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Sample records for opium poppy cell

  1. Opium Poppy (Papaver somniferum).

    PubMed

    Chitty, Julie A; Allen, Robert S; Larkin, Philip J

    2006-01-01

    The genetic transformation of opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, offers the opportunity to study the mechanisms involved in the regulation of benzylisoquinoline and morphinan alkaloid biosynthesis. The development of an efficient transformation protocol for opium poppy has allowed us to transform a range of genotypes from all around the world, including previously recalcitrant high-yielding commercial Australian cultivars. The method involves Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection of hypocotyl explants, followed by the production of antibiotic or herbicide resistant embryogenic callus, the subsequent induction of somatic embryos and development into normal plants. The use of different selective agents, binary vectors, and poppy genotypes has demonstrated the robustness and reliability of this protocol in the production of many hundreds of confirmed transgenic poppies.

  2. A Tale of Three Cell Types: Alkaloid Biosynthesis Is Localized to Sieve Elements in Opium Poppy

    PubMed Central

    Bird, David A.; Franceschi, Vincent R.; Facchini, Peter J.

    2003-01-01

    Opium poppy produces a diverse array of pharmaceutical alkaloids, including the narcotic analgesics morphine and codeine. The benzylisoquinoline alkaloids of opium poppy accumulate in the cytoplasm, or latex, of specialized laticifers that accompany vascular tissues throughout the plant. However, immunofluorescence labeling using affinity-purified antibodies showed that three key enzymes, (S)-N-methylcoclaurine 3′-hydroxylase (CYP80B1), berberine bridge enzyme (BBE), and codeinone reductase (COR), involved in the biosynthesis of morphine and the related antimicrobial alkaloid sanguinarine, are restricted to the parietal region of sieve elements adjacent or proximal to laticifers. The localization of laticifers was demonstrated using antibodies specific to the major latex protein (MLP), which is characteristic of the cell type. In situ hybridization showed that CYP80B1, BBE, and COR gene transcripts were found in the companion cell paired with each sieve element, whereas MLP transcripts were restricted to laticifers. The biosynthesis and accumulation of alkaloids in opium poppy involves cell types not implicated previously in plant secondary metabolism and dramatically extends the function of sieve elements beyond the transport of solutes and information macromolecules in plants. PMID:14508000

  3. Morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy involves two cell types: sieve elements and laticifers.

    PubMed

    Onoyovwe, Akpevwe; Hagel, Jillian M; Chen, Xue; Khan, Morgan F; Schriemer, David C; Facchini, Peter J

    2013-10-01

    Immunofluorescence labeling and shotgun proteomics were used to establish the cell type-specific localization of morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum). Polyclonal antibodies for each of six enzymes involved in converting (R)-reticuline to morphine detected corresponding antigens in sieve elements of the phloem, as described previously for all upstream enzymes transforming (S)-norcoclaurine to (S)-reticuline. Validated shotgun proteomics performed on whole-stem and latex total protein extracts generated 2031 and 830 distinct protein families, respectively. Proteins corresponding to nine morphine biosynthetic enzymes were represented in the whole stem, whereas only four of the final five pathway enzymes were detected in the latex. Salutaridine synthase was detected in the whole stem, but not in the latex subproteome. The final three enzymes converting thebaine to morphine were among the most abundant active latex proteins despite a limited occurrence in laticifers suggested by immunofluorescence labeling. Multiple charge isoforms of two key O-demethylases in the latex were revealed by two-dimensional immunoblot analysis. Salutaridine biosynthesis appears to occur only in sieve elements, whereas conversion of thebaine to morphine is predominant in adjacent laticifers, which contain morphine-rich latex. Complementary use of immunofluorescence labeling and shotgun proteomics has substantially resolved the cellular localization of morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy.

  4. Morphine Biosynthesis in Opium Poppy Involves Two Cell Types: Sieve Elements and Laticifers[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Onoyovwe, Akpevwe; Hagel, Jillian M.; Chen, Xue; Khan, Morgan F.; Schriemer, David C.; Facchini, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Immunofluorescence labeling and shotgun proteomics were used to establish the cell type–specific localization of morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum). Polyclonal antibodies for each of six enzymes involved in converting (R)-reticuline to morphine detected corresponding antigens in sieve elements of the phloem, as described previously for all upstream enzymes transforming (S)-norcoclaurine to (S)-reticuline. Validated shotgun proteomics performed on whole-stem and latex total protein extracts generated 2031 and 830 distinct protein families, respectively. Proteins corresponding to nine morphine biosynthetic enzymes were represented in the whole stem, whereas only four of the final five pathway enzymes were detected in the latex. Salutaridine synthase was detected in the whole stem, but not in the latex subproteome. The final three enzymes converting thebaine to morphine were among the most abundant active latex proteins despite a limited occurrence in laticifers suggested by immunofluorescence labeling. Multiple charge isoforms of two key O-demethylases in the latex were revealed by two-dimensional immunoblot analysis. Salutaridine biosynthesis appears to occur only in sieve elements, whereas conversion of thebaine to morphine is predominant in adjacent laticifers, which contain morphine-rich latex. Complementary use of immunofluorescence labeling and shotgun proteomics has substantially resolved the cellular localization of morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy. PMID:24104569

  5. Plant defense responses in opium poppy cell cultures revealed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry proteomics.

    PubMed

    Zulak, Katherine G; Khan, Morgan F; Alcantara, Joenel; Schriemer, David C; Facchini, Peter J

    2009-01-01

    Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) produces a diverse array of bioactive benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, including the narcotic analgesic morphine and the antimicrobial agent sanguinarine. In contrast to the plant, cell cultures of opium poppy do not accumulate alkaloids constitutively but produce sanguinarine in response to treatment with certain fungal-derived elicitors. The induction of sanguinarine biosynthesis provides a model platform to characterize the regulation of benzylisoquinoline alkaloid pathways and other defense responses. Proteome analysis of elicitor-treated opium poppy cell cultures by two-dimensional denaturing-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry facilitated the identification of 219 of 340 protein spots based on peptide fragment fingerprint searches of a combination of databases. Of the 219 hits, 129 were identified through pre-existing plant proteome databases, 63 were identified by matching predicted translation products in opium poppy-expressed sequence tag databases, and the remainder shared evidence from both databases. Metabolic enzymes represented the largest category of proteins and included S-adenosylmethionine synthetase, several glycolytic, and a nearly complete set of tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes, one alkaloid, and several other secondary metabolic enzymes. The abundance of chaperones, heat shock proteins, protein degradation factors, and pathogenesis-related proteins provided a comprehensive proteomics view on the coordination of plant defense responses. Qualitative comparison of protein abundance in control and elicitor-treated cell cultures allowed the separation of induced and constitutive or suppressed proteins. DNA microarrays were used to corroborate increases in protein abundance with a corresponding induction in cognate transcript levels.

  6. Benzylisoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis in opium poppy.

    PubMed

    Beaudoin, Guillaume A W; Facchini, Peter J

    2014-07-01

    Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) is one of the world's oldest medicinal plants and remains the only commercial source for the narcotic analgesics morphine, codeine and semi-synthetic derivatives such as oxycodone and naltrexone. The plant also produces several other benzylisoquinoline alkaloids with potent pharmacological properties including the vasodilator papaverine, the cough suppressant and potential anticancer drug noscapine and the antimicrobial agent sanguinarine. Opium poppy has served as a model system to investigate the biosynthesis of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids in plants. The application of biochemical and functional genomics has resulted in a recent surge in the discovery of biosynthetic genes involved in the formation of major benzylisoquinoline alkaloids in opium poppy. The availability of extensive biochemical genetic tools and information pertaining to benzylisoquinoline alkaloid metabolism is facilitating the study of a wide range of phenomena including the structural biology of novel catalysts, the genomic organization of biosynthetic genes, the cellular and sub-cellular localization of biosynthetic enzymes and a variety of biotechnological applications. In this review, we highlight recent developments and summarize the frontiers of knowledge regarding the biochemistry, cellular biology and biotechnology of benzylisoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis in opium poppy.

  7. Integration of deep transcriptome and proteome analyses reveals the components of alkaloid metabolism in opium poppy cell cultures

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Papaver somniferum (opium poppy) is the source for several pharmaceutical benzylisoquinoline alkaloids including morphine, the codeine and sanguinarine. In response to treatment with a fungal elicitor, the biosynthesis and accumulation of sanguinarine is induced along with other plant defense responses in opium poppy cell cultures. The transcriptional induction of alkaloid metabolism in cultured cells provides an opportunity to identify components of this process via the integration of deep transcriptome and proteome databases generated using next-generation technologies. Results A cDNA library was prepared for opium poppy cell cultures treated with a fungal elicitor for 10 h. Using 454 GS-FLX Titanium pyrosequencing, 427,369 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) with an average length of 462 bp were generated. Assembly of these sequences yielded 93,723 unigenes, of which 23,753 were assigned Gene Ontology annotations. Transcripts encoding all known sanguinarine biosynthetic enzymes were identified in the EST database, 5 of which were represented among the 50 most abundant transcripts. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) of total protein extracts from cell cultures treated with a fungal elicitor for 50 h facilitated the identification of 1,004 proteins. Proteins were fractionated by one-dimensional SDS-PAGE and digested with trypsin prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. Query of an opium poppy-specific EST database substantially enhanced peptide identification. Eight out of 10 known sanguinarine biosynthetic enzymes and many relevant primary metabolic enzymes were represented in the peptide database. Conclusions The integration of deep transcriptome and proteome analyses provides an effective platform to catalogue the components of secondary metabolism, and to identify genes encoding uncharacterized enzymes. The establishment of corresponding transcript and protein databases generated by next-generation technologies in a system with a well

  8. Integration of deep transcriptome and proteome analyses reveals the components of alkaloid metabolism in opium poppy cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Desgagné-Penix, Isabel; Khan, Morgan F; Schriemer, David C; Cram, Dustin; Nowak, Jacek; Facchini, Peter J

    2010-11-18

    Papaver somniferum (opium poppy) is the source for several pharmaceutical benzylisoquinoline alkaloids including morphine, the codeine and sanguinarine. In response to treatment with a fungal elicitor, the biosynthesis and accumulation of sanguinarine is induced along with other plant defense responses in opium poppy cell cultures. The transcriptional induction of alkaloid metabolism in cultured cells provides an opportunity to identify components of this process via the integration of deep transcriptome and proteome databases generated using next-generation technologies. A cDNA library was prepared for opium poppy cell cultures treated with a fungal elicitor for 10 h. Using 454 GS-FLX Titanium pyrosequencing, 427,369 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) with an average length of 462 bp were generated. Assembly of these sequences yielded 93,723 unigenes, of which 23,753 were assigned Gene Ontology annotations. Transcripts encoding all known sanguinarine biosynthetic enzymes were identified in the EST database, 5 of which were represented among the 50 most abundant transcripts. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) of total protein extracts from cell cultures treated with a fungal elicitor for 50 h facilitated the identification of 1,004 proteins. Proteins were fractionated by one-dimensional SDS-PAGE and digested with trypsin prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. Query of an opium poppy-specific EST database substantially enhanced peptide identification. Eight out of 10 known sanguinarine biosynthetic enzymes and many relevant primary metabolic enzymes were represented in the peptide database. The integration of deep transcriptome and proteome analyses provides an effective platform to catalogue the components of secondary metabolism, and to identify genes encoding uncharacterized enzymes. The establishment of corresponding transcript and protein databases generated by next-generation technologies in a system with a well-defined metabolite profile facilitates

  9. Opium poppy monitoring with remote sensing in North Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yichen; Wu, Bingfang; Zhang, Lei; Li, Qiangzi; Jia, Kun; Wen, Meiping

    2011-07-01

    Myanmar has long been a focus of the international community as a major opium poppy cultivation region. This study used remote sensing technology and ground verification to monitor opium poppy cultivation for three opium poppy growth seasons in North Myanmar. The study found that opium poppy cultivation has remained high. In 2005-6, 2006-7 and 2007-8 growing seasons the total areas monitored were 52,482 km(2), 178,274 km(2) and 236,342 km(2) and the total cultivated area of opium poppy was 8959 ha, 18,606 ha and 22,300, respectively. This was significantly less than cultivation levels reported during the 1990s. The major cultivation regions were located in Shan State, producing 88% of total poppy cultivation in North Myanmar in 2007-8. The opium poppy was mainly cultivated in the interlocking regions controlled by the local armed forces in Shan State. The field survey noted that most households in this area were poor and poppy cultivation was a main source of income. There were also differences between our figures on poppy cultivation and those reported by United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Our study shows that although the opium poppy cultivation in North Myanmar has reduced over recent years, it remains a major producer of opium and to which the international community needs to pay attention, especially in those areas controlled by local armed forces. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Quantitative 1H NMR metabolomics reveals extensive metabolic reprogramming of primary and secondary metabolism in elicitor-treated opium poppy cell cultures

    PubMed Central

    Zulak, Katherine G; Weljie, Aalim M; Vogel, Hans J; Facchini, Peter J

    2008-01-01

    Background Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) produces a diverse array of bioactive benzylisoquinoline alkaloids and has emerged as a model system to study plant alkaloid metabolism. The plant is cultivated as the only commercial source of the narcotic analgesics morphine and codeine, but also produces many other alkaloids including the antimicrobial agent sanguinarine. Modulations in plant secondary metabolism as a result of environmental perturbations are often associated with the altered regulation of other metabolic pathways. As a key component of our functional genomics platform for opium poppy we have used proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) metabolomics to investigate the interplay between primary and secondary metabolism in cultured opium poppy cells treated with a fungal elicitor. Results Metabolite fingerprinting and compound-specific profiling showed the extensive reprogramming of primary metabolic pathways in association with the induction of alkaloid biosynthesis in response to elicitor treatment. Using Chenomx NMR Suite v. 4.6, a software package capable of identifying and quantifying individual compounds based on their respective signature spectra, the levels of 42 diverse metabolites were monitored over a 100-hour time course in control and elicitor-treated opium poppy cell cultures. Overall, detectable and dynamic changes in the metabolome of elicitor-treated cells, especially in cellular pools of carbohydrates, organic acids and non-protein amino acids were detected within 5 hours after elicitor treatment. The metabolome of control cultures also showed substantial modulations 80 hours after the start of the time course, particularly in the levels of amino acids and phospholipid pathway intermediates. Specific flux modulations were detected throughout primary metabolism, including glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, nitrogen assimilation, phospholipid/fatty acid synthesis and the shikimate pathway, all of which generate secondary

  11. Evolution of morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Jörg; Facchini, Peter J; Geissler, René; Schmidt, Jürgen; Ammer, Christian; Kramell, Robert; Voigtländer, Susan; Gesell, Andreas; Pienkny, Silke; Brandt, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs) are a group of nitrogen-containing plant secondary metabolites comprised of an estimated 2500 identified structures. In BIA metabolism, (S)-reticuline is a key branch-point intermediate that can be directed into several alkaloid subtypes with different structural skeleton configurations. The morphinan alkaloids are one subclass of BIAs produced in only a few plant species, most notably and abundantly in the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum). Comparative transcriptome analysis of opium poppy and several other Papaver species that do not accumulate morphinan alkaloids showed that known genes encoding BIA biosynthetic enzymes are expressed at higher levels in P. somniferum. Three unknown cDNAs that are co-ordinately expressed with several BIA biosynthetic genes were identified as enzymes in the pathway. One of these enzymes, salutaridine reductase (SalR), which is specific for the production of morphinan alkaloids, was isolated and heterologously overexpressed in its active form not only from P. somniferum, but also from Papaver species that do not produce morphinan alkaloids. SalR is a member of a class of short chain dehydrogenase/reductases (SDRs) that are active as monomers and possess an extended amino acid sequence compared with classical SDRs. Homology modelling and substrate docking revealed the substrate binding site for SalR. The amino acids residues conferring salutaridine binding were compared to several members of the SDR family from different plant species, which non-specifically reduce (-)-menthone to (+)-neomenthol. Previously, it was shown that some of these proteins are involved in plant defence. The recruitment of specific monomeric SDRs from monomeric SDRs involved in plant defence is discussed.

  12. Fatal intoxications in Denmark following intake of morphine from opium poppies.

    PubMed

    Steentoft, A; Kaa, E; Worm, K

    1988-01-01

    In Denmark it is legal to grow opium poppies for the production of poppy seeds and until 1986 for decoration purposes, too. Danish poppy capsules contain 0.3-5 mg morphine per capsule and the content of morphine in opium exuded from the capsules may amount to 24%. This has resulted in misuse as both fresh and dried poppy capsules have been used for the production of "opium tea". During the period 1982-1985, seven casualties occurred among drug addicts in Denmark which were solely or partly caused by these opium poppies.

  13. Tyrosine aminotransferase contributes to benzylisoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis in opium poppy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Jeong; Facchini, Peter J

    2011-11-01

    Tyrosine aminotransferase (TyrAT) catalyzes the transamination of L-Tyr and α-ketoglutarate, yielding 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid and L-glutamate. The decarboxylation product of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid, 4-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde, is a precursor to a large and diverse group of natural products known collectively as benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs). We have isolated and characterized a TyrAT cDNA from opium poppy (Papaver somniferum), which remains the only commercial source for several pharmaceutical BIAs, including codeine, morphine, and noscapine. TyrAT belongs to group I pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzymes wherein Schiff base formation occurs between PLP and a specific Lys residue. The amino acid sequence of TyrAT showed considerable homology to other putative plant TyrATs, although few of these have been functionally characterized. Purified, recombinant TyrAT displayed a molecular mass of approximately 46 kD and a substrate preference for L-Tyr and α-ketoglutarate, with apparent K(m) values of 1.82 and 0.35 mm, respectively. No specific requirement for PLP was detected in vitro. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry confirmed the conversion of L-Tyr to 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate. TyrAT gene transcripts were most abundant in roots and stems of mature opium poppy plants. Virus-induced gene silencing was used to evaluate the contribution of TyrAT to BIA metabolism in opium poppy. TyrAT transcript levels were reduced by at least 80% in silenced plants compared with controls and showed a moderate reduction in total alkaloid content. The modest correlation between transcript levels and BIA accumulation in opium poppy supports a role for TyrAT in the generation of alkaloid precursors, but it also suggests the occurrence of other sources for 4-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde.

  14. The roles of latex and the vascular bundle in morphine biosynthesis in the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum.

    PubMed

    Weid, Marion; Ziegler, Jörg; Kutchan, Toni M

    2004-09-21

    The opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, is one of mankind's oldest medicinal plants. Opium poppy today is the commercial source of the narcotic analgesics morphine and codeine. Along with these two morphinans, opium poppy produces approximately eighty alkaloids belonging to various tetrahydrobenzylisoquinoline-derived classes. It has been known for over a century that morphinan alkaloids accumulate in the latex of opium poppy. With identification of many of the enzymes of alkaloid biosynthesis in this plant, biochemical data suggested involvement of multiple cell types in alkaloid biosynthesis in poppy. Herein the immunolocalization of five enzymes of alkaloid formation in opium poppy is reported: (R,S)-3'-hydroxy-N-methylcoclaurine 4'-O-methyltransferase central to the biosynthesis of tetrahydroisoquinoline-derived alkaloids, the berberine bridge enzyme of the sanguinarine pathway, (R,S)-reticuline 7-O-methyltransferase specific to laudanosine formation, and salutaridinol 7-O-acetyltransferase and codeinone reductase, which lead to morphine. In capsule and stem, both O-methyltransferases and the O-acetyltransferase are found predominantly in parenchyma cells within the vascular bundle, and codeinone reductase is localized to laticifers, the site of morphinan alkaloid accumulation. In developing root tip, both O-methyltransferases and the O-acetyltransferase are found in the pericycle of the stele, and the berberine bridge enzyme is localized to parenchyma cells of the root cortex. Laticifers are not found in developing root tip, and, likewise, codeinone reductase was not detected. These results provide cell-specific localization that gives a coherent picture of the spatial distribution of alkaloid biosynthesis in opium poppy.

  15. Chemiluminescence detection of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Francis, Paul S; Adcock, Jacqui L; Costin, Jason W; Purcell, Stuart D; Pfeffer, Frederick M; Barnett, Neil W

    2008-11-04

    A review with 98 references. The determination of the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) alkaloids and their semi-synthetic derivatives has important applications in industrial process monitoring, clinical analysis and forensic science. Liquid-phase chemiluminescence reagents such as tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) and acidic potassium permanganate exhibit remarkable sensitivity and complementary selectivity for many P. somniferum alkaloids, which has been exploited in the development of a range of analytical procedures using flow analysis, high-performance liquid chromatography, capillary electrophoresis and microfluidic instrumentation.

  16. Degradation of morphine in opium poppy processing waste composting.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yin Quan; Zhang, Jin Lin; Schuchardt, Frank; Wang, Yan

    2014-09-01

    To investigate morphine degradation and optimize turning frequency in opium poppy processing waste composting, a pilot scale windrow composting trial was run for 55 days. Four treatments were designed as without turning (A1), every 5 days turning (A2), every 10 days turning (A3) and every 15 days turning (A4). During composting, a range of physicochemical parameters including the residual morphine degradation, temperature, pH, and the contents of total C, total N, total P and total K were investigated. For all treatments, the residual morphine content decreased below the detection limit and reached the safety standards after day 30 of composting, the longest duration of high temperature (⩾50 °C) was observed in A3, pH increased 16.9-17.54%, total carbon content decreased 15.5-22.5%, C/N ratio reduced from 46 to 26, and the content of total phosphorus and total potassium increased slightly. The final compost obtained by a mixture of all four piles was up to 55.3% of organic matter, 3.3% of total nutrient (N, P2O5 and K2O) and 7.6 of pH. A turning frequency of every ten days for a windrow composting of opium poppy processing waste is recommended to produce homogenous compost.

  17. Short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase catalyzing the final step of noscapine biosynthesis is localized to laticifers in opium poppy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xue; Facchini, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    The final step in the biosynthesis of the phthalideisoquinoline alkaloid noscapine involves a purported dehydrogenation of the narcotinehemiacetal keto moiety. A short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR), designated noscapine synthase (NOS), that catalyzes dehydrogenation of narcotinehemiacetal to noscapine was identified in opium poppy and functionally characterized. The NOS gene was isolated using an integrated transcript and metabolite profiling strategy and subsequently expressed in Escherichia coli. Noscapine synthase is highly divergent from other characterized members of the NADPH-dependent SDR superfamily involved in benzylisoquinoline alkaloid metabolism, and it exhibits exclusive substrate specificity for narcotinehemiacetal. Kinetic analyses showed that NOS exhibits higher catalytic efficiency with NAD+ as the cofactor compared with NADP+. Suppression of NOS transcript levels in opium poppy plants subjected to virus-induced gene silencing resulted in a corresponding reduction in the accumulation of noscapine and an increase in narcotinehemiacetal levels in the latex. Noscapine and NOS transcripts were detected in all opium poppy organs, but both were most abundant in stems. Unlike other putative biosynthetic genes clustered in the opium poppy genome, and their corresponding proteins, NOS transcripts and the cognate enzyme were abundant in latex, indicating that noscapine metabolism is completed in a distinct cell type compared with the rest of the pathway.

  18. Thebaine in hair as a marker for chronic use of illegal opium poppy substances.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sooyeun; Park, Yonghoon; Han, Eunyoung; Choi, Hwakyung; Chung, Heesun; Oh, Seung Min; Chung, Kyu Hyuck

    2011-01-30

    Opium poppy products are often illegally used for both recreational and medicinal purposes. In order to demonstrate the ingestion of opium poppy substances, morphine, codeine and their metabolites have been identified. However, morphine and codeine also originate from the ingestion of therapeutic drugs. Therefore, thebaine, one of the main opium alkaloids, in hair was suggested as a marker for chronic use of illegal opium poppy substances in the present study. First, thebaine was included in the analyte list of our routine analytical method for the simultaneous quantification of codeine, morphine, norcodeine, normorphine and 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM) in hair, which was fully validated previously. Then, the incorporation of thebaine and other opiates into hair and the effect of hair pigmentation were examined using lean Zucker rats with both dark grey and white hair on the same body. Thebaine was also measured in hair samples from actual cases of opium poppy substance use. Consequently, thebaine in hair was demonstrated as a marker of chronic use of illegal opium poppy substances using an animal study and actual cases. Thebaine and other opiates were successfully measured in pigmented hair from rats that ingested raw opium suspension. Moreover, thebaine identified in hair excluded possibility of ingestion of pharmaceutical opiates in actual cases.

  19. A FILAMENTOUS FLOWER orthologue plays a key role in leaf patterning in opium poppy.

    PubMed

    Vosnakis, Nikolaos; Maiden, Afiqah; Kourmpetli, Sofia; Hands, Philip; Sharples, Donna; Drea, Sinéad

    2012-11-01

    The plant-specific YABBY genes were initially defined by their roles in determining abaxial/adaxial cell fate in lateral organs of eudicots, and repressing meristematic genes in differentiating tissues such as leaves. In Arabidopsis thaliana FILAMENTOUS FLOWER (FIL) is also required for inflorescence and floral meristem establishment and flower development in a pathway involving the floral transition and identity genes. Here we describe the characterization of a FIL orthologue from the basal eudicot, Papaver somniferum (the opium poppy), and demonstrate a role for the gene in patterning the highly lobed leaf of the poppy. Silencing of PapsFIL using viral-induced gene silencing resulted in leaves of reduced laminar area, more pronounced margin serration and, in some cases, leaf bifurcation. In contrast, the gene does not appear to affect the development of the flower, and these variations in function are discussed in relation to its taxonomic position as a basal eudicot and its determinate growth habit.

  20. New dimeric morphine from opium poppy (Papaver somuniferum) and its physiological function.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Satoshi; Suemori, Kazunari; Taura, Futoshi; Shoyama, Yukihiro

    2003-07-01

    Together with bismorphine A (1), a new compound bismorphine B (2) was identified in the wounded capsules of Papaver somniferum. On the basis of analyses of the various spectral data, bismorphine B (2) was determined as a novel morphinan alkaloid, in which two morphine units are coupled through a biphenyl ether bond. When the physiological function of bismorphine B (2) in opium poppy was investigated, it was evident that this alkaloid more effectively cross-links cell wall polysaccharide pectins than bismorphine A (1) and that such cross-linking reaction leads to resistance against hydrolysis by pectinase.

  1. An assessment of the utility of universal and specific genetic markers for opium poppy identification.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun J; Hwang, In K; Kim, Nam Y; Lee, Kyung L; Han, Myun S; Lee, Yang H; Kim, Mu Y; Yang, Moon S

    2010-09-01

    The proper identification of illicit plants such as Papaver somniferum L (opium poppy) is important for law enforcement agencies. The identification of opium poppy was presently tested using 10 genetic markers that are universal for all plants or specific to a few poppy plants. The genetic distances of universal markers such as nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS), 18S rRNA, plastid rbcL, and trnL-trnF intergenic spacer (IGS) of 14 species included in the Papaveraceae and Fumariaceae family were acquired by sequence comparisons. Both the ITS region and trnL-trnF IGS showed high levels of interspecific divergence. Six Papaver genera-specific markers were developed from coding regions involved in morphine biosynthesis. Three markers (TYDC, NCS, and BBE) produced amplicons only in opium poppy, providing a presence/absence test for opium poppy, while three additional markers (CYP80B1, SAT, and COR) were genus specific. These 10 markers might be useful for the forensic DNA analysis of opium poppy.

  2. Opium poppy and Madagascar periwinkle: model non-model systems to investigate alkaloid biosynthesis in plants.

    PubMed

    Facchini, Peter J; De Luca, Vincenzo

    2008-05-01

    Alkaloids represent a large and diverse group of compounds that are related by the occurrence of a nitrogen atom within a heterocyclic backbone. Unlike other types of secondary metabolites, the various structural categories of alkaloids are unrelated in terms of biosynthesis and evolution. Although the biology of each group is unique, common patterns have become apparent. Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum), which produces several benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, and Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus), which accumulates an array of monoterpenoid indole alkaloids, have emerged as the premier organisms used to study plant alkaloid metabolism. The status of these species as model systems results from decades of research on the chemistry, enzymology and molecular biology responsible for the biosynthesis of valuable pharmaceutical alkaloids. Opium poppy remains the only commercial source for morphine, codeine and semi-synthetic analgesics, such as oxycodone, derived from thebaine. Catharanthus roseus is the only source for the anti-cancer drugs vinblastine and vincristine. Impressive collections of cDNAs encoding biosynthetic enzymes and regulatory proteins involved in the formation of benzylisoquinoline and monoterpenoid indole alkaloids are now available, and the rate of gene discovery has accelerated with the application of genomics. Such tools have allowed the establishment of models that describe the complex cell biology of alkaloid metabolism in these important medicinal plants. A suite of biotechnological resources, including genetic transformation protocols, has allowed the application of metabolic engineering to modify the alkaloid content of these and related species. An overview of recent progress on benzylisoquinoline and monoterpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthesis in opium poppy and C. roseus is presented.

  3. The role of phloem sieve elements and laticifers in the biosynthesis and accumulation of alkaloids in opium poppy.

    PubMed

    Samanani, Nailish; Alcantara, Joenel; Bourgault, Richard; Zulak, Katherine G; Facchini, Peter J

    2006-08-01

    The benzylisoquinoline alkaloids of opium poppy, including the narcotic analgesics morphine and codeine, accumulate in the multinucleate cytoplasm of specialized laticifers that accompany vascular tissues throughout the plant. In mature opium poppy plants, immunofluorescence labeling using specific antibodies showed that four alkaloid biosynthetic enzymes, (S)-norcoclaurine 6-O-methyltransferase (6OMT), (S)-coclaurine N-methyltransferase (CNMT), (S)-3'-hydroxy-N-methylcoclaurine-4'-O-methyltransferase (4'OMT) and salutaridinol-7-O-acetyltransferase (SAT) were restricted to sieve elements of the phloem adjacent or proximal to laticifers. The identity of sieve elements was confirmed by (i) the specific immunogold labeling of the characteristic cytoplasm of this cell type, (ii) the co-localization of a sieve element-specific H(+)-ATPase with all biosynthetic enzymes and (iii) the strict association of sieve plates with immunofluorescent cells. The localization of laticifers was demonstrated antibodies specific to major latex protein (MLP), which is characteristic of this cell type. In situ hybridization using antisense RNA probes for 6OMT, CNMT, 4'OMT and SAT showed that the corresponding gene transcripts were found in the companion cell paired with each sieve element. Seven benzylisoquinoline alkaloid biosynthetic enzymes, (S)-N-methylcoclaurine 3'-hydroxylase (CYP80B1), berberine bridge enzyme, codeinone reductase, 6OMT, CNMT, 4'OMT and SAT were localized by immunofluorescence labeling to the sieve elements in the root and hypocotyl of opium poppy seedlings. The abundance of these enzymes increased rapidly between 1 and 3 days after seed germination. The localization of seven biosynthetic enzymes to the sieve elements provides strong support for the unique, cell type-specific biosynthesis of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids in the opium poppy.

  4. Genetic studies on collar rot resistance in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.).

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Mala; Dhawan, Om Prakash; Tiwari, Rajesh Kumar; Sattar, Abdul

    2005-01-01

    The collar rot disease has been reported recently and occurs at the 10-12-leaf stage of plants of opium poppy. Infected plants topple down and dry prematurely due to fast rotting at the collar region. The inoculum for this study was multiplied on the cornmeal-sand culture. Genetic ratios were calculated by the chi-square test. Inheritance studies on this disease show a monogenic pattern of segregation with the ratio of 3 : 1 at F2, 1 : 2 : 1 at F3 and 1 : 1 at the backcross. Such genetic ratios clearly indicate that a single recessive gene (rs-1) is responsible for disease resistance in opium poppy. The inference drawn on the basis of the present study will be a great help in the future breeding programme of opium poppy for collar rot resistance.

  5. Cloning and characterization of canadine synthase involved in noscapine biosynthesis in opium poppy.

    PubMed

    Dang, Thu-Thuy T; Facchini, Peter J

    2014-01-03

    Noscapine biosynthesis in opium poppy is thought to occur via N-methylcanadine, which would be produced through 9-O-methylation of (S)-scoulerine, methylenedioxy bridge formation on (S)-tetrahydrocolumbamine, and N-methylation of (S)-canadine. Only scoulerine 9-O-methyltransferase has been functionally characterized. We report the isolation and characterization of a cytochrome P450 (CYP719A21) from opium poppy that converts (S)-tetrahydrocolumbamine to (S)-canadine. Recombinant CYP719A21 displayed strict substrate specificity and high affinity (Km=4.63±0.71 μM) for (S)-tetrahydrocolumbamine. Virus-induced gene silencing of CYP719A21 caused a significant increase in (S)-tetrahydrocolumbamine accumulation and a corresponding decrease in the levels of putative downstream intermediates and noscapine in opium poppy plants.

  6. Opium poppy mosaic virus, a new umbravirus isolated from Papaver somniferum in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Tang, Joe; Lebas, Bénédicte; Liefting, Lia; Veerakone, Stella; Wei, Ting; Ward, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    A novel virus, tentatively named "opium poppy mosaic virus" (OPMV), was isolated from Papaver somniferum (opium poppy) with leaf mosaic and mottling symptoms in Auckland, New Zealand, in 2006. The virus was mechanically transmitted to herbaceous plants of several species, in which it induced local and/or systemic symptoms. No virus particles were observed by electron microscopy in the diseased P. somniferum or any of the symptomatic herbaceous plants. The complete genomic sequence of 4230 nucleotides contains four open reading frames (ORF) and is most closely related (59.3 %) to tobacco bushy top virus, a member of the genus Umbravirus. These data suggest that OPMV is a new umbravirus.

  7. Enhancement of alkaloid production in opium and California poppy by transactivation using heterologous regulatory factors.

    PubMed

    Apuya, Nestor R; Park, Joon-Hyun; Zhang, Liping; Ahyow, Maurice; Davidow, Patricia; Van Fleet, Jennifer; Rarang, Joel C; Hippley, Matthew; Johnson, Thomas W; Yoo, Hye-Dong; Trieu, Anthony; Krueger, Shannon; Wu, Chuan-yin; Lu, Yu-ping; Flavell, Richard B; Bobzin, Steven C

    2008-02-01

    Genes encoding regulatory factors isolated from Arabidopsis, soybean and corn have been screened to identify those that modulate the expression of genes encoding for enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of morphinan alkaloids in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) and benzophenanthridine alkaloids in California poppy (Eschscholzia californica). In opium poppy, the over-expression of selected regulatory factors increased the levels of PsCOR (codeinone reductase), Ps4'OMT (S-adenosyl-l-methionine:3'-hydroxy-N-methylcoclaurine 4'-O-methyltransferase) and Ps6OMT [(R,S)-norcoclaurine 6-O-methyltransferase] transcripts by 10- to more than 100-fold. These transcriptional activations translated into an enhancement of alkaloid production in opium poppy of up to at least 10-fold. In California poppy, the transactivation effect of regulatory factor WRKY1 resulted in an increase of up to 60-fold in the level of EcCYP80B1 [(S)-N-methylcoclaurine 3'-hydroxylase] and EcBBE (berberine bridge enzyme) transcripts. As a result, the accumulations of selected alkaloid intermediates were enhanced up to 30-fold. The transactivation effects of other regulatory factors led to the accumulation of the same intermediates. These regulatory factors also led to the production of new alkaloids in California poppy callus culture.

  8. [Poppy, opium and associated objects in the museum of Materia Medica of the Faculty of Pharmacy].

    PubMed

    Debue-Barazer, Christine; Baudouin, Geneviève; Tillequin, François

    2002-01-01

    The collection of the museum of Materia Medica of the Faculty of Pharmacy, consists of some 400 samples, including poppy capsules and opiums of various geographical origins (indigenous, Turkish, Persian, Egyptian, Indian and Chinese) and numerous tools related to the production of these drugs. Most samples were collected during the XIXth and XXth centuries.

  9. The opium poppy as a symbol of sleep in Bertel Thorvaldsen's relief of 1815.

    PubMed

    Tekiner, Halil; Kosar, Muberra

    2016-03-01

    Danish sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen (1770-1844) is one of the most remarkable representatives of Neoclassicist sculptural art in Europe, which was largely inspired by the classical art and culture of Greek and Roman antiquity. A pair of marble reliefs, Night and Day, exhibited in the Thorvaldsen Museum (Copenhagen), marks the culmination of Thorvaldsen's relief art and is of particular interest to the history of sleep medicine. In the first relief, Night, an angel with her neck bent and eyes closed has two babies in her embrace and seems to be floating down in grief, with an owl hovering behind her. Her hair is also twined with opium poppies, the symbol of sleep and death in antiquity. Our findings suggest that this relief not only indicates a mythological association between the opium poppy and sleep but also has a strong connotation with the poppy's medicinal use for inducing sleep throughout the centuries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization of Three O-Methyltransferases Involved in Noscapine Biosynthesis in Opium Poppy1[W

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Thu-Thuy T.; Facchini, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Noscapine is a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid produced in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) and other members of the Papaveraceae. It has been used as a cough suppressant and more recently was shown to possess anticancer activity. However, the biosynthesis of noscapine in opium poppy has not been established. A proposed pathway leading from (S)-reticuline to noscapine includes (S)-scoulerine, (S)-canadine, and (S)-N-methylcanadine as intermediates. Stem cDNA libraries and latex extracts of eight opium poppy cultivars displaying different alkaloid profiles were subjected to massively parallel pyrosequencing and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, respectively. Comparative transcript and metabolite profiling revealed the occurrence of three cDNAs encoding O-methyltransferases designated as SOMT1, SOMT2, and SOMT3 that correlated with the accumulation of noscapine in the eight cultivars. SOMT transcripts were detected in all opium poppy organs but were most abundant in aerial organs, where noscapine primarily accumulates. SOMT2 and SOMT3 showed strict substrate specificity and regiospecificity as 9-O-methyltransferases targeting (S)-scoulerine. In contrast, SOMT1 was able to sequentially 9- and 2-O-methylate (S)-scoulerine, yielding (S)-tetrahydropalmatine. SOMT1 also sequentially 3′- and 7-O-methylated both (S)-norreticuline and (S)-reticuline with relatively high substrate affinity, yielding (S)-tetrahydropapaverine and (S)-laudanosine, respectively. The metabolic functions of SOMT1, SOMT2, and SOMT3 were investigated in planta using virus-induced gene silencing. Reduction of SOMT1 or SOMT2 transcript levels resulted in a significant decrease in noscapine accumulation. Reduced SOMT1 transcript levels also caused a decrease in papaverine accumulation, confirming the selective roles for these enzymes in the biosynthesis of both alkaloids in opium poppy. PMID:22535422

  11. AFLP studies on downy-mildew-resistant and downy-mildew-susceptible genotypes of opium poppy.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Mukesh K; Shasany, Ajit K; Dhawan, Om P; Shukla, Ashutosh K; Khanuja, Suman P S

    2010-04-01

    Downy mildew (DM) caused by Peronospora arborescens, is a serious disease in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum), which has a world-wide spread. The establishment of DM-resistant cultivars appears to be a sustainable way to control the In this paper, we present the results of a study aimed at the identification of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers for DM-resistance in opium poppy. Three opium poppy genotypes (inbred over about 10 years): Pps-1 (DM-resistant), Jawahar-16 (DM-susceptible) and H-9 (DM-susceptible) were crossed in a diallel manner and the F(1) progeny along with the parents were subjected to AFLP analysis of chloroplast (cp) and nuclear DNA with seven and nine EcoRI / MseI primer combinations, respectively. cpDNA AFLP analysis identified 24 Pps-1 (DM-resistant)-specific unique fragments that were found to be maternally inherited in both the crosses, Pps-1 x Jawahar-16 and Pps-1 x H-9. In the case of nuclear DNA AFLP analysis, it was found that 17 fragments inherited from Pps-1 were common to the reciprocal crosses of both (i) Pps-1 and Jawahar-16 as well as (ii) Pps-1 and H-9. This is the first molecular investigation on the identification of polymorphism between DM-resistant and DM-susceptible opium poppy genotypes and development of DM-resistant opium poppy genotypespecific AFLP markers. These AFLP markers could be used in future genetic studies for analysis of linkage to the downy mildew resistance trait.

  12. Characterization of three O-methyltransferases involved in noscapine biosynthesis in opium poppy.

    PubMed

    Dang, Thu-Thuy T; Facchini, Peter J

    2012-06-01

    Noscapine is a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid produced in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) and other members of the Papaveraceae. It has been used as a cough suppressant and more recently was shown to possess anticancer activity. However, the biosynthesis of noscapine in opium poppy has not been established. A proposed pathway leading from (S)-reticuline to noscapine includes (S)-scoulerine, (S)-canadine, and (S)-N-methylcanadine as intermediates. Stem cDNA libraries and latex extracts of eight opium poppy cultivars displaying different alkaloid profiles were subjected to massively parallel pyrosequencing and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, respectively. Comparative transcript and metabolite profiling revealed the occurrence of three cDNAs encoding O-methyltransferases designated as SOMT1, SOMT2, and SOMT3 that correlated with the accumulation of noscapine in the eight cultivars. SOMT transcripts were detected in all opium poppy organs but were most abundant in aerial organs, where noscapine primarily accumulates. SOMT2 and SOMT3 showed strict substrate specificity and regiospecificity as 9-O-methyltransferases targeting (S)-scoulerine. In contrast, SOMT1 was able to sequentially 9- and 2-O-methylate (S)-scoulerine, yielding (S)-tetrahydropalmatine. SOMT1 also sequentially 3'- and 7-O-methylated both (S)-norreticuline and (S)-reticuline with relatively high substrate affinity, yielding (S)-tetrahydropapaverine and (S)-laudanosine, respectively. The metabolic functions of SOMT1, SOMT2, and SOMT3 were investigated in planta using virus-induced gene silencing. Reduction of SOMT1 or SOMT2 transcript levels resulted in a significant decrease in noscapine accumulation. Reduced SOMT1 transcript levels also caused a decrease in papaverine accumulation, confirming the selective roles for these enzymes in the biosynthesis of both alkaloids in opium poppy.

  13. Papaverine 7-O-demethylase, a novel 2-oxoglutarate/Fe(2+)-dependent dioxygenase from opium poppy.

    PubMed

    Farrow, Scott C; Facchini, Peter J

    2015-09-14

    Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) produces several pharmacologically important benzylisoquinoline alkaloids including the vasodilator papaverine. Pacodine and palaudine are tri-O-methylated analogs of papaverine, which contains four O-linked methyl groups. However, the biosynthetic origin of pacodine and palaudine has not been established. Three members of the 2-oxoglutarate/Fe(2+)-dependent dioxygenases (2ODDs) family in opium poppy display widespread O-dealkylation activity on several benzylisoquinoline alkaloids with diverse structural scaffolds, and two are responsible for the antepenultimate and ultimate steps in morphine biosynthesis. We report a novel 2ODD from opium poppy catalyzing the efficient substrate- and regio-specific 7-O-demethylation of papaverine yielding pacodine. The occurrence of papaverine 7-O-demethylase (P7ODM) expands the enzymatic scope of the 2ODD family in opium poppy and suggests an unexpected biosynthetic route to pacodine.

  14. Tyrosine Aminotransferase Contributes to Benzylisoquinoline Alkaloid Biosynthesis in Opium Poppy1[W

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun-Jeong; Facchini, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Tyrosine aminotransferase (TyrAT) catalyzes the transamination of l-Tyr and α-ketoglutarate, yielding 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid and l-glutamate. The decarboxylation product of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid, 4-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde, is a precursor to a large and diverse group of natural products known collectively as benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs). We have isolated and characterized a TyrAT cDNA from opium poppy (Papaver somniferum), which remains the only commercial source for several pharmaceutical BIAs, including codeine, morphine, and noscapine. TyrAT belongs to group I pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzymes wherein Schiff base formation occurs between PLP and a specific Lys residue. The amino acid sequence of TyrAT showed considerable homology to other putative plant TyrATs, although few of these have been functionally characterized. Purified, recombinant TyrAT displayed a molecular mass of approximately 46 kD and a substrate preference for l-Tyr and α-ketoglutarate, with apparent Km values of 1.82 and 0.35 mm, respectively. No specific requirement for PLP was detected in vitro. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry confirmed the conversion of l-Tyr to 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate. TyrAT gene transcripts were most abundant in roots and stems of mature opium poppy plants. Virus-induced gene silencing was used to evaluate the contribution of TyrAT to BIA metabolism in opium poppy. TyrAT transcript levels were reduced by at least 80% in silenced plants compared with controls and showed a moderate reduction in total alkaloid content. The modest correlation between transcript levels and BIA accumulation in opium poppy supports a role for TyrAT in the generation of alkaloid precursors, but it also suggests the occurrence of other sources for 4-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde. PMID:21949209

  15. Acetylation serves as a protective group in noscapine biosynthesis in opium poppy.

    PubMed

    Dang, Thu-Thuy T; Chen, Xue; Facchini, Peter J

    2015-02-01

    We have characterized four sequential enzymes that transform 1-hydroxy-N-methylcanadine to narcotoline hemiacetal, completing our elucidation of noscapine biosynthesis in opium poppy. Two cytochromes P450 catalyze hydroxylations at C13 and C8 on the protoberberine scaffold, the latter step inducing ring opening and the formation of an aldehyde moiety. Acetylation at C13 before C8 hydroxylation introduces a protective group subsequently hydrolyzed by a carboxylesterase, which triggers rearrangement to a cyclic hemiacetal.

  16. Traditional ecologies of the opium poppy and oral history in rural Turkey.

    PubMed

    Evered, Kyle T

    2011-01-01

    Cultivated in the Eastern Mediterranean region for millennia, the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) was profoundly significant in the economies, ecologies, cultures, and diets of the peoples of many towns and villages of rural Anatolia. When the United States compelled Turkey to eradicate cultivation of the plant in the early 1970s in order to diminish the flow of heroin into America, farmers were obliged to deal with not only changes in their incomes but also profound changes in their relationships with the land and the state. Although Turkish officials later allowed production to resume in a highly controlled manner for pharmaceutical purposes, significant socioeconomic and ecological dimensions of Turkey's poppy-growing communities were forever changed. Interviewing now-retired poppy farmers, I employ oral history as my primary source of historical evidence to reconstruct these past ecologies and associated social relationships and to give voice to the informants.

  17. Integration of deep transcript and targeted metabolite profiles for eight cultivars of opium poppy.

    PubMed

    Desgagné-Penix, Isabel; Farrow, Scott C; Cram, Dustin; Nowak, Jacek; Facchini, Peter J

    2012-06-01

    Recent advances in DNA sequencing technology and analytical mass spectrometry are providing unprecedented opportunities to develop the functional genomics resources required to investigate complex biological processes in non-model plants. Opium poppy produces a wide variety of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs), including the pharmaceutical compounds codeine, morphine, noscapine and papaverine. A functional genomics platform to identify novel BIA biosynthetic and regulatory genes in opium poppy has been established based on the differential metabolite profile of eight selected cultivars. Stem cDNA libraries from each of the eight opium poppy cultivars were subjected to 454 pyrosequencing and searchable expressed sequence tag databases were created from the assembled reads. These deep and integrated metabolite and transcript databases provide a nearly complete representation of the genetic and metabolic variances responsible for the differential occurrence of specific BIAs in each cultivar as demonstrated using the biochemically well characterized pathway from tyrosine to morphine. Similar correlations between the occurrence of specific transcripts and alkaloids effectively reveals candidate genes encoding uncharacterized biosynthetic enzymes as shown using cytochromes P450 potentially involved in the formation of papaverine and noscapine.

  18. Stereochemical inversion of (S)-reticuline by a cytochrome P450 fusion in opium poppy.

    PubMed

    Farrow, Scott C; Hagel, Jillian M; Beaudoin, Guillaume A W; Burns, Darcy C; Facchini, Peter J

    2015-09-01

    The gateway to morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) is the stereochemical inversion of (S)-reticuline since the enzyme yielding the first committed intermediate salutaridine is specific for (R)-reticuline. A fusion between a cytochrome P450 (CYP) and an aldo-keto reductase (AKR) catalyzes the S-to-R epimerization of reticuline via 1,2-dehydroreticuline. The reticuline epimerase (REPI) fusion was detected in opium poppy and in Papaver bracteatum, which accumulates thebaine. In contrast, orthologs encoding independent CYP and AKR enzymes catalyzing the respective synthesis and reduction of 1,2-dehydroreticuline were isolated from Papaver rhoeas, which does not accumulate morphinan alkaloids. An ancestral relationship between these enzymes is supported by a conservation of introns in the gene fusions and independent orthologs. Suppression of REPI transcripts using virus-induced gene silencing in opium poppy reduced levels of (R)-reticuline and morphinan alkaloids and increased the overall abundance of (S)-reticuline and its O-methylated derivatives. Discovery of REPI completes the isolation of genes responsible for known steps of morphine biosynthesis.

  19. Plant science. Morphinan biosynthesis in opium poppy requires a P450-oxidoreductase fusion protein.

    PubMed

    Winzer, Thilo; Kern, Marcelo; King, Andrew J; Larson, Tony R; Teodor, Roxana I; Donninger, Samantha L; Li, Yi; Dowle, Adam A; Cartwright, Jared; Bates, Rachel; Ashford, David; Thomas, Jerry; Walker, Carol; Bowser, Tim A; Graham, Ian A

    2015-07-17

    Morphinan alkaloids from the opium poppy are used for pain relief. The direction of metabolites to morphinan biosynthesis requires isomerization of (S)- to (R)-reticuline. Characterization of high-reticuline poppy mutants revealed a genetic locus, designated STORR [(S)- to (R)-reticuline] that encodes both cytochrome P450 and oxidoreductase modules, the latter belonging to the aldo-keto reductase family. Metabolite analysis of mutant alleles and heterologous expression demonstrate that the P450 module is responsible for the conversion of (S)-reticuline to 1,2-dehydroreticuline, whereas the oxidoreductase module converts 1,2-dehydroreticuline to (R)-reticuline rather than functioning as a P450 redox partner. Proteomic analysis confirmed that these two modules are contained on a single polypeptide in vivo. This modular assembly implies a selection pressure favoring substrate channeling. The fusion protein STORR may enable microbial-based morphinan production.

  20. Molecular analysis of a new member of the opium poppy tyrosine/3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine decarboxylase gene family.

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado-Mendoza, I E; López-Meyer, M; Galef, J R; Burnett, R J; Nessler, C L

    1996-01-01

    An aromatic amino acid decarboxylase DNA fragment was generated from opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) genomic DNA by the PCR using primers designed from conserved amino acid sequences of other aromatic amino acid decarboxylase genes. Using this fragment as a probe, a genomic clone was isolated that encodes a new member of the opium poppy tyrosine/3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine decarboxylase gene family (TyDC5). The predicted TyDC5 amino acid sequence shares extensive identity with other opium poppy tyrosine/3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine decarboxylases (84%), and when expressed in Escherichia coli, it is active against tyrosine and to a lesser extent against 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine. Ribonuclease protection assays indicate that TyDC5 is expressed primarily in the roots of mature poppy plants. A peak of TyDC5 expression was also observed during germination, coincident with the emergence of the radicle from the seed coat. Parallel results were obtained in transgenic tobacco using a TyDC5 promoter fragment (-2060) translationally fused to the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene (GUS). IN TyDC5::GUS tobacco, GUS activity transiently appeared in all parts of the seedling during germination, but was limited to the roots in older plants. These results indicate that TyDC5 expression is transcriptionally regulated and suggest that the TyDC5 enzyme may play an important role in providing precursors for alkaloid synthesis in the roots and germinating seedlings of opium poppy. PMID:8587993

  1. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of salutaridine reductase from the opium poppy Papaver somniferum.

    PubMed

    Higashi, Yasuhiro; Smith, Thomas J; Jez, Joseph M; Kutchan, Toni M

    2010-02-01

    The opium poppy Papaver somniferum is the source of the narcotic analgesics morphine and codeine. Salutaridine reductase (SalR; EC 1.1.1.248) reduces the C-7 keto group of salutaridine to the C-7 (S)-hydroxyl group of salutaridinol in the biosynthetic pathway that leads to morphine in the opium poppy plant. P. somniferum SalR was overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified using cobalt-affinity and size-exclusion chromatography. Hexagonal crystals belonging to space group P6(4)22 or P6(2)22 were obtained using ammonium sulfate as precipitant and diffracted to a resolution of 1.9 A.

  2. Identification of conserved micro-RNAs and their target transcripts in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.).

    PubMed

    Unver, Turgay; Parmaksiz, Iskender; Dündar, Ekrem

    2010-07-01

    Micro-RNAs (miRNA) are regulatory non-coding class of small RNAs functioning in many organisms. Using computational approaches we have identified 20 conserved opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) miRNAs belonging to 16 miRNA families in Expressed Sequence Tags (EST) database. The existence of ESTs suggested that the miRNAs were expressed in P. somniferum. Lengths of mature miRNAs varied from 20 to 23 nucleotides located at the different positions of precursor RNAs. Uracil was found to be a dominant nucleotide in both poppy pre-miRNA sequences (31.28 +/- 7.06% of total nucleotide composition) and in the first position at the 5' end of the mature poppy miRNAs. We have applied quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) assays to compare and validate expression levels of selected P. somniferum miRNAs and their target transcripts. As a result, some of the predicted miRNAs and their target genes were found to be differentially expressed in P. somniferum leaf and root tissues. A meaningful correlation between three of the four analyzed pairs of miRNAs and their target transcript expression levels was detected. Additionally, using these predicted miRNAs as queries, 41 potential target mRNAs were found in National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) protein-coding nucleotide (mRNA) database of all plant species. Some of the target mRNAs were found to be transcription factors regulating plant development, morphology, and flowering time. Other target mRNAs of identified conserved miRNAs involve in metabolic processes, signal transduction, and stress responses. This study reports the first identification of opium poppy miRNAs.

  3. CYP719B1 is salutaridine synthase, the C-C phenol-coupling enzyme of morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy.

    PubMed

    Gesell, Andreas; Rolf, Megan; Ziegler, Jörg; Díaz Chávez, María Luisa; Huang, Fong-Chin; Kutchan, Toni M

    2009-09-04

    Morphine is a powerful analgesic natural product produced by the opium poppy Papaver somniferum. Although formal syntheses of this alkaloid have been reported, the morphine molecule contains five stereocenters and a C-C phenol linkage that to date render a total synthesis of morphine commercially unfeasible. The C-C phenol-coupling reaction along the biosynthetic pathway to morphine in opium poppy is catalyzed by the cytochrome P450-dependent oxygenase salutaridine synthase. We report herein on the identification of salutaridine synthase as a member of the CYP719 family of cytochromes P450 during a screen of recombinant cytochromes P450 of opium poppy functionally expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 cells. Recombinant CYP719B1 is a highly stereo- and regioselective enzyme; of forty-one compounds tested as potential substrates, only (R)-reticuline and (R)-norreticuline resulted in formation of a product (salutaridine and norsalutaridine, respectively). To date, CYP719s have been characterized catalyzing only the formation of a methylenedioxy bridge in berberine biosynthesis (canadine synthase, CYP719A1) and in benzo[c]phenanthridine biosynthesis (stylopine synthase, CYP719A14). Previously identified phenol-coupling enzymes of plant alkaloid biosynthesis belong only to the CYP80 family of cytochromes. CYP719B1 therefore is the prototype for a new family of plant cytochromes P450 that catalyze formation of a phenol-couple.

  4. Regulation of the alkaloid biosynthesis by miRNA in opium poppy.

    PubMed

    Boke, Hatice; Ozhuner, Esma; Turktas, Mine; Parmaksiz, Iskender; Ozcan, Sebahattin; Unver, Turgay

    2015-04-01

    Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) is an important medicinal plant producing benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIA). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small RNAs (sRNAs) of approximately 21 nucleotides. They are noncoding, but regulate gene expression in eukaryotes. Although many studies have been conducted on the identification and functions of plant miRNA, scarce researches on miRNA regulation of alkaloid biosynthesis have been reported. In this study, a total of 316 conserved and 11 novel miRNAs were identified in opium poppy using second-generation sequencing and direct cloning. Tissue-specific regulation of miRNA expression was comparatively analysed by miRNA microarray assays. A total of 232 miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed among four tissues. Likewise, 1469 target transcripts were detected using in silico and experimental approaches. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analyses indicated that miRNA putatively regulates carbohydrate metabolism and genetic-information processing. Additionally, miRNA target transcripts were mostly involved in response to stress against various factors and secondary-metabolite biosynthesis processes. Target transcript identification analyses revealed that some of the miRNAs might be involved in BIA biosynthesis, such as pso-miR13, pso-miR2161 and pso-miR408. Additionally, three putatively mature miRNA sequences were predicted to be targeting BIA-biosynthesis genes. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Systematic silencing of benzylisoquinoline alkaloid biosynthetic genes reveals the major route to papaverine in opium poppy.

    PubMed

    Desgagné-Penix, Isabel; Facchini, Peter J

    2012-10-01

    Papaverine, a major benzylisoquinoline alkaloid in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum), is used as a vasodilator and antispasmodic. Conversion of the initial intermediate (S)-norcoclaurine to papaverine involves 3'-hydroxylation, four O-methylations and dehydrogenation. However, our understanding of papaverine biosynthesis remains controversial more than a century after an initial scheme was proposed. In vitro assays and in vivo labeling studies have been insufficient to establish the sequence of conversions, the potential role of the intermediate (S)-reticuline, and the enzymes involved. We used virus-induced gene silencing in opium poppy to individually suppress the expression of six genes with putative roles in papaverine biosynthesis. Suppression of the gene encoding coclaurine N-methyltransferase dramatically increased papaverine levels at the expense of N-methylated alkaloids, indicating that the main biosynthetic route to papaverine proceeds via N-desmethylated compounds rather than through (S)-reticuline. Suppression of genes encoding (S)-3'-hydroxy-N-methylcoclaurine 4-O-methyltransferase and norreticuline 7-O-methyltransferase, which accept certain N-desmethylated alkaloids, reduced papaverine content. In contrast, suppression of genes encoding N-methylcoclaurine 3'-hydroxylase or reticuline 7-O-methyltransferase, which are specific for N-methylated alkaloids, did not affect papaverine levels. Suppression of norcoclaurine 6-O-methyltransferase transcript levels significantly suppressed total alkaloid accumulation, implicating (S)-coclaurine as a key branch-point intermediate. The differential detection of N-desmethylated compounds in response to suppression of specific genes highlights the primary route to papaverine.

  6. Phloem-Specific Expression of Tyrosine/Dopa Decarboxylase Genes and the Biosynthesis of Isoquinoline Alkaloids in Opium Poppy.

    PubMed Central

    Facchini, P. J.; De Luca, V.

    1995-01-01

    Tyrosine/dopa decarboxylase (TYDC) catalyzes the formation of tyramine and dopamine and represents the first steps in the biosynthesis of the large and diverse group of tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids. Opium poppy accumulates morphine in aerial organs and roots, whereas sanguinarine, which is derived from a distinct branch pathway, accumulates only in roots. Expression of the TYDC gene family in opium poppy was investigated in relation to the organ-specific biosynthesis of these different types of alkaloids. Members of the TYDC gene family are classified into two groups (represented by TYDC1 and TYDC2) and are differentially expressed. In the mature plant, TYDC2-like transcripts are predominant in stems and are also present in roots, whereas TYDC1-like transcripts are abundant only in roots. In situ hybridization analysis revealed that the expression of TYDC genes is developmentally regulated. TYDC transcripts are associated with vascular tissue in mature roots and stems but are also expressed in cortical tissues at earlier stages of development. Expression of TYDC genes is restricted to metaphloem and to protoxylem in the vascular bundles of mature aerial organs. Localization of TYDC transcripts in the phloem is consistent with the expected developmental origin of laticifers, which are specialized internal secretory cells that accompany vascular tissues in all organs of select species and that contain the alkaloid-rich latex in aerial organs. The differential expression of TYDC genes and the organ-dependent accumulation of different alkaloids suggest a coordinated regulation of specific alkaloid biosynthetic genes that are ultimately controlled by specific developmental programs. PMID:12242361

  7. Somatic embryogenesis, rhizogenesis, and morphinan alkaloids production in two species of opium poppy

    PubMed Central

    2001-01-01

    A study of somatic embryogenesis and rhizogenesis and their influence on production of morphinan alkaloids on two species of opium poppy is presented. We identified the ratios of auxin and cytokinin that caused somatic embryogenesis and rhizogenesis in hypocotyl and cotyledons of Papaver somniferum album and Papaver orientale splendidissimum. The hypocotyls and cotyledons both show somatic embryogenesis in Papaver somniferum album whereas only the cotyledons were embryogenic in Papaver orientale splendidissimum. For rhizogenesis, the most important response is on the cotyledons and leaves in these two species. Histology showed characteristic stages of somatic embryo: Globular, cotyledonous, and heart cotyledonary. High performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that the roots of both species synthesized codeine, thebaine, and papaverine. Morphine was only detected in aerial parts of Papaver somniferum album. Codeine and thebaine were detected in the rhizogenous but no embryonic callus. These results suggest that root organogenesis is causally related to alkaloid biosynthesis. PMID:12488612

  8. Genetic analysis of capsule and its associated economic traits in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Birendra; Patra, Nirmal Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Four single crosses (VG20 x SGE48, SGE48 x SG35II, VG26 x SG35II, and SG35II x VG20) in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) were analyzed to study the gene actions involved in the inheritance of quantitative traits, namely plant height, branches/plant, capsules/plant, peduncle length, capsule index, stigmatic rays, straw yield/plant, and morphine content. Simple additive, dominance, and epistatic genetic components were found to be significant for inheritance pattern. Dominance effect (h) was higher than additive effect (d). Digenic interaction indicated the prevalence of dominance x dominance (l) followed by additive x dominance (j) type epistasis. The significance of dominance (h) and dominance x dominance (l) indicated duplicate epistasis for all the traits and crosses except SG35II x VG20 for stigmatic rays. Biparental mating followed by recurrent selection involving desired recombinants may be utilized to improve the component traits.

  9. Systematic knockdown of morphine pathway enzymes in opium poppy using virus-induced gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Wijekoon, Champa P; Facchini, Peter J

    2012-03-01

    Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) remains the sole commercial source for several pharmaceutical alkaloids including the narcotic analgesics codeine and morphine, and the semi-synthetic drugs oxycodone, buprenorphine and naltrexone. Although most of the biosynthetic genes have been identified, the post-transcriptional regulation of the morphinan alkaloid pathway has not been determined. We have used virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) as a functional genomics tool to investigate the regulation of morphine biosynthesis via a systematic reduction in enzyme levels responsible for the final six steps in the pathway. Specific gene silencing was confirmed at the transcript level by real-time quantitative PCR (polymerase chain reaction), and at the protein level by immunoblot analysis using antibodies raised against salutaridine synthase (SalSyn), salutaridine reductase (SalR), salutaridine 7-O-acetyltransferase (SalAT), thebaine 6-O-demethylase (T6ODM), codeinone reductase (COR), and codeine O-demethylase (CODM). In some cases, silencing a specific biosynthetic gene resulted in a predictable accumulation of the substrate for the corresponding enzyme. Reduced SalSyn, SalR, T6ODM and CODM protein levels correlated with lower morphine levels and a substantial increase in the accumulation of reticuline, salutaridine, thebaine and codeine, respectively. In contrast, the silencing of genes encoding SalAT and COR resulted in the accumulation of salutaridine and reticuline, respectively, which are not the corresponding enzymatic substrates. The silencing of alkaloid biosynthetic genes using VIGS confirms the physiological function of enzymes previously characterized in vitro, provides insight into the biochemical regulation of morphine biosynthesis, and demonstrates the immense potential for metabolic engineering in opium poppy.

  10. Alternate transcripts of a floral developmental regulator have both distinct and redundant functions in opium poppy

    PubMed Central

    Hands, Philip; Vosnakis, Nikolaos; Betts, Donna; Irish, Vivian F.; Drea, Sinéad

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims The MADS-box transcription factor AGAMOUS (AG) is an important regulator of stamen and fruit identity as well as floral meristem determinacy in a number of core eudicots and monocots. However, its role outside of these groups has not been assessed explicitly. Examining its role in opium poppy, a basal eudicot, could uncover much about the evolution and development of flower and fruit development in the angiosperms. Methods AG orthologues were isolated by degenerate RT-PCR and the gene sequence and structure examined; gene expression was characterized using in situ hybridization and the function assessed using virus-induced gene silencing. Key Results In opium poppy, a basal eudicot, the AGAMOUS orthologue is alternatively spliced to produce encoded products that vary at the C-terminus, termed PapsAG-1 and PapsAG-2. Both transcripts are expressed at high levels in stamens and carpels. The functional implications of this alternative transcription were examined using virus-induced gene silencing and the results show that PapsAG-1 has roles in stamen and carpel identity, reflecting those found for Arabidopsis AG. In contrast, PapsAG-2, while displaying redundancy in these functions, has a distinctive role in aspects of carpel development reflected in septae, ovule and stigma defects seen in the loss-of-function line generated. Conclusions These results describe the first explicit functional analysis of an AG-clade gene in a basal eudicot; illustrate one of the few examples of the functional consequences of alternative splicing in transcription factors and reveal the importance of alternative transcription, as well as gene duplication, as a driving force in evolution. PMID:21385783

  11. "Poppies are democracy!" A critical geopolitics of opium eradication and reintroduction in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Evered, Kyle T

    2011-01-01

    Historical scholarship in traditional geopolitics often relied on documents authored by states and by other influential actors. Although much work in the subfield of critical geopolitics thus far has addressed imbalances constructed in official, academic, and popular media due to a privileging of such narratives, priority might also be given to unearthing and bringing to light alternative geopolitical perspectives from otherwise marginalized populations. Utilizing the early-1970s case of the United States' first “war on drugs,” this article examines the geopolitics of opium-poppy eradication and its consequences within Turkey. Employing not only archival and secondary sources but also oral histories from now-retired poppy farmers, this study examines the diffusion of U.S. antinarcotics policies into the Anatolian countryside and the enduring impressions that the United States and Turkish government created. In doing so, this research gives voice to those farmers targeted by eradication policies and speaks more broadly to matters of narcotics control, sentiments of anti-Americanism, and notions of democracy in Turkey and the region, past and present.

  12. Characterization of a Flavoprotein Oxidase from Opium Poppy Catalyzing the Final Steps in Sanguinarine and Papaverine Biosynthesis*

    PubMed Central

    Hagel, Jillian M.; Beaudoin, Guillaume A. W.; Fossati, Elena; Ekins, Andrew; Martin, Vincent J. J.; Facchini, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids are a diverse class of plant specialized metabolites that includes the analgesic morphine, the antimicrobials sanguinarine and berberine, and the vasodilator papaverine. The two-electron oxidation of dihydrosanguinarine catalyzed by dihydrobenzophenanthridine oxidase (DBOX) is the final step in sanguinarine biosynthesis. The formation of the fully conjugated ring system in sanguinarine is similar to the four-electron oxidations of (S)-canadine to berberine and (S)-tetrahydropapaverine to papaverine. We report the isolation and functional characterization of an opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) cDNA encoding DBOX, a flavoprotein oxidase with homology to (S)-tetrahydroprotoberberine oxidase and the berberine bridge enzyme. A query of translated opium poppy stem transcriptome databases using berberine bridge enzyme yielded several candidate genes, including an (S)-tetrahydroprotoberberine oxidase-like sequence selected for heterologous expression in Pichia pastoris. The recombinant enzyme preferentially catalyzed the oxidation of dihydrosanguinarine to sanguinarine but also converted (RS)-tetrahydropapaverine to papaverine and several protoberberine alkaloids to oxidized forms, including (RS)-canadine to berberine. The Km values of 201 and 146 μm for dihydrosanguinarine and the protoberberine alkaloid (S)-scoulerine, respectively, suggested high concentrations of these substrates in the plant. Virus-induced gene silencing to reduce DBOX transcript levels resulted in a corresponding reduction in sanguinarine, dihydrosanguinarine, and papaverine accumulation in opium poppy roots in support of DBOX as a multifunctional oxidative enzyme in BIA metabolism. PMID:23118227

  13. Characterization of a flavoprotein oxidase from opium poppy catalyzing the final steps in sanguinarine and papaverine biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Hagel, Jillian M; Beaudoin, Guillaume A W; Fossati, Elena; Ekins, Andrew; Martin, Vincent J J; Facchini, Peter J

    2012-12-14

    Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids are a diverse class of plant specialized metabolites that includes the analgesic morphine, the antimicrobials sanguinarine and berberine, and the vasodilator papaverine. The two-electron oxidation of dihydrosanguinarine catalyzed by dihydrobenzophenanthridine oxidase (DBOX) is the final step in sanguinarine biosynthesis. The formation of the fully conjugated ring system in sanguinarine is similar to the four-electron oxidations of (S)-canadine to berberine and (S)-tetrahydropapaverine to papaverine. We report the isolation and functional characterization of an opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) cDNA encoding DBOX, a flavoprotein oxidase with homology to (S)-tetrahydroprotoberberine oxidase and the berberine bridge enzyme. A query of translated opium poppy stem transcriptome databases using berberine bridge enzyme yielded several candidate genes, including an (S)-tetrahydroprotoberberine oxidase-like sequence selected for heterologous expression in Pichia pastoris. The recombinant enzyme preferentially catalyzed the oxidation of dihydrosanguinarine to sanguinarine but also converted (RS)-tetrahydropapaverine to papaverine and several protoberberine alkaloids to oxidized forms, including (RS)-canadine to berberine. The K(m) values of 201 and 146 μm for dihydrosanguinarine and the protoberberine alkaloid (S)-scoulerine, respectively, suggested high concentrations of these substrates in the plant. Virus-induced gene silencing to reduce DBOX transcript levels resulted in a corresponding reduction in sanguinarine, dihydrosanguinarine, and papaverine accumulation in opium poppy roots in support of DBOX as a multifunctional oxidative enzyme in BIA metabolism.

  14. Detection of Verticillium wilt of olive trees and downy mildew of opium poppy using hyperspectral and thermal UAV imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderón Madrid, Rocío; Navas Cortés, Juan Antonio; Montes Borrego, Miguel; Landa del Castillo, Blanca Beatriz; Lucena León, Carlos; Jesús Zarco Tejada, Pablo

    2014-05-01

    The present study explored the use of high-resolution thermal, multispectral and hyperspectral imagery as indicators of the infections caused by Verticillium wilt (VW) in olive trees and downy mildew (DM) in opium poppy fields. VW, caused by the soil-borne fungus Verticillium dahliae, and DM, caused by the biotrophic obligate oomycete Peronospora arborescens, are the most economically limiting diseases of olive trees and opium poppy, respectively, worldwide. V. dahliae infects the plant by the roots and colonizes its vascular system, blocking water flow and eventually inducing water stress. P. arborescens colonizes the mesophyll, appearing the first symptoms as small chlorotic leaf lesions, which can evolve to curled and thickened tissues and systemic infections that become deformed and necrotic as the disease develops. The work conducted to detect VW and DM infection consisted on the acquisition of time series of airborne thermal, multispectral and hyperspectral imagery using 2-m and 5-m wingspan electric Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in spring and summer of three consecutive years (2009 to 2011) for VW detection and on three dates in spring of 2009 for DM detection. Two 7-ha commercial olive orchards naturally infected with V. dahliae and two opium poppy field plots artificially infected by P. arborescens were flown. Concurrently to the airborne campaigns, olive orchards and opium poppy fields were assessed "in situ" to assess actual VW severity and DM incidence. Furthermore, field measurements were conducted at leaf and crown level. The field results related to VW detection showed a significant increase in crown temperature (Tc) minus air temperature (Ta) and a decrease in leaf stomatal conductance (G) as VW severity increased. This reduction in G was associated with a significant increase in the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI570) and a decrease in chlorophyll fluorescence. DM asymptomatic leaves showed significantly higher NDVI and lower green/red index

  15. Atomic Structure of Salutaridine Reductase from the Opium Poppy (Papaver somniferum)

    SciTech Connect

    Higashi, Yasuhiro; Kutchan, Toni M.; Smith, Thomas J.

    2011-11-18

    The opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) is one of the oldest known medicinal plants. In the biosynthetic pathway for morphine and codeine, salutaridine is reduced to salutaridinol by salutaridine reductase (SalR; EC 1.1.1.248) using NADPH as coenzyme. Here, we report the atomic structure of SalR to a resolution of {approx}1.9 {angstrom} in the presence of NADPH. The core structure is highly homologous to other members of the short chain dehydrogenase/reductase family. The major difference is that the nicotinamide moiety and the substrate-binding pocket are covered by a loop (residues 265-279), on top of which lies a large 'flap'-like domain (residues 105-140). This configuration appears to be a combination of the two common structural themes found in other members of the short chain dehydrogenase/reductase family. Previous modeling studies suggested that substrate inhibition is due to mutually exclusive productive and nonproductive modes of substrate binding in the active site. This model was tested via site-directed mutagenesis, and a number of these mutations abrogated substrate inhibition. However, the atomic structure of SalR shows that these mutated residues are instead distributed over a wide area of the enzyme, and many are not in the active site. To explain how residues distal to the active site might affect catalysis, a model is presented whereby SalR may undergo significant conformational changes during catalytic turnover.

  16. Atomic structure of salutaridine reductase from the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum).

    PubMed

    Higashi, Yasuhiro; Kutchan, Toni M; Smith, Thomas J

    2011-02-25

    The opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) is one of the oldest known medicinal plants. In the biosynthetic pathway for morphine and codeine, salutaridine is reduced to salutaridinol by salutaridine reductase (SalR; EC 1.1.1.248) using NADPH as coenzyme. Here, we report the atomic structure of SalR to a resolution of ∼1.9 Å in the presence of NADPH. The core structure is highly homologous to other members of the short chain dehydrogenase/reductase family. The major difference is that the nicotinamide moiety and the substrate-binding pocket are covered by a loop (residues 265-279), on top of which lies a large "flap"-like domain (residues 105-140). This configuration appears to be a combination of the two common structural themes found in other members of the short chain dehydrogenase/reductase family. Previous modeling studies suggested that substrate inhibition is due to mutually exclusive productive and nonproductive modes of substrate binding in the active site. This model was tested via site-directed mutagenesis, and a number of these mutations abrogated substrate inhibition. However, the atomic structure of SalR shows that these mutated residues are instead distributed over a wide area of the enzyme, and many are not in the active site. To explain how residues distal to the active site might affect catalysis, a model is presented whereby SalR may undergo significant conformational changes during catalytic turnover.

  17. Transformation of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) with Agrobacterium rhizogenes MAFF 03-01724.

    PubMed

    Yoshimatsu, K; Shimomura, K

    1992-04-01

    Transformed cultures of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) were established by infecting hypocotyl segments with Agrobacterium rhizogenes MAFF 03-01724. Undifferentiated calli formed on the infected site grew satisfactorily on phytohormone-free solid medium in the dark and produced opine, mikimopine, which could not be detected in a normal culture. Numerous adventitious shoots developed from transformed calli during subculture. The transformed shoots separated individually were cultured on phytohormone-free MS solid medium at 22 ° C under 14 h/day light. They displayed wider leaves and longer internodes than shoots established from seeds or non-transformed root culture. The content of morphinan alkaloids in the cultures and regenerated shoots were quantitatively analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and high performance liquid chromatography. HPLC analysis revealed that non-transformed shoots contained much more codeine (1310 gmg/g dry wt.) than morphine (50 μg/g dry wt.), while the transformed shoot cultures did not contain morphine, although the level of morphinan alkaloids in the transformed shoots (213 μg morphine equivalents/g fr. wt.) was comparable to that in non-transformed shoots (182 μg morphine equivalents/g fr. wt.) by ELISA.

  18. Isolation and characterization of a cDNA encoding (S)-cis-N-methylstylopine 14-hydroxylase from opium poppy, a key enzyme in sanguinarine biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Beaudoin, Guillaume A W; Facchini, Peter J

    2013-02-15

    Sanguinarine is a benzo[c]phenenthridine alkaloid with potent antimicrobial properties found commonly in plants of the Papaveraceae, including the roots of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum). Sanguinarine is formed from the central 1-benzylisoquinoline intermediate (S)-reticuline via the protoberberine alkaloid (S)-scoulerine, which undergoes five enzymatic oxidations and an N-methylation. The first four oxidations from (S)-scoulerine are catalyzed by cytochromes P450, whereas the final conversion involves a flavoprotein oxidase. All but one gene in the biosynthetic pathway from (S)-reticuline to sanguinarine has been identified. In this communication, we report the isolation and characterization of (S)-cis-N-methylstylopine 14-hydroxylase (MSH) from opium poppy based on the transcriptional induction in elicitor-treated cell suspension cultures and root-specific expression of the corresponding gene. Along with protopine 6-hydroxylase, which catalyzes the subsequent and penultimate step in sanguinarine biosynthesis, MSH is a member of the CYP82N subfamily of cytochromes P450. The full-length MSH cDNA was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the recombinant microsomal protein was tested for enzymatic activity using 25 benzylisoquinoline alkaloids representing a wide range of structural subgroups. The only enzymatic substrates were the N-methylated protoberberine alkaloids N-methylstylopine and N-methylcanadine, which were converted to protopine and allocryptopine, respectively.

  19. CYP82Y1 is N-methylcanadine 1-hydroxylase, a key noscapine biosynthetic enzyme in opium poppy.

    PubMed

    Dang, Thu-Thuy T; Facchini, Peter J

    2014-01-24

    Noscapine is a phthalideisoquinoline alkaloid investigated for its potent pharmacological properties. Although structurally elucidated more than a century ago, the biosynthesis of noscapine has not been established. Radiotracer studies have shown that noscapine is derived from the protoberberine alkaloid (S)-scoulerine and has been proposed to proceed through (S)-N-methylcanadine. However, pathway intermediates involved in the conversion of N-methylcanadine to noscapine have not been identified. We report the isolation and characterization of the cytochrome P-450 CYP82Y1, which catalyzes the 1-hydroxylation of N-methylcanadine to 1-hydroxy-N-methylcanadine. Comparison of transcript and metabolite profiles of eight opium poppy chemotypes revealed four cytochrome P-450s, three from the CYP82 and one from the CYP719 families, that were tightly correlated with noscapine accumulation. Recombinant CYP82Y1 was the only enzyme that accepted (R,S)-N-methylcanadine as a substrate with strict specificity and high affinity. As expected, CYP82Y1 was abundantly expressed in opium poppy stems where noscapine accumulation is highest among plant organs. Suppression of CYP82Y1 using virus-induced gene silencing caused a significant reduction in the levels of noscapine, narcotoline, and a putative downstream secoberbine intermediate and also resulted in increased accumulation of the upstream pathway intermediates scoulerine, tetrahydrocolum-bamine, canadine, and N-methylcanadine. The combined biochemical and physiological data support the 1-hydroxylation of (S)-N-methylcanadine catalyzed by CYP82Y1 as the first committed step in the formation of noscapine in opium poppy.

  20. Endophytic colonisation of opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, by an entomopathogenic Beauveria bassiana strain.

    PubMed

    Quesada-Moraga, E; Landa, B B; Muñoz-Ledesma, J; Jiménez-Diáz, R M; Santiago-Alvarez, C

    2006-05-01

    Beauveria bassiana strain EABb 04/01-Tip isolated from stem-borer larvae of Timaspis papaveris (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae), a serious pest of opium poppy in Spain, was shown to be able to become established endophytically in this pharmaceutical crop. Microbiological, molecular and light and electron microscopic methods were used to study fungal colonisation and to describe its mode of penetration. After inoculation with a foliar spray of conidia, microbiological methods showed 100% of plants examined 24, 48, 72 and 144 h after treatment to be colonised endophytically by the fungus, although the percentage of previously surface sterilised leaf pieces showing fungal growth was 100% at 24 and 48 h, and 80 and 75% at 72 and 144 h after treatment, respectively. The fungus was also observed in leaf pieces obtained from newly formed leaves, indicating that it could spread from treated leaves to leaves formed after fungal application. For molecular studies, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol was used to amplify the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 regions of the rDNA of the plant and the fungus. This procedure allowed the detection of the fungus on the surface of the leaves and also endophytically, but only at 72 h after treatment. A nucleotide BLAST search revealed that the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 sequence of strain EABb 04/01-Tip showed 100% homology with a similar sequence from Cordyceps bassiana. SEM images revealed that although numerous conidia were observed on the leaf surface, few germinated and penetrated. Intracellular colonisation by B. bassiana was not observed, but hyphae were detected growing into the xylem vessels. The fungus was found to colonise 40.5 +/- 4.3% of seedlings (with two cotyledons and the two first real leaves) from seeds dressed with a fungal spore suspension. These results may have implications in the biological control of T. papaveris, including the possible systemic protection of the plant against this cynipid.

  1. Genetic parameters and correlations of collar rot resistance with important biochemical and yield traits in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.).

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Mala; Tiwari, Rajesh K; Dhawan, Om P

    2006-01-01

    Collar rot, caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn, is one of the most severe fungal diseases of opium poppy. In this study, heritability, genetic advance and correlation for 10 agronomic, 1 physiological, 3 biochemical and 1 chemical traits with disease severity index (DSI) for collar rot were assessed in 35 accessions of opium poppy. Most of the economically important characters, like seed and capsule straw yield per plant, oil and protein content of seeds, peroxidase activity in leaves, morphine content of capsule straw and DSI for collar rot showed high heritability as well as genetic advance. Highly significant negative correlation between DSI and seed yield clearly shows that as the disease progresses in plants, seed yield declines, chiefly due to premature death of infected plants as well as low seed and capsule setting in the survived population of susceptible plants. Similarly, a highly significant negative correlation between peroxidase activity and DSI indicated that marker-assisted selection of disease-resistant plants based on high peroxidase activity would be effective and survived susceptible plants could be removed from the population to stop further spread.

  2. Dioxygenases catalyze O-demethylation and O,O-demethylenation with widespread roles in benzylisoquinoline alkaloid metabolism in opium poppy.

    PubMed

    Farrow, Scott C; Facchini, Peter J

    2013-10-04

    In opium poppy, the antepenultimate and final steps in morphine biosynthesis are catalyzed by the 2-oxoglutarate/Fe(II)-dependent dioxygenases, thebaine 6-O-demethylase (T6ODM) and codeine O-demethylase (CODM). Further investigation into the biochemical functions of CODM and T6ODM revealed extensive and unexpected roles for such enzymes in the metabolism of protopine, benzo[c]phenanthridine, and rhoeadine alkaloids. When assayed with a wide range of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, CODM, T6ODM, and the functionally unassigned paralog DIOX2, renamed protopine O-dealkylase, showed novel and efficient dealkylation activities, including regio- and substrate-specific O-demethylation and O,O-demethylenation. Enzymes catalyzing O,O-demethylenation, which cleave a methylenedioxy bridge leaving two hydroxyl groups, have previously not been reported in plants. Similar cleavage of methylenedioxy bridges on substituted amphetamines is catalyzed by heme-dependent cytochromes P450 in mammals. Preferred substrates for O,O-demethylenation by CODM and protopine O-dealkylase were protopine alkaloids that serve as intermediates in the biosynthesis of benzo[c]phenanthridine and rhoeadine derivatives. Virus-induced gene silencing used to suppress the abundance of CODM and/or T6ODM transcripts indicated a direct physiological role for these enzymes in the metabolism of protopine alkaloids, and they revealed their indirect involvement in the formation of the antimicrobial benzo[c]phenanthridine sanguinarine and certain rhoeadine alkaloids in opium poppy.

  3. Dioxygenases Catalyze O-Demethylation and O,O-Demethylenation with Widespread Roles in Benzylisoquinoline Alkaloid Metabolism in Opium Poppy*

    PubMed Central

    Farrow, Scott C.; Facchini, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    In opium poppy, the antepenultimate and final steps in morphine biosynthesis are catalyzed by the 2-oxoglutarate/Fe(II)-dependent dioxygenases, thebaine 6-O-demethylase (T6ODM) and codeine O-demethylase (CODM). Further investigation into the biochemical functions of CODM and T6ODM revealed extensive and unexpected roles for such enzymes in the metabolism of protopine, benzo[c]phenanthridine, and rhoeadine alkaloids. When assayed with a wide range of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, CODM, T6ODM, and the functionally unassigned paralog DIOX2, renamed protopine O-dealkylase, showed novel and efficient dealkylation activities, including regio- and substrate-specific O-demethylation and O,O-demethylenation. Enzymes catalyzing O,O-demethylenation, which cleave a methylenedioxy bridge leaving two hydroxyl groups, have previously not been reported in plants. Similar cleavage of methylenedioxy bridges on substituted amphetamines is catalyzed by heme-dependent cytochromes P450 in mammals. Preferred substrates for O,O-demethylenation by CODM and protopine O-dealkylase were protopine alkaloids that serve as intermediates in the biosynthesis of benzo[c]phenanthridine and rhoeadine derivatives. Virus-induced gene silencing used to suppress the abundance of CODM and/or T6ODM transcripts indicated a direct physiological role for these enzymes in the metabolism of protopine alkaloids, and they revealed their indirect involvement in the formation of the antimicrobial benzo[c]phenanthridine sanguinarine and certain rhoeadine alkaloids in opium poppy. PMID:23928311

  4. Exploiting expressed sequence tag databases for the development and characterization of gene-derived simple sequence repeat markers in the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) for forensic applications.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Jung; Jin, Gang Nam; Lee, Kyung Lyong; Han, Myun Soo; Lee, Yang Han; Yang, Moon Sik

    2011-09-01

    Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers in the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) were identified from an expressed sequence tag (EST) database comprised of 20,340 sequences. In total, 2780 SSR-containing sequences were identified. The most frequent microsatellite had an AT/TA motif (37%). Twenty-two opium poppy EST-SSR markers were presently developed and polymorphisms of six markers (psom 2, 4, 12, 13, 17, and 22) were utilized in 135 individuals under narcotic control investigation. An average of three alleles per locus (range: 2-5 alleles) with a mean heterozygosity of 0.167 was detected. Six loci identified 29 unique profiles in 135 individuals. The EST-SSR markers exhibited small degrees of genetic differentiation (fixation index = 0.727, p < 0.001). Other variable markers will be needed to facilitate the forensic identification of the opium poppy for future cases. To determine the potential for cross-species amplification, six markers were tested in five Papaver genera species and two Eschscholzia genera. The psom 4 and psom 17 primer pair was transferable. This is the first study to report SSR markers of the opium poppy.

  5. The Environmental footprint of morphine: a life cycle assessment from opium poppy farming to the packaged drug

    PubMed Central

    McAlister, Scott; Ou, Yanjun; Neff, Elise; Hapgood, Karen; Story, David; Mealey, Philip; McGain, Forbes

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the environmental life cycle from poppy farming through to production of 100 mg in 100 mL of intravenous morphine (standard infusion bag). Design ‘Cradle-to-grave’ process-based life cycle assessment (observational). Settings Australian opium poppy farms, and facilities for pelletising, manufacturing morphine, and sterilising and packaging bags of morphine. Main outcome measures The environmental effects (eg, CO2 equivalent (‘CO2 e’) emissions and water use) of producing 100 mg of morphine. All aspects of morphine production from poppy farming, pelletising, bulk morphine manufacture through to final formulation. Industry-sourced and inventory-sourced databases were used for most inputs. Results Morphine sulfate (100 mg in 100 mL) had a climate change effect of 204 g CO2 e (95% CI 189 to 280 g CO2 e), approximating the CO2 e emissions of driving an average car 1 km. Water use was 7.8 L (95% CI 6.7– to 9.0 L), primarily stemming from farming (6.7 L). All other environmental effects were minor and several orders of magnitude less than CO2 e emissions and water use. Almost 90% of CO2 e emissions occurred during the final stages of 100 mg of morphine manufacture. Morphine's packaging contributed 95 g CO2 e, which accounted for 46% of the total CO2 e (95% CI 82 to 155 g CO2 e). Mixing, filling and sterilisation of 100 mg morphine bags added a further 86 g CO2 e, which accounted for 42% (95% CI 80 to 92 g CO2 e). Poppy farming (6 g CO2 e, 3%), pelletising and manufacturing (18 g CO2 e, 9%) made smaller contributions to CO2 emissions. Conclusions The environmental effects of growing opium poppies and manufacturing bulk morphine were small. The final stages of morphine production, particularly sterilisation and packaging, contributed to almost 90% of morphine's carbon footprint. Focused measures to improve the energy efficiency and sources for drug sterilisation and packaging could be explored as these are

  6. Phylogenetic Analysis of Downy Mildew Pathogens of Opium Poppy and PCR-Based In Planta and Seed Detection of Peronospora arborescens.

    PubMed

    Landa, Blanca B; Montes-Borrego, Miguel; Muñoz-Ledesma, Francisco J; Jiménez-Díaz, Rafael M

    2007-11-01

    ABSTRACT Severe downy mildew diseases of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) can be caused by Peronospora arborescens and P. cristata, but differentiating between the two pathogens is difficult because they share morphological features and a similar host range. In Spain, where severe epidemics of downy mildew of opium poppy have occurred recently, the pathogen was identified as P. arborescens on the basis of morphological traits. In this current study, sequence homology and phylogenetic analyses of the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS) of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) were carried out with DNA from P. arborescens and P. cristata from diverse geographic origins, which suggested that only P. arborescens occurs in cultivated Papaver somniferum in Spain. Moreover, analyses of the rDNA ITS region from 27 samples of downy-mildew-affected tissues from all opium-poppy-growing regions in Spain showed that genetic diversity exists within P. arborescens populations in Spain and that these are phylogenetically distinct from P. cristata. P. cristata instead shares a more recent, common ancestor with a range of Peronospora species that includes those found on host plants that are not members of the Papaveraceae. Species-specific primers and a PCR assay protocol were developed that differentiated P. arborescens and P. cristata and proved useful for the detection of P. arborescens in symptomatic and asymptomatic opium poppy plant parts. Use of these primers demonstrated that P. arborescens can be transmitted in seeds and that commercial seed stocks collected from crops with high incidence of the disease were frequently infected. Field experiments conducted in microplots free from P. arborescens using seed stocks harvested from infected capsules further demonstrated that transmission from seedborne P. arborescens to opium poppy plants can occur. Therefore, the specific-PCR detection protocol developed in this study can be of use for epidemiological studies and diagnosing the

  7. Detection of a true breeding homeotic gene mutant Pps-1 with partially petaloid sepals in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) and its genetic behavior.

    PubMed

    Dhawan, Om Prakash; Dubey, Mukesh Kumar; Khanuja, Suman Preet Singh

    2007-01-01

    A spontaneous true breeding homeotic gene mutant Pps-1 with distinct partial petaloid sepals was detected in the population of downy mildew (DM)-resistant elite accession I-14 during our studies for the identification of disease resistance sources in opium poppy. The trait was found to be stable and inherited truly in the subsequent generations. Genetic studies were carried out through systematic reciprocal crosses with the parental wild-type genotype I-14, and segregation pattern of phenotypic characteristics in F(1) and F(2) populations clearly indicated single recessive nuclear gene control of the mutant character. The studies have demonstrated that the mutant phenotype is due to mutations at the Pps-1 locus that possibly corresponds to B-class function (according to ABC model) with negative control function. The mutant Pps-1 being single-whorl homeotic mutant might greatly help in providing insight into mechanisms of flower development in opium poppy.

  8. Quantitative 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Metabolite Profiling as a Functional Genomics Platform to Investigate Alkaloid Biosynthesis in Opium Poppy1[W

    PubMed Central

    Hagel, Jillian M.; Weljie, Aalim M.; Vogel, Hans J.; Facchini, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) produces a diverse array of bioactive benzylisoquinoline alkaloids and has emerged as a versatile model system to study plant alkaloid metabolism. The plant is widely cultivated as the only commercial source of the narcotic analgesics morphine and codeine. Variations in plant secondary metabolism as a result of genetic diversity are often associated with perturbations in other metabolic pathways. As part of a functional genomics platform, we used 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolite profiling for the analysis of primary and secondary metabolism in opium poppy. Aqueous and chloroform extracts of six different opium poppy cultivars were subjected to chemometric analysis. Principle component analysis of the 1H NMR spectra for latex extracts clearly distinguished two varieties, including a low-alkaloid variety and a high-thebaine, low-morphine cultivar. Distinction was also made between pharmaceutical-grade opium poppy cultivars and a condiment variety. Such phenotypic differences were not observed in root extracts. Loading plots confirmed that morphinan alkaloids contributed predominantly to the variance in latex extracts. Quantification of 34 root and 21 latex metabolites, performed using Chenomx NMR Suite version 4.6, showed major differences in the accumulation of specific alkaloids in the latex of the low-alkaloid and high-thebaine, low-morphine varieties. Relatively few differences were found in the levels of other metabolites, indicating that the variation was specific for alkaloid metabolism. Exceptions in the low-alkaloid cultivar included an increased accumulation of the alkaloid precursor tyramine and reduced levels of sucrose, some amino acids, and malate. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of 42 genes involved in primary and secondary metabolism showed differential gene expression mainly associated with alkaloid biosynthesis. Reduced alkaloid levels in the condiment variety were associated with the

  9. Manipulating the Biosynthesis of Bioactive Compound Alkaloids for Next-Generation Metabolic Engineering in Opium Poppy Using CRISPR-Cas 9 Genome Editing Technology.

    PubMed

    Alagoz, Yagiz; Gurkok, Tugba; Zhang, Baohong; Unver, Turgay

    2016-08-03

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated9 (Cas9) endonuclease system is a powerful RNA-guided genome editing tool. CRISPR/Cas9 has been well studied in model plant species for targeted genome editing. However, few studies have been reported on plant species without whole genome sequence information. Currently, no study has been performed to manipulate metabolic pathways using CRISPR/Cas9. In this study, the type II CRISPR/SpCas9 system was used to knock out, via nonhomologous end-joining genome repair, the 4'OMT2 in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.), a gene which regulates the biosythesis of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs). For sgRNA transcription, viral-based TRV and synthetic binary plasmids were designed and delivered into plant cells with a Cas9 encoding-synthetic vector by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. InDels formed by CRISPR/Cas9 were detected by sequence analysis. Our results showed that the biosynthesis of BIAs (e.g. morphine, thebaine) was significantly reduced in the transgenic plants suggesting that 4'OMT2 was efficiently knocked-out by our CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing approach. In addition, a novel uncharacterized alkaloid was observed only in CRISPR/Cas9 edited plants. Thus, the applicabilitiy of the CRISPR/Cas9 system was demonstrated for the first time for medicinal aromatic plants by sgRNAs transcribed from both synthetic and viral vectors to regulate BIA metabolism and biosynthesis.

  10. Gene actions for yield and its attributes and their implications in the inheritance pattern over three generations in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.).

    PubMed

    Mishra, Brij K; Mishra, R; Jena, S N; Shukla, Sudhir

    2016-09-01

    The gene actions for yield and its attributes and their inheritance pattern based on five parameter model have been explored in four single crosses (NBIHT-5 × NBIHT-6, NBIHT-5 × NBMHT-1, NBMHT-1 × NBIHT-6 and NBMHT-2 × NBMHT-1) obtained using thebaine rich pure lines of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) for three consecutive generations. All the traits showed nonallelic mode of interaction, however, dominance effect (h) was more pronounced for all the traits except thebaine and papaverine. The dominance × dominance (l) effects were predominant over additive × additive (i) for all traits in all the four crosses except for papaverine. The seed and opium yield, and its contributing traits inherited quantitatively. The fixable gene effects (d) and (i) were lower in magnitude than nonfixable (h) and (l) gene effects. The estimates of heterosis were also higher in comparison to the respective parents which suggested preponderance of dominance gene action for controlling most of the traits. The phenotypic coefficient of variation was marginally higher than those of genotypic coefficient of variation for all the traits. The traits thebaine, narcotine, morphine and opium yield had high heritability coupled with high genetic advance. The leaf number, branches per plant and stem diameter showed positive correlation with opium and seed yields. The selection of plants having large number of leaves, branches and capsules with bigger size would be advantageous to enhance the yield potential.

  11. Virus-induced gene silencing is an effective tool for assaying gene function in the basal eudicot species Papaver somniferum (opium poppy).

    PubMed

    Hileman, Lena C; Drea, Sinéad; Martino, Gemma; Litt, Amy; Irish, Vivian F

    2005-10-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an attractive method for assaying gene function in species that are resistant to conventional genetic approaches. However, VIGS has been shown to be effective in only a few, closely related plant species. Tobacco rattle virus (TRV), a bipartite RNA virus, has a wide host range and so in principle could serve as an efficient vector for VIGS in a diverse array of plant species. Here we show that a vector based on TRV sequences is effective at silencing the endogenous phytoene desaturase (PapsPDS) gene in Papaver somniferum (opium poppy). We show that this vector does not compromise the growth or reproduction of poppy and the plants did not display viral symptoms. The silencing of PapsPDS resulted in a significant reduction in PapsPDS mRNA and a concomitant photobleached phenotype. The ability to rapidly assay gene function in P. somniferum will be valuable in manipulation of the opiate pathway in this pharmaceutically important species. We suggest that our vacuum infiltration method used to deliver TRV-based vectors into poppy is a promising approach for expanding VIGS to diverse angiosperm species in which traditional delivery methods fail to induce VIGS. Furthermore, these studies demonstrate the utility of TRV-VIGS for probing gene function in a basal eudicot species that is phylogenetically distant from model plant species.

  12. Manipulating the Biosynthesis of Bioactive Compound Alkaloids for Next-Generation Metabolic Engineering in Opium Poppy Using CRISPR-Cas 9 Genome Editing Technology

    PubMed Central

    Alagoz, Yagiz; Gurkok, Tugba; Zhang, Baohong; Unver, Turgay

    2016-01-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated9 (Cas9) endonuclease system is a powerful RNA-guided genome editing tool. CRISPR/Cas9 has been well studied in model plant species for targeted genome editing. However, few studies have been reported on plant species without whole genome sequence information. Currently, no study has been performed to manipulate metabolic pathways using CRISPR/Cas9. In this study, the type II CRISPR/SpCas9 system was used to knock out, via nonhomologous end-joining genome repair, the 4′OMT2 in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.), a gene which regulates the biosythesis of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs). For sgRNA transcription, viral-based TRV and synthetic binary plasmids were designed and delivered into plant cells with a Cas9 encoding-synthetic vector by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. InDels formed by CRISPR/Cas9 were detected by sequence analysis. Our results showed that the biosynthesis of BIAs (e.g. morphine, thebaine) was significantly reduced in the transgenic plants suggesting that 4′OMT2 was efficiently knocked-out by our CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing approach. In addition, a novel uncharacterized alkaloid was observed only in CRISPR/Cas9 edited plants. Thus, the applicabilitiy of the CRISPR/Cas9 system was demonstrated for the first time for medicinal aromatic plants by sgRNAs transcribed from both synthetic and viral vectors to regulate BIA metabolism and biosynthesis. PMID:27483984

  13. Latex-less opium poppy: cause for less latex and reduced peduncle strength.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Nidarshana; Singh, Sharad K; Shukla, Ashutosh K; Lal, Raj K; Gupta, Madan M; Dwivedi, Upendra N; Shasany, Ajit K

    2014-03-01

    A genotype 'Sujata' developed earlier at CSIR-CIMAP from its parent 'Sampada' is considered to be the latex-less variety of Papaver somniferum. These two genotypes are contrasting in terms of latex and stem strength. Earlier we have carried out microarray analysis to identify differentially expressing genes from the capsules of the two genotypes. In this study, the peduncles of the two genotypes were compared for the anatomy revealing less number of laticifers in the cortex and vascular bundles. One of the important cell wall-related genes (for laccase) from the microarray analysis showing significantly higher expression in 'Sampada' capsule was taken up for further characterization in the peduncle here. It was functionally characterized through transient overexpression and RNAi suppression in 'Sujata' and 'Sampada'. The increase in acid insoluble lignin and total lignin in overexpressed tissue of 'Sujata', and comparable decrease in suppressed tissue of 'Sampada', along with corresponding increase and decrease in the transcript abundance of laccase confirm the involvement of laccase in lignin biosynthesis. Negligible transcript in phloem compared to the xylem tissue localized its expression in xylem tissue. This demonstrates the involvement of P. somniferum laccase in lignin biosynthesis of xylem, providing strength to the peduncle/stem and preventing lodging.

  14. A nested-polymerase chain reaction protocol for detection and population biology studies of Peronospora arborescens, the downy mildew pathogen of opium poppy, using herbarium specimens and asymptomatic, fresh plant tissues.

    PubMed

    Montes-Borrego, Miguel; Muñoz Ledesma, Francisco J; Jiménez-Díaz, Rafael M; Landa, Blanca B

    2009-01-01

    A sensitive nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol was developed using either of two primer pairs that improves the in planta detection of Peronospora arborescens DNA. The new protocol represented an increase in sensitivity of 100- to 1,000-fold of detection of the oomycete in opium poppy tissue compared with the detection limit of single PCR using the same primer pairs. The new protocol allowed amplification of 5 to 0.5 fg of Peronospora arborescens DNA mixed with Papaver somniferum DNA. The protocol proved useful for amplifying Peronospora arborescens DNA from 96-year-old herbarium specimens of Papaver spp. and to demonstrate that asymptomatic, systemic infections by Peronospora arborescens can occur in wild Papaver spp. as well as in cultivated opium poppy. Also, the increase in sensitivity of the protocol made possible the detection of seedborne Peronospora arborescens in commercial opium poppy seed stocks in Spain with a high frequency, which poses a threat for pathogen spread. Direct sequencing of purified amplicons allowed alignment of a Peronospora arborescens internal transcribed spacer (ITS) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence up to 730-bp long when combining the sequences obtained with the two primer sets. Maximum parsimony analysis of amplified Peronospora arborescens ITS rDNA sequences from specimens of Papaver dubium, P. hybridum, P. rhoeas, and P. somniferum from different countries indicated for the first time that a degree of host specificity may exist within populations of Peronospora arborescens. The reported protocol will be useful for epidemiological and biogeographical studies of downy mildew diseases as well as to unravel misclassification of Peronospora arborescens and Peronospora cristata, the reported causal agents of the opium poppy downy mildew disease.

  15. Disentangling Peronospora on Papaver: Phylogenetics, Taxonomy, Nomenclature and Host Range of Downy Mildew of Opium Poppy (Papaver somniferum) and Related Species

    PubMed Central

    Voglmayr, Hermann; Montes-Borrego, Miguel; Landa, Blanca B.

    2014-01-01

    Based on sequence data from ITS rDNA, cox1 and cox2, six Peronospora species are recognised as phylogenetically distinct on various Papaver species. The host ranges of the four already described species P. arborescens, P. argemones, P. cristata and P. meconopsidis are clarified. Based on sequence data and morphology, two new species, P. apula and P. somniferi, are described from Papaver apulum and P. somniferum, respectively. The second Peronospora species parasitizing Papaver somniferum, that was only recently recorded as Peronospora cristata from Tasmania, is shown to represent a distinct taxon, P. meconopsidis, originally described from Meconopsis cambrica. It is shown that P. meconopsidis on Papaver somniferum is also present and widespread in Europe and Asia, but has been overlooked due to confusion with P. somniferi and due to less prominent, localized disease symptoms. Oospores are reported for the first time for P. meconopsidis from Asian collections on Papaver somniferum. Morphological descriptions, illustrations and a key are provided for all described Peronospora species on Papaver. cox1 and cox2 sequence data are confirmed as equally good barcoding loci for reliable Peronospora species identification, whereas ITS rDNA does sometimes not resolve species boundaries. Molecular phylogenetic data reveal high host specificity of Peronospora on Papaver, which has the important phytopathological implication that wild Papaver spp. cannot play any role as primary inoculum source for downy mildew epidemics in cultivated opium poppy crops. PMID:24806292

  16. Trace and major element levels in rats after oral administration of diesel and biodiesel derived from opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Aksoy, Laçine; Sözbilir, Nalan Bayşu

    2015-10-01

    The study investigated the toxic effects of diesel and biodiesel derived from opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) oil seeds on the trace and major elements in kidney, lung, liver, and serum of rats. By the end of 21 days, trace and major element concentrations in kidney, lung, and liver tissues and the serum were measured using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. We observed that trace and major element levels in kidney, lung, and liver tissues and the serum changed. Especially, important differences were detected in trace and major element concentrations in kidney and lung tissues. In kidney tissue, the concentration differences of calcium, sodium, and zinc (Zn) were found between diesel and biodiesel groups. In lung tissue, the concentration differences of cadmium, lithium, magnesium, manganese, and Zn were found between diesel and biodiesel groups. Among the significant findings, Zn concentration in serum and liver tissue of diesel and biodiesel were different from control (p < 0.05). However, the metal levels of biodiesel group were similar to control group. Due to lesser toxicity of biodiesel, it could be considered as an alternate fuel.

  17. Metabolic engineering of morphinan alkaloids by over-expression and RNAi suppression of salutaridinol 7-O-acetyltransferase in opium poppy.

    PubMed

    Allen, Robert S; Miller, James A C; Chitty, Julie A; Fist, Anthony J; Gerlach, Wayne L; Larkin, Philip J

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate that both over-expression and suppression of the gene encoding the morphinan pathway enzyme salutaridinol 7-O-acetyltransferase (SalAT) in opium poppy affects the alkaloid products that accumulate. Over-expression of the gene in most of the transgenic events resulted in an increase in capsule morphine, codeine and thebaine on a dry-weight basis. The transgenic line with the highest alkaloid content had 41%, 37% and 42% greater total alkaloids than the control in three independent trials over 3 years. DNA-encoded hairpin RNA-mediated suppression of SalAT resulted in the novel accumulation of the alkaloid salutaridine at up to 23% of total alkaloid; this alkaloid is not detectable in the parental genotype. Salutaridine is not the substrate of SalAT but the substrate of the previous enzyme in the pathway, salutaridine reductase. RNA transcript analysis of 16 primary T0 transformants and their segregating T1 progeny revealed an average reduction in SalAT transcript to about 12% of the control. Reduction in SalAT transcript was evident in both leaves and latex. Reverse transcriptase PCR and high-performance liquid chromatography analyses confirmed cosegregation of the expressed transgene with the salutaridine accumulating phenotype.

  18. Disentangling Peronospora on Papaver: phylogenetics, taxonomy, nomenclature and host range of downy mildew of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) and related species.

    PubMed

    Voglmayr, Hermann; Montes-Borrego, Miguel; Landa, Blanca B

    2014-01-01

    Based on sequence data from ITS rDNA, cox1 and cox2, six Peronospora species are recognised as phylogenetically distinct on various Papaver species. The host ranges of the four already described species P. arborescens, P. argemones, P. cristata and P. meconopsidis are clarified. Based on sequence data and morphology, two new species, P. apula and P. somniferi, are described from Papaver apulum and P. somniferum, respectively. The second Peronospora species parasitizing Papaver somniferum, that was only recently recorded as Peronospora cristata from Tasmania, is shown to represent a distinct taxon, P. meconopsidis, originally described from Meconopsis cambrica. It is shown that P. meconopsidis on Papaver somniferum is also present and widespread in Europe and Asia, but has been overlooked due to confusion with P. somniferi and due to less prominent, localized disease symptoms. Oospores are reported for the first time for P. meconopsidis from Asian collections on Papaver somniferum. Morphological descriptions, illustrations and a key are provided for all described Peronospora species on Papaver. cox1 and cox2 sequence data are confirmed as equally good barcoding loci for reliable Peronospora species identification, whereas ITS rDNA does sometimes not resolve species boundaries. Molecular phylogenetic data reveal high host specificity of Peronospora on Papaver, which has the important phytopathological implication that wild Papaver spp. cannot play any role as primary inoculum source for downy mildew epidemics in cultivated opium poppy crops.

  19. Induction of apoptosis by opium in some tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Khaleghi, M; Farsinejad, A; Dabiri, S; Asadikaram, G

    2016-09-30

    The current study is aimed at investigation of the opium effects on the apoptosis of different cell lines in culture medium and compares such effects with one another. The study is carried out on over 8 cell lines (AA8, AGS, Hela, HepG2, MCF7, N2a, PC12, WEHI). A 2.86 x 10-4 g/ml opium concentration was prepared and added to the culture medium of the cell lines for 48 hours. Cytotoxicity was tested by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The apoptotic effect of opium on the cell lines was analyzed by Annexin-PI test. Opium with concentration of 2.86 x 10-4 g/ml in 48 hours significantly induces apoptosis in certain cell lines (i.e. AA8, N2a, WEHI), apoptosis and necrosis in some others (i.e. Hela, HepG2, MCF7, and PC12), and also solely necrosis in the AGS cell line. One could infer that the usage of opium with different levels in different tissues leads to certain disorders in some tissues and may have therapeutic effects under distinctive conditions (i.e. unchecked growth of cells) as confirmed by the results.

  20. Cross-sensitization between poppy seed and buckwheat in a food-allergic patient with poppy seed anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Oppel, Tilmann; Thomas, Peter; Wollenberg, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    The opium poppy, Papaver somniferum L., is the source of both poppy seeds and opium. The commercially available seeds are widely used as ingredients for various kinds of food. IgE-mediated sensitization to poppy seeds is rare, but, if present, clinical symptoms are usually severe. Cross-sensitizations between poppy seeds and other food allergens have been described with sesame, hazelnut, rye grain and kiwi fruit. We report the case of a 17-year-old female with an apparently food-allergic reaction after ingestion of a poppy seed cake. Allergological workup revealed a poppy seed anaphylaxis and led to the identification of a novel cross-sensitization with buckwheat.

  1. Simulating the Afghanistan-Pakistan opium supply chain

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, Jennifer H; MacKerrow, Edward P; Merritt, Terence M

    2010-04-08

    This paper outlines an opium supply chain using the Hilmand province of Afghanistan as exemplar. The opium supply chain model follows the transformation of opium poppy seed through cultivation and chemical alteration to brown heroin base. The purpose of modeling and simulating the Afghanistan-Pakistan opium supply chain is to discover and test strategies that will disrupt this criminal enterprise.

  2. Transformation of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) with antisense berberine bridge enzyme gene (anti-bbe) via somatic embryogenesis results in an altered ratio of alkaloids in latex but not in roots.

    PubMed

    Frick, Susanne; Chitty, Julie A; Kramell, Robert; Schmidt, Jürgen; Allen, Robert S; Larkin, Philip J; Kutchan, Toni M

    2004-12-01

    The berberine bridge enzyme cDNA bbe from Papaver somniferum L. was transformed in antisense orientation into seedling explants of the industrial elite line C048-6-14-64. In this way, 84 phenotypically normal To plants derived from embryogenic callus cultures were produced. The selfed progeny of these 84 plants yielded several T1 plants with an altered alkaloid profile. One of these plants T1-47, and its siblings T2-1.2 and T2-1.5 are the subject of the present work. The transformation of these plants was evaluated by PCR, and northern and Southern hybridisation. The transgenic plants contained one additional copy of the transgene. The alkaloid content in latex and roots was determined with HPLC and LC-MS. We observed an increased concentration of several pathway intermediates from all biosynthetic branches, e.g., reticuline, laudanine, laudanosine, dehydroreticuline, salutaridine and (S)-scoulerine. The transformation altered the ratio of morphinan and tetrahydrobenzylisoquinoline alkaloids in latex but not the benzophenanthridine alkaloids in roots. The altered alkaloid profile is heritable at least to the T2 generation. These results are the first example of metabolic engineering of the alkaloid pathways in opium poppy and, to our knowledge, the first time that an alkaloid biosynthetic gene has been transformed into the native species, followed by regeneration into a mature plant to enable analyses of the effect of the transgene on metabolism over several generations.

  3. Chronic Opium Treatment Can Differentially Induce Brain and Liver Cells Apoptosis in Diabetic and Non-diabetic Male and Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Asiabanha, Majid; Rahnema, Amir; Mahmoodi, Mehdi; Hasanshahi, Gholamhosein; Hashemi, Mohammad; Khaksari, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    It has been shown that some opium derivatives promote cell death via apoptosis. This study was designed to examine the influence of opium addiction on brain and liver cells apoptosis in male and female diabetic and non-diabetic Wistar rats. This experimental study was performed on normal, opium-addicted, diabetic and diabetic opium-addicted male and female rats. Apoptosis was evaluated by TUNEL and DNA fragmentation assays. Results of this study showed that apoptosis in opium-addicted and diabetic opium-addicted brain and liver cells were significantly higher than the both normal and diabetic rats. In addition, we found that apoptosis in brain cells of opium-addicted and diabetic opium-addicted male rats were significantly higher than opium-addicted and diabetic opium-addicted female, whereas apoptosis in liver cells of opium-addicted and diabetic opium-addicted female rats were significantly higher than opium-addicted and diabetic opium-addicted male. Overall, these results indicate that opium probably plays an important role in brain and liver cells apoptosis, therefore, leading neurotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. These findings also in away possibly means that male brain cells are more susceptible than female and interestingly liver of females are more sensitive than males in induction of apoptosis by opium. PMID:22359469

  4. Poppy seed ingestion: the Oregon perspective.

    PubMed

    Meneely, K D

    1992-07-01

    Numerous articles have been published regarding the positive morphine and codeine urinalysis results from the ingestion of poppy seeds. Oregon's perspective towards ingestion of controlled substances focuses around driving under impaired conditions. To determine the influence of the residual opium on poppy seeds to impairment, seven volunteers each ingested 25 grams of poppy seeds baked into bundt cakes. Urine samples were screened by EMIT using 300 ng/ml cutoff levels. All of the urine specimens were found to be opiate positive shortly after consuming the cake; however, after administering a series of standardized drug recognition evaluation tests, no subjects were found to exhibit symptoms of opiate impairment.

  5. The Opium of Afghanistan: The Taliban Center of Gravity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-03

    TALIBAN HISTORY OF OPIUM The commander needs to understand the historical connection between the Taliban and the poppy . Such an understanding may not...be obvious given the zealous religious rhetoric surrounding the conflict. A 2008 USAID article states that “ poppy cultivation is prohibited in...Islam.” 2 This statement may lead some to deduce that all Islamic groups have universally decried the cultivation of poppy on religious grounds

  6. The GC-MS detection and characterization of reticuline as a marker of opium use.

    PubMed

    Al-Amri, A M; Smith, R M; El-Haj, B M; Juma'a, M H

    2004-05-28

    Reticuline (a precursor of opium alkaloids) was detected and characterised as its trimethylsilyl ethers, acetyl esters and methyl ethers by GC-EIMS and GC-CIMS in opium and the urine of opium users after hydrolysis by acid or beta-glucuronidase as coextractive of morphine. Because this compound cannot be detected in heroin and poppy seeds, it is suggested as a differentiating marker between opium and heroin use, opium and poppy seeds use, or opium and "pharmaceutical" codeine use in cases when opiate use has been confirmed by detection of morphine and codeine in the urine. As well as being a constituent of opium, reticuline in the urine of opium users may also result from the metabolic demethylation of the three other benzyltetrahydroisoquinoline opium alkaloids: codamine, laudanosine and laudanine.

  7. The GC-MS detection and characterization of reticuline as a marker of opium use.

    PubMed

    Al-Amri, A M; Smith, R M; El-Haj, B M; Juma'a, M H

    2004-03-10

    Reticuline (a precursor of opium alkaloids) was detected and characterised as its trimethylsilyl ethers, acetyl esters and methyl ethers by GC-EIMS and GC-CIMS in opium and the urine of opium users after hydrolysis by acid or beta-glucuronidase as coextractive of morphine. Because this compound cannot be detected in heroin and poppy seeds, it is suggested as a differentiating marker between opium and heroin use, opium and poppy seeds use, or opium and "pharmaceutical" codeine use in cases when opiate use has been confirmed by detection of morphine and codeine in the urine. As well as being a constituent of opium, reticuline in the urine of opium users may also result from the metabolic demethylation of the three other benzyltetrahydroisoquinoline opium alkaloids: codamine, laudanosine and laudanine.

  8. Hector Berlioz and other famous artists with opium abuse.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Paul L

    2010-01-01

    The effect of opium on the creativity and productivity of a famous composer of classical music, an essayist, and poets including Hector Berlioz, Thomas De Quincy, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, John Keats, and Jean Cocteau, is described. Opium is a narcotic drug prepared from the juice of the unripe seed capsules of the opium poppy. It contains alkaloids such as morphine, codeine, and papaverine. Medically it is used to relieve pain and produce sleep. It is used as an intoxicant. Alcohol and opium were commonly relied on in the 19th century, especially by artists, to stimulate creativity and relieve stress. These artists described the effect of opium on their creativity and productivity.

  9. Poppies for medicine in Afghanistan: lessons from India and Turkey.

    PubMed

    Windle, James

    2011-01-01

    This study examines India and Turkey as case studies relevant to the Senlis Council’s ‘poppies for medicine’ proposal. The proposal is that Afghan farmers are licensed to produce opium for medical and scientific purposes. Here it is posited that the Senlis proposal neglects at least three key lessons from the Turkish and Indian experiences. First, not enough weight has been given to diversion from licit markets, as experienced in India. Second, both India and Turkey had significantly more efficient state institutions with authority over the licensed growing areas. Third, the proposal appears to overlook the fact that Turkey’s successful transition was largely due to the use of the poppy straw method of opium production. It is concluded that, while innovative and creative policy proposals such as that of the Senlis proposal are required if Afghanistan is to move beyond its present problems, ‘poppies for medicine’ does not withstand evidence-based scrutiny.

  10. Opium, tobacco, and alcohol use in relation to oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma in a high-risk area of Iran.

    PubMed

    Nasrollahzadeh, D; Kamangar, F; Aghcheli, K; Sotoudeh, M; Islami, F; Abnet, C C; Shakeri, R; Pourshams, A; Marjani, H A; Nouraie, M; Khatibian, M; Semnani, S; Ye, W; Boffetta, P; Dawsey, S M; Malekzadeh, R

    2008-06-03

    The very high incidence of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in Golestan Province in northeastern Iran was suggested by studies in the 1970s as partly due to opium use, which is not uncommon in this area, but based on limited numbers. From December 2003 to June 2007, we administered a validated structured questionnaire to 300 ESCC cases and 571 controls, matched on neighbourhood of residence, age (+/-2 years), and sex. We used conditional logistic regression models to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) adjusted for potential confounders. Compared with those who used neither tobacco nor opium, risk of ESCC was increased in those who used tobacco only (OR, 95% CI: 1.70, 1.05-2.73), in those who used opium only (2.12, 1.21-3.74), and in those who used both tobacco and opium (2.35, 1.50-3.67). All forms of tobacco use (cigarettes, hookah, and nass) were associated with higher ESCC risk. Similarly, use of both crude opium and other forms of opium were associated with higher risk. Alcohol consumption was seen in only 2% of the cases and 2% of the controls, and was not associated with ESCC risk.

  11. Opium, tobacco, and alcohol use in relation to oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma in a high-risk area of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Nasrollahzadeh, D; Kamangar, F; Aghcheli, K; Sotoudeh, M; Islami, F; Abnet, C C; Shakeri, R; Pourshams, A; Marjani, H A; Nouraie, M; Khatibian, M; Semnani, S; Ye, W; Boffetta, P; Dawsey, S M; Malekzadeh, R

    2008-01-01

    The very high incidence of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in Golestan Province in northeastern Iran was suggested by studies in the 1970s as partly due to opium use, which is not uncommon in this area, but based on limited numbers. From December 2003 to June 2007, we administered a validated structured questionnaire to 300 ESCC cases and 571 controls, matched on neighbourhood of residence, age (±2 years), and sex. We used conditional logistic regression models to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) adjusted for potential confounders. Compared with those who used neither tobacco nor opium, risk of ESCC was increased in those who used tobacco only (OR, 95% CI: 1.70, 1.05–2.73), in those who used opium only (2.12, 1.21–3.74), and in those who used both tobacco and opium (2.35, 1.50–3.67). All forms of tobacco use (cigarettes, hookah, and nass) were associated with higher ESCC risk. Similarly, use of both crude opium and other forms of opium were associated with higher risk. Alcohol consumption was seen in only 2% of the cases and 2% of the controls, and was not associated with ESCC risk. PMID:18475303

  12. An interesting case of opium tea toxicity.

    PubMed

    Seyani, Chitsa; Green, Peregrine; Daniel, Lisa; Pegden, Amanda

    2017-04-28

    We present an unusual cause of respiratory arrest resulting from sole ingestion of home-brewed opium tea. A 64-year-old woman was found unresponsive and in respiratory arrest by a first responder. There were no obvious signs of regular recreational drug use. On presentation to the local district general hospital, the patient was in extremis, with severe physiological and biochemical derangements. A naloxone infusion was commenced and she later made a good recovery. It was subsequently discovered that she had brewed opium tea from opium buds she had picked from a nearby commercial poppy farm, a practice she had learnt while in Afghanistan. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. From holy war to opium war? A case study of the opium economy in north-eastern Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Goodhand, J

    2000-06-01

    This paper examines the recent growth of the opium economy in north-eastern Afghanistan. A detailed analysis of one village in Badakshan Province reveals profound changes in the local economy and social institutions. The paper describes two major shifts in the local economy: first, the switch from wheat to poppy cultivation; and second, the shift from the livestock trade to the opium trade. It then examines the underlying causes and impacts of the opium economy on social relations in the village. Although a case study of a community living on the margins of the global economy, it is argued that these changes have important implications for international policymakers. The emergence of the opium economy in north-eastern Afghanistan is symptomatic of new and expanding forms of trans-border trade associated with the restructuring of the global political economy.

  14. Lethal Lullabies: A History of Opium Use in Infants.

    PubMed

    Obladen, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Poppy extract accompanied the human infant for more than 3 millenia. Motives for its use included excessive crying, suspected pain, and diarrhea. In antiquity, infantile sleeplessness was regarded as a disease. When treatment with opium was recommended by Galen, Rhazes, and Avicenna, baby sedation made its way into early medical treatises and pediatric instructions. Dabbing maternal nipples with bitter substances and drugging the infant with opium were used to hasten weaning. A freerider of gum lancing, opiates joined the treatment of difficult teething in the 17th century. Foundling hospitals and wet-nurses used them extensively. With industrialization, private use was rampant among the working class. In German-speaking countries, poppy extracts were administered in soups and pacifiers. In English-speaking countries, proprietary drugs containing opium were marketed under names such as soothers, nostrums, anodynes, cordials, preservatives, and specifics and sold at the doorstep or in grocery stores. Opium's toxicity for infants was common knowledge; thousands of cases of lethal intoxication had been reported from antiquity. What is remarkable is that the willingness to use it in infants persisted and that physicians continued to prescribe it for babies. Unregulated trade, and even that protected by governments, led to greatly increased private use of opiates during the 19th century. Intoxication became a significant factor in infant mortality. As late as 1912, the International Hague Convention forced governments to implement legislation that effectively curtailed access to opium and broke the dangerous habit of sedating infants. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Cell cycle arrest and apoptogenic properties of opium alkaloids noscapine and papaverine on breast cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sajadian, Saharolsadat; Vatankhah, Melody; Majdzadeh, Maryam; Kouhsari, Shide Montaser; Ghahremani, Mohammad Hossein; Ostad, Seyed Nasser

    2015-01-01

    Previous report of the vast effectiveness of opium derivatives in cancer therapy is leading us to see possible effects of these derivatives on cancer stem cells in order to find new agent for cancer therapy. In this study, cells were stained for CSC markers and sorted by magnetic beads. CSCs exhibit the characteristic CD44(+)/CD24(-/low)/ESA(+) phenotype. Noscapine and papaverine (alkaloids) showed anti-proliferative activity on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. It was observed that noscapine has more cytotoxic effect on CSC derived from both cell lines compared with their parental cells. Papaverine has more cytotoxic effect on MCF-7 CSCs in comparison with parental cells, while CSCs population of MDA-MB-231 is more resistant to papaverine compared with MDA-MB-231 cells. Noscapine enhances apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 CSCs more than parent cells, while in MCF-7 CSCs the apoptosis is less than parent cells. Our results show that papverine is less active in terms of apoptotic effect on CSCs in both cell lines. Moreover, noscapine arrests MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 CSCs cell cycle at G2/M phase, while papverine arrests cell cycle at G0/G1 phase. It was suggested different mechanism for apoptotic cytotoxicity. The results of this study show possible specific effects of noscapine on these breast cell lines CSCs.

  16. Self-incompatibility-induced programmed cell death in field poppy pollen involves dramatic acidification of the incompatible pollen tube cytosol.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Katie A; Bosch, Maurice; Haque, Tamanna; Teng, Nianjun; Poulter, Natalie S; Franklin-Tong, Vernonica E

    2015-03-01

    Self-incompatibility (SI) is an important genetically controlled mechanism to prevent inbreeding in higher plants. SI involves highly specific interactions during pollination, resulting in the rejection of incompatible (self) pollen. Programmed cell death (PCD) is an important mechanism for destroying cells in a precisely regulated manner. SI in field poppy (Papaver rhoeas) triggers PCD in incompatible pollen. During SI-induced PCD, we previously observed a major acidification of the pollen cytosol. Here, we present measurements of temporal alterations in cytosolic pH ([pH]cyt); they were surprisingly rapid, reaching pH 6.4 within 10 min of SI induction and stabilizing by 60 min at pH 5.5. By manipulating the [pH]cyt of the pollen tubes in vivo, we show that [pH]cyt acidification is an integral and essential event for SI-induced PCD. Here, we provide evidence showing the physiological relevance of the cytosolic acidification and identify key targets of this major physiological alteration. A small drop in [pH]cyt inhibits the activity of a soluble inorganic pyrophosphatase required for pollen tube growth. We also show that [pH]cyt acidification is necessary and sufficient for triggering several key hallmark features of the SI PCD signaling pathway, notably activation of a DEVDase/caspase-3-like activity and formation of SI-induced punctate actin foci. Importantly, the actin binding proteins Cyclase-Associated Protein and Actin-Depolymerizing Factor are identified as key downstream targets. Thus, we have shown the biological relevance of an extreme but physiologically relevant alteration in [pH]cyt and its effect on several components in the context of SI-induced events and PCD.

  17. Marc Chagall: "Wild Poppies."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Carolyn

    1987-01-01

    Based on a full-color reproduction of Marc Chagall's painting, "Wild Poppies," the goals of this lesson plan are to introduce students to artist's use of dreams and memories in making art, to communicate the idea that artists include their visual memories of people and things they love in their artwork, and to introduce the concepts of…

  18. Poppies or Peace: The Relationship between Opium Production and Conflict

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-08

    at atrocity prevention. In the future, dependable criteria will drive the intelligence requirements that military planners and analysts need to... depending on the nation’s classification as a democracy, autocracy, or anocracy (i.e., mixed authority)? In summary, the primary and secondary research...commodities, Collier and Hoeffler identified oil dependence as having a significantly higher incidence of conflict compared to other primary export

  19. Poppy seed foods and opiate drug testing--where are we today?

    PubMed

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Sproll, Constanze; Musshoff, Frank

    2010-02-01

    Seeds of the opium poppy plant are legally sold and widely consumed as food. Due to contamination during harvesting, the seeds can contain morphine and other opiate alkaloids. The objective of this study is to review the toxicology of poppy seed foods regarding influence on opiate drug tests. Computer-assisted literature review resulted in 95 identified references. Normal poppy seed consumption is generally regarded as safe. During food processing, the morphine content is considerably reduced (up to 90%). The possibility of false-positive opiate drug tests after poppy food ingestion exists. There are no unambiguous markers available to differentiate poppy food ingestion from heroin or pharmaceutical morphine use. This is also a problem in heroin-assisted maintenance programs. A basic requirement in such substitution programs is the patients' abstinence from any other drugs, including additional illicit heroin. Also a lack of forensic ingestion trials was detected that consider all factors influencing the morphine content in biologic matrices after consumption. Most studies did not control for the losses during food processing, so that the initial morphine dosage was overestimated. The large reduction of the morphine content during past years raises questions about the validity of the "poppy seed defence." However, a threshold of food use that would not lead to positive drug tests with certainty is currently unavailable. Research is needed to prove if the morphine contents in today's foods still pose the possibility of influencing drug tests. Future trials should consider processing-related morphine losses.

  20. Opium Field Detection in South Oxfordshire Using SAR Polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Nick; Marino, Armando

    2011-03-01

    To-date the use of satellite imagery to monitor the growth of illicit crops such as marijuana, opium and coca has mostly been conducted using optical frequencies. However, it is well known that while optical imagery can be hampered by localised aerosols such as thin clouds, cirrus, haze and smoke, these do not present a problem for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). In recent years a new generation of satellite borne sensors have also been equipped with enhanced polarimetric capabilities, which can potentially help with detecting and classifying different terrain types. For these reasons we believe it is useful to consider whether high resolution polarimetric SAR data can be applied to illicit crop detection.In this paper we present the results of an experiment whereby opium poppy fields were successfully detected in the south Oxfordshire region in the UK using RadarSat-2 quad-polarisation imagery. It should be noted that these crops are not being grown illicitly but instead are being cultivated for medicinal reasons in parts of the UK. It is interesting to note that the poppies cultivated for opium in the UK have white flowers rather than the more familiar red as can be seen from the photograph in Figure 1, which was taken 11 days earlier in the season compared to Figure 4 and Figure 5.

  1. Medicinal aspects of opium as described in Avicenna's Canon of Medicine.

    PubMed

    Heydari, Mojtaba; Hashempur, Mohammad Hashem; Zargaran, Arman

    2013-01-01

    Throughout history, opium has been used as a base for the opioid class of drugs used to suppress the central nervous system. Opium is a substance extracted from the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.). Its consumption and medicinal application date back to antiquity. In the medieval period, Avicenna, a famous Persian scholar (980-1037 AD) described poppy under the entry Afion of his medical encyclopedia Canon of Medicine. Various effects of opium consumption, both wanted and unwanted are discussed in the encyclopedia. The text mentions the effects of opioids such as analgesic, hypnotic, antitussive, gastrointestinal, cognitive, respiratory depression, neuromuscular disturbance, and sexual dysfunction. It also refers to its potential as a poison. Avicenna describes several methods of delivery and recommendations for doses of the drug. Most of opioid effects described by Avicenna have subsequently been confirmed by modern research, and other references to opium use in medieval texts call for further investigation. This article highlights an important aspect of the medieval history of medicine.

  2. Presence of lead in opium.

    PubMed

    Aghaee-Afshar, Mahmoud; Khazaeli, Payam; Behnam, Behzad; Rezazadehkermani, Mohammad; Ashraf-Ganjooei, Narges

    2008-09-01

    Opium addiction is a common form of addiction in Middle East countries such as Iran. Recently several reports suggested some kinds of pathologic findings such as abdominal pain, nephropathy, and anemia in opium addict patients. Such pathologic findings suggest lead poisoning in the patients. In this study, the concentration of lead in 10 opium samples was evaluated. The mean concentration of lead in the opium samples was 1.88 ppm. This may explain some of the pathologic findings found in addict patients. The authors would suggest further investigations to evaluate the lead concentration in opium addicts' sera and also routine screening for lead poisoning in opium addict patients.

  3. Socio-climatic Exposure of an Afghan Poppy Farmer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mankin, J. S.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.

    2011-12-01

    Many posit that climate impacts from anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions will have consequences for the natural and agricultural systems on which humans rely for food, energy, and livelihoods, and therefore, on stability and human security. However, many of the potential mechanisms of action in climate impacts and human systems response, as well as the differential vulnerabilities of such systems, remain underexplored and unquantified. Here I present two initial steps necessary to characterize and quantify the consequences of climate change for farmer livelihood in Afghanistan, given both climate impacts and farmer vulnerabilities. The first is a conceptual model mapping the potential relationships between Afghanistan's climate, the winter agricultural season, and the country's political economy of violence and instability. The second is a utility-based decision model for assessing farmer response sensitivity to various climate impacts based on crop sensitivities. A farmer's winter planting decision can be modeled roughly as a tradeoff between cultivating the two crops that dominate the winter growing season-opium poppy (a climate tolerant cash crop) and wheat (a climatically vulnerable crop grown for household consumption). Early sensitivity analysis results suggest that wheat yield dominates farmer decision making variability; however, such initial results may dependent on the relative parameter ranges of wheat and poppy yields. Importantly though, the variance in Afghanistan's winter harvest yields of poppy and wheat is tightly linked to household livelihood and thus, is indirectly connected to the wider instability and insecurity within the country. This initial analysis motivates my focused research on the sensitivity of these crops to climate variability in order to project farmer well-being and decision sensitivity in a warmer world.

  4. For peace and pain: the medical legitimisation of Afghanistan's poppy crop.

    PubMed

    Attaran, Amir; Boozary, Andrew

    2011-05-01

    Since the overthrow of the Taliban in 2001, there has been an overall increase in illicit opium production in Afghanistan and mounting human losses. The United Nations has attributed 1 million human deaths to Afghan opiates over the past decade. As the war in Afghanistan nears a crucial mark, the NATO coalition forces and Afghan people can no longer afford the same ineffective counternarcotics strategy. This commentary proposes a strategic revision that reframes Afghanistan's poppy problem as an opportunity for global public health. Specifically, The Afghan poppy crop could be repurposed away from illicit drug production, and towards manufacturing licit opioid analgesics to address unmet needs for pain palliation, particularly for diseases such as HIV/AIDS and cancer in the developing world--that is, illegal opium could be converted into legal pain medicine, solving two problems at once. We present a supply-and-demand that illustrates how this useful exchange could be made, and discuss the political opposition that now stands in the way and perpetuates the unsatisfactory status quo in Afghanistan.

  5. Lead toxicity resulting from chronic ingestion of opium.

    PubMed

    Jalili, Mohammad; Azizkhani, Reza

    2009-11-01

    A 32-year-old man presented to the emergency department (ED) with lower abdominal pain and constipation. He related chronic ingestion of large amounts of opium. Physical examination showed mild abdominal tenderness and gingival discoloration. Diagnostic studies showed a mild hypochromic, microcytic anemia with basophilic stippling of the red blood cells. Abdominal imaging showed no intra-abdominal pathology. A diagnosis of lead toxicity was confirmed through serum lead levels. The patient was put on chelation therapy and his signs and symptoms started to resolve. As a comprehensive search for other sources of lead was unsuccessful, opium adulterants were considered as the culprit. Chemical analysis of the opium confirmed this. Contaminated drugs have been reported as a source of exposure to toxins such as arsenic or lead. While other reports deal with patients from clinics, this report illustrates lead toxicity from ingestion of contaminated opium in the ED.

  6. Poppy APETALA1/FRUITFULL orthologs control flowering time, branching, perianth identity, and fruit development.

    PubMed

    Pabón-Mora, Natalia; Ambrose, Barbara A; Litt, Amy

    2012-04-01

    Several MADS box gene lineages involved in flower development have undergone duplications that correlate with the diversification of large groups of flowering plants. In the APETALA1 gene lineage, a major duplication coincides with the origin of the core eudicots, resulting in the euFUL and the euAP1 clades. Arabidopsis FRUITFULL (FUL) and APETALA1 (AP1) function redundantly in specifying floral meristem identity but function independently in sepal and petal identity (AP1) and in proper fruit development and determinacy (FUL). Many of these functions are largely conserved in other core eudicot euAP1 and euFUL genes, but notably, the role of APETALA1 as an "A-function" (sepal and petal identity) gene is thought to be Brassicaceae specific. Understanding how functional divergence of the core eudicot duplicates occurred requires a careful examination of the function of preduplication (FUL-like) genes. Using virus-induced gene silencing, we show that FUL-like genes in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) and California poppy (Eschscholzia californica) function in axillary meristem growth and in floral meristem and sepal identity and that they also play a key role in fruit development. Interestingly, in opium poppy, these genes also control flowering time and petal identity, suggesting that AP1/FUL homologs might have been independently recruited in petal identity. Because the FUL-like gene functional repertoire encompasses all roles previously described for the core eudicot euAP1 and euFUL genes, we postulate subfunctionalization as the functional outcome after the major AP1/FUL gene lineage duplication event.

  7. Quantification of Morphine, Codeine, and Thebaine in Home-Brewed Poppy Seed Tea by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Powers, Deborah; Erickson, Stephen; Swortwood, Madeleine J

    2017-10-03

    Recently, medical examiners reported two cases of a 21-year-old male and 24-year-old male with high amounts of morphine in their blood at autopsy. It was suspected that the decedents ingested lethal amounts of morphine from home-brewed poppy seed tea. No studies to date have investigated opium alkaloid content extracted from poppy seeds by home-brewing methods. Various poppy seed products were purchased from online sources and extracted with four home-brewing methods representative of recipes found on drug user forums. Morphine, codeine, and thebaine were quantified in the tea extracts by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using a validated analytical method. Morphine, codeine, and thebaine concentrations from seeds were <1-2788 mg/kg, <1-247.6 mg/kg, and <1-124 mg/kg, respectively. Alkaloid yield varied between extractions, but regardless of extraction conditions, lethal amounts of morphine can be rinsed from poppy seed coats by home-brewing methods. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  8. Opium as a fatal substance.

    PubMed

    Besharat, Sima; Jabbari, Ali; Besharat, Mahsa

    2008-11-01

    Poisoning does the most serious damages in pediatrics. In the northeast of Iran (Golestan province), opium is used widely for symptomatic therapy of routine illnesses in young children by parents. In the present study, opium toxicity was assessed in young children referred to pediatric centers in our area. This survey was done as a prospective cross-sectional study. At first, a pilot study was undertaken to estimate the condition of opium intoxicated children and evaluate the validity of questionnaire. We collected data in collaboration with committee of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADR) in Golestan Province. All members of ADR committee in pediatric centers were trained to complete questionnaires in referred or admitted children under-5-year. Data was entered into computer and analyzed by Chi-square and Fisher exact test. In this survey, 67 opium-intoxicated children were recruited. Minimum age of the cases was 6 days and maximum 5-year. Uneducated mothers, in most cases, gave opium to the child. Most of them were from the low socio-economic level. Ethnic was disparity was observed. Four deaths occurred. As the results showed, opioids are dangerous in pediatric population, especially under 5-year. Respiratory depression, bradypnea, coma and death are the serious outcomes of opium toxicity in pediatrics. Such a practice of unrestricted use of opium contributes to children mortality and so it is essential to launch educational programs.

  9. Poppy seeds: implications of consumption.

    PubMed

    Lo, D S; Chua, T H

    1992-10-01

    Three white poppy seed samples of Papaver somniferum L were found to contain total morphine (free and bound) in the range 58.4 to 62.2 micrograms/g seeds and total codeine (free and bound) in the range 28.4 to 54.1 micrograms/g seeds. Soaking seeds in water was found to remove 45.6 per cent of the free morphine and 48.4 per cent of the free codeine. In ingesting a curry meal or two containing various amounts of washed seeds (morphine intake: 200.4 to 1002 micrograms; codeine intake: 95.9 to 479.5 micrograms), the urinary morphine levels were found to be in the range 0.12 to 1.27 micrograms/ml urine and urinary codeine levels in the range 0.04 to 0.73 micrograms/ml urine. In any large scale screening for abuse of opiate drugs, the possibility of urinary alkaloids arising from consuming food containing poppy seeds must be considered and, if possible, eliminated.

  10. [Biosynthesis of poppy isoquinoline alkaloids in nature and in vitro culture. 2. Bracteum poppy (Papaver bracteatum Lindl.)].

    PubMed

    Kunakh, V A; Katsan, V A

    2004-01-01

    Literature data and the data of the author's investigations on production of isoquinoline alkaloids by Papaver bracteatum Lindl. have been analyzed. Information on the methods of regulation and cell localization of morphine and sanguinarine biosynthesis is presented. The works studying differentiation processes in tissue cultures of bracteum poppy and relationship thereof with thebaine biosynthesis have been analyzed. Possible mechanism determining the induction of somatic embryos development and thebaine biosynthesis in the culture in vitro are proposed.

  11. POPPY: Physical Optics Propagation in PYthon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, Marshall; Long, Joseph; Douglas, Ewan; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Slocum, Christine

    2016-02-01

    POPPY (Physical Optics Propagation in PYthon) simulates physical optical propagation including diffraction. It implements a flexible framework for modeling Fraunhofer and Fresnel diffraction and point spread function formation, particularly in the context of astronomical telescopes. POPPY provides the optical modeling framework for WebbPSF (ascl:1504.007) and was developed as part of a simulation package for JWST, but is available separately and is broadly applicable to many kinds of imaging simulations.

  12. Noscapine targets EGFRp-Tyr1068 to suppress the proliferation and invasion of MG63 cells

    PubMed Central

    He, Ming; Jiang, Linlin; Ren, Zhaozhou; Wang, Guangbin; Wang, Jiashi

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcoma, the most common primary malignant bone tumor, usually arises in the metaphysis of long bones. Amplification and mutation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene represent signature genetic abnormalities encountered in osteosarcoma. Noscapine is a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid derived from the opium poppy Papaver somniferum. Recently several studies have suggested its anti-cancer effect in melanoma, ovarian cancer, gliomas, breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer. However, the underlying molecular mechanism for its anti-cancer effect still remains unclear. In this paper, we found the mechanism of noscapine effectively suppressed proliferation and invasion of MG63 cell line by inhibiting the phosphorylation of EGFR and its downstream pathway. PMID:27830833

  13. Isolation and identification of unique marker compounds from the Tasmanian poppy Papaver somniferum N. Implications for the identification of illicit heroin of Tasmanian origin.

    PubMed

    Odell, Luke R; Skopec, Jana; McCluskey, Adam

    2008-03-05

    Tasmanian opium accounts for 25% of the world's legal supply of opium straw, and in 1998-99 sufficient numbers of flower pods (66,013) to manufacture ca 500 kg of heroin were stolen. Whilst the heroin signature program has been developed to determine the origin of heroin from other key producers, no such signature currently exists for Tasmanian derived heroin. Tasmanian poppies contain a unique alkaloid, oripavine, which is the source of 'marker' impurities in illicit heroin produced from Tasmanian poppy straw. Treatment of oripavine (500mg) under Thiboumery and Mohr heroin processing conditions, followed by simple evaporative workup afforded 613 mg of a dark orange residue, which upon extensive chromatographic purification yielded oripavine 3-acetate (2) 22 mg; 3-acetyl-N-acetyldesthebaine (3) 35 mg; 3-acetyl-6-methoxy-4,5-epoxyphenanthrene (4) 5.8 mg; 3,4-diacetyl-6-methoxyphenanthrene (5) 27 mg; and 3,4,6-methoxy-5-[2(N-methylacetamido)]ethylphenanthrene (6) 52 mg. Compounds (2-6) are derived from oripavine and are unique to heroin derived from the Tasmanian poppy Papaver somniferum N. Analysis of illicit heroin samples seized from Turkey, Pakistan, Columbia and Myanmar did not reveal any of the aforementioned marker compounds. We have, however, identified four of these marker compounds (3-6) in seized heroin samples from Australia suggesting that they are of Tasmanian origin. Complete details of the isolation and identification of these compounds are provided.

  14. The rules of drug taking: wine and poppy derivatives in the ancient world. VII. A ritual use of poppy derivatives?

    PubMed

    Nencini, P

    1997-08-01

    Besides fertility, poppies have been used to symbolize sleep, night, and death. Consistent with the agrarian origin of their ritual use, poppies also became a symbol of reincarnation. Several literary and iconographic sources, in particular of the early Roman imperial age, are here interpreted as evidence that poppy derivatives were ingested during mystery rites. The reversible narcotic effects of poppy derivatives should have allowed a "realistic" representation of death and reincarnation, as intended by the Orphic belief of the transmigration of souls.

  15. [On the history of opium].

    PubMed

    Kłys, Małgorzata; Maciów-Głab, Martyna; Rojek, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    Most likely, opium was the first narcotic substance discovered at the dawn of humankind. The history of drug addiction is immensely rich and allows for tracing the long way humankind had to travel to reach the contemporary level of consciousness with respect to narcotic substances. A retrospective view of drug addiction that takes into consideration the historical context, while extending our knowledge, also allows for a better understanding of today's problems. The report presents elements of a retrospective view of problems associated with addiction to opium, morphine and heroin over the centuries, what is a subject of scientific interest in contemporary toxicology.

  16. Poppy APETALA1/FRUITFULL Orthologs Control Flowering Time, Branching, Perianth Identity, and Fruit Development1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Pabón-Mora, Natalia; Ambrose, Barbara A.; Litt, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Several MADS box gene lineages involved in flower development have undergone duplications that correlate with the diversification of large groups of flowering plants. In the APETALA1 gene lineage, a major duplication coincides with the origin of the core eudicots, resulting in the euFUL and the euAP1 clades. Arabidopsis FRUITFULL (FUL) and APETALA1 (AP1) function redundantly in specifying floral meristem identity but function independently in sepal and petal identity (AP1) and in proper fruit development and determinacy (FUL). Many of these functions are largely conserved in other core eudicot euAP1 and euFUL genes, but notably, the role of APETALA1 as an “A-function” (sepal and petal identity) gene is thought to be Brassicaceae specific. Understanding how functional divergence of the core eudicot duplicates occurred requires a careful examination of the function of preduplication (FUL-like) genes. Using virus-induced gene silencing, we show that FUL-like genes in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) and California poppy (Eschscholzia californica) function in axillary meristem growth and in floral meristem and sepal identity and that they also play a key role in fruit development. Interestingly, in opium poppy, these genes also control flowering time and petal identity, suggesting that AP1/FUL homologs might have been independently recruited in petal identity. Because the FUL-like gene functional repertoire encompasses all roles previously described for the core eudicot euAP1 and euFUL genes, we postulate subfunctionalization as the functional outcome after the major AP1/FUL gene lineage duplication event. PMID:22286183

  17. Exfoliative cytology of oral mucosa among smokers, opium addicts and non-smokers: a cytomorphometric study.

    PubMed

    Hashemipour, Maryam Alsadat; Aghababaie, Mahbobeh; Mirshekari, Toraj Reza; Asadi-Shekaari, Majid; Tahmasbi-Arashlow, Mehrnaz; Tahmasbi-Arashlow, Farzad; Gandjalikhan Nassab, Sayed Amir Hossein

    2013-12-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate keratinization as well as nuclear and cytoplasmic changes of oral epithelial cells among smokers, opium addicts and non-smokers through exfoliative cytology technique. Smears of buccal mucosa and mouth floor were collected from 300 males (100 smokers, 100 opium addicts and 100 non-smokers). The nucleus and cytoplasm sizes were determined using image analysis software. Data was analyzed with Mann-Whitney test and Student's t-test on SPSS version 13 statistical software. Statistical significance was defined as P < 0.05. The results revealed statistically significant differences in cellular and nuclear size and the nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio between smokers, opium addicts and non-smokers in different age groups. The mean size of the nucleus compared to that of cytoplasm was significantly higher in smokers and opium addicts compared to non-smokers after correction for age. The results of this study indicate different rates of epithelial cell keratinization in oral cavity among smokers, opium addicts and non-smokers. Also, our results suggest a possible relationship between the number of cigarettes per day, daily opium consumption and an increase in the rate of cellular proliferation of oral mucosal cells. The present study indicated a decrease in cellular diameter as well as an increase in nuclear diameter and nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio in smears taken from both smokers and opium addicts compared to non-smokers.

  18. Chemometric approach for development, optimization, and validation of different chromatographic methods for separation of opium alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Acevska, J; Stefkov, G; Petkovska, R; Kulevanova, S; Dimitrovska, A

    2012-05-01

    The excessive and continuously growing interest in the simultaneous determination of poppy alkaloids imposes the development and optimization of convenient high-throughput methods for the assessment of the qualitative and quantitative profile of alkaloids in poppy straw. Systematic optimization of two chromatographic methods (gas chromatography (GC)/flame ionization detector (FID)/mass spectrometry (MS) and reversed-phase (RP)-high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/diode array detector (DAD)) for the separation of alkaloids from Papaver somniferum L. (Papaveraceae) was carried out. The effects of various conditions on the predefined chromatographic descriptors were investigated using chemometrics. A full factorial linear design of experiments for determining the relationship between chromatographic conditions and the retention behavior of the analytes was used. Central composite circumscribed design was utilized for the final method optimization. By conducting the optimization of the methods in very rational manner, a great deal of excessive and unproductive laboratory research work was avoided. The developed chromatographic methods were validated and compared in line with the resolving power, sensitivity, accuracy, speed, cost, ecological aspects, and compatibility with the poppy straw extraction procedure. The separation of the opium alkaloids using the GC/FID/MS method was achieved within 10 min, avoiding any derivatization step. This method has a stronger resolving power, shorter analysis time, better cost/effectiveness factor than the RP-HPLC/DAD method and is in line with the "green trend" of the analysis. The RP-HPLC/DAD method on the other hand displayed better sensitivity for all tested alkaloids. The proposed methods provide both fast screening and an accurate content assessment of the six alkaloids in the poppy samples obtained from the selection program of Papaver strains.

  19. Effects of opium consumption on cardiometabolic diseases.

    PubMed

    Masoudkabir, Farzad; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Eisenberg, Mark J

    2013-12-01

    Opium is the second-most-commonly abused substance (after tobacco) in developing countries of the Middle East region, and in many Asian nations. One of the reasons for the high prevalence of opium abuse in these countries is a traditional belief among Eastern people, even including some medical staff, that opium might have beneficial effects on cardiovascular health and in the control of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidaemia. In this Perspectives article, we summarize the current understanding of the pharmacotoxicology of opium and its specific effects on glycaemic control, blood pressure, lipid profile, and atherosclerosis. On the basis of the available evidence, we believe not only that opium has no ameliorating effect on cardiovascular diseases, but also that the use of this drug might have adverse effects on these conditions. Therefore, people should be educated about the hazardous effects of opium consumption on cardiometabolic diseases.

  20. [Biochemical diagnostics of fatal opium intoxication].

    PubMed

    Papyshev, I P; Astashkina, O G; Tuchik, E S; Nikolaev, B S; Cherniaev, A L

    2013-01-01

    Biochemical diagnostics of fatal opium intoxication remains a topical problem in forensic medical science and practice. We investigated materials obtained in the course of forensic medical expertise of the cases of fatal opium intoxication. The study revealed significant differences between myoglobin levels in blood, urine, myocardium, and skeletal muscles. The proposed approach to biochemical diagnostics of fatal opium intoxication enhances the accuracy and the level of evidence of expert conclusions.

  1. Familial history of opium use and reported problems among opium addicts in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, H R; Arria, A; Tarter, R; Chaudhry, S; Chaudhry, N

    1991-06-01

    One-hundred and twenty-nine opiate addicts on a monthly maintenance regimen were studied. Subjects with a positive family history of opium use had an earlier age of onset than the subjects without a family history of opium use. Self-reported psychosocial problems resulting from opium use were documented in only seven subjects. Individuals who began opium use after 1979, when it became illegal to use the drug, had a significantly later age of onset than subjects who began before 1979, suggesting that negative legal sanctions can delay initiation of opium consumption.

  2. [Milk of paradise? Opium and opiates in nineteenth and twentieth century literature].

    PubMed

    Schäfer, D

    2007-08-01

    One cannot have an idea of this multifaceted theme without its medical and cultural-historical background. After a history of several thousand years as a remedy and consumer good, around 1800 this poppy drug was in the focus of public attention due to Brownianism, at first as an often self-prescribed unspecific remedy against physical and mental pain. Many representatives of the early Romanticism knew it from personal experience. However, it was the publication of Thomas de Quincey's Confessions of an English Opium-Eater (1821/1822) which made it a subject of international debate in accordance with the programmatic statements of writers of that epoque and corresponding to the antibourgeois attitude of these men. It became a motif of a counter-world experience and a subject and cause of lyric-subjective reflection as well as a possible premise of poetic creativity.

  3. Afghanistan, poppies, and the global pain crisis.

    PubMed

    Clark, Peter A; Sillup, George P; Capo, Joseph A

    2010-03-01

    The World Health Organization has reported that somewhere between 30-86 million people suffer from moderate to severe pain due to cancer, HIV/AIDS, burns, wounds and other illnesses annually and do not have access to proper opiate anesthetics to control the pain [1]. The vast majority of these people live in poor nations where medicinal opiates are either too expensive or not readily available. In this paper, it is argued that access to adequate healthcare is a human right and that adequate healthcare includes management of pain. The solution to this problem may be in Afghanistan, a country now overwhelmed with poverty and war. Afghanistan is the world's leading producer of heroin. The increase in heroin production in Afghanistan has caused the United States and the international community to begin to eradicate Afghanistan's poppy fields leading to increased poverty among poppy farmers. This paper proposed a paradigm that can be implemented in Afghanistan which would allow for Afghan farmers to continue growing their poppy crop for medicinal opiates like morphine for poor nations. The paradigm covers all parameters of medicinal opiates production including licensing, security, cultivation, harvest, and factory production of medicinal opiates. The paradigm proposed is less expensive than eradication, brings honest income to Afghan farmers and the new Afghan nation, and can eventually lead to Afghanistan acquiring a respectable role in the world community. In closing, a full ethical analysis of the paradigm is included to justify the arguments made in the paper.

  4. Opiates in poppy seed: effect on urinalysis results after consumption of poppy seed cake-filling.

    PubMed

    Pettitt, B C; Dyszel, S M; Hood, L V

    1987-07-01

    We report the analysis of poppy seed filling for morphine and codeine content. Concentrations in the range 17.4 to 18.6 micrograms/g (morphine) and 2.3 to 2.5 micrograms/g (codeine) were found in different lots of the filling, which is widely used in baking. The effect of consumption of poppy seed filling on opiate urinalysis results is discussed. Morphine concentrations as high as 4.5 mg/L are reported, with persistence of concentrations greater than 0.3 mg/L as long as 35 h after consumption.

  5. Opiate concentrations following the ingestion of poppy seed products--evidence for 'the poppy seed defence'.

    PubMed

    Meadway, C; George, S; Braithwaite, R

    1998-08-31

    The universally accepted 300 ng/ml cut-off limit for opiate assays stated to be mandatory for all drug screening laboratories by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, has been questioned recently due to positive results being obtained following the ingestion of poppy seed containing food products. To establish the plausibility of the 'the poppy seed defence' the concentrations of codeine, norcodeine, morphine, normorphine and thebaine (a potential marker for seed ingestion) in several varieties of poppy seeds from different countries were quantified by GC-MS. The country of origin of the seed specimen analysed and the preparation of the seeds prior to their culinary use was found to influence the alkaloid concentration determined. The maximum morphine and codeine concentrations determined in the seeds were found to be 33.2 and 13.7 micrograms/g seed respectively. In addition, thebaine concentrations were found to vary with each seed sample analysed. Following the consumption of bread rolls (mean 0.76 g seed covering per roll) by four subjects, all urine specimens analysed produced negative results (using the Dade Bebring EMIT II opiate screening assay) with the exception of one subject (body weight 63.0 kg) who consumed two poppy seed rolls. In this subject opiate positive screening results were obtained for up to 6 h post ingestion with maximum urinary morphine and codeine concentrations of 832.0 ng/ml (@ 2-4 h post ingestion) and 47.9 ng/ml (@ 0-2 h post ingestion) respectively being achieved. Following the ingestion of poppy seed cake containing an average of 4.69 g of seed per slice by four individuals, opiate positive screening results were obtained for up to 24 h. In one subject (dose equivalent to 0.07 g poppy seed/kg body weight) maximum urinary morphine and codeine concentrations of 302.1 ng/ml (@ 0-2 h) and 83.8 ng/ml (@ 2-4 h) respectively were recorded. The elimination of thebaine was found to vary widely between individuals

  6. Iranian Common Attitude Toward Opium Consumption.

    PubMed

    Zarghami, Mehran

    2015-06-01

    Iran is suffering from the 2(nd) most severe addiction to opioids in the world. While the explanation of this enormous drug problem is refutably related to drug trafficking, the drug dilemma also illustrates the chain reaction of the imposed war with Iraq in 1980 - 88; the problems of poverty, unemployment, urbanization, homelessness, adultery, family crises, divorce, domestic violence, and runaway children. Although opium addiction often linked to these factors, drug use is common among all social classes. It seems that a positive traditional attitude is another reason for widespread raw opium use in this country. A survey in Iranian literature reveals that famous Iranian poets, who have a substantial contribution on cultural attitude formation of Iranian population, have used the phrase "Teriac" (raw opium) as a means of "antidote" a substance that treats every disease. It seems that a concrete deduction from the literature has been leaden to a positive attitude towards opium consumption in Persian culture. Recent research also supports this idea. Many patients use raw opium as a pain killer or for treating hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes and other chronic diseases; most of them had started the use after developing the disease and the remaining had increased the consumption after developing the disease. Regarding this superstitious common belief, drug control headquarters should focus on education and correction of the faulty unhealthy attitude toward opium consumption.

  7. Iranian Common Attitude Toward Opium Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Zarghami, Mehran

    2015-01-01

    Iran is suffering from the 2nd most severe addiction to opioids in the world. While the explanation of this enormous drug problem is refutably related to drug trafficking, the drug dilemma also illustrates the chain reaction of the imposed war with Iraq in 1980 - 88; the problems of poverty, unemployment, urbanization, homelessness, adultery, family crises, divorce, domestic violence, and runaway children. Although opium addiction often linked to these factors, drug use is common among all social classes. It seems that a positive traditional attitude is another reason for widespread raw opium use in this country. A survey in Iranian literature reveals that famous Iranian poets, who have a substantial contribution on cultural attitude formation of Iranian population, have used the phrase “Teriac” (raw opium) as a means of “antidote” a substance that treats every disease. It seems that a concrete deduction from the literature has been leaden to a positive attitude towards opium consumption in Persian culture. Recent research also supports this idea. Many patients use raw opium as a pain killer or for treating hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes and other chronic diseases; most of them had started the use after developing the disease and the remaining had increased the consumption after developing the disease. Regarding this superstitious common belief, drug control headquarters should focus on education and correction of the faulty unhealthy attitude toward opium consumption. PMID:26288642

  8. Poppy seed oil protection of the hippocampus after cerebral ischemia and re-perfusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Cevik-Demirkan, A; Oztaşan, N; Oguzhan, E O; Cil, N; Coskun, S

    2012-11-01

    The brain is highly sensitive to hypoxia; this is true particularly of parts that are crucial for cognitive function. The effects of hypoxia are especially dramatic in the hippocampus. We evaluated the potential protective effects of poppy seed oil on the number of hippocampus cells and the serum antioxidant/oxidant status after cerebral ischemia and re-perfusion (CIR). Eighteen rats were divided into three equal groups. Group 1 served as the control group without CIR. Group 2 received poppy seed oil daily by oral gavage at a dose of 0.4 ml/kg, while group 3 was given 0.4 ml/kg saline solution by oral gavage per day; these treatments were continued for one month. Groups 2 and 3 were subjected to CIR induced by clamps on two points of both of the carotid arteries for 45 min followed by 45 min re-perfusion. There were significant decreases in the number of hippocampus cells between groups 1 and 2, and between groups 1 and 3. The mean cell number in group 2 was not significantly different from that of group 3. The serum nitric oxide levels in CIR groups were elevated significantly compared to controls, and were significantly higher in group 2 than in group 3. The glutathione levels were increased significantly in the poppy seed oil treated group compared to the saline CIR groups. The malondialdehyde levels were markedly increased in group 3 compared to both groups 1 and 2. Our study suggests that poppy seed oil can improve antioxidant defense capacity after CIR, although this treatment did not alter significantly the frequency of cell death.

  9. Options to Distinguish Heroin and Poppy Seed Use

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-28

    drug deterrence program were raised from 300 ng/ml to 4000 ng/ml for morphine and 2000 ng/ml for codeine in an attempt to distinguish between poppy seed ...Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5000 NRL Memorandum Report 6512 Options to Distinguish Heroin and Poppy Seed Use r- I- FCTE DAVID...Options to Distinguish Heroin and Poppy Seed Use 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Kidwell. D.A. 13a TYPE OF REPORT 113b TIME COVERED 14 DATE OF REPORT (Year

  10. The poppy seed defense: a novel solution.

    PubMed

    Chen, P; Braithwaite, R A; George, C; Hylands, P J; Parkin, M C; Smith, N W; Kicman, A T

    2014-03-01

    A major toxicological challenge is distinguishing whether morphine in urine, in the absence of 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM), originates from 'street' heroin use or poppy seed ingestion. Manufacturing byproducts from the synthesis of illicit heroin include those that originate from the reaction of acetic anhydride with the alkaloid impurity, thebaine, which undergoes skeletal rearrangement, resulting in compounds with a 2-(N-methylacetamido)ethyl side-chain. The hypothesis that the tertiary amide in this side-chain is resistant to endogenous hydrolysis was supported from in-vitro experiments; a glucuronide metabolite (designated 'ATM4G') was identified that may be used as a marker of 'street' heroin administration. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis for this metabolite was then performed on selected urine specimens from 22 known heroin users, these being negative on routine testing for 6-MAM by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), using the generally applied reporting threshold of 10 ng/mL, but positive for the presence of morphine. Peaks corresponding to the retention time for the metabolite marker were clearly observed for 16 of the 22 samples, with variations of the ratios of its three dependent ions being within ± 30% of that produced in vitro. Conversely, 6-MAM was detected in only 3 samples, but at concentrations <1 ng/mL. Such a high frequency for the presence of the metabolite marker in urine, in the absence of 6-MAM, is noteworthy and suggests that detection of this metabolite may offer an important advance in forensic toxicology, allowing the development of a new and more definitive test for heroin abuse and thus a potential solution to the so-called 'poppy seed defense'.

  11. Effect of opium dependency on secondary intention wound healing in a rat model: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Vahedian, Jalal; Mirshekari, Tooraj-Reza; Nabavizadeh, Fatemeh

    2013-06-01

    Opium dependency is a social and health problem in some middle eastern countries like Iran. Many of these people may require surgery. This study investigates the effects of opium dependency on histological parameters of secondary intention wound healing in rat. A full-thickness wound (2 × 2 cm in diameters) was created on the dorsum of two groups of rats, a normal control group and a second group of rat depended to opium (Badawy's method). Several times during 14 days postwounding, the wound was excised with peripheral margins of normal skin and was evaluated for cellular population, reepithelialisation and revascularisation. Results are presented as the mean ± standard error. Data were compared by an unpaired t-test or analysis of variance. Histological examination of the wound tissue showed evidence of increased population of fibroblasts, decreased recruitment of neutrophile and plateau of macrophage cells in opium depended animals comparing with control group. In the depended animals, reepithelialisation was seen to be enhanced significantly, while prohibiting progression of revascularisation. This study shows that opium dependency enhances reepitheliazation as well as tissue recruitment of fibroblasts; thereby probable enhancement of secondary intention wound healing.

  12. Yeast extract induction of sanguinarine biosynthesis is partially dependent on the octadecanoic acid pathway in cell cultures of Argemone mexicana L., the Mexican poppy.

    PubMed

    Guízar-González, Cecilia; Monforte-González, Miriam; Vázquez-Flota, Felipe

    2016-07-01

    To analyze the involvement of the octadecanoic (OCDA) pathway in the accumulation of sanguinarine induced by yeast extract (YE) in cell suspension cultures of Argemone mexicana (Papaveraceae). Exposure to YE promoted sanguinarine accumulation. This was not observed when they were exposed to methyl jasmonate (MeJa). Use of diethyldithiocarbamic acid (DIECA), an inhibitor of the OCDA pathway, resulted in partial impairment of this response. Exogenous application of MeJa did not reverse this effect in DIECA-exposed cultures. qRT-PCR revealed that the accumulation of transcripts corresponding to the berberine bridge enzyme gene, which was induced by YE exposure, was blocked by OCDA pathway and reversed by exogenous MeJa. Interestingly, this response pattern could not be observed on dihydrobenzophenanthridine oxidase enzyme activity, which was promoted by YE, but unaffected by either OCDA or MeJa. Results suggest partial involvement of OCDA pathway in this response.

  13. Opium decreases the age at myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death: a long- and short-term outcome evaluation.

    PubMed

    Roohafza, Hamidreza; Talaei, Mohammad; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Haghani, Poone; Shokouh, Pedram; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2013-03-01

      Opium dependence is a recognized individual and public health threat, but little is known about its association with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or sudden cardiac death (SCD). In a cross-sectional study followed by a one-year matched longitudinal cohort, all 569 men hospitalized with AMI in all Cardiac Care Units (CCU) of Isfahan, Iran, were recruited in a six-month period. In addition, 123 out-of-hospital deaths were included that were diagnosed as SCD at the same duration. Among those discharged alive, 126 opium dependents were matched with 126 nondependents (mostly nonusers) according to age and smoking status, and were followed for one year. Opium dependence was measured using the ICD10 criteria and Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS) questionnaire. The method was validated by morphine blood levels. Biochemical measurements, blood pressure, blood cell counts, anthropometrics, and ejection fraction were measured at baseline and repeated at the end of follow-up.  There were 118 (17.1%) patients with an average of 17.4 ± 10.4 years of abuse who met the criteria for opium dependency. Opium dependence decreased the age at event by 3.6 (95% CI: 1.2 - 6.0) years and was independent of smoking (P = 0.003). In terms of cardiovascular risk factors such as ejection fraction, in addition to post-AMI mortality and morbidity, no significant associations were noted at baseline or after one year of follow-up. The odds ratio of sustained smoking after AMI was 1.92 (95% CI: 1.04 - 3.52) in opium dependents (P = 0.033). Despite public opinion, opium did not improve cardiovascular risk factors, or post-AMI mortality and morbidity. Conversely, there were irrefutable findings regarding the detrimental effects of opium dependence.

  14. Exposure of consumers to morphine from poppy seeds in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Zentai, A; Sali, J; Szeitzné-Szabó, M; Szabó, I J; Ambrus, Á

    2012-01-01

    Poppy seed-containing foods are popular dishes in Hungary and some other Central European countries. The alkaloids of poppy are used in the production of medicines. Poppy seeds used as food may also contain considerable amounts of alkaloids, which raises the question of food safety. Morphine, codeine, thebaine and noscapine concentrations of poppy seed samples from the period 2001-2010 and consumption data from two Hungarian surveys, carried out in 2003 and 2009, were evaluated. Exposure calculations were made for morphine intake by both point estimate and probabilistic methods, and the uncertainty of the calculated values was estimated. The point estimate for the acute consumer exposure, calculated using the 97.5th percentiles of morphine concentration and of poppy seed consumption and taking into account the reduction of morphine content by processing, was 78.64 µg (kg bw)⁻¹ day⁻¹ for adults, and 116.90 µg (kg bw)⁻¹ day⁻¹ for children. Based on probabilistic estimations, the 97.5th and 99th percentile exposures ranged between 18.3-25.4 and 25.6-47.4 µg (kg bw)⁻¹ day⁻¹ for adults, and between 32.9 and 66.4 µg (kg bw)⁻¹ day⁻¹ for children, respectively. As a no observed effect level (NOEL) had not been established, the significance of exposure could not be assessed.

  15. Opium Withdrawal Delirium: Two Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ravi C.; Kumar, Ramesh; Sharma, Dinesh Dutt; Kanwar, Pankaj

    2017-01-01

    Two patients with opium dependence developed delirium during abstinence. The delirium resolved completely within 48–58 hours of appropriate treatment. Caution needs to be exercised during opioid detoxification in timely detecting and treating potentially life-threatening condition like delirium. PMID:28138205

  16. Opium tincture versus methadone syrup in management of acute raw opium withdrawal: A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Tabassomi, Farzaneh; Zarghami, Mehran; Shiran, Mohammad-Reza; Farnia, Samaneh; Davoodi, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of opium tincture versus methadone syrup in the management of acute withdrawal syndrome in opium dependent patients during the detoxification period. In this double-blind randomized controlled study, a total of 74 adult male raw opium dependent patients were treated with opium tincture or methadone syrup 2 times daily for 5 consecutive days. Detoxification was initiated by tapered dose reductions to reach abstinence. At the end of the 10th day, the medications were discontinued. The Objective Opioid Withdrawal Scale was used to assess withdrawal symptoms every day. Significant decreases on the Objective Opioid Withdrawal Scale were found for both treatment methods during the study period (p < .0001). However, there was no significant difference between groups on the total Objective Opioid Withdrawal Scale, and adverse effects existed. Opium tincture can be considered as a potential substitute for methadone syrup for suppression of raw opium withdrawal symptoms, with minimal adverse effects.

  17. Opium use: an emerging risk factor for cancer?

    PubMed

    Kamangar, Farin; Shakeri, Ramin; Malekzadeh, Reza; Islami, Farhad

    2014-02-01

    An estimated 16·5 million people worldwide illicitly use opiates, of whom 4 million use raw opium. We did a systematic review to investigate the association between opium use and cancer incidence and mortality. Opium use was associated with an increased risk of cancers of the oesophagus, stomach, larynx, lung, and urinary bladder. Although the present evidence suggests that these associations are possibly causal, further epidemiological studies (particularly prospective studies that collect detailed data about lifetime opium use and control for a broad range of potential confounders) are needed.

  18. How human neuroblastoma cells make morphine.

    PubMed

    Boettcher, Chotima; Fellermeier, Monika; Boettcher, Christian; Dräger, Birgit; Zenk, Meinhart H

    2005-06-14

    Recently, our laboratory demonstrated that human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) are capable of synthesizing morphine, the major active metabolite of opium poppy. Now our experiments are further substantiated by extending the biochemical studies to the entire morphine pathway in this human cell line. L-[1,2,3-13C3]- and [ring-2',5',6'-2H3]dopa showed high isotopic enrichment and incorporation in both the isoquinoline and the benzyl moiety of the endogenous morphine. [2,2-2H2]Dopamine, however, was exclusively incorporated only into the isoquinoline moiety. Neither the trioxygenated (R,S)-[1,3-13C2]norcoclaurine, the precursor of morphine in the poppy plant, nor (R)-[1,3,4-2H3]norlaudanosoline showed incorporation into endogenous morphine. However, (S)-[1,3,4-2H3]norlaudanosoline furnished a good isotopic enrichment and the loss of a single deuterium atom at the C-9 position of the morphine molecule, indicating that the change of configuration from (S)- to (R)-reticuline occurs via the intermediacy of 1,2-dehydroreticuline. Additional feeding experiments with potential morphinan precursors demonstrated substantial incorporation of [7-2H]salutaridinol, but not 7-[7-2H]episalutaridinol, and [7-2H,N-C2H3]oripavine, and [6-2H]codeine into morphine. Human morphine biosynthesis involves at least 19 chemical steps. For the most part, it is a reflection of the biosynthesis in opium poppy; however, there is a fundamental difference in the formation of the key intermediate (S)-reticuline: it proceeds via the tetraoxygenated initial isoquinoline alkaloid (S)-norlaudanosoline, whereas the plant morphine biosynthesis proceeds via the trioxygenated (S)-norcoclaurine. Following the plant biosynthetic pathway, (S)-reticuline undergoes a change of configuration at C-1 during its transformation to salutaridinol and thebaine. From thebaine, there is a bifurcate pathway leading to morphine proceeding via codeine or oripavine, in both plants and mammals.

  19. How human neuroblastoma cells make morphine

    PubMed Central

    Boettcher, Chotima; Fellermeier, Monika; Boettcher, Christian; Dräger, Birgit; Zenk, Meinhart H.

    2005-01-01

    Recently, our laboratory demonstrated that human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) are capable of synthesizing morphine, the major active metabolite of opium poppy. Now our experiments are further substantiated by extending the biochemical studies to the entire morphine pathway in this human cell line. l-[1,2,3-13C3]- and [ring-2′,5′,6′-2H3]dopa showed high isotopic enrichment and incorporation in both the isoquinoline and the benzyl moiety of the endogenous morphine. [2,2-2H2]Dopamine, however, was exclusively incorporated only into the isoquinoline moiety. Neither the trioxygenated (R,S)-[1,3-13C2]norcoclaurine, the precursor of morphine in the poppy plant, nor (R)-[1,3,4-2H3]norlaudanosoline showed incorporation into endogenous morphine. However, (S)-[1,3,4-2H3]norlaudanosoline furnished a good isotopic enrichment and the loss of a single deuterium atom at the C-9 position of the morphine molecule, indicating that the change of configuration from (S)- to (R)-reticuline occurs via the intermediacy of 1,2-dehydroreticuline. Additional feeding experiments with potential morphinan precursors demonstrated substantial incorporation of [7-2H]salutaridinol, but not 7-[7-2H]episalutaridinol, and [7-2H,N-C2H3]oripavine, and [6-2H]codeine into morphine. Human morphine biosynthesis involves at least 19 chemical steps. For the most part, it is a reflection of the biosynthesis in opium poppy; however, there is a fundamental difference in the formation of the key intermediate (S)-reticuline: it proceeds via the tetraoxygenated initial isoquinoline alkaloid (S)-norlaudanosoline, whereas the plant morphine biosynthesis proceeds via the trioxygenated (S)-norcoclaurine. Following the plant biosynthetic pathway, (S)-reticuline undergoes a change of configuration at C-1 during its transformation to salutaridinol and thebaine. From thebaine, there is a bifurcate pathway leading to morphine proceeding via codeine or oripavine, in both plants and mammals. PMID:15937106

  20. Effects of opium addiction on bleeding after coronary artery bypass graft surgery: report from Iran.

    PubMed

    Nemati, Mohammad Hassan; Astaneh, Behrooz; Ardekani, Gholamreza Safaee

    2010-09-01

    Opium abuse is a major type of drug abuse in Iran. This study was designed to find the possible relation between opium addiction and excessive bleeding after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. In a historical cohort study during a 1.5-year period, consecutive patients scheduled for elective CABG surgery were assigned to two group on the basis of having or not having the criteria for inhalational opium addiction. Before and after operations, the complete blood count, bleeding time, prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, and platelet count were checked for all patients. The volumes of infused red blood cells during and after the operation were recorded. After operations, the volumes of bleeding through the patients' chest tubes were recorded. The recorded data were analyzed using SPSS software version 11.5. Independent t, chi-square and repeated measure tests were used; and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. In total, 84 nonaddicted patients were assigned in group 1, and 110 patients who fulfilled the addiction criteria were assigned in group 2. Total bleeding from the three chest tubes was significantly different between the two groups (P = 0.001). The mean hemoglobin level, prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, and platelet counts before and after the operations were similar in the two groups. Opium-addicted patients received more packed red blood cells during and after the operations. Inhalational opium addiction might lead to more hemorrhage after CABG surgery. It is recommended that cardiac surgeons consider these patients at high risk for major complications after surgery.

  1. Clipping affects flowering of California poppy at two growth stages

    Treesearch

    Raymond D. Ratliff; Richard L. Hubbard

    1975-01-01

    The effects of clipping California-poppy (Eschscholzia californica Cham.) at various growth stages on plant survival, flowering, herbage yield, and root production were studied at the San Joaquin Experimental Range, in central California. Plants were clipped once to a 2-cm stubble at one of six stages. Through the early reproductive stage, a single...

  2. Biliary Cast Syndrome in an Opium Inhaler

    PubMed Central

    Dabiri, Reza; Aghdae, Hamid Asadzadeh; Rajabalinia, Hasan; Mohammad Alizadeh, Amir Houshang

    2013-01-01

    Biliary cast syndrome (BCS) is an uncommon complication which is mostly described in orthotopic liver transplantation. However, BCS has also been reported rarely in non-liver transplant patients. We describe a male long-term opium inhaler with BCS who underwent successful endoscopic cast removal by balloon enteroscopy-guided endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. A 52-year-old man, who was a known case of opium addiction, presented with the chief complaint of epigastric pain for 1 week prior to admission. Routine laboratory evaluation revealed cholestatic liver enzyme elevation. A cholestatic pattern was seen in radiographic modalities. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography showed a linear filling defect in the intra- and extrahepatic duct. A long biliary cast was successfully removed using an extractor balloon. After removal of the biliary cast the patient is receiving ursodeoxycholic acid and does not report any problem 4 months after treatment. It seems that biliary dyskinesia due to long-term opium use can be a predisposing factor for biliary cast formation. PMID:24163648

  3. Ageratum enation virus Infection Induces Programmed Cell Death and Alters Metabolite Biosynthesis in Papaver somniferum.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Ashish; Agrawal, Lalit; Raj, Rashmi; Jaidi, Meraj; Raj, Shri K; Gupta, Swati; Dixit, Ritu; Singh, Poonam C; Tripathi, Tusha; Sidhu, Om P; Singh, Brahma N; Shukla, Sudhir; Chauhan, Puneet S; Kumar, Susheel

    2017-01-01

    A previously unknown disease which causes severe vein thickening and inward leaf curl was observed in a number of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) plants. The sequence analysis of full-length viral genome and associated betasatellite reveals the occurrence of Ageratum enation virus (AEV) and Ageratum leaf curl betasatellite (ALCB), respectively. Co-infiltration of cloned agroinfectious DNAs of AEV and ALCB induces the leaf curl and vein thickening symptoms as were observed naturally. Infectivity assay confirmed this complex as the cause of disease and also satisfied the Koch's postulates. Comprehensive microscopic analysis of infiltrated plants reveals severe structural anomalies in leaf and stem tissues represented by unorganized cell architecture and vascular bundles. Moreover, the characteristic blebs and membranous vesicles formed due to the virus-induced disintegration of the plasma membrane and intracellular organelles were also present. An accelerated nuclear DNA fragmentation was observed by Comet assay and confirmed by TUNEL and Hoechst dye staining assays suggesting virus-induced programmed cell death. Virus-infection altered the biosynthesis of several important metabolites. The biosynthesis potential of morphine, thebaine, codeine, and papaverine alkaloids reduced significantly in infected plants except for noscapine whose biosynthesis was comparatively enhanced. The expression analysis of corresponding alkaloid pathway genes by real time-PCR corroborated well with the results of HPLC analysis for alkaloid perturbations. The changes in the metabolite and alkaloid contents affect the commercial value of the poppy plants.

  4. Ageratum enation virus Infection Induces Programmed Cell Death and Alters Metabolite Biosynthesis in Papaver somniferum

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Ashish; Agrawal, Lalit; Raj, Rashmi; Jaidi, Meraj; Raj, Shri K.; Gupta, Swati; Dixit, Ritu; Singh, Poonam C.; Tripathi, Tusha; Sidhu, Om P.; Singh, Brahma N.; Shukla, Sudhir; Chauhan, Puneet S.; Kumar, Susheel

    2017-01-01

    A previously unknown disease which causes severe vein thickening and inward leaf curl was observed in a number of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) plants. The sequence analysis of full-length viral genome and associated betasatellite reveals the occurrence of Ageratum enation virus (AEV) and Ageratum leaf curl betasatellite (ALCB), respectively. Co-infiltration of cloned agroinfectious DNAs of AEV and ALCB induces the leaf curl and vein thickening symptoms as were observed naturally. Infectivity assay confirmed this complex as the cause of disease and also satisfied the Koch’s postulates. Comprehensive microscopic analysis of infiltrated plants reveals severe structural anomalies in leaf and stem tissues represented by unorganized cell architecture and vascular bundles. Moreover, the characteristic blebs and membranous vesicles formed due to the virus-induced disintegration of the plasma membrane and intracellular organelles were also present. An accelerated nuclear DNA fragmentation was observed by Comet assay and confirmed by TUNEL and Hoechst dye staining assays suggesting virus-induced programmed cell death. Virus-infection altered the biosynthesis of several important metabolites. The biosynthesis potential of morphine, thebaine, codeine, and papaverine alkaloids reduced significantly in infected plants except for noscapine whose biosynthesis was comparatively enhanced. The expression analysis of corresponding alkaloid pathway genes by real time-PCR corroborated well with the results of HPLC analysis for alkaloid perturbations. The changes in the metabolite and alkaloid contents affect the commercial value of the poppy plants. PMID:28729873

  5. Effects of Opium Smoking Cessation on the Nasopharyngeal Microbial Flora

    PubMed Central

    Golshiri, Ali; Mokhtaree, Mohammad Reza; Shabani, Ziba; Tabatabaee, Sayed Taghi; Rahnama, Amir; Moradi, Mohammad; Sayadi, Ahamad Reza; Faezi, Hadi

    2009-01-01

    Background: To determine the effect of opium smoking cessation on the frequency and type of microorganisms in the nasopharynx of opium smokers. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study performed in psychology and ENT department of Moradi Hospital of Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences in 2008 (Kerman, Iran). Nasopharyngeal cultures were taken from 50 opium smokers before and 2 to 3 months after cessation of opium smoking. Potential pathogens were identified. Findings: Eight potential pathogens were isolated from nasopharyngeal cultures obtained from 43 individuals before opium smoking cessation, and 4 were recovered from 33 individuals after cessation (P < 0.0001). Streptococcus pneumonia, staphylococcus saprofiticus, streptococos α hemolytic, and staphylococcus aureus in 2nd culture were not seen. The most sensitivity to antibiotics was related to ceftriaxone (84%), ciprofloxacin (74%) and cloxacillin (72%); the most resistance was to amoxicillin (26%) and the least resistance was to chloramphenicol. Conclusion: In our study, some potential pathogens decreased or even disapeared after opium cessation. Our patients have not been advised to change their number of cigarettes. We have used methadone pill for substitution of opium. It seems that opium smoking affects nasopharyngeal flora. PMID:24494075

  6. Effects of opium smoking cessation on the nasopharyngeal microbial flora.

    PubMed

    Golshiri, Ali; Mokhtaree, Mohammad Reza; Shabani, Ziba; Tabatabaee, Sayed Taghi; Rahnama, Amir; Moradi, Mohammad; Sayadi, Ahamad Reza; Faezi, Hadi

    2009-01-01

    To determine the effect of opium smoking cessation on the frequency and type of microorganisms in the nasopharynx of opium smokers. This was a cross-sectional study performed in psychology and ENT department of Moradi Hospital of Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences in 2008 (Kerman, Iran). Nasopharyngeal cultures were taken from 50 opium smokers before and 2 to 3 months after cessation of opium smoking. Potential pathogens were identified. Eight potential pathogens were isolated from nasopharyngeal cultures obtained from 43 individuals before opium smoking cessation, and 4 were recovered from 33 individuals after cessation (P < 0.0001). Streptococcus pneumonia, staphylococcus saprofiticus, streptococos α hemolytic, and staphylococcus aureus in 2(nd) culture were not seen. The most sensitivity to antibiotics was related to ceftriaxone (84%), ciprofloxacin (74%) and cloxacillin (72%); the most resistance was to amoxicillin (26%) and the least resistance was to chloramphenicol. In our study, some potential pathogens decreased or even disapeared after opium cessation. Our patients have not been advised to change their number of cigarettes. We have used methadone pill for substitution of opium. It seems that opium smoking affects nasopharyngeal flora.

  7. Effect of opium smoking cessation on the nasopharyngeal microbial flora.

    PubMed

    Golshiri, Ali; Shabani, Ziba; Mokhtaree, Mohammad R; Sayadi, Ahmad R; Faezi, Hadi

    2010-01-01

    To determine the effect of opium smoking cessation on the frequency and type of microorganisms in the nasopharynx of opium smokers. This cross-sectional study was performed in the Psychiatry, and Ear, Nose, and Throat Departments, Moradi Hospital, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran from June to November 2008. Nasopharyngeal cultures were taken from 50 opium smokers before, and 2-3 months after cessation of opium smoking. Potential pathogens were identified. Patients were not advised to change their number of cigarettes, and we used methadone for the substitution of opium. Eight potential pathogens were isolated from nasopharyngeal cultures obtained from 43 individuals before opium smoking cessation, and 4 were recovered from 33 individuals after cessation (p=0.03). Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Streptococcus alpha hemolytic, and Staphylococcus aureus were not found in the second culture. The most sensitivity to antibiotics was for ceftriaxone (84%), ciprofloxacin (74%), and cloxacillin (72%), and the most resistance for amoxicillin (26%) and the least resistance for chloramphenicol. Some potential pathogens decrease or are even absent after opium cessation. Opium smoking affects the nasopharyngeal flora.

  8. Effect of ground poppy seed as a fat replacer on meat burgers.

    PubMed

    Gök, Veli; Akkaya, Levent; Obuz, Ersel; Bulut, Sait

    2011-12-01

    Poppy seed paste was used in koefte production as an animal fat replacer and efficacy of using poppy seed was investigated. The use of ground poppy seed in formulation of meat burgers had no effect on the moisture content of uncooked meat burgers; however, it did have a significant effect (p<0.05) on the fat content of meat burgers. Ground poppy seed addition significantly affected (p<0.05) cooking yield, moisture retention, and fat retention of meat burgers. Ground poppy seed addition significantly decreased (p<0.05) saturated fatty acid contents as the amount of ground poppy seed increased in meat burgers. A strong significant decrease (p<0.05) on the cholesterol content of meat burgers with ground poppy seed addition was observed. Samples having 20% ground poppy seed had significantly better texture and juiciness score (p<0.05) than any other sample which could be explained by increased moisture retention. Replacing animal fat with ground poppy seed paste is effective and may pave the way for an innovative meat product.

  9. [Detection of morphine after ingestion of poppy seeds].

    PubMed

    Angelo, H R; Kaa, E

    1993-12-06

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether morphine can be detected in urine after the ingestion of poppy seeds bought in Denmark. Morphine and codeine were determined in 10 different poppy seed specimens bought in Denmark. Ten and 25 g of the specimens containing the highest amount of morphine and codeine were consumed by respectively six and seven volunteers. Urine samples were collected for analysis at intervals up to 24 h. All samples were found positive by radioimmunoassay up to 24 h after ingestion. Using the less sensitive thin layer chromatography method, one of six and two of seven were positive, two to four hours after intake of respectively 10 and 25 g of the specimens. We conclude that the detection of morphine in urine does not necessarily indicate an illegal drug use.

  10. Fatality involving the ingestion of phenazepam and poppy seed tea.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Kristen; Richards-Waugh, Lauren; Clay, David; Gebhardt, Myron; Mahmoud, Hamada; Kraner, James C

    2010-10-01

    Phenazepam is a benzodiazepine derivative that has been in clinical use in Russia since 1978 and is not available by prescription in the United States; however, it is attainable through various internet websites, sold either as tablets or as a reference grade crystalline powder. Presented here is the case of a 42-year old Caucasian male who died as the result of combined phenazepam, morphine, codeine, and thebaine intoxication. A vial of white powder labeled "Phenazepam, Purity 99%, CAS No. 51753-57-2, Research Sample", a short straw, and several poppy seed pods were found on the scene. Investigation revealed that the decedent had a history of ordering medications over the internet and that he had consumed poppy seed tea prior to his death. Phenazepam, morphine, codeine, and thebaine were present in the blood at 386, 116, 85, and 72 ng/mL, respectively.

  11. Excretion of codeine and morphine following ingestion of poppy seeds.

    PubMed

    Struempler, R E

    1987-01-01

    After the ingestion of three poppy-seed bagels, the following codeine and morphine concentrations were determined in the urine: 214 ng/mL codeine and 2797 ng/mL morphine at 3 h, and 16 ng/mL codeine and 676 ng/mL morphine at 22 h. This work indicates that a positive finding of codeine or morphine in the urine of an individual does not necessarily indicate heroin, morphine, or codeine use.

  12. 76 FR 39123 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ...) II Moramide intermediate (9802) II Morphine (9300) II Nabilone (7379) II Opium, raw (9600) II Opium extracts (9610) II Opium fluid extract (9620) II Opium tincture (9630) II Opium poppy/Poppy Straw (9650) II Poppy Straw Concentrate (9670) II ] Opium, granulated (9640) II Oxycodone (9143) II Oxymorphone...

  13. 78 FR 46369 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Research Triangle Institute

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... intermediate (9802) II Morphine (9300) II Nabilone (7379) II Opium, raw (9600) II Opium extracts (9610) II Opium fluid extract (9620) II Opium tincture (9630) II Opium poppy/Poppy Straw (9650) II Oripavine (9330) II Poppy Straw Concentrate (9670) II Opium, granulated (9640) II Oxycodone (9143) II...

  14. Natural opium as one of the possibilities for drug abusers.

    PubMed

    Klusonová, Hana; Vlková, Jana; Visnovský, Peter

    2005-12-01

    Natural opium is a popular seasonal alternation for substance dependent people. Its processing, way of using, experience and change of habits was the aim of our study carried out via anonymous questionnaire and directed interview. 47 questionnaires were obtained. According to our results natural opium has been abused by people 19-42 years old, more than a half of them were male. Basic drug were pervitin in 57 %, marihuana in 33 %, a considerable part (30 %) was natural opium. Each grower produced approximately 35 g of raw opium in one season. The most frequent way of application was smoking, injecting and "opium tea" drinking. Almost a half of the clients (40 %) felt attenuation after application; relaxation, hallucination and central stimulation admitted 25 % of respondents. Health troubles had majority of the users. Combinations of natural opium with other drugs (alcohol, marihuana, pervitin) declared 45 % respondents, the effects of the combinations admitted one third of users. The examination for viral hepatitis confirmed more than a half of the clients; the major part of users from Olomouc, but only 25 % of users from Prostejov were tested for HIV. Opium consumption influenced habits of personal hygiene of more than a half of the users (57 %). Routine servicing of the spot of the needle insertion practiced a half of the responders. Majority of the abusers (79 %) obtained and closed out paraphernalia throw to the "harm reduction" program.

  15. Perioperative status and complications in opium addicts in Western rajasthan.

    PubMed

    Malviya, Ajay; Negi, Nitin; Mandora, Manish; Yadav, J K

    2011-10-01

    Opium addiction is rampant in Western Rajasthan and probably has the highest number of opium addicts in the world. The study envisages upon the presentation, diagnosis and various postoperative complications in surgically ill opium addicts vis-à-vis non addicts. The study is purported to benefit clinicians dealing with opium addict patients. The prospective cohort study was conducted at Mahatma Gandhi Hospital, Jodhpur between December 2004 and February 2006 and included cohorts of 71 opium addict and 50 non-addict patients admitted in various surgical wards. The study focused on presentation and the post-surgical complications encountered in these patients vis-à-vis others. The results thus obtained were evaluated statistically (mean±SD, SEM, two tailed t test, chi-square test), p value of <0.05 was considered as significant. A thorough comparative analysis revealed that opium addict patients had a significantly higher incidence of postoperative respiratory, cardiovascular, systemic and local complications. The requirement of analgesics and duration of hospital stay were also significantly higher as compared to control group. The work concludes that opium addicts suffer a much higher degree of postoperative morbidity as compared to non-addicts.

  16. Opium use in Turkmenistan: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Kerimi, N

    2000-09-01

    This paper presents a picture of how the patterns of opium use have changed in Turkmenistan over more than 100 years and the relationship between these transformations and formal and informal social controls of drug use. From the late 18th century, when opium use began to become a social problem, informal control weakened. Eventually, in the late 19th century, formal control was introduced, aimed at the prohibition of drug trade and use. From that time, the intended and unintended outcomes of implemented policies led to changes in the demographic patterns of users and the social-medical consequences of opiate use. The anti-drug policies, where criminal prohibition coexisted with strategies aimed at raising the population's general living standards and at providing free access to health care, were effective up to the early 1980s. New political and social-economic realities in the 1980-90s have radically changed the drug scene in the country, with heroin trade and use as the main concerns. The government's reaction, while following the old paths, has included new elements, based mainly on ideas of national consolidation.

  17. Cytokine profiles in long-term smokers of opium (Taryak).

    PubMed

    Ghazavi, Ali; Solhi, Hassan; Moazzeni, Seyed Mohammad; Rafiei, Mohammad; Mosayebi, Ghasem

    2013-01-01

    There are few studies with conflicting results on the effects of in vivo administration of opioids on immune function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum levels of interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, IL-17, and hs-C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in opium smokers. The study was conducted between 44 male opium addicts and 44 controls aged 20 to 40 years. The control group was healthy individuals with no lifetime history of substance abuse. All the opium abusers were selected from those who had a history of use of opium, as a regular habit, at least for 1 year, with a daily opium dosage of not less than 2 g. Addicts known to abuse alcohol or other drugs were excluded. Serum samples were collected from all participants and tested for the cytokine and hs-CRP levels by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) method. Statistical analysis was performed using the Student t test. The mean serum levels of IFN-γ, IL-10, and IL-17 in the opium addicts were significantly higher than those observed in the control group. The mean concentration of serum IL-4 in opium addicts did not differ from that in the control group. Systemic IL-10 levels correlated positively and significantly with CRP in opium addicts. Long-term, daily use of opium is associated with higher Th1 (IFN-γ), Tr1 (IL-10), and Th17 (IL-17) cytokines concentration in serum. Interferon-γ and IL-17 are involved in inducing and mediating proinflammatory responses. Our data suggest that an immunoregulatory response is occurring with the upregulation of IL-10.

  18. Urinary excretion of morphine and codeine following the administration of single and multiple doses of opium preparations prescribed in Taiwan as "brown mixture".

    PubMed

    Liu, Hsiu-Chuan; Ho, Hsiu-O; Liu, Ray H; Yeh, Geng-Cheng; Lin, Dong-Liang

    2006-05-01

    Parallel to the "poppy-seed defense" strategy commonly reported in the United States, donors of urine samples tested positive for opiates in Taiwan often claimed the consumption of Brown Mixture (BM) as the source of the observed morphine and codeine. Because BM contains opium powder (10.0-10.5% morphine), opium tincture (0.9-1.1% morphine), or camphorated opium tincture (0.045-0.055% morphine) and is a popular remedy, and heroin use is considered a serious criminal act, the claim of BM use has to be adequately addressed. In this study, BM from seven different manufacturers (5 tablets and 2 solutions) and urine samples from alleged heroin users and volunteers with various ingestion patterns and were analyzed for their morphine and codeine contents. The analytical procedure included hydrolysis, trimethylsilylation, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The contents of morphine and codeine in the tablets were found to be very consistent, but with significant differences in the two BM solutions. Morphine concentrations found in urine specimens collected from volunteers ingesting BM tablets (or solutions) were always < 4000 ng/mL. The following morphine-to-codeine ([M]/[C]) ratios were observed for urine specimens with morphine concentration > or = 300 ng/mL: (A) < 3.0 for volunteers ingesting BM solution and (B) > 3.0 (mostly > 5.0) for volunteers ingesting BM tablets and alleged heroin users. It appeared that (A) BM ingestion (tablet or solution) was unlikely to result in a morphine concentration > 4000 ng/mL; and (B) [M]/[C] ratio might not be an effective parameter to differentiate heroin use from BM tablet ingestion.

  19. More California-poppy in stubble field than in old field

    Treesearch

    Raymond D. Ratliff; Stanley E. Westfall; Richard W. Robarts

    1972-01-01

    The density and flowering of California-poppy (Eschscholzia californica var. peninsularis Green), amount of bare ground, and occurrence of other plants were studied in an old field and a stubble field near Madera, California. The stubble field had more poppy plants per unit of area, more plants flowering, and more bare ground than...

  20. Tall Poppies: Bullying Behaviors Faced by Australian High-Performance School-Age Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Maureen; Calder, Angela; Allen, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about Australian high-performance school-age athletes' experiences as victims of the tall poppy syndrome. Tall poppies are successful individuals bullied by those who are less successful in order to "normalize them." Nineteen current or previous national or international high-performance school-age athletes were…

  1. Tall Poppies: Bullying Behaviors Faced by Australian High-Performance School-Age Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Maureen; Calder, Angela; Allen, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about Australian high-performance school-age athletes' experiences as victims of the tall poppy syndrome. Tall poppies are successful individuals bullied by those who are less successful in order to "normalize them." Nineteen current or previous national or international high-performance school-age athletes were…

  2. Opium usage as an etiologic factor of oral cavity cancer.

    PubMed

    Razmpa, Ebrahim; Saedi, Babak; Motiee-langroudi, Maziar; Garajei, Ata; Hoseinpor, Sareh; Motamedi, Mohammad Hosein Kalantar

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of opium in causing oral cancer. Eighty patients and 80 selected matched controls who were referred to the ear-nose-throat department of an academic hospital were included in this study between October 2008 and September 2010. In addition to demographic data, information regarding alcohol, tobacco, and opium use was documented in the subjects. Finally, the effect of each risk factor was assessed. There was no significant difference in patient demographics between the 2 groups. Smoking (P = 0.042) and poor oral hygiene (P = 0.016) significantly correlated with cancer. Finally, opium addiction showed a significant relationship with oral cavity cancer with an odds ratio of 4 (95% confidence interval, 1.2-13.6). Opium use is among the possible risk factors for oral cancer.

  3. Opium intoxication in an infant on Indian folk medicine.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ira

    2012-07-01

    A 45-day-old boy presented with increased drowsiness for a day. His mother was giving the child a mixture of several herbs for the past 15 days for general well-being of the child. Urine analysis revealed the presence of opium and benzodiazepines in the child. On searching through the herbs, opium seeds were identified. The child recovered on his own and needed no antidote.

  4. Elevated Plasma Homocysteine Concentration in Opium-Addicted Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Masoomi, Mohammad; Azdaki, Nahid; Shahouzehi, Beydolah

    2015-01-01

    Background Although the triggering role of both opium use and elevated plasma homocysteine level for progressing atherosclerosis and, therefore, appearing coronary heart disease has been clearly determined, no study are available with respect to the relation between these to risk profiles. In the present study and for the first time, we hypothesized that the opium addiction can be potentially correlated with elevated homocysteine concentration. Methods 217 persons (103 opium-addicted and 114 non-addicted) were randomly selected from the Kerman Coronary Artery Disease Risk Study (KERCADRS), Iran, as a population-based, epidemiological prospective study. In all participants, an enzyme immunoassay kit was used to measure homocysteine in serum samples. Findings The serum level of homocysteine was significantly higher in the opium-addicted ones compared to non-addicted individuals (11.49 ± 7.45 vs. 8.02 ± 3.87 μmol/l) (P < 0.001). In this regard, 21.3% of the opium users and only 3.2% of the non-users had homocysteine concentration > 15 μmol/l (P < 0.001). On the other hand, individuals addicted to opiates exhibited significantly elevated odds of having homocysteine level higher than 15 [odds ratio (OR) = 8.244, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 3.117-21.806]. Multivariable linear regression model showed that the opium addiction could strongly predict elevated homocysteine level in the study individuals [beta = 3.524, standard error (SE) = 0.852] (P < 0.001). Conclusion Opium consumption can be strongly accompanied with the elevation of plasma homocysteine concentration, and thus opium addiction can exhibit elevated odds of having hyperhomocysteinemia. PMID:26885351

  5. Age at diagnosis in bladder cancer: does opium addiction play a role?

    PubMed

    Karbakhsh, Mojgan; Dabbagh, Najmeh; Shabani, Azadeh; Tabibi, Ali; Akhavizadegan, Hamed

    2013-01-01

    Bladder cancer is a major health problem, especially among men. Opium addiction can be an important risk factor. One important question is whether it can affect the age of onset of bladder cancer .We performed this study to evaluate this question. In a cross-section study, records of patients diagnosed with bladder carcinoma in Shahid Labbafinejad Medical Center, within 1999-2008 were included. Data were extracted from records regarding age at onset, gender, smoking status, and opioid addiction and analyzed with SPSS 13. Within 10 years, 920 cases were diagnosed with bladder cancer of which 97 percent were transitional cell carcinoma. In 698 cases, opium addiction status was recorded in 21.3% (n=149). Age at diagnosis was 59.7±11.51 (median: 60) among opioid addicts which was significantly lower than non- addicts (63.1±13.65, Median: 65) (P<0.001). Opium addiction can decrease the age of onset of bladder cancer.

  6. Opium and heroin alter biochemical parameters of human's serum.

    PubMed

    Kouros, Divsalar; Tahereh, Haghpanah; Mohammadreza, Afarinesh; Minoo, Mahmoudi Zarandi

    2010-05-01

    Iran is a significant consumer of opium, and, generally, of opioids, in the world. Addiction is one of the important issues of the 21st century and is an imperative issue in Iran. Long-term consumption of opioids affects homeostasis. To determine the effects of opium and heroin consumption on serum biochemical parameters. In a cross-sectional study, subjects who had consumed heroin (n = 35) or opium (n = 42) for more than two years and 35 nonaddict volunteers as the control group were compared in regard to various biochemical parameters such as fasting blood sugar (FBS), Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), uric acid (UA), triglyceride (TG), cholesterol, creatinine, and total protein. Chromatography was used to confirm opioid consumption, and the concentration of biochemical parameters was determined by laboratory diagnostic tests on serum. No significant differences were found in Na(+), Ca(2+), BUN, UA, TG, creatinine, and total protein concentrations among the three groups. FBS, K(+), and UA levels were significantly lower in opium addicts compared to the control group. Serum Ca(2+) concentration of heroin addicts showed a significant decrease compared to that of the control group. Both addict groups showed a significant decrease in serum cholesterol levels. Chronic use of opium and heroin can change serum FBS, K(+), Ca(2+), UA, and cholesterol. This study, one of few on the effects of opium on serum biochemical parameters in human subjects, has the potential to contribute to the investigation of new approaches for further basic studies.

  7. Poppy seed ingestion and opiates urinalysis: a closer look.

    PubMed

    elSohly, H N; elSohly, M A; Stanford, D F

    1990-01-01

    Review of scientific literature shows that ingestion of poppy seed containing products can result in a positive urinalysis test for opiates. In many cases the amount of seeds ingested is unrealistically high or is not specified. This study is designed to correlate the amount of seeds ingested with the urinary concentration of total morphine as a function of time. Two males and two females were involved in all four protocols, which were separated by at least one week. Subjects ingested one, two, or three poppy seed rolls, each containing 2 g of Australian seeds (108 micrograms morphine/g seed) in three protocols. In the fourth protocol subjects ingested two rolls per day for four consecutive days. Urine specimens were collected for 48 h after ingestion, analyzed by RIA, EMIT, and TDx, and selected samples were confirmed by GC/MS. The data show that the highest concentrations of total morphine in urine were found 3-8 h after ingestion or in the first-void samples. Of the 264 samples collected, there were only 16 specimens that exceeded 300 ng/mL by any of the methods used for analysis with only three samples exceeding 400 ng/mL by GC/MS (406, 611, and 954 ng/mL). In all cases, the total opiates level was less than 150 ng/mL 24 h after ingestion. Following these studies, one of the subjects ingested a poppy seed cake containing 15 g seed obtained from a bakery which analyzed for 169 micrograms morphine/g seed. Urine specimens were collected over 48 h, and all specimens were analyzed by GC/MS.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Application of an integrated LC-UV-MS-NMR platform to the identification of secondary metabolites from cell cultures: benzophenanthridine alkaloids from elicited Eschscholzia californica (california poppy) cell cultures().

    PubMed

    Gathungu, Rose M; Oldham, John T; Bird, Susan S; Lee-Parsons, Carolyn W T; Vouros, Paul; Kautz, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Plant cell and tissue cultures are a scalable and controllable alternative to whole plants for obtaining natural products of medical relevance. Cultures can be optimized for high yields of desired metabolites using rapid profiling assays such as HPLC. We describe an approach to establishing a rapid assay for profiling cell culture expression systems using a novel microscale LC-UV-MS-NMR platform, designed to acquire both MS and NMR each at their optimal sensitivity, by using nanosplitter MS from 4 mm analytical HPLC columns, and offline microdroplet NMR. The approach is demonstrated in the analysis of elicited Eschscholzia californica cell cultures induced with purified yeast extract to produce benzophenanthridine alkaloids. Preliminary HPLC-UV provides an overview of the changes in the production of alkaloids with time after elicitation. At the time point corresponding to the production of the most alkaloids, the integrated LC-MS-microcoil NMR platform is used for structural identification of extracted alkaloids. Eight benzophenanthridine alkaloids were identified at the sub-microgram level. This paper demonstrates the utility of the nanosplitter LC-MS/microdroplet NMR platform when establishing cell culture expression systems.

  9. Opium Addiction and Risk of Laryngeal and Esophageal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bakhshaee, Mehdi; Raziee, Hamid Reza; Afshari, Reza; Amali, Amin; Roopoosh, Mahmoud; Lotfizadeh, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption have a well-known effect on the development of upper aerodigestive tract carcinomas, but such a role for opium is questionable. This study was designed to assess the correlation between opium inhalation and cancer of the larynx and upper esophagus. Materials and Methods: Fifty eight patients with laryngeal cancer, ninety eight patients with upper esophageal cancer and twenty seven healthy individuals with no evidence of head and neck or esophageal malignancies were selected from Otolaryngology and Radiation Oncology Department of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. Duration and amount of cigarette smoking and opium consumption were recorded through comprehensive interviews. Results: The crude odds ratio for laryngeal cancer was 5.58 (95% CI 2.05-15.15, P=0.000) in cigarette smokers relative to non-smokers and 9.09 (95% CI 3.21-25.64, P=0.000) in opium users relative to non-users. The crude odds ratio for esophageal cancer was 0.44 (95% CI 0.18-1.09, P=0.07) in cigarette smokers relative to non-smokers and 1.44 (95% CI 0.57-3.62, P=0.43) in opium users relative to non-users. After adjusting for smoking, the odds ratio for laryngeal cancer in opium users relative to non-users was 6.06 (95% CI 1.10-33.23, P=0.05). Laryngeal cancer was detected at a significantly lower age in opium users (54.54±10.93 vs 62.92±10.10 years, P=0.02) than in smokers. This effect was not observed in esophageal cancer. Although the duration (year 17.50±14.84 vs 21.91±14.03; P=0.34) and amount (pack/day 0.625 vs 0.978; P=0.06) of smoking were higher among those who were opium dependent, these differences were not statistically significant (P=0.34 and P=0.06, respectively). Conclusion: Opium addiction by snuffing is an independent risk factor for the development laryngeal cancer but not esophageal cancer. Cigarette smoking increases this risk. Opium dependency increases the likelihood of developing laryngeal cancer at a younger

  10. Opium Addiction and Risk of Laryngeal and Esophageal Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bakhshaee, Mehdi; Raziee, Hamid Reza; Afshari, Reza; Amali, Amin; Roopoosh, Mahmoud; Lotfizadeh, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption have a well-known effect on the development of upper aerodigestive tract carcinomas, but such a role for opium is questionable. This study was designed to assess the correlation between opium inhalation and cancer of the larynx and upper esophagus. Fifty eight patients with laryngeal cancer, ninety eight patients with upper esophageal cancer and twenty seven healthy individuals with no evidence of head and neck or esophageal malignancies were selected from Otolaryngology and Radiation Oncology Department of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. Duration and amount of cigarette smoking and opium consumption were recorded through comprehensive interviews. The crude odds ratio for laryngeal cancer was 5.58 (95% CI 2.05-15.15, P=0.000) in cigarette smokers relative to non-smokers and 9.09 (95% CI 3.21-25.64, P=0.000) in opium users relative to non-users. The crude odds ratio for esophageal cancer was 0.44 (95% CI 0.18-1.09, P=0.07) in cigarette smokers relative to non-smokers and 1.44 (95% CI 0.57-3.62, P=0.43) in opium users relative to non-users. After adjusting for smoking, the odds ratio for laryngeal cancer in opium users relative to non-users was 6.06 (95% CI 1.10-33.23, P=0.05). Laryngeal cancer was detected at a significantly lower age in opium users (54.54±10.93 vs 62.92±10.10 years, P=0.02) than in smokers. This effect was not observed in esophageal cancer. Although the duration (year 17.50±14.84 vs 21.91±14.03; P=0.34) and amount (pack/day 0.625 vs 0.978; P=0.06) of smoking were higher among those who were opium dependent, these differences were not statistically significant (P=0.34 and P=0.06, respectively). Opium addiction by snuffing is an independent risk factor for the development laryngeal cancer but not esophageal cancer. Cigarette smoking increases this risk. Opium dependency increases the likelihood of developing laryngeal cancer at a younger age.

  11. The analysis of thebaine in urine for the detection of poppy seed consumption.

    PubMed

    Cassella, G; Wu, A H; Shaw, B R; Hill, D W

    1997-09-01

    The consumption of poppy seeds in various foods may lead to a positive opiate result in urine subjected to testing for drugs of abuse. As a natural constituent of poppy seeds, thebaine was investigated as a possible marker for poppy seed consumption. Poppy seeds were examined for opiate content by gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after extraction with methanol. Urine samples spiked with thebaine and urine from subjects given 11 g of poppy seeds were tested for the presence of thebaine, codeine, and morphine. Street heroin, one morphine and one codeine tablet, and urine from individuals who had used heroin were also examined for thebaine. Urine specimens were screened by enzyme immunoassay (EMIT) and confirmed for thebaine by GC-MS using a solid-phase extraction method. The GC-MS assay showed a linear response over a range of 1-100 ng/mL and a limit of detection of 0.5 ng/mL. Thebaine was detectable in the urine of poppy seed eaters in concentrations ranging from 2 to 81 ng/mL. Because thebaine was absent in powdered drugs and the urine of true opiate drug users, thebaine is proposed as a direct marker for poppy seed use.

  12. Effect of poppy seed consummation on the positive results of opiates screening in biological samples.

    PubMed

    Jankovicová, Katarína; Ulbrich, Pavol; Fuknová, Mária

    2009-04-01

    Poppy seed is a popular substance of many traditional Slovak cakes. We can eat quite great amount of it, sometimes more than 50 g. Existing problem in interpreting the results of opiate urine analysis in case of drug abuse arises from the natural occurrence of opiate alkaloids in poppy seed. Interpretation of morphine presence in urine sample is in some cases a problem because morphine present in the urine sample may come from different "sources". The presence of additional, respectively, other opiate in urine sample is significant help when interpreting the presence of morphine. We used poppy seed bought in supermarket for our experiment. Presence of morphine and codeine was determined in poppy seed extracts, whereas the concentration of majority opiate-morphine was 0.9 mg/100 g (9 ppm). This poppy seed was used for two series of experiment-poppy seed consummation, where four persons consumed 100g of poppy seed in the first series and 50 g in the second series. Urine samples were taken in regular 1h intervals where first urine sample was given for testing 3 h after consummation. Concentrations of total opiates were determined in each urine sample by screening examination. Morphine concentrations were determined in selected urine samples using GC/MS with internal standard.

  13. A comparative study of characteristics and risky behaviors among the Iranian opium and opium dross addicts.

    PubMed

    Noohi, Sima; Azar, Mahyar; Behzadi, Ashkan Heshmatzade; Sedaghati, Mahsa; Panahi, Sepideh Akbari; Dehghan, Nasir; Honarbakhsh, Yasamin; Akasheh, Amirpoya; Tahoori, Armin; Wilson, Denis

    2011-03-01

    Iran ranks first per capita in the use of opiates, but we have little information about possible differences regarding the 2 most commonly used illicit drugs, namely opium and its dross (residue). This is a cross-sectional study. A cross-sectional study about drug abuse and drug dependence in Iran was conducted from April 2006 to August 2008 in the prisons of 28 Iranian provinces, in the treatment centers, and in the streets. To pursue the objectives of this research, participants included 2979 opiate addicts including opium users (n = 2636) and dross users (n = 343), who were not significantly different by gender (P = 0.269) or age (P = 0.452). An anonymous questionnaire was completed through an interview that gathered sociodemographic characteristics and information about some high-risk behaviors. : By the end of the study, we concluded that dross addicts, in comparison with opium addicts, were mostly immigrants from rural areas to urban areas (P = 0.031 χ test, 95% confidence interval [CI]), mostly uneducated, illiterate, or semiliterate (P = 0.04 χ test, 95% CI), had illegal occupations (P = 0.048 χ test, 95% CI), were cigarette smokers (P < 0.000 χ test, 95% CI), and had experienced drug injections (P = 0.032 χ test, 95% CI) and drug overdose (P = 0.007 χ test, 95% CI). They also had a history of hospital admission within the preceding year because of drug overdose (P < 0.000) and a record of being arrested and jailed in the past year (P = 0.028 χ test, 95% CI). These results indicated the need for more intensive and effective care for the opioid addicts in Iran.

  14. Hallmarks of opium poisoning in infants and toddlers.

    PubMed

    Zamani, Nasim; Sanaei-Zadeh, Hossein; Mostafazadeh, Babak

    2010-10-01

    Accidental opium intoxication in children is an extremely dangerous poisoning if it remains undiagnosed and untreated. The classic triad of miosis, decreased level of consciousness and bradypnea, which are the hallmarks of opiate intoxication, are used for the diagnosis of opium poisoning in adults and children. Little attention has been paid to the signs of opium intoxication in children and no published study has explored the frequency of hallmarks of this type of poisoning in the paediatric population. We conducted a study in order to evaluate the prevalence of major signs of opium poisoning in infants and toddlers. In this study, a total of 228 infants and 82 toddlers who had been admitted to Loghman Hakim Hospital as a result of opium poisoning between 2001 and 2009 were evaluated, retrospectively. The most usual sign of opium poisoning was miosis (90%) followed by a decreased level of consciousness (88.4%), bradypnea (28.4%) and seizure (10.3%). The prevalence of the triad of miosis, bradypnea and a decreased level of consciousness was 25.2%. Miosis in association with decreased level of consciousness was detected in 82.6% of our patients. Bradypnea was present in 74 infants and 14 toddlers, which shows a statistically significant difference (P = 0.01). The mean age and weight of the patients with bradypnea were significantly less than those without bradypnea (P = 0.008 and P = 0.0001, respectively). Bradypnea and seizure were significantly more common in females (36.7% versus 26%; P = 0.05 and 15.2% versus 6.5%; P = 0.01, respectively). Miosis in association with a decreased level of consciousness is the most useful indicator of opium poisoning in infants and toddlers. Furthermore, seizure is a more common feature of this type of poisoning in infants, especially in those who are less than 1 month old.

  15. Pyrolysis of poppy capsule pulp for bio-oil production.

    PubMed

    Hopa, Derya Yeşim; Yılmaz, Nazan; Alagöz, Oğuzhan; Dilek, Meltem; Helvacı, Ahmet; Durupınar, Ümit

    2016-12-01

    The feasibility of biofuel production via the pyrolysis of poppy capsule pulp, the main waste product of Afyon Alkoloid Factory, was investigated. The poppy capsule pulp was shown to have a high volatile matter content (ca. 76%). Pyrolysis experiments were carried out in the temperature range 400-550°C (heating rate 18°C min(-1) and holding time 20 min) under a nitrogen atmosphere. The chemical components of the bio-oil were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The effects of pyrolysis temperature on the production efficiency and the calorific value of the bio-oil were investigated. The maximum bio-oil yield and its calorific value at 500°C were 23.6% and 31.6 MJ kg(-1), respectively. The latter value is close to that of many petroleum fractions. This high-energy bio-oil is therefore a clean fuel precursor and can be upgraded into higher quality fuels.

  16. Concentrations of Morphine and Codeine in Paired Oral Fluid and Urine Specimens Following Ingestion of a Poppy Seed Roll and Raw Poppy Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Samano, Kimberly L.; Clouette, Randal E.; Rowland, Barbara J.; Sample, R.H. Barry

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation of opiate drug test results can be challenging due to casual dietary consumption of poppy seeds, which may contain variable opiate content. Opiate concentrations in paired oral fluid (OF), collected with the Oral-Eze® Oral Fluid Collection System, and urine were analyzed after ingestion of poppy seeds from the same source, consumed raw or contained in a roll. In Part 1, 12 individuals consumed equal portions of a poppy seed roll. For Part 2, the same individuals consumed an equivalent quantity of raw poppy seeds, containing ∼3.2 mg of morphine and 0.6 mg of codeine. Specimens were analyzed both by enzyme immunoassay (opiates) and by GC–MS (morphine/codeine). Urinary morphine was between 155–1,408 (roll) and 294–4,213 ng/mL (raw), measured at 2, 4, 6 and 20 h post-ingestion. Urinary codeine concentrations between 140–194 (roll) and 121–664 ng/mL (raw) were observed up to 6 h post-ingestion. Following consumption of raw poppy seeds, OF specimens were positive, above LOQ, from 0.25 to 3.0 h with morphine ranging from 7 to 600 ng/mL and codeine from 8 to 112 ng/mL. After poppy seed roll consumption, morphine concentrations of 7–143 ng/mL were observed up to 1.5 h with codeine detected in only 5.5% of OF specimens and ranging from 8 to 28 ng/mL. Combined with the existing poppy seed literature, these results support previous findings and provide guidance for interpretation of OF opiate testing. PMID:26378141

  17. Concentrations of Morphine and Codeine in Paired Oral Fluid and Urine Specimens Following Ingestion of a Poppy Seed Roll and Raw Poppy Seeds.

    PubMed

    Samano, Kimberly L; Clouette, Randal E; Rowland, Barbara J; Sample, R H Barry

    2015-10-01

    Interpretation of opiate drug test results can be challenging due to casual dietary consumption of poppy seeds, which may contain variable opiate content. Opiate concentrations in paired oral fluid (OF), collected with the Oral-Eze(®) Oral Fluid Collection System, and urine were analyzed after ingestion of poppy seeds from the same source, consumed raw or contained in a roll. In Part 1, 12 individuals consumed equal portions of a poppy seed roll. For Part 2, the same individuals consumed an equivalent quantity of raw poppy seeds, containing ∼3.2 mg of morphine and 0.6 mg of codeine. Specimens were analyzed both by enzyme immunoassay (opiates) and by GC-MS (morphine/codeine). Urinary morphine was between 155-1,408 (roll) and 294-4,213 ng/mL (raw), measured at 2, 4, 6 and 20 h post-ingestion. Urinary codeine concentrations between 140-194 (roll) and 121-664 ng/mL (raw) were observed up to 6 h post-ingestion. Following consumption of raw poppy seeds, OF specimens were positive, above LOQ, from 0.25 to 3.0 h with morphine ranging from 7 to 600 ng/mL and codeine from 8 to 112 ng/mL. After poppy seed roll consumption, morphine concentrations of 7-143 ng/mL were observed up to 1.5 h with codeine detected in only 5.5% of OF specimens and ranging from 8 to 28 ng/mL. Combined with the existing poppy seed literature, these results support previous findings and provide guidance for interpretation of OF opiate testing. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  18. 78 FR 12101 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Mallinckrodt, LLC.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... controlled substances: Drug Schedule Phenylacetone (8501) II Coca Leaves (9040) II Opium, raw (9600) II Poppy... crude opium, poppy straw, concentrate of poppy straw or coca leaves. Comments and requests for...

  19. 75 FR 32506 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... listed in schedule II: Drug Schedule Raw Opium (9600) II Concentrate of Poppy Straw (9670) II The company... from raw opium, poppy straw, and concentrate of poppy straw. No comments or objections have...

  20. 77 FR 70824 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Johnson Matthey, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-27

    ... Thebaine (9333) II Opium, raw (9600) II Noroxymorphone (9668) II Poppy Straw Concentrate (9670) II The... crude opium, poppy straw, concentrate of poppy straw, and coca leaves. Comments and requests...

  1. 75 FR 64743 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... Thebaine (9333) II Opium, raw (9600) II Noroxymorphone (9668) II Poppy Straw Concentrate (9670) II The... opium, poppy straw, concentrate of poppy straw, and coca leaves. As explained in ] the Correction...

  2. 77 FR 4831 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... (9143) II Hydromorphone (9150) II Hydrocodone (9193) II Morphine (9300) II Opium, raw (9600) II Poppy... application for registration or re-registration to import crude opium, poppy straw, poppy straw...

  3. 77 FR 43861 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice Of Application; Cody Laboratories, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ... substances: Drug Schedule Opium, Raw (9600) II Concentrate Poppy Straw (9670) II Tapentadol (9780) II The... manufactured from opium, poppy straw, and poppy straw concentrate. The company plans to import an...

  4. 76 FR 35241 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... (8501) II Raw Opium (9600) II Concentrate of Poppy Straw (9670) II The company plans to import the... re-registration to import crude opium, poppy straw, concentrate of poppy straw, and coca leaves....

  5. 76 FR 62447 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... following basic classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Opium, raw (9600) II Poppy Straw Concentrate... substances that are manufactured from raw opium, poppy straw, and concentrate of poppy straw. As explained...

  6. 75 FR 69705 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... Methamphetamine (1105) II Phenylacetone (8501) II Raw Opium (9600) II Concentrate of Poppy Straw (9670) II The... application for registration or re-registration to import crude opium, poppy straw, concentrate of poppy...

  7. Analysis of Taliban Revenue and the Importance of the Opium Trade to the Insurgency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    are almost every export Afghanistan provides. Agricultural products , opium, timber , minerals all have fixed geographic boundaries in which they can be...maximum 200 words) The current Taliban insurgency in Afghanistan has multiple funding sources. The importance of the opium production and smuggling...population in Afghanistan faces and how this contributes to the growth of the opium production . Understanding the tribal, agricultural and

  8. Acute opiate overdose in Tehran: the forgotten role of opium.

    PubMed

    Karbakhsh, Mojgan; Salehian Zandi, Negar

    2007-09-01

    The global epidemic of opiate use continues to spread and is an increasing burden especially in developing countries. Acute opiate overdose (AOO) is one of the most dramatic complications of drug abuse. The purpose of this study is to examine the epidemiology of acute opiate overdose in a poisoning center in Tehran. In this cross-sectional survey, patients who attended the emergency room of Loghman-Hakim hospital - the only poisoning center in Tehran - and diagnosed with acute opiate overdose over a six month period were included. Overdose was more common among men (91.2%). The mean and standard deviation of age was 36.9+/-15. The most frequent opiate agent was opium (56.5%) followed by heroin. Opium was most commonly used by regular users, as a single agent and through ingestion. Benzodiazepines, antidepressants and alcohol were the most common agents consumed accompanied with opiates. The mortality rate was 8.8% which was not significantly different between cases of heroin and opium overdose. Opium was the major cause of overdose in our study. This result suggests that opium is not a harmless form of addiction although it is regarded as a thing of the past in many countries.

  9. Differentiation and comparison of raw, prepared and dross opium.

    PubMed

    Lim, H Y; Kwok, S F

    1981-01-01

    Comparative studies involving colour tests, thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) were made on raw, prepared and dross opium with a view to establishing means for their differentiation. Analysis of a large number of samples found in south-east Asia showed the typical patterns and results to be quite distinctive in the qualitative and quantitative aspects. The relative proportions of the major alkaloids in the two chromatographic systems were used to advantage in the comparison. Prepared opium was found to have a characteristic yellow fluorescent spot on the TLC plate when viewed under long-wavelength ultraviolet light. No positive marker was found for dross opium, its unusual features being the relatively high morphine and codeine content and the absence of narcotine, meconic acid and especially thebaine. Most of the prepared opium samples were found to have been made from a mixture of raw and dross opium. The modified hallucinogen reagent of Maunder was found to be a suitable alternative chromogenic spray in the TLC analysis.

  10. Urinary concentrations of morphine and codeine after consumption of poppy seeds.

    PubMed

    Thevis, Mario; Opfermann, Georg; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2003-01-01

    A quantitative analysis of morphine and codeine in human urine was performed after oral intake of cakes containing commercially available poppy seeds in order to estimate the possibility of positive doping results. Therefore, eight products from different manufacturers (poppy seeds or baking mixtures) and origin were obtained and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the presence of the alkaloids. One selected batch of poppy seeds was used as an ingredient in a typical cake and was the object of an excretion study with nine volunteers. After application, several urine specimens contained morphine with concentrations higher than 1 microg/mL, and peak values of approximately 10.0 microg/mL were detected. Because the International Olympic Committee set a cutoff limit for morphine at 1 microg/mL, high-performance athletes could possibly test positive in doping control after consumption of products containing poppy seeds.

  11. [Alimentary intake of opioid alkaloids by horses. Hazards due to poppy-containing feeds].

    PubMed

    Hertzsch, R; Emmerich, I U; Lachenmeier, D W; Sproll, C; Monakhova, Y B; Aboling, S; Bachmann, U; Vervuert, I

    2015-01-01

    Opioid alkaloids were identified in the urine of horses during an anti-doping control and in a case of intoxication. In both cases, it was suspected that the horses had ingested poppy-contaminated feed. To verify this suspicion, possible opioid alkaloid sources in Germany were identified through a literature research. Additionally, the contaminated feed was botanically and chemically analysed. The results indicated that both cases were most probably caused by the poppy in the feed. This highlights the previously underestimated risk of an intake of poppy-contaminated feed in horses. Recommendations are formulated for the prevention of positive doping-test results and intoxications by poppy-contaminated feeds in horses. Furthermore, a threshold for morphine in urine samples in competing horses is proposed.

  12. Opium; an emerging risk factor for gastric adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Shakeri, Ramin; Malekzadeh, Reza; Etemadi, Arash; Nasrollahzadeh, Dariush; Aghcheli, Karim; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Islami, Farhad; Pourshams, Akram; Pawlita, Michael; Boffetta, Paolo; Dawsey, Sanford M.; Abnet, Christian C.; Kamangar, Farin

    2013-01-01

    Opium use has been associated with higher risk of cancers of the esophagus, bladder, larynx, and lung; however, no previous study has examined its association with gastric cancer. There is also little information on the associations between hookah (water pipe) smoking or the chewing of tobacco products and the risk of gastric cancer. In a case-control study in Golestan Province of Iran, we enrolled 309 cases of gastric adenocarcinoma (118 noncardia, 161 cardia, and 30 mixed-location adenocarcinomas) and 613 matched controls. Detailed information on long-term use of opium, tobacco products, and other covariates were collected using structured and validated lifestyle and food frequency questionnaires. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were obtained using conditional logistic regression models. Opium use was associated with an increased risk of gastric adenocarcinoma, with an adjusted OR (95% CI) of 3.1 (1.9 – 5.1), and this increased risk was apparent for both anatomic subsites (cardia and noncardia). There was a dose-response effect, and individuals with the highest cumulative opium use had the strongest association (OR: 4.5; 95%CI: 2.3-8.5). We did not find a statistically significant association between the use of any of the tobacco products and risk of gastric adenocarcinoma, overall or by anatomic subsite. We showed, for the first time, an association between opium use and gastric adenocarcinoma. Given that opium use is a traditional practice in many parts of the world, these results are of public health significance. PMID:23319416

  13. Opium: an emerging risk factor for gastric adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Shakeri, Ramin; Malekzadeh, Reza; Etemadi, Arash; Nasrollahzadeh, Dariush; Aghcheli, Karim; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Islami, Farhad; Pourshams, Akram; Pawlita, Michael; Boffetta, Paolo; Dawsey, Sanford M; Abnet, Christian C; Kamangar, Farin

    2013-07-15

    Opium use has been associated with higher risk of cancers of the esophagus, bladder, larynx, and lung; however, no previous study has examined its association with gastric cancer. There is also little information on the associations between hookah (water pipe) smoking or the chewing of tobacco products and the risk of gastric cancer. In a case-control study in Golestan Province of Iran, we enrolled 309 cases of gastric adenocarcinoma (118 noncardia, 161 cardia and 30 mixed-location adenocarcinomas) and 613 matched controls. Detailed information on long-term use of opium, tobacco products and other covariates were collected using structured and validated lifestyle and food frequency questionnaires. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were obtained using conditional logistic regression models. Opium use was associated with an increased risk of gastric adenocarcinoma, with an adjusted OR (95% CI) of 3.1 (1.9-5.1), and this increased risk was apparent for both anatomic subsites (cardia and noncardia). There was a dose-response effect, and individuals with the highest cumulative opium use had the strongest association (OR: 4.5; 95% CI: 2.3-8.5). We did not find a statistically significant association between the use of any of the tobacco products and risk of gastric adenocarcinoma, overall or by anatomic subsite. We showed, for the first time, an association between opium use and gastric adenocarcinoma. Given that opium use is a traditional practice in many parts of the world, these results are of public health significance.

  14. Effect of Replacing Beef Fat with Poppy Seed Oil on Quality of Turkish Sucuk

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Sucuk is the most popular dry-fermented meat product. Sucuk has a relatively high fat. Poppy seed oil as animal fat replacer was used in Turkish sucuk and effects of its use on sucuk quality were investigated. There was a significant (p<0.5) treatment × ripening time interaction for moisture, pH (p<0.05) and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values (p<0.01). Increasing poppy seed oil level decreased (p<0.05) TBARS values. Addition of poppy seed oil to the sucuks had a significant effect (p<0.01) on hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness and springiness values. Cholesterol content of sucuks decreased (p<0.05) with poppy seed oil addition. Using pre-emulsified poppy seed oil as partial fat replacer in Turkish sucuk decreased cholesterol and saturated fatty acid content, but increased polyunsaturated fatty acids. Poppy seed oil as partial animal fat replacer in Turkish sucuk may have significant health benefits. PMID:26761834

  15. Poppy seed consumption and toxicological analysis of blood and urine samples.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Manfred R; Hammer, Karin; Engel, Oliver

    2004-07-16

    Poppy seeds contain morphine in different amounts. Reported concentrations are up to 294 mg morphine/kg poppy seeds. Since penalties based on Street Traffic Law (parapgraph 24a StVG) in Germany (administrative offence) require definitive proof of morphine in blood samples, and the "Grenzwertkommission" in consultation with the Ministry of Transportation recommended a threshold of free morphine of 10 ng/mL, the question arose whether the consumption of poppy seeds can lead to a blood concentrations equal or higher than 10 ng/mL of free morphine. Therefore, five volunteers ate poppy seed products (50 mg morphine/kg poppy seeds). In urine, all on-site tests were enzyme immunologically positive for opiates and were positive to morphine by GC/MS. All the blood samples were negative to morphine by EIA and to free morphine by GC/MS. However, after hydrolysis, morphine was detected by GC/MS in all cases. Accordingly, in Germany, penalties based on parapgraph 24a StVG are not likely to cause road users any concerns should they have consumed poppy seeds. Driver Licensing Authorities, however, should be advised of this problem to avoid unjustified legal measures.

  16. The determination of morphine in urine and oral fluid following ingestion of poppy seeds.

    PubMed

    Rohrig, Timothy P; Moore, Christine

    2003-10-01

    In workplace drug-testing programs, the use of heroin, morphine, and codeine is currently determined by the analysis of urine specimens. It has been shown that ingestion of poppy seeds can cause a positive test result for morphine. In an attempt to differentiate positive results caused by poppy seed ingestion from those caused by heroin or morphine abuse, the screening cutoff concentration for urine opiates in the federal workplace drug-testing program was raised to 2000 ng/mL from 300 ng/mL. Currently, oral fluid is under consideration as a possible alternative to urine for drug testing. The suggested cutoff for oral fluid morphine is 40 ng/mL; however, the effect of poppy seed ingestion on morphine concentrations in this specimen type has not been widely investigated. Volunteers at two separate sites ingested commercially available poppy seeds and/or poppy seed bagels. Oral fluid and urine samples were collected at both sites. Oral fluid samples were collected for 24 h; urine was collected for 2 days. The samples were analyzed for the presence of codeine and morphine using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Morphine concentrations greater than the suggested cutoff concentrations were detected in oral fluid up to 1 h and in urine for up to 8 h. This study has demonstrated that a positive result for morphine in oral fluid may be due to the ingestion of poppy seeds.

  17. Poppy seed ingestion as a contributing factor to opiate-positive urinalysis results: the Pacific perspective.

    PubMed

    Selavka, C M

    1991-05-01

    The possible contribution of poppy seed foods to positive opiate urinalysis results, especially from foods available in the Pacific Rim area, has recently become an issue for the U.S. Army Forensic Toxicology Drug Testing Laboratory in Hawaii. To assess the likelihood of this possible contribution, seven different poppy seed food products were consumed by male and female volunteers, and urine specimens were collected at time increments up to either 24 or 72 h. Specimens were evaluated for opiates using Roche Abuscreen radioimmunoassay (RIA), and all RIA positive specimens were analyzed for morphine and codeine using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Poppy seed cake, bagels, muffins, and rolls did not contain sufficient quantities of poppy seeds to give rise to opiate positive specimens by U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) GC-MS cutoff levels (morphine = 4000 ng/mL, codeine = 2000 ng/mL), although a number of specimens were positive by National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) cutoff levels (morphine and codeine = 300 ng/mL). However, ingestion of poppy seed streusel or Danish pastry led to confirmed morphine and codeine positive specimens, irrespective of the use of DOD or NIDA confirmation cutoff values. In addition, significant amounts of codeine were observed in a number of these specimens. These findings argue against the unqualified application of previously published quantitative guidelines for eliminating poppy seed ingestion as a possible cause for a positive opiate urinalysis result.

  18. Cytotoxicity of leukocytes from normal and Shigella-susceptible (opium-treated) guinea pigs against virulent Shigella sonnei.

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, D R; DuPont, H L; Wood, L V; Kohl, S

    1984-01-01

    Intraepithelial lymphocytes were collected from the ileum of adult Hartley strain guinea pigs and used as effector cells in a 60-min bactericidal assay with virulent Shigella sonnei as target cells. Natural killer cytotoxicity (NKC) and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) were measured and correlated with the resistance of the animals to infection by S. sonnei. Normal guinea pig intraepithelial lymphocytes exhibited mean NKC and ADCC values of 22.8 +/- 5.0 and 34.1 +/- 13.6, respectively. These animals were resistant to oral challenge with virulent S. sonnei. Intraepithelial lymphocytes from guinea pigs which were fasted for 4 days demonstrated NKC and ADCC values similar to those of normal animals (31.0 +/- 8.1 and 41.7 +/- 6.7, respectively). These animals also were resistant to oral challenge. Intraepithelial lymphocytes from guinea pigs which were given 1 ml of deodorized tincture of opium 2 h before cell collection demonstrated deficient NKC (4.7 +/- 4.2) and ADCC (5.3 +/- 4.9) values but remained resistant to infection by S. sonnei. When guinea pigs were fasted for 4 days and given opium, deficient NKC (2.0 +/- 2.0) and ADCC (1.3 +/- 1.3) values were demonstrated; this group of animals was susceptible to infection by S. sonnei (P less than 0.04). These experiments demonstrated that opium treatment depresses one form of gut immunity. When combined with starvation, opium treatment may increase susceptibility to infection by shigellae by modulation of immunity in addition to the effects on gut motility and bacterial flora. PMID:6384044

  19. Impact of opium on the serum levels of TGF-β in diabetic, addicted and addicted-diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Asadikaram, Gholamreza; Asiabanha, Majid; Sayadi, Ahmadreza; Jafarzadeh, Abdollah; Hassanshahi, Gholamhossein

    2010-09-01

    Several cells of immune system such as regulatory T cells and macrophages secrete transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) in response to different stimuli. This cytokine has inhibitory effect on immune system and diminished production of this cytokine is associated with autoimmune disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of opium addiction on serum level of TGF-β in male and female diabetic and non-diabetic Wistar rats. This experimental study was performed on normal, opium addicted, diabetic and addicted-diabetic male and female rats. Serum level of TGF-β was measured by ELISA. The results of our study indicated that the mean serum level of TGF-β in female addicted rats was significantly increased compared to control group (p<0.004). Conversely, in male addicted rats the mean serum level of TGF-β was lower compared with control (p<0.065). Our results suggest that opium and its derivatives have differential inductive effects on the cytokine expression in male and female rats.

  20. Does Opium Dependency Affect the Pattern of Involvement in Laryngeal Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Dabirmoghaddam, Peyman; Karimian Taheri, Ali; Ghazavi, Hosein; Ebrahimnejad, Shaghayegh; Karimian, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Laryngeal cancer is the second most common cancer involving the respiratory tract, second only to lung cancer. Previous studies have shown opium dependency to be a possible risk factor for laryngeal cancer. Opium consumption is a major problem in some parts of the world. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of opium consumption on the pattern of involvement in laryngeal cancer. Methods and materials: In this analytical cross-sectional study, 44 patients diagnosed with laryngeal cancer (41 male and three female) were studied. Data were collected using a questionnaire, physical examination, and paraclinical studies. Patients were defined as opium dependent based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition) (DSM-IV) criteria and duration of opium consumption. Results: Patients were categorized into two groups: opium-dependent (32.6%) and non-opium-dependent (67.4%) patients. The average age of the patients was 58.5±3.2 years in the opium-dependent group and 60.7±2.8 years in the non-opium-dependent group (P=non-significant). An analysis of the pattern of involvement in each group showed glottis involvement in 56%, subglottis involvement in 8%, supraglottis involvement in 32%, and hypopharyngeal involvement in 4% of the opium-dependent group compared with glottis involvement in 55.9%, subglottis involvement in 11.8%, supraglottis involvement in 32.4%, and hypopharyngeal involvement in none of the non-opium-dependent group (P=non-significant). Conclusion: There was a poor correlation between opium dependency and pattern of involvement in laryngeal cancer. Opium dependency did not lead to the development of laryngeal cancer at a younger age, based on our study. PMID:28008394

  1. Chemical composition and oxidative stability of flax, safflower and poppy seed and seed oils.

    PubMed

    Bozan, Berrin; Temelli, Feral

    2008-09-01

    Three seeds of Turkish origin, flax, poppy and safflower were analyzed for their proximate, fatty acids, tocols (tocopherols and tocotrienols) and total phenolic composition, and oxidative stability of their oil. The major fatty acid in the flax oil was alpha-linolenic acid, comprising 58.3% of total fatty acids, whereas poppy and safflower oils were rich in linoleic acid at 74.5% and 70.5% level, respectively. The amount of total tocols was 14.6 mg/100g flax, 11.0mg/100g poppy and 12.1mg/100g safflower seed. Flax and poppy oil were rich in gamma-tocopherol as 79.4 mg/100g oil and 30.9 mg/100g oil, respectively, while alpha-tocopherol (44.1g/100g oil) was dominant in safflower oil. Only alpha- and gamma-tocotrienol were found in the oils. Oxidative stability of oils was measured at 110 degrees C at the rate of 20 L/h air flow rate, and poppy oil (5.56 h) was most stabile oil followed by safflower oil (2.87 h) and flax oil (1.57). There were no correlation between oxidative stability and unsaturation degree of fatty acids and tocol levels of the oils. All of the seeds investigated provide a healthy oil profile and may have potential as a source of specialty oils on a commercial scale.

  2. Concentrations of morphine and codeine in serum and urine after ingestion of poppy seeds.

    PubMed

    Hayes, L W; Krasselt, W G; Mueggler, P A

    1987-06-01

    We measured morphine and codeine in commercially available poppy seeds and in serum and urine samples from healthy adults who had ingested these poppy seeds. Four brands of black poppy seeds, examined by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) with deuterated internal standards, contained from 17 to 294 micrograms of morphine and 3 to 14 micrograms of codeine per gram of seeds. Morphine was detected by GC-MS in hydrolysates of serum as late as 24 h after ingestion, with a maximum mean concentration of 100 ng/mL (range 82-131) measured 2 h after the subjects ingested 25 g of seeds. Opiates were detectable (greater than 300 micrograms/L) in urine by enzyme-multiplied immunoassay (EMIT; Syva Co.) and by radioimmunoassay screening procedures for as long as 48 h after ingestion. The identity and quantities of morphine and codeine in poppy seed extracts and in hydrolysates of serum and urine were confirmed by GC-MS. Therefore a positive finding of morphine or codeine in blood and urine may sometimes be due to ingestion of poppy seeds.

  3. Chasing the dragon: the cultural metamorphosis of opium in the United States, 1825-1935.

    PubMed

    Aurin, M

    2000-09-01

    Many things to many people, opium has played a role in the emergence of several power bases in the United States. In turn, these bases of power have shaped what opium is for the rest of us. Allopathic medicine brought opium and its derivatives under its control around the turn of the century, promulgating "addiction theory" and addiction clinics as part of its rise to preeminence among rival forms of medicine. Opium also played a role in the U.S.'s international economic and imperialistic ascendance. When politicians began to deploy a new discourse on opium early in this century, they were able to appropriate medical rhetoric. As the politics of opium heated up, some doctors were able to exploit the emerging politically inspired discourse to generate a subtly different medical knowledge of opiates and addiction while establishing a new subdiscipline with the political support of lawmakers and state institutions.

  4. Combination of opium smoking and hypercholesterolemia augments susceptibility for lethal cardiac arrhythmia and atherogenesis in rabbit.

    PubMed

    Najafipour, Hamid; Joukar, Siyavash

    2012-09-01

    Opium consumption is increasing in some eastern societies, where it is grown. We investigated the effect of opium smoking on plasma atherogenic index and incidence of lethal cardiac arrhythmia, i.e. ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular fibrillation (VF) in rabbits. Animals were divided into two-, normo- and hyper-cholesterolemic main groups fed with normal or high cholesterol diet prior and during short-term and long-term exposure to opium smoke. Then, isoproterenol (3mg/kg, i.p.) was injected to induce cardiac ischemia and animals were followed for 3h for counting of lethal arrhythmia incidence. Long-term opium smoking significantly increased the plasma atherogenic index. In ischemic hearts, opium smoking along with hypercholesterolemia significantly enhanced the incidence of fatal arrhythmia. This vulnerability was not mediated by changes in QT interval. These data suggest that opium smoking, especially in hypercholesterolemic conditions, can be a predisposing factor for atherogenesis and lethal arrhythmia.

  5. 75 FR 65658 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... controlled substances listed in schedule II: Drug Schedule Raw Opium (9600) II Concentrate of Poppy Straw (9670) II Tapentadol (9780) II The company plans to import the Raw Opium (9600) and Concentrate of Poppy... registration or re-registration to import crude opium, poppy straw, concentrate of poppy straw, and coca...

  6. Thermooxidative stability of poppy seeds studied by non-isothermal DSC measurements.

    PubMed

    Cibulková, Zuzana; Čertík, Milan; Dubaj, Tibor

    2014-05-01

    Papaver somniferum L. is an important crop cultivated mostly for seed production. Poppy seeds have a high nutritive value and are used as a food and as a source of edible oil. This oil is a rich source of polyunsaturated fatty acids. It is well known that the unsaturated fatty acids easily undergo oxidation reactions, which lead to the reduction of shelf life, nutritional quality, development of unpleasant tastes and odors. The goal of this study was to develop the methodology for testing the stability of poppy seeds using non-isothermal DSC. For the treatment of the experimental data a method based on non-Arrhenian temperature function has been applied and the values the kinetic parameters have been obtained. In order to assess the durability of the commercial poppy seeds, the lengths of induction periods have been calculated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Potential Effect of Opium Consumption on Controlling Diabetes and Some Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Najmeh; Gozashti, Mohamad Hossain; Najafipour, Hamid; Shokoohi, Mostafa; Marefati, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Background Due to this belief that opium may have beneficial effects on diabetes or cardiovascular risk factors, the present study aimed to assess the potential and possible effects of opium consumption on diabetes control and some cardiovascular risk factors in diabetic patients. Methods This study enrolled 374 diabetic subjects from diabetes care centers in Kerman, Iran, including opium user group (n = 179) and a non-opium user group (n = 195). The data were collected through a questionnaire completed by interviewing, physical examination and laboratory assessment. Findings Opium did not show any statistically significant effect on blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C), fasting blood sugar (FBS), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and diastolic blood pressure. However, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and prevalence of high SBP were significantly higher in opium user group (P < 0.050). In addition, lower serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and frequency of lower HDL was significantly higher in opium user group (P < 0.001). Conclusion According to this study, opium does not seem to have beneficial effects on diabetes control or cardiovascular risk factors. Therefore, it would not be advisable to consume opium as an anti-diabetes or cardioprotective agent. PMID:25140211

  8. Harms caused by China's 1906-17 opium suppression intervention.

    PubMed

    Windle, James

    2013-09-01

    Between 1906 and 1917 China (under the Imperial and then Republican regimes) enacted a highly effective intervention to suppress the production of opium. Evidence from British Foreign Office records suggest that the intervention was centred, in many areas, upon a highly repressive incarnation of law enforcement in which rural populations had their property destroyed, their land confiscated and/or were publically tortured, humiliated and executed. Crops were forcefully eradicated and resistance was often brutally suppressed by the military. As few farmers received compensation or support for alternative livelihood creation the intervention pushed many deeper into poverty. Importantly, the repressive nature of the opium ban appears to have been a contributing factor to the fragmentation of China, highlighting the counter-productivity of repressive interventions to reduce drug crop production.

  9. The poppy seed test for colovesical fistula: big bang, little bucks!

    PubMed

    Kwon, Eric O; Armenakas, Noel A; Scharf, Stephen C; Panagopoulos, Georgia; Fracchia, John A

    2008-04-01

    Diagnosis of a colovesical fistula is often challenging, and usually involves numerous invasive and expensive tests and procedures. The poppy seed test stands out as an exception to this rule. We evaluated the accuracy and cost-effectiveness of various established diagnostic tests used to evaluate a suspected colovesical fistula. We identified 20 prospectively entered patients with surgically confirmed colovesical fistulas between 2000 and 2006. Each patient was evaluated preoperatively with a (51)chromium nuclear study, computerized tomography of the abdomen and pelvis with oral and intravenous contrast medium, and the poppy seed test. Costs were calculated using institutional charges, 2006 Medicare limiting approved charges and the market price, respectively. The z test was used to compare the proportion of patients who tested positive for a fistula with each of these modalities. The chromium study was positive in 16 of 20 patients (80%) at a cost of $490.83 per study. Computerized tomography was positive in 14 of 20 patients (70%) at a cost of $652.92 per study. The poppy seed test was positive in 20 of 20 patients (100%) at a cost of $5.37 per study. The difference in the proportion of patients who tested positive for a fistula on computerized tomography and the poppy seed test was statistically significant (p = 0.03). There was no difference between the chromium group and the computerized tomography or poppy seed group (p = 0.72 and 0.12, respectively). The poppy seed test is an accurate, convenient and inexpensive diagnostic test. It is an ideal initial consideration for evaluating a suspected colovesical fistula.

  10. The significance of putative urinary markers of illicit heroin use after consumption of poppy seed products.

    PubMed

    Trafkowski, Jens; Madea, Burkhard; Musshoff, Frank

    2006-08-01

    After consumption of poppy seeds various substances were detected in urine or blood samples using an immunoassay and a sophisticated liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric procedure. These compounds are widely considered to be putative markers of heroin (HER) abuse whereas acetylcodeine was regarded as a marker for illicit preparations ("street HER"). Besides positive urinary opiate immunoassay results during a 48 hours monitoring period, peak concentrations of morphine (MOR), codeine and their glucuronides appeared 4 to 8 hours after ingestion of poppy seeds, and concentrations of total MOR higher than 10 microg/mL were observed. Also, in serum samples taken up to 6 hours after consumption, MOR glucuronides were found. Free MOR was only detected in traces (1 to 3 ng/mL) within 2 hours of consumption. In addition, 3 of 6 onsite opiate sweat tests revealed positive results 6.5 hours after ingestion. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that neither noscapine (NOS) nor papaverine (PAP) was detectable in urine or blood samples after the consumption of poppy seeds containing up to 94 microg NOS and up to 3.3 mug PAP. NOS and PAP were rapidly metabolized, whereas desmethylpapaverine and, especially, its glucuronide were found in urine samples of poppy seed consumers even 48 hours after consumption. According to these results PAP metabolites should not be regarded as markers of illicit HER abuse. In conclusion, only acetylcodeine can be regarded as a specific marker but has the problem of a short half-life. Therefore, we suggest that NOS and PAP, but not their metabolites, might be used cautiously as additional markers of illicit HER abuse as they have not been detected after oral intake of poppy seeds in normal doses. But it must be kept in mind that in some cases poppy seeds with an unusually high content of these alkaloids could be available, and that these substances are also agents in some pharmaceuticals.

  11. Opium and Afghanistan: Reassessing U.S. Counternarcotics Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    Safety of 550th SOS/58 Special Operations Wing at Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico ; and C-130 E Adverse Weather Aerial Delivery System Navigator...University of Arizona, Tucson; an M.A. in management from Webster University, Albuquerque, New Mexico ; an M.A. in military arts and sciences from Air...me-heroin26dec26,0,6587078,full.story; Internet, accessed January 8, 2007. 18. Eullia Iglesias , “Afghanistan: Opium Traffickers Not Ready to Give

  12. Poppy Cultivation in Afghanistan: After a Decade of Reconstruction and Over $7 Billion in Counternarcotics Efforts, Poppy Cultivation Levels Are at an All-Time High

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    IM 2012 a nd 2013 united NatiOns Qfli(;e on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) opium survey data aod 2) from a 2012 ~Oculttmtl laod m<iiSk pro\\’ided by the...administered by U.S. and Afghan agencies and their contractors;  improve contracting and contract management processes ;  prevent fraud, waste, and

  13. 75 FR 53721 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... Dextropropoxyphene, bulk II (non-dosage forms) (9273) Morphine (9300) II Thebaine (9333) II Raw Opium (9600) II Opium extracts (9610) II Opium, powdered (9639) II Opium, granulated (9640) II Poppy Straw (9650) II...

  14. 76 FR 587 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-05

    ... Dextropropoxyphene, bulk II (non-dosage forms) (9273) Morphine (9300) II Thebaine (9333) II Raw Opium (9600) II Opium extracts (9610) II Opium, powdered (9639) II Opium, granulated (9640) II Poppy Straw (9650) II...

  15. Opium consumption and coronary atherosclerosis in diabetic patients: a propensity score-matched study.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Seyed Kianoosh; Masoudkabir, Farzad; Vasheghani-Farahani, Ali; Alipour-Parsa, Saeed; Sheikh Fathollahi, Mahmood; Rahimi-Foroushani, Abbas; Hakki, Elham; Goodarzynejad, Hamidreza; Eftekhar, Hassan

    2011-11-01

    There is a traditional belief among Eastern people that opium may have ameliorating effects on cardiovascular risk factors, especially diabetes; thus, it is widely used among diabetic patients. We attempted to investigate the association of opium consumption with coronary artery disease (CAD) in diabetic patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted on diabetic patients undergoing coronary angiography in our center. Out of 1925 diabetic patients included in the study, 228 were opium users, and the remaining 1697 non-opium users were used as a pool of potential comparators. Propensity scores were used to match the 228 opium consumers with 228 matched comparators for age, sex, and smoking status. The Gensini score and extent score were respectively used to assess the angiographic severity and extent of CAD. The mean Gensini score (86.9 ± 62.7 vs. 59.6 ± 43.4, p < 0.0001) and extent score (7.1 ± 2.9 vs. 5.9 ± 2.9, p < 0.0001) were significantly higher in opium user diabetic patients than in non-opium users. After adjustment for potential confounders, a dose-response relationship was observed between dose of opium and the Gensini score ( β = 0.27, p = 0.04). There were no significant differences between the routes of opium administration (inhalation vs. oral) regarding the severity and extent of CAD. In conclusion, exposure to opium in diabetic patients may be positively associated with the risk of CAD, and with the angiographically determined severity and extent of the disease. Furthermore, dosage of opium consumption may correlate with severity of CAD.

  16. Opium use and risk of mortality from digestive diseases: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Malekzadeh, Masoud M; Khademi, Hooman; Pourshams, Akram; Etemadi, Arash; Poustchi, Hossein; Bagheri, Mohammad; Khoshnia, Masoud; Sohrabpour, Amir Ali; Aliasgari, Ali; Jafari, Elham; Islami, Farhad; Semnani, Shahryar; Abnet, Christian C; Pharoah, Paul D P; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo; Dawsey, Sanford M; Malekzadeh, Reza; Kamangar, Farin

    2013-11-01

    Opium use, particularly in low doses, is a common practice among adults in northeastern Iran. We aimed to investigate the association between opium use and subsequent mortality from disorders of the digestive tract. We used data from the Golestan Cohort Study, a prospective cohort study in northeastern Iran, with detailed, validated data on opium use and several other exposures. A total of 50,045 adults were enrolled during a 4-year period (2004-2008) and followed annually until December 2012, with a follow-up success rate of 99%. We used Cox proportional hazard regression models to evaluate the association between opium use and outcomes of interest. In all, 8,487 (17%) participants reported opium use, with a mean duration of 12.7 years. During the follow-up period 474 deaths from digestive diseases were reported (387 due to gastrointestinal cancers and 87 due to nonmalignant etiologies). Opium use was associated with an increased risk of death from any digestive disease (adjusted hazard ratio (HR)=1.55, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.24-1.93). The association was dose dependent, with a HR of 2.21 (1.57-3.31) for the highest quintile of cumulative opium use vs. no use (Ptrend=0.037). The HRs (95% CI) for the associations between opium use and malignant and nonmalignant causes of digestive mortality were 1.38 (1.07-1.76) and 2.60 (1.57-4.31), respectively. Increased risks were seen both for smoking opium and for ingestion of opium. Long-term opium use, even in low doses, is associated with increased risk of death from both malignant and nonmalignant digestive diseases.

  17. EST database for early flower development in California poppy (Eschscholzia californica Cham., Papaveraceae) tags over 6,000 genes from a basal eudicot.

    PubMed

    Carlson, John E; Leebens-Mack, James H; Wall, P Kerr; Zahn, Laura M; Mueller, Lukas A; Landherr, Lena L; Hu, Yi; Ilut, Daniel C; Arrington, Jennifer M; Choirean, Stephanie; Becker, Annette; Field, Dawn; Tanksley, Steven D; Ma, Hong; dePamphilis, Claude W

    2006-10-01

    The Floral Genome Project (FGP) selected California poppy (Eschscholzia californica Cham. ssp. Californica) to help identify new florally-expressed genes related to floral diversity in basal eudicots. A large, non-normalized cDNA library was constructed from premeiotic and meiotic floral buds and sequenced to generate a database of 9,079 high quality Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs). These sequences clustered into 5,713 unigenes, including 1,414 contigs and 4,299 singletons. Homologs of genes regulating many aspects of flower development were identified, including those for organ identity and development, cell and tissue differentiation, cell cycle control, and secondary metabolism. Over 5% of the transcriptome consisted of homologs to known floral gene families. Most are the first representatives of their respective gene families in basal eudicots and their conservation suggests they are important for floral development and/or function. App. 10% of the transcripts encoded transcription factors and other regulatory genes, including nine genes from the seven major lineages of the important MADS-box family of developmental regulators. Homologs of alkaloid pathway genes were also recovered, providing opportunities to explore adaptive evolution in secondary products. Furthermore, comparison of the poppy ESTs with the Arabidopsis genome provided support for putative Arabidopsis genes that previously lacked annotation. Finally, over 1,800 unique sequences had no observable homology in the public databases. The California poppy EST database and library will help bridge our understanding of flower initiation and development among higher eudicot and monocot model plants and provide new opportunities for comparative analysis of gene families across angiosperm species.

  18. Functional characterization of a novel benzylisoquinoline O-methyltransferase suggests its involvement in papaverine biosynthesis in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L).

    PubMed

    Pienkny, Silke; Brandt, Wolfgang; Schmidt, Jürgen; Kramell, Robert; Ziegler, Jörg

    2009-10-01

    The benzylisoquinoline alkaloids are a highly diverse group of about 2500 compounds which accumulate in a species-specific manner. Despite the numerous compounds which could be identified, the biosynthetic pathways and the participating enzymes or cDNAs could be characterized only for a few selected members, whereas the biosynthesis of the majority of the compounds is still largely unknown. In an attempt to characterize additional biosynthetic steps at the molecular level, integration of alkaloid and transcript profiling across Papaver species was performed. This analysis showed high expression of an expressed sequence tag (EST) of unknown function only in Papaver somniferum varieties. After full-length cloning of the open reading frame and sequence analysis, this EST could be classified as a member of the class II type O-methyltransferase protein family. It was related to O-methyltransferases from benzylisoquinoline biosynthesis, and the amino acid sequence showed 68% identical residues to norcoclaurine 6-O-methyltransferase. However, rather than methylating norcoclaurine, the recombinant protein methylated norreticuline at position seven with a K(m) of 44 mum using S-adenosyl-l-methionine as a cofactor. Of all substrates tested, only norreticuline was converted. Even minor changes in the benzylisoquinoline backbone were not tolerated by the enzyme. Accordingly, the enzyme was named norreticuline 7-O-methyltransferase (N7OMT). This enzyme represents a novel O-methyltransferase in benzylisoquinoline metabolism. Expression analysis showed slightly increased expression of N7OMT in P. somniferum varieties containing papaverine, suggesting its involvement in the partially unknown biosynthesis of this pharmaceutically important compound.

  19. Thomas de Quincey and his restless legs symptoms as depicted in "Confessions of an English Opium-Eater".

    PubMed

    Miranda, Marcelo; Williams, Anne-Marie; Garcia-Borreguero, Diego

    2010-10-15

    Thomas de Quincey, a British writer of 19th century, suffered insomnia from the age of 17 years. In his famous "Confessions of an English-Opium Eater" (1822), he described a symptomatology that could concord with restless legs syndrome long before he became addicted to opium. In this report, we analyze his clinical description and the circumstances leading to his opium addiction.

  20. The Impact of Opium Consumption on Blood Glucose, Serum Lipids and Blood Pressure, and Related Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Najafipour, Hamid; Beik, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Substance abuse has become a universal crisis in our modern age. Among illegal substances, opium and its derivatives have been ranked second in terms of usage after cannabis in the world. In many Asian regions, the use of opium enjoys a high social acceptance; hence, some common people and even medical practitioners believe that opium lowers blood glucose and pressure and treat dyslipidemia. How much this belief is scientifically justified? Method: The results of available studies on both humans and animals searched in different search engines up to mid-2016 were integrated (78 articles). Upon the findings we try to offer a more transparent picture of the effects of opium on the mentioned factors along with the probable underlying mechanisms of its action. Results: Taken together, a variety of evidences suggest that the consumption of opium has no scientific justification for amendment of these biochemical variables. The mechanisms proposed so far for the action of opium in the three above disorders are summarized at the end of the article. Short term effects seems to be mostly mediated through central nervous system (neural and hormonal mechanisms), but long term effects are often due to the structural and functional alterations in some body organs. Conclusion: Although opium may temporarily reduce blood pressure, but it increases blood glucose and most of blood lipids. Moreover its long term use has negative impacts and thus it aggravates diabetes, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Accordingly, it is necessary to inform societies about the potential disadvantages of unauthorized opium consumption. PMID:27790151

  1. The Impact of Opium Consumption on Blood Glucose, Serum Lipids and Blood Pressure, and Related Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Najafipour, Hamid; Beik, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Substance abuse has become a universal crisis in our modern age. Among illegal substances, opium and its derivatives have been ranked second in terms of usage after cannabis in the world. In many Asian regions, the use of opium enjoys a high social acceptance; hence, some common people and even medical practitioners believe that opium lowers blood glucose and pressure and treat dyslipidemia. How much this belief is scientifically justified? Method: The results of available studies on both humans and animals searched in different search engines up to mid-2016 were integrated (78 articles). Upon the findings we try to offer a more transparent picture of the effects of opium on the mentioned factors along with the probable underlying mechanisms of its action. Results: Taken together, a variety of evidences suggest that the consumption of opium has no scientific justification for amendment of these biochemical variables. The mechanisms proposed so far for the action of opium in the three above disorders are summarized at the end of the article. Short term effects seems to be mostly mediated through central nervous system (neural and hormonal mechanisms), but long term effects are often due to the structural and functional alterations in some body organs. Conclusion: Although opium may temporarily reduce blood pressure, but it increases blood glucose and most of blood lipids. Moreover its long term use has negative impacts and thus it aggravates diabetes, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Accordingly, it is necessary to inform societies about the potential disadvantages of unauthorized opium consumption.

  2. Classification of Opium by UPLC-Q-TOF Analysis of Principal and Minor Alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cuimei; Hua, Zhendong; Bai, Yanping

    2016-11-01

    Opium is the raw material for the production of heroin, and the characterization of opium seizures through laboratory analysis is a valuable tool for law enforcement agencies to trace clandestine opium production and trafficking. In this work, a method for opium profiling based on the relative content of five principal and 14 minor opium alkaloids was developed and validated. UPLC-Q-TOF was adopted in alkaloid analysis for its high selectivity and sensitivity, which facilitated the sample preparation and testing. The authentic sample set consisted of 100 "Myanmar" and 45 "Afghanistan" opium seizures; based on the data set of the 19 alkaloid variables in them, a partial least squares discriminant analysis classification model was successfully achieved. Minor alkaloids were found to be vitally important for opium profiling, although combined use of both principal and minor alkaloids resulted in the best geographical classification result. The developed method realized a simple and accurate way to differentiate opium from Myanmar and Afghanistan, which may find wide application in forensic laboratories.

  3. The california poppy (eschscholtzia mexicana) as a copper indicator plant - a new example

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaffee, M.A.; Gale, C.W.

    1976-01-01

    The abundance and distribution of the California poppy (Eschscholtzia mexicana) correlates closely with the copper-rich outcrop of a small porphyry-type deposit in Arizona. Chemical factors are probably more important than physical factors in determining why this species is sometimes found as a copper indicator plant. ?? 1976.

  4. Relationship between Opium Abuse and Severity of Depression in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zahra, Sepehrmanesh; Ali, Kord Valeshabad

    2012-01-01

    Background Opium use in diabetic populations is associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). This study was designed to investigate the relationship between opium use and severity of depression in Iranian diabetic patients. Methods In this case-control study, 642 type 2 diabetic patients were recruited from those presenting at two outpatient clinics at the Akhavan Hospital in Kashan, Iran; of them, 600 diabetic patients were included in the study and divided into two groups: opium-abusers (150 patients) and non-opium-abusers (450 patients). Clinical and demographic information was obtained through a detailed questionnaire. Depression symptomalogy and severity were assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and a corresponding diagnosis was made based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV, Text Revision, 2000 (DSM-IV TR) criteria. Results The mean depression score was higher in the opium abuse group than in the non-abuser group (29.27±1.44 vs. 18.29±1.31, P<0.001). In general, a significant association was found between opium abuse and depression among patients (odds ratio [OR], 4.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.87 to 7.44; P=0.001). No significant relationship was found between dysthymia and opium abuse (OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.18 to 1.192; P=0.155), while MDD was significantly higher in the opium abuser group (OR, 7.32; 95% CI, 5.20 to 12.01; P<0.001). Conclusion Depression is more frequent in opium-dependent diabetic patients, and its severity is also greater. Given these findings, opium-dependent diabetic patients should be advised about the increased risks of depression and related comorbidities. PMID:22540053

  5. The effect of opium dependency on testis volume: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Cyrus, Ali; Solhi, Hassan; Azizabadi Farahani, Mahdi; Khoddami Vishteh, Hamid Reza; Goudarzi, Davoud; Mosayebi, Ghasem; Mohamadian, Hamed

    2012-01-01

    Background: Given the paucity of data on possible testis changes in opioid dependents, we sought to compare the testis volumes between a group of opium dependents and a group of healthy controls. Objective: Comparison of testis volume between opium dependents and healthy controls. Materials and Methods: This case-control study recruited 100 men with opium dependency (cases) and 100 healthy men (controls) in Iran, in 2008. A checklist containing questions about age, height, weight, daily amount of cigarette use, and duration of cigarette use for all the participants as well as daily amount of opium use (grams) and duration of opium use (years) for the case group was completed. Additionally, the dimensions of each testis were measured by a single person using calipers, and the mean of the left and right testes volume was compared between these two groups. Results: The mean of the testis volumes in the case group was significantly lower than that of the case group (11.2±2.2 and 25.1±2.7cm³, p<0.001). The results of the ANCOVA test showed that even after the omission of the cigarette smoking effect (p=0.454), the testis volume remained lower in the opium dependents (R2=0.884, p<0.001). In the case group, there were significant reverse correlations between testis volume and age (r=-0.404, p<0.001), daily amount of opium use (r=-0/207, p=0.039) and duration of opium use (r=-0.421, p<0.001). Conclusion: We found that the testis volume in the male opium dependents was lower than that of the healthy controls. We would recommend that future studies into the impact of drugs on the testis dimensions pay heed to possible histological changes in the testes owing to opium dependency. PMID:25246920

  6. Abrupt opium discontinuation has no significant triggering effect on acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Masoomi, Mohammad; Zare, Jahangir; Nasri, Hamidreza; Mirzazadeh, Ali; Sheikhvatan, Mehrdad

    2011-04-01

    A deleterious effect of withdrawal symptoms due to abrupt discontinuation of opium on the cardiovascular system is one of the recent interesting topics in the cardiovascular field. The current study hypothesized that the withdrawal syndrome due to discontinuing opium might be an important trigger for the appearance of acute myocardial infarction. Eighty-one opium-addicted individuals who were candidates for cardiovascular clinical evaluation and consecutively hospitalized in the coronary care unit (CCU) ward of Shafa Hospital in Kerman between January and July 2009 were included in the study and categorized in the case group, including patients experiencing withdrawal symptoms within 6-12 h after the reduced or discontinued use of opium according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-revised IV version (DSM-IV-R) criteria for opium dependence and withdrawal, and the control group, without opium withdrawal symptoms. The appearance of acute myocardial infarction was compared between the two groups using multivariable regression models. Acute myocardial infarction occurred in 50.0% of those with withdrawal symptoms and in 45.1% of patients without evidence of opium withdrawal (P = 0.669). Multivariable analysis showed that opium withdrawal symptoms were not a trigger for acute myocardial infarction adjusting for demographic characteristics, marital status, education level and common coronary artery disease risk profiles [odds ratio (OR) = 0.920, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.350-2.419, P = 0.866]. Also, daily dose of opium before reducing or discontinuing use did not predict the appearance of myocardial infarction in the presence of confounder variables (OR = 0.975, 95% CI = 0.832-1.143, P = 0.755). Withdrawal syndrome due to abrupt discontinuation of opium does not have a triggering role for appearance of acute myocardial infarction.

  7. Opium use during pregnancy and risk of preterm delivery: A population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Maghsoudlou, Siavash; Cnattingius, Sven; Montgomery, Scott; Aarabi, Mohsen; Semnani, Shahriar; Wikström, Anna-Karin; Bahmanyar, Shahram

    2017-01-01

    Use of narcotic or "recreational" drugs has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preterm delivery. However, the associations might be confounded by other factors related to high-risk behaviours. This is the first study to investigate the association between traditional opium use during pregnancy and risk of preterm delivery. We performed a population-based cohort study in the rural areas of the Golestan province, Iran between 2008 and 2010. We randomly selected 920 women who used (usually smoked) opium during pregnancy and 920 women who did not. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between the opium use during pregnancy and preterm delivery and adjustment was made for potential confounding factors. This study shows compared with non-use of opium and tobacco, use of only opium during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery (OR = 1.56; 95% CI 1.05-2.32), and the risk was more than two-fold increased among dual users of opium and tobacco (OR = 2.31; 95% CI 1.37-3.90). We observed that opium use only was associated with a doubled risk for preterm caesarean delivery (OR = 2.05; 95% CI 1.10-3.82) but not for preterm vaginal delivery (OR = 1.25; 95% CI 0.75-2.07). Dual use of opium and tobacco was associated with a substantially increased risk of vaginal preterm delivery (OR = 2.58; 95% CI 1.41-4.71). Opium use during pregnancy among non-tobacco smokers is associated with an increased risk of preterm caesarean delivery, indicating an increased risk of a compromised foetus before or during labour. Women who use both opium and smoked during pregnancy have an increased risk of preterm vaginal delivery, indicating an increased risk of spontaneous preterm delivery.

  8. Lead poisoning among opium users in Iran: an emerging health hazard.

    PubMed

    Hayatbakhsh, Mohammad Mahdi; Oghabian, Zohreh; Conlon, Elvira; Nakhaee, Samaneh; Amirabadizadeh, Ali Reza; Zahedi, Mohammad Javad; Darvish Moghadam, Sodief; Ahmadi, Bighan; Soroush, Somayeh; Aaseth, Jan; Mehrpour, Omid

    2017-10-05

    Lead (Pb) poisoning among people using opium has been an increasing problem in Iran. The present study highlights the clinical effects of lead toxicity associated with opium use in Iran, Kerman province. Between January 2016 and June 2016, patients with signs and symptoms of Pb poisoning were questioned to assess whether they had a history of opium dependency. In total, 249 patients were enrolled onto this cross-sectional study, all were opium dependent. Para-clinical data including blood lead level (BLL), demographic information, user preferences, and symptoms were obtained. The patients used either opium (83.9%), refined opium (6.4%) or a combination of both (9.7%) via ingestion (71.9%), smoking (8.4%) or a combination of both (19.7%). The overall median BLL was 80.0 μg/dL [IQR: 51.7-119.0]. The median BLL did not differ significantly between opium and refined opium users. Further, BLL was not significantly affected by the type of substance, route of use, duration of use, or daily quantity consumed. Common symptoms included abdominal pain (86.9%), constipation (75.8%), anorexia (71.5%) and nausea (54.7%). Linear regression analysis showed log of BLL was significantly associated with abdominal pain, myalgia and anorexia. The study unravelled an increase in opium-related Pb poisoning in the Kerman province. Raised awareness of this emerging Pb source and investigation of its aetiology is recommended. Pb poisoning should be considered among the primary differential diagnosis of opium users with gastrointestinal symptoms.

  9. Oral opium: an unusual cause of lead poisoning.

    PubMed

    Meybodi, Farid Aghaee; Eslick, Guy D; Sasani, Sanaz; Abdolhoseyni, Mohammad; Sazegar, Sasan; Ebrahimi, Farzaneh

    2012-06-01

    The number of cases of lead poisoning (LP), a widely known disease with various aetiologies, being reported globally has decreased over the years due to both limited domestic applications of lead and enforcement of stringent safety measures. However, a new presentation of lead poisoning, lead-contaminated opium (LCO), is gradually emerging in our region. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and clinical effects of lead toxicity associated with opium use. Between November 2006 and December 2007, all patients diagnosed with LP at a central laboratory in Tehran, Iran, were assessed for potential causes of poisoning. Patients with a history of LCO abuse were evaluated and recruited for the study. Overall, there were 240 patients with LP, and poisoning from LCO was diagnosed in 25 patients. The duration of addiction was between three months and 40 years, and the duration of symptoms was 28.1 ± 17.7 days. Mean blood lead levels of the patients were 145 ± 61 (range 61-323) μg/dL. The average creatinine and haemoglobin levels were 77.4 ± 8.1 μmol/L and 105 ± 25 g/L, respectively. The association between the duration of addiction and levels of lead in blood was not statistically significant (r = -0.142, p = 0.54). The most common symptoms were gastrointestinal complaints, followed by musculoskeletal complaints with muscle weakness (92%). Anorexia was also a leading complaint. The results of our study suggest that the possibility of LP should be considered with high suspicion among opium users presenting with acute abdominal symptoms.

  10. Lung disease with chronic obstruction in opium smokers in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Da Costa, J. L.; Tock, E. P. C.; Boey, H. K.

    1971-01-01

    Fifty-four opium smokers with chronic obstructive lung disease were studied for two-and-a-half years. Forty-eight patients had a cough for at least two years before the onset of inappropriate exertional dyspnoea. Fine, bubbling adventitious sounds suggesting small airway disease were heard on auscultation over the middle and lower lobes in 38 patients. The prevalence of inflammatory lung disease and chronic respiratory failure in this series is suggested as the main cause for the frequent finding of right ventricular hypertrophy and congestive heart failure. Physiological studies revealed moderate to severe airways obstruction with gross over-inflation and, in 32 patients, an additional restrictive defect probably due to peribronchiolar fibrosis. Radiological evidence of chronic bronchitis and bronchiolitis was observed in 45 patients, `pure' chronic bronchiolitis in six patients, and `widespread' emphysema in 25 patients respectively. Necropsy examinations in nine patients, however, showed destructive emphysema of variable severity in all. Chronic bronchiolitis often associated with striking bronchiolectasis was present in six cases. More severe bronchiolar rather than bronchial inflammation was noted. The heavy opium smokers had characteristic nodular shadows on chest radiography, sometimes associated with a striking reticular pattern not seen in `pure' cigarette smokers. This was due to gross pigmented dust (presumably carbon) deposition in relation to blood vessels, lymphatics, and bronchioles, and also within the alveoli. It is speculated that the initial lesion is an acquired bronchiolitis. Opium smoking induces an irritative bronchopathy favouring repeated attacks of acute bronchiolitis and eventually resulting in obliterative bronchiolitis, peribronchiolar fibrosis, chronic bronchitis, and destructive emphysema. Images PMID:5134057

  11. Nocardioides flava sp. nov., isolated from rhizosphere of poppy plant, Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Singh, Hina; Yin, Chang Shik

    2016-04-01

    Phylogenetic and taxonomic characterization was performed for bacterium, designated strain THG-DN5.4(T), isolated from the rhizosphere of poppy plant collected from Gyeryongsan, Republic of Korea. Strain THG-DN5.4(T) consists of Gram-stain-positive, aerobic, non-motile rods. The bacteria grow optimally at 18-30 °C, at pH 7.0 and in the presence of 0.5-1.0 % NaCl. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain THG-DN5.4(T) was found to be most closely related to Nocardioides nitrophenolicus KCTC 047BP(T), followed by Nocardioides ginsengisoli KCTC 19135(T), Nocardioides kongjuensis KCTC 19054(T), Nocardioides simplex KACC 20620(T), Nocardioides aromaticivorans KACC 20613(T), Nocardioides daeguensis KCTC 19799(T) and Nocardioides caeni KCTC 19600(T). The DNA-DNA relatedness between strain THG-DN5.4(T) and closely related phylogenetic neighbors was below 45.0 %, and the DNA G+C content of strain THG-DN5.4(T) was 70.8 mol%. An isoprenoid quinone was identified as MK-8(H4). Strain THG-DN5.4(T) was characterized chemotaxonomically as having LL-diaminopimelic acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The polar lipids were identified as diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, some unidentified aminolipids and some unidentified polar lipids. iso-C16:0 and C18:1 ω9c were identified as the major fatty acids present in THG-DN5.4(T). On the basis of a polyphasic taxonomic study, strain THG-DN5.4(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Nocardioides, for which the name Nocardioides flava sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is THG-DN5.4(T) (=KCTC 39606(T)=CCTCC AB 2015298(T)).

  12. Gertrude Stein, opium queen: notes on a mistaken embrace.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Gertrude Stein was not only a fairly open lesbian but also Jewish, expatriate, and androgynous-all attributes that often retarded mass-market success. Why then was she so popular? The article offers original research highlighting how Stein was constructed as a kind of "opium queen" in the popular American press, and the ways that this decadent, bohemian celebrity persona allowed her to operate as "broadly queer" rather than "specifically gay" in the American cultural imaginary-a negotiation that accounts for the mass-market success rather than censure of The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas despite the unparalleled visibility of its lesbian erotics.

  13. Lessons from an English opium eater: Thomas De Quincey reconsidered.

    PubMed

    Strang, J

    1990-12-01

    Thomas De Quincey published his autobiographical Confessions of an English Opium Eater in 1821. The publication both fascinated and outraged its 19th-century readers. Heated debate followed on such topics as: the causality of opiate use; self-inflicted suffering and responsibility; the impact of availability and environment; therapeutic addiction; controlled use; the emergence of dependence; tolerance; withdrawal techniques; hazards; the impact of advertising. Many of these topics remain subjects of debate and causes for concern today. We would be well advised to study the questions and debates of a century and a half ago.

  14. The association of opium dependence and postoperative complications following coronary artery bypass graft surgery: a propensity-matched study.

    PubMed

    Sadeghian, Saeed; Karimi, Abbasali; Dowlatshahi, Samaneh; Ahmadi, Seyed Hossein; Davoodi, Saeed; Marzban, Mehrab; Movahedi, Namvar; Abbasi, Kyomars; Tazik, Mokhtar; Fathollahi, Mahmood Sheikh

    2009-01-01

    Opium is an overwhelming public health problem in some countries. Different studies have suggested this drug as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Although the effect of opium on immune system, lung disease, nephropathy, stroke, and cardiac arrhythmia has been found in different studies, its effect on postoperation complications is not clear yet. The authors conducted this study to assess the effect of opium on post operation in hospital complications among patients who underwent coronary artery bypass graft. The authors retrospectively analyzed the data in this study. This study has been done at Tehran Heart Center. A total of 4,398 patients who had undergone isolated CABG were studied. Patients who fulfilled the DSM-IV-TR criteria for opium dependence (by smoking) were enrolled as Opium Dependent Patients. Also outcome variables were: Perioperative MI, septicemia, UTI, TIA, continuous coma, prolonged ventilation, pulmonary embolism, renal failure, acute limb ischemia, heart block, AF, mortality. The prevalence of opium dependence was 15.6percent among patients. The authors used a propensity matched model to analyze the relationship between opium and post operation complications. The authors adjusted opium and non-opium dependent patients in all of the baseline preoperative risk factors, so all of the matched patients were same and there was no bias in assessment. Opium dependent patients had significantly longer resource utilization. However, no significant relationship was found between opium dependence and other cardiac and non cardiac in hospital complications.

  15. [Eradication of opium smoking in Taiwan during the Japanese colonial period (1895-1945)].

    PubMed

    Chu, Nai-Shin

    2008-03-01

    Eradication of opium smoking during the Japanese colonial period is one of the most proud medical accomplishments in Taiwan. The mission was accomplished mainly due to a governmental policy of gradual prohibition in 1897 and the establishment of the Government Center Hospital for Opium Addicts in 1930. Professor Tsungming Tu, medical director of the Government Center Hospital, was responsible for the unique medical treatment of opium addiction there. The latter consisted of an immediate withdrawal of opium smoking which was partly substituted by small amounts of morphine in gradual reduction, and at the same time special pills were given to enhance the sympathetic activity also to lessen the withdrawal symptoms. By such treatment, the habit of opium smoking could often be eliminated in a few weeks. The success rate was 46%. Shortly after the World War II, the number of opium smokers in Taiwan became negligible. In early colonial period, however, there were grass roots movements as well as private efforts by physicians of Western medicine to treat opium addiction. In 1898, the Flying Phoenix Society which was a laymen organization worshipping deities began to use supernatural power to force the addicts to stop opium smoking. More than thirty thousand were enlisted and the success rate was 58%. In 1908, the enthabitual treatment in a private correction infirmary called 'Newmatou' consisted of a substitute treatment using morphine to replace opium and a gradual reduction in morphine dosage afterwards. All addicts were hospitalized until treatment goal was achieved. Among 55 addicts thus treated, 53 (96%) were ridded of opium smoking habit. The treatment method was almost identical to that employed by Professor Tu. Another physician, Dr. Ching-yue Lin, who worked at the Red Cross Hospital in Taipei, also used substitute treatment, replacing opium by heroine, and obtained a success rate of 80%. Dr. Lin published his comprehensive study on opium addiction and treatment

  16. Opium could be considered an independent risk factor for lung cancer: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Masjedi, Mohammad Reza; Naghan, Parisa Adimi; Taslimi, Shervin; Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Ebrahimi, Seyyed Meisam; Khosravi, Adnan; Karimi, Shirin; Hosseini, Mostafa; Mortaz, Esmaeil

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, and half of all incident lung cancers are believed to occur in the developing countries, including Iran. We investigated the association of opium with the risk of lung cancer in a case-control study. We enrolled 242 cases and 484 matched controls in this study. A questionnaire was developed, containing questions on basic demographic characteristics, as well as lifelong history of smoking cigarettes, exposure to passive smoking, opium use and alcohol consumption. For smoking cigarettes and opium and also oral opium intake frequency, duration and cumulative use were categorized into three groups: no use, low use and high use. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Multivariate analysis in men showed that after adjusting for the effect of ethnicity, education and pack years of smoking cigarettes, smoking opium remained as a significant independent risk factor with an OR of 3.1 (95% CI 1.2-8.1). In addition, concomitant heavy smoking of cigarettes and opium dramatically increased the risk of lung cancer to an OR of 35.0 (95% CI 11.4-107.9). This study demonstrated that smoking opium is associated with a high risk of lung cancer as an independent risk factor. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Blood Lead Levels in Asymptomatic Opium Addict Patients; a Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Ghaemi, Kazem; Ghoreishi, Atefeh; Rabiee, Navid; Alinejad, Samira; Farzaneh, Esmaeil; Amirabadi Zadeh, Alireza; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Mehrpour, Omid

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: One of the newest non-occupational sources of lead contamination is drug addiction, which has recently been addressed as a major source of lead poisoning in some countries. The present study aimed to investigate the blood lead level (BLL) of asymptomatic opium addicts. Methods: This case-control study was conducted during a one-year period to compare BLL of three groups consisting of opium addicts, patients under methadone maintenance therapy (MMT), and healthy individuals. Results: 99 participants with the mean age of 55.43±12.83 years were studied in three groups of 33 cases (53.5% male). The mean lead level in opium addicts, MMT and control groups were 80.30 ± 6.03 μg/L, 67.94 ± 4.42 μg/L, and 57.30±4.77 μg/L, respectively (p=0.008). There was no significant difference in BLL between MMT and healthy individuals (p=0.433) and also between opium addicts and MMT individuals (p=0.271).Oral opium abusers had significantly higher lead levels (p = 0.036). There was a significant correlation between BLL and duration of drug abuse in opium addict cases (r=0.398, p=0.022). The odds ratio of having BLL ≥ 100 in oral opium users was 2.1 (95% CI: 0.92 - 4.61; p = 0.43). Conclusion: Based on the result of present study, when compared to healthy individuals, opium addicts, especially those who took substance orally had significantly higher levels of blood lead, and their odds of having BLL ≥ 100 was two times. Therefore, screening for BLL in opium addicts, particularly those with non-specific complaints, could be useful. PMID:28894784

  18. The Mortality Rate of Myocardial Infraction Patients With and Without Opium Dependen.

    PubMed

    Harati, Hani; Shamsi, Alireza; Firouzkouhi Moghadam, Mahboubeh; Seyed Zadeh, Fatemeh Sadat; Ghazi, Arash

    2015-09-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is a heart condition caused by the suspension of blood circulation in a part of the myocardium. There are different risk factors contributing to a heart attack. Some believe that endorphins and endogenous opioids play an important role in causing MIs. This study intended to determine the relationship between opium dependency and mortality rate among patients with MI. This retrospective study investigated patients who had MI for the first time and were hospitalized in the coronary care unit (CCU) of Khatamolanbia hospital in Zahedan, Iran, from 2007 to 2010. These patients were either opium dependent or not. Four hundred patients were selected. The patients' possibilities of death and re-hospitalization after the first MI were confirmed over the phone. Data was analyzed through t-test and chi-squared test. Of all the patients, 19.5% were opium-dependent. The mortality rate in the non-opium-dependent group was 5.9%, while in the dependent group this rate was 11.5% (P = 0.072). The number of re-hospitalizations due to heart problems was higher in the opium-dependent patients (P < 0.001). There was no meaningful relationship between the mortality rate of patients with MI who were either opium-dependent or non-opium-dependent. The number of re-hospitalizations due to heart problems was meaningfully higher in the opium-dependent patients; hence, educating people and training them on the destructive effects of opium, specifically in patients with heart conditions is highly recommended.

  19. Comparison of serum lead level in oral opium addicts with healthy control group.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Hossein; Sayadi, Ahmad Reza; Tashakori, Mahnaz; Yazdandoost, Rokhsareh; Soltanpoor, Narges; Sadeghi, Hossein; Aghaee-Afshar, Mahmood

    2009-11-01

    Drug abuse and its consequences are major health problems in Middle-East countries such as Iran. Salesmen and smugglers may add lead to opium during the process of opium preparation to increase the weight of opium for more profit. Several reports have found lead poisoning symptoms in opium addicted patients and there are many nonspecific symptoms mimicking lead poisoning in opium addicted patients. As far as the literature review is concerned, there is no comparative study about blood lead level (BLL) in addicted patients with healthy controls. Therefore, it seems evaluation of blood lead level in opium addicted patients to be important. In this study, the BLL of forty-four subjects in two patient and control groups was evaluated. The patient group (22 subjects) was comprised of patients who used oral opium. Control group (22 subjects) was matched with the patient group for age and sex, considering inclusion and exclusion criteria with a mean age of 38.8+/-6.7. For blood lead assay, 3 mL of whole blood was obtained from both groups by venipuncture and BLL was assessed immediately using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The BLL in patient group had a range of 7.2 to 69.9 g/dL with a mean of 21.9+/-13.2. In the healthy control group, BLL was between 4.1 to 17.4 g/dL with a mean of 8.6+/-3.5. The mean difference of both groups (t=4.56) was statistically significant (P<0.0001). In the patient group, BLL had a significant correlation with the amount of opium ingested (r=0.65, P<0.01). However, there was no significant correlation with duration of opium ingestion in the patient group. It would be concluded that opium addicts have an elevated BLL compared to healthy controls. Therefore, screening of blood lead concentration is helpful for opium addicted people especially with non-specific symptoms. In this regard, a similar investigation with a larger sample size of opium addicted patients (including both oral and inhaled) and a control group is suggested to confirm

  20. 78 FR 64015 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Noramco, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... controlled substances: Drug Schedule Phenylacetone (8501) II Opium, raw (9600) II Poppy Straw Concentrate (9670) II Tapentadol (9780) II The company plans to import Opium, raw (9600) and Poppy Straw...

  1. 78 FR 17230 - Importer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration, Noramco, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ... controlled substances: Drug Schedule Phenylacetone (8501) II Opium, raw (9600) II Poppy Straw Concentrate (9670) II Tapentadol (9780) II The company plans to import raw Opium (9600) and Poppy Straw...

  2. 77 FR 64142 - Importer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application, Noramco, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... controlled substances: Drug Schedule Phenylacetone (8501) II Opium, raw (9600) II Poppy Straw Concentrate (9670) II Tapentadol (9780) II The company plans to import raw Opium (9600) and Poppy Straw...

  3. 77 FR 60143 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Cody Laboratories, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ... classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Opium, raw (9600) II Concentrate Poppy Straw (9670) II... substances that are manufactured from opium raw, and poppy straw concentrate. The company plans to import...

  4. 75 FR 65658 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... classes of controlled substances listed in schedule II: Drug Schedule Raw Opium (9600) II Concentrate of... substances that are manufactured from raw opium, poppy straw, and concentrate of poppy straw. As explained...

  5. 77 FR 31388 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Noramco, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... controlled substances: Drug Schedule Phenylacetone (8501) II Opium, raw (9600) II Poppy Straw Concentrate (9670) II Tapentadol (9780) II The company plans to import the raw Opium (9600) and Poppy...

  6. 77 FR 43862 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Noramco, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ...: Drug Schedule Phenylacetone (8501) II Opium, raw (9600) II Poppy Straw Concentrate (9670) II Tapentadol (9780) II The company plans to import the Opium (9600) and Poppy Straw Concentrate (9670) to...

  7. New Physicochemical Treatment Method of Poppy Seeds for Agriculture and Food Industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Božena, Šerá; Iveta, Gajdová; Michal, Šerý; Petr, Špatenka

    2013-09-01

    Poppy seeds (Papaver somniferum L.) are often attacked by various fungal diseases, and their field germination rate is low. The aim of this experiment was to increase the germination rate and growth of seedlings by modifying the poppy seeds using cold plasma discharge. The seeds were treated in a Plasonic AR-550-M under power of 500 W with argon gas flow of 50 mL/min, oxygen gas flow of 50 mL/min for different time durations in seconds (0, 180, 300, 600, 1800, 3000, 4200, and 5400). The seed germination rate and growth of the seedlings were recorded. Cold plasma positively affected the seed germination rate for time exposure between 180~3000 s. Seedling acceleration on the sixth day of the experiment showed the highest values at exposure 180~600 s. Cold plasma seems to be a good physicochemical way to modify seeds without chemical agronomical application.

  8. Visitor center at the Antelope Valley California Poppy Reserve, Lancaster, California

    SciTech Connect

    Colyer, R.D.; Freeman, S.P.

    1981-01-01

    The Antelope Valley California Poppy Reserve contains the largest remaining stand of the California Poppy (Eschschozia Californica), the state flower of California. To welcome the thousands of people viewing the desert wildflowers each spring, the State of California decided to build a visitor/interpretive center. This building deals primarily with the question of fit; a building's fit aesthetically with its site and the fit of a building's design response to the climate of the site. In this case, both aspects of this question led the client and architects to seek an earth sheltered solution using materials at least metaphorically indigenous to the region. On both a technical and formal level, this building seeks to fit the unique climate and historical heritage of its site.

  9. Morphine and Codeine in Oral Fluid after Controlled Poppy Seed Administration

    PubMed Central

    Concheiro, Marta; Newmeyer, Matthew N.; da Costa, Jose Luiz; Flegel, Ron; Gorelick, David A.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2014-01-01

    Opiates are an important drug class in drug testing programs. Ingestion of poppy seeds containing morphine and codeine can yield positive opiate tests and mislead result interpretation in forensic and clinical settings. Multiple publications evaluated urine opiate concentrations following poppy seed ingestion, but only 2 addressed oral fluid (OF) results; neither provided the ingested morphine and codeine dosage. We administered two 45g raw poppy seed doses, each containing 15.7mg morphine and 3.1mg codeine, 8h apart to 17 healthy adults. All OF specimens were screened by on-site OF immunoassay Draeger DrugTest 5000, and confirmed with OF collected with Oral-Eze® device and quantified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (1μg/L morphine and codeine limits of quantification). Specimens (n=459) were collected before and up to 32h after the first dose. All specimens screened positive 0.5h after dosing and remained positive for 0.5-13h at Draeger 20μg/L morphine cutoff. Maximum OF morphine and codeine concentrations (Cmax) were 177 and 32.6μg/L, with times to Cmax (Tmax) of 0.5-1h and 0.5-2.5h post-dose, respectively. Windows of detection after the second dose extended at least 24h for morphine and to 18h for codeine. After both doses, the last morphine positive OF result was 1h with 40μg/L 2004 proposed US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration cutoff, and 0.5h with 95μg/L cutoff, recently recommended by the Driving Under the Influence of Drugs and Medicines project. Positive OF morphine results are possible 0.5-1h after ingestion of 15.7mg of morphine in raw poppy seeds, depending upon the cutoff employed. PMID:25345619

  10. The plasma levels of the cytokines in opium-addicts and the effects of opium on the cytokines secretion by their lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Nabati, Saeedeh; Asadikaram, Gholamreza; Arababadi, Mohammad Kazemi; Shahabinejad, Gholamabbas; Rezaeian, Mohsen; Mahmoodi, Mehdi; Kennedy, Derek

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of opium addiction on the secretion of IL-4, IFN-γ, IL-6 and TGF-β under in vivo and in vitro conditions. The blood samples were collected and PBMCs were cultured in RPMI1640 with and without opium for 48 h. The levels of the cytokines were measured using ELISA technique. The results showed that plasma levels of IL-4 and IFN-γ were significantly lower and IL-6 and TGF-β were higher in plasma taken from opium-addicted subjects. The concentrations of all the cytokines in opium-addicted subjects in in vitro condition were significantly lower than the control group. Addicted subjects cultured lymphocytes significantly decrease secreted IL-4, IL-6 and TGF-β but not IFN-γ in response to being cultured with opium, where as IFN-γ was increased in controls. These results may explain the frequent microbial infections and an increased tumor incidence seen in addicted patients.

  11. 1H NMR-based metabolic profiling for evaluating poppy seed rancidity and brewing.

    PubMed

    Jawień, Ewa; Ząbek, Adam; Deja, Stanisław; Łukaszewicz, Marcin; Młynarz, Piotr

    2015-12-01

    Poppy seeds are widely used in household and commercial confectionery. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the application of metabolic profiling for industrial monitoring of the molecular changes which occur during minced poppy seed rancidity and brewing processes performed on raw seeds. Both forms of poppy seeds were obtained from a confectionery company. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) was applied as the analytical method of choice together with multivariate statistical data analysis. Metabolic fingerprinting was applied as a bioprocess control tool to monitor rancidity with the trajectory of change and brewing progressions. Low molecular weight compounds were found to be statistically significant biomarkers of these bioprocesses. Changes in concentrations of chemical compounds were explained relative to the biochemical processes and external conditions. The obtained results provide valuable and comprehensive information to gain a better understanding of the biology of rancidity and brewing processes, while demonstrating the potential for applying NMR spectroscopy combined with multivariate data analysis tools for quality control in food industries involved in the processing of oilseeds. This precious and versatile information gives a better understanding of the biology of these processes.

  12. Implementing harm reduction for heroin users in Afghanistan, the worldwide opium supplier.

    PubMed

    Maguet, Olivier; Majeed, Murtaza

    2010-03-01

    Afghanistan has suffered decades of war, occupation and unrest. It is also the world's greatest producer of opium and drug production and trafficking account for a third of the total Afghan economy. Currently alongside the "War on Terrorism", the control and eradication of opium production and related trafficking is a main concern of the international community. However, this focus on supply reduction has meant scant attention has been paid to increasing drug use problems within the country; it is estimated there are up to 25,000 opium users and 20,000 heroin users in Kabul city. Drug use is often a response to war, poverty and under-development, however, street opium and heroin manufactured in the country are widely available, affordable and of high purity. This paper documents the efforts of non-governmental organisations to promote and develop harm reduction and treatment services for problem drug users in Afghanistan in this difficult context.

  13. Is opium a real risk factor for esophageal cancer or just a methodological artifact? Hospital and neighborhood controls in case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Shakeri, Ramin; Kamangar, Farin; Nasrollahzadeh, Dariush; Nouraie, Mehdi; Khademi, Hooman; Etemadi, Arash; Islami, Farhad; Marjani, Hajiamin; Fahimi, Saman; Sepehr, Alireza; Rahmati, Atieh; Abnet, Christian C; Dawsey, Sanford M; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza; Majdzadeh, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Control selection is a major challenge in epidemiologic case-control studies. The aim of our study was to evaluate using hospital versus neighborhood control groups in studying risk factors of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). We compared the results of two different case-control studies of ESCC conducted in the same region by a single research group. Case definition and enrollment were the same in the two studies, but control selection differed. In the first study, we selected two age- and sex-matched controls from inpatient subjects in hospitals, while for the second we selected two age- and sex-matched controls from each subject's neighborhood of residence. We used the test of heterogeneity to compare the results of the two studies. We found no significant differences in exposure data for tobacco-related variables such as cigarette smoking, chewing Nass (a tobacco product) and hookah (water pipe) usage, but the frequency of opium usage was significantly different between hospital and neighborhood controls. Consequently, the inference drawn for the association between ESCC and tobacco use did not differ between the studies, but it did for opium use. In the study using neighborhood controls, opium use was associated with a significantly increased risk of ESCC (adjusted OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.17-2.68), while in the study using hospital controls, this was not the case (OR 1.09, 95% CI 0.63-1.87). Comparing the prevalence of opium consumption in the two control groups and a cohort enrolled from the same geographic area suggested that the neighborhood controls were more representative of the study base population for this exposure. Hospital and neighborhood controls did not lead us to the same conclusion for a major hypothesized risk factor for ESCC in this population. Our results show that control group selection is critical in drawing appropriate conclusions in observational studies.

  14. Is Opium a Real Risk Factor for Esophageal Cancer or Just a Methodological Artifact? Hospital and Neighborhood Controls in Case-Control Studies

    PubMed Central

    Shakeri, Ramin; Kamangar, Farin; Nasrollahzadeh, Dariush; Nouraie, Mehdi; Khademi, Hooman; Etemadi, Arash; Islami, Farhad; Marjani, Hajiamin; Fahimi, Saman; Sepehr, Alireza; Rahmati, Atieh; Abnet, Christian C.; Dawsey, Sanford M.; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza; Majdzadeh, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Background Control selection is a major challenge in epidemiologic case-control studies. The aim of our study was to evaluate using hospital versus neighborhood control groups in studying risk factors of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Methodology/Principal Findings We compared the results of two different case-control studies of ESCC conducted in the same region by a single research group. Case definition and enrollment were the same in the two studies, but control selection differed. In the first study, we selected two age- and sex-matched controls from inpatient subjects in hospitals, while for the second we selected two age- and sex-matched controls from each subject's neighborhood of residence. We used the test of heterogeneity to compare the results of the two studies. We found no significant differences in exposure data for tobacco-related variables such as cigarette smoking, chewing Nass (a tobacco product) and hookah (water pipe) usage, but the frequency of opium usage was significantly different between hospital and neighborhood controls. Consequently, the inference drawn for the association between ESCC and tobacco use did not differ between the studies, but it did for opium use. In the study using neighborhood controls, opium use was associated with a significantly increased risk of ESCC (adjusted OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.17–2.68), while in the study using hospital controls, this was not the case (OR 1.09, 95% CI 0.63–1.87). Comparing the prevalence of opium consumption in the two control groups and a cohort enrolled from the same geographic area suggested that the neighborhood controls were more representative of the study base population for this exposure. Conclusions/Significance Hospital and neighborhood controls did not lead us to the same conclusion for a major hypothesized risk factor for ESCC in this population. Our results show that control group selection is critical in drawing appropriate conclusions in observational studies. PMID

  15. Is opium addiction a risk factor for ischemic heart disease and ischemic stroke?

    PubMed

    Rezvani, Mohammad Reza; Ghandehari, Kavian

    2012-10-01

    The main source of studies about effects of opium consumption on heart and brain attacks originates from Iran Therefore the aim of the present study was to assess opium addiction as a probable influencing factor for ischemic heart disease and ischemic stroke. A cross-sectional study was carried out in two Cardiology and Neurology clinics in Eastern Iran in 2011. Diagnosis of Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD) and Ischemic Stroke (IS) was made by Cardiologist and Stroke Neurologist respectively. The influence of gender, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, cigarette smoking, oral and inhaled opium consumption on distribution of IHD and IS were evaluated. Five hundred fifty eight patients (307 females, 251 males) with mean age 56.2 years enrolled the study. On adjusted odds ratios of our whole 558 patients, only hypertension and diabetes had a significant influence on occurrence of IHD; (P = 0.000 and P = 0.000) respectively. Oral and inhaled routes of opium addiction did not have a significant effect on occurrence of IHD; [OR = 1.172, 95% CI = 0.624-2.203, P = 0.621] and [OR = 1.820, 95% CI = 0.811-4.085, P = 0.147] respectively. Hypertension and diabetes were significant risk factors of IS in our 558 patients at multivariate analysis; (P = 0.000, P = 0.020). Oral opium addiction was as significant protective factor of IS in our study group; OR = 0.211, 95% CI = 0.079-0.564, P = 0.002, while inhaled opium addiction did not have a significant effect on occurrence of IS in our patients at; OR = 1.760, 95% CI = 0.760-4.076, P = 0.187. Oral opium consumption is a protective factor of IS but not IHD. Inhaled opium addiction does not have a significant influence on occurrence of IS and IHD.

  16. Opium can differently alter blood glucose, sodium and potassium in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Karam, Gholamreza Asadi; Rashidinejad, Hamid Reza; Aghaee, Mohammad Mehdi; Ahmadi, Jafar; Rahmani, Mohammad Reza; Mahmoodi, Mehdi; Azin, Hosein; Mirzaee, Mohammad Reza; Khaksari, Mohammad

    2008-04-01

    To determine the effects of opium on serum glucose, potassium and sodium in male and female Wistar rat, opium solution (60 mg/kg) injected intraperitoneally and the same volume of distilled water was used as control (7 rats in each group). Blood samples were collected at 0, 30, 60, 120, 240 and 360 minutes after injection from orbit cavity and the values of serum glucose, sodium (Na(+)) and potassium (K(+)) were measured. The data were then analyzed by the repeated measure ANOVA based on sex and case-control group. P < 0.05 considered as significant difference. Serum glucose increased significantly at 30, 60, 120 and 240 minutes after opium solution injection, in female rats compared to a control group. However, the male rats had this rise at 30, 60 and 120 minutes after opium solution injection compared to control group. While serum glucose in male rats was significantly higher than females at 30, 60 and 120 minutes, this value was higher in the female rats at 360 minutes. Therefore, serum glucose alterations following opium injection was significantly different in groups and in the sexes at different times. Sodium (Na(+)) rose at 60, 240 and 360 minutes significantly in all rats compared to control group. However, sodium alteration following opium injection was significantly different only between treated and control groups but sex-independent at all times. Potassium (K(+)) increased significantly at 60, 120, 240 and 360 minutes in male rats, compared to a control group. In female rats K(+) significantly raised at 30, 120, 240 and 360 minutes. Therefore, the alteration of K(+) in male and female rats was found time dependent and sex independent. According to our results, opium increased serum glucose in male and female rats differently, and it interferes with metabolic pathways differently on a gender dependent basis. Opium raised serum Na(+) and K(+), thus it interfere with water regulation and blood pressure via different mechanism.

  17. Serum markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in chronic opium (Taryak) smokers.

    PubMed

    Ghazavi, Ali; Mosayebi, Ghasem; Solhi, Hassan; Rafiei, Mohammad; Moazzeni, Seyed Mohammad

    2013-06-01

    A relationship between the expression of inflammation markers, oxidative stress and opium use has not been clearly established. This study was done to determine serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), quantity of C3 and C4 complement factors, immunoglobulins, nitric oxide (NO) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in opium smokers and non-drug-using control participants. The present study was done on 44 male opium smokers and 44 controls of the same sex and age (20-40 years). The control group was healthy individuals with no lifetime history of drug abuse or dependence. All of the opium abusers were selected from those who had a history of opium use, for at least one year, with a daily opium dosage not less than 2g. Addicts known to abuse alcohol or other drugs were excluded. Serum hs-CRP concentration was measured using ELISA method and serum C3, C4 and immunoglobulins concentration were determined by Single Radial Immunodiffusion (SRID) method. NO production was estimated through Griess reaction and TAC was assessed by Ferric Reducing/Antioxidant Power (FRAP) test. Serum hs-CRP, complement factors (C3 and C4) and FRAP levels were significantly higher in the opium smokers (8.93 ± 1.93; 138.47 ± 13.39; 68.79 ± 7.02 and 972.75 ± 11.55, respectively) relative to the control group (0.72 ± 0.09; 93.36 ± 8.73; 33.08 ± 7.39 and 761.95 ± 18.61, respectively). These results permit us to conclude that opium smokers indeed present with a low to moderate grade inflammation, which is defined by an increase in acute phase proteins.

  18. Effect of opium use on short-term outcome in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Safaii, Nasser; Kazemi, Babak

    2010-02-01

    Data regarding the effect of opium use on short-term outcome in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery are limited. We sought to assess the morbidity and in-hospital mortality of current and past users compared the data with those from nonusers of opium after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). This is a descriptive analytical review of prospectively collected data on 782 consecutive male patients who underwent isolated CABG between January 2005 and December 2007. Of these, 708 (90.5%) were nonusers, 56 (7.1%) were current users, and 18 (2.3%) were former opium users of more than 4 weeks. The effect of opium usage on clinical, admission, and outcome variables were analyzed. Current opium users were younger (P = 0.004) and more likely to be cigarette smokers (P = 0.0004). Other demographic characteristics, major coronary risk factors, rates of postoperative complications, intensive care unit readmission, postoperative length of stay, and in-hospital mortality did not differ among the three groups. Current opium users needed less analgesic postoperatively (P = 0.0001), were significantly less compliant with medical and dietary recommendations after discharge (P < 0.0001), and were more likely to be rehospitalized with cardiovascular causes within 6 months after CABG surgery; these differences were much more pronounced for nonusers versus current users of opium (P < 0.0001). Continued use of opium is a significant predictor of rehospitalization with a cardiac cause within 6 months of CABG surgery. This may be partly due to the low compliance of these patients with treatment recommendations.

  19. Morphine and codeine concentrations in human urine following controlled poppy seeds administration of known opiate content.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael L; Nichols, Daniel C; Underwood, Paula; Fuller, Zachary; Moser, Matthew A; LoDico, Charles; Gorelick, David A; Newmeyer, Matthew N; Concheiro, Marta; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2014-08-01

    Opiates are an important component for drug testing due to their high abuse potential. Proper urine opiate interpretation includes ruling out poppy seed ingestion; however, detailed elimination studies after controlled poppy seed administration with known morphine and codeine doses are not available. Therefore, we investigated urine opiate pharmacokinetics after controlled oral administration of uncooked poppy seeds with known morphine and codeine content. Participants were administered two 45 g oral poppy seed doses 8 h apart, each containing 15.7 mg morphine and 3mg codeine. Urine was collected ad libitum up to 32 h after the first dose. Specimens were analyzed with the Roche Opiates II immunoassay at 2000 and 300 μg/L cutoffs, and the ThermoFisher CEDIA(®) heroin metabolite (6-acetylmorphine, 6-AM) and Lin-Zhi 6-AM immunoassays with 10 μg/L cutoffs to determine if poppy seed ingestion could produce positive results in these heroin marker assays. In addition, all specimens were quantified for morphine and codeine by GC/MS. Participants (N=22) provided 391 urine specimens over 32 h following dosing; 26.6% and 83.4% were positive for morphine at 2000 and 300 μg/L GC/MS cutoffs, respectively. For the 19 subjects who completed the study, morphine concentrations ranged from <300 to 7522 μg/L with a median peak concentration of 5239 μg/L. The median first morphine-positive urine sample at 2000 μg/L cutoff concentration occurred at 6.6 h (1.2-12.1), with the last positive from 2.6 to 18 h after the second dose. No specimens were positive for codeine at a cutoff concentration of 2000 μg/L, but 20.2% exceeded 300 μg/L, with peak concentrations of 658 μg/L (284-1540). The Roche Opiates II immunoassay had efficiencies greater than 96% for the 2000 and 300 μg/L cutoffs. The CEDIA 6-AM immunoassay had a specificity of 91%, while the Lin-Zhi assay had no false positive results. These data provide valuable information for interpreting urine opiate results. Copyright

  20. Morphine and Codeine Concentrations in Human Urine following Controlled Poppy Seeds Administration of Known Opiate Content

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Michael L.; Nichols, Daniel C.; Underwood, Paula; Fuller, Zachary; Moser, Matthew A.; LoDico, Charles; Gorelick, David A.; Newmeyer, Matthew N.; Concheiro, Marta; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2014-01-01

    Opiates are an important component for drug testing due to their high abuse potential. Proper urine opiate interpretation includes ruling out poppy seed ingestion; however, detailed elimination studies after controlled poppy seed administration with known morphine and codeine doses are not available. Therefore, we investigated urine opiate pharmacokinetics after controlled oral administration of uncooked poppy seeds with known morphine and codeine content. Participants were administered two 45g oral poppy seed doses 8h apart, each containing 15.7mg morphine and 3mg codeine. Urine was collected ad libitum up to 32h after the first dose. Specimens were analyzed with the Roche Opiates II immunoassay at 2,000 and 300μg/L cutoffs, and the ThermoFisher CEDIA® Heroin Metabolite (6-acetylmorphine, 6AM) and Lin-Zhi 6AM immunoassays with 10μg/L cutoffs to determine if poppy seed ingestion could produce positive results in these heroin marker assays. In addition, all specimens were quantified for morphine and codeine by GC/MS. Participants (N=22) provided 391 urine specimens over 32h following dosing; 26.6% and 83.4% were positive for morphine at 2,000 and 300μg/L GC/MS cutoffs, respectively. For the 19 subjects who completed the study, morphine concentrations ranged from <300 to 7,522μg/L with a median peak concentration of 5,239μg/L. The median first morphine-positive urine sample at 2,000μg/L cutoff concentration occurred at 6.6h (1.2-12.1), with the last positive from 2.6 to 18h after the second dose. No specimens were positive for codeine at a cutoff concentration of 2,000μg/L, but 20.2% exceeded 300μg/L, with peak concentrations of 658 μg/L (284-1540). The Roche Opiates II immunoassay had efficiencies greater than 96% for the 2000 and 300μg/L cutoffs. The CEDIA 6AM immunoassay had a specificity of 91%, while the Lin-Zhi assay had no false positive results. These data provide valuable information for interpreting urine opiate results. PMID:24887324

  1. 75 FR 69459 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ...-alphacetylmethadol (9648) II Oxymorphone (9652) II Poppy Straw Concentrate (9670) II Fentanyl (9801) The company... application for registration or re-registration to import crude opium, poppy straw, concentrate of poppy...

  2. Opium addiction in patients with coronary artery disease: a grounded theory study

    PubMed Central

    Farahani, Mansoureh A; Ghaffari, Fatemeh; Seyed Fatemi, Naiemeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are widespread misconceptions about the positive effects of opium on coronary artery disease (CAD). Thus, we performed a study to explore the opium addiction process contributing factors among CAD patients using a grounded theory approach. Methods: The sample comprised 30 addicted CAD patients and their family members, physicians, nurses and friends. Purposive and theoretical sampling was employed; semi-structured interviews were conducted. Coding and constant comparative analysis techniques were as proposed by Strauss and Corbin (1998). Results: The core category was ‘Fighting for Survival’, comprising three main themes, namely, ‘the gateway’, ‘blowing into the fire’ and ‘getting stuck in the mud’. Conclusion: Increasing knowledge about the adverse effects of opium on the cardiovascular system would reinforce prevention and rehabilitation measures. Involving patients’ family-members in addiction prevention and rehabilitation programs and referring patients to specialized rehabilitation centres could help patients quit opium. Healthcare providers (HCPs) should notice to the effects of opium consumption among CAD patients; nursing care must be holistic in nature. Although opium is stigmatised in Iran, HCPs must treat addicted CAD patients similar to other patients. Nursing students’ must be aware of the negative effects of illegal drugs on CAD patients and the misconceptions regarding the positive effects thereof. Any misconceptions must be probed and clarified. Rehabilitation centres must be supervised by cardiologists and HCPs. PMID:26793658

  3. Opium use in two communities of Pakistan ---a preliminary comparison of rural and urban patterns.

    PubMed

    McGlothlin, W H; Mubbashar, M; Shafique, M; Hughes, P H

    1978-01-01

    Interviews were conducted to clarify drug use patterns and characteristics of opium users in two communities. Because of the small number of subjects selected from only two communities, the results are not representative of the country as a whole. Nevertheless, in the city of Rawalpindi 90 users were studied and found to have a mean daily opium consumption of 0.9 grams at a cost of Rs. 1.00 ($US 0.10). Opium was taken by mouth once or twice daily. They were solitary users who first used opium as adults, most often for self-treatment of health disorders. The majority were employed males with no history of criminality. In the rural opium-producing village, 28 users were interviewed. They smoked opium three or four times a day in a social setting and reported a mean daily consumption of 11 grams. They were more likely to use the drug for its social and pleasure effects and to have addicts as close friends. The high dose was associated with adverse effects on work performance and with more severe withdrawal symptoms. The findings suggest different intervention strategies for the two populations.

  4. Changes in Serum Biochemical Factors Associated with Opium Addiction after Addiction Desertion

    PubMed Central

    Afarinesh, Mohammad Reza; Haghpanah, Tahereh; Divsalar, Kouros; Dehyadegary, Elham; Shaikh-Aleslami, Azar; Mahmoodi, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Background The long time use of opium has some effects on serums biochemical factors, the determination of this variation is a new approach in understanding off addiction and relive of drug abuser health. Hence in this study, these indicators in person who were withdrawing of opium have been studied. Methods In this cross-sectional study bloods biochemical factors such as fasting blood sugar (FBS), sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), uric acid (UA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, cholesterol, total protein, and fibrinogen in three groups serum were studied: (1) Who had been permanent opium users more than 2 years (case). (2) Dependent person who has taken one month addiction withdrawal course (control). (3) A healthy group that had been demographically similar to the other groups. Findings According to these study findings, FBS serum level in the case group is lower than control group. Serum level of Na, creatinine, and blood triglyceride (TG) in case study are higher than group control. Concentration of potassium, Ca, UA, BUN, cholesterol, total serum protein, fibrinogen, and thrombin time in case study and group control showed no significant difference. Also, in withdrawing case serum level of Na, Ca, UA, BUN, creatinine, and TG significantly increase and thrombin time decrease. Conclusion According to this study not only the longtime use of opium but also opium with drawerin opium dependent people can change their serum biochemical factors. So recognition, treatment, and prevention of this change could be a new step in improving of health and condition of patients. PMID:25984281

  5. Changes in serum biochemical factors associated with opium addiction after addiction desertion.

    PubMed

    Afarinesh, Mohammad Reza; Haghpanah, Tahereh; Divsalar, Kouros; Dehyadegary, Elham; Shaikh-Aleslami, Azar; Mahmoodi, Majid

    2014-01-01

    The long time use of opium has some effects on serums biochemical factors, the determination of this variation is a new approach in understanding off addiction and relive of drug abuser health. Hence in this study, these indicators in person who were withdrawing of opium have been studied. In this cross-sectional study bloods biochemical factors such as fasting blood sugar (FBS), sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), uric acid (UA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, cholesterol, total protein, and fibrinogen in three groups serum were studied: (1) Who had been permanent opium users more than 2 years (case). (2) Dependent person who has taken one month addiction withdrawal course (control). (3) A healthy group that had been demographically similar to the other groups. According to these study findings, FBS serum level in the case group is lower than control group. Serum level of Na, creatinine, and blood triglyceride (TG) in case study are higher than group control. Concentration of potassium, Ca, UA, BUN, cholesterol, total serum protein, fibrinogen, and thrombin time in case study and group control showed no significant difference. Also, in withdrawing case serum level of Na, Ca, UA, BUN, creatinine, and TG significantly increase and thrombin time decrease. According to this study not only the longtime use of opium but also opium with drawerin opium dependent people can change their serum biochemical factors. So recognition, treatment, and prevention of this change could be a new step in improving of health and condition of patients.

  6. A Prospective Cohort Study of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Risk and Opium Addiction in South Eastern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Aflatoonian, Mohammad Reza; Sharifi, Iraj; Hakimi Parizi, Maryam; Fekri, Ali Reza; Aflatoonian, Behnaz; Sharifi, Maryam; Khosravi, Ahmad; Khamesipour, Ali; Sharifi, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Opium addiction and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) are endemic in different parts of Iran, particularly in Bam, where a massive earthquake occurred. This study was designed to compare the incidence rate and severity of CL cases among opium addicted and non-addicted individuals in south-eastern Iran. This study was carried out as a prospective cohort by active house-to-house visits of 1,481 habitants in Bam. CL cases were confirmed by smear and identification of Leishmania species was performed using nested-PCR. The data was analyzed by χ2 and t-tests, using SPSS software and also Kaplan-Meier survival curve and long-rank test in Stata 11.2 and P<0.05 was considered as significant. A total of 904 individuals consisting of 226 opium addicted and 678 non-addicted individuals were followed-up for a period of seven years. The two cohorts were similar in terms of age, sex and place of residency. A similar pattern of incidence was observed among the two cohort groups. In contrast, the severity of CL in terms of the number, duration and the size of the lesions in opium addicted individuals was significantly (P<0.001) higher than non-opium addicted individuals. In conclusion, the present findings indicate that there is no relationship between the incidence of CL and opium addiction. PMID:24586494

  7. The Effects of Maternal Opium Abuse on Fetal Heart Rate using Non-Stress Test

    PubMed Central

    Keikha, Fatemeh; Vahdani, Fahimeh Ghotbizadeh; Latifi, Sahar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Opium is one of the most commonly abused opiates in developing countries including Iran. Considering the importance of maternal health on the newborn, we aimed to assess the effect of opium abuse on fetal heart rate (FHR) characteristics in a sample of pregnant women in Zahedan, Southeast Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on 100 pregnant women referring to Ali-Ibn-Abi Talib Hospital in Zahedan, during 2011-2013. The participants were divided into two groups comprising of opium abusers and healthy individuals. The participants received 500cc intravenous fluid containing dextrose and then non-stress test results were recorded for 20 minutes. Results: We found no significant difference between the two groups with respect to their demographic characteristics. Fetal movements, variability, acceleration, and reactivity were significantly higher among addicted women (P<0.0001 for all). Periodic change was 9.8 times higher among opium abusers compared with the healthy women. Abnormal variability or oscillations of <15 beats/min, which indicates lack of beat-to-beat variability, was significantly higher in the fetuses of addicted mothers (P<0.0001). Conclusion: Considering significant abnormal patterns in FHR characteristics among the opium abuser group, mothers addicted to opium need specific prenatal care. PMID:27853327

  8. Opium addiction increases interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) in the coronary artery disease patients.

    PubMed

    Saadat, Habibollah; Ziai, Seyed Ali; Ghanemnia, Maryam; Namazi, Mohammad Hasan; Safi, Morteza; Vakili, Hosein; Dabbagh, Ali; Gholami, Omid

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that opium addiction has immunosuppressant effects. Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a condition resulted from atherosclerosis which is dependent on the immune response. To evaluate plasma levels of interleukin-6 and interleukin-1Ra in 30 patients with three-vessel coronary artery disease, ejection fraction of more than 35% and to evaluate their changes after prognostic treadmill test in 15 opium addicted and 15 non-addicted patients. The participants underwent prognostic treadmill test and plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1Ra (IL-1Ra) were evaluated with ELISA method before, just after and 4 hours after the test. IL-1Ra (2183 pg/ml) tended to decrease over time in the opium addicted group (1372 pg/ml after prognostic treadmill test and 1034 pg/ml 4 hours after that), although such decrease did not reach the statistical significance. IL-1Ra levels were significantly higher in opium addicted than in non addicted patients. Opium addiction had no significant effect on IL-6 changes. Consumption of opium in CAD patients is associated with higher IL-1Ra levels.

  9. Effect of opium on glucose metabolism and lipid profiles in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    PubMed

    Sadeghian, Saeed; Boroumand, Mohammad Ali; Sotoudeh-Anvari, Maryam; Rabbani, Shahram; Sheikhfathollahi, Mahmood; Abbasi, Ali

    2009-01-01

    This experimental study was performed to determine the impact of opium use on serum lipid profile and glucose metabolism in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. To determine the effect of opium, 20 male rats were divided into control (n = 10) and opium-treated (n = 10) groups. After diabetes induction, the animals were investigated for daily glucose measurements for 35 days. Serum lipid profile and haemoglobin A1c (HbA(1c)) were assayed at the baseline (before induction of diabetes) and at 35-day follow-up. The glycaemia levels in the rats treated with opium were similar to the levels measured in the control rats (544.8 +/- 62.2 mg/dl v. 524.6 +/- 50.0 mg/dl, P = 0.434). In addition, there was no difference between the opium-treated rats and control rats in HbA(1c) (6.5 +/- 0.5% v. 6.6 +/- 0.2%, P = 0.714). Compared to the control rats, the serum total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), triglyceride and lipoprotein (a) in the test animals were similar. Opium use has no significant effect on glucose metabolism and serum lipid profile in rats with induced diabetes.

  10. Opium Addiction Increases Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist (IL-1Ra) in the Coronary Artery Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Saadat, Habibollah; Ziai, Seyed Ali; Ghanemnia, Maryam; Namazi, Mohammad Hasan; Safi, Morteza; Vakili, Hosein; Dabbagh, Ali; Gholami, Omid

    2012-01-01

    Background There is evidence that opium addiction has immunosuppressant effects. Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a condition resulted from atherosclerosis which is dependent on the immune response. Purpose To evaluate plasma levels of interleukin-6 and interleukin-1Ra in 30 patients with three-vessel coronary artery disease, ejection fraction of more than 35% and to evaluate their changes after prognostic treadmill test in 15 opium addicted and 15 non-addicted patients. Methods The participants underwent prognostic treadmill test and plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1Ra (IL-1Ra) were evaluated with ELISA method before, just after and 4 hours after the test. Results IL-1Ra (2183 pg/ml) tended to decrease over time in the opium addicted group (1372 pg/ml after prognostic treadmill test and 1034 pg/ml 4 hours after that), although such decrease did not reach the statistical significance. IL-1Ra levels were significantly higher in opium addicted than in non addicted patients. Opium addiction had no significant effect on IL-6 changes. Conclusion Consumption of opium in CAD patients is associated with higher IL-1Ra levels. PMID:23028694

  11. Opium and bladder cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the odds ratios for opium use and the risk of bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Afshari, Mahdi; Janbabaei, Ghasem; Bahrami, Mohammad Amin

    2017-01-01

    Objective The association between opium use and bladder cancer has been investigated in many studies, with varying reporting results reported. This study aims to estimate the total odds ratio for the association between bladder cancer and opium consumption using meta-analysis. Methods The study was designed according to PRISMA guidelines. Two independent researchers searched for the relevant studies using PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, OVID, Embase, and Google Scholar. After systematic screening of the studies identified during the first step, Cochrane risk of bias tool was determined for the selected studies. The case-control and the cohort studies were investigated to assess risk of bladder cancer due to opium use. In addition, the cross-sectional studies were analysed separately to assess frequency of opium consumption. These estimates were combined using the inverse variance method. Fixed or random effect models were applied to combine the point odds ratios. The heterogeneity between the primary results was assessed using the Cochran test and I-square index. The suspected factors for heterogeneity were investigated using meta-regression models. An Egger test was conducted to identify any probable publication bias. Forest plots illustrated the point and pooled estimates. All analyses were performed using Stata version 14 software and RevMan version 5.3. Results We included 17 primary studies (11 case-control, one cohort and five cross-sectional) in the final meta-analysis. The total odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for developing bladder cancer by opium use alone, and concurrent use of opium and cigarettes were estimated as 3.85 (3.05–4.87) and 5.7 (1.9–16.3) respectively. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for opium use with or without cigarette smoking was estimated as 5.3 (3.6–7.7). Conclusion This meta-analysis showed that opium use similar to cigarette smoking and maybe with similar mechanisms can be a risk factor for bladder cancer. It

  12. Opium and bladder cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the odds ratios for opium use and the risk of bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Afshari, Mahdi; Janbabaei, Ghasem; Bahrami, Mohammad Amin; Moosazadeh, Mahmood

    2017-01-01

    The association between opium use and bladder cancer has been investigated in many studies, with varying reporting results reported. This study aims to estimate the total odds ratio for the association between bladder cancer and opium consumption using meta-analysis. The study was designed according to PRISMA guidelines. Two independent researchers searched for the relevant studies using PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, OVID, Embase, and Google Scholar. After systematic screening of the studies identified during the first step, Cochrane risk of bias tool was determined for the selected studies. The case-control and the cohort studies were investigated to assess risk of bladder cancer due to opium use. In addition, the cross-sectional studies were analysed separately to assess frequency of opium consumption. These estimates were combined using the inverse variance method. Fixed or random effect models were applied to combine the point odds ratios. The heterogeneity between the primary results was assessed using the Cochran test and I-square index. The suspected factors for heterogeneity were investigated using meta-regression models. An Egger test was conducted to identify any probable publication bias. Forest plots illustrated the point and pooled estimates. All analyses were performed using Stata version 14 software and RevMan version 5.3. We included 17 primary studies (11 case-control, one cohort and five cross-sectional) in the final meta-analysis. The total odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for developing bladder cancer by opium use alone, and concurrent use of opium and cigarettes were estimated as 3.85 (3.05-4.87) and 5.7 (1.9-16.3) respectively. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for opium use with or without cigarette smoking was estimated as 5.3 (3.6-7.7). This meta-analysis showed that opium use similar to cigarette smoking and maybe with similar mechanisms can be a risk factor for bladder cancer. It is therefore expected to be a risk factor

  13. Opium use during pregnancy and risk of preterm delivery: A population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Cnattingius, Sven; Montgomery, Scott; Aarabi, Mohsen; Semnani, Shahriar; Wikström, Anna-Karin; Bahmanyar, Shahram

    2017-01-01

    Background Use of narcotic or “recreational” drugs has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preterm delivery. However, the associations might be confounded by other factors related to high-risk behaviours. This is the first study to investigate the association between traditional opium use during pregnancy and risk of preterm delivery. Method and findings We performed a population-based cohort study in the rural areas of the Golestan province, Iran between 2008 and 2010. We randomly selected 920 women who used (usually smoked) opium during pregnancy and 920 women who did not. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between the opium use during pregnancy and preterm delivery and adjustment was made for potential confounding factors. This study shows compared with non-use of opium and tobacco, use of only opium during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery (OR = 1.56; 95% CI 1.05–2.32), and the risk was more than two-fold increased among dual users of opium and tobacco (OR = 2.31; 95% CI 1.37–3.90). We observed that opium use only was associated with a doubled risk for preterm caesarean delivery (OR = 2.05; 95% CI 1.10–3.82) but not for preterm vaginal delivery (OR = 1.25; 95% CI 0.75–2.07). Dual use of opium and tobacco was associated with a substantially increased risk of vaginal preterm delivery (OR = 2.58; 95% CI 1.41–4.71). Conclusions Opium use during pregnancy among non-tobacco smokers is associated with an increased risk of preterm caesarean delivery, indicating an increased risk of a compromised foetus before or during labour. Women who use both opium and smoked during pregnancy have an increased risk of preterm vaginal delivery, indicating an increased risk of spontaneous preterm delivery. PMID:28448546

  14. Comparison of serum and urine lead levels in opium addicts with healthy control group.

    PubMed

    Khatibi-Moghadam, H; Khadem-Rezaiyan, M; Afshari, R

    2016-08-01

    Lead-contaminated opium is one of the new sources of lead exposure in our region. As far as the literature review is concerned, there are limited comparative studies about comparison of blood lead level (BLL) in addict patients with healthy controls. We aimed to compare BLL and urine lead level (ULL) between opium addicts with the healthy control group. Forty opium addict subjects (mean age: 43 ± 10 years) as the patient group and 40 healthy subjects (mean age: 41 ± 9 years) as the control group participated. Three milliliter of whole blood and urine was obtained from both groups and lead level was assessed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The mean value of BLL in patient group was 7.14 ± 1.41 mcg/dL and that in the healthy control group was 5.42 ± 1.46 mcg/dL. The mean value of ULL was 2.62 ± 0.83 mcg/dL in the patient group and 2.50 ± 0.76 mcg/dL in the healthy control group.BLL was different in the two groups (p < 0.001), but ULL was not (p = 0.5). There was a significant correlation between BLL with duration of opium addiction in the patient group (r = -0.403, p = 0.01). BLL and ULL were significantly correlated in controls (r = 0.436, p = 0.005) and not in patients. It was observed that the BLL in opium addicts was significantly higher than that in the healthy control group. This can be due to use of adulterated opium with lead. Therefore, screening of blood lead concentration is helpful for opium-addict patients especially with nonspecific symptoms. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. A Review on Hematological Factors in Opioid-Dependent People (Opium and Heroin) after the Withdrawal Period

    PubMed Central

    Haghpanah, Tahereh; Afarinesh, Mohammadreza; Divsalar, Kouros

    2010-01-01

    Background: Long-term use of opioids has acute effects on homeostasis of the body. Discovering the impacts of opioids on hematological parameters of narcotics withdrawal and dependents blood may be helpful in recognizing the homeostasis condition of their body for the useful treatment. Methods: In this study a cross-sectional method was applied. The abusers of opium and heroin for more than two consecutive years were considered as opium and heroin dependent groups, respectively. The dependent people, who passed the 1-month withdrawal period, entered the study as opium and heroin withdrawal groups. In this study, hematological factors of heroin and opium dependent and withdrawal groups were investigated. Findings: The RBC count remained unchanged in all groups. The WBC count had a significant increase in opium dependent group but in heroin dependent group and withdrawal group there was no significant difference. HGB level had a significant increase only in opium and heroin withdrawal groups. The percentage of HCT had a significant increase in all groups. The MCV increased in heroin and opium dependent groups. MCH level increased significantly in heroin and opium withdrawal groups. MCHC level had a significant increase in all groups. Neutrophil and lymphocyte counts in heroin and opium addicted groups significantly decreased. Platelet, neutrophil and monocyte counts significantly increased in opium dependent group. Monocyte countshowed a significant reduction in heroin withdrawal group. Eosinophil count showed no difference in any of the groups. Conclusion: The current study indicated that not only the chronic and long-term use of opium and heroin, also withdrawal of addicted people could change hematological parameters related to human serum. PMID:24494095

  16. Outcomes and long-term survival of coronary artery surgery: The controversial role of opium as risk marker

    PubMed Central

    Najafi, Mahdi; Jahangiry, Leila; Mortazavi, Seyedeh Hamideh; Jalali, Arash; Karimi, Abbasali; Bozorgi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    AIM To study survival in isolated coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) patients and to evaluate the impact of preoperative chronic opium consumption on long-term outcome. METHODS Cohort of 566 isolated CABG patients as Tehran Heart Center cardiac output measurement was conducted. Daily evaluation until discharge as well as 4- and 12-mo and 6.5-year follow-up information for survival status were fulfilled for all patients. Long-term 6.5-year overall and opium-stratified survival, adjusted survival curves based on opium consumption as well as possible predictors of all-cause mortality using multiple cox regression were determined by statistical analysis. RESULTS Six point five-year overall survival was 91.8%; 86.6% in opium consumers and 92.7% in non-opium consumers (P = 0.035). Patients with positive history of opium consumption significantly tended to have lower ejection fraction (EF), higher creatinine level and higher prevalence of myocardial infarction. Multiple predictors of all-cause mortality included age, body mass index, EF, diabetes mellitus and cerebrovascular accident. The hazard ratio (HR) of 2.09 for the risk of mortality in opium addicted patients with a borderline P value (P = 0.052) was calculated in this model. Further adjustment with stratification based on smoking and opium addiction reduced the HR to 1.20 (P = 0.355). CONCLUSION Simultaneous impact of smoking as a confounding variable in most of the patients prevents from definitive judgment on the role of opium as an independent contributing factor in worse long-term survival of CABG patients in addition to advanced age, low EF, diabetes mellitus and cerebrovascular accident. Meanwhile, our findings do not confirm any cardio protective role for opium to improve outcome in coronary patients with the history of smoking. Further studies are needed to clarify pure effect of opium and warrant the aforementioned findings. PMID:27957254

  17. Prickly poppies can get pricklier: ontogenetic patterns in the induction of physical defense traits.

    PubMed

    Hoan, Ryan P; Ormond, Rhys A; Barton, Kasey E

    2014-01-01

    Plant ontogeny is a common source of variation in defense and herbivory. Yet, few studies have investigated how the induction of physical defense traits changes across plant ontogeny. Physical defense traits are costly to produce, and thus, it was predicted that induction as a cost-saving strategy would be particularly favorable for seedlings, leading to ontogenetic declines in the inducibility of these traits. We tested for induction of three different physical defense traits (prickles, latex and leaf toughness) in response to mechanical defoliation and jasmonic acid application using prickly poppies (Argemone glauca and A. mexicana, Papaveraceae) as a model system. Genetic variation in the induction of physical defenses was tested using maternal sib-ships sampled from multiple populations. Both species induced higher densities of laminar prickles, although the magnitude of induction was much higher in the endemic Hawaiian prickly poppy, A. glauca, than in the cosmopolitan A. mexicana. The magnitude of prickle induction was also higher in young compared to older juvenile plant stages in A. glauca, demonstrating a strong role of ontogeny. Neither latex exudation nor leaf toughness was induced in either species. Although significant genetic variation was detected within and among populations for constitutive expression of physical defense traits in Argemone, there was no evidence for genetic variation in the induction of these traits. This study provides the first evidence for the induction of physical defenses in prickly poppies, emphasizing how an ontogenetically explicit framework can reveal new insights into plant defense. Moreover, this study illustrates how sister species comparisons between island vs. continental plants can provide new insights into plant functional and evolutionary ecology, highlighting a fruitful area for future research on more species pairs.

  18. Prickly Poppies Can Get Pricklier: Ontogenetic Patterns in the Induction of Physical Defense Traits

    PubMed Central

    Hoan, Ryan P.; Ormond, Rhys A.; Barton, Kasey E.

    2014-01-01

    Plant ontogeny is a common source of variation in defense and herbivory. Yet, few studies have investigated how the induction of physical defense traits changes across plant ontogeny. Physical defense traits are costly to produce, and thus, it was predicted that induction as a cost-saving strategy would be particularly favorable for seedlings, leading to ontogenetic declines in the inducibility of these traits. We tested for induction of three different physical defense traits (prickles, latex and leaf toughness) in response to mechanical defoliation and jasmonic acid application using prickly poppies (Argemone glauca and A. mexicana, Papaveraceae) as a model system. Genetic variation in the induction of physical defenses was tested using maternal sib-ships sampled from multiple populations. Both species induced higher densities of laminar prickles, although the magnitude of induction was much higher in the endemic Hawaiian prickly poppy, A. glauca, than in the cosmopolitan A. mexicana. The magnitude of prickle induction was also higher in young compared to older juvenile plant stages in A. glauca, demonstrating a strong role of ontogeny. Neither latex exudation nor leaf toughness was induced in either species. Although significant genetic variation was detected within and among populations for constitutive expression of physical defense traits in Argemone, there was no evidence for genetic variation in the induction of these traits. This study provides the first evidence for the induction of physical defenses in prickly poppies, emphasizing how an ontogenetically explicit framework can reveal new insights into plant defense. Moreover, this study illustrates how sister species comparisons between island vs. continental plants can provide new insights into plant functional and evolutionary ecology, highlighting a fruitful area for future research on more species pairs. PMID:24802133

  19. Oedema disease in chickens caused by Mexican poppy (Argemone mexicana) seed.

    PubMed

    Norton, J H; O'Rourke, P K

    1980-04-01

    Ground Mexican poppy (Argemone mexicana) seed produced growth depression, oedema and death when fed at 1% and 3% of a basal ration to day-old, layer strain, cockerel chickens. The mortality rate was increased by raising the sodium chloride content of the basal ration from 0.18% to 1.68%. Clinical signs consisted of subcutaneous oedema, a high pitched chirp and terminal gasping. Hydropericardium, oedema of the lungs, and subcutaneous oedema of the thorax, abdomen, wings, neck and throat were the major lesions. Foci of calcificaton were present in the ventricular myocardium of some chickens fed 3% A. mexicana.

  20. Head group specificity of phospholipase D isoenzymes from poppy seedlings (Papaver somniferum L.).

    PubMed

    Oblozinsky, M; Ulbrich-Hofmann, R; Bezakova, L

    2005-02-01

    The biocatalytical potential of two new phospholipase D (PLD) isoenzymes from poppy seedlings (Papaver somniferum L.), PLD-A and PLD-B, was examined by comparing their activities in phospholipid transformation. Both enzymes showed the same ratio in rates of hydrolysis [phosphatidylcholine (PC):phosphatidylglycerol (PG):phosphatidylserine:phosphatidylinositol = 1:0.5:0.3:0.1] and were inactive towards phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). PLD-A did not catalyze head group exchange whereas PLD-B showed a high transphosphatidylation potential in the conversion of PC into PG and PE. This enzyme also catalyzed the transesterification of octadecylphosphocholine into octadecylphosphoglycerol or octadecylphosphoethanolamine.

  1. Morphine and codeine in oral fluid after controlled poppy seed administration.

    PubMed

    Concheiro, Marta; Newmeyer, Matthew N; da Costa, Jose Luiz; Flegel, Ron; Gorelick, David A; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2015-07-01

    Opiates are an important drug class in drug testing programmes. Ingestion of poppy seeds containing morphine and codeine can yield positive opiate tests and mislead result interpretation in forensic and clinical settings. Multiple publications evaluated urine opiate concentrations following poppy seed ingestion, but only two addressed oral fluid (OF) results; neither provided the ingested morphine and codeine dosage. We administered two 45 g raw poppy seed doses, each containing 15.7 mg morphine and 3.1 mg codeine, 8 h apart to 17 healthy adults. All OF specimens were screened by on-site OF immunoassay Draeger DrugTest 5000, and confirmed with OF collected with Oral-Eze® device and quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (1 µg/L morphine and codeine limits of quantification). Specimens (n = 459) were collected before and up to 32 h after the first dose. All specimens screened positive 0.5 h after dosing and remained positive for 0.5-13 h at Draeger 20 µg/L morphine cut-off. Maximum OF morphine and codeine concentrations (Cmax ) were 177 and 32.6 µg/L, with times to Cmax (Tmax ) of 0.5-1 h and 0.5-2.5 h post-dose, respectively. Windows of detection after the second dose extended at least 24 h for morphine and to 18 h for codeine. After both doses, the last morphine positive OF result was 1 h with 40 µg/L 2004 proposed US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration cut-off, and 0.5 h with 95 µg/L cut-off, recently recommended by the Driving under the Influence of Drugs and Medicines project. Positive OF morphine results are possible 0.5-1 h after ingestion of 15.7 mg of morphine in raw poppy seeds, depending on the cut-off employed. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Randomized controlled trial of postoperative belladonna and opium rectal suppositories in vaginal surgery.

    PubMed

    Butler, Kristina; Yi, John; Wasson, Megan; Klauschie, Jennifer; Ryan, Debra; Hentz, Joseph; Cornella, Jeffrey; Magtibay, Paul; Kho, Roseanne

    2017-05-01

    After vaginal surgery, oral and parenteral narcotics are used commonly for pain relief, and their use may exacerbate the incidence of sedation, nausea, and vomiting, which ultimately delays convalescence. Previous studies have demonstrated that rectal analgesia after surgery results in lower pain scores and less intravenous morphine consumption. Belladonna and opium rectal suppositories may be used to relieve pain and minimize side effects; however, their efficacy has not been confirmed. We aimed to evaluate the use of belladonna and opium suppositories for pain reduction in vaginal surgery. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that used belladonna and opium suppositories after inpatient or outpatient vaginal surgery was conducted. Vaginal surgery was defined as (1) vaginal hysterectomy with uterosacral ligament suspension or (2) posthysterectomy prolapse repair that included uterosacral ligament suspension and/or colporrhaphy. Belladonna and opium 16A (16.2/60 mg) or placebo suppositories were administered rectally immediately after surgery and every 8 hours for a total of 3 doses. Patient-reported pain data were collected with the use of a visual analog scale (at 2, 4, 12, and 20 hours postoperatively. Opiate use was measured and converted into parenteral morphine equivalents. The primary outcome was pain, and secondary outcomes included pain medication, antiemetic medication, and a quality of recovery questionnaire. Adverse effects were surveyed at 24 hours and 7 days. Concomitant procedures for urinary incontinence or pelvic organ prolapse did not preclude enrollment. Ninety women were randomly assigned consecutively at a single institution under the care of a fellowship-trained surgeon group. Demographics did not differ among the groups with mean age of 55 years, procedure time of 97 minutes, and prolapse at 51%. Postoperative pain scores were equivalent among both groups at each time interval. The belladonna and opium group used a

  3. Opium consumption and risk of bladder cancer: A case-control analysis.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Seyyed Yousof; Safarinejad, Mohammad Reza; Amini, Erfan; Hooshyar, Hassan

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the relationship between opium consumption and bladder cancer (BC) in a case-control study of an Iranian population. In a hospital-based case-control study of 179 patients with BC and 179 cancer-free controls frequency-matched by age, sex, and smoking status, we investigated the relationship between opium consumption and BC. A comprehensive epidemiologic interview was conducted on all participants to collect personal information, such as demographics and smoking status. Overall, we found significant age, sex, cigarette smoking adjusted association between BC risk and opium consumption, [odds ratio (OR) = 4.60; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 3.53-6.28]. The elevated risk was more evident in older individuals (OR = 5.42; 95% CI, 4.12-7.28) than younger individuals (OR = 3.65; 95% CI, 2.76-4.76) (P = 0.01). Heavy smokers with the opium consumption exhibited a 6-fold elevated risk for BC (OR = 6.16; 95% CI, 3.34-8.32) (P = 0.0001). When stratified according to different grades of BC, a 3.4-fold increased risk was associated with the opium consumption in grade III with an OR of 3.44 (95% CI, 2.82-8.28) (P = 0.001). A similar but slightly higher risk was also seen in case of grade IV tumors (OR = 3.86; 95% CI, 2.14-10.16) (P = 0.001). Invasive bladder tumors were more common among the opiates users (OR = 2.6; 95% CI, 1.44-5.42) (P = 0.01). Cumulative risk of BC in women with opium consumption (OR = 4.10 95% CI, 3.54-5.88) (P = 0.001) was slightly less than in men (OR = 5.10 95% CI, 3.54-5.88) (P = 0.0001). Based on Pearson correlations, the risk of BC significantly correlated with opium dependence duration (r = 0.74, P = 0.001), type of opiate used (r = 0.65, P = 0.001), and simultaneous cigarette smoking (r = 0.74, P = 0.0001). The results indicated that there is about 5-fold increase in risk of developing this cancer in the presence of opium consumption. Further research is needed to investigate the functional implications of the opium consumption in BC

  4. Fasting Blood Glucose and Insulin Level in Opium Addict versus Non-Addict Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Gozashti, Mohammad Hossein; Yazdi, Farzaneh; Salajegheh, Pouria; Dehesh, Mohammad Moein; Divsalar, Kouros

    2015-01-01

    Background Many of lay person believe that opium lowers blood glucose. However some studies show the opposite results. In this study, we tried to evaluate the effect of opium on blood glucose and insulin resistance. Methods This comparative study including 53 addicts in case groups who used opium just in the form of smoking and 55 non-addicts in a control group, took part in the study, after proving not to be opium users. After taking blood samples, their fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting blood insulin and lipid profiles were evaluated. Furthermore, insulin resistance index was analyzed via the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) formula with the cut-off points of 7.2 and 7.1. Findings Age and gender were not significantly different between the groups. There was no significant difference regarding the prevalence of insulin resistance between the two groups, according to the cut-off points of 7.1 and 7.2 (P = 0.196 and P = 0.248, respectively). Mean insulin resistance index was not significantly different between the two groups (P = 0.325). In the case group, fasting blood insulin was considerably lower (P = 0.025) and fasting blood sugar (FBS) was significantly higher (P = 0.016) than the control group. Conclusion According to the level of insulin and FBS in addicts, it does not seem that opium has a significant effect on reducing the blood glucose and insulin resistance. PMID:26322211

  5. The global diversion of pharmaceutical drugs. India: the third largest illicit opium producer?

    PubMed

    Paoli, Letizia; Greenfield, Victoria A; Charles, Molly; Reuter, Peter

    2009-03-01

    This paper explores India's role in the world illicit opiate market, particularly its role as a producer. India, a major illicit opiate consumer, is also the sole licensed exporter of raw opium: this unique status may be enabling substantial diversion to the illicit market. Participant observation and interviews were carried out at eight different sites. Information was also drawn from all standard secondary sources and the analysis of about 180 drug-related criminal proceedings reviewed by Indian High Courts and the Supreme Court from 1985 to 2001. Diversion from licit opium production takes place on such a large scale that India may be the third largest illicit opium producer after Afghanistan and Burma. With the possible exceptions of 2005 and 2006, 200-300 tons of India's opium may be diverted yearly. After estimating India's opiate consumption on the basis of UN-reported prevalence estimates, we find that diversion from licit production might have satisfied a quarter to more than a third of India's illicit opiate demand to 2004. India is not only among the world's largest consumer of illicit opiates but also one of the largest illicit opium producers. In contrast to all other illicit producers, India owes the latter distinction not to blatantly illicit cultivation but to diversion from licit cultivation. India's experience suggests the difficulty of preventing substantial leakage, even in a relatively well-governed nation.

  6. Opium use, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption in relation to pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Shakeri, Ramin; Kamangar, Farin; Mohamadnejad, Mehdi; Tabrizi, Reza; Zamani, Farhad; Mohamadkhani, Ashraf; Nikfam, Sepideh; Nikmanesh, Arash; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Sotoudehmanesh, Rasoul; Shahbazkhani, Bijan; Ostovaneh, Mohammad Reza; Islami, Farhad; Poustchi, Hossein; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza; Pourshams, Akram

    2016-07-01

    Although several studies have suggested opium as a risk factor for cancers of the esophagus, stomach, larynx, lung, and bladder, no previous study has examined the association of opium with pancreatic cancer. We aimed to study the association between opium use and risk of pancreatic cancer in Iran, using a case-control design. We also studied the association of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption with pancreatic cancer, for which little information was available from this population. Cases and controls were selected from patients who were referred to 4 endoscopic ultrasound centers in Tehran, Iran. We recruited 316 histopathologically (all adenocarcinoma) and 41 clinically diagnosed incident cases of pancreatic cancer, as well as 328 controls from those with a normal pancreas in enodosonography from January 2011 to January 2015. We used logistic regression models to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). After adjustment for potential confounders, opium use (OR 1.91; 95% CI 1.06-3.43) and alcohol consumption (OR 4.16; 95% CI 1.86-9.31) were significantly associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer. We did not find an association between ever tobacco smoking and pancreatic cancer risk (OR 0.93; 95% CI 0.62-1.39). In our study, opium use and alcohol consumption were associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer, whereas cigarette smoking was not.

  7. Opium use, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption in relation to pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shakeri, Ramin; Kamangar, Farin; Mohamadnejad, Mehdi; Tabrizi, Reza; Zamani, Farhad; Mohamadkhani, Ashraf; Nikfam, Sepideh; Nikmanesh, Arash; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Sotoudehmanesh, Rasoul; Shahbazkhani, Bijan; Ostovaneh, Mohammad Reza; Islami, Farhad; Poustchi, Hossein; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza; Pourshams, Akram

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background and Aims: Although several studies have suggested opium as a risk factor for cancers of the esophagus, stomach, larynx, lung, and bladder, no previous study has examined the association of opium with pancreatic cancer. We aimed to study the association between opium use and risk of pancreatic cancer in Iran, using a case-control design. We also studied the association of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption with pancreatic cancer, for which little information was available from this population. Methods: Cases and controls were selected from patients who were referred to 4 endoscopic ultrasound centers in Tehran, Iran. We recruited 316 histopathologically (all adenocarcinoma) and 41 clinically diagnosed incident cases of pancreatic cancer, as well as 328 controls from those with a normal pancreas in enodosonography from January 2011 to January 2015. We used logistic regression models to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: After adjustment for potential confounders, opium use (OR 1.91; 95% CI 1.06–3.43) and alcohol consumption (OR 4.16; 95% CI 1.86–9.31) were significantly associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer. We did not find an association between ever tobacco smoking and pancreatic cancer risk (OR 0.93; 95% CI 0.62–1.39). Conclusion: In our study, opium use and alcohol consumption were associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer, whereas cigarette smoking was not. PMID:27428185

  8. Opium use and mortality in Golestan Cohort Study: prospective cohort study of 50,000 adults in Iran.

    PubMed

    Khademi, Hooman; Malekzadeh, Reza; Pourshams, Akram; Jafari, Elham; Salahi, Rasool; Semnani, Shahryar; Abaie, Behrooz; Islami, Farhad; Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh; Etemadi, Arash; Byrnes, Graham; Abnet, Christian C; Dawsey, Sanford M; Day, Nicholas E; Pharoah, Paul D; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Kamangar, Farin

    2012-04-17

    To investigate the association between opium use and subsequent risk of death. Prospective cohort study. The Golestan Cohort Study in north-eastern Iran collected detailed validated data on opium use and other exposures at baseline. Participants were enrolled between January 2004 and June 2008 and were followed to May 2011, with a follow-up success rate of over 99%. 50,045 participants aged 40-75 at baseline. Mortality, all cause and major subcategories. 17% (n = 8487) of the participants reported opium use, with a mean duration of 12.7 years. During the follow-up period 2145 deaths were reported. The adjusted hazard ratio for all cause mortality associated with ever use of opium was 1.86 (95% confidence interval 1.68 to 2.06). Opium consumption was significantly associated with increased risks of deaths from several causes including circulatory diseases (hazard ratio 1.81) and cancer (1.61). The strongest associations were seen with deaths from asthma, tuberculosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (11.0, 6.22, and 5.44, respectively). After exclusion of people who self prescribed opium after the onset of major chronic illnesses, the associations remained strong with a dose-response relation. Opium users have an increased risk of death from multiple causes compared with non-users. Increased risks were also seen in people who used low amounts of opium for a long period and those who had no major illness before use.

  9. Sleep Disorders in Methadone Maintenance Treatment Volunteers and Opium-dependent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Khazaie, Habibolah; Najafi, Farid; Ghadami, Mohammad Rasoul; Azami, Atena; Nasouri, Marzieh; Tahmasian, Masoud; Khaledi-Paveh, Behnam

    2016-01-01

    Background The relationship between substance use and sleep is bidirectional. Substance use directly causessleep disturbances, and sleep problems are a critical factor in substance-use relapse. Methods This study evaluated sleep disorders in 65 methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) patients, and61 opium-dependent patients who did not receive any treatment between September 2011 and July 2012 inKermanshah, Iran. Both groups filled out the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Global SleepAssessment Questionnaire (GSAQ). Findings Sleep disorders were remarkably similar in both groups: 78.5% of MMT patients and 87.7% ofopium-dependent patients suffered from sleep problems. Sleep disorders in the opium-dependent groupwere remarkably higher and more prominent. Conclusion Compared to opium, MMT does not have as many negative effects on sleep and is more effectivein mitigating sleep problems. PMID:27882205

  10. The pro-heroin effects of anti-opium laws in Asia.

    PubMed

    Westermeyer, J

    1976-09-01

    Over 25 years anti-opium laws were enacted by three Asian governments in countries where opium use was traditional. Within months, heroin use suddenly appeared; and within a decade, heroin addiction surpassed opium addiction. The laws led to (1) increased price of narcotic drugs, (2) a heroin "industry," (3) corruption of the law enforcement system, and (4) major health problems involving parenteral drug use. The Asian experience indicates that antinarcotic laws can be effective only with careful preparations: (1) changing society's attitude toward the traditional drug from ambivalence to opposition; (2) mobilizing resources to treat and rehabilitate all addicts within a short period of time; (3) developing the social will to incarcerate all "recidivist" addicts for a prolonged period; and (4) preventing narcotic production or importation.

  11. Effect of unconventional oilseeds (safflower, poppy, hemp, camelina) on in vitro ruminal methane production and fermentation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaopu; Kreuzer, Michael; Braun, Ueli; Schwarm, Angela

    2017-08-01

    Dietary supplementation with oilseeds can reduce methane emission in ruminants, but only a few common seeds have been tested so far. This study tested safflower (Carthamus tinctorius), poppy (Papaver somniferum), hemp (Cannabis sativa), and camelina (Camelina sativa) seeds in vitro using coconut (Cocos nucifera) oil and linseed (Linum usitatissimum) as positive controls. All the tested oilseeds suppressed methane yield (mL g(-1) dry matter, up to 21%) compared to the non-supplemented control when provided at 70 g oil kg(-1) dry matter, and they were as effective as coconut oil. Safflower and hemp were more effective than linseed (21% and 18% vs. 10%), whereas the effects of poppy and camelina were similar to linseed. When methane was related to digestible organic matter, only hemp and safflower seeds and coconut oil were effective compared to the non-supplemented control (up to 11%). The level of methanogenesis and the ratios of either the n-6:n-3 fatty acids or C18:2 :C18:3 in the seed lipids were not related. Unconventional oilseeds widen the spectrum of oilseeds that can be used in dietary methane mitigation. In vivo confirmation of their methane mitigating effect is still needed, and their effects on animal performance still must be determined. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Evaluation of the role of opium addiction in acute myocardial infarction as a risk factor

    PubMed Central

    Khosoosi Niaki, Mohammad Reza; Hamid, Mahdizadeh; Farshidi, Fatemeh; Mohammadpour, Mehdi; Salehi Omran, Mohammad Taghi

    2013-01-01

    Background: More than half of myocardial infracted (MI) patients have no conventional risk factors. Regarding the belief that opium addiction has a protective effect on heart diseases, addiction prevalence has unfortunately increased in recent years. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of opium addiction on patients with acute myocardial infarction. Methods: This case-control study was performed on 118 patients with acute myocardial infarction admitted to CCU ward (case group), and 118 patients with no history of MI to other wards (control group) of Shahid Beheshti Hospital in Babol, Iran. Opium addiction conventional risk factors were evaluated for both groups, and the data were analyzed using chi-square test and logistic regression model was used to adjust the conventional risk factor effects. Moreover, demographic variables as well as the extent of MI (extensive or non-extensive), and infarction type (ST-elevated or non-ST elevated) also were evaluated. Results: Sixty-seven patients in MI and 6 subjects in control group had a history of opium consumption (p<0.0001, OR=24.5). Blood pressure, hyperlipidemia, and smoking showed a significant difference between the two groups (p<0.05), whereas, no significant difference was observed for diabetes and family history. The results of adjusted model report a significant effect of opium consumption with the development of MI (OR=26.3). No significant difference was found in terms of infarction type and the extent between the addicts and non addicts in MI group. Conclusion: The results show that opium addiction is a strong risk factor for myocardial infarction. PMID:24009941

  13. Analysis of volatile compounds and triglycerides of seed oils extracted from different poppy varieties (Papaver somniferum L.).

    PubMed

    Krist, Sabine; Stuebiger, Gerald; Unterweger, Heidrun; Bandion, Franz; Buchbauer, Gerhard

    2005-10-19

    Poppy seed oil (Oleum Papaveris Seminis) is used for culinary and pharmaceutical purposes, as well as for making soaps, paints, and varnishes. Astonishingly, hardly anything was yet known about the volatile compounds of this promising comestible. Likewise, there are no current published data about the triglyceride (TAG) composition of poppy seed oils available. In this investigation solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with DVB/Carboxen/PDMS Stable-Flex fiber was applied to the study of volatile compounds of several seed oil samples from Papaver somniferum L. (Papaveraceae). 1-Pentanol (3.3-4.9%), 1-hexanal (10.9-30.9%), 1-hexanol (5.3-33.7%), 2-pentylfuran (7.2-10.0%), and caproic acid (2.9-11.5%) could be identified as the main volatile compounds in all examined poppy seed oil samples. Furthermore, the TAG composition of these oils was analyzed by MALDI-ReTOF- and ESI-IT-MS/MS. The predominant TAG components were found to be composed of linoleic, oleic, and palmitic acid, comprising approximately 70% of the oils. TAG patterns of the different poppy varieties were found to be very homogeneous, showing also no significant differences in terms of the applied pressing method of the plant seeds.

  14. Poppy seeds: differences in morphine and codeine content and variation in inter- and intra-individual excretion.

    PubMed

    Pelders, M G; Ros, J J

    1996-03-01

    Poppy seeds from seven different origins (Dutch, Australian, Hungarian, Spanish, Czech, and two Turkish) were analyzed for the amount of opiates present. Four grams of each kind of seeds, equivalent to the amount of seeds on two bagels, were ingested by volunteers. One volunteer also ingested four times the same amount of poppy seeds from the same origin (Spanish). During 24 hours urine samples were obtained and screened for the presence of morphine and codeine using the FPIA technique (cut-off = 200 ng/mL) and a GC/MS confirmation with a limit of detection (LOD) of 25 ng/mL for codeine and morphine. Poppy seeds from different origins contain a wide variation of morphine (2-251 micro g/g) and codeine (0.4-57.1 micro g/g) content. No other opiate could be detected. After ingestion a large interindividual variation of excretion of opiates exists. The testing results from the same kind of seeds ingested four times with a one week interval by the same volunteer also show a poor reproduceability. Several kinds of poppy seeds can give positive testing results (Australian, Hungarian, Spanish and one kind of Turkish seeds). Within 24 hours all testing results became negative.

  15. The influence of interplant distance and number of flowers on seed set in dwarf bear-poppy (Arctomecon humilis)

    Treesearch

    K. T. Harper; Renee Van Buren; Zachary T. Aanderud

    2001-01-01

    Samples from three isolated populations of the dwarf bear-poppy (Arctomecon humilis Cov.) demonstrate that both flower pollination (fruit set) and seed set per fruit decline as interplant distances increase and the number of flowers per plant declines. Interplant distance and number of flowers per plant tend to interact with reproduction. Seed set per plant is most...

  16. The Mexican poppy poisons the Indian mustard facts and figures.

    PubMed

    Thatte, U; Dahanukar, S

    1999-03-01

    Argemone seeds are mixed with mustard seeds either accidentally or purposefully, and, ingestion of this contaminated oil can lead to often fatal "epidemic dropsy". The liver, heart, kidney and lungs are the major target organs of the toxins (the alkaloids, sanguinarine and dihydrosanguinarine) and damage is mostly caused by free radical (singlet oxygen and hydroxyl radical) to the cell membranes. Treatment at present is mainly symptomatic but therapy with anti-secretory agents for glaucoma and anti-oxidants/free radical scavengers for systemic manifestations appear to be logical.

  17. Blood lead level in opium dependents and its association with anemia: A cross-sectional study from the capital of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Domeneh, Behrooz Hashemi; Tavakoli, Nader; Jafari, Najmeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Opium dependence is one of the most challenging health problems in the developing countries as well as Iran. Among several health problems due to opium dependence, there are limited reports indicating the presence of lead in opium. The aim of this study is to investigate the blood lead level (BLL) in oral and inhalational opium dependents and its association with anemia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was done among 86 opium dependent patients who were referred to five large detoxification centers in Tehran city and 48 healthy individuals. BLL was assessed using the atomic absorption spectrometry technique. Multivariate analysis of variance and binary logistic regression analysis were performed for statistical assessment using SPSS version 18 for Windows. Results: The highest BLL was detected in oral opium dependent group (mean = 11.75, standard deviation (SD) = 6.06) in comparison to inhalational opium dependent group (mean = 7.07, SD = 3.61) and healthy control group (mean = 6.05, SD = 1.83). Anemia was detected in 38% of oral-opium dependent and 43% of inhalational-opium dependent group. Age (odds ratio (OR): 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-1.09) and opium dependence (OR: 3.59, 95% CI: 1.69-7.59) were significant predictors of anemia in these patients (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The results of this study confirmed the higher BLL in opium dependents, especially with an oral form of consumption. PMID:25538776

  18. Gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric analysis of morphine and codeine in human urine of poppy seed eaters.

    PubMed

    elSohly, H N; Stanford, D F; Jones, A B; elSohly, M A; Snyder, H; Pedersen, C

    1988-03-01

    In this study, poppy seeds were examined for a natural constituent that might serve as a maker for the seeds' ingestion as opposed to opiate abuse. Thebaine was selected as possible marker, since it was found to be a component of all poppy seeds examined and was not a natural component of different heroin samples. During the course of this investigation, a new extraction and cleanup procedure was developed for the gas chromatographic/nitrogen phosphorus detection (GC/NPD) and gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric (GC/MS) analysis of morphine and codeine in urine. A linear response, over a concentration range of 25 to 600 ng/mL, was obtained for codeine and morphine (r = 0.9982 and 0.9947, respectively). The minimum detectable level (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) for morphine were 10 and 30 ng/mL, respectively; whereas LOD and LOQ for codeine were 2 and 8 ng/mL, respectively. The coefficients of variance (CV, n = 6) for morphine and codeine analyses at the 100-ng/mL level were 13.3 and 4.6%, respectively. This procedure was used for the analysis of urine samples from five poppy seed eaters who each ingested 200 g of poppy seed cake. Results indicated that significant amounts of morphine and codeine are excreted in urine and that in all subjects, at least at one point in time, the apparent morphine concentration as determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA) analysis exceeded the cutoff value (300 ng/mL) established for screening. Thebaine was not detected in urine specimens collected following poppy seeds ingestion and thus could not be used as a marker.

  19. Did J. Marion Sims deliberately addict his first fistula patients to opium?

    PubMed

    Wall, L Lewis

    2007-07-01

    American surgeon J. Marion Sims (1813-83) is regarded by many modern authors as a controversial figure because he carried out a series of experimental surgeries on enslaved African American women between 1846 and 1849 in an attempt to cure them of vesicovaginal fistulas, which they had all developed as a result of prolonged obstructed labor. He operated on one woman, Anarcha Westcott, thirty times before he successfully closed her fistula. Sims performed these fistula repair operations without benefit of anesthesia but gave these women substantial doses of opium afterwards. Several modern writers have alleged that Sims did this in order to addict them to the drug and thereby to enhance his control over them. This article examines the controversy surrounding Sims' use of postoperative opium in these enslaved surgical patients. The evidence suggests that although these women were probably tolerant to the doses of opium that he used, there is no evidence that he deliberately tried to addict them to this drug. Sims' use of postoperative opium appears to have been well supported by the therapeutic practices of his day, and the regimen that he used was enthusiastically supported by many contemporary surgeons.

  20. Socio-Cultural Factors Associated with the Initiation of Opium Use in Darab, Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jafari, Siavash; Movaghar, Afarin Rahimi; Craib, Kevin; Baharlou, Souzan; Mathias, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to identify socio-cultural factors facilitating initiation of opium use among drug users in Darab, Iran. A qualitative study using in-depth interviews was conducted. The study began in June 2006 and included 76 drug users, aged 20-43, of whom 95% (72) were male, and 5% (4) were female. The five most common factors facilitating…

  1. Socio-Cultural Factors Associated with the Initiation of Opium Use in Darab, Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jafari, Siavash; Movaghar, Afarin Rahimi; Craib, Kevin; Baharlou, Souzan; Mathias, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to identify socio-cultural factors facilitating initiation of opium use among drug users in Darab, Iran. A qualitative study using in-depth interviews was conducted. The study began in June 2006 and included 76 drug users, aged 20-43, of whom 95% (72) were male, and 5% (4) were female. The five most common factors facilitating…

  2. Nature cures nature: Hypericum perforatum attenuates physical withdrawal signs in opium dependent rats.

    PubMed

    Khan, Munasib; Subhan, Fazal; Khan, Arif-Ullah; Abbas, Muzaffar; Ali, Gowhar; Rauf, Khalid; Gilani, Anwarul Hassan

    2014-05-01

    Hypericum perforatum Linn. (Hypericaceae) (St. John's wort) attenuates opium withdrawal signs. To explore the therapeutic potential of Hypericum perforatum in the management of opium-induced withdrawal syndrome. The effect of the Hypericum perforatum hydro-ethanol extract was investigated for potential to reverse naloxone (0.25 mg/kg)-induced opium withdrawal physical signs. Rats received opium extract (80-650 mg/kg) twice daily for 8 days along with Hypericum perforatum (20 mg/kg, orally) twice daily in chronic treatment and the same single dose 1 h before induction of withdrawal syndrome in the acute treated group. Hypericum perforatum reduced stereotype jumps and wet dog shake number in the chronic treatment compared to the saline control group (F(2, 24) = 3.968, p < 0. 05) and (F(2, 24) = 3.689, p < 0.05), respectively. The plant extract in the acutely treated group reduced diarrhea (F(2, 24) = 4.850, p < 0. 05 vs. saline). It decreased rectal temperature by chronic treatment at 30 min (F(2, 24) = 4.88, p < 0.05), 60 min (F(2, 240 = 5.364, p < 0.01) and 120 min (F(2, 24) = 4.907, p < 0.05). This study reveals that the extract of Hypericum perforatum attenuates some physical signs of opium withdrawal syndrome possibly through direct or indirect interaction with opioid receptors. Further study is needed to clarify its mechanism.

  3. Optimized LC/MS/MS analysis of morphine and codeine in poppy seed and evaluation of their fate during food processing as a basis for risk analysis.

    PubMed

    Sproll, Constanze; Perz, Roland C; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2006-07-26

    The opiate alkaloids present in poppy seed intended for use in food recently have raised major concerns. An efficient method for routine analysis of morphine and codeine using liquid chromatography in combination with tandem mass spectrometry on a triple quadrupole instrument (LC/MS/MS) was therefore developed. The optimal sample preparation was found to be cold extraction of 10 g of unground poppy seed with 30 mL of methanol containing 0.1% acetic acid for 60 min shaken at 250 rpm. The fate of morphine during food processing was also studied. All experiments led to a significant reduction of morphine and codeine. For poppy cake only 16-50% of the morphine was recovered, and in poppy buns at the highest temperature (220 degrees C) only 3% of the original morphine content was found. Ground poppy seed showed significantly lower recoveries than untreated seed. Morphine elimination during food processing has to be taken into account in the current discussion about its maximum limits in poppy seed.

  4. Coca and poppy eradication in Colombia: environmental and human health assessment of aerially applied glyphosate.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Keith R; Anadón, Arturo; Carrasquilla, Gabriel; Cerdeira, Antonio L; Marshall, Jon; Sanin, Luz-Helena

    2007-01-01

    The production of coca and poppy as well as the processing and production of cocaine and heroin involve significant environmental impacts. Both coca and poppy are grown intensively in a process that involves the clearing of land in remote areas, the planting of the crop, and protection against pests such as weeds, insects, and pathogens. The aerial spray program to control coca and poppy production in Colombia with the herbicide glyphosate is conducted with modern state-of-the-art aircraft and spray equipment. As a result of the use of best available spray and navigation technology, the likelihood of accidental off-target spraying is small and is estimated to be less than 1% of the total area sprayed. Estimated exposures in humans resulting from direct overspray, contact with treated foliage after reentry to fields, inhalation, diet, and drinking water were small and infrequent. Analyses of surface waters in five watersheds showed that, on most occasions, glyphosate was not present at measurable concentrations; only two samples had residues just above the method detection limit of 25 microg/L. Concentrations of glyphosate in air were predicted to be very small because of negligible volatility. Glyphosate in soils that are directly sprayed will be tightly bound and biologically unavailable and have no residual activity. Concentrations of glyphosate plus Cosmo-Flux will be relatively large in shallow surface waters that are directly oversprayed (maximum instantaneous concentration of 1,229microgAE/L in water 30cm deep); however, no information was available on the number of fields in close proximity to surface waters, and thus it was not possible to estimate the likelihood of such contamination. The formulation used in Colombia, a mixture of glyphosate and Cosmo-Flux, has low toxicity to mammals by all routes of exposure, although some temporary eye irritation may occur. Published epidemiological studies have not suggested a strong or consistent linkage between

  5. Comparing Blood Lead Level among Oral/inhaled Opium Addicts with a Non-addict Control Group in the Southeast of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Nemati, Alireza; Jafari, Shima; Afshari, Mahdi; Dahmardeh, Somayeh; Tabrizian, Kaveh

    2016-01-01

    Background Opium is widely used among addicts in the Middle East countries such as Iran. Recent reports suggest that opium sellers cheat their customers by adding lead to the opium. Contaminated opium can threaten the health of consumers. This study was designed to evaluate the lead concentration in blood sample of oral and inhaled opium user’s referring to Amir Al-Momenin Hospital in Zabol, Iran, during spring 2015 in comparison with those of control group. Methods Blood lead level (BLL) of 188 subjects with a mean age of 52.06 years in three categories - including oral opium addicted (55 patients), inhaled opium addicted (55 patients), and healthy control group (n = 78) - was assessed. The BLL of all the subjects was assessed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Findings Almost all participants consumed “Tariak” (99.09%). Mean ± standard deviation (SD) duration of opium addiction was 13.21 ± 10.26 years. The average blood lead concentration among oral users, inhaled users, and control group were 34.31 ± 21.54, 41.13 ± 26.40, and 9.86 ± 4.40 µg/dl, respectively (P = 0.001). Conclusion Our study showed significant differences of BLLs between opium users and control group. We also did not find any association between blood lead concentration and method of opium consumption. PMID:28819554

  6. Comparing Blood Lead Level among Oral/inhaled Opium Addicts with a Non-addict Control Group in the Southeast of Iran.

    PubMed

    Nemati, Alireza; Jafari, Shima; Afshari, Mahdi; Dahmardeh, Somayeh; Tabrizian, Kaveh

    2016-01-01

    Opium is widely used among addicts in the Middle East countries such as Iran. Recent reports suggest that opium sellers cheat their customers by adding lead to the opium. Contaminated opium can threaten the health of consumers. This study was designed to evaluate the lead concentration in blood sample of oral and inhaled opium user's referring to Amir Al-Momenin Hospital in Zabol, Iran, during spring 2015 in comparison with those of control group. Blood lead level (BLL) of 188 subjects with a mean age of 52.06 years in three categories - including oral opium addicted (55 patients), inhaled opium addicted (55 patients), and healthy control group (n = 78) - was assessed. The BLL of all the subjects was assessed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Almost all participants consumed "Tariak" (99.09%). Mean ± standard deviation (SD) duration of opium addiction was 13.21 ± 10.26 years. The average blood lead concentration among oral users, inhaled users, and control group were 34.31 ± 21.54, 41.13 ± 26.40, and 9.86 ± 4.40 µg/dl, respectively (P = 0.001). Our study showed significant differences of BLLs between opium users and control group. We also did not find any association between blood lead concentration and method of opium consumption.

  7. Investigation of abiogenic stress-induced alterations in the level of secondary metabolites in poppy plants (Papaver somniferum L.).

    PubMed

    Szabó, Beáta; Lakatos, A; Koszegi, T; Botz, L

    2008-12-01

    We aimed to understand the effects of water stress on the alkaloid production in various developmental stages of poppy plants and the effect of stress on the alkaloids content in the capsules. Three stages of the life cycle of Papaver somniferum L. were selected in our studies: Rosette, Flowering and Lancing developmental stages. Four types of water conditions were examined: Control, Withdrawal of Water, 50% Water Supply and Inundation. The morphological monitoring, results of Relative Water Content and proline content were used as indicators of stress. The result of the measurements in poppy leaves show that the secondary metabolites dramatically respond to these stress conditions. The constant water supply was beneficial for the accumulation of alkaloids in the capsules.

  8. Plausible Impact of Dietary Habits on Reduced Blood Sugar in Diabetic Opium Addicts with Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Najafi, Mahdi; Sheikhvatan, Mehrdad

    2012-01-01

    Background The effect of opium on glycemic control in diabetics is a controversial issue, as some studies have shown glucose lowering effect of opium in diabetes while the results of other studies do not support this idea. The possible role of opioid peptides in the regulation of food intake has been previously investigated. However, there is no data available about relationship between opium using and dietary pattern. Objectives The aim of the present study was to determine the daily intake of different nutrients in opium addict with diabetes diagnosed with coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods This study comprised 232 consecutive diabetic patients with CAD, and candidates for isolated coronary artery bypass surgery in Tehran Heart Center. Of these, 26 patients were opium addicts. Nutritional assessment was obtained by a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Results In opium addicts compared to non-addicts, consumption of carbohydrates (360.0±120.9 versus 447.8±249.8 Gr/day, P=0.016) and vitamin A (1170.4±570.2 versus 1496.3±889.6 μg/d as Retinol Activity Equivalent (RAE), P=0.040) was lower than non-addicts and intake of other nutrients were similar across two group of patients. Conclusions Opium addiction in diabetic patients may lead to decrease of vitamin A and carbohydrate intake. This study showed that carbohydrate intake in addicted diabetic patients is lower than their non-addict counterpart. Thus, the so called lowering effect of opium on blood sugar may be due to nutritional habit of addicted patients. PMID:24757596

  9. Opium use and mortality in Golestan Cohort Study: prospective cohort study of 50 000 adults in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Khademi, Hooman; Pourshams, Akram; Jafari, Elham; Salahi, Rasool; Semnani, Shahryar; Abaie, Behrooz; Islami, Farhad; Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh; Etemadi, Arash; Byrnes, Graham; Abnet, Christian C; Dawsey, Sanford M; Day, Nicholas E; Pharoah, Paul D; Boffetta, Paolo; Kamangar, Farin

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between opium use and subsequent risk of death. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting The Golestan Cohort Study in north-eastern Iran collected detailed validated data on opium use and other exposures at baseline. Participants were enrolled between January 2004 and June 2008 and were followed to May 2011, with a follow-up success rate of over 99%. Participants 50 045 participants aged 40-75 at baseline. Main outcomes Mortality, all cause and major subcategories. Results 17% (n=8487) of the participants reported opium use, with a mean duration of 12.7 years. During the follow-up period 2145 deaths were reported. The adjusted hazard ratio for all cause mortality associated with ever use of opium was 1.86 (95% confidence interval 1.68 to 2.06). Opium consumption was significantly associated with increased risks of deaths from several causes including circulatory diseases (hazard ratio 1.81) and cancer (1.61). The strongest associations were seen with deaths from asthma, tuberculosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (11.0, 6.22, and 5.44, respectively). After exclusion of people who self prescribed opium after the onset of major chronic illnesses, the associations remained strong with a dose-response relation. Conclusion Opium users have an increased risk of death from multiple causes compared with non-users. Increased risks were also seen in people who used low amounts of opium for a long period and those who had no major illness before use. PMID:22511302

  10. Neglected role of hookah and opium in gastric carcinogenesis: a cohort study on risk factors and attributable fractions.

    PubMed

    Sadjadi, Alireza; Derakhshan, Mohammad H; Yazdanbod, Abbas; Boreiri, Majid; Parsaeian, Mahbubeh; Babaei, Masoud; Alimohammadian, Masoomeh; Samadi, Fatemeh; Etemadi, Arash; Pourfarzi, Farhad; Ahmadi, Emad; Delavari, Alireza; Islami, Farhad; Farzadfar, Farshad; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Nikmanesh, Arash; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; de Bock, Geertruida H; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    A recent study showed an association between hookah/opium use and gastric cancer but no study has investigated the relationship with gastric precancerous lesions. We examined the association between hookah/opium and gastric precancerous lesions and subsequent gastric cancer. In a population-based cohort study, 928 randomly selected, healthy, Helicobacter pylori-infected subjects in Ardabil Province, Iran, were followed for 10 years. The association between baseline precancerous lesions and lifestyle risk factors (including hookah/opium) was analyzed using logistic regression and presented as odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We also calculated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for the associations of lifestyle risk factors and endoscopic and histological parameters with incident gastric cancers using Cox regression models. Additionally, the proportion of cancers attributable to modifiable risk factors was calculated. During 9,096 person-years of follow-up, 36 new cases of gastric cancer were observed (incidence rate: 3.96/1,000 persons-years). Opium consumption was strongly associated with baseline antral (OR: 3.2; 95% CI: 1.2-9.1) and body intestinal metaplasia (OR: 7.3; 95% CI: 2.5-21.5). Opium (HR: 3.2; 95% CI: 1.4-7.7), hookah (HR: 3.4; 95% CI: 1.7-7.1) and cigarette use (HR: 3.2; 95% CI: 1.4-7.5), as well as high salt intake, family history of gastric cancer, gastric ulcer and histological atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia of body were associated with higher risk of gastric cancer. The fraction of cancers attributable jointly to high salt, low fruit intake, smoking (including hookah) and opium was 93% (95% CI: 83-98). Hookah and opium use are risk factors for gastric cancer as well as for precancerous lesions. Hookah, opium, cigarette and high salt intake are important modifiable risk factors in this high-incidence gastric cancer area.

  11. Do Consumers Substitute Opium for Hashish? An Economic Analysis of Simultaneous Cannabinoid and Opiate Consumption in a Legal Regime

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Madhur

    2015-01-01

    Aim To analyze interrelationships in the consumption of opiates and cannabinoids in a legal regime and, specifically, whether consumers of opiates and cannabinoids treat them as substitutes for each other. Method Econometric dynamic panel data models for opium consumption are estimated using the generalized method of moments (GMM). A unique dataset containing information about opiate (opium) consumption from the Punjab province of British India for the years 1907–1918 is analyzed (n=272) as a function of its own price, the prices of two forms of cannabis (the leaf (bhang), and the resin (charas, or hashish)), and wage income. Cross-price elasticities are examined to reveal substitution or complementarity between opium and cannabis. Results Opium is a substitute for charas (or hashish), with a cross price elasticity (β3) of 0.14 (p < 0.05), but not for bhang (cannabis leaves; cross price elasticity = 0.00, p > 0.10). Opium consumption (β1 = 0.47 to 0.49, p < 0.01) shows properties of habit persistence consistent with addiction. The consumption of opium is slightly responsive (inelastic) to changes in its own price (β2 = −0.34 to −0.35, p < 0.05 to 0.01) and consumer wages (β4 = 0.15, p < 0.05). Conclusion Opium and hashish, a form of cannabis, are substitutes. In addition, opium consumption displays properties of habit persistence and slight price and wage income responsiveness (inelasticity) consistent with an addictive substance. PMID:26455552

  12. Do consumers substitute opium for hashish? An economic analysis of simultaneous cannabinoid and opiate consumption in a legal regime.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Siddharth; Chandra, Madhur

    2015-11-01

    To analyze interrelationships in the consumption of opiates and cannabinoids in a legal regime and, specifically, whether consumers of opiates and cannabinoids treat them as substitutes for each other. Econometric dynamic panel data models for opium consumption are estimated using the generalized method of moments (GMM). A unique dataset containing information about opiate (opium) consumption from the Punjab province of British India for the years 1907-1918 is analyzed (n=252) as a function of its own price, the prices of two forms of cannabis (the leaf (bhang), and the resin (charas, or hashish)), and wage income. Cross-price elasticities are examined to reveal substitution or complementarity between opium and cannabis. Opium is a substitute for charas (or hashish), with a cross price elasticity (βˆ3) of 0.14 (p<0.05), but not for bhang (cannabis leaves; cross price elasticity=0.00, p>0.10). Opium consumption (βˆ1=0.47 to 0.49, p<0.01) shows properties of habit persistence consistent with addiction. The consumption of opium is slightly responsive (inelastic) to changes in its own price (βˆ2=-0.34 to -0.35, p<0.05 to 0.01) and consumer wages (βˆ1=0.15, p<0.05). Opium and hashish, a form of cannabis, are substitutes. In addition, opium consumption displays properties of habit persistence and slight price and wage income responsiveness (inelasticity) consistent with an addictive substance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mutagens produced by the pyrolysis of opium and its alkaloids as possible risk factors in cancer of the bladder and oesophagus.

    PubMed

    Malaveille, C; Friesen, M; Camus, A M; Garren, L; Hautefeuille, A; Béréziat, J C; Ghadirian, P; Day, N E; Bartsch, H

    1982-01-01

    Samples of opium pipe scrapings (opium dross, called sukhteh locally), but not of crude opium, collected in an area with a high incidence of oesophageal cancer in north-east Iran, were shown to contain pro-mutagens, producing mostly frameshift mutations in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA1538 and TA98 after metabolic activation. Pyrolysis of opium and of its major alkaloid, morphine, yielded smoke condensates with mutagenic activities 10 and 100 times higher, respectively, than that of the sukhteh samples tested. Heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and primary aromatic amines present at different concentrations in these three pyrolysates are considered to be the major active principles. Opium addiction has been implicated as a risk factor in bladder cancer in humans and the ingestion of opium pyrolysates, in conjunction with dietary deficiencies, may be related to the high incidence of oesophageal cancer in north-east Iran, although causality has not been established.

  14. Effects of Clonidine Premedication on Intraoperative Blood Loss in Patients With and Without Opium Addiction During Elective Femoral Fracture Surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Ommi, Davood; Teymourian, Houman; Zali, Alireza; Ashrafi, Farzad; Jabbary Moghaddam, Morteza; Mirkheshti, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Opium is an addictive agent and one of the most common narcotics With great challenges of intraoperative hemodynamic instabilities. Objectives: The current study aimed to assess the effects of clonidine on intraoperative blood loss in patients with and without opium addiction in femoral fracture surgeries. Patients and Methods: In a randomized clinical trial, 160 candidates for elective femoral fracture operations under general anesthesia were divided into four groups of 40 subjects: group 1 (placebo 1), subjects without addiction received placebo 90 minutes before the operation; group 2 (placebo 2), patients with opium addiction received placebo as group 1; group 3 (Clonidine 1), patients without addiction received clonidine 90 minutes before the operation and group 4 (Clonidine 2), patients with opium addiction received clonidine as premedication. Results: Intraoperative blood loss in clonidine recipient groups, patients with and without addiction, was less than that of the placebos (both P values < 0.01) and the difference magnitude was higher in patients with opium addiction. Conclusions: Premedication with clonidine to decrease intraoperative blood loss can be more effective in patients with opium addiction than the ones without addiction. PMID:26473101

  15. Multiple aspects of hair analysis for opiates: methodology, clinical and workplace populations, codeine, and poppy seed ingestion.

    PubMed

    Hill, Virginia; Cairns, Thomas; Cheng, Chen-Chih; Schaffer, Michael

    2005-10-01

    Levels of morphine, 6-monoacetylmorphine (MAM) and codeine in hair in both clinical and workplace subjects are presented. Aggressive wash procedures, consisting of 1 isopropanol wash, three 30-min, and two 1-h buffer washes, followed by digestion, extraction and confirmation of digested samples, resulted in values from the cutoff of 2 ng morphine/10 mg hair to greater than 200 ng/10 mg hair. Both morphine and MAM were present above the cutoff in all hair samples from 69 clinical subjects. Only 39 of the 69 heroin-using subjects had urine tests positive for 6-MAM. In a study of morphine in hair following poppy seed consumption, ten subjects ingested 150 g of poppy seed over 3 weeks. Urine samples were collected on the days of poppy seed ingestion and hair samples were taken in the 5th week of the study. The range among the 10 subjects of the highest urine value for each subject was 2929 to 13,827 ng morphine/mL. Hair morphine levels were 0.05-0.48 ng/10 mg hair (average 0.17 ng/10 mg hair). Hair opiate levels of workplace subjects ranged somewhat lower than those of clinical subjects. While all clinical hair samples contained MAM, many workplace samples did not. From workplace samples, a maximum amount of morphine likely to be present from codeine use was 0-3.7% of the codeine in the hair.

  16. Afghanistan Narcotics: The Bigger Battle Toward Stabilization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    65  iv Table of Figures Figure 1. Poppy ...Cultivation in Afghanistan 1996-2006......................................................... 13 Figure 2. Opium poppy cultivation change in Afghanistan...20 Figure 4. Opium Poppy Cultivation in Afghanistan (ha), 2003-2007 .................................... 20 Figure 5. Salaries in Afghanistan

  17. Chronic lead poisoning in an Iranian opium smoker resident in London.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Alex; Ferguson, Katie; Dluzewski, Sam; Hussain, Tajammul; Klein, Martin

    2016-11-01

    A 46-year-old man of Iranian origin presented with a 4-day history of colicky abdominal pain and absolute constipation on a background of several weeks of irritability and malaise. He had smoked 10 g of opium per week for a year and a half. On examination, he had diffuse abdominal tenderness and faecal loading. This was cleared, but the abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting persisted. He had extravascular haemolytic anaemia with punctate basophilic stippling on blood film. The patient's serum lead concentration was substantially elevated and he perhaps demonstrated Burton's line. The patient underwent chelation therapy and has recovered clinically and biochemically. Public health experts were notified and conducted an assessment of the risk to the patient and others; their lead exposure questionnaire was subsequently amended. This is an important case report of a UK resident describing lead toxicity secondary to the inhalation of opium.

  18. Opium consumption is negatively associated with serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), free PSA, and percentage of free PSA levels.

    PubMed

    Safarinejad, Mohammad Reza; Asgari, Seyyed Alaeddin; Farshi, Alireza; Iravani, Shahrokh; Khoshdel, Alireza; Shekarchi, Babak

    2013-01-01

    Addiction to opium continues to be a major worldwide medical and social problem. The study addressing the association between opium consumption and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level is lacking. We determined the effects of opium consumption on serum PSA levels in opium-addict men. Our study subjects comprised 438 opium-addict men with a mean age of 52.2 ± 6.4 years (group 1). We compared these men with 446 men who did not indicate current or past opium use (group 2). Serum total PSA (tPSA), free PSA (fPSA), % fPSA, and sex hormones were compared between the 2 groups. The mean serum tPSA level was significantly lower in group 1 (1.05 ng/mL) than in controls (1.45 ng/mL) (P = 0.001). Opium consumption was also associated with lower fPSA (P = 0.001) and % fPSA (P = 0.001). Serum free testosterone level in opium-addict patients (132.5 ± 42 pg/mL) was significantly lower than that in controls (156.2 ± 43 pg/mL) (P = 0.03). However, no significant correlation existed between tPSA and free testosterone levels (r = 0.28, 95% CI, -0.036 to 0.51, P = 0.34). Among the patients with cancer in group 1, 35% were found to have high-grade tumor (Gleason score ≥ 7) compared with 26.7% in group 2 (P = 0.02). Total PSA and fPSA were strongly correlated with duration of opium use (r = -0.06, 95% CI, -0.04 to -0.08, P = 0.0001; and r = -0.05, 95% CI, -0.03 to -0.07, P = 0.0001, respectively). Opium consumption is independently and negatively associated with serum tPSA, fPSA, and % fPSA levels.

  19. Cannabis and Opium Abuse Patterns and Their Associated Complications in a Sample of Young Iranians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attari, Mohammad Ali; Asgary, Sedigheh; Shahrokhi, Shahnaz; Naderi, Gholam Ali; Shariatirad, Schwann

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of drug abuse has been reported to be up to 17.0% in Iran. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of two frequently abused substances--cannabis and opium--in samples of the young population in Isfahan, Iran. In a survey done from January 2005 to December 2006, 537 individuals aged 13-20 years were recruited using a…

  20. Clinical Aspects of Opium Adulterated with Lead in Iran: A Review.

    PubMed

    Alinejad, Samira; Aaseth, Jan; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Hassanian-Moghaddam, Hossein; Mehrpour, Omid

    2017-08-12

    Adulteration of drugs with poisonous substances during production or consumption has caused numerous health problems. Among contaminants that have the potential of producing poisonous effects are the heavy metals lead, arsenic and thallium that make up an important group of toxic substances. The emergence of these new health problems related to opioid abuse has precipitated this MiniReview on the status of the most hazardous and common opioid adulterants. In fact, adulterated opium is a major public health problem and can threaten the health of users. In this study, we searched for information on opium, opiates, lead poisoning, toxicity, intoxication, Iran and heavy metals in the TUMS Digital Library, PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE and Google Scholar bibliographical databases. This MiniReview primarily included articles on lead poisoning, signs and symptoms, and management in opioid-dependent individuals. Exclusion criteria were articles dealing with animal studies, specific paediatric studies, adulterants other than heavy metals and substances other than opioids. Adulterated opium is one of the new sources of exposure to lead and has precipitated an increase in lead-poisoned cases owing to the widespread use of opium. The toxicology of lead and general guidelines on diagnosis and treatment of lead poisoning is briefly reviewed. The symptoms of lead toxicity mimic several diseases often leading to unnecessary diagnostic methods, misdiagnoses and even surgery. Finally, owing to the fact that lead toxicity shows non-specific signs and symptoms, screening for this disease, by taking blood samples and assessing blood lead levels in high-risk people, should be given an utmost priority. It is recommended that screening tests are adopted and applied for any drug abusing patient with non-specific subacute signs and symptoms like abdominal pain, constipation and anaemia. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights

  1. Cannabis and Opium Abuse Patterns and Their Associated Complications in a Sample of Young Iranians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attari, Mohammad Ali; Asgary, Sedigheh; Shahrokhi, Shahnaz; Naderi, Gholam Ali; Shariatirad, Schwann

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of drug abuse has been reported to be up to 17.0% in Iran. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of two frequently abused substances--cannabis and opium--in samples of the young population in Isfahan, Iran. In a survey done from January 2005 to December 2006, 537 individuals aged 13-20 years were recruited using a…

  2. Finding Order within the Chaos of Counternarcotics: A Universal Framework for the Reduction of Illicit Crop Cultivation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-13

    Coca Cultivation in South America .................................................................37 Figure 2. Opium Poppy Cultivation in Thailand...40 Figure 3. Opium Cultivation in South East Asia...ground in the case of coca, or chop off the stalks and plow the field in the case of opium poppy. Stopping illicit crops from being planted is more

  3. Investigating Changes in Serum Biochemical Parameters in Opium Addicts Before and During Addiction Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Barzehkar, Sedigheh; Gozashti, Mohammad Hossein; Divsalar, Kouros; Mashrouteh, Mahdieh; Darvishi-Lardi, Amir Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background Iran is one of the major consumers of opium and opiate substances in the world. Addiction has become a very important issue in the 21st century and an urgent one in Iran. The consumption of this substance leaves a variety of impacts on the human body. The goal of this study is to investigate the changes of the biochemical parameters derived from opiate substances in addicts during their treatment. Methods This is a cross-sectional research that focused on 40 individuals dependent on the consumption of opium. Their blood samples were taken before and during treatment, and their fasting blood sugar (FBS), sodium, calcium, phosphorus, creatinine, urea, uric acid, total protein, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and total cholesterol were measured. Data were analyzed by SPSS using paired t-test. Findings The results showed that serum uric acid, LDL, cholesterol, and the total protein levels significantly decreased during the treatment in comparison with the time before the treatment (P < 0.050). Yet, the serum fasting glucose, urea, creatinine, HDL, triglycerides, calcium, phosphorous, sodium, and potassium showed no significant change the time prior and during the treatment. Conclusion Given the findings of the analysis, opium addiction has a number of destructive impacts on the lipid profile and uric acid. In addition, the level of total protein decreased during the treatment. PMID:28819551

  4. Opium trade and the spread of HIV in the Golden Crescent.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Syeda Ayesha; Rasooly, Mohammad Hafiz; Abidi, Syed Hani; Modjarrad, Kayvon; Ali, Syed

    2017-07-21

    The Golden Crescent region of South Asia-comprising Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan-is a principal global site for opium production and distribution. Over the past few decades, war, terrorism, and a shifting political landscape have facilitated an active heroin trade throughout the region. Protracted conflict has exacerbated already dire socio-economic conditions and political strife within the region and contributed to a consequent rise in opiate trafficking and addiction among the region's inhabitants. The worsening epidemic of injection drug use has paralleled the rising incidence of HIV and other blood-borne infections in the region and drawn attention to the broader implications of the growing opiate trade in the Golden Crescent. The first step in addressing drug use is to recognize that it is not a character flaw but a form of mental illness, hence warranting humane treatment of drug users. It is also recommended that the governments of the Golden Crescent countries encourage substitution of opium with licit crops and raise awareness among the general public about the perils of opium use.

  5. Comparison of Quantitative and Qualitative Dermatoglyphic Characteristics of Opium Addicts with Healthy Individuals.

    PubMed

    Mehrpour, Omid; Sheikhazadi, Ardeshir; Barzegar, Afsoon; Husein, Afzal; Malic, Claudia; Sheikhazadi, Elham; Saberi-Anary, Seyed Hossein

    2016-04-01

    Recreational drugs have a significant impact on the lives of drug users, their close families andfriends, as well as their society. Social, psychological, biological, and genetic factors could make a personmore prone to using recreational drugs. Finger and A-B ridges (dermatoglyphics) are formed during the firstand second trimesters of fetal development, under the influence of environmental and genetic factors. Theaim of our study was to investigate and evaluate a possible link between dermatoglyphics and opium usage. The pattern of dermatoglyphics - finger and A-B prints - obtained from a group of opium users(121 patients) was compared to those obtained from a group of opium non-users (121 patients) from Birjand,Iran. The results were analyzed using chi-square, t and Mann-Whitney tests. The results showed that although A-B ridges of palms and fingers in our study group were highercompared to the control group, there was no significant difference between these groups. The only significantdifference was the fingerprint patterns of the left ring finger in the study group, which lacked the arch patternand had less loop patterns. The dominant type of fingerprint in the left ring finger was the whorl. In ouropium user group, the arch and loop fingerprint patterns were heterogeneous and significantly different incomparison with the control group (P < 0.01). These findings suggest that a genetic factor may increase the predisposition to recreational drugusage. Further research is required to confirm this possible impact of genetic factors on the addiction process.

  6. Spinal anesthesia reduces postoperative delirium in opium dependent patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Tabatabaie, O; Matin, N; Heidari, A; Tabatabaie, A; Hadaegh, A; Yazdanynejad, S; Tabatabaie, K

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of high spinal anesthesia on postoperative delirium in opium dependent patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The study was conducted in a tertiary referral university hospital on a population of 60 opium dependent patients undergoing CABG surgery. Patients were divided into two groups based on anesthesia protocol. One group were given general anesthesia (GA Group), the other group additionally received intrathecal morphine and bupivacaine (SGA Group). Postoperative delirium (POD) was defined as the main outcome of interest. Incidence of POD was significantly higher in patients of GA Group as compared with those in SGA Group (47% and 17% for GA and SGA respectively; P-value = 0.01). Time to extubation was on average 2.2 h shorter in SGA than in GA (7.1 h and 9.3 h respectively, P-value < 0.001). Intrathecal morphine and bupivacaine reduced the risk of POD after CABG in a population of opium dependent patients.

  7. Determination of alkaloids in capsules, milk and ethanolic extracts of poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) by ATR-FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Hartwig; Baranska, Malgorzata; Quilitzsch, Rolf; Schütze, Wolfgang

    2004-10-01

    Fourier transform (FT) infrared spectroscopy using a diamond composite ATR crystal and NIR-FT-Raman spectroscopy techniques were applied for the simultaneous identification and quantification of the most important alkaloids in poppy capsules. Most of the characteristic Raman signals of the alkaloids can be identified in poppy milk isolated from unripe capsules. But also poppy extracts present specific bands relating clearly to the alkaloid fraction. Raman spectra obtained by excitation with a Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm show no disturbing fluorescence effects; therefore the plant tissue can be recorded without any special preparation. The used diamond ATR technique allows to measure very small sample amounts (5-10 microL or 2-5 mg) without the necessity to perform time-consuming pre-treatments. When applying cluster analysis a reliable discrimination of "low-alkaloid" and "high-alkaloid" poppy single-plants can be easily achieved. The examples presented in this study provide clear evidence of the benefits of Raman and ATR-IR spectroscopy in efficient quality control, forensic analysis and high-throughput evaluation of poppy breeding material.

  8. The toxicity of Mexican poppy (Argemone mexicana L) seeds to rats.

    PubMed

    Pahwa, R; Chatterjee, V C

    1989-12-01

    Toxicolethal effects of seeds of mexican poppy (Argemone mexicana L) were investigated in to roof rat, (Rattus rattus L). The argemone seeds were fed at 100% of the diet up to the death or for a maximum of 10 days. Observed signs of poisoning were sedation, passiveness, sluggishness, feeble or no muscular jerks, abdominal contractions and increased defecation. Also black secretions from the eyes, corneal opacity, erection of hairs, and edema of the hind legs and submandibular space in were noted. Fourteen of 16 rats died. Significant reduction in the weights of the rats was observed. There were significant increases in blood glucose, BUN and SGOT. Major histopathological lesions were: hepatocytolysis, nuclear degeneration, pyknosis, cloudy swelling and dilatated sinusoids disturbing the lobulalar architecture of the liver; proliferated endothelium of glomeruli, hemorrhage in glomeruli and interstitium, and cloudy swelling of convoluted tubular epithelium in the kidney cortical region; erosion and atrophy of the upper stomach mucosa and calcification in the cardiac stomach, and; erosion and congestion of the upper mucosa of the duodenum. No change was noticed in the ileum.

  9. No association between GSTM1 and GSTT1 genetic polymorphisms and susceptibility to opium sap dependence.

    PubMed

    Saify, Khyber; Khalighinasab, Mohammad Rashid; Saadat, Mostafa

    2016-03-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs; EC: 2.5.1.18) are a ubiquitous family of eukaryotic and prokaryotic phase II metabolic isozymes. Genes encoding GSTM1 (OMIM: 138350), and GSTT1 (OMIM: 600436) are members of class mu and theta, respectively. The most common polymorphism in the GSTM1 is a deletion of the whole GSTM1 gene with a lack of enzyme activity. A homozygous deletion in the GSTT1 has also been reported (null genotypes of GSTT1). The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms and risk of dependency to opium sap. The present study was performed in Shiraz (southern Iran). In total, 71 males dependent to opium sap and 590 healthy males (as a control group) were included in this study. The genotypes of GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms were determined by PCR. Our data indicate that neither GSTM1 (OR=0.78, 95% CI: 0.47-1.27, P=0.325) nor GSTT1 (OR=1.25, 95% CI: 0.70-2.21, P=0.442) null genotypes significantly associated with the risk of opium sap dependence. There is no additive effect of the null genotypes of GSTT1 and GSTM1 in relation to the risk of dependency to opium sap. The present study indicated that the null genotypes of GSTT1 and GSTM1 are not risk factor for opium sap dependence.

  10. No association between GSTM1 and GSTT1 genetic polymorphisms and susceptibility to opium sap dependence

    PubMed Central

    Saify, Khyber; Khalighinasab, Mohammad Rashid; Saadat, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs; EC: 2.5.1.18) are a ubiquitous family of eukaryotic and prokaryotic phase II metabolic isozymes. Genes encoding GSTM1 (OMIM: 138350), and GSTT1 (OMIM: 600436) are members of class mu and theta, respectively. The most common polymorphism in the GSTM1 is a deletion of the whole GSTM1 gene with a lack of enzyme activity. A homozygous deletion in the GSTT1 has also been reported (null genotypes of GSTT1). The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms and risk of dependency to opium sap. The present study was performed in Shiraz (southern Iran). In total, 71 males dependent to opium sap and 590 healthy males (as a control group) were included in this study. The genotypes of GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms were determined by PCR. Our data indicate that neither GSTM1 (OR=0.78, 95% CI: 0.47-1.27, P=0.325) nor GSTT1 (OR=1.25, 95% CI: 0.70-2.21, P=0.442) null genotypes significantly associated with the risk of opium sap dependence. There is no additive effect of the null genotypes of GSTT1 and GSTM1 in relation to the risk of dependency to opium sap. The present study indicated that the null genotypes of GSTT1 and GSTM1 are not risk factor for opium sap dependence. PMID:27844021

  11. Can opium abuse be a risk factor for carotid stenosis in patients who are candidates for coronary artery bypass grafting?

    PubMed

    Shirani, Shapour; Shakiba, Madjid; Soleymanzadeh, Maryam; Esfandbod, Maryam

    2010-01-01

    Over the centuries, opium has been the most frequent substance abused in the Middle East. There are many controversial aspects about the effects of opioids on the atherosclerosis process, which is still unclear. All patients who were candidates for coronary artery bypass graft in Tehran Heart Center were registered and evaluated for risk factors such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, smoking status and duration, opium abuse, involved coronary arteries and left main branch lesion > 50%, carotid stenosis > or = 70%. A total of 1,339 patients were enrolled in the study, of whom 400 (29.9%) were female and the other 939 (70.1%) male. Female patients were omitted from analysis due to the low numbers of female opium addicts. Our study revealed that in the addicted population, the risk of diabetes and hypertension was lower than in the non-addicted group (p < 0.05 for each variable) and fasting blood sugar tended to be less in addicted ones, but the number of involved coronary arteries, left main stenosis > 50% and extent of carotid stenosis was not significantly different between the two groups. Our investigations demonstrate that opium is not cardioprotective, as has been claimed by some previous studies, and does not even decelerate atherosclerosis of carotid arteries in opium-addicted patients, but more evidence is still needed to completely prove the case.

  12. Quality of life in opium-addicted patients with coronary artery disease as measured with WHOQOL-BREF.

    PubMed

    Najafi, Mahdi; Sheikhvatan, Mehrdad; Montazeri, Ali; Sheikhfathollahi, Mahmood

    2009-05-01

    Several factors can influence the quality of life in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). The goal of this research was to measure quality of life in opium-addicted patients with CAD in order to assess the effect of CAD risk factors on their quality of life. The WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire was completed through interviews with 275 patients who underwent isolated coronary artery bypass surgery in Tehran Heart Centre between May and September 2006. No significant differences were found in the mean scores of the four domains of quality of life between the addicted and non-addicted patients. Furthermore, the evaluation of QOL in the groups with CAD risk factors showed that the mean QOL domains were statistically similar between opium addicted and non-opium addicted patients. In the addicted group, men had a higher psychological health score than women. A previous history of myocardial infarction reduced the psychological score in this group. Also, in the addicted patients with a history of diabetes mellitus, social functioning was better than that of the non-diabetics. The different domains of quality of life in our opium-addicted and non-addicted patients with CAD were similar; and among all the major risk factors for coronary artery disease, only female gender and a previous history of myocardial infarction could influence quality of life in the opium-addicted patients.

  13. Urinary excretion study following consumption of various poppy seed products and investigation of the new potential street heroin marker ATM4G.

    PubMed

    Maas, Alexandra; Krämer, Michael; Sydow, Konrad; Chen, Pai-Shan; Dame, Torsten; Musshoff, Frank; Diehl, Bernd W K; Madea, Burkhard; Hess, Cornelius

    2017-03-01

    Discrimination between street heroin consumption and poppy seed ingestion represents a major toxicological challenge in daily routine work. Several difficulties associated with conventional street heroin markers originate from their versatile occurrence in various poppy seed products and medications, respectively, as well as to small windows of detection. A novel opportunity to overcome these hindrances is represented by the new potential street heroin marker acetylated-thebaine-4-metabolite glucuronide (ATM4G), originating from thebaine during street heroin synthesis followed by metabolic reactions after administration. In this study, urine samples after consumption of different German poppy seed products and urine samples from subjects with suspicion of preceding heroin consumption were tested for ATM4G, 6-AC (6-acetylcodeine), papaverine, noscapine, 6-MAM (6-monoacetylmorphine), morphine, and codeine. Neither 6-AC and 6-MAM nor ATM4G but morphine and codeine could be detected in urine samples following poppy seed ingestion. As well, neither papaverine nor noscapine could be observed even after consumption of poppy seeds containing up to 37 µg noscapine and up to 9.8 µg papaverine, respectively. Concerning the urine samples with suspicion of preceding heroin consumption, ATM4G could be detected in 9 of 43 cases. By contrast, evidence of 6-AC and 6-MAM, respectively, could only be seen in 7 urine samples. In conclusion, ATM4G should be measured additionally in cases requiring discrimination of street heroin consumption from poppy seed intake. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. 76 FR 51399 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... (7360) I Poppy Straw Concentrate (9670) II The company plans to import a finished pharmaceutical product... controlled substances normally found in poppy straw concentrate for packaging and labeling for clinical... registration or re-registration to import crude opium, poppy straw, concentrate of poppy straw or coca...

  15. 77 FR 31389 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Penick Corporation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... applications to import narcotic raw material are not appropriate. 72 FR 3417 (2007) DEA has considered the... substances: Drug Schedule Coca Leaves (9040) II Raw Opium (9600) II Poppy Straw (9650) II Poppy...

  16. 75 FR 44285 - Importer of Controlled Substances: Notice of Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ... schedule II: Drug Schedule Coca Leaves (9040) II Opium, raw (9600) II Poppy Straw (9650) II Concentrate of Poppy Straw (9670) II The company plans to import the listed controlled substances to manufacture...

  17. Comparison of Quantitative and Qualitative Dermatoglyphic Characteristics of Opium Addicts with Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Mehrpour, Omid; Sheikhazadi, Ardeshir; Barzegar, Afsoon; Husein, Afzal; Malic, Claudia; Sheikhazadi, Elham; Saberi-Anary, Seyed Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background Recreational drugs have a significant impact on the lives of drug users, their close families andfriends, as well as their society. Social, psychological, biological, and genetic factors could make a personmore prone to using recreational drugs. Finger and A-B ridges (dermatoglyphics) are formed during the firstand second trimesters of fetal development, under the influence of environmental and genetic factors. Theaim of our study was to investigate and evaluate a possible link between dermatoglyphics and opium usage. Methods The pattern of dermatoglyphics - finger and A-B prints - obtained from a group of opium users(121 patients) was compared to those obtained from a group of opium non-users (121 patients) from Birjand,Iran. The results were analyzed using chi-square, t and Mann–Whitney tests. Findings The results showed that although A-B ridges of palms and fingers in our study group were highercompared to the control group, there was no significant difference between these groups. The only significantdifference was the fingerprint patterns of the left ring finger in the study group, which lacked the arch patternand had less loop patterns. The dominant type of fingerprint in the left ring finger was the whorl. In ouropium user group, the arch and loop fingerprint patterns were heterogeneous and significantly different incomparison with the control group (P < 0.01). Conclusion These findings suggest that a genetic factor may increase the predisposition to recreational drugusage. Further research is required to confirm this possible impact of genetic factors on the addiction process. PMID:27882204

  18. Therapy of the neonatal abstinence syndrome with tincture of opium or morphine drops.

    PubMed

    Langenfeld, Stefan; Birkenfeld, Larissa; Herkenrath, Peter; Müller, Carsten; Hellmich, Martin; Theisohn, Martin

    2005-01-07

    Treating opioid-addicted women with methadone in pregnancy increased the number of newborns suffering from neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). High-pitch crying, insomnia, tremor, myoclonic jerks, vomiting, diarrhoea and poor weight gain were reported symptoms, which were evaluated using the Finnegan (F)-score. Earlier phenobarbital or paregoric had been used to suppress symptoms. We surveyed the administration of pure mu-agonist morphine (MO) in comparison to the alcoholic opioid mixture in tincture of opium (TO). Thirty-three newborns were included in the survey, after informed consent by their parents. NAS started 3-5 days after delivery and lasted for 27 or 30 days (mean) in the TO and MO groups, respectively. In either of the tested parameters, we found no significant differences between the two groups (2P < 0.05). The maximum F-score was similar in both groups, but the dose to suppress NAS was higher in the MO group (0.6-0.5 mg/day; total dose 61.6-42.7 mg of morphine). The duration of the therapy was longer in the MO than in the TO group (37.5-32.4 days). On the other hand the weight gain was better in the MO group than in the TO group (25-19 g/day), but was reduced in both groups compared with healthy newborns. Morphine is suitable to treat NAS in a similar manner as tincture of opium, but avoids unwanted effects of the alcoholic extracts with various alkaloids in the tincture of opium and allows better weight gain of the newborns.

  19. Did the Taliban's opium eradication campaign cause a decline in HIV infections in Russia?

    PubMed

    Rosenblum, Daniel; Jones, Maggie

    2013-04-01

    We offer a new hypothesis for why HIV infections fell rapidly after 2001 in Russia: the Taliban's opium eradication campaign in Afghanistan reduced the supply of heroin, causing use to fall and, thus, transmission of HIV to fall. We present evidence of the impact of the eradication campaign on the heroin market and show that the fall in HIV infections happened simultaneously in Russia and surrounding countries soon after the eradication campaign. We also show that the decline in HIV infections only occurred in injecting drug users, while other risk groups were unaffected. Limitations to our analysis are discussed.

  20. Unravelling the resistance mechanisms to 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) in corn poppy (Papaver rhoeas).

    PubMed

    Rey-Caballero, Jordi; Menéndez, Julio; Giné-Bordonaba, Jordi; Salas, Marisa; Alcántara, Ricardo; Torra, Joel

    2016-10-01

    In southern Europe, the intensive use of 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and tribenuron-methyl in cereal crop systems has resulted in the evolution of resistant (R) corn poppy (Papaver rhoeas L.) biotypes. Experiments were conducted to elucidate (1) the resistance response to these two herbicides, (2) the cross-resistant pattern to other synthetic auxins and (3) the physiological basis of the auxin resistance in two R (F-R213 and D-R703) populations. R plants were resistant to both 2,4-D and tribenuron-methyl (F-R213) or just to 2,4-D (D-R703) and both R populations were also resistant to dicamba and aminopyralid. Results from absorption and translocation experiment revealed that R plants translocated less [14C]-2,4-D than S plants at all evaluation times. There was between four and eight-fold greater ethylene production in S plants treated with 2,4-D, than in R plants. Overall, these results suggest that reduced 2,4-D translocation is the resistance mechanism in synthetic auxins R corn poppy populations and this likely leads to less ethylene production and greater survival in R plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Pain and Poppies: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly of Opioid Analgesics

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hasani, Ream; Salvemini, Daniela; Salter, Michael W.; Gutstein, Howard

    2015-01-01

    Treating pain is one of the most difficult challenges in medicine and a key facet of disease management. The isolation of morphine by Friedrich Sertürner in 1804 added an essential pharmacological tool in the treatment of pain and spawned the discovery of a new class of drugs known collectively as opioid analgesics. Revered for their potent pain-relieving effects, even Morpheus the god of dreams could not have dreamt that his opium tincture would be both a gift and a burden to humankind. To date, morphine and other opioids remain essential analgesics for alleviating pain. However, their use is plagued by major side effects, such as analgesic tolerance (diminished pain-relieving effects), hyperalgesia (increased pain sensitivity), and drug dependence. This review highlights recent advances in understanding the key causes of these adverse effects and explores the effect of chronic pain on opioid reward. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Chronic pain is pervasive and afflicts >100 million Americans. Treating pain in these individuals is notoriously difficult and often requires opioids, one of the most powerful and effective classes of drugs used for controlling pain. However, their use is plagued by major side effects, such as a loss of pain-relieving effects (analgesic tolerance), paradoxical pain (hyperalgesia), and addiction. Despite the potential side effects, opioids remain the pharmacological cornerstone of modern pain therapy. This review highlights recent breakthroughs in understanding the key causes of these adverse effects and explores the cellular control of opioid systems in reward and aversion. The findings will challenge traditional views of the good, the bad, and the ugly of opioids. PMID:26468188

  2. Pain and Poppies: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly of Opioid Analgesics.

    PubMed

    Trang, Tuan; Al-Hasani, Ream; Salvemini, Daniela; Salter, Michael W; Gutstein, Howard; Cahill, Catherine M

    2015-10-14

    Treating pain is one of the most difficult challenges in medicine and a key facet of disease management. The isolation of morphine by Friedrich Sertürner in 1804 added an essential pharmacological tool in the treatment of pain and spawned the discovery of a new class of drugs known collectively as opioid analgesics. Revered for their potent pain-relieving effects, even Morpheus the god of dreams could not have dreamt that his opium tincture would be both a gift and a burden to humankind. To date, morphine and other opioids remain essential analgesics for alleviating pain. However, their use is plagued by major side effects, such as analgesic tolerance (diminished pain-relieving effects), hyperalgesia (increased pain sensitivity), and drug dependence. This review highlights recent advances in understanding the key causes of these adverse effects and explores the effect of chronic pain on opioid reward. Chronic pain is pervasive and afflicts >100 million Americans. Treating pain in these individuals is notoriously difficult and often requires opioids, one of the most powerful and effective classes of drugs used for controlling pain. However, their use is plagued by major side effects, such as a loss of pain-relieving effects (analgesic tolerance), paradoxical pain (hyperalgesia), and addiction. Despite the potential side effects, opioids remain the pharmacological cornerstone of modern pain therapy. This review highlights recent breakthroughs in understanding the key causes of these adverse effects and explores the cellular control of opioid systems in reward and aversion. The findings will challenge traditional views of the good, the bad, and the ugly of opioids. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3513879-10$15.00/0.

  3. 76 FR 586 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-05

    ... basic classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Opium, raw (9600) II Concentrate of Poppy Straw (9670) II Tapentadol (9780) II The company plans to import the Raw Opium (9600) and Concentrate of...

  4. 77 FR 5846 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... substances: Drug Schedule Opium, raw (9600) II Poppy Straw Concentrate (9670) II The company plans to import... registered with DEA as a manufacturer of several controlled substances that are manufactured from opium,...

  5. Relationships of dissociative disorders and personality traits in opium addicts on methadone treatment.

    PubMed

    Ghafarinezhad, Alireza; Rajabizadeh, Ghodratollah; Shahriari, Vahid

    2013-01-01

    Drug abuse is a major public health problem. Some believe that when dissociation fails to defend against emotional, physical, or sexual trauma, the person will find relief from unpleasant thoughts and emotions in opium use. On the other hand, personality disorders are considered as important predictors of treatment outcomes in drug abusers. Due to lack of adequate research in this regard, we evaluated dissociative disorders and personality traits of opium addicts on methadone treatment. This cross-sectional analytic study included 111 non-psychotic subjects on methadone treatment (case group) and 69 non-addicts (control group). After recording demographic characteristics, Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) and Millon Multiaxial Inventory III were applied to assess dissociative symptoms and clinical personality patterns of all participants. Dissociative symptoms were significantly more common in the case group than in the control group (P = 0.044). While hysterionic personality disorder was more frequent in the control group (P = 0.008), sadistic, antisocial, and schizotypal personality disorders were significantly more common in the case group (P = 0.008, 0.002, and 0.023, respectively). We found relations between history of drug dependence, dissociative symptoms, and personality disorders. Therefore, the mentioned disorders need to be kept in mind while planning addiction treatment modalities and identifying high risk groups.

  6. Common Bile Duct (CBD) diameter in opium-addicted men: Comparison with non-addict controls.

    PubMed

    Zahedi-Nejad, Nina; Narouei, Shahin; Fahimy, Farnaz

    2010-07-01

    Opium and its derivatives are widely abused throughout the world. Recent case reports and a few limited studies have suggested that opiates cause dilation of the common bile duct of the abusers. Our case-control study, lasting 7.5 months, investigated 121 male adult addicts and 142 non-addicted controls for biliary tract diameters, using ultrasonography. The study was conducted in Bahonar Hospital in Kerman. Neither the addiction cases nor the non-addict controls revealed any hepatobiliary tract symptoms. The subjects were asked to fill in a questionnaire. After the exclusion of the symptomatic cases, ultrasound examinations were carried out and the findings from questionnaires and US examinations were recorded. The mean ±SD diameter of the common bile duct was 4.78±2.58 for addicts and 3.37±2.25 for non-addicts. CBD wall thickness was 1.969±0.61 mm in addicts versus 1.73±0.631 in non-addicts. The differences were statistically significant. According to the multivariate analysis, the duration of opium abuse was a significant factor. We concluded that CBD dilation and increased CBD wall thickness can be expected in people with a prolonged history of opiate addiction.

  7. Comparison of tincture of opium and methadone to control opioid withdrawal in a Thai treatment centre

    PubMed Central

    Jittiwutikarn, Jaroon; Ali, Robert; White, Jason M; Bochner, Felix; Somogyi, Andrew A; Foster, David J R

    2004-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the effectiveness of oral tincture of opium (TOP) and methadone to control opioid withdrawal in patients in northern Thailand. Methods Open label, parallel group study in an inpatient facility compared 15 former heroin users receiving methadone 5–20 mg 12 hourly with 15 former opium smokers receiving TOP (3.33–10 mg morphine equivalents 12 hourly). At 0, 1, 3 and 8 h, blood, withdrawal scores and subjective opioid effects were collected. Results There was a reciprocal association between withdrawal scores/direct subjective opioid effects and plasma (R)-methadone, but not plasma morphine, concentrations. Withdrawal scores at the time of dosing were higher in the TOP patients (9.1 ± 3) than in the methadone patients (4.5 ± 4.6) and in the TOP patients were significantly (P = 0.001) attenuated at 3 and 8 h. Conclusions At the doses used, TOP was inferior to methadone in suppressing withdrawal. It could prove to be a cost effective and valuable drug, but only after dose size and frequency are further investigated. PMID:15521902

  8. Retroperitoneal Fibrosis Due to Opium Abuse: A Case Series and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadzadeh Rezaei, Mohammad Ali; Akhavan Rezayat, Alireza; Ardalan, Shima

    2016-01-01

    Retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF) is a rare condition with an unclear etiology, presenting with the development of aberrant chronic nonspecific fibroinflammatory tissue in the retroperitoneal space, which can result in entrapment and obstruction of the retroperitoneal structures. RPF is a subtype of chronic periaortitis, and can be divided into two types: primary (or idiopathic) and secondary. RPF is usually idiopathic, but can also be secondary to malignancies, certain drugs, infections, surgery, and trauma. The systemic clinical manifestations are nonspecific and include low-grade fever, fatigue, anorexia, weight loss, and myalgia. We report five patients admitted to our hospital with clinical, laboratory, imaging, and pathologic findings compatible with RPF, and we describe their treatment and follow-up. We were suspicious that the impurities of some types of opium have an important role in the pathogenesis of RPF. Some of our patients used opium again after the follow-up period; however, they used a different type with a different origin, and we were surprised to see that RPF did not form again. PMID:27896238

  9. Opium and opioid abuse in orthopedic inpatients: a cross sectional study in Urmia University of Medical Sciences.

    PubMed

    Afshar, Ahmadreza; Asadzadeh, Mina; Kargar, Hakimeh; Aghdashi, Mir Mosa; Mirzatolooei, Fardin

    2012-01-01

    During a cross-sectional study, patients who were admitted to the orthopedic department of the Urmia University of Medical Sciences were asked about opium/opioid abuse. Demographic characteristics, the pattern of consumption, the substance, the duration of the use, the duration of hospital stay and the cause of their injuries were recorded. Among 2,867 patients, 74 (2.5%) patients (71 men and 3 women) with the mean age of 38 were opium/opioid users. Most of the patients used opium through inhalation. The mean duration of the substance use was 7.4 years. The mean duration of hospital stay between the regular orthopedic patients and the opium/opioid abuser orthopedic patients was statistically significant. (P=000). Among four Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infected patients, three subjects were injection users and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) also infected two of them. Road traffic accidents (37.8%), and work related injuries (17.5%) were the two most common reasons for the patient's injuries.

  10. The post-opium scenario and rubber in northern Laos: Alternative Western and Chinese models of development.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Paul T

    2009-09-01

    In the past few years rubber planting has spread rapidly throughout northern Laos, especially in Luang Namtha province that borders China. The impetus for this boom has come partly from the spiralling demand for rubber in China (now the world's largest rubber consumer), the high world prices for rubber, and China's promotion of overseas investment through its opium-replacement policy. These economic factors have converged with the desperate need of impoverished highlanders in northern Laos to replace opium as a cash crop as a consequence of a recent opium-eradication campaign and inadequate alternative development. This paper draws upon ethnographic and agro-economic research in northern Laos and neighbouring regions and reports of international development organisations operating in Laos. The rubber boom in northern Laos represents a fundamental clash between Western drug-oriented alternative development, on the one hand, and China's national economic strategies abroad and investment-led narcotics policy, on the other. China's opium-replacement policy has contributed to a type of unregulated frontier capitalism with socio-economic and environmental effects that threaten the principles and goals of alternative development and even to marginalise the role international development organisations in northern Laos.

  11. [Treating pain after dental surgery: a randomised, controlled, double-blind trial to assess a new formulation of paracetamol, opium powder and caffeine versus tramadol or placebo].

    PubMed

    Borel, Jean-François; Deschaumes, Christophe; Devoize, Laurent; Huard, Cédric; Orliaguet, Thierry; Dubray, Claude; Baudet-Pommel, Martine; Dallel, Radhouane

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the analgesic efficacy and the safety of the association, paracetamol, opium prepared and caffeine, in two different dosages as compared to the conventional analgesic tramadol hydrochloride, on acute postoperative dental pain. We conducted a randomised, double-blind, multicentre, parallel-group clinical trial to test the efficacy and safety of single doses of two associations; paracetamol 500 mg, caffeine 50mg, opium prepared 25, and paracetamol 500 mg, caffeine 50mg, opium prepared 50mg, as compared to tramadol hydrochloride 100mg (called hereafter tramadol 100), and placebo, in the control of postoperative pain following the removal of 2 ipsilateral impacted third molars. The primary efficacy criterion was the sum of pain intensity differences as assessed every 30 minutes within 3 hours after the baseline assessment and administration of study treatment (SPID(0-3h)). Of the 232 randomised patients, 228 (98%) completed the study. Analysis of the primary efficacy criterion (SPID(0-3h)) established: (i) the superiority of the 3 active study treatments vs. placebo (p<0.005); (ii) non-inferiority of paracetamol, caffeine, and opium 25mg, and paracetamol, caffeine, and opium 50mg vs. tramadol. Besides, both formulations of paracetamol, caffeine, and opium showed: (i) a faster onset of analgesic effect as compared to tramadol 100; (ii) a significantly stronger analgesic efficacy than tramadol 100, as measured 1 hour after the treatment intake; this superiority lasted all over the study duration for paracetamol, caffeine, and opium 50mg but not for paracetamol, caffeine, and opium 25mg. No unexpected safety concerns occurred, the two formulations of paracetamol, caffeine, and opium showed a good safety profile especially with paracetamol, caffeine, and opium 25mg as compared to tramadol. This study evidenced the non-inferiority of the paracetamol, caffeine, and opium 25mg or 50mg vs. tramadol 100, and even though the strengths of the

  12. Characterization of two methylenedioxy bridge-forming cytochrome P450-dependent enzymes of alkaloid formation in the Mexican prickly poppy Argemone mexicana.

    PubMed

    Díaz Chávez, Maria Luisa; Rolf, Megan; Gesell, Andreas; Kutchan, Toni M

    2011-03-01

    Formation of the methylenedioxy bridge is an integral step in the biosynthesis of benzo[c]phenanthridine and protoberberine alkaloids in the Papaveraceae family of plants. This reaction in plants is catalyzed by cytochrome P450-dependent enzymes. Two cDNAs that encode cytochrome P450 enzymes belonging to the CYP719 family were identified upon interrogation of an EST dataset prepared from 2-month-old plantlets of the Mexican prickly poppy Argemone mexicana that accumulated the benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloid sanguinarine and the protoberberine alkaloid berberine. CYP719A13 and CYP719A14 are 58% identical to each other and 77% and 60% identical, respectively, to stylopine synthase CYP719A2 of benzo[c]phenanthridine biosynthesis in Eschscholzia californica. Functional heterologous expression of CYP719A14 and CYP719A13 in Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 cells produced recombinant enzymes that catalyzed the formation of the methylenedioxy bridge of (S)-cheilanthifoline from (S)-scoulerine and of (S)-stylopine from (S)-cheilanthifoline, respectively. Twenty-seven potential substrates were tested with each enzyme. Whereas CYP719A14 transformed only (S)-scoulerine to (S)-cheilanthifoline (K(m) 1.9±0.3; k(cat)/K(m) 1.7), CYP719A13 converted (S)-tetrahydrocolumbamine to (S)-canadine (K(m) 2.7±1.3; k(cat)/K(m) 12.8), (S)-cheilanthifoline to (S)-stylopine (K(m) 5.2±3.0; k(cat)/K(m) 2.6) and (S)-scoulerine to (S)-nandinine (K(m) 8.1±1.9; k(cat)/K(m) 0.7). These results indicate that although CYP719A14 participates in only sanguinarine biosynthesis, CYP719A13 can be involved in both sanguinarine and berberine formation in A. mexicana.

  13. Afghanistan Drug Control: Despite Improved Efforts, Deteriorating Security Threatens Success of U.S. Goals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    instructions, searching existing data sources , gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information...counternarcotics police counternarcotics law implementation and corrections reform raising awareness and promoting behavior change Sources ...Opium Industry Afghanistan is the world’s largest supplier of opium and has been a source of illegal opium for decades. Opium poppy is a hardy

  14. Effect of opium addiction on new and traditional cardiovascular risk factors: do duration of addiction and route of administration matter?

    PubMed

    Asgary, Sedigheh; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Naderi, Gholam-Ali; Rozbehani, Reza

    2008-11-03

    There is a belief among some society that opium has a number of beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease. The aim of the present investigation as a cross-sectional study was to assess this hypothesis. Several biochemical factors (Fasting blood sugar, Cholesterol, Triglyceride, LDL-Cholesterol, HDL-Cholesterol, HbA1C, CRP, Fibrinogen, Factor VII, SGOT, SGPT, Lpa, apo A and apo B were evaluated in opium-addicted men (case) against non opium-addicted men(control). Three hundred and sixty opium-addicted men were divided into three groups according to the route of administration (Orally, Vafour and Sikh-Sang) and each group was divided into four subgroups according to the duration of addiction (5 months, 1 year, 2 years and 5 years). Blood morphine concentration was measured by ELISA method. The results show that morphine concentration was significantly higher in orally administration. In all routes, there was a direct correlation between blood morphine concentration and period of addiction. Regardless to the period and route of administration, the level of HbA1C, CRP, factor VII, Fibrinogen, apo B, Lpa, SGOT, and SGPT were significantly higher in the case subjects as compared with controls and HDL-Cholesterol and apo a were significantly lower in the case subjects. This study demonstrated the deleterious effects of opium on some traditional and new cardiovascular disease risk factors. These deleterious effects are related to the period of addiction and their levels are significantly increased after 2 years of addiction. Route of administration impresses cardiovascular risk factors and "Sikh-Sang" showed the worst effect.

  15. Effect of opium addiction on new and traditional cardiovascular risk factors: do duration of addiction and route of administration matter?

    PubMed Central

    Asgary, Sedigheh; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Naderi, Gholam-Ali; Rozbehani, Reza

    2008-01-01

    Background There is a belief among some society that opium has a number of beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease. The aim of the present investigation as a cross-sectional study was to assess this hypothesis. Several biochemical factors (Fasting blood sugar, Cholesterol, Triglyceride, LDL-Cholesterol, HDL-Cholesterol, HbA1C, CRP, Fibrinogen, Factor VII, SGOT, SGPT, Lpa, apo A and apo B were evaluated in opium-addicted men (case) against non opium-addicted men(control). Three hundred and sixty opium-addicted men were divided into three groups according to the route of administration (Orally, Vafour and Sikh-Sang) and each group was divided into four subgroups according to the duration of addiction (5 months, 1 year, 2 years and 5 years). Blood morphine concentration was measured by ELISA method. Results The results show that morphine concentration was significantly higher in orally administration. In all routes, there was a direct correlation between blood morphine concentration and period of addiction. Regardless to the period and route of administration, the level of HbA1C, CRP, factor VII, Fibrinogen, apo B, Lpa, SGOT, and SGPT were significantly higher in the case subjects as compared with controls and HDL-Cholesterol and apo a were significantly lower in the case subjects. Conclusion This study demonstrated the deleterious effects of opium on some traditional and new cardiovascular disease risk factors. These deleterious effects are related to the period of addiction and their levels are significantly increased after 2 years of addiction. Route of administration impresses cardiovascular risk factors and "Sikh-Sang" showed the worst effect. PMID:18980684

  16. The effects of co-administration of opium and morphine with nicotine during pregnancy on spatial learning and memory of adult male offspring rats

    PubMed Central

    Sepehri, Gholamreza; Parsania, Shahrnaz; Hajzadeh, Mousa-Al-Reza; Haghpanah, Tahereh; Sheibani, Vahid; Divsalar, Kouros; Shekarforoush, Shahnaz; Afarinesh, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Smoking opium/cigarette is a global health concern. The aim of this study was to examine learning and memory of rat male offsprings whose mothers had been exposed to either opium or morphine with nicotine during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: Wistar rats were used for the experiments. In the female rats, opium, morphine and nicotine dependencies were induced by daily injections of drug solution for 10 days before mating. Spatial memory was tested by Morris water maze test in male pups at the postnatal day 60. The duration that took until the rats found the platform in the maze and also their swimming speed were recorded. Results: An increase in the platform finding duration was observed for the pups of dependent mothers in comparison with the control in the training trial (P<0.05). Prenatal exposure to opium/morphine and nicotine significantly decreased the time spent in the trigger zone to find the hidden platform (P<0.05) but had no significant effect on the swimming speed in the probe test. However, no significant difference was observed in the learning and memory behavior of offspring whose mothers received morphine, opium, nicotine or the co-administration of either morphine or opium with nicotine. Conclusion: The present study showed that the opium, morphine and nicotine abuse and co-administration of opium/morphine with nicotine during pregnancy may cause deficits in spatial learning of male rat offspring. Based on our data, no synergistic effects of co-drug administration were observed on learning and memory in male rat offspring. PMID:25691947

  17. Association between Tooth Loss and Opium Addiction: Results of a Community-Based Study on 5900 Adult Individuals in South East of Iran in 2015

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Tayebeh Malek; Hasheminejad, Naimeh; Salari, Hamid Reza; Rostamizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Najafipour, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    Background: Like any other drug abuse, opium use is known to have detrimental effects on oral health. Oral hygiene neglect in opium users can lead to tooth loss resulting in further functional, esthetic, and dieting problems. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the association between tooth loss and opium addiction in a large-scale population. Materials and Methods: This study was part of an extensive study related to the risk factors of cardiovascular disease and conducted by the center for physiological research during 2012–2015 in Kerman. A total of 5900, 15–75-year-old individuals, were recruited by a single-stage random cluster sampling method. Factors including opium and smoking consumption, factors related to oral health, hygiene, and the number of missing teeth were examined. Data were collected through questionnaires, interviews, and physical examination. Results: Of 5900 individuals, 2662 (45.1%) were men and the rest were women, which 1011 individuals (17.1%) consumed opium. The prevalence of opium abuse was significantly higher in men. Regarding the oral dental indicators, the numbers of missing teeth (P < 0.001), decayed (P = 0.01), and the total index of decayed, missing, and filled teeth (P < 0.001) were significantly higher in addicts as compared to nonaddicts. The gingival index and community periodontal index scores were significantly lower in addicts. Addicted women had a higher prevalence of tooth loss. Conclusions: Opium addiction is associated with higher tooth loss, especially, in women opium users. Dental practitioners and health politicians should pay special attention to the oral health of addicts before tooth loss occurs. PMID:28852634

  18. Epidemiologic Study of Opium Use in Pars Cohort Study: A Study of 9000 Adults in a Rural Southern Area of Iran.

    PubMed

    Fallahzadeh, Mohammad Amin; Salehi, Alireza; Naghshvarian, Mojtaba; Fallahzadeh, Mohammad Hossein; Poustchi, Hossein; Sepanlou, Sadaf G; Gandomkar, Abdullah; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2017-04-01

    Opium is one of the most common substances used worldwide with variable epidemiologic features in different regions. This study was performed in southern Iran, to find the epidemiology of opium use and its association with different factors and diseases. This cross-sectional study was performed on baseline data extracted from Pars Cohort Study performed in Valashahr, a rural area in southern Iran. For any subject, information was collected about demographic factors, some common diseases including heart disease, stroke and hypertension and the state of using opium, other substances and cigarettes. There were 4276 males and 4988 females, with a mean age of 52.6 ± 9.7 years of whom 8.4% reported opium use (17.3% of males and 0.7% of females). In men, the history of stroke and heart disease were significantly more common in opium users (12.6% vs. 8.8%, P = 0.001 and 2.8% vs. 1.5%, P = 0.01, respectively) while the history of hypertension was significantly more common in non-opium users (7.8% vs. 10.3%, P = 0.04). Younger age, male gender, being non-married and positive history of joint pain, cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption were the factors associated with opium use. Opium use is common in non-married men who have a positive history of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption in the rural population of southern Iran. It is associated with increased risk of heart disease and stroke and decreased risk of hypertension in males. Global interventional and preventive measures are required to control this complicated social problem.

  19. Association between Tooth Loss and Opium Addiction: Results of a Community-Based Study on 5900 Adult Individuals in South East of Iran in 2015.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Tayebeh Malek; Hasheminejad, Naimeh; Salari, Hamid Reza; Rostamizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Najafipour, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    Like any other drug abuse, opium use is known to have detrimental effects on oral health. Oral hygiene neglect in opium users can lead to tooth loss resulting in further functional, esthetic, and dieting problems. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the association between tooth loss and opium addiction in a large-scale population. This study was part of an extensive study related to the risk factors of cardiovascular disease and conducted by the center for physiological research during 2012-2015 in Kerman. A total of 5900, 15-75-year-old individuals, were recruited by a single-stage random cluster sampling method. Factors including opium and smoking consumption, factors related to oral health, hygiene, and the number of missing teeth were examined. Data were collected through questionnaires, interviews, and physical examination. Of 5900 individuals, 2662 (45.1%) were men and the rest were women, which 1011 individuals (17.1%) consumed opium. The prevalence of opium abuse was significantly higher in men. Regarding the oral dental indicators, the numbers of missing teeth (P < 0.001), decayed (P = 0.01), and the total index of decayed, missing, and filled teeth (P < 0.001) were significantly higher in addicts as compared to nonaddicts. The gingival index and community periodontal index scores were significantly lower in addicts. Addicted women had a higher prevalence of tooth loss. Opium addiction is associated with higher tooth loss, especially, in women opium users. Dental practitioners and health politicians should pay special attention to the oral health of addicts before tooth loss occurs.

  20. The opium wars revisited as US forces tobacco exports in Asia.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, T T; Winder, A E

    1990-01-01

    The tobacco industry has lobbied successfully to obtain the support of the United States government for opening Asian Markets to American tobacco products. This paper comments on two issues arising from these efforts: the development of an atmosphere of invasion and resistance to invasion in Asia; and the change in the image of the United States in Asian nations from that of a leader in health to that of an exporter of death. The threat of sanctions and the effects of the open market and United States tobacco company advertising in Japan, Taiwan, and South Korea are noted. Parallels are drawn between the opium wars a century and a half ago in China and the current threat of trade sanctions. Reacting to American policy, an Asia-Pacific Association for Control of Tobacco has been formed and linked with the US Coalition Against Smoking. PMID:2343946

  1. The opium wars revisited as US forces tobacco exports in Asia.

    PubMed

    Chen, T T; Winder, A E

    1990-06-01

    The tobacco industry has lobbied successfully to obtain the support of the United States government for opening Asian Markets to American tobacco products. This paper comments on two issues arising from these efforts: the development of an atmosphere of invasion and resistance to invasion in Asia; and the change in the image of the United States in Asian nations from that of a leader in health to that of an exporter of death. The threat of sanctions and the effects of the open market and United States tobacco company advertising in Japan, Taiwan, and South Korea are noted. Parallels are drawn between the opium wars a century and a half ago in China and the current threat of trade sanctions. Reacting to American policy, an Asia-Pacific Association for Control of Tobacco has been formed and linked with the US Coalition Against Smoking.

  2. Opium-related sphincter of Oddi dysfunction causing double duct sign

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vishal; Rana, Surinder Singh; Chaudhary, Vinita; Dhaka, Narendra; Manrai, Manish; Sivalingam, Jegan; Sharma, Ravi; Dutta, Usha; Bhasin, Deepak Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Double duct sign where there is a simultaneous dilatation of both the common bile duct (CBD) and pancreatic duct is usually associated with sinister causes like malignancies of pancreatic head or ampulla. Occasionally, benign causes like chronic pancreatitis or sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD) may cause double duct sign. Chronic opium abuse is a rare cause of the double duct sign, and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) findings of this rare entity have been occasionally reported. We report about a 54-year-old male with a history of chronic alcohol and opioid abuse evaluated for episodes of abdominal pain and found to have opioid-related SOD and improved with biliary sphincterotomy. EUS was done to rule out malignancy and revealed hypoechoic prominence around terminal CBD suggestive of hypertrophied muscle. PMID:27503161

  3. Carboxymethylchitosan covalently modified capillary column for open tubular capillary electrochromatography of basic proteins and opium alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Sunying; Tan, Jingjing; Chen, Qinhua; Lin, Xucong; Lü, Haixia; Xie, Zenghong

    2010-12-24

    A novel open tubular (OT) column covalently modified with hydrophilic polysaccharide, carboxymethylchitosan (CMC) as stationary phase has been developed, and employed for the separations of basic proteins and opium alkaloids by capillary electrochromatography (CEC). With the procedures including the silanization of 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTS) and the combination of glutaraldehyde with amino-silylated silica surface and CMC, CMC was covalently bonded on the capillary inner wall and exhibited a remarkable tolerance and chemical stability against 0.1 mol/L HCl, 0.1 mol/L NaOH or some organic solvents. By varying the pH values of running buffer, a cathodic or anodic EOF could be gained in CMC modified column. With anodic EOF mode (pH<4.3), favorable separations of basic proteins (trypsin, ribonuclease A, lysozyme and cytochrome C) were successfully achieved with high column efficiencies ranging from 97,000 to 182,000 plates/m, and the undesired adsorptions of basic proteins on the inter-wall of capillary could be avoided. Good repeatability was gained with RSD of the migration time less than 1.3% for run-to-run (n=5) and less than 3.2% for day-to-day (n=3), RSD of peak area was less than 5.6% for run-to-run (n=5) and less than 8.8% for day-to-day (n=3). With cathodic EOF mode (pH>4.3), four opium alkaloids were also baseline separated in phosphate buffer (50 mmol/L, pH 6.0) with column efficiencies ranging from 92,000 to 132,000 plates/m. CMC-bonded OT capillary column might be used as an alternative medium for the further analysis of basic proteins and alkaline analytes.

  4. Utility of opium seed extract tests in preventing hypersensitivity reactions during surgery.

    PubMed

    Armentia, A; Pineda, F; Palacios, R; Martín-Gil, F-J; Miguel, A S; Arenal, J J; Tejedor, J; Tef, B M

    2014-01-01

    Anaphylaxis during anaesthesia is fatal in 3-9% of patients and analgesics, including opioids, and is the second most common medicament-related cause, although the prevalence is underestimated. We recently found that patients may generate IgE antibodies to opium seeds. To determine the diagnostic accuracy of specific antibodies to morphine, codeine, rocuronium and oil body and aqueous fractions of Papaver somniferum seeds in the diagnosis and prevention of allergy to opioids. Patients with hypersensitivity reactions during surgery, and severe clinical allergy (pollen, tobacco), and illicit heroin users were selected. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of in vivo and in vitro diagnostic techniques including oil body and aqueous fractions of P. somniferum seeds were measured. We studied 203 patients, with mean age 35.1±17.1 and 200 healthy controls. Patients sensitised to heroin or with hypersensitivity reactions during surgery responded to P. somniferum seed tests. Of patients not known to be sensitised to opioids, the highest positivity was in patients sensitised to tobacco (p<0.001). Opium seed skin tests and IgE, especially the oil body fraction, were more sensitive (64.2%) and specific (98.4%) than morphine, codeine and rocuronium tests for opioid sensitivity. Pollen allergy was not a risk factor for sensitisation to morphine. Sensitivity to opioids and intraoperative anaphylaxis can be diagnosed by routine tests. IgE and skin tests for the oil body fraction of P. somniferum had the highest sensitivity for sensitisation to opioids. Copyright © 2012 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison between elemental composition of human fingernails of healthy and opium-addicted subjects by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Shadman, S; Bahreini, M; Tavassoli, S H

    2012-04-20

    The objective of the present work is to identify differences in elemental fingernail composition between opium-addicted and healthy adult human subjects using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Thirty nails from normal, healthy male subjects and 30 nails from opium-addicted male individuals were analyzed. Measurements on 60 nail samples were carried out, identifying 13 key species including 11 neutral elements and 2 ions. Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA) was used to classify the samples between the two groups. Spectral line intensities of elements including Fe, C, Ti, Mg, Si, Al, Ca, H, K, O, and Na were considered variables in DFA. This analysis demonstrates the efficient discrimination between the two groups. However, the number of samples in this work is not sufficient for a decisive conclusion and further research is needed to generalize this idea.

  6. [Determination of poppy ingredients in chafing dish materials by isotopic internal standard coupled with multiple reaction monitoring and online full scan mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Weixia; Sun, Zhuanlian; Yuan, Ping; Yang, Jizhou; Liu, Yafeng; Sun, Wuyong

    2014-12-01

    A confirmative method was developed for determining five poppy alkaloids including morphine, codeine, papaverine, tibane, noscapine in chafing dish ingredients by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry (HPLC-Q Trap MS). The sample was extracted with dilute HCl solution under heating condition. The removal of lipid procedure was performed with hexane. The purification was carried out on a mixed-cation solid-phase extraction column (MCX) and ethyl acetate-methanol containing 5% aqueous ammonia was used for elution. A PAK ST column was used to separate the analytes, and 5 mmol/L ammonium acetate methanol and 10 mmol/L ammonium acetate (pH 3. 6) were used as mobile phases. The five alkaloids was detected in the positive mode simultaneously by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) and online enhanced product ion full scan (EPI). The LODs were 0.05-0.5 µg/kg and the LOQs were 0. 2-2 µg/kg for the five poppy alkaloids. The overall recoveries of the method varied from 64. 2% to 110. 6%, and the RSD were between 4. 2% and 12. 5%. The EPI mass spectra of positive samples were searched through standard library for qualitative confirmation. The detection of real hot pot material samples showed this method can be used for the simple and accurate determination of the five poppy alkaloid residues in chafing dish.

  7. Comparing the Early Maladaptive Schemas, Attachment and Coping Styles in Opium and Stimulant Drugs Dependent Men in Kerman, Iran.

    PubMed

    Hosseinifard, Seyed Mehdi; Kaviani, Narjes

    2015-01-01

    Today, the society's need to find the roots of a few thousand-year old substance abuse and the drugs addiction crisis has increased to the extent that it has become a problem within our country. The problem of substance dependence is not only about drug abuse, but it is actually the interrelationship of the person and the dependency on drugs. This study aimed to compare early maladaptive schemas, attachment styles, and coping styles in men dependent on opiates and stimulants in Kerman, Iran. This was a comparative descriptive study. The study population consisted of men dependent on opiates and stimulants who referred to addiction treatment clinics in Kerman. Therefore, 150 patients (75 opium addicted men and 75 men dependent on drugs) were selected. The participants completed the Young schema questionnaire-short form (YSQ-SF), adult attachment scale (AAS), and Young coping styles questionnaire (YCSQ). The research data were analyzed using independent t-test and SPSS software. Mean age of patients using opium was 27.9 ± 3.35 years and mean age of patients using stimulant drugs was 25.6 ± 3.41 years (18-60 years old). The results showed that there was no difference between the early maladaptive schemas and coping styles in men dependent on opium and stimulants. However, there was a significant difference between attachment styles in men dependent on opium and stimulants. The mean score of avoidant and ambivalent styles in men dependent on stimulants was higher. Knowledge on the distinctions of early maladaptive schemas, attachment styles, and coping styles in substance abuse patients helps the therapists to conduct more effective treatment strategies tailored to the type of substance used in order to provide behavior modification.

  8. Opium as a risk factor for upper gastrointestinal cancers: a population-based case-control study in Iran.

    PubMed

    Naghibzadeh Tahami, Ahmad; Khanjani, Narges; Yazdi Feyzabadi, Vahid; Varzandeh, Masoomeh; Haghdoost, Ali-Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal cancers, including esophageal, gastric, liver and pancreatic are relatively common in Iran. Furthermore, consumption of opium and its derivatives (O&D) are considerable. This study, aimed to examine the association between consumption of O&D and the incidence of upper gastrointestinal (UGI) cancers. In a matched case-control study in Kerman (located in southeast of Iran), 142 patients with UGI cancers and 284 healthy people (matched in terms of age, sex and residence (urban/rural)) were recruited. Variables (using O&D, smoking, alcohol use and diet) were collected using a structured questionnaire. Conditional logistic regression models were used to assess the above mentioned association. Opium use was associated with an increased risk of UGI cancers with an adjusted OR 4.0 (95% CI=2.2-7.0). A very strong dose-response relation was observed between consumption of O&D and the incidence of UGI cancers. (Three consumption levels-none, low and high; OR=18.7; 95% CI=5.5-63.3). This dose-response relationship was also strong even in patients with gastric cancers (OR=9.2; 95% CI=2.5-33.7). The results of this study showed that opium consumption can be a strong risk factor for UGI cancers in Iran.

  9. 3 CFR - Presidential Determination on Major Illicit Drug Transit or Major Illicit Drug Producing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... largest producer of opium poppy and a major source of heroin. The Government of Afghanistan, under the... neighboring Afghanistan where they are used for processing heroin. Opium poppy cultivation in Pakistan is also... kilograms of heroin. El Salvador may see an increase in drug activity corresponding with rising...

  10. Dismantling the Afghan Opiate Economy: A Cultural and Historical Policy Assessment, with Policy Recommendations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    February in order to harvest April through August, depending on latitude and local elevation. After flowering , the petals fall away to expose a...the bifurcated rentier economy. B. OPIUM POPPY CULTIVATION Opium poppy is a flowering plant that thrives in dry warm climates, and has higher

  11. 21 CFR 1308.12 - Schedule II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... substances shall not include the isoquinoline alkaloids of opium. (3) Opium poppy and poppy straw. (4) Coca leaves (9040) and any salt, compound, derivative or preparation of coca leaves (including cocaine (9041... with any of these substances, except that the substances shall not include decocainized coca leaves or...

  12. 21 CFR 1308.12 - Schedule II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... substances shall not include the isoquinoline alkaloids of opium. (3) Opium poppy and poppy straw. (4) Coca leaves (9040) and any salt, compound, derivative or preparation of coca leaves (including cocaine (9041... with any of these substances, except that the substances shall not include decocainized coca leaves or...

  13. 21 CFR 1308.12 - Schedule II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... substances shall not include the isoquinoline alkaloids of opium. (3) Opium poppy and poppy straw. (4) Coca leaves (9040) and any salt, compound, derivative or preparation of coca leaves (including cocaine (9041... with any of these substances, except that the substances shall not include decocainized coca leaves or...

  14. 21 CFR 1308.12 - Schedule II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... substances shall not include the isoquinoline alkaloids of opium. (3) Opium poppy and poppy straw. (4) Coca leaves (9040) and any salt, compound, derivative or preparation of coca leaves (including cocaine (9041... with any of these substances, except that the substances shall not include decocainized coca leaves or...

  15. 21 CFR 1308.12 - Schedule II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... substances shall not include the isoquinoline alkaloids of opium. (3) Opium poppy and poppy straw. (4) Coca leaves (9040) and any salt, compound, derivative or preparation of coca leaves (including cocaine (9041... with any of these substances, except that the substances shall not include decocainized coca leaves or...

  16. A case of hepatocellular carcinoma effectively treated with epirubicin aqueous vesicles in monodispersed iodized poppy-seed oil microdroplets.

    PubMed

    Higashi, S; Maeda, Y; Kai, M; Kitamura, T; Tsubouchi, H; Tamura, S; Setoguchi, T

    1996-01-01

    A 64-year-old woman with a solitary mass (18 mm in diameter) of hepatocellular carcinoma underwent hepatic arterial infusion therapy with water-in-oil-in-water emulsion (W/O/W) prepared by the membrane emulsification technique using a controlled pore glass membrane. In the W/O/W, numerous microdroplets of iodized poppy-seed oil (IPSO), which contained many vesicles of aqueous solution of epirubicin, were suspended in the external aqueous phase. The mean diameter of the IPSO microdroplets was 30 microns. Seventeen milliliters of the W/O/W containing 40 mg of epirubicin and 5 ml of IPSO was infused into the proper hepatic artery. No severe side effects were encountered. Computed tomography taken 3 days after the treatment revealed a clearly defined deposition of IPSO within the tumor. Serum alpha-fetoprotein levels, 5.35x10(3) ng/ml, before treatment, decreased to 131 ng/ml on 38 days after treatment. The tumor was extirpated and histopathological examination revealed complete necrosis of the tumor.

  17. Quality of Life, Social Desirability and Their Relationship in Opium Addicted Persons in Southeast of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Arab, Mansour; Kohan, Mehri; Ranjbar, Hadi; Arab, Nanaz; Rayani, Masoud; Mirrashidi, Salehe Sadat; Rafiei, Hossein; Amiri, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: Addiction leads to many problems which may adversely affect addicted people, their families and impose health care agencies with many challenges. This study aimed to examined quality of life (QoL), social desirability and their relationship among opium addicted persons in southeast of Iran. Material and Methods: In a cross-sectional study conducted from September 2012 to January 2013, 123 addicted people were studied. Date collection tools were; checklist of demographic data, Iranian version of the 36-item short form QoL (SF-36) and Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MC-SDS). Results: While mean score of QoL was 60.4±29.5, mean score of social desirability were 14.2±3.7. Low, moderate and high levels of social desirability were observed in 4.9%, 90.2% and 4.9% of participants, respectively. Pearson’s correlation were not significant between mean score of social desirability and mean score of QoL (p=0.969, r=0.004). Conclusion: Addicted participants of present study showed a moderate level of QoL and social desirability, without any significant relationship between QoL and social desirability. Further research is suggested in addicts with social and cultural differences. PMID:24762351

  18. Opium as a Literary Stimulant: The Case of Samuel Taylor Coleridge.

    PubMed

    Vickers, Neil

    2015-01-01

    In our era, the idea of a stimulant is synonymous with its biochemical properties. A stimulant, we think, is a substance that enhances the activity of the central and peripheral nervous systems. But in the eighteenth century, a new family of theories about the workings of stimulants took shape, based on exciting but erroneous assumptions. Proponents of these theories thought that many more diseases were "nervous" in origin than had previously been supposed. They hoped that the workings of the "nervous power" could be aided by the judicious use of stimulants and narcotics. Practitioners working within this broad "neuropathological" paradigm equated the workings of stimulation with those of gravity. Stimulation, they believed, was a kind of master principle in nature. Some hoped it would help refound medicine on Newtonian, mathematical lines. For patients, the most visible legacy of the neuropathological revolution was the abandonment of bloodletting or "cupping" and the increasingly widespread use of opium and alcohol in medical treatments. In this chapter, I explore the career of one of the most famous writers of the Romantic era, Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834) who had the misfortune to live through this therapeutic revolution. I describe the circumstances under which he came to take opiates and the development of his opinions about their effect on him.

  19. Quality of life, social desirability and their relationship in opium addicted persons in southeast of Iran.

    PubMed

    Arab, Mansour; Kohan, Mehri; Ranjbar, Hadi; Arab, Nanaz; Rayani, Masoud; Mirrashidi, Salehe Sadat; Rafiei, Hossein; Amiri, Masoud

    2014-02-22

    Addiction leads to many problems which may adversely affect addicted people, their families and impose health care agencies with many challenges. This study aimed to examined quality of life (QoL), social desirability and their relationship among opium addicted persons in southeast of Iran. In a cross-sectional study conducted from September 2012 to January 2013, 123 addicted people were studied. Date collection tools were; checklist of demographic data, Iranian version of the 36-item short form QoL (SF-36) and Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MC-SDS). While mean score of QoL was 60.4±29.5, mean score of social desirability were 14.2±3.7. Low, moderate and high levels of social desirability were observed in 4.9%, 90.2% and 4.9% of participants, respectively. Pearson's correlation were not significant between mean score of social desirability and mean score of QoL (p=0.969, r=0.004). Addicted participants of present study showed a moderate level of QoL and social desirability, without any significant relationship between QoL and social desirability. Further research is suggested in addicts with social and cultural differences.

  20. Use of tincture of opium compared to oral morphine for the treatment of neonatal abstinence syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kokotajlo, Suzannah; Robinson, Christine A; Presti, Amy

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the difference in time until medical clearance when comparing tincture of opium (TO) to oral morphine (OM) in the treatment of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). Retrospective chart review conducted from May 2007 to July 2011. Level III Neonatal Intensive Care unit at Morristown Medical Center in Morristown, New Jersey. Clinical Drug Utilization reports identified 26 neonates who were treated with TO and 25 neonates who were treated with OM for NAS. No patients were excluded. Patients were treated with either TO or OM for the indication of NAS. The primary outcome is to compare the time it takes for a baby being treated with TO versus OM for NAS to be medically cleared for discharge. The median time until medical clearance for those treated with TO was 29.5 days compared to 37 days for those treated with OM (p = 0.14). There was no statistically significant difference in the time it takes for a baby being treated with TO versus OM for NAS to be medically cleared for discharge. There are a number of safety benefits in using OM compared to TO. Until further data are collected, it is appropriate to continue treatment of neonates with NAS with OM.

  1. 76 FR 14688 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-17

    ... schedules I and II: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Poppy Straw Concentrate (9670) II The company plans to... which contain trace amounts of the controlled substances normally found in poppy straw concentrate for... accepted on any application for registration or re-registration to import crude opium, poppy...

  2. The GC-MS detection and characterization of neopine resulting from opium use and codeine metabolism and its potential as an opiate-product-use marker.

    PubMed

    Al-Amri, Abdel M; Smith, Roger M; El-Haj, Babiker M

    2005-06-01

    Neopine, a minor opium alkaloid and an isomer of codeine (also known as beta-codeine), has been detected in both the urine of opium users and pharmaceutical codeine users. The characterization of neopine was achieved by comparison of the mass spectra and GC retention times of the trimethylsilyl derivative. The presence of neopine in the urine of pharmaceutical codeine users was attributed to the metabolism of codeine through a double bond migration in ring C, from the 7-8 to the 8-14 position. The potential use of the alkaloid as a confirmation marker of opium and/or pharmaceutical codeine use and the ability to differentiate these from heroin use has been discussed.

  3. Passive opium smoking does not have beneficial effect on plasma lipids and cardiovascular indices in hypercholesterolemic rabbits with ischemic and non-ischemic hearts.

    PubMed

    Najafipour, Hamid; Joukar, Siyavash; Malekpour-Afshar, Reza; Mirzaeipour, Fateme; Nasri, Hamid Reza

    2010-02-03

    To scientifically test a traditionally belief of some Asian countries residents that opium may prevent or have ameliorating effects on cardiovascular diseases (CVD) we investigated the effect of passive opium smoking (POS) on plasma lipids and some cardiovascular parameters in hypercholesterolemic rabbits with ischemic and non-ischemic hearts. 40 rabbits were fed for 2 weeks with cholesterol-enriched diet and divided to control (CTL), short-term opium (SO) and long-term opium (LO) groups. SO and LO groups were exposed to POS for 3 days and 4 weeks respectively. ECG, blood pressure (BP) and left ventricular pressure recorded and serum lipid and cardiac troponin I levels were measured. Isoproterenol (ISO) injected for induction of cardiac ischemia and after 4h the above variables were measured along with cardiac histopathology assessment. HDL cholesterol decreased significantly in LO compared to CTL group (35+/-5 vs 53+/-5mg/dl). Groups treated with ISO showed significantly higher increments in troponin I level (P<0.05) except for LO group and reduction of BP was higher in ISO and SO+ISO groups compared to CTL and SO groups respectively (-38+/-6 vs -23+/-4 and -37+/-11 vs -11+/-3 percent respectively, P<0.05). Reduction in BP was significantly lower in LO+ISO compared to ISO group. Opium exposure caused a trend of increase in blood pressure, LDL cholesterol and ECG disturbances, attenuated ISO induced myonecrosis but augmented tissue congestion and hemorrhage. POS can be considered as a CVD risk factor. Opium does not reduce BP or cholesterol level, as is anticipated by its users. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Norcoclaurine Synthase Is a Member of the Pathogenesis-Related 10/Bet v1 Protein Family[W

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun-Jeong; Facchini, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Norcoclaurine synthase (NCS) catalyzes the first committed step in the biosynthesis of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs). NCS from Thalictrum flavum (Tf NCS), Papaver somniferum (Ps NCS1 and Ps NCS2), and Coptis japonica (Cj PR10A) share substantial identity with pathogen-related 10 (PR10) and Bet v1 proteins, whose functions are not well understood. A distinct enzyme (Cj NCS1) with similarity to 2-oxoglutarate–dependent dioxygenases was suggested as the bona fide NCS in C. japonica. Here, we validate the exclusive role of PR10/Bet v1-type NCS enzymes in BIA metabolism. Immunolocalization of Ps NCS2 revealed its cell type–specific occurrence in phloem sieve elements, which contain all other known BIA biosynthetic enzymes. In opium poppy, NCS transcripts and proteins were abundant in root and stem, but at low levels in leaf and carpel. Silencing of NCS in opium poppy profoundly reduced alkaloid levels compared with controls. Immunoprecipitation of NCS from total protein extracts of T. flavum cells resulted in a nearly complete attenuation of NCS activity. A Ps NCS2–green fluorescent protein fusion introduced by microprojectile bombardment into opium poppy cells initially localized to the endoplasmic reticulum but subsequently sorted to the vacuole. In our hands, Cj NCS1 did not catalyze the formation of (S)-norcoclaurine from dopamine and 4-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde. PMID:21037103

  5. [The development of the Japanese pharmaceutical industry (Part 8) - the change of opium alkaloid opioid analgesics in Japanese pharmaceutical companies.].

    PubMed

    Takehara, Jun

    2005-01-01

    After the Japan-England Friendship and Commercial Treaty of 1858 (Ansei 5), narcotic drugs have been strictly regulated by laws. The production of opium alkaloid analgesics, mainly morphine, became active in Japan after World War I (1918, Taisho 7). Having released the "Cancer Pain Relief" guideline by the WHO in 1986 (Showa 61) and the morphine sulfate controlled-release tablet "MS Contin" in 1989 (Heisei 1) in Japan, the demand for morphine in Japan expanded remarkably. Today, several more kinds of strong opioid analgesics are available for cancer pain treatment in Japan. An increase in the use of strong opioid analgesics is expected in the future.

  6. Beneficial Effects of Rosmarinus Officinalis for Treatment of Opium Withdrawal Syndrome during Addiction Treatment Programs: A Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Solhi, Hassan; Salehi, Bahman; Alimoradian, Abbas; Pazouki, Shirin; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Saleh, Ali Mohammad; Kazemifar, Amir Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Background Withdrawal syndrome may influence patient's motivation for participation in addiction treatment programs. Management of the symptoms can improve the success rate of addiction treatment programs. In the present study, we have evaluated the efficiency of an herbal product as adjunct therapy for alleviation of withdrawal syndrome in opium abuse. Methods In the present clinical trial, 81 patients were assigned into case and control groups. The control group was treated with methadone and placebo for 4 weeks. The case group was treated with methadone and powdered dried leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis for the same interval. Occurrence of withdrawal syndrome was compared between groups on days 3, 7, and 14 after beginning of the treatment, and the possible signs and symptoms of withdrawal syndrome were checked. The clinical opioid withdrawal scale (COWS) was used for evaluation of withdrawal syndrome in the patients. Findings Patients in the case group experienced less severe withdrawal syndrome compared to those in the control group; chiefly bone pain, perspiration, and insomnia. Conclusion The present study showed that rosemary can be used as an optional extra drug for treatment of withdrawal syndrome during treatment programs for opium addiction and possibly addiction to other opioids. PMID:24494164

  7. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel freezing-inducible DREB1/CBF transcription factor gene in boreal plant Iceland poppy (Papaver nudicaule)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhuo; He, Jiao; Zhong, Xiao-Juan; Guo, Han-Du; Jin, Si-Han; Li, Xi; Sun, Ling-Xia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract DREB1 of the AP2/ERF superfamily plays a key role in the regulation of plant response to low temperatures. In this study, a novel DREB1/CBF transcription factor, PnDREB1, was isolated from Iceland poppy (Papaver nudicaule), a plant adaptive to low temperature environments. It is homologous to the known DREB1s of Arabidopsis and other plant species. It also shares similar 3D structure, and conserved and functionally important motifs with DREB1s of Arabidopsis. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that the AP2 domain of PnDREB1 is similar to those of Glycine max, Medicago truncatula, and M. sativa. PnDREB1 is constitutively expressed in diverse tissues and is increased in roots. qPCR analyses indicated that PnDREB1 is significantly induced by freezing treatment as well as by abscissic acid. The expression levels induced by freezing treatment were higher in the variety with higher degree of freezing tolerance. These results suggested that PnDREB1 is a novel and functional DREB1 transcription factor involved in freezing response and possibly in other abiotic stresses. Furthermore, the freezing-induction could be suppressed by exogenous gibberellins acid, indicating that PnDREB1 might play some role in the GA signaling transduction pathway. This study provides a basis for better understanding the roles of DREB1 in adaption of Iceland poppy to low temperatures. PMID:27560992

  8. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel freezing-inducible DREB1/CBF transcription factor gene in boreal plant Iceland poppy (Papaver nudicaule).

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhuo; He, Jiao; Zhong, Xiao-Juan; Guo, Han-Du; Jin, Si-Han; Li, Xi; Sun, Ling-Xia

    2016-01-01

    DREB1 of the AP2/ERF superfamily plays a key role in the regulation of plant response to low temperatures. In this study, a novel DREB1/CBF transcription factor, PnDREB1, was isolated from Iceland poppy (Papaver nudicaule), a plant adaptive to low temperature environments. It is homologous to the known DREB1s of Arabidopsis and other plant species. It also shares similar 3D structure, and conserved and functionally important motifs with DREB1s of Arabidopsis. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that the AP2 domain of PnDREB1 is similar to those of Glycine max, Medicago truncatula, and M. sativa. PnDREB1 is constitutively expressed in diverse tissues and is increased in roots. qPCR analyses indicated that PnDREB1 is significantly induced by freezing treatment as well as by abscissic acid. The expression levels induced by freezing treatment were higher in the variety with higher degree of freezing tolerance. These results suggested that PnDREB1 is a novel and functional DREB1 transcription factor involved in freezing response and possibly in other abiotic stresses. Furthermore, the freezing-induction could be suppressed by exogenous gibberellins acid, indicating that PnDREB1 might play some role in the GA signaling transduction pathway. This study provides a basis for better understanding the roles of DREB1 in adaption of Iceland poppy to low temperatures.

  9. Differences in the effect of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate on the hydrolytic and transphosphatidylation activities of membrane-bound phospholipase D from poppy seedlings.

    PubMed

    Oblozinsky, Marek; Bezakova, Lydia; Mansfeld, Johanna; Heilmann, Ingo; Ulbrich-Hofmann, Renate

    2013-08-01

    The hydrolytic activity of phospholipase D (PLD) yielding phosphatidic acid from phosphatidylcholine and other glycerophospholipids is known to be involved in many cellular processes. In contrast, it is not clear whether the competitive transphosphatidylation activity of PLD catalyzing the head group exchange of phospholipids has a natural function. In poppy seedlings (Papaver somniferum L.) where lipid metabolism and alkaloid synthesis are closely linked, five isoenzymes with different substrate and hydrolysis/transphosphatidylation selectivities have been detected hitherto. A membrane-bound PLD, found in microsomal fractions of poppy seedlings, is active at micromolar concentrations of Ca(2+) ions and needs phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) as effector in the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine (PC). The optimum PIP2 concentration at 1.2 mol% of the concentration of the substrate PC indicates a specific activation effect. Transphosphatidylation with glycerol, ethanolamine, l-serine, or myo-inositol as acceptor alcohols is also activated by PIP2, however, with an optimum concentration at 0.6-0.9 mol%. In contrast to hydrolysis, a basic transphosphatidylation activity occurs even in the absence of PIP2, suggesting a different fine-tuning of the two competing reactions.

  10. Can Opium Use Contribute to a Higher Risk of Colorectal Cancers? A Matched Case-control Study in Iran

    PubMed Central

    NAGHIBZADEH-TAHAMI, Ahmad; YAZDI FEYZABADI, Vahid; KHANJANI, Narges; ASHRAFI-ASGARABAD, Ahad; ALIZAEH, Hosniyeh; BORHANINEJAD, Vahid Reza; MORADI-JOO, Mohammad; ZEINALI, Masoud; ZAHEDI, Mohammad Javad; AGHAEE-AFSHAR, Mahmoud; HAGHDOOST, Ali Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Colorectal cancers (CRCs) including colon, rectum and anal cancers are the third most prevalent cancers in the world. There are strong evidence showing the risk of the cigarette smoking, alcohol use, low physical activity and some types of diets in CRCs; however, few studies explored the relationship between opium use and CRCs. This study aimed to investigate the association between opioid use and the incidence of CRCs. Methods: In a population-based matched case-control study in Kerman, Iran, 175 patients with colorectal cancers and 350 healthy controls (matched for age, sex, and place of residence) were interviewed from Sep 2014 to Nov 2014. Opium and its derivatives, cigarette, alcohol, and diet use were collected using a valid and reliable questionnaire. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Results: The use of opioids was associated with an increased risk of CRCs (adjusted odds ratio= 4. 5, 95% CI: 2. 4–8. 7). In addition, a dose-response relationship was observed between the cumulative use of opioids and the incidence of CRCs (with low use OR=3. 7; 95% CI: 1. 5–8. 6 and high use OR= 8. 0; 95% CI: 2. 9–21. 7). This dose-response relationship was also strong in patients with colon cancers, with OR= 3. 9 (95% CI: 1. 5–9. 9) and 9. 4 (95% CI: 3. 3–27. 0) for the low and high uses of opioids, respectively. Conclusion: Opioid use can lead to an increased risk of CRCs. Therefore, it is necessary to implement preventive policies to control the use of opioids. PMID:27957439

  11. Concentration profiling of minerals in iliac crest bone tissue of opium addicted humans using inductively coupled plasma and discriminant analysis techniques.

    PubMed

    Mani-Varnosfaderani, Ahmad; Jamshidi, Mahbobeh; Yeganeh, Ali; Mahmoudi, Mani

    2016-02-20

    Opium addiction is one of the main health problems in developing countries and induces serious defects on the human body. In this work, the concentrations of 32 minerals including alkaline, heavy and toxic metals have been determined in the iliac crest bone tissue of 22 opium addicted individuals using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The bone tissues of 30 humans with no physiological and metabolomic diseases were used as the control group. For subsequent analyses, the linear and quadratic discriminant analysis techniques have been used for classification of the data into "addicted" and "non-addicted" groups. Moreover, the counter-propagation artificial neural network (CPANN) has been used for clustering of the data. The results revealed that the CPANN is a robust model and thoroughly classifies the data. The area under the curve for the receiver operating characteristic curve for this model was more than 0.91. Investigation of the results revealed that the opium consumption causes a deficiency in the level of Calcium, Phosphate, Potassium and Sodium in iliac crest bone tissue. Moreover, this type of addiction induces an increment in the level of toxic and heavy metals such as Co, Cr, Mo and Ni in iliac crest tissue. The correlation analysis revealed that there were no significant dependencies between the age of the samples and the mineral content of their iliac crest, in this study. The results of this work suggest that the opium addicted individuals need thorough and restricted dietary and medical care programs after recovery phases, in order to have healthy bones.

  12. Disruptive Behavior Disorders in 8 to 14 Years Old Offspring's of Opium and Heroin Dependent Parents: a Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Eslami Shahrbabaki, Mahin; Ziaaddini, Hassan; Saieedi, Hamdollah; Nakhaiee, Nouzar

    2009-01-01

    Background: Drug abuse is usually associated with behavioral disorders in children especially conduct disorder. This study investigated the behavioral disorders of children whose parents were opium or heroin dependent in compare with children whose parents were non-addicts to find the effects of drug abuse on offspring's behavior disorders by adjusting intervening factors. Methods: This case-control study, compared the behavioral disorders of 128 students (aged 8 to 14 years) in two groups of opium or heroin dependent parents and non–dependent parents (n = 64 in both groups) using Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) questionnaire. Parents of both groups were checked not to have any significant psychiatric disorder (such as personality disorder or mood disorder), major health problem, and history of divorce. To compare percentages of the two groups, chi square and if required exact test were used. Findings: There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in subscales of oppositional behavior problems and problems disorders. Conclusion: According to the results, in case there is no psychiatric co-morbidity associated with opium and heroin abuse, drug dependency does not seem to have any effect on disruptive bahavior disorder of children. Due to study limitations, the results cannot be generalized without conducting the study on a bigger population. PMID:24494088

  13. 76 FR 59495 - Presidential Determination on Major Illicit Drug Transit or Major Illicit Drug Producing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... producer of opium poppy and a major source of heroin. Primary trafficking routes from Afghanistan, where... precursor chemicals illegally smuggled to Afghanistan, where they are used to process heroin....

  14. 3 CFR - Presidential Determination on Major Illicit Drug Transit or Major Illicit Drug Producing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... producer of opium poppy and a major source of heroin. Primary trafficking routes from Afghanistan, where... precursor chemicals illegally smuggled to Afghanistan, where they are used to process heroin....

  15. 76 FR 42732 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... applications to import narcotic raw material are not appropriate. DEA has considered the factors in 21 U.S.C...: Drug Schedule Coca Leaves (9040) II Opium, raw (9600) II Poppy Straw (9650) II Concentrate of...

  16. 78 FR 39337 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice Of Registration; Mallinckrodt, LLC.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ... import narcotic raw material are not appropriate, 72 FR 3417 (2007). Regarding Phenylacetone (8501), a... Schedule Phenylacetone (8501) II Coca Leaves (9040) II Opium, raw (9600) II Poppy Straw Concentrate...

  17. 77 FR 38085 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Cambrex Charles City, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... requests for hearings on applications to import narcotic raw material are not appropriate. 72 FR 3417 (2007... Opium, raw (9600) II Poppy Straw Concentrate (9670) II The company plans to import the listed...

  18. 75 FR 53718 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... import narcotic raw material are not appropriate. As noted in a previous notice published in the Federal... II: Drug Schedule Opium, raw (9600) II Poppy Straw Concentrate (9670) II The company plans to...

  19. 77 FR 24984 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Rhodes Technologies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ... hearings on applications to import narcotic raw material are not appropriate. 72 FR 3417 (2007). As noted... Opium, Raw (9600) II Poppy Straw Concentrate (9670) II The company plans to import the listed...

  20. 78 FR 64013 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Cambrex Charles City, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... customers. Comments and requests for hearings on applications to import narcotic raw material are not... Cocaine (9041) II Opium, raw (9600) II Poppy Straw Concentrate (9670) II The company plans to import...

  1. 78 FR 33440 - Importer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration; Rhodes Technologies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    .... Comments and requests for hearings on applications to import narcotic raw material are not appropriate. 72... substances: Drug Schedule Opium Raw (9600) II Poppy Straw Concentrate (9670) II The company plans to...

  2. 76 FR 51398 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ...: Drug Schedule Phenylacetone (8501) II Opium, raw (9600) II Poppy Straw Concentrate (9670) II The... hearings will be accepted on any application for registration or re-registration to import crude...

  3. 76 FR 5827 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ...: Drug Schedule Phenylacetone (8501) II Coca Leaves (9040) II Opium, raw (9600) II Poppy Straw... hearings will be accepted on any application for registration or re-registration to import crude...

  4. 76 FR 77253 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ...) II Opium, raw (9600) II Noroxymorphone (9668) II Poppy Straw Concentrate (9670) II The company plans... hearings will be accepted on any application for registration or re-registration to import crude...

  5. 76 FR 17967 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... substances: Drug Schedule Raw Opium (9600) II Concentrate of Poppy Straw (9670) II The company plans to... registered with DEA as a manufacturer of several controlled substances that are manufactured from raw...

  6. 75 FR 1812 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-13

    ... schedule II: Drug Schedule Phenylacetone (8501) II Coca Leaves (9040) II Opium, raw (9600) II Poppy Straw... hearings will be accepted on any application for registration or re-registration to import crude...

  7. 7 CFR 400.46 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... drug-producing plants including, but not limited to, cacti of the genus lophophora, coca bushes (erythroxylum coca), marijuana (cannabis satiua), opium poppies (papauer somniferum), and other drug-producing...

  8. 7 CFR 400.46 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... drug-producing plants including, but not limited to, cacti of the genus lophophora, coca bushes (erythroxylum coca), marijuana (cannabis satiua), opium poppies (papauer somniferum), and other drug-producing...

  9. 7 CFR 400.46 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... drug-producing plants including, but not limited to, cacti of the genus lophophora, coca bushes (erythroxylum coca), marijuana (cannabis satiua), opium poppies (papauer somniferum), and other drug-producing...

  10. Mechanistic Population Pharmacokinetics of Morphine in Neonates With Abstinence Syndrome After Oral Administration of Diluted Tincture of Opium.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Lewis, Tamorah; Gauda, Estelle; Gobburu, Jogarao; Ivaturi, Vijay

    2016-08-01

    Conducting and analyzing clinical trials in vulnerable neonates are extremely challenging. The aim of this analysis is to develop a morphine population pharmacokinetics (PK) model using data collected during a randomized control trial in neonates with abstinence syndrome (NAS). A 3-compartment morphine structural PK model after intravenous (IV) administration from previously published work was utilized as prior, whereas an allometric scaling method with physiological consideration was used to extrapolate a PK profile from adults to pediatrics. The absorption rate constant and bioavailability were estimated in NAS after oral administration of diluted tincture of opium (DTO). Goodness-of-fit plots along with normalized prediction distribution error and bootstrap method were performed for model evaluation. We successfully extrapolated the PK profile from adults to pediatrics after IV administration. The estimated first-order absorption rate constant and bioavailability were 0.751 hour(-1) and 48.5%, respectively. Model evaluations showed that the model can accurately and precisely describe the observed data. The population pharmacokinetic model we derived for morphine after oral administration of DTO is reasonable and acceptable; therefore, it can be used to describe the PK and guide future studies. The integration of the previous population PK knowledge as prior information successfully overcomes the logistic and practical issue in vulnerable neonate population. © 2016, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  11. Treatment of opium alkaloid containing wastewater in sequencing batch reactor (SBR)—Effect of gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bural, Cavit B.; Demirer, Goksel N.; Kantoglu, Omer; Dilek, Filiz B.

    2010-04-01

    Aerobic biological treatment of opium alkaloid containing wastewater as well as the effect of gamma irradiation as pre-treatment was investigated. Biodegradability of raw wastewater was assessed in aerobic batch reactors and was found highly biodegradable (83-90% degradation). The effect of irradiation (40 and 140 kGy) on biodegradability was also evaluated in terms of BOD 5/COD values and results revealed that irradiation imparted no further enhancement in the biodegradability. Despite the highly biodegradable nature of wastewater, further experiments in sequencing batch reactors (SBR) revealed that the treatment operation was not possible due to sludge settleability problem observed beyond an influent COD value of 2000 mg dm -3. Possible reasons for this problem were investigated, and the high molecular weight, large size and aromatic structure of the organic pollutants present in wastewater was thought to contribute to poor settleability. Initial efforts to solve this problem by modifying the operational conditions, such as SRT reduction, failed. However, further operational modifications including addition of phosphate buffer cured the settleability problem and influent COD was increased up to 5000 mg dm -3. Significant COD removal efficiencies (>70%) were obtained in both SBRs fed with original and irradiated wastewaters (by 40 kGy). However, pre-irradiated wastewater provided complete thebain removal and a better settling sludge, which was thought due to degradation of complex structure by radiation application. Degradation of the structure was observed by GC/MS analyses and enhancement in filterability tests.

  12. Not in My Navy. A Legal Guide to Drug Abuse.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    Synthetic Varies Inhaled Codeine T Opium poppy 15-50 mg. Swallowed Demerol Smack Synthetic 50-150 mg. Injected Heroin Junk Opium poppy Varies Sniffed...morphine, codeine , heroin), and synthetic opiates (merperidine, oxycodone, methadone). As regulated by Federal narcotic laws, however, the term...Use - Exempt cough formulas which contain codeine are used to combat the symp~toms of respiratory disorders. Codeine is an effective cough suppressant

  13. Prickles, latex, and tolerance in the endemic Hawaiian prickly poppy (Argemone glauca): variation between populations, across ontogeny, and in response to abiotic factors.

    PubMed

    Barton, Kasey E

    2014-04-01

    Covariance among plant defense traits is predicted to occur both within and among plant species, potentially leading to characteristic defense syndromes. I examined patterns of variation in prickle density, latex exudation, and tolerance in order to assess whether traits varied between populations, across plant ontogeny, and as phenotypic plasticity in response to water and light limitation and physical damage using the endemic Hawaiian prickly poppy, Argemone glauca, as a model system. Plants produced copious latex, had extremely variable prickle densities, and were generally tolerant of 50% defoliation. However, expression patterns differed among defense traits. Prickle density was consistent across ontogeny and was not induced by either water limitation or mechanical damage, but was significantly induced under high light conditions. In contrast, latex exudation increased significantly across ontogeny and was reduced by water limitation, but had no response to mechanical damage or light. Prickles, latex, and tolerance differed considerably between populations, suggesting different evolutionary histories for these populations. These disparate patterns indicate that latex and prickles are unlinked within A. glauca, potentially as a result of differences in their function, and providing little evidence that they jointly function as a defense syndrome. Moreover, this study provides the first description patterns of variation for multiple defense traits in an island endemic, and high levels of prickles, latex, and tolerance suggest that A. glauca is well defended against herbivores. Future research in the field will provide additional insights into the functional ecology of these traits in A. glauca.

  14. Evolution and diversity of the mechanisms endowing resistance to herbicides inhibiting acetolactate-synthase (ALS) in corn poppy (Papaver rhoeas L.).

    PubMed

    Délye, Christophe; Pernin, Fanny; Scarabel, Laura

    2011-02-01

    We investigated the diversity of mechanisms conferring resistance to herbicides inhibiting acetolactate synthase (ALS) in corn poppy (Papaver rhoeas L.) and the processes underlying the selection for resistance. Six mutant ALS alleles, Arg₁₉₇, His₁₉₇, Leu₁₉₇, Ser₁₉₇, Thr₁₉₇ and Leu₅₇₄ were identified in five Italian populations. Different alleles were found in a same population or a same plant. Comparison of individual plant phenotype (herbicide sensitivity) and genotype (amino-acid substitution(s) at codon 197) showed that all mutant ALS alleles conferred dominant resistance to the field rate of the sulfonylurea tribenuron and moderate or no resistance to the field rate of the triazolopyrimidine florasulam. Depending on the allele, dominant or partially dominant resistance to the field rate of the imidazolinone imazamox was observed. Putative non-target-site resistance mechanisms were also likely present in the populations investigated. The derived Cleaved Amplified Polymorphic Sequence assays targeting ALS codons crucial for herbicide sensitivity developed in this work will facilitate the detection of resistance due to mutant ALS alleles. Nucleotide variation around codon 197 indicated that mutant ALS alleles evolved by multiple, independent appearances. Resistance to ALS inhibitors in P. rhoeas clearly evolved by redundant evolution of a set of mutant ALS alleles and likely of non-target-site mechanisms.

  15. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection to determination of opium alkaloids in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi-Jouibari, Toraj; Fattahi, Nazir; Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Pirsaheb, Meghdad

    2013-11-01

    A novel, simple, rapid and sensitive dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method based on the solidification of floating organic drop (DLLME-SFO) combined with high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) was used to determine opium alkaloids in human plasma. During the extraction procedure, plasma protein was precipitated by using a mixture of zinc sulfate solution and acetonitrile. Some effective parameters on extraction were studied and optimized. Under the optimum conditions (extraction solvent: 30.0 μl 1-undecanol; disperser solvent: 470 μl acetone; pH: 9; salt addition: 1%(w/v) NaCl and extraction time: 0.5 min), calibration curves are linear in the range of 1.5-1000 μgl(-1) and limit of detections (LODs) are in the range of 0.5-5 μgl(-1). The relative standard deviations (RSDs) for 100 μgl(-1) of morphine and codeine, 10.0 μgl(-1) of papaverine and 20.0 μgl(-1) of noscapine in diluted human plasma are in the range of 4.3-7.4% (n=5). Finally, the method was successfully applied in the determination of opium alkaloids in the actual human plasma samples. The relative recoveries of plasma samples spiked with alkaloids are 88-110.5%. The obtained results show that DLLME-SFO combined with HPLC-UV is a fast and simple method for the determination of opium alkaloids in human plasma.

  16. Determinants of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease, Including Hookah Smoking and Opium Use– A Cross-Sectional Analysis of 50,000 Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Islami, Farhad; Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh; Pourshams, Akram; Poustchi, Hossein; Semnani, Shahryar; Kamangar, Farin; Etemadi, Arash; Merat, Shahin; Khoshnia, Masoud; Dawsey, Sanford M.; Pharoah, Paul D.; Brennan, Paul; Abnet, Christian C.; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common cause of discomfort and morbidity worldwide. However, information on determinants of GERD from large-scale studies in low- to medium-income countries is limited. We investigated the factors associated with different measures of GERD symptoms, including frequency, patient-perceived severity, and onset time. Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis of the baseline data from a population-based cohort study of ∼50,000 individuals in in Golestan Province, Iran. GERD symptoms in this study included regurgitation and/or heartburn. Results Approximately 20% of participants reported at least weekly symptoms. Daily symptoms were less commonly reported by men, those of Turkmen ethnicity, and nass chewers. On the other hand, age, body mass index, alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, opium use, lower socioeconomic status, and lower physical activity were associated with daily symptoms. Most of these factors showed similar associations with severe symptoms. Women with higher BMI and waist to hip ratio were more likely to report frequent and severe GERD symptoms. Hookah smoking (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.02–1.75) and opium use (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.55–1.87) were associated with severe symptoms, whereas nass chewing had an inverse association (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.76–0.99). After exclusion of cigarette smokers, hookah smoking was still positively associated and nass chewing was inversely associated with GERD symptoms (all frequencies combined). Conclusion GERD is common in this population. The associations of hookah and opium use and inverse association of nass use with GERD symptoms are reported for the first time. Further studies are required to investigate the nature of these associations. Other determinants of GERD were mostly comparable to those reported elsewhere. PMID:24586635

  17. Determinants of gastroesophageal reflux disease, including hookah smoking and opium use- a cross-sectional analysis of 50,000 individuals.

    PubMed

    Islami, Farhad; Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh; Pourshams, Akram; Poustchi, Hossein; Semnani, Shahryar; Kamangar, Farin; Etemadi, Arash; Merat, Shahin; Khoshnia, Masoud; Dawsey, Sanford M; Pharoah, Paul D; Brennan, Paul; Abnet, Christian C; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common cause of discomfort and morbidity worldwide. However, information on determinants of GERD from large-scale studies in low- to medium-income countries is limited. We investigated the factors associated with different measures of GERD symptoms, including frequency, patient-perceived severity, and onset time. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of the baseline data from a population-based cohort study of ∼ 50,000 individuals in in Golestan Province, Iran. GERD symptoms in this study included regurgitation and/or heartburn. Approximately 20% of participants reported at least weekly symptoms. Daily symptoms were less commonly reported by men, those of Turkmen ethnicity, and nass chewers. On the other hand, age, body mass index, alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, opium use, lower socioeconomic status, and lower physical activity were associated with daily symptoms. Most of these factors showed similar associations with severe symptoms. Women with higher BMI and waist to hip ratio were more likely to report frequent and severe GERD symptoms. Hookah smoking (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.02-1.75) and opium use (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.55-1.87) were associated with severe symptoms, whereas nass chewing had an inverse association (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.76-0.99). After exclusion of cigarette smokers, hookah smoking was still positively associated and nass chewing was inversely associated with GERD symptoms (all frequencies combined). GERD is common in this population. The associations of hookah and opium use and inverse association of nass use with GERD symptoms are reported for the first time. Further studies are required to investigate the nature of these associations. Other determinants of GERD were mostly comparable to those reported elsewhere.

  18. Production of Pharmaceuticals from Papaver Cultivars In Vitro

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A methodology to clonally proliferate Iranian poppy (Papaver bracteatum Lindl.) and opium poppy (P. somniferum L.) shoots is presented employing an in vitro hydroponics system (i.e., automated plant culture system (APCS)). Temperature had a profound effect on growth and alkaloid production after 8-...

  19. 78 FR 64014 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Penick Corporation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... (9040) II Opium, raw (9600) II Poppy Straw (9650) II Poppy Straw Concentrate (9670) II The company plans... sale to its customers. Comments and requests for hearings on applications to import narcotic raw material are not appropriate. 72 FR 3417 (2007). As noted in a previous notice published in the...

  20. Preoperative Belladonna and Opium Suppository for Ureteral Stent Pain: A Randomized, Double-blinded, Placebo-controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Franklin C; Holt, Sarah K; Hsi, Ryan S; Haynes, Brandon M; Harper, Jonathan D

    2017-02-01

    To investigate whether the use of a belladonna and opium (B&O) rectal suppository administered immediately before ureteroscopy (URS) and stent placement could reduce stent-related discomfort. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study was performed from August 2013 to December 2014. Seventy-one subjects were enrolled and randomized to receive a B&O (15 mg/30 mg) or a placebo suppository after induction of general anesthesia immediately before URS and stent placement. Baseline urinary symptoms were assessed using the American Urological Association Symptom Score (AUASS). The Ureteral Stent Symptom Questionnaire and AUASS were completed on postoperative days (POD) 1, 3, and after stent removal. Analgesic use intraoperatively, in the recovery unit, and at home was recorded. Of the 71 subjects, 65 had treatment for ureteral (41%) and renal (61%) calculi, 4 for renal urothelial carcinoma, and 2 were excluded for no stent placed. By POD3, the B&O group reported a higher mean global quality of life (QOL) score (P = .04), a better mean quality of work score (P = .05), and less pain with urination (P = .03). The B&O group reported an improved AUASS QOL when comparing POD1 with post-stent removal (P = .04). There was no difference in analgesic use among groups (P = .67). There were no episodes of urinary retention. Age was associated with unplanned emergency visits (P <.00) and "high-pain" measure (P = .02) CONCLUSION: B&O suppository administered preoperatively improved QOL measures and reduced urinary-related pain after URS with stent. Younger age was associated with severe stent pain and unplanned hospital visits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Preoperative Belladonna and Opium Suppository for Ureteral Stent Pain: A Randomized, Double-blinded, Placebo-controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Franklin C.; Holt, Sarah K.; Hsi, Ryan S.; Haynes, Brandon M.; Harper, Jonathan D.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate whether the use of a belladonna and opium (B&O) rectal suppository administered immediately before ureteroscopy (URS) and stent placement could reduce stent-related discomfort. METHODS A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study was performed from August 2013 to December 2014. Seventy-one subjects were enrolled and randomized to receive a B&O (15 mg/30 mg) or a placebo suppository after induction of general anesthesia immediately before URS and stent placement. Baseline urinary symptoms were assessed using the American Urological Association Symptom Score (AUASS). The Ureteral Stent Symptom Questionnaire and AUASS were completed on postoperative days (POD) 1, 3, and after stent removal. Analgesic use intra-operatively, in the recovery unit, and at home was recorded. RESULTS Of the 71 subjects, 65 had treatment for ureteral (41%) and renal (61%) calculi, 4 for renal urothelial carcinoma, and 2 were excluded for no stent placed. By POD3, the B&O group reported a higher mean global quality of life (QOL) score (P = .04), a better mean quality of work score (P = .05), and less pain with urination (P = .03). The B&O group reported an improved AUASS QOL when comparing POD1 with post-stent removal (P = .04). There was no difference in analgesic use among groups (P = .67). There were no episodes of urinary retention. Age was associated with unplanned emergency visits (P <.00) and “high-pain” measure (P = .02) CONCLUSION B&O suppository administered preoperatively improved QOL measures and reduced urinary-related pain after URS with stent. Younger age was associated with severe stent pain and unplanned hospital visits. PMID:27658661

  2. Dilated common bile duct in opium addicts with and without biliary symptoms --implication for research in AIDS cholangiopathy.

    PubMed

    Chuah, S Y; Leong, C K; Pang, C W

    2003-05-01

    Opium addicts (OA) with no biliary symptoms have been shown to have dilated common bile duct (CBD). Endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP) without biliary drainage in such asymptomatic OA is hazardous. Hence it is not indicated unless there are clear clinical and laboratory evidences of biliary stasis. To show that even when matched with controls with the same clinical diagnosis of the biliary system, OA still have significantly larger CBD diameters and that OA with biliary symptoms should be treated no differently from non-OA with biliary symptoms. Seven OA (all Chinese males), four of whom had undergone ERCP (three for CBD stones and one for ampullary carcinoma), were compared, using t-test, to 7 age, sex, race and diagnosis-matched controls, four of whom had also undergone ERCP (three for CBD stones and one for ampullary carcinoma). When ERCP was not done, ultrasonography was used to assess the biliary system and measure the CBD diameter. The mean (SD) CBD diameters of OA and controls were 15.7 mm (5.65) and 8.3 mm (5.95) respectively (t = 2.399, p = 0.032). The mean (SD) weight of OA and controls were 55.8 kg (9.22) and 57.3 kg (9.21) respectively (t = -0.305, p = 0.763). Only two of the seven OA were born in China, the remaining five in Malaysia. OA do get CBD pathology like non-OA and if indicated there should be no qualms about performing ERCP in them. When matched for age, sex, race and clinical diagnosis, OA still have a significantly larger CBD despite no difference in body weight.

  3. Opium alcaloids in toxicological medico-legal practice of Department of Forensic Medicine, Jagiellonian University Medical College

    PubMed

    Kłys, Małgorzata; Rojek, Sebastian; Maciów-Głab, Martyna; Kula, Karol

    2013-01-01

    Most likely, opium was the first narcotic substance discovered at the dawn of mankind. Contemporary drug abuse predominantly poses a social and clinical problem and encompasses among other aspects emergency procedures in cases of intoxication and treatment of addictions. On the other hand, this is also a problem of the judicial system, which implements the rule of apt punishment in criminal cases (rapes, robberies, drivers, production and trade in narcotic substances) and of the necessity of monitoring drug-associates deaths. In all drug-associated cases, investigative capabilities have increased with the introduction of extremely sensitive and specific analytical methods (GC-MS, LC/MS, HPLC/DAD) allowing for detection and identification of multi-component mixtures of xenobiotics found at low concentration levels in complex biological matrices. The history of the Krakow Department of Forensic Medicine dates back to the year 1877, since archival materials have been kept since that time. Isolated deaths resulting from morphine poisoning, mostly involving individuals employed in the health care sector, constituted the subject of medico-legal expert opinions starting at the beginning of the 20th century, but only the eighties did bring the need for multidirectional toxicological examinations of opiates and their metabolites in diversified biological and non-biological materials. The present report, in addition to the historical background of opiate addiction, discusses selected problems derived from published by Department reports on opiates, including cases of fatal intoxication, hair analysis of drug addicts in its various aspects, interactions in cases of poisoning and others.

  4. Extraction and determination of opium alkaloids in urine samples using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Fattahi, Nazir

    2011-10-15

    A simple, rapid and sensitive method based on dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) combined with high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) was used to determine opium alkaloids in urine samples. Some effective parameters on extraction were studied and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, enrichment factors and recoveries for different opiates are in the range of 63.0-104.5 and 31.5-52.2%, respectively. The calibration graphs are linear in the range of 0.50-500 μg L(-1) and limit of detections (LODs) are in the range of 0.2-10 μg L(-1). The relative standard deviations (RSDs) for 200 μg L(-1) of morphine, codeine and thebaine, 5.0 μg L(-1) of papaverine and 10.0 μg L(-1) of noscapine in diluted urine sample are in the range of 2.8-6.1% (n=7). The relative recoveries of urine samples spiked with alkaloids are 84.3-106.0%. The obtained results show that DLLME combined with HPLC-UV is a fast and simple method for the determination of opium alkaloids in urine samples.

  5. A Papaver somniferum 10-gene cluster for synthesis of the anticancer alkaloid noscapine.

    PubMed

    Winzer, Thilo; Gazda, Valeria; He, Zhesi; Kaminski, Filip; Kern, Marcelo; Larson, Tony R; Li, Yi; Meade, Fergus; Teodor, Roxana; Vaistij, Fabián E; Walker, Carol; Bowser, Tim A; Graham, Ian A

    2012-06-29

    Noscapine is an antitumor alkaloid from opium poppy that binds tubulin, arrests metaphase, and induces apoptosis in dividing human cells. Elucidation of the biosynthetic pathway will enable improvement in the commercial production of noscapine and related bioactive molecules. Transcriptomic analysis revealed the exclusive expression of 10 genes encoding five distinct enzyme classes in a high noscapine-producing poppy variety, HN1. Analysis of an F(2) mapping population indicated that these genes are tightly linked in HN1, and bacterial artificial chromosome sequencing confirmed that they exist as a complex gene cluster for plant alkaloids. Virus-induced gene silencing resulted in accumulation of pathway intermediates, allowing gene function to be linked to noscapine synthesis and a novel biosynthetic pathway to be proposed.

  6. A Comparison of Blood-lead Level (BLL) in Opium-dependant Addicts With Healthy Control Group Using the Graphite Furnace/atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (GF-AAS) Followed by Chemometric Analysis.

    PubMed

    Amiri, Mojtaba; Amini, Ramin

    2012-08-01

    A comparison of oral/inhaled opium addicts with a healthy control group was investigated. Using the graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GF-AAS) followed by chemometric analysis, sub-to-low µg L-1 concentrations of blood lead level (BLL) was detected in both the addict and the control groups. In this study, BLL of 78 subjects (Iranian volunteers) in two opium-addicted (patient group) and healthy control groups was evaluated. All the volunteers were men. The patient group was comprised of 39 patients who used opium orally or by inhalation with a mean age of 48.6 ± 7.3 years. The patient group was selected through systematic incidental sampling from 150 orally or by inhalation opium-addicted patients referred to Shariati Hospital located in Tehran .The control group (39 subjects) was matched with the patient group with regard to age and sex and with a mean age of 44.8 ± 5.6 years. The mean concentration of lead was found to be significantly lower (P = 0.0001) in control group (16.70 ± 12.51 μg/dL) compared to addicts (57.04 ± 46.03 μg/dL). When the addicts were divided into various age groups, there appeared to be a significant difference (p= 0.0451) in blood lead concentration as a function of age, however when the control group was considered, no difference was observed (P = 0.51). Also, a tendency (P = 0.048) towards increasing BLL with respect to BMI was observed due to drug consumption, but there was no significant variation between BLL concentration and BMI when the control group was considered (P = 0.35). It was observed that the BLL in opium-addicts was significantly higher than that of the healthy control group. The mean difference of both groups was statistically significant.

  7. The seirena B class floral homeotic mutant of California Poppy (Eschscholzia californica) reveals a function of the enigmatic PI motif in the formation of specific multimeric MADS domain protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Lange, Matthias; Orashakova, Svetlana; Lange, Sabrina; Melzer, Rainer; Theißen, Günter; Smyth, David R; Becker, Annette

    2013-02-01

    The products of B class floral homeotic genes specify petal and stamen identity, and loss of B function results in homeotic conversions of petals into sepals and stamens into carpels. Here, we describe the molecular characterization of seirena-1 (sei-1), a mutant from the basal eudicot California poppy (Eschscholzia californica) that shows homeotic changes characteristic of floral homeotic B class mutants. SEI has been previously described as EScaGLO, one of four B class-related MADS box genes in California poppy. The C terminus of SEI, including the highly conserved PI motif, is truncated in sei-1 proteins. Nevertheless, like the wild-type SEI protein, the sei-1 mutant protein is able to bind CArG-boxes and can form homodimers, heterodimers, and several higher order complexes with other MADS domain proteins. However, unlike the wild type, the mutant protein is not able to mediate higher order complexes consisting of specific B, C, and putative E class related proteins likely involved in specifying stamen identity. Within the PI motif, five highly conserved N-terminal amino acids are specifically required for this interaction. Several families lack this short conserved sequence, including the Brassicaceae, and we propose an evolutionary scenario to explain these functional differences.

  8. The seirena B Class Floral Homeotic Mutant of California Poppy (Eschscholzia californica) Reveals a Function of the Enigmatic PI Motif in the Formation of Specific Multimeric MADS Domain Protein Complexes[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Matthias; Orashakova, Svetlana; Lange, Sabrina; Melzer, Rainer; Theißen, Günter; Smyth, David R.; Becker, Annette

    2013-01-01

    The products of B class floral homeotic genes specify petal and stamen identity, and loss of B function results in homeotic conversions of petals into sepals and stamens into carpels. Here, we describe the molecular characterization of seirena-1 (sei-1), a mutant from the basal eudicot California poppy (Eschscholzia californica) that shows homeotic changes characteristic of floral homeotic B class mutants. SEI has been previously described as EScaGLO, one of four B class–related MADS box genes in California poppy. The C terminus of SEI, including the highly conserved PI motif, is truncated in sei-1 proteins. Nevertheless, like the wild-type SEI protein, the sei-1 mutant protein is able to bind CArG-boxes and can form homodimers, heterodimers, and several higher order complexes with other MADS domain proteins. However, unlike the wild type, the mutant protein is not able to mediate higher order complexes consisting of specific B, C, and putative E class related proteins likely involved in specifying stamen identity. Within the PI motif, five highly conserved N-terminal amino acids are specifically required for this interaction. Several families lack this short conserved sequence, including the Brassicaceae, and we propose an evolutionary scenario to explain these functional differences. PMID:23444328

  9. Moderate hypothermia and its effects in reducing the applied dose of anesthetics for patients with opium dependence in cardiac surgery: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Taghadomi, Reza Jalaian; Golmakani, Ebrahim; Alizadeh, Kambiz; Mottahedi, Behrooz; Rahdari, Ali; Sheybani, Shima

    2016-01-01

    Background An increasing number of patients addicted to opium are experiencing awareness during coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) as a result of tolerance to anesthetics. Objectives This research was primarily intended to determine the potential diminishing effects of moderate hypothermia on anesthetic dosage and recall of anesthesia during the procedure. Methods In this double-blind randomized controlled trial, a total of 80 CABG candidates with known addiction to opium were divided into two groups: one normothermic (N) and the other moderately hypothermic (H), both undergoing induction as well as close monitoring from September 2014 to January 2016. The candidates were initially set for a target bispectral index (BIS) score of between 40 and 60. As the score rose to 60, an additional dose of propofol was administered, alongside rise in blood pressure and tear-shedding. To enhance the accuracy of our evaluation of anesthetic depth, we also used two questionnaires to test candidates’ recall filled with the assistance of a colleague 24 hours following surgery. Independent-samples t-test and chi-square test were used by SPSS v 18 for data analysis. Results Eighty patients were studied in two groups of normothermic (N) (n = 40) and hypothermic (H) (n = 40). Given similar demographic data as well as the duration of surgery, we arrived at a propofol dose of 122.52±13.11 cc for normothermic patients and 101.28±14.06 cc for hypothermic subjects (p=0.001). As for fentanyl, the total required sum came up to 39.60±21.04 cc and 31.72±5.81 cc for the above-mentioned groups in order (p=0.025). Moreover, the post-operative interview showed that there was no report of a patient with memory recall following surgery. Conclusions Moderate hypothermia can substantially reduce the need for anesthetics in patients with addiction to opium when undergoing CABG surgery. Trial registration This study is registered in Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials with registration number of

  10. Opium addiction as an independent risk factor for coronary microvascular dysfunction: A case-control study of 250 consecutive patients with slow-flow angina.

    PubMed

    Esmaeili Nadimi, Ali; Pour Amiri, Farah; Sheikh Fathollahi, Mahmood; Hassanshahi, Gholamhossien; Ahmadi, Zahra; Sayadi, Ahmad Reza

    2016-09-15

    Approximately 20% to 30% of patients who undergo coronary angiography for assessment of typical cardiac chest pain display microvascular coronary dysfunction (MCD). This study aimed to determine potential relationships between baseline clinical characteristics and likelihood of MCD diagnosis in a large group of patients with stable angina symptoms, positive exercise test and angiographic ally normal epicardial coronary arteries. This cross-sectional study included 250 Iranian with documented evidence of cardiac ischemia on exercise testing, class I or II indication for coronary angiography, and either: (1) angiographically normal coronary arteries and diagnosis of MCD with slow-flow phenomenon, or (2) normal angiogram and no evidence of MCD. All patients completed a questionnaire designed to capture key data including clinical demographics, past medical history, and social factors. Data was evaluated using single and multivariable logistic regression models to identify potential individual patient factors that might help to predict a diagnosis of MCD. 125 (11.2% of total) patients were subsequently diagnosed with MCD. 125 consecutive control subjects were selected for comparison. The mean age was similar among the two groups (52.38 vs. 53.26%, p=ns), but there was a higher proportion of men in the study group compared to control (42.4 vs. 27.2%, p=0.012). No significant relationships were observed between traditional cardiovascular risk factors (diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia) or body mass index (BMI), and likelihood of MCD diagnosis. However, opium addiction was found to be an independent predictor of MCD on single and multivariable logistic regression model (OR=3.575, 95%CI: 1.418-9.016; p=0.0069). We observed a significant relationship between opium addiction and microvascular angina. This novel finding provides a potential mechanistic insight into the pathogenesis of MCD with slow-flow phenomenon. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  11. Role of the phloem in the biochemistry and ecophysiology of benzylisoquinoline alkaloid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun-Jeong; Hagel, Jillian M.; Facchini, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs) are a diverse group of biologically active specialized metabolites produced mainly in four plant families. BIA metabolism is likely of monophyletic origin and involves multiple enzymes yielding structurally diverse compounds. Several BIAs possess defensive properties against pathogenic microorganisms and herbivores. Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum: Papaveraceae) has emerged as a model system to investigate the cellular localization of BIA biosynthesis. Although alkaloids accumulate in the laticifer cytoplasm (latex) of opium poppy, corresponding biosynthetic enzymes and gene transcripts are localized to proximal sieve elements and companion cells, respectively. In contrast, BIA metabolism in the non-laticiferous meadow rue (Thalictrum flavum; Ranunculaceae) occurs independent of the phloem. Evidence points toward the adoption of diverse strategies for the biosynthesis and accumulation of alkaloids as defensive compounds. Recruitment of cell types involved in BIA metabolism, both within and external to the phloem, was likely driven by selection pressures unique to different taxa. The biochemistry, cell biology, ecophysiology, and evolution of BIA metabolism are considered in this context. PMID:23781223

  12. Combination of electrochemistry with chemometrics to introduce an efficient analytical method for simultaneous quantification of five opium alkaloids in complex matrices.

    PubMed

    Gholivand, Mohammad-Bagher; Jalalvand, Ali R; Goicoechea, Hector C; Gargallo, Raimundo; Skov, Thomas; Paimard, Giti

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, an analytical methodology based on differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) at a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and integration of three efficient strategies including variable selection based on ant colony optimization (ACO), mathematical pre-processing selection by genetic algorithm (GA), and sample selection (SS) through a distance-based procedure to improve partial least squares-1 (PLS-1, ACO-GA-SS-PLS-1) multivariate calibration (MVC) for the simultaneous determination of five opium alkaloids including morphine (MOP), noscapine (NOP), thebaine (TEB), codeine (COD), and papaverine (PAP) was used and validated. The baselines of the DPV signals were modeled as a smooth curve, using P-splines, a combination of B-splines and a discrete roughness penalty. After subtraction of the baseline we got a signal with a two-component probability density. One component was for the peaks and it was approximated by a uniform distribution on the potential axis. The other component was for the observed noise around the baseline. Some sources of bi-linearity deviation for electrochemical data were discussed and analyzed. The lack of bi-linearity was tackled by potential shift correction using correlation optimized warping (COW) algorithm. The MVC model was developed as a quinternary calibration model in a blank human serum sample (drug-free) provided by a healthy volunteer to regard the presence of a strong matrix effect which may be caused by the possible interferents present in the serum, and it was validated and tested with two independent sets of analytes mixtures in the blank and actual human serum samples, respectively. Fortunately, the proposed methodology was successful in simultaneous determination of MOP, NOP, TEB, COD, and PAP in both blank and actual human serum samples and its results were satisfactory comparable to those obtained by applying the reference method based on high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV).

  13. Drug control policies in some parts of Asia.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, M

    1992-01-01

    The Asian region has experienced drug problems ever since opium was exported to China in the eighteenth century. Today, in some parts of the region, high priority is placed on drug control policies relating, for example, to the eradication of opium poppy cultivation, criminal sanctions against drug trafficking, and treatment programmes for drug-dependent persons. Some good results have been achieved in recent years: according to estimates, opium cultivation in at least one country in the region has decreased; the number of new cases involving drug-dependent persons is falling in a number of countries; and major drug trafficking syndicates have been disbanded.

  14. 75 FR 79407 - Established Assessment of Annual Needs for the List I Chemicals Ephedrine, Pseudoephedrine, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ..., pseudoephedrine, and phenylpropanolamine, except that-- (1) such amounts of crude opium, poppy straw, concentrate... considered the total net disposals (i.e. sales) of the List I chemicals for the current and preceding two... information on trends in the national rate of net disposals from sales data provided by IMS Health's...

  15. 75 FR 79412 - Final Revised Assessment of Annual Needs for the List I Chemicals Ephedrine, Pseudoephedrine, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ..., pseudoephedrine, and phenylpropanolamine, except that-- (1) such amounts of crude opium, poppy straw, concentrate... and DEA's Analysis In determining the 2010 assessments, DEA has considered the total net disposals (i... information on trends in the national rate of net disposals from sales data provided by IMS Health's...

  16. 75 FR 32505 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... Leaves (9040) II Thebaine (9333) II Opium, raw (9600) II Noroxymorphone (9668) II Poppy Straw Concentrate (9670) II The company plans to import the listed controlled substances as raw materials for use in the..., Inc., Pharmaceutical Materials, 2003 Nolte Drive, West Deptford, New Jersey 08066-1742,...

  17. 77 FR 5846 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... regarding Phenylacetone. Comments and requests for hearings on applications to import narcotic raw material...: Drug Schedule Phenylacetone (8501) II Opium, raw (9600) II Poppy Straw Concentrate (9670) II The... its customers. With regard to the Phenylacetone, the company plans to use it as a base material in...

  18. 78 FR 19016 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Johnson Matthey, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... Thebaine (9333) II Opium, raw (9600) II Noroxymorphone (9668) II Poppy Straw Concentrate (9670) II The company plans to import the listed controlled substances as raw materials, to be used in the manufacture..., Johnson Matthey, Inc., Pharmaceutical Materials, 2003 Nolte Drive, West Deptford, New Jersey...

  19. A Total War on Drug Cartels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    undermine the Western culture. From the National Liberation Army in Colombia and Venezuela protecting cannabis and opium poppy laboratory operations, to...to proceed with any actions to guarantee greater success and to mitigate possible failures. Thorough knowledge breeds familiarity and permits empathy

  20. 7 CFR 400.677 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... catastrophic risk protection plan of insurance. Controlled substance. Any prohibited drug-producing plants including, but not limited to, cacti of the genus (lophophora), coca bushes (erythroxylum coca), marijuana (cannabis sativa), opium poppies (papaver somniferum), and other drug-producing plants, the planting...

  1. The hidden habit of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana: first demonstration of vertical plant transmission.

    PubMed

    Quesada-Moraga, Enrique; López-Díaz, Cristina; Landa, Blanca Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Beauveria bassiana strain 04/01-Tip, obtained from a larva of the opium poppy stem gall wasp Iraella luteipes (Hymenoptera; Cynipidae), endophytically colonizes opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) plants and protects them against this pest. The goal of this study was to monitor the dynamics of endophytic colonization of opium poppy by B. bassiana after the fungus was applied to the seed and to ascertain whether the fungus is transmitted vertically via seeds. Using a species-specific nested PCR protocol and DNA extracted from surface-sterilised leaf pieces or seeds of B. bassiana-inoculated opium poppy plants, the fungus was detected within the plant beginning at the growth stage of rosette building and them throughout the entire plant growth cycle (about 120-140 days after sowing). The fungus was also detected in seeds from 50% of the capsules sampled. Seeds that showed positive amplification for B. bassiana were planted in sterile soil and the endophyte was again detected in more than 42% of the plants sampled during all plant growth stages. Beauveria bassiana was transmitted to seeds in 25% of the plants from the second generation that formed a mature capsule. These results demonstrate for the first time the vertical transmission of an entomopathogenic fungus from endophytically colonised maternal plants. This information is crucial to better understand the ecological role of entomopathogenic fungi as plant endophytes and may allow development of a sustainable and cost effective strategy for I. luteipes management in P. somniferum.

  2. Afghanistan: Narcotics and U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-07

    that heavily armed trafficking groups, farmers, and regional militia may violently resist future eradication and interdiction efforts. Opium production...Afghanistan, but military officials have reportedly resisted expansion that would include direct engagement in interdiction or eradication missions.62 The...roads, and market stalls) and restore wheat and other cereal crop production levels. New initiatives will directly target poppy growing areas and be

  3. 21 CFR 1312.13 - Issuance of import permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... drug listed in Schedule III, IV, or V if he finds: (1) That the substance is crude opium, poppy straw... the Act (21 U.S.C. 952(a)(1) or (a)(2)(A)), the importation of approved narcotic raw material...

  4. 21 CFR 1312.13 - Issuance of import permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... drug listed in Schedule III, IV, or V if he finds: (1) That the substance is crude opium, poppy straw... the Act (21 U.S.C. 952(a)(1) or (a)(2)(A)), the importation of approved narcotic raw material...

  5. 21 CFR 1312.13 - Issuance of import permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... drug listed in Schedule III, IV, or V if he finds: (1) That the substance is crude opium, poppy straw... the Act (21 U.S.C. 952(a)(1) or (a)(2)(A)), the importation of approved narcotic raw material...

  6. 21 CFR 1312.13 - Issuance of import permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... drug listed in Schedule III, IV, or V if he finds: (1) That the substance is crude opium, poppy straw... the Act (21 U.S.C. 952(a)(1) or (a)(2)(A)), the importation of approved narcotic raw material...

  7. 7 CFR 400.677 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... catastrophic risk protection plan of insurance. Controlled substance. Any prohibited drug-producing plants including, but not limited to, cacti of the genus (lophophora), coca bushes (erythroxylum coca), marijuana (cannabis sativa), opium poppies (papaver somniferum), and other drug-producing plants, the planting and...

  8. 75 FR 14187 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... schedule II: Drug Schedule Phenylacetone (8501) II Coca Leaves (9040) II Opium, raw (9600) II Poppy Straw... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug... North Second Street, St. Louis, Missouri 63147, made application by renewal to the Drug Enforcement...

  9. 76 FR 30969 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... substances: Drug Schedule Phenylacetone (8501) II Coca Leaves (9040) II Opium, raw (9600) II Poppy Straw... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug...., 3600 North Second Street, St. Louis, Missouri 63147, made application by renewal to the Drug...

  10. 7 CFR 400.677 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... catastrophic risk protection plan of insurance. Controlled substance. Any prohibited drug-producing plants including, but not limited to, cacti of the genus (lophophora), coca bushes (erythroxylum coca), marijuana (cannabis sativa), opium poppies (papaver somniferum), and other drug-producing plants, the planting and...

  11. 7 CFR 400.677 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... catastrophic risk protection plan of insurance. Controlled substance. Any prohibited drug-producing plants including, but not limited to, cacti of the genus (lophophora), coca bushes (erythroxylum coca), marijuana (cannabis sativa), opium poppies (papaver somniferum), and other drug-producing plants, the planting and...

  12. 7 CFR 400.677 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... catastrophic risk protection plan of insurance. Controlled substance. Any prohibited drug-producing plants including, but not limited to, cacti of the genus (lophophora), coca bushes (erythroxylum coca), marijuana (cannabis sativa), opium poppies (papaver somniferum), and other drug-producing plants, the planting and...

  13. Reconstruction Under Fire: Case Studies and Further Analysis of Civil Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    meaning that the poppy crop is interspersed with crops that families use for sustenance throughout the year, such as wheat, nuts , and fruit. Opium...components, including assessment and identification of appropriate villages and farmers, site surveys, plantation design, transporting and planting

  14. "Vintage meds": a netnographic study of user decision-making, home preparation, and consumptive patterns of laudanum.

    PubMed

    Van Hout, Marie Claire; Hearne, Evelyn

    2015-04-01

    Reviews have commented on rising clandestine manufacture of opiate drug solutions for injecting, and to a lesser extent for oral use. Very little is known about user attempts to culture poppy seeds, widely available on the internet for manufacture of long acting medium-high potency oral solutions, both as poppy seed tea or as opium tincture (laudanum). A netnographic research methodology aimed to provide online consumer insight into user sourcing and decision influences, experiences of home manufacture of laudanum, utilization of opium tincture recipes, and consumptive patterns. A systematic internet search was conducted using the terms: "Laudanum," "Opium tincture," and "Tincture of Opium" in combination with "forum." Following screening of 810 forum threads with exclusion criteria and removal of duplicates, 75 fora threads on 6 online drug fora were analyzed using the empirical phenomenological psychological method. Four themes were generated. Findings illustrated the underpinning of user reminiscing about Victorian use of standardized laudanum, long duration shelf life, and medicinal use for opiate withdrawals with intentions to prepare. Preparation of famous recipes and use of authentic storage bottles boosted nostalgia. Participants appeared well versed in kitchen chemistry processes. Discussions centered on type and amount of alcohol used, use of additives to promote palatability and intoxication effect, homogenization of poppy seeds, and double extraction using opium tincture. Lack of detail available on intoxication experiences, with tentative dosage advised. Development of targeted and credible "counterpublic" harm reduction initiatives situated within online consumerism of communal drug knowledge is warranted.

  15. Cutting Down the Tall Poppies: Horizontal Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funk, Carole

    Many women in educational leadership positions experience negative treatment from female teachers and female superintendents. This phenomenon is known as horizontal violence, "the curious behavior of members of oppressed groups who often lash out at their peers in response to oppression instead of attacking their oppressors." This paper explores…

  16. Cytochrome P450 3A Enzymes Catalyze the O6-Demethylation of Thebaine, a Key Step in Endogenous Mammalian Morphine Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Kramlinger, Valerie M; Alvarado Rojas, Mónica; Kanamori, Tatsuyuki; Guengerich, F Peter

    2015-08-14

    Morphine, first characterized in opium from the poppy Papaver somniferum, is one of the strongest known analgesics. Endogenous morphine has been identified in several mammalian cells and tissues. The synthetic pathway of morphine in the opium poppy has been elucidated. The presence of common intermediates in plants and mammals suggests that biosynthesis occurs through similar pathways (beginning with the amino acid L-tyrosine), and the pathway has been completely delineated in plants. Some of the enzymes in the mammalian pathway have been identified and characterized. Two of the latter steps in the morphine biosynthesis pathway are demethylation of thebaine at the O(3)- and the O(6)-positions, the latter of which has been difficult to demonstrate. The plant enzymes responsible for both the O(3)-demethylation and the O(6)-demethylation are members of the Fe(II)/α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase family. Previous studies showed that human cytochrome P450 (P450) 2D6 can catalyze thebaine O(3)-demethylation. We report that demethylation of thebaine at the O(6)-position is selectively catalyzed by human P450s 3A4 and 3A5, with the latter being more efficient, and rat P450 3A2. Our results do not support O(6)-demethylation of thebaine by an Fe(II)/α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase. In rat brain microsomes, O(6)-demethylation was inhibited by ketoconazole, but not sulfaphenazole, suggesting that P450 3A enzymes are responsible for this activity in the brain. An alternate pathway to morphine, oripavine O(6)-demethylation, was not detected. The major enzymatic steps in mammalian morphine synthesis have now been identified.

  17. The pharmacological basis of opioids

    PubMed Central

    Ghelardini, Carla; Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Bianchi, Enrica

    2015-01-01

    Summary An opioid is a chemical that binds to opioid receptors, which are widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous system and gastrointestinal tract. The different effects elicited by activation of these receptors are due to their specific neuronal and extraneuronal distribution. The painkiller effect of opioids is induced by the synergy of the two events, namely reduction of pain threshold and emotional detachment from pain. The opioid effects transcending analgesia include sedation, respiratory depression, constipation and a strong sense of euphoria. There are opioid-like substances endogenously produced by the body. Naturally occurring peptides, called enkephalins, have opioid-like activities but are not derived from opium and exert opioid-like effects by interacting with opioid receptors on cell membranes. Yet, animals do contain the same morphine precursors and metabolites as opium poppy and are able to synthesize endogenous morphine alkaloid. Experimental and clinical studies show that opioids, at doses comparable to those of endogenous opioids, can activate pronociceptive systems, leading to pain hypersensitivity and short-term tolerance, a phenomenon encountered in postoperative pain management by acute opioid administration. Whether endogenous opioids play a role in the acute pain necessary to the survival of the individual, remains an open question. PMID:26811699

  18. Noscapine comes of age.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xue; Dang, Thu-Thuy T; Facchini, Peter J

    2015-03-01

    Noscapine is a phthalideisoquinoline alkaloid, which represents a class of plant specialized metabolites within the large and structurally diverse group of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids. Along with the narcotic analgesic morphine, noscapine is a major alkaloid in the latex of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) that has long been used as a cough suppressant and has undergone extensive investigation as a potential anticancer drug. Cultivated opium poppy plants remain the only commercial source of noscapine. Despite its isolation from opium more than two centuries ago, the almost complete biosynthesis of noscapine has only recently been established based on an impressive combination of molecular genetics, functional genomics, and metabolic biochemistry. In this review, we provide a historical account of noscapine from its discovery through to initial investigations of its formation in opium poppy. We also describe recent breakthroughs that have led to an elucidation of the noscapine biosynthetic pathway, and we discuss the pharmacological properties that have prompted intensive evaluation of the potential pharmaceutical applications of noscapine and several semi-synthetic derivatives. Finally, we speculate on the future potential for the production of noscapine using metabolic engineering and synthetic biology in plants and microbes.

  19. Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction (SIGAR)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-30

    Drugs and Crime (UNODC) published its latest opium survey results for Afghanistan. Once again, the area under poppy cultivation increased, this time...incidents occurred in the east, the security Incidents: reported incidents that include armed clashes, improvised explosive devices , targeted killings...these funds through the DOD Drug Interdiction and Counter- Drug Activities (DOD CN) Fund ($2.8 billion), the Afghanistan Security Forces Fund (ASFF

  20. Supporting U.S. Stretegy for Third World Conflict

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    especially cocaine, heroin, and cannabis , now unwittingly fund what has been referred to as paramilitary criminality—vast, continent-spanning, rich...defend it. Its absence becomes a source of popular discontent, a breeding ground for disaffection and violence. Often its presence becomes the very...the part of the United States government to encourage foreign governments to eradicate cannabis , coca, and opium poppies, and to promote alternative

  1. Finding the Balance to Combat a Hybrid Threat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-23

    Russell W. Glenn adds to Hoffman’s definition by stating, “a hybrid threat may employ political, military, economic, social , and information means, as...bud of the plant. Besides illegal opium, the poppy is used in the production of morphine . 134Department of Defense, JP 1-02, Department of Defense...consideration of the people through continuous interaction , but also supported building a rapport with the people, and promoting security through a

  2. Organic parasite control for poultry and rabbits in British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Plants used for treating endo- and ectoparasites of rabbits and poultry in British Columbia included Arctium lappa (burdock), Artemisia sp. (wormwood), Chenopodium album (lambsquarters) and C. ambrosioides (epazote), Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle), Juniperus spp. (juniper), Mentha piperita (peppermint), Nicotiana sp. (tobacco), Papaver somniferum (opium poppy), Rubus spp. (blackberry and raspberry relatives), Symphytum officinale (comfrey), Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion), Thuja plicata (western redcedar) and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle). PMID:21756341

  3. Counternarcotics Strategies: Effects on Afghanistan Hearts and Minds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-16

    Afghanistan Hearts and Minds N/A 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER N/A 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PRO.IECT NUMBER Stevens , Bret N/A 5e...DEGREE OF MASTER OF :MILITARY STIIDlES AUTHOR: Bret Stevens Mentor and Oral Defense Committee Member: c...oqtt Approved: -----,.,c...Afghanistan Hearts and Minds Author: Bret Stevens , Drug Enforcement Administration Thesis: Because Afghanistan poppy cultivation, and its opium trade are

  4. Organic parasite control for poultry and rabbits in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy

    2011-07-14

    Plants used for treating endo- and ectoparasites of rabbits and poultry in British Columbia included Arctium lappa (burdock), Artemisia sp. (wormwood), Chenopodium album (lambsquarters) and C. ambrosioides (epazote), Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle), Juniperus spp. (juniper), Mentha piperita (peppermint), Nicotiana sp. (tobacco), Papaver somniferum (opium poppy), Rubus spp. (blackberry and raspberry relatives), Symphytum officinale (comfrey), Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion), Thuja plicata (western redcedar) and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle).

  5. Securing Afghanistan’s Future Against Opium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    International Studies, 2007), 51. 38 Blanchard, Afghanistan: Narcotics and U.S. Policy, 35. 39 Geoffrey Hayes and Mark Sedra , Afghanistan Transition Under...Geoffrey and Mark Sedra . Afghanistan: Transition Under Threat. Waterloo, Ontario: Centre for International Governance Innovation and Wilfrid Laurier

  6. Comparative analysis of transcription factor gene families from Papaver somniferum: identification of regulatory factors involved in benzylisoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Parul; Pathak, Sumya; Lakhwani, Deepika; Gupta, Parul; Asif, Mehar Hasan; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar

    2016-05-01

    Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.), known for biosynthesis of several therapeutically important benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs), has emerged as the premier organism to study plant alkaloid metabolism. The most prominent molecules produced in opium poppy include narcotic analgesic morphine, the cough suppressant codeine, the muscle relaxant papaverine and the anti-microbial agent sanguinarine and berberine. Despite several health benefits, biosynthesis of some of these molecules is very low due to tight temporal and spatial regulation of the genes committed to their biosynthesis. Transcription factors, one of the prime regulators of secondary plant product biosynthesis, might be involved in controlled biosynthesis of BIAs in P. somniferum. In this study, identification of members of different transcription factor gene families using transcriptome datasets of 10 cultivars of P. somniferum with distinct chemoprofile has been carried out. Analysis suggests that most represented transcription factor gene family in all the poppy cultivars is WRKY. Comparative transcriptome analysis revealed differential expression pattern of the members of a set of transcription factor gene families among 10 cultivars. Through analysis, two members of WRKY and one member of C3H gene family were identified as potential candidates which might regulate thebaine and papaverine biosynthesis, respectively, in poppy.

  7. Apoptotic pathway induced by noscapine in human myelogenous leukemic cells.

    PubMed

    Heidari, Nastaran; Goliaei, Bahram; Moghaddam, Parvaneh Rahimi; Rahbar-Roshandel, Nahid; Mahmoudian, Massoud

    2007-11-01

    It has been shown that noscapine, an opium-derived phthalideisoquinoline alkaloid that is currently being used as an oral antitussive drug, induces apoptosis in myeloid leukemia cells. The molecular mechanism responsible for the anticancer effects of noscapine is poorly understood. In the current study, the apoptotic effects of noscapine on two myeloid cell lines, apoptosis-proficient HL60 cells and apoptosis-resistant K562 cells, were analyzed. An increase in the activity of caspase-2, -3, -6, -8 and -9, poly(ADP ribose) polymerase cleavage, detection of phosphatidylserine on the outer layer of the cell membrane, nucleation of chromatin, and DNA fragmentation suggested the induction of apoptosis. Noscapine increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio with a significant decrease of Bcl-2 expression accompanied with Bcl-2 phosphorylation. Using an inhibitory approach, the activation of the caspase cascade involved in the noscapine-induced apoptosis was analyzed. We observed no inhibitory effect of the caspase-8 inhibitor on caspase-9 activity. In view of these results and taking into consideration that K562 cells are Fas-null, we suggested that caspase-8 is activated in a Fas-independent manner downstream of caspase-9. In conclusion, noscapine can induce apoptosis in both apoptosis-proficient and apoptosis-resistant leukemic cells, and it can be a novel candidate in the treatment of hematological malignancies.

  8. Synthesis and biological evaluation of N-substituted noscapine analogues.

    PubMed

    DeBono, Aaron J; Xie, Jin Han; Ventura, Sabatino; Pouton, Colin W; Capuano, Ben; Scammells, Peter J

    2012-12-01

    Noscapine is a phthalideisoquinoline alkaloid isolated from the opium poppy Papaver somniferum. It has long been used as an antitussive agent, but has more recently been found to possess microtubule-modulating properties and anticancer activity. Herein we report the synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of a series of 6'-substituted noscapine derivatives. To underpin this structure-activity study, an efficient synthesis of N-nornoscapine and its subsequent reduction to the cyclic ether derivative of N-nornoscapine was developed. Reaction of the latter with a range of alkyl halides, acid chlorides, isocyanates, thioisocyanates, and chloroformate reagents resulted in the formation of the corresponding N-alkyl, N-acyl, N-carbamoyl, N-thiocarbamoyl, and N-carbamate derivatives, respectively. The ability of these compounds to inhibit cell proliferation was assessed in cell-cycle cytotoxicity assays using prostate cancer (PC3), breast cancer (MCF-7), and colon cancer (Caco-2) cell lines. Compounds that showed activity in the cell-cycle assay were further evaluated in cell viability assays using PC3 and MCF-7 cells.

  9. Genetic and Phenotypic Analyses of a Papaver somniferum T-DNA Insertional Mutant with Altered Alkaloid Composition

    PubMed Central

    Kawano, Noriaki; Kiuchi, Fumiyuki; Kawahara, Nobuo; Yoshimatsu, Kayo

    2012-01-01

    The in vitro shoot culture of a T-DNA insertional mutant of Papaver somniferum L. established by the infection of Agrobacterium rhizogenes MAFF03-01724 accumulated thebaine instead of morphine as a major opium alkaloid. To develop a non-narcotic opium poppy and to gain insight into its genetic background, we have transplanted this mutant to soil, and analyzed its alkaloid content along with the manner of inheritance of T-DNA insertion loci among its selfed progenies. In the transplanted T0 primary mutant, the opium (latex) was found to be rich in thebaine (16.3% of dried opium) by HPLC analysis. The analyses on T-DNA insertion loci by inverse PCR, adaptor-ligation PCR, and quantitative real-time PCR revealed that as many as 18 copies of T-DNAs were integrated into a poppy genome in a highly complicated manner. The number of copies of T-DNAs was decreased to seven in the selected T3 progenies, in which the average thebaine content was 2.4-fold that of the wild type plant. This may indicate that the high thebaine phenotype was increasingly stabilized as the number of T-DNA copies was decreased. In addition, by reverse transcription PCR analysis on selected morphine biosynthetic genes, the expression of codeine 6-O-demethylase was clearly shown to be diminished in the T0 in vitro shoot culture, which can be considered as one of the key factors of altered alkaloid composition. PMID:24288085

  10. [F. W. Sertürner and the discovery of morphine. 200 years of pain therapy with opioids].

    PubMed

    Klockgether-Radke, A P

    2002-05-01

    Since many centuries mankind has been aware of the poppy (papaver somniferum) and has known its product opium as an analgesic drug. Until the beginning of the 19 (th) century its compounds were not known, making it almost impossible to apply the substance in exact doses. 1803/04, Friedrich Wilhelm Sertürner (1783 - 1841) succeeded in isolating a crystalline substance from opium in the test tube, which he called morphium. In animals and in man he was able to prove that this new compound he had discovered was the principium somniferum of opium. He isolated morphine, the first pure opioid available for calculated pain therapy with one defined compound. Moreover, he laid the foundations of a new class of pharmaceutical drugs, the alcaloids.

  11. Herbicidal treatments for control of Papaver somniferum L.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, M

    1980-01-01

    Fifty-five commercially available herbicides were evaluated for possible use to destroy illicit opium poppy crops (Papaver somniferum). In the first stage, herbicides were sprayed on poppy plants grown in containers. The following compounds killed poppy plants: (a) herbicides with typical foliar activity--amitrole, bromoxynil, 2,4-D, glyphosate, ioxynil and paraquat; and (b) herbicides with root and foliar activity--the triazines ametryn, atrazine, metribuzin, prometryn, simazine and terbutryn; the substituted ureas benzthiazuron, chloroxuron, diuron, fluometuron, linuron, methabenzthiazuron, neburon and phenobenzuron; and the miscellaneous compounds karbutilate, methazole, oxadiazon and pyrazon. Severe but sublethal injury was caused by cycloate, EPTC, molinate, pobulate, cacodylate + MSMA, ethofumesate, perfluidone and phenmedipham. Abnormal development of vegetative or reproductive parts of the plant was induced by benefin, butralin, dinitramine, pendimethalin, trifluralin, diphenamid, napropamide, dalapon and propham. Efficient herbicides with negligible persistence in soil at the doses applied were evaluated on poppy plants in the field at various stages of growth. Small plants were severely injured by 2,4-D, killed rapidly by bromoxynil, ioxynil, paraquat (in mixture + diquat), and more slowly by glyphosate and metribuzin. The resistance to herbicides increased with the age of the poppy plant. Severe damage with partial kill of developed plants was obtained with bromoxynil, ioxynil, glyphosate, and paraquat + diquat; the last treatment produced the fastest effect.

  12. The role of reward pathways in the development of drug dependence.

    PubMed

    Wise, R A

    1987-01-01

    In commenting on the discovery of "opiate" receptors, Goldstein (1976) said: "It seemed unlikely, a priori, that such highly stereospecific receptors should have been developed by nature to interact with alkaloids from the opium poppy" (p. 1081). Endogenous opioid peptides and opioid receptor systems have now been identified in invertebrates that are unlikely to have had ancestors exposed to opium poppies (Kavaliers et al., 1983; Kream et al., 1980; Leung and Stefano, 1984; Stefano et al., 1980). Moreover, endogenous opioids play a role in stress-induced feeding in the slug (Kavaliers and Hirst, 1986) just as they play a role in stress-induced feeding in rodents (Lowy et al., 1980; Morley and Levine, 1980). If we are to understand the actions of opiates and other drugs of abuse we must understand them in terms of their abilities to interact with neural systems that evolved in the service of primitive biological functions, long before any serious incidence of addiction itself. The most primitive axes of the biological substrates of behavior are the axes of approach and withdrawal. Addictive drugs appear to be able to activate the mechanisms of approach, which is termed "positive reinforcement" and to inhibit the mechanisms of withdrawal, which is termed "negative reinforcement." Anatomically distinct sets of pathways have evolved to serve these two forms of reward. Activation of the medial forebrain bundle and associated structures serves positive reinforcement and induces forward locomotion. Approach and forward locomotion are the unconditioned responses to positive reinforcing stimuli such as food and sex partners, and approach to environmental objects and positive reinforcement is induced by electrical stimulation of this structure. The locomotor stimulating effects and the positive reinforcing effects of opiates and psychomotor stimulants result from their activation of this mechanism; stimulants activate the mechanism at the level of dopaminergic synapses of

  13. Noscapine induces mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in human colon cancer cells in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zi-Rong; Liu, Meng; Peng, Xiu-Lan; Lei, Xiao-Fei; Zhang, Ji-Xiang; Dong, Wei-Guo

    2012-05-11

    Noscapine, a phthalide isoquinoline alkaloid derived from opium, has been widely used as a cough suppressant for decades. Noscapine has recently been shown to potentiate the anti-cancer effects of several therapies by inducing apoptosis in various malignant cells without any detectable toxicity in cells or tissues. However, the mechanism by which noscapine induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells remains unclear. The signaling pathways by which noscapine induces apoptosis were investigated in colon cancer cell lines treated with various noscapine concentrations for 72 h, and a dose-dependent inhibition of cell viability was observed. Noscapine effectively inhibited the proliferation of LoVo cells in vitro (IC(50)=75 μM). This cytotoxicity was reflected by cell cycle arrest at G(2)/M and subsequent apoptosis, as indicated by increased chromatin condensation and fragmentation, the upregulation of Bax and cytochrome c (Cyt-c), the downregulation of survivin and Bcl-2, and the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9. Moreover, in a xenograft tumor model in mice, noscapine injection clearly inhibited tumor growth via the induction of apoptosis, which was demonstrated using a TUNEL assay. These results suggest that noscapine induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells via mitochondrial pathways. Noscapine may be a safe and effective chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of human colon cancer.

  14. Poppy Cultivation in Afghanistan: A Global, Strategic Nemesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-07

    Available from EBSCO HOST Research Databases. Accessed 6 September 2002. 25Marth Brill Olcott., and Natalia Udalova. “Drug Trafficking on the Great...42 (1p). Database on-line. Available from EBSCO HOST Research Databases. Accessed 6 September 2002. 56Neil MacFarquhar. “Bush’s Comments Bolster Old...2002. Database on-line. Available from EBSCO HOST Research Databases. Accessed 5 December 2002. 60Gulshen Ashirova. “The United States and Central Asia

  15. Small Poppies: Highly Gifted Children in the Early Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Miraca U. M.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the underidentification of young highly-gifted children and describes the developmental differences in highly-gifted children. Issues in the identification of young highly-gifted children are addressed, along with suggestions for teacher nomination, parent nomination, ability and achievement testing, and appropriate placements of…

  16. Intoxication due to Papaver rhoeas (Corn Poppy): Five Case Reports.

    PubMed

    Günaydın, Yahya Kemal; Dündar, Zerrin Defne; Çekmen, Bora; Akıllı, Nazire Belgin; Köylü, Ramazan; Cander, Başar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. In this paper, we aimed to present five Papaver rhoeas intoxication cases, which is very rare in the literature. Case 1. A 35-year-old female patient was admitted to our emergency room with the complaints of nausea, restlessness, and dyspnea developing 3 hours after eating Papaver rhoeas. On physical examination, her general condition was moderate; she was conscious and the vital findings were normal. The pupils were myotic. She was transferred to the toxicology intensive care unit as she experienced a generalized tonic clonic seizure lasting for three minutes. Case 2. A 41-year-old female patient was brought to our emergency room by 112 ambulance as she had contractions in her arms and legs, unconsciousness, and foam coming from her mouth two hours after Papaver rhoeas ingestion. On physical examination, she was confused, the pupils were myotic, and she was tachycardic. Arterial blood gases analysis revealed lactic acidosis. Case 3. A 38-year-old female patient was admitted to our emergency room with complaints of nausea and vomiting two hours after ingestion of Papaver rhoeas. Her physical examination and tests were normal. Case 4. A 34-year-old male patient was admitted to our emergency room with complaints of numbness and loss of power in his arms and legs one hour after Papaver rhoeas ingestion. He was hospitalized at the toxicology intensive care unit for follow-up and treatment. Dyspnea and bradycardia developed on the follow-up. The oxygen saturation without oxygen support was 90%. ECG revealed sinus bradycardia. The cardiac enzymes did not increase. Case 5. A 42-year-old female patient was brought to our emergency room by 112 ambulance with contractions in her arms and legs and unconsciousness two hours after Papaver rhoeas ingestion. On her physical examination, she was confused and the pupils were myotic. Arterial blood gases analysis revealed lactic acidosis. Conclusion. All patients were followed up for a few days and then discharged from the hospital with recovery. Unconscious consumption of Papaver rhoeas leads to a clinical condition resembling morphine intoxication, CNS depression, and epileptic seizures.

  17. Poppy Eradication in Afghanistan: Why Isn’t It Working?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-17

    involved in numerous civil wars, invasions, and occupations for millennia. With few natural resources, this landlocked state is further plagued with a harsh...IS To date, all efforts in Afghanistan have been through manual ground-based-negative eradication. Utilizing sickles to cut down the plants or heavy...another foreign outsider occupation similar to those of the past. The United States has strongly advised that aerial eradication would be much more

  18. Noscapine protects OLN-93 oligodendrocytes from ischemia-reperfusion damage: Calcium and nitric oxide involvement.

    PubMed

    Nadjafi, S; Ebrahimi, S-A; Rahbar-Roshandel, N

    2015-12-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of noscapine, a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid from opium poppy, on oligodendrocyte during ischemia/reperfusion-induced excitotoxic injury. Changes in intracellular calcium levels due to chemical ischemia and nitric oxide (NO) production during ischemia/reperfusion were evaluated as the hallmarks of ischemia-derived excitotoxic event. OLN-93 cell line (a permanent immature rat oligodendrocyte) was used as a model of oligodendrocyte. 30- or 60-minute-oxygen-glucose deprivation/24 hours reperfusion were used to induce excitotoxicity. MTT (3-[4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) assay was used to evaluate cell viability. Ratiometric fluorescence microscopy using Ca(2+)-sensitive indicator Fura-2/AM was utilized to assess intracellular calcium levels. NO production was evaluated by Griess method. Noscapine (4 μM) significantly attenuated intracellular Ca(2+) elevation (P < 0.001). Also, noscapine significantly decreased NO production during a 30-minute oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (P < 0.01). The inhibitory effect of noscapine (4 μM) on intracellular Ca(2+) was greater than ionotropic glutamate receptors antagonists. Noscapine is protective against ischemia/reperfusion-induced excitotoxic injury in OLN-93 oligodendrocyte. This protective effect seems to be related to attenuation of intracellular Ca(2+) overload and NO production.

  19. Reciprocal Evolution of Opiate Science from Medical and Cultural Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Stefano, George B; Pilonis, Nastazja; Ptacek, Radek; Kream, Richard M

    2017-06-13

    Over the course of human history, it has been common to use plants for medicinal purposes, such as for providing relief from particular maladies and self-medication. Opium represents one longstanding remedy that has been used to address a range of medical conditions, alleviating discomfort often in ways that have proven pleasurable. Opium is a combination of compounds obtained from the mature fruit of opium poppy, papaver somniferum. Morphine and its biosynthetic precursors thebaine and codeine constitute the main bioactive opiate alkaloids contained in opium. Opium usage in ancient cultures is well documented, as is its major extract morphine. The presence of endogenous opiate alkaloids and opioid peptides in animals owe their discovery to their consistent actions at particular concentrations via stereo select receptors. In vitro expression of morphine within a microbiological industrial setting underscores the role it plays as a multi-purpose pharmacological agent, as well as reinforcing why it can also lead to long-term social dependence. Furthermore, it clearly establishes a reciprocal effect of human intelligence on modifying evolutionary processes in papaver somniferum and related plant species.

  20. Reciprocal Evolution of Opiate Science from Medical and Cultural Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Stefano, George B.; Pilonis, Nastazja; Ptacek, Radek; Kream, Richard M.

    2017-01-01

    Over the course of human history, it has been common to use plants for medicinal purposes, such as for providing relief from particular maladies and self-medication. Opium represents one longstanding remedy that has been used to address a range of medical conditions, alleviating discomfort often in ways that have proven pleasurable. Opium is a combination of compounds obtained from the mature fruit of opium poppy, papaver somniferum. Morphine and its biosynthetic precursors thebaine and codeine constitute the main bioactive opiate alkaloids contained in opium. Opium usage in ancient cultures is well documented, as is its major extract morphine. The presence of endogenous opiate alkaloids and opioid peptides in animals owe their discovery to their consistent actions at particular concentrations via stereo select receptors. In vitro expression of morphine within a microbiological industrial setting underscores the role it plays as a multi-purpose pharmacological agent, as well as reinforcing why it can also lead to long-term social dependence. Furthermore, it clearly establishes a reciprocal effect of human intelligence on modifying evolutionary processes in papaver somniferum and related plant species. PMID:28609429

  1. Increasing morphinan alkaloid production by over-expressing codeinone reductase in transgenic Papaver somniferum.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Philip J; Miller, James A C; Allen, Robert S; Chitty, Julie A; Gerlach, Wayne L; Frick, Susanne; Kutchan, Toni M; Fist, Anthony J

    2007-01-01

    Only plants of the Papaver genus (poppies) are able to synthesize morphinan alkaloids, and cultivation of P. somniferum, opium poppy, remains critical for the production and supply of morphine, codeine and various semi-synthetic analgesics. Opium poppy was transformed with constitutively expressed cDNA of codeinone reductase (PsCor1.1), the penultimate step in morphine synthesis. Most transgenic lines showed significant increases in capsule alkaloid content in replicated glasshouse and field trials over 4 years. The morphinan alkaloid contents on a dry weight basis were between 15% and 30% greater than those in control high-yielding genotypes and control non-transgenic segregants. Transgenic leaves had approximately 10-fold greater levels of Cor transcript compared with non-transgenic controls. Two cycles of crossing of the best transgenic line into an elite high-morphine genotype resulted in significant increases in morphine and total alkaloids relative to the elite recurrent parent. No significant changes in alkaloid profiles or quantities were observed in leaf, roots, pollen and seed.

  2. Synthesis of Morphinan Alkaloids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Fossati, Elena; Narcross, Lauren; Ekins, Andrew; Falgueyret, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Vincent J J

    2015-01-01

    Morphinan alkaloids are the most powerful narcotic analgesics currently used to treat moderate to severe and chronic pain. The feasibility of morphinan synthesis in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae starting from the precursor (R,S)-norlaudanosoline was investigated. Chiral analysis of the reticuline produced by the expression of opium poppy methyltransferases showed strict enantioselectivity for (S)-reticuline starting from (R,S)-norlaudanosoline. In addition, the P. somniferum enzymes salutaridine synthase (PsSAS), salutaridine reductase (PsSAR) and salutaridinol acetyltransferase (PsSAT) were functionally co-expressed in S. cerevisiae and optimization of the pH conditions allowed for productive spontaneous rearrangement of salutaridinol-7-O-acetate and synthesis of thebaine from (R)-reticuline. Finally, we reconstituted a 7-gene pathway for the production of codeine and morphine from (R)-reticuline. Yeast cell feeding assays using (R)-reticuline, salutaridine or codeine as substrates showed that all enzymes were functionally co-expressed in yeast and that activity of salutaridine reductase and codeine-O-demethylase likely limit flux to morphine synthesis. The results of this study describe a significant advance for the synthesis of morphinans in S. cerevisiae and pave the way for their complete synthesis in recombinant microbes.

  3. Synthesis of Morphinan Alkaloids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Fossati, Elena; Narcross, Lauren; Ekins, Andrew; Falgueyret, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Vincent J. J.

    2015-01-01

    Morphinan alkaloids are the most powerful narcotic analgesics currently used to treat moderate to severe and chronic pain. The feasibility of morphinan synthesis in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae starting from the precursor (R,S)-norlaudanosoline was investigated. Chiral analysis of the reticuline produced by the expression of opium poppy methyltransferases showed strict enantioselectivity for (S)-reticuline starting from (R,S)-norlaudanosoline. In addition, the P. somniferum enzymes salutaridine synthase (PsSAS), salutaridine reductase (PsSAR) and salutaridinol acetyltransferase (PsSAT) were functionally co-expressed in S. cerevisiae and optimization of the pH conditions allowed for productive spontaneous rearrangement of salutaridinol-7-O-acetate and synthesis of thebaine from (R)-reticuline. Finally, we reconstituted a 7-gene pathway for the production of codeine and morphine from (R)-reticuline. Yeast cell feeding assays using (R)-reticuline, salutaridine or codeine as substrates showed that all enzymes were functionally co-expressed in yeast and that activity of salutaridine reductase and codeine-O-demethylase likely limit flux to morphine synthesis. The results of this study describe a significant advance for the synthesis of morphinans in S. cerevisiae and pave the way for their complete synthesis in recombinant microbes. PMID:25905794

  4. Historical trends in the production and consumption of illicit drugs in Mexico: Implications for the prevention of blood borne infections

    PubMed Central

    Bucardo, Jesus; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Magis-Rodríguez, Carlos; Ramos, Rebeca; Fraga, Miguel; Perez, Saida G.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2007-01-01

    Mexico has cultivated opium poppy since before the 1900’s and has been an important transit route for South American cocaine for decades. However, only recently has drug use, particularly injection drug use, been documented as an important problem. Heroin is the most common drug used by Mexican injection drug users (IDUs). Increased cultivation of opium poppy in some Mexican states, lower prices for black tar heroin and increased security at U.S.-Mexican border crossings may be contributing factors to heroin use, especially in border cities. Risky practices among IDUs, including needle sharing and shooting gallery attendance are common, whereas perceived risk for acquiring blood borne infections is low. Although reported AIDS cases attributed to IDU in Mexico have been low, data from sentinel populations, such as pregnant women in the Mexican-U.S. border city of Tijuana, suggest an increase in HIV prevalence associated with drug use. Given widespread risk behaviors and rising numbers of blood borne infections among IDUs in Mexican-U.S. border cities, there is an urgent need for increased disease surveillance and culturally appropriate interventions to prevent potential epidemics of blood borne infections. We review available literature on the history of opium production in Mexico, recent trends in drug use and its implications, and the Mexican response, with special emphasis on the border cities of Ciudad Juarez and Tijuana. PMID:16102372

  5. Recent Advances in the Synthesis of Morphine and Related Alkaloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chida, Noritaka

    Morphine, an alkaloid isolated from the opium poppy, has been widely used as an analgesic, and has been a fascinating synthetic target of organic chemists. After the first total synthesis reported in 1952, a number of synthetic studies toward morphine have been reported, and findings obtained in such studies have greatly contributed to the progress of synthetic organic chemistry as well as medicinal chemistry. This review provides an overview of recent studies toward the total synthesis of morphine and related alkaloids. Work reported in the literature since 2004 will be reviewed.

  6. [Nepenthe].

    PubMed

    Kakridis, F I

    2011-01-01

    Iliad and Odyssey are two major literary sources on various phenomena related to human experience and knowledge. In the Odyssey we find references to the nepenthes, a mythical substance which can change the mood, causing sorrow and anger to be forgotten. We can not identify it with any of the well known substances that have these properties, such as opium from the opium poppy, the Egyptian kyfi or cannabis in the Scythians. Ancient Greeks used various anxiolytic, hypnotic and narcotic substances, but phenomena of addiction or withdrawal are not clearly described, with the exception of wine. Wine was used to lighten peoples minds and hearts, as well as a vehicle for drugs. Many ancient sources describe the negative effects of wine abuse. The study of ancient texts, from Homer's epics to Christian literature, allows a fundamental insight into the influence of psychotropic substances and alcohol on the human psyche.

  7. Recent updates on codeine

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Monika; Bhandari, Anil; Bhandari, Aakanksha

    2011-01-01

    Alleviation of pain is a major objective in medicine to increase the quality of life. Analgesics are agents that relieve pain by elevating the pain threshold without disturbing consciousness or altering other sensory modalities. Opium is an isoquinoline alkaloid obtained from poppy plant Papaver somniferum (Papaveraceae). Codeine is an alkaloid prepared from opium or morphine by methylation. Codeine is used as a central analgesic, sedative, hypontic, antinonciceptive, antiperistaltic, and is also recommended in tuberculosis and insomnia due to incessant coughing. The literature information relate mostly to the determination of codeine active components using Gas chromatography (GC), Capillary electrophoresis, Thin layer chromatography, High-performance thin layer chromatography, UV–Vis Spectrophotometry, High-performance liquid chromatography and GC in combination with Mass spectroscopy. This contribution provides a comprehensive review of its analytical and pharmacologic profile of codeine. PMID:23781422

  8. Molecular cloning and characterization of CYP719, a methylenedioxy bridge-forming enzyme that belongs to a novel P450 family, from cultured Coptis japonica cells.

    PubMed

    Ikezawa, Nobuhiro; Tanaka, Masaru; Nagayoshi, Masanori; Shinkyo, Raku; Sakaki, Toshiyuki; Inouye, Kuniyo; Sato, Fumihiko

    2003-10-03

    Two cytochrome P450 (P450) cDNAs involved in the biosynthesis of berberine, an antimicrobial benzylisoquinoline alkaloid, were isolated from cultured Coptis japonica cells and characterized. A sequence analysis showed that one C. japonica P450 (designated CYP719) belonged to a novel P450 family. Further, heterologous expression in yeast confirmed that it had the same activity as a methylenedioxy bridge-forming enzyme (canadine synthase), which catalyzes the conversion of (S)-tetrahydrocolumbamine ((S)-THC) to (S)-tetrahydroberberine ((S)-THB, (S)-canadine). The other P450 (designated CYP80B2) showed high homology to California poppy (S)-N-methylcoclaurine-3'-hydroxylase (CYP80B1), which converts (S)-N-methylcoclaurine to (S)-3'-hydroxy-N-methylcoclaurine. Recombinant CYP719 showed typical P450 properties as well as high substrate affinity and specificity for (S)-THC. (S)Scoulerine was not a substrate of CYP719, indicating that some other P450, e.g. (S)-cheilanthifoline synthase, is needed in (S)-stylopine biosynthesis. All of the berberine biosynthetic genes, including CYP719 and CYP80B2, were highly expressed in selected cultured C. japonica cells and moderately expressed in root, which suggests coordinated regulation of the expression of biosynthetic genes.

  9. Noscapine induces mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in human colon cancer cells in vivo and in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zi-Rong; Liu, Meng; Peng, Xiu-Lan; Lei, Xiao-Fei; Zhang, Ji-Xiang; Dong, Wei-Guo

    2012-05-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Noscapine inhibited cell viability of colon cancer in a time- and dose- dependent manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer G{sub 2}/M phase arrest and chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation were induced. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Noscapine promoted apoptosis via mitochondrial pathways. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tumorigenicity was inhibited by noscapine. -- Abstract: Noscapine, a phthalide isoquinoline alkaloid derived from opium, has been widely used as a cough suppressant for decades. Noscapine has recently been shown to potentiate the anti-cancer effects of several therapies by inducing apoptosis in various malignant cells without any detectable toxicity in cells or tissues. However, the mechanism by which noscapine induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells remains unclear. The signaling pathways by which noscapine induces apoptosis were investigated in colon cancer cell lines treated with various noscapine concentrations for 72 h, and a dose-dependent inhibition of cell viability was observed. Noscapine effectively inhibited the proliferation of LoVo cells in vitro (IC{sub 50} = 75 {mu}M). This cytotoxicity was reflected by cell cycle arrest at G{sub 2}/M and subsequent apoptosis, as indicated by increased chromatin condensation and fragmentation, the upregulation of Bax and cytochrome c (Cyt-c), the downregulation of survivin and Bcl-2, and the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9. Moreover, in a xenograft tumor model in mice, noscapine injection clearly inhibited tumor growth via the induction of apoptosis, which was demonstrated using a TUNEL assay. These results suggest that noscapine induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells via mitochondrial pathways. Noscapine may be a safe and effective chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of human colon cancer.

  10. Apoptotic effect of noscapine in breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Quisbert-Valenzuela, Edwin O; Calaf, Gloria M

    2016-06-01

    Cancer is a public health problem in the world and breast cancer is the most frequently cancer in women. Approximately 15% of the breast cancers are triple-negative. Apoptosis regulates normal growth, homeostasis, development, embryogenesis and appropriate strategy to treat cancer. Bax is a protein pro-apoptotic enhancer of apoptosis in contrast to Bcl-2 with antiapoptotic properties. Initiator caspase-9 and caspase-8 are features of intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathway, respectively. NF-κB is a transcription factor known to be involved in the initiation and progression of breast cancer. Noscapine, an alkaloid derived from opium is used as antitussive and showed antitumor properties that induced apoptosis in cancer cell lines. The aim of the present study was to determine the apoptotic effect of noscapine in breast cancer cell lines compared to breast normal cell line. Three cell lines were used: i) a control breast cell line MCF-10F; ii) a luminal-like adenocarcinoma triple-positive breast cell line MCF-7; iii) breast cancer triple-negative cell line MDA-MB-231. Our results showed that noscapine had lower toxicity in normal cells and was an effective anticancer agent that induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells because it increases Bax gene and protein expression in three cell lines, while decreases Bcl-xL gene expression, and Bcl-2 protein expression decreased in breast cancer cell lines. Therefore, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio increased in the three cell lines. This drug increased caspase-9 gene expression in breast cancer cell lines and caspase-8 gene expression increased in MCF-10F and MDA-MB-231. Furthermore, it increased cleavage of caspase-8, suggesting that noscapine-induced apoptosis is probably due to the involvement of extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis pathways. Antiapoptotic gene and protein expression diminished and proapoptotic gene and protein expression increased noscapine-induced expression, probably due to decrease in NF-κB gene and protein expression

  11. Morphine Inhibited the Rat Neural Stem Cell Proliferation Rate by Increasing Neuro Steroid Genesis.

    PubMed

    Feizy, Navid; Nourazarian, Alireza; Rahbarghazi, Reza; Nozad Charoudeh, Hojjatollah; Abdyazdani, Nima; Montazersaheb, Soheila; Narimani, Mohamadreza

    2016-06-01

    Up to present, a large number of reports unveiled exacerbating effects of both long- and short-term administration of morphine, as a potent analgesic agent, on opium-addicted individuals and a plethora of cell kinetics, although contradictory effect of morphine on different cells have been introduced until yet. To address the potent modulatory effect of morphine on neural multipotent precursors with emphasis on endogenous sex-related neurosteroids biosynthesis, we primed the rat neural stem cells isolated from embryonic rat telencephalon to various concentrations of morphine including 10, 20, 50 and 100 µM alone or in combination with naloxone (100 µM) over period of 72 h. Flow cytometric Ki-67 expression and Annexin-V/PI based necrosis and apoptosis of exposed cells were evaluated. The total content of dihydrotestosterone and estradiol in cell supernatant was measured by ELISA. According on obtained data, both concentration- and time-dependent decrement of cell viability were orchestrated thorough down-regulation of ki-67 and simultaneous up-regulation of Annexin-V. On the other hand, the addition of naloxone (100 µM), as Mu opiate receptor antagonist, could blunt the morphine-induced adverse effects. It also well established that time-course exposure of rat neural stem cells with morphine potently could accelerate the endogenous dihydrotestosterone and estradiol biosynthesis. Interestingly, naloxone could consequently attenuate the enhanced neurosteroidogenesis time-dependently. It seems that our results discover a biochemical linkage between an accelerated synthesis of sex-related steroids and rat neural stem cells viability.

  12. Noscapine, a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid, sensitizes leukemic cells to chemotherapeutic agents and cytokines by modulating the NF-kappaB signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Sung, Bokyung; Ahn, Kwang Seok; Aggarwal, Bharat B

    2010-04-15

    Noscapine, a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid derived from opium, was recently reported to exhibit activity against a variety of cancers through a poorly understood mechanism. Because the transcription factor NF-kappaB has been linked with inflammation, survival, proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis in tumors, we hypothesized that noscapine mediates its effects by modulating the NF-kappaB activation pathway. We found that noscapine potentiates apoptosis induced by cytokines and chemotherapeutic agents in tumor cells. Noscapine alone suppressed proliferation of human leukemia and myeloma cells and downregulated the constitutive expression of cell survival proteins. Noscapine also abrogated the inducible expression of proteins involved in survival, proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis, all of which are regulated by NF-kappaB. Noscapine suppressed both inducible and constitutive NF-kappaB activation in tumor cells through inhibition of IkappaB kinase, leading to inhibition of phosphorylation and degradation of IkappaBalpha. Noscapine also suppressed phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of p65, leading to inhibition of NF-kappaB reporter activity induced by various components of the NF-kappaB activation pathway. Activity of the NF-kappaB-containing cyclooxygenase-2 promoter was also inhibited by noscapine. Thus, noscapine inhibits the proliferation of leukemia cells and sensitizes them to tumor necrosis factor and chemotherapeutic agents by suppressing the NF-kappaB signaling pathway.

  13. 77 FR 70189 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Cambrex Charles City, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... (9300) II Oripavine (9330) II Thebaine (9333) II Opium, raw (9600) II Opium extracts (9610) II Opium fluid extract (9620) II Opium tincture (9630) II Opium, powdered (9639) II Opium, granulated (9640)...

  14. Combating Opium in Afghanistan. Strategic Forum, Number 224, November 2006

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    at all levels of govern- ment must be prosecuted, sentenced, and incarcerated. Equally important is com - bating corruption. Afghanistan’s leaders...successfully extra- dited Haji Baz Mohammed to New York for prosecution, a move that sent a chill throughout the Afghan trafficking com - munity. A DEA...for themselves. The international com - munity can best contribute to this effort No. 224, November 2006 Strategic Forum from a purely economic

  15. Opium, tobacco and alcohol: the evolving legitimacy of international action.

    PubMed

    McKee, Martin

    2009-08-01

    There is a broad consensus that international trade in goods is beneficial, providing of course that it is fair. Yet not all things that are traded are goods. Some can more appropriately be considered as 'bads'. The way things are viewed can change over time. Over a century ago the U.K. fought a war with China for the right to trade in narcotics yet now interdicts such shipments on the high seas. More recently, the international community has agreed the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, showing that tobacco is moving from a good to a bad. However, there are other things that are legitimately traded where restrictions may be needed, such as alcohol. Global trade is simply a means to an end. The ultimate goal must include better health for all.

  16. The biosynthesis of papaverine proceeds via (S)-reticuline

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xu; Lamshöft, Marc; Grobe, Nadja; Ren, Xuan; Fist, Anthony J.; Kutchan, Toni M.; Spiteller, Michael; Zenk, Meinhart H.

    2010-01-01

    Papaverine is one of the earliest opium alkaloids for which a biosynthetic hypothesis was developed on theoretical grounds. Norlaudanosoline (=tetrahydropapaveroline) was claimed as the immediate precursor alkaloid for a multitude of nitrogen containing plant metabolites. This tetrahydroxylated compound was proposed to be fully O-methylated. The resulting tetrahydropapaverine should then aromatize to papaverine. In view of new experimental data, this pathway has to be revised. Feeding of 8-day-old seedlings of Papaver followed by direct examination of the metabolic fate of stable isotope-labeled precursors in the total plant extract, without further purification of the metabolites, led to elucidation of the new papaverine pathway in vivo. The central and earliest benzylisoquinoline alkaloid is not the tetraoxygenated norlaudanosoline but the trihydroxylated norcoclaurine that is further converted into (S)-reticuline, the established precursor for poppy alkaloids. The papaverine pathway is opened by the methylation of (S)-reticuline to generate (S)-laudanine. A second methylation at the 3′ position of laudanine leads to laudanosine, both are known alkaloids from the opium poppy. Subsequent N-demethylation of laudanosine yields the known precursor of papaverine: tetrahydropapaverine. Inspection of the subsequent aromatization reaction revealed a new intermediate, 1,2-dihydropapaverine, which has been characterized. The final step to papaverine is the dehydrogenation of the 1,2-bond, yielding the target compound papaverine. We conclusively show herein that the previously claimed norreticuline does not play a role in the biosynthesis of papaverine. PMID:20494383

  17. Species identification of Papaver by metabolite profiling.

    PubMed

    Choe, Sanggil; Kim, Suncheun; Lee, Chul; Yang, Wonkyung; Park, Yuran; Choi, Hwakyung; Chung, Heesun; Lee, Dongho; Hwang, Bang Yeon

    2011-09-10

    Papaver somniferum L. and Papaver setigerum D.C. are controlled as opium poppy in Korea because they contain narcotic substances such as morphine and codeine. It is one of the critical issues whether the plants similar to opium poppy in shape are controlled plants or not. There are more than 110 species in the genus Papaver worldwide and about 10 species in Korea. As the morphological features of some species are very similar and the alkaloid contents and the ratios among the major alkaloids vary even within the same species, it is often difficult to identify the exact species by the morphological features and/or major alkaloids analysis. To develop a new method that uses metabolite profiling for species discrimination between P. somniferum, Papaver rhoeas and P. setigerum, the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) data of the alkaline extract were processed with in-house Microsoft Visual Basic(®) modules and the chemical information was analyzed through multivariate statistical analyses such as Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant analysis (DA). The GC-MS results combined with multivariate analysis demonstrated that the metabolite profiling was an efficient technique for the classification and this method will provide a powerful tool for the identification of Korean Papaver species.

  18. The fruit, the whole fruit, and everything about the fruit.

    PubMed

    Kourmpetli, Sofia; Drea, Sinéad

    2014-08-01

    Fruits come in an impressive array of shapes, sizes, and consistencies, and also display a huge diversity in biochemical/metabolite profiles, wherein lies their value as rich sources of food, nutrition, and pharmaceuticals. This is in addition to their fundamental function in supporting and dispersing the developing and mature seeds for the next generation. Understanding developmental processes such as fruit development and ripening, particularly at the genetic level, was once largely restricted to model and crop systems for practical and commercial reasons, but with the expansion of developmental genetic and evo-devo tools/analyses we can now investigate and compare aspects of fruit development in species spanning the angiosperms. We can superimpose recent genetic discoveries onto the detailed characterization of fruit development and ripening conducted with primary considerations such as yield and harvesting efficiency in mind, as well as on the detailed description of taxonomically relevant characters. Based on our own experience we focus on two very morphologically distinct and evolutionary distant fruits: the capsule of opium poppy, and the grain or caryopsis of cereals. Both are of massive economic value, but because of very different constituents; alkaloids of varied pharmaceutical value derived from secondary metabolism in opium poppy capsules, and calorific energy fuel derived from primary metabolism in cereal grains. Through comparative analyses in these and other fruit types, interesting patterns of regulatory gene function diversification and conservation are beginning to emerge.

  19. Synthesis of the skeleton of the morphine molecule by mammalian liver.

    PubMed

    Weitz, C J; Faull, K F; Goldstein, A

    The possibility that morphine could be synthesized in animals has long been considered and a pathway in mammalian brain analogous to that in the opium poppy has been proposed. Substances have been detected in mammalian brain that are recognized by antisera raised against morphine. Recently we reported the presence of three such immunoreactive substances in bovine hypothalamus and adrenal, and in rat brain, and the definitive identification of two of them by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as morphine and codeine. Incorporation of a labelled precursor has demonstrated the biosynthesis of morphine in the opium poppy from tyrosine-derived units (see Fig. 1). Intramolecular coupling of reticuline to form salutaridine is the critical step that generates the morphine skeleton (morphinan) and the stereochemistry of the morphinan series. We now report the conversion in vivo and in vitro of reticuline to salutaridine by rat liver, but this conversion is not detectable in rat brain and bovine adrenal. This is the first direct demonstration of the synthesis of a morphinan in an animal tissue and also supports the hypothesis that morphine and codeine in brain and adrenal are of endogenous origin.

  20. 1,2-Dehydroreticuline synthase, the branch point enzyme opening the morphinan biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Kazumasa; Poeaknapo, Chotima; Schmidt, Juergen; Zenk, Meinhart H

    2004-04-01

    A synthase which oxidizes (S)-reticuline to 1,2-dehydroreticuline has been found to occur in seedlings of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.). Due to its instability, this enzyme could only be partly purified (ca. 5-fold enrichment). Partial characterization at this stage of purification showed that it does not need a redox cofactor and accepts both (S)-reticuline and (S)-norreticuline as substrates. [1-(2)H, (13)C]-(R,S)-reticuline was enzymatically converted into [1-(13)C]-dehydroreticuline, which has been identified by mass spectrometry. Release of the hydrogen atom in position C-1 of the isoquinoline alkaloid during the oxidative conversion, was exploited as a sensitive assay system for this enzyme. The enzyme has a pH optimum of 8.75, a temperature optimum of 37 degrees C and the apparent K(M) value for the substrate reticuline was shown to be 117 microM. Moreover it could be demonstrated by sucrose density gradient centrifugation that the enzyme is located in vesicles of varying size. In combination with the previously discovered strictly stereoselective and NADPH dependent 1,2-dehydroreticuline reductase the detection of this enzyme, the 1,2-dehydroreticuline synthase, provides the necessary inversion of configuration and completes the pathway from two molecules of L-tyrosine via (S)-norcoclaurine to (R)-reticuline in opium poppy involving a total number of 11 enzymes.