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Sample records for opportunity costs

  1. Opportunity Cost: A Reexamination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Is opportunity cost an ambiguous and arbitrary concept or a simple, straightforward, and fruitful one? This reexamination of opportunity cost addresses this question, and shows that opportunity cost is an ambiguous concept because "two" definitions are in widespread use. One of the definitions is indeed simple, fruitful, and one that…

  2. Opportunity Cost: A Reply

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The author's objective for this reply in reexamining opportunity cost was to draw attention to two conflicting definitions of the concept in current use and to argue the case for dropping one of them. The comments of Daniel Arce, Rod O'Donnell, and Daniel Stone might be read as demonstration that the author has failed on both counts. Such a…

  3. Complexities in the Examination of Opportunity Cost

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Rod

    2016-01-01

    Rod O'Donnell writes here that there is a wide and deep confusion in contemporary economics about the concept and role of opportunity cost (OC). O'Donnell states that his main grounds for making this claim are the muddled, variable, and sometimes conflicting treatments of OC in modern textbooks; the disturbing empirical results in surveys of both…

  4. Opportunity Cost Neglect Attenuates the Effect of Choices on Preferences.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Adam Eric; Spiller, Stephen A

    2016-01-01

    The idea that choices alter preferences has been widely studied in psychology, yet prior research has focused primarily on choices for which all alternatives were salient at the time of choice. Opportunity costs capture the value of the best forgone alternative and should be considered as part of any decision process, yet people often neglect them. How does the salience of opportunity costs at the time of choice influence subsequent evaluations of chosen and forgone options? In three experiments, we found that there was a larger postchoice spread between evaluations of focal options and opportunity costs when opportunity costs were explicit at the time of choice than when they remained implicit. PMID:26573905

  5. The hidden opportunity cost of time effect on intertemporal choice

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Cui-Xia; Jiang, Cheng-Ming; Zhou, Lei; Li, Shu; Rao, Li-Lin; Zheng, Rui

    2015-01-01

    An interesting phenomenon called “hidden opportunity cost of time effect” was detected in intertemporal choices. The majority of our participants preferred the smaller but sooner (SS) option to the larger but later (LL) option if opportunity cost was explicit. However, a higher proportion of participants preferred the LL to SS option if opportunity cost was hidden. This shift violates the invariance principle and opens a new way to encourage future-oriented behavior. By simply mentioning the “obvious” opportunity cost of alternatives, decision makers can be more informed in prioritizing their long-term goals rather than short-term goals. PMID:25870570

  6. Reducing operating costs through proper specification, purchasing, and contracting: Opportunities for reducing coal costs

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, R.

    1995-09-01

    Opportunities for reducing coal costs through proper fuel specification, purchasing, and contracting are outlined. The following topics are discussed: planning, buying, transportation, and other possibilities for cost reduction.

  7. Opportunity Cost and the Intelligence of Economists: A Comment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arce, Daniel G.

    2016-01-01

    In "Opportunity Cost: A Reexamination," Professor Parkin contrasts forgone physical quantities with forgone values as measures of the opportunity cost of basic economic decisions. The impetus for his study stems from an experiment conducted by Ferraro and Taylor (2005), in which professional economists could not reach a consensus over…

  8. Opportunities and costs for preventing vertebrate extinctions.

    PubMed

    Conde, Dalia A; Colchero, Fernando; Güneralp, Burak; Gusset, Markus; Skolnik, Ben; Parr, Michael; Byers, Onnie; Johnson, Kevin; Young, Glyn; Flesness, Nate; Possingham, Hugh; Fa, John E

    2015-03-16

    Despite an increase in policy and management responses to the global biodiversity crisis, implementation of the 20 Aichi Biodiversity Targets still shows insufficient progress [1]. These targets, strategic goals defined by the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), address major causes of biodiversity loss in part by establishing protected areas (Target 11) and preventing species extinctions (Target 12). To achieve this, increased interventions will be required for a large number of sites and species. The Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) [2], a consortium of conservation-oriented organisations that aims to protect Critically Endangered and Endangered species restricted to single sites, has identified 920 species of mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles, conifers and reef-building corals in 588 'trigger' sites [3]. These are arguably the most irreplaceable category of important biodiversity conservation sites. Protected area coverage of AZE sites is a key indicator of progress towards Target 11 [1]. Moreover, effective conservation of AZE sites is essential to achieve Target 12, as the loss of any of these sites would certainly result in the global extinction of at least one species [2]. However, averting human-induced species extinctions within AZE sites requires enhanced planning tools to increase the chances of success [3]. Here, we assess the potential for ensuring the long-term conservation of AZE vertebrate species (157 mammals, 165 birds, 17 reptiles and 502 amphibians) by calculating a conservation opportunity index (COI) for each species. The COI encompasses a set of measurable indicators that quantify the possibility of achieving successful conservation of a species in its natural habitat (COIh) and by establishing insurance populations in zoos (COIc). PMID:25784036

  9. Opportunities and costs for preventing vertebrate extinctions.

    PubMed

    Conde, Dalia A; Colchero, Fernando; Güneralp, Burak; Gusset, Markus; Skolnik, Ben; Parr, Michael; Byers, Onnie; Johnson, Kevin; Young, Glyn; Flesness, Nate; Possingham, Hugh; Fa, John E

    2015-03-16

    Despite an increase in policy and management responses to the global biodiversity crisis, implementation of the 20 Aichi Biodiversity Targets still shows insufficient progress [1]. These targets, strategic goals defined by the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), address major causes of biodiversity loss in part by establishing protected areas (Target 11) and preventing species extinctions (Target 12). To achieve this, increased interventions will be required for a large number of sites and species. The Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) [2], a consortium of conservation-oriented organisations that aims to protect Critically Endangered and Endangered species restricted to single sites, has identified 920 species of mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles, conifers and reef-building corals in 588 'trigger' sites [3]. These are arguably the most irreplaceable category of important biodiversity conservation sites. Protected area coverage of AZE sites is a key indicator of progress towards Target 11 [1]. Moreover, effective conservation of AZE sites is essential to achieve Target 12, as the loss of any of these sites would certainly result in the global extinction of at least one species [2]. However, averting human-induced species extinctions within AZE sites requires enhanced planning tools to increase the chances of success [3]. Here, we assess the potential for ensuring the long-term conservation of AZE vertebrate species (157 mammals, 165 birds, 17 reptiles and 502 amphibians) by calculating a conservation opportunity index (COI) for each species. The COI encompasses a set of measurable indicators that quantify the possibility of achieving successful conservation of a species in its natural habitat (COIh) and by establishing insurance populations in zoos (COIc).

  10. The opportunity cost of capital: development of new pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Chit, Ayman; Chit, Ahmad; Papadimitropoulos, Manny; Krahn, Murray; Parker, Jayson; Grootendorst, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The opportunity cost of the capital invested in pharmaceutical research and development (R&D) to bring a new drug to market makes up as much as half the total cost. However, the literature on the cost of pharmaceutical R&D is mixed on how, exactly, one should calculate this "hidden" cost. Some authors attempt to adopt models from the field of finance, whereas other prominent authors dismiss this practice as biased, arguing that it artificially inflates the R&D cost to justify higher prices for pharmaceuticals. In this article, we examine the arguments made by both sides of the debate and then explain the cost of capital concept and describe in detail how this value is calculated. Given the significant contribution of the cost of capital to the overall cost of new drug R&D, a clear understanding of the concept is critical for policy makers, investors, and those involved directly in the R&D.

  11. Modeling opportunity costs of conservation in transitional landscapes.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Robin; Adamowicz, Wiktor L

    2006-04-01

    Conservation scientists recognize the urgency of incorporating opportunity costs into conservation planning. Despite this, applications to date have been limited, perhaps partly because of the difficulty in determining costs in regions with limited data on land prices and ownership. We present methods for estimating opportunity costs of land preservation in landscapes or ecoregions that are a changing mix of agriculture and natural habitat. Our approach derives from the literature on estimating land values as opportunity costs of alternate land uses and takes advantage of general availability of necessary data, even in relatively data-poor regions. The methods integrate probabilities of habitat conversion with region-wide estimates of economic benefits from agricultural land uses and estimate land values with a discount rate to convert annual values into net present values. We applied our method in a landscape undergoing agricultural conversion in Paraguay. Our model of opportunity costs predicted an independent data set of land values and was consistent with implicit discount rates of 15-25%. Model-generated land values were strongly correlated with actual land values even after correcting for the effect of property size and proportion of property that was forested. We used the model to produce a map of opportunity costs and to estimate the costs of conserving forest within two proposed corridors in the landscape. This method can be applied to conservation planning in situations where natural habitat is currently being converted to market-oriented land uses. Incorporating not only biological attributes but also socioeconomic data can help in the design of efficient networks of protected areas that represent biodiversity at minimum costs.

  12. Over-Education and Its Opportunity Cost in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucel, Aleksander; Molina, Ivette Fuentes; Raya, Josep Maria

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the determinants of over-education in Japan and evaluate its opportunity costs for university graduates. To this end, we use the REFLEX data. Results reveal that over-education level in Japan is high and it brings an important wage penalty for Japanese workers. Large firm and high occupations point toward a…

  13. An opportunity cost approach to sample size calculation in cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Gafni, A; Walter, S D; Birch, S; Sendi, P

    2008-01-01

    The inclusion of economic evaluations as part of clinical trials has led to concerns about the adequacy of trial sample size to support such analysis. The analytical tool of cost-effectiveness analysis is the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER), which is compared with a threshold value (lambda) as a method to determine the efficiency of a health-care intervention. Accordingly, many of the methods suggested to calculating the sample size requirements for the economic component of clinical trials are based on the properties of the ICER. However, use of the ICER and a threshold value as a basis for determining efficiency has been shown to be inconsistent with the economic concept of opportunity cost. As a result, the validity of the ICER-based approaches to sample size calculations can be challenged. Alternative methods for determining improvements in efficiency have been presented in the literature that does not depend upon ICER values. In this paper, we develop an opportunity cost approach to calculating sample size for economic evaluations alongside clinical trials, and illustrate the approach using a numerical example. We compare the sample size requirement of the opportunity cost method with the ICER threshold method. In general, either method may yield the larger required sample size. However, the opportunity cost approach, although simple to use, has additional data requirements. We believe that the additional data requirements represent a small price to pay for being able to perform an analysis consistent with both concept of opportunity cost and the problem faced by decision makers.

  14. An opportunity cost model of subjective effort and task performance

    PubMed Central

    Kurzban, Robert; Duckworth, Angela; Kable, Joseph W.; Myers, Justus

    2013-01-01

    Why does performing certain tasks cause the aversive experience of mental effort and concomitant deterioration in task performance? One explanation posits a physical resource that is depleted over time. We propose an alternate explanation that centers on mental representations of the costs and benefits associated with task performance. Specifically, certain computational mechanisms, especially those associated with executive function, can be deployed for only a limited number of simultaneous tasks at any given moment. Consequently, the deployment of these computational mechanisms carries an opportunity cost – that is, the next-best use to which these systems might be put. We argue that the phenomenology of effort can be understood as the felt output of these cost/benefit computations. In turn, the subjective experience of effort motivates reduced deployment of these computational mechanisms in the service of the present task. These opportunity cost representations, then, together with other cost/benefit calculations, determine effort expended and, everything else equal, result in performance reductions. In making our case for this position, we review alternate explanations both for the phenomenology of effort associated with these tasks and for performance reductions over time. Likewise, we review the broad range of relevant empirical results from across subdisciplines, especially psychology and neuroscience. We hope that our proposal will help to build links among the diverse fields that have been addressing similar questions from different perspectives, and we emphasize ways in which alternate models might be empirically distinguished. PMID:24304775

  15. Energy efficiency improvement and cost saving opportunities forpetroleum refineries

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

    2005-02-15

    The petroleum refining industry in the United States is the largest in the world, providing inputs to virtually any economic sector,including the transport sector and the chemical industry. The industry operates 146 refineries (as of January 2004) around the country,employing over 65,000 employees. The refining industry produces a mix of products with a total value exceeding $151 billion. Refineries spend typically 50 percent of cash operating costs (i.e., excluding capital costs and depreciation) on energy, making energy a major cost factor and also an important opportunity for cost reduction. Energy use is also a major source of emissions in the refinery industry making energy efficiency improvement an attractive opportunity to reduce emissions and operating costs. Voluntary government programs aim to assist industry to improve competitiveness through increased energy efficiency and reduced environmental impact. ENERGY STAR (R), a voluntary program managed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, stresses the need for strong and strategic corporate energy management programs. ENERGY STAR provides energy management tools and strategies for successful corporate energy management programs. This Energy Guide describes research conducted to support ENERGY STAR and its work with the petroleum refining industry.This research provides information on potential energy efficiency opportunities for petroleum refineries. This Energy Guide introduces energy efficiency opportunities available for petroleum refineries. It begins with descriptions of the trends, structure, and production of the refining industry and the energy used in the refining and conversion processes. Specific energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies of plants and references to technical literature are provided. If available, typical payback periods are also listed. The Energy Guide draws upon the experiences with energy efficiency measures of petroleum refineries worldwide

  16. Potential Cost-Effective Opportunities for Methane Emission Abatement

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, Ethan; Steinberg, Daniel; Hodson, Elke; Heath, Garvin

    2015-08-01

    The energy sector was responsible for approximately 84% of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the U.S. in 2012 (EPA 2014a). Methane is the second most important GHG, contributing 9% of total U.S. CO2e emissions. A large portion of those methane emissions result from energy production and use; the natural gas, coal, and oil industries produce approximately 39% of anthropogenic methane emissions in the U.S. As a result, fossil-fuel systems have been consistently identified as high priority sectors to contribute to U.S. GHG reduction goals (White House 2015). Only two studies have recently attempted to quantify the abatement potential and cost associated with the breadth of opportunities to reduce GHG emissions within natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains in the United States, namely the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2013a) and ICF (2014). EPA, in its 2013 analysis, estimated the marginal cost of abatement for non-CO2 GHG emissions from the natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains for multiple regions globally, including the United States. Building on this work, ICF International (ICF) (2014) provided an update and re-analysis of the potential opportunities in U.S. natural gas and oil systems. In this report we synthesize these previously published estimates as well as incorporate additional data provided by ICF to provide a comprehensive national analysis of methane abatement opportunities and their associated costs across the natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains. Results are presented as a suite of marginal abatement cost curves (MACCs), which depict the total potential and cost of reducing emissions through different abatement measures. We report results by sector (natural gas, oil, and coal) and by supply chain segment - production, gathering and boosting, processing, transmission and storage, or distribution - to facilitate identification of which sectors and supply chain

  17. The opt-in program: Creating opportunities for cost savings

    SciTech Connect

    Klinger, A.

    1995-12-31

    The final regulation implementing the opt-in program for combustion sources will be published within the next month. This regulation will allow combustion sources (i.e., non-affected boilers, turbines, and internal combustion engines) the opportunity to enter the Acid Rain Program on a voluntary basis. Although anyone can buy and sell allowances, opt-in sources will receive their own allowance allocation and profit from the sale of excess allowances. Excess allowances can only be generated, though, through emission reductions at the opt-in source. This presentation provides an overview of the opt-in program and focuses on the program`s motivation to lower the cost of acid rain control. The opt-in program will not reduce emissions in the aggregate, but instead offers incentives for emissions reductions at non-affected sources. By creating excess allowances, an opt-in source has a means for recouping the market value of those reductions through Acid Rain allowances. Lower cost opportunities for reducing sulfur dioxide at opt-in sources can, through allowance trading, reduce the costs of compliance for affected utility units.

  18. Opportunity Cost of Surgical Management of Craniomaxillofacial Trauma.

    PubMed

    Moses, Helen; Powers, David; Keeler, Jarrod; Erdmann, Detlev; Marcus, Jeff; Puscas, Liana; Woodard, Charles

    2016-03-01

    The provision of trauma care is a financial burden, continually associated with low reimbursement, and shifts the economic burden to major trauma centers and providers. Meanwhile, the volume of craniomaxillofacial (CMF) trauma and the number of surgically managed facial fractures are unchanged. Past financial analyses of cost and reimbursement for facial trauma are limited to mandibular and midface injuries, consistently revealing low reimbursement. The incurred financial burden also coincides with the changing landscape of health insurance. The goal of this study is to determine the opportunity cost of operative management of facial trauma at our institution. From our CMF database of greater than 3,000 facial fractures, the physician charges, collections, and relative value units (RVUs) for CMF trauma per year from 2007 to 2013 were compared with a general plastic surgery and otolaryngology population undergoing operative management during this same period. Collection rates were analyzed to assess if a significant difference exists between reimbursement for CMF and non-CMF cases. Results revealed a significant difference between the professional collection rate for operative CMF trauma and that for other operative procedures (17.25 vs. 29.61%, respectively; p < 0.0001). The average number of RVUs billed per provider for CMF trauma declines significantly, from greater than 700 RVUs to 300 over the study period, despite a stable volume. Surgical management of CMF trauma generates an unfavorable financial environment. The large opportunity cost associated with offering this service is a potential threat to the sustainability of providing care for this population.

  19. Opportunity costs associated with caring for older Mexican-Americans

    PubMed Central

    Brown, H. Shelton; Herrera, Angelica P.; Angel, Jacqueline L.

    2013-01-01

    Long-term care use among older Mexican-Americans is poorly understood, despite the adverse effects on health and economic disadvantage in this vulnerable population. This study examines gender-based risk of long-term care use in 628 women and 391 men, age 70 and over in the 2000-01 and 2004-05 waves of the Hispanic Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly. Logistic regression models are employed to assess the impact of the opportunity cost implications of family support (kin availability and co-residence) relative to health care needs (quality-adjusted life years (QALY) weighted scores and functional limitations) on women's risk of entry into a nursing home. A small percentage (∼5%) of men and women had entered a long-term care facility. Women had lower weights for QALY weights and greater disability than men, but on average were more likely to live with or in closer proximity to an adult child. Higher disability rates (p < .01) increased the risk of institutionalization regardless of gender because disability increases time burdens. Families with fewer adult children faced higher time burdens per child in caring for elderly parents; particularly for elderly mothers. Demographic trends suggest that the number of adult children available to share the caregiving load may decrease long-term care use. PMID:23979263

  20. Valuing human leptospirosis prevention using the opportunity cost of labor.

    PubMed

    Arbiol, Joseph; Borja, Maridel; Yabe, Mitsuyasu; Nomura, Hisako; Gloriani, Nina; Yoshida, Shin-ichi

    2013-05-01

    Leptospirosis is a serious public health concern in the Philippines, not only because of its increasing incidence rate, but also because of its significant health and economic impacts. Despite its relatively high seroprevalence, knowledge on the economic burden of disease, particularly on the value that the society places on disease prevention remains limited. Obtaining such information is important within the context of public health policy. This study was conducted in Metro Manila to determine the economic burden of leptospirosis, by asking respondents about their willingness to contribute to labor (WTCL) for the prevention of leptospirosis. The respondents pledged an average labor contribution of 10.66 h/month. The average WTCL corresponded to a monetary value of US$4.01 per month when valued using the opportunity cost of labor (leisure rate of time). From the monetized labor contribution, the total economic value of preventing leptospirosis was estimated at US$124.97 million per annum, which represents 1.13% of Metro Manila's gross domestic product (GDP). Estimates from a Tobit regression model identified the respondents' knowledge regarding leptospirosis, the susceptibility of their homes to flooding, and the proximity of their homes to sewers as significant factors to consider when developing resource contribution programs for leptospirosis prevention. More efforts need to be made in developing community level preventive programs, and in improving public's knowledge and awareness about leptospirosis. PMID:23644831

  1. Opportunity costs associated with caring for older Mexican-Americans.

    PubMed

    Brown, H Shelton; Herrera, Angelica P; Angel, Jacqueline L

    2013-09-01

    Long-term care use among older Mexican-Americans is poorly understood, despite the adverse effects on health and economic disadvantage in this vulnerable population. This study examines gender-based risk of long-term care use in 628 women and 391 men, age 70 and over in the 2000-2001 and 2004-2005 waves of the Hispanic Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly. Logistic regression models are employed to assess the impact of the opportunity cost implications of family support (kin availability and co-residence) relative to health care needs (quality-adjusted life years (QALY) weighted scores and functional limitations) on women's risk of entry into a nursing home. A small percentage (~5%) of men and women had entered a long-term care facility. Women had lower weights for QALY weights and greater disability than men, but on average were more likely to live with or in closer proximity to an adult child. Higher disability rates (p < 0.01) increased the risk of institutionalization regardless of gender because disability increases time burdens. Families with fewer adult children faced higher time burdens per child in caring for elderly parents; particularly for elderly mothers. Demographic trends suggest that the number of adult children available to share the caregiving load may decrease long-term care use. PMID:23979263

  2. Valuing Human Leptospirosis Prevention Using the Opportunity Cost of Labor

    PubMed Central

    Arbiol, Joseph; Borja, Maridel; Yabe, Mitsuyasu; Nomura, Hisako; Gloriani, Nina; Yoshida, Shinichi

    2013-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a serious public health concern in the Philippines, not only because of its increasing incidence rate, but also because of its significant health and economic impacts. Despite its relatively high seroprevalence, knowledge on the economic burden of disease, particularly on the value that the society places on disease prevention remains limited. Obtaining such information is important within the context of public health policy. This study was conducted in Metro Manila to determine the economic burden of leptospirosis, by asking respondents about their willingness to contribute to labor (WTCL) for the prevention of leptospirosis. The respondents pledged an average labor contribution of 10.66 h/month. The average WTCL corresponded to a monetary value of US$4.01 per month when valued using the opportunity cost of labor (leisure rate of time). From the monetized labor contribution, the total economic value of preventing leptospirosis was estimated at US$124.97 million per annum, which represents 1.13% of Metro Manila’s gross domestic product (GDP). Estimates from a Tobit regression model identified the respondents’ knowledge regarding leptospirosis, the susceptibility of their homes to flooding, and the proximity of their homes to sewers as significant factors to consider when developing resource contribution programs for leptospirosis prevention. More efforts need to be made in developing community level preventive programs, and in improving public’s knowledge and awareness about leptospirosis. PMID:23644831

  3. The Influence of School Factors on Racial Opportunity Cost for High-Achieving Students of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venzant Chambers, Terah T.; Huggins, Kristin Shawn

    2014-01-01

    Previous work on racial opportunity cost--that is, the price that students of color pay in their pursuit of academic success--is extended here using organizational culture literature to more closely explore the interplay of school culture with the racial opportunity cost experienced by the study participants. Eighteen African American and Latina/o…

  4. Employment trends of young mothers and the opportunity cost of babies in the United States.

    PubMed

    Cramer, J C

    1979-05-01

    The central concept of microeconomic theories of fertility is opportunity cost--the product of wife's employment lost due to childbearing and the value of her employment. This paper presents a model for analyzing opportunity cost using panel data. The average loss of employment attributable to a second- or higher-order birth, calculated at around age 2, is over 400 hours per year. This time cost represents an income loss of about $1050 in 1969 dollars. Time cost is independent of such demographic factors as birth order and age of oldest sibling. Neither does time cost depend on husband's wage rate or wife's education or potential wage rate. This indicates that many microeconomic models of fertility have been seriously misspecified. The paper also compares results from static and dynamic models, explores possible problems due to simultaneity bias, investigates the relationship between changes in employment (including time cost) and initial employment level, and identifies the difficulties of theorizing about opportunity cost.

  5. Opportunity Cost for Early Treatment of Chagas Disease in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Janine M.; Elizondo-Cano, Miguel; Sanchez-González, Gilberto; Peña-Nieves, Adriana; Figueroa-Lara, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Background Given current neglect for Chagas disease in public health programs in Mexico, future healthcare and economic development policies will need a more robust model to analyze costs and impacts of timely clinical attention of infected populations. Methodology/Principal Findings A Markov decision model was constructed to simulate the natural history of a Chagas disease cohort in Mexico and to project the associated short and long-term clinical outcomes and corresponding costs. The lifetime cost for a timely diagnosed and treated Chagas disease patient is US$ 10,160, while the cost for an undiagnosed individual is US$ 11,877. The cost of a diagnosed and treated case increases 24-fold from early acute to indeterminate stage. The major cost component for lifetime cost was working days lost, between 44% and 75%, depending on the program scenario for timely diagnosis and treatment. Conclusions/Significance In the long term, it is cheaper to diagnose and treat chagasic patients early, instead of doing nothing. This finding by itself argues for the need to shift current policy, in order to prioritize and attend this neglected disease for the benefit of social and economic development, which implies including treatment drugs in the national formularies. Present results are even more relevant, if one considers that timely diagnosis and treatment can arrest clinical progression and enhance a chronic patient's quality of life. PMID:24743112

  6. Political economy of marine reserves: Understanding the role of opportunity costs

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Martin D.; Lynham, John; Sanchirico, James N.; Wilson, James A.

    2010-01-01

    The creation of marine reserves is often controversial. For decisionmakers, trying to find compromises, an understanding of the timing, magnitude, and incidence of the costs of a reserve is critical. Understanding the costs, in turn, requires consideration of not just the direct financial costs but also the opportunity costs associated with reserves. We use a discrete choice model of commercial fishermen’s behavior to examine both the short-run and long-run opportunity costs of marine reserves. Our results can help policymakers recognize the factors influencing commercial fishermen’s responses to reserve proposals. More generally, we highlight the potential drivers behind the political economy of marine reserves. PMID:20133732

  7. Cooperative vehicle routing problem: an opportunity for cost saving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zibaei, Sedighe; Hafezalkotob, Ashkan; Ghashami, Seyed Sajad

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, a novel methodology is proposed to solve a cooperative multi-depot vehicle routing problem. We establish a mathematical model for multi-owner VRP in which each owner (i.e. player) manages single or multiple depots. The basic idea consists of offering an option that owners cooperatively manage the VRP to save their costs. We present cooperative game theory techniques for cost saving allocations which are obtained from various coalitions of owners. The methodology is illustrated with a numerical example in which different coalitions of the players are evaluated along with the results of cooperation and cost saving allocation methods.

  8. Estimating the Costs of Torture: Challenges and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Mpinga, Emmanuel Kabengele; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Hasselgård-Rowe, Jennifer; Tshimungu Kandolo, Félicien; Verloo, Henk; Bukonda, Ngoyi K Zacharie; Chastonay, Philippe

    2015-12-01

    Due to its nature, extent and consequences, torture is considered a major public health problem and a serious violation of human rights. Our study aims to set the foundation for a theoretical framework of the costs related to torture. It examines existing challenges and proposes some solutions. Our proposed framework targets policy makers, human rights activists, professionals working in programmes, centres and rehabilitation projects, judges and lawyers, survivors of torture and their families and anyone involved in the prevention and fight against this practice and its consequences. We adopted a methodology previously used in studies investigating the challenges in measuring and valuing productivity costs in health disorders. We identify and discuss conceptual, methodological, political and ethical challenges that studies on the economic and social costs of torture pose and propose alternatives in terms of possible solutions to these challenges. The economic dimension of torture is rarely debated and integrated in research, policies and programmes. Several challenges such as epistemological, methodological, ethical or political ones have often been presented as obstacles to cost studies of torture and as an excuse for not investigating this dimension. In identifying, analysing and proposing solutions to these challenges, we intend to stimulate the integration of the economic dimension in research and prevention of torture strategies. PMID:26385586

  9. Estimating the Costs of Torture: Challenges and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Mpinga, Emmanuel Kabengele; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Hasselgård-Rowe, Jennifer; Tshimungu Kandolo, Félicien; Verloo, Henk; Bukonda, Ngoyi K Zacharie; Chastonay, Philippe

    2015-12-01

    Due to its nature, extent and consequences, torture is considered a major public health problem and a serious violation of human rights. Our study aims to set the foundation for a theoretical framework of the costs related to torture. It examines existing challenges and proposes some solutions. Our proposed framework targets policy makers, human rights activists, professionals working in programmes, centres and rehabilitation projects, judges and lawyers, survivors of torture and their families and anyone involved in the prevention and fight against this practice and its consequences. We adopted a methodology previously used in studies investigating the challenges in measuring and valuing productivity costs in health disorders. We identify and discuss conceptual, methodological, political and ethical challenges that studies on the economic and social costs of torture pose and propose alternatives in terms of possible solutions to these challenges. The economic dimension of torture is rarely debated and integrated in research, policies and programmes. Several challenges such as epistemological, methodological, ethical or political ones have often been presented as obstacles to cost studies of torture and as an excuse for not investigating this dimension. In identifying, analysing and proposing solutions to these challenges, we intend to stimulate the integration of the economic dimension in research and prevention of torture strategies.

  10. The cost of poor quality: an opportunity of enormous proportions.

    PubMed

    Hughes, J M

    1998-01-01

    In all organizations, the state of finance is routinely reported in sublime detail for study and action. And yet, anywhere from 20 to 50 percent of the monies involved in that report are never identified as unnecessary and nonproductive. These monies, referred to as the Cost of Waste (COW), are the result of actions that have been taken or must be taken because quality is not served--inappropriate actions are being performed or appropriate actions are not being performed right the first time, every time. Proactively determining, reporting, and monitoring the COW brings a degree of objectivity to the quality management process and provides a powerful internal driver for performance improvement. A 10 step Cost of Waste system is proposed.

  11. Using Linked Electronic Health Records to Estimate Healthcare Costs: Key Challenges and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Asaria, Miqdad; Grasic, Katja; Walker, Simon

    2016-02-01

    This paper discusses key challenges and opportunities that arise when using linked electronic health records (EHR) in health economics and outcomes research (HEOR), with a particular focus on estimating healthcare costs. These challenges and opportunities are framed in the context of a case study modelling the costs of stable coronary artery disease in England. The challenges and opportunities discussed fall broadly into the categories of (1) handling and organising data of this size and sensitivity; (2) extracting clinical endpoints from datasets that have not been designed and collected with such endpoints in mind; and (3) the principles and practice of costing resource use from routinely collected data. We find that there are a number of new challenges and opportunities that arise when working with EHR compared with more traditional sources of data for HEOR. These call for greater clinician involvement and intelligent use of sensitivity analysis. PMID:26645571

  12. Mating opportunities in Sangalopsis veliterna females: Costs and benefits.

    PubMed

    Hernández Duran, Linda C; Fajardo Medina, Gonzalo E; Fuentes Quinter, Luz S; Martin, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    In nature, females of several animal taxa exhibit considerable variation in their mating system, and this variation involves different balances of costs (e.g., energetic, reproductive) and benefits (e.g., increased net reproductive rate of the female, increased longevity). Many studies have focused on discovering the potential advantages and disadvantages that females could have when increasing their mating rate and the possible evolutionary consequences that may result. Butterflies and moths are an ideal study system because it is easy to determine and to manipulate experimentally their mating frequency. In this study, the effect of continuous availability of different numbers of males (1, 2, 4, 8) on female mating rate and fitness components was estimated by comparing the number of spermatophores in the corpus bursa (an estimate of the number of copulations, but not of the number males involved in these copulations), female longevity, lifetime number of laid eggs (fecundity), and proportion of hatching eggs (fertility) in the moth Sangalopsis veliterna Druce (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). The results showed that there were no significant differences in either fertility or fecundity when treatments were compared, but longevity and in some cases fecundity increased when females had several matings. PMID:25368058

  13. Mating Opportunities in Sangalopsis veliterna Females: Costs and Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Duran, Linda C. Hernández; Quintero, Luz S. Fuentes

    2014-01-01

    In nature, females of several animal taxa exhibit considerable variation in their mating system, and this variation involves different balances of costs (e.g., energetic, reproductive) and benefits (e.g., increased net reproductive rate of the female, increased longevity). Many studies have focused on discovering the potential advantages and disadvantages that females could have when increasing their mating rate and the possible evolutionary consequences that may result. Butterflies and moths are an ideal study system because it is easy to determine and to manipulate experimentally their mating frequency. In this study, the effect of continuous availability of different numbers of males (1, 2, 4, 8) on female mating rate and fitness components was estimated by comparing the number of spermatophores in the corpus bursa (an estimate of the number of copulations, but not of the number males involved in these copulations), female longevity, lifetime number of laid eggs (fecundity), and proportion of hatching eggs (fertility) in the moth Sangalopsis veliterna Druce (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). The results showed that there were no significant differences in either fertility or fecundity when treatments were compared, but longevity and in some cases fecundity increased when females had several matings. PMID:25205137

  14. National HRD and Investment in Human Capital: Opportunity Costs of U.S. Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornachione, Edgard; Daugherty, Jenny

    2008-01-01

    This study explores opportunity costs of postsecondary education in the U.S. in the past three decades. Based on human capital theory, data from the U.S. Census, along with parameters for high education achievement (involving bachelors and advanced degrees), were fed into a forecasting model developed for this purpose. Beyond descriptive…

  15. "That "Fuego," That Fire in Their Stomach": Academically Successful Latinas/os and "Racial Opportunity Cost"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venzant Chambers, Terah T.; Locke, Leslie A.; Tagarao, Annel M.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the racial opportunity cost of academic achievement for Latina/o students who graduated from urban high schools and participated in a larger study of 18 high-achieving students of color. The article focuses on the ways the school context influenced their success. Interviews with the seven Latina/o participants reveal that…

  16. Comments on "Opportunity Cost: A Reexamination": A Case in Point of No Free Lunch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Daniel F.

    2016-01-01

    Ferraro and Taylor (2005) and Potter and Sanders (2012) have sparked a debate about the definition of opportunity cost (OC). This is, of course, ostensibly a very basic term, but Ferraro and Taylor said that most economists do not readily know its correct definition, and Potter and Sanders argued that this can be explained by the fact that there…

  17. Opportunity Analysis and Selection: 50 or More Ways To Reduce Costs. Mendip Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kedney, Bob; Davies, Trefor

    This paper discusses activity analysis and the identification of options as the first two stages of a structured approach to achieving budget savings at postsecondary institutions, focusing on schools and practices in the United Kingdom. It presents five checklists of opportunities for reducing spending and controlling costs. The checklists cover:…

  18. The Race to Refinance Debt: Market Offers Opportunities to Reduce Interest Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPont, Lorrie A.

    1992-01-01

    In this interest market, colleges and universities could benefit from careful evaluation of debt portfolios. Refinancing debt is an opportunity to lower debt service costs, ease cash flow, change security pledges, eliminate debt service reserves, update bond documents. Timing is important. Existing and new bonds can also be combined…

  19. Crowdsourcing healthcare costs: Opportunities and challenges for patient centered price transparency.

    PubMed

    Meisel, Zachary F; VonHoltz, Lauren A Houdek; Merchant, Raina M

    2016-03-01

    Efforts to improve health care price transparency have garnered significant attention from patients, policy makers, and health insurers. In response to increasing consumer demand, state governments, insurance plans, and health care providers are reporting health care prices. However, such data often do not provide consumers with the most salient information: their own actual out-of-pocket cost for medical care. Although untested, crowdsourcing, a mechanism for the public to help answer complex questions, represents a potential solution to the problem of opaque hospital costs. This article explores, the challenges and potential opportunities for crowdsourcing out-of-pocket costs for healthcare consumers. PMID:27001090

  20. Using time-driven activity-based costing to identify value improvement opportunities in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Robert S; Witkowski, Mary; Abbott, Megan; Guzman, Alexis Barboza; Higgins, Laurence D; Meara, John G; Padden, Erin; Shah, Apurva S; Waters, Peter; Weidemeier, Marco; Wertheimer, Sam; Feeley, Thomas W

    2014-01-01

    As healthcare providers cope with pricing pressures and increased accountability for performance, they should be rededicating themselves to improving the value they deliver to their patients: better outcomes and lower costs. Time-driven activity-based costing offers the potential for clinicians to redesign their care processes toward that end. This costing approach, however, is new to healthcare and has not yet been systematically implemented and evaluated. This article describes early time-driven activity-based costing work at several leading healthcare organizations in the United States and Europe. It identifies the opportunities they found to improve value for patients and demonstrates how this costing method can serve as the foundation for new bundled payment reimbursement approaches. PMID:25647962

  1. Using time-driven activity-based costing to identify value improvement opportunities in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Robert S; Witkowski, Mary; Abbott, Megan; Guzman, Alexis Barboza; Higgins, Laurence D; Meara, John G; Padden, Erin; Shah, Apurva S; Waters, Peter; Weidemeier, Marco; Wertheimer, Sam; Feeley, Thomas W

    2014-01-01

    As healthcare providers cope with pricing pressures and increased accountability for performance, they should be rededicating themselves to improving the value they deliver to their patients: better outcomes and lower costs. Time-driven activity-based costing offers the potential for clinicians to redesign their care processes toward that end. This costing approach, however, is new to healthcare and has not yet been systematically implemented and evaluated. This article describes early time-driven activity-based costing work at several leading healthcare organizations in the United States and Europe. It identifies the opportunities they found to improve value for patients and demonstrates how this costing method can serve as the foundation for new bundled payment reimbursement approaches.

  2. Identifying Cost-Effective Residential Energy Efficiency Opportunities for the Kauai Island Utility Cooperative

    SciTech Connect

    Busche, S.; Hockett, S.

    2010-06-01

    This analysis is an update to the 2005 Energy Efficiency Potential Study completed by KEMA for the Kauai Island Utility Cooperative (KIUC) and identifies potential energy efficiency opportunities in the residential sector on Kauai (KEMA 2005). The Total Resource Cost (TRC) test is used to determine which of the energy efficiency measures analyzed in the KEMA report are cost effective for KIUC to include in a residential energy efficiency program. This report finds that there remains potential energy efficiency savings that could be cost-effectively incentivized through a utility residential demand-side management program on Kauai if implemented in such a way that the program costs per measure are consistent with the current residential program costs.

  3. Opportunities for Reducing Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) compliance costs: lessons from the Chesapeake Bay.

    PubMed

    Wainger, Lisa A

    2012-09-01

    The Chesapeake Bay Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) program is an unprecedented opportunity to restore the Chesapeake Bay, yet program costs threaten to undermine its complete implementation. Analyses of Bay TMDL program design and implementation were used to relate program cost-effectiveness to choices in (1) compliance definitions, (2) geographic load allocations, and (3) approaches to engaging unregulated sources. A key finding was that many design choices require choosing an acceptable level of risk of achieving water quality outcomes, and a lack of data can lead to precautionary choices, which increase compliance costs. Furthermore, although some choices managed costs, others decisions may have reduced the potential for cost savings from water quality trading and payment programs. In particular, the choice by some states to distribute the portion of load reductions that improve water quality in the Bay mainstem to many small basins is likely to diminish the potential for market development or reduce funding for the most cost-effective nutrient and sediment reduction practices. Strategies for reducing costs of future TMDLs include considering diminishing marginal returns early in the TMDL design to balance costs and risks in regulatory goal setting and to design rules and incentives that promote innovation and cost-effective compliance strategies.

  4. The Effect of Tuition and Opportunity Cost on the Pursuit and Completion of a Graduate Management Degree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Mark; Powell, Irene

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors used multivariate statistical analysis to examine the impact of cost on the likelihood that a person will both enroll in and complete a Master of Business Administration (MBA) program. They considered both the "explicit" cost of paying tuition and the "implicit" cost, or opportunity cost, of earnings foregone while in…

  5. Opportunities and challenges for implementing cost accounting systems in the Kenyan health system

    PubMed Central

    Kihuba, Elesban; Gheorghe, Adrian; Bozzani, Fiammetta; English, Mike; Griffiths, Ulla K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Low- and middle-income countries need to sustain efficiency and equity in health financing on their way to universal health care coverage. However, systems meant to generate quality economic information are often deficient in such settings. We assessed the feasibility of streamlining cost accounting systems within the Kenyan health sector to illustrate the pragmatic challenges and opportunities. Design We reviewed policy documents, and conducted field observations and semi-structured interviews with key informants in the health sector. We used an adapted Human, Organization and Technology fit (HOT-fit) framework to analyze the components and standards of a cost accounting system. Results Among the opportunities for a viable cost accounting system, we identified a supportive broad policy environment, political will, presence of a national data reporting architecture, good implementation experience with electronic medical records systems, and the availability of patient clinical and resource use data. However, several practical issues need to be considered in the design of the system, including the lack of a framework to guide the costing process, the lack of long-term investment, the lack of appropriate incentives for ground-level staff, and a risk of overburdening the current health management information system. Conclusion To facilitate the implementation of cost accounting into the health sector, the design of any proposed system needs to remain simple and attuned to the local context. PMID:27357072

  6. Opportunity costs of reward delays and the discounting of hypothetical money and cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Patrick S; Herrmann, Evan S; Johnson, Matthew W

    2015-01-01

    Humans are reported to discount delayed rewards at lower rates than nonhumans. However, nonhumans are studied in tasks that restrict reinforcement during delays, whereas humans are typically studied in tasks that do not restrict reinforcement during delays. In nonhuman tasks, the opportunity cost of restricted reinforcement during delays may increase delay discounting rates. The present within-subjects study used online crowdsourcing (Amazon Mechanical Turk, or MTurk) to assess the discounting of hypothetical delayed money (and cigarettes in smokers) under four hypothetical framing conditions differing in the availability of reinforcement during delays. At one extreme, participants were free to leave their computer without returning, and engage in any behavior during reward delays (modeling typical human tasks). At the opposite extreme, participants were required to stay at their computer and engage in little other behavior during reward delays (modeling typical nonhuman tasks). Discounting rates increased as an orderly function of opportunity cost. Results also indicated predominantly hyperbolic discounting, the "magnitude effect," steeper discounting of cigarettes than money, and positive correlations between discounting rates of these commodities. This is the first study to test the effects of opportunity costs on discounting, and suggests that procedural differences may partially account for observed species differences in discounting. PMID:25388973

  7. Analyzing and minimizing the impact of opportunity cost in QoS-aware job scheduling.

    SciTech Connect

    Islam, M.; Balaji, P.; Sabin, G.; Sadayappan, P.

    2007-01-01

    Quality of service (QoS) mechanisms allowing users to request for turn-around time guarantees for their jobs have recently generated much interest. In our previous work we had designed a framework, QoPS, to allow for such QoS. This framework provides an admission control mechanism that only accepts jobs whose requested deadlines can be met and, once accepted, guarantees these deadlines. However, the framework is completely blind to the revenue these jobs can fetch for the supercomputer center. By accepting a job, the supercomputer center might relinquish its capability to accept some future arriving (and potentially more expensive) jobs. In other words, while each job pays an explicit price to the system for running it, the system may also be viewed as paying an implicit opportunity cost by accepting the job. Thus, accepting a job is profitable only when the job's price is higher than its opportunity cost. In this paper we analyze the impact such opportunity cost can have on the overall revenue of the supercomputer center and attempt to minimize it through predictive techniques. Specifically, we propose two extensions to QoPS, Value-aware QoPS (VQoPS) and Dynamic Value-aware QoPS (DVQoPS), to provide such capabilities. We present detailed analysis of these schemes and demonstrate using simulation that they not only achieve several factors improvement in system revenue, but also good service differentiation as a much desired side-effect.

  8. Opportunity costs of reward delays and the discounting of hypothetical money and cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Patrick S; Herrmann, Evan S; Johnson, Matthew W

    2015-01-01

    Humans are reported to discount delayed rewards at lower rates than nonhumans. However, nonhumans are studied in tasks that restrict reinforcement during delays, whereas humans are typically studied in tasks that do not restrict reinforcement during delays. In nonhuman tasks, the opportunity cost of restricted reinforcement during delays may increase delay discounting rates. The present within-subjects study used online crowdsourcing (Amazon Mechanical Turk, or MTurk) to assess the discounting of hypothetical delayed money (and cigarettes in smokers) under four hypothetical framing conditions differing in the availability of reinforcement during delays. At one extreme, participants were free to leave their computer without returning, and engage in any behavior during reward delays (modeling typical human tasks). At the opposite extreme, participants were required to stay at their computer and engage in little other behavior during reward delays (modeling typical nonhuman tasks). Discounting rates increased as an orderly function of opportunity cost. Results also indicated predominantly hyperbolic discounting, the "magnitude effect," steeper discounting of cigarettes than money, and positive correlations between discounting rates of these commodities. This is the first study to test the effects of opportunity costs on discounting, and suggests that procedural differences may partially account for observed species differences in discounting.

  9. OPPORTUNITY COSTS OF REWARD DELAYS AND THE DISCOUNTING OF HYPOTHETICAL MONEY AND CIGARETTES

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Patrick S.; Herrmann, Evan S.; Johnson, Matthew W.

    2015-01-01

    Humans are reported to discount delayed rewards at lower rates than nonhumans. However, nonhumans are studied in tasks that restrict reinforcement during delays, whereas humans are typically studied in tasks that do not restrict reinforcement during delays. In nonhuman tasks, the opportunity cost of restricted reinforcement during delays may increase delay discounting rates. The present within-subjects study used online crowdsourcing (Amazon Mechanical Turk, or MTurk) to assess the discounting of hypothetical delayed money (and cigarettes in smokers) under four hypothetical framing conditions differing in the availability of reinforcement during delays. At one extreme, participants were free to leave their computer without returning, and engage in any behavior during reward delays (modeling typical human tasks). At the opposite extreme, participants were required to stay at their computer and engage in little other behavior during reward delays (modeling typical nonhuman tasks). Discounting rates increased as an orderly function of opportunity cost. Results also indicated predominantly hyperbolic discounting, the “magnitude effect,” steeper discounting of cigarettes than money, and positive correlations between discounting rates of these commodities. This is the first study to test the effects of opportunity costs on discounting, and suggests that procedural differences may partially account for observed species differences in discounting. PMID:25388973

  10. The cost of prospecting for dispersal opportunities in a social bird

    PubMed Central

    Komdeur, Jan; Hammers, Martijn; Richardson, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding why individuals delay dispersal and become subordinates within a group is central to studying the evolution of sociality. Hypotheses predict that dispersal decisions are influenced by costs of extra-territorial prospecting that are often required to find a breeding vacancy. Little is known about such costs, partly because it is complicated to demonstrate them empirically. For example, prospecting individuals may be of inferior quality already before prospecting and/or have been evicted. Moreover, costs of prospecting are mainly studied in species where prospectors suffer from predation risk, so how costly prospecting is when predators are absent remains unclear. Here, we determine a cost of prospecting for subordinate Seychelles warblers, Acrocephalus sechellensis, in a population where predators are absent and individuals return to their resident territory after prospecting. Prospecting individuals had 5.2% lower body mass than non-prospecting individuals. Our evidence suggests this may be owing to frequent attacks by resident conspecifics, likely leading to reduced food intake by prospectors. These results support the hypothesis that energetic costs associated with dispersal opportunities are one factor influencing dispersal decisions and shaping the evolution of delayed dispersal in social animals. PMID:27330175

  11. Natural gas cost for evaluating energy resource opportunities at Fort Stewart

    SciTech Connect

    Stucky, D.J.; Shankle, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    Ft. Stewart, a United States Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) installation located near Hinesville, Georgia, is currently undergoing an evaluation of its energy usage, which is being performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. In order to examine the energy resource opportunities (EROs) at Ft. Stewart, marginal fuel costs must be calculated. The marginal, or avoided, cost of gas service is used in conjunction with the estimated energy savings of an ERO to calculate the dollar value of those savings. In the case of natural gas, the costing becomes more complicated due to the installation of a propane-air mixing station. The propane-air station is being built under a shared energy savings (SES) contract. The building of a propane-air station allows Ft. Stewart to purchase natural gas from their local utility at an interruptible rate, which is lower than the rate for contracting natural gas on a firm basis. The propane-air station will also provide Ft. Stewart with fuel in the event that the natural gas supply is curtailed. While the propane-air station does not affect the actual cost of natural gas, it does affect the cost of services provided by gas. Because the propane-air station and the SES contract affect the cost of gas service, they must be included in the analysis. Our analysis indicates a marginal cost of gas service of 30.0 cents per therm, assuming a total propane usage by the mixing station of 42,278 gallons (38,600 therms) annually. Because the amount of propane that may be required in the event of a curtailment is small relative to the total service requirement, variations in the actual amount should not significantly affect the cost per therm.

  12. Learning the opportunity cost of time in a patch-foraging task.

    PubMed

    Constantino, Sara M; Daw, Nathaniel D

    2015-12-01

    Although most decision research concerns choice between simultaneously presented options, in many situations options are encountered serially, and the decision is whether to exploit an option or search for a better one. Such problems have a rich history in animal foraging, but we know little about the psychological processes involved. In particular, it is unknown whether learning in these problems is supported by the well-studied neurocomputational mechanisms involved in more conventional tasks. We investigated how humans learn in a foraging task, which requires deciding whether to harvest a depleting resource or switch to a replenished one. The optimal choice (given by the marginal value theorem; MVT) requires comparing the immediate return from harvesting to the opportunity cost of time, which is given by the long-run average reward. In two experiments, we varied opportunity cost across blocks, and subjects adjusted their behavior to blockwise changes in environmental characteristics. We examined how subjects learned their choice strategies by comparing choice adjustments to a learning rule suggested by the MVT (in which the opportunity cost threshold is estimated as an average over previous rewards) and to the predominant incremental-learning theory in neuroscience, temporal-difference learning (TD). Trial-by-trial decisions were explained better by the MVT threshold-learning rule. These findings expand on the foraging literature, which has focused on steady-state behavior, by elucidating a computational mechanism for learning in switching tasks that is distinct from those used in traditional tasks, and suggest connections to research on average reward rates in other domains of neuroscience. PMID:25917000

  13. Learning the opportunity cost of time in a patch-foraging task.

    PubMed

    Constantino, Sara M; Daw, Nathaniel D

    2015-12-01

    Although most decision research concerns choice between simultaneously presented options, in many situations options are encountered serially, and the decision is whether to exploit an option or search for a better one. Such problems have a rich history in animal foraging, but we know little about the psychological processes involved. In particular, it is unknown whether learning in these problems is supported by the well-studied neurocomputational mechanisms involved in more conventional tasks. We investigated how humans learn in a foraging task, which requires deciding whether to harvest a depleting resource or switch to a replenished one. The optimal choice (given by the marginal value theorem; MVT) requires comparing the immediate return from harvesting to the opportunity cost of time, which is given by the long-run average reward. In two experiments, we varied opportunity cost across blocks, and subjects adjusted their behavior to blockwise changes in environmental characteristics. We examined how subjects learned their choice strategies by comparing choice adjustments to a learning rule suggested by the MVT (in which the opportunity cost threshold is estimated as an average over previous rewards) and to the predominant incremental-learning theory in neuroscience, temporal-difference learning (TD). Trial-by-trial decisions were explained better by the MVT threshold-learning rule. These findings expand on the foraging literature, which has focused on steady-state behavior, by elucidating a computational mechanism for learning in switching tasks that is distinct from those used in traditional tasks, and suggest connections to research on average reward rates in other domains of neuroscience.

  14. Guide to resource conservation and cost savings opportunities in the soap, detergents and related products sector

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    This guide was prepared to help those involved in the manufacturing of soap, detergent, and related products to identify potential process improvements that will reduce production costs and conserve resources. The guide offers a series of generic process descriptions and checklists of improvement opportunities specific to each of five major processes used in the industry: Soap production, surfactant production, solid cake product formulation, liquid product formulation, and granulated powdered product formulation. The checklists identify thermal, electrical, environmental, water use, and low- or no-cost measures that can be implemented, as well as retrofit technology options. A variety of new technologies that may exhibit future potential are also described. Appendices include a glossary, background information on the Ontario soap/detergent industry, and description of the four major categories of ingredients used in the industry.

  15. 20 Years Experience with using Low Cost Launch Opportunities for 20 Small Satellite Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meerman, Maarten; Sweeting, Martin, , Sir

    To realise the full potential of modern low cost mini-micro-nano-satellite missions, regular and affordable launch opportunities are required. It is simply not economic to launch individual satellites of 5-300kg on single dedicated launchers costing typically 15-20M per launch. Whilst there have been periodic 'piggy-back' launches of small satellites on US launchers since the 1960's, these have been infrequent and often experienced significant delays due the vagaries of the main (paying!) payload. In 1989, Arianespace provided a critical catalyst to the microsatellite community when it imaginatively developed the ASAP platform on Ariane-4 providing, for the first time, a standard interface and affordable launch contracts for small payloads up to 50kg. During the 1990's, some 20 small satellites have been successfully launched on the Ariane-4 ASAP ring for international customers carrying out a range of operational, technology demonstration and training missions. However, most of these microsatellite missions seek low Earth orbit and especially sun-synchronous orbits, but the number of primary missions into these orbit has declined since 1996 and with it the availability of useful low cost launch opportunities for microsatellites. Whilst Ariane-5 has an enhanced capacity ASAP, it has yet to be widely used due both to the infrequent launches, higher costs, and the GTO orbit required by the majority of customers. China, Japan and India have also provided occasional secondary launches for small payloads, but not yet on a regular basis. Fortunately, the growing interest and demand for microsatellite missions coincided with the emergence of regular, low cost launch opportunities from the former Soviet Union (FSU) - both as secondary 'piggy-back' missions or as multiple microsatellite payloads on converted military ICBMs. Indeed, the FSU now supplies the only affordable means of launching minisatellites (200-500kg) into LEO as dedicated missions on converted missiles as

  16. Manufacturing costs, equipment needs and technological opportunities among small and medium-size manufacturers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirsch, F. W.

    1984-05-01

    During a series of 54 performance evaluation interviews conducted during March and April, 1984, 15 plant representatives were chosen for a further confidential interview about their plants' overall manufacturing costs, their equipment needs, and the opportunities they envision for research, development, and technology transfer. Manufacturers' response are summarized to a series of questions designed to elicit useful information about: the factors that contribute most to their plants' manufacturing costs; the manufacturers' preferred approaches to increasing their plants' profitability; perceived management needs for new equipment, its availability, and barriers to purchasing it; plant management's attitude toward the potential for research and development (R and D) to improve product quality; and the same persons' estimates of whether the R and D will be done within five years (if needed) and by whom. In addition to summarizing that information, an analysis of the patterns which these responses reveal and observations about the priorities which they indicate are described.

  17. Building Commissioning: A Golden Opportunity for Reducing Energy Costs and Greenhouse-gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Evan

    2009-07-16

    The aim of commissioning new buildings is to ensure that they deliver, if not exceed, the performance and energy savings promised by their design. When applied to existing buildings, commissioning identifies the almost inevitable 'drift' from where things should be and puts the building back on course. In both contexts, commissioning is a systematic, forensic approach to quality assurance, rather than a technology per se. Although commissioning has earned increased recognition in recent years - even a toehold in Wikipedia - it remains an enigmatic practice whose visibility severely lags its potential. Over the past decade, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has built the world's largest compilation and meta-analysis of commissioning experience in commercial buildings. Since our last report (Mills et al. 2004) the database has grown from 224 to 643 buildings (all located in the United States, and spanning 26 states), from 30 to 100 million square feet of floorspace, and from $17 million to $43 million in commissioning expenditures. The recorded cases of new-construction commissioning took place in buildings representing $2.2 billion in total construction costs (up from 1.5 billion). The work of many more commissioning providers (18 versus 37) is represented in this study, as is more evidence of energy and peak-power savings as well as cost-effectiveness. We now translate these impacts into avoided greenhouse gases and provide new indicators of cost-effectiveness. We also draw attention to the specific challenges and opportunities for high-tech facilities such as labs, cleanrooms, data centers, and healthcare facilities. The results are compelling. We developed an array of benchmarks for characterizing project performance and cost-effectiveness. The median normalized cost to deliver commissioning was $0.30/ft2 for existing buildings and $1.16/ft2 for new construction (or 0.4% of the overall construction cost). The commissioning projects for which data are

  18. Sharing the opportunity cost among power companies to support hydropower-to-environment water transfers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmant, Amaury; Marques, Guilherme

    2016-04-01

    Among the environmental impacts caused by dams, the alteration of flow regimes is one of the most critical to river ecosystems given its influence in long river reaches and its continuous pattern. Provided it is technically feasible, the reoperation of hydroelectric reservoir systems can, in principle, mitigate the impacts on degraded freshwater ecosystems by recovering some of the natural flow regime. The typical approach to implement hydropower-to-environment water transfers focuses on the reoperation of the dam located immediately upstream of the environmentally sensitive area, meaning that only one power station will bear the brunt of the benefits forgone for the power sector. By ignoring the contribution of upstream infrastructures to the alteration of the flow regime, the opportunity cost associated with the restoration of a flow regime is not equitably distributed among the power companies in the river basin, therefore slowing the establishment of environmental flow programs. Yet, there is no criterion, nor institutional mechanisms, to ensure a fair distribution of the opportunity cost among power stations. This paper addresses this issue by comparing four rules to redistribute the costs faced by the power sector when environmental flows must be implemented in a multireservoir system. The rules are based on the the installed capacity of the power plants, the live storage capacity of the reservoirs, the ratio between the incremental flows and the live storage capacity, and the extent of the storage services; that is, the volume of water effectively transferred by each reservoir. The analysis is carried out using the Parana River Basin (Brazil) as a case study.

  19. Road project opportunity costs subject to a regional constraint on greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jean-Christophe; Point, Patrick

    2012-12-15

    France has constrained the Aquitaine region to set up a climate plan to avoid an emission of 2883 ktCO(2)eq for the period 2007-2013. In parallel, the region has decided to carry out the construction of road infrastructures in order to avoid very high congestion costs. Those road projects will involve an increase in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during that period. In the present context of strong sustainability, all emissions (direct and indirect) generated by those projects should be offset. At the regional level, the offsetting of GHG emissions is usually carried out by implementing carbon sequestration projects or projects that reduce energy demand. This paper aims at determining the maximum budget for financing GHG emissions offsetting projects, with computation being based on the opportunity costs of projects, the minimum cost of economic activity reduction required to offset emissions from those projects. The maximum budget devoted to GHG emissions offsetting projects should not exceed €(2001) 1920 M to €(2001) 3592 M, according to low/high traffic growth assumptions.

  20. Intraguild interactions between egg parasitoids: window of opportunity and fitness costs for a facultative hyperparasitoid.

    PubMed

    Cusumano, Antonino; Peri, Ezio; Amodeo, Valentina; McNeil, Jeremy N; Colazza, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    We investigated intraguild interactions between two egg parasitoids of Nezara viridula (L.) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), Ooencyrtus telenomicida (Vassiliev) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and Trissolcus basalis (Wollaston) (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae), as the former has the potential to be a facultative hyperparasitoid of the latter. We assessed the suitability of N. viridula eggs for the development of O. telenomicida as a function of egg age when they were unparasitized, or had been attacked by T. basalis at different times prior to exposure to O. telenomicida females. Ooencyrtus telenomicida can exploit healthy N. viridula host eggs up to 5 days of age, just prior to the emergence of N. viridula. This window of opportunity can be extended for an additional 6-7 days through interspecific competition or facultative hyperparasitism. While there are minor fitness costs for O. telenomicida as the result of interspecific larval competition, those costs are greater with facultative hyperparasitism. In choice assays O. telenomicida females discriminated between different quality N. viridula eggs, avoiding those where their progeny would have to develop as facultative hyperparasitoids of T. basalis. Results are discussed with respect to the possible effects that the costs of intraguild parasitism might have on biological control programmes.

  1. Road project opportunity costs subject to a regional constraint on greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jean-Christophe; Point, Patrick

    2012-12-15

    France has constrained the Aquitaine region to set up a climate plan to avoid an emission of 2883 ktCO(2)eq for the period 2007-2013. In parallel, the region has decided to carry out the construction of road infrastructures in order to avoid very high congestion costs. Those road projects will involve an increase in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during that period. In the present context of strong sustainability, all emissions (direct and indirect) generated by those projects should be offset. At the regional level, the offsetting of GHG emissions is usually carried out by implementing carbon sequestration projects or projects that reduce energy demand. This paper aims at determining the maximum budget for financing GHG emissions offsetting projects, with computation being based on the opportunity costs of projects, the minimum cost of economic activity reduction required to offset emissions from those projects. The maximum budget devoted to GHG emissions offsetting projects should not exceed €(2001) 1920 M to €(2001) 3592 M, according to low/high traffic growth assumptions. PMID:22940459

  2. Intraguild Interactions between Egg Parasitoids: Window of Opportunity and Fitness Costs for a Facultative Hyperparasitoid

    PubMed Central

    Cusumano, Antonino; Peri, Ezio; Amodeo, Valentina; McNeil, Jeremy N.; Colazza, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    We investigated intraguild interactions between two egg parasitoids of Nezara viridula (L.) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), Ooencyrtus telenomicida (Vassiliev) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and Trissolcus basalis (Wollaston) (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae), as the former has the potential to be a facultative hyperparasitoid of the latter. We assessed the suitability of N. viridula eggs for the development of O. telenomicida as a function of egg age when they were unparasitized, or had been attacked by T. basalis at different times prior to exposure to O. telenomicida females. Ooencyrtus telenomicida can exploit healthy N. viridula host eggs up to 5 days of age, just prior to the emergence of N. viridula. This window of opportunity can be extended for an additional 6–7 days through interspecific competition or facultative hyperparasitism. While there are minor fitness costs for O. telenomicida as the result of interspecific larval competition, those costs are greater with facultative hyperparasitism. In choice assays O. telenomicida females discriminated between different quality N. viridula eggs, avoiding those where their progeny would have to develop as facultative hyperparasitoids of T. basalis. Results are discussed with respect to the possible effects that the costs of intraguild parasitism might have on biological control programmes. PMID:23705009

  3. 20 Years Experience with using Low Cost Launch Opportunities for 20 Small Satellite Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meerman, Maarten; Sweeting, Martin, , Sir

    To realise the full potential of modern low cost mini-micro-nano-satellite missions, regular and affordable launch opportunities are required. It is simply not economic to launch individual satellites of 5-300kg on single dedicated launchers costing typically 15-20M per launch. Whilst there have been periodic 'piggy-back' launches of small satellites on US launchers since the 1960's, these have been infrequent and often experienced significant delays due the vagaries of the main (paying!) payload. In 1989, Arianespace provided a critical catalyst to the microsatellite community when it imaginatively developed the ASAP platform on Ariane-4 providing, for the first time, a standard interface and affordable launch contracts for small payloads up to 50kg. During the 1990's, some 20 small satellites have been successfully launched on the Ariane-4 ASAP ring for international customers carrying out a range of operational, technology demonstration and training missions. However, most of these microsatellite missions seek low Earth orbit and especially sun-synchronous orbits, but the number of primary missions into these orbit has declined since 1996 and with it the availability of useful low cost launch opportunities for microsatellites. Whilst Ariane-5 has an enhanced capacity ASAP, it has yet to be widely used due both to the infrequent launches, higher costs, and the GTO orbit required by the majority of customers. China, Japan and India have also provided occasional secondary launches for small payloads, but not yet on a regular basis. Fortunately, the growing interest and demand for microsatellite missions coincided with the emergence of regular, low cost launch opportunities from the former Soviet Union (FSU) - both as secondary 'piggy-back' missions or as multiple microsatellite payloads on converted military ICBMs. Indeed, the FSU now supplies the only affordable means of launching minisatellites (200-500kg) into LEO as dedicated missions on converted missiles as

  4. Cost Centres. Supervising. Economic and Financial Aspects. The Choice Series #75. A Self Learning Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clelland, Alastair

    This student guide is intended to assist persons employed as supervisors in improving their economics and financial management skills. Discussed in the first three sections are the following topics: costs and cost centers (cost information and decisions; costs; cost statements, units, centers, and codes); cost centers and the supervisor…

  5. Trends in Opportunity Costs of U.S. Postsecondary Education: A National HRD and Human Capital Theory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornacchione, Edgard; Daugherty, Jenny L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore opportunity costs of postsecondary education in the U.S. in the past three decades (1975-2005), as a measure to support investment decisions at national levels and as experienced by individuals deciding on pursuing further education. Based on human capital theory and inspired by a set of studies aiming at…

  6. Cost Reduction. Supervising: Economic and Financial Aspects. The Choice Series #72. A Self Learning Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Roger

    This student guide is intended to assist persons employed as supervisors in learning to reduce costs. Discussed in the first four sections are the following topics: costs (functional, fixed, and variable costs and ways of controlling costs); cost consciousness (getting people involved, passing on information, and getting and giving feedback); and…

  7. Between Too Little and Too Late: Political Opportunity Costs in Climate Policy Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilligan, J. M.; Vandenbergh, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    Discussion of climate policy has focused almost exclusively on comprehensive regulatory instruments to price emissions with tradeable permits or emissions taxes. More recently, a number of proposals have been advanced to abandon comprehensive emissions pricing in favor of focusing exclusively on clean-energy innovation. Neither approach adequately accounts for the combination of timing and scale. Advocates of emissions pricing are persuasive that this is the most likely way to reduce emissions sufficiently to stabilize greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations at desirable levels. However, as innovation advocates point out, the political climate is inhospitable to such sweeping regulations and it is unlikely that comprehensive carbon pricing can be enacted and implemented in the next decade. However, clean-energy innovation by itself is a high-stakes gamble that may fail to reduce emissions sufficiently to stabilize GHG concentrations, and may reduce support for the kind of comprehensive pricing measures that could stabilize GHG concentrations.We propose that analysis of climate policies take account of the opportunity costs associated with the process of enacting a proposed policy: If one measure is much more controversial than another, how does the difference in time necessary to persuade the public and legislators to adopt them affect their ultimate impact? As General Patton is reputed to have said, "A good solution applied with vigor now is better than a perfect solution applied ten minutes later." Similarly, it is important to consider whether adopting one measure would build or erode support for complementary ones. As an example, we consider the largely neglected role of nonregulatory measures, such as private governance and household-level behavior change, as examples of actions that could buy time by producing rapid, although modest, impacts without eroding support for more comprehensive measures later on.

  8. Opportunity costs and financial incentives for Hispanic youth participating in a family-based HIV and substance use preventive intervention.

    PubMed

    McCollister, Kathryn E; Freitas, Derek M; Prado, Guillermo; Pantin, Hilda

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents results from a pilot study of the synergies between the opportunity costs incurred by research participants, participant compensation, and program attendance in a family-based substance use and HIV preventive intervention for Hispanic adolescents in Miami-Dade County, Florida. To estimate parent/caretaker cost per session and cost for the duration of the intervention, we administered the Caretaker Drug Abuse Treatment Cost Analysis Program to a random sample of 34 families who participated in a recent clinical trial of Familias Unidas. The total opportunity cost per parent/caretaker was under $40 per group session, under $30 per family session, and just over $570 for the duration of the intervention. Participants were compensated between $40 and $50 per session and attended more than 79% of family and group sessions. Parents and caretakers incurred a cost of approximately $30-40 per intervention session for which they were adequately compensated. Attendance was very good overall for this group (>79%) and significantly higher than attendance in a comparable uncompensated study group from another recent Familias Unidas trial that targeted similar youth. Findings suggest that incentives should be considered important for future implementations of Familias Unidas and similar family-based interventions that target minority and low-SES populations. PMID:24162106

  9. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for Breweries: An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Martin, Nathan; Worrell, Ernst; Lehman, Bryan

    2003-09-01

    Annually, breweries in the United States spend over $200 million on energy. Energy consumption is equal to 38 percent of the production costs of beer, making energy efficiency improvement an important way to reduce costs, especially in times of high energy price volatility. After a summary of the beer making process and energy use, we examine energy efficiency opportunities available for breweries. We provide specific primary energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies that have implemented the measures, as well as references to technical literature. If available, we have also listed typical payback periods. Our findings suggest that given available technology, there are still opportunities to reduce energy consumption cost-effectively in the brewing industry. Brewers value highly the quality, taste and drinkability of their beer. Brewing companies have and are expected to continue to spend capital on cost-effective energy conservation measures that meet these quality, taste and drinkability requirements. For individual plants, further research on the economics of the measures, as well as their applicability to different brewing practices, is needed to assess implementation of selected technologies.

  10. Modeling the cost effectiveness of injury interventions in lower and middle income countries: opportunities and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Bishai, David M; Hyder, Adnan A

    2006-01-01

    Background This paper estimates the cost-effectiveness of five interventions that could counter injuries in lower and middle income countries(LMICs): better traffic enforcement, erecting speed bumps, promoting helmets for bicycles, promoting helmets for motorcycles, and storing kerosene in child proof containers. Methods We adopt an ingredients based approach to form models of what each intervention would cost in 6 world regions over a 10 year period discounted at both 3% and 6% from both the governmental and societal perspectives. Costs are expressed in local currency converted into US $2001. Each of these interventions has been assessed for effectiveness in a LMIC in limited region, these effectiveness estimates have been used to form models of disability adjusted life years (DALYs) averted for various regions, taking account of regional differences in the baseline burden of injury. Results The interventions modeled in this paper have cost effectiveness ratios ranging from US $5 to $ 556 per DALY averted depending on region. Depending on local acceptability thresholds many of them could be judged cost-effective relative to interventions that are already adopted. Enhanced enforcement of traffic regulations is the most cost-effective interventions with an average cost per DALY of $64 Conclusion Injury counter measures appear to be cost-effective based on models. More evaluations of real interventions will help to strengthen the evidence basis. PMID:16423285

  11. Daily variation in natural disaster casualties: information flows, safety, and opportunity costs in tornado versus hurricane strikes.

    PubMed

    Zahran, Sammy; Tavani, Daniele; Weiler, Stephan

    2013-07-01

    Casualties from natural disasters may depend on the day of the week they strike. With data from the Spatial Hazard Events and Losses Database for the United States (SHELDUS), daily variation in hurricane and tornado casualties from 5,043 tornado and 2,455 hurricane time/place events is analyzed. Hurricane forecasts provide at-risk populations with considerable lead time. Such lead time allows strategic behavior in choosing protective measures under hurricane threat; opportunity costs in terms of lost income are higher during weekdays than during weekends. On the other hand, the lead time provided by tornadoes is near zero; hence tornados generate no opportunity costs. Tornado casualties are related to risk information flows, which are higher during workdays than during leisure periods, and are related to sheltering-in-place opportunities, which are better in permanent buildings like businesses and schools. Consistent with theoretical expectations, random effects negative binomial regression results indicate that tornado events occurring on the workdays of Monday through Thursday are significantly less lethal than tornados that occur on weekends. In direct contrast, and also consistent with theory, the expected count of hurricane casualties increases significantly with weekday occurrences. The policy implications of observed daily variation in tornado and hurricane events are considered. PMID:23126406

  12. Daily variation in natural disaster casualties: information flows, safety, and opportunity costs in tornado versus hurricane strikes.

    PubMed

    Zahran, Sammy; Tavani, Daniele; Weiler, Stephan

    2013-07-01

    Casualties from natural disasters may depend on the day of the week they strike. With data from the Spatial Hazard Events and Losses Database for the United States (SHELDUS), daily variation in hurricane and tornado casualties from 5,043 tornado and 2,455 hurricane time/place events is analyzed. Hurricane forecasts provide at-risk populations with considerable lead time. Such lead time allows strategic behavior in choosing protective measures under hurricane threat; opportunity costs in terms of lost income are higher during weekdays than during weekends. On the other hand, the lead time provided by tornadoes is near zero; hence tornados generate no opportunity costs. Tornado casualties are related to risk information flows, which are higher during workdays than during leisure periods, and are related to sheltering-in-place opportunities, which are better in permanent buildings like businesses and schools. Consistent with theoretical expectations, random effects negative binomial regression results indicate that tornado events occurring on the workdays of Monday through Thursday are significantly less lethal than tornados that occur on weekends. In direct contrast, and also consistent with theory, the expected count of hurricane casualties increases significantly with weekday occurrences. The policy implications of observed daily variation in tornado and hurricane events are considered.

  13. Cold-Climate Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems: Cost/Benefit Analysis and Opportunities for Improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, J.; Hillman, T.; Salasovich, J.

    2005-01-01

    To determine potential for reduction in the cost of saved energy (COSE) for cold-climate solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems, COSE was computed for three types of cold climate water heating systems. For each system, a series of cost-saving measures was considered: (1) balance of systems (BOS): tank, heat exchanger, and piping-valving measures; and (2) four alternative lower-cost collectors. Given all beneficial BOS measures in place, >50% reduction of COSE was achievable only with selective polymer collectors at half today's selective collector cost. In all three system types, today's metal-glass selective collector achieved the same COSE as the hypothesized non-selective polymer collector.

  14. Ford Cleveland: Inside-out Analysis Identifies Energy Cost Savings Opportunities at Metal Casting Plant

    SciTech Connect

    2003-09-01

    The Ford Cleveland Casting Plant used results from its plant-wide energy efficiency assessment to identify 16 energy- and cost-saving projects. These projects addressed combustion, compressed air, water, steam, motor drive, and lighting systems. When implemented, the projects should save a total of $3.28 million per year. In addition, two long-term projects were identified that together would represent another $9.5 million in cost savings.

  15. Examining Health Care Costs: Opportunities to Provide Value in the Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Chang, Beverly; Lorenzo, Javier; Macario, Alex

    2015-12-01

    As health care costs threaten the economic stability of American society, increasing pressures to focus on value-based health care have led to the development of protocols for fast-track cardiac surgery and for delirium management. Critical care services can be led by anesthesiologists with the goal of improving ICU outcomes and at the same time decreasing the rising cost of ICU medicine.

  16. Early discharge of infectious disease patients: an opportunity or extra cost for the Italian Healthcare System?

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Fabrizio; Alberici, Francesco; Deales, Alberto; Furneri, Gianluca; Menichetti, Francesco; Orchi, Nicoletta; Quesada-Rodriguez, Carolina; Pilli, Stefano; Rapisarda, Franco; Tassielli, Domenica; Tringali, Michele; Esposito, Silvano; Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2013-12-01

    In order to assess the economic benefits of an early discharge (ED) programme for patients with complicated skin and soft tissue infections (cSSTIs) in terms of hospital and regional authority costs, an economic analysis was conducted comparing two possible alternatives: standard hospital management vs. an ED strategy followed by a period of outpatient management. Utilization of resources and costs were derived from the literature and expert panel evaluation. Patients were classified into four groups: low-intensity non-walking (LINW), low-intensity walking (LIW), high-intensity non-walking (HINW) and high-intensity walking (HIW). The overall costs (inpatient/outpatient) of hospitalization with ED for cSSTIs range from Euros 2,079 for LIW to Euros 2,193 for HINW, with the most expensive regimen (HINW) being 50% lower than the costs for 12.6 days of hospitalization alone (Euros 4,619). The weighted average Diagnosis Related Group (DRG) reimbursement for cSSTIs (Euros 2,042) does not cover the costs of such hospitalization. In conclusion, when a patient's conditions allow for early discharge there is an economic advantage for the hospital with an outpatient management plan, especially for patients requiring low-intensity care. However, this could be disadvantageous in terms of regional costs if outpatient management has to be paid in addition to payment by the DRG. PMID:24335457

  17. [Opportunity for the integration of the gender perspective in health research and innovation in Europe: COST Network genderSTE].

    PubMed

    Sánchez de Madariaga, Inés; Ruiz Cantero, María Teresa

    2014-01-01

    The European Commission supports several routes for incorporating the gender perspective. The Commission currently supports the new Horizon 2020 program, and also funds projects such as "gendered innovations", which show how gender innovations increase the quality of research and professional practice for health and welfare. One of the policy instruments is the Recommendation on Gender, Science and Innovation. Against this background, the international European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) network genderSTE (Gender, Science, Technology and Environment) was created, which seeks to: 1) promote structural changes in institutions to increase the number of women researchers; 2) identify the gender dimensions relevant to the environment; and 3) improve the integration of a gender perspective in research and technology. COST GenderSTE supports networking and the dissemination of knowledge with a gender perspective. All these tools provide an opportunity to incorporate a gender perspective in research in Europe.

  18. [Opportunity for the integration of the gender perspective in health research and innovation in Europe: COST Network genderSTE].

    PubMed

    Sánchez de Madariaga, Inés; Ruiz Cantero, María Teresa

    2014-01-01

    The European Commission supports several routes for incorporating the gender perspective. The Commission currently supports the new Horizon 2020 program, and also funds projects such as "gendered innovations", which show how gender innovations increase the quality of research and professional practice for health and welfare. One of the policy instruments is the Recommendation on Gender, Science and Innovation. Against this background, the international European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) network genderSTE (Gender, Science, Technology and Environment) was created, which seeks to: 1) promote structural changes in institutions to increase the number of women researchers; 2) identify the gender dimensions relevant to the environment; and 3) improve the integration of a gender perspective in research and technology. COST GenderSTE supports networking and the dissemination of knowledge with a gender perspective. All these tools provide an opportunity to incorporate a gender perspective in research in Europe. PMID:24852090

  19. Opportunities for cost-sharing in conservation: variation in volunteering effort across protected areas.

    PubMed

    Armsworth, Paul R; Cantú-Salazar, Lisette; Parnell, Mark; Booth, Josephine E; Stoneman, Rob; Davies, Zoe G

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to expand protected area networks are limited by the costs of managing protected sites. Volunteers who donate labor to help manage protected areas can help defray these costs. However, volunteers may be willing to donate more labor to some protected areas than others. Understanding variation in volunteering effort would enable conservation organizations to account for volunteer labor in their strategic planning. We examined variation in volunteering effort across 59 small protected areas managed by Yorkshire Wildlife Trust, a regional conservation nonprofit in the United Kingdom. Three surveys of volunteering effort reveal consistent patterns of variation across protected areas. Using the most detailed of these sources, a survey of site managers, we estimate that volunteers provided 3200 days of labor per year across the 59 sites with a total value exceeding that of paid staff time spent managing the sites. The median percentage by which volunteer labor supplements management costs on the sites was 36%. Volunteering effort and paid management costs are positively correlated, after controlling for the effect of site area. We examined how well a range of characteristics of the protected areas and surrounding communities explain variation in volunteering effort. Protected areas that are larger have been protected for longer and that are located near to denser conurbations experience greater volunteering effort. Together these factors explain 38% of the observed variation in volunteering effort across protected areas.

  20. When "Equal Opportunity" Is Not Enough: Training Costs and Intergenerational Inequality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruhm, Christopher J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper develops an individual optimization model with persistent intergenerational immobility. Its key feature is that training costs are negatively correlated with family background. Different innate abilities are shown to reduce but not eliminate the importance of family backgrounds. It argues that, in some situations, equal opportunity…

  1. A cost-benefit analysis of produced water management opportunities in selected unconventional oil and gas plays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsters, P.; Macknick, J.; Bazilian, M.; Newmark, R. L.

    2013-12-01

    fracturing and produced water issues relate to the larger water-energy nexus. Specifically, this study develops a play-specific model to compare the decision factors and costs involved in managing produced water. For example, when transport distances to a wastewater disposal site are far enough, options for recycling water become more favorable, depending on the characteristics of each play. This model can provide policymakers and other interested parties with cost estimates of different water management options, including a better understanding of the costs and opportunities associated with recycling produced water. This work provides a cross-play assessment of produced water management options and costs and could serve as the foundation for more detailed analyses of opportunities to minimize hydraulic fracturing's impacts on freshwater resources.

  2. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Pharmaceutical Industry. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Galitsky, Christina; Chang, Sheng-chieh; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2008-03-01

    The U.S. pharmaceutical industry consumes almost $1 billion in energy annually. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. pharmaceutical industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, system, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the U.S. pharmaceutical industry is provided along with a description of the major process steps in the pharmaceutical manufacturing process. Expected savings in energy and energy-related costs are given for many energy efficiency measures, based on case study data from real-world applications in pharmaceutical and related facilities worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner while meeting regulatory requirements and maintaining the quality of products manufactured. At individual plants, further research on the economics of the measures?as well as their applicability to different production practices?is needed to assess potential implementation of selected technologies.

  3. Economic valuation of informal care: lessons from the application of the opportunity costs and proxy good methods.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Bernard; Brouwer, Werner; van Exel, Job; Koopmanschap, Marc; van den Bos, Geertrudis A M; Rutten, Frans

    2006-02-01

    This paper reports the results of the application of the opportunity costs and proxy good methods to determine a monetary value of informal care. We developed a survey in which we asked informal caregivers in The Netherlands to indicate the different types of time forgone (paid work, unpaid work and leisure) in order to be able to provide care. Moreover, we asked informal caregivers how much time they spent on a list of 16 informal care tasks during the week before the interview. Data were obtained from surveys in two different populations: informal caregivers and their care recipients with stroke and with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A total of 218 care recipients with stroke and their primary informal caregivers completed a survey as well as 147 caregivers and their care recipients with RA. The measurement of care according to both methods is more problematic compared to the valuation. This is especially the case for the opportunity costs method and for the housework part in the proxy good method. More precise guidelines are necessary for the consistent application of both methods in order to ensure comparability of results and of economic evaluations of health care.

  4. Opportunities for Low Cost Processing of Erbium 8-Quinolinolates for Active Integrated Photonic Applications.

    PubMed

    Penna, Stefano; Mattiello, Leonardo; Di Bartolo, Silvia; Pizzoleo, Angelo; Attanasio, Vincenzo; Beleffi, Giorgio Maria Tosi; Otomo, Akira

    2016-04-01

    Erbium-doped organic emitters are promising active materials for Photonic Integrated Circuits (PICs) due to their emission shown at 1550 nm combined to the potential low cost processing. In particular, Erbium Quinoline (ErQ) gained a strong interest in the last decade for the good emission efficiency. This contribution reports the results derived from the application of ErQ as active core material within a buried optical waveguide, following the development of a purposed optical process to control the refractive index of ErQ and then to define a patterned structure from a single thin film deposition step. The reported results show the potential of Er-doped organic materials for low cost processing and application to planar PICs. PMID:27451632

  5. Opportunities for Low Cost Processing of Erbium 8-Quinolinolates for Active Integrated Photonic Applications.

    PubMed

    Penna, Stefano; Mattiello, Leonardo; Di Bartolo, Silvia; Pizzoleo, Angelo; Attanasio, Vincenzo; Beleffi, Giorgio Maria Tosi; Otomo, Akira

    2016-04-01

    Erbium-doped organic emitters are promising active materials for Photonic Integrated Circuits (PICs) due to their emission shown at 1550 nm combined to the potential low cost processing. In particular, Erbium Quinoline (ErQ) gained a strong interest in the last decade for the good emission efficiency. This contribution reports the results derived from the application of ErQ as active core material within a buried optical waveguide, following the development of a purposed optical process to control the refractive index of ErQ and then to define a patterned structure from a single thin film deposition step. The reported results show the potential of Er-doped organic materials for low cost processing and application to planar PICs.

  6. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Glass Industry. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina; Masanet, Eric; Graus, Wina

    2008-03-01

    The U.S. glass industry is comprised of four primary industry segments--flat glass, container glass, specialty glass, and fiberglass--which together consume $1.6 billion in energy annually. On average, energy costs in the U.S. glass industry account for around 14 percent of total glass production costs. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There is a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. glass industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, system, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the U.S. glass industry is provided along with a description of the major process steps in glass manufacturing. Expected savings in energy and energy-related costs are given for many energy efficiency measures, based on case study data from real-world applications in glass production facilities and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. glass industry reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of the measures--as well on as their applicability to different production practices--is needed to assess potential implementation of selected technologies at individual plants.

  7. Root phenes that reduce the metabolic costs of soil exploration: opportunities for 21st century agriculture.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Jonathan P

    2015-09-01

    Crop genotypes with reduced metabolic costs of soil exploration would have improved water and nutrient acquisition. Three strategies to achieve this goal are (1) production of the optimum number of axial roots; (2) greater biomass allocation to root classes that are less metabolically demanding; and (3) reduction of the respiratory requirement of root tissue. An example of strategy 1 is the case of reduced crown root number in maize, which is associated with greater rooting depth, N capture and yield in low N soil. An example of strategy 2 is the case of increased hypocotyl-borne rooting in bean, which decreases root cost and increases P capture from low P soil. Examples of strategy 3 are the cases of increased formation of root cortical aerenchyma, decreased cortical cell file number and increased cortical cell size in maize, which decrease specific root respiration, increase rooting depth and increase water capture and yield under water stress. Root cortical aerenchyma also increases N capture and yield under N stress. Root phenes that reduce the metabolic cost of soil exploration are promising, underexploited avenues to the climate-resilient, resource-efficient crops that are urgently needed in global agriculture. PMID:25255708

  8. The Cost-Effectiveness of Baccalaureate Programs at Two-Year Public Colleges: A Policy Option to Support the Virginia Higher Education Opportunity Act of 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Christopher Scott

    2012-01-01

    The unanimous passing of the Virginia Higher Education Opportunity Act of 2011 highlights the need to create a cost-effective pathway to baccalaureate degree growth. Using an exploratory case study design, this study compared the cost-effectiveness of two baccalaureate degree programs offered by institutions in the State University System of…

  9. The Hydrogen Economy: Opportunities, Costs, Barriers, and R&D Needs

    SciTech Connect

    Committee on Alternatives and Strategies for Future Hydrogen Production and Use

    2004-08-31

    The announcement of a hydrogen fuel initiative in the President’s 2003 State of the Union speech substantially increased interest in the potential for hydrogen to play a major role in the nation’s long-term energy future. Prior to that event, DOE asked the National Research Council to examine key technical issues about the hydrogen economy to assist in the development of its hydrogen R&D program. Included in the assessment were the current state of technology; future cost estimates; CO2 emissions; distribution, storage, and end use considerations; and the DOE RD&D program. The report provides an assessment of hydrogen as a fuel in the nation’s future energy economy and describes a number of important challenges that must be overcome if it is to make a major energy contribution. Topics covered include the hydrogen end-use technologies, transportation, hydrogen production technologies, and transition issues for hydrogen in vehicles.

  10. Statin Pharmacogenomics: Opportunities to Improve Patient Outcomes and Healthcare Costs with Genetic Testing

    PubMed Central

    Canestaro, William J.; Brooks, David G.; Chaplin, Donald; Choudhry, Niteesh K.; Lawler, Elizabeth; Martell, Lori; Brennan, Troyen; Wassman, E. Robert

    2012-01-01

    HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, commonly known as statins, are some of the most widely prescribed medications worldwide and have been shown to be effective at lowering cholesterol in numerous long-term prospective trials, yet there are significant limitations to their use. First, patients receiving statin therapy have relatively low levels of medication adherence compared with other drug classes. Next, numerous statin formulations are available, each with its own unique safety and efficacy profile, and it may be unclear to prescribers which treatment is optimal for their patients. Finally, statins have class-wide side effects of myopathy and rhabdomyolysis that have resulted in a product recall and dosage limitations. Recent evidence suggests that two genomic markers, KIF6 and SLCO1B1, may inform the therapy choice of patients initiating statins. Given the prevalence of statin usage, their potential health advantages and their overall cost to the healthcare system, there could be significant clinical benefit from creating personalized treatment regimens. Ultimately, if this approach is effective it may encourage higher adoption of generic statins when appropriate, promote adherence, lower rates of myopathy, and overall achieve higher value cardiovascular care. This paper will review the evidence for personalized prescribing of statins via KIF6 and SLCO1B1 and consider some of the implications for testing these markers as part of routine clinical care. PMID:25562358

  11. Time-driven activity-based costing of multivessel coronary artery bypass grafting across national boundaries to identify improvement opportunities: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Erhun, F; Mistry, B; Platchek, T; Milstein, A; Narayanan, V G; Kaplan, R S

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery is a well-established, commonly performed treatment for coronary artery disease—a disease that affects over 10% of US adults and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. In 2005, the mean cost for a CABG procedure among Medicare beneficiaries in the USA was $32 201±$23 059. The same operation reportedly costs less than $2000 to produce in India. The goals of the proposed study are to (1) identify the difference in the costs incurred to perform CABG surgery by three Joint Commission accredited hospitals with reputations for high quality and efficiency and (2) characterise the opportunity to reduce the cost of performing CABG surgery. Methods and analysis We use time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) to quantify the hospitals’ costs of producing elective, multivessel CABG. TDABC estimates the costs of a given clinical service by combining information about the process of patient care delivery (specifically, the time and quantity of labour and non-labour resources utilised to perform each activity) with the unit cost of each resource used to provide the care. Resource utilisation was estimated by constructing CABG process maps for each site based on observation of care and staff interviews. Unit costs were calculated as a capacity cost rate, measured as a $/min, for each resource consumed in CABG production. Multiplying together the unit costs and resource quantities and summing across all resources used will produce the average cost of CABG production at each site. We will conclude by conducting a variance analysis of labour costs to reveal opportunities to bend the cost curve for CABG production in the USA. Ethics and dissemination All our methods were exempted from review by the Stanford Institutional Review Board. Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at scientific meetings. PMID:26307621

  12. The ability of land owners and their cooperatives to leverage payments greater than opportunity costs from conservation contracts.

    PubMed

    Lennox, Gareth D; Armsworth, Paul R

    2013-06-01

    In negotiations over land-right acquisitions, landowners have an informational advantage over conservation groups because they know more about the opportunity costs of conservation measures on their sites. This advantage creates the possibility that landowners will demand payments greater than the required minimum, where this minimum required payment is known as the landowner’s willingness to accept (WTA). However, in recent studies of conservation costs, researchers have assumed landowners will accept conservation with minimum payments. We investigated the ability of landowners to demand payments above their WTA when a conservation group has identified multiple sites for protection. First, we estimated the maximum payment landowners could potentially demand, which is set when groups of landowners act as a cooperative. Next, through the simulation of conservation auctions, we explored the amount of money above landowners’ WTA (i.e., surplus) that conservation groups could cede to secure conservation agreements, again investigating the influence of landowner cooperatives. The simulations showed the informational advantage landowners held could make conservation investments up to 42% more expensive than suggested by the site WTAs. Moreover, all auctions resulted in landowners obtaining payments greater than their WTA; thus, it may be unrealistic to assume landowners will accept conservation contracts with minimum payments. Of particular significance for species conservation, conservation objectives focused on overall species richness,which therefore recognize site complementarity, create an incentive for land owners to form cooperatives to capture surplus. To the contrary, objectives in which sites are substitutes, such as the maximization of species occurrences, create a disincentive for cooperative formation.

  13. The ability of land owners and their cooperatives to leverage payments greater than opportunity costs from conservation contracts.

    PubMed

    Lennox, Gareth D; Armsworth, Paul R

    2013-06-01

    In negotiations over land-right acquisitions, landowners have an informational advantage over conservation groups because they know more about the opportunity costs of conservation measures on their sites. This advantage creates the possibility that landowners will demand payments greater than the required minimum, where this minimum required payment is known as the landowner’s willingness to accept (WTA). However, in recent studies of conservation costs, researchers have assumed landowners will accept conservation with minimum payments. We investigated the ability of landowners to demand payments above their WTA when a conservation group has identified multiple sites for protection. First, we estimated the maximum payment landowners could potentially demand, which is set when groups of landowners act as a cooperative. Next, through the simulation of conservation auctions, we explored the amount of money above landowners’ WTA (i.e., surplus) that conservation groups could cede to secure conservation agreements, again investigating the influence of landowner cooperatives. The simulations showed the informational advantage landowners held could make conservation investments up to 42% more expensive than suggested by the site WTAs. Moreover, all auctions resulted in landowners obtaining payments greater than their WTA; thus, it may be unrealistic to assume landowners will accept conservation contracts with minimum payments. Of particular significance for species conservation, conservation objectives focused on overall species richness,which therefore recognize site complementarity, create an incentive for land owners to form cooperatives to capture surplus. To the contrary, objectives in which sites are substitutes, such as the maximization of species occurrences, create a disincentive for cooperative formation. PMID:23692023

  14. ED-based screening programs for hepatitis C (HCV) highlight significant opportunity to identify patients, prevent downstream costs/complications.

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    New data suggest there is a huge opportunity for EDs to identify patients with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) and link them into care before downstream complications lead to higher medical costs and adverse outcomes. Early results from a pilot study at the University of Alabama Medical Center in Birmingham show that at least 12% of the targeted baby boomer population being screened for HCV in the ED is testing positive for HCV, with confirmatory tests showing that about 9% of the screened population is infected with the disease. Both the Centers for Disease Control in Atlanta and the US Preventive Services Task Force recommend one-time HCV screening for patients who were born between 1945 and 1965. Public health experts say 75% of HCV infections occur in patients born during the baby boomer years, and that roughly half of them are unaware of their HCV status. Researchers at UAB report that so many patients are testing positive for HCV that demand for care can quickly overwhelm the health system if new primary care/specialty resources are not identified. Administrators of ED-based HCV screening programs in both Birmingham and Houston note that EDs with existing screening programs for HIV should have the easiest time implementing HCV screening. They also stress that patients are more accepting of HCV screening, and that the counseling process is easier. PMID:24432549

  15. Opportunity cost based analysis of corporate eco-efficiency: a methodology and its application to the CO2-efficiency of German companies.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Tobias; Figge, Frank; Liesen, Andrea; Barkemeyer, Ralf

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, we propose the return-to-cost-ratio (RCR) as an alternative approach to the analysis of operational eco-efficiency of companies based on the notion of opportunity costs. RCR helps to overcome two fundamental deficits of existing approaches to eco-efficiency. (1) It translates eco-efficiency into managerial terms by applying the well-established notion of opportunity costs to eco-efficiency analysis. (2) RCR allows to identify and quantify the drivers behind changes in corporate eco-efficiency. RCR is applied to the analysis of the CO(2)-efficiency of German companies in order to illustrate its usefulness for a detailed analysis of changes in corporate eco-efficiency as well as for the development of effective environmental strategies.

  16. Evaluation of Missed Energy Saving Opportunity Based on Illinois Home Performance Program Field Data: Homeowner Selected Upgrades vs. Cost-Optimized Solutions; Chicago, Illinois (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-07-01

    Expanding on previous research by PARR, this study compares measure packages installed during 800 Illinois Home Performance with ENERGY STAR (IHP) residential retrofits to those recommended as cost-optimal by Building Energy Optimization (BEopt) modeling software. In previous research, cost-optimal measure packages were identified for fifteen Chicagoland single family housing archetypes, called housing groups. In the present study, 800 IHP homes are first matched to one of these fifteen housing groups, and then the average measures being installed in each housing group are modeled using BEopt to estimate energy savings. For most housing groups, the differences between recommended and installed measure packages is substantial. By comparing actual IHP retrofit measures to BEopt-recommended cost-optimal measures, missed savings opportunities are identified in some housing groups; also, valuable information is obtained regarding housing groups where IHP achieves greater savings than BEopt-modeled, cost-optimal recommendations. Additionally, a measure-level sensitivity analysis conducted for one housing group reveals which measures may be contributing the most to gas and electric savings. Overall, the study finds not only that for some housing groups, the average IHP retrofit results in more energy savings than would result from cost-optimal, BEopt-recommended measure packages, but also that linking home categorization to standardized retrofit measure packages provides an opportunity to streamline the process for single family home energy retrofits and maximize both energy savings and cost-effectiveness.

  17. Evaluation of Missed Energy Saving Opportunity Based on Illinois Home Performance Program Field Data: Homeowner Selected Upgrades Versus Cost-Optimized Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Yee, S.; Milby, M.; Baker, J.

    2014-06-01

    Expanding on previous research by PARR, this study compares measure packages installed during 800 Illinois Home Performance with ENERGY STAR(R) (IHP) residential retrofits to those recommended as cost-optimal by Building Energy Optimization (BEopt) modeling software. In previous research, cost-optimal measure packages were identified for fifteen Chicagoland single family housing archetypes, called housing groups. In the present study, 800 IHP homes are first matched to one of these fifteen housing groups, and then the average measures being installed in each housing group are modeled using BEopt to estimate energy savings. For most housing groups, the differences between recommended and installed measure packages is substantial. By comparing actual IHP retrofit measures to BEopt-recommended cost-optimal measures, missed savings opportunities are identified in some housing groups; also, valuable information is obtained regarding housing groups where IHP achieves greater savings than BEopt-modeled, cost-optimal recommendations. Additionally, a measure-level sensitivity analysis conducted for one housing group reveals which measures may be contributing the most to gas and electric savings. Overall, the study finds not only that for some housing groups, the average IHP retrofit results in more energy savings than would result from cost-optimal, BEopt recommended measure packages, but also that linking home categorization to standardized retrofit measure packages provides an opportunity to streamline the process for single family home energy retrofits and maximize both energy savings and cost-effectiveness.

  18. Evaluation of Missed Energy Saving Opportunity Based on Illinois Home Performance Program Field Data: Homeowner Selected Upgrades Versus Cost-Optimized Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Yee, S.; Milby, M.; Baker, J.

    2014-06-01

    Expanding on previous research by PARR, this study compares measure packages installed during 800 Illinois Home Performance with ENERGY STAR® (IHP) residential retrofits to those recommended as cost-optimal by Building Energy Optimization (BEopt) modeling software. In previous research, cost-optimal measure packages were identified for 15 Chicagoland single family housing archetypes. In the present study, 800 IHP homes are first matched to one of these 15 housing groups, and then the average measures being installed in each housing group are modeled using BEopt to estimate energy savings. For most housing groups, the differences between recommended and installed measure packages is substantial. By comparing actual IHP retrofit measures to BEopt-recommended cost-optimal measures, missed savings opportunities are identified in some housing groups; also, valuable information is obtained regarding housing groups where IHP achieves greater savings than BEopt-modeled, cost-optimal recommendations. Additionally, a measure-level sensitivity analysis conducted for one housing group reveals which measures may be contributing the most to gas and electric savings. Overall, the study finds not only that for some housing groups, the average IHP retrofit results in more energy savings than would result from cost-optimal, BEopt recommended measure packages, but also that linking home categorization to standardized retrofit measure packages provides an opportunity to streamline the process for single family home energy retrofits and maximize both energy savings and cost effectiveness.

  19. Missing College Attendance Costs: Opportunity, Financing, and Risk. ACT Student Financial Aid Research Report Series 89-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortenson, Thomas G.

    The way in which costs enter the potential college student's calculation of the benefits of college attendance is examined. In particular, the paper considers how costs not considered in financial aid need analysis can increase college attendance costs and thereby decrease net benefits of college attendance for those who use financial aid. The…

  20. Modulation of habitat-based conservation plans by fishery opportunity costs: a New Caledonia case study using fine-scale catch data.

    PubMed

    Deas, Marilyn; Andréfouët, Serge; Léopold, Marc; Guillemot, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Numerous threats impact coral reefs and conservation actions are urgently needed. Fast production of marine habitat maps promotes the use of habitat-only conservation plans, where a given percentage of the area of each habitat is set as conservation objectives. However, marine reserves can impact access to fishing grounds and generate opportunity costs for fishers that need to be minimized. In New Caledonia (Southwest Pacific), we used fine-scale fishery catch maps to define nineteen opportunity costs layers (expressed as biomass catch loss) considering i) total catches, ii) target fish families, iii) local marine tenure, and iv) gear type. The expected lower impacts on fishery catch when using the different cost constraints were ranked according to effectiveness in decreasing the costs generated by the habitat-only scenarios. The exercise was done for two habitat maps with different thematic richness. In most cases, habitat conservation objectives remained achievable, but effectiveness varied widely between scenarios and between habitat maps. The results provide practical guidelines for coral reef conservation and management. Habitat-only scenarios can be used to initiate conservation projects with stakeholders but the costs induced by such scenarios can be lowered by up to 50-60% when detailed exhaustive fishery data are used. When using partial data, the gain would be only in the 15-25% range. The best compromises are achieved when using local data.

  1. Modulation of Habitat-Based Conservation Plans by Fishery Opportunity Costs: A New Caledonia Case Study Using Fine-Scale Catch Data

    PubMed Central

    Deas, Marilyn; Andréfouët, Serge; Léopold, Marc; Guillemot, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Numerous threats impact coral reefs and conservation actions are urgently needed. Fast production of marine habitat maps promotes the use of habitat-only conservation plans, where a given percentage of the area of each habitat is set as conservation objectives. However, marine reserves can impact access to fishing grounds and generate opportunity costs for fishers that need to be minimized. In New Caledonia (Southwest Pacific), we used fine-scale fishery catch maps to define nineteen opportunity costs layers (expressed as biomass catch loss) considering i) total catches, ii) target fish families, iii) local marine tenure, and iv) gear type. The expected lower impacts on fishery catch when using the different cost constraints were ranked according to effectiveness in decreasing the costs generated by the habitat-only scenarios. The exercise was done for two habitat maps with different thematic richness. In most cases, habitat conservation objectives remained achievable, but effectiveness varied widely between scenarios and between habitat maps. The results provide practical guidelines for coral reef conservation and management. Habitat-only scenarios can be used to initiate conservation projects with stakeholders but the costs induced by such scenarios can be lowered by up to 50–60% when detailed exhaustive fishery data are used. When using partial data, the gain would be only in the 15–25% range. The best compromises are achieved when using local data. PMID:24835216

  2. Agribusiness Opportunity Costs and Environmental Legal Protection: Investigating Trade-Off on Hotspot Preservation in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igari, Alexandre Toshiro; Tambosi, Leandro Reverberi; Pivello, Vânia Regina

    2009-08-01

    Prior to deforestation, São Paulo State had 79,000 km2 covered by Cerrado (Brazilian savanna) physiognomies, but today less than 8.5% of this biodiversity hotspot remains, mostly in private lands. The global demand for agricultural goods has imposed strong pressure on natural areas, and the economic decisions of agribusiness managers are crucial to the fate of Cerrado domain remaining areas (CDRA) in Brazil. Our aim was to investigate the effectiveness of Brazilian private protected areas policy, and to propose a feasible alternative to promote CDRA protection. This article assessed the main agribusiness opportunity costs for natural areas preservation: the land use profitability and the arable land price. The CDRA percentage and the opportunity costs were estimated for 349 municipal districts of São Paulo State through secondary spatial data and profitability values of 38 main agricultural products. We found that Brazilian private protected areas policy fails to preserve CDRA, although the values of non-compliance fines were higher than average opportunity costs. The scenario with very restrictive laws on private protected areas and historical high interest rates allowed us to conceive a feasible cross compliance proposal to improve environmental and agricultural policies.

  3. Agribusiness opportunity costs and environmental legal protection: investigating trade-off on hotspot preservation in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Igari, Alexandre Toshiro; Tambosi, Leandro Reverberi; Pivello, Vânia Regina

    2009-08-01

    Prior to deforestation, São Paulo State had 79,000 km(2) covered by Cerrado (Brazilian savanna) physiognomies, but today less than 8.5% of this biodiversity hotspot remains, mostly in private lands. The global demand for agricultural goods has imposed strong pressure on natural areas, and the economic decisions of agribusiness managers are crucial to the fate of Cerrado domain remaining areas (CDRA) in Brazil. Our aim was to investigate the effectiveness of Brazilian private protected areas policy, and to propose a feasible alternative to promote CDRA protection. This article assessed the main agribusiness opportunity costs for natural areas preservation: the land use profitability and the arable land price. The CDRA percentage and the opportunity costs were estimated for 349 municipal districts of São Paulo State through secondary spatial data and profitability values of 38 main agricultural products. We found that Brazilian private protected areas policy fails to preserve CDRA, although the values of non-compliance fines were higher than average opportunity costs. The scenario with very restrictive laws on private protected areas and historical high interest rates allowed us to conceive a feasible cross compliance proposal to improve environmental and agricultural policies.

  4. Evaluating Opportunities for Achieving Cost Efficiencies Through the Introduction of PrePex Device Male Circumcision in Adult VMMC Programs in Zambia and Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Chintu, Naminga; Yano, Nanako; Mugurungi, Owen; Tambatamba, Bushimbwa; Ncube, Gertrude; Xaba, Sinokuthemba; Mpasela, Felton; Muguza, Edward; Mangono, Tichakunda; Madidi, Ngonidzashe; Samona, Alick; Tagar, Elva; Hatzold, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Results from recent costing studies have put into question potential Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision (VMMC) cost savings with the introduction of the PrePex device. Methods: We evaluated the cost drivers and the overall unit cost of VMMC for a variety of service delivery models providing either surgical VMMC or both PrePex and surgery using current program data in Zimbabwe and Zambia. In Zimbabwe, 3 hypothetical PrePex only models were also included. For all models, clients aged 18 years and older were assumed to be medically eligible for PrePex and uptake was based on current program data from sites providing both methods. Direct costs included costs for consumables, including surgical VMMC kits for the forceps-guided method, device (US $12), human resources, demand creation, supply chain, waste management, training, and transport. Results: Results for both countries suggest limited potential for PrePex to generate cost savings when adding the device to current surgical service delivery models. However, results for the hypothetical rural Integrated PrePex model in Zimbabwe suggest the potential for material unit cost savings (US $35 per VMMC vs. US $65–69 for existing surgical models). Conclusions: This analysis illustrates that models designed to leverage PrePex's advantages, namely the potential for integrating services in rural clinics and less stringent infrastructure requirements, may present opportunities for improved cost efficiency and service integration. Countries seeking to scale up VMMC in rural settings might consider integrating PrePex only MC services at the primary health care level to reduce costs while also increasing VMMC access and coverage. PMID:27331598

  5. Opportunities for Efficiency and Innovation: A Primer on How to Cut College Costs. Working Paper 2011-02

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fried, Vance H.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the author explores how colleges whose primary mission is undergraduate education can strategically allocate resources in a way that reduces costs and prioritizes teaching and learning. He starts from a provocative thought-experiment--what would it cost to educate undergraduates at a hypothetical college built from scratch?--and uses…

  6. Is the Juice Worth the Squeeze? A Benefit/Cost Analysis of the District of Columbia Opportunity Scholarship Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Patrick J.; McShane, Michael

    2013-01-01

    School voucher programs have become a prominent aspect of the education policy landscape in the United States. The DC Opportunity Scholarship Program is the only federally funded voucher program in the United States. Since 2004 it has offered publicly funded private school vouchers to nearly four thousand students to attend any of seventy-three…

  7. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the U.S. Iron and Steel Industry An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Blinde, Paul; Neelis, Maarten; Blomen, Eliane; Masanet, Eric

    2010-10-21

    Energy is an important cost factor in the U.S iron and steel industry. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. iron and steel industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. A discussion of the structure, production trends, energy consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions of the iron and steel industry is provided along with a description of the major process technologies used within the industry. Next, a wide variety of energy efficiency measures are described. Many measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in the steel and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. iron and steel industry reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures?and on their applicability to different production practices?is needed to assess their cost effectiveness at individual plants.

  8. Opportunity fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Lutwen, R.C.

    1994-12-31

    Opportunity fuels - fuels that can be converted to other forms of energy at lower cost than standard fossil fuels - are discussed in outline form. The type and source of fuels, types of fuels, combustability, methods of combustion, refinery wastes, petroleum coke, garbage fuels, wood wastes, tires, and economics are discussed.

  9. Opportunity fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Lutwen, R.C.

    1996-12-31

    The paper consists of viewgraphs from a conference presentation. A comparison is made of opportunity fuels, defined as fuels that can be converted to other forms of energy at lower cost than standard fossil fuels. Types of fuels for which some limited technical data is provided include petroleum coke, garbage, wood waste, and tires. Power plant economics and pollution concerns are listed for each fuel, and compared to coal and natural gas power plant costs. A detailed cost breakdown for different plant types is provided for use in base fuel pricing.

  10. Energy efficiency improvement and cost saving opportunities for the Corn Wet Milling Industry: An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst; Ruth, Michael

    2003-07-01

    Corn wet milling is the most energy intensive industry within the food and kindred products group (SIC 20), using 15 percent of the energy in the entire food industry. After corn, energy is the second largest operating cost for corn wet millers in the United States. A typical corn wet milling plant in the United States spends approximately $20 to $30 million per year on energy, making energy efficiency improvement an important way to reduce costs and increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy-price volatility. This report shows energy efficiency opportunities available for wet corn millers. It begins with descriptions of the trends, structure and production of the corn wet milling industry and the energy used in the milling and refining process. Specific primary energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies of plants and references to technical literature are provided. If available, typical payback periods are also listed. The report draws upon the experiences of corn, wheat and other starch processing plants worldwide for energy efficiency measures. The findings suggest that given available resources and technology, there are opportunities to reduce energy consumption cost-effectively in the corn wet milling industry while maintaining the quality of the products manufactured. Further research on the economics of the measures, as well as the applicability of these to different wet milling practices, is needed to assess the feasibility of implementation of selected technologies at individual plants.

  11. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Vehicle Assembly Industry: An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst

    2008-01-01

    The motor vehicle industry in the U.S. spends about $3.6 billion on energy annually. In this report, we focus on auto assembly plants. In the U.S., over 70 assembly plants currently produce 13 million cars and trucks each year. In assembly plants, energy expenditures is a relatively small cost factor in the total production process. Still, as manufacturers face an increasingly competitive environment, energy efficiency improvements can provide a means to reduce costs without negatively affecting the yield or the quality of the product. In addition, reducing energy costs reduces the unpredictability associated with variable energy prices in today?s marketplace, which could negatively affect predictable earnings, an important element for publicly-traded companies such as those in the motor vehicle industry. In this report, we first present a summary of the motor vehicle assembly process and energy use. This is followed by a discussion of energy efficiency opportunities available for assembly plants. Where available, we provide specific primary energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies, as well as references to technical literature. If available, we have listed costs and typical payback periods. We include experiences of assembly plants worldwide with energy efficiency measures reviewed in the report. Our findings suggest that although most motor vehicle companies in the U.S. have energy management teams or programs, there are still opportunities available at individual plants to reduce energy consumption cost effectively. Further research on the economics of the measures for individual assembly plants, as part of an energy management program, is needed to assess the potential impact of selected technologies at these plants.

  12. NASA's Flight Opportunities Program

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Flight Opportunities Program is facilitating low-cost access to suborbital space, where researchers can test technologies using commercially developed vehicles. Suborbital flights can quickl...

  13. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for Cement Making. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

    2008-01-01

    The cost of energy as part of the total production costs in the cement industry is significant, warranting attention for energy efficiency to improve the bottom line. Historically, energy intensity has declined, although more recently energy intensity seems to have stabilized with the gains. Coal and coke are currently the primary fuels for the sector, supplanting the dominance of natural gas in the 1970s. Most recently, there is a slight increase in the use of waste fuels, including tires. Between 1970 and 1999, primary physical energy intensity for cement production dropped 1 percent/year from 7.3 MBtu/short ton to 5.3 MBtu/short ton. Carbon dioxide intensity due to fuel consumption and raw material calcination dropped 16 percent, from 609 lb. C/ton of cement (0.31 tC/tonne) to 510 lb. C/ton cement (0.26 tC/tonne). Despite the historic progress, there is ample room for energy efficiency improvement. The relatively high share of wet-process plants (25 percent of clinker production in 1999 in the U.S.) suggests the existence of a considerable potential, when compared to other industrialized countries. We examined over 40 energy efficient technologies and measures and estimated energy savings, carbon dioxide savings, investment costs, and operation and maintenance costs for each of the measures. The report describes the measures and experiences of cement plants around the wold with these practices and technologies. Substantial potential for energy efficiency improvement exists in the cement industry and in individual plants. A portion of this potential will be achieved as part of (natural) modernization and expansion of existing facilities, as well as construction of new plants in particular regions. Still, a relatively large potential for improved energy management practices exists.

  14. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Neelis, Maarten; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2008-09-01

    Energy is the most important cost factor in the U.S petrochemical industry, defined in this guide as the chemical industry sectors producing large volume basic and intermediate organic chemicals as well as large volume plastics. The sector spent about $10 billion on fuels and electricity in 2004. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. petrochemical industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the petrochemical industry is provided along with a description of the major process technologies used within the industry. Next, a wide variety of energy efficiency measures are described. Many measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in the petrochemical and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. petrochemical industry reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures--and on their applicability to different production practices--is needed to assess their cost effectiveness at individual plants.

  15. Blue Heron Paper Company: Oregon Mill Uses Model-Based Energy Assessment to Identify Energy and Cost Savings Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    2004-04-01

    Blue Heron Paper Company conducted a model-based energy assessment (MEA) to determine how to reduce effluent flow and heat load, minimize fresh water, and reduce process energy use at the company's Oregon City, Oregon, paper mill. Assessment staff recommended 15 projects, 7 of which the company considered. These projects would save an estimated 608,161 million British thermal units per year in natural gas and 990 kilowatt hours per year in electricity. Corresponding annual cost savings would be about $2.9 million per year. Furthermore, by reducing fuel requirements for the plant steam system, Blue Heron would also reduce stack gas emissions.

  16. Blue Heron Paper Company: Oregon Mill Uses Model-Based Energy Assessment to Identify Energy and Cost Savings Opportunities (Revision)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-04-01

    Blue Heron Paper Company conducted a model-based energy assessment (MEA) to determine how to reduce effluent flow and heat load, minimize fresh water, and reduce process energy use at the company's Oregon City, Oregon, paper mill. Assessment staff recommended 15 projects, 7 of which the company considered. These projects would save an estimated 608,161 million British thermal units per year in natural gas and 990 kilowatt hours per year in electricity. Corresponding annual cost savings would be about $2.9 million per year. Furthermore, by reducing fuel requirements for the plant steam system, Blue Heron would also reduce stack gas emissions.

  17. Opportunities for Low Cost Titanium in Reduced Fuel Consumption, Improved Emissions, and Enhanced Durability Heavy Duty Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Kraft, E.H.

    2002-07-22

    The purpose of this study was to determine which components of heavy-duty highway vehicles are candidates for the substitution of titanium materials for current materials if the cost of those Ti components is very significantly reduced from current levels. The processes which could be used to produce those low cost components were also investigated. Heavy-duty highway vehicles are defined as all trucks and busses included in Classes 2C through 8. These include heavy pickups and vans above 8,500 lbs. GVWR, through highway tractor trailers. Class 8 is characterized as being a very cyclic market, with ''normal'' year volume, such as in 2000, of approximately 240,000 new vehicles. Classes 3-7 are less cyclic, with ''normal'' i.e., year 2000, volume totaling approximately 325,000 new vehicles. Classes 3-8 are powered about 88.5% by diesel engines, and Class 2C at very roughly 83% diesel. The engine portion of the study therefore focused on diesels. Vehicle production volumes were used in estimates of the market size for candidate components.

  18. Cured of primary bone cancer, but at what cost: a qualitative study of functional impairment and lost opportunities.

    PubMed

    Fauske, Lena; Bruland, Oyvind S; Grov, Ellen Karine; Bondevik, Hilde

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Our study aims to explore how former cancer patients experience physical and psychosocial late effects 3-7 years after they underwent treatment for primary bone sarcoma in the hip/pelvic region. A qualitative, phenomenological, and hermeneutic design was applied. Methods. Sarcoma survivors (n = 10) previously treated at Oslo University Hospital, Norwegian Radium Hospital were selected to participate. In-depth and semistructured interviews were conducted. The interviews were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. Results. The participants reported that the late effects had three core spheres of impact: "their current daily life," "their future opportunities," and "their identity." They expressed negative changes in activity, increased dependence on others, and exclusion from participation in different areas. Their daily life, work, sports activities, and social life were all affected. Several of their experiences are similar to those described by people with functional impairment or disability. Conclusion. Patients cured of bone cancer in the hip/pelvic region pay a significant price in terms of functional impairment, practical challenges, exclusion from important aspects of life, and loss of previous identity. It is important to appreciate this in order to help bone cancer survivors who struggle to reorient their life and build a secure new identity.

  19. Cured of Primary Bone Cancer, But at What Cost: A Qualitative Study of Functional Impairment and Lost Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Fauske, Lena; Bruland, Oyvind S.; Grov, Ellen Karine; Bondevik, Hilde

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Our study aims to explore how former cancer patients experience physical and psychosocial late effects 3–7 years after they underwent treatment for primary bone sarcoma in the hip/pelvic region. A qualitative, phenomenological, and hermeneutic design was applied. Methods. Sarcoma survivors (n = 10) previously treated at Oslo University Hospital, Norwegian Radium Hospital were selected to participate. In-depth and semistructured interviews were conducted. The interviews were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. Results. The participants reported that the late effects had three core spheres of impact: “their current daily life,” “their future opportunities,” and “their identity.” They expressed negative changes in activity, increased dependence on others, and exclusion from participation in different areas. Their daily life, work, sports activities, and social life were all affected. Several of their experiences are similar to those described by people with functional impairment or disability. Conclusion. Patients cured of bone cancer in the hip/pelvic region pay a significant price in terms of functional impairment, practical challenges, exclusion from important aspects of life, and loss of previous identity. It is important to appreciate this in order to help bone cancer survivors who struggle to reorient their life and build a secure new identity. PMID:25949211

  20. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Fruit and Vegetable Processing Industry. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Masanet, Eric; Masanet, Eric; Worrell, Ernst; Graus, Wina; Galitsky, Christina

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. fruit and vegetable processing industry--defined in this Energy Guide as facilities engaged in the canning, freezing, and drying or dehydrating of fruits and vegetables--consumes over $800 million worth of purchased fuels and electricity per year. Energy efficiency improvement isan important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. fruit and vegetable processing industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the U.S. fruit and vegetable processing industry is provided along with a description of the major process technologies used within the industry. Next, a wide variety of energy efficiency measures applicable to fruit and vegetable processing plants are described. Many measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in fruit and vegetable processing facilities and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. Given the importance of water in fruit and vegetable processing, a summary of basic, proven measures for improving plant-level water efficiency are also provided. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. fruit and vegetable processing industry reduce energy and water consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures--as well as on their applicability to different production

  1. Formosa Plastics Corporation: Plant-Wide Assessment of Texas Plant Identifies Opportunities for Improving Process Efficiency and Reducing Energy Costs

    SciTech Connect

    2005-01-01

    At Formosa Plastics Corporation's plant in Point Comfort, Texas, a plant-wide assessment team analyzed process energy requirements, reviewed new technologies for applicability, and found ways to improve the plant's energy efficiency. The assessment team identified the energy requirements of each process and compared actual energy consumption with theoretical process requirements. The team estimated that total annual energy savings would be about 115,000 MBtu for natural gas and nearly 14 million kWh for electricity if the plant makes several improvements, which include upgrading the gas compressor impeller, improving the vent blower system, and recovering steam condensate for reuse. Total annual cost savings could be $1.5 million. The U.S. Department of Energy's Industrial Technologies Program cosponsored this assessment.

  2. Opportunities and Challenges for Cost-Efficient Implementation of New Point-of-Care Diagnostics for HIV and Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Trevor F.; Cavanaugh, Sean; Piatek, Amy S.; Young, Gloria J.; Alexander, Heather; Coggin, William; Domingo, Gonzalo J.; Ellenberger, Dennis; Ermantraut, Eugen; Jani, Ilesh V.; Katamba, Achilles; Palamountain, Kara M.; Essajee, Shaffiq; Dowdy, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Stakeholders agree that supporting high-quality diagnostics is essential if we are to continue to make strides in the fight against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis. Despite the need to strengthen existing laboratory infrastructure, which includes expanding and developing new laboratories, there are clear diagnostic needs where conventional laboratory support is insufficient. Regarding HIV, rapid point-of-care (POC) testing for initial HIV diagnosis has been successful, but several needs remain. For tuberculosis, several new diagnostic tests have recently been endorsed by the World Health Organization, but a POC test remains elusive. Human immunodeficiency virus and tuberculosis are coendemic in many high prevalence locations, making parallel diagnosis of these conditions an important consideration. Despite its clear advantages, POC testing has important limitations, and laboratory-based testing will continue to be an important component of future diagnostic networks. Ideally, a strategic deployment plan should be used to define where and how POC technologies can be most efficiently and cost effectively integrated into diagnostic algorithms and existing test networks prior to widespread scale-up. In this fashion, the global community can best harness the tremendous capacity of novel diagnostics in fighting these 2 scourges. PMID:22457286

  3. Identifying the spatial and temporal variability of economic opportunity costs to promote the adoption of alternative land uses in grain growing agricultural areas: an Australian example.

    PubMed

    Lyle, G; Bryan, B A; Ostendorf, B

    2015-05-15

    Grain growers face many future challenges requiring them to adapt their land uses to changing economic, social and environmental conditions. To understand where to make on ground changes without significant negative financial repercussions, high resolution information on income generation over time is required. We propose a methodology which utilises high resolution yield data collected with precision agriculture (PA) technology, gross margin financial analysis and a temporal standardisation technique to highlight the spatial and temporal consistency of farm income. On three neighbouring farms in Western Australia, we found non-linear relationships between income and area. Spatio-temporal analysis on one farm over varying seasons found that between 37 and 49% (1082-1433ha) of cropping area consistently produced above the selected income thresholds and 43-32% (936-1257ha) regularly produced below selected thresholds. Around 20% of area showed inconsistent temporal variation in income generation. Income estimated from these areas represents the income forgone if a land use change is undertaken (the economic opportunity cost) and the average costs varied spatially from $190±114/ha to $560±108/ha depending on what scenario was chosen. The interaction over space and time showed the clustering of areas with similar values at a resolution where growers make input decisions. This new evidence suggests that farm area could be managed with two strategies: (a) one that maximises grain output using PA management in temporally stable areas which generate moderate to high income returns and (b) one that proposes land use change in low and inconsistent income returning areas where the financial returns from an alternative land use may be comparable. The adoption of these strategies can help growers meet the demand for agricultural output and offer income diversity and adaptive capacity to deal with the future challenges to agricultural production.

  4. Identifying the spatial and temporal variability of economic opportunity costs to promote the adoption of alternative land uses in grain growing agricultural areas: an Australian example.

    PubMed

    Lyle, G; Bryan, B A; Ostendorf, B

    2015-05-15

    Grain growers face many future challenges requiring them to adapt their land uses to changing economic, social and environmental conditions. To understand where to make on ground changes without significant negative financial repercussions, high resolution information on income generation over time is required. We propose a methodology which utilises high resolution yield data collected with precision agriculture (PA) technology, gross margin financial analysis and a temporal standardisation technique to highlight the spatial and temporal consistency of farm income. On three neighbouring farms in Western Australia, we found non-linear relationships between income and area. Spatio-temporal analysis on one farm over varying seasons found that between 37 and 49% (1082-1433ha) of cropping area consistently produced above the selected income thresholds and 43-32% (936-1257ha) regularly produced below selected thresholds. Around 20% of area showed inconsistent temporal variation in income generation. Income estimated from these areas represents the income forgone if a land use change is undertaken (the economic opportunity cost) and the average costs varied spatially from $190±114/ha to $560±108/ha depending on what scenario was chosen. The interaction over space and time showed the clustering of areas with similar values at a resolution where growers make input decisions. This new evidence suggests that farm area could be managed with two strategies: (a) one that maximises grain output using PA management in temporally stable areas which generate moderate to high income returns and (b) one that proposes land use change in low and inconsistent income returning areas where the financial returns from an alternative land use may be comparable. The adoption of these strategies can help growers meet the demand for agricultural output and offer income diversity and adaptive capacity to deal with the future challenges to agricultural production. PMID:25836353

  5. Estimating the opportunity costs of environmental conservation in the Feijão River watershed (São Carlos-SP, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Machado, F H; Mattedi, A P; Dupas, F A; Silva, L F; Vergara, F E

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to infer the opportunity cost of land use of the Feijão River watershed (São Carlos-SP, Brazil), in order to estimate the financial resources necessary to compensate landowners willing to convert their production areas into areas of environmental preservation. Net values were estimated by calculating the Annual Value and the Net Present Value of each activity. The area used for agricultural production was estimated using the Land Cover Map of the watershed. The study involved four production areas: forestry, livestock, sugarcane and orange, accounting for 66% of the watershed area of 22,300 hectares. Considering a scenario of total consent from landowners, the 2011 net annual values were estimated at R$ 13.4 million: R$ 2.2 million (eucalyptus), R$ 1.9 million (livestock), R$ 1.1 million (sugarcane) and R$ 8.2 million (orange). This amount would be used as payment for ecosystem services. PMID:26909620

  6. Opportunity cost: the impact of contextual risk factors on the cardiovascular health of low-income rural southern African American women.

    PubMed

    Appel, Susan J; Giger, Joyce Newman; Davidhizar, Ruth Elaine

    2005-01-01

    Low-income rural southern African American women experience a high prevalence of morbidity and mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD) as well as other related cardiovascular (CV) diseases. Few models have taken into account the full impact of the contextual influences encountered on a daily basis by these women, and the effect of these influences on their CV health status. There are clearly demarcated examples of existing health disparities that occur in various ethnic/racial, underserved, and vulnerable populations. Yet, to date, there is no conceptual model that offers a plausible explanation as to why health disparities exist. Consequently, there is a lack of guidance as to where interventions should be focused for effective CV risk reduction. Because African American women continue to die at a disproportionately higher rate, and at earlier ages than do Caucasian women, it is imperative that new theoretical models capable of driving empirically based interventions be developed, tested, and implemented. One possible choice is the conceptual model proposed in this article. The model is based on the interrelationships between contextual risk factors, rational choice theory (RCT), and opportunity cost. Conceivably, this model may serve as a foundation to ground conceptual thought and drive theory-based interventions to reduce the health disparities in the CV health of low-income rural southern African American women. A model is presented in an attempt to provide guidance for advanced practice nurses who must struggle with addressing the critical need to reduce ethnic and race-associated CV health disparities. PMID:16141776

  7. Opportunities with thermoplastics.

    PubMed

    Vaahs, Tilo

    2003-04-01

    Whether as substitutes for glass and metal, or completely novel injection moulded applications, engineering polymers offer a range of opportunities for developing cost-effective, safe and smart medical devices.

  8. Desalting ``opportunity crudes``

    SciTech Connect

    Dion, M.A.

    1995-09-01

    The escalating cost of environmental compliance, combined with fluctuating market conditions, have refiners struggling to remain profitable. To help maintain profitability, many refiners are realigning their processes and resources to allow them to run heavier, lower cost, opportunity crudes. Many of these heavier crudes are difficult to desalt (due to the lower density difference between the crude and water), and can significantly contribute to downstream corrosion, fouling and catalyst poisoning. Consequently, effective desalting is a critical first step to successfully processing these crudes. The real challenge when desalting these crudes is to maintain clean effluent brine and at the same time minimize total operating costs. Lose control of either, and the economic benefit of processing opportunity crudes in the first place can be diminished. This paper will discuss how recent technological advancements, specifically emulsion polymers combined with a patented split feed application technique, can help maintain optimum desalter performance and minimize overall treatment costs when processing opportunity crudes.

  9. Existing Whole-House Case Study: Evaluation of Missed Energy Saving Opportunity Based on Illinois Home Performance Program Field Data: Homeowner Selected Upgrades vs. Cost-Optimized Solutions, Chicago, Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    2014-07-01

    Expanding on previous research by PARR, this study compares measure packages installed during 800 Illinois Home Performance with ENERGY STAR® (IHP) residential retrofits to those recommended as cost-optimal by Building Energy Optimization (BEopt) modeling software. In previous research, cost-optimal measure packages were identified for 15 Chicagoland single family housing archetypes, called housing groups. In the present study, 800 IHP homes are first matched to one of these 15 housing groups, and then the average measures being installed in each housing group are modeled using BEopt to estimate energy savings. For most housing groups, the differences between recommended and installed measure packages is substantial. By comparing actual IHP retrofit measures to BEopt-recommended cost-optimal measures, missed savings opportunities are identified in some housing groups; also, valuable information is obtained regarding housing groups where IHP achieves greater savings than BEopt-modeled, cost-optimal recommendations.

  10. Maintenance of State Effort for Higher Education: "Barriers to Equal Educational Opportunity in Addressing the Rising Costs of a College Education"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, F. King

    2011-01-01

    A Maintenance of Effort (MOE) provision for higher education was first adopted in the Higher Education Opportunity Act of 2008 and was included as a requirement for states to participate in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA). The information in this article was presented before the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on…

  11. Seizing Opportunity: "Opportunity as Transformation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Michael; Muller, Esther

    2012-01-01

    Opportunity creates conditions for achievement. We learn daily of the success of others that resulted from conditions they created through opportunity. Often these conditions of opportunity are the product of a compelling vision of a future steeped in possibility and rich in reward. These visions, however, must be operationalized in order to be…

  12. Residential, Commercial, and Utility-Scale Photovoltaic (PV) System Prices in the United States: Current Drivers and Cost-Reduction Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrich, A.; James, T.; Woodhouse, M.

    2012-02-01

    The price of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States (i.e., the cost to the system owner) has dropped precipitously in recent years, led by substantial reductions in global PV module prices. However, system cost reductions are not necessarily realized or realized in a timely manner by many customers. Many reasons exist for the apparent disconnects between installation costs, component prices, and system prices; most notable is the impact of fair market value considerations on system prices. To guide policy and research and development strategy decisions, it is necessary to develop a granular perspective on the factors that underlie PV system prices and to eliminate subjective pricing parameters. This report's analysis of the overnight capital costs (cash purchase) paid for PV systems attempts to establish an objective methodology that most closely approximates the book value of PV system assets.

  13. Metaldyne. Plant-Wide Assessment at Royal Oak Finds Opportunities to Improve Manufacturing Effciency, Reduce Energy Use, and Achieve Sigificant Cost Savings

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2005-05-01

    This case study prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy's Industrial Technologies Program describes a plant-wide energy assessment conducted at the Metaldyne, Inc., forging plant in Royal Oak, Michigan. The assessment focused on reducing the plant's operating costs, inventory, and energy use. If the company were to implement all the recommendations that came out of the assessment, its total annual energy savings for electricity would be about 11.5 million kWh and annual cost savings would be $12.6 million.

  14. Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness: Opportunities and Potential for Near-term Cost Reductions; Proceedings of the Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness Workshop and Summary of Feedback Provided through the Hydrogen Station Cost Calculator

    SciTech Connect

    Melaina, M. W.; Steward, D.; Penev, M.; McQueen, S.; Jaffe, S.; Talon, C.

    2012-08-01

    Recent progress with fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) has focused attention on hydrogen infrastructure as a critical commercialization barrier. With major automakers focused on 2015 as a target timeframe for global FCEV commercialization, the window of opportunity is short for establishing a sufficient network of hydrogen stations to support large-volume vehicle deployments. This report describes expert feedback on the market readiness of hydrogen infrastructure technology from two activities.

  15. Reducing hospital expenditures with the COPE (Creating Opportunities for Parent Empowerment) program for parents and premature infants: an analysis of direct healthcare neonatal intensive care unit costs and savings.

    PubMed

    Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek; Feinstein, Nancy Fischbeck

    2009-01-01

    More than 500,000 premature infants are born in the United States every year. Preterm birth results in a multitude of negative adverse outcomes for children, including extended stays in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), developmental delays, physical and mental health/behavioral problems, increased medical utilization, and poor academic performance. In addition, parents of preterms experience a higher incidence of depression and anxiety disorders along with altered parent-infant interactions and overprotective parenting, which negatively impact their children. The costs associated with preterm birth are exorbitant. In 2005, it is estimated that preterm birth cost the United States $26.2 billion. The purpose of this study was to perform a cost analysis of the Creating Opportunities for Parent Empowerment (COPE) program for parents of premature infants, a manualized educational-behavioral intervention program comprising audiotaped information and an activity workbook that is administered to parents in 4 phases, the first phase commencing 2 to 4 days after admission to the NICU. Findings indicated that the COPE program resulted in cost savings of at least $4864 per infant. In addition to improving parent and child outcomes, routine implementation of COPE in NICUs across the United States could save the healthcare system more than $2 billion per year.

  16. Reducing hospital expenditures with the COPE (Creating Opportunities for Parent Empowerment) program for parents and premature infants: an analysis of direct healthcare neonatal intensive care unit costs and savings.

    PubMed

    Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek; Feinstein, Nancy Fischbeck

    2009-01-01

    More than 500,000 premature infants are born in the United States every year. Preterm birth results in a multitude of negative adverse outcomes for children, including extended stays in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), developmental delays, physical and mental health/behavioral problems, increased medical utilization, and poor academic performance. In addition, parents of preterms experience a higher incidence of depression and anxiety disorders along with altered parent-infant interactions and overprotective parenting, which negatively impact their children. The costs associated with preterm birth are exorbitant. In 2005, it is estimated that preterm birth cost the United States $26.2 billion. The purpose of this study was to perform a cost analysis of the Creating Opportunities for Parent Empowerment (COPE) program for parents of premature infants, a manualized educational-behavioral intervention program comprising audiotaped information and an activity workbook that is administered to parents in 4 phases, the first phase commencing 2 to 4 days after admission to the NICU. Findings indicated that the COPE program resulted in cost savings of at least $4864 per infant. In addition to improving parent and child outcomes, routine implementation of COPE in NICUs across the United States could save the healthcare system more than $2 billion per year. PMID:19092521

  17. Early infant HIV-1 diagnosis programs in resource-limited settings: opportunities for improved outcomes and more cost-effective interventions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Early infant diagnosis (EID) of HIV-1 infection confers substantial benefits to HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected infants, to their families, and to programs providing prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services, but has been challenging to implement in resource-limited settings. In order to correctly inform parents/caregivers of infant infection status and link HIV-infected infants to care and treatment, a 'cascade' of events must successfully occur. A frequently cited barrier to expansion of EID programs is the cost of the required laboratory assays. However, substantial implementation barriers, as well as personnel and infrastructure requirements, exist at each step in the cascade. In this update, we review challenges to uptake at each step in the EID cascade, highlighting that even with the highest reported levels of uptake, nearly half of HIV-infected infants may not complete the cascade successfully. We next synthesize the available literature about the costs and cost effectiveness of EID programs; identify areas for future research; and place these findings within the context of the benefits and challenges to EID implementation in resource-limited settings. PMID:21599888

  18. Wind Technologies & Evolving Opportunities (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Robichaud, R.

    2014-07-01

    This presentation covers opportunities for wind technology; wind energy market trends; an overview of the National Wind Technology Center near Boulder, Colorado; wind energy price and cost trends; wind turbine technology improvements; and wind resource characterization improvements.

  19. Financial Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-19

    The Water Power Program focuses on technological development, and deployment of innovative technologies capable of generating electricity from water. The program funds research and development activities through competitive solicitations. Financial opportunities are avaliable here.

  20. Don't know, don't care: medical students' knowledge of and attitudes toward military medical career opportunities and medical educational cost reimbursement.

    PubMed

    Lajewski, W M; Liman, J P; Swan, K G; Staton, S M

    1997-12-01

    We assessed indebtedness of graduating physicians and dentists in the class of 1996, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, and found the percentage of students with debt to average 80% (range, 77-84%) among the five schools of the university. Mean indebtedness was $73,000 per student. We then surveyed the graduates of one of the four medical schools in the university (New Jersey Medical School) regarding attitudes toward established programs for financial assistance to medical students and physicians and alleviation of educational indebtedness in return for military service. More than half (57%) of the students were unaware of any program that would repay part of their educational loans in return for military service. Of those who professed such knowledge, few could name the programs. A similar number of students (55% of the graduates) said that they would not consider serving in the military under any circumstances. Despite considerable indebtedness among today's medical students, most do not know about career opportunities offering financial assistance with tuition or educational loans in return for military service. Worse yet, they do not care.

  1. PV opportunities in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Jack L.; Ullal, Harin S.

    1996-01-01

    The growing middle class in India, coupled with a need for electricity to provide basic services to the masses, provides an opportunity to deploy photovoltaic systems in cost-effective applications ranging from grid-connected to isolated location requirements. This need is being satisfied by aggressive government programs, the availability of funds from agencies such as the World Bank, and the desire of Indian industries to form joint ventures for in-country manufacturing. The relaxed restrictions on doing business in India makes today's opportunities timely indeed.

  2. Enhancing Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Michelle J.

    1994-01-01

    Hispanics can enhance their professional career by finding jobs with corporations that offer to pay for graduate tuition. This opportunity has positively influenced the careers of many Hispanics and has proven advantageous for corporations as well by increasing the knowledge and skills of their employees. (LP)

  3. Unequal opportunities.

    PubMed

    Trueland, Jennifer

    There are concerns that the reorganisation of the NHS will reduce opportunities for BME nurses to reach senior positions. This article considers the varied experiences of front line nurses. Several have been passed over for promotion, others have experienced overt racism from patients, while some have never felt discriminated against.

  4. Computers and Social Knowledge; Opportunities and Opportunity Cost.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartoonian, Michael

    Educators must use computers to move society beyond the information age and toward the age of wisdom. The movement toward knowledge and wisdom constitutes an evolution beyond the "third wave" or electronic/information age, the phase of history in which, according to Alvin Toffler, we are now living. We are already moving into a fourth wave, the…

  5. Opportunity's Path

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This Long Term Planning graphic was created from a mosaic of navigation camera images overlain by a polar coordinate grid with the center point as Opportunity's original landing site. The blue dots represent the rover position at various locations.

    The red dots represent the center points of the target areas for the instruments on the rover mast (the panoramic camera and miniature thermal emission spectrometer). Opportunity visited Stone Mountain on Feb. 5. Stone Mountain was named after the southernmost point of the Appalachian Mountains outside of Atlanta, Ga. On Earth, Stone Mountain is the last big mountain before the Piedmont flatlands, and on Mars, Stone Mountain is at one end of Opportunity Ledge. El Capitan is a target of interest on Mars named after the second highest peak in Texas in Guadaloupe National Park, which is one of the most visited outcrops in the United States by geologists. It has been a training ground for students and professional geologists to understand what the layering means in relation to the formation of Earth, and scientists will study this prominent point of Opportunity Ledge to understand what the layering means on Mars.

    The yellow lines show the midpoint where the panoramic camera has swept and will sweep a 120-degree area from the three waypoints on the tour of the outcrop. Imagine a fan-shaped wedge from left to right of the yellow line.

    The white contour lines are one meter apart, and each drive has been roughly about 2-3 meters in length over the last few sols. The large white blocks are dropouts in the navigation camera data.

    Opportunity is driving along and taking a photographic panorama of the entire outcrop. Scientists will stitch together these images and use the new mosaic as a 'base map' to decide on geology targets of interest for a more detailed study of the outcrop using the instruments on the robotic arm. Once scientists choose their targets of interest, they plan to study the outcrop for roughly five to

  6. Strategic opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Gottlieb, J.W.

    1994-09-01

    Despite statements of doom and gloom from numerous industry pundits, the potential for global hydropower development opportunities remains vast. Statistics demonstrating the potential for hydroelectric development in the United States alone are staggering. More than 80,000 dams exist in the United States, yet only 3 percent have been developed to tap their hydroelectric potential. There is currently about 70,800 MW of installed hydroelectric capacity, with more than 76,000 MW of undeveloped potential. It has been estimated that there are about 3,000 abandoned hydropower sites in the United States. Less than 200 of these sites have been redeveloped. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has estimated redevelopment and rehabilitation of hydropower electric sites in the United States could add an additional 14,000 MW of potential.

  7. Policy opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccray, Richard; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Acton, Loren W.; Bahcall, Neta A.; Bless, Robert C.; Brown, Robert A.; Burbidge, Geoffrey; Burke, Bernard F.; Clark, George W.; Cordova, France A.

    1991-01-01

    Recommendations are given regarding National Science Foundation (NSF) astronomy programs and the NASA Space Astrophysics program. The role of ground based astronomy is reviewed. The role of National Optical Astronomy Observatories (NOAO) in ground-based night-time astronomical research is discussed. An enhanced Explored Program, costs and management of small and moderate space programs, the role of astrophysics within NASA's space exploration initiative, suborbital and airborne astronomical research, the problems of the Hubble Space Telescope, and astronomy education are discussed. Also covered are policy issues related to the role of science advisory committees, international cooperation and competition, archiving and distribution of astronomical data, and multi-wavelength observations of variable sources.

  8. Achievements and opportunities from ESF Research Networking Programme: Natural molecular structures as drivers and tracers of terrestrial C fluxes, and COST Action 639: Greenhouse gas budget of soils under changing climate and land use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeckx, P.; Rasse, D.; Jandl, R.

    2009-04-01

    soils under changing climate and land use" (BurnOut) (www.cost.esf.org/domains_actions/essem/Actions/changing_climate or bfw.ac.at/rz/bfwcms.web?dok=5906) BurnOut aims at improving the management of greenhouse gas emissions from European soils under different regimes of ecosystem disturbances and land-use change. This will allow the identification of soil and site conditions (hot spots) that are vulnerable to greenhouse gas emissions. The specific objectives are: - Identification of hot spots of greenhouse gas emissions from soils; - Identification of soil and site conditions that are vulnerable to GHG emissions; - Development of an advanced greenhouse gas reporting concept across different of land forms, land use and land use changes; - Communication of policy relevant GHG reporting concepts; Burnout covers the following activities: - Organisation of specific topical workshops; - Short-term scientific visits for scientists. Participating countries in BurnOut are: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Romania, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom, Russian Federation, and Bosnia Herzegovina. During this oral presentation, possible lines of cooperation, opportunities and recent achievements will be exemplified and the audience will be invited to contribute their views on these initiatives.

  9. Nikola Tesla Educational Opportunity School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Design Cost Data, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Describes the architectural design, costs, general description, and square footage data for the Nikola Tesla Educational Opportunity School in Colorado Springs, Colorado. A floor plan and photos are included along with a list of manufacturers and suppliers used for the project. (GR)

  10. Geography Controls GI Bill Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Stuart F.

    Analyzing FY 74 GI Bill data seems to confirm that a Vietman veteran's chances of using the GI Bill turn on what state he is from. Geography controls opportunities because the formula of today's GI Bill, unlike that of World War II's Bill, ignores state differences in educational costs. This legislative formula inadvertently minimizes veterans'…

  11. Containing the Costs of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Clark L.; Beaven, Douglas

    1986-01-01

    The current cost structure of higher education, comprised of multiple controllable and uncontrollable costs, is analyzed and promising opportunities to reduce costs are explored. Some innovative strategies that have saved substantial sums for the institutions implementing them are highlighted. (MSE)

  12. A Guide To Measuring College Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winston, Gordon C.

    2000-01-01

    Argues that full-cost models in higher education fail to account correctly for capital and financial aid expenditures. Urges full accounting of all cost drivers that impact on higher education expenditures, e.g., operating costs, maintenance costs, physical capital costs, the current replacement value of capital stock, and the opportunity cost of…

  13. 75 FR 52956 - Funding Opportunity

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Administration on Aging Funding Opportunity Purpose of Notice: Availability of funding opportunity announcement. Funding Opportunity Title/Program Name: Older Americans Act (OAA), Title VI, Part A... funding opportunity. Funding Opportunity Number: Program Announcement No. is HHS-2011-...

  14. New Suborbital Flight Opportunities and Funding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saltman, Alexander

    2013-07-01

    New opportunities for suborbital research are on the horizon. Reusable suborbital vehicles will offer immediate and routine space access for scientific payloads, provide access to altitudes around 100 kilometers, create opportunities for low-cost monitoring of upper atmospheric phenomena, as well as small scale solar observation. Reduced operational cost and quick turn-around will enable equipment to be flown opportunistically, in response to specific solar activity, or in continuous test and improvement cycles. Suborbital test flights will also provide opportunities to test prospective satellite instruments in an extended microgravity environment before being launched to orbit, raising the technology readiness level (TRL) of flight hardware and reducing the risk of anomalies during missions. I discuss the capabilities of emerging suborbital vehicles, payload and integration requirements, and funding opportunities for suborbital flights at NASA.

  15. Cost Recovery Through Depreciation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrester, Robert T.; Wesolowski, Leonard V.

    1983-01-01

    The approach of adopting depreciation rather than use allowance in order to recover more accurately the cost of college buildings and equipment used on federal projects is considered. It is suggested that depreciation will offer most colleges and universities a higher annual recovery rate, and an opportunity for better facilities planning. For…

  16. Opportunities for Success: Cost-Effective Programs for Children, Update, 1990. Report together with Additional Minority Views and Dissenting Views of the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families, One Hundred First Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families.

    This report on effective programs for children updates the 1988 report by providing new and stronger documentation of the programs' benefits and cost effectiveness. Eight programs and types of programs are discussed in Part I and four program areas that warrant attention are discussed in Part II. Part I reports on: (1) the Special Supplemental…

  17. Vehicle Technologies Program Funding Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) provides funding opportunities for advanced vehicle technology projects that are aimed at removing technical and cost barriers. Much of the funding available to the Vehicle Technologies Program is distributed to private firms, educational institutions, nonprofit organizations, state and local governments, Native American organizations, and individuals, through competitive solicitations. DOE is strongly committed to partnerships to help ensure the eventual market acceptance of the technologies being developed. New solicitations are announced regularly.

  18. Opportunities in respiratory drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, John N; Giles, Rachael D

    2014-12-01

    A wide range of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease products are soon to be released onto the inhaled therapies market and differentiation between these devices will help them to gain market share over their competitors. Current legislation is directing healthcare towards being more efficient and cost-effective in order to continually provide quality care despite the challenges of aging populations and fewer resources. Devices and drugs that can be differentiated by producing improved patient outcomes would, therefore, be likely to win market share. In this perspective article, the current and potential opportunities for the successful delivery and differentiation of new inhaled drug products are discussed.

  19. Regional Opportunities for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage in China: A Comprehensive CO2 Storage Cost Curve and Analysis of the Potential for Large Scale Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage in the People’s Republic of China

    SciTech Connect

    Dahowski, Robert T.; Li, Xiaochun; Davidson, Casie L.; Wei, Ning; Dooley, James J.

    2009-12-01

    This study presents data and analysis on the potential for carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies to deploy within China, including a survey of the CO2 source fleet and potential geologic storage capacity. The results presented here indicate that there is significant potential for CCS technologies to deploy in China at a level sufficient to deliver deep, sustained and cost-effective emissions reductions for China over the course of this century.

  20. An Opportunity to Rise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image shows the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's wheels in their stowed configuration. As of 9:00 a.m. January 28, 2004, the rover had deployed its wheels and completed the first half of the stand-up process. This image was taken at Opportunity's landing site, Meridiani Planum, by the hazard-identification camera.

  1. RECREATIONAL AND CULTURAL OPPORTUNITIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BELDON, RENA

    RECREATIONAL AND CULTURAL OPPORTUNITIES FOR MOST RURAL YOUTH ARE CENTERED AROUND SCHOOLS, BUT WITH INCREASING EMPHASIS ON ACADEMIC SUBJECTS THE STUDENTS ARE BEING DEPRIVED OF OPPORTUNITIES TO PARTICIPATE IN CERTAIN ACTIVITIES FOR ENJOYMENT ONLY. SUGGESTIONS INCLUDE TAKING THE PERFORMING ARTS TO THE RURAL AREAS, PLANNING ART FESTIVALS THAT WOULD…

  2. RECREATION AND CULTURAL OPPORTUNITIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HARVEY, ELLEN E.

    RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES AND OPPORTUNITIES SEEM TO BE CLOSELY INVOLVED WITH THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT, BOTH IN FINANCIAL SUPPORT AND IN THE ACTUAL OPPORTUNITIES POSSIBLE. CONSEQUENTLY, THE TIME IS RIPE FOR THE ORIGIN AND/OR DEVELOPMENT OF ONE OR MORE NEW AGENCIES WITH THE INTERESTS AND NEEDS OF MODERN YOUTH AS THE LEVER FOR THEIR BEGINNING. TO…

  3. The Economics of Higher Education: Focus on Cost.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinkman, Paul T.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces this topical issue on costs in higher education with an overview of the economics of higher education. Considers various types of supplier costs (opportunity versus accounting costs), various ways of determining costs (cost accounting, statistical estimation, and modeling), and factors that influence supplier costs (environmental…

  4. Costs of dispersal.

    PubMed

    Bonte, Dries; Van Dyck, Hans; Bullock, James M; Coulon, Aurélie; Delgado, Maria; Gibbs, Melanie; Lehouck, Valerie; Matthysen, Erik; Mustin, Karin; Saastamoinen, Marjo; Schtickzelle, Nicolas; Stevens, Virginie M; Vandewoestijne, Sofie; Baguette, Michel; Barton, Kamil; Benton, Tim G; Chaput-Bardy, Audrey; Clobert, Jean; Dytham, Calvin; Hovestadt, Thomas; Meier, Christoph M; Palmer, Steve C F; Turlure, Camille; Travis, Justin M J

    2012-05-01

    Dispersal costs can be classified into energetic, time, risk and opportunity costs and may be levied directly or deferred during departure, transfer and settlement. They may equally be incurred during life stages before the actual dispersal event through investments in special morphologies. Because costs will eventually determine the performance of dispersing individuals and the evolution of dispersal, we here provide an extensive review on the different cost types that occur during dispersal in a wide array of organisms, ranging from micro-organisms to plants, invertebrates and vertebrates. In general, costs of transfer have been more widely documented in actively dispersing organisms, in contrast to a greater focus on costs during departure and settlement in plants and animals with a passive transfer phase. Costs related to the development of specific dispersal attributes appear to be much more prominent than previously accepted. Because costs induce trade-offs, they give rise to covariation between dispersal and other life-history traits at different scales of organismal organisation. The consequences of (i) the presence and magnitude of different costs during different phases of the dispersal process, and (ii) their internal organisation through covariation with other life-history traits, are synthesised with respect to potential consequences for species conservation and the need for development of a new generation of spatial simulation models. PMID:21929715

  5. Avoidable waste management costs

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, K.; Burns, M.; Priebe, S.; Robinson, P.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP.

  6. HIPAA brings new requirements, new opportunities.

    PubMed

    Moynihan, J J; McLure, M L

    2000-03-01

    The passage of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) brought with it the need for Federal rules to implement the act's simplification and cost-reduction efforts. HHS has published proposed rules related to security for the electronic transmission of health information, privacy of individually identifiable health information, transactions and code sets, and national provider and employer identifiers. Additional proposed rules will be published this year for claims attachments and health plan identifiers. Although HIPAA does not require providers to conduct business electronically, the new standards give providers the opportunity to reduce healthcare administrative costs significantly and undertake electronic commerce efficiently and cost-effectively. PMID:10847916

  7. Career Opportunities in Physiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physiologist, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Physiologists offer their viewpoints on career opportunities in the pharmaceutical industries. A director's and an employee's views of what a director of pharmacology looks for in a physiologist are included. (JN)

  8. Opportunity Spies Its Backshell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    From its new location at the inner edge of the small crater surrounding it, the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity was able to look out to the plains where its backshell (left) and parachute (right) landed. Opportunity is currently investigating a rock outcropping with its suite of robotic geologic tools. This approximate true-color image was created by combining data from the panoramic camera's red, green and blue filters.

  9. Educational Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Robert

    Problems in educational cost accounting and a new cost accounting approach are described in this paper. The limitations of the individualized cost (student units) approach and the comparative cost approach (in the form of fund-function-object) are illustrated. A new strategy, an activity-based system of accounting, is advocated. Borrowed from…

  10. Pollution prevention opportunity assessments at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Betsch, M.D., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-26

    The Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) is a pro- active way to look at a waste generating activity and identify opportunities to minimize wastes through a cost benefit analysis. Hanford`s PPOA process is based upon the graded approach developed by the Kansas City Plant. Hanford further streamlined the process while building in more flexibility for the individual users. One of the most challenging aspects for implementing the PPOA process at Hanford is one overall mission which is environmental restoration, Now that the facilities are no longer in production, each has a different non- routine activity making it difficult to quantify the inputs and outputs of the activity under consideration.

  11. Research opportunities to advance solar energy utilization.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Nathan S

    2016-01-22

    Major developments, as well as remaining challenges and the associated research opportunities, are evaluated for three technologically distinct approaches to solar energy utilization: solar electricity, solar thermal, and solar fuels technologies. Much progress has been made, but research opportunities are still present for all approaches. Both evolutionary and revolutionary technology development, involving foundational research, applied research, learning by doing, demonstration projects, and deployment at scale will be needed to continue this technology-innovation ecosystem. Most of the approaches still offer the potential to provide much higher efficiencies, much lower costs, improved scalability, and new functionality, relative to the embodiments of solar energy-conversion systems that have been developed to date.

  12. Paved Path for Opportunity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    As NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity continues a southward trek from 'Erebus Crater' toward 'Victoria Crater,' the terrain consists of large sand ripples and patches of flat-lying rock outcrops, as shown in this image. Whenever possible, rover planners keep Opportunity on the 'pavement' for best mobility.

    This false-color image mosaic was assembled using images acquired by the panoramic camera on Opportunity's 784th sol (April 8, 2006) at about 11:45 a.m. local solar time. The camera used its 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer and 432-nanometer filters. This view shows a portion of the outcrop named 'Bosque,' including rover wheel tracks, fractured and finely-layered outcrop rocks and smaller, dark cobbles littered across the surface.

  13. Opportunity's Heat Shield Scene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This image from NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity reveals the scene of the rover's heat shield impact. In this view, Opportunity is approximately 130 meters (427 feet) away from the device that protected it while hurtling through the martian atmosphere.

    The rover spent 36 sols investigating how the severe heating during entry through the atmosphere affected the heat shield. The most obvious is the fact that the heat shield inverted upon impact.

    This is the panoramic camera team's best current attempt at generating a true-color view of what this scene would look like if viewed by a human on Mars. It was generated from a mathematical combination of six calibrated, left-eye panoramic camera images acquired around 1:50 p.m. local solar time on Opportunity's sol 322 (Dec. 19, 2004) using filters ranging in wavelengths from 430 to 750 nanometers.

  14. A Silver Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desser, Debra M.

    1996-01-01

    Presents an assignment that involves forming student companies to determine and defend cost estimates for producing a silver Oscar statuette. Includes an assessment rubric for cooperative effort. (JRH)

  15. Opportunity's Empty Nest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken by the panoramic camera onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the rover's now-empty lander, the Challenger Memorial Station, at Meridiani Planum, Mars. The image was acquired on the 24th martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's mission at approximately 13:00 Local Solar Time. This is a mosaic image consisting of 12 color images acquired with the camera's red, green and blue filters. The color balance has been set to approximate the colors that a human eye would see.

  16. Cost goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoag, J.

    1981-01-01

    Cost goal activities for the point focusing parabolic dish program are reported. Cost goals involve three tasks: (1) determination of the value of the dish systems to potential users; (2) the cost targets of the dish system are set out; (3) the value side and cost side are integrated to provide information concerning the potential size of the market for parabolic dishes. The latter two activities are emphasized.

  17. Challenges and opportunities of drug repositioning.

    PubMed

    Novac, Natalia

    2013-05-01

    Drug repositioning is an innovation stream of pharmaceutical development that offers advantages for drug developers along with safer medicines for patients. Several drugs have been successfully repositioned to a new indication, with the most prominent of them being viagra and thalidomide, which have generated historically high revenues. In line with these developments, most of the recent articles and reviews on repositioning are focused on success stories, leaving behind the challenges that repositioned compounds have on the way to the clinic. Here, I analyze repositioning as a business opportunity for pharmaceutical companies, weighing both challenges and opportunities of repositioning. In addition, I suggest extended profiling as a lower-risk cost-effective repositioning model for pharmaceutical companies and elucidate the novel collaborative business opportunities that help to realize repositioning of shelved and marketed compounds.

  18. Tracking Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Paul W.

    2010-01-01

    Even though there's been a slight reprieve in energy costs, the reality is that the cost of non-renewable energy is increasing, and state education budgets are shrinking. One way to keep energy and operations costs from overshadowing education budgets is to develop a 10-year energy audit plan to eliminate waste. First, facility managers should…

  19. Satellite servicing: A business opportunity?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, R. E.; Medler, E. H.

    1984-01-01

    The possibilities of satellite servicing as a business opportunity are examined. The service rate which a user must be charged to yield a reasonable return is derived and then compared against the market's willingness to pay that rate. Steps taken to provide the basis from which the service rate could be derived include: (1) constructing a hypothetical on orbit servicing business offering both on orbit and associated ground services; (2) estimating the total on orbit service business potential by analyzing mission models to the year 2000; and (3) setting up ground rules to bound the conduct of the business. Using this basic information service demand (business volume) cost to set up the business, costs for operation and maintenance tax rates and desired rate of return are estimated to determine the user charge. Sensitivity of the service rate to various parameters are also assessed. The time span for the business venture runs from 1986 through 2000 with service to 1991 provided via the orbiter and by a space station beyond 1991. This point analysis shows about five years of negative cash flow, with steady profits thereafter.

  20. Expanding Student Assessment Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartscher, Beth; Carter, Andrea; Lawlor, Anna; McKelvey, Barbara

    This paper describes an approach for expanding assessment opportunities for students to demonstrate their understanding of content. The targeted population consisted of elementary and junior high school students in two schools in a growing middle-class community in north central Illinois. The elementary school enrolled 467 students and the junior…

  1. Opportunities in Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    Because of the changes occurring in the chemical sciences, a new survey of chemistry and its intellectual and economic impact was clearly needed. This report presents a current assessment of the status of chemistry and of the future opportunities in the field. This analysis contains: (1) an introductory chapter (establishing the need for the…

  2. Educational Opportunity Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Science Advisory Committee, Washington, DC.

    This report presents a proposal for the establishment of the Educational Opportunity Bank as an agency of the Federal Government, authorized to borrow money at going government rates, and to lend money to postsecondary students regardless of the student's resources. The Bank is to recoup the loans through annual payments collected in conjunction…

  3. Opportunity Turns 40

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muccio, Maria; Pierre-Vil, Samienta

    2016-01-01

    The New England Educational Opportunity Association (NEOA) drew more than 250 TRIO and college access professionals to its 40th annual conference in Massachusetts earlier this spring. NEOA's mission is to advocate for access to and success in postsecondary education for low-income individuals, "first-generation" college students, and…

  4. Equal Opportunity in Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, Paul

    This book focuses on discrimination in employment, defined as the denial of equal opportunity in the labor market to qualified persons on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, age, sex, or any other factor not related to their individual qualifications for work. The average nonwhite college graduate can expect to earn less during…

  5. Essays on Character & Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Children and Families at Brookings, 2014

    2014-01-01

    These essays provide richer set of writings on the philosophical, empirical and practical issues raised by a focus on character, and in particular its relationship to questions of opportunity. Each one is an intellectual pemmican: sharp and to the point. Two scholars draw attention to the gendered nature of character formation (Segal and Lexmond);…

  6. Window of Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gingrich, Newt

    1985-01-01

    Advances in space, communications, and biotechnology are creating many opportunities and hope for the future. But to take full advantage of these technological breakthroughs, the United States must rethink its approaches to education, welfare, health, justice, and defense. (Author/RM)

  7. EERE Financial Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    2012-04-19

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) works with business, industry, universities, and others to increase the use of renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies. One way EERE encourages the growth of these technologies is by offering financial assistance opportunities for their development and demonstration.

  8. Opportunity Spies Its Target

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This is a forward-looking view of the Meridiani Planum plains that lie between the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity and its primary drive target, 'Endurance Crater.' The images in this image mosaic were taken by the rover's panoramic camera on sol 88.

  9. Summer Opportunities for Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winds of Change, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Eleven summer internships, work experience programs, research opportunities, and courses are described. Some offer stipends. Some are specifically for American Indian, minority, disadvantaged, or disabled students in high school or college. Most are in science or engineering related fields. Each entry contains a brief program description,…

  10. Opportunities and progress.

    PubMed

    Litchfield, John H

    2014-01-01

    In this review, I cover my professional experiences in food science and technology and related areas of applied and industrial microbiology over the span of my career. It emphasizes opportunities and technological problems that I encountered together with my progress in follow-up development of products and processes. PMID:24580071

  11. Demographic Problems and Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborn, Frances P.

    A comparison of Monroe County projections of high school graduates and the March 1986 Rochester Labor Area Summary points to some excellent opportunities for marketing Monroe Community College (MCC). Projections of high school graduation rates show a 25% decrease in the number of graduates between 1989 and 1991, while the demand for entry-level…

  12. The Educational Opportunity Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jellema, William W.

    The Educational Opportunity Bank (EOB) has received short shrift among educators and many objections have been raised to establishing it. Among these are the workability of the plan, the problem for women borrowers, and the creation of a new force--student financial power - in opposition to the influence of the Federal Government. Though…

  13. Equality of Educational Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, K. Patricia

    A consideration of the use of the phrase "equality of educational opportunity" and of the educational models used to attempt its implementation suggest the following recommendations. If education is to devise learning models that will maximize individual potential and aid in matching human abilities to the work required by societies, then (1) we…

  14. Flexible Learning Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    One way for colleges to meet the demand for a wider range of learning opportunities for adults in Great Britain is to provide more flexibility within the further education system. The concept of flexible learning involves the modification of delivery systems, specific providing agencies, target populations, specific determinants such as geographic…

  15. Wisconsin Education Opportunity Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison. Div. for School Financial Resources and Management Services.

    This report describes the history and programs of the Wisconsin Education Opportunity Program (WEOP), a bureau within the State Department of Public Instruction that provides support services for Wisconsin youths and adults (particularly the disadvantaged) who intend to complete a postsecondary education program. Currently, it is said, WEOP…

  16. Overview of energy-conservation research opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Hopp, W.J.; Hauser, S.G.; Hane, G.J.; Gurwell, W.E.; Bird, S.P.; Cliff, W.C.; Williford, R.E.; Williams, T.A.; Ashton, W.B.

    1981-12-01

    This document is a study of research opportunities that are important to developing advanced technologies for efficient energy use. The study's purpose is to describe a wide array of attractive technical areas from which specific research and development programs could be implemented. Research areas are presented for potential application in each of the major end-use sectors. The study develops and applies a systematic approach to identifying and screening applied energy conservation research opportunities. To broadly cover the energy end-use sectors, this study develops useful information relating to the areas where federally-funded applied research will most likely play an important role in promoting energy conservation. This study is not designed to produce a detailed agenda of specific recommended research activities. The general information presented allows uniform comparisons of disparate research areas and as such provides the basis for formulating a cost-effective, comprehensive federal-applied energy conservation research strategy. Chapter 2 discusses the various methodologies that have been used in the past to identify research opportunities and details the approach used here. In Chapters 3, 4, and 5 the methodology is applied to the buildings, transportation, and industrial end-use sectors and the opportunities for applied research in these sectors are discussed.Chapter 6 synthesizes the results of the previous three chapters to give a comprehensive picture of applied energy conservation research opportunities across all end-use sectors and presents the conclusions to the report.

  17. TRADING ALLOWANCES FOR STORMWATER CONTROL: HYDROLOGY AND OPPORTUNITY COSTS

    EPA Science Inventory


    Excess stormwater runoff is a serious problem in a large number of urban areas, causing flooding, water pollution, groundwater recharge deficits and ecological damage to urban streams. It has been posited that to mitigate the effects of excess stormwater runoff, policy makers...

  18. The opportunity costs of childbearing: more than mothers' business.

    PubMed

    Joshi, H

    1998-01-01

    "This paper is an argument about gender relations. It takes the entwined themes of men's interests in parenthood, the sex division of labour and its evolution, policy for gender equity and policy to support the level of social reproduction. The emphasis on women's employment as a determinant of low fertility has to be supplemented by an examination of the assumption that only women's time use is affected by child-rearing.... Descriptive evidence about the paid and unpaid work of couples and parents is presented, largely secondary material from the UK." PMID:12293833

  19. TRADING ALLOWANCES FOR STORMWATER CONTROL: HYDROLOGY AND OPPORTUNITY COSTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Excess stormwater runoff is a serious problem in a large number of urban areas, causing flooding, water pollution, groundwater recharge deficits and ecological damage to urban streams. It has been posited that to mitigate the effects of excess stormwater runoff, policy makers cou...

  20. Opportunity's Outcrop Outing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This composite of three images from the navigation camera shows the view from NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity toward the southeast, in the direction of 'Victoria Crater,' on the rover's 817th Martian day, or sol (May 12, 2006). To reach Victoria Crater, still about 1,100 meters (two-thirds of a mile) from this location, the rover must navigate among the large ripples visible on the left and ahead in the distance.

    On this sol, Opportunity was preparing to deploy its arm instrument suite to analyze a rock on the outcrop pavement. At upper right is a small depression that was the target of further imaging on sols 825 and 826 (May 20 and 21, 2006).

  1. Caution: business opportunity ahead.

    PubMed

    Costello, M M

    1986-01-01

    Increasing competition in the market for health care services has led many providers to contemplate activities that would not have received consideration a decade ago. Entrepreneurial in nature, these endeavors require a form of business analysis with which many health care administrators are unfamiliar. Evaluation of health care business opportunities should include consideration of market perspective, relative difficulty of implementation and execution, likely response of competition, and unique aspects of the entrepreneurial personality when found in traditional health care organizations.

  2. Emergicenters. Opportunity or threat?

    PubMed

    Meyer, L C

    1983-01-01

    Political, social, and economic pressures on the healthcare industry are resulting in the development of new approaches to the delivery of quality health care to consumers. One of the newest responses to these change forces has been the development and proliferation of freestanding emergency centers. This article examines the underlying causes behind their development, describes the distinct services and strengths of the "emergicenter" concept, and shows how medical group practices can turn a potential competitive threat into an opportunity for future growth.

  3. 'Payson' Panorama by Opportunity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for 'Payson' Panorama by Opportunity (QTVR)

    The panoramic camera aboard NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity acquired this panorama of the 'Payson' outcrop on the western edge of 'Erebus' Crater during Opportunity's sol 744 (Feb. 26, 2006). From this vicinity at the northern end of the outcrop, layered rocks are observed in the crater wall, which is about 1 meters (3.3 feet) thick. The view also shows rocks disrupted by the crater-forming impact event and subjected to erosion over time.

    To the left of the outcrop, a flat, thin layer of spherule-rich soils overlies more outcrop materials. The rover is currently traveling down this 'road' and observing the approximately 25-meter (82-foot) length of the outcrop prior to departing Erebus crater.

    The panorama camera took 28 separate exposures of this scene, using four different filters. The resulting panorama covers about 90 degrees of terrain around the rover. This approximately true-color rendering was made using the camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer and 423-nanometer filters. Image-to-image seams have been eliminated from the sky portion of the mosaic to better simulate the vista a person standing on Mars would see.

  4. ITER safety challenges and opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Piet, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    Results of the Conceptual Design Activity (CDA) for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) suggest challenges and opportunities. ITER is capable of meeting anticipated regulatory dose limits,'' but proof is difficult because of large radioactive inventories needing stringent radioactivity confinement. We need much research and development (R D) and design analysis to establish that ITER meets regulatory requirements. We have a further opportunity to do more to prove more of fusion's potential safety and environmental advantages and maximize the amount of ITER technology on the path toward fusion power plants. To fulfill these tasks, we need to overcome three programmatic challenges and three technical challenges. The first programmatic challenge is to fund a comprehensive safety and environmental ITER R D plan. Second is to strengthen safety and environment work and personnel in the international team. Third is to establish an external consultant group to advise the ITER Joint Team on designing ITER to meet safety requirements for siting by any of the Parties. The first of the three key technical challenges is plasma engineering -- burn control, plasma shutdown, disruptions, tritium burn fraction, and steady state operation. The second is the divertor, including tritium inventory, activation hazards, chemical reactions, and coolant disturbances. The third technical challenge is optimization of design requirements considering safety risk, technical risk, and cost. Some design requirements are now too strict; some are too lax. Fuel cycle design requirements are presently too strict, mandating inappropriate T separation from H and D. Heat sink requirements are presently too lax; they should be strengthened to ensure that maximum loss of coolant accident temperatures drop.

  5. Energy efficiency opportunities in the brewery industry

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina; Martin, Nathan

    2002-06-28

    Breweries in the United States spend annually over $200 Million on energy. Energy consumption is equal to 3-8% of the production costs of beer, making energy efficiency improvement an important way to reduce costs, especially in times of high energy price volatility. After a summary of the beer making process and energy use, we examine energy efficiency opportunities available for breweries. We provide specific primary energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies that have implemented the measures, as well as references to technical literature. If available, we have also listed typical payback periods. Our findings suggest that there may still be opportunities to reduce energy consumption cost-effectively for breweries. Major brewing companies have and will continue to spend capital on cost effective measures that do not impact the quality of the beer. Further research on the economics of the measures, as well as their applicability to different brewing practices, is needed to assess implementation of selected technologies at individual breweries.

  6. Research Opportunities in Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodgers, Stephen L.

    2007-01-01

    Rocket propulsion determines the primary characteristics of any space vehicle; how fast and far it can go, its lifetime, and its capabilities. It is the primary factor in safety and reliability and the biggest cost driver. The extremes of heat and pressure produced by propulsion systems push the limits of materials used for manufacturing. Space travel is very unforgiving with little room for errors, and so many things can go wrong with these very complex systems. So we have to plan for failure and that makes it costly. But what is more exciting than the roar of a rocket blasting into space? By its nature the propulsion world is conservative. The stakes are so high at every launch, in terms of payload value or in human life, that to introduce new components to a working, qualified system is extremely difficult and costly. Every launch counts and no risks are tolerated, which leads to the space world's version of Catch-22:"You can't fly till you flown." The last big 'game changer' in propulsion was the use of liquid hydrogen as a fuel. No new breakthrough, low cost access to space system will be developed without new efficient propulsion systems. Because there is no large commercial market driving investment in propulsion, what propulsion research is done is sponsored by government funding agencies. A further difficulty in propulsion technology development is that there are so few new systems flying. There is little opportunity to evolve propulsion technologies and to update existing systems with results coming out of research as there is in, for example, the auto industry. The biggest hurdle to space exploration is getting off the ground. The launch phase will consume most of the energy required for any foreseeable space exploration mission. The fundamental physical energy requirements of escaping earth's gravity make it difficult. It takes 60,000 kJ to put a kilogram into an escape orbit. The vast majority (-97%) of the energy produced by a launch vehicle is used

  7. Troubleshooting Costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornacki, Jeffrey L.

    Seventy-six million cases of foodborne disease occur each year in the United States alone. Medical and lost productivity costs of the most common pathogens are estimated to be 5.6-9.4 billion. Product recalls, whether from foodborne illness or spoilage, result in added costs to manufacturers in a variety of ways. These may include expenses associated with lawsuits from real or allegedly stricken individuals and lawsuits from shorted customers. Other costs include those associated with efforts involved in finding the source of the contamination and eliminating it and include time when lines are shut down and therefore non-productive, additional non-routine testing, consultant fees, time and personnel required to overhaul the entire food safety system, lost market share to competitors, and the cost associated with redesign of the factory and redesign or acquisition of more hygienic equipment. The cost associated with an effective quality assurance plan is well worth the effort to prevent the situations described.

  8. Funding Opportunity: Genomic Data Centers

    Cancer.gov

    Funding Opportunity CCG, Funding Opportunity Center for Cancer Genomics, CCG, Center for Cancer Genomics, CCG RFA, Center for cancer genomics rfa, genomic data analysis network, genomic data analysis network centers,

  9. Nanotechnology: Opportunities and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyyappan, Meyya

    2003-01-01

    Nanotechnology seeks to exploit novel physical, chemical, biological, mechanical, electrical, and other properties, which arise primarily due to the nanoscale nature of certain materials. A key example is carbon nanotubes (CNTs) which exhibit unique electrical and extraordinary mechanical properties and offer remarkable potential for revolutionary applications in electronics devices, computing, and data storage technology, sensors, composites, nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS), and as tip in scanning probe microscopy (SPM) for imaging and nanolithography. Thus the CNT synthesis, characterization, and applications touch upon all disciplines of science and engineering. This presentation will provide an overview and progress report on this and other major research candidates in Nanotechnology and address opportunities and challenges ahead.

  10. Frontier Aerospace Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2014-01-01

    Discussion and suggested applications of the many ongoing technology opportunities for aerospace products and missions, resulting in often revolutionary capabilities. The, at this point largely unexamined, plethora of possibilities going forward, a subset of which is discussed, could literally reinvent aerospace but requires triage of many possibilities. Such initial upfront homework would lengthen the Research and Development (R&D) time frame but could greatly enhance the affordability and performance of the evolved products and capabilities. Structural nanotubes and exotic energetics along with some unique systems approaches are particularly compelling.

  11. Steel Industry Marginal Opportunity Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2005-09-01

    The Steel Industry Marginal Opportunity Analysis (PDF 347 KB) identifies opportunities for developing advanced technologies and estimates both the necessary funding and the potential payoff. This analysis determines what portion of the energy bandwidth can be captured through the adoption of state-of-the-art technology and practices. R&D opportunities for addressing the remainder of the bandwidth are characterized and plotted on a marginal opportunity curve.

  12. Teaching Human Capital by Calculating the True Costs of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Leigh S.

    1998-01-01

    Presents an approach to calculating the costs of college education to maximize students' human capital. When considering college expenses, students often overlook the opportunity costs of income foregone while pursuing degrees. A true-cost calculation worksheet and a strategy for making true costs salient to students (projecting the number of…

  13. 34 CFR 644.31 - What are unallowable costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITY CENTERS What Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? § 644.31 What are unallowable costs? Costs that are unallowable under the Educational Opportunity... forms of direct financial support for participants. (b) Research not directly related to the...

  14. 34 CFR 644.31 - What are unallowable costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITY CENTERS What Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? § 644.31 What are unallowable costs? Costs that are unallowable under the Educational Opportunity... forms of direct financial support for participants. (b) Research not directly related to the...

  15. Opportunities for coal to methanol conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    The accumulations of mining residues in the anthracite coal regions of Pennsylvania offer a unique opportunity to convert the coal content into methanol that could be utilized in that area as an alternative to gasoline or to extend the supplies through blending. Additional demand may develop through the requirements of public utility gas turbines located in that region. The cost to run this refuse through coal preparation plants may result in a clean coal at about $17.00 per ton. After gasification and synthesis in a 5000 ton per day facility, a cost of methanol of approximately $3.84 per million Btu is obtained using utility financing. If the coal is to be brought in by truck or rail from a distance of approximately 60 miles, the cost of methanol would range between $4.64 and $5.50 per million Btu depending upon the mode of transportation. The distribution costs to move the methanol from the synthesis plant to the pump could add, at a minimum, $2.36 per million Btu to the cost. In total, the delivered cost at the pump for methanol produced from coal mining wastes could range between $6.20 and $7.86 per million Btu.

  16. Remote Learning: Technologies & Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turoff, Murray; Hiltz, Starr, Roxanne

    This discussion of the potential for computerized conferencing as the first cost effective technology for the delivery of a classroom environment in a remote learning situation begins by comparing remote learning modes and reviewing various educational experiments that have used the Electronic Information Exchange System (EIES) during the…

  17. The impact of desalting opportunity crudes on corrosion precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Binford, M.S.; Hart, P.R.

    1995-12-01

    Processing of lower cost ``opportunity`` crudes has become common practice among US refiners. These cheaper crudes, however, in many cases do not come without higher associated processing costs. Several refiners have documented higher than expected chlorides in their atmospheric tower overhead systems when processing opportunity crudes. These high chlorides increase corrosion potential, elevate chemical treatment costs and, in severe cases, cause system failure and/or serious product contamination concerns. Traditional methods to measure crude quality (salt content) have in some cases failed to predict potential hydrolyzable chlorides in the desalted crude stream. Laboratory desalter simulation apparati which operate at desalter system temperature and mixing conditions can be used to more completely extract water soluble chloride salts from the crude oil. Subsequent steam distillation of these laboratory desalted crude oils yields a truer measure of potential hydrolyzable chlorides left in the desalted crude. These tools have been used to better define the impact of processing opportunity crudes on crude distillation overhead systems.

  18. Regulatory environment and claims - limits and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Martin, Ambroise

    2010-01-01

    During the past decade, the use of claims became more and more important in many countries in relation to the increased awareness of consumer about the link between foods and health, offering to industry a valuable opportunity to differentiate and valorize their products and to promote innovation. However, more and more stringent regulations are developed, all based on the general principles adopted by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. In addition to the different regulatory processes and administrative requirements according to the country, the high level (and cost) of scientific substantiation of claims, the constraints introduced by nutrient profiles and the poor knowledge of the impact on consumer depending on the cultural contexts may limit these opportunities or, at least complicate their use. All these issues are briefly analyzed, highlighting some striking convergences and differences between countries. PMID:20664223

  19. Regulatory environment and claims - limits and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Martin, Ambroise

    2010-01-01

    During the past decade, the use of claims became more and more important in many countries in relation to the increased awareness of consumer about the link between foods and health, offering to industry a valuable opportunity to differentiate and valorize their products and to promote innovation. However, more and more stringent regulations are developed, all based on the general principles adopted by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. In addition to the different regulatory processes and administrative requirements according to the country, the high level (and cost) of scientific substantiation of claims, the constraints introduced by nutrient profiles and the poor knowledge of the impact on consumer depending on the cultural contexts may limit these opportunities or, at least complicate their use. All these issues are briefly analyzed, highlighting some striking convergences and differences between countries.

  20. Pollution prevention and waste minimization opportunity assessment in environmental restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Roybal, J.A.; Willison, C.P.

    1997-10-01

    The Environmental Restoration (ER) Project at Sandia National Laboratories implicitly subscribed to the philosophy of pollution prevention and waste minimization. As a result of a Department of Energy (DOE) offer, Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessments (PPOA) were conducted at two ER sites and a decontamination and Demolition (D and D) site. The purpose of one of the PPOAs was to identify pollution prevention (P2) opportunities during environmental remediation at the Classified Waste Landfill located at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM). The remediation activities at this site are scheduled to begin in the fall of 1997. The PPOA included presentations by the team members, a tour of the site, and a brainstorming session to list the waste streams, identify P2 opportunities and rank them in order of priority. Twenty-five P2 opportunities were identified during the brainstorming session of which twenty-two opportunities were selected for further investigation. Those twenty-two opportunities are discussed in this paper. A cost benefit analysis was performed for each P2 opportunity based on the estimated waste volume, feasibility, and cost. Pollution Prevention by Design (P2D) was incorporated into the PPOA to introduce waste minimization techniques that can be used during the planning phase of restoration projects.

  1. Polyhydroxyalkanoates, challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Yin, Jin; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2014-12-01

    Microbial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) have been developed as biodegradable plastics for the past many years. However, PHA still have only a very limited market. Because of the availability of large amount of shale gas, petroleum will not raise dramatically in price, this situation makes PHA less competitive compared with low cost petroleum based plastics. Therefore, two strategies have been adopted to meet this challenge: first, the development of a super PHA production strain combined with advanced fermentation processes to produce PHA at a low cost; second, the construction of functional PHA production strains with technology to control the precise structures of PHA molecules, this will allow the resulting PHA with high value added applications. The recent systems and synthetic biology approaches allow the above two strategies to be implemented. In the not so distant future, the new technology will allow PHA to be produced with a competitive price compared with petroleum-based plastics.

  2. Polyhydroxyalkanoates, challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Yin, Jin; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2014-12-01

    Microbial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) have been developed as biodegradable plastics for the past many years. However, PHA still have only a very limited market. Because of the availability of large amount of shale gas, petroleum will not raise dramatically in price, this situation makes PHA less competitive compared with low cost petroleum based plastics. Therefore, two strategies have been adopted to meet this challenge: first, the development of a super PHA production strain combined with advanced fermentation processes to produce PHA at a low cost; second, the construction of functional PHA production strains with technology to control the precise structures of PHA molecules, this will allow the resulting PHA with high value added applications. The recent systems and synthetic biology approaches allow the above two strategies to be implemented. In the not so distant future, the new technology will allow PHA to be produced with a competitive price compared with petroleum-based plastics. PMID:24976377

  3. Opportunities within ASTERICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Meer, Rob; Cimò, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    ASTERICS, The Astronomy ESFRI and Research Infrastructure Cluster project, brings together astronomers and astroparticle physicists of 22 institutes in Europe to help Europe's world-leading observatories work together to find common solutions to their Big Data challenges, their interoperability and scheduling, and their data access, searching for cross-cutting solutions with mutual and wide-ranging benefit to all concerned. ASTERICS is a four year project, funded through the European Union's Horizon 2020 Framework Programme. The facilities supported by ASTERICS include SKA, CTA, KM3NeT, E-ELT. ASTERICS aims to open up multi messenger astronomy to all scientists and the public through the Virtual Observatory and the citizen science work. I will draw a picture of the landscape in which ASTERICS operates and the possible interaction with the Very Large Volume Neutrino Telescope community. Attention will be given to emerging opportunities for the Neutrino community and how these can be recognised or created.

  4. Ionospheric research opportunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rickel, Dwight

    1985-05-01

    Ground-based explosions have been exploited successfully in the past as a relatively controlled source for producing ionospheric disturbances. On June 25, the Defense Nuclear Agency will conduct a high explosives test on the northern section of the White Sands Missile Range. Approximately 4,800 tons of ammonium nitrate and fuel oil (ANFO) will be detonated at ground level, producing an acoustic shock wave with a surface pressure change of approximately 20 mbar at a 6 km range. This shock front will have sufficient strength to propagate into the ionosphere with at least a 10% change in the ambient pressure across the disturbance front in the lower F region. Such an ionospheric perturbation will give ionospheric researchers an excellent opportunity to investigate acoustic propagation at ionospheric heights, shock dissipation effect, the ion-neutral coupling process, acoustic-gravity wave (traveling ionospheric disturbance) generation mechanisms, and associated RF phenomena.

  5. Evolutionary constraints or opportunities?

    PubMed Central

    Sharov, Alexei A.

    2014-01-01

    Natural selection is traditionally viewed as a leading factor of evolution, whereas variation is assumed to be random and non-directional. Any order in variation is attributed to epigenetic or developmental constraints that can hinder the action of natural selection. In contrast I consider the positive role of epigenetic mechanisms in evolution because they provide organisms with opportunities for rapid adaptive change. Because the term “constraint” has negative connotations, I use the term “regulated variation” to emphasize the adaptive nature of phenotypic variation, which helps populations and species to survive and evolve in changing environments. The capacity to produce regulated variation is a phenotypic property, which is not described in the genome. Instead, the genome acts as a switchboard, where mostly random mutations switch “on” or “off” preexisting functional capacities of organism components. Thus, there are two channels of heredity: informational (genomic) and structure-functional (phenotypic). Functional capacities of organisms most likely emerged in a chain of modifications and combinations of more simple ancestral functions. The role of DNA has been to keep records of these changes (without describing the result) so that they can be reproduced in the following generations. Evolutionary opportunities include adjustments of individual functions, multitasking, connection between various components of an organism, and interaction between organisms. The adaptive nature of regulated variation can be explained by the differential success of lineages in macro-evolution. Lineages with more advantageous patterns of regulated variation are likely to produce more species and secure more resources (i.e., long-term lineage selection). PMID:24769155

  6. Evolutionary constraints or opportunities?

    PubMed

    Sharov, Alexei A

    2014-04-22

    Natural selection is traditionally viewed as a leading factor of evolution, whereas variation is assumed to be random and non-directional. Any order in variation is attributed to epigenetic or developmental constraints that can hinder the action of natural selection. In contrast I consider the positive role of epigenetic mechanisms in evolution because they provide organisms with opportunities for rapid adaptive change. Because the term "constraint" has negative connotations, I use the term "regulated variation" to emphasize the adaptive nature of phenotypic variation, which helps populations and species to survive and evolve in changing environments. The capacity to produce regulated variation is a phenotypic property, which is not described in the genome. Instead, the genome acts as a switchboard, where mostly random mutations switch "on" or "off" preexisting functional capacities of organism components. Thus, there are two channels of heredity: informational (genomic) and structure-functional (phenotypic). Functional capacities of organisms most likely emerged in a chain of modifications and combinations of more simple ancestral functions. The role of DNA has been to keep records of these changes (without describing the result) so that they can be reproduced in the following generations. Evolutionary opportunities include adjustments of individual functions, multitasking, connection between various components of an organism, and interaction between organisms. The adaptive nature of regulated variation can be explained by the differential success of lineages in macro-evolution. Lineages with more advantageous patterns of regulated variation are likely to produce more species and secure more resources (i.e., long-term lineage selection).

  7. Evolutionary constraints or opportunities?

    PubMed

    Sharov, Alexei A

    2014-09-01

    Natural selection is traditionally viewed as a leading factor of evolution, whereas variation is assumed to be random and non-directional. Any order in variation is attributed to epigenetic or developmental constraints that can hinder the action of natural selection. In contrast I consider the positive role of epigenetic mechanisms in evolution because they provide organisms with opportunities for rapid adaptive change. Because the term "constraint" has negative connotations, I use the term "regulated variation" to emphasize the adaptive nature of phenotypic variation, which helps populations and species to survive and evolve in changing environments. The capacity to produce regulated variation is a phenotypic property, which is not described in the genome. Instead, the genome acts as a switchboard, where mostly random mutations switch "on" or "off" preexisting functional capacities of organism components. Thus, there are two channels of heredity: informational (genomic) and structure-functional (phenotypic). Functional capacities of organisms most likely emerged in a chain of modifications and combinations of more simple ancestral functions. The role of DNA has been to keep records of these changes (without describing the result) so that they can be reproduced in the following generations. Evolutionary opportunities include adjustments of individual functions, multitasking, connection between various components of an organism, and interaction between organisms. The adaptive nature of regulated variation can be explained by the differential success of lineages in macro-evolution. Lineages with more advantageous patterns of regulated variation are likely to produce more species and secure more resources (i.e., long-term lineage selection).

  8. 2013 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    SciTech Connect

    Mone, C.; Smith, A.; Maples, B.; Hand, M.

    2015-02-01

    This report uses representative project types to estimate the levelized cost of wind energy (LCOE) in the United States for 2013. Scheduled to be published on an annual basis, it relies on both market and modeled data to maintain a current understanding of wind generation cost trends and drivers. It is intended to provide insight into current component-level costs and a basis for understanding current component-level costs and a basis for understanding variability in the LCOE across the industry. Data and tools developed from this analysis are used to inform wind technology cost projections, goals, and improvement opportunities.

  9. Cost Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreman, Phillip

    2009-01-01

    Education administrators involved in construction initiatives unanimously agree that when it comes to change orders, less is more. Change orders have a negative rippling effect of driving up building costs and producing expensive project delays that often interfere with school operations and schedules. Some change orders are initiated by schools…

  10. Wildfire Risk Management: Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, M.; Calkin, D. E.; Hand, M. S.; Kreitler, J.

    2014-12-01

    In this presentation we address federal wildfire risk management largely through the lens of economics, targeting questions related to costs, effectiveness, efficiency, and tradeoffs. Beyond risks to resources and assets such as wildlife habitat, watersheds, and homes, wildfires present financial risk and budgetary instability for federal wildfire management agencies due to highly variable annual suppression costs. Despite its variability, the costs of wildfire management have continued to escalate and account for an ever-growing share of overall agency budgets, compromising abilities to attain other objectives related to forest health, recreation, timber management, etc. Trends associated with a changing climate and human expansion into fire-prone areas could lead to additional suppression costs in the future, only further highlighting the need for an ability to evaluate economic tradeoffs in investments across the wildfire management spectrum. Critically, these economic analyses need to accurately capture the complex spatial and stochastic aspects of wildfire, the inherent uncertainty associated with monetizing environmental impacts of wildfire, the costs and effectiveness of alternative management policies, and linkages between pre-fire investments and active incident management. Investing in hazardous fuels reduction and forest restoration in particular is a major policy lever for pre-fire risk mitigation, and will be a primary focus of our presentation. Evaluating alternative fuel management and suppression policies could provide opportunities for significant efficiency improvements in the development of risk-informed management fire management strategies. Better understanding tradeoffs of fire impacts and costs can help inform policy questions such as how much of the landscape to treat and how to balance investments in treating new areas versus maintaining previous investments. We will summarize current data needs, knowledge gaps, and other factors

  11. Using strategic foresight to assess conservation opportunity.

    PubMed

    Cook, Carly N; Wintle, Bonnie C; Aldrich, Stephen C; Wintle, Brendan A

    2014-12-01

    The nature of conservation challenges can foster a reactive, rather than proactive approach to decision making. Failure to anticipate problems before they escalate results in the need for more costly and time-consuming solutions. Proactive conservation requires forward-looking approaches to decision making that consider possible futures without being overly constrained by the past. Strategic foresight provides a structured process for considering the most desirable future and for mapping the most efficient and effective approaches to promoting that future with tools that facilitate creative thinking. The process involves 6 steps: setting the scope, collecting inputs, analyzing signals, interpreting the information, determining how to act, and implementing the outcomes. Strategic foresight is ideal for seeking, recognizing, and realizing conservation opportunities because it explicitly encourages a broad-minded, forward-looking perspective on an issue. Despite its potential value, the foresight process is rarely used to address conservation issues, and previous attempts have generally failed to influence policy. We present the strategic foresight process as it can be used for proactive conservation planning, describing some of the key tools in the foresight tool kit and how they can be used to identify and exploit different types of conservation opportunities. Scanning is an important tool for collecting and organizing diverse streams of information and can be used to recognize new opportunities and those that could be created. Scenario planning explores how current trends, drivers of change, and key uncertainties might influence the future and can be used to identify barriers to opportunities. Backcasting is used to map out a path to a goal and can determine how to remove barriers to opportunities. We highlight how the foresight process was used to identify conservation opportunities during the development of a strategic plan to address climate change in New York

  12. Using strategic foresight to assess conservation opportunity.

    PubMed

    Cook, Carly N; Wintle, Bonnie C; Aldrich, Stephen C; Wintle, Brendan A

    2014-12-01

    The nature of conservation challenges can foster a reactive, rather than proactive approach to decision making. Failure to anticipate problems before they escalate results in the need for more costly and time-consuming solutions. Proactive conservation requires forward-looking approaches to decision making that consider possible futures without being overly constrained by the past. Strategic foresight provides a structured process for considering the most desirable future and for mapping the most efficient and effective approaches to promoting that future with tools that facilitate creative thinking. The process involves 6 steps: setting the scope, collecting inputs, analyzing signals, interpreting the information, determining how to act, and implementing the outcomes. Strategic foresight is ideal for seeking, recognizing, and realizing conservation opportunities because it explicitly encourages a broad-minded, forward-looking perspective on an issue. Despite its potential value, the foresight process is rarely used to address conservation issues, and previous attempts have generally failed to influence policy. We present the strategic foresight process as it can be used for proactive conservation planning, describing some of the key tools in the foresight tool kit and how they can be used to identify and exploit different types of conservation opportunities. Scanning is an important tool for collecting and organizing diverse streams of information and can be used to recognize new opportunities and those that could be created. Scenario planning explores how current trends, drivers of change, and key uncertainties might influence the future and can be used to identify barriers to opportunities. Backcasting is used to map out a path to a goal and can determine how to remove barriers to opportunities. We highlight how the foresight process was used to identify conservation opportunities during the development of a strategic plan to address climate change in New York

  13. Arc of opportunity.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Adam Vai

    2011-07-01

    Born in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea, the author had a 20 year career in diplomacy, political affairs, and development policy analysis at the Pacific Islands Forum, the United Nations in New York; the Prime Minister's Department in Papua New Guinea (PNG) and in the Foreign Ministry of PNG. He has also been involved in theatre for over a decade in PNG, and participated in a three-month program at the Eugene O'Neill Theatre Center in Connecticut, USA. He is currently the Business Development Manager at the Torres Strait Regional Authority (Commonwealth) on Thursday Island. Since 1975 the Australian government's overseas development policy has supported various sectoral programs in its neighbouring countries, in particular Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands. The "creative" field has not been prominent in this strategy. While natural resources and the sports sectors have gained much greater attention, in terms of being viable international commercial enterprises, the arts, have remained stagnant. In this paper the need for joint programs genuinely supporting "wellbeing" and promoting social enterprise throughout the "arc of opportunity" is described to harness Melanesian creativity to compete successfully in world-markets, starting with penetration of the largest economy at its door-step: Australia.

  14. Arc of opportunity.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Adam Vai

    2011-07-01

    Born in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea, the author had a 20 year career in diplomacy, political affairs, and development policy analysis at the Pacific Islands Forum, the United Nations in New York; the Prime Minister's Department in Papua New Guinea (PNG) and in the Foreign Ministry of PNG. He has also been involved in theatre for over a decade in PNG, and participated in a three-month program at the Eugene O'Neill Theatre Center in Connecticut, USA. He is currently the Business Development Manager at the Torres Strait Regional Authority (Commonwealth) on Thursday Island. Since 1975 the Australian government's overseas development policy has supported various sectoral programs in its neighbouring countries, in particular Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands. The "creative" field has not been prominent in this strategy. While natural resources and the sports sectors have gained much greater attention, in terms of being viable international commercial enterprises, the arts, have remained stagnant. In this paper the need for joint programs genuinely supporting "wellbeing" and promoting social enterprise throughout the "arc of opportunity" is described to harness Melanesian creativity to compete successfully in world-markets, starting with penetration of the largest economy at its door-step: Australia. PMID:21878026

  15. GNAT Educational Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culver, Roger B.; Craine, E. R.

    2006-12-01

    The GNAT MG1 Catalogue of Variable Stars contains some 26,000 new variable star entries, many of which are short period variable stars with periods of one day or less. This reservoir of GNAT data provides virtually limitless opportunities for a variety of publishable follow-up observational projects for student involvement at every educational level from middle school through upper division undergraduate college, In addition, analyses of the source images can be employed in a variety of student projects addressing issues such as photometric properties of the night sky and monitoring of sky brightness. To this end, we have developed protocols and software tools to help non-science majors to understand how science is done, and to assist science majors in gaining experience and publications that will help secure their professional futures. We have been fortunate to work with a number of students, representing several colleges and universities, who have helped establish and test pilot programs for these student projects. We describe a number of sample projects as well as several preliminary pilot projects which are currently in progress. Procedures for working with GNAT on these and other projects are also discussed.

  16. The cost of waste: Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, S.

    1996-06-01

    Some of the greatest opportunities for tapping into hidden profit potential at industrial coatings manufacturing plants may be in their waste or, rather, in their ability to eliminate the root causes of waste generation. This occurs because the total cost of waste (TCOW) does not appear only in a plant`s cost to dispose or recycle its waste. TCOW has four principal components, each of which are shown in different lines in the monthly financial accounting report. An additional potential component--the production plant capacity and personnel that are utilized producing controllable waste instead of product for sale and profit--fails to show up at all. Expanding the focus of waste reduction from merely reducing an individual component`s costs to eliminating the root causes of controllable waste generation provides significant additional profits and frees plant production equipment and people to: make more product for sale and profit, and reduce per-unit manufacturing costs.

  17. Small Buildings = Big Opportunity for Energy Savings (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-12-01

    Small buildings have a big impact on energy use. In the United States, 44.6 million small buildings consume 44% of the overall energy used in buildings, presenting an enormous opportunity to cut costs, energy use, and greenhouse gas emissions.

  18. Job Opportunities Glitter for Librarians Who Surf the Net.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azar, A. Paula

    1996-01-01

    The Internet gives library professionals access to job opportunities that are not readily accessible in print. Employers can advertise at minimal cost and reach a broad, technically adept audience. This article lists Internet job resource sites and listservs for library and information professionals, providing Uniform Resource Locators (URLs),…

  19. 2 CFR 200.203 - Notices of funding opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Notices of funding opportunities. 200.203 Section 200.203 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GUIDANCE Reserved UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS, COST PRINCIPLES, AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS FOR FEDERAL...

  20. Opportunity Road: The Promise and Challenge of America's Forgotten Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgeland, John M.; Milano, Jessica A.

    2012-01-01

    There are millions of youth ages 16 to 24 who are out of school and out of work. They cost the nation billions of dollars every year and over their lifetimes in lost productivity and increased social services. They also represent an opportunity for the nation to tap the talents of millions of potential leaders and productive workers at a time when…

  1. Whites' Beliefs about Blacks' Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kluegel, James R.; Smith, Eliot R.

    1982-01-01

    Cites data which show that Whites tend to perceive widespread reverse discrimination, to see Blacks' opportunities as having greatly improved in recent years, and to deny structural limits to Black opportunity. Posits that these perceptions are related to (1) prevailing public beliefs about stratification and (2) peoples' own social positions and…

  2. Opportunity Structures Then and Now

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Ken

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that we have a theory--namely, opportunity structure theory--which can account for how school-to-work transitions were accomplished "then" and "now", and also why "now" is different from "then". Opportunity structures are formed primarily by the inter-relationships between family backgrounds, education, labour market processes…

  3. Cost trajectories for cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Wodchis, W.P.; Arthurs, E.; Khan, A.I.; Gandhi, S.; MacKinnon, M.; Sussman, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Health care spending is known to be highly skewed, with a small subset of the population consuming a disproportionate amount of health care resources. Patients with cancer are high-cost users because of high incremental health care costs for treatment and the growing prevalence of cancer. The objectives of the present study included characterizing cancer-patient trajectories by cost, and identifying the patient and health system characteristics associated with high health system costs after cancer treatment. Methods This retrospective cohort study identified Ontario adults newly diagnosed with cancer between 1 April 2009 and 30 September 2010. Costs of health care use before, during, and after cancer episodes were used to develop trajectories of care. Descriptive analyses examined differences between the trajectories in terms of clinical and health system characteristics, and a logistic regression approach identified predictors of being a high-cost user after a cancer episode. Results Ten trajectories were developed based on whether patients were high- or low-cost users before and after their cancer episode. The most common trajectory represented patients who were low-cost in the year before cancer, survived treatment, and continued to be low-cost in the year after cancer (31.4%); stage ii cancer of the male genital system was the most common diagnosis within that trajectory. Regression analyses identified increases in age and in multimorbidity and low continuity of care as the strongest predictors of high-cost status after cancer. Conclusions Findings highlight an opportunity to proactively identify patients who might transition to high-cost status after cancer treatment and to remediate that transition. PMID:26985150

  4. Industrial energy systems and assessment opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barringer, Frank Leonard, III

    Industrial energy assessments are performed primarily to increase energy system efficiency and reduce energy costs in industrial facilities. The most common energy systems are lighting, compressed air, steam, process heating, HVAC, pumping, and fan systems, and these systems are described in this document. ASME has produced energy assessment standards for four energy systems, and these systems include compressed air, steam, process heating, and pumping systems. ASHRAE has produced an energy assessment standard for HVAC systems. Software tools for energy systems were developed for the DOE, and there are software tools for almost all of the most common energy systems. The software tools are AIRMaster+ and LogTool for compressed air systems, SSAT and 3E Plus for steam systems, PHAST and 3E Plus for process heating systems, eQUEST for HVAC systems, PSAT for pumping systems, and FSAT for fan systems. The recommended assessment procedures described in this thesis are used to set up an energy assessment for an industrial facility, collect energy system data, and analyze the energy system data. The assessment recommendations (ARs) are opportunities to increase efficiency and reduce energy consumption for energy systems. A set of recommended assessment procedures and recommended assessment opportunities are presented for each of the most common energy systems. There are many assessment opportunities for industrial facilities, and this thesis describes forty-three ARs for the seven different energy systems. There are seven ARs for lighting systems, ten ARs for compressed air systems, eight ARs for boiler and steam systems, four ARs for process heating systems, six ARs for HVAC systems, and four ARs for both pumping and fan systems. Based on a history of past assessments, average potential energy savings and typical implementation costs are shared in this thesis for most ARs. Implementing these ARs will increase efficiency and reduce energy consumption for energy systems in

  5. Hydropower Baseline Cost Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, Patrick W.; Zhang, Qin Fen; DeNeale, Scott T.; Chalise, Dol Raj; Centurion, Emma E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent resource assessments conducted by the United States Department of Energy have identified significant opportunities for expanding hydropower generation through the addition of power to non-powered dams and on undeveloped stream-reaches. Additional interest exists in the powering of existing water resource infrastructure such as conduits and canals, upgrading and expanding existing hydropower facilities, and the construction new pumped storage hydropower. Understanding the potential future role of these hydropower resources in the nation’s energy system requires an assessment of the environmental and techno-economic issues associated with expanding hydropower generation. To facilitate these assessments, this report seeks to fill the current gaps in publically available hydropower cost-estimating tools that can support the national-scale evaluation of hydropower resources.

  6. Assessing new applications and testing business opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atzei, A.; Gampe, F.; Pseiner, K.

    2000-05-01

    The generation of business opportunities from suitable space applications is an essential element of ESA's long term vision. This paper discusses some examples of new space applications and related business opportunities investigated within ESA, namely: HYDROSAT (Hydrological Satellite); OSAT (Operational Service for Air Transportation); CDEDS (Collection and Distribution of Ecological Data by Satellite); The Remote Sensing Forest Map of Europe. HYDROSAT and OSAT are two model missions which serve as cases for service and business ideas. HYDROSAT is a hydrological satellite concept for monitoring arid areas, while OSAT is an operational real-time 3-D high precision weather satellite concept. Both these model missions are briefly discussed, together with two actual application opportunities. One of these, the collection and distribution of ecological data by satellites, was a study performed in close cooperation with the European Commission and later successfully translated into commercial business. This business opportunity is based on ESA-developed Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) technology for cost efficient two-way transmission of low rate data. More than 200 systems have been installed by industry reaching a turnover of several mission ECUs. In the second application, ESA has produced a map based on remote sensing data classifying the European forest. This product — available as hard copy and digital data set — has become a European standard. For some 300 applications within the scientific area, public domain and industry, the data sets have been used in Geographical Information Systems (GIS). Several thousand hard copies have been distributed on request to a variety of user groups, including national ministries and international organisations.

  7. Cost Analysis in Telemedicine: Empirical Evidence From Sites in Arizona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Torre, Adela; Hernandez-Rodriguez, Clemente; Garcia, Lorena

    2004-01-01

    Support of telemedicine for largely rural and ethnically diverse populations is premised on expectations that it increases opportunities for appropriate and timely medical services, and that it improves cost-effective service delivery. To understand the cost-effectiveness of telemedicine in 8 small and/or rural sites in Arizona. A cost analysis…

  8. 10 CFR 434.607 - Life cycle cost analysis criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... subpart A of 10 CFR part 436. When performing optional life cycle cost analyses of energy conservation opportunities the designer may use the life cycle cost procedures of subpart A of 10 CFR part 436 or OMB... practices of subpart A of 10 CFR part 436 shall not be included in the life cycle cost calculation....

  9. 10 CFR 434.607 - Life cycle cost analysis criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... subpart A of 10 CFR part 436. When performing optional life cycle cost analyses of energy conservation opportunities the designer may use the life cycle cost procedures of subpart A of 10 CFR part 436 or OMB... practices of subpart A of 10 CFR part 436 shall not be included in the life cycle cost calculation....

  10. 34 CFR 644.31 - What are unallowable costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are unallowable costs? 644.31 Section 644.31...? § 644.31 What are unallowable costs? Costs that are unallowable under the Educational Opportunity Centers program include, but are not limited to, the following: (a) Tuition, fees, stipends, and...

  11. 34 CFR 644.31 - What are unallowable costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are unallowable costs? 644.31 Section 644.31...? § 644.31 What are unallowable costs? Costs that are unallowable under the Educational Opportunity Centers program include, but are not limited to, the following: (a) Tuition, fees, stipends, and...

  12. 34 CFR 644.31 - What are unallowable costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are unallowable costs? 644.31 Section 644.31...? § 644.31 What are unallowable costs? Costs that are unallowable under the Educational Opportunity Centers program include, but are not limited to, the following: (a) Tuition, fees, stipends, and...

  13. 2014 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    SciTech Connect

    Mone, Christopher; Stehly, Tyler; Maples, Ben; Settle, Edward

    2015-10-01

    This report uses representative commercial projects to estimate the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for both land-based and offshore wind plants in the United States for 2014. Scheduled to be published on an annual basis, the analysis relies on both market and modeled data to maintain an up-to-date understanding of wind generation cost trends and drivers. It is intended to provide insight into current component-level costs and a basis for understanding variability in the LCOE across the industry. Data and tools developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are used in this analysis to inform wind technology cost projections, goals, and improvement opportunities.

  14. Links and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-09-01

    At the end of June a new website was launched to enable young people to get involved with the UK's national Foresight programme and to help shape the future. `School of the Future - Young people with Foresight' will provide young people with the means to contribute to the national programme which develops scenarios of the future, looking at possible needs, opportunities or threats and deciding what should be done now to make sure these challenges can be met. The site can be found at www.asset.org.uk and it will be run by the Association for Schools' Science, Engineering and Technology (ASSET). The latest round of Foresight began in April and panels are taking a look at the aging population, crime prevention, built environment and transport, aerospace and systems, energy and the natural environment, information, communications and media, materials and sustainable development, amongst other topics. Information about Foresight activities and events can be obtained from the Office of Science and Technology or the Foresight Knowledge pool at www.foresight.gov.uk. The pool will act as a unique and freely accessible electronic library of views and information about the future that young people will be able to draw on for assistance and reference material. Futher assistance for students will also be on offer from museums and art galleries from now on, thanks to additional funding which has been made available over the next three years. Forty museums and galleries will share up to #2.5m for projects intended to improve students' literacy, numeracy and science skills as well as their understanding of history and art. Examples of the imaginative projects which have been put forward include use of the large collection of steam engines at the Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester to assist boys' science and literacy skills. The Museum of London will be working with over 2000 schools in the South East to provide materials for the schools' own mini-museums on the Romans

  15. Biogas Opportunities Roadmap Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2015-12-01

    In support of the Obama Administration's Climate Action Plan, the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and U.S. Department of Agriculture jointly released the Biogas Opportunities Roadmap Progress Report, updating the federal government's progress to reduce methane emissions through biogas systems since the Biogas Opportunities Roadmap was completed by the three agencies in July 2014. The report highlights actions taken, outlines challenges and opportunities, and identifies next steps to the growth of a robust biogas industry.

  16. Teleradiology: opportunities, problems, implementation.

    PubMed

    Williams, O L; Singh, S K

    1996-01-01

    With the introduction of computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in the early 1970s, computers became integral to the imaging process. Shortly thereafter, scanners that create digitized images from film were introduced and teleradiology--images transmitted in real time--became possible. In the early 1980s, the idea of a picture archiving and communications system (PACS) began to develop. It promised to retrieve, connect and store every kind of image, from x-ray to CT, and render film obsolete. However, inflated expectations and inadequate technology hindered PACS implementation. Digital imaging offers the following benefits over film-based systems: - Less space is needed to store imaging studies. - Digital imaging files can be faster and easier for referring physicians to retrieve than film and are not susceptible to loss and damage. - Digital images can be enhanced, contrasted, colored and otherwise manipulated to maximize available information. - There are no chemicals to dispose of. While telemedicine promises to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of medical professionals, wide-scale implementation faces the following obstacles: - It has been difficult to establish a uniform standard that allows file transfer among systems made by different vendors. - There are unresolved legal questions about "interstate" medical practice as it occurs in teleradiology and about standards of care and image quality. - Any system available on a network is vulnerable to unauthorized users who may invade the database or operation of the system, and it is very difficult to detect fraud--data that has been tampered with--in digital records. - Connections to remote locations depend on local telephone lines, which may be slow. Other options are available, but they may be too expensive for facilities in the rural areas that need them the most. - Digital imaging equipment is still very costly to acquire and install. The future of telemedicine rests now with those who

  17. New Opportunities for Targeted Immunotherapy

    Cancer.gov

    A team of NCI researchers has reported that several types of gastrointestinal cancer have tumor-specific mutations that can be recognized by the immune system, thereby offering a new therapeutic opportunity for patients with these tumors.

  18. Opportunity's View on Sol 354

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity captured this 360-degree panorama with its navigation camera on the rover's 354th martian day, or sol (Jan. 21, 2005). The view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction. Just to the right of center is the divot where Opportunity's heat shield hit the ground after protecting the spacecraft during descent through Mars'atmosphere. The heat shield was jettisoned about 90 seconds before Opportunity landed about 800 meters (half a mile) away. To the left of the divot is the flank portion of the heat shield debris and in the left foreground is the main wreckage of the heat shield. On the far right is a basketball-size rock dubbed 'Heat Shield Rock,' which Opportunity's inspection identified as an iron-nickel meteorite. The rim of 'Endurance Crater' is visible on the horizon on both the left and right ends of this full-circle view.

  19. Opportunity Lowers for Egress (animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This animation strings together three images from the rear hazard-identification camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. The 'movie' shows the lander before and after it successfully tilted itself forward by hyperextending its rear lander petal downward. This manuever was performed in preparation for egress, or rolling off the lander at Meridiani Planum, Mars. Opportunity will roll north off the lander, opposite this viewpoint.

  20. A rare opportunity beckons

    SciTech Connect

    Gschneidner, K

    2011-02-01

    There is a great deal of uncertainty for the future of rare-earth production. Rare-earths are a collection of 17 chemical elements in the periodic table, which include scandium and yttrium as well as the 15 lanthanides, such as dysprosium and ytterbium. China has a stranglehold on today's rare-earth market, which was worth about $3bn in 2010, with the country accounting for about 95% of worldwide production. Yet China's future actions can only be guessed at best. In September it halted shipments of rare-earth elements to Japan over a diplomatic spat concerning the detention of a Chinese trawler captain. Although the ban was later lifted, the episode raised concerns around the world about China's rare-earth monopoly and its use in diplomacy. China has already warned that it will not export any rare-earth material in the coming years as it expects its own consumption of rare-earth metals to increase. The country has introduced export taxes as well as production and export quotas, and also refused to grant any new rare-earth mining licences. Furthermore, because its reserves are limited and China's internal markets are growing so rapidly, the country has suggested it will no longer export products that require rare-earth elements, especially those that need heavy rare-earth elements, such as terbium and dysprosium. China's actions have led to huge rises in the cost of rare-earth materials and products. Dysprosium oxide, for example, has shot up from $36 per kilogram in 2005 to a massive $305 per kilogram by late last year. This could have a huge impact on much of today's electronics industry, given that rare-earth elements are ubiquitous in electric motors, computers, batteries, liquid-crystal displays (LCDs) and mobile phones. Neodymium-iron-boron permanent magnets, for example, are used as computer spindle drives. The question is: what can be done to ensure that China's dominance of the rare-earth industry does not affect the military and energy security of the US

  1. Gas conversion opportunities in LILCO's commercial sector

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, B.

    1993-03-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary investigation into opportunities for gas conservation in Long Island Lighting Company's commercial sector. It focusses on gas-fired heating equipment. Various sources of data are examined in order to characterize the commercial buildings and equipment in the service territory. Several key pieces of information necessary to predict savings potential are identified. These include the efficiencies and size distribution of existing equipment. Twenty-one specific conservation measures are identified and their applicability is discussed in terms of equipment size. Recommendations include improving the characterization of existing buildings and equipment, and developing a greater understanding of the savings and costs of conservation measures, and their interactions, especially in the middle size range of buildings and equipment.

  2. Ares V: New Opportunities for Scientific Payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Steve

    2009-01-01

    What if scientists and payload planners had access to three to five times the volume and five to nine times the mass provided by today's launch vehicles? This simple question can lead to numerous exciting possibilities, all involving NASA's new Ares V cargo launch vehicle now on the drawing board. Multiple scientific fields and payload designers have that opportunity with the Ares V cargo launch vehicle, being developed at NASA as the heavy-lift component of the U.S. Space Exploration Policy. When the Ares V begins flying late next decade, its capabilities will significantly exceed the 1960s-era Saturn V or the current Space Shuttle, while it benefits from their engineering, manufacturing, and infrastructure heritage. It will send more crew and cargo to more places on the lunar surface than Apollo and provide ongoing support to a permanent lunar outpost. Moreover, it will restore a strategic heavy-lift U.S. asset, which can support human and robotic exploration and scientific ventures for decades to come. Assessment of astronomy payload requirements since Spring 2008 has indicated that Ares V has the potential to support a range of payloads and missions. Some of these missions were impossible in the absence of Ares V's capabilities. Collaborative design/architecture inputs, exchanges, and analyses have already begun between scientists and payload developers. A 2008 study by a National Research Council (NRC) panel, as well as analyses presented by astronomers and planetary scientists at two weekend conferences in 2008, support the position that Ares V has benefit to a broad range of planetary and astronomy missions. This early dialogue with Ares V engineers is permitting the greatest opportunity for payload/transportation/mission synergy and the least financial impact to Ares V development. In addition, independent analyses suggest that Ares V has the opportunity to enable more cost-effective mission design.

  3. Parametric Cost Deployment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, Edwin B.

    1995-01-01

    Parametric cost analysis is a mathematical approach to estimating cost. Parametric cost analysis uses non-cost parameters, such as quality characteristics, to estimate the cost to bring forth, sustain, and retire a product. This paper reviews parametric cost analysis and shows how it can be used within the cost deployment process.

  4. Florivory as an Opportunity Benefit of Aposematism.

    PubMed

    Higginson, Andrew D; Speed, Michael P; Ruxton, Graeme D

    2015-12-01

    Inconspicuous prey pay a cost of reduced feeding opportunities. Flowers are highly nutritious but are positioned where prey would be apparent to predators and often contain toxins to reduce consumption. However, many herbivores are specialized to subvert these defenses by retaining toxins for their own use. Here, we present a model of the growth and life history of a small herbivore that can feed on leaves or flowers during its development and can change its primary defense against visual predators between crypsis and warning coloration. When herbivores can retain plant toxins, their fitness is greatly increased when they are aposematic and can consume flowers. Thus, toxin sequestration leading to aposematism may enable a significant opportunity benefit for florivory. Florivory by cryptic herbivores is predicted when toxins are very potent but are at high concentration only in flowers and not in leaves. Herbivores should usually switch to eating flowers only when large and in most conditions should switch simultaneously from crypsis to aposematism. Our results suggest that florivory should be widespread in later instars of small aposematic herbivores and should be associated with ontogenic color change. Florivory is likely to play an underappreciated role in herbivorous insect life histories and host plant reproductive success.

  5. Cyberlearning for Climate Literacy: Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaffrey, M. S.; Buhr, S. M.; Gold, A. U.; Ledley, T. S.; Mooney, M. E.; Niepold, F.

    2010-12-01

    Cyberlearning tools provide cost and carbon-efficient avenues for fostering a climate literate society through online engagement with learners. With climate change education becoming a Presidential Priority in 2009, funding for grants from NSF, NASA and NOAA is leading to a new generation of cyberlearning resources that supplement existing online resources. This paper provides an overview of challenges and opportunities relating to the online delivery of high quality, often complex climate science by examining several existing and emerging efforts, including the Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network (CLEAN,) a National Science Digital Library Pathway, the development by CIRES Education and Outreach of the Inspiring Climate Education Excellence (ICEE) online course, TERC’s Earth Exploration Toolbook (EET,) DataTools, and EarthLab modules, the NOAA Climate Stewards Education Program (CSEP) that utilizes the NSTA E-Learning Center, online efforts by members of the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP), UCAR’s Climate Discovery program, and the Climate Adaptation, Mitigation e-Learning (CAMeL) project. In addition, we will summarize outcomes of the Cyberlearning for Climate Literacy workshop held in Washington DC in the Fall of 2009 and examine opportunities for teachers to develop and share their own lesson plans based on climate-related web resources that currently lack built-in learning activities, assessments or teaching tips.

  6. DSM renewable opportunities in Boston

    SciTech Connect

    Tennis, M.W.; Nogee, A.J.; Coakley, S.; Schoengold, D.

    1995-11-01

    The Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS), in conjunction with MSB Energy Associates, conducted a study for the Boston Edison Demand-Side Management (DSM) Settlement Board on the potential for DSM renewables in the Boston area. DSM renewables are resources that can be used in a distributed utility approach to avoid transmission and distribution (T and D) costs, as well as costs associated with operating and building power plants. The results show that avoided costs in areas with deferrable T and D investments can be nearly twice as high as system-wide average avoided costs. As a result, renewable technologies that might not be considered cost effective as DSM under system-wide average criteria, can produce large shavings for the utility and its customers. Adopting a deliberate program designed to provide sustained orderly development of these renewables is essential in order for renewable technologies to achieve the maximum level of cost-effectiveness and net savings.

  7. Opportunity recognition in complex environments

    SciTech Connect

    Pryor, L.

    1996-12-31

    An agent operating in an unpredictable world must be able to take advantage of opportunities but cannot afford to perform a detailed analysis of the effects of every nuance of the current situation on its goals if it is to respond in a timely manner. This paper describes a filtering mechanism that enables the effective recognition of opportunities. The mechanism is based on a characterization of the world in terms of reference features, features that are both cheap and functional and that appear to be prevalent in everyday life. Its use enables the plan execution system PARETO to recognize types of opportunities that other systems cannot. Reference features can also play a role in the detection of threats, and may be involved in the development of expertise.

  8. Career opportunities in clinical engineering.

    PubMed

    Morse, W A

    1992-01-01

    The varied career opportunities open to clinical engineers are described in this paper. Many of these opportunities are within the medical device industry in research, development, manufacturing design, regulatory activities, production, operations, sales, marketing, service, and management. Additional opportunities are available in hospitals, with the Veterans Administration, or working as an entrepreneur or a consultant. Each of these careers requires specific training and skills, and they all require a fundamental scientific knowledge of physical principles and mathematics. Research and management, however, require different educational preparation. The research emphasis should be on theoretical principles and creativity; the management emphasis should be on financial and labor problems. In all clinical engineering careers, the individual is a problem solver. PMID:10120058

  9. Photovoltaics: New opportunities for utilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-07-01

    This publication presents information on photovoltaics. The following topics are discussed: residential photovoltaics- the New England experience builds confidence in PV; Austin's 300-kW Photovoltaic Power Station- evaluating the breakeven costs; residential photovoltaics- the lessons learned; photovoltaics for electric utility use; least-cost planning- the environmental link; photovoltaics in the distribution system; photovoltaic systems for the rural consumer; the issues of utility-intertied photovoltaics; and photovoltaics for large-scale use- costs ready to drop again.

  10. Photovoltaics: New opportunities for utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    This publication presents information on photovoltaics. The following topics are discussed: Residential Photovoltaics: The New England Experience Builds Confidence in PV; Austin's 300-kW Photovoltaic Power Station: Evaluating the Breakeven Costs; Residential Photovoltaics: The Lessons Learned; Photovoltaics for Electric Utility Use; Least-Cost Planning: The Environmental Link; Photovoltaics in the Distribution System; Photovoltaic Systems for the Rural Consumer; The Issues of Utility-Intertied Photovoltaics; and Photovoltaics for Large-Scale Use: Costs Ready to Drop Again.

  11. Opportunity Tracks Seen from Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity landed on the red planet a year ago. This enhanced-resolution image from the Mars Orbiter Camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter is the only picture obtained thus far (by Jan. 24, 2005) that shows the tracks made by Opportunity.

    The image was acquired on April 26, 2004, during Opportunity's 91st martian day, or sol. That was the first day of Opportunity's extended mission, and the rover had recently completed exploration of small 'Fram Crater' on the route from its landing site toward 'Endurance Crater,' where it would eventually spend six months. The rover itself can be seen in this image -- an amazing accomplishment, considering that the orbiter was nearly 400 kilometers (nearly 250 miles) away at the time! Also visible and labeled on this image are the spacecraft's lander, backshell, parachute and heat shield, plus effects of its landing rockets.

    The camera captured this image with use of a technique called compensated pitch and roll targeted observation. In this method, the entire spacecraft rolls as it passes over the target area so the camera can scan in a way that sees details at three times higher resolution than the camera's normal high-resolution capability.

    The tracks made by Opportunity on the sandy surface of Meridiani Planum are not quite as visible from orbit as are the tracks made in Gusev Crater by the other Mars Exploration Rover, Spirit. A dustier surface at the Spirit site increases contrast between the tracks and the surrounding surfaces. Indeed, some parts of the track made by Opportunity are not visible in this image. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left. North is toward the top of the image. The 100-meter scale bar is 109 yards long.

  12. Opportunities in Training & Development Careers. VGM Opportunities Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Edward E.; Petrini, Catherine M.; Campagna, Ann P.

    This volume is a resource for those who want to explore opportunities in training and development careers. Chapter 1 covers the evolution of training and the future of education at work. Chapter 2 considers trainers' roles; program design and development; needs assessment; development of program objectives; program content, training methods,…

  13. Creating our future: challenges and opportunities for the clinical nurse specialist.

    PubMed

    Hamric, A B

    1992-01-01

    Rapid change, increasing technology, and cost-containment pressures present both challenges and opportunities for clinical nurse specialists (CNSs). Challenges stem from outside forces as well as from within the nursing profession, threatening the CNS role. At the same time, opportunities exist to expand advanced practice roles. To maximize these opportunities, consensus on the standards and qualifications for advanced practice is necessary. Certification and reimbursement for CNSs, clarification of advanced practice roles in new practice models, and strengthening of collaborative practice are some strategies to respond to these challenges and opportunities. Increased CNS accountability for defined institutional priorities also is crucial to the future of the CNS.

  14. Opportunities with Polarized Hadron Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzon, Wolfgang

    2016-02-01

    Spin physics at future hadron facilities provide unique opportunities for the study of QCD well beyond those available at existing facilities. Opportunities with polarized protons in the Fermilab Main Injector are discussed that encompass polarized Drell-Yan scattering of unprecedented precision and also enable measurements of transversity, helicty and other transverse momentum dependent distributions. Forthcoming measurements at COMPASS-II that aim to test fundamental predictions of non-perturbative QCD, and complementary studies at RHIC-Spin that address, among others, open puzzles such as the sharing of the nucleon spin among its constituents are also discussed.

  15. Opportunity's View on Sol 347

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity captured this view of its heat shield debris field on the rover's 347th martian day, or sol (Jan. 14, 2005). The view is a southward-looking, 60-degree panorama assembled from four images taken by Opportunity's navigation camera. It is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction. The main piece of the heat shield is in the middle of the image, with the smaller flank piece behind it and the divot caused by the impact on the right.

  16. Science Opportunity Analyzer (SOA) Version 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witoff, Robert J.; Polanskey, Carol A.; Aguinaldo, Anna Marie A.; Liu, Ning; Hofstadter, Mark D.

    2013-01-01

    SOA allows scientists to plan spacecraft observations. It facilitates the identification of geometrically interesting times in a spacecraft s orbit that a user can use to plan observations or instrument-driven spacecraft maneuvers. These observations can then be visualized multiple ways in both two- and three-dimensional views. When observations have been optimized within a spacecraft's flight rules, the resulting plans can be output for use by other JPL uplink tools. Now in its eighth major version, SOA improves on these capabilities in a modern and integrated fashion. SOA consists of five major functions: Opportunity Search, Visualization, Observation Design, Constraint Checking, and Data Output. Opportunity Search is a GUI-driven interface to existing search engines that can be used to identify times when a spacecraft is in a specific geometrical relationship with other bodies in the solar system. This function can be used for advanced mission planning as well as for making last-minute adjustments to mission sequences in response to trajectory modifications. Visualization is a key aspect of SOA. The user can view observation opportunities in either a 3D representation or as a 2D map projection. Observation Design allows the user to orient the spacecraft and visualize the projection of the instrument field of view for that orientation using the same views as Opportunity Search. Constraint Checking is provided to validate various geometrical and physical aspects of an observation design. The user has the ability to easily create custom rules or to use official project-generated flight rules. This capability may also allow scientists to easily assess the cost to science if flight rule changes occur. Data Output allows the user to compute ancillary data related to an observation or to a given position of the spacecraft along its trajectory. The data can be saved as a tab-delimited text file or viewed as a graph. SOA combines science planning functionality unique to

  17. The future of cost accounting systems in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Ladd, R D; Feverstein, T M

    1987-07-01

    The development of cost accounting/cost management programs provides one of the most exciting systems development opportunities for healthcare professionals. Despite countervailing factors, the requirement for cost management information is here to stay. The current status of systems development can be described as a positive step by a majority of institutions. To address system requirements, there are currently 16 mainframe computer, 20 minicomputer and 29 microcomputer software programs available. The availability of these software resources identifies numerous alternatives for future cost accounting/cost management applications. For the question has become, not "if" you require a cost management application, but rather what kind.

  18. Principles and methods of managerial cost-accounting systems.

    PubMed

    Suver, J D; Cooper, J C

    1988-01-01

    An introduction to cost-accounting systems for pharmacy managers is provided; terms are defined and examples of specific applications are given. Cost-accounting systems determine, record, and report the resources consumed in providing services. An effective cost-accounting system must provide the information needed for both internal and external reports. In accounting terms, cost is the value given up to secure an asset. In determining how volumes of activity affect costs, fixed costs and variable costs are calculated; applications include pricing strategies, cost determinations, and break-even analysis. Also discussed are the concepts of direct and indirect costs, opportunity costs, and incremental and sunk costs. For most pharmacy department services, process costing, an accounting of intermediate outputs and homogeneous units, is used; in determining the full cost of providing a product or service (e.g., patient stay), job-order costing is used. Development of work-performance standards is necessary for monitoring productivity and determining product costs. In allocating pharmacy department costs, a ratio of costs to charges can be used; this method is convenient, but microcosting (specific identification of the costs of products) is more accurate. Pharmacy managers can use cost-accounting systems to evaluate the pharmacy's strategies, policies, and services and to improve budgets and reports.

  19. Principles and methods of managerial cost-accounting systems.

    PubMed

    Suver, J D; Cooper, J C

    1988-01-01

    An introduction to cost-accounting systems for pharmacy managers is provided; terms are defined and examples of specific applications are given. Cost-accounting systems determine, record, and report the resources consumed in providing services. An effective cost-accounting system must provide the information needed for both internal and external reports. In accounting terms, cost is the value given up to secure an asset. In determining how volumes of activity affect costs, fixed costs and variable costs are calculated; applications include pricing strategies, cost determinations, and break-even analysis. Also discussed are the concepts of direct and indirect costs, opportunity costs, and incremental and sunk costs. For most pharmacy department services, process costing, an accounting of intermediate outputs and homogeneous units, is used; in determining the full cost of providing a product or service (e.g., patient stay), job-order costing is used. Development of work-performance standards is necessary for monitoring productivity and determining product costs. In allocating pharmacy department costs, a ratio of costs to charges can be used; this method is convenient, but microcosting (specific identification of the costs of products) is more accurate. Pharmacy managers can use cost-accounting systems to evaluate the pharmacy's strategies, policies, and services and to improve budgets and reports. PMID:3348229

  20. Strategic Opportunities for Cooperative Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges, 2007

    2007-01-01

    In this new century, opportunities exist to help advance America's greatness in the midst of many challenges. Energy, water, food, environment, health, economic productivity, global competitiveness, and the quality of the living environments are all paramount to the future. Extension is, as a part of higher education, prepared to create new…

  1. Graduate Opportunities for Black Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paynter, Julie, Ed.

    This document catalogues graduate opportunities specifically for black students in 1969-70 at 42 universities, 96 additional graduate departments (social sciences, natural sciences, mathematics, and humanities), and 111 additional professional schools (particularly social work, education, law, medicine, theology, business, and library science).…

  2. Opportunities in Community College Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumsden, D. Barry; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Presents the results of a 1980 national survey of graduate training opportunities in community college education. Offers a table listing the 94 universities providing graduate-level instruction about community colleges and the 304 courses they offer. Discusses the value of the study for curriculum and research planning. (DMM)

  3. Crop stubble needs and opportunities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farmers in Australia and elsewhere around the world are being offered opportunities to market their crop residues as a bioenergy feedstock, but many are not aware of how that could affect their soil resources. This report shares information from the USDA-ARS Renewable Energy Assessment Project (REAP...

  4. Learning Opportunities for Older People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKeracher, Dorothy

    1980-01-01

    The author summarizes a conference on learning opportunities for older people by discussing six issues: (1) perspectives of older people and service providers; (2) categorization of older learners; (3) learning needs of older people; (4) participation rates; (5) government policies; and (6) curriculum concerns. (SK)

  5. Research Opportunities in Private Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Donald A.

    Private education as an area of study offers many opportunities to educational researchers. Four types of research that would include private education are discussed and examples of research possibilities under each type are offered. The first type involves fundamental educational processes. Suggested are studies of the effects of various levels…

  6. STEM Regional Collaboratives: The Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couturier, Lara K.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has helped shift the national understanding of the opportunities presented by Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) fields, drawing attention to the large number of STEM jobs that require less than a Bachelor's degree. The data have also highlighted the critical importance of community colleges as a primary provider…

  7. Primer of Equal Employment Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Howard J.

    This booklet presents laws and court cases concerning discrimination in hiring. It begins with a presentation of the laws and orders regulating equal employment opportunity and the remedies available. It lists those employees and employers to whom the laws apply and exemptions. Sections deal with discrimination on the basis of race, sex, sexual…

  8. Suborbital Research and Development Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the new strategies for problem solving in the life sciences in the suborbital realm. Topics covered are: an overview of the space life sciences, the strategic initiatives that the Space Life Sciences organization engaged in, and the new business model that these initiatives were developed. Several opportunities for research are also reviewed.

  9. Hedging opportunities in health care.

    PubMed

    Hayes, J A

    1990-03-01

    Medical care futures contracts offer new hedging opportunities to increase protection against unexpected price changes. Commodity futures contracts can be designed explicitly to hedge volatile group health insurance premiums and capitated hospital and physician prices. This article describes one way to design and use these hedging instruments.

  10. Latino Immigration, Education, and Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez, Rosa M.

    2012-01-01

    Immigration is often framed as a problem, yet it is also a time of remarkable opportunity. While immigrants come to the United States from all over the world, the author focuses on the unique and urgent issues related to Latino immigration. Immigrant Latinos have changed the face of America and U.S. schools. Approximately one in five K-12 students…

  11. Postdoctoral Opportunities and Career Options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manka, R. H.

    2001-05-01

    Following the completion of a Ph.D. degree, in the sciences a postdoctoral appointment has traditionally been a key step in career development to expand the student's background and broaden their perspective. The postdoctoral appointment often is almost a requirement to obtain some positions in academia and government laboratories. In addition, postdoctoral positions in industry are becoming more common and offer an opportunity to explore a field without making a long-term commitment. We describe the nature of a postdoctoral appointment and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the recent Ph.D. taking a postdoctoral position. We comment on the role such positions play in university, government and the corporate research. Finally, we describe some of the national postdoctoral opportunities that exist including large programs offered by the National Research Council through Federal laboratories including those of NASA, NOAA, EPA, and the Department of Defense. Exciting new interdisciplinary opportunities such as fellowships at the NASA Astrobiology Institute are summarized, as are international opportunities such as the von Humboldt fellowships in Germany.

  12. Using Activity Theory to Understand Entrepreneurial Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Robin

    2008-01-01

    Entrepreneurship is often described as the ability to recognize and exploit opportunities. Identifying opportunities is intentional and idiosyncratic insofar as they are recognized as opportunities is a novel and conscious event (otherwise the entrepreneur would be doing nothing new). Yet opportunities also have to be recognized by others as ones…

  13. Unraveling Higher Education's Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Gus; Charles, Maria

    1998-01-01

    The activity-based costing (ABC) method of analyzing institutional costs in higher education involves four procedures: determining the various discrete activities of the organization; calculating the cost of each; determining the cost drivers; tracing cost to the cost objective or consumer of each activity. Few American institutions have used the…

  14. Lamb Production Costs: Analyses of Composition and Elasticities Analysis of Lamb Production Costs

    PubMed Central

    Raineri, C.; Stivari, T. S. S.; Gameiro, A. H.

    2015-01-01

    Since lamb is a commodity, producers cannot control the price of the product they sell. Therefore, managing production costs is a necessity. We explored the study of elasticities as a tool for basing decision-making in sheep production, and aimed at investigating the composition and elasticities of lamb production costs, and their influence on the performance of the activity. A representative sheep production farm, designed in a panel meeting, was the base for calculation of lamb production cost. We then performed studies of: i) costs composition, and ii) cost elasticities for prices of inputs and for zootechnical indicators. Variable costs represented 64.15% of total cost, while 21.66% were represented by operational fixed costs, and 14.19% by the income of the factors. As for elasticities to input prices, the opportunity cost of land was the item to which production cost was more sensitive: a 1% increase in its price would cause a 0.2666% increase in lamb cost. Meanwhile, the impact of increasing any technical indicator was significantly higher than the impact of rising input prices. A 1% increase in weight at slaughter, for example, would reduce total cost in 0.91%. The greatest obstacle to economic viability of sheep production under the observed conditions is low technical efficiency. Increased production costs are more related to deficient zootechnical indexes than to high expenses. PMID:26104531

  15. The state of the art of costing health care for economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, C

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, the principles of costing health care for economic evaluation are outlined. Hypothetical and published examples are used to illustrate these principles. First, the economic concept of opportunity cost is defined. Secondly, the techniques of economic evaluation which follow from this definition are introduced: they are cost-benefit analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis and cost-utility analysis. Thirdly, a list of costs which should be considered for inclusion in either of these types of evaluation is provided, this listing being based on the concept of opportunity cost. Problems of measurement and valuation of costs are then outlined, focusing in particular on inflation, discounting, marginal costing, patient-based versus per diem costing, allocating overheads, costing capital and equipment and adjusting distorted market valuations. An example of sensitivity analysis is provided and also a checklist of questions to ask when setting up any costing exercise within an economic evaluation. PMID:2127388

  16. The state of the art of costing health care for economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, C

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, the principles of costing health care for economic evaluation are outlined. Hypothetical and published examples are used to illustrate these principles. First, the economic concept of opportunity cost is defined. Secondly, the techniques of economic evaluation which follow from this definition are introduced: they are cost-benefit analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis and cost-utility analysis. Thirdly, a list of costs which should be considered for inclusion in either of these types of evaluation is provided, this listing being based on the concept of opportunity cost. Problems of measurement and valuation of costs are then outlined, focusing in particular on inflation, discounting, marginal costing, patient-based versus per diem costing, allocating overheads, costing capital and equipment and adjusting distorted market valuations. An example of sensitivity analysis is provided and also a checklist of questions to ask when setting up any costing exercise within an economic evaluation.

  17. Costs and cost-minimisation analysis.

    PubMed

    Robinson, R

    1993-09-18

    Whatever kind of economic evaluation you plan to undertake, the costs must be assessed. In health care these are first of all divided into costs borne by the NHS (like drugs), by patients and their families (like travel), and by the rest of society (like health education). Next the costs have to be valued in monetary terms; direct costs, like wages, pose little problem, but indirect costs (like time spent in hospital) have to have values imputed to them. And that is not all: costs must be further subdivided into average, marginal, and joint costs, which help decisions on how much of a service should be provided. Capital costs (investments in plant, buildings, and machinery) are also important, as are discounting and inflation. In this second article in the series Ray Robinson defines the types of costs, their measurement, and how they should be valued in monetary terms. PMID:8401098

  18. Texas Food Stamp Employment and Training/JOBS Conformance Demonstration: Cost Analysis Final Report. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Shea, Daniel P.; Norris, Dave N.

    An evaluation was conducted of the Texas Food Stamp Employment and Training(E&T)/Job Opportunities and Basic Skills Program Conformance Demonstration. The cost analysis determined the impact of the demonstration, the BOND (Better Opportunities for New Directions) program, on costs of administering and providing activity components and support…

  19. Technology transfer opportunities: partnership opportunities available at the USGS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1996-01-01

    The following are USGS research projects offering an opportunity for Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) partnerships. A CRADA is an agreement between one or more Federal agencies and one or more non-Federal agencies to work together in research or developmental activities. CRADAs permit both partners to share information in a protected environment and offer incentives to the non-Federal partner(s) to commercialize the resulting product of the effort.

  20. Recent Opportunity Microscopic Imager Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herkenhoff, K. E.; Arvidson, R. E.; Jolliff, B. L.; Yingst, R.; Team, A.

    2013-12-01

    Opportunity arrived at exposures of Endeavour crater rim rocks in August 2011, on a hill dubbed 'Cape York.' These rocks have been the goal of exploration by Opportunity for the past few years because spectral evidence for phyllosilicates was observed at this location in orbital remote sensing data. As Opportunity circum¬navigated Cape York, the Microscopic Imager (MI) was used to examine the fine-scale textures of various soils and rocky outcrops. As reported previously, Opportunity discovered multiple bright linear features along the western periphery of Cape York that have been interpreted as veins of Ca sulfate deposited in fractures within the bedrock of Cape York. Opportunity then explored the northern and eastern sides of Cape York, including the area around 'Matijevic Hill' that shows evidence for phyllosilicates in CRISM data acquired from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. One of the first outcrops examined near Matijevic Hill, dubbed 'Kirkwood,' is dominated by millimeter-size spherules. Unlike the hematite-rich concretions observed by Opportunity on Meridiani Planum, the aggregated 'newberries' in the Kirkwood exposure display internal structure and resistant rims. Compositionally, the spherule-rich rock is very similar to a nearby spherule-poor outcrop dubbed 'Whitewater Lake.' Thus these spherules have a more basalt-like composition compared to the hematite-rich concretions of the Burns Formation. The origin of the Kirkwood outcrop is uncertain, but the setting on the rim of the 22-km diameter Endeavour crater suggests that perhaps impact melting was involved in lapilli formation, possibly followed by mobilization and sorting in the ejecta blanket. Alternatively, the newberries may be diagenetic iron oxide concretions that are less well cemented than the 'blueberries' of the younger sulfate-rich Burns Formation. The Whitewater Lake outcrops contain the phyllosilicate phases observed from orbit, and are the oldest materials yet investigated by

  1. Opportunities in SMR Emergency Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Moe, Wayne L.

    2014-10-01

    Using year 2014 cost information gathered from twenty different locations within the current commercial nuclear power station fleet, an assessment was performed concerning compliance costs associated with the offsite emergency Planning Standards contained in 10 CFR 50.47(b). The study was conducted to quantitatively determine the potential cost benefits realized if an emergency planning zone (EPZ) were reduced in size according to the lowered risks expected to accompany small modular reactors (SMR). Licensees are required to provide a technical basis when proposing to reduce the surrounding EPZ size to less than the 10 mile plume exposure and 50 mile ingestion pathway distances currently being used. To assist licensees in assessing the savings that might be associated with such an action, this study established offsite emergency planning costs in connection with four discrete EPZ boundary distances, i.e., site boundary, 2 miles, 5 miles and 10 miles. The boundary selected by the licensee would be based on where EPA Protective Action Guidelines are no longer likely to be exceeded. Additional consideration was directed towards costs associated with reducing the 50 mile ingestion pathway EPZ. The assessment methodology consisted of gathering actual capital costs and annual operating and maintenance costs for offsite emergency planning programs at the surveyed sites, partitioning them according to key predictive factors, and allocating those portions to individual emergency Planning Standards as a function of EPZ size. Two techniques, an offsite population-based approach and an area-based approach, were then employed to calculate the scaling factors which enabled cost projections as a function of EPZ size. Site-specific factors that influenced source data costs, such as the effects of supplemental funding to external state and local agencies for offsite response organization activities, were incorporated into the analysis to the extent those factors could be

  2. Pollution prevention cost savings potential

    SciTech Connect

    Celeste, J.

    1994-12-01

    The waste generated by DOE facilities is a serious problem that significantly impacts current operations, increases future waste management costs, and creates future environmental liabilities. Pollution Prevention (P2) emphasizes source reduction through improved manufacturing and process control technologies. This concept must be incorporated into DOE`s overall operating philosophy and should be an integral part of Total Quality Management (TQM) program. P2 reduces the amount of waste generated, the cost of environmental compliance and future liabilities, waste treatment, and transportation and disposal costs. To be effective, P2 must contribute to the bottom fine in reducing the cost of work performed. P2 activities at LLNL include: researching and developing innovative manufacturing; evaluating new technologies, products, and chemistries; using alternative cleaning and sensor technologies; performing Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessments (PPOAs); and developing outreach programs with small business. Examples of industrial outreach are: innovative electroplating operations, printed circuit board manufacturing, and painting operations. LLNL can provide the infrastructure and technical expertise to address a wide variety of industrial concerns.

  3. Physics research opportunities with XFEL's.

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, S. K.

    1999-12-06

    The advent of x-ray Free Electron Lasers will present a number of unique new scientific opportunities. These arise from their special characteristics which include intensely brilliant pulses of x-rays delivered in very short times, complete transverse coherence, and high photon quantum degeneracy, amongst other things. While clearly much thought needs to be given to a detailed quantitative assessment of the feasibility of various experiments using such sources, including methods of dealing with heat loads on beamline optics and radiation damage to samples, there are a number of areas in which one can see new opportunities, and other exciting possibilities about which one might speculate. In this talk the author briefly reviews some of these areas, such as x-ray holography, pump-probe type experiments, correlation spectroscopy and quantum optics experiments with x-rays.

  4. Opportunities for research in aerothermodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, R. W.

    1983-01-01

    "Aerothermodynamics' involves the disciplines of chemistry, thermodynamics, fluid mechanics and heat transfer which have collaborative importance in propulsion systems. There are growing opportunities for the further application of these disciplines to improve the methodology for the design of advanced gas turbines; particularly, the combustor and turbine. Design procedures follow empirical or cut and try guidelines. The tremendous advances in computational analysis and in instrumentation techniques hold promise for research answers to complex physical processes that are currently not well understood. The transfer of basic research understanding to engineering design should result in shorter, less expensive development commitments for engines. The status and anticipated opportunities in research topics relevant to combustors and turbines is reviewed.

  5. UTBB FDSOI: Evolution and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monfray, Stephane; Skotnicki, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    As today's 28 nm FDSOI (Fully Depleted Silicon On Insulator) technology is at the industrialization level, this paper aims to summarize the key advantages allowed by the thin BOX (Buried Oxide) of the FDSOI, through the technology evolution but also new opportunities, among logic applications and extending the possibilities offered by the platform. We will summarize how the advantages provided by the thin BOX have been first explored and developed, and how the back biasing techniques are the key to the outstanding performances provided by the FDSOI at low voltage. Then, as the FDSOI technology is also a solution to develop innovative platforms and applications, we will detail some opportunities. In particular, we will present monolithic 3D integration, ultra-low power devices for IoT (Internet of Things) and ultra-sensitive sensors.

  6. Equal opportunity in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Allen, A

    1992-04-01

    The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) was created by the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The commission encourages voluntary compliance with equal employment opportunity practices, and has authority to investigate complaints alleging discrimination in hiring, firing, wage rates, testing, training, apprenticeship, and other conditions of employment. In October 1991, during the Senate Judiciary Committee hearings, the confirmation of Judge Clarence Thomas for a seat on the United States Supreme Court was placed in jeopardy by a charge of sexual harassment while Thomas was head of the EEOC. This article focuses on aspects of sexual harassment in the workplace, the role of the EEOC, and offers some suggestions for keeping the work environment free of abusive behavior.

  7. Disaster research: a nursing opportunity.

    PubMed

    Giarratano, Gloria; Savage, Jane; Barcelona-deMendoza, Veronica; Harville, Emily W

    2014-09-01

    Nurses working or living near a community disaster have the opportunity to study health-related consequences to disaster or disaster recovery. In such a situation, the researchers need to deal with the conceptual and methodological issues unique to postdisaster research and know what resources are available to guide them, even if they have no specialized training or previous experience in disaster research. The purpose of this article is to review issues and challenges associated with conducting postdisaster research and encourage nurses to seek resources and seize opportunities to conduct research should the situation arise. Current disaster studies and the authors' personal experiences conducting maternal-child research in post-Katrina New Orleans (2005-2013) provide real-life examples of how health professionals and nurses faced the challenges of doing postdisaster research. After catastrophic events, nurses need to step forward to conduct disaster research that informs and improves future disaster planning and healthcare responses.

  8. US maglev: Status and opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Coffey, H.T.

    1992-09-01

    Recognizing the development of maglev systems in Germany and Japan, and the growing congestion, air pollution and energy consumption resulting from our current transportation system, the United States, in 1990, embarked on a program to evaluate the potential usefulness of these systems in the US. In this paper, the utility of maglev systems in alleviating some of these problems, progress in the current program, and opportunities for participation by the superconductivity and cryogenic communities are discussed.

  9. US maglev: Status and opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Coffey, H.T.

    1992-01-01

    Recognizing the development of maglev systems in Germany and Japan, and the growing congestion, air pollution and energy consumption resulting from our current transportation system, the United States, in 1990, embarked on a program to evaluate the potential usefulness of these systems in the US. In this paper, the utility of maglev systems in alleviating some of these problems, progress in the current program, and opportunities for participation by the superconductivity and cryogenic communities are discussed.

  10. Opportunity Egress Aid Contacts Soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image from the navigation camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the rover's egress aid touching the martian soil at Meridiani Planum, Mars. The image was taken after the rear lander petal hyperextended in a manuever to tilt the lander forward. The maneuver pushed the front edge lower, placing the tips of the egress aids in the soil. The rover will drive straight ahead to exit the lander.

  11. Office of Equal Opportunity Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Jennifer L.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Office of Equal Opportunity Programs works to provide quality service for all programs and/or to assist the Center in becoming a model workplace. During the summer of 2004, I worked with Deborah Cotleur along with other staff members to create and modify customer satisfaction surveys. This office aims to assist in developing a model workplace by providing functions as a change agent to the center by serving as an advisor to management to ensure equity throughout the Center. In addition, the office serves as a mediator for the Center in addressing issues and concerns. Lastly, the office provides assistance to employees to enable attainment of personal and organizational goals. The Office of Equal Opportunities is a staff office which reports and provides advice to the Center Director and Executive Leadership, implements laws, regulations, and presidential executive orders, and provides center wide leadership and assistance to NASA GRC employees. Some of the major responsibilities of the office include working with the discrimination complaints program, special emphasis programs (advisory groups), management support, monitoring and evaluation, contract compliance, and community outreach. During my internship in this office, my main objective was to create four customer satisfaction surveys based on EO retreats, EO observances, EO advisory boards, and EO mediation/counseling. I created these surveys after conducting research on past events and surveys as well as similar survey research created and conducted by other NASA centers, program for EO Advisory group members, leadership training sessions for supervisors, preventing sexual harassment training sessions, and observance events. I also conducted research on the style and format from feedback surveys from the Marshall Equal Opportunity website, the Goddard website, and the main NASA website. Using the material from the Office of Equal Opportunity Programs at Glenn Research Center along with my

  12. US maglev: Status and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffey, H. T.

    1992-08-01

    Recognizing the development of maglev systems in Germany and Japan, and the growing congestion, air pollution, and energy consumption resulting from our current transportation system, the United States, in 1990, embarked on a program to evaluate the potential usefulness of these systems in the U.S. In this paper, the utility of maglev systems in alleviating some of these problems, progress in the current program, and opportunities for participation by the superconductivity and cryogenic communities are discussed.

  13. Decadal opportunities for space architects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, Brent

    2012-12-01

    A significant challenge for the new field of space architecture is the dearth of project opportunities. Yet every year more young professionals express interest to enter the field. This paper derives projections that bound the number, type, and range of global development opportunities that may be reasonably expected over the next few decades for human space flight (HSF) systems so those interested in the field can benchmark their goals. Four categories of HSF activity are described: human Exploration of solar system bodies; human Servicing of space-based assets; large-scale development of space Resources; and Breakout of self-sustaining human societies into the solar system. A progressive sequence of capabilities for each category starts with its earliest feasible missions and leads toward its full expression. The four sequences are compared in scale, distance from Earth, and readiness. Scenarios hybridize the most synergistic features from the four sequences for comparison to status quo, government-funded HSF program plans. Finally qualitative, decadal, order-of-magnitude estimates are derived for system development needs, and hence opportunities for space architects. Government investment towards human planetary exploration is the weakest generator of space architecture work. Conversely, the strongest generator is a combination of three market drivers: (1) commercial passenger travel in low Earth orbit; (2) in parallel, government extension of HSF capability to GEO; both followed by (3) scale-up demonstration of end-to-end solar power satellites in GEO. The rich end of this scale affords space architecture opportunities which are more diverse, complex, large-scale, and sociologically challenging than traditional exploration vehicle cabins and habitats.

  14. Opportunities in the Hydrologic Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Back, William

    Hydrologists can take heart that our profession has matured to the point of having its respectable reputation recognized by the National Academy of Sciences. Opportunities in Hydrology follows the publication of Opportunities in Biology and Opportunities in Chemistry, and was prepared by a committee composed of prestigious water-oriented scientists. I am writing this review because the book is extremely important, and its basic premise—that there is such a thing as a single “discipline” of hydrologic sciences—is contrary to the thinking of many hydrogeologists.The committee proposes that students can obtain adequate training and be prepared to develop a career in “hydrologic sciences.” Such an approach may be suitable for many aspects of hydrology, but it does not represent the interests, needs, goals, history, or future of “hydrogeology,” a clearly recognized subdiscipline of hydrology. The various aspects of hydrology are so wide ranging that, from my personal viewpoint and the viewpoints of many of my colleagues, it takes a person of extremely narrow focus to see hydrology as a single discipline.

  15. Future practice risks: obstacles with opportunities.

    PubMed

    Mallory, Thomas H

    2003-02-01

    The encouragement of a consumer-directed insurance market and the involvement of corporate America have led to a transformation of the healthcare system that will redefine patient expectations and the role of the physician. The expectation of a higher level of customer service, the role of electronic media, and an earnest regard for healthcare by the patient will impact the physician. Consumer-directed healthcare will call for a reprioritization, focusing on service, convenience, competency, quality, and low cost. Indifference to patient courtesies or failure to become involved in modern technology may cause the physician to be bypassed from this new healthcare system. As the business world integrates the business model into the medical profession, healthcare organizations will restructure themselves into well-organized business enterprises employing physicians. The singular physician may no longer be competitive with such business enterprises, leading to consolidation of organizations and a significant decision for the physician. The physician will have the unusual opportunity to either remain exclusively a medical professional or to also venture into the business world as an equity investor, participating in financial growth possibilities of those medical practice organizations that are for-profit. With the emergence of these new equity models of healthcare, the primary focus will be on profit, production, and service efficiencies. It is the responsibility of the physician to maintain professionalism and the commitment to quality and appropriateness of patient care. However, at the same time, the physician has the unique opportunity to participate in the distribution, economics, and subsequent financial profit of healthcare. The medical experience of the physician, coupled with business acumen, will be an unbeatable combination. PMID:12567133

  16. Process-based costing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Robert H; Bott, Marjorie J; Forbes, Sarah; Redford, Linda; Swagerty, Daniel L; Taunton, Roma Lee

    2003-01-01

    Understanding how quality improvement affects costs is important. Unfortunately, low-cost, reliable ways of measuring direct costs are scarce. This article builds on the principles of process improvement to develop a costing strategy that meets both criteria. Process-based costing has 4 steps: developing a flowchart, estimating resource use, valuing resources, and calculating direct costs. To illustrate the technique, this article uses it to cost the care planning process in 3 long-term care facilities. We conclude that process-based costing is easy to implement; generates reliable, valid data; and allows nursing managers to assess the costs of new or modified processes.

  17. Attribution of Library Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Miriam A.

    1977-01-01

    Universities conduct a variety of cost-allocation studies that require the collection and analysis of the library cost-data. Cost accounting methods are used in most studies; however, costs are attributed to library user groups in a variety of ways. Cost accounting studies are reviewed and allocation methods are discussed. (Author)

  18. Compelling Research Opportunities using Isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    2009-04-23

    Isotopes are vital to the science and technology base of the US economy. Isotopes, both stable and radioactive, are essential tools in the growing science, technology, engineering, and health enterprises of the 21st century. The scientific discoveries and associated advances made as a result of the availability of isotopes today span widely from medicine to biology, physics, chemistry, and a broad range of applications in environmental and material sciences. Isotope issues have become crucial aspects of homeland security. Isotopes are utilized in new resource development, in energy from bio-fuels, petrochemical and nuclear fuels, in drug discovery, health care therapies and diagnostics, in nutrition, in agriculture, and in many other areas. The development and production of isotope products unavailable or difficult to get commercially have been most recently the responsibility of the Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy program. The President's FY09 Budget request proposed the transfer of the Isotope Production program to the Department of Energy's Office of Science in Nuclear Physics and to rename it the National Isotope Production and Application program (NIPA). The transfer has now taken place with the signing of the 2009 appropriations bill. In preparation for this, the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) was requested to establish a standing subcommittee, the NSAC Isotope Subcommittee (NSACI), to advise the DOE Office of Nuclear Physics. The request came in the form of two charges: one, on setting research priorities in the short term for the most compelling opportunities from the vast array of disciplines that develop and use isotopes and two, on making a long term strategic plan for the NIPA program. This is the final report to address charge 1. NSACI membership is comprised of experts from the diverse research communities, industry, production, and homeland security. NSACI discussed research opportunities divided into three areas: (1) medicine

  19. Estimating design costs for first-of-a-kind projects

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Bakul; /Fermilab

    2006-03-01

    Modern scientific facilities are often outcomes of projects that are first-of-a-kind, that is, minimal historical data are available for project costs and schedules. However, at Fermilab, there was an opportunity to execute two similar projects consecutively. In this paper, a comparative study of the design costs for these two projects is presented using earned value methodology. This study provides some insights into how to estimate the cost of a replicated project.

  20. Future costs in cost effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Robert H

    2008-07-01

    This paper resolves several controversies in CEA. Generalizing [Garber, A.M., Phelps, C.E., 1997. Economic foundations of cost-effectiveness analysis. Journal of Health Economics 16 (1), 1-31], the paper shows accounting for unrelated future costs distorts decision making. After replicating [Meltzer, D., 1997. Accounting for future costs in medical cost-effectiveness analysis. Journal of Health Economics 16 (1), 33-64] quite different conclusion that unrelated future costs should be included in CEA, the paper shows that Meltzer's findings result from modeling the budget constraint as an annuity, which is problematic. The paper also shows that related costs should be included in CEA. This holds for a variety of models, including a health maximization model. CEA should treat costs in the manner recommended by Garber and Phelps.

  1. Price and cost estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    Price and Cost Estimating Program (PACE II) was developed to prepare man-hour and material cost estimates. Versatile and flexible tool significantly reduces computation time and errors and reduces typing and reproduction time involved in preparation of cost estimates.

  2. Algal biofuels: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Leite, Gustavo B; Abdelaziz, Ahmed E M; Hallenbeck, Patrick C

    2013-10-01

    Biodiesel production using microalgae is attractive in a number of respects. Here a number of pros and cons to using microalgae for biofuels production are reviewed. Algal cultivation can be carried out using non-arable land and non-potable water with simple nutrient supply. In addition, algal biomass productivities are much higher than those of vascular plants and the extractable content of lipids that can be usefully converted to biodiesel, triacylglycerols (TAGs) can be much higher than that of the oil seeds now used for first generation biodiesel. On the other hand, practical, cost-effective production of biofuels from microalgae requires that a number of obstacles be overcome. These include the development of low-cost, effective growth systems, efficient and energy saving harvesting techniques, and methods for oil extraction and conversion that are environmentally benign and cost-effective. Promising recent advances in these areas are highlighted.

  3. WASTE OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT: A PHOTOFINISHING FACILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A waste minimization opportunity assessment was performed which identified areas for waste reduction at a photofinishing facility. The study followed procedures in the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual. The report identifies potential options to achieve further...

  4. Polymer recycling: opportunities and limitations.

    PubMed Central

    Stein, R S

    1992-01-01

    The disposal of polymer solid waste by means other than landfilling is necessary. The various approaches-source reduction, incineration, degradation, composting, and recycling-all have their roles and must be employed in an integrated manner. Where appropriate, recycling has ecological advantages, but its application is dependent upon the feasibility of collection, sorting, and/or compatibilization of resulting mixtures to produce economically viable products. The practice should be encouraged by societal or legislative pressure which recognizes that the cost of disposal should be a factor in determining the cost of a product. PMID:11607263

  5. Opportunity Bounces to a Stop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    In this close-up view of the path Opportunity took when it landed at Meridiani Planum, Mars, a computer-generated red line shows the spacecraft's bounce motions as it landed at Meridiani Planum, Mars. The spacecraft bounced north approximately 26 times while safely encased in airbags, until it came to a stop inside the crater to the right of the image. The red line is superimposed on a mosaic of the three images taken during descent by the descent image motion estimation system camera, located on the bottom of the lander.

  6. Mars mission concepts and opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Archie C.

    1986-01-01

    Trajectory and mission requirement data are presented for Earth Mars opposition and conjunction class roundtrip flyby and stopover mission opportunities available between 1997 and 2045. The opposition class flyby mission uses direct transfer trajectories to and on return from Mars. The opposition class stopover mission employs the gravitational field of Venus to accelerate the space vehicle on either the outbound or inbound leg in order to reduce the propulsion requirement associated with the opposition class mission. The conjunction class mission minimizes propulsion requirements by optimizing the stopover time at Mars.

  7. Energy Development Opportunities for Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Demick

    2012-11-01

    The Wyoming Business Council, representing the state’s interests, is participating in a collaborative evaluation of energy development opportunities with the NGNP Industry Alliance (an industry consortium), the University of Wyoming, and the US Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory. Three important energy-related goals are being pursued by the State of Wyoming: Ensuring continued reliable and affordable sources of energy for Wyoming’s industries and people Restructuring the coal economy in Wyoming Restructuring the natural gas economy in Wyoming

  8. Opportunity's View, Sol 958 (Stereo)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a stereo pair for PIA01897

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a stereo pair for PIA01897

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this stereo view of the rover's surroundings on the 958th sol, or Martian day, of its surface mission (Oct. 4, 2006).

    This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction. The image appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-green stereo glasses.

  9. Opportunity's View, Sol 959, (Stereo)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a stereo pair for PIA01893

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a stereo pair for PIA01893

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this stereo view of the rover's surroundings on sol (or Martian day) 959 of its surface mission.

    This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  10. Automated Demand Response Opportunities in Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Lisa; Song, Katherine; Lekov, Alex; McKane, Aimee

    2008-11-19

    Wastewater treatment is an energy intensive process which, together with water treatment, comprises about three percent of U.S. annual energy use. Yet, since wastewater treatment facilities are often peripheral to major electricity-using industries, they are frequently an overlooked area for automated demand response opportunities. Demand response is a set of actions taken to reduce electric loads when contingencies, such as emergencies or congestion, occur that threaten supply-demand balance, and/or market conditions occur that raise electric supply costs. Demand response programs are designed to improve the reliability of the electric grid and to lower the use of electricity during peak times to reduce the total system costs. Open automated demand response is a set of continuous, open communication signals and systems provided over the Internet to allow facilities to automate their demand response activities without the need for manual actions. Automated demand response strategies can be implemented as an enhanced use of upgraded equipment and facility control strategies installed as energy efficiency measures. Conversely, installation of controls to support automated demand response may result in improved energy efficiency through real-time access to operational data. This paper argues that the implementation of energy efficiency opportunities in wastewater treatment facilities creates a base for achieving successful demand reductions. This paper characterizes energy use and the state of demand response readiness in wastewater treatment facilities and outlines automated demand response opportunities.

  11. 12 CFR 563.201 - Corporate opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-OPERATIONS Reporting and Bonding § 563.201 Corporate opportunity. (a) If you are a director or officer of a... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corporate opportunity. 563.201 Section 563.201... duty to a savings association, you must not take advantage of corporate opportunities belonging to...

  12. Gendered Opportunity? School-Based Adolescent Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Pamela; Tillyer, Marie Skubak; Fisher, Bonnie S.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers have shown that criminal opportunity significantly predicts school-based adolescent victimization. However, little is known about the extent to which opportunity for school-based victimization might be gendered. In this study, the authors drew from criminal opportunity and feminist research and extended the principle of homogamy to…

  13. The cost of breast cancer recurrences.

    PubMed Central

    Hurley, S. F.; Huggins, R. M.; Snyder, R. D.; Bishop, J. F.

    1992-01-01

    Information about the costs of recurrent breast cancer is potentially important for targeting cost containment strategies and analysing the cost-effectiveness of breast cancer control programmes. We estimated these costs by abstracting health service and consumable usage data from the medical histories of 128 patients, and valuing each of the resources used. Resource usage and costs were summarised by regarding the recurrence as a series of episodes which were categorised into five anatomical site-based groups according to the following hierarchy: visceral, central nervous system (CNS), bone, local and other. Hospital visits and investigations comprised 78% of total costs for all episodes combined, and there were significant differences between the site-based groups in the frequency of hospital visits and most investigations. Total costs were most accurately described by separate linear regression models for each group, with the natural logarithm of the cost of the episode as the dependent variable, and predictor variables including the duration of the episode, duration squared, duration cubed and a variable indicating whether the episode was fatal. Visceral and CNS episodes were associated with higher costs than the other groups and were more likely to be shorter and fatal. A fatal recurrence of duration 15.7 months (the median for our sample) was predicted to cost $10,575 (Aus + 1988; or 4,877 pounds). Reduction of the substantial costs of recurrent breast cancer is likely to be a sizable economic benefit of adjuvant systemic therapy and mammographic screening. We did not identify any major opportunities for cost containment during the management of recurrences. PMID:1558803

  14. Clean coal: Global opportunities for small businesses

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    The parallel growth in coal demand and environmental concern has spurred interest in technologies that burn coal with greater efficiency and with lower emissions. Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) will ensure that continued use of the world`s most abundant energy resource is compatible with a cleaner, healthier environment. Increasing interest in CCTs opens the door for American small businesses to provide services and equipment for the clean and efficient use of coal. Key players in most coal-related projects are typically large equipment manufacturers, power project developers, utilities, governments, and multinational corporations. At the same time, the complexity and scale of many of these projects creates niche markets for small American businesses with high-value products and services. From information technology, control systems, and specialized components to management practices, financial services, and personnel training methods, small US companies boast some of the highest value products and services in the world. As a result, American companies are in a prime position to take advantage of global niche markets for CCTs. This guide is designed to provide US small businesses with an overview of potential international market opportunities related to CCTs and to provide initial guidance on how to cost-effectively enter that growing global market.

  15. Influencing and impacting the profession through governance opportunities.

    PubMed

    Drenkard, Karen N

    2015-01-01

    In addition to board leadership of health care organizations and corporations, there are strategic opportunities for nurses to participate in professional association boards and commissions and expert panels. These boards have specific and unique challenges and opportunities, and it is important for nurse leaders to serve in shaping the direction of the profession. Nursing as a profession has an opening to solve many of the care delivery issues that face the country. A strategic contribution to association boards and commissions can influence the health care delivery system changes needed to improve quality of care, access to care, and reducing costs. This article describes similarities and differences of service on association boards and commissions compared with organizational and corporate boards. Through these leadership roles, the larger community can observe influential nurses in an essential role. These leadership opportunities, including membership boards, commissions, and content expert panels, call for a special understanding of those governance structures and the contributions that nurse leaders can make to impact health care. Association and membership organizations have undergone many changes in the past 10 years, and new models of governance and leadership have been called into play. There are challenges and opportunities in serving on these boards and commissions. Maximizing the leadership and governance roles of this type of service is a critical contribution that nurses can make to impact the profession of nursing and the greater health care system. PMID:25474665

  16. Influencing and impacting the profession through governance opportunities.

    PubMed

    Drenkard, Karen N

    2015-01-01

    In addition to board leadership of health care organizations and corporations, there are strategic opportunities for nurses to participate in professional association boards and commissions and expert panels. These boards have specific and unique challenges and opportunities, and it is important for nurse leaders to serve in shaping the direction of the profession. Nursing as a profession has an opening to solve many of the care delivery issues that face the country. A strategic contribution to association boards and commissions can influence the health care delivery system changes needed to improve quality of care, access to care, and reducing costs. This article describes similarities and differences of service on association boards and commissions compared with organizational and corporate boards. Through these leadership roles, the larger community can observe influential nurses in an essential role. These leadership opportunities, including membership boards, commissions, and content expert panels, call for a special understanding of those governance structures and the contributions that nurse leaders can make to impact health care. Association and membership organizations have undergone many changes in the past 10 years, and new models of governance and leadership have been called into play. There are challenges and opportunities in serving on these boards and commissions. Maximizing the leadership and governance roles of this type of service is a critical contribution that nurses can make to impact the profession of nursing and the greater health care system.

  17. Hydrogen PEM Fuel Cells: A Market Need Provides Research Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, Terry L; Brown, Gilbert M; Bogomolny, David

    2010-01-01

    It has been said that necessity is the mother of invention. Another way this can be stated is that market demands create research opportunities. Because of the increasing demand for oil (especially for fueling vehicles utilizing internal combustion engines) and the fact that oil is a depleting (not renewable) energy source, a market need for a renewable source of energy has created significant opportunities for research. This paper addresses the research opportunities associated with producing a market competitive (i.e., high performance, low cost and durable) hydrogen proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. Of the many research opportunities, the primary ones to be addressed directly are: Alternative membrane materials, Alternative catalysts, Impurity effects, and Water transport. A status of Department of Energy-sponsored research in these areas will be summarized and the impact of each on the ability to develop a market-competitive hydrogen PEM fuel cell powered vehicle will be discussed. Also, activities of the International Partnership for the Hydrogen Economy in areas such as advanced membranes for fuel cells and materials for storage will be summarized.

  18. Environmental Co-Benefit Opportunities of Solar Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, R. R.; Armstrong, A.; Burney, J. A.; Easter, S. B.; Hoffacker, M. K.; Moore, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    Solar energy reduces greenhouse gas emissions by an order of magnitude when substituted for fossil fuels. Nonetheless, the strategic deployment of solar energy—from single, rooftop modules to utility-scale solar energy power plants—can confer additional environmental co-benefits beyond its immediate use as a low carbon energy source. In this study, we identify a diverse portfolio of environmental co-benefit opportunities of solar energy technologies resulting from synergistic innovations in land, food, energy, and water systems. For each opportunity, we provide a demonstrative, quantitative framework for environmental co-benefit valuation—including, equations, models, or case studies for estimating carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-eq) and cost savings ($US) averted by environmental co-benefit opportunities of solar energy—and imminent research questions to improve certainty of valuations. As land-energy-food-water nexus issues are increasingly exigent in 21st century, we show that environmental co-benefit opportunities of solar energy are feasible in numerous environments and at a wide range of spatial scales thereby able to contribute to local and regional environmental goals and for the mitigation of climate change.

  19. Disaster Research: A Nursing Opportunity

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Jane; Barcelona-deMendoza, Veronica; Harville, Emily W.

    2013-01-01

    Nurses working or living near a community disaster have the opportunity to study health-related consequences to disaster or disaster recovery. In such a situation, the researchers need to deal with the conceptual and methodological issues unique to post-disaster research and know what resources are available to guide them, even if they have no specialized training or previous experience in disaster research. The purpose of this article is to review issues and challenges associated with conducting post-disaster research and encourage nurses to seek resources and seize opportunities to conduct research should the situation arise. Current disaster studies and the authors’ personal experiences conducting maternal-child research in post-Katrina New Orleans (2005–2013) provide real-life examples of how health professionals and nurses faced the challenges of doing post-disaster research. After catastrophic events, nurses need to step forward to conduct disaster research that informs and improves future disaster planning and health care responses. PMID:23899191

  20. Multiphysics simulations: challenges and opportunities.

    SciTech Connect

    Keyes, D.; McInnes, L. C.; Woodward, C.; Gropp, W.; Myra, E.; Pernice, M.

    2012-11-29

    This report is an outcome of the workshop Multiphysics Simulations: Challenges and Opportunities, sponsored by the Institute of Computing in Science (ICiS). Additional information about the workshop, including relevant reading and presentations on multiphysics issues in applications, algorithms, and software, is available via https://sites.google.com/site/icismultiphysics2011/. We consider multiphysics applications from algorithmic and architectural perspectives, where 'algorithmic' includes both mathematical analysis and computational complexity and 'architectural' includes both software and hardware environments. Many diverse multiphysics applications can be reduced, en route to their computational simulation, to a common algebraic coupling paradigm. Mathematical analysis of multiphysics coupling in this form is not always practical for realistic applications, but model problems representative of applications discussed herein can provide insight. A variety of software frameworks for multiphysics applications have been constructed and refined within disciplinary communities and executed on leading-edge computer systems. We examine several of these, expose some commonalities among them, and attempt to extrapolate best practices to future systems. From our study, we summarize challenges and forecast opportunities. We also initiate a modest suite of test problems encompassing features present in many applications.

  1. Opportunity Captures 'Lion King' Panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Opportunity Captures 'Lion King' Panorama (QTVR)

    This approximate true-color panorama, dubbed 'Lion King,' shows 'Eagle Crater' and the surrounding plains of Meridiani Planum. It was obtained by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera on sols 58 and 60 using infrared (750-nanometer), green (530-nanometer) and blue (430-nanometer) filters.

    This is the largest panorama obtained yet by either rover. It was taken in eight segments using six filters per segment, for a total of 558 images and more than 75 megabytes of data. Additional lower elevation tiers were added to ensure that the entire crater was covered in the mosaic.

    This panorama depicts a story of exploration including the rover's lander, a thorough examination of the outcrop, a study of the soils at the near-side of the lander, a successful exit from Eagle Crater and finally the rover's next desination, the large crater dubbed 'Endurance'.

  2. New opportunities seen for independents

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, G.A. )

    1990-10-22

    The collapse of gas and oil prices in the mid-1980s significantly reduced the number of independent exploration companies. At the same time, a fundamental shift occurred among major oil companies as they allocated their exploration budgets toward international operations and made major production purchases. Several large independents also embraced a philosophy of budget supplementation through joint venture partnership arrangements. This has created a unique and unusual window of opportunity for the smaller independents (defined for this article as exploration and production companies with a market value of less than $1 billion) to access the extensive and high quality domestic prospect inventories of the major and large independent oil and gas companies and to participate in the search for large reserve targets on attractive joint venture terms. Participation in these types of joint ventures, in conjunction with internally generated plays selected through the use of today's advanced technology (computer-enhanced, high-resolution seismic; horizontal drilling; etc.) and increasing process for oil and natural gas, presents the domestic exploration-oriented independent with an attractive money-making opportunity for the 1990s.

  3. Cost effectiveness of recycling: A systems model

    SciTech Connect

    Tonjes, David J.; Mallikarjun, Sreekanth

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Curbside collection of recyclables reduces overall system costs over a range of conditions. • When avoided costs for recyclables are large, even high collection costs are supported. • When avoided costs for recyclables are not great, there are reduced opportunities for savings. • For common waste compositions, maximizing curbside recyclables collection always saves money. - Abstract: Financial analytical models of waste management systems have often found that recycling costs exceed direct benefits, and in order to economically justify recycling activities, externalities such as household expenses or environmental impacts must be invoked. Certain more empirically based studies have also found that recycling is more expensive than disposal. Other work, both through models and surveys, have found differently. Here we present an empirical systems model, largely drawn from a suburban Long Island municipality. The model accounts for changes in distribution of effort as recycling tonnages displace disposal tonnages, and the seven different cases examined all show that curbside collection programs that manage up to between 31% and 37% of the waste stream should result in overall system savings. These savings accrue partially because of assumed cost differences in tip fees for recyclables and disposed wastes, and also because recycling can result in a more efficient, cost-effective collection program. These results imply that increases in recycling are justifiable due to cost-savings alone, not on more difficult to measure factors that may not impact program budgets.

  4. Elder choice and health care costs.

    PubMed

    Conard, A F

    1994-01-01

    While strategists struggle with the dilemmas of health care, they seem to overlook a practice that might simultaneously relieve the suffering of elder patients and limit the costs of their treatment. If elder patients were given a clear opportunity to choose, many might reject the costly procedures that keep them breathing in misery during the last weeks, months, and even years of their survival. Other elders who see the clouds of debility approaching might be freed of the dread of endless imprisonment in a nursing home. Empowering elders to make these choices does not require changes in law, but only changes in how we provide and finance care.

  5. Costly punishment prevails in intergroup conflict.

    PubMed

    Sääksvuori, Lauri; Mappes, Tapio; Puurtinen, Mikael

    2011-11-22

    Understanding how societies resolve conflicts between individual and common interests remains one of the most fundamental issues across disciplines. The observation that humans readily incur costs to sanction uncooperative individuals without tangible individual benefits has attracted considerable attention as a proximate cause as to why cooperative behaviours might evolve. However, the proliferation of individually costly punishment has been difficult to explain. Several studies over the last decade employing experimental designs with isolated groups have found clear evidence that the costs of punishment often nullify the benefits of increased cooperation, rendering the strong human tendency to punish a thorny evolutionary puzzle. Here, we show that group competition enhances the effectiveness of punishment so that when groups are in direct competition, individuals belonging to a group with punishment opportunity prevail over individuals in a group without this opportunity. In addition to competitive superiority in between-group competition, punishment reduces within-group variation in success, creating circumstances that are highly favourable for the evolution of accompanying group-functional behaviours. We find that the individual willingness to engage in costly punishment increases with tightening competitive pressure between groups. Our results suggest the importance of intergroup conflict behind the emergence of costly punishment and human cooperation.

  6. Making the tough choices for cost control.

    PubMed

    Smith, Bryan; Hardaway, R Brent

    2004-07-01

    To prioritize cost savings, providers can benefit from following a fundamental approach that involves using easily attainable small-scale initiatives (less than 50,000 dollars) to support larger-scale projects (typically over 250,000 dollars) that can realize improvements in six months. Increases in capital that result from these efforts can then be used to focus on equally important opportunities where the organization has less control, or payoff may take longer.

  7. GME: at what cost?

    PubMed

    Young, David W

    2003-11-01

    Current computing methods impede determining the real cost of graduate medical education. However, a more accurate estimate could be obtained if policy makers would allow for the application of basic cost-accounting principles, including consideration of department-level costs, unbundling of joint costs, and other factors.

  8. Design-to-cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, F. E.

    1974-01-01

    Attempts made to design to costs equipment, vehicles and subsystems for various space projects are discussed. A systematic approach, based on mission requirement analysis, definition of a mission baseline design, benefit and cost analysis, and a benefit-cost analysis was proposed for implementing the cost control program.

  9. Costing for Policy Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of College and University Business Officers, Washington, DC.

    Cost behavior analysis, a costing process that can assist managers in estimating how certain institutional costs change in response to volume, policy, and environmental factors, is described. The five steps of this approach are examined, and the application of cost behavior analysis at four college-level settings is documented. The institutions…

  10. Estimating airline operating costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddalon, D. V.

    1978-01-01

    A review was made of the factors affecting commercial aircraft operating and delay costs. From this work, an airline operating cost model was developed which includes a method for estimating the labor and material costs of individual airframe maintenance systems. The model, similar in some respects to the standard Air Transport Association of America (ATA) Direct Operating Cost Model, permits estimates of aircraft-related costs not now included in the standard ATA model (e.g., aircraft service, landing fees, flight attendants, and control fees). A study of the cost of aircraft delay was also made and a method for estimating the cost of certain types of airline delay is described.

  11. Ramjet cost estimating handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emmons, H. T.; Norwood, D. L.; Rasmusen, J. E.; Reynolds, H. E.

    1978-01-01

    Research conducted under Air Force Contract F33615-76-C-2043 to generate cost data and to establish a cost methodology that accurately predicts the production costs of ramjet engines is presented. The cost handbook contains a description of over one hundred and twenty-five different components which are defined as baseline components. The cost estimator selects from the handbook the appropriate components to fit his ramjet assembly, computes the cost from cost computation data sheets in the handbook, and totals all of the appropriate cost elements to arrive at the total engine cost. The methodology described in the cost handbook addresses many different ramjet types from simple podded arrangements of the liquid fuel ramjet to the more complex integral rocket/ramjet configurations including solid fuel ramjets and solid ducted rockets. It is applicable to a range of sizes from 6 in diameter to 18 in diameter and to production quantities up to 5000 engines.

  12. Methane Recovery from Animal Manures The Current Opportunities Casebook

    SciTech Connect

    Lusk, P.

    1998-09-22

    Growth and concentration of the livestock industry create opportunities for the proper disposal of the large quantities of manures generated at dairy, swine, and poultry farms. Pollutants from unmanaged livestock wastes can degrade the environment, and methane emitted from decomposing manure may contribute to global climate change. One management system not only helps prevent pollution but can also convert a manure problem into a new profit center. Economic evaluations and case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion of livestock manures is a commercially viable conversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable coproducts, including a cost-effective renewable fuel for livestock production operations. This casebook examines some of the current opportunities for recovering methane from anaerobic digestion animal manures.

  13. Estimating Airline Operating Costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddalon, D. V.

    1978-01-01

    The factors affecting commercial aircraft operating and delay costs were used to develop an airline operating cost model which includes a method for estimating the labor and material costs of individual airframe maintenance systems. The model permits estimates of aircraft related costs, i.e., aircraft service, landing fees, flight attendants, and control fees. A method for estimating the costs of certain types of airline delay is also described.

  14. OOTW COST TOOLS

    SciTech Connect

    HARTLEY, D.S.III; PACKARD, S.L.

    1998-09-01

    This document reports the results of a study of cost tools to support the analysis of Operations Other Than War (OOTW). It recommends the continued development of the Department of Defense (DoD) Contingency Operational Support Tool (COST) as the basic cost analysis tool for 00TWS. It also recommends modifications to be included in future versions of COST and the development of an 00TW mission planning tool to supply valid input for costing.

  15. Economic Competitiveness of U.S. Utility-Scale Photovoltaics Systems in 2015: Regional Cost Modeling of Installed Cost ($/W) and LCOE ($/kWh)

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Ran; James, Ted L.; Chung, Donald; Gagne, Douglas; Lopez, Anthony; Dobos, Aron

    2015-06-14

    Utility-scale photovoltaics (PV) system growth is largely driven by the economic metrics of total installed costs and levelized cost of electricity (LCOE), which differ by region. This study details regional cost factors, including environment (wind speed and snow loads), labor costs, material costs, sales taxes, and permitting costs using a new system-level bottom-up cost modeling approach. We use this model to identify regional all-in PV installed costs for fixed-tilt and one-axis tracker systems in the United States with consideration of union and non-union labor costs in 2015. LCOEs using those regional installed costs are then modeled and spatially presented. Finally, we assess the cost reduction opportunities of increasing module conversion efficiencies on PV system costs in order to indicate the possible economic impacts of module technology advancements and help future research and development (R&D) effects in the context of U.S. SunShot targets.

  16. Cost Benefit Analysis vs Cost Consequences Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, David

    1999-01-01

    Describes cost consequences analysis as a means to estimate whether the value of results obtained is worth the investment. Discusses how CCA differs from other evaluation tools, return on investment, and theoretical underpinnings of cost benefit analysis (CBA), and contends that there is no substantive difference between CCA and CBA. (Author/LRW)

  17. Multiphysics Simulations: Challenges and Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Keyes, David; McInnes, Lois C.; Woodward, Carol; Gropp, William; Myra, Eric; Pernice, Michael; Bell, John; Brown, Jed; Clo, Alain; Connors, Jeffrey; Constantinescu, Emil; Estep, Don; Evans, Kate; Farhat, Charbel; Hakim, Ammar; Hammond, Glenn E.; Hansen, Glen; Hill, Judith; Isaac, Tobin; Jiao, Xiangmin; Jordan, Kirk; Kaushik, Dinesh; Kaxiras, Efthimios; Koniges, Alice; Lee, Ki Hwan; Lott, Aaron; Lu, Qiming; Magerlein, John; Maxwell, Reed M.; McCourt, Michael; Mehl, Miriam; Pawlowski, Roger; Randles, Amanda; Reynolds, Daniel; Riviere, Beatrice; Rude, Ulrich; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Shadid, John; Sheehan, Brendan; Shephard, Mark; Siegel, Andrew; Smith, Barry; Tang, Xianzhu; Wilson, Cian; Wohlmuth, Barbara

    2013-02-12

    We consider multiphysics applications from algorithmic and architectural perspectives, where ‘‘algorithmic’’ includes both mathematical analysis and computational complexity, and ‘‘architectural’’ includes both software and hardware environments. Many diverse multiphysics applications can be reduced, en route to their computational simulation, to a common algebraic coupling paradigm. Mathematical analysis of multiphysics coupling in this form is not always practical for realistic applications, but model problems representative of applications discussed herein can provide insight. A variety of software frameworks for multiphysics applications have been constructed and refined within disciplinary communities and executed on leading-edge computer systems. We examine several of these, expose some commonalities among them, and attempt to extrapolate best practices to future systems. From our study, we summarize challenges and forecast opportunities.

  18. Renewable energy opportunities in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, William L.; Simon Tsuo, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Rapid growth in economic development coupled with the absence of an electric grid in large areas of rural China have created a need for new energy sources both in urban centers and the rural countryside. Electric capacity expansion plans call for increased use of coal-fired steam turbines for electricity production that will contribute to increased concerns over environmental pollution. China is rich in renewable energy resources, strategically located in areas of greatest need and economic viability. China is also already one of the world's largest users of renewables, especially hydro, wind, biomass, and solar thermal, and has significant experience with photovoltaics, geothermal and other technologies. The use of renewable energy is being encouraged in expanded programs at the central and provincial government levels, with growing private sector involvement. These conditions create opportunities for U.S. business participation in renewable energy markets in China.

  19. Physics opportunities with meson beams

    SciTech Connect

    Briscoe, William J.; Doring, Michael; Haberzettl, Helmut; Manley, D. Mark; Naruki, Megumi; Strakovsky, Igor I.; Swanson, Eric S.

    2015-10-20

    Over the past two decades, meson photo- and electro-production data of unprecedented quality and quantity have been measured at electromagnetic facilities worldwide. By contrast, the meson-beam data for the same hadronic final states are mostly outdated and largely of poor quality, or even nonexistent, and thus provide inadequate input to help interpret, analyze, and exploit the full potential of the new electromagnetic data. To reap the full benefit of the high-precision electromagnetic data, new high-statistics data from measurements with meson beams, with good angle and energy coverage for a wide range of reactions, are critically needed to advance our knowledge in baryon and meson spectroscopy and other related areas of hadron physics. To address this situation, a state of-the-art meson-beam facility needs to be constructed. Furthermore, the present paper summarizes unresolved issues in hadron physics and outlines the vast opportunities and advances that only become possible with such a facility.

  20. Multiphysics Simulations: Challenges and Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Keyes, David E; McInnes, Lois; Woodward, Carol; Evans, Katherine J; Hill, Judith C

    2013-01-01

    We consider multiphysics applications from algorithmic and architectural perspectives, where algorithmic in- cludes both mathematical analysis and computational complexity and architectural includes both software and hard- ware environments. Many diverse multiphysics applications can be reduced, en route to their computational simu- lation, to a common algebraic coupling paradigm. Mathematical analysis of multiphysics coupling in this form is not always practical for realistic applications, but model problems representative of applications discussed herein can provide insight. A variety of software frameworks for multiphysics applications have been constructed and refined within disciplinary communities and executed on leading-edge computer systems. We examine several of these, ex- pose some commonalities among them, and attempt to extrapolate best practices to future systems. From our study, we summarize challenges and forecast opportunities. We also initiate a modest suite of test problems encompassing features present in many applications.

  1. Frost on Mars Rover Opportunity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Frost can form on surfaces if enough water is present and the temperature is sufficiently low. On each of NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers, the calibration target for the panoramic camera provides a good place to look for such events. A thin frost was observed by Opportunity's panoramic camera on the rover's 257th sol (Oct. 13, 2004) 11 minutes after sunrise (left image). The presence of the frost is most clearly seen on the post in the center of the target, particularly when compared with the unsegmented outer ring of the target, which is white. The post is normally black. For comparison, note the difference in appearance in the image on the right, taken about three hours later, after the frost had dissipated. Frost has not been observed at Spirit, where the amount of atmospheric water vapor is observed to be appreciably lower. Both images were taken through a filter centered at a wavelength of 440 nanometers (blue).

  2. Opportunity and the charge nurse.

    PubMed

    Brown, R

    Nursing Standard has, over the past six weeks, produced a series of articles dealing with issues in ward management for charge nurses. Series co-ordinator Ros Brown now offers a postscript which acts as a conclusion for the series and reflects on the dilemmas and opportunities which face charge nurses as they enter into the world of purchasers and providers, hospital Trusts and PREPP. It is essential that the role of the charge nurse is not only preserved in this changing climate, she argues, but is cultivated, nurtured and recognised as an indispensable function. The future looks bright for those prepared to discard the habits of the past and grasp the challenges of the present.

  3. Diagnosis: missed opportunities for payment.

    PubMed

    Khorsand, Masoud

    2008-03-01

    Southeastern New Mexico Hematology & Oncology of Roswell, N.M., lowered the rate of claims denials, expedited claims processing, improved accounts receivable (A/R), and decreased administrative costs by: Streamlining revenue cycle processes. Establishing a coding review board that monitors the coding changes made by all major insurers and Medicare. Working with a local foundation to help indigent patients purchase insurance and helping those that qualify for financial assistance receive aid. Outsourcing day-today billing functions.

  4. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3–4% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal. Here, we briefly set recycling into context against other waste-reduction strategies, namely reduction in material use through downgauging or product reuse, the use of alternative biodegradable materials and energy recovery as fuel. While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. Recycling of packaging materials has seen rapid expansion over the last decades in a number of countries. Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public, industry and governments it

  5. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

    2009-07-27

    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3-4% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal. Here, we briefly set recycling into context against other waste-reduction strategies, namely reduction in material use through downgauging or product reuse, the use of alternative biodegradable materials and energy recovery as fuel. While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. Recycling of packaging materials has seen rapid expansion over the last decades in a number of countries. Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public, industry and governments it

  6. Opportunities for Funding at DOE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kung, Harriet

    2009-03-01

    Dr. Harriet Kung will give an overview of the fundamental materials research activities at DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES). BES supports basic research in materials sciences, chemistry, geosciences, and biosciences, as well as the construction and operation of major scientific user facilities, including the nation's large synchrotron radiation-light sources, neutron-scattering facilities, electron beam microscopy centers, and nanoscale science research centers. The objective of the materials research program at BES is to support fundamental experimental and theoretical research that provides the knowledge base for the discovery and design of new materials with novel structure, functions, and properties. The main research elements of the program are: Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, Scattering and Instrumentation Sciences, and Materials Design, Discovery, and Synthesis. Each of the three program areas has a set of central program scope and goals, while there is close coupling and connection between the three elements. For example, in the condensed matter and materials physics—including activities in experimental condensed matter physics, theoretical condensed matter physics, materials behavior and radiation effects, and physical behavior of materials—research is supported to understand, design, and control materials properties and function. The activity emphasizes correlation effects, which can lead to the formation of new particles, new phases of matter, and unexpected phenomena. The theoretical efforts focus on the development of advanced theories and computational tools to treat large or complex systems. Information about the funding opportunities will be discussed in the presentation.After the presentation, there will be an informational session for BES program managers to meet with researchers interested in research opportunities in BES. Specific information about proposal submission and proposal evaluation will be provided. For additional

  7. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

    2009-07-27

    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3-4% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal. Here, we briefly set recycling into context against other waste-reduction strategies, namely reduction in material use through downgauging or product reuse, the use of alternative biodegradable materials and energy recovery as fuel. While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. Recycling of packaging materials has seen rapid expansion over the last decades in a number of countries. Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public, industry and governments it

  8. Biowaste biorefinery in Europe: opportunities and research & development needs.

    PubMed

    Fava, Fabio; Totaro, Grazia; Diels, Ludo; Reis, Maria; Duarte, Jose; Carioca, Osvaldo Beserra; Poggi-Varaldo, Héctor M; Ferreira, Bruno Sommer

    2015-01-25

    This review aims to explore the needs and opportunities of research & development in the field of biowaste biorefinery in Europe. Modern industry in recent years is giving its close attention on organic waste as a new precious bioresource. Specific biowaste valorisation pathways are focusing on food processing waste, being food sector the first manufacture in Europe. Anyway they need to be further tested and validated and then transferred at the larger scale. In particular, they also need to become integrated, combining biomass pretreatments and recovery of biogenic chemicals with bioconversion processes in order to obtain a large class of chemicals. This will help to (a) use the whole biowaste, by avoiding producing residues and providing to the approach the required environmental sustainability, and (b) producing different biobased products that enter different markets, to get the possible economical sustainability of the whole biorefinery. However, the costs of the developed integrated processes might be high, mostly for the fact that the industry dealing with such issues is still underdeveloped and therefore dominated by high processing costs. Such costs can be significantly reduced by intensifying research & development on process integration and intensification. The low or no cost of starting material along with the environmental benefits coming from the concomitant biowaste disposal would offset the high capital costs for initiating such a biorefinery. As long as the oil prices tend to increase (and they will) this strategy will become even more attractive.

  9. Biowaste biorefinery in Europe: opportunities and research & development needs.

    PubMed

    Fava, Fabio; Totaro, Grazia; Diels, Ludo; Reis, Maria; Duarte, Jose; Carioca, Osvaldo Beserra; Poggi-Varaldo, Héctor M; Ferreira, Bruno Sommer

    2015-01-25

    This review aims to explore the needs and opportunities of research & development in the field of biowaste biorefinery in Europe. Modern industry in recent years is giving its close attention on organic waste as a new precious bioresource. Specific biowaste valorisation pathways are focusing on food processing waste, being food sector the first manufacture in Europe. Anyway they need to be further tested and validated and then transferred at the larger scale. In particular, they also need to become integrated, combining biomass pretreatments and recovery of biogenic chemicals with bioconversion processes in order to obtain a large class of chemicals. This will help to (a) use the whole biowaste, by avoiding producing residues and providing to the approach the required environmental sustainability, and (b) producing different biobased products that enter different markets, to get the possible economical sustainability of the whole biorefinery. However, the costs of the developed integrated processes might be high, mostly for the fact that the industry dealing with such issues is still underdeveloped and therefore dominated by high processing costs. Such costs can be significantly reduced by intensifying research & development on process integration and intensification. The low or no cost of starting material along with the environmental benefits coming from the concomitant biowaste disposal would offset the high capital costs for initiating such a biorefinery. As long as the oil prices tend to increase (and they will) this strategy will become even more attractive. PMID:24284045

  10. Superefficient Refrigerators: Opportunities and Challenges for Efficiency Improvement Globally

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Nihar; Park, Won Young; Bojda, Nicholas; McNeil, Michael A.

    2014-08-01

    As an energy-intensive mainstream product, residential refrigerators present a significant opportunity to reduce electricity consumption through energy efficiency improvements. Refrigerators expend a considerable amount of electricity during normal use, typically consuming between 100 to 1,000 kWh of electricity per annum. This paper presents the results of a technical analysis done for refrigerators in support of the Super-efficient Equipment and Appliance Deployment (SEAD) initiative. Beginning from a base case representative of the average unit sold in India, we analyze efficiency improvement options and their corresponding costs to build a cost-versus-efficiency relationship. We then consider design improvement options that are known to be the most cost effective and that can improve efficiency given current design configurations. We also analyze and present additional super-efficient options, such as vacuum-insulated panels. We estimate the cost of conserved electricity for the various options, allowing flexible program design for market transformation programs toward higher efficiency. We estimate ~;;160TWh/year of energy savings are cost effective in 2030, indicating significant potential for efficiency improvement in refrigerators in SEAD economies and China.

  11. Marginal abatement cost curves for NOx incorporating both controls and alternative measures

    EPA Science Inventory

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the efficient marginal abatement cost level for any aggregate emissions target when a least cost approach is implemented. In order for it to represent the efficient MAC level, all abatement opportunities across all sectors and loc...

  12. ASPEN costing manual

    SciTech Connect

    Schwint, K.J.

    1986-07-25

    The ASPEN program contains within it a Cost Estimation System (CES) which estimates the purchase cost and utility consumption rates for major pieces of equipment in a process flowsheet as well as installed equipment costs. These estimates are ''preliminary-study grade'' with an accuracy of plus or minus 30%. The ASPEN program also contains within it an Economic Evaluation System (EES) which estimates overall capital investment costs, annual operating expenses and profitability indices for a chemical plant. This ASPEN costing manual has been written as a guide for those inexperienced in the use of ASPEN and unfamiliar with standard cost estimating techniques who want to use the ASPEN CES and EES. The ASPEN Costing Manual is comprised of the following sections: (1) Introduction, (2) ASPEN Input Language, (3) ASPEN Cost Estimation System (CES), (4) ASPEN Cost Blocks; and (5) ASPEN Economic Evaluation System (EES).

  13. Methane recovery from animal manures: A current opportunities casebook

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This Casebook examines some of the current opportunities for the recovery of methane from the anaerobic digestion of animal manures US livestock operations currently employ four types of anaerobic digester technology: Slurry, plug flow, complete mix, and covered lagoon. An introduction to the engineering economies of these technologies is provided, and possible end-use applications for the methane gas generated by the digestion process are discussed. The economic evaluations are based on engineering studies of digesters that generate electricity from the recovered methane. Regression models, which can be used to estimate digester cost and internal rate of return, are developed from the evaluations.

  14. Communication satellite technology: State of the art and development opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodford, J. B. (Compiler)

    1978-01-01

    Opportunities in communication satellite technology are identified and defined. Factors that tend to limit the ready availability of satellite communication to an increasingly wide group of users are evaluated. Current primary limitations on this wide utilization are the availability of frequency and/or synchronous equatorial satellite positions and the cost of individual user Earth terminals. The former could be ameliorated through the reuse of frequencies, the use of higher frequency bands, and the reduction of antenna side lobes. The latter limitation requires innovative hardware, design, careful system design, and large scale production.

  15. The quantified patient of the future: Opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Majmudar, Maulik D; Colucci, Lina Avancini; Landman, Adam B

    2015-09-01

    The healthcare system is undergoing rapid transformation as national policies increase patient access, reward positive health outcomes, and push for an end to the current era of episodic care. Advances in health sensors are rapidly moving diagnostic and monitoring capabilities into consumer products, enabling new care models. Although hospitals and health care providers have been slow to embrace novel health technologies, such innovations may help meet mounting pressure to provide timely, high quality, and low-cost care to large populations. This leading edge perspective focuses on the quantified-self movement and highlights the opportunities and challenges for patients, providers, and researchers.

  16. The quantified patient of the future: Opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Majmudar, Maulik D; Colucci, Lina Avancini; Landman, Adam B

    2015-09-01

    The healthcare system is undergoing rapid transformation as national policies increase patient access, reward positive health outcomes, and push for an end to the current era of episodic care. Advances in health sensors are rapidly moving diagnostic and monitoring capabilities into consumer products, enabling new care models. Although hospitals and health care providers have been slow to embrace novel health technologies, such innovations may help meet mounting pressure to provide timely, high quality, and low-cost care to large populations. This leading edge perspective focuses on the quantified-self movement and highlights the opportunities and challenges for patients, providers, and researchers. PMID:26384227

  17. Antibody biosimilars: Fears or opportunities?

    PubMed Central

    Guillon-Munos, Audrey; Daguet, Arnaud; Watier, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    The annual “LabEx MAbImprove industrial workshops” are primarily intended to provide scientists involved in therapeutic antibodies, a comprehensive view about topics of interest for the pharmaceutical industry. They are organized by the “LabEx MAbImprove industrial committee”, for this first edition especially in partnership with ARITT, the regional agency for innovation and technology transfer which operates in the French Région Centre, the 1st French region for pharmaceutical production. The 2013 edition, held May 28 at the Vinci Center of Tours, was dedicated to antibody biosimilars. Depending on opinions, the impending expiry of antibody patents and the imminent marketing approval of competitors to blockbusters can be perceived as good or bad things. Fears or opportunities? Risks for patients? Breath of fresh air for the health systems? Opportunity for re-industrializing France? In this context, it is necessary for people to form a fair and informed opinion on the current landscape of antibody biosimilars. In particular, this is especially important for scientists from the academic world, from the industry or from the regulation agencies, for pharmacists, for pharmacovigilance specialists, for health authorities, and staff from health insurance and decision makers. The first session was devoted to market and regulatory issues, and included both an overview of the evolution of the patent landscape and a description of biosimilars regulation in the European Union (EU). This session was closed by a talk on manufacturing processes for biosimilars. In the next session, quality control attributes of biosimilars were discussed and compared with the consistent quality of biotechnology products to raise the question: “How close is close enough?” In vitro assays for evaluating the Fc function of therapeutic antibodies were also discussed. The third session focused on development of biosimilars and primarily on the stepwise process for introducing an antibody

  18. A multidisciplinary conceptualization of conservation opportunity.

    PubMed

    Moon, Katie; Adams, Vanessa M; Januchowski-Hartley, Stephanie R; Polyakov, Maksym; Mills, Morena; Biggs, Duan; Knight, Andrew T; Game, Edward T; Raymond, Christopher M

    2014-12-01

    An opportunity represents an advantageous combination of circumstances that allows goals to be achieved. We reviewed the nature of opportunity and how it manifests in different subsystems (e.g., biophysical, social, political, economic) as conceptualized in other bodies of literature, including behavior, adoption, entrepreneur, public policy, and resilience literature. We then developed a multidisciplinary conceptualization of conservation opportunity. We identified 3 types of conservation opportunity: potential, actors remove barriers to problem solving by identifying the capabilities within the system that can be manipulated to create support for conservation action; traction, actors identify windows of opportunity that arise from exogenous shocks, events, or changes that remove barriers to solving problems; and existing, everything is in place for conservation action (i.e., no barriers exist) and an actor takes advantage of the existing circumstances to solve problems. Different leverage points characterize each type of opportunity. Thus, unique stages of opportunity identification or creation and exploitation exist: characterizing the system and defining problems; identifying potential solutions; assessing the feasibility of solutions; identifying or creating opportunities; and taking advantage of opportunities. These stages can be undertaken independently or as part of a situational analysis and typically comprise the first stage, but they can also be conducted iteratively throughout a conservation planning process. Four types of entrepreneur can be identified (business, policy, social, and conservation), each possessing attributes that enable them to identify or create opportunities and take advantage of them. We examined how different types of conservation opportunity manifest in a social-ecological system (the Great Barrier Reef) and how they can be taken advantage of. Our multidisciplinary conceptualization of conservation opportunity strengthens and

  19. A multidisciplinary conceptualization of conservation opportunity.

    PubMed

    Moon, Katie; Adams, Vanessa M; Januchowski-Hartley, Stephanie R; Polyakov, Maksym; Mills, Morena; Biggs, Duan; Knight, Andrew T; Game, Edward T; Raymond, Christopher M

    2014-12-01

    An opportunity represents an advantageous combination of circumstances that allows goals to be achieved. We reviewed the nature of opportunity and how it manifests in different subsystems (e.g., biophysical, social, political, economic) as conceptualized in other bodies of literature, including behavior, adoption, entrepreneur, public policy, and resilience literature. We then developed a multidisciplinary conceptualization of conservation opportunity. We identified 3 types of conservation opportunity: potential, actors remove barriers to problem solving by identifying the capabilities within the system that can be manipulated to create support for conservation action; traction, actors identify windows of opportunity that arise from exogenous shocks, events, or changes that remove barriers to solving problems; and existing, everything is in place for conservation action (i.e., no barriers exist) and an actor takes advantage of the existing circumstances to solve problems. Different leverage points characterize each type of opportunity. Thus, unique stages of opportunity identification or creation and exploitation exist: characterizing the system and defining problems; identifying potential solutions; assessing the feasibility of solutions; identifying or creating opportunities; and taking advantage of opportunities. These stages can be undertaken independently or as part of a situational analysis and typically comprise the first stage, but they can also be conducted iteratively throughout a conservation planning process. Four types of entrepreneur can be identified (business, policy, social, and conservation), each possessing attributes that enable them to identify or create opportunities and take advantage of them. We examined how different types of conservation opportunity manifest in a social-ecological system (the Great Barrier Reef) and how they can be taken advantage of. Our multidisciplinary conceptualization of conservation opportunity strengthens and

  20. Career Opportunities for Physicists: Panel Discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-03-01

    We live in a world full of opportunity for physics graduates. Join us for a unique opportunity to learn about some of these opportunities from our diverse panel of working physicists from industrial, national lab, and academic sectors. Topics of discussion will include panelists' daily experiences, how physics serves them in their career, and advice to students interested in following a similar path. Light refreshments will be served.

  1. Solar thermal cost goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edelstein, R. B.

    The development of cost goals for the DOE solar thermal program by the solar thermal cost goals committee (STCGC) is described. The objective of the STCGC is to determine a consistent set of time-related cost and performance goals for concentrating collector systems based on market value and intermediate goals based on attainable cost levels. Accomplishments thus far include: definition on cost goals and their function in program planning, delineation of competing energy systems costs, development of a breakeven costing methodology for assessing market value, determination of attainable costs for solar thermal systems, setting financial and economic parameters, and calculation of market value as a function of each competing fuel type, application, and region.

  2. Cost of energy evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasbrouck, T. M.

    1979-01-01

    The estimated cost per kilowatt hour, the wind resources in the utilities service area, and the reliability of the units are considered in computing the cost of energy of the wind turbine generator system.

  3. AN OVERVIEW OF TOOL FOR RESPONSE ACTION COST ESTIMATING (TRACE)

    SciTech Connect

    FERRIES SR; KLINK KL; OSTAPKOWICZ B

    2012-01-30

    Tools and techniques that provide improved performance and reduced costs are important to government programs, particularly in current times. An opportunity for improvement was identified for preparation of cost estimates used to support the evaluation of response action alternatives. As a result, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company has developed Tool for Response Action Cost Estimating (TRACE). TRACE is a multi-page Microsoft Excel{reg_sign} workbook developed to introduce efficiencies into the timely and consistent production of cost estimates for response action alternatives. This tool combines costs derived from extensive site-specific runs of commercially available remediation cost models with site-specific and estimator-researched and derived costs, providing the best estimating sources available. TRACE also provides for common quantity and key parameter links across multiple alternatives, maximizing ease of updating estimates and performing sensitivity analyses, and ensuring consistency.

  4. Evaluation of direct-use-project drilling costs

    SciTech Connect

    Dolenc, M.R.; Childs, F.W.; Allman, D.W.; Sanders, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    This study evaluates drilling and completion costs from eleven low-to-moderate temperature geothermal projects carried out under the Program Opportunity Notice (PON) and User-Coupled Confirmation Drilling Programs. Several studies have evaluated geothermal drilling costs, particularly with respect to high-temperature-system drilling costs. This study evaluates drilling costs and individual cost elements for low-to-moderate temperature projects. It considers the effect of drilling depth, rock types, remoteness of location, rig size, and unique operating and subsurface conditions on the total drilling cost. This detailed evaluation should provide the investor in direct-use projects with approximate cost projections by which the economics of such projects can be evaluated.

  5. Future Opportunities for Advancing Glucose Test Device Electronics

    PubMed Central

    Young, Brian R; Young, Teresa L; Joyce, Margaret K; Kennedy, Spencer I; Atashbar, Massood Z

    2011-01-01

    Advancements in the field of printed electronics can be applied to the field of diabetes testing. A brief history and some new developments in printed electronics components applicable to personal test devices, including circuitry, batteries, transmission devices, displays, and sensors, are presented. Low-cost, thin, and lightweight materials containing printed circuits with energy storage or harvest capability and reactive/display centers, made using new printing/imaging technologies, are ideal for incorporation into personal-use medical devices such as glucose test meters. Semicontinuous rotogravure printing, which utilizes flexible substrates and polymeric, metallic, and/or nano “ink” composite materials to effect rapidly produced, lower-cost printed electronics, is showing promise. Continuing research advancing substrate, “ink,” and continuous processing development presents the opportunity for research collaboration with medical device designers. PMID:22027300

  6. Fuel ethanol production: process design trends and integration opportunities.

    PubMed

    Cardona, Carlos A; Sánchez, Oscar J

    2007-09-01

    Current fuel ethanol research and development deals with process engineering trends for improving biotechnological production of ethanol. In this work, the key role that process design plays during the development of cost-effective technologies is recognized through the analysis of major trends in process synthesis, modeling, simulation and optimization related to ethanol production. Main directions in techno-economical evaluation of fuel ethanol processes are described as well as some prospecting configurations. The most promising alternatives for compensating ethanol production costs by the generation of valuable co-products are analyzed. Opportunities for integration of fuel ethanol production processes and their implications are underlined. Main ways of process intensification through reaction-reaction, reaction-separation and separation-separation processes are analyzed in the case of bioethanol production. Some examples of energy integration during ethanol production are also highlighted. Finally, some concluding considerations on current and future research tendencies in fuel ethanol production regarding process design and integration are presented.

  7. Methane recovery from animal manures: A current opportunities casebook

    SciTech Connect

    Lusk, P.

    1994-12-01

    One manure management system provides not only pollution prevention but also converts a manure management problem into a new profit center. Economic evaluations and case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion of livestock manures is a commercially-available bioconversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable co-products including a cost-effective renewable fuel for livestock production operations. This Casebook examines some of the current opportunities for the recovery of methane from the anaerobic digestion of animal manures. The economic evaluations are based on engineering studies of digesters that generate electricity from the recovered methane. Regression models, which can be used to estimate digester cost and internal rate of return, are developed from the evaluations. Finally, anaerobic digestion has considerable potential beyond agribusiness. Examples of digesters currently employed by other industries are provided.

  8. Opportunities of Wireless Sensors and Controls for Building Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Conant, Rob

    2004-08-01

    This paper characterizes commercially available wireless technologies that are already being used in buildings applications or that are suitable for use in commercial buildings. The discussion provides an overview of fundamental concepts of radial broadcasting systems, as well as meshed networks, and will highlight the opportunities and challenges in their integration into existing wired control networks. This paper describes two demonstration projects of wireless sensors and their integration into existing control networks, and discusses their cost per sensor, their ease of installation, and their reliability. The authors will discuss the load control strategies implemented as a consequence of the wireless sensors and report on the energy and cost savings estimates. The paper will conclude with general future prospects for wireless technologies in buildings applications.

  9. Future opportunities for advancing glucose test device electronics.

    PubMed

    Young, Brian R; Young, Teresa L; Joyce, Margaret K; Kennedy, Spencer I; Atashbar, Massood Z

    2011-09-01

    Advancements in the field of printed electronics can be applied to the field of diabetes testing. A brief history and some new developments in printed electronics components applicable to personal test devices, including circuitry, batteries, transmission devices, displays, and sensors, are presented. Low-cost, thin, and lightweight materials containing printed circuits with energy storage or harvest capability and reactive/display centers, made using new printing/imaging technologies, are ideal for incorporation into personal-use medical devices such as glucose test meters. Semicontinuous rotogravure printing, which utilizes flexible substrates and polymeric, metallic, and/or nano "ink" composite materials to effect rapidly produced, lower-cost printed electronics, is showing promise. Continuing research advancing substrate, "ink," and continuous processing development presents the opportunity for research collaboration with medical device designers.

  10. Tuberculosis diagnostics: Challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Nema, Vijay

    2012-07-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) has been a disease affecting almost all parts of the world since ages. Lot many efforts came in the past for improving diagnosis and treatment. Also, an effective vaccine has been sought after for long. With the emergence of resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causal organisms of tuberculosis, and complexities emerging due to other associated infections and disease conditions, there is a desperate need for further research input in the field. Be it the better medication and care or better resistance management, proper diagnostics holds the key to success. It has been observed that a high burden of the disease was accompanied by resource limitations and poor research set-up. The scenario remained like this for several decades. With the refreshed vision of resourceful countries and funding agencies, funding is being provided in many areas of research in tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment. This review has been written with an aim to bring forth the limitations of available methods in the field of diagnostics and making researchers aware about the changing scenario with better funding opportunities and support. The author visualizes an enthusiasm from all over the world for the development of better modalities and urges scientists to join the struggle at this very perfect time to take the challenge and come forward with innovations in this field. PMID:22919166

  11. Space Tethers Programmatic Infusion Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonometti, J. A.; Frame, K. L.

    2005-01-01

    Programmatic opportunities abound for space Cables, Stringers and Tethers, justified by the tremendous performance advantages that these technologies offer and the rather wide gaps that must be filled by the NASA Exploration program, if the "sustainability goal" is to be met. A definition and characterization of the three categories are presented along with examples. A logical review of exploration requirements shows how each class can be infused throughout the program, from small experimental efforts to large system deployments. The economics of tethers in transportation is considered along with the impact of stringers for structural members. There is an array of synergistic methodologies that interlace their fabrication, implementation and operations. Cables, stringers and tethers can enhance a wide range of other space systems and technologies, including power storage, formation flying, instrumentation, docking mechanisms and long-life space components. The existing tether (i.e., MXER) program's accomplishments are considered consistent with NASA's new vision and can readily conform to requirements-driven technology development.

  12. On new opportunities for absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Ferretti, J L; Schiessl, H; Frost, H M

    1998-01-01

    Mechanical loads cause bone strains; and muscle forces, not body weight, cause the largest strains. The strains help to control the effects of bone modeling and remodeling on bone strength and "mass." When strains exceed a threshold range, modeling increases bone strength and "mass." When strains stay below a smaller threshold range, remodeling begins removing bone next to marrow. As a result, increasing muscle strength increases bone strength and "mass," and decreasing muscle strength decreases bone strength and "mass." Estrogen apparently lowers the remodeling threshold, which reduces bone losses. Loss of estrogen raises that threshold to cause losses of bone next to marrow. Such facts help to explain: 1. Bone loss in aging adults. 2. An increase in bone "mass" in girls at menarche. 3. The loss of bone during menopause. 4. The greater bone "mass" in obese than in slender subjects, and in weightlifters than in marathon runners. 5. And the pathogenesis of physiologic osteopenias and true osteoporoses. Thus new standards are needed for the relationships between bone and muscle strengths, and as functions of sex, age, race, disease, endocrine status, nutrition, vitamin and mineral intakes, medications, puberty, and menopause. Obtaining those standards and studying such relationships provide many new opportunities for studies that involve dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and peripheral quantitative computer tomography (pQCT) and, perhaps some day, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques. PMID:15304912

  13. Marine geomorphometry: Overview and opportunities.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micallef, Aaron; Lecours, Vincent; Dolan, Margaret; Lucieer, Vanessa

    2016-04-01

    Multibeam echosounder data comprise the primary source for digital terrain models of the seafloor. Recent advances in seafloor surveying technologies have resulted in a dramatic increase in the quantity and resolution of multibeam echosounder data, prompting a renewed interest in employing geomorphometric techniques to investigate the seafloor. Marine geomorphometric techniques are not as varied and as extensively applied as in terrestrial environments. This is due to the difficultly with capturing terrain variability underwater, since changes in topography are more subdued in comparison to terrestrial landscapes. Issues related to scale are also relevant in submarine settings, but they manifest themselves differently due to the differences in input data. In the last decade, a suite of marine geomorphometric techniques have been developed - terrain attributes, feature-based quantitative representation, automated classification - and employed to investigate a wide range of phenomena - seafloor landforms and geomorphic processes, geohazards, hydrodynamics, habitats. This contribution provides an overview of progress made in marine geomorphometry in the last decade as well as highlights the opportunities and challenges faced by this thriving field of research in the near future.

  14. Physics opportunities with meson beams

    DOE PAGES

    Briscoe, William J.; Doring, Michael; Haberzettl, Helmut; Manley, D. Mark; Naruki, Megumi; Strakovsky, Igor I.; Swanson, Eric S.

    2015-10-20

    Over the past two decades, meson photo- and electro-production data of unprecedented quality and quantity have been measured at electromagnetic facilities worldwide. By contrast, the meson-beam data for the same hadronic final states are mostly outdated and largely of poor quality, or even nonexistent, and thus provide inadequate input to help interpret, analyze, and exploit the full potential of the new electromagnetic data. To reap the full benefit of the high-precision electromagnetic data, new high-statistics data from measurements with meson beams, with good angle and energy coverage for a wide range of reactions, are critically needed to advance our knowledgemore » in baryon and meson spectroscopy and other related areas of hadron physics. To address this situation, a state of-the-art meson-beam facility needs to be constructed. Furthermore, the present paper summarizes unresolved issues in hadron physics and outlines the vast opportunities and advances that only become possible with such a facility.« less

  15. Alzheimer's disease & metals: therapeutic opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Kenche, Vijaya B; Barnham, Kevin J

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common age related neurodegenerative disease. Currently, there are no disease modifying drugs, existing therapies only offer short-term symptomatic relief. Two of the pathognomonic indicators of AD are the presence of extracellular protein aggregates consisting primarily of the Aβ peptide and oxidative stress. Both of these phenomena can potentially be explained by the interactions of Aβ with metal ions. In addition, metal ions play a pivotal role in synaptic function and their homeostasis is tightly regulated. A breakdown in this metal homeostasis and the generation of toxic Aβ oligomers are likely to be responsible for the synaptic dysfunction associated with AD. Therefore, approaches that are designed to prevent Aβ metal interactions, inhibiting the formation of toxic Aβ species as well as restoring metal homeostasis may have potential as disease modifying strategies for treating AD. This review summarizes the physiological and pathological interactions that metal ions play in synaptic function with particular emphasis placed on interactions with Aβ. A variety of therapeutic strategies designed to address these pathological processes are also described. The most advanced of these strategies is the so-called ‘metal protein attenuating compound’ approach, with the lead molecule PBT2 having successfully completed early phase clinical trials. The success of these various strategies suggests that manipulating metal ion interactions offers multiple opportunities to develop disease modifying therapies for AD. PMID:21232050

  16. Research opportunities in photochemical sciences

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The workshop entitled {open_quotes}Research Opportunities in Photochemical Sciences{close_quotes} was initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Research (ER), Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES), Division of Chemical Sciences. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado was requested by ER to host the workshop. It was held February 5-8, 1996 at the Estes Park Conference Center, Estes Park, CO, and attended by about 115 leading scientists and engineers from the U.S., Japan, and Europe; program managers for the DOE ER and Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) programs also attended. The purpose of the workshop was to bridge the communication gap between the practioneers and supporters of basic research in photochemical science and the practioneers and supporters of applied research and development in technologies related to photochemical science. For the purposes of the workshop the definition of the term {open_quotes}photochemical science{close_quotes} was broadened to include homogeneous photochemistry, heterogeneous photochemistry, photoelectrochemistry, photocatalysis, photobiology (for example, the light-driven processes of biological photosynthesis and proton pumping), artificial photosynthesis, solid state photochemistry, and solar photochemistry. The technologies under development through DOE support that are most closely related to photochemical science, as defined above, are the renewable energy technologies of photovoltaics, biofuels, hydrogen energy, carbon dioxide reduction and utilization, and photocatalysis for environmental cleanup of water and air. Individual papers were processed separately for the United states Department of Energy databases.

  17. Engineering opportunities in cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Jeanbart, Laura; Swartz, Melody A

    2015-11-24

    Immunotherapy has great potential to treat cancer and prevent future relapse by activating the immune system to recognize and kill cancer cells. A variety of strategies are continuing to evolve in the laboratory and in the clinic, including therapeutic noncellular (vector-based or subunit) cancer vaccines, dendritic cell vaccines, engineered T cells, and immune checkpoint blockade. Despite their promise, much more research is needed to understand how and why certain cancers fail to respond to immunotherapy and to predict which therapeutic strategies, or combinations thereof, are most appropriate for each patient. Underlying these challenges are technological needs, including methods to rapidly and thoroughly characterize the immune microenvironment of tumors, predictive tools to screen potential therapies in patient-specific ways, and sensitive, information-rich assays that allow patient monitoring of immune responses, tumor regression, and tumor dissemination during and after therapy. The newly emerging field of immunoengineering is addressing some of these challenges, and there is ample opportunity for engineers to contribute their approaches and tools to further facilitate the clinical translation of immunotherapy. Here we highlight recent technological advances in the diagnosis, therapy, and monitoring of cancer in the context of immunotherapy, as well as ongoing challenges.

  18. Windows of Opportunity for Groundwater Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, T.; Brozovic, N.; Butler, A. P.

    2015-12-01

    To date, there has been little attention focused on how the value and effectiveness of groundwater management is influenced by the timing of regulatory intervention relative to aquifer depletion. To address this question, we develop an integrated framework that couples an agro-economic model of farmers' field-level irrigation decision-making with a model of a groundwater abstraction borehole. Unlike existing models that only consider the impact of aquifer depletion on groundwater extraction costs, our model also captures the dynamic changes in well productivity and how these in turn affect crop yields and farmer incomes. We use our model to analyze how the value of imposing groundwater quotas is affected by the prior level of depletion before regulations are introduced. Our results demonstrate that there is a range of aquifer conditions within which regulating groundwater use will deliver long-term economic benefits for farmers. In this range, restricting abstraction rates slows the rate of change in well yields and, as a result, increases agricultural production over the simulated planning horizon. Contrastingly, when current saturated thickness is outside this range, regulating groundwater use will provide negligible social benefits and will impose large negative impacts on farm-level profits. We suggest that there are 'windows of opportunity' for managing aquifer depletion that are a function of local hydrology as well as economic characteristics. Regulation that is too early will harm the rural economy needlessly, while regulation that is too late will be unable to prevent aquifer exhaustion. The insights from our model can be a valuable tool to help inform policy decisions about when, and at what level, regulations should be implemented in order to maximize the benefits obtained from limited groundwater resources.

  19. Cancer in developing countries: opportunity and challenge.

    PubMed

    Magrath, I; Litvak, J

    1993-06-01

    Epidemiologic observations indicate that environment and lifestyle are the major determinants of the geographical patterns of cancer. The developing countries, which account for 75% of the world's population, have lower incidence rates of cancer compared with the industrialized nations but bear more than half the global cancer burden. Demographic trends resulting from economic progress (decreasing incidence of infectious diseases, population growth, aging, and urbanization), coupled with increased tobacco consumption and dietary changes, indicate that developing countries will bear a continually increasing proportion of the world's cancer burden and its accompanying demand for the provision of costly treatment programs. Yet the developing countries command only 5% of the world's economic resources, and health care programs are already fully extended and frequently inadequate. Thus, cancer control in the developing countries, including preemptive prevention of the anticipated increases in cancers presently more common in the industrialized nations (e.g., lung, breast, and colon), should include much greater emphasis on cancer prevention than is presently the case. But there is another perspective. The developing countries, with their dramatic contrasts in lifestyles and environments and equally diverse patterns of cancer, provide an unparalleled, and often neglected, opportunity for studies directed toward understanding the mechanisms of environmental carcinogenesis. Such an understanding should eventually lead to the development of novel intervention approaches. Unfortunately, cancer research is much more difficult to conduct in the developing countries because of the lack of population-based registries, poor communication and transportation systems, and deficiencies in infrastructure, financial support, and the training of health professionals. These difficulties could be overcome, to the benefit of all, if the extent of collaboration in cancer research between

  20. Cost-Estimation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Brian

    1995-01-01

    COSTIT computer program estimates cost of electronic design by reading item-list file and file containing cost for each item. Accuracy of cost estimate based on accuracy of cost-list file. Written by use of AWK utility for Sun4-series computers running SunOS 4.x and IBM PC-series and compatible computers running MS-DOS. The Sun version (NPO-19587). PC version (NPO-19157).

  1. Urban School Desegregation Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colton, David L.

    The findings of an exploratory study of urban school desegregation costs are reported in this paper. The study examined five cities faced with desegregating their schools: Cleveland, Columbus, Buffalo, Dayton, and Milwaukee. The main body of the report presents descriptive information about desegregation costs. Cost variations among cities are…

  2. COST OF MTBE REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Widespread contamination of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in ground water has raised concerns about the increased cost of remediation of MTBE releases compared to BTEX-only sites. To evaluate these cost, cost information for 311 sites was furnished by U.S. EPA Office of Undergr...

  3. Educational Cost Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Donald L.

    Traditional approaches to the cost analysis of educational programs involve examining annual budgets. Such approaches do not properly consider the cost of either new capital expenditures or the current value of previously purchased items. This paper presents the methodology for a new approach to educational cost analysis that identifies the actual…

  4. Power Plant Cycling Costs

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

    2012-07-01

    This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

  5. Energy-Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for the Textile Industry

    SciTech Connect

    China Energy Group; Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2010-09-29

    The textile industry is one of the most complicated manufacturing industries because it is a fragmented and heterogeneous sector dominated by small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Energy is one of the main cost factors in the textile industry. Especially in times of high energy price volatility, improving energy efficiency should be a primary concern for textile plants. There are various energy-efficiency opportunities that exist in every textile plant, many of which are cost-effective. However, even cost-effective options often are not implemented in textile plants mostly because of limited information on how to implement energy-efficiency measures, especially given the fact that a majority of textile plants are categorized as SMEs and hence they have limited resources to acquire this information. Know-how on energy-efficiency technologies and practices should, therefore, be prepared and disseminated to textile plants. This guidebook provides information on energy-efficiency technologies and measures applicable to the textile industry. The guidebook includes case studies from textile plants around the world and includes energy savings and cost information when available. First, the guidebook gives a brief overview of the textile industry around the world, with an explanation of major textile processes. An analysis of the type and the share of energy used in different textile processes is also included in the guidebook. Subsequently, energy-efficiency improvement opportunities available within some of the major textile sub-sectors are given with a brief explanation of each measure. The conclusion includes a short section dedicated to highlighting a few emerging technologies in the textile industry as well as the potential for the use of renewable energy in the textile industry.

  6. Challenges and opportunities in nanomanufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Khershed P.; Wachter, Ralph F.

    2011-10-01

    Nanomanufacturing is the fabrication of materials and components with nanoscale features and resolution and their integration into useful engineered systems. Through the precise control of materials and processes at the nanoscale, new features, functional capabilities, and properties, controlled by physics at the nanoscale, may be realized. The challenges for nanomanufacturing are achieving the desired functionality, product quality, process repeatability, production scalability and cost affordability. The ONR Manufacturing Science Program is meeting these challenges though basic research in nano-scale direct digital manufacturing, massively parallel nanoscale processing, and high-throughput (e.g., roll-to-roll) nanofabrication that encourages system-level integration. These concepts along with research examples will be described.

  7. Application and opportunities of pulses in food system: a review.

    PubMed

    Asif, Muhammad; Rooney, Lloyd W; Ali, Rashida; Riaz, Mian N

    2013-01-01

    Pulses are highly nutritious seeds of pod-bearing leguminous plants, specifically dry peas, lentils, and chickpeas. US farmers harvest about 2.6 million pounds of pulses every year but 75% of this is being exported internationally because of its increased consumption in the developing countries. In the current scenario, increasing costs of production, bad economy, and fluctuating food commodity prices have made a strong case for US producers to seek opportunities to increase domestic consumption of pulses through value-added products. Pulses are the richest sources of plant proteins and provide approximately 10% of the total dietary requirements of the proteins world over. Pulses are also high in dietary fibers and complex carbohydrates leading to low GI (glycemic index) foods. Pulses help to lower cholesterol and triglycerides as leguminous fibers are hypoglycosuria because of consisting more amylose than amylopectin. Pulses provide tremendous opportunities to be utilized in the processed foods such as bakery products, bread, pasta, snack foods, soups, cereal bar filing, tortillas, meat, etc. These show excellent opportunities in frozen dough foods either as added flour or as fillings. Pulses in view of their nutrient profile, seem to be ideal for inclusion in designing snack foods, baby, and sports foods.

  8. Application and opportunities of pulses in food system: a review.

    PubMed

    Asif, Muhammad; Rooney, Lloyd W; Ali, Rashida; Riaz, Mian N

    2013-01-01

    Pulses are highly nutritious seeds of pod-bearing leguminous plants, specifically dry peas, lentils, and chickpeas. US farmers harvest about 2.6 million pounds of pulses every year but 75% of this is being exported internationally because of its increased consumption in the developing countries. In the current scenario, increasing costs of production, bad economy, and fluctuating food commodity prices have made a strong case for US producers to seek opportunities to increase domestic consumption of pulses through value-added products. Pulses are the richest sources of plant proteins and provide approximately 10% of the total dietary requirements of the proteins world over. Pulses are also high in dietary fibers and complex carbohydrates leading to low GI (glycemic index) foods. Pulses help to lower cholesterol and triglycerides as leguminous fibers are hypoglycosuria because of consisting more amylose than amylopectin. Pulses provide tremendous opportunities to be utilized in the processed foods such as bakery products, bread, pasta, snack foods, soups, cereal bar filing, tortillas, meat, etc. These show excellent opportunities in frozen dough foods either as added flour or as fillings. Pulses in view of their nutrient profile, seem to be ideal for inclusion in designing snack foods, baby, and sports foods. PMID:24007421

  9. Feasibility of using transmitters of opportunity for precision multitarget tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandakumaran, N.; Tharmarasa, R.; McDonald, Mike; Kirubarajan, T.

    2009-08-01

    Passive Coherent Location (PCL) is a low-cost system for tracking of air targets clandestinely using illuminators of opportunity such as FM broadcast and digital TV. Due to an increased interest in PCL systems, researchers have been working on different configurations of available sources of opportunity and receivers capable of extracting plots from reflected signals of opportunity. The configuration can be multiple-transmitter-single-receiver or singletransmitter- multiple-receiver. Unlike standard radar systems, which can be optimized for detection probability and/or false alarm rate using different transmitted signals and adaptive thresholding, PCL systems are prone to poor detection due to low signal-to-noise (SNR). This leads to high clutter with low probability of detection of target of interest. In this work, we implement a multisensor-multitarget tracking system that fuses measurements from different PCL systems to improve tracking results. The benefits of the fusion are demonstrated using real data from NATA SET Panel 108 on PCL as well as simulated data.

  10. Atlantic opportunities for ENSO prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Rey, Marta Martin; Rodríguez-Fonseca, Belén; Polo, Irene

    2015-04-01

    El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the dominant mode of tropical climate variability with worldwide impacts. Major advances in ENSO research have been done in the last decades, focusing on the mechanisms involved in its onset and development, as well as, its global climate teleconnections. Although modelling efforts have been made in ENSO forecast, the prediction of these episodes still remains a challenge for the scientific community. Recent studies put forward the role of extra-tropical and tropical regions as precursors of ENSO, but these teleconnections have changed along the 20th century. In particular, an Atlantic Niño precedes the development of a Pacific La Niña (and vice versa) 6 months in advance, taking part of an air-sea coupled mode of variability which only shows up during negative phases of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). The non-stationarity of this mode opens window opportunities for ENSO forecast, using the Tropical Atlantic Sea Surface Temperature (SST) as the predictor field. Here, we present for the first time a statistical crossvalidated hindcast of ENSO events based on an Extended Multiple Maximum Covariance Analysis (EMMCA). This method considers a unique predictor field, the summer Atlantic SSTs, and a set of predictant fields in different regions and seasons, according to the Atlantic-Pacific mechanism. The predicted tropical Pacific variables involved in ENSO development, show a good agreement with the observed ones during negative AMO phases, with a remarkable increase of the predictability skill based on correlations. During those negative AMO decades, the hindcast reproduces quite well the observed Atlantic-modulated ENSO episodes, but with stronger signal than observations. This AMO-dependency of the ENSO predictability could help to resolve some open questions about the seasonal to decadal ENSO forecast and its impacts.

  11. Cost characteristics of hospitals.

    PubMed

    Smet, Mike

    2002-09-01

    Modern hospitals are complex multi-product organisations. The analysis of a hospital's production and/or cost structure should therefore use the appropriate techniques. Flexible functional forms based on the neo-classical theory of the firm seem to be most suitable. Using neo-classical cost functions implicitly assumes minimisation of (variable) costs given that input prices and outputs are exogenous. Local and global properties of flexible functional forms and short-run versus long-run equilibrium are further issues that require thorough investigation. In order to put the results based on econometric estimations of cost functions in the right perspective, it is important to keep these considerations in mind when using flexible functional forms. The more recent studies seem to agree that hospitals generally do not operate in their long-run equilibrium (they tend to over-invest in capital (capacity and equipment)) and that it is therefore appropriate to estimate a short-run variable cost function. However, few studies explicitly take into account the implicit assumptions and restrictions embedded in the models they use. An alternative method to explain differences in costs uses management accounting techniques to identify the cost drivers of overhead costs. Related issues such as cost-shifting and cost-adjusting behaviour of hospitals and the influence of market structure on competition, prices and costs are also discussed shortly. PMID:12220092

  12. Cost reduction ideas for LNG terminals

    SciTech Connect

    Habibullah, A.; Weldin, F.

    1999-07-01

    LNG projects are highly capital intensive and this has long been regarded as being inevitable. However, recent developments are forcing the LNG industry to aggressively seek cost reductions. For example, the gas-to-liquids (GTL) process is increasingly seen as a potential rival technology and is often being touted as an economically superior alternative fuel source. Another strong driving force behind needed cost reductions is the low crude oil price which seems to have settled in the $10--13/bb. range. LNG is well positioned as the fuel of choice for environmentally friendly new power projects. As a result of the projected demand for power especially in the Pacific Rim countries several LNG terminal projects are under consideration. Such projects will require a new generation of LNG terminal designs emphasizing low cost, small scale and safe and fully integrated designs from LNG supply to power generation. The integration of the LNG terminal with the combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) power plant offers substantial cost savings opportunities for both plants. Various cost reduction strategies and their impact on the terminal design are discussed including cost reduction due to integration.

  13. The Opportunity To Eradicate Peste des Petits Ruminants.

    PubMed

    Mariner, Jeffrey C; Jones, Bryony A; Rich, Karl M; Thevasagayam, Samuel; Anderson, John; Jeggo, Martyn; Cai, Yi; Peters, Andrew R; Roeder, Peter L

    2016-05-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly infectious disease of sheep and goats that is caused by PPR virus, a member of the genus Morbillivirus that includes the viruses that cause rinderpest (RP) in cattle. RP was the first animal disease to be globally eradicated in 2011 and is only the second disease, after smallpox, to have ever been eradicated. PPR is one of the principal constraints to small ruminant production in Africa, Asia, and the Middle East. The epidemiology of PPR and RP as well as the technologies available for their diagnosis and control are similar. The conditions that favored the eradication of RP are also largely present for PPR. In this work, we outline the evolving strategy for eradication in light of current opportunities and challenges, as well as the lessons from other eradication programs in animal and human health. The global PPR situation and technology for its control are summarized. A strategy based on the lessons from previous eradication efforts that integrate epidemiology, social science, and economics as tools to target and motivate vaccination is summarized. Major aspects of the cost and benefit-cost analysis of the indicated program are presented. The overall undiscounted cost of eradication was estimated as $3.1 billion, and the benefit-cost ratio for the most likely scenario was estimated at 33.8. We close with a discussion of the possible next steps. PMID:27183645

  14. Health Careers Directory; Health Education and Training Opportunities in South Carolina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Hospital Association, Columbia. Educational Services Program.

    The stated goal of the directory is to provide high school guidance counselors with information on health education and training opportunities in one document. To achieve this, the following information is provided: definition of career, program, location, admissions policy, length of course, affiliation, costs, and other items for each career…

  15. Solvent extractants for nickel and cobalt: New opportunities in aqueous processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihaylov, Indje

    2003-07-01

    The last two decades have witnessed unprecedented growth in the development and implementation of solvent extraction technology in the extractive metallurgy of nickel and cobalt. Solvent extraction is proving to be a powerful tool, opening new opportunities for simpler, more cost-efficient and environmentally sound metal refining processes. This article provides an overview of some of the latest developments regarding the solvent extractants.

  16. Economic cost of primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Ngalesoni, Frida; Ruhago, George; Norheim, Ole F; Robberstad, Bjarne

    2015-01-01

    Tanzania is facing a double burden of disease, with non-communicable diseases being an increasingly important contributor. Evidence-based preventive measures are important to limit the growing financial burden. This article aims to estimate the cost of providing medical primary prevention interventions for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among at-risk patients, reflecting actual resource use and if the World Health Organization (WHO)’s CVD medical preventive guidelines are implemented in Tanzania. In addition, we estimate and explore the cost to patients of receiving these services. Cost data were collected in four health facilities located in both urban and rural settings. Providers’ costs were identified and measured using ingredients approach to costing and resource valuation followed the opportunity cost method. Unit costs were estimated using activity-based and step-down costing methodologies. The patient costs were obtained through a structured questionnaire. The unit cost of providing CVD medical primary prevention services ranged from US$30–41 to US$52–71 per patient per year at the health centre and hospital levels, respectively. Employing the WHO’s absolute risk approach guidelines will substantially increase these costs. The annual patient cost of receiving these services as currently practised was estimated to be US$118 and US$127 for urban and rural patients, respectively. Providers’ costs were estimated from two main viewpoints: ‘what is’, that is the current practice, and ‘what if’, reflecting a WHO guidelines scenario. The higher cost of implementing the WHO guidelines suggests the need for further evaluation of whether these added costs are reasonable relative to the added benefits. We also found considerably higher patient costs, implying that distributive and equity implications of access to care require more consideration. Facility location surfaced as the main explanatory variable for both direct and indirect patient costs in

  17. Economic cost of primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Ngalesoni, Frida; Ruhago, George; Norheim, Ole F; Robberstad, Bjarne

    2015-09-01

    Tanzania is facing a double burden of disease, with non-communicable diseases being an increasingly important contributor. Evidence-based preventive measures are important to limit the growing financial burden. This article aims to estimate the cost of providing medical primary prevention interventions for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among at-risk patients, reflecting actual resource use and if the World Health Organization (WHO)'s CVD medical preventive guidelines are implemented in Tanzania. In addition, we estimate and explore the cost to patients of receiving these services. Cost data were collected in four health facilities located in both urban and rural settings. Providers' costs were identified and measured using ingredients approach to costing and resource valuation followed the opportunity cost method. Unit costs were estimated using activity-based and step-down costing methodologies. The patient costs were obtained through a structured questionnaire. The unit cost of providing CVD medical primary prevention services ranged from US$30-41 to US$52-71 per patient per year at the health centre and hospital levels, respectively. Employing the WHO's absolute risk approach guidelines will substantially increase these costs. The annual patient cost of receiving these services as currently practised was estimated to be US$118 and US$127 for urban and rural patients, respectively. Providers' costs were estimated from two main viewpoints: 'what is', that is the current practice, and 'what if', reflecting a WHO guidelines scenario. The higher cost of implementing the WHO guidelines suggests the need for further evaluation of whether these added costs are reasonable relative to the added benefits. We also found considerably higher patient costs, implying that distributive and equity implications of access to care require more consideration. Facility location surfaced as the main explanatory variable for both direct and indirect patient costs in the regression

  18. Marshall Space Flight Center Small Business Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrison, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the small business opportunities that are available with the Marshall Space Flight Center. It includes information on all forms of opportunities available and information sources: subcontracting, websites, contacts and a separate section on Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) & Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Programs

  19. How to Sell a Career Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magee, Richard H.

    1974-01-01

    Making the job offer and selling the career opportunity it presents is a very important process of employment interviewing. To reduce the chance of failure to sell the candidate on his opportunity, the interviewer must understand the psychology of persuasion, borrowing some techniques from the professional salesman. (Author/BP)

  20. 75 FR 10464 - Broadband Technology Opportunities Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... Register announcing general policy and application procedures for the second round of BTOP funding. 75 FR... National Telecommunications and Information Administration RIN 0660-ZA28 Broadband Technology Opportunities... Technology Opportunities Program (BTOP) is extended until 5:00 p.m. Eastern Daylight Time (EDT) on March...

  1. Crisis/Opportunity: 2011 WICHE Workplan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Public higher education has faced a crisis of massive proportions in the first decade of this millennium. Nevertheless, for higher education, this year represents a turning point and, yes, an opportunity. The opportunity, then, for the West is one that generations of Americans are familiar with: to do more with less. Dealing with scarcity--whether…

  2. Employment Opportunities for University Graduates in Slovenia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trbanc, Martina

    1995-01-01

    This article describes recent changes in Slovenia including its economic situation, employment possibilities, and trends in higher education. It discusses economic restructuring and its impact on the labor market, opportunities for graduates in the labor market, changes in employment opportunities, the effect of state intervention, and legislative…

  3. College Information, Support, and Opportunities for All?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    In this case, 10 Latina/o high school seniors and one high school counselor share their perspectives on how college information and opportunities are distributed in their school. In doing so, it becomes evident that efforts are not systematic or equitable. As a result, dilemmas arise when some students are denied the opportunity to attend a…

  4. Vocational Education and Equality of Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Benjamin; Feinberg, Walter

    1990-01-01

    Examines the concepts of equality of opportunity and equality of educational opportunity and their relationship to vocational education. Traces the history of vocational education. Delineates the distinction between training and education as enumerated in Aristotelian philosophy. Discusses the role vocational education can play in the educative…

  5. Race, Inequality of Opportunity, and School Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darby, Derrick; Saatcioglu, Argun

    2015-01-01

    Both neoliberals and liberals call for mitigating inequality of educational opportunity stemming from circumstances beyond an individual's control. In this article, we challenge the wisdom of making equality of opportunity hinge on emphasizing the distinction rather than the relationship between choices and circumstances. We utilize an empirical…

  6. 76 FR 76815 - Business Opportunity Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-08

    ... ``Amended Franchise Rule'' refers to the amended Franchise Rule published at 72 FR 15444 (Mar. 30, 2007) and... Opportunity Ventures: Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, 62 FR 9115 (Feb. 28, 1997). ``Initial Proposed... Rule, 71 FR 9054 (Apr. 12, 2006). ``Interim Business Opportunity Rule'' refers to the...

  7. Opportunity Texas[TM]: Learn. Earn. Save.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Public Policy Priorities, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Texas faces numerous challenges but also has abundant opportunities to build the middle class and increase prosperity. Unfortunately, too many Texans are on the sideline, lacking access to opportunities to learn, earn, and save to secure a more prosperous future for themselves and their families. To create jobs, increase income, and promote…

  8. Total cost of ownership: the role of clinical engineering.

    PubMed

    Hockel, Dale; Kintner, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Hospitals often incur substantial hidden costs associated with service agreements that they enter into with original equipment manufacturers at the time of equipment purchase. Hospitals should perform an analysis of the total cost of ownership (TCO) of their organizations' medical equipment to identify opportunities for performance improvement and savings. The findings of the TCO analysis can point to areas where clinical engineering service management can be improved through investments in technology, training, and teamwork. PMID:24968636

  9. Concepts of Cost and Cost Analysis for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinkman, Paul T.; Allen, Richard H.

    1986-01-01

    Concepts of costs and cost analysis in higher education are examined, along with how to prepare for a cost study. Specific cost analysis techniques are identified, along with types of data generated and potential problems. In preparing for cost studies, it is important to consider: purpose, types of cost analysis, types of cost, common…

  10. 32 CFR 37.550 - May I accept intellectual property as cost sharing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Pre-Award Business Evaluation... the same cost of lost opportunity to a recipient as contributions of cash or tangible assets....

  11. 77 FR 4997 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Alaska Individual Fishing Quota Cost Recovery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Alaska Individual Fishing Quota Cost Recovery Program Requirements AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric... to take this opportunity to comment on proposed and/or continuing information collections,...

  12. The implications for information system design of how health care costs are determined.

    PubMed

    Ehreth, J

    1996-03-01

    As the costs of health care assume increasing importance in national health policy, information systems will be required to supply better information about how costs are generated and how resources are distributed. Costs, as determined by accounting systems, often are inadequate for policy analysis because they represent resources consumed (expenditures) to produce given outputs but do not measure forgone alternative uses of the resources (opportunity costs). To accommodate cost studies at the program level and the system level, relational information systems must be developed that allow costs to be summed across individuals to determine an organization's costs, across providers to determine an individual patient's costs, and across both to determine system and population costs. Program level studies require that cost variables be grouped into variable costs that are tied to changes in volume of output and fixed costs that are allocated rationally. Data sources for program-level analyses are organizational financial statements, cost center accounting records, Medicare cost reports, American Hospital Association surveys, and the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) cost distribution files. System-level studies are performed to predict future costs and to compare costs of alternative modes of treatment. System-level analyses aggregate all costs associated with individuals to produce population-based costs. Data sources for system-level analyses include insurance claims;n Medicare files; hospital billing records; and VA inpatient, outpatient, and management databases. Future cost studies will require the assessment of costs from all providers, regardless of organizational membership status, for all individuals in defined populations.

  13. Opportunities for Funding at NSF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafafi, Zakya H.

    2009-03-01

    Materials science, inter- and multi-disciplinary in nature, provides the bridge to many areas of fundamental and applied sciences such as biology, chemistry, physics, mathematics, computer sciences, and engineering. Strong links that may exist between materials science and other disciplines, such as biology or chemistry or physics, very often lead to novel applications and enable technologies of great benefit to our society. The Division of Materials Research (DMR) invested 274.0 M in FY 2008 and is estimated to invest 324.6 M in FY 2009 funding research and education as well as enabling tools & instrumentation for individual investigators, groups, centers, and national facilities. DMR programs cover a wide spectrum of materials research and education ranging from condensed matter and materials physics, solid-state and materials chemistry, multifunctional, hybrid, electronic, photonic, metallic, ceramic, polymeric, bio-materials, composites and nanostructures to list a few. New modes of funding, research opportunities and directions, such as the recent SOLAR solicitation, will be described. This Solar Energy Initiative launched jointly by three divisions, namely Chemistry, Materials Research and Mathematical Science is aimed at supporting truly interdisciplinary efforts that address the scientific challenges of highly efficient harvesting, conversion, and storage of solar energy. The goal of this new program is to create a new modality of linking the mathematical with the chemical and materials sciences to develop transformative paradigms based on the integrated expertise and synergy from three disciplinary communities. DMR is also seeking new ways to transform materials science and education, and make it more attractive as a career for bright, young women & men. A description will be given of several workshops held this year and planned for next year with this purpose in mind. Outreach programs that emphasize how the innovations resulting from materials research

  14. Adjusting Teacher Salaries for the Cost of Living: The Effect on Salary Comparisons and Policy Conclusions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoddard, C.

    2005-01-01

    Teaching salaries are commonly adjusted for the cost of living, but this incorrectly accounts for welfare differences across states. Adjusting for area amenities and opportunities, however, produces more accurate salary comparisons. Amenities and opportunities can be measured by the wage premium other workers in a state face. The two methods…

  15. A revolutionary approach to health care cost control: leveraging the power of Web-enabled employee "consumerism".

    PubMed

    Rozzi, M V

    2001-09-01

    The confluence of two trends--health care "consumerism" and employee self-service benefits programs--offers employers a promising opportunity for health care cost control. To take advantage of this opportunity, employers must take a fresh look at the health care cost dilemma and find ways to simultaneously offer employees a new kind of benefit and implement more effective cost-control measures.

  16. Planning, budgeting, and controlling--one look at the future: case-mix cost accounting.

    PubMed

    Thompson, J D; Averill, R F; Fetter, R B

    1979-01-01

    This paper outlines the system for cost accounting and managerial control which is an extension of the usually accepted departmental costing systems and takes as its units the 383 Diagnosis Related Groups (DRGs) considered to be the hospital's products. It is held that such an approach offers hospital managers a more powerful, analytic, budgeting, and cost-finding tool and offers the opportunity to involve the medical staff in the issues of how their practice patterns are affecting hospital costs.

  17. Mucosal adjuvants: Opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Lingbin

    2016-09-01

    Most pathogens access the body via mucosal surfaces. Mucosal vaccination is a highly effective and recommended method to prevent mucosally transmitted infections. Compared with immunization via intramuscular injection, mucosal immunization offers remarkable advantages, including non-invasiveness, low costs and reduced risk of transmission of blood-borne diseases, which make it more acceptable to human beings, especially to young children. However, only few mucosal vaccines are licensed for human, which is mainly due to the deficiency of safe and effective mucosal adjuvants. Adjuvants, as important components of most vaccines, are essential to enhance immunity and induce immune memory. The development of mucosal adjuvants, unfortunately, has been severely hampered by research strategies based on empiric trials and non-comprehensive methods for safety evaluation. Therefore, changing the research and development strategies of mucosal adjuvant field from empiricism based discovery to rational design based invention is highly demanded. The change of strategies mainly depends upon clarification of mechanism of mucosal adjuvant activity though a combination of life science, information science and materials science. PMID:27159278

  18. Cost-Effective Fuel Treatment Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreitler, J.; Thompson, M.; Vaillant, N.

    2014-12-01

    that use only benefits. Variations across the heterogeneous surfaces of costs and benefits create opportunities for fuel treatments to maximize the expected averted loss of benefits. By targeting these opportunities we demonstrate how incorporating costs in fuel treatment prioritization can improve the outcome of fuel treatment planning.

  19. Heliostat cost optimization study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Reeken, Finn; Weinrebe, Gerhard; Keck, Thomas; Balz, Markus

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a methodology for a heliostat cost optimization study. First different variants of small, medium sized and large heliostats are designed. Then the respective costs, tracking and optical quality are determined. For the calculation of optical quality a structural model of the heliostat is programmed and analyzed using finite element software. The costs are determined based on inquiries and from experience with similar structures. Eventually the levelised electricity costs for a reference power tower plant are calculated. Before each annual simulation run the heliostat field is optimized. Calculated LCOEs are then used to identify the most suitable option(s). Finally, the conclusions and findings of this extensive cost study are used to define the concept of a new cost-efficient heliostat called `Stellio'.

  20. An Examination of Avoided Costs in Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2005-01-07

    The Utah Wind Working Group (UWWG) believes there are currently opportunities to encourage wind power development in the state by seeking changes to the avoided cost tariff paid to qualifying facilities (QFs). These opportunities have arisen as a result of a recent renegotiation of Pacificorp's Schedule 37 tariff for wind QFs under 3 MW, as well as an ongoing examination of Pacificorp's Schedule 38 tariff for wind QFs larger than 3 MW. It is expected that decisions made regarding Schedule 38 will also impact Schedule 37. Through the Laboratory Technical Assistance Program (Lab TAP), the UWWG has requested (through the Utah Energy Office) that LBNL provide technical assistance in determining whether an alternative method of calculating avoided costs that has been officially adopted in Idaho would lead to higher QF payments in Utah, and to discuss the pros and cons of this method relative to the methodology recently adopted under Schedule 37 in Utah. To accomplish this scope of work, I begin by summarizing the current method of calculating avoided costs in Utah (per Schedule 37) and Idaho (the ''surrogate avoided resource'' or SAR method). I then compare the two methods both qualitatively and quantitatively. Next I present Pacificorp's four main objections to the use of the SAR method, and discuss the reasonableness of each objection. Finally, I conclude with a few other potential considerations that might add value to wind QFs in Utah.

  1. Creating abundance: America's least-cost energy strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Sant, R.W.; Bakker, D.W.; Naill, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    This book is a lengthy essay describing the American accomplishments in taming the energy problem, although still untapped opportunities are noted. Contents: The concept of energy services. Lowering the energy cost in industry. Alternatives to traditional fuels. Two abundant energy futures. Some myths about energy. Index.

  2. Calculating Cost-Return for Investments in Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumina Foundation for Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In late 2007, Jobs for the Future (JFF), working with the Delta Project on Postsecondary Costs, Productivity and Accountability, launched "Investing in Student Success", a one-year pilot program. The pilot, conceived of as part of the "Making Opportunity Affordable" initiative and funded by Walmart Foundation and Lumina Foundation for Education,…

  3. Physical activity opportunities in afterschool programs

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, R. Glenn; Beets, Michael W.; Huberty, Jennifer; Freedman, Darcy; Turner-Mcgrievy, Gabrielle; Ward, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Afterschool programs (ASPs) have potential to provide children moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The availability and types (e.g., free play or organized activities) of physical activity opportunities, their structure (e.g., presence of lines, elimination games), and staff behaviors (e.g., encouragement, engaged) can influence children’s MVPA. This study explored these factors in 20 ASPs serving over 1,700 elementary-age children. The occurrence, types and structure of physical activity opportunities, and staff behaviors were collected via the System for Observing Staff Promotion of Physical Activity and Nutrition (SOSPAN). A total of 4,660 SOSPAN scans were completed across 63 complete program days (1733 during physical activity opportunities). Physical activity opportunities were observed on 60 program days across all 20 sites, with 73% of those opportunities classified as free play. ASPs scheduled an average of 66.3 minutes (range 15-150min) of physical activity opportunities daily. Games played included basketball, tag, soccer and football. Staff rarely engaged in physical activity promotion behaviors, and the structure of organized games discouraged MVPA. For example, staff verbally promoted physical activity in just 6.1% of scans, while organized games were more likely to involve lines and elimination. Professional development training may enhance staffs’ physical activity promotion and the structure of activity opportunities. PMID:25586132

  4. Physical activity opportunities in afterschool programs.

    PubMed

    Weaver, R Glenn; Beets, Michael W; Huberty, Jennifer; Freedman, Darcy; Turner-Mcgrievy, Gabrielle; Ward, Diane

    2015-05-01

    Afterschool programs (ASPs) have potential to provide children moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The availability and types (e.g., free play or organized activities) of physical activity opportunities, their structure (e.g., presence of lines, elimination games), and staff behaviors (e.g., encouragement, engaged) can influence children's MVPA. This study explored these factors in 20 ASPs serving over 1,700 elementary-age children. The occurrence, types, and structure of physical activity opportunities, and staff behaviors were collected via the SOSPAN (System for Observing Staff Promotion of Physical Activity and Nutrition). A total of 4,660 SOSPAN scans were completed across 63 complete program days (1,733 during physical activity opportunities). Physical activity opportunities were observed on 60 program days across all 20 sites, with 73% of those opportunities classified as free play. ASPs scheduled an average of 66.3 minutes (range 15-150 minutes) of physical activity opportunities daily. Games played included basketball, tag, soccer, and football. Staff rarely engaged in physical activity promotion behaviors, and the structure of organized games discouraged MVPA. For example, staff verbally promoted physical activity in just 6.1% of scans, while organized games were more likely to involve lines and elimination. Professional development training may enhance staffs' physical activity promotion and the structure of activity opportunities. PMID:25586132

  5. Fulbright Opportunities in the Physical Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewindt, Katrin

    2013-03-01

    The Fulbright Scholar Program is sponsored by the United States Department of State and is principally funded by taxpayer contributions. Bi-national in nature, it includes academic year opportunities for both American and foreign scholars. More than 800 grants in 125 countries are available each year. The Program supports research, teaching and lecturing opportunities in all academic disciplines, numerous professional fields and the arts. American academics and administrators have multiple opportunities to internationalize their campuses and their discipline points of view. Further, Fulbright not only sends American scholars abroad but also brings scholars to the United States and should be considered a strategic internationalization opportunity both for individuals and for campuses. During the 2013-14 competition cycle there were 33 awards available in physics and astronomy and 175 all discipline awards. The presentation will guide attendees in identifying appropriate opportunities through the Fulbright Scholar Program and will make suggestions as to how to be successful in a proposal. Special attention will be given to opportunities available for specialists in physics. The workshop will also cover non-Core Fulbright Scholar opportunities for physicists and university administrators, including a number of short-term, innovative programs that send an additional 400 scholars from the United States to universities and research institutes abroad to offer expertise on issues of global interest from cutting-edge research to policy, to technical expertise in curriculum development, institutional planning, program assessment, and institutional capacity building.

  6. Physical activity opportunities in afterschool programs.

    PubMed

    Weaver, R Glenn; Beets, Michael W; Huberty, Jennifer; Freedman, Darcy; Turner-Mcgrievy, Gabrielle; Ward, Diane

    2015-05-01

    Afterschool programs (ASPs) have potential to provide children moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The availability and types (e.g., free play or organized activities) of physical activity opportunities, their structure (e.g., presence of lines, elimination games), and staff behaviors (e.g., encouragement, engaged) can influence children's MVPA. This study explored these factors in 20 ASPs serving over 1,700 elementary-age children. The occurrence, types, and structure of physical activity opportunities, and staff behaviors were collected via the SOSPAN (System for Observing Staff Promotion of Physical Activity and Nutrition). A total of 4,660 SOSPAN scans were completed across 63 complete program days (1,733 during physical activity opportunities). Physical activity opportunities were observed on 60 program days across all 20 sites, with 73% of those opportunities classified as free play. ASPs scheduled an average of 66.3 minutes (range 15-150 minutes) of physical activity opportunities daily. Games played included basketball, tag, soccer, and football. Staff rarely engaged in physical activity promotion behaviors, and the structure of organized games discouraged MVPA. For example, staff verbally promoted physical activity in just 6.1% of scans, while organized games were more likely to involve lines and elimination. Professional development training may enhance staffs' physical activity promotion and the structure of activity opportunities.

  7. Cost model for biobanks.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Sanchez, M Beatriz; Lopez-Valeiras, Ernesto; Morente, Manuel M; Fernández Lago, Orlando

    2013-10-01

    Current economic conditions and budget constraints in publicly funded biomedical research have brought about a renewed interest in analyzing the cost and economic viability of research infrastructures. However, there are no proposals for specific cost accounting models for these types of organizations in the international scientific literature. The aim of this paper is to present the basis of a cost analysis model useful for any biobank regardless of the human biological samples that it stores for biomedical research. The development of a unique cost model for biobanks can be a complicated task due to the diversity of the biological samples they store. Different types of samples (DNA, tumor tissues, blood, serum, etc.) require different production processes. Nonetheless, the common basic steps of the production process can be identified. Thus, the costs incurred in each step can be analyzed in detail to provide cost information. Six stages and four cost objects were obtained by taking the production processes of biobanks belonging to the Spanish National Biobank Network as a starting point. Templates and examples are provided to help managers to identify and classify the costs involved in their own biobanks to implement the model. The application of this methodology will provide accurate information on cost objects, along with useful information to give an economic value to the stored samples, to analyze the efficiency of the production process and to evaluate the viability of some sample collections.

  8. Updated Conceptual Cost Estimating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. A.

    1987-01-01

    16-page report discusses development and use of NASA TR-1508, the Kennedy Space Center Aerospace Construction Price Book for preparing conceptual, budget, funding, cost-estimating, and preliminary cost-engineering reports. Updated annually from 1974 through 1985 with actual bid prices and government estimates. Includes labor and material quantities and prices with contractor and subcontractor markups for buildings, facilities, and systems at Kennedy Space Center. While data pertains to aerospace facilities, format and cost-estimating techniques guide estimation of costs in other construction applications.

  9. Cost model for biobanks.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Sanchez, M Beatriz; Lopez-Valeiras, Ernesto; Morente, Manuel M; Fernández Lago, Orlando

    2013-10-01

    Current economic conditions and budget constraints in publicly funded biomedical research have brought about a renewed interest in analyzing the cost and economic viability of research infrastructures. However, there are no proposals for specific cost accounting models for these types of organizations in the international scientific literature. The aim of this paper is to present the basis of a cost analysis model useful for any biobank regardless of the human biological samples that it stores for biomedical research. The development of a unique cost model for biobanks can be a complicated task due to the diversity of the biological samples they store. Different types of samples (DNA, tumor tissues, blood, serum, etc.) require different production processes. Nonetheless, the common basic steps of the production process can be identified. Thus, the costs incurred in each step can be analyzed in detail to provide cost information. Six stages and four cost objects were obtained by taking the production processes of biobanks belonging to the Spanish National Biobank Network as a starting point. Templates and examples are provided to help managers to identify and classify the costs involved in their own biobanks to implement the model. The application of this methodology will provide accurate information on cost objects, along with useful information to give an economic value to the stored samples, to analyze the efficiency of the production process and to evaluate the viability of some sample collections. PMID:24835258

  10. Designers' unified cost model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, W.; Ilcewicz, L.; Swanson, G.; Gutowski, T.

    1992-01-01

    The Structures Technology Program Office (STPO) at NASA LaRC has initiated development of a conceptual and preliminary designers' cost prediction model. The model will provide a technically sound method for evaluating the relative cost of different composite structural designs, fabrication processes, and assembly methods that can be compared to equivalent metallic parts or assemblies. The feasibility of developing cost prediction software in a modular form for interfacing with state-of-the-art preliminary design tools and computer aided design programs is being evaluated. The goal of this task is to establish theoretical cost functions that relate geometric design features to summed material cost and labor content in terms of process mechanics and physics. The output of the designers' present analytical tools will be input for the designers' cost prediction model to provide the designer with a database and deterministic cost methodology that allows one to trade and synthesize designs with both cost and weight as objective functions for optimization. This paper presents the team members, approach, goals, plans, and progress to date for development of COSTADE (Cost Optimization Software for Transport Aircraft Design Evaluation).

  11. ''When Cost Measures Contradict''

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, W. D.; Smith, A. E.; Biggar, S. L.; Bernstein, P. M.

    2003-05-09

    When regulators put forward new economic or regulatory policies, there is a need to compare the costs and benefits of these new policies to existing policies and other alternatives to determine which policy is most cost-effective. For command and control policies, it is quite difficult to compute costs, but for more market-based policies, economists have had a great deal of success employing general equilibrium models to assess a policy's costs. Not all cost measures, however, arrive at the same ranking. Furthermore, cost measures can produce contradictory results for a specific policy. These problems make it difficult for a policy-maker to determine the best policy. For a cost measures to be of value, one would like to be confident of two things. First one wants to be sure whether the policy is a winner or loser. Second, one wants to be confident that a measure produces the correct policy ranking. That is, one wants to have confidence in a policy measure's ability to correctly rank policies from most beneficial to most harmful. This paper analyzes empirically these two properties of different costs measures as they pertain to assessing the costs of the carbon abatement policies, especially the Kyoto Protocol, under alternative assumptions about implementation.

  12. Cost Containment in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Culyer, A. J.

    1989-01-01

    Health care cost containment is not in itself a sensible policy objective, because any assessment of the appropriateness of health care expenditure in aggregate, as of that on specific programs, requires a balancing of costs and benefits at the margin. International data on expenditures can, however, provide indications of the likely impact on costs and expenditures of structural features of health care systems. Data from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development for both European countries and a wider set are reviewed, and some current policies in Europe that are directed at controlling health care costs are outlined. PMID:10313433

  13. Energy Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for the Cement Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina; Price, Lynn

    2008-01-31

    This report provides information on the energy savings, costs, and carbon dioxide emissions reductions associated with implementation of a number of technologies and measures applicable to the cement industry. The technologies and measures include both state-of-the-art measures that are currently in use in cement enterprises worldwide as well as advanced measures that are either only in limited use or are near commercialization. This report focuses mainly on retrofit measures using commercially available technologies, but many of these technologies are applicable for new plants as well. Where possible, for each technology or measure, costs and energy savings per tonne of cement produced are estimated and then carbon dioxide emissions reductions are calculated based on the fuels used at the process step to which the technology or measure is applied. The analysis of cement kiln energy-efficiency opportunities is divided into technologies and measures that are applicable to the different stages of production and various kiln types used in China: raw materials (and fuel) preparation; clinker making (applicable to all kilns, rotary kilns only, vertical shaft kilns only); and finish grinding; as well as plant wide measures and product and feedstock changes that will reduce energy consumption for clinker making. Table 1 lists all measures in this report by process to which they apply, including plant wide measures and product or feedstock changes. Tables 2 through 8 provide the following information for each technology: fuel and electricity savings per tonne of cement; annual operating and capital costs per tonne of cement or estimated payback period; and, carbon dioxide emissions reductions for each measure applied to the production of cement. This information was originally collected for a report on the U.S. cement industry (Worrell and Galitsky, 2004) and a report on opportunities for China's cement kilns (Price and Galitsky, in press). The information provided in this

  14. Osteoporosis treatment: a missed opportunity.

    PubMed

    Milat, Frances; Ebeling, Peter R

    2016-08-15

    Osteoporosis affects 1.2 million Australians and, in 2012, fractures due to osteoporosis and osteopenia in Australians aged over 50 years cost $2.75 billion. Even minor minimal trauma fractures are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Despite increasing therapeutic options for managing osteoporosis, fewer than 20% of patients with a minimal trauma fracture are treated or investigated for osteoporosis, so under-treatment is extremely common. Fracture risk assessment is important for selecting patients who require specific anti-osteoporosis therapy. Post-menopausal osteoporosis is frequently due to an imbalance in bone remodelling, with bone resorption exceeding bone formation. Antiresorptive drugs reduce the number, activity and lifespan of osteoclasts, and include bisphosphonates, oestrogen, selective oestrogen receptor-modulating drugs, strontium ranelate, and the human monoclonal antibody denosumab. Teriparatide is the only anabolic agent currently available that stimulates osteoblast recruitment and activity; its antifracture efficacy for non-vertebral fractures increases with the duration of therapy for up to 2 years when it is associated with persisting increases in bone formation rate at the tissue level. Newer anabolic agents are imminent and include an analogue of parathyroid hormone-related protein, abaloparatide, and a humanised monoclonal antibody to an inhibitor of bone formation, romosozumab. Selection of anti-osteoporosis therapy should be individualised to patients, and the duration of bisphosphonate therapy has been covered in recent guidelines. The benefits of treatment far outweigh any risks associated with long term treatment. General practitioners need to take up the challenge imposed by osteoporosis and become champions of change to close the evidence-treatment gap. PMID:27510350

  15. Horizontal drilling opportunities in Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, J.A. )

    1991-08-01

    Horizontal drilling has become commonplace in certain parts of Texas. The Austin Chalk is the favorite target, especially where fracture systems are present. The activity has become so intense that leases are now costly or nearly impossible to find. This type of activity was prevalent during the late oil boom, but with vertical wells. So, the same areas that were drilled then are being redone with horizontal drilling. In the past few months, carbonates with little or no evidence of fracture systems are being drilled with some success. Because of the difficulty in lease acquisition, operators are turning their attention elsewhere. Even though horizontal drilling has been conducted limitedly in the Devonian black shales, the Appalachian basin is an area that calls for attention. In Ohio, there have been instances of discoveries of one-well fields in both the Trenton and Trempealeau formations. The initial production from these wells ranges from a few to hundreds of barrels of oil per day. The lack of success in offset wells has been attributed to the interpretation that the producing wells were serendipitously drilled into a limited fractured reservoir. In most cases, the producer is surrounded by clusters of dry holes. These Ohio wells and wells in one other area are studied using well data, spectral and sonic logs, aerial photographs, side-looking radar surveys, and other data. The results are presented on structure contour and lineament maps, and quantitative log interpretations. The maps show the interpretations of those areas of fracture systems that might be viable targets for horizontal drilling.

  16. As Far as Opportunity's Eye Can See

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for As Far as Opportunity's Eye Can See (QTVR)

    This expansive view of the martian real estate surrounding the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity is the first 360 degree, high-resolution color image taken by the rover's panoramic camera. The airbag marks, or footprints, seen in the soil trace the route by which Opportunity rolled to its final resting spot inside a small crater at Meridiani Planum, Mars. The exposed rock outcropping is a future target for further examination. This image mosaic consists of 225 individual frames.

  17. Multi-GNSS Opportunities and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Shaery, A.; Zhang, S.; Lim, S.; Rizos, C.

    2012-04-01

    The multi-GNSS era has began attracting more attention with the declaration of full operational capability of GLONASS , with a 24 satellites being set to 'healthy' on December 8th 2011 (IAC, 2011). This means that GPS is no longer the only GNSS that provides global positioning coverage. This status brings benefits for GNSS users in areas (e.g. 'urban canyon' environments or in deep open cut mines) where the number of visible satellites is limited because of shadowing effects. In such areas adding more functioning satellites, which is one of the aiding solutions, becomes easier, at no extra cost. The inclusion of GLONASS observations in positioning solutions will increase the available number of satellites and thus positioning accuracy may improve as a result of enhanced overall satellite geometry. Such an aiding solution is increasingly attractive due to the successful revitalisation of GLONASS. Another motivation is the availability of improved GLONASS orbits from the IGS and individual analysis centres of the IGS. The increasing availability of receivers with GPS/GLONASS tracking capability on the market is an additional motive. Consequently, most networks of continuously operating reference stations (CORS) are now equipped with receivers that can track both GPS and GLONASS satellite signals, and therefore network-based positioning with combined GPS and GLONASS observations is possible. However, adding GLONASS observations to GPS is not a straight forward process. This is attributable to a few system differences in reference frames for time and coordinates, and in signal structures. The first two differences are easy to deal with using well-defined conversion and transformation parameters (El-Mowafy, 2001). However, signal structure differences have some implications. The mathematical modelling of combined GPS/GLONASS observations is not performed as in the case of GPS-alone. Special care should be paid to such integration. Not only is the software part affected

  18. Innovative forming and fabrication technologies : new opportunities.

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, B.; Hryn, J.; Energy Systems; Kingston Process Metallurgy, Inc.

    2008-01-31

    The advent of light metal alloys and advanced materials (polymer, composites, etc.) have brought the possibility of achieving important energy reductions into the full life cycle of these materials, especially in transportation applications. 1 These materials have gained acceptance in the aerospace industry but use of light metal alloys needs to gain wider acceptance in other commercial transportation areas. Among the main reasons for the relatively low use of these materials are the lack of manufacturability, insufficient mechanical properties, and increased material costs due to processing inefficiencies. Considering the enormous potential energy savings associated with the use of light metal alloys and advanced materials in transportation, there is a need to identify R&D opportunities in the fields of materials fabrication and forming aimed at developing materials with high specific mechanical properties combined with energy efficient processes and good manufacturability. This report presents a literature review of the most recent developments in the areas of fabrication and metal forming focusing principally on aluminum alloys. In the first section of the document, the different sheet manufacturing technologies including direct chill (DC) casting and rolling, spray forming, spray rolling, thin slab, and strip casting are reviewed. The second section of the document presents recent research on advanced forming processes. The various forming processes reviewed are: superplastic forming, electromagnetic forming, age forming, warm forming, hydroforming, and incremental forming. Optimization of conventional forming processes is also discussed. Potentially interesting light metal alloys for high structural efficiency including aluminum-scandium, aluminum-lithium, magnesium, titanium, and amorphous metal alloys are also reviewed. This section concludes with a discussion on alloy development for manufacturability. The third section of the document reviews the latest

  19. Inventory-driven costs.

    PubMed

    Callioni, Gianpaolo; de Montgros, Xavier; Slagmulder, Regine; Van Wassenhove, Luk N; Wright, Linda

    2005-03-01

    In the 199os, Hewlett-Packard's PC business was struggling to turn a dollar, despite the company's success in winning market share. By 1997, margins on its PCs were as thin as a silicon wafer, and some product lines hadn't turned a profit since 1993. The problem had everything to do with the PC industry's notoriously short product cycles and brutal product and component price deflation. A common rule of thumb was that the value of a fully assembled PC decreased 1% a week. In such an environment, inventory costs become critical. But not just the inventory costs companies traditionally track, HP found, after a thorough review of the problem. The standard "holding cost of inventory"--the capital and physical costs of inventory--accounted for only about 10% of HP's inventory costs. The greater risks, it turned out, resided in four other, essentially hidden costs, which stemmed from mismatches between demand and supply: Component devaluation costs for components still held in production; Price protection costs incurred when product prices drop on the goods distributors still have on their shelves; Product return costs that have to be absorbed when distributors return and receive refunds on overstock items, and; Obsolescence costs for products still unsold when new models are introduced. By developing metrics to track those costs in a consistent way throughout the PC division, HP has found it can manage its supply chains with much more sophistication. Gone are the days of across-the-board measures such as,"Everyone must cut inventories by 20% by the end of the year," which usually resulted in a flurry of cookie-cutter lean production and just-in-time initiatives. Now, each product group is free to choose the supply chain configuration that best suits its needs. Other companies can follow HP's example.

  20. Capability and Cost of COTS Networking Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinteregger, Hans

    In this talk we will emphasize first the ease with which dedicated 'dark' fiber can today be 'lit' at one or more gigE-bandwidth wavelengths with low-cost switches, optical transceivers with up to 100 Km reach, and passive mux/demux's. The chief expense for dedicated links today is that of leasing a fiber pair, especially in a city like Wash. DC. But, at least in the US, the intercity cable overbuild of the telecom boom has now, in the bust, made in-the-ground dark fiber pairs buyable for <$1000/km. Hence there are now business interests in COTS networking components,with corresponding opportunities for e-VLBI. We will outline the fairly clear and certain road from gigE in SFP to 10gigE in XFP commodity pluggable packages. The timing of cost/bandwidth crossover is less so - due to current uncertainty in the telecom business climate. A 2006 budget for LOFAR networking requirements, assumed here to be built from scratch in the WA desert where the dominant cable laying costs are minimized, is considered in some detail. The cost of fibers and the cost lighting them (one-way) to 200 Gb/s per station is judged to be affordable. A further projection to SKA's COFON in 2009 will be made. Denser CWDM and/or cheaper DWDM may be developed and mature by that time.

  1. Small, Low Cost, Launch Capability Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    A recent explosion in nano-sat, small-sat, and university class payloads has been driven by low cost electronics and sensors, wide component availability, as well as low cost, miniature computational capability and open source code. Increasing numbers of these very small spacecraft are being launched as secondary payloads, dramatically decreasing costs, and allowing greater access to operations and experimentation using actual space flight systems. While manifesting as a secondary payload provides inexpensive rides to orbit, these arrangements also have certain limitations. Small, secondary payloads are typically included with very limited payload accommodations, supported on a non interference basis (to the prime payload), and are delivered to orbital conditions driven by the primary launch customer. Integration of propulsion systems or other hazardous capabilities will further complicate secondary launch arrangements, and accommodation requirements. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Marshall Space Flight Center has begun work on the development of small, low cost launch system concepts that could provide dedicated, affordable launch alternatives to small, high risk university type payloads and spacecraft. These efforts include development of small propulsion systems and highly optimized structural efficiency, utilizing modern advanced manufacturing techniques. This paper outlines the plans and accomplishments of these efforts and investigates opportunities for truly revolutionary reductions in launch and operations costs. Both evolution of existing sounding rocket systems to orbital delivery, and the development of clean sheet, optimized small launch systems are addressed.

  2. Energy Sector Impacts and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newmark, R. L.; Macknick, J.; Martinez, A.; Hallett, K. C.

    2011-12-01

    The power sector is the largest user of freshwater in the U.S. The dominant use of water in power plants is for steam cycle cooling. The current portfolio of electricity generating technologies in the U.S. has highly regionalized and technology-specific requirements for water. Certain areas employ once-through cooling technologies with high withdrawals and low consumptive uses, whereas other areas employ recirculating cooling technologies with relatively low withdrawals but high consumptive uses. As water availability differs widely throughout the nation, assessments of water withdrawal and consumption impacts from the power sector must have a high geographic resolution and consider regional differences. The U.S. electricity portfolio is likely to evolve in coming years, shaped by various energy policies and economic drivers on both the national and regional level, which will impact power sector water demands. It is likely that the U.S. will continue to decarbonize its electricity industry, leading to more low-carbon technologies. However, many low-carbon technologies, such as coal with carbon capture and storage, nuclear, and concentrated solar power, can use more water than the current electricity portfolio average. National- and state-level water policies have been proposed (and enacted) that affect cooling system choices for power plants, with resulting implications for water use as well as power plant installed and operating costs and reliability. Energy policy analyses that do not consider power plant cooling system impacts may miss an important component power plant siting decisions. Similarly, water policies that do not take into consideration potential impacts on power plant operations or comprehensive regional water budget impacts may have deleterious effects on the energy industry. Analysis of future energy scenarios that incorporate technology options and constraints as well as different policies can provide useful insights about likely changes to both

  3. Improving hospital cost accounting with activity-based costing.

    PubMed

    Chan, Y C

    1993-01-01

    In this article, activity-based costing, an approach that has proved to be an improvement over the conventional costing system in product costing, is introduced. By combining activity-based costing with standard costing, health care administrators can better plan and control the costs of health services provided while ensuring that the organization's bottom line is healthy.

  4. What Does it Really Cost? Allocating Indirect Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Herbert; Davenport, Elisabeth

    1997-01-01

    Better managerial control in terms of decision making and understanding the costs of a system/service result from allocating indirect costs. Allocation requires a three-step process: selecting cost objectives, pooling related overhead costs, and selecting costs bases to connect the objectives to the pooled costs. Argues that activity-based costing…

  5. 45 CFR 149.115 - Cost threshold and cost limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost threshold and cost limit. 149.115 Section 149... REQUIREMENTS FOR THE EARLY RETIREE REINSURANCE PROGRAM Reinsurance Amounts § 149.115 Cost threshold and cost limit. The following cost threshold and cost limits apply individually, to each early retiree as...

  6. Analyzing Bilingual Education Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernal, Joe J.

    This paper examines the particular problems involved in analyzing the costs of bilingual education and suggests that cost analysis of bilingual education requires a fundamentally different approach than that followed in other recent school finance studies. Focus of the discussion is the Intercultural Development Research Association's (IDRA)…

  7. Controlling Health Care Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessoff, Alan

    2009-01-01

    This article examines issues on health care costs and describes measures taken by public districts to reduce spending. As in most companies in America, health plan designs in public districts are being changed to reflect higher out-of-pocket costs, such as higher deductibles on visits to providers, hospital stays, and prescription drugs. District…

  8. Cost versus Enrollment Bubbles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vedder, Richard K.; Gillen, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The defining characteristic of a bubble is unsustainable growth that eventually reverses. Bubbles typically arise when uncertainty leads to unsustainable trends, and the authors argue that there are two areas in which higher education has experienced what appear to be unsustainable trends, namely, college costs (the costs to students, parents, and…

  9. Curriculum Costs: Vocational Subjects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, C. E.

    To establish a definition of costs in education, a "concept map" is established to which inevitable questions of inclusion and exclusion can be addressed. A specific case, namely the costs of practical/vocational subjects, is then presented. It also includes a profile of benefits, since with regard to vocational education, much more than with…

  10. Analyzing Costs of Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, James O.; Black, Talbot

    A simplified method to gather and analyze cost data is presented for administrators of Handicapped Children's Early Education Programs, and specifically for members of the Technical Assistance Development System, North Carolina. After identifying benefits and liabilities associated with analyzing program costs, attention is focused on the internal…

  11. Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment for Landscape Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, N.M.; Raubfogel, S.J.

    1996-08-01

    DOE orders mandate the development of a waste minimization program. The program`s goals are to: reduce volumes of wastes and toxicity; implement a system of tracking and reporting improvements; and devise a method for performing tasks. To satisfy the requirements of this program, Sandia conducts pollution prevention opportunity assessments (PPOAs) to identify waste-generating processes. The information collected from a PPOA then is used to identify waste minimization opportunities. This pollution prevention opportunity assessment was conducted using Sandia`s new methodology for prioritizing, evaluating and managing site-wide waste streams. This new methodology and the list of priority waste streams are described in the wastes revision of the Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment Plant. This PPOA addresses landscape waste minimization, partially in response to recent legislation and regulations.

  12. Medical equipment leasing. Benefits and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Hill, R

    1995-03-01

    Medical equipment manufacturers throughout Europe now have the opportunity to take advantage of changes in the United Kingdom Treasury rules, which introduce flexibility into hospital financing. This could result in more equipment sales for manufacturers and better equipped hospitals.

  13. 78 FR 54256 - Health Careers Opportunity Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Health Careers Opportunity Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), HHS. ACTION: Notice of Noncompetitive...

  14. Sunset Watched by Opportunity, November 2010

    NASA Video Gallery

    The sun descends to the Martian horizon and sets in this 30-second movie simulation using images from the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. The movie includes ...

  15. 7 CFR 622.6 - Equal opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of Agriculture (7 CFR Part 15), which provide that no person in the United States shall, on the... AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES WATERSHED PROJECTS General § 622.6 Equal opportunity. The Pub. L. 83-566 and...

  16. 7 CFR 622.6 - Equal opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of Agriculture (7 CFR Part 15), which provide that no person in the United States shall, on the... AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES WATERSHED PROJECTS General § 622.6 Equal opportunity. The Pub. L. 83-566 and...

  17. 7 CFR 622.6 - Equal opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of Agriculture (7 CFR Part 15), which provide that no person in the United States shall, on the... AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES WATERSHED PROJECTS General § 622.6 Equal opportunity. The Pub. L. 83-566 and...

  18. 7 CFR 622.6 - Equal opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of Agriculture (7 CFR Part 15), which provide that no person in the United States shall, on the... AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES WATERSHED PROJECTS General § 622.6 Equal opportunity. The Pub. L. 83-566 and...

  19. Wind Technologies and Evolving Opportunities (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Robi Robichaud

    2014-03-01

    This presentation provides an overview of wind energy research being conducted at the National Wind Technology Center, market and technology trends in wind energy, and opportunities for wind technology.

  20. Technician Career Opportunities in Engineering Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineers' Council for Professional Development, New York, NY.

    Career opportunities for engineering technicians are available in the technologies relating to air conditioning, heating, and refrigeration, aviation and aerospace, building construction, chemical engineering, civil engineering, electrical engineering, electronics, industrial engineering, instrumentation, internal combustion engines, mechanical…

  1. New Funding Opportunities for Small Businesses Announced

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program recently announced $8 million in new contract funding opportunities to assist small businesses with cancer research and technology development. The 12 new contract funding opp

  2. Sport Opportunities for Athletes with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 1984

    1984-01-01

    This series outlines sport opportunities for athletes with disabilities. Included are articles discussing sports for athletes with cerebral palsy, deaf athletes, blind athletes, wheelchair bound athletes, amputee athletes, as well as a discussion of the Special Olympics. (JMK)

  3. Summary of the second equal opportunity conference

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-02-01

    Reports and recommendations are included for: Hispanic Employment Program; Federal Women's Program; Equal Employment Opportunity Program; complaint processing workshop; Affirmative Actions Program Workshop; EEO programs in the Office of Personnel Management; and an overall evaluation of the program. (PSB)

  4. After Opportunity's First Drive in Six Weeks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its front hazard-identification camera to obtain this image at the end of a drive on the rover's 1,271st sol, or Martian day (Aug. 21, 2007).

    Due to sun-obscuring dust storms limiting the rover's supply of solar energy, Opportunity had not driven since sol 1,232 (July 12, 2007). On sol 1,271, after the sky above Opportunity had been gradually clearing for more than two weeks, the rover rolled 13.38 meters (44 feet). Wheel tracks are visible in front of the rover because the drive ended with a short test of driving backwards.

    Opportunity's turret of four tools at the end of the robotic arm fills the center of the image. Victoria Crater, site of the rover's next science targets, lies ahead.

  5. Designing for Cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, Edwin B.; Unal, Resit

    1991-01-01

    Designing for cost is a state of mind. Of course, a lot of technical knowledge is required and the use of appropriate tools will improve the process. Unfortunately, the extensive use of weight based cost estimating relationships has generated a perception in the aerospace community that the primary way to reduce cost is to reduce weight. Wrong! Based upon an approximation of an industry accepted formula, the PRICE H (tm) production-production equation, Dean demonstrated theoretically that the optimal trajectory for cost reduction is predominantly in the direction of system complexity reduction, not system weight reduction. Thus the phrase "keep it simple" is a primary state of mind required for reducing cost throughout the design process.

  6. Opportunities for Biorenewables in Oil Refineries

    SciTech Connect

    Marker, T.L.

    2005-12-19

    Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential for using biorenewable feedstocks in oil refineries. Economic analyses were conducted, with support from process modeling and proof of principle experiments, to assess a variety of potential processes and configurations. The study considered two primary alternatives: the production of biodiesel and green diesel from vegetable oils and greases and opportunities for utilization of pyrolysis oil. The study identified a number of promising opportunities for biorenewables in existing or new refining operations.

  7. Customer Aggregation: An Opportunity for Green Power?

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, E.; Bird, L.

    2001-02-26

    We undertook research into the experience of aggregation groups to determine whether customer aggregation offers an opportunity to bring green power choices to more customers. The objectives of this report, therefore, are to (1) identify the different types of aggregation that are occurring today, (2) learn whether aggregation offers an opportunity to advance sales of green power, and (3) share these concepts and approaches with potential aggregators and green power advocates.

  8. Costing imaging procedures.

    PubMed

    Bretland, P M

    1988-01-01

    The existing National Health Service financial system makes comprehensive costing of any service very difficult. A method of costing using modern commercial methods has been devised, classifying costs into variable, semi-variable and fixed and using the principle of overhead absorption for expenditure not readily allocated to individual procedures. It proved possible to establish a cost spectrum over the financial year 1984-85. The cheapest examinations were plain radiographs outside normal working hours, followed by plain radiographs, ultrasound, special procedures, fluoroscopy, nuclear medicine, angiography and angiographic interventional procedures in normal working hours. This differs from some published figures, particularly those in the Körner report. There was some overlap between fluoroscopic interventional and the cheaper nuclear medicine procedures, and between some of the more expensive nuclear medicine procedures and the cheaper angiographic ones. Only angiographic and the few more expensive nuclear medicine procedures exceed the cost of the inpatient day. The total cost of the imaging service to the district was about 4% of total hospital expenditure. It is shown that where more procedures are undertaken, the semi-variable and fixed (including capital) elements of the cost decrease (and vice versa) so that careful study is required to assess the value of proposed economies. The method is initially time-consuming and requires a computer system with 512 Kb of memory, but once the basic costing system is established in a department, detailed financial monitoring should become practicable. The necessity for a standard comprehensive costing procedure of this nature, based on sound cost accounting principles, appears inescapable, particularly in view of its potential application to management budgeting. PMID:3349241

  9. Costing imaging procedures.

    PubMed

    Bretland, P M

    1988-01-01

    The existing National Health Service financial system makes comprehensive costing of any service very difficult. A method of costing using modern commercial methods has been devised, classifying costs into variable, semi-variable and fixed and using the principle of overhead absorption for expenditure not readily allocated to individual procedures. It proved possible to establish a cost spectrum over the financial year 1984-85. The cheapest examinations were plain radiographs outside normal working hours, followed by plain radiographs, ultrasound, special procedures, fluoroscopy, nuclear medicine, angiography and angiographic interventional procedures in normal working hours. This differs from some published figures, particularly those in the Körner report. There was some overlap between fluoroscopic interventional and the cheaper nuclear medicine procedures, and between some of the more expensive nuclear medicine procedures and the cheaper angiographic ones. Only angiographic and the few more expensive nuclear medicine procedures exceed the cost of the inpatient day. The total cost of the imaging service to the district was about 4% of total hospital expenditure. It is shown that where more procedures are undertaken, the semi-variable and fixed (including capital) elements of the cost decrease (and vice versa) so that careful study is required to assess the value of proposed economies. The method is initially time-consuming and requires a computer system with 512 Kb of memory, but once the basic costing system is established in a department, detailed financial monitoring should become practicable. The necessity for a standard comprehensive costing procedure of this nature, based on sound cost accounting principles, appears inescapable, particularly in view of its potential application to management budgeting.

  10. The costs of asthma.

    PubMed

    Barnes, P J; Jonsson, B; Klim, J B

    1996-04-01

    At present, asthma represents a substantial burden on health care resources in all countries so far studied. The costs of asthma are largely due to uncontrolled disease, and are likely to rise as its prevalence and severity increase. Costs could be significantly reduced if disease control is improved. A large proportion of the total cost of illness is derived from treating the consequences of poor asthma control-direct costs, such as emergency room use and hospitalizations. Indirect costs, which include time off work or school and early retirement, are incurred when the disease is not fully controlled and becomes severe enough to have an effect on daily life. In addition, quality of life assessments show that asthma has a significant socioeconomic impact, not only on the patients themselves, but on the whole family. Underuse of prescribed therapy, which includes poor compliance, significantly contributes towards the poor control of asthma. The consequences of poor compliance in asthma include increased morbidity and sometimes mortality, and increased health care expenditure. To improve asthma management, international guidelines have been introduced which recommend an increase in the use of prophylactic therapy. The resulting improvements in the control of asthma will reduce the number of hospitalizations associated with asthma, and may ultimately produce a shift within direct costs, with subsequent reductions in indirect costs. In addition, costs may be reduced by improving therapeutic interventions and through effective patient education programmes. This paper reviews current literature on the costs of asthma to assess how effectively money is spent and, by estimating the proportion of the cost attributable to uncontrolled disease, will identify where financial savings might be made. PMID:8726924

  11. Open the door whenever opportunity knocks.

    PubMed

    Downs, Mallery H; Kaminsky, Alexis; Lewis, Johnnye

    2006-01-01

    The Community Environmental Health Program/Community Outreach and Education Program (CEHP/COEP) New Mexico Center for Environmental Health Sciences has learned that listening and responding to opportunities that arise in local communities can be a more effective means of reaching health care providers, lay health workers, and community members than structured plans of action. While specific opportunities that have occurred in New Mexico may be unique, they are presented here with the hope that they might suggest new strategies to the reader and help to identify parallel opportunities in other communities. The paper is organized around three major opportunities to which CEHP/COEP has responded: (1) the need for more informed health care in communities with unique and complex environmental and occupational exposures due to their proximity to National Laboratories; (2) the need for resources on environmental health within local provider networks and issue-specific groups; and (3) the need for community environmental health projects within the College of Nursing. CEHP/COEP's responses, observations, and lessons learned through these experiences are discussed. In the end, the major lesson is that the ability to respond to opportunities requires flexibility and creativity; by sticking doggedly to plans, valuable-and sometimes more profitable and productive-opportunities may be missed.

  12. Open the door whenever opportunity knocks.

    PubMed

    Downs, Mallery H; Kaminsky, Alexis; Lewis, Johnnye

    2006-01-01

    The Community Environmental Health Program/Community Outreach and Education Program (CEHP/COEP) New Mexico Center for Environmental Health Sciences has learned that listening and responding to opportunities that arise in local communities can be a more effective means of reaching health care providers, lay health workers, and community members than structured plans of action. While specific opportunities that have occurred in New Mexico may be unique, they are presented here with the hope that they might suggest new strategies to the reader and help to identify parallel opportunities in other communities. The paper is organized around three major opportunities to which CEHP/COEP has responded: (1) the need for more informed health care in communities with unique and complex environmental and occupational exposures due to their proximity to National Laboratories; (2) the need for resources on environmental health within local provider networks and issue-specific groups; and (3) the need for community environmental health projects within the College of Nursing. CEHP/COEP's responses, observations, and lessons learned through these experiences are discussed. In the end, the major lesson is that the ability to respond to opportunities requires flexibility and creativity; by sticking doggedly to plans, valuable-and sometimes more profitable and productive-opportunities may be missed. PMID:16961562

  13. Cardiovascular supply cost negotiations: partnering for the future.

    PubMed

    Keast, Robert K; Maxwell, Stephen G; Barkman, Sandy; Chetcuti, Stanley; Oral, Hakan; Eagle, Kim A

    2010-01-01

    As a major expense driver to cardiovascular programs, supply costs related to electrophysiology and cardiac catheterization procedures directly link to the overall financial health of organizations associated with those programs. Because of this, it is important that institutions establish a logical and resolute approach to obtaining supply pricing that maximizes cost-saving opportunities, buffers their organizations from escalating costs related to the advances in available technologies, defines supply chain expectations while preserving clinicians' access to high-quality cardiovascular supplies, and maintains the availability of the full spectrum of products to our physicians, referring physicians, and patients. In a joint effort with physicians, administration, and suppliers, and in the spirit of partnership, the University of Michigan Health System has developed and implemented such a model that illustrates the opportunities to be gained. PMID:20145470

  14. 76 FR 13182 - Settlement Agreement for Recovery of Past Response Costs; 345 North 700 East, Richfield PCE Site...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... AGENCY Settlement Agreement for Recovery of Past Response Costs; 345 North 700 East, Richfield PCE Site... the United States has at this Site for Past Response Costs, as those terms are defined in the...), with regard to reimbursement of Past Response Costs. Opportunity for Comment: For thirty (30)...

  15. 76 FR 10028 - Settlement Agreement for Recovery of Past Response Costs 10,000 Havana Street Site, Commerce City...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ... AGENCY Settlement Agreement for Recovery of Past Response Costs 10,000 Havana Street Site, Commerce City... Site for Past Response Costs, as those terms are defined in the Settlement Agreement. Under the terms... reimbursement of Past Response Costs. Opportunity for Comment: For thirty (30) days following the publication...

  16. The economic cost of upland and gully erosion on subsistence agriculture for a watershed in the Ethiopian highlands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper quantifies the cost of erosion; it uses nutrient replacement cost to value topsoil nutrient depletion, daily wage rate to monetize the opportunity cost of labour due to gully erosion and local market price to quantify the lost animal and cash crop trees. Soil erosion rate is estimated fro...

  17. Careful telemedicine planning limits costly liability exposure.

    PubMed

    Edelstein, S A

    1999-12-01

    Recent Federal and state legislation and new payment opportunities from Medicare, Medicaid, and private payers may make it possible to offer telemedicine as a viable, cost-effective alternative to traditional care delivery in communities where access to health care is limited. Originally, nonexistent payment and expensive technology held back telemedicine but, these barriers are giving way to specific applications that can yield dramatic cost savings for group practices in the delivery of medical care while adding features and benefits not typically available in traditional delivery settings. Before joining a telemedicine network, group practices need to negotiate a variety of legal issues related to the corporate practice of medicine, patient confidentiality and privacy, malpractice, informed consent, licensure and credentialing, intellectual property, Medicare and Medicaid payment, fraud and abuse, medical device regulation, and antitrust.

  18. Computational Research Challenges and Opportunities for the Optimization of Fossil Energy Power Generation System

    SciTech Connect

    Zitney, S.E.

    2007-06-01

    Emerging fossil energy power generation systems must operate with unprecedented efficiency and near-zero emissions, while optimizing profitably amid cost fluctuations for raw materials, finished products, and energy. To help address these challenges, the fossil energy industry will have to rely increasingly on the use advanced computational tools for modeling and simulating complex process systems. In this paper, we present the computational research challenges and opportunities for the optimization of fossil energy power generation systems across the plant lifecycle from process synthesis and design to plant operations. We also look beyond the plant gates to discuss research challenges and opportunities for enterprise-wide optimization, including planning, scheduling, and supply chain technologies.

  19. R and D opportunities for commercial HVAC (heating, air conditioning, and ventilation) equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, S.A.; Zaloudek, F.R.

    1987-03-01

    The overall objective of this project is to identify and characterize generic HVAC equipment research that will provide the best investment opportunities for DOE R and D funds. The prerequisites of a DOE research program include research efforts that are potentially significant in energy conservation impact and that are cost-effective, long-term, and high risk. These prerequisites form the basic guidelines for the R and D opportunities assessed. The assessment excludes the R and D areas that have potential or current private sector sponsors. Finally, R and D areas which are included in DOE programs generally are not addressed.

  20. 78 FR 65608 - Information Collection; Outreach Opportunity Questionnaire

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... Forest Service Information Collection; Outreach Opportunity Questionnaire AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA... with revision of a currently approved information collection, Outreach Opportunity Questionnaire. DATES... INFORMATION: Title: Outreach Opportunity Questionnaire. OMB Number: 0596-0207. Expiration Date of...