BACKGROUND: The banana moth, Opogona sacchari Bojer, is a ployphagous agricultural pest in many tropical areas of the world. The identification of an attractant for male O. sacchari could offer new methods for detection, study and control. RESULTS: A male electroantennographically active compound w...
The sugarcane aphid [Melanaphis sacchari] (SCA) was first reported to damage sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] in the United States in Louisiana and Texas in 2013, and was subsequently detected in Oklahoma and the Mississippi Delta. In 2014, the aphid spread and was eventually reported in state...
Mendonça, T T; Gomez, J G C; Buffoni, E; Sánchez Rodriguez, R J; Schripsema, J; Lopes, M S G; Silva, L F
Evaluation of the capability of Burkholderia sacchari to incorporate different monomers into polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA). Thirty different carbon sources were evaluated as cosubstrates for B. sacchari growing on glucose with the intention to promote the incorporation of different monomers into the PHA produced by this species. With odd-numbered fatty acids, incorporation of the 3HV monomer was achieved, up to 65 mol% in the case of valerate. With 4-hydroxybutyrate, incorporation of 4HB was obtained, representing 9·1 mol%. With hexanoic acid, the production of P3HB-co-3HHx was achieved, containing up to 1·6 mol% of 3HHx. The molar fraction of 3HHx was found to be dependent on the ratio of glucose to hexanoic acid supplied. Metabolic flux analysis revealed a high efficiency of B. sacchari in converting carbon sources into P3HB-co-3HHx. Nevertheless, hexanoic acid was only poorly converted to 3HHx. Burkholderia sacchari is able to incorporate 3HV, 4HB and 3HHx in PHA containing mainly 3HB. The 3HHx content of P3HB-co-3HHx can be controlled by varying the glucose to hexanoic acid ratio. Burkholderia sacchari is highly efficient in converting carbon sources into PHA; however, only 2% of the hexanoic acid supplied could be converted to 3HHx. This is the first report describing an approach to modulate the composition of P3HB-co-3HHx produced by bacteria using mixtures of carbohydrate and hexanoic acid as carbon source. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Rivas, Raúl; García-Fraile, Paula; Zurdo-Piñeiro, José Luis; Mateos, Pedro F; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; Bedmar, Eulogio J; Sánchez-Raya, Juan; Velázquez, Encarna
A bacterial strain designated GR21T was isolated from apoplastic fluid of Saccharum officinarum (sugar cane). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolate forms a separate branch within the family 'Paenibacillaceae', with Paenibacillus as the closest related genus. Within this genus, the closest related species is Paenibacillus xylanilyticus, with 93.4 % similarity to the sequence of the type strain. The isolate has Gram-variable, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped cells, motile by polar and subpolar flagella. Round, non-ornamented, central or subterminal spores are formed in unswollen sporangia. The strain is catalase-positive and oxidase-negative on nutrient agar medium. Cellulose and aesculin were hydrolysed, whereas xylan, starch and gelatin were not. Growth was supported by many carbohydrates as carbon sources. Strain GR21T displayed a lipid profile consisting of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, an unknown aminophospholipid, two unknown glycolipids and an unknown phosphoglycolipid. MK-7 was the predominant menaquinone and anteiso-C15: 0 was the major fatty acid. The DNA G+C content was 57.8 mol%. Phylogenetic and phenotypic analyses, including assimilation of carbon sources and exoenzyme production commonly used for classification within the family 'Paenibacillaceae', showed that strain GR21T belongs to a new genus within this family, for which the name Saccharibacillus sacchari gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Saccharibacillus sacchari is GR21T (=LMG 24085T =DSM 19268T).
Fang, Yunxia; Lin, Haiyan; Wu, Liwen; Ren, Deyong; Ye, Weijun; Dong, Guojun; Zhu, Li; Guo, Longbiao
Xanthomonas sacchari, was first identified as a pathogenic bacterium isolated from diseased sugarcane in Guadeloupe. In this study, R1 was first isolated from rice seed samples from Philippines in 2002. The antagonistic ability against several rice pathogens raises our attention. The genomic feature of this strain was described in this paper. The total genome size of X. sacchari R1 is 5,000,479 bp with 4315 coding sequences (CDS), 59 tRNAs, 2rRNAs and one plasmid.
Lopes, Mateus Schreiner Garcez; Gosset, Guillermo; Rocha, Rafael Costa Santos; Gomez, José Gregório Cabrera; Ferreira da Silva, Luiziana
Due to the effect of catabolite repression, sugar mixtures cannot be metabolized in a rapid and efficient way implicating in lower productivity in bioprocesses using lignocellulosic hydrolysates. In gram-negative bacteria, this mechanism is mediated by the phosphotransferase system (PTS), which concomitantly internalizes and phosphorylates sugars. In this study, we isolated a UV mutant of Burkholderia sacchari, called LFM828, which transports hexoses and pentoses by a non-PTS uptake system. This mutant presented released glucose catabolite repression over the pentoses. In mixtures of glucose, xylose, and arabinose, specific growth rates and the specific sugar consumption rates were, respectively, 10 and 23% higher in LFM828, resulting in a reduced time to exhaust all sugars in the medium. However, in polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) biosynthesis experiments it was necessary the supplementation of yeast extract to maintain higher values of growth rate and sugar consumption rate. The deficient growth in mineral medium was partially recovered by replacing the ammonium nitrogen source by glutamate. It was demonstrated that the ammonium metabolism is not defective in LFM828, differently from ammonium, glutamate can also be used as carbon and energy allowing an improvement on the carbohydrates utilization for PHB production in LFM828. In contrast, higher rates of ammonia consumption and CO(2) production in LFM828 indicate altered fluxes through the central metabolism in LFM828 and the parental. In conclusion, PTS plays an important role in cell physiology and the elimination of its components has a significant impact on catabolite repression, carbon flux distribution, and PHB biosynthesis in B. sacchari.
In 2013, an outbreak of Melanaphis sacchari, the sugarcane aphid, was reported in sorghum in Texas. Although this aphid has been reported in the continental U.S. since the 1920s, its occurrence was limited to Florida and Louisiana sugarcane. In just two years M. sacchari has been reported in almos...
The sugarcane aphid (SCA), Melanaphis sacchari, was reported as a damaging pest of sorghum in the United States (U.S.) for the first time in 2013. However, this aphid is not new to the U.S. Since 1920s up until 2013 SCA have occurred on sugarcane in Florida and later in Louisiana, causing minimal ...
The sugarcane aphid Melanaphis sacchari (Zehnter) has emerged as the most significant threat to sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) production in the United States. Since 2013, discovery of aphid resistant germplasm has been a priority all stakeholders involved. We screened twenty three differen...
Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV), the causal agent of yellow leaf disease of sugarcane, is widespread in Florida and vectored by the aphid Melanaphis sacchari. Sugarcane was the only known natural host of SCYLV in the USA until 2015 when a new natural host was found for this virus in Florida: Sor...
The sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari, (Zehntner) has established itself as a perennial pest of grain and forage sorghums in the United States since the summer of 2013. We conducted traditional host-plant resistant studies that determine tolerance, antibiosis, and antixenosis in 32 sorghum genot...
Mahlanza, Tendekai; Rutherford, R Stuart; Snyman, Sandy J; Watt, M Paula
KEY MESSAGE : A combination of in vitro culture and mutagenesis using ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) followed by culture filtrate-mediated selection produced variant sugarcane plants tolerant and resistant to Fusarium sacchari. Eldana saccharina is a destructive pest of the sugarcane crop in South Africa. Fusarium sacchari PNG40 (a fungal strain harmful to E. saccharina) has the potential to be an endophytic biological control agent of the stalk borer. However, the fungus causes Fusarium stalk rot in sugarcane. In the current study, sugarcane plants tolerant and resistant to F. sacchari PNG40 were produced by exposing embryogenic calli to the chemical mutagen ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), followed by in vitro selection during somatic embryogenesis and plantlet regeneration on media containing F. sacchari culture filtrates (CF). The incorporation of 100 ppm CF in the culture media at the embryo maturation stage, at germination, or at both, resulted in callus necrosis and consequent reduced plantlet yield. Subsequent trimming of the roots of regenerated plants and their exposure to 1,500 ppm CF served as a further selection treatment. Plants produced from EMS-treated calli displayed improved root re-growth in the presence of CF pressure compared with those from non-treated calli. The tolerance of CF-selected plants was confirmed in greenhouse tests by inoculation with F. sacchari PNG40, re-isolation of Fusarium spp. from undamaged tissue of asymptomatic plants and establishment of the identity of fungal isolates as PNG40 using molecular analysis. The restriction of PNG40 presence to the inoculation lesion in some plants suggested their resistance to the fungus. Genotypes exhibiting symptomless endophytic colonization by PNG40 were identified and will be utilised for testing biological control strategies against E. saccharina.
Growth chamber studies were conducted to examine environmental parameters affecting disease development by the indigenous pathogen Bipolaris sacchari isolate LJB-1L on the invasive weed Lygodium microphyllum (Old World climbing fern). Initial studies examined three different temperature regimes (20...
Wu, Hongmiao; Wu, Linkun; Wang, Juanying; Zhu, Quan; Lin, Sheng; Xu, Jiahui; Zheng, Cailiang; Chen, Jun; Qin, Xianjin; Fang, Changxun; Zhang, Zhixing; Azeem, Saadia; Lin, Wenxiong
Radix pseudostellariae L. is a common and popular Chinese medication. However, continuous monoculture has increased its susceptibility to severe diseases. We identified two pathogenic microorganisms, Talaromyces helicus M. (KU355274) and Kosakonia sacchari W. (KU324465), and their antagonistic bacterium, Bacillus pumilus Z. in rhizosphere soil of continuously monocultured R. pseudostellariae. Nine types of phenolic acids were identified both in the rhizosphere soil and in culture medium under sterile conditions. A syringic acid and phenolic acid mixture significantly promoted the growth of T. helicus and K. sacchari. T. helicus could utilize eight types of phenolic acids, whereas K. sacchari could only use four phenolic acids. K. sacchari produced protocatechuic acid when consuming vanillin. Protocatechuic acid negatively affected the growth of B. pumilus. The 3A-DON toxin produced by T. helicus promoted the growth of K. sacchari and inhibited growth of B. pumilus at low concentrations. These data help explain why phenolic exudates mediate a microflora shift and structure disorder in the rhizosphere soil of continuously monocultured R. pseudostellariae and lead to increased replanting disease incidence. PMID:27014250
Gu, Chun Tao; Li, Chun Yan; Yang, Li Jie; Huo, Gui Cheng
A Gram-stain-negative bacterial strain, 10-17(T), was isolated from traditional sourdough in Heilongjiang Province, China. The bacterium was characterized by a polyphasic approach, including 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, RNA polymerase β subunit (rpoB) gene sequence analysis, DNA gyrase (gyrB) gene sequence analysis, initiation translation factor 2 (infB) gene sequence analysis, ATP synthase β subunit (atpD) gene sequence analysis, fatty acid methyl ester analysis, determination of DNA G+C content, DNA-DNA hybridization and an analysis of phenotypic features. Strain 10-17(T) was phylogenetically related to Enterobacter hormaechei CIP 103441(T), Enterobacter cancerogenus LMG 2693(T), Enterobacter asburiae JCM 6051(T), Enterobacter mori LMG 25706(T), Enterobacter ludwigii EN-119(T) and Leclercia adecarboxylata LMG 2803(T), having 99.5%, 99.3%, 98.7%, 98.5%, 98.4% and 98.4% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively. On the basis of polyphasic characterization data obtained in the present study, a novel species, Enterobacter xiangfangensis sp. nov., is proposed and the type strain is 10-17(T) ( = LMG 27195(T) = NCIMB 14836(T) = CCUG 62994(T)). Enterobacter sacchari Zhu et al. 2013 was reclassified as Kosakonia sacchari comb. nov. on the basis of 16S rRNA, rpoB, gyrB, infB and atpD gene sequence analysis and the type strain is strain SP1(T)( = CGMCC 1.12102(T) = LMG 26783(T)). © 2014 IUMS.
Shinjo, Rina; Uesaka, Kazuma; Ihara, Kunio; Loshakova, Kseniia; Mizuno, Yuri; Yano, Katsuya
The complete genome sequence of the endophytic diazotroph Kosakonia sacchari, isolated from a sweet potato, was analyzed. The 4,902,106-bp genome with 53.7% G+C content comprises 4,638 open reading frames, including nif genes, 84 tRNAs, and seven complete rRNAs in a circular chromosome. PMID:27609910
The sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari, was discovered infesting grain sorghum near Beaumont, TX, close to the Texas and Louisiana state line a few miles inland from the Gulf coast in the late summer of 2013, and has been a perennial pest of sorghum through 2016. Our research was aimed at identif...
Nibouche, Samuel; Fartek, Benjamin; Mississipi, Stelly; Delatte, Hélène; Reynaud, Bernard; Costet, Laurent
Numerous studies have examined the genetic diversity and genetic structure of invading species, with contrasting results concerning the relative roles of genetic diversity and phenotypic plasticity in the success of introduced populations. Increasing evidence shows that asexual lineages of aphids are able to occupy a wide geographical and ecological range of habitats despite low genetic diversity. The anholocyclic aphid Melanaphis sacchari is a pest of sugarcane and sorghum which originated in the old world, was introduced into the Americas, and is now distributed worldwide. Our purpose was to assess the genetic diversity and structuring of populations of this species according to host and locality. We used 10 microsatellite markers to genotype 1333 individuals (57 samples, 42 localities, 15 countries) collected mainly on sugarcane or sorghum. Five multilocus lineages (MLL) were defined, grouping multilocus genotypes (MLG) differing by only a few mutations or scoring errors. Analysis of a 658 bp sequence of mitochondrial COI gene on 96 individuals revealed five haplotypes, with a mean divergence of only 0.19 %. The distribution of MLL appeared to be strongly influenced by geography but not by host plant. Each of the five MLL grouped individuals from (A) Africa, (B) Australia, (C) South America, the Caribbean and the Indian Ocean including East Africa, (D) USA, and (E) China. The MLL A and C, with a wide geographic distribution, matched the definition of superclone. Among aphids, M. sacchari has one of the lowest known rates of genetic diversity for such a wide geographical distribution. PMID:25148510
Ashbolt, Nicholas J.; Inkerman, Peter A.
Saccharococcus sacchari is the primary colonizer of the developing “sterile” tissue between the leaf sheath and stem of sugar cane. The honeydew secreted by the mealybugs is acidic (about pH 3) and supports an atypical epiphytic microbiota dominated by acetobacter-like bacteria and acidophilic yeast species. However, Erwinia and Leuconostoc species predominate within the leaf sheath pocket region when the mealybugs die out. The unidentified acetobacters were readily isolated from S. sacchari throughout its life cycle and from other genera of mealybugs on sugar cane and various other plants, both above and below ground. No other insect present on sugar cane was a significant vector of acetic acid bacteria. The major factors restricting microbial diversity within the environs of mealybugs were considered to be yeast activity along with bacterial production of acetic acid, ketogluconic acids, and gamma-pyrones, in association with their lowering of pH. The microbial products may aid in suppressing the attack by the parasitic mold Aspergillus parasiticus on mealybugs but could act as attractants for the predatory fruit fly Cacoxenus perspicax. PMID:16348144
Studholme, David J.; Wasukira, Arthur; Paszkiewicz, Konrad; Aritua, Valente; Thwaites, Richard; Smith, Julian; Grant, Murray
We present draft genome sequences for three strains of Xanthomonas species, each of which was associated with banana plants (Musa species) but is not closely related to the previously sequenced banana-pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pathovar musacearum. Strain NCPPB4393 had been deposited as Xanthomonas campestris pathovar musacearum but in fact falls within the species Xanthomonas sacchari. Strain NCPPB1132 is more distantly related to Xanthomonas sacchari whilst strain NCPPB 1131 grouped in a distinct species-level clade related to X. sacchari, along with strains from ginger, rice, cotton and sugarcane. These three newly sequenced strains share many genomic features with the previously sequenced Xanthomonas albilineans, for example possessing an unsual metE allele and lacking the Hrp type III secretion system. However, they are distinct from Xanthomonas albilineans in many respects, for example showing little evidence of genome reduction. They also lack the SPI-1 type III secretion system found in Xanthomonas albilineans. Unlike X. albilineans, all three strains possess a gum gene cluster. The data reported here provide the first genome-wide survey of non-Hrp Xanthomonas species other than Xanthomonas albilineans, which is an atypical member of this group. We hope that the availability of complete sequence data for this group of organisms is the first step towards understanding their interactions with plants and identifying potential virulence factors. PMID:24710305
Studholme, David J; Wasukira, Arthur; Paszkiewicz, Konrad; Aritua, Valente; Thwaites, Richard; Smith, Julian; Grant, Murray
We present draft genome sequences for three strains of Xanthomonas species, each of which was associated with banana plants (Musa species) but is not closely related to the previously sequenced banana-pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pathovar musacearum. Strain NCPPB4393 had been deposited as Xanthomonas campestris pathovar musacearum but in fact falls within the species Xanthomonas sacchari. Strain NCPPB1132 is more distantly related to Xanthomonas sacchari whilst strain NCPPB 1131 grouped in a distinct species-level clade related to X. sacchari, along with strains from ginger, rice, cotton and sugarcane. These three newly sequenced strains share many genomic features with the previously sequenced Xanthomonas albilineans, for example possessing an unsual metE allele and lacking the Hrp type III secretion system. However, they are distinct from Xanthomonas albilineans in many respects, for example showing little evidence of genome reduction. They also lack the SPI-1 type III secretion system found in Xanthomonas albilineans. Unlike X. albilineans, all three strains possess a gum gene cluster. The data reported here provide the first genome-wide survey of non-Hrp Xanthomonas species other than Xanthomonas albilineans, which is an atypical member of this group. We hope that the availability of complete sequence data for this group of organisms is the first step towards understanding their interactions with plants and identifying potential virulence factors.
Shukla, Rushit J; Singh, Satya P
One of the approaches to address the issues of the cost of production, recovery and reusability of the extremozymes can be immobilization. In this report, we describe immobilization of an α-amylase from Laceyella sacchari TSI-2 and characterization of the immobilized enzyme. The enzyme was immobilized on 6 different matrices using entrapment, ionic binding and surface adsorption. The DEAE cellulose with glutaraldehyde crosslinking appeared most effective for the immobilization with high operational stability. While the temperature optima and thermal stability of the immobilized α-amylase shifted from 60 to 70°C with increased half-life, the pH optima remain unaltered while pH stability was shifted from 6 to 7. The stability of the immobilized enzyme improved in solvents. The enzyme catalysis in surfactants enhanced, while the Km and Vmax were reduced after immobilization. The structural features of the immobilized enzyme as probed by FT-IR established the role of aliphatic amines, esters and alkenes in immobilization. The starch hydrolysis efficiency of the immobilized enzyme was 15.55%. The immobilized enzyme in various detergents was highly efficient in removing the starch stain from cotton cloth. Taken together, the α-amylase turned more stable after immobilization and can be a favored choice for applications.
Shabir, Ghulam; Anwar, Farooq; Sultana, Bushra; Khalid, Zafar M; Afzal, Muhammad; Khan, Qaiser M; Ashrafuzzaman, M
This paper describes the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and phenolic components of different solvent (absolute methanol, absolute ethanol, absolute acetone, 80% methanol, 80% ethanol, 80% acetone and deionized water) extracts of leaves, flowers and bark of Gold Mohar [Delonix regia (Bojer ex Hook.) Raf.]. The extract yields from leaves, flowers and bark ranged from 10.19 to 36.24, 12.97 to 48.47 and 4.22 to 8.48 g/100 g dry weight (DW), respectively. Overall, 80% methanol extract produced from the leaves exhibited significantly (P < 0.05) higher antioxidant activity, with high phenolic contents (3.63 g GAE/100 g DW), total flavonoid contents (1.19 g CE/100 g DW), inhibition of peroxidation (85.54%), DPPH scavenging capacity (IC(50) value 8.89 μg/mL) and reducing power (1.87). Similarly, this 80% methanol leaves extract also showed superior antimicrobial activity. HPLC analysis of the 80% methanol extracts for individual phenolics revealed the presence of gallic, protocatechuic and salicylic acid in leaves; gallic, protocatechuic, salicylic, trans-cinnamic and chlorogenic acid in flowers, and gallic acid in bark as the main (amount > 1.50 mg/100 g DW) phenolic acids. Besides, small amounts ( < 1.50 mg/100 g DW) of some other phenolic acids such as sorbic, sinapic, p-coumaric, m-coumaric, ferulic, caffeic, 3-hydroxybenzoic, 4-hydroxycinnamic and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids were also detected. The extracts of the tested parts of Gold Mohar, especially, the leaves, might be valuable for functional food and therapeutic applications.
Zhu, Bo; Zhou, Qing; Lin, Li; Hu, Chunjin; Shen, Ping; Yang, Litao; An, Qianli; Xie, Guanlin; Li, Yangrui
Five nitrogen-fixing bacterial strains (SP1(T), NN143, NN144, NN208 and HX148) were isolated from stem, root or rhizosphere soil of sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) plants. Cells were Gram-negative, motile, rods with peritrichous flagella. DNA G+C content was 55.0 ± 0.5 mol%. Sequence determinations and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene and rpoB indicated that the strains were affiliated with the genus Enterobacter and most closely related to E. radicincitans DSM 16656(T) and E. oryzae LMG 24251(T). Fluorimetric determination of thermal denaturation temperatures after DNA-DNA hybridization, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry differentiated the whole-genome, genotype and protein profiles from those of E. radicincitans and E. oryzae. The strains' cell fatty acid composition differentiated them from E. radicincitans and E. oryzae by containing a higher level of summed feature 2 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c) and a lower level of C17 : 0 cyclo. Their physiological and biochemical profiles differentiated them from E. radicincitans by being positive for methyl red test, ornithine decarboxylase and utilization of putrescine, D-arabitol, L-fucose and methyl α-D-glucoside and being negative for arginine dihydrolase, and differentiated them from E. oryzae by being positive for aesculin hydrolysis and utilization of putrescine, D-arabitol and L-rhamnose and being negative for arginine dihydrolase, lysine decarboxylase and utilization of mucate. The five strains therefore represent a novel species, for which the name Enterobacter sacchari sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain SP1(T) ( = CGMCC 1.12102(T) = LMG 26783(T)).
Raposo, Rodrigo S; de Almeida, M Catarina M D; de Oliveira, M da Conceição M A; da Fonseca, M Manuela; Cesário, M Teresa
Efficient production of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (P(3HB)) based on glucose-xylose mixtures simulating different types of lignocellulosic hydrolysate (LCH) was addressed using Burkholderia sacchari, a wild strain capable of metabolizing both sugars and producing P(3HB). Carbon catabolite repression was avoided by maintaining glucose concentration below 10g/L. Xylose concentrations above 30g/L were inhibitory for growth and production. In fed-batch cultivations, pulse size and feed addition rate were controlled in order to reach high productivities and efficient sugar consumptions. High xylose uptake and P(3HB) productivity were attained with glucose-rich mixtures (glucose/xylose ratio in the feed=1.5w/w) using high feeding rates, while with xylose-richer feeds (glucose/xylose=0.8w/w), a lower feeding rate is a robust strategy to avoid xylose build-up in the medium. Xylitol production was observed with xylose concentrations in the medium above 30-40g/L. With sugar mixtures featuring even lower glucose/xylose ratios, i.e. xylose-richer feeds (glucose/xylose=0.5), xylonic acid (a second byproduct) was produced. This is the first report of the ability of Burkholderia sacchari to produce both xylitol and xylonic acid.
Michaud, J P; Zhang, Yun; Bain, Clint
In the process of feeding, aphids modify the physiology of their host plants in species-specific ways, and plant responses to these aggressions are often genotype- or cultivar-specific. Thus, different aphid species sharing a host can influence each other's fitness via plant-mediated interactions, usually with negative and asymmetric impacts. Here, we show that feeding by the sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari Zehntner, can improve the suitability of sorghum as a host plant for the bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi L. Whereas the reciprocal effects were generally negative for sugarcane aphid, the specific life history impacts varied with sorghum cultivar. Line 'PI 550610' was a more suitable host plant for both aphid species than the hybrid 'P8500', contrary to expectations based on the former representing a source of resistance to Schizaphis graminum (Rondani). Whereas coinfestation with sugarcane aphid had positive effects on bird cherry-oat aphid survival, development, and reproduction on both cultivars, the presence of bird cherry-oat aphid reduced the sugarcane aphid fecundity on both cultivars, although other negative effects (lower survival and delayed development) were evident only on the less suitable P8500. A second experiment using previously infested plants yielded similar results, although a gradual decay of aphid-induced effects postinfestation was apparent. Bird cherry-oat aphid is the second aphid species, after S. graminum, shown to benefit from sugarcane aphid facilitation on sorghum. We conclude that facilitation by sugarcane aphid at least partly accounts for the various aphid species forming mixed infestations with this invasive species in fields of susceptible sorghum cultivars. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Colares, Felipe; Michaud, J P; Bain, Clint L; Torres, Jorge B
Flupyradifurone and sulfoxaflor present novel insecticide chemistries with particular efficacy against aphids, and the recent emergence of sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), as a pest of sorghum in the United States has resulted in their widespread use. We examined their toxicity to Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville, an important aphid biocontrol agent. We exposed beetles to topical applications of the field rate (FR) of these insecticides, fed them contaminated food (eggs of Ephestia kuehniella Zeller), and gave first-instar larvae 24-h exposures to leaf residues. More than half of fourth-instar larvae receiving topical applications of sulfoxaflor at FR survived, whereas flupyradifurone at 0.1× FR caused 90% mortality. Adults survived topical treatments better than larvae and without measurable mortality, except flupyradifurone at FR, which killed more than 80% of beetles. Survivors of all treatments had fertility similar to controls, whether treated as larvae or adults. Ingestion of contaminated food caused significant mortality in all treatments (15-40% for adults and 55-85% for larvae), with no significant differences between insecticides at FR. Leaf residues of sulfoxaflor at 1.0 and 2.0× FR caused approximately 60 and 80% mortality of first instars, respectively, whereas flupyradifurone at 0.1 and 1.0× FR caused > 90% mortality. Although sulfoxaflor was less toxic to H. convergens than flupyradifurone, the tested FR of flupyradifurone has now been reduced by half. We conclude that neither insecticide appears as toxic as other nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists, and that both materials are compatible with integrated pest management programs for M. sacchari. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Proposal of six species of moderately thermophilic, acidophilic, endospore-forming bacteria: Alicyclobacillus contaminans sp. nov., Alicyclobacillus fastidiosus sp. nov., Alicyclobacillus kakegawensis sp. nov., Alicyclobacillus macrosporangiidus sp. nov., Alicyclobacillus sacchari sp. nov. and Alicyclobacillus shizuokensis sp. nov.
Goto, Keiichi; Mochida, Kaoru; Kato, Yuko; Asahara, Mika; Fujita, Rieko; An, Sun-Young; Kasai, Hiroaki; Yokota, Akira
Moderately thermophilic, acidophilic, spore-forming bacteria (146 strains) were isolated from various beverages and environments. Based on the results of sequence analysis of the hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene, eight of the strains represent novel species of the genus Alicyclobacillus. These strains were designated 3-A191(T), 4-A336(T), 5-A83J(T), 5-A167N, 5-A239-2O-A(T), E-8, RB718(T) and S-TAB(T). Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA and DNA gyrase B subunit (gyrB) nucleotide sequences confirmed that the eight strains belonged to the Alicyclobacillus clade. Cells of the eight strains were Gram-positive or Gram-variable, strictly aerobic and rod-shaped. The strains grew well under acidic and moderately thermal conditions, produced acid from various sugars, contained menaquinone 7 as the major isoprenoid quinone and did not produce guaiacol. omega-Alicyclic fatty acids were the predominant lipid component of strains 4-A336(T), 5-A83J(T), 5-A167N, RB718(T) and S-TAB(T). No omega-alicyclic fatty acids were detected in strains 3-A191(T), 5-A239-2O-A(T) or E-8, but iso- and anteiso-branched fatty acids and small amounts of straight-chain saturated fatty acids were detected instead. According to the DNA-DNA hybridization data and distinct morphological, physiological, chemotaxonomical and genetic traits, the eight strains represent six novel species within the genus Alicyclobacillus, for which the following names are proposed: Alicyclobacillus contaminans sp. nov. (type strain 3-A191(T)=DSM 17975(T)=IAM 15224(T)), Alicyclobacillus fastidiosus sp. nov. (type strain S-TAB(T)=DSM 17978(T)=IAM 15229(T)), Alicyclobacillus kakegawensis sp. nov. (type strain 5-A83J(T)=DSM 17979(T)=IAM 15227(T)), Alicyclobacillus macrosporangiidus sp. nov. (type strain 5-A239-2O-A(T)=DSM 17980(T)=IAM 15370(T)), Alicyclobacillus sacchari sp. nov. (type strain RB718(T)=DSM 17974(T)=IAM 15230(T)) and Alicyclobacillus shizuokensis sp. nov. (type strain 4-A336(T)=DSM 17981(T)=IAM 15226(T)).
Discusses using novels set in North and South Dakota and Nebraska for geography instruction. Novels examined are: "The Emigrants" (Bojer), "Giants in the Earth" (Rolvaag), "Spring Came on Forever" (Aldrich), "Take All to Nebraska" (Winther), and "My Antonia" (Cather). (KC)
Studholme, David J; Wasukira, Arthur; Paszkiewicz, Konrad; Aritua, Valente; Thwaites, Richard; Smith, Julian; Grant, Murray
Following publication of our article , we found errors in analyses performed by the corresponding author (DJS) related to the phylogenetic relationship between Xylella species and the other xanthomonads. These errors do not make any difference to the main findings and conclusions reported in our paper. For example, the phylogenetic positions of NCPPB1131, NCPPB1132 and NCPPB4393 within the Group 1 Xanthomonas species are unaffected. However, we wish to apologize to the authors of a previous work  for creating any negative impression on the quality of their phylogenetic analyses and to take this opportunity to rectify the errors. [...].
The sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari, has become a serious pest causing severe economic losses to sorghum grown in the southern United States (U.S.). Since its original detection in four states in 2013, M. sacchari on sorghum has now, for 2016, spread to 19 states. The presence of one or multip...
Sugarcane in Louisiana is colonized by two aphid species, the sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), and the yellow sugarcane aphid, Sipha flava (Forbes). The main problem associated with M. sacchari is transmission of sugarcane yellow leaf virus, a disease that has been added to certifica...
Akiyama, Kousuke; Yamamoto, Kazutaka; Mineno, Tomoko; Okawa, Masafumi; Kinjo, Junei; Yoshimitsu, Hitoshi; Nohara, Toshihiro; Ono, Masateru
Three new acylated methyl glycosides and two new acylated glycosidic acid methyl esters were isolated after treatment of the crude ether-insoluble resin glycoside (convolvulin) fraction from seeds of Quamoclit pennata BOJER (Convolvulaceae) with indium(III) chloride in methanol. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data and chemical conversions.
Ono, Masateru; Akiyama, Kousuke; Yamamoto, Kazutaka; Mineno, Tomoko; Okawa, Masafumi; Kinjo, Junei; Miyashita, Hiroyuki; Yoshimitsu, Hitoshi; Nohara, Toshihiro
Four new acylated glycosidic acid methyl esters were isolated after treatment of the crude ether-insoluble resin glycoside (convolvulin) fraction obtained from the seeds of Quamoclit pennata BOJER (Convolvulaceae) with indium(III) chloride in methanol. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data and chemical conversions.
Lignocellulosic feedstocks are interesting materials for bio-based product synthesis because of their availability and cheap cost. Our laboratory utilized corn stover hydrolysate (CSH) as a base feedstock for bacterially-derived polyhydroxyalkanoate biopolymer synthesis. Burkholderia sacchari DSM 17...
Two relatively new key species in Louisiana that conform to the plant stress hypothesis are the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) and the sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner). High performance liquid chromatography differentiated insect resistant and susceptible sugarcane cultiva...
Sugarcane aphid (SCA), Melanaphis sacchari (Zerhntner), is typically known as a key pest to sorghum and sugarcane in tropical and subtropical regions around the world. In 2013, this new invasive pest was found on grain sorghum plants in South and East Texas, and now it has already spread over 17 st...
An outbreak of an invasive aphid was discovered damaging grain sorghum in Texas and neighboring states in 2013. It may be a new variant of sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari, that has a high preference for sorghum, or a very closely related species (M. sorghi). We designate it sorghum/sugarcane ...
Sorghum is an important summer grain crop in the United States. In 2014, the U.S. produced 432 million bushels of sorghum valued at $1.67 billion on more than 6 million acres. The sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), was discovered in damaging numbers in grain sorghum, Sorghum bicolor ...
The sugarcane aphid (SCA), Melanaphis sacchari, has been present in the United States primarily on sugarcane in Florida, Hawaii, and Louisiana until 2013 where it was found on grain sorghum near Beaumont, Texas. Since 2013, the SCA has been rapidly spreading and overwintering. Depending on the plant...
The sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari, was discovered infesting grain sorghum in the southern United States in 2013 and has been a perennial pest through 2016. We evaluated 25 sorghum genotypes in a search for host plant resistance to this pest. Plants were started from seed (N = 16 replication...
In the southern United States, the white sugarcane aphid (Melanaphis sacchari) has recently become a major pest of sorghum. The aphid population can build up rapidly on the undersides of sorghum leaves causing leaf damage, leaf death, stunting, delayed flowering, and plant death. Furthermore, the ov...
Multispectral remote sensing has potential to provide quick and inexpensive information on sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), pest status in sorghum fields. The purpose of this report is to describe a study conducted to determine if injury caused by sugarcane aphid to sorghum plants i...
Sugarcane, interspecific hybrids of Saccharum spp., in Louisiana is colonized by two aphid species, the sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), and the yellow sugarcane aphid, Sipha flava (Forbes). Five sugarcane cultivars, LCP 85-384, HoCP 91-555, Ho 95-988, HoCP 96-540, and L 97-128, rep...
Sugarcane in the U.S. is chiefly colonized by two aphid species, the sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari, and the yellow sugarcane aphid, Sipha flava, which vector economically important viruses of the crop. Greenhouse experiments were conducted to categorize commercial sugarcane cultivars for the...
The graminous host range, and sources of sorghum plant resistance including cross resistance from greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rond.) sorghums, [Sorghum bicolor L.) Moench], were studied for the newly emerging sugarcane aphid Melanaphis sacchari, (Zehntner) in greenhouse no-choice experiments and ...
The sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), has been a sporadic but sometimes serious problem on sugarcane in Louisiana since its first discovery in 1999. LSU AgCenter and USDA-ARS scientists have studied aspects of sugarcane aphid management on sugarcane, including pest status, varietal re...
In 2013 the sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), a new invasive pest of sorghum in North America, was confirmed on sorghum in four states and 38 counties in the U.S. In 2015, the aphid was reported on sorghum in 17 states and over 400 counties as well as all sorgh...
Modi, Anuj; Mishra, Vijay; Bhatt, Ajita; Jain, Aviral; Mansoori, Mohd Hashim; Gurnany, Ekta; Kumar, Vimal
Delonix regia (Bojer ex Hook) Raffin (Fabaceae), also known as flame of forest, is a semi-deciduous tree, distributed throughout Madagascar, India, Africa, and Northern Australia. Various parts of the plant are traditionally used for the treatment of different ailments such as inflammation, rheumatism, bronchitis, diabetes, anemia, fever, gynecological disorders, and pneumonia. The plant possess antioxidant, hepatoprotective, gastroprotective, wound healing, antiarthritic, larvicidal, antimalarial, antiemetic, antibacterial, antifungal, antiinflammatory, analgesic, antidiarrhoeal, antiheamolytic, diuretic, and anthelmintic activities. This review is an up-to-date compilation on its traditional uses in context to phytochemical and pharmacological perspectives. Copyright © 2016 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Cerrone, Federico; Davis, Reeta; Kenny, Shane T; Woods, Trevor; O'Donovan, Anthonia; Gupta, Vijai Kumar; Tuohy, Maria; Babu, Ramesh P; O'Kiely, Padraig; O'Connor, Kevin
This study demonstrates the use of a mannitol rich ensiled grass press juice (EGPJ) as a renewable carbon substrate for polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) production in shaking flask experiments and fed-batch stirred tank reactor cultivations. Fed-batch cultivations of Burkholderia sacchari IPT101 using EGPJ as sole carbon source produced 44.5 g/L CDW containing 33% polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) in 36 h, while Pseudomonas chlororaphis IMD555 produced a CDW of 37 g/L containing 10% of medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHA) in 34 h. PHB and mcl-PHA extracted from B. sacchari IPT101 and P. chlororaphis IMD555, grown on EGPJ, had a molecular weight of 548 kg/mol and 115.4 kg/mol, respectively. While mcl-PHA can be produced from EGPJ, PHB production is more interesting as there is a 4-fold higher volumetric productivity compared to mcl-PHA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kämpfer, Peter; McInroy, John A; Doijad, Swapnil; Chakraborty, Trinad; Glaeser, Stefanie P
A beige pigmented bacterial strain (JM-387(T)), isolated from field-grown corn root tissue, Tallassee, Alabama, was studied for its taxonomic allocation. A comparison of the 16S rRNA gene sequence with those of the type strains of most closely related species of the family Enterobacteriaceae showed highest sequence similarities to the type strain of Kosakonia sacchari (99.5%), "Enterobacter oryzendophyticus" (98.8%), and Kosakonia radicincitans (98.6%). Construction of phylogenetic trees based on the 16S rRNA gene and partial sequences of four protein-coding genes, rpoB, gyrB, infB, and atpD (multilocus sequence analysis, MLSA) showed a distinct clustering of strain JM-387(T) with Kosakonia sacchari. DNA-DNA hybridizations between JM-387(T) and the type strains of most similar Kosakonia/"Enterobacter" species including K. sacchari LMG 26783(T), "E. oryzendophyticus" LMG 26432(T), K. radicincitans D5/23(T), K. oryzae LMG 24251(T), E. cancerogenus LMG 2693(T), and E. cloacae subsp. dissolvens CCUG 25230(T) were in the range of 14.4-60.2%. The average nucleotide identity (ANI) of the genome sequence of the new strain to K. sacchari SP1(T) was 94.47%. Strain JM-387(T) had a typical enterobacterial fatty acid pattern consisting of the major fatty acids C16:0, C16:1 ω7c/C16:1 ω6c/C15:0 2OH, C18:1 ω7c/C18:1 ω6c with C14:0 3-OH as hydroxylated fatty acid. Genotypic data and the differentiating biochemical and chemotaxonomic properties showed that strain JM-387(T) represents a novel species of the genus Kosakonia, for which the name Kosakonia pseudosacchari sp. nov. (type strain JM-387(T)=CIP 110597(T)=DSM 27151(T)) is proposed.
Franke-Whittle, Ingrid H; O'Shea, Michael G; Leonard, Graham J; Sly, Lindsay I
Molecular tools for the species-specific detection of Gluconacetobacter sacchari, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, and Gluconacetobacter liquefaciens from the pink sugarcane mealybug (PSMB) Saccharicoccus sacchari Cockerell (Homiptera: Pseudococcidae) were developed and used in polymerase chain reactions (PCR) and in fluorescence in situ hybridizations (FISH) to better understand the microbial diversity and the numerical significance of the acetic acid bacteria in the PSMB microenvironment. The presence of these species in the PSMB occurred over a wide range of sites, but not in all sites in sugarcane-growing areas of Queensland, Australia, and was variable over time. Molecular probes for use in FISH were also designed for the three acetic acid bacterial species, and shown to be specific only for the target species. Use of these probes in FISH of "squashed" whole mealybugs indicated that these acetic acid bacteria species represent only a small proportion of the microbial population of the PSMB. Despite the detection of Glac. sacchari, Glac. diazotrophicus, and Glac. liquefaciens by PCR from different mealybugs isolated at various times and from various sugarcane-growing areas in Queensland, Australia, these bacteria do not appear to be significant commensals in the PSMB environment.
Drummond, J; Pinnock, D E
Fourteen isolates of Aspergillus parasiticus and 2 isolates of Aspergillus flavus isolated from the mealybug Saccharicoccus sacchari were analyzed for production of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in liquid culture over a 20-day period. Twelve Aspergillus isolates including 11 A. parasiticus and 1 A. flavus produced aflatoxins which were extracted from both the mycelium and culture filtrate. Aflatoxin production was detected at day 3 and was detected continually for up to day 20. Aflatoxin B1 production was greatest between 7 and 10 days and significantly higher quantities were produced by A. flavus compared to A. parasiticus. Aflatoxin production was not a stable trait in 1 A. parasiticus isolate passaged 50 times on agar. In addition to loss of aflatoxin production, an associated loss in sporulation ability was also observed in this passaged isolate, although it did maintain pathogenicity against S. sacchari. An aflatoxin B1 concentration of 0.16 micrograms/mealybug (14.2 micrograms/g wet wt) was detected within the tissues of infected mealybugs 7 days after inoculation. In conclusion, the ability of Aspergillus isolates to produce aflatoxins was not essential to the entomopathogenic activity of this fungus against its host S. sacchari.
Ono, Masateru; Takaki, Yoshinari; Takatsuji, Masamitsu; Akiyama, Kousuke; Okawa, Masafumi; Kinjo, Junei; Miyashita, Hiroyuki; Yoshimitsu, Hitoshi; Nohara, Toshihiro
Three new resin glycosides, quamoclins V (1), VI (2), and VII (3) and a new tetrahydropyran derivative, quamopyran (4), were isolated from the seeds of Quamoclit pennata BOJER (Convolvulaceae). The chemical structures of these compounds were determined primarily on the basis of spectroscopic data. The carboxyl group of the aglycone, 11S-convolvulinolic acid, of 1 and 2 was linked intermoleculary with a hydroxy group of the sugar moiety to form a macrocyclic ester structure, as in already known jalapins, and 3 was an acylated glycosidic acid methyl ester. All of the sugar moieties of 1-3 were acylated by one 2S-methylbutyric acid. Compound 4 was a diketone having a tetrahydropyran ring.
Nilsson, M; Renberg, I
Bacteria of the genus Thermoactinomyces form endospores with an extreme longevity in natural habitats. We isolated Thermoactinomyces sacchari from 9,000-year-old varved (annually laminated) sediment; thus, T. sacchari is probably one of the oldest known living organisms. More importantly, we tested and verified the hypothesis that there is a relationship between concentrations of dormant, viable endospores of T. vulgaris in lake sediments and the extent of agriculture in the catchments of the lakes. In surface sediments, low concentrations were recorded in forest lakes and the concentrations increased with increasing areas of cultivated land around the lakes. In varved sediment cores from three lakes, we found a temporal relationship between records of T. vulgaris endospores and the pollen of plants indicating agriculture. Endospores were very rare in sediments deposited before agriculture, ca. 1100 A.D. From then to between 1300 and 1700 A.D., a period with restricted cultivation, low but more regular rates of accumulation of endospores were recorded. High endospore accumulation rates were found with the subsequent agricultural expansion. This investigation confirms suggestions that this bacterium could be used as a paleoindicator for agricultural activity and be complementary to pollen analyses. Viable bacteria in continuous records of lake sediments are also potential material for evolutionary studies. PMID:2202253
Mora, R.; Barahona, A.; Aguilar, H.
This paper presents a method for using high detail volumetric information, captured with a land based photogrammetric survey, to obtain information from individual trees. Applying LIDAR analysis techniques it is possible to measure diameter at breast height, height at first branch (commercial height), basal area and volume of an individual tree. Given this information it is possible to calculate how much of that tree can be exploited as wood. The main objective is to develop a methodology for successfully surveying one individual tree, capturing every side of the stem a using high resolution digital camera and reference marks with GPS coordinates. The process is executed for several individuals of two species present in the metropolitan area in San Jose, Costa Rica, Delonix regia (Bojer) Raf. and Tabebuia rosea (Bertol.) DC., each one with different height, stem shape and crown area. Using a photogrammetry suite all the pictures are aligned, geo-referenced and a dense point cloud is generated with enough detail to perform the required measurements, as well as a solid tridimensional model for volume measurement. This research will open the way to develop a capture methodology with an airborne camera using close range UAVs. An airborne platform will make possible to capture every individual in a forest plantation, furthermore if the analysis techniques applied in this research are automated it will be possible to calculate with high precision the exploit potential of a forest plantation and improve its management.
Brinkmann, C M; Neuman, C; Katouli, M; Kurtböke, D I
Selected overheated substrates commercially available for public use in sub-tropical Queensland, Australia were screened for the presence of Thermoactinomyces species using an air sampler. All substrates with the exception of tea tree mulch were found to contain Thermoactinomyces species. Subsequent 16S rDNA oligonucleotide sequencing of the selected eight isolates indicated that some of these species were closely related to previously reported allergenic Thermoactinomyces vulgaris and Laceyella sacchari. In view of this, the isolates were tested to determine their adhesion ability and cytotoxicity to human lung cells (calu-3 cells). The results indicated that all eight isolates were highly adherent and showed cytotoxicity to this cell line. These findings might indicate that the presence of such species in overheated agricultural materials may constitute a public health risk if storage and handling conditions are not optimal and do not meet criteria defined for sub-tropical climates.
Meng, Qinglong; Zhang, Yanfei; Ma, Chunling; Ma, Hongwu; Zhao, Xueming; Chen, Tao
As 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase (ALAS), the key enzyme for 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) synthesis, is unstable, we have sought to find thermostable ALASs from thermophilic organisms. Three ALASs from thermophiles Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius (GT-ALAS), Laceyella sacchari (LS-ALAS) and Pseudomonas alcaliphila (PA-ALAS) were purified and characterized. All enzymes were more stable than two previously studied ALASs from Rhodopseudomonas palustris and Rhodobacter sphaeroides. There was almost no activity change after 60 h at 37 °C for the three thermostable enzymes. This contrasts with the other two enzymes which lost over 90 % activities in just 1 h. Furthermore, the specific activity of LS-ALAS (7.8 U mg(-1)) was also higher than any previously studied ALASs. Thermostable ALASs were found in thermophilic organisms and this paves the way for developing cell free processes for enzymatic production of ALA from bulk chemicals succinate and glycine.
Babczinski, Peter; Matern, Ulrich; Strobel, Gary A.
A novel compound, serinol phosphate, was identified in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) clone 51NG97. It was produced by an enzyme-mediated transamination of dihydroxyacetone phosphate with either alanine, glutamate, aspartate, or glutamine serving equally well as an amino donor. Some detectable phosphatase activity was present in crude leaf enzyme preparation that hydrolyzed serinol phosphate. A proposal for a pathway of the biosynthesis of serinol in sugarcane was formulated. Serinol can serve as an “activator” of toxin production in attenuated cultures of the sugarcane pathogen Helminthosporium sacchari and it is present in susceptible clone 51NG97. Resistant clone H50-7209 does not possess serinol and likewise no dihydroxyacetone phosphate transaminase activity could be demonstrated in enzyme preparations of this clone. The concept of toxin activation in attenuated fungus cultures is briefly discussed relative to disease resistance and susceptibility. PMID:16660234
Azor, Mónica; Gené, Josepa; Cano, Josep; Manikandan, Palanisamy; Venkatapathy, Narendran; Guarro, Josep
Forty-eight Fusarium isolates morphologically identified as belonging to seven species of clinical interest (i.e., Fusarium chlamydosporum, Fusarium dimerum, Fusarium incarnatum, Fusarium napiforme, Fusarium nygamai, Fusarium proliferatum, and Fusarium sacchari) were characterized molecularly by the analysis of the sequences of the TUB region of the β-tubulin gene. F. chlamydosporum and F. dimerum were the most genetically heterogeneous species. A high degree of correlation between the morphological and molecular identification was shown among the isolates studied. A table with the key morphological features for the identification of these Fusarium species is provided. The antifungal susceptibilities of the Fusarium isolates to 11 antifungal drugs were tested; terbinafine was the most active drug against all the species tested with the exception of F. incarnatum, for which amphotericin B was the most active. PMID:19321723
da Cunha, Keith Cássia; Sutton, Deanna A; Gené, Josepa; Cano, Josep; Capilla, Javier; Madrid, Hugo; Decock, Cony; Wiederhold, Nathan P; Guarro, Josep
The fungal genus Pithomyces comprises numerous dematiaceous saprobic species commonly found on dead leaves and stems of a great variety of plants. Occasionally, they have been recovered from clinical specimens. We morphologically and molecularly (rDNA sequences) investigated a set of 42 isolates tentatively identified as Pithomyces recovered from clinical specimens in the United States. The predominant species were P. chartarum and P. sacchari (33.3% each), followed by Pithomyces sp. I (28.6%) and P. maydicus (4.8%). Most of the isolates were obtained from samples of superficial tissue (50%), the respiratory tract (21.4%), and the nasal region (19%). In general, these fungi were highly susceptible in vitro to the eight antifungal agents tested.
Cesário, M Teresa; Raposo, Rodrigo S; de Almeida, M Catarina M D; van Keulen, Frederik; Ferreira, Bruno S; da Fonseca, M Manuela R
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are bioplastics that can replace conventional petroleum-derived products in various applications. One of the major barriers for their widespread introduction in the market is the higher production costs compared with their petrochemical counterparts. In this work, a process was successfully implemented with high productivity based on wheat straw, a cheap and readily available agricultural residue, as raw material. The strain Burkholderia sacchari DSM 17165 which is able to metabolise glucose, xylose and arabinose, the main sugars present in wheat straw hydrolysates (WSHs), was used. Results in shake flask showed that B. sacchari cells accumulated about 70%gpoly(3-hydroxybutyrate)(P(3HB))/g cell dry weight (CDW) with a yield of polymer on sugars (YP/S) of 0.18g/g when grown on a mixture of commercial C6 and C5 sugars (control), while these values reached about 60%gP(3HB)/g CDW and 0.19g/g, respectively, when WSHs were used as carbon source. In fed-batch cultures carried out in 2L stirred-tank reactors (STRs) on WSH, a maximum polymer concentration of 105 g/L was reached after 61 hours of cultivation corresponding to an accumulation of 72% of CDW. Polymer yield and productivity were 0.22 gP(3HB)/g total sugar consumed and 1.6g/L hour, respectively. The selected feeding strategy successfully overcame the carbon catabolite repression (CCR) phenomenon observed with sugar mixtures containing hexoses and pentoses. This is the first work describing fed-batch cultivations aiming at PHA production using real lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Additionally, the P(3HB) volumetric productivities attained are by far the highest ever achieved on agricultural waste hydrolysates.
Geetha, N; Preseetha, M; Hari, K; Santhalakshmi, G; Bai, K Subadra
In the present study, the interactions of entomopathogenic fungi viz., Beauveria bassiana, Beauveria brongniartii and Metarhizium anisopliae among themselves and three other opportunistic soil fungi from the sugarcane ecosystem namely, Fusarium saachari, Aspergillus sp. and Penecillium sp. were assayed in vivo against Galleria mellonella larvae. The tested fungi were co-applied on IV instar G. mellonella @ 1 x 10(7) ml(-1), in combinations of two, at the interval of 24 hrs either preceding or succeeding each otherto assess their efficacy and sporulation rates. Results showed that often mortality rates did not correspond to the spore harvest of the mortality agent and presence of other fungus may be antagonistic. The efficacy of B. bassiana (90%) and B. brongniartii (100%) was not enhanced further but was negatively affected in most combinations with other fungi. In case of M. anisopliae compatibility was higher, resulting in higher mortality by application of B. bassiana before (100%) or after (83.3%) M. anisopliae than when it was applied alone (70%). During sporulation, B. bassiana faced the most intense competition from M. anisopliae (2.75 x 10(6) larva(-1)) and enhancement due to F sacchari irrespective of sequence of application. In case of B. brongniartii, sporulation was lowest in the combination of B. brongniartiipreceding M. anisopliae (1.83 x10(6) larva(-1)) and B. brongniartii succeeding B. bassiana (1.58 x 10(6) larva(-1)). Of all fungi tested, except F sacchari (65.33 x 10(6) larva(-1)) all the other species affected sporulation of M. ansiopliae with the least in treatment of B. bassiana application following M. anisopliae. Similar kind of interaction was observed during sporulation of soil fungi when combined with entomopathogenic fungi, though individually they could not cause mortality of larvae.
Dagno, K; Lahlali, R; Diourté, M; Jijakli, M H
To determine the effect of water activity (a(w) =0·880-0·960) and temperature (15-35°C) on the percentage of viable conidia and mycelial growth of three biocontrol agents effective against water hyacinth in Mali: Alternaria sp. isolate Mlb684, Fusarium sacchari isolate Mln799 and Cadophora malorum isolate Mln715. The fungi were grown in vitro on plates containing potato dextrose agar medium at different a(w) values (glycerol being added to adjust the a(w)). The percentage of viable conidia and radial growth rate decreased with decreasing water activity. Statistical analysis showed a significant effect of a(w), temperature and the a(w) × temperature interaction on mycelial growth (P<0·0001). Water activity emerged as the factor exerting the greatest influence. Differences were observed between the fungi tested, the C. malorum appearing more tolerant to low a(w) and the F. sacchari more tolerant to high temperature (35°C). Growth models predicting the combined effect of a(w) and temperature were developed and response surfaces generated, showing fairly good agreement with the experimental values. Our results confirm the previous finding that a(w) has a greater influence than temperature on fungal growth. Under most conditions, variation of environmental factors has a detrimental influence on the percentage of viable conidia and mycelial growth rate of fungal isolates. The developed models may contribute to predicting the best environmental conditions for use of these fungi as effective biocontrol agents against water hyacinth. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Ferreira-Tonin, Mariana; Rodrigues-Neto, Júlio; Harakava, Ricardo; Destéfano, Suzete Aparecida Lanza
The rpoB gene was evaluated as an alternative molecular marker for the differentiation of Xanthomonas species and in order to understand better the phylogenetic relationships within the genus. PCR-RFLP experiments using HaeIII allowed differentiation of Xanthomonas species, particularly those that affect the same plant host such as Xanthomonas albilineans and X. sacchari, pathogenic to sugar cane, Xanthomonas cucurbitae and X. melonis, which cause disease in melon, and Xanthomonas gardneri, X. vesicatoria and X. euvesicatoria/X. perforans, pathogenic to tomato. Phylogenetic relationships within the genus Xanthomonas were also examined by comparing partial rpoB gene sequences (612 nt) and the Xanthomonas species were separated into two main groups. Group I, well supported by bootstrap values of 99 %, comprised X. euvesicatoria, X. perforans, X. alfalfae, X. citri, X. dyei, X. axonopodis, X. oryzae, X. hortorum, X. bromi, X. vasicola, X. cynarae, X. gardneri, X. campestris, X. fragariae, X. arboricola, X. cassavae, X. cucurbitae, X. pisi, X. vesicatoria, X. codiaei and X. melonis. Group II, again well supported by bootstrap values of 99 %, comprised X. albilineans, X. sacchari, X. theicola, X. translucens and X. hyacinthi. The rpoB gene sequence similarity observed among the species in this study ranged from 87.8 to 99.7 %. The results of PCR-RFLP of the rpoB gene indicated that this technique can be used for diagnosis and identification of most Xanthomonas strains, including closely related species within the genus. However, species that showed identical profiles could be differentiated clearly only by sequence analysis. The results obtained in our phylogenetic analysis suggested that the rpoB gene can be used as an alternative molecular marker for genetic relatedness in the genus Xanthomonas. The results of PCR-RFLP of the rpoB gene indicate that this technique can be used for diagnosis and identification of closely related species within the genus, representing
Sun, Ji-Quan; Wang, Xin-Ying; Wang, Li-Juan; Xu, Lian; Liu, Min; Wu, Xiao-Lei
A Gram-stain-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacterial strain, designated WLJ055T, with polar and subpolar flagella was isolated from the top layer of desert soil from Erdos, Inner Mongolia, northern China. Phylogenetic analysis, based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, revealed that strain WLJ055T was a member of the genus Saccharibacillus, and shared 97.17-97.24 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with Saccharibacillus sacchari GR21T and Saccharibacillus kuerlensis HR1T. The major polar lipids of strain WLJ055T were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, an unknown aminophospholipid, two unknown glycolipids and an unknown phosphoglycolipid. MK-7 was the predominant menaquinone, while anteiso-C15 : 0, C16 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, and anteiso-C17 : 0 were the major cellular fatty acids. Its genomic DNA G+C content was 55.5 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization revealed that strain WLJ055T showed 45 ± 5 % and 40 ± 5 % genomic DNA relatedness with its two closest relatives, S. sacchari GR21T and S. kuerlensis HR1T, respectively. The results of physiological and biochemical tests allowed the discrimination of strain WLJ055T from its phylogenetic relatives. Saccharibacillus deserti sp. nov. is therefore proposed to be a novel species of the genus Saccharibacillus, with strain WLJ055T ( = CGMCC 1.15276T = KCTC 33693T) as the type strain.
Brum, M C P; Araújo, W L; Maki, C S; Azevedo, J L
We investigated the diversity of endophytic fungi found on grape (Vitis labrusca cv. Niagara Rosada) leaves collected from Salesópolis, SP, Brazil. The fungi were isolated and characterized by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis, followed by sequencing of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA. In addition, the ability of these endophytic fungi to inhibit the grapevine pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp herbemontis was determined in vitro. We also observed that the climatic factors, such as temperature and rainfall, have no effect on the frequency of infection by endophytic fungi. The endophytic fungal community that was identified included Aporospora terricola, Aureobasidium pullulans, Bjerkandera adusta, Colletotrichum boninense, C. gloeosporioides, Diaporthe helianthi, D. phaseolorum, Epicoccum nigrum, Flavodon flavus, Fusarium subglutinans, F. sacchari, Guignardia mangiferae, Lenzites elegans, Paraphaeosphaeria pilleata, Phanerochaete sordida, Phyllosticta sp, Pleurotus nebrodensis, Preussia africana, Tinctoporellus epiniltinus, and Xylaria berteri. Among these isolates, two, C. gloeosporioides and F. flavus, showed potential antagonistic activity against F. oxysporum f. sp herbemontis. We suggest the involvement of the fungal endophyte community of V. labrusca in protecting the host plant against pathogenic Fusarium species. Possibly, some endophytic isolates could be selected for the development of biological control agents for grape fungal disease; alternatively, management strategies could be tailored to increase these beneficial fungi.
Su, Yachun; Yang, Yuting; Peng, Qiong; Zhou, Dinggang; Chen, Yun; Wang, Zhuqing; Xu, Liping; Que, Youxiong
Smut is a fungal disease with widespread prevalence in sugarcane planting areas. Early detection and proper identification of Sporisorium scitamineum are essential in smut management practices. In the present study, four specific primers targeting the core effector Pep1 gene of S. scitamineum were designed. Optimal concentrations of Mg2+, primer and Bst DNA polymerase, the three important components of the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) reaction system, were screened using a single factor experiment method and the L16(45) orthogonal experimental design. Hence, a LAMP system suitable for detection of S. scitamineum was established. High specificity of the LAMP method was confirmed by the assay of S. scitamineum, Fusarium moniliforme, Pestalotia ginkgo, Helminthospcrium sacchari, Fusarium oxysporum and endophytes of Yacheng05-179 and ROC22. The sensitivity of the LAMP method was equal to that of the conventional PCR targeting Pep1 gene and was 100 times higher than that of the conventional PCR assay targeting bE gene in S. scitamineum. The results suggest that this novel LAMP system has strong specificity and high sensitivity. This method not only provides technological support for the epidemic monitoring of sugarcane smut, but also provides a good case for development of similar detection technology for other plant pathogens. PMID:27035751
Sadiq, Faizan A; Li, Yun; Liu, TongJie; Flint, Steve; Zhang, Guohua; He, GuoQing
Aerobic spore forming bacteria are potential milk powder contaminants and are viewed as indicators of poor quality. A total of 738 bacteria, including both mesophilic and thermophilic, isolated from twenty-five powdered milk samples representative of three types of milk powders in China were analyzed based on the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) protocol to provide insight into species diversity. Bacillus licheniformis was found to be the most prevalent bacterium with greatest diversity (~43% of the total isolates) followed by Geobacillus stearothermophilus (~21% of the total isolates). Anoxybacillus flavithermus represented only 8.5% of the total profiles. Interestingly, actinomycetes represented a major group of the isolates with the predominance of Laceyella sacchari followed by Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, altogether comprising of 7.3% of the total isolates. Out of the nineteen separate bacterial species (except five unidentified groups) recovered and identified from milk powders, twelve proved to belong to novel or previously unreported species in milk powders. Assessment and characterization of the harmful effects caused by this particular micro-flora on the quality and safety of milk powders will be worth doing in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Manshor, Nurhazrati; Rosli, Hafizi; Ismail, Nor Azliza; Salleh, Baharuddin; Zakaria, Latiffah
Fusarium is a cosmopolitan and highly diversified genus of saprophytic, phytopathogenic and toxigenic fungi. However, the existence and diversity of a few species of Fusarium are restricted to a certain area or climatic condition. The present study was conducted to determine the occurrence and diversity of Fusarium species in tropical highland areas in Malaysia and to compare with those in temperate and subtropical regions. A series of sampling was carried out in 2005 to 2009 at several tropical highland areas in Malaysia that is: Cameron Highlands, Fraser Hills and Genting Highlands in Pahang; Penang Hill in Penang; Gunung Jerai in Kedah; Kundasang and Kinabalu Park in Sabah; Kubah National Park and Begunan Hill in Sarawak. Sampling was done randomly from various hosts and substrates. Isolation of Fusarium isolates was done by using pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB) agar and 1449 isolates of Fusarium were successfully recovered. Based on morphological characteristics, 20 species of Fusarium were identified. The most prevalent species occurring on the highlands areas was F. solani (66.1%) followed by F. graminearum (8.5%), F. oxysporum (7.8%), F. semitectum (5.7%), F. subglutinans (3.5%) and F. proliferatum (3.4%). Other Fusarium species, namely F. avenaceum, F. camptoceras, F. chlamydosporum, F. compactum, F. crookwellense, F. culmorum, F. decemcellulare, F. equiseti, F. nygamai, F. poae, F. proliferatum, F. sacchari, F. sporotrichioides, F. sterilihyphosum and F. verticillioides accounted for 1% recoveries. The present study was the first report on the occurrences of Fusarium species on highland areas in Malaysia.
Abd Murad, Nur Baiti; Nik Mohamed, Nik Mohd Izham; Shohaimi, Shamarina; Mohd Zainudin, Nur Ain Izzati
The aims of this study are to identify the Fusarium isolates based on translation elongation factor (tef) 1α sequence, to determine the genetic diversity among isolates and species using selected microsatellite markers, and to examine the pathogenicity of Fusarium isolates causing fruit rot disease of banana. One-hundred thirteen microfungi isolates were obtained from fruit rot infected banana in Peninsular Malaysia. However, this study was focused on the dominant number of the discovered microfungi that belongs to the genus Fusarium. There were 48 isolates of the microfungi have been identified belonging to 11 species of Fusarium namely Fusarium incarnatum, Fusarium equiseti, Fusarium camptoceras, Fusarium solani, Fusarium concolor, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium verticillioides, Fusarium sacchari, Fusarium concentricum, and Fusarium fujikuroi. All Fusarium isolates were grouped into their respective clades indicating their similarities and differences in genetic diversity among isolates. Out of 48 Fusarium isolates tested, 42 isolates causing the fruit rot symptom at different levels of severity based on Disease Severity Index (DSI). The most virulent isolate was F. proliferatum B2433B with DSI of 100%. All the isolated Fusarium species were successfully identified with some of them were confirmed as the causal agents of pre- and post-harvest fruit rot in banana across Peninsular Malaysia. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Pieretti, Isabelle; Cociancich, Stéphane; Bolot, Stéphanie; Carrère, Sébastien; Morisset, Alexandre; Rott, Philippe; Royer, Monique
Xanthomonas albilineans is the bacterium responsible for leaf scald, a lethal disease of sugarcane. Within the Xanthomonas genus, X. albilineans exhibits distinctive genomic characteristics including the presence of significant genome erosion, a non-ribosomal peptide synthesis (NRPS) locus involved in albicidin biosynthesis, and a type 3 secretion system (T3SS) of the Salmonella pathogenicity island-1 (SPI-1) family. We sequenced two X. albilineans-like strains isolated from unusual environments, i.e., from dew droplets on sugarcane leaves and from the wild grass Paspalum dilatatum, and compared these genomes sequences with those of two strains of X. albilineans and three of Xanthomonas sacchari. Average nucleotide identity (ANI) and multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) showed that both X. albilineans-like strains belong to a new species close to X. albilineans that we have named “Xanthomonas pseudalbilineans”. X. albilineans and “X. pseudalbilineans” share many genomic features including (i) the lack of genes encoding a hypersensitive response and pathogenicity type 3 secretion system (Hrp-T3SS), and (ii) genome erosion that probably occurred in a common progenitor of both species. Our comparative analyses also revealed specific genomic features that may help X. albilineans interact with sugarcane, e.g., a PglA endoglucanase, three TonB-dependent transporters and a glycogen metabolism gene cluster. Other specific genomic features found in the “X. pseudalbilineans” genome may contribute to its fitness and specific ecological niche. PMID:26213974
Shi, Wen; Tan, Yanglan; Wang, Shuangxia; Gardiner, Donald M.; De Saeger, Sarah; Liao, Yucai; Wang, Cheng; Fan, Yingying; Wang, Zhouping; Wu, Aibo
In this study, twenty of the most common Fusarium species were molecularly characterized and inoculated on potato dextrose agar (PDA), rice and maize medium, where thirty three targeted mycotoxins, which might be the secondary metabolites of the identified fungal species, were detected by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Statistical analysis was performed with principal component analysis (PCA) to characterize the mycotoxin profiles for the twenty fungi, suggesting that these fungi species could be discriminated and divided into three groups as follows. Group I, the fusaric acid producers, were defined into two subgroups, namely subgroup I as producers of fusaric acid and fumonisins, comprising of F. proliferatum, F. verticillioides, F. fujikuroi and F. solani, and subgroup II considered to only produce fusaric acid, including F. temperatum, F. subglutinans, F. musae, F. tricinctum, F. oxysporum, F. equiseti, F. sacchari, F. concentricum, F. andiyazi. Group II, as type A trichothecenes producers, included F. langsethiae, F. sporotrichioides, F. polyphialidicum, while Group III were found to mainly produce type B trichothecenes, comprising of F. culmorum, F. poae, F. meridionale and F. graminearum. A comprehensive picture, which presents the mycotoxin-producing patterns by the selected fungal species in various matrices, is obtained for the first time, and thus from an application point of view, provides key information to explore mycotoxigenic potentials of Fusarium species and forecast the Fusarium infestation/mycotoxins contamination. PMID:28035973
Weber, Carolyn F; King, Gary M
Burkholderia is a physiologically and ecologically diverse genus that occurs commonly in assemblages of soil and rhizosphere bacteria. Although Burkholderia is known for its heterotrophic versatility, we demonstrate that 14 distinct environmental isolates oxidized carbon monoxide (CO) and possessed the gene encoding the catalytic subunit of form I CO dehydrogenase (coxL). DNA from a Burkholderia isolate obtained from a passalid beetle also contained coxL as do the genomic sequences of species H160 and Ch1-1. Isolates were able to consume CO at concentrations ranging from 100 ppm (vol/vol) to sub-ambient (< 60 ppb (vol/vol)). High concentrations of pyruvate inhibited CO uptake (> 2.5 mM), but mixotrophic consumption of CO and pyruvate occurred when initial pyruvate concentrations were lower (c. 400 lM). With the exception of an isolate most closely related to Burkholderia cepacia, all CO-oxidizing isolates examined were members of a nonpathogenic clade and were most closely related to Burkholderia species, B. caledonica, B. fungorum, B. oxiphila, B. mimosarum, B. nodosa, B. sacchari, B. bryophila, B. ferrariae, B. ginsengesoli, and B. unamae. However, none of these type strains oxidized CO or contained coxL based on results from PCR analyses. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the presence of CO oxidation within members of the Burkholderia genus is variable but it is most commonly found among rhizosphere inhabitants that are not closely related to B. cepacia.
Goodfellow, M; Pirouz, T
One hundred and thirty actinomycetes representing 19 genera and 50 species were compared in a numerical phenetic survey using 108 unit characters. Data were examined using the simple matching (SSM), Jaccard (SJ) and pattern (DP) coefficients and clustering was achieved using both the single and unweighted pair group average algorithms. Cluster composition was barely affected by the statistics used or by test error, estimated at 2.1%. Over 80% of the strains were assigned to 2 clusters containing between two and 25 organisms. Most of the clusters were distinct and homogeneous though two were divided into subclusters. Some of the clusters and subclusters were equated with the established taxa Actinomadura madurae, Actinomadura pelletieri, Dermatophilus congolensis, Geodermatophilus obscurus, Microbispora spp., Micromonospora spp., Micropolyspora brevicatena, Micropolyspora faeni, Nocardia spp., Nocardiopsis (Actinomadura) dassonvillei, Planobispora spp., Planomonospora spp., Saccharomonospora viridis, Streptomyces somaliensis, Thermoactinomyces candidus, Thermoactinomyces dichotomica, Thermoactinomyces sacchari, Thermoactinomyces vulgaris and "Thermomonospora fusca'. The numerical data, together with results from previous chemical and genetical studies, provide sufficient evidence for the transfer of Micropolyspora brevicatena to Nocardia as Nocardia brevicatena comb. nov.
Caballero, Alejandro; Ramos-Portilla, Andrea Amalia; Kondo, Takumasa
Herein we describe a new species, Tillancoccus koreguajae Caballero & Ramos, sp. n. (Hemiptera: Coccidae) from Colombia collected on sugarcane. Pinnaspis strachani (Cooley) is also recorded on sugarcane for the first time worldwide. An updated list of seven species of Coccomorpha on sugarcane in Colombia is provided, including information on its distribution, biology, and mutualistic ants for each species. Seven species of scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) have been recorded previously on sugarcane, Saccharum officinarum L. (Poaceae) in Colombia: Pseudococcidae: Dysmicoccus boninsis (Kuwana), D. brevipes (Cockerell), Pseudococcus calceolariae (Maskell), Saccharicoccus sacchari (Cockerell); Coccidae: Pulvinaria elongata Newstead; Diaspididae: Duplachionaspis divergens (Green) and Serenaspis minima (Maskell). However, the record of S. minima in Colombia is considered doubtful as there are no voucher specimens from Colombia and because the distribution of this species is currently limited to the Australasian region. Pseudococcus calceolariae is present in Colombia but its record on sugarcane is also doubtful. A taxonomic key for the identification of scale insects on sugarcane in Colombia is provided.
Manshor, Nurhazrati; Rosli, Hafizi; Ismail, Nor Azliza; Salleh, Baharuddin; Zakaria, Latiffah
Fusarium is a cosmopolitan and highly diversified genus of saprophytic, phytopathogenic and toxigenic fungi. However, the existence and diversity of a few species of Fusarium are restricted to a certain area or climatic condition. The present study was conducted to determine the occurrence and diversity of Fusarium species in tropical highland areas in Malaysia and to compare with those in temperate and subtropical regions. A series of sampling was carried out in 2005 to 2009 at several tropical highland areas in Malaysia that is: Cameron Highlands, Fraser Hills and Genting Highlands in Pahang; Penang Hill in Penang; Gunung Jerai in Kedah; Kundasang and Kinabalu Park in Sabah; Kubah National Park and Begunan Hill in Sarawak. Sampling was done randomly from various hosts and substrates. Isolation of Fusarium isolates was done by using pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB) agar and 1449 isolates of Fusarium were successfully recovered. Based on morphological characteristics, 20 species of Fusarium were identified. The most prevalent species occurring on the highlands areas was F. solani (66.1%) followed by F. graminearum (8.5%), F. oxysporum (7.8%), F. semitectum (5.7%), F. subglutinans (3.5%) and F. proliferatum (3.4%). Other Fusarium species, namely F. avenaceum, F. camptoceras, F. chlamydosporum, F. compactum, F. crookwellense, F. culmorum, F. decemcellulare, F. equiseti, F. nygamai, F. poae, F. proliferatum, F. sacchari, F. sporotrichioides, F. sterilihyphosum and F. verticillioides accounted for 1% recoveries. The present study was the first report on the occurrences of Fusarium species on highland areas in Malaysia. PMID:24575229
Wasukira, Arthur; Coulter, Max; Al-Sowayeh, Noorah; Thwaites, Richard; Paszkiewicz, Konrad; Kubiriba, Jerome; Smith, Julian; Grant, Murray; Studholme, David J
Xanthomonas vasicola pathovar vasculorum (Xvv) is the bacterial agent causing gumming disease in sugarcane. Here, we compare complete genome sequences for five isolates of Xvv originating from sugarcane and one from maize. This identified two distinct types of lipopolysaccharide synthesis gene clusters among Xvv isolates: one is similar to that of Xanthomonas axonopodis pathovar citri (Xac) and is probably the ancestral type, while the other is similar to those of the sugarcane-inhabiting species, Xanthomonas sacchari. Four of six Xvv isolates harboured sequences similar to the Xac plasmid, pXAC47, and showed a distinct Type-IV pilus (T4P) sequence type, whereas the T4P locus of the other two isolates resembled that of the closely related banana pathogen, Xanthomonas campestris pathovar musacearum (Xcm). The Xvv isolate from maize has lost a gene encoding a homologue of the virulence effector, xopAF, which was present in all five of the sugarcane isolates, while xopL contained a premature stop codon in four out of six isolates. These findings shed new light on evolutionary events since the divergence of Xvv and Xcm, as well as further elucidating the relationships between the two closely related pathogens.
Wasukira, Arthur; Coulter, Max; Al-Sowayeh, Noorah; Thwaites, Richard; Paszkiewicz, Konrad; Kubiriba, Jerome; Smith, Julian; Grant, Murray; Studholme, David J.
Xanthomonas vasicola pathovar vasculorum (Xvv) is the bacterial agent causing gumming disease in sugarcane. Here, we compare complete genome sequences for five isolates of Xvv originating from sugarcane and one from maize. This identified two distinct types of lipopolysaccharide synthesis gene clusters among Xvv isolates: one is similar to that of Xanthomonas axonopodis pathovar citri (Xac) and is probably the ancestral type, while the other is similar to those of the sugarcane-inhabiting species, Xanthomonas sacchari. Four of six Xvv isolates harboured sequences similar to the Xac plasmid, pXAC47, and showed a distinct Type-IV pilus (T4P) sequence type, whereas the T4P locus of the other two isolates resembled that of the closely related banana pathogen, Xanthomonas campestris pathovar musacearum (Xcm). The Xvv isolate from maize has lost a gene encoding a homologue of the virulence effector, xopAF, which was present in all five of the sugarcane isolates, while xopL contained a premature stop codon in four out of six isolates. These findings shed new light on evolutionary events since the divergence of Xvv and Xcm, as well as further elucidating the relationships between the two closely related pathogens. PMID:25437615
Abd-Rabou, S; Shalaby, H; Germain, J-F; Ris, N; Kreiter, P; Malausa, T
Pseudococcidae (mealybugs) is a large taxonomic group, including a number of agronomic pests. Taxonomic identification of mealybug species is a recurrent problem and represents a major barrier to the establishment of adequate pest management strategies. We combined molecular analysis of three DNA markers (28S-D2, cytochrome oxidase I and internal transcribed spacer 2) with morphological examination, for the identification of 176 specimens collected from 40 mealybug populations infesting various crops and ornamental plants in Egypt and France. This combination of DNA and morphological analyses led to the identification of 17 species: seven in Egypt (Planococcus citri (Risso), Planococcus ficus (Signoret), Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell), Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, Phenacoccus parvus Morrison and Saccharicoccus sacchari (Cockerell)) and 11 in France (Planococcus citri, Pseudococcus viburni Signoret, Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni-Tozzetti), Pseudococcus comstocki (Kuwana), Rhizoecus amorphophalli Betrem, Trionymus bambusae (Green), Balanococcus diminutus (Leonardi), Phenacoccus madeirensis Green, Planococcus vovae (Nasonov), Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell) and Phenacoccus aceris Signoret), Pl. citri being found in both countries. We also found genetic variation between populations considered to belong to the same species, justifying further investigation of the possible occurrence of complexes of cryptic taxa.
Meng, Qinglong; Zhang, Yanfei; Ju, Xiaozhi; Ma, Chunling; Ma, Hongwu; Chen, Jiuzhou; Zheng, Ping; Sun, Jibin; Zhu, Jun; Ma, Yanhe; Zhao, Xueming; Chen, Tao
5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is the precursor for the biosynthesis of tetrapyrroles and has broad agricultural and medical applications. Currently ALA is mainly produced by chemical synthesis and microbial fermentation. Cell free multi-enzyme catalysis is a promising method for producing high value chemicals. Here we reported our work on developing a cell free process for ALA production using thermostable enzymes. Cheap substrates (succinate and glycine) were used for ALA synthesis by two enzymes: 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase (ALAS) from Laceyella sacchari (LS-ALAS) and succinyl-CoA synthase (Suc) from Escherichia coli. ATP was regenerated by polyphosphate kinase (Ppk) using polyphosphate as the substrate. Succinate was added into the reaction system in a fed-batch mode to avoid its inhibition effect on Suc. After reaction for 160min, ALA concentration was increased to 5.4mM. This is the first reported work on developing the cell free process for ALA production. Through further process and enzyme optimization the cell free process could be an effective and economic way for ALA production.
Perumal, Ramasamy; Nimmakayala, Padmavathi; Erattaimuthu, Saradha R; No, Eun-Gyu; Reddy, Umesh K; Prom, Louis K; Odvody, Gary N; Luster, Douglas G; Magill, Clint W
Background A recent outbreak of sorghum downy mildew in Texas has led to the discovery of both metalaxyl resistance and a new pathotype in the causal organism, Peronosclerospora sorghi. These observations and the difficulty in resolving among phylogenetically related downy mildew pathogens dramatically point out the need for simply scored markers in order to differentiate among isolates and species, and to study the population structure within these obligate oomycetes. Here we present the initial results from the use of a biotin capture method to discover, clone and develop PCR primers that permit the use of simple sequence repeats (microsatellites) to detect differences at the DNA level. Results Among the 55 primers pairs designed from clones from pathotype 3 of P. sorghi, 36 flanked microsatellite loci containing simple repeats, including 28 (55%) with dinucleotide repeats and 6 (11%) with trinucleotide repeats. A total of 22 microsatellites with CA/AC or GT/TG repeats were the most abundant (40%) and GA/AG or CT/TC types contribute 15% in our collection. When used to amplify DNA from 19 isolates from P. sorghi, as well as from 5 related species that cause downy mildew on other hosts, the number of different bands detected for each SSR primer pair using a LI-COR- DNA Analyzer ranged from two to eight. Successful cross-amplification for 12 primer pairs studied in detail using DNA from downy mildews that attack maize (P. maydis & P. philippinensis), sugar cane (P. sacchari), pearl millet (Sclerospora graminicola) and rose (Peronospora sparsa) indicate that the flanking regions are conserved in all these species. A total of 15 SSR amplicons unique to P. philippinensis (one of the potential threats to US maize production) were detected, and these have potential for development of diagnostic tests. A total of 260 alleles were obtained using 54 microsatellites primer combinations, with an average of 4.8 polymorphic markers per SSR across 34 Peronosclerospora
Abdel-Wahab, Ahmed H; Michaud, J P; Bayoumy, Mohamed H; Awadalla, Samir S; El-Gendy, Mohamed
The flight activity of Coleomegilla maculata DeGeer and Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was examined by observing tethered beetles in the laboratory. C. maculata were fed eggs of Ephestia kuehniella Zeller, as were larval H. convergens, whereas adult H. convergens were fed Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner) to induce egg maturation; adults of both species received water and diluted honey. A spot of magnetic paint was applied to one elytrum of each beetle, which then adhered to a small neodymium magnet attached to a thread. Beetles were permitted 1 h flight opportunities daily for 3-d periods, first as virgins on their fifth day of adult life, secondly after mating, thirdly after females began oviposition, and fourthly after prey were withheld and egg maturation and oviposition ceased. Both species exhibited low flight activity as virgins, and whereas C. maculata females increased their activity after mating, H. convergens females did not. Flight activity in C. maculata did not change with onset of oviposition, whereas it increased in H. convergens males, but not females. In contrast, H. convergens females increased their flight activity after cessation of oviposition, whereas C. maculata females did not. Female flight activity when either virgin or mated correlated weakly with fecundity in C. maculata, but not in H. convergens. Species differences are discussed in the context of nutritional ecology; H. convergens usually enters diapause immediately following emergence, and is more dependent on aphids for reproduction, whereas C. maculata develops and reproduces on a wider range of foods and is not so constrained. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Han, Hui; Gao, Shan; Wang, Qi; He, Lin-Yan; Sheng, Xia-Fang
A Gram-stain-positive, strictly aerobic strain, H6T, was isolated from a soil sample of lead-cadmium tailing in Qixia district, Nanjing (China). Cells of the strain are rod-shaped and colonies on LB agar are red. Strain H6T has subpolar and polar flagella and the optimal condition for growth is 30 °C, with 1 % (w/v) NaCl and at pH 7.0. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences, phylogenetic analysis showed that strain H6T was closely related to the genus Saccharibacillus, and the closest relatives were Saccharibacillus deserti WLJ055T (99.0 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Saccharibacillus kuerlensis HR1T (97.0 %) and Saccharibacillus sacchari GR21T (96.4 %). The DNA-DNA relatedness value between strain H6T and S. deserti WLJ055T was 55.0 %. The major polar lipids of strain H6T were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphoglycolipid and three unknown glycolipids. The DNA G+C content was 58.4 mol% and MK-7 was the major isoprenoid quinone. The major fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0 and C16 : 0. meso-Diaminopimelic acid was detected in the peptidoglycan. Based on the phylogenetic, biochemical and chemotaxonomic data, strain H6T represents a novel species of the genus Saccharibacillus, for which the name Saccharibacillus qingshengii sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is H6T (=CCTCC AB 2016001T=JCM 31172T).
Greenberg, David E; Ding, Li; Zelazny, Adrian M; Stock, Frida; Wong, Alexandra; Anderson, Victoria L; Miller, Georgina; Kleiner, David E; Tenorio, Allan R; Brinster, Lauren; Dorward, David W; Murray, Patrick R; Holland, Steven M
Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare inherited disease of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase system causing defective production of toxic oxygen metabolites, impaired bacterial and fungal killing, and recurrent life-threatening infections. We identified a novel gram-negative rod in excised lymph nodes from a patient with CGD. Gram-negative rods grew on charcoal-yeast extract, but conventional tests could not identify it. The best 50 matches of the 16S rRNA (using BLAST) were all members of the family Acetobacteraceae, with the closest match being Gluconobacter sacchari. Patient serum showed specific band recognition in whole lysate immunoblot. We used mouse models of CGD to determine whether this organism was a genuine CGD pathogen. Intraperitoneal injection of gp91phox −/− (X-linked) and p47 phox −/− (autosomal recessive) mice with this bacterium led to larger burdens of organism recovered from knockout compared with wild-type mice. Knockout mouse lymph nodes had histopathology that was similar to that seen in our patient. We recovered organisms with 16S rRNA sequence identical to the patient's original isolate from the infected mice. We identified a novel gram-negative rod from a patient with CGD. To confirm its pathogenicity, we demonstrated specific immune reaction by high titer antibody, showed that it was able to cause similar disease when introduced into CGD, but not wild-type mice, and we recovered the same organism from pathologic lesions in these mice. Therefore, we have fulfilled Koch's postulates for a new pathogen. This is the first reported case of invasive human disease caused by any of the Acetobacteraceae. Polyphasic taxonomic analysis shows this organism to be a new genus and species for which we propose the name Granulobacter bethesdensis. PMID:16617373
Brewer, Michael J; Gordy, John W; Kerns, David L; Woolley, James B; Rooney, William L; Bowling, Robert D
In response to the 2013 outbreak of sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), on sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.), in North America, experiments were conducted at three southern U.S. grain sorghum production locations (Corpus Christi, TX; Winnsboro, LA; Rosenberg, TX). The objectives were to authenticate yield decline on susceptible hybrids (2014 and 2015) and to measure aphid population growth and natural enemy prevalence on susceptible and resistant hybrids with similar genetic background (2014). Yield decline on susceptible hybrids (Tx 2752/Tx430 and DKS53-67) was more substantial when aphid population growth accelerated quickly and peaked above 300 aphids per leaf (50 to nearly 100% yield decline). Location and year variation in maximum aphid density and cumulative aphid-days was high, with doubling time values on the susceptible hybrids ranging between 3.9 and 7.9 d. On resistant Tx2752/Tx2783, leaf injury and yield decline were not seen or less severe than on its paired susceptible Tx2752/Tx430. Aphids declined on Tx2752/Tx2783 after initial colony establishment (Corpus Christi) or took about 60% longer to double in population size when compared with Tx2572/Tx430 (Winnsboro). The predominant natural enemy taxa were aphelinid mummies (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and sryphid flies (Diptera: Syrphidae), and they were more prevalent during flowering than prior to flowering. They were generally responsive to changes in aphid density of both susceptible and resistant hybrids, but variability points to need for further study. In future research, full season observations should continue as well as more detailed study of potential compatibility of sorghum resistance and biological control. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Fan, Feifei; Wang, Lihua; Zhan, Qiuwen; Wu, Peijin; Du, Junli; Yang, Xiaocui; Liu, Yanlong
Cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR) is the first enzyme in the monolignol-specific branch of the lignin biosynthetic pathway. In this research, three sorghum CCR genes including SbCCR1, SbCCR2-1 and SbCCR2-2 were cloned and characterized. Analyses of the structure and phylogeny of the three CCR genes showed evolutionary conservation of the functional domains and divergence of function. Transient expression assays in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves demonstrated that the three CCR proteins were localized in the cytoplasm. The expression analysis showed that the three CCR genes were induced by drought. But in 48 h, the expression levels of SbCCR1 and SbCCR2-2 did not differ between CK and the drought treatment; while the expression level of SbCCR2-1 in the drought treatment was higher than in CK. The expression of the SbCCR1 and SbCCR2-1 genes was not induced by sorghum aphid [Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner)] attack, but SbCCR2-2 was significantly induced by sorghum aphid attack. It is suggested that SbCCR2-2 is involved in the process of pest defense. Absolute quantitative real-time PCR revealed that the three CCR genes were mainly expressed in lignin deposition organs. The gene copy number of SbCCR1 was significantly higher than those of SbCCR2-1 and SbCCR2-2 in the tested tissues, especially in stem. The results provide new insight into the functions of the three CCR genes in sorghum. PMID:27231650
Bayoumy, Mohamed H; Perumal, Ramaswamy; Michaud, J P
Host-plant resistance has been a fundamental component of aphid management in cereal crops. Over decades, various sources of resistance to greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), were bred into cultivars of sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, to counter recurring virulent greenbug biotypes. The recent invasion of sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), raised questions about plant-mediated interactions between the two aphids and the possibility of using greenbug antibiosis against sugarcane aphid. The present work was undertaken to characterize the impact of PI 550610 resistance to 'biotype I' greenbug, expressed in seed parental line KS 116B, on aphid life histories and to observe plant-mediated interactions between aphid species in its presence and absence. At 23°C, sugarcane aphid nymphs matured 1.5 d faster than greenbug nymphs on susceptible hybrid P8500, but at similar rates on the resistant line, which delayed maturity by 1-1.5 d in both species and increased juvenile mortality by three- to fourfold. Sugarcane aphid reproductive rate was double that of greenbug on susceptible sorghum (4.45 vs. 2.30 nymphs per female per day), but not significantly different on the resistant one (3.09 vs. 2.27). Thus, PI 550610 expresses antibiosis, not tolerance, to these aphids. Coinfestation of P8500 had a positive effect on greenbug intrinsic rate of increase (rm), which changed to negative on KS 116B, whereas the rm of sugarcane aphid was unaffected by coinfestation with greenbug on either cultivar. The results indicate that KS 116B will be useful for producing sugarcane aphid-resistant hybrids, and that PI 550610 antibiosis changes the sugarcane aphid-greenbug interspecific relationship from commensalism to amensalism.
Crotti, Elena; Rizzi, Aurora; Chouaia, Bessem; Ricci, Irene; Favia, Guido; Alma, Alberto; Sacchi, Luciano; Bourtzis, Kostas; Mandrioli, Mauro; Cherif, Ameur; Bandi, Claudio; Daffonchio, Daniele
Recent research in microbe-insect symbiosis has shown that acetic acid bacteria (AAB) establish symbiotic relationships with several insects of the orders Diptera, Hymenoptera, Hemiptera, and Homoptera, all relying on sugar-based diets, such as nectars, fruit sugars, or phloem sap. To date, the fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster and Bactrocera oleae, mosquitoes of the genera Anopheles and Aedes, the honey bee Apis mellifera, the leafhopper Scaphoideus titanus, and the mealybug Saccharicoccus sacchari have been found to be associated with the bacterial genera Acetobacter, Gluconacetobacter, Gluconobacter, Asaia, and Saccharibacter and the novel genus Commensalibacter. AAB establish symbiotic associations with the insect midgut, a niche characterized by the availability of diet-derived carbohydrates and oxygen and by an acidic pH, selective factors that support AAB growth. AAB have been shown to actively colonize different insect tissues and organs, such as the epithelia of male and female reproductive organs, the Malpighian tubules, and the salivary glands. This complex topology of the symbiosis indicates that AAB possess the keys for passing through body barriers, allowing them to migrate to different organs of the host. Recently, AAB involvement in the regulation of innate immune system homeostasis of Drosophila has been shown, indicating a functional role in host survival. All of these lines of evidence indicate that AAB can play different roles in insect biology, not being restricted to the feeding habit of the host. The close association of AAB and their insect hosts has been confirmed by the demonstration of multiple modes of transmission between individuals and to their progeny that include vertical and horizontal transmission routes, comprising a venereal one. Taken together, the data indicate that AAB represent novel secondary symbionts of insects. PMID:20851977
Migheli, Quirico; Balmas, Virgilio; Harak, Henry; Sanna, Silvana; Scherm, Barbara; Aoki, Takayuki; O'Donnell, Kerry
Fifty-eight fusaria isolated from 50 Italian patients between 2004 and 2007 were subject to multilocus DNA sequence typing to characterize the spectrum of species and circulating sequence types (STs) associated with dermatological infections, especially onychomycoses and paronychia, and other fusarioses in northern and central Italy. Sequence typing revealed that the isolates were nearly evenly divided among the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC; n = 18), the F. oxysporum species complex (FOSC; n = 20), and the Gibberella (Fusarium) fujikuroi species complex (GFSC; n = 20). The three-locus typing scheme used for members of the FSSC identified 18 novel STs distributed among six phylogenetically distinct species, yielding an index of discrimination of 1.0. Phylogenetic analysis of the FOSC two-locus data set identified nine STs, including four which were novel, and nine isolates of ST 33, the previously described widespread clonal lineage. With the inclusion of eight epidemiologically unrelated ST 33 isolates, the FOSC typing scheme scored a discrimination index of 0.787. The two-locus GFSC typing scheme, which was primarily designed to identify species, received the lowest discrimination index, with a score of 0.492. The GFSC scheme, however, was used to successfully identify 17 isolates as F. verticillioides, 2 as F. sacchari, and 1 as F. guttiforme. This is the first report that F. guttiforme causes a human mycotic infection, which was supported by detailed morphological analysis. In addition, the results of a pathogenicity experiment revealed that the human isolate of F. guttiforme was able to induce fusariosis of pineapple, heretofore its only known host. PMID:20107100
Bowling, Robert D.; Brewer, Michael J.; Kerns, David L.; Gordy, John; Seiter, Nick; Elliott, Norman E.; Buntin, G. David; Way, M. O.; Royer, T. A.; Biles, Stephen; Maxson, Erin
In 2013, the sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), a new invasive pest of sorghum species in North America, was confirmed on sorghum in 4 states and 38 counties in the United States. In 2015, the aphid was reported on sorghum in 17 states and over 400 counties as well as all sorghum-producing regions in Mexico. Ability to overwinter on living annual and perennial hosts in southern sorghum-producing areas and wind-aided movement of alate aphids appear to be the main factors in its impressive geographic spread in North America. Morphological characteristics of the sugarcane aphid include dark tarsi, cornicles, and antennae, allowing easy differentiation from other aphids on the crop. Sugarcane aphid damages sorghum by removing sap and covering plants with honeydew, causing general plant decline and yield loss. Honeydew and sooty mold can disrupt harvesting. The aphid’s high reproductive rate on susceptible sorghum hybrids has resulted in reports of yield loss ranging from 10% to greater than 50%. In response, a combination of research-based data and field observations has supported development of state extension identification, scouting, and treatment guides that aid in initiating insecticide applications to prevent yield losses. Highly efficacious insecticides have been identified and when complemented by weekly scouting and use of thresholds, economic loss by sugarcane aphid can be minimized. Some commercial sorghum hybrids are partially resistant to the aphid, and plant breeders have identified other lines with sugarcane aphid resistance. A very diverse community of predators and parasitoids of sugarcane aphid has been identified, and their value to limit sugarcane aphid population growth is under investigation. PMID:28446991
Elliott, N C; Backoulou, G F; Brewer, M J; Giles, K L
Multispectral remote sensing has potential to provide quick and inexpensive information on sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), pest status in sorghum fields. We describe a study conducted to determine if injury caused by sugarcane aphid to sorghum plants in fields of grain sorghum could be detected using multispectral remote sensing from a fixed wing aircraft. A study was conducted in commercial grain sorghum fields in the Texas Gulf Coast region in June 2014. Twenty-six commercial grain sorghum fields were selected and rated for the level of injury to sorghum plants in the field caused by sugarcane aphid. Plant growth stage ranged from 5.0 (watery ripe) to 7.0 (hard dough) among fields; and plant injury rating from sugarcane aphid ranged from 1.0 (little or no injury) to 4.0 (>40% of plants displaying injury) among fields. The normalized differenced vegetation index (NDVI) is calculated from light reflectance in the red and near-infrared wavelength bands in multispectral imagery and is a common index of plant stress. High NDVI indicates low levels of stress and low NDVI indicates high stress. NDVI ranged from -0.07 to 0.26 among fields. The correlation between NDVI and plant injury rating was negative and significant, as was the correlation between NDVI and plant growth stage. The negative correlation of NDVI with injury rating indicated that plant stress increased with increasing plant injury. Reduced NDVI with increasing plant growth probably resulted from reduced photosynthetic activity in more mature plants. The correlation between plant injury rating and plant growth stage was positive and significant indicating that plant injury from sugarcane aphid increased as plants matured. The partial correlation of NDVI with plant injury rating was negative and significant indicating that NDVI decreased with increasing plant injury after adjusting for its association with plant growth stage. We demonstrated that remotely sensed imagery acquired from grain
Fuentes-Ramírez, L E; Bustillos-Cristales, R; Tapia-Hernández, A; Jiménez-Salgado, T; Wang, E T; Martínez-Romero, E; Caballero-Mellado, J
Diazotrophic bacteria were isolated, in two different years, from the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of coffee (Coffea arabica L.) plants cultivated in Mexico; they were designated as type DOR and type SAd isolates. They showed characteristics of the family Acetobacteraceae, having some features in common with Gluconacetobacter (formerly Acetobacter) diazotrophicus, the only known N2-fixing species of the acetic acid bacteria, but they differed from this species with regard to several characteristics. Type DOR isolates can be differentiated phenotypically from type SAd isolates. Type DOR isolates and type SAd isolates can both be differentiated from Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus by their growth features on culture media, their use of amino acids as nitrogen sources and their carbon-source usage. These results, together with the electrophoretic mobility patterns of metabolic enzymes and amplified rDNA restriction analysis, suggested that the type DOR and type SAd isolates represent two novel N2-fixing species. Comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA sequences revealed that strains CFN-Cf55T (type DOR isolate) and CFN-Ca54T (type SAd isolate) were closer to Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus (both strains had sequence similarities of 98.3%) than to Gluconacetobacter liquefaciens, Gluconacetobacter sacchari (similarities < 98%) or any other acetobacteria. Strain CFN-Cf55T exhibited low levels of DNA-DNA reassociation with type SAd isolates (mean 42%) and strain CFN-Ca54T exhibited mean DNA-DNA reassociation of 39.5% with type DOR isolates. Strains CFN-Cf55T and CFN-Ca54T exhibited very low DNA reassociation levels, 7-21%, with other closely related acetobacterial species. On the basis of these results, two novel N2-fixing species are proposed for the family Acetobacteraceae, Gluconacetobacter johannae sp. nov. (for the type DOR isolates), with strain CFN-Cf55T (= ATCC 700987T = DSM 13595T) as the type strain, and Gluconacetobacter azotocaptans sp. nov. (for the type SAd
Aizawa, Tomoko; Bao Ve, Nguyen; Vijarnsorn, Pisoot; Nakajima, Mutsuyasu; Sunairi, Michio
Two strains of aluminium-tolerant bacteria, SA33(T) and 7A078, were isolated from Chinese water chestnut (Eleocharis dulcis) growing in highly acidic swamps (pH 2-4) in actual acid sulfate soil areas of Vietnam (SA33(T)) and Thailand (7A078). The strains were Gram-negative, aerobic, non-spore-forming rods, 0.6-0.7 mum wide and 1.3-1.7 mum long. These strains showed good growth at pH 3.0-8.0 and 17-37 degrees C. The organisms contained ubiquinone Q-8 as the predominant isoprenoid quinone and C(16 : 0), C(18 : 1) ω 7c and C(17 : 0) cyclo as the major fatty acids. Their fatty acid profiles were similar to those reported for other Burkholderia species. The DNA G+C content of these strains was 64 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, the strains were shown to belong to the genus Burkholderia. Although the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values calculated for strain SA33(T) to 7A078 and the type strains of Burkholderia kururiensis, B. sacchari and B. tuberum were 100, 97.3, 97.1 and 97.0 %, respectively, strains SA33(T) and 7A078 formed a group that was distinct in the phylogenetic trees; the DNA-DNA relatedness of strain SA33(T) to 7A078 and these three type strains were respectively 90, 47, 46 and 45 %. The results of physiological and biochemical tests, including whole-cell protein pattern analysis, allowed phenotypic differentiation of these strains from described Burkholderia species. Therefore, strains SA33(T) and 7A078 represent a novel species, for which the name Burkholderia acidipaludis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SA33(T) (=NBRC 101816(T) =VTCC-D6-6(T)). Strain 7A078 (=NBRC 103872 =BCC 36999) is a reference strain.
genes specific to X. oryzae pv. oryzicola or Xanthomonas sacchari. Conclusions This study revealed the significant potential of the genus Xanthomonas to produce new non-ribosomally synthesized peptides. Interestingly, this biosynthetic potential seems to be specific to strains of Xanthomonas associated with monocotyledonous plants, suggesting a putative involvement of non-ribosomally synthesized peptides in plant-bacteria interactions. PMID:24069909