results of Spanish language learners who take…

  9. A novel off-center paddle impeller (OPI) dissolution testing system for reproducible dissolution testing of solid dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yimin; Armenante, Piero M

    2012-02-01

    Dissolution testing is routinely conducted in the pharmaceutical industry to provide in vitro drug release information for quality control purposes. The most common dissolution testing system for solid dosage forms is the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Dissolution Testing Apparatus 2. This apparatus is very sensitive to the initial location of the tablet, which cannot be controlled because the tablet is dropped into the vessel at the beginning of the test and it may rest at random locations at the vessel's bottom. In this work, a modified Apparatus 2 in which the impeller was placed 8 mm off center in the vessel was designed and tested. This new design was termed "OPI" for "off-center paddle impeller." Dissolution tests were conducted with the OPI apparatus for nine different tablet locations using both disintegrating tablets (prednisone) and nondisintegrating tablets (salicylic acid). The dissolution profiles in the OPI apparatus were largely independent of the tablet location at the vessel's bottom, whereas those obtained in the Standard System generated statistically different profiles depending on the tablet location. The newly proposed OPI system can effectively eliminate artifacts generated by random settling of the tablet at the vessel's bottom, thus making the test more robust.

  10. Determination of traces of several pesticides in sunflower oil using organic phase immuno electrodes (OPIEs).

    PubMed

    Martini, Elisabetta; Tomassetti, Mauro; Campanella, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Testing for traces of different pesticides (triazinic, organophosphates and chlorurates), present in hydrophobic matrices such as sunflower oil was checked using new immunosensors working in organic solvent mixtures (OPIEs). The competitive process took place in an n-hexane-chloroform 75% (V/V) mixture, while the subsequent final enzymatic measurement was performed in decane using tert-butylhydroperoxide as substrate of the enzymatic reaction. A Clark electrode was used as transducer and peroxidase enzyme as marker. A linear response of between about 10 nM and 4 μM was usually obtained in the presence of sunflower oil. Immunosensors show satisfactory selectivity and precision and recovery tests carried out on commercial sunflower oil samples gave excellent results. Lastly, theoretical confirmation of the possibility that immunosensors can act positively in organic solvent mixtures was discussed on the basis of Hill׳s coefficient values.

  11. Development of use of an Operational Procedure Information System (OPIS) for future space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Illmer, N.; Mies, L.; Schoen, A.; Jain, A.

    1994-01-01

    A MS-Windows based electronic procedure system, called OPIS (Operational Procedure Information System), was developed. The system consists of two parts, the editor, for 'writing' the procedure and the notepad application, for the usage of the procedures by the crew during training and flight. The system is based on standardized, structured procedure format and language. It allows the embedding of sketches, photos, animated graphics and video sequences and the access to off-nominal procedures by linkage to an appropriate database. The system facilitates the work with procedures of different degrees of detail, depending on the training status of the crew. The development of a 'language module' for the automatic translation of the procedures, for example into Russian, is planned.

  12. Effect of an oxygen pressure injection (OPI) device on the oxygen saturation of patients during dermatological methyl aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Blake, E; Allen, J; Thorn, C; Shore, A; Curnow, A

    2013-05-01

    Methyl aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy (MAL-PDT) (a topical treatment used for a number of precancerous skin conditions) utilizes the combined interaction of a photosensitizer (protoporphyrin IX (PpIX)), light of the appropriate wavelength, and molecular oxygen to produce singlet oxygen and other reactive oxygen species which induce cell death. During treatment, localized oxygen depletion occurs and is thought to contribute to decreased efficacy. The aim of this study was to investigate whether an oxygen pressure injection (OPI) device had an effect on localized oxygen saturation levels and/or PpIX fluorescence of skin lesions during MAL-PDT. This study employed an OPI device to apply oxygen under pressure to the skin lesions of patients undergoing standard MAL-PDT. Optical reflectance spectrometry and fluorescence imaging were used to noninvasively monitor the localized oxygen saturation and PpIX fluorescence of the treatment area, respectively. No significant changes in oxygen saturation were observed when these data were combined for the group with OPI and compared to the group that received standard MAL-PDT without OPI. Additionally, no significant difference in PpIX photobleaching or clinical outcome at 3 months between the groups of patients was observed, although the group that received standard MAL-PDT demonstrated a significant increase (p<0.05) in PpIX fluorescence initially and both groups produced a significant decrease (p<0.05) after light irradiation. In conclusion, with this sample size, this OPI device was not found to be an effective method with which to improve tissue oxygenation during MAL-PDT. Further investigation is therefore required to find a more effective method of MAL-PDT enhancement.

  13. The Schizosaccharomyces pombe Hikeshi/Opi10 protein has similar biochemical functions to its human homolog but acts in different physiological contexts.

    PubMed

    Oda, Yuumi; Kimura, Makoto; Kose, Shingo; Fasken, Milo B; Corbett, Anita H; Imamoto, Naoko

    2014-05-21

    Human Hikeshi (HsHikeshi) is a nuclear import carrier for Hsp70s and is required for cell survival after heat shock. The Hikeshi homolog in Schizosaccharomyces pombe (SpHikeshi/Opi10) localizes to the nuclear rim, interacts with the Hsp70 homolog Ssa2, and mediates its nuclear import in a reconstituted mammalian nuclear transport system. However, SpHikeshi/Opi10 is not required for heat stress response and survival after heat stress. Instead, SpHikeshi/Opi10 is required for the normal expression of stress response genes under optimal conditions and for cell growth during glucose deprivation. Here, the functions of SpHikeshi/Opi10 are discussed and compared to the functions of HsHikeshi.

  14. Dynamic control of yeast MAP kinase network by induced association and dissociation between the Ste50 scaffold and the Opy2 membrane anchor.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Katsuyoshi; Tatebayashi, Kazuo; Tanaka, Keiichiro; Saito, Haruo

    2010-10-01

    Membrane localization of the Ste11 MAPKKK is essential for activation of both the filamentous growth/invasive growth (FG/IG) MAP kinase (MAPK) pathway and the SHO1 branch of the osmoregulatory HOG MAPK pathway, and is mediated by binding of the Ste50 scaffold protein to the Opy2 membrane anchor. We found that Opy2 has two major (CR-A and CR-B), and one minor (CR-D), binding sites for Ste50. CR-A binds Ste50 constitutively and can transmit signals to both the Hog1 and Fus3/Kss1 MAPKs. CR-B, in contrast, binds Ste50 only when Opy2 is phosphorylated by Yck1/Yck2 under glucose-rich conditions and transmits the signal preferentially to the Hog1 MAPK. Ste50 phosphorylation by activated Hog1/Fus3/Kss1 MAPKs downregulates the HOG MAPK pathway by dissociating Ste50 from Opy2. Furthermore, Ste50 phosphorylation, together with MAPK-specific protein phosphatases, reduces the basal activity of the HOG and the mating MAPK pathways. Thus, dynamic regulation of Ste50-Opy2 interaction fine-tunes the MAPK signaling network. PMID:20932477

  15. Binding the Atypical RA Domain of Ste50p to the Unfolded Opy2p Cytoplasmic Tail Is Essential for the High-Osmolarity Glycerol Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ekiel, Irena; Sulea, Traian; Jansen, Gregor; Kowalik, Maria; Minailiuc, Ovidiu; Cheng, Jing; Harcus, Doreen; Cygler, Miroslaw; Whiteway, Malcolm

    2009-01-01

    Activation of the high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway for osmoregulation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae involves interaction of the adaptor Ste50p with the cytoplasmic tail of single-transmembrane protein Opy2p. We have determined the solution structure of the Ste50p-RA (Ras association) domain, and it shows an atypical RA fold lacking the β1 and β2 strands of the canonical motif. Although the core of the RA domain is fully functional in the pheromone response, an additional region is required for the HOG pathway activation. Two peptide motifs within the intrinsically disordered cytoplasmic tail of Opy2p defined by NMR spectroscopy physically interact with the Step50p-RA domain. These Opy2p-derived peptides bind overlapping regions of the Step50p-RA domain with similarly weak affinities, suggesting a multivalent interaction of these proteins as a crucial point of control of the HOG pathway. As well, overall selection of signaling pathways depends on functionally distinct regions of the Ste50p-RA domain, implicating this element in the control of global regulatory decisions. PMID:19846660

  16. Spectroscopic, Electrochemical and Computational Characterisation of Ru Species Involved in Catalytic Water Oxidation: Evidence for a [Ru(V) (O)(Py2 (Me) tacn)] Intermediate.

    PubMed

    Casadevall, Carla; Codolà, Zoel; Costas, Miquel; Lloret-Fillol, Julio

    2016-07-11

    A new family of ruthenium complexes based on the N-pentadentate ligand Py2 (Me) tacn (N-methyl-N',N''-bis(2-picolyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane) has been synthesised and its catalytic activity has been studied in the water-oxidation (WO) reaction. We have used chemical oxidants (ceric ammonium nitrate and NaIO4 ) to generate the WO intermediates [Ru(II) (OH2 )(Py2 (Me) tacn)](2+) , [Ru(III) (OH2 )(Py2 (Me) tacn)](3+) , [Ru(III) (OH)(Py2 (Me) tacn)](2+) and [Ru(IV) (O)(Py2 (Me) tacn)](2+) , which have been characterised spectroscopically. Their relative redox and pH stability in water has been studied by using UV/Vis and NMR spectroscopies, HRMS and spectroelectrochemistry. [Ru(IV) (O)(Py2 (Me) tacn)](2+) has a long half-life (>48 h) in water. The catalytic cycle of WO has been elucidated by using kinetic, spectroscopic, (18) O-labelling and theoretical studies, and the conclusion is that the rate-determining step is a single-site water nucleophilic attack on a metal-oxo species. Moreover, [Ru(IV) (O)(Py2 (Me) tacn)](2+) is proposed to be the resting state under catalytic conditions. By monitoring Ce(IV) consumption, we found that the O2 evolution rate is redox-controlled and independent of the initial concentration of Ce(IV) . Based on these facts, we propose herein that [Ru(IV) (O)(Py2 (Me) tacn)](2+) is oxidised to [Ru(V) (O)(Py2 (Me) tacn)](2+) prior to attack by a water molecule to give [Ru(III) (OOH)(Py2 (Me) tacn)](2+) . Finally, it is shown that the difference in WO reactivity between the homologous iron and ruthenium [M(OH2 )(Py2 (Me) tacn)](2+) (M=Ru, Fe) complexes is due to the difference in the redox stability of the key M(V) (O) intermediate. These results contribute to a better understanding of the WO mechanism and the differences between iron and ruthenium complexes in WO reactions.

  17. Spectroscopic, Electrochemical and Computational Characterisation of Ru Species Involved in Catalytic Water Oxidation: Evidence for a [Ru(V) (O)(Py2 (Me) tacn)] Intermediate.

    PubMed

    Casadevall, Carla; Codolà, Zoel; Costas, Miquel; Lloret-Fillol, Julio

    2016-07-11

    A new family of ruthenium complexes based on the N-pentadentate ligand Py2 (Me) tacn (N-methyl-N',N''-bis(2-picolyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane) has been synthesised and its catalytic activity has been studied in the water-oxidation (WO) reaction. We have used chemical oxidants (ceric ammonium nitrate and NaIO4 ) to generate the WO intermediates [Ru(II) (OH2 )(Py2 (Me) tacn)](2+) , [Ru(III) (OH2 )(Py2 (Me) tacn)](3+) , [Ru(III) (OH)(Py2 (Me) tacn)](2+) and [Ru(IV) (O)(Py2 (Me) tacn)](2+) , which have been characterised spectroscopically. Their relative redox and pH stability in water has been studied by using UV/Vis and NMR spectroscopies, HRMS and spectroelectrochemistry. [Ru(IV) (O)(Py2 (Me) tacn)](2+) has a long half-life (>48 h) in water. The catalytic cycle of WO has been elucidated by using kinetic, spectroscopic, (18) O-labelling and theoretical studies, and the conclusion is that the rate-determining step is a single-site water nucleophilic attack on a metal-oxo species. Moreover, [Ru(IV) (O)(Py2 (Me) tacn)](2+) is proposed to be the resting state under catalytic conditions. By monitoring Ce(IV) consumption, we found that the O2 evolution rate is redox-controlled and independent of the initial concentration of Ce(IV) . Based on these facts, we propose herein that [Ru(IV) (O)(Py2 (Me) tacn)](2+) is oxidised to [Ru(V) (O)(Py2 (Me) tacn)](2+) prior to attack by a water molecule to give [Ru(III) (OOH)(Py2 (Me) tacn)](2+) . Finally, it is shown that the difference in WO reactivity between the homologous iron and ruthenium [M(OH2 )(Py2 (Me) tacn)](2+) (M=Ru, Fe) complexes is due to the difference in the redox stability of the key M(V) (O) intermediate. These results contribute to a better understanding of the WO mechanism and the differences between iron and ruthenium complexes in WO reactions. PMID:27324949

  18. Binding of the Extracellular Eight-Cysteine Motif of Opy2 to the Putative Osmosensor Msb2 Is Essential for Activation of the Yeast High-Osmolarity Glycerol Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Katsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    To adapt to environmental high osmolarity, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae activates the Hog1 mitogen-activated protein kinase, which regulates diverse osmoadaptive responses. Hog1 is activated through the high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway, which consists of independent upstream signaling routes termed the SLN1 branch and the SHO1 branch. Here, we report that the extracellular cysteine-rich (CR) domain of the transmembrane-anchor protein Opy2 binds to the Hkr1-Msb2 homology (HMH) domain of the putative osmosensor Msb2 and that formation of the Opy2-Msb2 complex is essential for osmotic activation of Hog1 through the MSB2 subbranch of the SHO1 branch. By analyzing the phenotypes of mutants with Opy2 cysteine-to-alanine mutations, we deduced that the CR domain forms four intramolecular disulfide bonds. To probe for the potential induction of conformational changes in the Opy2-Msb2 complex by osmostress, we constructed mutants with a site-specific Cys-to-Ala mutation of the Opy2 CR domain and mutants with a Cys substitution of the Msb2 HMH domain. Each of these mutants had a reduced cysteine. These mutants were then combinatorially cross-linked using chemical cross-linkers of different lengths. Cross-linking between Opy2 Cys48 and Msb2 Cys1023 was sensitive to osmotic changes, suggesting that osmostress induced a conformational change. We therefore propose that the Opy2-Msb2 complex might serve as an osmosensor. PMID:26598606

  19. AraC/XylS family stress response regulators Rob, SoxS, PliA, and OpiA in the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora.

    PubMed

    Pletzer, Daniel; Schweizer, Gabriel; Weingart, Helge

    2014-09-01

    Transcriptional regulators of the AraC/XylS family have been associated with multidrug resistance, organic solvent tolerance, oxidative stress, and virulence in clinically relevant enterobacteria. In the present study, we identified four homologous AraC/XylS regulators, Rob, SoxS, PliA, and OpiA, from the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora Ea1189. Previous studies have shown that the regulators MarA, Rob, and SoxS from Escherichia coli mediate multiple-antibiotic resistance, primarily by upregulating the AcrAB-TolC efflux system. However, none of the four AraC/XylS regulators from E. amylovora was able to induce a multidrug resistance phenotype in the plant pathogen. Overexpression of rob led to a 2-fold increased expression of the acrA gene. However, the rob-overexpressing strain showed increased resistance to only a limited number of antibiotics. Furthermore, Rob was able to induce tolerance to organic solvents in E. amylovora by mechanisms other than efflux. We demonstrated that SoxS from E. amylovora is involved in superoxide resistance. A soxS-deficient mutant of Ea1189 was not able to grow on agar plates supplemented with the superoxide-generating agent paraquat. Furthermore, expression of soxS was induced by redox cycling agents. We identified two novel members of the AraC/XylS family in E. amylovora. PliA was highly upregulated during the early infection phase in apple rootstock and immature pear fruits. Multiple compounds were able to induce the expression of pliA, including apple leaf extracts, phenolic compounds, redox cycling agents, heavy metals, and decanoate. OpiA was shown to play a role in the regulation of osmotic and alkaline pH stress responses.

  20. Perimortem weapon trauma in an adult male skeleton from the Italic necropolis of Opi Val Fondillo (VI-V century BC; Central Italy).

    PubMed

    D'Anastasio, Ruggero

    2008-12-01

    The author describes weapon traumatic lesions in an adult male skeleton, that was excavated in the Italic necropolis of Opi Val Fondillo, Central Italy. The preservation of the skeleton is very good. The skull shows a linear lesion across the diploE of the right parietal and occipital bones; the edge of the traumatic lesion is smooth and perpendicular to the bone surface. The injury was probably inflicted with a sharp-edged weapon and the violence of the stroke caused the detachment of bone fragments and fractures that radiate from the point of impact. A sharp-edged linear traumatic lesion, probably inflicted with a blade, is visible on the ventral surface of the vertebral bodies of atlas and axis; the blade detached the right transverse process of the atlas and penetrated in the vertebral body of the axis. Another sharp-edged linear traumatic injury is observed on the anterior surface of the body of thoracic vertebrae. There are no traumatic lesions of the ribs and the last injury was probably inflected down with a blade, while the body lying on the ground. The posterior surface of the diaphysis of the right femur shows an incomplete perimortem fracture, probably due to a compression down upon. Probably the adult male was killed during a fight and enemy had done with him, while he was lying on the ground holding fast his legs strongly. A comparison is made between the lesions and the modality of combat as well as the type of the weapons used by the Samnitic warriors.

  1. A Comparison of Pre-Service towards Testing: The Spanish Baccalaureate General Test and the American OPI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia Laborda, Jesus; Bejarano, Luis G.; Otero de Juan, Nuria; Litzler, Mary Frances; Megias Rosa, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Problem Statement: One of the most frequently neglected aspects of testing is teachers' attitudes. Overall, in-service teachers may have a preconception of what testing means and what its implications are both in high and low stakes testing. However, very few studies have addressed the realities or opinions of pre-service teachers. Methods:…

  2. The Influence of Assessor Training on Rater-as-Interlocutor Behaviour during a Computer-Resourced Oral Proficiency Interview-Cum-Discussion (OPI/D) Known as the "Five Star Test." Paper II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, John D. E.

    This paper considers the influence of the values and the discourse behaviors of the native-speaking assessor as interlocutor. These variables in the assessments of oral proficiency interrelate in complex ways with features of test design such as tasks, prompts, topics, guidelines, and assessor training. This paper reviews some previous studies,…

  3. Development Status of the Advanced Life Support On-Line Project Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levri, Julie A.; Hogan, John A.; Cavazzoni, Jim; Brodbeck, Christina; Morrow, Rich; Ho, Michael; Kaehms, Bob; Whitaker, Dawn R.

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Life Support Program has recently accelerated an effort to develop an On-line Project Information System (OPIS) for research project and technology development data centralization and sharing. The core functionality of OPIS will launch in October of 2005. This paper presents the current OPIS development status. OPIS core functionality involves a Web-based annual solicitation of project and technology data directly from ALS Principal Investigators (PIS) through customized data collection forms. Data provided by PIs will be reviewed by a Technical Task Monitor (TTM) before posting the information to OPIS for ALS Community viewing via the Web. The data will be stored in an object-oriented relational database (created in MySQL(R)) located on a secure server at NASA ARC. Upon launch, OPIS can be utilized by Managers to identify research and technology development gaps and to assess task performance. Analysts can employ OPIS to obtain.

  4. Objective patellar instability: MR-based quantitative assessment of potentially associated anatomical features.

    PubMed

    Escala, Joan S; Mellado, José M; Olona, Montserrat; Giné, Josep; Saurí, Amadeu; Neyret, Phillipe

    2006-03-01

    To evaluate and compare the diagnostic utility of multiple quantitative parameters as measured on knee magnetic resonance (MR) examinations of patients suffering objective patellar instability (OPI). We performed a retrospective evaluation of knee MR examinations in a group of 46 patients (59 knees) with clinically proven OPI, and in a control group of 69 patients (71 knees). Multiple quantitative parameters in both groups were statistically evaluated and compared for their association with OPI. OPI patients tend to present shallower trochlear groove (<5 mm), larger Insall-Salvati index (>1.2), shorter patellar nose (<9 mm), smaller morphology ratio (<1.2), and larger patellar tilt (>11 degrees ) than control patients. The best sensitivities were those of the lateral patellar tilt (92.7%), the trochlear groove depth at the roman arch level (85.7%) and the Insall-Salvati index (78%). The best specificities were those of the morphology ratio (86.9%), the patellar nose (84.5%) and the patellar tendon length (84.5%). Shallow trochlear groove may be confidently identified at the roman arch view in OPI patients. Patella alta may be more reliably detected by the Insall-Salvati index in OPI patients. Patellar nose and morphology ratio are very specific indicators of OPI. A short patellar nose (that is to say, a patellar nose ratio of <0.25) has a high association with OPI. Lateral patellar tilt remains the single feature with the highest sensitivity and specificity for identifying OPI patients.

  5. Stepwise modification of titanium alkoxy chloride compounds by pyridine carbinol.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Timothy J; Ottley, Leigh Anna M; Rodriguez, Mark A; Sewell, Robin M; Alam, Todd M; McIntyre, Sarah K

    2008-11-17

    The stepwise modifications of stoichiometric mixtures of titanium chloride (TiCl 4) and titanium iso-propoxide (Ti(OPr (i)) 4) by 2-pyridine methanol (H-OPy) led to the isolation of a systematically varied, novel family of compounds. The 3:1 reaction mixture of Ti(OPr (i)) 4:TiCl 4 yielded [Cl(OPr (i)) 2Ti(mu-OPr (i))] 2 ( 1). Modification of 1 with 1 and 2 equiv of H-OPy produced [Cl(OPr (i)) 2Ti(mu c-OPy)] 2 ( 2, where mu c = chelating bridge) and "(OPy) 2TiCl(OPr (i))" ( 3, not crystallographically characterized), respectively. Altering the Ti(OPr (i)) 4 to TiCl 4 stoichiometry to 1:1 led to isolation and identification of another dimeric species [Cl 2(OPr (i))Ti(mu-OPr (i))] 2 ( 4). Upon modification with 1 equiv of H-OPy, [Cl 2(OPr (i))Ti(mu c-OPy)] 2 ( 5) was isolated from toluene and (OPy)TiCl 2(OPr (i))(py) ( 6) from py. An additional equivalent of H-OPy led to the monomeric species (OPy) 2TiCl 2 ( 7). Because of the low solubility and similarity in constructs of these compounds, additional analytical data, such as the beryllium dome or BeD-XRD powder analyses, were used to verify the bulk samples, which were found to be in agreement with the single crystal structures.

  6. A Comparative Analysis of Simulated and Direct Oral Proficiency Interviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles W.

    The simulated oral proficiency interview (SOPI) is a semi-direct speaking test that models the format of the oral proficiency interview (OPI). The OPI is a method of assessing general speaking proficiency in a second language. The SOPI is a tape-recorded test consisting of six parts: simple personal background questions posed in a simulated…

  7. Research on the Oral Proficiency Interview: Analysis, Synthesis, and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Margaret E.

    2003-01-01

    Since their initial publication in 1982, the ACTFL Guidelines and oral proficiency interview (OPI) have enjoyed widespread use by foreign language educators. They have also been the target of much criticism by researchers of second language acquisition and testing. Much of this criticism has focused on validity claims for the OPI. Other research…

  8. Multispectral high-resolution hologram generation using orthographic projection images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muniraj, I.; Guo, C.; Sheridan, J. T.

    2016-08-01

    We present a new method of synthesizing a digital hologram of three-dimensional (3D) real-world objects from multiple orthographic projection images (OPI). A high-resolution multiple perspectives of 3D objects (i.e., two dimensional elemental image array) are captured under incoherent white light using synthetic aperture integral imaging (SAII) technique and their OPIs are obtained respectively. The reference beam is then multiplied with the corresponding OPI and integrated to form a Fourier hologram. Eventually, a modified phase retrieval algorithm (GS/HIO) is applied to reconstruct the hologram. The principle is validated experimentally and the results support the feasibility of the proposed method.

  9. Synthesis, Crystal Analyses, Physical Properties, and Electroluminescent Behavior of Unsymmetrical Heterotwistacenes.

    PubMed

    Lv, Bo; Xiao, Jinchong; Zhou, Jian; Zhang, Xi; Duan, Jingdan; Su, Wenming; Zhao, Jianwen

    2016-07-27

    Four novel unsymmetrical heteroacenes containing five-membered heterocycles (OPyN, TPyN, TPyC, TPyO) have been synthesized and characterized. The formed molecules exhibited twisted structures, determined by crystal analysis and showed blue/green fluorescence in dichloromethane and in thin film. Compounds OPyN and TPyN were selectively used as active ingredients, and the fabricated devices displayed promising electroluminescent performance. PMID:27383556

  10. The time-dependent accumulation of protoporphyrin IX fluorescence in nodular basal cell carcinoma following application of methyl aminolevulinate with an oxygen pressure injection device.

    PubMed

    Blake, E; Campbell, S; Allen, J; Mathew, J; Helliwell, P; Curnow, A

    2012-12-01

    Topical protoporphyrin (PpIX)-induced photodynamic therapy (PDT) relies on the penetration of the prodrug into the skin lesion and subsequent accumulation of the photosensitizer. Methyl aminolevulinate (MAL)-PDT is an established treatment for thinner and superficial non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) but for the treatment of the thicker nodular basal cell carcinoma (nBCC) enhanced penetration of the prodrug is required. This study employed a new higher pressure, oxygen pressure injection (OPI) device, at the time of Metvix® application with a view to enhancing the penetration of MAL into the tumors. Each patient had Metvix® applied to a single nBCC followed by application of a higher pressure OPI device. Following different time intervals (0, 30, 60, 120 or 180 min) the tumors were excised. The maximum depth and area of MAL penetration achieved in each lesion was measured using PpIX fluorescence microscopy. As expected, an increase in the depth of MAL-induced PpIX accumulation and area of tumor sensitized was observed over time; when the Metvix® cream was applied for 0, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min the median depth of PpIX fluorescence was 0%, 21%, 26.5%, 75.5% and 90%, respectively and the median area of tumor sensitized was 0%, 4%, 6%, 19% and 60%, respectively. As the investigation presented here did not include a control arm, the relative depths of fluorescence observed in this study were statistically compared (using the non-parametric Mann Whitney U test) with the results of our previous study where patients had Metvix® cream applied either with or without the standard pressure OPI device. When the higher pressure OPI device was employed compared to without OPI this increase was observed to be greater following 30, 120, and 180 min although overall not significantly (p=0.835). In addition, no significant difference between the higher pressure OPI device employed here and the previously investigated standard pressure OPI device was observed (p=0.403). However

  11. [Attitudes and beliefs regarding opioid maintenance treatment in Portugal: a survey to physicians, patients and opioid users].

    PubMed

    Goulão, João

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: Existem poucos estudos pan-europeus sobre programas terapêuticos com agonistas opiáceos, tanto da perspectiva dos prescritores, como dos doentes que os recebem e dos utilizadores de opióides que se mantêm fora do sistema de tratamento. O projecto ACCESS, um estudo europeu realizado em 11 países, explorou as atitudes e percepções dos médicos, doentes e utilizadores de opióides quanto à qualidade e ao acesso aos programas terapêuticos com agonistas opiáceos. O presente artigo descreve os principais resultados para Portugal.Material e Métodos: Os médicos que tratam doentes dependentes de opióides com recurso a programas terapêuticos com agonistas opiáceos foram inquiridos por entrevista directa; os doentes em programas terapêuticos com agonistas opiáceos, os doentes que não se encontravam em programas terapêuticos com agonistas opiáceos (em tratamento não farmacológico), e os utilizadores activos (pessoas dependentes de opióides que não se encontram actualmente em tratamento) receberam questionários de auto-preenchimento.Resultados: Verificou-se que, tanto os médicos como os doentes avaliam como ‘Bom’ o tratamento dos dependentes de opióides, em Portugal. O acesso ao tratamento foi considerado ‘Fácil’ pela maioria dos doentes e dos médicos, registando-se um elevado nível de satisfação entre os doentes. Contudo, o conhecimento dos doentes quanto às opções dos programas terapêuticos com agonistas opiáceos em Portugal encontra-se ainda abaixo do nível óptimo e as doses dos fármacos dos programas terapêuticos com agonistas opiáceos são frequentemente baixas.Discussão: Os resultados do projecto ACCESS, no que diz respeito a PTAO, são encorajadores e evidenciam quer as áreas de sucesso, quer as áreas que podem ser melhoradas no futuro, no que diz respeito ao sistema de tratamento de dependências de opióides em Portugal.Conclusões: O projecto ACCESS faz uma avaliação importante das atitudes e percep

  12. Comparison of DC and AC Transport in 1.5-7.5 nm Oligophenylene Imine Molecular Wires across Two Junction Platforms: Eutectic Ga-In versus Conducting Probe Atomic Force Microscope Junctions.

    PubMed

    Sangeeth, C S Suchand; Demissie, Abel T; Yuan, Li; Wang, Tao; Frisbie, C Daniel; Nijhuis, Christian A

    2016-06-15

    We have utilized DC and AC transport measurements to measure the resistance and capacitance of thin films of conjugated oligophenyleneimine (OPI) molecules ranging from 1.5 to 7.5 nm in length. These films were synthesized on Au surfaces utilizing the imine condensation chemistry between terephthalaldehyde and 1,4-benzenediamine. Near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy yielded molecular tilt angles of 33-43°. To probe DC and AC transport, we employed Au-S-OPI//GaOx/EGaIn junctions having contact areas of 9.6 × 10(2) μm(2) (10(9) nm(2)) and compared to previously reported DC results on the same OPI system obtained using Au-S-OPI//Au conducting probe atomic force microscopy (CP-AFM) junctions with 50 nm(2) areas. We found that intensive observables agreed very well across the two junction platforms. Specifically, the EGaIn-based junctions showed: (i) a crossover from tunneling to hopping transport at molecular lengths near 4 nm; (ii) activated transport for wires >4 nm in length with an activation energy of 0.245 ± 0.008 eV for OPI-7; (iii) exponential dependence of conductance with molecular length with a decay constant β = 2.84 ± 0.18 nm(-1) (DC) and 2.92 ± 0.13 nm(-1) (AC) in the tunneling regime, and an apparent β = 1.01 ± 0.08 nm(-1) (DC) and 0.99 ± 0.11 nm(-1) (AC) in the hopping regime; (iv) previously unreported dielectric constant of 4.3 ± 0.2 along the OPI wires. However, the absolute resistances of Au-S-OPI//GaOx/EGaIn junctions were approximately 100 times higher than the corresponding CP-AFM junctions due to differences in metal-molecule contact resistances between the two platforms.

  13. Architecture and Functionality of the Advanced Life Support On-Line Project Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogan, John A.; Levri, Julie A.; Morrow, Rich; Cavazzoni, Jim; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Riano, Rebecca; Whitaker, Dawn R.

    2004-01-01

    An ongoing effort is underway at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) to develop an On-line Project Information System (OPIS) for the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. The objective of this three-year project is to develop, test, revise and deploy OPIS to enhance the quality of decision-making metrics and attainment of Program goals through improved knowledge sharing. OPIS will centrally locate detailed project information solicited from investigators on an annual basis and make it readily accessible by the ALS Community via a Web-accessible interface. The data will be stored in an object-oriented relational database (created in MySQL) located on a secure server at NASA ARC. OPE will simultaneously serve several functions, including being an research and technology development (R&TD) status information hub that can potentially serve as the primary annual reporting mechanism for ALS-funded projects. Using OPIS, ALS managers and element leads will be able to carry out informed R&TD investment decisions, and allow analysts to perform accurate systems evaluations. Additionally, the range and specificity of information solicited will serve to educate technology developers of programmatic needs. OPIS will collect comprehensive information from all ALS projects as well as highly detailed information specific to technology development in each ALS area (Waste, Water, Air, Biomass, Food, Thermal, Controls and Systems Analysis). Because the scope of needed information can vary dramatically between areas, element-specific technology information is being compiled with the aid of multiple specialized working groups. This paper presents the current development status in terms of the architecture and functionality of OPIS. Possible implementation approaches for OPIS are also discussed.

  14. Bringing Control System User Interfaces to the Web

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xihui; Kasemir, Kay

    2013-01-01

    With the evolution of web based technologies, especially HTML5 [1], it becomes possible to create web-based control system user interfaces (UI) that are cross-browser and cross-device compatible. This article describes two technologies that facilitate this goal. The first one is the WebOPI [2], which can seamlessly display CSS BOY [3] Operator Interfaces (OPI) in web browsers without modification to the original OPI file. The WebOPI leverages the powerful graphical editing capabilities of BOY and provides the convenience of re-using existing OPI files. On the other hand, it uses generic JavaScript and a generic communication mechanism between the web browser and web server. It is not optimized for a control system, which results in unnecessary network traffic and resource usage. Our second technology is the WebSocket-based Process Data Access (WebPDA) [4]. It is a protocol that provides efficient control system data communication using WebSocket [5], so that users can create web-based control system UIs using standard web page technologies such as HTML, CSS and JavaScript. WebPDA is control system independent, potentially supporting any type of control system.

  15. Insertion Success of the Laryngeal Tube in Emergency Airway Management

    PubMed Central

    Gries, André; Ramshorn-Zimmer, Alexandra; Wenzel, Volker

    2016-01-01

    Background. Emergency airway management (AM) is a priority when resuscitating critically ill or severely injured patients. The goal of this study was to determine the success rates of LT insertion during AM. Methods. Studies that included LT first-pass insertion (FPI) and overall-pass insertion (OPI) success by emergency medical services and in-hospital providers performing AM for emergency situations as well as for scheduled surgery published until July 2014 were searched systematically in Medline. Results. Data of 36 studies (n = 1,897) reported a LT FPI success by physicians of 82.5% with an OPI success of 93.6% (p < 0.001). A cumulative analysis of all 53 studies (n = 3,600) led to FPI and OPI success of 80.1% and 92.6% (p < 0.001), respectively. The results of 26 studies (n = 2,159) comparing the LT with the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) demonstrated a FPI success of 77.0 versus 78.7% (p = 0.36) and an OPI success of 92.2 versus 97.7% (p < 0.001). Conclusion. LT insertion failed in the first attempt in one out of five patients, with an overall failure rate in one out of 14 patients. When compared with the LT, the LMA had a cumulative 5.5% better OPI success rate. PMID:27642595

  16. Electrochemical formation and characterization of copolymers based on N-pyrrole derivatives.

    PubMed

    Okner, Regina; Domb, Abraham J; Mandler, Daniel

    2007-09-01

    Organic coatings based on N-(2-carboxyethyl)pyrrole (PPA) and a butyl ester of PPA (BuOPy) were deposited via electrochemical oxidation. The homo- and copolymers were electropolymerized on glassy carbon and stainless steel in acetonitrile using tetrabutylammonium tetrafluoraborate (Bu4NF4B) as the electrolyte. The mechanism of deposition on stainless steel was studied by chronoamperometry and by the tapping and phase angle imaging modes of atomic force microscopy. The electrochemical properties and growth of the films were investigated by cyclic voltammetry. The composition of the copolymers was determined by reflection-absorption Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. We found that while the hydrophilic monomer PPA undergoes progressive nucleation followed by instantaneous growth the hydrophobic BuOPy nucleates instantaneously. The rate of BuOPy electropolymerization was higher than that of PPA, and the resulting film was thicker yet fluffier. Copolymer films were enriched by BuOPy as compared with the electropolymerization solution, which is attributed to the faster rate of electropolymerization of BuOPy than PPA.

  17. Insertion Success of the Laryngeal Tube in Emergency Airway Management.

    PubMed

    Bernhard, Michael; Gries, André; Ramshorn-Zimmer, Alexandra; Wenzel, Volker; Hossfeld, Bjoern

    2016-01-01

    Background. Emergency airway management (AM) is a priority when resuscitating critically ill or severely injured patients. The goal of this study was to determine the success rates of LT insertion during AM. Methods. Studies that included LT first-pass insertion (FPI) and overall-pass insertion (OPI) success by emergency medical services and in-hospital providers performing AM for emergency situations as well as for scheduled surgery published until July 2014 were searched systematically in Medline. Results. Data of 36 studies (n = 1,897) reported a LT FPI success by physicians of 82.5% with an OPI success of 93.6% (p < 0.001). A cumulative analysis of all 53 studies (n = 3,600) led to FPI and OPI success of 80.1% and 92.6% (p < 0.001), respectively. The results of 26 studies (n = 2,159) comparing the LT with the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) demonstrated a FPI success of 77.0 versus 78.7% (p = 0.36) and an OPI success of 92.2 versus 97.7% (p < 0.001). Conclusion. LT insertion failed in the first attempt in one out of five patients, with an overall failure rate in one out of 14 patients. When compared with the LT, the LMA had a cumulative 5.5% better OPI success rate. PMID:27642595

  18. Insertion Success of the Laryngeal Tube in Emergency Airway Management

    PubMed Central

    Gries, André; Ramshorn-Zimmer, Alexandra; Wenzel, Volker

    2016-01-01

    Background. Emergency airway management (AM) is a priority when resuscitating critically ill or severely injured patients. The goal of this study was to determine the success rates of LT insertion during AM. Methods. Studies that included LT first-pass insertion (FPI) and overall-pass insertion (OPI) success by emergency medical services and in-hospital providers performing AM for emergency situations as well as for scheduled surgery published until July 2014 were searched systematically in Medline. Results. Data of 36 studies (n = 1,897) reported a LT FPI success by physicians of 82.5% with an OPI success of 93.6% (p < 0.001). A cumulative analysis of all 53 studies (n = 3,600) led to FPI and OPI success of 80.1% and 92.6% (p < 0.001), respectively. The results of 26 studies (n = 2,159) comparing the LT with the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) demonstrated a FPI success of 77.0 versus 78.7% (p = 0.36) and an OPI success of 92.2 versus 97.7% (p < 0.001). Conclusion. LT insertion failed in the first attempt in one out of five patients, with an overall failure rate in one out of 14 patients. When compared with the LT, the LMA had a cumulative 5.5% better OPI success rate.

  19. Decision Support Systems for Research and Management in Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, Luis F.

    2004-01-01

    Decision support systems have been implemented in many applications including strategic planning for battlefield scenarios, corporate decision making for business planning, production planning and control systems, and recommendation generators like those on Amazon.com(Registered TradeMark). Such tools are reviewed for developing a similar tool for NASA's ALS Program. DSS are considered concurrently with the development of the OPIS system, a database designed for chronicling of research and development in ALS. By utilizing the OPIS database, it is anticipated that decision support can be provided to increase the quality of decisions by ALS managers and researchers.

  20. Development Approach of the Advanced Life Support On-line Project Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levri, Julie A.; Hogan, John A.; Morrow, Rich; Ho, Michael C.; Kaehms, Bob; Cavazzoni, Jim; Brodbeck, Christina A.; Whitaker, Dawn R.

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program has recently accelerated an effort to develop an On-line Project Information System (OPIS) for research project and technology development data centralization and sharing. There has been significant advancement in the On-line Project Information System (OPIS) over the past year (Hogan et al, 2004). This paper presents the resultant OPIS development approach. OPIS is being built as an application framework consisting of an uderlying Linux/Apache/MySQL/PHP (LAMP) stack, and supporting class libraries that provides database abstraction and automatic code generation, simplifying the ongoing development and maintenance process. Such a development approach allows for quick adaptation to serve multiple Programs, although initial deployment is for an ALS module. OPIS core functionality will involve a Web-based annual solicitation of project and technology data directly from ALS Principal Investigators (PIs) through customized data collection forms. Data provided by PIs will be reviewed by a Technical Task Monitor (TTM) before posting the information to OPIS for ALS Community viewing via the Web. Such Annual Reports will be permanent, citable references within OPIS. OPlS core functionality will also include Project Home Sites, which will allow PIS to provide updated technology information to the Community in between Annual Report updates. All data will be stored in an object-oriented relational database, created in MySQL(Reistered Trademark) and located on a secure server at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC). Upon launch, OPlS can be utilized by Managers to identify research and technology development (R&TD) gaps and to assess task performance. Analysts can employ OPlS to obtain the current, comprehensive, accurate information about advanced technologies that is required to perform trade studies of various life support system options. ALS researchers and technology developers can use OPlS to achieve an improved understanding of the NASA

  1. Charge Transport in 4 nm Molecular Wires with Interrupted Conjugation: Combined Experimental and Computational Evidence for Thermally Assisted Polaron Tunneling.

    PubMed

    Taherinia, Davood; Smith, Christopher E; Ghosh, Soumen; Odoh, Samuel O; Balhorn, Luke; Gagliardi, Laura; Cramer, Christopher J; Frisbie, C Daniel

    2016-04-26

    We report the synthesis, transport measurements, and electronic structure of conjugation-broken oligophenyleneimine (CB-OPI 6) molecular wires with lengths of ∼4 nm. The wires were grown from Au surfaces using stepwise aryl imine condensation reactions between 1,4-diaminobenzene and terephthalaldehyde (1,4-benzenedicarbaldehyde). Saturated spacers (conjugation breakers) were introduced into the molecular backbone by replacing the aromatic diamine with trans-1,4-diaminocyclohexane at specific steps during the growth processes. FT-IR and ellipsometry were used to follow the imination reactions on Au surfaces. Surface coverages (∼4 molecules/nm(2)) and electronic structures of the wires were determined by cyclic voltammetry and UV-vis spectroscopy, respectively. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the wires were acquired using conducting probe atomic force microscopy (CP-AFM) in which an Au-coated AFM probe was brought into contact with the wires to form metal-molecule-metal junctions with contact areas of ∼50 nm(2). The low bias resistance increased with the number of saturated spacers, but was not sensitive to the position of the spacer within the wire. Temperature dependent measurements of resistance were consistent with a localized charge (polaron) hopping mechanism in all of the wires. Activation energies were in the range of 0.18-0.26 eV (4.2-6.0 kcal/mol) with the highest belonging to the fully conjugated OPI 6 wire and the lowest to the CB3,5-OPI 6 wire (the wire with two saturated spacers). For the two other wires with a single conjugation breaker, CB3-OPI 6 and CB5-OPI 6, activation energies of 0.20 eV (4.6 kcal/mol) and 0.21 eV (4.8 kcal/mol) were found, respectively. Computational studies using density functional theory confirmed the polaronic nature of charge carriers but predicted that the semiclassical activation energy of hopping should be higher for CB-OPI molecular wires than for the OPI 6 wire. To reconcile the experimental and

  2. Charge Transport in 4 nm Molecular Wires with Interrupted Conjugation: Combined Experimental and Computational Evidence for Thermally Assisted Polaron Tunneling.

    PubMed

    Taherinia, Davood; Smith, Christopher E; Ghosh, Soumen; Odoh, Samuel O; Balhorn, Luke; Gagliardi, Laura; Cramer, Christopher J; Frisbie, C Daniel

    2016-04-26

    We report the synthesis, transport measurements, and electronic structure of conjugation-broken oligophenyleneimine (CB-OPI 6) molecular wires with lengths of ∼4 nm. The wires were grown from Au surfaces using stepwise aryl imine condensation reactions between 1,4-diaminobenzene and terephthalaldehyde (1,4-benzenedicarbaldehyde). Saturated spacers (conjugation breakers) were introduced into the molecular backbone by replacing the aromatic diamine with trans-1,4-diaminocyclohexane at specific steps during the growth processes. FT-IR and ellipsometry were used to follow the imination reactions on Au surfaces. Surface coverages (∼4 molecules/nm(2)) and electronic structures of the wires were determined by cyclic voltammetry and UV-vis spectroscopy, respectively. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the wires were acquired using conducting probe atomic force microscopy (CP-AFM) in which an Au-coated AFM probe was brought into contact with the wires to form metal-molecule-metal junctions with contact areas of ∼50 nm(2). The low bias resistance increased with the number of saturated spacers, but was not sensitive to the position of the spacer within the wire. Temperature dependent measurements of resistance were consistent with a localized charge (polaron) hopping mechanism in all of the wires. Activation energies were in the range of 0.18-0.26 eV (4.2-6.0 kcal/mol) with the highest belonging to the fully conjugated OPI 6 wire and the lowest to the CB3,5-OPI 6 wire (the wire with two saturated spacers). For the two other wires with a single conjugation breaker, CB3-OPI 6 and CB5-OPI 6, activation energies of 0.20 eV (4.6 kcal/mol) and 0.21 eV (4.8 kcal/mol) were found, respectively. Computational studies using density functional theory confirmed the polaronic nature of charge carriers but predicted that the semiclassical activation energy of hopping should be higher for CB-OPI molecular wires than for the OPI 6 wire. To reconcile the experimental and

  3. Indian Education for All: Essential Understandings Regarding Montana Indians. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In the year 1999, OPI [Montana Office of Public Instruction] brought together representatives from all the tribes in Montana and created 7 Essential Understandings. These are some of the major issues all tribes have in common. They form the basis for all of our curriculum efforts and initiatives. There is great diversity among the 12 tribal…

  4. Detection of physiological changes after exercise via a remote optophysiological imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yu; Hu, Sijung; Azorin-Peris, Vicente; Zheng, Jia; Greenwald, Stephen; Chambers, Jonathon; Zhu, Yisheng

    2011-03-01

    A study of blood perfusion mapping was performed with a remote opto-physiological imaging (OPI) system coupling a sensitive CMOS camera and a custom-built resonant cavity light emitting diode (RCLED) ringlight. The setup is suitable for the remote assessment of blood perfusion in tissue over a wide range of anatomical locations. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the reliability and stability of the OPI system when measuring a cardiovascular variable of clinical interest, in this case, heart rate. To this end, the non-contact and contact photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals obtained from the OPI system and conventional PPG sensor were recorded simultaneously from each of 12 subjects before and after 5-min of cycling exercise. The time-frequency representation (TFR) method was used to visualize the time-dependent behavior of the signal frequency. The physiological parameters derived from the images captured by the OPI system exhibit comparable functional characteristics to those taken from conventional contact PPG pulse waveform measurements in both the time and frequency domains. Finally and more importantly, a previously developed opto-physiological model was employed to provide a 3-D representation of blood perfusion in human tissue which could provide a new insight into clinical assessment and diagnosis of circulatory pathology in various tissue segments.

  5. Aptitude and Language Learning of FBI Special Agents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Marijke; And Others

    This study investigated the relationship between aptitude, as measured by Defense Language Aptitude Battery (DLAB) scores, and oral proficiency as measured by the Oral Proficiency Interview (OPI) scores of 72 Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Special Agents who completed basic foreign language training at the Defense Language Institute (DLI).…

  6. Another Look at Correlations between the Oral Proficiency Interview and the Zertifikat Deutsch als Fremdsprache.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vazulik, Johannes; Brown, Cheri

    A study supplementing earlier research by Lalande and Schweckendiek investigated comparisons and correlations obtained from testing a group of 17 university students of German using both the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) Oral Proficiency Interview (OPI) and the most recent revision of the examination for the…

  7. Reliability and the ACTFL Oral Proficiency Interview: Reporting Indices of Interrater Consistency and Agreement for 19 Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surface, Eric A.; Dierdorff, Erich C.

    2003-01-01

    The reliability of the ACTFL Oral Proficiency Interview (OPI) has not been reported since ACTFL revised its speaking proficiency guidelines in 1999. Reliability data for assessments should be reported periodically to provide users with enough information to evaluate the psychometric characteristics of the assessment. This study provided the most…

  8. One-photon interferometer for realizing optimal unambiguous discrimination among quantum subsets

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Xiaohua; Yu Shaolan; Zhou Tao

    2009-05-15

    With the quantum state filtering as a known example, it has been shown that the unambiguous discrimination between subsets of nonorthogonal quantum states is possible with a certain possibility of success. In present work, besides reconsidering the known case of quantum state filtering, we also ask what happens if parts of the states are shared by both the subsets or if there are more than two subsets. The procedure, which is designed to find the optimal way for quantum set discrimination, contains two steps. For each case, we at first construct a one-photon interferometer (OPI) to realize the unambiguous discrimination in an enlarged Hilbert space according to the Neumark's theorem. The awards from the OPI are double: an optical experiment and the operators in terms of positive operator-valued measures. Then, with the operators from its corresponding OPI and the given a priori probability for each state, we are able to find out the optimal operators which can discriminate the subsets in an optimal way. It is shown that the OPIs, which have been discussed in present work, can be constructed by taking the quantum state filtering as their elementary process. This fact indicates that the problem of quantum set discrimination can be reduced to the known problem of quantum state filtering.

  9. The Development and Validation of a Korean C-Test Using Rasch Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee-Ellis, Sunyoung

    2009-01-01

    Despite the importance of having a reliable and valid measure of Second Language (L2) proficiency, L2 researchers of less commonly taught languages rarely have such a tool. Existing proficiency measures (e.g., DLPT, OPI) are often costly, labor-intensive, time-consuming, or unavailable to the public. With the intent to provide a practical and…

  10. Pathfinder Teaching and Learning Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Sea Grant Program.

    This collection of teaching units were selected from materials developed during the Operation Pathfinder Institutes (OPI) which took place in the Pacific region between 1994 and 1999. The institutes were intended to provide upper elementary and middle school science teachers with an opportunity to develop a deeper understanding of the marine…

  11. Tombusviruses upregulate phospholipid biosynthesis via interaction between p33 replication protein and yeast lipid sensor proteins during virus replication in yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Barajas, Daniel; Xu, Kai; Sharma, Monika; Wu, Cheng-Yu; Nagy, Peter D.

    2014-12-15

    Positive-stranded RNA viruses induce new membranous structures and promote membrane proliferation in infected cells to facilitate viral replication. In this paper, the authors show that a plant-infecting tombusvirus upregulates transcription of phospholipid biosynthesis genes, such as INO1, OPI3 and CHO1, and increases phospholipid levels in yeast model host. This is accomplished by the viral p33 replication protein, which interacts with Opi1p FFAT domain protein and Scs2p VAP protein. Opi1p and Scs2p are phospholipid sensor proteins and they repress the expression of phospholipid genes. Accordingly, deletion of OPI1 transcription repressor in yeast has a stimulatory effect on TBSV RNA accumulation and enhanced tombusvirus replicase activity in an in vitro assay. Altogether, the presented data convincingly demonstrate that de novo lipid biosynthesis is required for optimal TBSV replication. Overall, this work reveals that a (+)RNA virus reprograms the phospholipid biosynthesis pathway in a unique way to facilitate its replication in yeast cells. - Highlights: • Tombusvirus p33 replication protein interacts with FFAT-domain host protein. • Tombusvirus replication leads to upregulation of phospholipids. • Tombusvirus replication depends on de novo lipid synthesis. • Deletion of FFAT-domain host protein enhances TBSV replication. • TBSV rewires host phospholipid synthesis.

  12. 7 CFR Exhibit A to Subpart G of... - Departmental Regulation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (2) Actions that reduce the risk of flood loss and soil erosion; that minimize impacts of floods on... Policy. Date: March 22, 1983. OPI: Land Use Staff, Soil Conservation Service. Section 1. Purpose 2... authority contained in 7 U.S.C. 1010 and 7 U.S.C. 2204 and consistent with 7 CFR 2.19(f) and provisions...

  13. 7 CFR Exhibit A to Subpart G of... - Departmental Regulation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (2) Actions that reduce the risk of flood loss and soil erosion; that minimize impacts of floods on... Policy. Date: March 22, 1983. OPI: Land Use Staff, Soil Conservation Service. Section 1. Purpose 2... authority contained in 7 U.S.C. 1010 and 7 U.S.C. 2204 and consistent with 7 CFR 2.19(f) and provisions...

  14. 7 CFR Exhibit A to Subpart G of... - Departmental Regulation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (2) Actions that reduce the risk of flood loss and soil erosion; that minimize impacts of floods on... Policy. Date: March 22, 1983. OPI: Land Use Staff, Soil Conservation Service. Section 1. Purpose 2... authority contained in 7 U.S.C. 1010 and 7 U.S.C. 2204 and consistent with 7 CFR 2.19(f) and provisions...

  15. Special Education Report to the 63rd Legislature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The Special Education Division of the Office of Public Instruction (OPI) provides many services to Montana schools to assist them in providing a quality education to all students. The programs managed through this division are all aligned with Superintendent Juneau's Graduation Matters Montana initiative. The special education division is…

  16. Simulated Oral Proficiency Interviews: An Update. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles W.; Kenyon, Dorry

    The Simulated Oral Proficiency Interview (SOPI) is a semi-direct performance-based speaking test that emulates the face-to-face Oral Proficiency Interview (OPI) as closely as practical, using a tape recording and printed test booklet. The prototypical SOPI contains simple personal background questions typical of an initial encounter (warm-up) and…

  17. A Study of Writing Behavior with Pre/Post Monitoring Using the Omnibus Personality Inventory, Derived from Erik Erickson's Theory of Personality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, John W.

    To determine the role that writing plays in personality and attitude change, a study was devised using the Omnibus Personality Inventory (OPI) and teacher observations. High school students were asked to keep a journal and were given a time during the day to free write. Teachers were asked to identify those students who had developed great…

  18. Talking and Testing: Discourse Approaches to the Assessment of Oral Proficiency. Studies in Bilingualism, Volume 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Richard, Ed.; He, Agnes Weiyun, Ed.

    Papers on second language oral proficiency testing include: "Language Proficiency Interviews: A Discourse Approach" (Agnes Weiyun He, Richard Young); "Re-Analyzing the OPI: How Much Does It Look Like Natural Conversation?" (Marysia Johnson, Andrea Tyler); "Evaluating Learner Interactional Skills: Conversation at the Micro Level" (Heidi…

  19. "Authenticity" in Language Testing: Evaluating Spoken Language Tests for International Teaching Assistants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoekje, Barbara; Linnell, Kimberly

    1994-01-01

    Bachman's framework of language testing and standard of authenticity for language testing instruments were used to evaluate three instruments--the SPEAK (Spoken Proficiency English Assessment Kit) test, OPI (Oral Proficiency Interview), and a performance test--as language tests for nonnative-English-speaking teaching assistants. (Contains 53…

  20. An Interactive Health Communication Application for Supporting Parents Managing Childhood Long-Term Conditions: Outcomes of a Randomized Controlled Feasibility Trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Families living with chronic or long-term conditions such as chronic kidney disease (CKD), stages 3-5, face multiple challenges and respond to these challenges in various ways. Some families adapt well while others struggle, and family response to a condition is closely related to outcome. With families and professionals, we developed a novel condition-specific interactive health communication app to improve parents’ management ability—the online parent information and support (OPIS) program. OPIS consists of a comprehensive mix of clinical caregiving and psychosocial information and support. Objective The purpose of this study was to (1) assess feasibility of a future full-scale randomized controlled trial (RCT) of OPIS in terms of recruitment and retention, data collection procedures, and psychometric performance of the study measures in the target population, and (2) investigate trends in change in outcome measures in a small-scale RCT in parents of children with CKD stages 3-5. Methods Parents were recruited from a pediatric nephrology clinic and randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: usual support for home-based clinical caregiving (control) or usual support plus password-protected access to OPIS for 20 weeks (intervention). Both groups completed study measures at study entry and exit. We assessed feasibility descriptively in terms of recruitment and retention rates overall; assessed recruitment, retention, and uptake of the intervention between groups; and compared family condition management, empowerment to deliver care, and fathers’ involvement between groups. Results We recruited 55 parents of 39 children (42% of eligible families). Of those, about three-quarters of intervention group parents (19/26, 73%) and control group parents (22/29, 76%) were retained through completion of 20-week data collection. The overall retention rate was 41/55 (75%). The 41 parents completing the trial were asked to respond to the same 10

  1. Synthesis and characterization of polymeric azido Zn(II) and Ni(II) complexes based on 3-hydroxypyridine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mautner, Franz A.; Berger, Christian; Domian, Elisabeth; Fischer, Roland C.; Massoud, Salah S.

    2016-10-01

    The synthesis and structural characterization of two new complexes catena-[Ni(3-O-py)(3-HO-py)2(μ1,3-N3)(H2O)] (1) and catena-[Zn(μ-3-O-py)(μ1,1-N3)] (2), where 3-HO-py = 3-hydroxypyridine, are reported. The complexes were characterized by the elemental microanalyses, IR, and X-ray crystallography and by UV-Vis spectroscopy for complex 1. Single crystal X-ray crystallography revealed the polymeric nature of the complexes: 1 as 1D with a single EE azide bridging, and 2 as 2D with μ(O,O‧,N) bridging of the deprotonated 3-O-py anions and di-EO azide groups, respectively. In 1 the neutral and deprotonated 3-hydroxypyridine molecules act only as N-terminal ligands. The emission spectral properties of the Zn(II) complex were investigated.

  2. Designing low-complexity electrical consumer products for ecological use.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Juergen; Wiese, Bettina S; Rüttinger, Bruno

    2003-11-01

    This study examined the environmental impact of low-complexity electrical consumer products during their use in a domestic context. In the experimental scenario, 48 users were asked to use a kettle under different conditions. On-product information (OPI), task instruction, and kettle design were employed as independent variables in a mixed multi-factorial design to examine their effects on different parameters of ecological performance (e.g., water and electricity consumption). Measures of user variables (environmental concern, knowledge, domestic habits, environmental control beliefs) were also taken to examine their relationship with performance parameters. The results revealed main effects of ecological task instruction, OPI and (partly) kettle design on ecological user behaviour. Habits, environmental concern and control beliefs were found to be related to performance parameters whereas knowledge was not. The implications of the results for product design are discussed against the background of a strong prevalence of habits and low ecological user motivation.

  3. De l'importance des orbites periodiques: Detection et applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyon, Bernard

    L'ensemble des Orbites Periodiques Instables (OPIs) d'un systeme chaotique est intimement relie a ses proprietes dynamiques. A partir de l'ensemble (en principe infini) d'OPIs cachees dans l'espace des phases, on peut obtenir des quantites dynamiques importantes telles les exposants de Lyapunov, la mesure invariante, l'entropie topologique et la dimension fractale. En chaos quantique (i.e. l'etude de systemes quantiques qui ont un equivalent chaotique dans la limite classique), ces memes OPIs permettent de faire le pont entre le comportement classique et quantique de systemes non-integrables. La localisation de ces cycles fondamentaux est un probleme complexe. Cette these aborde dans un premier temps le probleme de la detection des OPIs dans les systemes chaotiques. Une etude comparative de deux algorithmes recents est presentee. Nous approfondissons ces deux methodes afin de les utiliser sur differents systemes dont des flots continus dissipatifs et conservatifs. Une analyse du taux de convergence des algorithmes est aussi realisee afin de degager les forces et les limites de ces schemes numeriques. Les methodes de detection que nous utilisons reposent sur une transformation particuliere de la dynamique initiale. Cette astuce nous a inspire une methode alternative pour cibler et stabiliser une orbite periodique quelconque dans un systeme chaotique. Le ciblage est en general combine aux methodes de controle pour stabiliser rapidement un cycle donne. En general, il faut connaitre la position et la stabilite du cycle en question. La nouvelle methode de ciblage que nous presentons ne demande pas de connaitre a priori la position et la stabilite des orbites periodiques. Elle pourrait etre un outil complementaire aux methodes de ciblage et de controle actuelles.

  4. Regulation of gene expression through a transcriptional repressor that senses acyl-chain length in membrane phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Hofbauer, Harald F; Schopf, Florian H; Schleifer, Hannes; Knittelfelder, Oskar L; Pieber, Bartholomäus; Rechberger, Gerald N; Wolinski, Heimo; Gaspar, Maria L; Kappe, C Oliver; Stadlmann, Johannes; Mechtler, Karl; Zenz, Alexandra; Lohner, Karl; Tehlivets, Oksana; Henry, Susan A; Kohlwein, Sepp D

    2014-06-23

    Membrane phospholipids typically contain fatty acids (FAs) of 16 and 18 carbon atoms. This particular chain length is evolutionarily highly conserved and presumably provides maximum stability and dynamic properties to biological membranes in response to nutritional or environmental cues. Here, we show that the relative proportion of C16 versus C18 FAs is regulated by the activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (Acc1), the first and rate-limiting enzyme of FA de novo synthesis. Acc1 activity is attenuated by AMPK/Snf1-dependent phosphorylation, which is required to maintain an appropriate acyl-chain length distribution. Moreover, we find that the transcriptional repressor Opi1 preferentially binds to C16 over C18 phosphatidic acid (PA) species: thus, C16-chain containing PA sequesters Opi1 more effectively to the ER, enabling AMPK/Snf1 control of PA acyl-chain length to determine the degree of derepression of Opi1 target genes. These findings reveal an unexpected regulatory link between the major energy-sensing kinase, membrane lipid composition, and transcription.

  5. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and optical polarization imaging of in-vivo biological tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora-Núñez, A.; Castillejos, Y.; García-Torales, G.; Martínez-Ponce, G.

    2013-11-01

    A number of optical techniques have been reported in the scientific literature as accomplishable methodologies to diagnose diseases in biological tissue, for instance, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and optical polarization imaging (OPI). The skin is the largest organ in the body and consists of three primary layers, namely, the epidermis (the outermost layer exposed to the world), the dermis, and the hypodermis. The epidermis changes from to site to site, mainly because of difference in hydration. A lower water content increase light scattering and reduce the penetration depth of radiation. In this work, two hairless mice have been selected to evaluate their skin features by using DRS and OPI. Four areas of the specimen body were chosen to realize the comparison: back, abdomen, tail, and head. From DRS, it was possible to distinguish the skin nature because of different blood irrigation at dermis. In the other hand, OPI shows pseudo-depolarizing regions in the measured Mueller images related to a spatially varying propagation of the scattered light. This provides information about the cell size in the irradiated skin.

  6. Improvement of photocatalytic activity of silver nanoparticles by radio frequency oxygen plasma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Yingcui; Zhang, Bing; Hong, Liu; Yao, Damao; Xie, Zhiqiang; Jiang, Yang

    2015-07-01

    Photocatalytic activity (PA) of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) induced by radio frequency (RF) oxygen plasma irradiation (OPI) is investigated in this paper. An improvement in PA by 365% and 181% has been achieved when 15 nm AgNPs irradiated by oxygen plasma for 2 s were used to degrade 10-5 M Rhodamine 6 G (R6G) under ultraviolet (UV) and visible lights, respectively. The PA caused by OPI is better than that induced by the localized surface plasma resonance (LSPR) of AgNPs. The mechanism for the improvement was explored by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV-vis absorption spectra. The OPI-induced formation of AgO/AgNP and Ag2O/AgNP-heterogeneous photocatalysts and electrophilic oxygen are considered to be responsible for the PA improvement. This investigation deepens our understanding of oxygen-assisted photocatalysis of AgNPs and provides a practical approach using solar light for broad spectra photocatalysis with high efficiency.

  7. Density functional theory study of oxygen-atom insertion into metal-methyl bonds of iron(II), ruthenium(II), and osmium(II) complexes: study of metal-mediated C-O bond formation.

    PubMed

    Pardue, Daniel B; Mei, Jiajun; Cundari, Thomas R; Gunnoe, T Brent

    2014-03-17

    Metal-mediated C-O bond formation is a key step in hydrocarbon oxygenation catalytic cycles; however, few examples of this reaction have been reported for low-oxidation-state complexes. Oxygen insertion into a metal-carbon bond of Cp*M(CO)(OPy)R (Cp* = η(5)-pentamethylcyclopentadienyl; R = Me, Ph; OPy = pyridine-N-oxide; M = Fe, Ru, Os) was analyzed via density functional theory calculations. Oxygen-atom insertions through a concerted single-step organometallic Baeyer-Villiger pathway and a two-step pathway via a metal-oxo intermediate were studied; calculations predict that the former pathway was lower in energy. The results indicated that functionalization of M-R to M-OR (R = Me, Ph) is plausible using iron(II) complexes. Starting from Cp*Fe(CO)(OPy)Ph, the intermediate Fe-oxo showed oxyl character and, thus, is best considered an Fe(III)O(•-) complex. Oxidation of the π-acid ancillary ligand CO was facile. Substitutions of CO with dimethylamide and NH3 were calculated to lower the activation barrier by ∼1-2 kcal/mol for formation of the Fe(III)O(•-) intermediate, whereas a chloride ligand raised the activation barrier to 26 kcal/mol from 22.9 kcal/mol. PMID:24571202

  8. Development of wide area environment accelerator operation and diagnostics method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchiyama, Akito; Furukawa, Kazuro

    2015-08-01

    Remote operation and diagnostic systems for particle accelerators have been developed for beam operation and maintenance in various situations. Even though fully remote experiments are not necessary, the remote diagnosis and maintenance of the accelerator is required. Considering remote-operation operator interfaces (OPIs), the use of standard protocols such as the hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) is advantageous, because system-dependent protocols are unnecessary between the remote client and the on-site server. Here, we have developed a client system based on WebSocket, which is a new protocol provided by the Internet Engineering Task Force for Web-based systems, as a next-generation Web-based OPI using the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System Channel Access protocol. As a result of this implementation, WebSocket-based client systems have become available for remote operation. Also, as regards practical application, the remote operation of an accelerator via a wide area network (WAN) faces a number of challenges, e.g., the accelerator has both experimental device and radiation generator characteristics. Any error in remote control system operation could result in an immediate breakdown. Therefore, we propose the implementation of an operator intervention system for remote accelerator diagnostics and support that can obviate any differences between the local control room and remote locations. Here, remote-operation Web-based OPIs, which resolve security issues, are developed.

  9. Photoinduced manipulation of the molecular assembly in heteroleptic titanium metal alkoxides for use in optical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Zachary Vernon

    The manipulation of molecular structures is an important enabling technology for future advances in nanotechnology. The ability to control the synthesis of nanostructured materials, such as the bond formation and geometry of a molecule is of great significance to nanoscience as nanosystems are constructed from these smaller units. Influencing the assembly of molecular structures at the early stages of material formation can modify the ensuing molecular aggregate structure with the potential for impact in a broad range of optical, chemical, and biological applications. Heteroleptic titanium metal alkoxides (OPy)2Ti(4MP)2 and (OPy)2Ti(TAP)2, where OPy = OC6H 6N, 4MP = OC6H4(SH)-4, and TAP = OC6H 2(CH2N(CH3)2)3-2,4,6 were investigated as precursors for thin film and solution-based synthesis of oxide materials via the photoactivation of intermolecular reactions (e.g. hydrolysis/condensation) at selected ligand sites about the metal center. Manipulation of the molecular structure of these photosensitive metal alkoxides was achieved through the use of optical irradiation parameters, such as the tuning of the excitation wavelength, total optical fluence, and pulse energy intensity. Irradiating these metal alkoxides with UV-light was seen to cause photodisruption in the ligand groups leading to the formation of Ti-O-Ti linking via hydrolysis and condensation reactions. In spin-coated (OPy)2Ti(TAP)2 films, these photoinduced bridge bond formations resulted in an increase in refractive index and film densification as well as produced an insoluble film when rinsed in pyridine. By making use of these photoinduced film properties, the formation of physical relief structures from spin-coated (OPy)2Ti(TAP) 2 films was demonstrated along with the ability to photopattern sub-micron and nanometer features. In addition, the micro- and nanostructure of thin films were optically manipulated through several deposition methods; a novel dip-coated in-situ photodeposition technique was

  10. Endocytosis of Chikungunya Virus into Mammalian Cells: Role of Clathrin and Early Endosomal Compartments

    PubMed Central

    Gay, Bernard; Chazal, Nathalie; Higgs, Stephen; Devaux, Christian; Briant, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    Background The replicative cycle of chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an alphavirus that recently re-emerged in India and in Indian Ocean area, remains mostly unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the intracellular trafficking pathway(s) hijacked by CHIKV to enter mammalian cells. Methodology/Principal Findings Entry pathways were investigated using a variety of pharmacological inhibitors or overexpression of dominant negative forms of proteins perturbating cellular endocytosis. We found that CHIKV infection of HEK293T mammalian cells is independent of clathrin heavy chain and- dependent of functional Eps15, and requires integrity of Rab5-, but not Rab7-positive endosomal compartment. Cytoskeleton integrity is crucial as cytochalasin D and nocodazole significantly reduced infection of the cells. Finally, both methyl β-cyclodextrin and lysomotropic agents impaired CHIKV infection, supporting that a cholesterol-, pH-dependent step is required to achieve productive infection. Interestingly, differential sensitivity to lysomotropic agents was observed between the prototypal 37997 African strain of CHIKV and the LR-OPY1 virus isolated from the recent outbreak in Reunion Island. Conclusions Together our data indicate that CHIKV entry in its target cells is essentially mediated by clathrin-independent, Eps15-dependent endocytosis. Despite that this property is shared by the prototypal 37997 African strain of CHIKV and the LR-OPY1 virus isolated from the recent outbreak in La Réunion Island, differential sensitivity to lysomotropic agents may support that the LR-OPY1 strain has acquired specific entry mechanisms. PMID:20628602

  11. The effects of different pre-game motivational interventions on athlete free hormonal state and subsequent performance in professional rugby union matches.

    PubMed

    Cook, Christian J; Crewther, Blair T

    2012-07-16

    We examined the effect of different pre-match motivational interventions on athlete free testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) concentrations and subsequent match performance in professional rugby union. Male participants (n=12) playing at a senior or academy level in rugby union were recruited and each completed three interventions (15 min each) before a competitive game; 1) watching a video clip of successful skill execution by the player with positive coach feedback [VPCF1]; 2) watching a video clip of successful skill execution by an opposing player with cautionary coach feedback [VCCF], 3) the player left alone to self-motivate [SM1]. The first and last interventions were retested [VPCF2 and SM2]. Salivary free T and C measures were taken pre-intervention and pre-game. Within each game, players were rated by coaching staff on a key performance indicator (KPI) from identified skills and an overall performance indicator (OPI), where 1 = best performance to 5 = worst performance. The VPCF1 and VPCF2 interventions both promoted significant T responses (11.8% to 12.5%) before each game and more so than SM1, SM2 and VCCF. The VCCF approach produced the largest C response (17.6%) and this differed from all other treatments. The VPCF interventions were also associated with better game KPI (1.5 to 1.8) and OPI ratings (1.7 to 1.8) than SM1, SM2 and/or VCCF. Across all treatments, greater individual T responses and lower C responses were associated with better KPI and OPI outcomes. In conclusion, the pre-game presentation of motivational strategies to athletes involving specific video footage and coach feedback produced different outcomes on two indicators of match performance, which were also associated with changes in free hormonal state.

  12. Disorder effects in cuprates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vobornik, I.; Grioni, M.; Berger, Helmuth; Forro, Laszlo; Pavuna, Davor; Margaritondo, Giorgio; Karkin, A.; Kelley, Ronald J.; Onellion, Marshall

    2000-09-01

    We report on ab-plane resistivity ((rho) ) and angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES) spectra for Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x single crystals irradiated with neutrons or electron-beam irradiation. Both the normal and superconducting states were measured with angle-resolved photoemission. Electron-beam irradiation leads to an increase in the residual resistivity, and a decrease in the superconducting transition temperature (Tc). The resistivity data does not indicate any pseudogap; the resistivity is linear from Tc to 300 K for all levels of disorder, and the slope (d(rho) /dT) is the same for all levels of disorder. The superconducting state ARPES data exhibits no change in the binding energy of the 'peak' for Brillouin zone locations near the (O,(pi) ) point. The peak spectral intensity decreases with increasing disorder, the gap fills in, but the peak neither shifts nor broadens. The normal state exhibits a pseudogap developing with disorder; the size of the pseudogap increases as the residual resistivity increases. The pseudogap is anisotropic, largest near the (O,(pi) ) point and zero in the <(pi) ,(pi) > direction. Neutron-beam irradiation causes an increase in the residual resistivity. The resistivity data exhibit a change of slope and indications of a pseudogap for neutron irradiation. For normal state ARPES data of neutron-beam irradiated samples, there is also an anisotropic pseudogap; it is also zero in the <(pi) ,(pi) > direction and large near the (O,(pi) ) point. We discuss implications of these data.

  13. Predicting stored grain insect population densities using an electronic probe trap.

    PubMed

    Flinn, P W; Opit, G P; Throne, J E

    2009-08-01

    Manual sampling of insects in stored grain is a laborious and time-consuming process. Automation of grain sampling should help to increase the adoption of stored grain integrated pest management. A new commercial electronic grain probe trap (OPI Insector) has recently been marketed. We field tested OPI Insector electronic grain probes in two bins, each containing 32.6 tonnes of wheat, Triticum aestivum L., over a 2-yr period. We developed new statistical models to convert Insector catch into insects per kilogram. We compared grain sample estimates of insect density (insects per kilogram of wheat) taken near each Insector to the model-predicted insect density by using Insector counts. An existing expert system, Stored Grain Advisor Pro, was modified to automatically read the Insector database and use the appropriate model to estimate Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens), Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) density from trap catch counts. Management decisions using Insector trap-catch estimates for insect density were similar to those made using grain sample estimates of insect density for most sampling dates. However, because of the similarity in size of R. dominica and T. castaneum, the software was unable to differentiate counts between these two species. In the central and southern portions of the United States, where both species frequently occur, it may be necessary to determine the proportion of each species present in the grain by manual inspection of trap catch. The combination of SGA Pro with the OPI Insector system should prove to be a useful tool for automatic monitoring of insect pests in stored grain.

  14. Description of a novel viral tool to identify and quantify ovine faecal pollution in the environment.

    PubMed

    Rusiñol, Marta; Carratalà, Anna; Hundesa, Ayalkibet; Bach, Alex; Kern, Anita; Vantarakis, Apostolos; Girones, Rosina; Bofill-Mas, Sílvia

    2013-08-01

    Farmed animals such as sheep, cattle, swine and poultry play an important role in microbial contamination of water, crops and food, and introduce large quantities of pathogens into the environment. The ability to determine the origin of faecal pollution in water resources is essential when establishing a robust and efficient water management system. Animal-specific viruses have previously been suggested as microbial source tracking tools, but specific ovine viral markers have not been reported before now. Previous studies have shown that polyomaviruses are host-specific, highly prevalent and are commonly excreted in urine. Furthermore, they have been reported to infect several vertebrate species but not sheep. That situation encouraged the study of a new putative ovine polyomavirus (OPyV) and its use to determine whether faecal pollution originates from ovine faecal/urine contamination. Putative OPyV DNA was amplified from ovine urine and faecal samples using a broad-spectrum nested PCR (nPCR). Specific nested PCR and quantitative PCR assays were developed and applied to faecal and environmental samples, including sheep slurries, slaughterhouse wastewater effluents, urban sewage and river water samples. Successful amplification by PCR was achieved in sheep urine samples, sheep slaughterhouse wastewater and downstream sewage effluents. The assay was specific and was negative in samples of human, bovine, goat, swine and chicken origin. Ovine faecal pollution was detected in river water samples by applying the designed methods. These results provide a quantitative tool for the analysis of OPyV as a suitable viral indicator of sheep faecal contamination that may be present in the environment.

  15. A Phase Space Monitoring of Injected Beam of J-PARC MR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatakeyama, Shuichiro; Toyama, Takeshi

    Beam power of J-PARC MR (30 GeV Proton Synchrotron Main Ring) has been improved since 2008 and now achieved over 200 kW for the user operation. A part of beam loss is localized at the beam injection phase so it is important to monitor the beam bunch behavior in the transverse direction. In this paper it is described the method how to measure the position and momentum for each injected beam bunch using Beam Position Monitors (BPMs). It is also mentioned some implementation of an operator's interface (OPI) to display the plots of injected and circulating beam bunches in phase space coordinate.

  16. Genetic analysis and molecular mapping of maize (Zea mays L.) stalk rot resistant gene Rfg1.

    PubMed

    Yang, D E; Zhang, C L; Zhang, D S; Jin, D M; Weng, M L; Chen, S J; Nguyen, H; Wang, B

    2004-02-01

    One single pathogen Fusarium graminearum Schw. was inoculated to maize inbred lines 1,145 (Resistant) and Y331 (Susceptive), and their progenies of F(1), F(2) and BC(1)F(1) populations. Field statistical data revealed that all of the F(1) individuals were resistant to the disease and that the ratio of resistant plants to susceptive plants was 3:1 in the F(2) population, and 1:1 in the BC(1)F(1 )population. The results revealed that a single dominant gene controls the resistance to F. graminearum Schw. The resistant gene to F. graminearum Schw. was denominated as Rfg1 according to the standard principle of the nomenclature of the plant disease resistant genes. RAPD (randomly amplified polymorphic DNA) combined with BSA (bulked segregant analysis) analysis was carried out in the developed F(2) and BC(1)F(1 )populations, respectively. Three RAPD products screened from the RAPD analysis with 820 Operon 10-mer primers showed the linkage relation with the resistant gene Rfg1. The three RAPD amplification products (OPD-20(1000), OPA-04(1100) and OPY-04(900)) were cloned and their copy numbers were determined. The results indicated that only OPY-04(900) was a single-copy sequence. Then, OPY-04(900) was used as a probe to map the Rfg1 gene with a RIL F(7) mapping population provided by Henry Nguyen, which was developed from the cross "S3xMo17". Rfg1 was primarily mapped on chromosome 6 between the two linked markers OPY-04(900) and umc21 (Bin 6.04-6.05). In order to confirm the primary mapping result, 25 SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers and six RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) markers in the Rfg1 gene-encompassing region were selected, and their linkage relation with Rfg1 was analyzed in our F(2) population. Results indicated that SSR marker mmc0241 and RFLP marker bnl3.03 are flanking the Rfg1 gene with a genetic distance of 3.0 cM and 2.0 cM, respectively. This is the first time to name and to map a single resistant gene of maize stalk rot through a

  17. Endoplasmic reticulum stress and calcium imbalance are involved in cadmium-induced lipid aberrancy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Rajakumar, Selvaraj; Bhanupriya, Nagaraj; Ravi, Chidambaram; Nachiappan, Vasanthi

    2016-09-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum is the key organelle which controls protein folding, lipid biogenesis, and calcium (Ca(2+)) homeostasis. Cd exposure in Saccharomyces cerevisiae activated the unfolded protein response and was confirmed by the increased Kar2p expression. Cd exposure in wild-type (WT) cells increased PC levels and the PC biosynthetic genes. Deletion of the two phospholipid methyltransferases CHO2 and OPI3 modulated PC, TAG levels and the lipid droplets with cadmium exposure. Interestingly, we noticed an increase in the calcium levels upon Cd exposure in the mutant cells. This study concluded that Cd interrupted calcium homeostasis-induced lipid dysregulation leading to ER stress. PMID:27344570

  18. One-way data transfer for PLC to VME status reporting at the Advanced Photon Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, S. J.

    1994-12-01

    The Personnel Safety System for the experimental beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source will use a large number of Allen Bradley Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) to replace conventional relay logic. PLCs allow for the design of a very advanced safety system that can handle a large number of I/O points. Certain situations require monitoring of the safety system from various locations around the storage ring via the EPICS OPI (operator interface) consoles. This presentation covers the chosen method for transferring data from the Personnel Safety System into an EPICS database. Specifications on PLC ladder design, EPICS database design and hardware selection are also discussed.

  19. Genetic analysis and molecular mapping of maize (Zea mays L.) stalk rot resistant gene Rfg1.

    PubMed

    Yang, D E; Zhang, C L; Zhang, D S; Jin, D M; Weng, M L; Chen, S J; Nguyen, H; Wang, B

    2004-02-01

    One single pathogen Fusarium graminearum Schw. was inoculated to maize inbred lines 1,145 (Resistant) and Y331 (Susceptive), and their progenies of F(1), F(2) and BC(1)F(1) populations. Field statistical data revealed that all of the F(1) individuals were resistant to the disease and that the ratio of resistant plants to susceptive plants was 3:1 in the F(2) population, and 1:1 in the BC(1)F(1 )population. The results revealed that a single dominant gene controls the resistance to F. graminearum Schw. The resistant gene to F. graminearum Schw. was denominated as Rfg1 according to the standard principle of the nomenclature of the plant disease resistant genes. RAPD (randomly amplified polymorphic DNA) combined with BSA (bulked segregant analysis) analysis was carried out in the developed F(2) and BC(1)F(1 )populations, respectively. Three RAPD products screened from the RAPD analysis with 820 Operon 10-mer primers showed the linkage relation with the resistant gene Rfg1. The three RAPD amplification products (OPD-20(1000), OPA-04(1100) and OPY-04(900)) were cloned and their copy numbers were determined. The results indicated that only OPY-04(900) was a single-copy sequence. Then, OPY-04(900) was used as a probe to map the Rfg1 gene with a RIL F(7) mapping population provided by Henry Nguyen, which was developed from the cross "S3xMo17". Rfg1 was primarily mapped on chromosome 6 between the two linked markers OPY-04(900) and umc21 (Bin 6.04-6.05). In order to confirm the primary mapping result, 25 SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers and six RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) markers in the Rfg1 gene-encompassing region were selected, and their linkage relation with Rfg1 was analyzed in our F(2) population. Results indicated that SSR marker mmc0241 and RFLP marker bnl3.03 are flanking the Rfg1 gene with a genetic distance of 3.0 cM and 2.0 cM, respectively. This is the first time to name and to map a single resistant gene of maize stalk rot through a

  20. Fuel performance models for high-temperature gas-cooled reactor core design

    SciTech Connect

    Stansfield, O.M.; Simon, W.A.; Baxter, A.M.

    1983-09-01

    Mechanistic fuel performance models are used in high-temperature gas-cooled reactor core design and licensing to predict failure and fission product release. Fuel particles manufactured with defective or missing SiC, IPyC, or fuel dispersion in the buffer fail at a level of less than 5 x 10/sup -4/ fraction. These failed particles primarily release metallic fission products because the OPyC remains intact on 90% of the particles and retains gaseous isotopes. The predicted failure of particles using performance models appears to be conservative relative to operating reactor experience.

  1. Preparation of Simulated LBL Defects for Round Robin Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Gerczak, Tyler J.; Baldwin, Charles A.; Hunn, John D.; Montgomery, Fred C.

    2016-01-01

    A critical characteristic of the TRISO fuel design is its ability to retain fission products. During reactor operation, the TRISO layers act as barriers to release of fission products not stabilized in the kernel. Each component of the TRISO particle and compact construction plays a unique role in retaining select fission products, and layer performance is often interrelated. The IPyC, SiC, and OPyC layers are barriers to the release of fission product gases such as Kr and Xe. The SiC layer provides the primary barrier to release of metallic fission products not retained in the kernel, as transport across the SiC layer is rate limiting due to the greater permeability of the IPyC and OPyC layers to many metallic fission products. These attributes allow intact TRISO coatings to successfully retain most fission products released from the kernel, with the majority of released fission products during operation being due to defective, damaged, or failed coatings. This dominant release of fission products from compromised particles contributes to the overall source term in reactor; causing safety and maintenance concerns and limiting the lifetime of the fuel. Under these considerations, an understanding of the nature and frequency of compromised particles is an important part of predicting the expected fission product release and ensuring safe and efficient operation.

  2. Designing a web-application to support home-based care of childhood CKD stages 3-5: Qualitative study of family and professional preferences

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a lack of online, evidence-based information and resources to support home-based care of childhood CKD stages 3-5. Methods Qualitative interviews were undertaken with parents, patients and professionals to explore their views on content of the proposed online parent information and support (OPIS) web-application. Data were analysed using Framework Analysis, guided by the concept of Self-efficacy. Results 32 parents, 26 patients and 12 professionals were interviewed. All groups wanted an application that explains, demonstrates, and enables parental clinical care-giving, with condition-specific, continously available, reliable, accessible material and a closed communication system to enable contact between families living with CKD. Professionals advocated a regularly updated application to empower parents to make informed health-care decisions. To address these requirements, key web-application components were defined as: (i) Clinical care-giving support (information on treatment regimens, video-learning tools, condition-specific cartoons/puzzles, and a question and answer area) and (ii) Psychosocial support for care-giving (social-networking, case studies, managing stress, and enhancing families’ health-care experiences). Conclusions Developing a web-application that meets parents’ information and support needs will maximise its utility, thereby augmenting parents’ self-efficacy for CKD caregiving, and optimising outcomes. Self-efficacy theory provides a schema for how parents’ self-efficacy beliefs about management of their child’s CKD could potentially be promoted by OPIS. PMID:24548640

  3. Influence of propolis on hygiene, gingival condition, and oral microflora in patients with cleft lip and palate treated with fixed orthodontic appliances.

    PubMed

    Machorowska-Pieniążek, Agnieszka; Morawiec, Tadeusz; Mertas, Anna; Tanasiewicz, Marta; Dziedzic, Arkadiusz; Król, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of 3% ethanol extract of propolis (EEP) on hygiene, gingival and microbiological status of oral cavity in patients with cleft lip and palate treated with fixed orthodontic appliances. The study included forty-one nonsyndromic complete unilateral of bilateral cleft lip and palate subjects with fixed appliance on at least 10 teeth. Twenty-one subjects were instructed to brush their teeth three times a day using toothpaste with propolis. Control group included twenty subjects who were asked to brush their teeth three times a day using a toothpaste without propolis. API, OPI, GI, and supragingival bacterial plaque were taken from each subject twice: baseline and after using the toothpaste for 35 days. The final examinations showed statistically significant decrease in OPI, GI, and the percentage of the Actinomyces spp. and Capnocytophaga spp. compared with baseline in propolis group subjects. The improvement in oral health in these patients confirms antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and regenerative properties of propolis. PMID:23762106

  4. Pyridine-2,6-diyl dinitroxides as room-temperature triplet ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakami, Hinako; Tonegawa, Asato; Ishida, Takayuki

    2016-02-01

    We have proposed tert-butyl 2-pyridyl nitroxide radicals as a promising paramagnetic chelating ligand, where the direct radical-metal bond leads to strong magnetic interaction. We successfully synthesized and isolated PyBN derivatives (pyridine-2,6-diyl bis(tert-butyl nitroxides)). The molecular and crystal structures of the target biradicals, MesPyBN, AntPyBN and tBuOPyBN were determined from the X-ray crystal structure analysis, which possess mesityl, 9-anthryl and tert-butoxy groups at the 5-position of the pyridine ring, respectively. The ground triplet state was characterized by means of SQUID susceptometry for each compound. On heating, the χmT values of all the PyBN derivatives increased and reached a plateau at ca. 1.0 cm3 K mol-1 at 300 K. It implies that biradicals behaved as triplet molecules even at room temperature, or 2J/kB >> 300 K. From the decay monitored in solution electron-spin resonance spectroscopy, MesPyBN was the most persistent, while tBuOPyBN was the most reactive, of the three.

  5. Phosphatidylcholine Supply to Peroxisomes of the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Ramprecht, Claudia; Zellnig, Günther; Leitner, Erich; Hermetter, Albin; Daum, Günther

    2015-01-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, phosphatidylcholine (PC), the major phospholipid (PL) of all organelle membranes, is synthesized via two different pathways. Methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) catalyzed by the methyl transferases Cho2p/Pem1p and Opi3p/Pem2p as well as incorporation of choline through the CDP (cytidine diphosphate)-choline branch of the Kennedy pathway lead to PC formation. To determine the contribution of these two pathways to the supply of PC to peroxisomes (PX), yeast mutants bearing defects in the two pathways were cultivated under peroxisome inducing conditions, i.e. in the presence of oleic acid, and subjected to biochemical and cell biological analyses. Phenotype studies revealed compromised growth of both the cho20Δopi3Δ (mutations in the methylation pathway) and the cki1Δdpl1Δeki1Δ (mutations in the CDP-choline pathway) mutant when grown on oleic acid. Analysis of peroxisomes from the two mutant strains showed that both pathways produce PC for the supply to peroxisomes, although the CDP-choline pathway seemed to contribute with higher efficiency than the methylation pathway. Changes in the peroxisomal lipid pattern of mutants caused by defects in the PC biosynthetic pathways resulted in changes of membrane properties as shown by anisotropy measurements with fluorescent probes. In summary, our data define the origin of peroxisomal PC and demonstrate the importance of PC for peroxisome membrane formation and integrity. PMID:26241051

  6. The relevance, biases, and importance of digitising opportunistic non-standardised collections: A case study in Iberian harvestmen fauna with BOS Arthropod Collection datasets (Arachnida, Opiliones)

    PubMed Central

    Merino-Sáinz, Izaskun; Torralba-Burrial, Antonio; Anadón, Araceli

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In this study, we analyse the relevance of harvestmen distribution data derived from opportunistic, unplanned, and non-standardised collection events in an area in the north of the Iberian Peninsula. Using specimens deposited in the BOS Arthropod Collection at the University of Oviedo, we compared these data with data from planned, standardised, and periodic collections with pitfall traps in several locations in the same area. The Arthropod Collection, begun in 1977, includes specimens derived from both sampling types, and its recent digitisation allows for this type of comparative analysis. Therefore, this is the first data-paper employing a hybrid approach, wherein subset metadata are described alongside a comparative analysis. The full dataset can be accessed through Spanish GBIF IPT at http://www.gbif.es:8080/ipt/archive.do?r=Bos-Opi, and the metadata of the unplanned collection events at http://www.gbif.es:8080/ipt/resource.do?r=bos-opi_unplanned_collection_events. We have mapped the data on the 18 harvestmen species included in the unplanned collections and provided records for some species in six provinces for the first time. We have also provided the locations of Phalangium opilio in eight provinces without published records. These results highlight the importance of digitising data from unplanned biodiversity collections, as well as those derived from planned collections, especially in scarcely studied groups and areas. PMID:24843271

  7. The relevance, biases, and importance of digitising opportunistic non-standardised collections: A case study in Iberian harvestmen fauna with BOS Arthropod Collection datasets (Arachnida, Opiliones).

    PubMed

    Merino-Sáinz, Izaskun; Torralba-Burrial, Antonio; Anadón, Araceli

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we analyse the relevance of harvestmen distribution data derived from opportunistic, unplanned, and non-standardised collection events in an area in the north of the Iberian Peninsula. Using specimens deposited in the BOS Arthropod Collection at the University of Oviedo, we compared these data with data from planned, standardised, and periodic collections with pitfall traps in several locations in the same area. The Arthropod Collection, begun in 1977, includes specimens derived from both sampling types, and its recent digitisation allows for this type of comparative analysis. Therefore, this is the first data-paper employing a hybrid approach, wherein subset metadata are described alongside a comparative analysis. The full dataset can be accessed through Spanish GBIF IPT at http://www.gbif.es:8080/ipt/archive.do?r=Bos-Opi, and the metadata of the unplanned collection events at http://www.gbif.es:8080/ipt/resource.do?r=bos-opi_unplanned_collection_events. We have mapped the data on the 18 harvestmen species included in the unplanned collections and provided records for some species in six provinces for the first time. We have also provided the locations of Phalangium opilio in eight provinces without published records. These results highlight the importance of digitising data from unplanned biodiversity collections, as well as those derived from planned collections, especially in scarcely studied groups and areas.

  8. Decadal-Scale Modulation of Atmospheric Circulation around the Onset of the Western North Pacific Summer Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita, T.; Yamaura, T.; Kuwazuru, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Decadal-scale modulation (DSM) appears in the atmospheric circulation around the onset (July 20) of the western North Pacific summer monsoon (WNPSM). This work examined the DSM associated with the onset precipitation increase (OPI), using global reanalysis datasets from 1979 to 2010 (32 years). The years 1985-1993 had positive decadal anomalies, and the onset precipitation increased with the development of specific meridional circulation similar to the so-called Pacific-Japan pattern. In the subsequent negative decadal anomaly in the years 1994-2000, the atmospheric circulation was distinguished by a smaller OPI, southwestward extension of the WNPSM, and an anomalous wave train emanating northeastward from the Philippines. The patterns in the following positive decadal anomaly in the years 2001-2007 were similar to those in the preceding negative period but with opposite signs. These changes in the DSM were coherent with decadal sea surface temperature anomalies in the region of 28-29C in the western North Pacific before the onset due to vertical instability under the trade wind inversion.

  9. Influence of Propolis on Hygiene, Gingival Condition, and Oral Microflora in Patients with Cleft Lip and Palate Treated with Fixed Orthodontic Appliances

    PubMed Central

    Machorowska-Pieniążek, Agnieszka; Morawiec, Tadeusz; Tanasiewicz, Marta; Król, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of 3% ethanol extract of propolis (EEP) on hygiene, gingival and microbiological status of oral cavity in patients with cleft lip and palate treated with fixed orthodontic appliances. The study included forty-one nonsyndromic complete unilateral of bilateral cleft lip and palate subjects with fixed appliance on at least 10 teeth. Twenty-one subjects were instructed to brush their teeth three times a day using toothpaste with propolis. Control group included twenty subjects who were asked to brush their teeth three times a day using a toothpaste without propolis. API, OPI, GI, and supragingival bacterial plaque were taken from each subject twice: baseline and after using the toothpaste for 35 days. The final examinations showed statistically significant decrease in OPI, GI, and the percentage of the Actinomyces spp. and Capnocytophaga spp. compared with baseline in propolis group subjects. The improvement in oral health in these patients confirms antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and regenerative properties of propolis. PMID:23762106

  10. The relevance, biases, and importance of digitising opportunistic non-standardised collections: A case study in Iberian harvestmen fauna with BOS Arthropod Collection datasets (Arachnida, Opiliones).

    PubMed

    Merino-Sáinz, Izaskun; Torralba-Burrial, Antonio; Anadón, Araceli

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we analyse the relevance of harvestmen distribution data derived from opportunistic, unplanned, and non-standardised collection events in an area in the north of the Iberian Peninsula. Using specimens deposited in the BOS Arthropod Collection at the University of Oviedo, we compared these data with data from planned, standardised, and periodic collections with pitfall traps in several locations in the same area. The Arthropod Collection, begun in 1977, includes specimens derived from both sampling types, and its recent digitisation allows for this type of comparative analysis. Therefore, this is the first data-paper employing a hybrid approach, wherein subset metadata are described alongside a comparative analysis. The full dataset can be accessed through Spanish GBIF IPT at http://www.gbif.es:8080/ipt/archive.do?r=Bos-Opi, and the metadata of the unplanned collection events at http://www.gbif.es:8080/ipt/resource.do?r=bos-opi_unplanned_collection_events. We have mapped the data on the 18 harvestmen species included in the unplanned collections and provided records for some species in six provinces for the first time. We have also provided the locations of Phalangium opilio in eight provinces without published records. These results highlight the importance of digitising data from unplanned biodiversity collections, as well as those derived from planned collections, especially in scarcely studied groups and areas. PMID:24843271

  11. Phosphatidylcholine Supply to Peroxisomes of the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Flis, Vid V; Fankl, Ariane; Ramprecht, Claudia; Zellnig, Günther; Leitner, Erich; Hermetter, Albin; Daum, Günther

    2015-01-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, phosphatidylcholine (PC), the major phospholipid (PL) of all organelle membranes, is synthesized via two different pathways. Methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) catalyzed by the methyl transferases Cho2p/Pem1p and Opi3p/Pem2p as well as incorporation of choline through the CDP (cytidine diphosphate)-choline branch of the Kennedy pathway lead to PC formation. To determine the contribution of these two pathways to the supply of PC to peroxisomes (PX), yeast mutants bearing defects in the two pathways were cultivated under peroxisome inducing conditions, i.e. in the presence of oleic acid, and subjected to biochemical and cell biological analyses. Phenotype studies revealed compromised growth of both the cho20Δopi3Δ (mutations in the methylation pathway) and the cki1Δdpl1Δeki1Δ (mutations in the CDP-choline pathway) mutant when grown on oleic acid. Analysis of peroxisomes from the two mutant strains showed that both pathways produce PC for the supply to peroxisomes, although the CDP-choline pathway seemed to contribute with higher efficiency than the methylation pathway. Changes in the peroxisomal lipid pattern of mutants caused by defects in the PC biosynthetic pathways resulted in changes of membrane properties as shown by anisotropy measurements with fluorescent probes. In summary, our data define the origin of peroxisomal PC and demonstrate the importance of PC for peroxisome membrane formation and integrity.

  12. Learning from the data: mining of large high-throughput screening databases.

    PubMed

    Yan, S Frank; King, Frederick J; He, Yun; Caldwell, Jeremy S; Zhou, Yingyao

    2006-01-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) campaigns in pharmaceutical companies have accumulated a large amount of data for several million compounds over a couple of hundred assays. Despite the general awareness that rich information is hidden inside the vast amount of data, little has been reported for a systematic data mining method that can reliably extract relevant knowledge of interest for chemists and biologists. We developed a data mining approach based on an algorithm called ontology-based pattern identification (OPI) and applied it to our in-house HTS database. We identified nearly 1500 scaffold families with statistically significant structure-HTS activity profile relationships. Among them, dozens of scaffolds were characterized as leading to artifactual results stemming from the screening technology employed, such as assay format and/or readout. Four types of compound scaffolds can be characterized based on this data mining effort: tumor cytotoxic, general toxic, potential reporter gene assay artifact, and target family specific. The OPI-based data mining approach can reliably identify compounds that are not only structurally similar but also share statistically significant biological activity profiles. Statistical tests such as Kruskal-Wallis test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) can then be applied to the discovered scaffolds for effective assignment of relevant biological information. The scaffolds identified by our HTS data mining efforts are an invaluable resource for designing SAR-robust diversity libraries, generating in silico biological annotations of compounds on a scaffold basis, and providing novel target family specific scaffolds for focused compound library design.

  13. An irrotation correction on pressure gradient and orthogonal-path integration for PIV-based pressure reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhongyi; Gao, Qi; Wang, Chengyue; Wei, Runjie; Wang, Jinjun

    2016-06-01

    Particle image velocimetry (PIV)-based pressure reconstruction has become a popular technique in experimental fluid mechanics. Noise or errors in raw velocity field would significantly affect the quality of pressure reconstruction in PIV measurement. To reduce experimental errors in pressure gradient and improve the precision of reconstructed pressure field, a minimal 2-norm criteria-based new technique called irrotation correction (IC) with orthogonal decomposition is developed. The pressure reconstruction is therefore composed of three steps: calculation of pressure gradient from time-resolved velocity fields of PIV, an irrotation correction on the pressure gradient field, and finally a simple orthogonal-path integration (OPI) for pressure. Systematic assessments of IC algorithm are performed on synthetic solid-body rotation flow, direct numerical simulations of a channel flow and an isotropic turbulent flow. The results show that IC is a robust algorithm which can significantly improve the accuracy of pressure reconstruction primarily in the low wave number domain. After irrotation correction, noisy pressure gradient field ideally becomes an irrotational field on which the pressure integration is independent of integrating paths. Therefore, an OPI algorithm is proposed to perform the pressure integration in an efficient way with very few integration paths. This makes the new technique to be a doable method on three-dimensional pressure reconstruction with acceptable computational cost.

  14. Overexpression of the NADP+-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase gene (icdA) in citric acid-producing Aspergillus niger WU-2223L.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Keiichi; Hattori, Takasumi; Hayashi, Rie; Kirimura, Kohtaro

    2014-01-01

    In the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, NADP(+)-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP(+)-ICDH) catalyzes oxidative decarboxylation of isocitric acid to form α-ketoglutaric acid with NADP(+) as a cofactor. We constructed an NADP(+)-ICDH gene (icdA)-overexpressing strain (OPI-1) using Aspergillus niger WU-2223L as a host and examined the effects of increase in NADP(+)-ICDH activity on citric acid production. Under citric acid-producing conditions with glucose as the carbon source, the amounts of citric acid produced and glucose consumed by OPI-1 for the 12-d cultivation period decreased by 18.7 and 10.5%, respectively, compared with those by WU-2223L. These results indicate that the amount of citric acid produced by A. niger can be altered with the NADP(+)-ICDH activity. Therefore, NADP(+)-ICDH is an important regulator of citric acid production in the TCA cycle of A. niger. Thus, we propose that the icdA gene is a potentially valuable tool for modulating citric acid production by metabolic engineering.

  15. Comparative Analysis of Transposable Element Vector Systems in Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Grabundzija, Ivana; Irgang, Markus; Mátés, Lajos; Belay, Eyayu; Matrai, Janka; Gogol-Döring, Andreas; Kawakami, Koichi; Chen, Wei; Ruiz, Patricia; Chuah, Marinee K. L.; VandenDriessche, Thierry; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Ivics, Zoltán

    2010-01-01

    Transposon-based gene vectors have become indispensable tools in vertebrate genetics for applications ranging from insertional mutagenesis and transgenesis in model species to gene therapy in humans. The transposon toolkit is expanding, but a careful, side-by-side characterization of the diverse transposon systems has been lacking. Here we compared the Sleeping Beauty (SB), piggyBac (PB), and Tol2 transposons with respect to overall activity, overproduction inhibition (OPI), target site selection, transgene copy number as well as long-term expression in human cells. SB was the most efficient system under conditions where the availability of the transposon DNA is limiting the transposition reaction including hard-to-transfect hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSCs), and the most sensitive to OPI, underpinning the need for careful optimization of the transposon components. SB and PB were about equally active, and both more efficient than Tol2, under nonrestrictive conditions. All three systems provided long-term transgene expression in human cells with minimal signs of silencing. Indeed, mapping of Tol2 insertion sites revealed significant underrepresentation within chromosomal regions with H3K27me3 histone marks typically associated with transcriptionally repressed heterochromatin. SB, Tol2, and PB constitute complementary research tools for gene transfer in mammalian cells with important implications for fundamental and translational research. PMID:20372108

  16. Phosphatidylglycerolphosphate synthase encoded by the PEL1/PGS1 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is localized in mitochondria and its expression is regulated by phospholipid precursors.

    PubMed

    Dzugasová, V; Obernauerová, M; Horváthová, K; Vachová, M; Záková, M; Subík, J

    1998-10-01

    The PEL1/PGS1 gene of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is essential for the viability of rho-/rho degrees mutants and the normal cardiolipin content of cells. The PEL1-GFP fusion gene has been found to complement the pel1/pgs1 mutation and its fluorescent protein was localized to mitochondria similarly to the beta-galactosidase activity of a protein encoded by the PEL1-lacZ fusion gene. The expression of the PEL1-lacZ reporter gene was repressed in cells grown in the presence of inositol and choline, reduced in the ino2 and ino4 strains, but constitutive in the opi1 null-mutant strain. The results demonstrate that Pel1p, playing a vital role in cells impaired in the mitochondrial DNA, is localized in the mitochondria and expressed in response to inositol and choline. PMID:9799363

  17. Postirradiation examination report of TRISO and BISO coated ThO/sub 2/ particles irradiated in capsules HT-31 and HT-33. [HTGR

    SciTech Connect

    Sedlak, B.J.

    1980-01-01

    Capsules HT-31 and HT-33 were uninstrumented capsule experiments irradiated in the target position of the High-Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The experiments were used to evaluate the irradiation performance of (1) fuel fabricated in a 240-mm-diameter coater for production scale-up, (2) TRISO ThO/sub 2/ and BISO ThO/sub 2/ particles, and (3) fuel with certain OPyC variables. A total of 16 BISO particle samples and 32 TRISO particle samples were irradiated to fast neutron fluences ranging from 4.0 to 11.7 x 10/sup 25/ n/m/sup 2/ (E > 29 fJ)/sub HTGR/ and heavy metal burnups between 3.5% and 13.2% FIMA at temperatures from 1150/sup 0/ to 1530/sup 0/C.

  18. Ethoximation-silylation approach for mono- and disaccharide analysis and characterization of their identification parameters by GC/MS.

    PubMed

    Becker, M; Liebner, F; Rosenau, T; Potthast, A

    2013-10-15

    The qualitative and quantitative analysis of complex carbohydrate mixtures is a challenging problem. When tackled by GC/MS, close retention times and largely similar mass spectra with no specific features complicate unambiguous identification, especially of monosaccharides. An optimized pre-capillary ethoximation-silylation GC/MS method for determination of monosaccharides and disaccharides was applied to a wide range of analytes (46 compounds). The two-step derivatization resulted in a pair of syn and anti peaks with specific retention and intensity ratio. The resulting dataset of mass spectra was subjected to a PCA-based pattern recognition. An oxime peak identifier (OPI) of the carbohydrate analytes, based on the combination of an internal standard and the corresponding syn/anti peak ratios, increased the reliability of the identification of reducing carbohydrates. Finally, the introduced EtOx-TMS derivatization method was applied to four different carbohydrate matrices (agave sirup, maple sirup, palm sugar, and honey).

  19. The Open Perimetry Interface: an enabling tool for clinical visual psychophysics.

    PubMed

    Turpin, Andrew; Artes, Paul H; McKendrick, Allison M

    2012-01-01

    Perimeters are commercially available instruments for measuring various attributes of the visual field in a clinical setting. They have several advantages over traditional lab-based systems for conducting vision experiments, including built-in gaze tracking and calibration, polished appearance, and attributes to increase participant comfort. Prior to this work, there was no standard to control such instruments, making it difficult and time consuming to use them for novel psychophysical experiments. This paper introduces the Open Perimetry Interface (OPI), a standard set of functions that can be used to control perimeters. Currently the standard is partially implemented in the open-source programming language R on two commercially available instruments: the Octopus 900 (a projection-based bowl perimeter produced by Haag-Streit, Switzerland) and the Heidelberg Edge Perimeter (a CRT-based system produced by Heidelberg Engineering, Germany), allowing these instruments to be used as a platform for psychophysical experimentation. PMID:23104815

  20. Selective regulation of MAP kinase signaling by an endomembrane phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase.

    PubMed

    Cappell, Steven D; Dohlman, Henrik G

    2011-04-29

    Multiple MAP kinase pathways share components yet initiate distinct biological processes. Signaling fidelity can be maintained by scaffold proteins and restriction of signaling complexes to discreet subcellular locations. For example, the yeast MAP kinase scaffold Ste5 binds to phospholipids produced at the plasma membrane and promotes selective MAP kinase activation. Here we show that Pik1, a phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase that localizes primarily to the Golgi, also regulates MAP kinase specificity but does so independently of Ste5. Pik1 is required for full activation of the MAP kinases Fus3 and Hog1 and represses activation of Kss1. Further, we show by genetic epistasis analysis that Pik1 likely regulates Ste11 and Ste50, components shared by all three MAP kinase pathways, through their interaction with the scaffold protein Opy2. These findings reveal a new regulator of signaling specificity functioning at endomembranes rather than at the plasma membrane. PMID:21388955

  1. Development of an Integrated Performance Model for TRISO-Coated Gas Reactor Particle Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Petti, David Andrew; Miller, Gregory Kent; Martin, David George; Maki, John Thomas

    2005-05-01

    The success of gas reactors depends upon the safety and quality of the coated particle fuel. The understanding and evaluation of this fuel requires development of an integrated mechanistic fuel performance model that fully describes the mechanical and physico-chemical behavior of the fuel particle under irradiation. Such a model, called PARFUME (PARticle Fuel ModEl), is being developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. PARFUME is based on multi-dimensional finite element modeling of TRISO-coated gas reactor fuel. The goal is to represent all potential failure mechanisms and to incorporate the statistical nature of the fuel. The model is currently focused on carbide, oxide nd oxycarbide uranium fuel kernels, while the coating layers are the classical IPyC/SiC/OPyC. This paper reviews the current status of the mechanical aspects of the model and presents results of calculations for irradiations from the New Production Modular High Temperature Gas Reactor program.

  2. Agent orange herbicides, organophosphate and triazinic pesticides analysis in olive oil and industrial oil mill waste effluents using new organic phase immunosensors.

    PubMed

    Martini, Elisabetta; Merola, Giovanni; Tomassetti, Mauro; Campanella, Luigi

    2015-02-15

    New immunosensors working in organic solvent mixtures (OPIEs) for the analysis of traces of different pesticides (triazinic, organophosphates and chlorurates) present in hydrophobic matrices such as olive oil were developed and tested. A Clark electrode was used as transducer and peroxidase enzyme as marker. The competitive process took place in a chloroform-hexane 50% (V/V) mixture, while the subsequent enzymatic final measurement was performed in decane and using tert-butylhydroperoxide as substrate of the enzymatic reaction. A linear response of between about 10nM and 5.0μM was usually obtained in the presence of olive oil. Recovery tests were carried out in commercial or artisanal extra virgin olive oil. Traces of pesticides were also checked in the oily matrix, in pomace and mill wastewaters from an industrial oil mill. Immunosensors show good selectivity and satisfactory precision and recovery tests performed in olive oil gave excellent results. PMID:25236238

  3. Ethoximation-silylation approach for mono- and disaccharide analysis and characterization of their identification parameters by GC/MS.

    PubMed

    Becker, M; Liebner, F; Rosenau, T; Potthast, A

    2013-10-15

    The qualitative and quantitative analysis of complex carbohydrate mixtures is a challenging problem. When tackled by GC/MS, close retention times and largely similar mass spectra with no specific features complicate unambiguous identification, especially of monosaccharides. An optimized pre-capillary ethoximation-silylation GC/MS method for determination of monosaccharides and disaccharides was applied to a wide range of analytes (46 compounds). The two-step derivatization resulted in a pair of syn and anti peaks with specific retention and intensity ratio. The resulting dataset of mass spectra was subjected to a PCA-based pattern recognition. An oxime peak identifier (OPI) of the carbohydrate analytes, based on the combination of an internal standard and the corresponding syn/anti peak ratios, increased the reliability of the identification of reducing carbohydrates. Finally, the introduced EtOx-TMS derivatization method was applied to four different carbohydrate matrices (agave sirup, maple sirup, palm sugar, and honey). PMID:24054643

  4. Agent orange herbicides, organophosphate and triazinic pesticides analysis in olive oil and industrial oil mill waste effluents using new organic phase immunosensors.

    PubMed

    Martini, Elisabetta; Merola, Giovanni; Tomassetti, Mauro; Campanella, Luigi

    2015-02-15

    New immunosensors working in organic solvent mixtures (OPIEs) for the analysis of traces of different pesticides (triazinic, organophosphates and chlorurates) present in hydrophobic matrices such as olive oil were developed and tested. A Clark electrode was used as transducer and peroxidase enzyme as marker. The competitive process took place in a chloroform-hexane 50% (V/V) mixture, while the subsequent enzymatic final measurement was performed in decane and using tert-butylhydroperoxide as substrate of the enzymatic reaction. A linear response of between about 10nM and 5.0μM was usually obtained in the presence of olive oil. Recovery tests were carried out in commercial or artisanal extra virgin olive oil. Traces of pesticides were also checked in the oily matrix, in pomace and mill wastewaters from an industrial oil mill. Immunosensors show good selectivity and satisfactory precision and recovery tests performed in olive oil gave excellent results.

  5. Production of yogurt with enhanced levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid and valuable nutrients using lactic acid bacteria and germinated soybean extract.

    PubMed

    Park, Ki-Bum; Oh, Suk-Heung

    2007-05-01

    Yogurt with high levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), free amino acids and isoflavones was developed using lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and germinated soybean extract. Fermented soya milk (GABA soya yogurt) produced with starter and substrate had the GABA concentration of 424.67 microg/gDW, whereas fermented milk produced by a conventional method had GABA less than 1.5 microg/gDW. The GABA soya yogurt also contained significantly high levels of free amino acids and isoflavones compared with other conventional yogurts. The results suggested that the Lactobacillus brevis OPY-1 and germinated soybean possessed a prospect to be applied in dairy and other health products with high nutritive values and functional properties.

  6. Crash protectiveness to occupant injury and vehicle damage: An investigation on major car brands.

    PubMed

    Huang, Helai; Li, Chunyang; Zeng, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    This study sets out to investigate vehicles' crash protectiveness on occupant injury and vehicle damage, which can be deemed as an extension of the traditional crash worthiness. A Bayesian bivariate hierarchical ordered logistic (BVHOL) model is developed to estimate the occupant protectiveness (OP) and vehicle protectiveness (VP) of 23 major car brands in Florida, with considering vehicles' crash aggressivity and controlling external factors. The proposed model not only takes over the strength of the existing hierarchical ordered logistic (HOL) model, i.e. specifying the order characteristics of crash outcomes and cross-crash heterogeneities, but also accounts for the correlation between the two crash responses, driver injury and vehicle damage. A total of 7335 two-vehicle-crash records with 14,670 cars involved in Florida are used for the investigation. From the estimation results, it's found that most of the luxury cars such as Cadillac, Volvo and Lexus possess excellent OP and VP while some brands such as KIA and Saturn perform very badly in both aspects. The ranks of the estimated safety performance indices are even compared to the counterparts in Huang et al. study [Huang, H., Hu, S., Abdel-Aty, M., 2014. Indexing crash worthiness and crash aggressivity by major car brands. Safety Science 62, 339-347]. The results show that the rank of occupant protectiveness index (OPI) is relatively coherent with that of crash worthiness index, but the ranks of crash aggressivity index in both studies is more different from each other. Meanwhile, a great discrepancy between the OPI rank and that of vehicle protectiveness index is found. What's more, the results of control variables and hyper-parameters estimation as well as comparison to HOL models with separate or identical threshold errors, demonstrate the validity and advancement of the proposed model and the robustness of the estimated OP and VP.

  7. Multiple coexisting states of liquid rope coiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribe, N. M.; Huppert, H. E.; Hallworth, M. A.; Habibi, M.; Bonn, Daniel

    2006-05-01

    A thin ‘rope’ of viscous fluid falling from a sufficient height onto a surface forms a series of regular coils. Here we investigate theoretically and experimentally a curious feature of this instability: the existence of multiple states with different frequencies at a fixed value of the fall height. Using a numerical model based on asymptotic ‘thin rope’ theory, we determine curves of coiling frequency Omega vs. fall height H as functions of the fluid viscosity nu, the diameter d of the injection hole, the volumetric injection rate Q, and the acceleration due to gravity g. In addition to the three coiling modes previously identified (viscous, gravitational and inertial), we find a new multivalued ‘inertio-gravitational’ mode that occurs at heights intermediate between gravitational and inertial coiling. In the limit when the rope is strongly stretched by gravity and Pi_1 {equiv} (nu(5/g) Q(3)(1/5} {≫)) 1, inertio-gravititational coiling occurs in the height range O(Pi_1(-1/6}) {≤) H(g/nu(2)(1/3} {≤)) O(Pi_1(-5/48) ). The frequencies of the individual branches are proportional to (g/H)(1/2) , and agree closely with the eigenfrequencies of a whirling liquid string with negligible resistance to bending and twisting. The number of coexisting branches scales as Pi_1(5/32) . The predictions of the numerical model are in excellent agreement with laboratory experiments performed by two independent groups using different apparatus and working fluids. The experiments further show that interbranch transitions in the inertio-gravitational regime occur via an intermediate state with a ‘figure of eight’ geometry that changes the sense of rotation of the coiling.

  8. On particle ionization/enrichment of multifunctional nanoprobes: washing/separation-free, acceleration and enrichment of microwave-assisted tryptic digestion of proteins via bare TiO2 nanoparticles in ESI-MS and comparing to MALDI-MS.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hui-Fen; Agrawal, Kavita; Shrivas, Kamlesh; Lee, Yi-Hsien

    2010-12-01

    A simple, rapid, straightforward and washing/separation free of in-solution digestion method for microwave-assisted tryptic digestion of proteins (cytochrome c, lysozyme and myoglobin) using bare TiO(2) nanoparticles (NPs) prepared in aqueous solution to serve as multifunctional nanoprobes in electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was demonstrated. The current approach is termed as 'on particle ionization/enrichment (OPIE)' and it can be applied in ESI-MS, atmospheric pressure-matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (AP-MALDI-MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). The bare TiO(2) NPs can assist, accelerate and effectively enhance the digestion efficiency, sequence coverage and detection sensitivity of peptides for the microwave-assisted tryptic digestion of proteins in ESI-MS. The reason is attributed to the fact that proteins or partially digested proteins are easily attracted or concentrated onto the surface of TiO(2) NPs, resulting in higher efficiency of digestion reactions in the microwave experiments. Besides, the TiO(2) NPs could act as a microwave absorber to accelerate and enrich the protein fragments in a short period of time (40-60 s) from the microwave experiments in ESI-MS. Furthermore, the bare TiO(2) NPs prepared in aqueous solution exhibit high adsorption capability toward the protein fragments (peptides); thus, the OPIE approach for detecting the digested protein fragments via ESI and MALDI ionization could be achieved. The current technique is also a washing and separation-free technique for accelerating and enriching microwave-assisted tryptic digestion of proteins in the ESI-MS and MALDI-MS. It exhibits potential to be widely applied to biotechnology and proteome research in the near future.

  9. First high temperature safety tests of AGR-1 TRISO fuel with the Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Demkowicz, Paul A.; Reber, Edward L.; Scates, Dawn M.; Scott, Les; Collin, Blaise P.

    2015-09-01

    Three TRISO fuel compacts from the AGR-1 irradiation experiment were subjected to safety tests at 1600 and 1800 °C for approximately 300 h to evaluate the fission product retention characteristics. Silver behavior was dominated by rapid release of an appreciable fraction of the compact inventory (3–34%) at the beginning of the tests, believed to be from inventory residing in the compact matrix and outer pyrocarbon (OPyC) prior to the safety test. Measurable release of silver from intact particles appears to become apparent only after ~60 h at 1800 °C. The release rate for europium and strontium was nearly constant for 300 h at 1600 °C (reaching maximum values of approximately 2×10⁻³ and 8×10⁻⁴ respectively), and at this temperature the release may be mostly limited to inventory in the compact matrix and OPyC prior to the safety test. The release rate for both elements increased after approximately 120 h at 1800 °C, possibly indicating additional measurable release through the intact particle coatings. Cesium fractional release from particles with intact coatings was <10⁻⁶ after 300 h at 1600 °C or 100 h at 1800 °C, but release from the rare particles that experienced SiC failure during the test could be significant. However, Kr release was still very low for 300 h 1600 °C (<2 × 10⁻⁶). At 1800 °C, krypton release increased noticeably after SiC failure, reflecting transport through the intact outer pyrocarbon layer. Nonetheless, the krypton and cesium release fractions remained less than approximately 10⁻³ after 277 h at 1800 °C.

  10. Capsule HRB-15B postirradiation examination report

    SciTech Connect

    Ketterer, J.W.; Bullock, R.E.

    1981-06-01

    Capsule HRB-15B design tested 184 thin graphite trays containing unbonded fuel particles to peak exposures of 6.6 x 10/sup 25/ n/m/sup 2/ (E > 29 fJ)/sub HTGR/ fast fluence, approx. 27% fissions per initial metal atom (FIMA) fissile burnup, and 6% FIMA fertile burnup at nominal time-averaged temperatures of 815 to 915/sup 0/C. The capsule tested a variety of low-enriched uranium (approx. 19.5% U-235) fissile particle types, including UC/sub 2/, UC/sub x/O/sub y/, UO/sub 2/, zirconium-buffered UO/sub 2/ (referred to in this report as UO/sub 2//sup *), and 1:1(Th,U)O/sub 2/ with both TRISO and silicon-BISO coatings. All fertile particles were ThO/sub 2/ with BISO, silicon-BISO, or TRISO coatings. The findings indicated that all TRISO particles retained virtually all of their fission product inventories, except small quantities of silver, at these irradiation temperatures, while some of the silicon-BISO particles released significant amounts of both silver and cesium. No kernel migration, pressure vessel, or outer pyrolytic carbon (OPyC) failures were observed in the fuel particles, which had total diameters of < 900 ..mu..m; however, the incidence of failed OPyC coatings was found to increase with particle size in the TRISO inert particles, which had diameters of 1000 to 1200 ..mu..m. UO/sub 2//sup */ particles exhibited no detrimental irradiation effects, but they contained pure carbon precipitates in the kernels after irradiation which were not observed in the undoped UO/sub 2/ particles. Postirradiation examination revealed no differences in the irradiation performance of three UC/sub x/O/sub y/ kernel types with varying oxygen/uranium ratios.

  11. Recovery of gait pattern after medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction for objective patellar instability.

    PubMed

    Carnesecchi, O; Philippot, R; Boyer, B; Farizon, F; Edouard, P

    2016-01-01

    Gait pattern alterations were previously reported in association with objective patellar instability (OPI). Gait pattern comparison between a series of patients having undergone medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction and a sample of control subjects. Thirty patients at 6 months postoperatively after MPFL reconstruction and thirty control subjects were enrolled in the study for a clinical and biomechanical assessment including gait analysis at three selected walking rates using the GAITRite(®) system. The mean raw IKDC score was 73 (± 19), and the mean Kujala knee function was 84 (± 17.5). The study of gait did not demonstrate any significant difference between the two groups at a normal and fast walking rate. At a 10 km/h running speed, the single-support phase was significantly shortened by a mean 2.33% (p < 0.05), the swing phase by a mean 2.64% (p < 0.05) and the double-support phase by a mean 3.49% (p < 0.05) on the operated side. MPFL reconstruction reported good midterm functional and clinical results in the management of OPI. At 6 months postoperatively, the patient gait pattern was similar to that observed in healthy subjects at a normal and fast walking speed. However, our study revealed persistent gait abnormalities at a 10 km/h running speed. These gait alterations seemed to be related to the ligament reconstruction in itself due to the higher strain applied on the reconstructed MPFL during running cycle (10 km/h). Level of evidence IV.

  12. Synthesis, structural characterization, and antiinflammatory activity of triethylphosphinegold(I) sulfanylpropenoates of the type [(AuPEt3)2xspa] [H2xspa = 3-(aryl)-2-sulfanylpropenoic acid]: an (H2O)6 cluster in the lattice of the complexes [(AuPEt3)2xspa] x 3 H2O.

    PubMed

    Barreiro, Elena; Casas, José S; Couce, María D; Gato, Angeles; Sánchez, Agustín; Sordo, José; Varela, José M; Vázquez López, Ezequiel M

    2008-07-21

    Gold complexes of the type [(AuPEt3)2xspa] were prepared by reacting AuPEt3Cl in basic media with the 3-(aryl)-2-sulfanylpropenoic acids H2xspa [x = p, Clp, -o-mp, -p-mp, -o-hp, -p-hp, diBr-o-hp, f, t, -o-py; p = 3-phenyl, Clp = 3-(2-chlorophenyl)-, -o-mp = 3-(2-methoxyphenyl)-, -p-mp = 3-(4-methoxyphenyl)-, -o-hp = 3-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-, -p-hp = 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-, diBr-o-hp = 3-(3,5- dibromo-2-hydroxyphenyl)-, f = 3-(2-furyl)-, t = 3-(2-thienyl)-, -o-py = 3-(2-pyridyl); spa = 2-sulfanylpropenoato], and 2-cyclopentylidene-2-sulfanylacetic acid (H2cpa). The complexes were characterized by spectroscopic methods (IR, (1)H, (13)C and (31)P NMR) and mass spectrometry, and the complexes [(AuPEt3)2pspa] x 3 H2O, [(AuPEt3)2-p-hpspa] x 3 H2O, [(AuPEt3)2tspa)] x 3 H2O, and [(AuPEt3)2-o-hpspa] by X-ray diffractometry. The crystals of the first three complexes contain (H2O)6 clusters hydrogen bonded to [(AuPEt3)2xspa]2 dimer units, whereas in the -o-hpspa derivative the hydrogen bonds are between the monomer [(AuPEt3)2-o-hpspa] units. The antiinflammatory activity of the complexes against plantar edema induced by carrageenan in rats is generally significant, with the values for the o-hpspa and tspa derivatives being particularly high. PMID:18563877

  13. First high temperature safety tests of AGR-1 TRISO fuel with the Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demkowicz, Paul A.; Reber, Edward L.; Scates, Dawn M.; Scott, Les; Collin, Blaise P.

    2015-09-01

    Three TRISO fuel compacts from the AGR-1 irradiation experiment were subjected to safety tests at 1600 and 1800 °C for approximately 300 h to evaluate the fission product retention characteristics. Silver behavior was dominated by rapid release of an appreciable fraction of the compact inventory (3-34%) at the beginning of the tests, believed to be from inventory residing in the compact matrix and outer pyrocarbon (OPyC) prior to the safety test. Measurable release of silver from intact particles appears to become apparent only after ∼60 h at 1800 °C. The release rate for europium and strontium was nearly constant for 300 h at 1600 °C (reaching maximum values of approximately 2 × 10-3 and 8 × 10-4 respectively), and at this temperature the release may be mostly limited to inventory in the compact matrix and OPyC prior to the safety test. The release rate for both elements increased after approximately 120 h at 1800 °C, possibly indicating additional measurable release through the intact particle coatings. Cesium fractional release from particles with intact coatings was <10-6 after 300 h at 1600 °C or 100 h at 1800 °C, but release from the rare particles that experienced SiC failure during the test could be significant. However, Kr release was still very low for 300 h 1600 °C (<2 × 10-6). At 1800 °C, krypton release increased noticeably after SiC failure, reflecting transport through the intact outer pyrocarbon layer. Nonetheless, the krypton and cesium release fractions remained less than approximately 10-3 after 277 h at 1800 °C.

  14. The Elwha Science Education Project (ESEP): Engaging an Entire Community in Geoscience Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, R. S.; Kinner, F.

    2008-12-01

    Native Americans are poorly represented in all science, technology and engineering fields. This under- representation results from numerous cultural, economic, and historical factors. The Elwha Science Education Project (ESEP), initiated in 2007, strives to construct a culturally-integrated, geoscience education program for Native American young people through engagement of the entire tribal community. The ESEP has developed a unique approach to informal geoscience education, using environmental restoration as a centerpiece. Environmental restoration is an increasingly important goal for tribes. By integrating geoscience activities with community tradition and history, project stakeholders hope to show students the relevance of science to their day-to-day lives. The ESEP's strength lies in its participatory structure and unique network of partners, which include Olympic National Park; the non-profit, educational center Olympic Park Institute (OPI); a geologist providing oversight and technical expertise; and the Lower Elwha Tribe. Lower Elwha tribal elders and educators share in all phases of the project, from planning and implementation to recruitment of students and discipline. The project works collaboratively with tribal scientists and cultural educators, along with science educators to develop curriculum and best practices for this group of students. Use of hands-on, place-based outdoor activities engage students and connect them with the science outside their back doors. Preliminary results from this summer's middle school program indicate that most (75% or more) students were highly engaged approximately 90% of the time during science instruction. Recruitment of students has been particularly successful, due to a high degree of community involvement. Preliminary evaluations of the ESEP's outcomes indicate success in improving the outlook of the tribe's youth towards the geosciences and science, in general. Future evaluation will be likewise participatory

  15. Land-use intensification impact on phosphorus fractions in highly weathered tropical soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maranguit, Deejay; Guillaume, Thomas; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2016-04-01

    Deforestation and land-use intensification in tropics have increased over the past decades, driven by the demand for agricultural products. Despite the fact that phosphorus (P) is one of the main limiting nutrients for agricultural productivity in the tropics, the effect of land-use intensification on P availability remains unclear. The objective was to assess the impacts of land-use intensification on soil inorganic and organic P fractions of different availability (Hedley sequential fractionation) and P stocks in highly weathered tropical soils. We compared the P availability under extensive land-use (rubber agroforest) and intensive land-use with moderate fertilization (rubber monoculture plantations) or high fertilization (oil palm monoculture plantations) in Indonesia. The phosphorus stock was dominated by inorganic forms (60 to 85%) in all land-use types. Fertilizer application increased easily-available inorganic P (i.e., H2O-Pi, NaHCO3-Pi) in intensive rubber and oil palm plantations compared to agroforest. However, the easily-available organic P (NaHCO3-extractable Po) was reduced by half under oil palm and rubber. The decrease of moderately available and non-available P by land-use intensification means that fertilization maintains only short-term soil fertility that is not sustainable in the long run due to the depletion of P reserves. The mechanisms of this P reserve depletion are: soil erosion (here assessed by C/P ratio), mineralization of soil organic matter (SOM) and export of P with yield products. Easily-available P fractions (i.e., H2O-Pi, NaHCO3-Pi and Po) and total organic P were strongly positively correlated with carbon content suggesting that SOM plays a critical role in maintaining P availability. Therefore, the ecologically based management is necessary in mitigating SOM losses to increase the sustainability of agricultural production in P limited highly weathered tropical soils.

  16. Crash protectiveness to occupant injury and vehicle damage: An investigation on major car brands.

    PubMed

    Huang, Helai; Li, Chunyang; Zeng, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    This study sets out to investigate vehicles' crash protectiveness on occupant injury and vehicle damage, which can be deemed as an extension of the traditional crash worthiness. A Bayesian bivariate hierarchical ordered logistic (BVHOL) model is developed to estimate the occupant protectiveness (OP) and vehicle protectiveness (VP) of 23 major car brands in Florida, with considering vehicles' crash aggressivity and controlling external factors. The proposed model not only takes over the strength of the existing hierarchical ordered logistic (HOL) model, i.e. specifying the order characteristics of crash outcomes and cross-crash heterogeneities, but also accounts for the correlation between the two crash responses, driver injury and vehicle damage. A total of 7335 two-vehicle-crash records with 14,670 cars involved in Florida are used for the investigation. From the estimation results, it's found that most of the luxury cars such as Cadillac, Volvo and Lexus possess excellent OP and VP while some brands such as KIA and Saturn perform very badly in both aspects. The ranks of the estimated safety performance indices are even compared to the counterparts in Huang et al. study [Huang, H., Hu, S., Abdel-Aty, M., 2014. Indexing crash worthiness and crash aggressivity by major car brands. Safety Science 62, 339-347]. The results show that the rank of occupant protectiveness index (OPI) is relatively coherent with that of crash worthiness index, but the ranks of crash aggressivity index in both studies is more different from each other. Meanwhile, a great discrepancy between the OPI rank and that of vehicle protectiveness index is found. What's more, the results of control variables and hyper-parameters estimation as well as comparison to HOL models with separate or identical threshold errors, demonstrate the validity and advancement of the proposed model and the robustness of the estimated OP and VP. PMID:26551733

  17. Material Performance of Fully-Ceramic Micro-Encapsulated Fuel under Selected LWR Design Basis Scenarios: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    B. Boer; R. S. Sen; M. A. Pope; A. M. Ougouag

    2011-09-01

    The extension to LWRs of the use of Deep-Burn coated particle fuel envisaged for HTRs has been investigated. TRISO coated fuel particles are used in Fully-Ceramic Microencapsulated (FCM) fuel within a SiC matrix rather than the graphite of HTRs. TRISO particles are well characterized for uranium-fueled HTRs. However, operating conditions of LWRs are different from those of HTRs (temperature, neutron energy spectrum, fast fluence levels, power density). Furthermore, the time scales of transient core behavior during accidents are usually much shorter and thus more severe in LWRs. The PASTA code was updated for analysis of stresses in coated particle FCM fuel. The code extensions enable the automatic use of neutronic data (burnup, fast fluence as a function of irradiation time) obtained using the DRAGON neutronics code. An input option for automatic evaluation of temperature rise during anticipated transients was also added. A new thermal model for FCM was incorporated into the code; so-were updated correlations (for pyrocarbon coating layers) suitable to estimating dimensional changes at the high fluence levels attained in LWR DB fuel. Analyses of the FCM fuel using the updated PASTA code under nominal and accident conditions show: (1) Stress levels in SiC-coatings are low for low fission gas release (FGR) fractions of several percent, as based on data of fission gas diffusion in UO{sub 2} kernels. However, the high burnup level of LWR-DB fuel implies that the FGR fraction is more likely to be in the range of 50-100%, similar to Inert Matrix Fuels (IMFs). For this range the predicted stresses and failure fractions of the SiC coating are high for the reference particle design (500 {micro}mm kernel diameter, 100 {micro}mm buffer, 35 {micro}mm IPyC, 35 {micro}mm SiC, 40 {micro}mm OPyC). A conservative case, assuming 100% FGR, 900K fuel temperature and 705 MWd/kg (77% FIMA) fuel burnup, results in a 8.0 x 10{sup -2} failure probability. For a 'best-estimate' FGR fraction

  18. Optimisation Of a Magnetostrictive Wave Energy Converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundon, T. R.; Nair, B.

    2014-12-01

    Oscilla Power, Inc. (OPI) is developing a patented magnetostrictive wave energy converter aimed at reducing the cost of grid-scale electricity from ocean waves. Designed to operate cost-effectively across a wide range of wave conditions, this will be the first use of reverse magnetostriction for large-scale energy production. The device architecture is a straightforward two-body, point absorbing system that has been studied at length by various researchers. A large surface float is anchored to a submerged heave (reaction) plate by multiple taut tethers that are largely made up of discrete, robust power takeoff modules that house the magnetostrictive generators. The unique generators developed by OPI utilize the phenomenon of reverse magnetostriction, which through the application of load to a specific low cost alloy, can generate significant magnetic flux changes, and thus create power through electromagnetic induction. Unlike traditional generators, the mode of operation is low-displacement, high-force, high damping which in combination with the specific multi-tether configuration creates some unique effects and interesting optimization challenges. Using an empirical approach with a combination of numerical tools, such as ORCAFLEX, and physical models, we investigated the properties and sensitivities of this system arrangement, including various heave plate geometries, with the overall goal of identifying the mass and hydrodynamic parameters required for optimum performance. Furthermore, through a detailed physical model test program at the University of New Hampshire, we were able to study in more detail how the heave plate geometry affects the drag and added mass coefficients. In presenting this work we will discuss how alternate geometries could be used to optimize the hydrodynamic parameters of the heave plate, allowing maximum inertial forces in operational conditions, while simultaneously minimizing the forces generated in extreme waves. This presentation

  19. Ocular iontophoresis of EGP-437 (dexamethasone phosphate) in dry eye patients: results of a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Patane, Michael A; Cohen, Amy; From, Stephen; Torkildsen, Gail; Welch, Donna; Ousler, George W

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To assess safety and efficacy of EGP-437 (dexamethasone phosphate 40 mg/mL [DP]) in dry eye patients. Methods: The study employed a prospective, single-center, double-masked design utilizing a Controlled Adverse Environment (CAE). Patients (n = 103) with confirmed signs and symptoms of dry eye syndrome were randomized into 1 of 3 iontophoresis treatment groups: 7.5 mA-min at 2.5 mA (DP 7.5, n = 41); 10.5 mA-min at 3.5 mA (DP 10.5, n = 37); or 10.5 mA-min at 3.5 mA (placebo, n = 25). Three CAE visits and 4 follow-up visits occurred over 3 weeks. Patients meeting enrollment criteria received iontophoresis in both eyes after the second CAE exposure (visit 3) and before the third CAE exposure (visit 5). Primary efficacy endpoints were corneal staining and ocular discomfort. Secondary endpoints included tear film break-up time, ocular protection index (OPI), and symptomatology. Results: The DP 7.5 and DP 10.5 treatment groups showed statistically significant improvements in signs and symptoms of dry eye at various time points; however, the primary endpoints were not achieved. The DP 7.5 treatment group exhibited statistically significant improvements in corneal staining (when comparing the differences between study entry and exit, 3 weeks, P = 0.039), OPI (immediately following the second treatment, P = 0.048) and ocular discomfort at follow-up visits (a week after the first treatment, P = 0.032; 24 hours after the second treatment, P = 0.0032). Treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs) were experienced by 87% of patients and were consistent across all treatment groups. Most AEs were mild and no severe AEs were observed. Conclusion: Ocular iontophoresis of EGP-437 demonstrated statistically and clinically significant improvements in signs and symptoms of dry eye syndrome within a CAE model. PMID:21629568

  20. Modeling and Analysis of UN TRISO Fuel for LWR Application Using the PARFUME Code

    SciTech Connect

    Blaise Collin

    2014-08-01

    The Idaho National Laboraroty (INL) PARFUME (particle fuel model) code was used to assess the overall fuel performance of uranium nitride (UN) tristructural isotropic (TRISO) ceramic fuel under irradiation conditions typical of a Light Water Reactor (LWR). The dimensional changes of the fuel particle layers and kernel were calculated, including the formation of an internal gap. The survivability of the UN TRISO particle was estimated depending on the strain behavior of the constituent materials at high fast fluence and burn up. For nominal cases, internal gas pressure and representative thermal profiles across the kernel and layers were determined along with stress levels in the inner and outer pyrolytic carbon (IPyC/OPyC) and silicon carbide (SiC) layers. These parameters were then used to evaluate fuel particle failure probabilities. Results of the study show that the survivability of UN TRISO fuel under LWR irradiation conditions might only be guaranteed if the kernel and PyC swelling rates are limited at high fast fluence and burn up. These material properties have large uncertainties at the irradiation levels expected to be reached by UN TRISO fuel in LWRs. Therefore, a large experimental effort would be needed to establish material properties, including kernel and PyC swelling rates, under these conditions before definitive conclusions can be drawn on the behavior of UN TRISO fuel in LWRs.

  1. Determination of trace mercury in water based on N-octylpyridinium ionic liquids preconcentration and stripping voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenhan; Xia, Shanhong; Wang, Jinfen; Bian, Chao; Tong, Jianhua

    2016-01-15

    A novel method for determination of trace mercury in water is developed. The method is performed by extracting mercury firstly with ionic liquids (ILs) and then detecting the concentration of mercury in organic media with anodic stripping voltammetry. Liquid-liquid extraction of mercury(II) ions by four ionic liquids with N-octylpyridinium cations ([OPy](+)) was studied. N-octylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate and N-octylpyridinium trifluoromethylsulfonate were found to be efficient and selective extractant for mercury. Temperature controlled dispersive liquid phase microextraction (TC-DLPME) technique was utilized to improve the performance of preconcentration. After extraction, precipitated IL was diluted by acetonitrile buffer and mercury was detected by differential pulse stripping voltammetry (DPSV) with gold disc electrode. Mercury was enriched by 17 times while interfering ions were reduced by two orders of magnitude in the organic media under optimum condition. Sensitivity and selectivity for electrochemical determination of mercury were improved by using the proposed method. Tap, pond and waste water samples were analyzed with recoveries ranging from 81% to 107% and detection limit of 0.05 μg/L.

  2. Synthetic mucin fragments: synthesis of O-sulfo and O-methyl derivatives of allyl O-(beta-D-galactopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-alpha-D- galactopyranoside as potential compounds for sulfotransferases.

    PubMed

    Jain, R K; Piskorz, C F; Matta, K L

    1995-10-01

    Allyl 2-acetamido-4,6-O-(4-methoxybenzylidene)-2-deoxy-alpha-D-galact opy ranoside (1) was condensed with either 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl bromide (2) or 2,3,4-tri-O-benzoyl-6-O-bromoacetyl-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl bromide (14) in the presence of mercuric cyanide. Selective substitution with methyl, sulfo or both at desired positions, followed by the removal of protecting groups, afforded allyl O-(beta-D-galactopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-6-O-methyl-alpha -D- galactopyranoside (5), allyl O-(6-O-sulfo-beta-D-galactopyranosyl sodium salt)-(1-->3)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-6- O-methyl-alpha-D-galactopyranoside (10), allyl O-(beta-D-galactopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-6-O-sulfo-alpha- D- galactopyranoside sodium salt (13), allyl O-(6-O-sulfo-beta-D-galactopyranosyl sodium salt)-(1-->3)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy- alpha-D-galactopyranoside (17) and allyl O-(3-O-sulfo-beta-D-galactopyranosyl sodium salt)-(1-->3)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy- alpha-D-galactopyranoside (22). The structures of compounds 5, 10, 13, 17 and 22 were established by 13C NMR and FAB mass spectroscopy. PMID:8529223

  3. Dengue virus detection in Aedes aegypti larvae from southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cecílio, Samyra Giarola; Júnior, Willer Ferreira Silva; Tótola, Antônio Helvécio; de Brito Magalhães, Cíntia Lopes; Ferreira, Jaqueline Maria Siqueira; de Magalhães, José Carlos

    2015-06-01

    The transmission of dengue, the most important arthropod-borne viral disease in Brazil, has been intensified over the past decades, along with the accompanying expansion and adaptation of its Aedes vectors. In the present study, we mapped dengue vectors in Ouro Preto and Ouro Branco, Minas Gerais, by installing ovitraps in 32 public schools. The traps were examined monthly between September, 2011 through July, 2012 and November, 2012 to April, 2013. The larvae were reared until the fourth stadium and identified according to species. The presence of dengue virus was detected by real time PCR and agarose gel electrophoresis. A total of 1,945 eggs was collected during the 17 months of the study. The Ovitrap Positivity Index (OPI) ranged from 0 to 28.13% and the Eggs Density Index (EDI) ranged from 0 to 59.9. The predominant species was Aedes aegypti, with 84.9% of the hatched larvae. Although the collection was low when compared to other ovitraps studies, vertical transmission could be detected. Of the 54 pools, dengue virus was detected in four Ae. aegypti pools. PMID:26047186

  4. Synthetic mucin fragments: synthesis of O-sulfo and O-methyl derivatives of allyl O-(beta-D-galactopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-alpha-D- galactopyranoside as potential compounds for sulfotransferases.

    PubMed

    Jain, R K; Piskorz, C F; Matta, K L

    1995-10-01

    Allyl 2-acetamido-4,6-O-(4-methoxybenzylidene)-2-deoxy-alpha-D-galact opy ranoside (1) was condensed with either 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl bromide (2) or 2,3,4-tri-O-benzoyl-6-O-bromoacetyl-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl bromide (14) in the presence of mercuric cyanide. Selective substitution with methyl, sulfo or both at desired positions, followed by the removal of protecting groups, afforded allyl O-(beta-D-galactopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-6-O-methyl-alpha -D- galactopyranoside (5), allyl O-(6-O-sulfo-beta-D-galactopyranosyl sodium salt)-(1-->3)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-6- O-methyl-alpha-D-galactopyranoside (10), allyl O-(beta-D-galactopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-6-O-sulfo-alpha- D- galactopyranoside sodium salt (13), allyl O-(6-O-sulfo-beta-D-galactopyranosyl sodium salt)-(1-->3)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy- alpha-D-galactopyranoside (17) and allyl O-(3-O-sulfo-beta-D-galactopyranosyl sodium salt)-(1-->3)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy- alpha-D-galactopyranoside (22). The structures of compounds 5, 10, 13, 17 and 22 were established by 13C NMR and FAB mass spectroscopy.

  5. Optical Anisotropy Measurements of TRISO Nuclear Fuel Particle Cross-Sections: The Method

    SciTech Connect

    Jellison Jr, Gerald Earle; Hunn, John D

    2008-01-01

    The analysis of two-modulator generalized ellipsometry microscope (2-MGEM) data to extract information on the optical anisotropy of coated particle fuel layers is discussed. Using a high resolution modification to the 2-MGEM, it is possible to obtain generalized ellipsometry images of coating layer cross-sections with a pixel size of 2.5 m and an optical resolution of ~ 4 m. The most important parameter that can be extracted from these ellipsometry images is the diattenuation, which can be directly related to the optical anisotropy factor (OAF or OPTAF) used in previous characterization studies of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated particles. Because high resolution images can be obtained, the data for each coating layer contains >6,000 points, allowing considerable statistical analysis. This analysis has revealed that the diattenuation of the inner pyrocarbon (IPyC) and outer pyrocarbon (OPyC) coatings varies significantly throughout the layer. The 2-MGEM data can also be used to determine the principal axis angle of the pyrocarbon layers, which is nearly perpendicular to the TRISO radius (i.e., growth direction) and corresponds to the average orientation of the graphine planes.

  6. CP violation in hierarchical Yukawa models

    SciTech Connect

    Peccei, R. D.

    2011-04-01

    Because 4-dimensional CP is a good symmetry of many higher-dimensional theories, this suggests the possible existence of an universal CP-violating phase originating from the process of compactification. Such a phase, if it existed, would not be easy to uncover since the phases in Yukawa matrices are not simply related to the observed Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa phase {delta}. Hierarchical Yukawa models, of the type arising in F-theory GUT models provide an interesting exception. Recently, Heckman and Vafa studied a particular F-theory GUT model with hierarchical Yukawa matrices with complex phases of O(1) and showed, by examining the Jarlskog invariant, that this model leads to sin{delta}{approx}O(1). A more detailed examination of the model, although confirming their results, is seen to be also compatible with having a phase {delta}{sub o}={pi}/3 imprinted on the Hermitian Yukawa matrices, leading to sin{delta}{approx_equal}sin{delta}{sub o}.

  7. Modeling and analysis of UN TRISO fuel for LWR application using the PARFUME code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collin, Blaise P.

    2014-08-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) PARFUME (PARticle FUel ModEl) code was used to assess the overall fuel performance of uranium nitride (UN) tristructural isotropic (TRISO) ceramic fuel under irradiation conditions typical of a Light Water Reactor (LWR). The dimensional changes of the fuel particle layers and kernel were calculated, including the formation of an internal gap. The survivability of the UN TRISO particle was estimated depending on the strain behavior of the constituent materials at high fast fluence and burn-up. For nominal cases, internal gas pressure and representative thermal profiles across the kernel and layers were determined along with stress levels in the inner and outer pyrolytic carbon (IPyC/OPyC) and silicon carbide (SiC) layers. These parameters were then used to evaluate fuel particle failure probabilities. Results of the study show that the survivability of UN TRISO fuel under LWR irradiation conditions might only be guaranteed if the kernel and PyC swelling rates are limited at high fast fluence and burn-up. These material properties have large uncertainties at the irradiation levels expected to be reached by UN TRISO fuel in LWRs. Therefore, a large experimental effort would be needed to establish material properties, including kernel and PyC swelling rates, under these conditions before definitive conclusions can be drawn on the behavior of UN TRISO fuel in LWRs.

  8. Renormalization group calculations with k∥ dependent couplings in a ladder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramovici, G.

    2006-05-01

    We investigate the phase diagram of a ladder system (two chains, with a Hubbard interaction U and an interband coupling t⊥). It is already known [M. Fabrizio, Phys. Rev. B 48 (1993) 15838] that backward interband scattering (gb) plays a particular role in this system. Moreover, some authors (for instance [ H.J. Schulz, Phys. Rev. B 53 (1996) R2959]) have early pointed out that, because of this coupling gb, parallel momentum (k∥) dependence could not be neglected. So we have introduced an original method to include k∥ dependence of couplings, in a RG calculation using the one particle irreducible (OPI) scheme. We calculate different susceptibilities, which are classified according to their symmetries. Our results depend on whether we include k∥ dependence or not. When we include this dependence, we observe a region with large antiferromagnetic fluctuations, in the vicinity of small t⊥, followed by a superconducting region with a simultaneous divergence of the spin density waves channel. The region with only spin density wave fluctuations disappears, when k∥ dependence is neglected. Altogether, our results prove that k∥ is an influential variable in the renormalization group flow, for a ladder.

  9. Insect phylogenomics: results, problems and the impact of matrix composition.

    PubMed

    Letsch, Harald O; Meusemann, Karen; Wipfler, Benjamin; Schütte, Kai; Beutel, Rolf; Misof, Bernhard

    2012-08-22

    In this study, we investigated the relationships among insect orders with a main focus on Polyneoptera (lower Neoptera: roaches, mantids, earwigs, grasshoppers, etc.), and Paraneoptera (thrips, lice, bugs in the wide sense). The relationships between and within these groups of insects are difficult to resolve because only few informative molecular and morphological characters are available. Here, we provide the first phylogenomic expressed sequence tags data ('EST': short sub-sequences from a c(opy) DNA sequence encoding for proteins) for stick insects (Phasmatodea) and webspinners (Embioptera) to complete published EST data. As recent EST datasets are characterized by a heterogeneous distribution of available genes across taxa, we use different rationales to optimize the data matrix composition. Our results suggest a monophyletic origin of Polyneoptera and Eumetabola (Paraneoptera + Holometabola). However, we identified artefacts of tree reconstruction (human louse Pediculus humanus assigned to Odonata (damselflies and dragonflies) or Holometabola (insects with a complete metamorphosis); mayfly genus Baetis nested within Neoptera), which were most probably rooted in a data matrix composition bias due to the inclusion of sequence data of entire proteomes. Until entire proteomes are available for each species in phylogenomic analyses, this potential pitfall should be carefully considered. PMID:22628473

  10. Retroelement genome painting: cytological visualization of retroelement expansions in the genera Zea and Tripsacum.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Jonathan C; Birchler, James A

    2006-06-01

    Divergence of abundant genomic elements among the Zea and Tripsacum genera was examined cytologically and a tool kit established for subsequent studies. The LTR regions from the CRM, Huck, Grande, Prem1, Prem2/Ji, Opie, Cinful-1, and Tekay retroelement families were used as FISH probes on mitotic chromosome spreads from a "trispecies" hybrid containing chromosomes from each of three species: Zea mays (2n = 20), Z. diploperennis (2n = 20), and Tripsacum dactyloides (2n = 36). Except for Tekay, which painted both Zea and Tripsacum chromosomes with nearly equal intensity, the retroelement probes hybridized strongly to the Zea chromosomes, allowing them to be distinguished from those of Tripsacum. Huck and Grande hybridized more intensely to maize than to Z. diploperennis chromosomes. Tripsacum genomic clones containing retroelement sequences were isolated that specifically paint Tripsacum chromosomes. The retroelement paints proved effective for distinguishing different genomes in interspecific hybrids and visualizing alien chromatin from T. dactyloides introgressed into maize lines. Other FISH probes (180-bp knob, TR-1, 5S, NOR, Cent4, CentC, rp1, rp3, and alpha-ZeinA) could be simultaneously visualized with the retroelement probes, emphasizing the value of the retroelement probes for cytogenetic studies of Zea and Tripsacum. PMID:16582446

  11. Synthesis and Protonation Studies of Molybdenum(0) Bis(dinitrogen) Complexes Supported by Diphosphine Ligands Containing Pendant Amines

    SciTech Connect

    Labios, Liezel AN; Weiss, Charles J.; Egbert, Jonathan D.; Lense, Sheri J.; Bullock, R. Morris; Dougherty, William G.; Kassel, W. S.; Mock, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    A series of molybdenum bis(dinitrogen) complexes of the formula trans-Mo(N2)2(PEtNRPEt)2 (PEtNRPEt = Et2PCH2N(R)CH2Et2; R = phenyl (1), 2,6-difluorobenzyl (2), 3,5-difluorobenzyl (3), CH2CH2NMe2 (4), CH2-o-Py (5)) have been synthesized and characterized by NMR and IR spectroscopy, and X-ray crystallography. Protonation studies with stoichiometric amounts of triflic acid (HOTf) were performed and the the protonated products were characterized by NMR and in situ IR spectroscopic methods. Protonolysis experiments with excess triflic acid were conducted to test for the formation of ammonia from reduction of the dinitrogen ligands. This work was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. S.L. was supported by the DOE Office of Science, Early Career Research Program through the Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for DOE.

  12. Advanced NO{sub x} control systems for WTE facilities: Controlling costs

    SciTech Connect

    Gorsky, N.; Flaherty, T.G.

    1996-12-31

    As permitted NO{sub x} emissions levels from Waste-to-Energy (WTE) facilities are driven lower, conventional selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) systems become less able to perform efficiently. High NO{sub x} removal efficiencies typically require significant reagent overfeed that results in ammonia slip, which may further react with residual acid gases to form ammonium salt plumes. Alternatively, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems have shown potential for high NO{sub x} removals with comparatively low slip levels, but at substantially higher costs. Ogden Projects, inc. (OPI) has examined several cost-effective alternatives to SCR, based on an advanced SNCR system. This paper summarizes the following: a full scale demonstration testing of the advanced SNCR system which provided the basis for NO{sub x} emission guarantees on a recently permitted WTE facility; the results of a feasibility study which investigated three back-end technologies that have been developed to remove ammonia slip and ammonium salts from the treated flue gas. Coupling the advanced SNCR system with the back-end technologies may allow NO{sub x} removal capabilities approaching those of SCR systems, at much lower cost.

  13. Development of a Radial Deconsolidation Method

    SciTech Connect

    Helmreich, Grant W.; Montgomery, Fred C.; Hunn, John D.

    2015-12-01

    A series of experiments have been initiated to determine the retention or mobility of fission products* in AGR fuel compacts [Petti, et al. 2010]. This information is needed to refine fission product transport models. The AGR-3/4 irradiation test involved half-inch-long compacts that each contained twenty designed-to-fail (DTF) particles, with 20-μm thick carbon-coated kernels whose coatings were deliberately fabricated such that they would crack under irradiation, providing a known source of post-irradiation isotopes. The DTF particles in these compacts were axially distributed along the compact centerline so that the diffusion of fission products released from the DTF kernels would be radially symmetric [Hunn, et al. 2012; Hunn et al. 2011; Kercher, et al. 2011; Hunn, et al. 2007]. Compacts containing DTF particles were irradiated at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) [Collin, 2015]. Analysis of the diffusion of these various post-irradiation isotopes through the compact requires a method to radially deconsolidate the compacts so that nested-annular volumes may be analyzed for post-irradiation isotope inventory in the compact matrix, TRISO outer pyrolytic carbon (OPyC), and DTF kernels. An effective radial deconsolidation method and apparatus appropriate to this application has been developed and parametrically characterized.

  14. Improving the Global Precipitation Record: GPCP Version 2.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, George J.; Adler, Robert F.; Bolvin, David t.; Gu, Guojun

    2009-01-01

    The GPCP has developed Version 2.1 of its long-term (1979-present) global Satellite-Gauge (SG) data sets to take advantage of the improved GPCC gauge analysis, which is one key input. As well, the OPI estimates used in the pre-SSM/I era have been rescaled to 20 years of the SSM/I-era SG. The monthly, pentad, and daily GPCP products have been entirely reprocessed, continuing to enforce consistency of the submonthly estimates to the monthly. Version 2.1 is close to Version 2, with the global ocean, land, and total values about 0%, 6%, and 2% higher, respectively. The revised long-term global precipitation rate is 2.68 mm/d. The corresponding tropical (25 N-S) increases are 0%, 7%, and 3%. Long-term linear changes in the data tend to be smaller in Version 2.1, but the statistics are sensitive to the threshold for land/ocean separation and use of the pre-SSM/I part of the record.

  15. The dynamics of LTR retrotransposon accumulation across 25 million years of panicoid grass evolution.

    PubMed

    Estep, M C; DeBarry, J D; Bennetzen, J L

    2013-02-01

    Sample sequence analysis was employed to investigate the repetitive DNAs that were most responsible for the evolved variation in genome content across seven panicoid grasses with >5-fold variation in genome size and different histories of polyploidy. In all cases, the most abundant repeats were LTR retrotransposons, but the particular families that had become dominant were found to be different in the Pennisetum, Saccharum, Sorghum and Zea lineages. One element family, Huck, has been very active in all of the studied species over the last few million years. This suggests the transmittal of an active or quiescent autonomous set of Huck elements to this lineage at the founding of the panicoids. Similarly, independent recent activity of Ji and Opie elements in Zea and of Leviathan elements in Sorghum and Saccharum species suggests that members of these families with exceptional activation potential were present in the genome(s) of the founders of these lineages. In a detailed analysis of the Zea lineage, the combined action of several families of LTR retrotransposons were observed to have approximately doubled the genome size of Zea luxurians relative to Zea mays and Zea diploperennis in just the last few million years. One of the LTR retrotransposon amplification bursts in Zea may have been initiated by polyploidy, but the great majority of transposable element activations are not. Instead, the results suggest random activation of a few or many LTR retrotransposons families in particular lineages over evolutionary time, with some families especially prone to future activation and hyper-amplification.

  16. The dynamics of LTR retrotransposon accumulation across 25 million years of panicoid grass evolution

    PubMed Central

    Estep, M C; DeBarry, J D; Bennetzen, J L

    2013-01-01

    Sample sequence analysis was employed to investigate the repetitive DNAs that were most responsible for the evolved variation in genome content across seven panicoid grasses with >5-fold variation in genome size and different histories of polyploidy. In all cases, the most abundant repeats were LTR retrotransposons, but the particular families that had become dominant were found to be different in the Pennisetum, Saccharum, Sorghum and Zea lineages. One element family, Huck, has been very active in all of the studied species over the last few million years. This suggests the transmittal of an active or quiescent autonomous set of Huck elements to this lineage at the founding of the panicoids. Similarly, independent recent activity of Ji and Opie elements in Zea and of Leviathan elements in Sorghum and Saccharum species suggests that members of these families with exceptional activation potential were present in the genome(s) of the founders of these lineages. In a detailed analysis of the Zea lineage, the combined action of several families of LTR retrotransposons were observed to have approximately doubled the genome size of Zea luxurians relative to Zea mays and Zea diploperennis in just the last few million years. One of the LTR retrotransposon amplification bursts in Zea may have been initiated by polyploidy, but the great majority of transposable element activations are not. Instead, the results suggest random activation of a few or many LTR retrotransposons families in particular lineages over evolutionary time, with some families especially prone to future activation and hyper-amplification. PMID:23321774

  17. Lithium and valproate decrease inositol mass and increase expression of the yeast INO1 and INO2 genes for inositol biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Vaden, D L; Ding, D; Peterson, B; Greenberg, M L

    2001-05-01

    Bipolar affective disorder (manic-depressive illness) is a chronic, severe, debilitating illness affecting 1-2% of the population. The Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs lithium and valproate are not completely effective in the treatment of this disorder, and the mechanisms underlying their therapeutic effects have not been established. We are employing genetic and molecular approaches to identify common targets of lithium and valproate in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We show that both drugs affect molecular targets in the inositol metabolic pathway. Lithium and valproate cause a decrease in intracellular myo-inositol mass and an increase in expression of both a structural (INO1) and a regulatory (INO2) gene required for inositol biosynthesis. The opi1 mutant, which exhibits constitutive expression of INO1, is more resistant to inhibition of growth by lithium but not by valproate, suggesting that valproate may inhibit the Ino1p-catalyzed synthesis of inositol 1-phosphate. Consistent with this possibility, growth in valproate leads to decreased synthesis of inositol monophosphate. Thus, both lithium and valproate perturb regulation of the inositol biosynthetic pathway, albeit via different mechanisms. This is the first demonstration of increased expression of genes in the inositol biosynthetic pathway by both lithium and valproate. Because inositol is a key regulator of many cellular processes, the effects of lithium and valproate on inositol synthesis have far-reaching implications for predicting genetic determinants of responsiveness and resistance to these agents. PMID:11278273

  18. Glycosylation defects activate filamentous growth Kss1 MAPK and inhibit osmoregulatory Hog1 MAPK.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui-Yu; Tatebayashi, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Katsuyoshi; Saito, Haruo

    2009-05-20

    The yeast filamentous growth (FG) MAP kinase (MAPK) pathway is activated under poor nutritional conditions. We found that the FG-specific Kss1 MAPK is activated by a combination of an O-glycosylation defect caused by disruption of the gene encoding the protein O-mannosyltransferase Pmt4, and an N-glycosylation defect induced by tunicamycin. The O-glycosylated membrane proteins Msb2 and Opy2 are both essential for activating the FG MAPK pathway, but only defective glycosylation of Msb2 activates the FG MAPK pathway. Although the osmoregulatory HOG (high osmolarity glycerol) MAPK pathway and the FG MAPK pathway share almost the entire upstream signalling machinery, osmostress activates only the HOG-specific Hog1 MAPK. Conversely, we now show that glycosylation defects activate only Kss1, while activated Kss1 and the Ptp2 tyrosine phosphatase inhibit Hog1. In the absence of Kss1 or Ptp2, however, glycosylation defects activate Hog1. When Hog1 is activated by glycosylation defects in ptp2 mutant, Kss1 activation is suppressed by Hog1. Thus, the reciprocal inhibitory loop between Kss1 and Hog1 allows only one or the other of these MAPKs to be stably activated under various stress conditions. PMID:19369942

  19. Osmosensing and scaffolding functions of the oligomeric four-transmembrane domain osmosensor Sho1

    PubMed Central

    Tatebayashi, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Katsuyoshi; Nagoya, Miho; Takayama, Tomomi; Nishimura, Akiko; Sakurai, Megumi; Momma, Takashi; Saito, Haruo

    2015-01-01

    The yeast high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway activates the Hog1 MAP kinase, which coordinates adaptation to high osmolarity conditions. Here we demonstrate that the four-transmembrane (TM) domain protein Sho1 is an osmosensor in the HKR1 sub-branch of the HOG pathway. Crosslinking studies indicate that Sho1 forms planar oligomers of the dimers-of-trimers architecture by dimerizing at the TM1/TM4 interface and trimerizing at the TM2/TM3 interface. High external osmolarity induces structural changes in the Sho1 TM domains and Sho1 binding to the cytoplasmic adaptor protein Ste50, which leads to Hog1 activation. Besides its osmosensing function, the Sho1 oligomer serves as a scaffold. By binding to the TM proteins Opy2 and Hkr1 at the TM1/TM4 and TM2/TM3 interface, respectively, Sho1 forms a multi-component signalling complex that is essential for Hog1 activation. Our results illuminate how the four TM domains of Sho1 dictate the oligomer structure as well as its osmosensing and scaffolding functions. PMID:25898136

  20. Green-Ampt approximations: A comprehensive analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Shakir; Islam, Adlul; Mishra, P. K.; Sikka, Alok K.

    2016-04-01

    Green-Ampt (GA) model and its modifications are widely used for simulating infiltration process. Several explicit approximate solutions to the implicit GA model have been developed with varying degree of accuracy. In this study, performance of nine explicit approximations to the GA model is compared with the implicit GA model using the published data for broad range of soil classes and infiltration time. The explicit GA models considered are Li et al. (1976) (LI), Stone et al. (1994) (ST), Salvucci and Entekhabi (1994) (SE), Parlange et al. (2002) (PA), Barry et al. (2005) (BA), Swamee et al. (2012) (SW), Ali et al. (2013) (AL), Almedeij and Esen (2014) (AE), and Vatankhah (2015) (VA). Six statistical indicators (e.g., percent relative error, maximum absolute percent relative error, average absolute percent relative errors, percent bias, index of agreement, and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency) and relative computer computation time are used for assessing the model performance. Models are ranked based on the overall performance index (OPI). The BA model is found to be the most accurate followed by the PA and VA models for variety of soil classes and infiltration periods. The AE, SW, SE, and LI model also performed comparatively better. Based on the overall performance index, the explicit models are ranked as BA > PA > VA > LI > AE > SE > SW > ST > AL. Results of this study will be helpful in selection of accurate and simple explicit approximate GA models for solving variety of hydrological problems.

  1. In vivo Reconstitution of Algal Triacylglycerol Production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chun-Hsien; Kanehara, Kazue; Nakamura, Yuki

    2016-01-01

    The current fascination with algal biofuel production stems from a high lipid biosynthetic capacity and little conflict with land plant cultivation. However, the mechanisms which enable algae to accumulate massive oil remain elusive. An enzyme for triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, CrDGTT2, can produce a large amount of TAG when expressed in yeast or higher plants, suggesting a unique ability of CrDGTT2 to enhance oil production in a heterologous system. Here, we performed metabolic engineering in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by taking advantage of CrDGTT2. We suppressed membrane phospholipid biosynthesis at the log phase by mutating OPI3, enhanced TAG biosynthetic pathway at the stationary phase by overexpressing PAH1 and CrDGTT2, and suppressed TAG hydrolysis on growth resumption from the stationary phase by knocking out DGK1. The resulting engineered yeast cells accumulated about 70-fold of TAG compared with wild type cells. Moreover, TAG production was sustainable. Our results demonstrated the enhanced and sustainable TAG production in the yeast synthetic platform. PMID:26913021

  2. Drugs of abuse detection in saliva based on actuated optical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Jie; Li, Zhenyu; Jiang, Hong; Wang, Wenlong; Wu, Yixuan

    2014-12-01

    There has been a considerable increase in the abuse of drugs during the past decade. Combing drug use with driving is very dangerous. More than 11% of drivers in a roadside survey tested positive for drugs, while 18% of drivers killed in accidents tested positive for drugs as reported in USA, 2007. Toward developing a rapid drug screening device, we use saliva as the sample, and combining the traditional immunoassays method with optical magnetic technology. There were several methods for magnetic nanoparticles detection, such as magnetic coils, SQUID, microscopic imaging, and Hall sensors. All of these methods were not suitable for our demands. By developing a novel optical scheme, we demonstrate high-sensitivity detection in saliva. Drugs of abuse are detected at sub-nano gram per milliliter levels in less than 120 seconds. Evanescent wave principle has been applied to sensitively monitor the presence of magnetic nanoparticles on the binding surface. Like the total internal reflection fluorescence microscope (TIRFM), evanescent optical field is generated at the plastic/fluid interface, which decays exponentially and penetrates into the fluid by only a sub-wavelength distance. By disturbance total internal reflection with magnetic nanoparticles, the optical intensity would be influenced. We then detected optical output by imaging the sensor surface onto a CCD camera. We tested four drugs tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), methamphetamine (MAMP), ketamine (KET), morphine (OPI), using this technology. 100 ng mL-1 sensitivity was achieved, and obvious evidence showed that this results could be improved in further researches.

  3. The yeast VAP homolog Scs2p has a phosphoinositide-binding ability that is correlated with its activity

    SciTech Connect

    Kagiwada, Satoshi Hashimoto, Misa

    2007-12-28

    The yeast VAMP-associated protein (VAP) homolog Scs2p is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)/nuclear membrane protein that binds to an FFAT (diphenylalanine in an acidic tract) motif found in various lipid-metabolic proteins, including Opi1p, a negative regulator of phospholipid biosynthesis. Here, we show that Scs2p is a novel phosphoinositide-binding protein that can bind to phosphatidylinositol monophosphates and bisphosphates in vitro. The phosphoinositide-binding domain was assigned to the N-terminal major sperm protein (MSP) domain which also contains the FFAT-binding domain. When several lysine residues in the MSP domain were substituted for alanine, the resulting mutant Scs2 proteins lost the phosphoinositide-binding ability and failed to complement the inositol auxotrophy of an scs2 deletion strain. However, the mutant proteins still localized in the ER/nuclear membrane, in a similar manner to wild-type Scs2p. These results suggest the possibility that Scs2p activity is regulated by phosphoinositides to coordinate phospholipid biosynthesis in response to changes in phospholipid composition.

  4. [Detection of TVOC and odor in industrial park using electronic nose].

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiu-Ying; Cai, Qiang; Ye, Zhao-Xia; Guo, Wei; Lu, Yan-Wen; Zhang, Yong-Ming

    2011-12-01

    The main volatile compounds belong to TVOC or odor which may generate from industrial park,special sensors were adopted to build electronic nose for detecting those compounds. TVOC pollution index (TPI) and odor pollution index (OPI) were designed as well as detecting method based on electronic nose in the field. On this basis, considering the pollution situation of chemical industrial of Zhapu port in Jiaxing, six detecting points were selected to be tested by electronic nose on site. Each sensor responses processed by principal components analysis (PCA), two principal components were extracted, that is, eight sensors can be divided into two groups including the types of TVOC (S1) and odor (S2-S8). Meanwhile, the on site collected samples were qualitatively analyzed with GC/ MS. At each testing point, integral area percentage of the compounds being a part of TVOC accumulated mostly over 90% and to odor, mostly was below 10%. Results show: (1) Choosing appropriate sensors combining PCA can preliminarily reflect the pollution condition of TVOC and odor in industrial park; (2) Combining pollution indexes measured with electronic nose and results of qualitative analysis with GC/MS can generally concluded the overall pollution situation of TVOC and odor in industrial park and distribution of each pollutant; (3) Application of electronic noses and GIS to detect TVOC and odor in industrial park can preliminary assess space pollution situation in industrial park.

  5. DATA ACQUISITION FOR SNS BEAM LOSS MONITOR SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    YENG,Y.GASSNER,D.HOFF,L.WITKOVER,R.

    2003-10-13

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) beam loss monitor system uses VME based electronics to measure the radiation produced by lost beam. Beam loss signals from cylindrical argon-filled ion chambers and neutron detectors will be conditioned in analog front-end (AFE) circuitry. These signals will be digitized and further processed in a dedicated VME crate. Fast beam inhibit and low-level, long-term loss warnings will be generated to provide machine protection. The fast loss data will have a bandwidth of 35kHz. While the low level, long-term loss data will have much higher sensitivity. This is further complicated by the 3 decade range of intensity as the Ring accumulates beam. Therefore a bandwidth of 100kHz and dynamic range larger than 21 bits data acquisition system will be required for this purpose. Based on the evaluation of several commercial ADC modules in preliminary design phase, a 24 bits Sigma-Delta data acquisition VME bus card was chosen as the SNS BLM digitizer. An associated vxworks driver and EPICS device support module also have been developed at BNL. Simulating test results showed this system is fully qualified for both fast loss and low-level, long-term loss application. The first prototype including data acquisition hardware setup and EPICS software (running database and OPI clients) will be used in SNS Drift Tube Linac (DTL) system commissioning.

  6. Electropolymerized tricopolymer based on N-pyrrole derivatives as a primer coating for improving the performance of a drug-eluting stent.

    PubMed

    Okner, Regina; Shaulov, Yulia; Tal, Noam; Favaro, Gregory; Domb, Abraham J; Mandler, Daniel

    2009-04-01

    The coating of medical implants by polymeric films aims at increasing their biocompatibility as well as providing a durable matrix for the controlled release of a drug. In many cases, the coating is divided into a primer layer, which bridges between the medical implant and the drug-eluting matrix. The primer coating must be very carefully designed in order to provide optimal interactions with the surface of the medical implant and the outer layer. Here we present a simple and versatile approach for designing the primer layer based on electropolymerization of a carefully chosen blend of three different pyrrole derivatives: N-methylpyrrole (N-me), N-(2-carboxyethyl)pyrrole (PPA), and the butyl ester of N-(2-carboxyethyl)pyrrole (BuOPy). The composition and physical properties of the primer layer were studied in detail by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and a nano scratch tester. The latter provides the in-depth analysis of the adhesion and viscoelasticity of the coating. AFM phase imaging reveals a uniform distribution of the three monomers forming rough morphology. This primer layer significantly improved the morphology, stability, and paclitaxel release profile of a paclitaxel-eluting matrix based on methyl and lauryl methacrylates.

  7. High-resolution physical mapping in Pennisetum squamulatum reveals extensive chromosomal heteromorphism of the genomic region associated with apomixis.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Yukio; Conner, Joann A; Goel, Shailendra; Morishige, Daryl T; Mullet, John E; Hanna, Wayne W; Ozias-Akins, Peggy

    2004-04-01

    Gametophytic apomixis is asexual reproduction as a consequence of parthenogenetic development of a chromosomally unreduced egg. The trait leads to the production of embryos with a maternal genotype, i.e. progeny are clones of the maternal plant. The application of the trait in agriculture could be a tremendous tool for crop improvement through conventional and nonconventional breeding methods. Unfortunately, there are no major crops that reproduce by apomixis, and interspecific hybridization with wild relatives has not yet resulted in commercially viable germplasm. Pennisetum squamulatum is an aposporous apomict from which the gene(s) for apomixis has been transferred to sexual pearl millet by backcrossing. Twelve molecular markers that are linked with apomixis coexist in a tight linkage block called the apospory-specific genomic region (ASGR), and several of these markers have been shown to be hemizygous in the polyploid genome of P. squamulatum. High resolution genetic mapping of these markers has not been possible because of low recombination in this region of the genome. We now show the physical arrangement of bacterial artificial chromosomes containing apomixis-linked molecular markers by high resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization on pachytene chromosomes. The size of the ASGR, currently defined as the entire hemizygous region that hybridizes with apomixis-linked bacterial artificial chromosomes, was estimated on pachytene and mitotic chromosomes to be approximately 50 Mbp (a quarter of the chromosome). The ASGR includes highly repetitive sequences from an Opie-2-like retrotransposon family that are particularly abundant in this region of the genome.

  8. Retroelement Genome Painting: Cytological Visualization of Retroelement Expansions in the Genera Zea and Tripsacum

    PubMed Central

    Lamb, Jonathan C.; Birchler, James A.

    2006-01-01

    Divergence of abundant genomic elements among the Zea and Tripsacum genera was examined cytologically and a tool kit established for subsequent studies. The LTR regions from the CRM, Huck, Grande, Prem1, Prem2/Ji, Opie, Cinful-1, and Tekay retroelement families were used as FISH probes on mitotic chromosome spreads from a “trispecies” hybrid containing chromosomes from each of three species: Zea mays (2n = 20), Z. diploperennis (2n = 20), and Tripsacum dactyloides (2n = 36). Except for Tekay, which painted both Zea and Tripsacum chromosomes with nearly equal intensity, the retroelement probes hybridized strongly to the Zea chromosomes, allowing them to be distinguished from those of Tripsacum. Huck and Grande hybridized more intensely to maize than to Z. diploperennis chromosomes. Tripsacum genomic clones containing retroelement sequences were isolated that specifically paint Tripsacum chromosomes. The retroelement paints proved effective for distinguishing different genomes in interspecific hybrids and visualizing alien chromatin from T. dactyloides introgressed into maize lines. Other FISH probes (180-bp knob, TR-1, 5S, NOR, Cent4, CentC, rp1, rp3, and α-ZeinA) could be simultaneously visualized with the retroelement probes, emphasizing the value of the retroelement probes for cytogenetic studies of Zea and Tripsacum. PMID:16582446

  9. [Topsoil phosphorus forms and availability of different soil and water conservation plantations in typical black soil region, northeast China].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-Yan; Fan, Rui-Ying; Wang, En-Heng; Xia, Xiang-You; Chen, Xiang-Wei

    2014-06-01

    Aiming to understand soil phosphorus status of plantations in typical black soil region of Northeast China, the topsoil (0-10 cm) phosphorus fractionations and its availability were examined in four soil and water conservation plantations dominantly composed of Larix gmelini, Fraxinus mandshurica, Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica and Populus nigra var. italica x P. cathayan, respectively. The results showed that total P, Olsen-P and the concentration of different P fractionations in F. mandshurica and P. nigra var. italica x P. cathayan plantations were significantly higher than that of the other two coniferous plantations. Organic P was the major fractionation in the four plantations' topsoil, and sodium hydroxide extractable organic P (NaOH-Po ) representing moderately labile organic phosphorus was predominant, which accounted for 58.9% of total P. The contents of H2O-Pi and NaHCO3-P which were more labile to plant were lower, only accounting for 1.2% and 6.6% of total P, respectively. Except for NaHCO3-Po, all the other P fractions of four plantations correlated with each other, and they also had significant correlations with soil organic matter, total P, Olsen-P. Compared with the coniferous plantations, the broadleaf plantations presented higher availability of phosphorus.

  10. Scaffold Protein Ahk1, Which Associates with Hkr1, Sho1, Ste11, and Pbs2, Inhibits Cross Talk Signaling from the Hkr1 Osmosensor to the Kss1 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Akiko; Yamamoto, Katsuyoshi; Oyama, Masaaki; Kozuka-Hata, Hiroko

    2016-01-01

    In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, osmostress activates the Hog1 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), which regulates diverse osmoadaptive responses. Hkr1 is a large, highly glycosylated, single-path transmembrane protein that is a putative osmosensor in one of the Hog1 upstream pathways termed the HKR1 subbranch. The extracellular region of Hkr1 contains both a positive and a negative regulatory domain. However, the function of the cytoplasmic domain of Hkr1 (Hkr1-cyto) is unknown. Here, using a mass spectrometric method, we identified a protein, termed Ahk1 (Associated with Hkr1), that binds to Hkr1-cyto. Deletion of the AHK1 gene (in the absence of other Hog1 upstream branches) only partially inhibited osmostress-induced Hog1 activation. In contrast, Hog1 could not be activated by constitutively active mutants of the Hog1 pathway signaling molecules Opy2 or Ste50 in ahk1Δ cells, whereas robust Hog1 activation occurred in AHK1+ cells. In addition to Hkr1-cyto binding, Ahk1 also bound to other signaling molecules in the HKR1 subbranch, including Sho1, Ste11, and Pbs2. Although osmotic stimulation of Hkr1 does not activate the Kss1 MAPK, deletion of AHK1 allowed Hkr1 to activate Kss1 by cross talk. Thus, Ahk1 is a scaffold protein in the HKR1 subbranch and prevents incorrect signal flow from Hkr1 to Kss1. PMID:26787842

  11. Characteristics of terrestrial basaltic rock populations: Implications for Mars lander and rover science and safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craddock, Robert A.; Golombek, Matthew P.

    2016-08-01

    We analyzed the morphometry of basaltic rock populations that have been emplaced or affected by a variety of geologic processes, including explosive volcanic eruptions (as a proxy for impact cratering), catastrophic flooding, frost shattering, salt weathering, alluvial deposition, and chemical weathering. Morphometric indices for these rock populations were compared to an unmodified population of rocks that had broken off a solidified lava flow to understand how different geologic processes change rock shape. We found that a majority of rocks have an sphericity described as either a disc or sphere in the Zingg classification system and posit that this is a function of cooling fractures in the basalt (Zingg [1935] Schweiz. Miner. Petrogr. Mitt., 15, 39-140). Angularity (roundness) is the most diagnostic morphometric index, but the Corey Shape Factor (CSF), Oblate-Prolate Index (OPI) and deviation from compactness (D) also sometimes distinguished weathering processes. Comparison of our results to prior analyses of rock populations found at the Mars Pathfinder, Spirit, and Curiosity landing sites support previous conclusions. The observation that the size-frequency distribution of terrestrial rock populations follow exponential functions similar to lander and orbital measurements of rocks on Mars, which is expected from fracture and fragmentation theory, indicates that these distributions are being dominantly controlled by the initial fracture and fragmentation of the basalt.

  12. Post-irradiation examination of capsule P13T

    SciTech Connect

    Scheffel, W.J.

    1981-08-01

    Postirradiation examination revealed excellent performance of the H-451 and TS-1240 graphite bodies and fuel rods irraidated to a peak fluence of 8.0 x 10/sup 25/ n/m/sup 2/ (E > 29 fJ)/sub HTGR/ and to a peak volume-average fuel rod temperature of 1215/sup 0/C. A range of fuel rod variables was tested matrix filler graphite, shim particles, compositions; no variable was detrimental to the rod integrity. Particle batches with coating designs representative of the LHTGR (Large HTGR) design requirements exhibited fair irradiation performance to full fast neutron exposure ((8.0 x 10/sup 25/ n/m/sup 2/) (E > 29 fJ)/sub HTGR/) and burnups of 75%. True in-service particle failures were concluded to be <0.3% for all P13T particles. The observed failure was attributed to the outer pyrolytic carbons (OPyC) layer. The failure fraction for 32 P13T fuel rods are greater than predicted, but the mean observed value is less than predicted up to fast fluences of approx. 6.0 x 10/sup 25/ n/m/sup 2/ (E > 29 fJ)/sub HTGT/ at 50% confidence. Incipient degradation of the SiC coating due to palladium attack was observed in the HEU UC/sub 2/-TRISO and the UCO (oxygen/uranium ratio (O/U) = 0.64) fuel rods.

  13. Evaluation of powdery mildew-resistance of grape germplasm and rapid amplified polymorphic DNA markers associated with the resistant trait in Chinese wild Vitis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Zhang, Y; Yu, H; Wang, Y

    2014-05-09

    The resistance of wild Vitis germplasm, including Chinese and American wild Vitis and Vitis vinifera cultivars, to powdery mildew (Uncinula necator Burr.) was evaluated for two consecutive years under natural conditions. Most of the Chinese and North American species displayed a resistant phenotype, whereas all of the European species were highly susceptible. The Alachua and Conquistador accessions of Vitis rotundifolia species, which originated in North America, were immune to the disease, while Baihe-35-1, one of the accessions of Vitis pseudoreticulata, showed the strongest resistance among all Chinese accessions evaluated. Three rapid amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers, OPW02-1756, OPO11-964, and OPY13-661, were obtained after screening 520 random primers among various germplasm, and these markers were found to be associated with powdery mildew resistance in Baihe-35-1 and in some Chinese species, but not in any European species. Analysis of F₁ and F₂ progenies of a cross between resistant Baihe-35-1 and susceptible Carignane (V. vinifera) revealed that the three RAPD markers were linked to the powdery resistant trait in Baihe-35-1 plants. Potential applications of the identified RAPD markers for gene mapping, marker-assisted selection, and breeding were investigated in 168 F₂ progenies of the same cross. Characterization of the resistant phenotype of the selected F₂ seedlings for breeding a new disease-resistant grape cultivar is in progress.

  14. [Assessment of TVOC and odor in the remediation site of contaminated soil and groundwater using electronic nose].

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiu-Ying; Cai, Qiang; Liu, Rui; Zhang, Yong-Ming

    2013-02-01

    According to the conditions of a contaminated soil and groundwater remediation site in Shanghai, the self-built electronic nose was applied to detect VOCs and odor of previously remedied soil and groundwater, remedying soil and groundwater, and the air above and around the site. Combining the formula of TPI and OPI, the value of each point was got and was shown in figures. Results showed: 1. Comparing the determination results of previously remedied with remedying contaminated soil and groundwater, the concentration of TVOC and odor was overall declined. The result was consistent with the fact. The detection result of electronic nose was proved to be right; 2. In the remediation process of soil and groundwater, the volatilization of VOCs and odor was inflected by temperature and works of crushing, adding medicine and turning the soil on time. The concentration showed a trend of overall decline with stage rising, so the electronic noses can be used for dynamic monitoring of the whole remediation process; 3. Combined with the GIS, the electronic noses can preliminary assess space pollution situation caused by the remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater and the influence on the residence in the surrounding region. However, further study on the refined classification of the impact degree is needed.

  15. Comparison of Homogeneous and Heterogeneous CFD Fuel Models for Phase I of the IAEA CRP on HTR Uncertainties Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Gerhard Strydom; Su-Jong Yoon

    2014-04-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) evaluation of homogeneous and heterogeneous fuel models was performed as part of the Phase I calculations of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinate Research Program (CRP) on High Temperature Reactor (HTR) Uncertainties in Modeling (UAM). This study was focused on the nominal localized stand-alone fuel thermal response, as defined in Ex. I-3 and I-4 of the HTR UAM. The aim of the stand-alone thermal unit-cell simulation is to isolate the effect of material and boundary input uncertainties on a very simplified problem, before propagation of these uncertainties are performed in subsequent coupled neutronics/thermal fluids phases on the benchmark. In many of the previous studies for high temperature gas cooled reactors, the volume-averaged homogeneous mixture model of a single fuel compact has been applied. In the homogeneous model, the Tristructural Isotropic (TRISO) fuel particles in the fuel compact were not modeled directly and an effective thermal conductivity was employed for the thermo-physical properties of the fuel compact. On the contrary, in the heterogeneous model, the uranium carbide (UCO), inner and outer pyrolytic carbon (IPyC/OPyC) and silicon carbide (SiC) layers of the TRISO fuel particles are explicitly modeled. The fuel compact is modeled as a heterogeneous mixture of TRISO fuel kernels embedded in H-451 matrix graphite. In this study, a steady-state and transient CFD simulations were performed with both homogeneous and heterogeneous models to compare the thermal characteristics. The nominal values of the input parameters are used for this CFD analysis. In a future study, the effects of input uncertainties in the material properties and boundary parameters will be investigated and reported.

  16. Evaluation of the sticky MosquiTRAP for detecting Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) during the dry season in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gama, Renata A; Silva, Eric M; Silva, Ivoneide M; Resende, Marcelo C; Eiras, Alvaro E

    2007-01-01

    MosquiTRAP is a sticky trap specifically designed to capture gravid females of Aedes aegypti (L.) and allows the identification of the mosquito in the field during the inspection of the trap. This study aims to compare this sticky trap to larval and ovitrap surveys for field monitoring of A. aegypti during the dry season. The study was conducted from March to June of 2003 in 20 blocks of the district of Itapoã, Belo Horizonte, MG. The traps were monitored every week while the larval survey was conducted on a monthly basis. The larval index: Premise Index (PI) and Breteau Index (BI) had equal values throughout the experiment (1.72 in the first two months and zero in the last two). The container index (CI) during the first two months was 0.09 and 0.1%, respectively and zero in the last two. The Ovitrap Positive Index (OPI) ranged from 16.7 to 76.9%, and the MosquiTRAP Positive Index (MPI) ranged from 0 to 31.5%. The Egg Density Index (EDI) ranged from 26.6 to 82.8, while the Adult Density Index ranged from 0 to 1.6 throughout the experiment. Temperature and rainfall did not affect the Positive and Density Indices, although these environmental variables seemed to have affected the larvae indices. Although the MosquiTRAP caught a low number of Aedes mosquitoes during the study, it was more sensitive than the larval survey to detect the presence of Aedes mosquitoes. PMID:17607465

  17. Intramolecular Proton Transfer Boosts Water Oxidation Catalyzed by a Ru Complex.

    PubMed

    Matheu, Roc; Ertem, Mehmed Z; Benet-Buchholz, Jordi; Coronado, Eugenio; Batista, Victor S; Sala, Xavier; Llobet, Antoni

    2015-08-26

    We introduce a new family of complexes with the general formula [Ru(n)(tda)(py)2](m+) (n = 2, m = 0, 1; n = 3, m = 1, 2(+); n = 4, m = 2, 3(2+)), with tda(2-) being [2,2':6',2″-terpyridine]-6,6″-dicarboxylate, including complex [Ru(IV)(OH)(tda-κ-N(3)O)(py)2](+), 4H(+), which we find to be an impressive water oxidation catalyst, formed by hydroxo coordination to 3(2+) under basic conditions. The complexes are synthesized, isolated, and thoroughly characterized by analytical, spectroscopic (UV-vis, nuclear magnetic resonance, electron paramagnetic resonance), computational, and electrochemical techniques (cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry, coulometry), including solid-state monocrystal X-ray diffraction analysis. In oxidation state IV, the Ru center is seven-coordinated and diamagnetic, whereas in oxidation state II, the complex has an unbonded dangling carboxylate and is six-coordinated while still diamagnetic. With oxidation state III, the coordination number is halfway between the coordination of oxidation states II and IV. Species generated in situ have also been characterized by spectroscopic, computational, and electrochemical techniques, together with the related species derived from a different degree of protonation and oxidation states. 4H(+) can be generated potentiometrically, or voltammetrically, from 3(2+), and both coexist in solution. While complex 3(2+) is not catalytically active, the catalytic performance of complex 4H(+) is characterized by the foot of the wave analysis, giving an impressive turnover frequency record of 8000 s(-1) at pH 7.0 and 50 000 s(-1) at pH 10.0. Density functional theory calculations provide a complete description of the water oxidation catalytic cycle of 4H(+), manifesting the key functional role of the dangling carboxylate in lowering the activation free energies that lead to O-O bond formation. PMID:26226390

  18. A Single Mutation in Chikungunya Virus Affects Vector Specificity and Epidemic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Tsetsarkin, Konstantin A; Vanlandingham, Dana L; McGee, Charles E; Higgs, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an emerging arbovirus associated with several recent large-scale epidemics. The 2005–2006 epidemic on Reunion island that resulted in approximately 266,000 human cases was associated with a strain of CHIKV with a mutation in the envelope protein gene (E1-A226V). To test the hypothesis that this mutation in the epidemic CHIKV (strain LR2006 OPY1) might influence fitness for different vector species, viral infectivity, dissemination, and transmission of CHIKV were compared in Aedes albopictus, the species implicated in the epidemic, and the recognized vector Ae. aegypti. Using viral infectious clones of the Reunion strain and a West African strain of CHIKV, into which either the E1–226 A or V mutation was engineered, we demonstrated that the E1-A226V mutation was directly responsible for a significant increase in CHIKV infectivity for Ae. albopictus, and led to more efficient viral dissemination into mosquito secondary organs and transmission to suckling mice. This mutation caused a marginal decrease in CHIKV Ae. aegypti midgut infectivity, had no effect on viral dissemination, and was associated with a slight increase in transmission by Ae. aegypti to suckling mice in competition experiments. The effect of the E1-A226V mutation on cholesterol dependence of CHIKV was also analyzed, revealing an association between cholesterol dependence and increased fitness of CHIKV in Ae. albopictus. Our observation that a single amino acid substitution can influence vector specificity provides a plausible explanation of how this mutant virus caused an epidemic in a region lacking the typical vector. This has important implications with respect to how viruses may establish a transmission cycle when introduced into a new area. Due to the widespread distribution of Ae. albopictus, this mutation increases the potential for CHIKV to permanently extend its range into Europe and the Americas. PMID:18069894

  19. Systems Engineering Techniques for ALS Decision Making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, Luis F.; Drysdale, Alan E.; Jones, Harry; Levri, Julie A.

    2004-01-01

    The Advanced Life Support (ALS) Metric is the predominant tool for predicting the cost of ALS systems. Metric goals for the ALS Program are daunting, requiring a threefold increase in the ALS Metric by 2010. Confounding the problem, the rate new ALS technologies reach the maturity required for consideration in the ALS Metric and the rate at which new configurations are developed is slow, limiting the search space and potentially giving the perspective of a ALS technology, the ALS Metric may remain elusive. This paper is a sequel to a paper published in the proceedings of the 2003 ICES conference entitled, "Managing to the metric: an approach to optimizing life support costs." The conclusions of that paper state that the largest contributors to the ALS Metric should be targeted by ALS researchers and management for maximum metric reductions. Certainly, these areas potentially offer large potential benefits to future ALS missions; however, the ALS Metric is not the only decision-making tool available to the community. To facilitate decision-making within the ALS community a combination of metrics should be utilized, such as the Equivalent System Mass (ESM)-based ALS metric, but also those available through techniques such as life cycle costing and faithful consideration of the sensitivity of the assumed models and data. Often a lack of data is cited as the reason why these techniques are not considered for utilization. An existing database development effort within the ALS community, known as OPIS, may provide the opportunity to collect the necessary information to enable the proposed systems analyses. A review of these additional analysis techniques is provided, focusing on the data necessary to enable these. The discussion is concluded by proposing how the data may be utilized by analysts in the future.

  20. Applicability of an on-site test for its use in post-mortem blood.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Amparo; Sánchez, Marta; Palahí, Mariona; Barbal, Maria; Marrón, M A Teresa; Mora, Agustí

    2011-09-01

    The number of deaths related to drugs of abuse makes necessary the use of an on-site test for those cases in which a rapid detection of the consumed drug is required. Cozart® DDS test provides a simple, fast and reliable tool for the qualitative on-site analysis in post-mortem blood. Owing that this test is prepared for oral fluid samples, a validation becomes essential in order to use it for a different matrix than the established one. According to that, results obtained by Cozart® DDS test used in post-mortem blood samples have been compared with a qualitative gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS). Positive results for cocaine family compounds (COC-F) were 43.75%, for opiates family compounds (OPI-F) 25.78%, and for cannabis family compounds (THC-F) 2.34%. Negative results were 28.13%. No amphetamines (AMP) or methamphetamines (MA) were found. Sensitivity and specificity was available for cocaine and opiates but not for cannabis because only five cases were detected. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive positive value and predictive negative value for cocaine were 98%, 91%, 88% and 99%, respectively. Sensivilty, specificity, predictive positive value (PPV) and predictive negative value (NPV) for opiates were 93%, 92%, 76% and 98%, respectively. Likelihood positive ratios for cocaine and opiates have been 10.92 and 11.69, respectively, while likelihood negative ratios have been 0.02 and 0.08, respectively. Results show the suitability of Cozart® DDS test for the qualitative detection of cocaine and opiates in post-mortem blood.

  1. Intramolecular proton transfer boosts water oxidation catalyzed by a Ru complex

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Matheu, Roc; Ertem, Mehmed Z.; Benet-Buchholz, J.; Coronado, Eugenio; Batista, Victor S.; Sala, Xavier; Llobet, Antoni

    2015-07-30

    We introduce a new family of complexes with the general formula [Run(tda)(py)2]m+ (n = 2, m = 0, 1; n = 3, m = 1, 2+; n = 4, m = 2, 32+), with tda2– being [2,2':6',2"-terpyridine]-6,6"-dicarboxylate, including complex [RuIV(OH)(tda-κ-N3O)(py)2]+, 4H+, which we find to be an impressive water oxidation catalyst, formed by hydroxo coordination to 32+ under basic conditions. The complexes are synthesized, isolated, and thoroughly characterized by analytical, spectroscopic (UV–vis, nuclear magnetic resonance, electron paramagnetic resonance), computational, and electrochemical techniques (cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry, coulometry), including solid-state monocrystal X-ray diffraction analysis. In oxidation state IV, the Rumore » center is seven-coordinated and diamagnetic, whereas in oxidation state II, the complex has an unbonded dangling carboxylate and is six-coordinated while still diamagnetic. With oxidation state III, the coordination number is halfway between the coordination of oxidation states II and IV. Species generated in situ have also been characterized by spectroscopic, computational, and electrochemical techniques, together with the related species derived from a different degree of protonation and oxidation states. 4H+ can be generated potentiometrically, or voltammetrically, from 32+, and both coexist in solution. While complex 32+ is not catalytically active, the catalytic performance of complex 4H+ is characterized by the foot of the wave analysis, giving an impressive turnover frequency record of 8000 s–1 at pH 7.0 and 50,000 s–1 at pH 10.0. Density functional theory calculations provide a complete description of the water oxidation catalytic cycle of 4H+, manifesting the key functional role of the dangling carboxylate in lowering the activation free energies that lead to O–O bond formation.« less

  2. Synthesis of di- to penta-saccharides related to the O-specific polysaccharide of Shigella dysenteriae type 1, and their nuclear magnetic resonance study.

    PubMed

    Pozsgay, V; Coxon, B; Yeh, H

    1993-10-01

    The syntheses of oligosaccharide fragments of the O-specific polysaccharide of the lipopolysaccharide of Shigella dysenteriae type 1 are described, including disaccharides methyl O-alpha-D-mannopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-D-galactopyranoside (1), and methyl O-(2-deoxy-2-propionamido-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-alpha-L- rhamnopyranoside (2), trisaccharide methyl O-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->3)-O-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-alpha-D- glucopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (3), tetrasaccharide methyl O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-O-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->3)- O-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-alpha-L-rhamno -pyranoside (4), and pentasaccharide methyl O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->3)-O-alpha-L- rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-O-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl- (1-->3)-O-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-alpha-L- rhamnopyranoside (5). The following monosaccharide building blocks were used as starting compounds: methyl 6-O-tert-butyldiphenylsilyl-3,4-O-isopropylidene-alpha-D-galact opy ranoside (8), methyl 3,4,6-tri-O-benzyl-2-O-(4-methoxybenzyl)-1-thio-beta-D- galactopyranoside (11), methyl 3,4,6-tri-O-acetyl-2-azido-2-deoxy-1-thio-alpha- D-glucopyranoside (16), methyl 2-azido-4,6-O-benzylidene-2-deoxy-1-thio-alpha-D- glucopyranoside (18), methyl 2,4-di-O-benzyl-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (21), methyl 2,3,4-tri-O-benzoyl-1-thio-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (22), 2,3,4-tri-O-benzoyl-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl bromide (23), and methyl 4-O-benzyl-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (24). Nuclear magnetic resonance data indicate that oligosaccharides 4 and 5 partially mimic the conformation of the O-specific polysaccharide of S. dys. type 1. PMID:7521746

  3. Intramolecular Proton Transfer Boosts Water Oxidation Catalyzed by a Ru Complex.

    PubMed

    Matheu, Roc; Ertem, Mehmed Z; Benet-Buchholz, Jordi; Coronado, Eugenio; Batista, Victor S; Sala, Xavier; Llobet, Antoni

    2015-08-26

    We introduce a new family of complexes with the general formula [Ru(n)(tda)(py)2](m+) (n = 2, m = 0, 1; n = 3, m = 1, 2(+); n = 4, m = 2, 3(2+)), with tda(2-) being [2,2':6',2″-terpyridine]-6,6″-dicarboxylate, including complex [Ru(IV)(OH)(tda-κ-N(3)O)(py)2](+), 4H(+), which we find to be an impressive water oxidation catalyst, formed by hydroxo coordination to 3(2+) under basic conditions. The complexes are synthesized, isolated, and thoroughly characterized by analytical, spectroscopic (UV-vis, nuclear magnetic resonance, electron paramagnetic resonance), computational, and electrochemical techniques (cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry, coulometry), including solid-state monocrystal X-ray diffraction analysis. In oxidation state IV, the Ru center is seven-coordinated and diamagnetic, whereas in oxidation state II, the complex has an unbonded dangling carboxylate and is six-coordinated while still diamagnetic. With oxidation state III, the coordination number is halfway between the coordination of oxidation states II and IV. Species generated in situ have also been characterized by spectroscopic, computational, and electrochemical techniques, together with the related species derived from a different degree of protonation and oxidation states. 4H(+) can be generated potentiometrically, or voltammetrically, from 3(2+), and both coexist in solution. While complex 3(2+) is not catalytically active, the catalytic performance of complex 4H(+) is characterized by the foot of the wave analysis, giving an impressive turnover frequency record of 8000 s(-1) at pH 7.0 and 50 000 s(-1) at pH 10.0. Density functional theory calculations provide a complete description of the water oxidation catalytic cycle of 4H(+), manifesting the key functional role of the dangling carboxylate in lowering the activation free energies that lead to O-O bond formation.

  4. RESULTS OF TESTS TO DEMONSTRATE A SIX-INCH DIAMETER COATER FOR PRODUCTION OF TRISO-COATED PARTICLES FOR ADVANCED GAS REACTOR EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas W. Marshall

    2008-09-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP)/Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program includes a series of irradiation experiments in Idaho National Laboratory's (INL's) Advanced Test Reactor. TRISOcoated particles for the first AGR experiment, AGR-1, were produced at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in a twoinch diameter coater. A requirement of the NGNP/AGR Program is to produce coated particles for later experiments in coaters more representative of industrial scale. Toward this end, tests have been performed by Babcock and Wilcox (B&W) in a six-inch diameter coater. These tests are expected to lead to successful fabrication of particles for the second AGR experiment, AGR-2. While a thorough study of how coating parameters affect particle properties was not the goal of these tests, the test data obtained provides insight into process parameter/coated particle property relationships. Most relationships for the six-inch diameter coater followed trends found with the ORNL two-inch coater, in spite of differences in coater design and bed hydrodynamics. For example the key coating parameters affecting pyrocarbon anisotropy were coater temperature, coating gas fraction, total gas flow rate and kernel charge size. Anisotropy of the outer pyrolytic carbon (OPyC) layer also strongly correlates with coater differential pressure. In an effort to reduce the total particle fabrication run time, silicon carbide (SiC) was deposited with methyltrichlorosilane (MTS) concentrations up to 3 mol %. Using only hydrogen as the fluidizing gas, the high concentration MTS tests resulted in particles with lower than desired SiC densities. However when hydrogen was partially replaced with argon, high SiC densities were achieved with the high MTS gas fraction.

  5. RESULTS OF TESTS TO DEMONSTRATE A SIX-INCH-DIAMETER COATER FOR PRODUCTION OF TRISO-COATED PARTICLES FOR ADVANCED GAS REACTOR EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Charles M Barnes

    2008-09-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP)/Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program includes a series of irradiation experiments in Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL’s) Advanced Test Reactor. TRISOcoated particles for the first AGR experiment, AGR-1, were produced at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in a two inch diameter coater. A requirement of the NGNP/AGR Program is to produce coated particles for later experiments in coaters more representative of industrial scale. Toward this end, tests have been performed by Babcock and Wilcox (B&W) in a six-inch diameter coater. These tests are expected to lead to successful fabrication of particles for the second AGR experiment, AGR-2. While a thorough study of how coating parameters affect particle properties was not the goal of these tests, the test data obtained provides insight into process parameter/coated particle property relationships. Most relationships for the six-inch diameter coater followed trends found with the ORNL two-inch coater, in spite of differences in coater design and bed hydrodynamics. For example the key coating parameters affecting pyrocarbon anisotropy were coater temperature, coating gas fraction, total gas flow rate and kernel charge size. Anisotropy of the outer pyrolytic carbon (OPyC) layer also strongly correlates with coater differential pressure. In an effort to reduce the total particle fabrication run time, silicon carbide (SiC) was deposited with methyltrichlorosilane (MTS) concentrations up to 3 mol %. Using only hydrogen as the fluidizing gas, the high concentration MTS tests resulted in particles with lower than desired SiC densities. However when hydrogen was partially replaced with argon, high SiC densities were achieved with the high MTS gas fraction.

  6. Identification of Essential Genetic Baculoviral Elements for Recombinant Protein Expression by Transactivation in Sf21 Insect Cells.

    PubMed

    Bleckmann, Maren; Schürig, Margitta; Chen, Fang-Fang; Yen, Zen-Zen; Lindemann, Nils; Meyer, Steffen; Spehr, Johannes; van den Heuvel, Joop

    2016-01-01

    The Baculovirus Expression Vector System (BEVS) is widely used to produce high amounts of recombinant proteins. Nevertheless, generating recombinant baculovirus in high quality is rather time-consuming and labor-intensive. Alternatively, virus-free expression in insect cells did not achieve similar expression levels for most proteins so far. The transactivation method is a promising approach for protein expression in Sf21 cells. It combines advantages of BEVS and plasmid-based expression by activating strong virus-dependent promoters on a transfected plasmid by baculoviral coinfection. Here, we identified expression elements required for transactivation. Therefore, we designed several vectors comprising different viral promoters or promoter combinations and tested them for eGFP expression using the automated BioLector microcultivation system. Remarkably, only the combination of the very late promoter p10 together with the homologous region 5 (hr5) could boost expression during transactivation. Other elements, like p10 alone or the late viral promoter polH, did not respond to transactivation. A new combination of hr5 and p10 with the strongest immediate early OpMNPV viral promoter OpIE2 improved the yield of eGFP by ~25% in comparison to the previous applied hr5-IE1-p10 expression cassette. Furthermore, we observed a strong influence of the transcription termination sequence and vector backbone on the level of expression. Finally, the expression levels for transactivation, BEVS and solely plasmid-based expression were compared for the marker protein eGFP, underlining the potential of transactivation for fast recombinant protein expression in Sf21 cells. In conclusion, essential elements for transactivation could be identified. The optimal elements were applied to generate an improved vector applicable in virus-free plasmid-based expression, transactivation and BEVS. PMID:26934632

  7. Results from ORNL Characterization of HRB-21 Reference Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Hunn, John D

    2004-08-01

    This document is a compilation of the characterization data produced by ORNL for coated UCO fuel particles (350 {micro}m kernel diameter) fabricated by GA for the HRB-21 irradiation test capsule. The archived fuel particles form the batch used in HRB-21 were obtained by the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification (AGR) program for use as a reference material. The GA characterization data for this batch of fuel particles is presented in document GT-HTGR-88357, Rev. C, 'Capsule HRB-21 Preirradiation Report'. The archived fuel particles obtained by the AGR Program are from batch 8876-70, which was the parent batch for batch 8876-70-O, which was actually irradiated in HRB-21. The difference between batches 8876-70 and 8876-70-L is that the particles in batch 8876-70 do not have the seal coat and protective pyrocarbon coating (PPyC) that were deposited over the OPyC layer in batch 8876-70-O. The ORNL designation for the material characterized is AGR-10. This document summarizes characterization of the HRB-21 fuel for size, shape, coating thickness, and density. Fracture behavior and microstructural analysis of the layers and interfaces is compared to previous analyses of the German proof test particles (EU 2358-2365) published in ORNL/CF-04/06. Further detailed comparative study of the microstructure of these two reference materials would be valuable to continue to define the property differences between particles which exhibited good irradiation performance (the German particles) and poor irradiation performance (the HRB-21 particles).

  8. Growth hormone therapy in a girl with Turner syndrome and diabetes type 1 - case report.

    PubMed

    Obara-Moszynska, Monika; Banaszak, Magdalena; Niedziela, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Wstęp. Badania wskazują na złożoną etiologię nieprawidłowego metabolizmu węglowodanów w zespole Turnera (ZT). W związku z tymi zaburzeniami leczenie rekombinowanym hormonem wzrostu (rGH ) w ZT może być związane z powikłaniami, szczególnie że hormon wzrostu ma działanie diabetogenne. Opis przypadku. Wywiad okołoporodowy jest nieznany (pacjent adoptowany w wieku 4 lat). W wieku 11 lat ze względu na typowy fenotyp rozpoznano ZT. Kariotyp: 45,X[43]/46,X,i(X)(q10)[7]. W tym samym wieku rozpoznano cukrzycę insulinozależną na podstawie wyników laboratoryjnych. Rozpoczęto konwencjonalną insulinoterapię. W trakcie hospitalizacji, w wieku 12 lat, wzrost wynosił 123,5 cm (- 4,4 SD), W tym samym wieku rozpoczęto leczenie rGH w dawce 0,045 mg/kg mc/dobę. Po 3 miesiącach tempo wzrastania zwiększyło się do 8,2 cm/rok. W wieku 13 lat zainicjowano terapię preparatem 17β-estradiolu. Po upływie 3 lat i 4 miesięcy leczenie rGH przerwano z powodu niskiego tempa wzrastania. Wzrost dziewczynki wynosił 140 cm (-4SD). Dwa lata po zakończeniu leczenia rGH wzrost wynosił 141,2 cm. Po zakończeniu leczenia rGH zapotrzebowanie dzienne na insulinę zmniejszyło się z 50–60 jm./dobę do 38–44 jm./dobę. Wnioski. Decyzja włączenia terapii rGH w ZTz cukrzycą jest z pewnością trudna. W momencie rozpoczęcia lecze­nia rGH klinicysta musi mieć na uwadze ryzyko powikłań metabolicznych, ale także świadomość, że daje pacjen­towi szansę na poprawę wzrostu końcowego. Z punktu widzenia prawidłowego rozwoju psychoemocjonalnego zmniejszenie deficytu wzrostu jest bardzo ważne.

  9. Distribution and Predominance of Genotype 3 in Hepatitis C Virus Carriers in the Province of Kahramanmaras, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Caliskan, Ahmet; Kirisci, Ozlem; Ozkaya, Esra; Ozden, Sevinc; Tumer, Seray; Caglar, Serkan; Guler, Selma Ates; Senol, Hande

    2015-01-01

    Background: The hepatitis C virus (HCV) has six major genotypes and more than 100 subtypes, and the determination of the responsible genotype, collection of epidemiological data, tailoring antiviral therapy, and prediction of prognosis have an important place in disease management. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to determine the distribution of HCV genotypes across geographic regions and compare these data with those obtained from other geographic locations. Patients and Methods: The HCV genotypes were identified in HCV RNA positive blood samples, obtained from different centers. The HCV genotype was determined using molecular methods [Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR)] in 313 patients, who were found to be positive for HCV RNA. The presence of HCV RNA was investigated using the RT-PCR method in serum samples delivered to the Microbiology Laboratory at Kahramanmaras Necip Fazıl City Hospital, Kahramanmaras, Turkey, from the centers located in Kahramanmaras City center and peripheral districts of the province, between March 2010 and August 2014. The HCV genotype analysis was performed in HCV RNA positive samples, using RT-PCR reagents kit. Urine samples from the patients were tested for amphetamine with an Amphetamines II (AMPS2) kit, cocaine was tested with a Cocaine II (COC2) kit, opiates were tested with an Opiates II (OPI2) kit, and cannabinoids were tested with a Cannabinoids II (THC2) kit in Roche/Hitachi Cobas c501 device. Results: The blood samples collected from 313 patients were included in the study. Of these patients, 212 (67.7%) were male and 101 (32.3%) were female. The mean age of the patients was 41.29 ± 20.32 years. In terms of HCV genotype distribution, 162 patients (51.7%) had genotype 1, 144 patients (46%) had genotype 3, four patients (1.3%) had genotype 2, and three patients (1%) had genotype 4. The results of urine drug tests were available in only 65 patients (20.2%). Of these, 61 (93.8%) patients had HCV genotype 3

  10. Czynniki ryzyka, czynniki chroniące i indeksy tych czynników w badaniach nad zachowaniami problemowymi nastolatków:

    PubMed Central

    Okulicz-Kozaryn, Katarzyna; Bobrowski, Krzysztof

    2009-01-01

    Streszczenie Opis i wyjaśnianie zachowań problemowych młodzieży jest w dużej mierze oparte na analizie czynników zwiększających ryzyko wystąpienia zaburzeń i czynników chroniących. Badania nad tymi czynnikami dostarczają wiele cennych danych, jednak ze względu na dużą liczbę i różnorodność analizowanych w badaniach zmiennych, często trudno jest uogólniać ich wyniki. Jednym ze sposobów radzenia sobie z tym problemem jest konstruowanie złożonych indeksów zmiennych, które określają ekspozycję jednostki na sumę czynników ryzyka i czynników chroniących. W niniejszym opracowaniu omówiono osiem badań, w których wyjaśniano zachowania problemowe młodzieży (głównie: używanie substancji psychoaktywnych) na podstawie analizy tworzonych indeksów czynników ryzyka i chroniących. Wyniki przeglądu pokazują, że na uzyskane w badaniach wyniki znaczący wpływ mają arbitralne decyzje autorów, dotyczące definiowania czynników ryzyka/chroniących, wyjściowej puli analizowanych zmiennych, sposobu ustalania istotnego natężenia danego czynnika. Najbardziej jednoznaczne są wyniki mówiące tym, że każdy z indeksów (ryzyka i ochrony), niezależnie od innych czynników, pozwala wyjaśnić aktualnie występujące zachowania problemowe nastolatków, co jest ważnym argumentem za wzmacnianiem czynników chroniących w działaniach profilaktycznych. Natomiast najpoważniejszym minusem badań, wykorzystujących indeksy, jest „uśrednianie” znaczenia poszczególnych czynników, przypisywanie im a priori identycznej wagi w wyjaśnianiu zachowań, co stoi w sprzeczności z wynikami badań, pokazujących duże zróżnicowanie znaczenia poszczególnych czynników. PMID:19390638

  11. Global Patterns of Precipitation Anomalies Related to ENSO as Determined by the 20-Year GPCP Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Robert; Curtis, Scott; Huffman, George; Bolvin, Dave; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The new 20-year, monthly, globally complete precipitation analysis of the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) is used to analyze ENSO-related precipitation anomalies over the globe. This Version 2 of the community generated data set is global, monthly, at 2.5 deg x 2.5 deg latitude-longitude resolution and utilizes precipitation estimates from low-orbit microwave sensors (SSM/I) and geosynchronous IR sensors and raingauge information over land. In the 1987-present period the low-orbit microwave (SSM/I) estimates are used to adjust or correct the geosynchronous IR estimates, thereby maximizing the utility of the more physically-based microwave estimates and the finer time sampling of the geosynchronous observations. Information from raingauges is blended into the analyses over land. The extension back to 1979 utilizes the OLR Precipitation Index (OPI) for the satellite component. An ENSO Precipitation Index (ESPI) using gradients of precipitation anomalies in the Maritime-Continent/Pacific Ocean region is used to define El Nino/La Nina months during the 20-year record. Mean anomalies for El Nino and La Nina are examined along with variations with respect to season and for individual events. The El Nino and La Nina mean anomalies are near mirror images of each other and when combined produce an ENSO signal with significant spatial continuity over large distances. This El Nino minus La Nina standardized precipitation anomaly map shows the usual positive anomaly over the central and eastern Pacific Ocean with the negative anomaly over the maritime continent along with an additional negative anomaly over Brazil and the Atlantic Ocean extending into Africa and a positive anomaly over the Horn of Africa and the western Indian Ocean. From these features along the Equator narrow positive and negative anomalies extend into middle latitudes in a V-shaped pattern open to the East as described by previous investigators. A number of the features are shown to continue

  12. Analysis of Natural Graphite, Synthetic Graphite, and Thermosetting Resin Candidates for Use in Fuel Compact Matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Trammell, Michael P; Pappano, Peter J

    2011-09-01

    The AGR-1 and AGR-2 compacting process involved overcoating TRISO particles and compacting them in a steel die. The overcoating step is the process of applying matrix to the OPyC layer of TRISO particles in a rotating drum in order to build up an overcoat layer of desired thickness. The matrix used in overcoating is a mixture of natural graphite, synthetic graphite, and thermosetting resin in the ratio, by weight, of 64:16:20. A wet mixing process was used for AGR-1 and AGR-2, in that the graphites and resin were mixed in the presence of ethyl alcohol. The goal of the wet mixing process was to 'resinate' the graphite particles, or coat each individual graphite particle with a thin layer of resin. This matrix production process was similar to the German, Chinese, Japanese, and South African methods, which also use various amount of solvent during mixing. See Appendix 1 for information on these countries matrix production techniques. The resin used for AGR-1 and AGR-2 was provided by Hexion, specifically Hexion grade Durite SC1008. Durite SC1008 is a solvated (liquid) resole phenolic resin. A resole resin does not typically have a hardening agent added. The major constituent of SC1008 is phenol, with minor amounts of formaldehyde. Durite SC1008 is high viscosity, so additional ethyl alcohol was added during matrix production in order to reduce its viscosity and enhance graphite particle resination. The current compacting scale up plan departs from a wet mixing process. The matrix production method specified in the scale up plan is a co-grinding jet mill process where powdered phenolic resin and graphite are all fed into a jet mill at the same time. Because of the change in matrix production style, SC1008 cannot be used in the jet milling process because it is a liquid. The jet milling/mixing process requires that a suite of solid or powdered resins be investigated. The synthetic graphite used in AGR-1 and AGR-2 was provided by SGL Carbon, grade KRB2000. KRB2000 is a

  13. The New 20-Year Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Merged Satellite and Rainguage Monthly Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Robert; Huffman, George; Xie, Ping Ping; Rudolf, Bruno; Gruber, Arnold; Janowiak, John

    1999-01-01

    A new 20-year, monthly, globally complete precipitation analysis has been completed as part of the World Climate Research Program's (WCRP/GEWEX) Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP). This Version 2 of the community generated data set is a result of combining the procedures and data sets as described. The global, monthly, 2.5x 2.5 degree latitude-longitude product utilizes precipitation estimates from low-orbit microwave sensors (SSM/1) and geosynchronous IR sensors and raingauge information over land. The low-orbit microwave estimates are used to adjust or correct the geosynchronous IR estimates, thereby maximizing the utility of the more physically-based microwave estimates and the finer time sampling of the geosynchronous observations. Information from raingauges is blended into the analyses over land. In the 1986-present period TOVS-based precipitation estimates are adjusted to GPCP fields and used in polar regions to produce globally-complete results. The extension back to 1979 utilizes the procedures of Xie and Arkin and their OLR Precipitation Index (OPI). The 20-year climatology of the Version 2 GPCP analysis indicates the expected features of a very strong Pacific Ocean ITCZ and SPCZ with maximum 20-year means approaching 10 mm/day. A similar strength maximum over land is evident over Borneo. Weaker maxima in the tropics occur in the Atlantic ITCZ and over South America and Africa. In mid-latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere the Western Pacific and Western Atlantic maxima have values of approximately 7 mm/day, while in the Southern Hemisphere the mid-latitude maxima are located southeast of Africa, in mid-Pacific as an extension of the SPCZ and southeast of South America. In terms of global totals the GPCP analysis shows 2.7 mm/day (3.0 mm/day over ocean; 2.1 mm/day over land), similar to the Jaeger climatology, but not other climatologies. Zonal averages peak at 6 mm/day at 7*N with mid-latitude peaks of about 3 mm/day at 40-45* latitude

  14. [End of life in neonatology: palliative care integration].

    PubMed

    Soares, Célia; Rodrigues, Manuela; Rocha, Gustavo; Martins, Angelina; Guimarães, Hercília

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: A limitação terapêutica e a implementação dos cuidados paliativos em Neonatologia revestem-se de extrema relevância na atualidade e são já uma realidade com tendência crescente em vários países. Não obstante, em Portugal, os estudos, recomendações e protocolos oficiais no que diz respeito às questões em fim de vida são ainda escassos.Material e Métodos: Analisamos retrospetivamente os processos clínicos dos recém-nascidos falecidos na Unidade de Cuidados Intensivos do Centro Hospitalar de São João no período de 2010 a 2012 e comparamos os resultados com os obtidos num estudo realizado na mesma Unidade correspondente aos períodos 1992-1995 e 2002-2005.Resultados: Na população estudada as anomalias congénitas foram a causa de morte em 57,1% casos, a prematuridade extrema em 18,4% casos e a infeção em 16,3%. No que refere ao ‘modo de morrer’, a paragem cardiorrespiratória irreversível às manobras de reanimação observou-se em 57,1% casos; 20,4% faleceram após abstenção de tratamento e 22,4% após suspensão de tratamento. Verificaram-se diferenças significativas para o ‘modo de morrer’ e as variáveis tempo de internamento e presença dos pais no momento da morte. Em 28,6% casos houve registo de tomada de decisão pela limitação terapêutica e adoção de cuidados paliativos e em 16,3% decisão de não reanimar. Para as duas últimas registou-se um aumento ao longo das três décadas analisadas. Também se registou uma tendência crescente para a utilização de escala de avaliação de dor neonatal, opióides e sedativos, presença parental no momento da morte, reuniões entre pais e neonatologistas, reuniões interdisciplinares e apoio psicológico aos pais.Conclusão: Este estudo revela uma tendência crescente para a integração de medidas de limitação terapêutica e de cuidados paliativos na UCIN estudada. Contudo, há ainda muito a desenvolver, nomeadamente no que refere à investigação, forma

  15. River Runoff Sensitivity in Eastern Siberia to Global Climate Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiadi, A. G.; Milyukova, I. P.; Kashutina, E.

    2008-12-01

    During several last decades significant climate warming is observed in permafrost regions of Eastern Siberia. These changes include rise of air temperature as well as precipitation. Changes in regional climate are accompanied with river runoff changes. The analysis of the data shows that in the past 25 years, the largest contribution to the annual river runoff increase in the lower reaches of the Lena (Kyusyur) is made (in descending order) by the Lena river watershed (above Tabaga), the Aldan river (Okhotsky Perevoz), and the Vilyui river (Khatyryk-Khomo). The similar relation is also retained in the case of flood, with the seasonal river runoff of the Vilyui river being slightly decreased. Completely different relations are noted in winter, when a substantial river runoff increase is recorded in the lower reaches of the Lena river. In this case the major contribution to the winter river runoff increase in the Lena outlet is made by the winter river runoff increase on the Vilyui river. Unlike the above cases, the summer-fall river runoff in the lower reaches of the Lena river tends to decrease, which is similar to the trend exhibited by the Vilyui river. At the same time, the river runoff of the Lena (Tabaga) and Aldan (Verkhoyansky Perevoz) rivers increase. According to the results of hydrological modeling the expected anthropogenic climate warming in XXI century can bring more significant river runoff increase in the Lena river basin as compared with the recent one. Hydrological responses to climate warming have been evaluated for the plain part of the Lena river basin basing on a macroscale hydrological model featuring simplified description of processes developed in Institute of Geography of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Two atmosphere-ocean global circulation models included in the IPCC (ECHAM4/OPY3 and GFDL-R30) were used as scenarios of future global climate. According to the results of hydrological modeling the expected anthropogenic climate warming in

  16. The Identification of Parameters of Theories Used for Prognoses of POST Mining Deformations by Means of Present Software / Identyfikacja WARTOŚCI PARAMETRÓW Teorii Prognozowania WPŁYWÓW Przy Wykorzystaniu WSPÓŁCZESNYCH NARZĘDZI Informatycznych

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ścigała, Roman

    2013-12-01

    geometrii wyrobisk eksploatacyjnych. Procedury obliczeniowe wszystkich programów w systemie oparte są na idei dyskretyzacji pola eksploatacyjnego w kierunku postępu frontu eksploatacyjnego - rys. 2. Pola elementarne mają kształt prostokąta. Identyfikacja wartości parametrów została zrealizowana w oparciu o zadanie optymalizacyjne wykorzystujące funkcję celu wynikłą z metody najmniejszych kwadratów, zgodnie z zależnością (1). Do poszukiwania minimum funkcji celu wykorzystano bezgradientową metodę Hooke'a-Jeevesa. Opracowane oprogramowanie pozwala na wyznaczanie kompletu parametrów, lub też dla dowolnego ich podzbioru, przy założeniu, że pozostałe parametry mają określoną, stałą wartość w procesie identyfikacji (rys. 4). W trakcie optymalizacji można nałożyć ograniczenia na przedział wyznaczanych wartości parametrów - rys. 5. W programie BK_CTX, służącym do identyfikacji wartości parametru c, odpowiedzialnego za opis nieustalonej fazy deformacji, zaimplementowano trzy metody wyznaczania jego wartości: 1. Na podstawie pojedynczych profili nieustalonych niecek obniżeniowych, uzyskanych w kolejnych cyklach pomiarowych (czyli w przestrzeni współrzędnych geometrycznych {x,y}, dla ustalonego czasu pomiaru t). W ten sposób dla każdego cyklu pomiarowego otrzymuje się odrębną wartość parametru c. 2. Na podstawie osiadania w czasie pojedynczych punktów obserwacyjnych (czyli w kierunku współrzędnej czasowej {t}, dla ustalonych współrzędnych geometrycznych punktu: (x,y)). W ten sposób dla każdego punktu obserwacyjnego otrzymuje się odrębną wartość parametru c. 3. Według zaproponowanej przez autora metodyki, opartej na jednoczesnym wyznaczaniu wartości parametru c z wszystkich punktów i cykli obserwacyjnych (czyli w przestrzeni współrzędnych {x,y,t}). Przy wykorzystaniu tej metodyki, otrzymuje się jedną wartość parametru c. To rozwiązanie, z punktu widzenia wykonywanej w dalszym etapie prognozy, daje

  17. Dynamics of Non-Uniformity Loads of Afc Drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolipski, Marian; Remiorz, Eryk; Sobota, Piotr

    2014-03-01

    óry tworzą dwa środkowe łańcuchy ogniwowe ze zgrzebłami przymocowanymi do ogniw poziomych łańcuchów. Ze względu na znaczne wydłużenia sprężyste łańcucha zgrzebłowego obciążonego urobkiem węglowym, konieczne jest jego wstępne napinanie. W zależności od wartości napięcia wstępnego łańcucha zgrzebłowego, oporów ruchu w gałęzi górnej i dolnej przenośnika oraz występujących drgań wzdłużnych, łańcuch może się znajdować w jednym z trzech stanów dynamicznych: w stanie stałego luzowania, w stanie okresowego luzowania lub w stanie nieluzowania. W przenośnikach ścianowych obserwuje się nierównomierny rozdział obciążeń na poszczególne napędy. Jego liczbową miarą jest współczynnik rozdziału obciążenia napędu. Jest on definiowany, jako stosunek obciążenia silnika elektrycznego zainstalowanego w danym napędzie do całkowitego obciążenia przenośnika (wzory 1 i 2). W praktyce niemożliwa staje się eliminacja wszystkich przyczyn nierównomiernego obciążenia napędu głównego i pomocniczego w przenośniku ścianowym. Wobec tego podejmuje się działania mające na celu wyrównywanie obciążeń napędów poprzez sterowanie wybranymi parametrami techniczno-ruchowymi przenośnika ścianowego. Badania komputerowe za pomocą własnego modelu dynamicznego wykazały, że jest to możliwe. Tymi parametrami są częstotliwości napięcia zasilania silników asynchronicznych, które powodują zmiany prędkości kątowych bębnów łańcuchowych. W artykule przedstawiono model fizyczny ścianowego przenośnika zgrzebłowego przeznaczony do badania zjawisk dynamicznych wpływających na nierównomierność obciążenia napędów (rys. 1). Opis ruchu w tym modelu fizycznym tworzy układ (4 · j + 5) nieliniowych równań różniczkowych zwyczajnych drugiego rzędu. Dokładając do tego funkcje opisujące współdziałanie bębnów łańcuchowych z łańcuchami oraz funkcje aproksymujące charakterystyki mechaniczne silnik

  18. Measurement of Small Values of Hydrostatic Pressure with the Compensation of Atmospheric Pressure Influence / Pomiar Małych Wartości Ciśnienia Hydrostatycznego Z Kompensacją Wpływu Ciśnienia Atmosferycznego

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broda, Krzysztof; Filipek, Wiktor

    2013-09-01

    structure has been simplified and the measurement accuracy has increased. Znajomość rozkładu ciśnienia (lub różnicy ciśnień) determinuje opis przepływu płynu przez ośrodek porowaty. W przypadku dużych liczb Reynoldsa nie nastręcza to większych trudności, lecz dla przepływów laminarnych (tj. dla liczb Re (Bear, 1988; Duckworth, 1983; Troskolański, 1957) z zakresu 0.01 do 3) jest to praktycznie niemożliwe w oparciu o dostępne na rynku przyrządy. Przyczyny powodujące taką sytuację zostały omówione w poprzednim opracowaniu (Broda i Filipek, 2012), w którym zwrócono uwagę na trudności pomiarów związane z napięciem powierzchniowym czy włoskowatością (Adamson, 1997). Zaproponowano (Broda i Filipek, 2012) nową, autorską metodę pomiaru bardzo małych różnic ciśnień oraz skonstruowano odpowiednie stanowisko składające się z dwóch oddzielnych zbiorników pomiarowych oraz przeprowadzono pomiary. Z przeprowadzonych badań (Broda i Filipek, 2012) wynikała konieczność zastosowania stabilizacji temperatury urządzenia oraz kompensacji wpływu ciśnienia atmosferycznego na proces pomiarowy. Niniejsza publikacja przedstawia wyniki kontynuacji badań nad metodami i aparaturą do pomiaru bardzo małych różnic ciśnień z uwzględnieniem zdobytych doświadczeń, w oparciu o nowe stanowisko pomiarowe, którego zasadę działania i budowę przedstawiono na rys. 1-5, kolejno przedstawiając koncepcję wykonania pomiaru małych wartości ciśnienia hydrodynamicznego z kompensacją wpływu ciśnienia atmosferycznego rys. 1; ilustrację obrazującą stan odpowiadający przypadkowi braku przepływu płynu przez badany obiekt rys. 2; omawiając stan odpowiadający przypadkowi przepływu płynu przez badany obiekt rys. 3. Kolejno omówiono stan odpowiadający pomiarowi spadku ciśnienia na badanym obiekcie rys. 4 oraz przedstawiono metodykę pomiaru (zależności (1) - (20)). Zdjęcie stanowiska badawczego oraz jego elementów ilustruje rys. 5. W

  19. Modelling of Underground Coal Gasification Process Using CFD Methods / Modelowanie Procesu Podziemnego Zgazowania Węgla Kamiennego Z Zastosowaniem Metod CFD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wachowicz, Jan; Łączny, Jacek Marian; Iwaszenko, Sebastian; Janoszek, Tomasz; Cempa-Balewicz, Magdalena

    2015-09-01

    , under the specific conditions of the georeactor operations within the time interval of 100 hours and 305 hours. The results of the numerical solution have been compared with the results of experimental results under in-situ conditions. Zaprezentowano wyniki badań modelowych polegających na numerycznej symulacji procesu podziemnego zgazowania węgla. Dla potrzeb realizowanej pracy dokonano wyboru oprogramowania wykorzystywanego do symulacji procesu podziemnego zgazowania węgla. Na podstawie przeglądu literatury zdecydowano, że oprogramowaniem, za pomocą, którego będą realizowane badania modelowe, będzie oprogramowanie informatyczne ANSYS-Fluent. Za jego pomocą przeprowadzano obliczenia numeryczne z zamiarem zidentyfikowania rozkładu zmian stężenia składników gazu procesowego w funkcji czasu trwania procesu zgazowania węgla. Przeprowadzone obliczenia miały charakter predykcji. W oparciu o dane konstrukcyjne georeaktora stosowanego podczas badań na KD Barbara oraz KWK Wieczorek, opracowano model geometryczny oraz wykonano jego dyskretyzację poprzez wygenerowanie odpowiedniej siatki numerycznej w oparciu, o którą wykonywane są obliczenia. Dane dotyczące sposobu zasilania georeaktora oraz parametrów utrzymywanych podczas procesu wykorzystano do definiowania modelu numerycznego. Część danych została uzupełniona w oparciu o źródła literaturowe. Głównym przyjętym założeniem było oparcie symulacji pracy georeaktora o modele opisujące reaktywny przepływ płynu. Składniki gazu procesowego oraz czynnik zgazowujący przemieszczają się wzdłuż kanału zgazowującego symulując zjawiska fizykochemiczne związane z transportem masy i energii oraz zachodzące reakcje chemiczne (wraz z efektem energetycznym). Chemizm procesu zgazowania oparto o równanie kinetyczne, które determinuje przebieg danego typu równania chemicznego zgazowania węgla. W ramach modelu opisano też interakcję gazu z otaczającą warstwą węgla. Opis ten dotyczy