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Sample records for optic sensor systems

  1. High pressure fiber optic sensor system

    DOEpatents

    Guida, Renato; Xia, Hua; Lee, Boon K; Dekate, Sachin N

    2013-11-26

    The present application provides a fiber optic sensor system. The fiber optic sensor system may include a small diameter bellows, a large diameter bellows, and a fiber optic pressure sensor attached to the small diameter bellows. Contraction of the large diameter bellows under an applied pressure may cause the small diameter bellows to expand such that the fiber optic pressure sensor may measure the applied pressure.

  2. Fiber Optic Sensor System Readiness For Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varshneya, Deepak; Glomb, Walter L.

    1990-02-01

    Advantages of fiber optic technology in an aircraft control system are realized at the system level and not in sensors or components themselves. Improved system reliability and performance, and reduced electro-optic (e-o) interface size, weight and cost may be realized with the use of fiber optic technology. This paper provides a discussion on the Electro-optic Architecture conceptual designs, sensor multiplexing approaches and key design requirements for the control system of the aircraft. In addition, a comparison of Time and Wavelength division multiplexed systems (TDM and WDM) for digital position sensors configured into a network is made to identify which approach meets system design criteria more efficiently. It is concluded that present WDM sensor interrogation time must be drastically reduced to be compatible with the aircraft control system and that both approaches require a highly reliable optical source which provides adequate power and spectral bandwidth.

  3. Optical seismic sensor systems and methods

    DOEpatents

    Beal, A. Craig; Cummings, Malcolm E.; Zavriyev, Anton; Christensen, Caleb A.; Lee, Keun

    2015-12-08

    Disclosed is an optical seismic sensor system for measuring seismic events in a geological formation, including a surface unit for generating and processing an optical signal, and a sensor device optically connected to the surface unit for receiving the optical signal over an optical conduit. The sensor device includes at least one sensor head for sensing a seismic disturbance from at least one direction during a deployment of the sensor device within a borehole of the geological formation. The sensor head includes a frame and a reference mass attached to the frame via at least one flexure, such that movement of the reference mass relative to the frame is constrained to a single predetermined path.

  4. Power system applications of fiber optic sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, A. R.; Jackson, S. P.; Kirkham, H.; Yeh, C.

    1986-01-01

    This document is a progress report of work done in 1985 on the Communications and Control for Electric Power Systems Project at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. These topics are covered: Electric Field Measurement, Fiber Optic Temperature Sensing, and Optical Power transfer. Work was done on the measurement of ac and dc electric fields. A prototype sensor for measuring alternating fields was made using a very simple electroscope approach. An electronic field mill sensor for dc fields was made using a fiber optic readout, so that the entire probe could be operated isolated from ground. There are several instances in which more precise knowledge of the temperature of electrical power apparatus would be useful. This report describes a number of methods whereby the distributed temperature profile can be obtained using a fiber optic sensor. The ability to energize electronics by means of an optical fiber has the advantage that electrical isolation is maintained at low cost. In order to accomplish this, it is necessary to convert the light energy into electrical form by means of photovoltaic cells. JPL has developed an array of PV cells in gallium arsenide specifically for this purpose. This work is described.

  5. Power system applications of fiber optic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, A. R.; Jackson, S. P.; Kirkham, H.; Yeh, C.

    1986-06-01

    This document is a progress report of work done in 1985 on the Communications and Control for Electric Power Systems Project at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. These topics are covered: Electric Field Measurement, Fiber Optic Temperature Sensing, and Optical Power transfer. Work was done on the measurement of ac and dc electric fields. A prototype sensor for measuring alternating fields was made using a very simple electroscope approach. An electronic field mill sensor for dc fields was made using a fiber optic readout, so that the entire probe could be operated isolated from ground. There are several instances in which more precise knowledge of the temperature of electrical power apparatus would be useful. This report describes a number of methods whereby the distributed temperature profile can be obtained using a fiber optic sensor. The ability to energize electronics by means of an optical fiber has the advantage that electrical isolation is maintained at low cost. In order to accomplish this, it is necessary to convert the light energy into electrical form by means of photovoltaic cells. JPL has developed an array of PV cells in gallium arsenide specifically for this purpose. This work is described.

  6. Bioinspired optical sensors for unmanned aerial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chahl, Javaan; Rosser, Kent; Mizutani, Akiko

    2011-04-01

    Insects are dependant on the spatial, spectral and temporal distributions of light in the environment for flight control and navigation. This paper reports on flight trials of implementations of insect inspired behaviors on unmanned aerial vehicles. Optical flow methods for maintaining a constant height above ground and a constant course have been demonstrated to provide navigation capabilities that are impossible using conventional avionics sensors. Precision control of height above ground and ground course were achieved over long distances. Other vision based techniques demonstrated include a biomimetic stabilization sensor that uses the ultraviolet and green bands of the spectrum, and a sky polarization compass. Both of these sensors were tested over long trajectories in different directions, in each case showing performance similar to low cost inertial heading and attitude systems. The behaviors demonstrate some of the core functionality found in the lower levels of the sensorimotor system of flying insects and shows promise for more integrated solutions in the future.

  7. Power system applications of fiber optic sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, A.R.; Jackson, S.P.; Kirkham, H.; Yeh, C.

    1986-06-01

    Three topics are covered: Electric Field Measurement, Fiber Optic Temperature Sensing, and Optical Power Transfer. Work was done on the measurement of ac and dc electric fields. A prototype sensor for measuring alternating fields was made using a very simple electroscope approach. An electronic field mill sensor for dc fields was made using a fiber optic readout, so that the entire probe could be operated isolated from ground. There are several instances in which more precise knowledge of the temperature of electrical power apparatus would be useful. This report describes a number of methods whereby the distributed temperature profile can be obtained using a fiber optic sensor. The ability to energize electronics by means of an optical fiber has the advantage that electrical isolation is maintained at low cost. In order to accomplish this, it is necessary to convert the light energy into electrical form by means of photovoltaic cells. JPL has developed an array of PV cells in gallium arsenide specifically for this purpose. This work is described.

  8. Heterodyne interrogation system for TDM interferometric fiber optic sensors array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Gaosheng; Xu, Tuanwei; Li, Fang

    2015-04-01

    We proposed an interrogation system for time sequenced fiber optic sensors array based on the heterodyne detection and orthogonal demodulation techniques, where the sensors array is a kind of interferometric fiber optic sensors. The techniques are theoretically analyzed and experimentally demonstrated with recovering the sinusoid wave and triangle wave applied to the sensors. The system has a phase resolution about 1×10-4 rad/√Hz, the amplitude consistency and linearity of the demodulated results are 95.275% and 98.379%, respectively with single frequency event applied to the sensors.

  9. Proceedings: 3rd EPRI Optical Sensor Systems Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    2002-02-01

    These are the proceedings of the third Optical Sensor System Workshop, part of an ongoing effort by EPRI to support development of optical sensor technology, to identify benefits for utility users, and to position EPRI members as more ''informed buyers'' and users.

  10. Optical multi-species gas monitoring sensor and system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A. (Inventor); Korman, Valentin (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The system includes at least one light source generating light energy having a corresponding wavelength. The system's sensor is based on an optical interferometer that receives light energy from each light source. The interferometer includes a free-space optical path disposed in an environment of interest. The system's sensor includes an optical device disposed in the optical path that causes light energy of a first selected wavelength to continue traversing the optical path whereas light energy of at least one second selected wavelength is directed away from the optical path. The interferometer generates an interference between the light energy of the first selected wavelength so-traversing the optical path with the light energy at the corresponding wavelength incident on the optical interferometer. A first optical detector detects the interference. At least one second detector detects the light energy at the at least one second selected wavelength directed away from the optical path.

  11. Fiber-optic push-pull sensor systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, David L.; Brown, David A.; Garrett, Steven L.

    1991-01-01

    Fiber-optic push-pull sensors are those which exploit the intrinsically differential nature of an interferometer with concommitant benefits in common-mode rejection of undesired effects. Several fiber-optic accelerometer and hydrophone designs are described. Additionally, the recent development at the Naval Postgraduate School of a passive low-cost interferometric signal demodulator permits the development of economical fiber-optic sensor systems.

  12. Glucose sensor with a Sagnac interference optical system.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Tatsuya; Tottori, Yusaku; Miyata, Ryusuke; Kajioka, Hiroshi

    2014-02-01

    The angle of optical rotation was measured by detecting the phase difference between clockwise and counterclockwise circular polarized light that propagated in a sensing loop. This polarimeter, or glucose sensor, consisted of a Sagnac interference optical system with a polarization-maintaining optical fiber, so it was not affected by the control limitations of the polarization rotation angle or the optical power fluctuation that occurs with scattered light, reflection, or polarization rotation in an optical system. The angle of rotation was measured from the phase difference of the glucose sensor when the concentration of glucose was changed. We confirmed that the resolution of optical rotation was 5×10(-4)  deg, and the resolution of the glucose concentration was 1  mg/dl accordingly. The measured specific rotation of glucose was mostly equal to a physical property value. One applications of this glucose sensor is in measuring the blood sugar levels of diabetic patients.

  13. Optical chemical sensors for environmental control and system management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabacco, M. B.; Digiuseppe, T. G.

    Several fiber optic based chemical sensors have been developed for use in plant growth systems and enclosed life support systems. Optical chemical sensors offer several distinct advantages in terms of sensitivity, calibration stability, immunity to biofouling and electrical interference, and ease of multiplexing sensors for multipoint/multiparameter analysis. Also, the ability to locate fiber optic sensors in close proximity to plant roots or leaves should improve the measurement reliability by obviating the need for handling and transport which can compromise sample integrity. Polestar Technologies and GEO-CENTERS have developed and tested many types of optical chemical sensors which utilize novel glass and polymeric materials as the sensor substrate. Analytes are detected using immobilized colorimetric indication systems or molecular recognition elements. Typically transduction is via wavelength specific absorption changes with multiwavelength detection for drift compensation. Sensors have been developed for solution pH, NH_3, ethylene, CO_2, and dissolved metal ions. In addition, unique PC-compatible optoelectronic interfaces, as well as distributed measurement systems, so that integrated detection systems are now available. In this paper recent efforts to develop sensors for critical nutrient ions are presented.

  14. Capillarity-based preparation system for optical colorimetric sensor arrays.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiao-Gang; Yi, Xin; Bu, Xiang-Nan; Hou, Chang-Jun; Huo, Dan-Qun; Yang, Mei; Fa, Huan-Bao; Lei, Jin-Can

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, optical colorimetric sensor arrays have demonstrated beneficial features, including rapid response, high selectivity, and high specificity; as a result, it has been extensively applied in food inspection and chemical studies, among other fields. There are instruments in the current market available for the preparation of an optical colorimetric sensor array, but it lacks the corresponding research of the preparation mechanism. Therefore, in connection with the main features of this kind of sensor array such as consistency, based on the preparation method of contact spotting, combined with a capillary fluid model, Washburn equation, Laplace equation, etc., this paper develops a diffusion model of an optical colorimetric sensor array during its preparation and sets up an optical colorimetric sensor array preparation system based on this diffusion model. Finally, this paper compares and evaluates the sensor arrays prepared by the system and prepared manually in three aspects such as the quality of array point, response of array, and response result, and the results show that the performance index of the sensor array prepared by a system under this diffusion model is better than that of the sensor array of manual spotting, which meets the needs of the experiment.

  15. Capillarity-based preparation system for optical colorimetric sensor arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xiao-gang; Yi, Xin; Bu, Xiang-nan; Hou, Chang-jun; Huo, Dan-qun; Yang, Mei; Fa, Huan-bao; Lei, Jin-can

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, optical colorimetric sensor arrays have demonstrated beneficial features, including rapid response, high selectivity, and high specificity; as a result, it has been extensively applied in food inspection and chemical studies, among other fields. There are instruments in the current market available for the preparation of an optical colorimetric sensor array, but it lacks the corresponding research of the preparation mechanism. Therefore, in connection with the main features of this kind of sensor array such as consistency, based on the preparation method of contact spotting, combined with a capillary fluid model, Washburn equation, Laplace equation, etc., this paper develops a diffusion model of an optical colorimetric sensor array during its preparation and sets up an optical colorimetric sensor array preparation system based on this diffusion model. Finally, this paper compares and evaluates the sensor arrays prepared by the system and prepared manually in three aspects such as the quality of array point, response of array, and response result, and the results show that the performance index of the sensor array prepared by a system under this diffusion model is better than that of the sensor array of manual spotting, which meets the needs of the experiment.

  16. Simple fiber optic sensor for applications in security systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyczkowski, M.; Karol, M.; Markowski, P.; Napierala, M. S.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we demonstrate measurement results of the modalmetric fiber optic sensor used for the monitoring of the fiber optic link integrity to protect it against unauthorized access to classified information. The presented construction is based on the detection of changes of the modes distribution in a multimode fiber. Any mechanical stress on the multimode fiber causes changes of polarization and distribution of propagating modes, hence it changes the distribution of modes at the end of the multimode fiber. Observation of these changes using a narrow core single-mode fiber allows to use the structure as an optical fiber sensor. We used several kilometers long optical links to conduct field tests of laboratory sensor. On this basis the prototype module of modalmetric fiber optic sensor wasbuilt. The modification of optoelectronic part, the variation of sensor length and the change of the method of light reflection at the end of the fiber enable the use of the modalmetric fiber optic sensor in many applications. The sensor finds wide range of applications in security systems. It can be applied to protect the museum's collection, transmission lines and to protect objects of critical infrastructure.

  17. Thin-film fiber optic hydrogen and temperature sensor system

    DOEpatents

    Nave, S.E.

    1998-07-21

    The invention discloses a sensor probe device for monitoring of hydrogen gas concentrations and temperatures by the same sensor probe. The sensor probe is constructed using thin-film deposition methods for the placement of a multitude of layers of materials sensitive to hydrogen concentrations and temperature on the end of a light transparent lens located within the sensor probe. The end of the lens within the sensor probe contains a lens containing a layer of hydrogen permeable material which excludes other reactive gases, a layer of reflective metal material that forms a metal hydride upon absorbing hydrogen, and a layer of semi-conducting solid that is transparent above a temperature dependent minimum wavelength for temperature detection. The three layers of materials are located at the distal end of the lens located within the sensor probe. The lens focuses light generated by broad-band light generator and connected by fiber-optics to the sensor probe, onto a reflective metal material layer, which passes through the semi-conducting solid layer, onto two optical fibers located at the base of the sensor probe. The reflected light is transmitted over fiber optic cables to a spectrometer and system controller. The absence of electrical signals and electrical wires in the sensor probe provides for an elimination of the potential for spark sources when monitoring in hydrogen rich environments, and provides a sensor free from electrical interferences. 3 figs.

  18. Perspective on optical biosensors and integrated sensor systems.

    PubMed

    Ligler, Frances S

    2009-01-15

    Optical biosensors have begun to move from the laboratory to the point of use. This trend will be accelerated by new concepts for molecular recognition, integration of microfluidics and optics, simplified fabrication technologies, improved approaches to biosensor system integration, and dramatically increased awareness of the applicability of sensor technology to improve public health and environmental monitoring. Examples of innovations are identified that will lead to smaller, faster, cheaper optical biosensor systems with capacity to provide effective and actionable information.

  19. A Perspective on Optical Biosensors and Integrated Sensor Systems

    PubMed Central

    Ligler, Frances S.

    2009-01-01

    Optical biosensors have begun to move from the laboratory to the point of use. This trend will be accelerated by new concepts for molecular recognition, integration of microfluidics and optics, simplified fabrication technologies, improved approaches to biosensor system integration, and dramatically increased awareness of the applicability of sensor technology to improve public health and environmental monitoring. Examples of innovations are identified that will lead to smaller, faster, cheaper optical biosensor systems with capacity to provide effective and actionable information. PMID:19140774

  20. Wavefront sensors for adaptive optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukin, V. P.; Botygina, N. N.; Emaleev, O. N.; Konyaev, P. A.

    2010-01-01

    A high precision Shack-Hartmann wavefront (WF) sensor has been developed on the basis of a low-aperture off-axis diffraction lens array. The device is capable of measuring WF slopes at array sub-apertures of 640x640 μm in size with an error not exceeding 4.80 arcsec (0.15 pixel), which corresponds to the standard deviation equal to 0.017 λ at the reconstructed WF with wavelength λ. Also the modification of this sensor for adaptive system of solar telescope using extended scenes as tracking objects, such as sunspot, pores, solar granulation and limb, is presented. The software package developed for the proposed WF sensors includes three algorithms of local WF slope estimation (modified centroids, normalized cross-correlation and fast Fourier-demodulation), as well as three methods of WF reconstruction (modal Zernike polynomial expansion, deformable mirror response function expansion and phase unwrapping), that can be selected during operation with accordance to the application.

  1. Wavefront sensors for adaptive optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukin, V. P.; Botygina, N. N.; Emaleev, O. N.; Konyaev, P. A.

    2010-10-01

    A high precision Shack-Hartmann wavefront (WF) sensor has been developed on the basis of a low-aperture off-axis diffraction lens array. The device is capable of measuring WF slopes at array sub-apertures of size 640x640 μm with an error not exceeding 4.80 arcsec (0.15 pixel), which corresponds to the standard deviation equal to 0.017λ at the reconstructed WF with wavelength λ . Also the modification of this sensor for adaptive system of solar telescope using extended scenes as tracking objects, such as sunspot, pores, solar granulation and limb, is presented. The software package developed for the proposed WF sensors includes three algorithms of local WF slopes estimation (modified centroids, normalized cross-correlation and fast Fourier-demodulation), as well as three methods of WF reconstruction (modal Zernike polynomials expansion, deformable mirror response functions expansion and phase unwrapping), that can be selected during operation with accordance to the application.

  2. Optical system designs based on bi-directional sensor devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossmann, Constanze; Gawronski, Ute; Perske, Franziska; Notni, Gunther; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2012-10-01

    Small and compact optical system designs are needed in nearly all application scenarios of optical projection and imaging systems, e.g. automotive, metrology, medical or multimedia. Most active optical systems are based on separated imaging (e.g. camera unit) and image generating units (e.g. projection unit). This fact limits the geometrical miniaturization of the system. We present compact optical system designs using the new technology of bi-directional sensor devices. These devices combine light emitting and light detecting elements on one single chip. The application of such innovative opto-electronic devices - so-called bi-directional OLED microdisplays (BiMiDs) - offer a huge potential for miniaturization with a simultaneous increase of performance due to a new integration step. For these new bi-directional sensor devices new optical design concepts for simultaneous and sequential emission and detection are necessary. Because the simultaneous emission and detection can disturb the functionality of the optical system. New concepts has to be applied. A first concept is an exemplary 3-D metrology system applying fringe projection. A second concept is a pico-projection system with an integrated camera function. For both concepts the system configurations and the optical design are discussed. Due to the application of the bi-directional sensor device ultra-compact systems are presented.

  3. Fiber-optic sensor systems for acoustic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Miao

    In this dissertation, fiber-optic sensor systems for high-bandwidth acoustic measurements are studied and developed. As a part of this work, investigations into mechanical elements, optical elements, and sensor signal modulation and demodulation schemes are conducted. Two fiber-optic sensor systems are developed and demonstrated, one being an intrinsic sensing scheme constructed from a Bragg grating based Fabry-Perot (BGFP) sensor system and the other being an extrinsic sensing scheme constructed from a fiber tip based Fabry-Perot (FTFP) sensor system. The primary mechanical element in both sensor systems is a diaphragm. A comprehensive model based on a plate with in-plane tension is found to cover the extreme cases of plate models and membrane models and the in-between models. This analysis and related results, which are especially important for designing sensors on a small scale, is believed to be one of the fundamental contributions of this work. Differing from the existing fiber-optic acoustic measurement techniques based on conventional interferometry, here, the optical system design is based on low coherence fiber-optic interferometry (LCFOI); this scheme has a high dynamic range and it is not very sensitive to wavelength fluctuations in the light source. The use of LCFOI technique to realize a fiber-optic microphone is another contribution of this work. In addition, a novel phase modulation and demodulation scheme, which is based on a digital phase stepping modulation and demodulation algorithm, is developed to carry out high-speed real-time phase demodulation. Without requiring the use of any hardware demodulators, active control elements, and multiple readout interferometers, for the first time, this scheme makes it possible to demodulate a phase signal from a sensor system with a "small" cavity length. Overall, the FTFP sensor system is shown to exhibit good performance and have a capability for measuring acoustic pressure in the frequency range of 20 Hz

  4. Remote optical sensor system for E-field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinzelmann, Robert; Stoehr, Andreas; Alder, Thomas; Kalinowski, D.; Schmidt, Manuel; Gross, Matthias; Jaeger, Dieter

    1998-12-01

    The concept of a remote optical sensor system for frequency selective electric field measurements will be presented. The system will be applicable to field measurement problems up to frequencies in the microwave regime. Additionally, it will provide minimum interference with the measured field, due to the optical fiber coupled sensor head. The electrooptic key components within the head of this sensor system are an array of photovoltaic cells and an electroabsorption waveguide modulator. Based on experimental results these components will be discussed and evaluated for the application within the sensor system. Furthermore, a novel fiber modulator coupling technique employing the monolithic integration of the device with InP V-grooves will be presented.

  5. Fiber optic oxygen sensor leak detection system for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazemi, Alex A.; Goswami, Kish; Mendoza, Edgar A.; Kempen, Lothar U.

    2007-09-01

    This paper describes the successful test of a multi-point fiber optic oxygen sensor system during the static firing of an Evolved Expandable Launch Vehicle (EELV)/Delta IV common booster core (CBC) rocket engine at NASA's Stennis Flight Center. The system consisted of microsensors (optrodes) using an oxygen gas sensitive indicator incorporated onto an optically transparent porous substrate. The modular optoelectronics and multiplexing network system was designed and assembled utilizing a multi-channel opto-electronic sensor readout unit that monitored the oxygen and temperature response of the individual optrodes in real-time and communicated this information via a serial communication port to a remote laptop computer. The sensor packaging for oxygen consisted of two optrodes - one doped with an indicator sensitive to oxygen, and the other doped with an indicator sensitive to temperature. The multichannel oxygen sensor system is fully reversible. It has demonstrated a dynamic response to oxygen gas in the range of 0% to 100% with 0.1% resolution and a response time of <=10 seconds. The sensor package was attached to a custom fiber optic ribbon cable, which was then connected to a fiber optic trunk communications cable (standard telecommunications-grade fiber) that connected to the optoelectronics module. Each board in the expandable module included light sources, photo-detectors, and associated electronics required for detecting oxygen and temperature. The paper illustrates the sensor design and performance data under field deployment conditions.

  6. Thin-film fiber optic hydrogen and temperature sensor system

    DOEpatents

    Nave, Stanley E.

    1998-01-01

    The invention discloses a sensor probe device for monitoring of hydrogen gas concentrations and temperatures by the same sensor probe. The sensor probe is constructed using thin-film deposition methods for the placement of a multitude of layers of materials sensitive to hydrogen concentrations and temperature on the end of a light transparent lens located within the sensor probe. The end of the lens within the sensor probe contains a lens containing a layer of hydrogen permeable material which excludes other reactive gases, a layer of reflective metal material that forms a metal hydride upon absorbing hydrogen, and a layer of semi-conducting solid that is transparent above a temperature dependent minimum wavelength for temperature detection. The three layers of materials are located at the distal end of the lens located within the sensor probe. The lens focuses light generated by broad-band light generator and connected by fiber-optics to the sensor probe, onto a reflective metal material layer, which passes through the semi-conducting solid layer, onto two optical fibers located at the base of the sensor probe. The reflected light is transmitted over fiberoptic cables to a spectrometer and system controller. The absence of electrical signals and electrical wires in the sensor probe provides for an elimination of the potential for spark sources when monitoring in hydrogen rich environments, and provides a sensor free from electrical interferences.

  7. High speed demodulation systems for fiber optic grating sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Udd, Eric (Inventor); Weisshaar, Andreas (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Fiber optic grating sensor demodulation systems are described that offer high speed and multiplexing options for both single and multiple parameter fiber optic grating sensors. To attain very high speeds for single parameter fiber grating sensors ratio techniques are used that allow a series of sensors to be placed in a single fiber while retaining high speed capability. These methods can be extended to multiparameter fiber grating sensors. Optimization of speeds can be obtained by minimizing the number of spectral peaks that must be processed and it is shown that two or three spectral peak measurements may in specific multiparameter applications offer comparable or better performance than processing four spectral peaks. Combining the ratio methods with minimization of peak measurements allows very high speed measurement of such important environmental effects as transverse strain and pressure.

  8. Multidimensional System Analysis of Electro-Optic Sensors with Sampled Deterministic Output.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-18

    System descriptions of scanning and staring electro - optic sensors with sampled output are developed as follows. Functions representing image...to complete the system descriptions. The results should be useful for designing electro - optic sensor systems and correcting data for instrumental...effects and other experimental conditions. Keywords include: Electro - optic system analysis, Scanning sensors, Staring sensors, Spatial sampling, and Temporal sampling.

  9. Optical sensor based system to monitor caries activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, A.; Tahir, R.; Kishen, A.

    2007-07-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the ability of a visible light based spectroscopic sensor system to monitor caries activity in saliva. In this study an optical sensor is utilized to monitor the bacterial-mediated acidogenic profile of stimulated saliva using a photosensitive pH indicator. Microbiological assessment of the saliva samples were carried out using the conventional culture methods. In addition, the shifts in the pH of saliva-sucrose samples were recorded using a pH meter. The absorption spectra obtained from the optical sensor showed peak maxima at 595nm, which decreased as a function of time. The microbiological assessment showed increase in the bacterial count as a function of time. A strong positive correlation was also observed between the rates of decrease in the absorption intensity measured using the optical sensor and the decrease in pH measured using the pH meter. This study highlights the potential advantages of using the optical sensor as a sensitive and rapid chairside system for monitoring caries activity by quantification of the acidogenic profile of saliva.

  10. Nonlinear and non-Hermitian optical systems applied to the development of filters and optical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaro de Faria Júnior, A. C.

    2015-09-01

    In this work we present a method of investigation of nonlinear optical beams generated from non-Hermitian optical systems1 . This method can be applied in the development of optical filters and optical sensors to process, analyze and choose the passband of the propagation modes of an optical pulse from an non-Hermitian optical system. Non-Hermitian optical systems can be used to develop optical fiber sensors that suppress certain propagation modes of optical pulses that eventually behave as quantum noise. Such systems are described by the Nonlinear Schrödinger-like Equation with Parity-Time (PT) Symmetric Optical Potentials. There are optical fiber sensors that due to high laser intensity and frequency can produce quantum noise, such as Raman and Brillouin scattering. However, the optical fiber, for example, can be designed so that its geometry suppress certain propagation modes of the beam. We apply some results of non- Hermitian optical systems with PT symmetry to simulate optical lattice by a appropriate potential function, which among other applications, can naturally suppress certain propagation modes of an optical beam propagating through a waveguide. In other words, the optical system is modeled by a potential function in the Nonlinear Schrödinger-like Equation that one relates with the geometric aspects of the wave guides and with the optical beam interacting with the waveguide material. The paper is organized as follows: sections 1 and 2 present a brief description about nonlinear optical systems and non-Hermitian optical systems with PT symmetry. Section 3 presents a description of the dynamics of nonlinear optical pulses propagating through optical networks described by a optical potential non-Hermitian. Sections 4 and 5 present a general description of this non-Hermitian optical systems and how to get them from a more general model. Section 6 presents some conclusions and comment and the final section presents the references. Begin the abstract two

  11. Fiber optic temperature sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawatari, Takeo (Inventor); Gaubis, Philip A. (Inventor); Mattes, Brenton L. (Inventor); Charnetski, Clark J. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A fiber optic temperature sensor uses a light source which transmits light through an optical fiber to a sensor head at the opposite end of the optical fiber from the light source. The sensor head has a housing coupled to the end of the optical fiber. A metallic reflective surface is coupled to the housing adjacent the end of the optical fiber to form a gap having a predetermined length between the reflective surface and the optical fiber. A detection system is also coupled to the optical fiber which determines the temperature at the sensor head from an interference pattern of light which is reflected from the reflective surface.

  12. Fiber optic temperature sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawatari, Takeo (Inventor); Gaubis, Philip A. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A fiber optic temperature sensor uses a light source which transmits light through an optical fiber to a sensor head at the opposite end of the optical fiber from the light source. The sensor head has a housing coupled to the end of the optical fiber. A metallic reflective surface is coupled to the housing adjacent the end of the optical fiber to form a gap having a predetermined length between the reflective surface and the optical fiber. A detection system is also coupled to the optical fiber which determines the temperature at the sensor head from an interference pattern of light which is reflected from the reflective surface.

  13. Optical fiber sensors measurement system and special fibers improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelinek, Michal; Hrabina, Jan; Hola, Miroslava; Hucl, Vaclav; Cizek, Martin; Rerucha, Simon; Lazar, Josef; Mikel, Bretislav

    2017-06-01

    We present method for the improvement of the measurement accuracy in the optical frequency spectra measurements based on tunable optical filters. The optical filter was used during the design and realization of the measurement system for the inspection of the fiber Bragg gratings. The system incorporates a reference block for the compensation of environmental influences, an interferometric verification subsystem and a PC - based control software implemented in LabView. The preliminary experimental verification of the measurement principle and the measurement system functionality were carried out on a testing rig with a specially prepared concrete console in the UJV Řež. The presented system is the laboratory version of the special nuclear power plant containment shape deformation measurement system which was installed in the power plant Temelin during last year. On the base of this research we started with preparation other optical fiber sensors to nuclear power plants measurement. These sensors will be based on the microstructured and polarization maintaining optical fibers. We started with development of new methods and techniques of the splicing and shaping optical fibers. We are able to made optical tapers from ultra-short called adiabatic with length around 400 um up to long tapers with length up to 6 millimeters. We developed new techniques of splicing standard Single Mode (SM) and Multimode (MM) optical fibers and splicing of optical fibers with different diameters in the wavelength range from 532 to 1550 nm. Together with development these techniques we prepared other techniques to splicing and shaping special optical fibers like as Polarization-Maintaining (PM) or hollow core Photonic Crystal Fiber (PCF) and theirs cross splicing methods with focus to minimalize backreflection and attenuation. The splicing special optical fibers especially PCF fibers with standard telecommunication and other SM fibers can be done by our developed techniques. Adjustment

  14. 78 FR 17187 - Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive Patent License; Fiber Optic Sensor Systems Technology...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ... Department of the Navy Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive Patent License; Fiber Optic Sensor Systems... to grant to Fiber Optic Sensor Systems Technology Corporation, a revocable, nonassignable, exclusive... its intent to grant to Fiber Optic Sensor Systems Technology Corporation a revocable,...

  15. Wavefront sensors and algorithms for adaptive optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukin, V. P.; Botygina, N. N.; Emaleev, O. N.; Konyaev, P. A.

    2010-07-01

    The results of recent works related to techniques and algorithms for wave-front (WF) measurement using Shack-Hartmann sensors show their high efficiency in solution of very different problems of applied optics. The goal of this paper was to develop a sensitive Shack-Hartmann sensor with high precision WF measurement capability on the base of modern technology of optical elements making and new efficient methods and computational algorithms of WF reconstruction. The Shack-Hartmann sensors sensitive to small WF aberrations are used for adaptive optical systems, compensating the wave distortions caused by atmospheric turbulence. A high precision Shack-Hartmann WF sensor has been developed on the basis of a low-aperture off-axis diffraction lens array. The device is capable of measuring WF slopes at array sub-apertures of size 640×640 μm with an error not exceeding 4.80 arcsec (0.15 pixel), which corresponds to the standard deviation equal to 0.017λ at the reconstructed WF with wavelength λ . Also the modification of this sensor for adaptive system of solar telescope using extended scenes as tracking objects, such as sunspot, pores, solar granulation and limb, is presented. The software package developed for the proposed WF sensors includes three algorithms of local WF slopes estimation (modified centroids, normalized cross-correlation and fast Fourierdemodulation), as well as three methods of WF reconstruction (modal Zernike polynomials expansion, deformable mirror response functions expansion and phase unwrapping), that can be selected during operation with accordance to the application.

  16. Optical Sensors for Use in Propulsion Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritsch, Klaus

    1997-01-01

    This final technical report describes the results of a cooperative effort which was originally established between John Carroll University and the Instrumentation and Control Technology Division at NASA Lewis Research Center on November, 1982, and then continued with the Engine Sensor Technology Branch at NASA Lewis until March, 1995. All work at John Carroll University was directed by the principal investigator of this grant, Klaus Fritsch, Ph.D. For the first two years of this grant this effort was supervised at NASA by Mr. Robert J. Baumbick and for the remainder of the grant by Dr. Glenn M. Beheim. All research was carried out in close cooperation with Dr. Beheim. Electrically passive optical sensors for measurands such as pressure, temperature, position, and rotational speed are required for aircraft engine control in fly-by-light digital aircraft control systems. Fiberoptic data links and optical multiplexing techniques should be used for combining and processing the outputs from several sensors, sharing as many optical end electronic parts as possible. The overall objective of this grant was to explore techniques for designing and constructing such electrically passive optical sensors for measuring physical parameters in jet aircraft engines and for use in aircraft control systems. We have concentrated our efforts on pressure, temperature, and position sensors employing techniques which are relatively immune to transmissivity variations of the fiber links and to variations in intensity of the light source. Infrared light-emitting diodes are employed because of their longevity and immunity to vibration. We have also studied a number of multiplexing techniques. On the following pages I will give thumbnail sketches of the projects carried out under this grant and provide references to publications and John Carroll M.S. theses which resulted directly from this work and which describe these projects in greater detail.

  17. 77 FR 73456 - Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive Patent License; Fiber Optic Sensor Systems Technology...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... Department of the Navy Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive Patent License; Fiber Optic Sensor Systems... Navy hereby gives notice of its intent to grant to Fiber Optic Sensor Systems Technology Corporation a... described in U.S. Patent No. 7,020,354: Intensity Modulated Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor, Navy Case No....

  18. 75 FR 34988 - Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive Patent License; Fiber Optic Sensor Systems Technology...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... Department of the Navy Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive Patent License; Fiber Optic Sensor Systems... Navy hereby gives notice of its intent to grant to Fiber Optic Sensor Systems Technology Corporation a.... Patent No. 7,149,374: Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor, Navy Case No. 84,557.//U.S. Patent No....

  19. Optical Electronic Bragg Reflection Sensor System with Hydrodynamic Flow Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, D. R.

    2003-01-01

    This project, as described in the following report, involved design and fabrication of fiber optic sensors for the detection and measurement of dynamic fluid density variations. These devices are created using UV (ultraviolet) ablation and generally modified transverse holographic fiber grating techniques. The resulting phase gratings created on or immediately underneath the flat portion of D-shaped optical waveguides are characterized as evanescent field sensing devices. The primary applications include the sensor portion of a real-time localized or distributed measurement system for hydrodynamic flow, fluid density measurements, and phase change phenomena. Several design modifications were implemented in an attempt to accomplish the tasks specified in our original proposal. In addition, we have established key collaborative relationships with numerous people and institutions.

  20. Micro-optics technology and sensor systems applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gal, George; Herman, B.; Anderson, W.; Whitney, R.; Morrow, H.

    1993-01-01

    The current generation of electro-optical sensors utilizing refractive and reflective optical elements require sophisticated, complex, and expensive designs. Advanced-technology-based electro-optical sensors of minimum size and weight require miniaturization of optical, electrical, and mechanical devices with an increasing trend toward integration of various components. Micro-optics technology has the potential in a number of areas to simplify optical design with improved performance. This includes internally cooled apertures, hybrid optical design, microlenses, dispersive multicolor microlenses, active dither, electronically controlled optical beam steer, and microscopic integration of micro-optics, detectors, and signal processing layers. This paper describes our approach to the development of micro-optics technology with our main emphasis for sensors applications.

  1. Electro-optic architecture for servicing sensors and actuators in advanced aircraft propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppel, G. L.; Glasheen, W. M.

    1989-01-01

    A detailed design of a fiber optic propulsion control system, integrating favored sensors and electro-optics architecture is presented. Layouts, schematics, and sensor lists describe an advanced fighter engine system model. Components and attributes of candidate fiber optic sensors are identified, and evaluation criteria are used in a trade study resulting in favored sensors for each measurand. System architectural ground rules were applied to accomplish an electro-optics architecture for the favored sensors. A key result was a considerable reduction in signal conductors. Drawings, schematics, specifications, and printed circuit board layouts describe the detailed system design, including application of a planar optical waveguide interface.

  2. Fiber optic engineering sensor system concept design review data package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1987-04-01

    The use of fiber optic technology in shipboard IC systems has several conceptual advantages over existing systems including improved reliability, weight savings, and advanced signal quality. Our analysis of mission needs leads us to the conclusion that the following design elements are paramount from the aspect of satisfactory mission performance. The sub-systems chosen for application of fiber optic technology are generally those which involve monitoring of dynamic systems or security check points and the subsequent sounding of appropriate signals when alarm conditions occur. Clearly these systems must be extremely reliable, but in addition to the more typical failure criteria associated with system breakdown, the Fiber Optic Engineering Sensor System (FOESS) must be accurate; i.e., there must be a minimum of false alarm signals transmitted to the operators else the alarm system will soon be ignored, or worse, deenergized. Philosophically, the desired FOESS reliability (defined as the probability that the system will be in a satisfactory operating condition at a random point in time) should approach unity; likewise, the probability of false alarms should approach zero.

  3. Review of High-Speed Fiber Optic Grating Sensors Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Udd, E; Benterou, J; May, C; Mihailov, S J; Lu, P

    2010-03-24

    Fiber grating sensors can be used to support a wide variety of high speed measurement applications. This includes measurements of vibrations on bridges, traffic monitoring on freeways, ultrasonic detection to support non-destructive tests on metal plates and providing details of detonation events. This paper provides a brief overview of some of the techniques that have been used to support high speed measurements using fiber grating sensors over frequency ranges from 10s of kHz, to MHZ and finally toward frequencies approaching the GHz regime. Very early in the development of fiber grating sensor systems it was realized that a high speed fiber grating sensor system could be realized by placing an optical filter that might be a fiber grating in front of a detector so that spectral changes in the reflection from a fiber grating were amplitude modulated. In principal the only limitation on this type of system involved the speed of the output detector which with the development of high speed communication links moved from the regime of 10s of MHz toward 10s of GHz. The earliest deployed systems involved civil structures including measurements of the strain fields on composite utility poles and missile bodies during break tests, bridges and freeways. This was followed by a series of developments that included high speed fiber grating sensors to support nondestructive testing via ultrasonic wave detection, high speed machining and monitoring ship hulls. Each of these applications involved monitoring mechanical motion of structures and thus interest was in speeds up to a few 10s of MHz. Most recently there has been interest in using fiber grating to monitor the very high speed events such as detonations and this has led to utilization of fiber gratings that are consumed during an event that may require detection speeds of hundreds of MHz and in the future multiple GHz.

  4. Optical fiber sensor systems for forest protection in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domanski, Andrzej W.; Wolinski, Tomasz R.; Dybko, Artur; Sosin, Tomasz P.; Bock, Wojtek J.

    1993-03-01

    Forest damages in Canada have been observed to occur since the mid-1970's. Current hypotheses that attempt to explain forest declines implicate the effects of acid deposition, excess sulfur and nitrogen deposition, and elevated concentration of ozone and carbon dioxide on forest soils and nutrition as major contributors. Forest protection requires information about the pH of precipitation and aquatic ground water/soil systems along with the characterization of chemical toxicants distribution in the forest environment. Present analytical techniques for toxic chemical compounds are not well suited for field measurements. Current methods require collection of samples in the field and subsequent analysis in the laboratory. The paper discusses the possibility of applying fiber optic sensing networks for constant monitoring of pH and input/output balance of forest ecosystems to overcome most of the limitations of current methods for characterizing the distribution of chemical toxicants in the forest environment. The idea of such networks is based on sensors which couple fluorescence measurement with optical fibers offering not only a good precision and reliability but direct compatibility with fiber optic telemetry, optical data transmission systems, and optical multiplexing technology.

  5. Highly sensitive optical sensor system for blood leakage detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Masahiro; Ishikawa, Kazuhiko; Jie, Chen; Sanae, Mizuno; Touma, Yasunori

    A highly sensitive method for the detection of blood leakage has been developed, and a practical sensor system for blood concentration measurement has been constructed. The present method is based on the attenuation of laser light by blood cells. The effects of the fluctuations of the incident laser light power are eliminated by normalizing the attenuated light intensity by the incident light intensity. A part of the incident laser light is reflected by a beam splitter mounted at the entrance of the test cell, of which the power is measured to provide base data for normalization. The optical path is extended to enhance sensitivity by using a pair of side mirrors. This multi-reflection method is very effective to increase sensitivity; the maximum sensitivity obtained for blood concentration is about 4 X 10 -6 by volume, which is significantly higher than that of the conventional sensors.

  6. The research of optical windows used in aircraft sensor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Feng; Li, Yan; Tang, Tian-Jin

    2012-06-01

    The optical windows used in aircrafts protect their imaging sensors from environmental effects. Considering the imaging performance, flat surfaces are traditionally used in the design of optical windows. For aircrafts operating at high speeds, the optical windows should be relatively aerodynamic, but a flat optical window may introduce unacceptably high drag to the airframes. The linear scanning infrared sensors used in aircrafts with, respectively, a flat window, a spherical window and a toric window in front of the aircraft sensors are designed and compared. Simulation results show that the optical design using a toric surface has the integrated advantages of field of regard, aerodynamic drag, narcissus effect, and imaging performance, so the optical window with a toric surface is demonstrated to be suited for this application.

  7. Optical-system design for next-generation pushbroom sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mika, A. M.; Richard, H. L.

    1984-01-01

    Next-generation pushbroom sensors for earth observation require high-performance optics that provide high spatial resolution over wide fields of view. Specifically, blur diameters on the order of 10 to 15 microns are needed over 5 to 15 deg fields. In addition to this fundamental level of optical performance, other characteristics, such as spatial coregistration of spectral bands, flat focal plane, telecentricity, and workable pupil location are significant instrument design considerations. The detector-assembly design, optical line-of-sight pointing method and sensor packaging all hinge on these secondary attributes. Moreover, the need for broad spectral coverage, ranging from 0.4 to 12.5 microns, places an additional constraint on optical design. This paper presents alternative design forms that are candidates for wide-field pushbroom sensors, and discusses the instrument-design tradeoffs that are linked to the selection of these alternate optical approaches.

  8. Optical-system design for next-generation pushbroom sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mika, A. M.; Richard, H. L.

    1984-01-01

    Next-generation pushbroom sensors for earth observation require high-performance optics that provide high spatial resolution over wide fields of view. Specifically, blur diameters on the order of 10 to 15 microns are needed over 5 to 15 deg fields. In addition to this fundamental level of optical performance, other characteristics, such as spatial coregistration of spectral bands, flat focal plane, telecentricity, and workable pupil location are significant instrument design considerations. The detector-assembly design, optical line-of-sight pointing method and sensor packaging all hinge on these secondary attributes. Moreover, the need for broad spectral coverage, ranging from 0.4 to 12.5 microns, places an additional constraint on optical design. This paper presents alternative design forms that are candidates for wide-field pushbroom sensors, and discusses the instrument-design tradeoffs that are linked to the selection of these alternate optical approaches.

  9. Development of an instrumentation system for measurement of degradation of lubricating oil using optical fiber sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskar, S.; Bordoloi, S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an instrumentation system to measure the degradation in lubricating oil using a bare, tapered and bent multi-mode optical fiber (BTBMOF) sensor probe and a temperature probe. The sensor system consists of (i) a bare, tapered and bent multi-mode optical fiber (BTBMOF) as optical sensor along with a laser source and a LDR (Light Dependent Resistor) as detector (ii) a temperature sensor (iii) a ATmega microcontroller based data acquisition system and (iv) a trained ANN for processing and calibration. The BTBMOF sensor and the temperature sensor are used to provide the measure of refractive index (RI) and the temperature of a lubricating oil sample. A microcontroller based instrumentation system with trained ANN algorithm has been developed to determine the degradation of the lubricating oil sample by sampling the readings of the optical fiber sensor, and the temperature sensor.

  10. Extrinsic fiber optic displacement sensors and displacement sensing systems

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, Kent A.; Gunther, Michael F.; Vengsarkar, Ashish M.; Claus, Richard O.

    1994-01-01

    An extrinsic Fizeau fiber optic sensor comprises a single-mode fiber, used as an input/output fiber, and a multimode fiber, used purely as a reflector, to form an air gap within a silica tube that acts as a Fizeau cavity. The Fresnel reflection from the glass/air interface at the front of the air gap (reference reflection) and the reflection from the air/glass interface at the far end of the air gap (sensing reflection) interfere in the input/output fiber. The two fibers are allowed to move in the silica tube, and changes in the air gap length cause changes in the phase difference between the reference reflection and the sensing reflection. This phase difference is observed as changes in intensity of the light monitored at the output arm of a fused biconical tapered coupler. The extrinsic Fizeau fiber optic sensor behaves identically whether it is surface mounted or embedded, which is unique to the extrinsic sensor in contrast to intrinsic Fabry-Perot sensors. The sensor may be modified to provide a quadrature phase shift extrinsic Fizeau fiber optic sensor for the detection of both the amplitude and the relative polarity of dynamically varying strain. The quadrature light signals may be generated by either mechanical or optical means. A plurality of the extrinsic sensors may connected in cascade and multiplexed to allow monitoring by a single analyzer.

  11. Extrinsic fiber optic displacement sensors and displacement sensing systems

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, K.A.; Gunther, M.F.; Vengsarkar, A.M.; Claus, R.O.

    1994-04-05

    An extrinsic Fizeau fiber optic sensor comprises a single-mode fiber, used as an input/output fiber, and a multimode fiber, used purely as a reflector, to form an air gap within a silica tube that acts as a Fizeau cavity. The Fresnel reflection from the glass/air interface at the front of the air gap (reference reflection) and the reflection from the air/glass interface at the far end of the air gap (sensing reflection) interfere in the input/output fiber. The two fibers are allowed to move in the silica tube, and changes in the air gap length cause changes in the phase difference between the reference reflection and the sensing reflection. This phase difference is observed as changes in intensity of the light monitored at the output arm of a fused biconical tapered coupler. The extrinsic Fizeau fiber optic sensor behaves identically whether it is surface mounted or embedded, which is unique to the extrinsic sensor in contrast to intrinsic Fabry-Perot sensors. The sensor may be modified to provide a quadrature phase shift extrinsic Fizeau fiber optic sensor for the detection of both the amplitude and the relative polarity of dynamically varying strain. The quadrature light signals may be generated by either mechanical or optical means. A plurality of the extrinsic sensors may connected in cascade and multiplexed to allow monitoring by a single analyzer. 14 figures.

  12. Brush wear and dust accumulation fiber-optic sensor system for synchronous compensators online monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floridia, Claudio; Alves, Livia R.; Bassan, Fábio R.; Juriollo, Antonio A.; Borin, Flávio; Souza, Afonso Rafael Cunha

    2013-04-01

    An electro-optical sensor system for monitoring synchronous compensators in the electrical distribution network is presented. The fiber-optic sensor system is based on two main technologies: optical bend loss sensors for monitoring the brush wear and, free-space optics to determine the dust accumulation from brush wear. Both techniques are characterized to monitor the parameters by means of simple optical power readings. In order to avoid optical power fluctuations in the fiber optics link from interrogation system to the synchronous compensators, bend-loss insensitive fibers are used. The low-cost interrogation system consists on one laser, optical splitters and 80 photodetectors to independently monitor each one of the synchronous compensators's brushes. This setup ensures an ease installation and avoid cascaded fault that a serial configuration could originates, thus increasing reliability of the sensor system.

  13. Electro-optic architecture (EOA) for sensors and actuators in aircraft propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glomb, W. L., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Results of a study to design an optimal architecture for electro-optical sensing and control in advanced aircraft and space systems are described. The propulsion full authority digital Electronic Engine Control (EEC) was the focus for the study. The recommended architecture is an on-engine EEC which contains electro-optic interface circuits for fiber-optic sensors on the engine. Size and weight are reduced by multiplexing arrays of functionally similar sensors on a pair of optical fibers to common electro-optical interfaces. The architecture contains common, multiplex interfaces to seven sensor groups: (1) self luminous sensors; (2) high temperatures; (3) low temperatures; (4) speeds and flows; (5) vibration; (6) pressures; and (7) mechanical positions. Nine distinct fiber-optic sensor types were found to provide these sensing functions: (1) continuous wave (CW) intensity modulators; (2) time division multiplexing (TDM) digital optic codeplates; (3) time division multiplexing (TDM) analog self-referenced sensors; (4) wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) digital optic code plates; (5) wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) analog self-referenced intensity modulators; (6) analog optical spectral shifters; (7) self-luminous bodies; (8) coherent optical interferometers; and (9) remote electrical sensors. The report includes the results of a trade study including engine sensor requirements, environment, the basic sensor types, and relevant evaluation criteria. These figures of merit for the candidate interface types were calculated from the data supplied by leading manufacturers of fiber-optic sensors.

  14. Implementation of an Optical Readout System for High-Sensitivity Terahertz Microelectromechanical Sensor Array

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    pattern and displayed good linearity of response of about 23 gray level values per Kelvin. The concept of optical readout from a micromechanical sensor ...response of about 23 gray level values per Kelvin. The concept of optical readout from a micromechanical sensor array was also validated. vi...thermal response of sensor in 4F optical system. ..........................................................42 Figure 24. Plot of average gray level

  15. Development of fiber optic sensor for fluid flow of astronauts’ life-support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shachneva, E. A.; Murashkina, T. I.

    2016-08-01

    This paper proposes a fiber optic sensor consumption (volume, speed) of liquids in life-support systems of astronauts, as well as offers a simple method and apparatus for reproducing the parameters of fluid flow needed in research, yustiovke and adjusting the optical sensor system.

  16. Integrated optics for fiber optic sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minford, W. J.; Depaula, R. P.

    1991-01-01

    Recent progress achieved in the field of fiber-optic sensor applications is discussed with emphasis placed on LiNbO3-based integrated optics (IO). Particular consideration is given to advanced electromagnetic-field sensors, an integrated laser vibrometer system, and a fiber-optic gyroscope system. It is shown that the multifunction IO chips have enabled high perforamance fiber-optic sensors (e.g., fiber-optic gyros), provided advanced and unique signal processing capabilities and advanced architectures, and have a potential of making fiber-optic sensors at low cost.

  17. Integrated optics for fiber optic sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minford, W. J.; Depaula, R. P.

    1991-01-01

    Recent progress achieved in the field of fiber-optic sensor applications is discussed with emphasis placed on LiNbO3-based integrated optics (IO). Particular consideration is given to advanced electromagnetic-field sensors, an integrated laser vibrometer system, and a fiber-optic gyroscope system. It is shown that the multifunction IO chips have enabled high perforamance fiber-optic sensors (e.g., fiber-optic gyros), provided advanced and unique signal processing capabilities and advanced architectures, and have a potential of making fiber-optic sensors at low cost.

  18. Optical Communication System for an Underwater Wireless Sensor Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, C.; Khalighi, A.; Bourennane, S.; Léon, P.; Rigaud, V.

    2012-04-01

    Seventy percent of the Earth is covered with water. Yet, we know so little about what lies below the sea surface. One new emerging technology that can help in oceans exploration is underwater wireless sensor network (UWSN). In such a network, a number of sensors are connected to a set of nodes that collect the data from them. Then, each node communicate its retrieved data to the other parts of the network through wireless links. So, an important step in the implementation of an UWSN is the design of an adequate transmitter/receiver system that is reliable, easy to implement, energy efficient and adapted to the underwater environment. Thanks to its cost-effectiveness and low-energy consumption property, optical underwater communication turns to be the most adequate solution for medium range node connections in an UWSN. To evaluate the optical underwater channel, we have studied its impulse response using a Monte Carlo simulator that takes into consideration all the transmitter, receiver and medium characteristics. We have demonstrated through these simulations that the channel delay dispersion is negligible in most practical cases. Therefore, we do not need to perform computationally complex signal processing such as channel equalization at the receiver. After studying the channel characteristics, we have turned our attention onto the transmitter/receiver system design. For this, we have simulated a system composed by a high-power monochromatic 532 nm LED transmitter and a Silicon PIN photodiode receiver with a collimating lens for capturing the scattered light. After photo-detection, the photo-current is converted to a voltage and low-pass filtered to limit the thermal noise variance which is the dominant noise in the receiver. Note that, in our case, background noise can be neglected because we are working in deep waters were the sunlight cannot penetrate. Then, using on-off-keying (OOK) modulation, we have proceeded to signal detection based on optimum

  19. Roadmap on optical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Mário F. S.; Castro-Camus, Enrique; Ottaway, David J.; López-Higuera, José Miguel; Feng, Xian; Jin, Wei; Jeong, Yoonchan; Picqué, Nathalie; Tong, Limin; Reinhard, Björn M.; Pellegrino, Paul M.; Méndez, Alexis; Diem, Max; Vollmer, Frank; Quan, Qimin

    2017-08-01

    Sensors are devices or systems able to detect, measure and convert magnitudes from any domain to an electrical one. Using light as a probe for optical sensing is one of the most efficient approaches for this purpose. The history of optical sensing using some methods based on absorbance, emissive and florescence properties date back to the 16th century. The field of optical sensors evolved during the following centuries, but it did not achieve maturity until the demonstration of the first laser in 1960. The unique properties of laser light become particularly important in the case of laser-based sensors, whose operation is entirely based upon the direct detection of laser light itself, without relying on any additional mediating device. However, compared with freely propagating light beams, artificially engineered optical fields are in increasing demand for probing samples with very small sizes and/or weak light-matter interaction. Optical fiber sensors constitute a subarea of optical sensors in which fiber technologies are employed. Different types of specialty and photonic crystal fibers provide improved performance and novel sensing concepts. Actually, structurization with wavelength or subwavelength feature size appears as the most efficient way to enhance sensor sensitivity and its detection limit. This leads to the area of micro- and nano-engineered optical sensors. It is expected that the combination of better fabrication techniques and new physical effects may open new and fascinating opportunities in this area. This roadmap on optical sensors addresses different technologies and application areas of the field. Fourteen contributions authored by experts from both industry and academia provide insights into the current state-of-the-art and the challenges faced by researchers currently. Two sections of this paper provide an overview of laser-based and frequency comb-based sensors. Three sections address the area of optical fiber sensors, encompassing both

  20. Structural health monitoring system of soccer arena based on optical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishkin, Victor V.; Churin, Alexey E.; Kharenko, Denis S.; Zheleznova, Maria A.; Shelemba, Ivan S.

    2014-05-01

    A structural health monitoring system based on optical sensors has been developed and installed on the indoor soccer arena "Zarya" in Novosibirsk. The system integrates 119 fiber optic sensors: 85 strain, 32 temperature and 2 displacement sensors. In addition, total station is used for measuring displacement in 45 control points. All of the constituents of the supporting structure are subjects for monitoring: long-span frames with under floor ties, connections, purlins and foundation.

  1. Force and optical position sensors: limitations of sensors and sensing systems in robotic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Isik, C.; Chenette, E.R.

    1982-01-01

    Sensory feedback as an element of intelligent control, and force sensing and visual sensing within a hierarchical sensor-controller system are discussed. A six-component force sensor designed and developed in CIMAR laboratories is the main issue of this paper. Its single beam mechanical structure is described and signal processing and conditioning circuitry is explained. Basic limitations of force measurement using strain gages are studied and related design criteria suggested. The second part of the paper deals with different optical distance measurement techniques, and concentrates on the conceptual designs of two innovative methods which utilize triangulation, laser interferometry, and pulse width modulated light beams. Some basic limitation analysis and a tentative work plan are also included in this part of the paper.

  2. Progress of optical sensor system for health monitoring of bridges at Chongqing University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, W.; Fu, Y.; Zhu, Y.; Huang, S.

    2005-02-01

    With decades of research experience on optical sensors, Optoelectronic Technology Lab of Chongqing University (OTLCU) has studied on a variety of sensors system designed for practical use in health monitoring. In OTLCU, embedded and surface mounted fiber Fabry-Perot strain sensor has been developed for monitoring the local strain of both concrete and steel truss bridge. Optoelectronic deflect meter, with a group of optical level sensor in a series connected pipe, was developed for deflection monitoring and line shape monitoring of the bridges. Laser deflect meter, with a laser pointer and a sensors array, has been also developed for a dynamic deflection monitoring of the bridges. To monitoring the 2-Dimentional displacement of the bridge, a self-calibrating imaging system was developed. All these sensor systems have been applied in different bridges successfully. This paper briefly describes principle of these optical sensing systems, and also gives some representative results of the system in practical application of bridges.

  3. Fiber optic sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesse, J.; Sohler, W.

    1984-01-01

    A survey of the developments in the field of fiber optics sensor technology is presented along with a discussion of the advantages of optical measuring instruments as compared with electronic sensors. The two primary types of fiber optics sensors, specifically those with multiwave fibers and those with monowave fibers, are described. Examples of each major sensor type are presented and discussed. Multiwave detectors include external and internal fiber optics sensors. Among the monowave detectors are Mach-Zender interferometers, Michelson interferometers, Sagnac interferometers (optical gyroscopes), waveguide resonators, and polarimeter sensors. Integrated optical sensors and their application in spectroscopy are briefly discussed.

  4. A hybrid fiber-optic sensor system for condition monitoring of large scale wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dae-gil; Kim, Hyunjin; Sampath, Umesh; Song, Minho

    2015-07-01

    A hybrid fiber-optic sensor system which combines fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors and a Michelson interferometer is suggested for condition monitoring uses of large scale wind turbine blades. The system uses single broadband light source to address both sensors, which simplifies the optical setup and enhances the cost-effectiveness of condition monitoring system. An athermal-packaged FBG is used to supply quasi-coherent light for the Michelson interferometer demodulation. For the feasibility test, different profiles of test strain, temperature and vibration have been applied to test structures, and successfully reconstructed with the proposed sensor system.

  5. Remote management for multipoint sensing systems using hetero-core spliced optical fiber sensors.

    PubMed

    Goh, Lee See; Anoda, Yuji; Kazuhiro, Watanabe; Shinomiya, Norihiko

    2013-12-27

    This paper describes the design and experimental verification of a multipoint sensing system with hetero-core spliced optical fiber sensors and its remote management using an internet-standard protocol. The study proposes two different types of design and conducts experiments to verify those systems' feasibility. In order to manage the sensing systems remotely, the management method uses a standard operation and maintenance protocol for internet: the Simple Network Management Protocol is proposed. The purpose of this study is to construct a multipoint sensing system remote management tool by which the system can also determine the status and the identity of fiber optic sensors. The constructed sensing systems are verified and the results have demonstrated that the first proposed system can distinguish the responses from different hetero-core spliced optical fiber sensors remotely. The second proposed system shows that data communications are performed successfully while identifying the status of hetero-core spliced optical fiber sensors remotely.

  6. Apparatus and Method for Elimination of Polarization-Induced Fading in Fiber-optic Sensor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Hon Man (Inventor); Parker, Jr., Allen R. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The invention is an apparatus and method of eliminating polarization-induced fading in interferometric fiber-optic sensor system having a wavelength-swept laser optical signal. The interferometric return signal from the sensor arms are combined and provided to a multi-optical path detector assembly and ultimately to a data acquisition and processing unit by way of a switch that is time synchronized with the laser scan sweep cycle.

  7. New optical sensor systems for high-resolution satellite, airborne and terrestrial imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckardt, Andreas; Börner, Anko; Lehmann, Frank

    2007-10-01

    The department of Optical Information Systems (OS) at the Institute of Robotics and Mechatronics of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) has more than 25 years experience with high-resolution imaging technology. The technology changes in the development of detectors, as well as the significant change of the manufacturing accuracy in combination with the engineering research define the next generation of spaceborne sensor systems focusing on Earth observation and remote sensing. The combination of large TDI lines, intelligent synchronization control, fast-readable sensors and new focal-plane concepts open the door to new remote-sensing instruments. This class of instruments is feasible for high-resolution sensor systems regarding geometry and radiometry and their data products like 3D virtual reality. Systemic approaches are essential for such designs of complex sensor systems for dedicated tasks. The system theory of the instrument inside a simulated environment is the beginning of the optimization process for the optical, mechanical and electrical designs. Single modules and the entire system have to be calibrated and verified. Suitable procedures must be defined on component, module and system level for the assembly test and verification process. This kind of development strategy allows the hardware-in-the-loop design. The paper gives an overview about the current activities at DLR in the field of innovative sensor systems for photogrammetric and remote sensing purposes.

  8. A Phase-Shifting Zernike Wavefront Sensor for the Palomar P3K Adaptive Optics System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, J. Kent; Crawford, Sam; Loya, Frank; Moore, James

    2012-01-01

    A phase-shifting Zernike wavefront sensor has distinct advantages over other types of wavefront sensors. Chief among them are: 1) improved sensitivity to low-order aberrations and 2) efficient use of photons (hence reduced sensitivity to photon noise). We are in the process of deploying a phase-shifting Zernike wavefront sensor to be used with the realtime adaptive optics system for Palomar. Here we present the current state of the Zernike wavefront sensor to be integrated into the high-order adaptive optics system at Mount Palomar's Hale Telescope.

  9. Wearable Optical Chemical Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobnik, Aleksandra

    Wearable sensors can be used to provide valuable information about the wearer's health and/or monitor the wearer's surroundings, identify safety concerns and detect threats, during the wearer's daily routine within his or her natural environment. The "sensor on a textile", an integrated sensor capable of analyzing data, would enable early many forms of detection. Moreover, a sensor connected with a smart delivery system could simultaneously provide comfort and monitoring (for safety and/or health), non-invasive measurements, no laboratory sampling, continuous monitoring during the daily activity of the person, and possible multi-parameter analysis and monitoring. However, in order for the technology to be accessible, it must remain innocuous and impose a minimal intrusion on the daily activities of the wearer. Therefore, such wearable technologies should be soft, flexible, and washable in order to meet the expectations of normal clothing. Optical chemical sensors (OCSs) could be used as wearable technology since they can be embedded into textile structures by using conventional dyeing, printing processes and coatings, while fiber-optic chemical sensors (FOCSs) as well as nanofiber sensors (NFSs) can be incorporated by weaving, knitting or laminating. The interest in small, robust and sensitive sensors that can be embedded into textile structures is increasing and the research activity on this topic is an important issue.

  10. Wireless fiber optic sensor system for strain and pressure measurements on a rotor blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuxiang; Lacher, Alexander; Wang, Gang; Purekar, Ashish; Yu, Miao

    2007-09-01

    Experimental measurements of the strain and pressure of rotor blades are important for understanding the aerodynamics and dynamics of a rotorcraft. This understanding can help in solving on-blade problems as well as in designing and optimizing the blade profiles for improved aerodynamics and noise attenuation in the next generation rotorcraft. The overall goal of our research is to develop a miniature wireless optical sensor system for helicopter on-blade pressure and strain measurements. In this paper, leveraging past and current experiences with fiber optic sensor development, a proof-of- concept of fiber optic pressure/strain sensor system with wireless data acquisition and transfer capability is demonstrated. The recently developed high-speed, real-time fiber optic sensor demodulation techniques based on low coherence interferometry and phase-shifting interferometry is used. This scheme enables a Spatial Division Multiplexing configuration that consists of multiple Fabry-Perot strain and pressure sensors. Calibration of the strain and pressure sensors is carried out by using commercially available sensors as references. Spin chamber testing of the sensor system for simultaneous on-blade pressure and strain field measurements is also performed. It is expected that such a sensor system will result in enhanced robustness and performance for on-blade pressure and strain field measurements.

  11. Fiber optical sensor system for shape and haptics for flexible instruments in minimally invasive surgery: overview and status quo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledermann, Christoph; Pauer, Hendrikje; Woern, Heinz

    2014-05-01

    In minimally invasive surgery, exible mechatronic instruments promise to improve the overall performance of surgical interventions. However, those instruments require highly developed sensors in order to provide haptic feedback to the surgeon or to enable (semi-)autonomous tasks. Precisely, haptic sensors and a shape sensor are required. In this paper, we present our ber optical sensor system of Fiber Bragg Gratings, which consists of a shape sensor, a kinesthetic sensor and a tactile sensor. The status quo of each of the three sensors is described, as well as the concept to integrate them into one ber optical sensor system.

  12. Optical technologies for space sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hu; Liu, Jie; Xue, Yaoke; Liu, Yang; Liu, Meiying; Wang, Lingguang; Yang, Shaodong; Lin, Shangmin; Chen, Su; Luo, Jianjun

    2015-10-01

    Space sensors are used in navigation sensor fields. The sun, the earth, the moon and other planets are used as frame of reference to obtain stellar position coordinates, and then to control the attitude of an aircraft. Being the "eyes" of the space sensors, Optical sensor system makes images of the infinite far stars and other celestial bodies. It directly affects measurement accuracy of the space sensor, indirectly affecting the data updating rate. Star sensor technology is the pilot for Space sensors. At present more and more attention is paid on all-day star sensor technology. By day and night measurements of the stars, the aircraft's attitude in the inertial coordinate system can be provided. Facing the requirements of ultra-high-precision, large field of view, wide spectral range, long life and high reliability, multi-functional optical system, we integration, integration optical sensors will be future space technology trends. In the meantime, optical technologies for space-sensitive research leads to the development of ultra-precision optical processing, optical and precision test machine alignment technology. It also promotes the development of long-life optical materials and applications. We have achieved such absolute distortion better than ±1um, Space life of at least 15years of space-sensitive optical system.

  13. Luminescence-based optical sensor systems for monitoring water parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobnik, Aleksandra; Turel, Matejka; Korent, Špela Mojca

    2007-06-01

    Lanthanide-sensitized luminescence is very attractive because the intramolecular energy transfers between the absorbing ligand and the luminescent ion results in strong narrow-band fluorescence with a large Stokes' shift and long decay times. We will report about several sensor systems based either on sol-gel materials or lanthanide chelates for monitoring and controlling water parameters, such as heavy metals, amines, phosphates.

  14. Micro-optical components and systems in polymers for optical networks and sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teubner, Ulrich

    2004-09-01

    Miniaturization of precision optical components offers the opportunity for highly integrated high performance but lowcost devices for a wide field of applications. An increasing amount of examples could be found in the optical communication market and in sensor technology. Basing on several examples, we discuss actual developments in both fields.

  15. Nanostructure-based optical fibre sensor systems and examples of their application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willsch, Reinhardt; Ecke, Wolfgang; Schwotzer, Guenter; Bartelt, Hartmut

    2007-05-01

    The combination of fibre optics with micro- and nano-structure technologies offers great potential for the realisation of novel sensor concepts. Selected examples of advanced optical fibre sensor systems based on sub-wavelength structured components will be presented. Such examples are highly sensitive extrinsic fibre-optic humidity and hydrocarbon sensors for application in gas industry and in environmental monitoring using nano-porous thin-film Fabry-Perot transducer elements, or intrinsic fibre Bragg grating sensor networks for structural health monitoring (i.e., monitoring mechanical strain and deformation, vibration, temperature) in electric power facilities, aerospace, railways and geotechnical engineering as well as for chemical detection (e.g., hydrogen). Additionally, new concepts for chemical and biochemical sensing applying plasmonic metal nano-particles, photonic crystal fibres, and optical nano-wires will be discussed.

  16. A Real Time AI Approach to Discrimination Boost Phase Optical Sensor Systems in SDI Architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sloggett, David R.

    1990-04-01

    Interest has been rekindled in the potential utility of Ballistic Missile Defence (BMD) systems 1,2 and their ability to enhance the existing NATO strategic defence posture 3,4. Whereas in the past BMD systems have been thought to be vulnerable to relatively simple offence countermeasures, technological developments that have occurred over the past 20 years offer the potential to solve some of the main criticisms that have bedeviled BMD research since its inception in the early 1950s. One of the key areas where dramatic developments have taken place is in the field of electro-optic sensor technologies where developments in device sensitivity and packing density offer new solutions to threat detection, tracking and discrimination that complement data traditionally associated with radar based systems. Analysis has shown 5 that optical sensor systems can make a significant contribution to threat analysis in the boost and mid course phases of flight of ballistic missile systems. In the Boost phase the large amounts of energy contained within the plume of a ballistic missile system provides a signature that must be detected against cloud and earth backgrounds - necessitating viewing from space. The process of detection is complicated by reflected sunlight and other sources of false alarms. The optical sensor systems must therefore be adaptable and capable of reasoning about the location of the signatures, their persistence and temporal variations. Much of this processing is ideally carried out at the sensor system - in order to eliminate false alarms and reduce the communications bandwidths required to transfer the sensor data to centralised early warning and battle management facilities. In the mid course phase optical sensor systems can be used to detect warm objects against the background of deep space. These sensor systems can form tracks on these objects that can be merged into 3D tracks as data from individual sensor systems are combined. As closely spaced objects

  17. Some Progress In The Development Of An Optical Readout System For The LISA Gravitational Reference Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acernese, Fausto; De Rosa, Rosario; Di Fiore, Luciano; Garufi, Fabio; La Rana, Adele; Milano, Leopoldo

    2006-11-01

    In this paper, we report on the progress in the development of an optical read-out (ORO) system for the inertial sensor of the LISA gravitational wave antenna. The device is based on optical levers and position sensors and is intended to be integrated in the present baseline design for the LISA inertial sensor, which is based on capacitive readout of the test mass position. In particular, we report some improved measurement of the sensitivity of this device, performed with a bench-top rigid set-up and tests on a real scale prototype.

  18. Distributed fiber optic intrusion sensor system for monitoring long perimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juarez, Juan C.; Taylor, Henry F.

    2005-05-01

    The use of an optical fiber as a distributed sensor for detecting and locating intruders over long perimeters (>10 km) is described. Phase changes resulting from either the pressure of the intruder on the ground immediately above the buried fiber or from seismic disturbances in the vicinity are sensed by a phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometer (Φ-OTDR). Light pulses from a cw laser operating in a single longitudinal mode and with low (MHz/min range) frequency drift are injected into one end of the single mode fiber, and the backscattered light is monitored with a photodetector. In laboratory tests with 12 km of fiber on reels, the effects of localized phase perturbations induced by a piezoelectric fiber stretcher on Φ-OTDR traces were characterized. In field tests in which the sensing element is a single mode fiber in a 3-mm diameter cable buried in a 20-46 cm deep, 10 cm wide trench in clay soil, detection of intruders on foot up to 4.6 m from the cable line was achieved. In desert terrain field tests in which the sensing fiber is in a 4.5-mm diameter cable buried in a 30 cm deep, 75 cm wide trench filled with loose sand, high sensitivity and consistent detection of intruders on foot and of vehicles traveling down a road near the cable line was realized over a cable length of 8.5 km and a total fiber path of 19 km. Based on these results, this technology may be regarded as a candidate for providing low-cost perimeter security for nuclear power plants, electrical power distribution centers, storage facilities for fuel and volatile chemicals, communication hubs, airports, government offices, military bases, embassies, and national borders.

  19. Fiber optic liquid level sensor system for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazemi, Alex A.; Yang, Chenging; Chen, Shiping

    2014-09-01

    Detection of the liquid level in fuel tank becomes a critical element for the safety and efficiency in aerospace operations. Two liquid level sensing techniques are presented in this paper. The first technique is based on optical fiber Long Period Gratings (LPG). In this system, the full length of a specially fabricated fiber is the body of the probe because the length of the sensing fiber that is submerged in the liquid can be detected by the interrogation system. The second system based on Total Internal Reflection (TIR) uses optical fibers to guide light to and from an array of point probes. These probes are specially fabricated, miniature optical components which reflects a substantial amount of light back into the lead fiber when the probe is gas but almost no light when it is in liquid. A detailed theoretical study by computer simulation was carried out on these two techniques in order to determine which technique was more suitable for experimental investigation. The study revealed that although the first technique may provide more potential benefits in terms of weight and easy installation; a number of technical challenges make it not suitable for a short term solution. The second, probe array based technique, on the other hand, is more mature technically. The rest of the research program was therefore focused on the experimental investigation of the probe array detection technique and the test results are presented in this paper.

  20. Application of a Fiber Optic Distributed Strain Sensor System to Woven E-Glass Composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anastasi, Robert F.; Lopatin, Craig

    2001-01-01

    A distributed strain sensing system utilizing a series of identically written Bragg gratings along an optical fiber is examined for potential application to Composite Armored Vehicle health monitoring. A vacuum assisted resin transfer molding process was used to fabricate a woven fabric E-glass/composite panel with an embedded fiber optic strain sensor. Test samples machined from the panel were mechanically tested in 4-point bending. Experimental results are presented that show the mechanical strain from foil strain gages comparing well to optical strain from the embedded sensors. Also, it was found that the distributed strain along the sample length was consistent with the loading configuration.

  1. Spectrum-modulating fiber-optic sensors for aircraft control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beheim, Glenn; Fritsch, Klaus

    1987-01-01

    A family of fiber-optic sensors for aircraft engine control systems is described. Each of these sensors uses a spectrum-modulation method to obtain an output which is largely independent of the fiber link transmissivity. A position encoder is described which uses a code plate to digitally modulate the sensor output spectrum. Also described are pressure and temperature sensors, each of which uses a Fabry-Perot cavity to modulate the sensor output spectrum as a continuous function of the measurand. A technique is described whereby a collection of these sensors may be effectively combined to perform a number of the measurements which are required by an aircraft-engine control system.

  2. Continuous monitoring of large civil structures using a digital fiber optic motion sensor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodge, Malcolm H.; Kausel, Theodore C., Jr.

    1998-03-01

    There is no single attribute which can always predict structural deterioration. Accordingly, we have developed a scheme for monitoring a wide range of incipient deterioration parameters, all based on a single motion sensor concept. In this presentation, we describe how an intrinsically low power- consumption fiber optic harness can be permanently deployed to poll an array of optical sensors. The function and design of these simple, durable, and naturally digital sensors is described, along with the manner in which they have been configured to collect information for changes in the most important structural aspects. The SIMS system is designed to interrogate each sensor up to five-thousand times per second for the life of the structure, and to report sensor data back to a remote computer base for current and long-term analysis, and is directed primarily towards bridges. By suitably modifying the actuation of this very precise motion sensor, SIMS is able to track bridge deck deflection and vibration, expansion joint travel, concrete and rebar corrosion, pothole development, pier scour and tilt. Other sensors will track bolt clamp load, cable tension, and metal fatigue. All of these data are received within microseconds, which means that appropriate computer algorithm manipulations can be carried out to correlate one sensor with other sensors in real time. This internal verification feature automatically enhances confidence in the system's predictive ability and alerts the user to any anomalous behavior.

  3. Scour monitoring system of subsea pipeline using distributed Brillouin optical sensors based on active thermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xue-Feng; Li, Le; Ba, Qin; Ou, Jin-Ping

    2012-10-01

    A scour monitoring system of subsea pipeline is proposed using distributed Brillouin optical sensors based on active thermometry. The system consists in a thermal cable running parallel to the pipeline, which acquires frequency shift of optical sensors during heating and cooling, directly indicating temperature change. The free spans can be detected through the different behaviors of heat transfer between in-water and in-sediment scenarios. Three features were extracted from temperature time histories including magnitude, spatial continuity and temporal stability. Several experimental tests were conducted using the proposed system. The results substantiate the monitoring technique.

  4. Plastic optical fiber hydrogen detection sensor systems for harsh environment in aerospace application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazemi, Alex A.; Goswami, Kish; Mendoza, Edward; Kempen, Lothar

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes the 1st successful Plastic Optical Fiber (POF) cable and Glass Optical Fiber (GOF) hydrogen detection sensor systems developed for the Boeing Evolved Expandable Lunch Vehicle (EELV) Delta IV Launch Vehicle harsh environment of engine section. H2 sensors are necessary to monitor the possible leak of rocket prior launch to avoid explosion, which can be highly dangerous. Due to harsh environment of launch vehicle, we developed the first combination of 100 m POF and glass fiber H2 sensors. The hydrogen sensor consisted of optrodes distributed at multiple locations along a fiber optic cable-based network. These hydrogen sensors were used on the Common Booster Core (CBC) of Delta IV had to perform in temperatures between -18° C and +60° C. The hydrogen sensor sensitive chemistry was fully reversible and had demonstrated a response to hydrogen gas in the range of 0% to 10% with a resolution of 0.1 % and a response time of 5 seconds measured at a gas flow rate of 1 cc/mm. The optical signature of the optrode in the visible spectrum varied proportionally to the local hydrogen gas concentration. To qualify the POF and fiber optic cables, performed detail investigation for attenuation loss, thermal, humidity, temperature, vibration and accelerate testing for life expectancy. Extensive networking using LabView were carried out for lab and actual field demonstrations.

  5. Fiber optic oxygen sensor detection system for harsh environments of aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazemi, Alex A.; Mendoza, Edgar; Goswami, Kish; Kempen, Lothar

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes the first successful fiber optic oxygen detection sensor systems developed for the Boeing Delta IV Launch Vehicle harsh environment of engine section. It illustrates a novel multi-point fiber optic microsensor (optrode) based on dynamic luminescence quenching that was developed for measuring oxygen leak detection for the space applications. The sensor optrodes employ the quenching by oxygen of the fluorescence from a ruthenium complex. These optrodes were fabricated using Ruthenium-based fluorescent indicator immobilized in a porous glass rod placed at the end of multimode fiber. The light from a blue LED is launched into the optrode via a fiber optic bundle and used as the excitation source. The optrode's fluorescent emission intensity in the range of 0% to 10% oxygen is measured as a function of time. The measuring system is based on high reliability and low cost. The system consists of four units: 1) temperature compensated oxygen optrodes combined with an optical setup, 2) multipoint sensor communication fiber optic network cable, 3) digital/analogue optoelectronic signal processing unit with built-in micro controller for control of data acquisition and processing, and 4) a laptop computer for data display and storage. In testing, the sensor exhibited excellent response time and reversibility. To qualify the sensors, performed detail investigation for thermal, humidity, temperature, vibration and accelerate testing for life expectancy of harsh environmental of engine section. Extensive networking using MatLab were carried out for lab and actual field demonstrations.

  6. Design and study on optic fiber sensor detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xuemei; Liu, Quan; Liang, Xiaoyu; Lin, Haiyan

    2005-11-01

    With the development of industry and agriculture, the environmental pollution becomes more and more serious. Various kinds of poisonous gas are the important pollution sources. Various kinds of poisonous gas, such as the carbon monoxide, sulfureted hydrogen, sulfur dioxide, methane, acetylene are threatening human normal life and production seriously especially today when industry and various kinds of manufacturing industries develop at full speed. The acetylene is a kind of gas with very lively chemical property, extremely apt to burn, resolve and explode, and it is great to destroy things among these poisonous gases. Comparing with other inflammable and explosive gas, the explosion range of the acetylene is heavier. Therefore carrying on monitoring acetylene pollution sources scene in real time, grasping the state of pollution taking place and development in time, have very important meanings. Aim at the above problems, a set of optical fiber detection system of acetylene gas based on the characteristic of spectrum absorption of acetylene is presented in this paper, which has reference channel and is for on-line and real-time detection. In order to eliminate the effect of other factors on measurement precision, the double light sources, double light paths and double cells are used in this system. Because of the use of double wavelength compensating method, this system can eliminate the disturbance in the optical paths, the problem of instability is solved and the measurement precision is greatly enhanced. Some experimental results are presented at the end of this paper.

  7. Shaft Position Optical Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumenstock, Kenneth A. (Inventor); Hakum, Claef F. (Inventor); Johnson, Clarence S. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is an optical sensor that senses the movement of a shaft. Detection of radial movement is made when a portion of light incident on the shaft sensor-target is blocked. For detection of axial movement, a disk with flat surface is mounted and used to block a portion of light. The variation in the amount of light allowed to pass through is a measure of the position of the shaft. As proposed by this invention, significant improvement is made with respect to sensitivity and linearity of the system when the light is permanently partially blocked. To accomplish this goal this invention adds a boss to the system. To eliminate possible drift of system performance due to LED degradation or temperature variation, a feedback feature is added to the system.

  8. Control systems using modal domain optical fiber sensors for smart structure applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindner, Douglas K.; Reichard, Karl M.

    1991-01-01

    Recently, a new class of sensors has emerged for structural control which respond to environmental changes over a significant gauge length; these sensors are called distributed-effect sensors. These sensors can be fabricated with spatially varying sensitivity to the distributed measurand, and can be configured to measure a variety of structural parameters which can not be measured directly using point sensors. Examples of distributed-effect sensors include piezoelectric film, holographic sensors, and modal domain optical fiber sensors. Optical fiber sensors are particularly attractive for smart structure applications because they are flexible, have low mass, and can easily be embedded directly into materials. In this paper we describe the implementation of weighted modal domain optical fiber sensors. The mathematical model of the modal domain optical fiber sensor model is described and used to derive an expression for the sensor sensitivity. The effects of parameter variations on the sensor sensitivity are demonstrated to illustrate methods of spatially varying the sensor sensitivity.

  9. Control systems using modal domain optical fiber sensors for smart structure applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindner, Douglas K.; Reichard, Karl M.

    1991-01-01

    Recently, a new class of sensors has emerged for structural control which respond to environmental changes over a significant gauge length; these sensors are called distributed-effect sensors. These sensors can be fabricated with spatially varying sensitivity to the distributed measurand, and can be configured to measure a variety of structural parameters which can not be measured directly using point sensors. Examples of distributed-effect sensors include piezoelectric film, holographic sensors, and modal domain optical fiber sensors. Optical fiber sensors are particularly attractive for smart structure applications because they are flexible, have low mass, and can easily be embedded directly into materials. In this paper we describe the implementation of weighted modal domain optical fiber sensors. The mathematical model of the modal domain optical fiber sensor model is described and used to derive an expression for the sensor sensitivity. The effects of parameter variations on the sensor sensitivity are demonstrated to illustrate methods of spatially varying the sensor sensitivity.

  10. Deployment optimization of electro-optical sensor systems for naval missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Valkenburg-Haarst, Tanja Y. C.; van Norden, Wilbert L.; van der Meiden, Hilderick A.; ten Holter, Koen P. A.

    2010-10-01

    In today's naval missions, such as anti-piracy or counter-drugs operations, Electro-Optical (EO) sensors play an increasingly important role. In particular, these sensors are essential for classification and identification of targets. These tasks are traditionally performed by human operators, but because the complexity of today's missions, in combination with reduced manning, automating the information processing of EO sensors is increasingly necessary. This paper discusses the contribution of EO sensor systems to the picture compilation process, and how the deployment of EO sensors can be optimized for current naval missions. In particular, we discuss automation techniques for detection, classification and identification using EO sensors. Based on our findings, we give recommendations for future research.

  11. Distributed optical fiber temperature sensor applied in underground coal gasification system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianfeng; Hu, Chuanlong; Zhang, Zaixuan; Gong, Huaping; Jin, Yongxing; Shen, Changyu

    2010-12-01

    Distributed optical fiber temperature sensor (DTS) for underground coal gasification (UCG) system using is studied in this paper. By measuring temperature of reacting mine gasification process can be controlled. Calibration of DTS and experiment result are introduced. The results show that, DTS can play an important role in UCG systems.

  12. Virtual touch 3D interactive system for autostereoscopic display with embedded optical sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yi-Pai; Wang, Guo-Zhen; Ma, Ming-Ching; Tung, Shang-Yu; Huang, Shu-Yi; Tseng, Hung-Wei; Kuo, Chung-Hong; Li, Chun-Huai

    2011-06-01

    The traidational 3D interactive sysetm which uses CCD camera to capture image is difficult to operate on near range for mobile applications.Therefore, 3D interactive display with embedded optical sensor was proposed. Based on optical sensor based system, we proposed four different methods to support differenct functions. T mark algorithm can obtain 5- axis information (x, y, z,θ, and φ)of LED no matter where LED was vertical or inclined to panel and whatever it rotated. Sequential mark algorithm and color filter based algorithm can support mulit-user. Finally, bare finger touch system with sequential illuminator can achieve to interact with auto-stereoscopic images by bare finger. Furthermore, the proposed methods were verified on a 4-inch panel with embedded optical sensors.

  13. Infrared Fiber Optic Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Successive years of Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts from Langley Research Center to Sensiv Inc., a joint venture between Foster-Miller Inc. and Isorad, Ltd., assisted in the creation of remote fiber optic sensing systems. NASA's SBIR interest in infrared, fiber optic sensor technology was geared to monitoring the curing cycles of advanced composite materials. These funds helped in the fabrication of an infrared, fiber optic sensor to track the molecular vibrational characteristics of a composite part while it is being cured. Foster-Miller ingenuity allowed infrared transmitting optical fibers to combine with Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy to enable remote sensing. Sensiv probes operate in the mid-infrared range of the spectrum, although modifications to the instrument also permits its use in the near-infrared region. The Sensiv needle-probe is built to be placed in a liquid or powder and analyze the chemicals in the mixture. Other applications of the probe system include food processing control; combustion control in furnaces; and maintenance problem solving.

  14. Real time optical figure sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, H. J.

    1973-01-01

    Mirrors produced for various optical systems require precise surface finishing. Sensor, developed for measuring mirror surface, is compensated for interferences from temperature and air disturbances and is capable of measuring mirrors with diameters of up to 2 meters.

  15. Fiber optic coupled optical sensor

    DOEpatents

    Fleming, Kevin J.

    2001-01-01

    A displacement sensor includes a first optical fiber for radiating light to a target, and a second optical fiber for receiving light from the target. The end of the first fiber is adjacent and not axially aligned with the second fiber end. A lens focuses light from the first fiber onto the target and light from the target onto the second fiber.

  16. Fiber optic sensor for angular position measurement: application for an electrical power-assisted steering system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javahiraly, Nicolas; Chakari, Ayoub

    2013-05-01

    To achieve a very effective automotive power steering system, we need two important data, the angular position of the wheel and the torque applied on the shaft by the driver of the car. We present a new accurate optical fiber angular position sensor connected to an automotive power steering column. In this new design, the sensor allows the measurement of the angular position of a car steering wheel over a large and adjustable range (± several turns of the wheel). The wheel rotation induces micro-bending in the transducer part of the optical fiber sensing system. This system operates as an amplitude modulation sensor based on mode coupling in the transducing fiber in the case when all the modes are equally excited. We study the sensor response both theoretically and experimentally with a multimode step index optical fiber [rf (fiber radius) = 300 μm rc (core radius) = 50 μm nc (core index) = 1,457; N.A. = 0, 22 and the wavelength is 632,8 nm at the ambient Temperature (20°C)]. We show that the sensitivity can be controlled as a function of the sensor's length. We compare modeling and experimental validation and we conclude with a perspective on what could soon be an industrial sensor.

  17. Development of Landslide Early Warning System Using Macro-bending Loss Based Optical Fibre Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzuki, Ahmad; Heriyanto, Muhammad; Dedy Setiyadi, Ika; Koesuma, Sorja

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the design of a simple and cheap landslide early warning system which mainly consists of a displacement fibre sensor, mechanical displacement converter, and Short Messaging Service (SMS) gateway equipped with a siren. Displacement fibre optic sensors were made by wrapping a polymer optical fibre (POF) around a holey elastic cylinder connected to a mechanical displacement converter that converts a real land displacement in centimetres order of magnitude into millimetres order that fibre optic sensor can detect. From the experimental results we suggest an optical fibre sensor that has ability to monitor land displacement in the range of 40 cm, sensitivity of (5.9 ± 0.2) dB/cm and linearity 99.5% as well as the way of improving sensor performance to meet the real need. A whole system has been tested making use of a slider attached to the mechanical displacement converter. Once a nonzero continuous displacement for 5 seconds or a downward land displacement of 10.0 cm occurs, the system will activate the siren and spread an alert via SMS automatically.

  18. Miniaturized multi channel infrared optical gas sensor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wöllenstein, Jürgen; Eberhardt, Andre; Rademacher, Sven; Schmitt, Katrin

    2011-06-01

    Infrared spectroscopy uses the characteristic absorption of the molecules in the mid infrared and allows the determination of the gases and their concentration. Especially by the absorption at longer wavelengths between 8 μm and 12 μm, the so called "fingerprint" region, the molecules can be measured with highest selectivity. We present an infrared optical filter photometer for the analytical determination of trace gases in the air. The challenge in developing the filter photometer was the construction of a multi-channel system using a novel filter wheel concept - which acts as a chopper too- in order to measure simultaneously four gases: carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane and ammonia. The system consists of a broadband infrared emitter, a long path cell with 1.7m optical path length, a filter wheel and analogue and digital signal processing. Multi channel filter photometers normally need one filter and one detector per target gas. There are small detection units with one, two or more detectors with integrated filters available on the market. One filter is normally used as reference at a wavelength without any cross-sensitivities to possible interfering gases (e.g. at 3.95 μm is an "atmospheric window" - a small spectral band without absorbing gases in the atmosphere). The advantage of a filter-wheel set-up is that a single IR-detector can be used, which reduces the signal drift enormously. Pyroelectric and thermopile detectors are often integrated in these kinds of spectrometers. For both detector types a modulation of the light is required and can be done - without an additional chopper - with the filter wheel.

  19. Micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS)-based fiber optic sensor and sensor network for improving weapon stabilization and fire control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Sean Z.; Xu, Guoda; Qiu, Wei; Lin, Freddie S.; Testa, Robert C.; Mattice, Michael S.

    2000-08-01

    A MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS)-based fiber optic sensor and sensor network for improving weapon stabilization and fire control have been developed. Fabrication involves overwriting two fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) onto a polarization-preserving optical fiber core. A MEMS diaphragm is fabricated and integrated with the overlaid FBGs to enhance the performance and reliability of the sensor. A simulation model for the MEMS fiber optic sensor and sensor network has been derived, and simulation results concerning load, angle, strain, and temperature have been obtained. The fabricated MEMS diaphragm and the overlaid FBGs have been packaged together on the basis of simulation results and mounted on a specially designed cantilever system. The combined multifunctional MEMS fiber optic sensor and sensor network is cost-effective, fast, rugged enough to operate in harsh environmental conditions, compact, and highly sensitive.

  20. Fiber optic geophysical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Homuth, Emil F.

    1991-01-01

    A fiber optic geophysical sensor in which laser light is passed through a sensor interferometer in contact with a geophysical event, and a reference interferometer not in contact with the geophysical event but in the same general environment as the sensor interferometer. In one embodiment, a single tunable laser provides the laser light. In another embodiment, separate tunable lasers are used for the sensor and reference interferometers. The invention can find such uses as monitoring for earthquakes, and the weighing of objects.

  1. Relative humidity multi-point optical sensors system based on fast Fourier multiplexing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Aldaba, A.; Lopez-Torres, D.; Elosua, C.; Auguste, J.-L.; Jamier, R.; Roy, P.; Arregui, F. J.; Lopez-Amo, M.

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, a new multipoint optical fiber system for relative humidity measurements based on SnO2-FP (Fabry-Pérot) sensing heads and an optical interrogator as single active device is presented and characterized. The interrogation of the sensing heads is carried out by monitoring the Fast Fourier Transform phase variations of the FP (Fabry-Pérot) interference frequencies. This method allows to multiplex several sensors with different wavelength spacing interference pattern. The sensors operate within a wide humidity range (20%-90% relative humidity) with low crosstalk between them. Five sensing heads have been measured using two different channels of the optical interrogator. The availability of four channels in the interrogator allows to multiplex a higher number of sensors, reducing proportionally the cost of each sensing point.

  2. Advances In Optical Fiber Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, J. H.; Giallorenzi, T. G.; Bucaro, J. A.

    1981-07-01

    Over the past several years, a new non-communication optical fiber application has emerged. This application utilizes optical fibers for sensing. Initial interest centered around rate rotation sensing. Since that time, however, acoustic, magnetic, and temperature sensing utilizing optical fibers has evolved into a viable research effort with significant potential payoff. As an example, laboratory fiber optic acoustic sensors now rival the best sensitivity obtained with piezoelectric ceramics. These sensors possess a unique geometric versatility previously unavailable. In conjunction with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), the Navy has begun a Fiber Optic Sensor System (FOSS) program to develop associated technology necessary to realize these sensors. Substantial effort is ongoing at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and other Navy laboratories with considerable contractual effort from universities and industry. This paper reviews the status of the FOSS program.

  3. Fiber optic liquid level monitoring system using microstructured polymer fiber Bragg grating array sensors: performance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, C. A. F.; Pospori, A.; Sáez-Rodríguez, D.; Nielsen, K.; Bang, O.; Webb, D. J.

    2015-09-01

    A highly sensitive liquid level monitoring system based on microstructured polymer optical fiber Bragg grating (mPOFBG) array sensors is reported for the first time. The configuration is based on five mPOFBGs inscribed in the same fiber in the 850 nm spectral region, showing the potential to interrogate liquid level by measuring the strain induced in each mPOFBG embedded in a silicone rubber (SR) diaphragm, which deforms due to hydrostatic pressure variations. The sensor exhibits a highly linear response over the sensing range, a good repeatability, and a high resolution. The sensitivity of the sensor is found to be 98 pm/cm of water, enhanced by more than a factor of 9 when compared to an equivalent sensor based on a silica fiber around 1550 nm. The temperature sensitivity is studied and a multi-sensor arrangement proposed, which has the potential to provide level readings independent of temperature and the liquid density.

  4. Advanced spectral fiber optic sensor systems and their application in energy facility monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willsch, Reinhardt; Ecke, Wolfgang; Bosselmann, Thomas; Willsch, Michael; Lindner, Eric; Bartelt, Hartmut

    2011-06-01

    Various spectral-encoded fiber optic sensor concepts and advanced system solutions for application in energy facility monitoring have been investigated. The technological maturity, high performance and reliability of multiplexed fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor arrays and networks for the measurement of temperature, dynamic strain, air flow, and magnetic field distributions in electric power generators increasing their efficiency will be demonstrated by selected examples of field testing under harsh environmental conditions. For high-temperature combustion monitoring in gas turbines, beside silica FBGs with enhanced temperature stability also sapphire FBGs and Fabry-Perot sensors have been tested and evaluated as well as fiber-based black-body thermal radiation sensors. Finally, the potential of FBG sensors for application in cryo-energetic facilities such as super-conductive high-power motors and experimental nuclear fusion reactors will be discussed.

  5. Fiber optic vibration sensor

    DOEpatents

    Dooley, J.B.; Muhs, J.D.; Tobin, K.W.

    1995-01-10

    A fiber optic vibration sensor utilizes two single mode optical fibers supported by a housing with one optical fiber fixedly secured to the housing and providing a reference signal and the other optical fiber having a free span length subject to vibrational displacement thereof with respect to the housing and the first optical fiber for providing a signal indicative of a measurement of any perturbation of the sensor. Damping or tailoring of the sensor to be responsive to selected levels of perturbation is provided by altering the diameter of optical fibers or by immersing at least a portion of the free span length of the vibration sensing optical fiber into a liquid of a selected viscosity. 2 figures.

  6. Fiber optic vibration sensor

    DOEpatents

    Dooley, Joseph B.; Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Tobin, Kenneth W.

    1995-01-01

    A fiber optic vibration sensor utilizes two single mode optical fibers supported by a housing with one optical fiber fixedly secured to the housing and providing a reference signal and the other optical fiber having a free span length subject to vibrational displacement thereof with respect to the housing and the first optical fiber for providing a signal indicative of a measurement of any perturbation of the sensor. Damping or tailoring of the sensor to be responsive to selected levels of perturbation is provided by altering the diameter of optical fibers or by immersing at least a portion of the free span length of the vibration sensing optical fiber into a liquid of a selected viscosity.

  7. Fiber Optic Engineering Sensor System. Preliminary Program Management Plan. Phase 3 Revision.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-01

    1163 ŗ FIBER OPTIC ENGINEERING SENSOR SYSTEM PRELIMINARY 1 PROGIRM MNAGEMENT PLAIN PHASE 3 REVISION(U) NKF ENGINEERING INC RESTON YR JUL 6? MKF-U13...3 3.1 DESIGN PHASE ......................................................................... 3 3.1.1 Electro

  8. Fiber optic sensing systems using high frequency resonant sensing heads with intensity sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamovsky, Grigory; Maitland, Duncan J., IV

    1988-01-01

    Optical fibers have an inherent capability of transmitting high bandwidth analog and digital signals. To apply this property of fiber optics to remote sensing, special sensing heads as well as signal processing electronics have to be developed. In systems employing intensity modulating sensors, there is also a need for a referencing technique to compensate for changes in the transmission of the connecting fibers and light source intensity. Fiber optic sensing systems incorporated in sensing heads of a special configuration are discussed. Different modes of operation as well as resonant conditions are explained. Theoretical and experimental analyses are also given.

  9. Fiber optic sensing systems using high frequency resonant sensing heads with intensity sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamovsky, Grigory; Maitland, Duncan J., IV

    1989-01-01

    Optical fibers have an inherent capability of transmitting high bandwidth analog and digital signals. To apply this property of fiber optics to remote sensing, special sensing heads as well as signal processing electronics have to be developed. In systems employing intensity modulating sensors, there is also a need for a referencing technique to compensate for changes in the transmission of the connecting fibers and light source intensity. Fiber optic sensing systems incorporated in sensing heads of a special configuration are discussed. Different modes of operation as well as resonant conditions are explained. Theoretical and experimental analyses are also given.

  10. Fiber optic sensing systems using high frequency resonant sensing heads with intensity sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamovsky, Grigory; Maitland, Duncan J., IV

    1989-01-01

    Optical fibers have an inherent capability of transmitting high bandwidth analog and digital signals. To apply this property of fiber optics to remote sensing, special sensing heads as well as signal processing electronics have to be developed. In systems employing intensity modulating sensors, there is also a need for a referencing technique to compensate for changes in the transmission of the connecting fibers and light source intensity. Fiber optic sensing systems incorporated in sensing heads of a special configuration are discussed. Different modes of operation as well as resonant conditions are explained. Theoretical and experimental analyses are also given.

  11. Review of high-speed fiber optic grating sensor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udd, Eric; Benterou, Jerry; May, Chadd; Mihailov, Stephen J.; Lu, Ping

    2010-04-01

    Fiber grating sensors can be used to support a wide variety of high speed measurement applications. This includes measurements of vibrations on bridges, traffic monitoring on freeways, ultrasonic detection to support non-destructive tests on metal plates, and providing details of detonation events. This paper provides a brief overview of some of the techniques that have been used to support high speed measurements using fiber grating sensors over frequency ranges from 10s of kHz, to MHZ and finally toward frequencies approaching the GHz regime.

  12. Overview of Fiber-Optical Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Depaula, Ramon P.; Moore, Emery L.

    1987-01-01

    Design, development, and sensitivity of sensors using fiber optics reviewed. State-of-the-art and probable future developments of sensors using fiber optics described in report including references to work in field. Serves to update previously published surveys. Systems incorporating fiber-optic sensors used in medical diagnosis, navigation, robotics, sonar, power industry, and industrial controls.

  13. Overview of Fiber-Optical Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Depaula, Ramon P.; Moore, Emery L.

    1987-01-01

    Design, development, and sensitivity of sensors using fiber optics reviewed. State-of-the-art and probable future developments of sensors using fiber optics described in report including references to work in field. Serves to update previously published surveys. Systems incorporating fiber-optic sensors used in medical diagnosis, navigation, robotics, sonar, power industry, and industrial controls.

  14. Multiplexed Optical Fiber Sensors for Coal Fired Advanced Fossil Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Anbo; Pickrell, Gary

    2012-03-31

    This report summarizes technical progress on the program Multiplexed Optical Fiber Sensors for Coal Fired Advanced Fossil Energy Systems funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed jointly by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at Virginia Tech. This three-year project started on October 1, 2008. In the project, a fiber optical sensing system based on intrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometer (IFPI) was developed for strain and temperature measurements for Ultra Supercritical boiler condition assessment. Investigations were focused on sensor design, fabrication, attachment techniques and novel materials for high temperature and strain measurements. At the start of the project, the technical requirements for the sensing technology were determined together with our industrial partner Alstom Power. As is demonstrated in Chapter 4, all the technical requirements are successfully met. The success of the technology extended beyond laboratory test; its capability was further validated through the field test at DOE NETL, in which the sensors yielded distributed temperature mapping of a testing coupon installed in the turbine test rig. The measurement results agreed well with prior results generated with thermocouples. In this project, significant improvements were made to the IFPI sensor technology by splicing condition optimization, transmission loss reduction, sensor signal demodulation and sensor system design.

  15. A distributed fiber optic sensor system for dike monitoring using Brillouin optical frequency domain analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nöther, Nils; Wosniok, Aleksander; Krebber, Katerina; Thiele, Elke

    2008-03-01

    We report on the development of a complete system for spatially resolved detection of critical soil displacement in river embankments. The system uses Brillouin frequency domain analysis (BOFDA) for distributed measurement of strain in silica optical fibers. Our development consists of the measurement unit, an adequate coating for the optical fibers and a technique to integrate the coated optical fibers into geotextiles as they are commonly used in dike construction. We present several laboratory and field tests that prove the capability of the system to detect areas of soil displacement as small as 2 meters. These are the first tests of truly distributed strain measurements on optical fibers embedded into geosynthetics.

  16. Accurate and automatic extrinsic calibration method for blade measurement system integrated by different optical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Wantao; Li, Zhongwei; Zhong, Kai; Shi, Yusheng; Zhao, Can; Cheng, Xu

    2014-11-01

    Fast and precise 3D inspection system is in great demand in modern manufacturing processes. At present, the available sensors have their own pros and cons, and hardly exist an omnipotent sensor to handle the complex inspection task in an accurate and effective way. The prevailing solution is integrating multiple sensors and taking advantages of their strengths. For obtaining a holistic 3D profile, the data from different sensors should be registrated into a coherent coordinate system. However, some complex shape objects own thin wall feather such as blades, the ICP registration method would become unstable. Therefore, it is very important to calibrate the extrinsic parameters of each sensor in the integrated measurement system. This paper proposed an accurate and automatic extrinsic parameter calibration method for blade measurement system integrated by different optical sensors. In this system, fringe projection sensor (FPS) and conoscopic holography sensor (CHS) is integrated into a multi-axis motion platform, and the sensors can be optimally move to any desired position at the object's surface. In order to simple the calibration process, a special calibration artifact is designed according to the characteristics of the two sensors. An automatic registration procedure based on correlation and segmentation is used to realize the artifact datasets obtaining by FPS and CHS rough alignment without any manual operation and data pro-processing, and then the Generalized Gauss-Markoff model is used to estimate the optimization transformation parameters. The experiments show the measurement result of a blade, where several sampled patches are merged into one point cloud, and it verifies the performance of the proposed method.

  17. Microelectromechanical system pressure sensor integrated onto optical fiber by anodic bonding.

    PubMed

    Saran, Anish; Abeysinghe, Don C; Boyd, Joseph T

    2006-03-10

    Optical microelectromechanical system pressure sensors based on the principle of Fabry-Perot interferometry have been developed and fabricated using the technique of silicon-to-silicon anodic bonding. The pressure sensor is then integrated onto an optical fiber by a novel technique of anodic bonding without use of any adhesives. In this anodic bonding technique we use ultrathin silicon of thickness 10 microm to bond the optical fiber to the sensor head. The ultrathin silicon plays the role of a stress-reducing layer, which helps the bonding of an optical fiber to silicon having conventional wafer thickness. The pressure-sensing membrane is formed by 8 microm thick ultrathin silicon acting as a membrane, thus eliminating the need for bulk silicon etching. The pressure sensor integrated onto an optical fiber is tested for static response, and experimental results indicate degradation in the fringe visibility of the Fabry-Perot interferometer. This effect was mainly due to divergent light rays from the fiber degrading the fringe visibility. This effect is demonstrated in brief by an analytical model.

  18. Fiber optic hydrogen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Buchanan, B.R.; Prather, W.S.

    1991-01-01

    Apparatus and method for detecting a chemical substance by exposing an optic fiber having a core and a cladding to the chemical substance so that the chemical substance can be adsorbed onto the surface of the cladding. The optic fiber is coiled inside a container having a pair of valves for controlling the entrance and exit of the substance. Light from a light source is received by one end of the optic fiber, preferably external to the container, and carried by the core of the fiber. Adsorbed substance changes the transmissivity of the fiber as measured by a spectrophotometer at the other end, also preferably external to the container. Hydrogen is detected by the absorption of infrared light carried by an optic fiber with a silica cladding. Since the adsorption is reversible, a sensor according to the present invention can be used repeatedly. Multiple positions in a process system can be monitored using a single container that can be connected to each location to be monitored so that a sample can be obtained for measurement, or, alternatively, containers can be placed near each position and the optic fibers carrying the partially-absorbed light can be multiplexed for rapid sequential reading, by a single spectrophotometer.

  19. Fiber optic hydrogen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Buchanan, Bruce R.; Prather, William S.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus and method for detecting a chemical substance by exposing an optic fiber having a core and a cladding to the chemical substance so that the chemical substance can be adsorbed onto the surface of the cladding. The optic fiber is coiled inside a container having a pair of valves for controlling the entrance and exit of the substance. Light from a light source is received by one end of the optic fiber, preferably external to the container, and carried by the core of the fiber. Adsorbed substance changes the transmissivity of the fiber as measured by a spectrophotometer at the other end, also preferably external to the container. Hydrogen is detected by the absorption of infrared light carried by an optic fiber with a silica cladding. Since the adsorption is reversible, a sensor according to the present invention can be used repeatedly. Multiple positions in a process system can be monitored using a single container that can be connected to each location to be monitored so that a sample can be obtained for measurement, or, alternatively, containers can be placed near each position and the optic fibers carrying the partially-absorbed light can be multiplexed for rapid sequential reading by a single spectrophotometer.

  20. Fiber optic hydrogen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Buchanan, B.R.; Prather, W.S.

    1992-10-06

    An apparatus and method are described for detecting a chemical substance by exposing an optic fiber having a core and a cladding to the chemical substance so that the chemical substance can be adsorbed onto the surface of the cladding. The optic fiber is coiled inside a container having a pair of valves for controlling the entrance and exit of the substance. Light from a light source is received by one end of the optic fiber, preferably external to the container, and carried by the core of the fiber. Adsorbed substance changes the transmissivity of the fiber as measured by a spectrophotometer at the other end, also preferably external to the container. Hydrogen is detected by the absorption of infrared light carried by an optic fiber with a silica cladding. Since the adsorption is reversible, a sensor according to the present invention can be used repeatedly. Multiple positions in a process system can be monitored using a single container that can be connected to each location to be monitored so that a sample can be obtained for measurement, or, alternatively, containers can be placed near each position and the optic fibers carrying the partially-absorbed light can be multiplexed for rapid sequential reading by a single spectrophotometer. 4 figs.

  1. Integration of an autonomous optical sensor system in the machining area of milling centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preißler, Marc; Schellhorn, Mathias; Hoffmann, Rolf; Notni, Gunther

    2015-05-01

    The integration of quality control in manufacturing process contains this paper and discusses the possibilities for integrated quality control in CNC milling machines without clamping off a workpiece. For these concepts non-contact measurements with image processing sensors have significant benefits for data acquisition in rapidity and a high grade of flexibility. New effective measurement strategies can be developed in effect of the quality controlling in the machining area. These includes classical geometric measurement applications from optical 2D but also options for 3D measurement tasks like determining roughness or other typical image processing applications. This paper presents the challenges for the implementation of an optical sensor system in the machining area of milling centers. Primarily a suitable location in the machining area must be found and an associated strategy has to be developed. The integrated optical image sensor system should be protect against impurity and does not derogate in his functionality. For the full integration as a quality control loop, the results must feed into the machine control. Thus a further interface between measurement program and a machine control is necessary. Another major field of research exists in the optical components. Especially the illumination, image sensor and lens are selected and adaptable for the measurement tasks after the considerations of the above-mentioned basic requirements. The presented research provides a suitable solution to make the CNC manufacture more efficient. Quality controls of the work piece can be executed within the CNC process and potential post processing can be performed simultaneously.

  2. Functionality Enhancement of Industrialized Optical Fiber Sensors and System Developed for Full-Scale Pavement Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huaping; Liu, Wanqiu; He, Jianping; Xing, Xiaoying; Cao, Dandan; Gao, Xipeng; Hao, Xiaowei; Cheng, Hongwei; Zhou, Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Pavements always play a predominant role in transportation. Health monitoring of pavements is becoming more and more significant, as frequently suffering from cracks, rutting, and slippage renders them prematurely out of service. Effective and reliable sensing elements are thus in high demand to make prognosis on the mechanical properties and occurrence of damage to pavements. Therefore, in this paper, various types of functionality enhancement of industrialized optical fiber sensors for pavement monitoring are developed, with the corresponding operational principles clarified in theory and the performance double checked by basic experiments. Furthermore, a self-healing optical fiber sensing network system is adopted to accomplish full-scale monitoring of pavements. The application of optical fiber sensors assembly and self-healing network system in pavement has been carried out to validate the feasibility. It has been proved that the research in this article provides a valuable method and meaningful guidance for the integrity monitoring of civil structures, especially pavements. PMID:24854060

  3. Fiber optic temperature sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quick, William H. (Inventor); August, Rudolf R. (Inventor); James, Kenneth A. (Inventor); Strahan, Jr., Virgil H. (Inventor); Nichols, Donald K. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An inexpensive, lightweight fiber optic micro-sensor that is suitable for applications which may require remote temperature sensing. The disclosed temperature sensor includes a phosphor material that, after receiving incident light stimulation, is adapted to emit phosphorescent radiation output signals, the amplitude decay rate and wavelength of which are functions of the sensed temperature.

  4. A Robust Distributed Multipoint Fiber Optic Gas Sensor System Based on AGC Amplifier Structure

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Cunguang; Wang, Rende; Tao, Xuechen; Wang, Guangwei; Wang, Pengpeng

    2016-01-01

    A harsh environment-oriented distributed multipoint fiber optic gas sensor system realized by automatic gain control (AGC) technology is proposed. To improve the photoelectric signal reliability, the electronic variable gain can be modified in real time by an AGC closed-loop feedback structure to compensate for optical transmission loss which is caused by the fiber bend loss or other reasons. The deviation of the system based on AGC structure is below 4.02% when photoelectric signal decays due to fiber bending loss for bending radius of 5 mm, which is 20 times lower than the ordinary differential system. In addition, the AGC circuit with the same electric parameters can keep the baseline intensity of signals in different channels of the distributed multipoint sensor system at the same level. This avoids repetitive calibrations and streamlines the installation process. PMID:27483267

  5. Inertial and optical sensor fusion to compensate for partial occlusions in surgical tracking systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Changyu; Liu, Yue

    2015-08-01

    To solve the occlusion problem in optical tracking system (OTS) for surgical navigation, this paper proposes a sensor fusion approach and an adaptive display method to handle cases where partial or total occlusion occurs. In the sensor fusion approach, the full 6D pose information provided by the optical tracker is used to estimate the bias of the inertial sensors when all of the markers are visible. When partial occlusion occurs, the optical system can track the position of at least one marker which can be combined with the orientation estimated from the inertial measurements to recover the full 6D pose information. When all the markers are invisible, the position tracking will be realized based on outputs of the Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) which may generate increasing drifting error. To alert the user when the drifting error is great enough to influence the navigation, the images adaptive to the drifting error are displayed in the field of the user's view. The experiments are performed with an augmented reality HMD which displays the AR images and the hybrid tracking system (HTS) which consists of an OTS and an IMU. Experimental result shows that with proposed sensor fusion approach the 6D pose of the head with respect to the reference frame can be estimated even under partial occlusion conditions. With the help of the proposed adaptive display method, the users can recover the scene of markers when the error is considered to be relatively high.

  6. Diffraction-based optical sensor detection system for capture-restricted environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandekar, Rahul M.; Nikulin, Vladimir V.

    2008-04-01

    The use of digital cameras and camcorders in prohibited areas presents a growing problem. Piracy in the movie theaters results in huge revenue loss to the motion picture industry every year, but still image and video capture may present even a bigger threat if performed in high-security locations. While several attempts are being made to address this issue, an effective solution is yet to be found. We propose to approach this problem using a very commonly observed optical phenomenon. Cameras and camcorders use CCD and CMOS sensors, which include a number of photosensitive elements/pixels arranged in a certain fashion. Those are photosites in CCD sensors and semiconductor elements in CMOS sensors. They are known to reflect a small fraction of incident light, but could also act as a diffraction grating, resulting in the optical response that could be utilized to identify the presence of such a sensor. A laser-based detection system is proposed that accounts for the elements in the optical train of the camera, as well as the eye-safety of the people who could be exposed to optical beam radiation. This paper presents preliminary experimental data, as well as the proof-of-concept simulation results.

  7. Real-time distributed fiber optic sensor for security systems: Performance, event classification and nuisance mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, Seedahmed S.; Visagathilagar, Yuvaraja; Katsifolis, Jim

    2012-09-01

    The success of any perimeter intrusion detection system depends on three important performance parameters: the probability of detection (POD), the nuisance alarm rate (NAR), and the false alarm rate (FAR). The most fundamental parameter, POD, is normally related to a number of factors such as the event of interest, the sensitivity of the sensor, the installation quality of the system, and the reliability of the sensing equipment. The suppression of nuisance alarms without degrading sensitivity in fiber optic intrusion detection systems is key to maintaining acceptable performance. Signal processing algorithms that maintain the POD and eliminate nuisance alarms are crucial for achieving this. In this paper, a robust event classification system using supervised neural networks together with a level crossings (LCs) based feature extraction algorithm is presented for the detection and recognition of intrusion and non-intrusion events in a fence-based fiber-optic intrusion detection system. A level crossings algorithm is also used with a dynamic threshold to suppress torrential rain-induced nuisance alarms in a fence system. Results show that rain-induced nuisance alarms can be suppressed for rainfall rates in excess of 100 mm/hr with the simultaneous detection of intrusion events. The use of a level crossing based detection and novel classification algorithm is also presented for a buried pipeline fiber optic intrusion detection system for the suppression of nuisance events and discrimination of intrusion events. The sensor employed for both types of systems is a distributed bidirectional fiber-optic Mach-Zehnder (MZ) interferometer.

  8. Fiber optic geophysical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Homuth, E.F.

    1991-03-19

    A fiber optic geophysical sensor is described in which laser light is passed through a sensor interferometer in contact with a geophysical event, and a reference interferometer not in contact with the geophysical event but in the same general environment as the sensor interferometer. In one embodiment, a single tunable laser provides the laser light. In another embodiment, separate tunable lasers are used for the sensor and reference interferometers. The invention can find such uses as monitoring for earthquakes, and the weighing of objects. 2 figures.

  9. Development and Testing of a Post-Installable Deepwater Monitoring System Using Fiber-Optic Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seaman, Calvin H.; Brower, David V.; Le, Suy Q.; Tang, Henry H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the design and development of a fiber-optic monitoring system that can be deployed on existing deepwater risers and flowlines; and provides a summary of test article fabrication and the subsequent laboratory testing performed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Johnson Space Center (NASA-JSC). A major challenge of a post-installed instrumentation system is to ensure adequate coupling between the instruments and the riser or flowline of interest. This work investigates the sensor coupling for pipelines that are suspended in a water column (from topside platform to seabed) using a fiber-optic sensor clamp and subsea bonding adhesive. The study involved the design, fabrication, and test of several prototype clamps that contained fiber-optic sensors. A mold was produced by NASA using 3-D printing methods that allowed the casting of polyurethane clamp test articles to accommodate 4-inch and 8-inch diameter pipes. The prototype clamps were installed with a subsea adhesive in a "wet" environment and then tested in the NASA Structures Test Laboratory (STL). The tension, compression, and bending test data showed that the prototype sensor clamps achieved good structural coupling, and could provide high quality strain measurement for active monitoring.

  10. Fully switchable multi-wavelength fiber laser based interrogator system for remote and versatile fiber optic sensors multiplexing structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravo Acha, M.; DeMiguel-Soto, V.; Ortigosa, A.; Lopez-Amo, M.

    2014-05-01

    A novel interrogation system for multiple fiber optic sensor technologies and based on a fully-switchable multiwavelength fiber laser (MWFL) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The MWFL can generate any wavelength combination with a minimum emission line distance up to 50 GHz fitting the ITU grid specifications. On the other hand, as proof of concept sensor network, two different networks were multiplexed by using a remote powered by light fiber optic switch. They are based on two different sensor technologies. One of them based on PCF intensity sensors and multiplexed by using an 8 port WDM and the other one based on wavelength temperature/strain FBG sensors.

  11. Optical Communications and Sensor Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Optical Communications and Sensor Demonstration (OCSD) project addresses two cross-cutting capabilities of value to many future small spacecraft missions: high-speed optical transmission of data and small spacecraft proximity operations. Optical data rates demonstrated by OCSD are expected to be 200 megabits persecond (Mbs) or higher, a factor of 100 increase over current high-end CubeSat communications systems. The proximity sensors developed for this mission enable relative position measurement between two small satellites - a capability not previously demonstrated.

  12. Concept of electro-optical sensor module for sniper detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trzaskawka, Piotr; Dulski, Rafal; Kastek, Mariusz

    2010-10-01

    The paper presents an initial concept of the electro-optical sensor unit for sniper detection purposes. This unit, comprising of thermal and daylight cameras, can operate as a standalone device but its primary application is a multi-sensor sniper and shot detection system. Being a part of a larger system it should contribute to greater overall system efficiency and lower false alarm rate thanks to data and sensor fusion techniques. Additionally, it is expected to provide some pre-shot detection capabilities. Generally acoustic (or radar) systems used for shot detection offer only "after-the-shot" information and they cannot prevent enemy attack, which in case of a skilled sniper opponent usually means trouble. The passive imaging sensors presented in this paper, together with active systems detecting pointed optics, are capable of detecting specific shooter signatures or at least the presence of suspected objects in the vicinity. The proposed sensor unit use thermal camera as a primary sniper and shot detection tool. The basic camera parameters such as focal plane array size and type, focal length and aperture were chosen on the basis of assumed tactical characteristics of the system (mainly detection range) and current technology level. In order to provide costeffective solution the commercially available daylight camera modules and infrared focal plane arrays were tested, including fast cooled infrared array modules capable of 1000 fps image acquisition rate. The daylight camera operates as a support, providing corresponding visual image, easier to comprehend for a human operator. The initial assumptions concerning sensor operation were verified during laboratory and field test and some example shot recording sequences are presented.

  13. Optical displacement sensor

    DOEpatents

    Carr, Dustin W.

    2008-04-08

    An optical displacement sensor is disclosed which uses a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) coupled to an optical cavity formed by a moveable membrane and an output mirror of the VCSEL. This arrangement renders the lasing characteristics of the VCSEL sensitive to any movement of the membrane produced by sound, vibrations, pressure changes, acceleration, etc. Some embodiments of the optical displacement sensor can further include a light-reflective diffractive lens located on the membrane or adjacent to the VCSEL to control the amount of lasing light coupled back into the VCSEL. A photodetector detects a portion of the lasing light from the VCSEL to provide an electrical output signal for the optical displacement sensor which varies with the movement of the membrane.

  14. Optical-fibre sensor system for monitoring the performance of the gas propellant centrifuge separator of a spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romo-Medrano, Katya E.; Khotiaintsev, Sergei N.; García-Garduño, Victor

    2004-08-01

    An optical-fibre sensor system is presented for monitoring void fraction distribution in a spacecraft's gas and propellant centrifuge separator. The system could be used at the separator development stage or for monitoring, during ground tests, the elements of the spacecraft propulsion system. Our sensor system employs an array of point optical-fibre refractometric transducers installed in the form of several linear radial arrays on the separator rotating blades. We employed a small-size hemispherical optical detection element as the transducer and we optimized its parameters through numerical ray-tracing. The aim is to minimize the effect of the thin film of liquid that forms on the transducer's surface in this application. The features of this sensor system are: (1) an efficient matrix-type multiplexing scheme, (2) the installation of the main optoelectronic unit of the sensor in a hermetically sealed container inside the separator tank located on the rotating shaft and (3) the spark-proof and explosion-proof design of the sensor circuits and elements. The sensor is simple, reliable, low-cost and is capable of withstanding the factors involved during operation of the propulsion system such as cryogenic temperatures and chemically aggressive liquids. The novel elements and design concepts implemented in this sensor system can also find applications in other sensors for spacecraft propulsion systems and also in a variety of optical-fibre sensors used in scientific research and industry.

  15. A Fiber-Optic Borehole Seismic Vector Sensor System for Geothermal Site Characterization and Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Paulsson, Bjorn N.P.; Thornburg, Jon A.; He, Ruiqing

    2015-04-21

    Seismic techniques are the dominant geophysical techniques for the characterization of subsurface structures and stratigraphy. The seismic techniques also dominate the monitoring and mapping of reservoir injection and production processes. Borehole seismology, of all the seismic techniques, despite its current shortcomings, has been shown to provide the highest resolution characterization and most precise monitoring results because it generates higher signal to noise ratio and higher frequency data than surface seismic techniques. The operational environments for borehole seismic instruments are however much more demanding than for surface seismic instruments making both the instruments and the installation much more expensive. The current state-of-the-art borehole seismic instruments have not been robust enough for long term monitoring compounding the problems with expensive instruments and installations. Furthermore, they have also not been able to record the large bandwidth data available in boreholes or having the sensitivity allowing them to record small high frequency micro seismic events with high vector fidelity. To reliably achieve high resolution characterization and long term monitoring of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) sites a new generation of borehole seismic instruments must therefore be developed and deployed. To address the critical site characterization and monitoring needs for EGS programs, US Department of Energy (DOE) funded Paulsson, Inc. in 2010 to develop a fiber optic based ultra-large bandwidth clamped borehole seismic vector array capable of deploying up to one thousand 3C sensor pods suitable for deployment into ultra-high temperature and high pressure boreholes. Tests of the fiber optic seismic vector sensors developed on the DOE funding have shown that the new borehole seismic sensor technology is capable of generating outstanding high vector fidelity data with extremely large bandwidth: 0.01 – 6,000 Hz. Field tests have shown

  16. Analysis of the design in landslide monitoring system based on fiber optic sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Weihong; Wu, Guoqing; Liu, Feng

    2008-12-01

    This paper holds landslide monitoring system based on fiber optic sensors network. When structural distortion is occurred in landslide area, it will affect the change of fiber bragg grating space, and brings on the offset of the fiber bragg wavelength.The information of the destroyed point is obtained with the demodulated system.It applies annular distribution to mountain body, and establishs homologous fiber optic sensor network which collect all the information to the home site. This technique can provide the managers, policy-makers and experts the real time change of the parameters of the disaster, and the feedback can be given to monitoring station through the monitoring network. Therefore, it will be an important technical support for real time dynamic monitoring.

  17. Fiber Optic Control System integration for advanced aircraft. Electro-optic and sensor fabrication, integration, and environmental testing for flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seal, Daniel W.; Weaver, Thomas L.; Kessler, Bradley L.; Bedoya, Carlos A.; Mattes, Robert E.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the design, development, and testing of passive fiber optic sensors and a multiplexing electro-optic architecture (EOA) for installation and flight test on a NASA-owned F-18 aircraft. This hardware was developed under the Fiber Optic Control Systems for Advanced Aircraft program, part of a multiyear NASA initiative to design, develop, and demonstrate through flight test 'fly-by-light' systems for application to advanced aircraft flight and propulsion control. This development included the design and production of 10 passive optical sensors and associated multiplexed EOA hardware based on wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) technology. A variety of sensor types (rotary position, linear position, temperature, and pressure) incorporating a broad range of sensor technologies (WDM analog, WDM digital, analog microbend, and fluorescent time rate of decay) were obtained from different manufacturers and functionally integrated with an independently designed EOA. The sensors were built for installation in a variety of aircraft locations, placing the sensors in a variety of harsh environments. The sensors and EOA were designed and built to have the resulting devices be as close as practical to a production system. The integrated system was delivered to NASA for flight testing on a NASA-owned F-18 aircraft. Development and integration testing of the system provided valuable information as to which sensor types were simplest to design and build for a military aircraft environment and which types were simplest to operate with a multiplexed EOA. Not all sensor types met the full range of performance and environmental requirements. EOA development problems provided information on directions to pursue in future fly-by-light flight control development programs. Lessons learned in the development of the EOA and sensor hardware are summarized.

  18. Fiber Optic Control System integration for advanced aircraft. Electro-optic and sensor fabrication, integration, and environmental testing for flight control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seal, Daniel W.; Weaver, Thomas L.; Kessler, Bradley L.; Bedoya, Carlos A.; Mattes, Robert E.

    1994-11-01

    This report describes the design, development, and testing of passive fiber optic sensors and a multiplexing electro-optic architecture (EOA) for installation and flight test on a NASA-owned F-18 aircraft. This hardware was developed under the Fiber Optic Control Systems for Advanced Aircraft program, part of a multiyear NASA initiative to design, develop, and demonstrate through flight test 'fly-by-light' systems for application to advanced aircraft flight and propulsion control. This development included the design and production of 10 passive optical sensors and associated multiplexed EOA hardware based on wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) technology. A variety of sensor types (rotary position, linear position, temperature, and pressure) incorporating a broad range of sensor technologies (WDM analog, WDM digital, analog microbend, and fluorescent time rate of decay) were obtained from different manufacturers and functionally integrated with an independently designed EOA. The sensors were built for installation in a variety of aircraft locations, placing the sensors in a variety of harsh environments. The sensors and EOA were designed and built to have the resulting devices be as close as practical to a production system. The integrated system was delivered to NASA for flight testing on a NASA-owned F-18 aircraft. Development and integration testing of the system provided valuable information as to which sensor types were simplest to design and build for a military aircraft environment and which types were simplest to operate with a multiplexed EOA. Not all sensor types met the full range of performance and environmental requirements. EOA development problems provided information on directions to pursue in future fly-by-light flight control development programs. Lessons learned in the development of the EOA and sensor hardware are summarized.

  19. High-speed SPGD wavefront controller for an adaptive optics system without wavefront sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Caixia; Li, Xinyang; Li, Mei; Ye, Jongwei; Chen, Bo

    2010-10-01

    A non-conventional adaptive optics system based on direct system performance metric optimization is illustrated. The system does not require wave-front sensor which is difficult to work under the poor condition such as beam cleanup for the anomalous light beam. The system comprises a high speed wavefront controller based on Stochastic Parallel Gradient Descent (SPGD) Algorithm, a deformable mirror, a tip/tilt mirror and a far-field system performance metric sensor. The architecture of the wave-front controller is based on a combination of Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and floating-point Digital Signal Processor (DSP). The Zernike coefficient information is applied to improve the iteration speed. The experimental results show that the beam cleanup system based on SPGD keep a high iteration speed. The controller can compensate the wavefront aberration and tilt excursion effectively.

  20. Miniaturized optical wavelength sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kung, Helen Ling-Ning

    Recently semiconductor processing technology has been applied to the miniaturization of optical wavelength sensors. Compact sensors enable new applications such as integrated diode-laser wavelength monitors and frequency lockers, portable chemical and biological detection, and portable and adaptive hyperspectral imaging arrays. Small sensing systems have trade-offs between resolution, operating range, throughput, multiplexing and complexity. We have developed a new wavelength sensing architecture that balances these parameters for applications involving hyperspectral imaging spectrometer arrays. In this thesis we discuss and demonstrate two new wavelength-sensing architectures whose single-pixel designs can easily be extended into spectrometer arrays. The first class of devices is based on sampling a standing wave. These devices are based on measuring the wavelength-dependent period of optical standing waves formed by the interference of forward and reflected waves at a mirror. We fabricated two different devices based on this principle. The first device is a wavelength monitor, which measures the wavelength and power of a monochromatic source. The second device is a spectrometer that can also act as a selective spectral coherence sensor. The spectrometer contains a large displacement piston-motion MEMS mirror and a thin GaAs photodiode flip-chip bonded to a quartz substrate. The performance of this spectrometer is similar to that of a Michelson in resolution, operating range, throughput and multiplexing but with the added advantages of fewer components and one-dimensional architecture. The second class of devices is based on the Talbot self-imaging effect. The Talbot effect occurs when a periodic object is illuminated with a spatially coherent wave. Periodically spaced self-images are formed behind the object. The spacing of the self-images is proportional to wavelength of the incident light. We discuss and demonstrate how this effect can be used for spectroscopy

  1. Sensor-less aberration correction in optical imaging systems using blind optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avanaki, Mohammad R. N.; Mazraeh Khoshki, R.; Hojjatoleslami, S. A.; Podoleanu, A. Gh.

    2012-02-01

    The imperfection of optical devices in an optical imaging system deteriorates wavefront which results in aberration. This reduces the optical signal to noise ratio of the imaging system and the quality of the produced images. Adaptive optics composed of wavefront sensor (WFS) and deformable mirror (DM) is a straightforward solution for this problem. The need for a WFS in an AO system, raises the cost of the overall system, and there are also instances when they cannot be used, such as in microscopy. Moreover stray reflections from lens surfaces affect the performance of the WFS. In this paper, we describe a blind optimization technique with an in-expensive electronics without using the WFS to correct the aberration in order to achieve better quality images. The correction system includes an electromagnetic DM from Imagine, Mirao52d, with 52 actuators which are controlled by particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. The results of the application of simulated annealing (SA), and genetic algorithm (GA) techniques that we have implemented in the sensor-less AO are used for comparison.

  2. Micro-controller based air pressure monitoring instrumentation system using optical fibers as sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazarika, D.; Pegu, D. S.

    2013-03-01

    This paper describes a micro-controller based instrumentation system to monitor air pressure using optical fiber sensors. The principle of macrobending is used to develop the sensor system. The instrumentation system consists of a laser source, a beam splitter, two multi mode optical fibers, two Light Dependent Resistance (LDR) based timer circuits and a AT89S8252 micro-controller. The beam splitter is used to divide the laser beam into two parts and then these two beams are launched into two multi mode fibers. One of the multi mode fibers is used as the sensor fiber and the other one is used as the reference fiber. The use of the reference fiber is to eliminate the environmental effects while measuring the air pressure magnitude. The laser beams from the sensor and reference fibers are applied to two identical LDR based timer circuits. The LDR based timer circuits are interfaced to a micro-controller through its counter pins. The micro-controller samples the frequencies of the timer circuits using its counter-0 and counter-1 and the counter values are then processed to provide the measure of air pressure magnitude.

  3. A Non-Invasive Multichannel Hybrid Fiber-Optic Sensor System for Vital Sign Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Fajkus, Marcel; Nedoma, Jan; Martinek, Radek; Vasinek, Vladimir; Nazeran, Homer; Siska, Petr

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we briefly describe the design, construction, and functional verification of a hybrid multichannel fiber-optic sensor system for basic vital sign monitoring. This sensor uses a novel non-invasive measurement probe based on the fiber Bragg grating (FBG). The probe is composed of two FBGs encapsulated inside a polydimethylsiloxane polymer (PDMS). The PDMS is non-reactive to human skin and resistant to electromagnetic waves, UV absorption, and radiation. We emphasize the construction of the probe to be specifically used for basic vital sign monitoring such as body temperature, respiratory rate and heart rate. The proposed sensor system can continuously process incoming signals from up to 128 individuals. We first present the overall design of this novel multichannel sensor and then elaborate on how it has the potential to simplify vital sign monitoring and consequently improve the comfort level of patients in long-term health care facilities, hospitals and clinics. The reference ECG signal was acquired with the use of standard gel electrodes fixed to the monitored person’s chest using a real-time monitoring system for ECG signals with virtual instrumentation. The outcomes of these experiments have unambiguously proved the functionality of the sensor system and will be used to inform our future research in this fast developing and emerging field. PMID:28075341

  4. A Non-Invasive Multichannel Hybrid Fiber-Optic Sensor System for Vital Sign Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Fajkus, Marcel; Nedoma, Jan; Martinek, Radek; Vasinek, Vladimir; Nazeran, Homer; Siska, Petr

    2017-01-08

    In this article, we briefly describe the design, construction, and functional verification of a hybrid multichannel fiber-optic sensor system for basic vital sign monitoring. This sensor uses a novel non-invasive measurement probe based on the fiber Bragg grating (FBG). The probe is composed of two FBGs encapsulated inside a polydimethylsiloxane polymer (PDMS). The PDMS is non-reactive to human skin and resistant to electromagnetic waves, UV absorption, and radiation. We emphasize the construction of the probe to be specifically used for basic vital sign monitoring such as body temperature, respiratory rate and heart rate. The proposed sensor system can continuously process incoming signals from up to 128 individuals. We first present the overall design of this novel multichannel sensor and then elaborate on how it has the potential to simplify vital sign monitoring and consequently improve the comfort level of patients in long-term health care facilities, hospitals and clinics. The reference ECG signal was acquired with the use of standard gel electrodes fixed to the monitored person's chest using a real-time monitoring system for ECG signals with virtual instrumentation. The outcomes of these experiments have unambiguously proved the functionality of the sensor system and will be used to inform our future research in this fast developing and emerging field.

  5. Multi-Stress Monitoring System with Fiber-Optic Mandrels and Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors in a Sagnac Loop

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunjin; Sampath, Umesh; Song, Minho

    2015-01-01

    Fiber Bragg grating sensors are placed in a fiber-optic Sagnac loop to combine the grating temperature sensors and the fiber-optic mandrel acoustic emission sensors in single optical circuit. A wavelength-scanning fiber-optic laser is used as a common light source for both sensors. A fiber-optic attenuator is placed at a specific position in the Sagnac loop in order to separate buried Bragg wavelengths from the Sagnac interferometer output. The Bragg wavelength shifts are measured with scanning band-pass filter demodulation and the mandrel output is analyzed by applying a fast Fourier transform to the interference signal. This hybrid-scheme could greatly reduce the size and the complexity of optical circuitry and signal processing unit, making it suitable for low cost multi-stress monitoring of large scale power systems. PMID:26230700

  6. Multi-Stress Monitoring System with Fiber-Optic Mandrels and Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors in a Sagnac Loop.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunjin; Sampath, Umesh; Song, Minho

    2015-07-29

    Fiber Bragg grating sensors are placed in a fiber-optic Sagnac loop to combine the grating temperature sensors and the fiber-optic mandrel acoustic emission sensors in single optical circuit. A wavelength-scanning fiber-optic laser is used as a common light source for both sensors. A fiber-optic attenuator is placed at a specific position in the Sagnac loop in order to separate buried Bragg wavelengths from the Sagnac interferometer output. The Bragg wavelength shifts are measured with scanning band-pass filter demodulation and the mandrel output is analyzed by applying a fast Fourier transform to the interference signal. This hybrid-scheme could greatly reduce the size and the complexity of optical circuitry and signal processing unit, making it suitable for low cost multi-stress monitoring of large scale power systems.

  7. Smart Sensors Based on Integrated Optics and Microelectromechanical Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    systems (MEMS), and digital signal processing (DSP). The synergistic integration of these three technologies provides the advantages of high...the digital battlefield. MEMS technology enables the fabrication of three dimensional , miniature (micron-sized features), and environmentally...MEMS Flexure Beam ………………………………………. 6 2.3 A Novel Digital Demodulation Algorithm ……………………………………………….. 11 2.3.1 Dynamic Range of

  8. Strain gauge ambiguity sensor for segmented mirror active optical system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyman, C. L.; Howe, T. L. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A system is described to measure alignment between interfacing edges of mirror segments positioned to form a segmented mirror surface. It serves as a gauge having a bending beam with four piezoresistive elements coupled across the interfaces of the edges of adjacent mirror segments. The bending beam has a first position corresponding to alignment of the edges of adjacent mirror segments, and it is bendable from the first position in a direction and to a degree dependent upon the relative misalignment between the edges of adjacent mirror segments to correspondingly vary the resistance of the strain guage. A source of power and an amplifier are connected in circuit with the strain gauge whereby the output of the amplifier varies according to the misalignment of the edges of adjacent mirror segments.

  9. Multipoint dynamically reconfigure adaptive distributed fiber optic acoustic emission sensor (FAESense) system for condition based maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Edgar; Prohaska, John; Kempen, Connie; Esterkin, Yan; Sun, Sunjian; Krishnaswamy, Sridhar

    2010-09-01

    This paper describes preliminary results obtained under a Navy SBIR contract by Redondo Optics Inc. (ROI), in collaboration with Northwestern University towards the development and demonstration of a next generation, stand-alone and fully integrated, dynamically reconfigurable, adaptive fiber optic acoustic emission sensor (FAESense™) system for the in-situ unattended detection and localization of shock events, impact damage, cracks, voids, and delaminations in new and aging critical infrastructures found in ships, submarines, aircraft, and in next generation weapon systems. ROI's FAESense™ system is based on the integration of proven state-of-the-art technologies: 1) distributed array of in-line fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) sensors sensitive to strain, vibration, and acoustic emissions, 2) adaptive spectral demodulation of FBG sensor dynamic signals using two-wave mixing interferometry on photorefractive semiconductors, and 3) integration of all the sensor system passive and active optoelectronic components within a 0.5-cm x 1-cm photonic integrated circuit microchip. The adaptive TWM demodulation methodology allows the measurement of dynamic high frequnency acoustic emission events, while compensating for passive quasi-static strain and temperature drifts. It features a compact, low power, environmentally robust 1-inch x 1-inch x 4-inch small form factor (SFF) package with no moving parts. The FAESense™ interrogation system is microprocessor-controlled using high data rate signal processing electronics for the FBG sensors calibration, temperature compensation and the detection and analysis of acoustic emission signals. Its miniaturized package, low power operation, state-of-the-art data communications, and low cost makes it a very attractive solution for a large number of applications in naval and maritime industries, aerospace, civil structures, the oil and chemical industry, and for homeland security applications.

  10. Fiber optic sensors for smart taxiways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janzen, Douglas D.; Fuerstenau, Norbert; Goetze, Wolfgang

    1995-09-01

    Fiber-optic sensors could offer advantages in the field of airport ground traffic monitoring: immunity to electromagnetic interference, installation without costly and time consuming airfield closures, and low loss, low noise optical connection between sensors and signal processing equipment. This paper describes fiber-optic sensors developed for airport taxiway monitoring and the first steps toward their installation in an experimental surface movement guidance and control system at the Braunschweig airport. Initial results obtained with fiber- optic light barriers and vibration sensors are reported. The feasibility of employing interferometric strain gauges for this application will be discussed based on sensor characteristics obtained through measurements of strain in an aircraft structure in flight.

  11. Fiber optic sensor system for detecting movement or position of a rotating wheel bearing

    DOEpatents

    Veeser, Lynn R.; Rodriguez, Patrick J.; Forman, Peter R.; Monahan, Russell E.; Adler, Jonathan M.

    1997-01-01

    An improved fiber optic sensor system and integrated sensor bearing assembly for detecting movement or position of a rotating wheel bearing having a multi-pole tone ring which produces an alternating magnetic field indicative of movement and position of the rotating member. A magneto-optical material, such as a bismuth garnet iron (B.I.G.) crystal, having discrete magnetic domains is positioned in the vicinity of the tone ring so that the domains align themselves to the magnetic field generated by the tone ring. A single fiber optic cable, preferably single mode fiber, carries light generated by a source of light to the B.I.G. crystal. The light passes through the B.I.G. crystal and is refracted at domain boundaries in the crystal. The intensity of the refracted light is indicative of the amount of alignment of the domains and therefore the strength of the magnetic field. The refracted light is carried by the fiber optic cable to an optic receiver where the intensity is measured and an electrical signal is generated and sent to a controller indicating the frequency of the changes in light intensity and therefore the rotational speed of the rotating wheel bearing.

  12. Self-Contained, Hand-held, Optical Waveguide, Chemical Sensor System

    SciTech Connect

    R. J. Pollina

    1998-11-01

    A self-contained, hand-held, optical waveguide, chemical detection system has been built to detect and quantify gases and vapors. The system uses a hybrid integrated circuit (IC) containing optical waveguides coated with sensing chemistry as the optical platform. The IC with sensing chemistry is available commercially under the name Sensor-on-a-Chip. This IC is mounted in a small, uniquely designed sample chamber where the measured analyte is identified by the sensing chemistry and biochemistry. Continuous or stop-flow sampling is possible. Sensitivities in the low parts-per-million have been attained for hydrocarbons and alcohol. Analyte coverage is only limited by the sensing chemistries and biochemistries that are available.

  13. Nanowire humidity optical sensor system based on fast Fourier transform technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rota-Rodrigo, S.; Pérez-Herrera, R.; Lopez-Aldaba, A.; López Bautista, M. C.; Esteban, O.; López-Amo, M.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, a new sensor system for relative humidity measurements based on its interaction with the evanescent field of a nanowire is presented. The interrogation of the sensing head is carried out by monitoring the fast Fourier transform phase variations of one of the nanowire interference frequencies. This method is independent of the signal amplitude and also avoids the necessity of tracking the wavelength evolution in the spectrum, which can be a handicap when there are multiple interference frequency components with different sensitivities. The sensor is operated within a wide humidity range (20%-70% relative humidity) with a maximum sensitivity achieved of 0.14rad/% relative humidity. Finally, due to the system uses an optical interrogator as unique active element, the system presents a cost-effective feature.

  14. Optical Pointing Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, Joel F.; Metz, Brandon C.

    2010-01-01

    The optical pointing sensor provides a means of directly measuring the relative positions of JPL s Formation Control Testbed (FCT) vehicles without communication. This innovation is a steerable infrared (IR) rangefinder that gives measurements in terms of range and bearing to a passive retroreflector.

  15. An automatic data acquisition system for optical characterization of PEDOT:PSS-based gas sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junaidi, Aba, La; Triyana, Kuwat

    2015-04-01

    A measurement system that consists of a pair of laser diode and photodiode coupled with an automatic data acquisition system based on microcontroller of AVR ATMega16 (hereafter to be called DAQ MA-16) has been developed for measuring optical response of polymer-based gas sensor. In this case, the optical response was represented by the voltage output of the photodiode. The polymer-based gas sensor was a thin film of polymer of Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrenesulfonate) or PEDOT:PSS deposited on a glass substrate. For measurement, the sensor was placed in the chamber, and then the gas ammonia with a fix flow rate was flowed into the chamber. The opposite part of the chamber was installed a pump to throw the gas. The National Instrument Data Acquisition (NI DAQ) BNC-2110 has been used to calibrate the DAQ MA-16 system. From the calibration, it can be estimated that the accuracy of DAQ MA-16 is about 99.4%.

  16. An analysis of the optimal size of image sensors in free space optic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lixing; Huang, Yongmei; An, Tao

    2014-09-01

    There are several advantages offered by free space optic systems compared with conventional radio frequency systems. As a consequence of shorter wavelengths, the high directivity of the transmitted beam makes acquisition and pointing difficult, thus an imaging system is set up for acquisition and pointing. Optical wave front distortions induced by atmospheric turbulence result in a spreading of the beam leads to image jitter take place in the focal plane, where the image sensor is. The behavior of the image jitter can be described in a statistical manner. Consequently, the size, which is a very important parameter to an image sensor, can be determined by the statistical quantity of image jitter, which customarily is the root mean square (RMS) image displacement. The quantity of the RMS image displacement is as a function of several measurable parameters. In this paper, variations of the estimated RMS image displacement were calculate and discussed in detail. The calculation showed good agreement with the experimental results conducted with a propagation path length of 96 km. The optimal sizes of image sensors that are used for some specific circumstances were analyzed and proposed based on the RMS image displacement.

  17. Monitoring Composite Material Pressure Vessels with a Fiber-Optic/Microelectronic Sensor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimcak, C.; Jaduszliwer, B.

    1995-01-01

    We discuss the concept of an integrated, fiber-optic/microelectronic distributed sensor system that can monitor composite material pressure vessels for Air Force space systems to provide assessments of the overall health and integrity of the vessel throughout its entire operating history from birth to end of life. The fiber optic component would include either a semiconductor light emitting diode or diode laser and a multiplexed fiber optic sensing network incorporating Bragg grating sensors capable of detecting internal temperature and strain. The microelectronic components include a power source, a pulsed laser driver, time domain data acquisition hardware, a microprocessor, a data storage device, and a communication interface. The sensing system would be incorporated within the composite during its manufacture. The microelectronic data acquisition and logging system would record the environmental conditions to which the vessel has been subjected to during its storage and transit, e.g., the history of thermal excursions, pressure loading data, the occurrence of mechanical impacts, the presence of changing internal strain due to aging, delamination, material decomposition, etc. Data would be maintained din non-volatile memory for subsequent readout through a microcomputer interface.

  18. Optical fibre pressure and temperature sensor system designed for urodynamic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duraibabu, Dineshbabu; Kelly, Niall; Poeggel, Sven; Flood, Hugh; Yuan, Hongwei; Dooly, Gerard; McGrath, Deirdre; Tosi, Daniele; Lewis, Elfed; Leen, Gabriel

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents an optical fibre pressure and temperature sensor (OFPTS) system, which is adapted for use as a urodynamic pressure measurement system (UPS) for differential pressure measurement with temperature compensation. The OFTPS is based on a Fabry Perot interferometer (FPI), which acts as a pressure sensor and includes an embedded fibre Bragg grating (FBG) for temperature measurement. The sensor system is evaluated in a lower urinary tract (LUT) simulator, which simulates the bladder, rectum and detrusor muscle. The system was benchmarked against a commercially available urodynamic system, at the University Hospital Limerick (UHL) Urology Clinic. Both systems demonstrate a high correlation with a relative pressure variation of less than +/-2.8cmH2O for abdominal and +/-4cmH2O for vesical pressure. The repetitive measurement of the OFPTS system in the LUT simulator against the commercial system demonstrated the high repeatability. Furthermore, the low fabrication cost makes the OFPTS a potentially interesting instrument for urodynamic and other medical applications.

  19. Integrated optical sensor

    DOEpatents

    Watkins, Arthur D.; Smartt, Herschel B.; Taylor, Paul L.

    1994-01-01

    An integrated optical sensor for arc welding having multifunction feedback control. The sensor, comprising generally a CCD camera and diode laser, is positioned behind the arc torch for measuring weld pool position and width, standoff distance, and post-weld centerline cooling rate. Computer process information from this sensor is passed to a controlling computer for use in feedback control loops to aid in the control of the welding process. Weld pool position and width are used in a feedback loop, by the weld controller, to track the weld pool relative to the weld joint. Sensor standoff distance is used in a feedback loop to control the contact tip to base metal distance during the welding process. Cooling rate information is used to determine the final metallurgical state of the weld bead and heat affected zone, thereby controlling post-weld mechanical properties.

  20. Integrated optical sensor

    DOEpatents

    Watkins, A.D.; Smartt, H.B.; Taylor, P.L.

    1994-01-04

    An integrated optical sensor for arc welding having multifunction feedback control is described. The sensor, comprising generally a CCD camera and diode laser, is positioned behind the arc torch for measuring weld pool position and width, standoff distance, and post-weld centerline cooling rate. Computer process information from this sensor is passed to a controlling computer for use in feedback control loops to aid in the control of the welding process. Weld pool position and width are used in a feedback loop, by the weld controller, to track the weld pool relative to the weld joint. Sensor standoff distance is used in a feedback loop to control the contact tip to base metal distance during the welding process. Cooling rate information is used to determine the final metallurgical state of the weld bead and heat affected zone, thereby controlling post-weld mechanical properties. 6 figures.

  1. Architecture for fiber-optic sensors and actuators in aircraft propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glomb, W. L., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a design for fiber-optic sensing and control in advanced aircraft Electronic Engine Control (EEC). The recommended architecture is an on-engine EEC which contains electro-optic interface circuits for fiber-optic sensors. Size and weight are reduced by multiplexing arrays of functionally similar sensors on a pairs of optical fibers to common electro-optical interfaces. The architecture contains interfaces to seven sensor groups. Nine distinct fiber-optic sensor types were found to provide the sensing functions. Analysis revealed no strong discriminator (except reliability of laser diodes and remote electronics) on which to base a selection of preferred common interface type. A hardware test program is recommended to assess the relative maturity of the technologies and to determine real performance in the engine environment.

  2. Architecture For Fiber-Optic Sensors And Actuators In Aircraft Propulsion Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glomb, Walter L.

    1990-02-01

    This paper describes a design for fiber-optic sensing and control in advanced aircraft Electronic Engine Control (EEC). The recommended architecture is an on-engine EEC which contains electro-optic interface circuits for fiber-optic sensors. Size and weight are reduced by multiplexing arrays of functionally similar sensors on a pairs of optical fibers to common electro-optical interfaces. The architecture contains interfaces to seven sensor groups. Nine distinct fiber-optic sensor types were found to provide the sensing functions. Analysis revealed no strong discriminator (except reliability of laser diodes and remote electronics) on which to base a selection of preferred common interface type. A hardware test program is recommended to assess the relative maturity of the technologies and to determine real performance in the engine environment.

  3. Single-sensor system for spatially resolved, continuous, and multiparametric optical mapping of cardiac tissue

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Peter; Bollensdorff, Christian; Quinn, T. Alexander; Wuskell, Joseph P.; Loew, Leslie M.; Kohl, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Background Simultaneous optical mapping of multiple electrophysiologically relevant parameters in living myocardium is desirable for integrative exploration of mechanisms underlying heart rhythm generation under normal and pathophysiologic conditions. Current multiparametric methods are technically challenging, usually involving multiple sensors and moving parts, which contributes to high logistic and economic thresholds that prevent easy application of the technique. Objective The purpose of this study was to develop a simple, affordable, and effective method for spatially resolved, continuous, simultaneous, and multiparametric optical mapping of the heart, using a single camera. Methods We present a new method to simultaneously monitor multiple parameters using inexpensive off-the-shelf electronic components and no moving parts. The system comprises a single camera, commercially available optical filters, and light-emitting diodes (LEDs), integrated via microcontroller-based electronics for frame-accurate illumination of the tissue. For proof of principle, we illustrate measurement of four parameters, suitable for ratiometric mapping of membrane potential (di-4-ANBDQPQ) and intracellular free calcium (fura-2), in an isolated Langendorff-perfused rat heart during sinus rhythm and ectopy, induced by local electrical or mechanical stimulation. Results The pilot application demonstrates suitability of this imaging approach for heart rhythm research in the isolated heart. In addition, locally induced excitation, whether stimulated electrically or mechanically, gives rise to similar ventricular propagation patterns. Conclusion Combining an affordable camera with suitable optical filters and microprocessor-controlled LEDs, single-sensor multiparametric optical mapping can be practically implemented in a simple yet powerful configuration and applied to heart rhythm research. The moderate system complexity and component cost is destined to lower the threshold to broader

  4. An irradiation system for photodynamic therapy with a fiber-optic sensor for measuring tissue oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintanar, L.; Fabila, D.; Stolik, S.; de la Rosa, J. M.

    2013-11-01

    Photodynamic Therapy is a well known treatment based on the interaction of light of specific wavelength with a photosensitizing drug. In the presence of oxygen molecules, the illumination of the photosensitizer can activate the production of reactive oxygen species, which leads to the death of target cells within the treated tissue. In order to obtain the best therapy response, the tissue oxygen concentration should be measured to adjust the therapy parameters before and during the treatment. In this work, an irradiation system for 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Photodynamic Therapy is presented. It allows the application of visible light radiation of 630 nm using as a light source a high-brightness light emitting diode with an optical-power automatic control considering a light depth-distribution model. A module to measure the tissue oxygen saturation has been implemented into the system. It is based on two light emitting diodes of 660 nm and 940 nm as light sources, a photodiode as a detector and a new handheld fiber optic reflectance pulse oximetry sensor for estimating the blood oxygen saturation within the tissue. The pulse oximetry sensor was modeled through multilayered Monte Carlo simulations to study the behavior of the sensor with changes in skin thickness and melanin content.

  5. Barium boron aluminum silicate glass system for solid state optical gas sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Silva, M. J.; Karczewski, J.; Jasinski, P.; Chrzan, A.; Kalinowski, P.; Szymczewska, D.; Jasinski, G.

    2016-11-01

    Recent increasing demand for new eco-friendly materials and for low cost fabrication process for use in optical sensors field, raise concern about alternative materials for this application. We have designed two glass-ceramics compositions from the quaternary ROAl2O3- SiO2-B2O3(R=Ba) alkali-earth aluminum silicate system, labeled B72 and B69, with high refractive index (>1.6), large values of Abbe number (94.0 and 53.0, respectively), and free of lead and arsenic. We present an analysis and discussion of experimental optical properties, thermal and thermo-chemical stability along with important properties such as transition temperature (Tg), onset of crystallization (Tx) as well transport properties as ionic conductivity behavior in the quaternary glass-ceramic system containing boron for use as optical sensors. Complex Impedance Spectra (Bode Plot) and Potentiodynamic Polarization curves (Tafel plots) measurements were carried out in the temperature range of 600 to 850°C. The most probable conductivity mechanism is a thermally activated process of mobile ions overcoming a potential barrier (EA), according to the Arrhenius regime. Here we report that charge transfer is caused by the flux of electrons, in the region of elevated temperatures (>700°C), and is affected by immiscibility of crystals, nucleation and growth type, that causes phase separation. We found conductivity (σ) values from 10-9 to 10-5 S/cm at temperatures between 700 and 850°C. Our results highlight a need for research on ion mobility in the glassy network above the transition range, and the effect cause by metastable immiscibility in the alkaline-earth glasses are exposed. The two glass compositions B72 and B69 can be tailored by proper use as glassy optical sensor.

  6. Adaptive optical zoom sensor.

    SciTech Connect

    Sweatt, William C.; Bagwell, Brett E.; Wick, David Victor

    2005-11-01

    In order to optically vary the magnification of an imaging system, continuous mechanical zoom lenses require multiple optical elements and use fine mechanical motion to precisely adjust the separations between individual or groups of lenses. By incorporating active elements into the optical design, we have designed and demonstrated imaging systems that are capable of variable optical magnification with no macroscopic moving parts. Changing the effective focal length and magnification of an imaging system can be accomplished by adeptly positioning two or more active optics in the optical design and appropriately adjusting the optical power of those elements. In this application, the active optics (e.g. liquid crystal spatial light modulators or deformable mirrors) serve as variable focal-length lenses. Unfortunately, the range over which currently available devices can operate (i.e. their dynamic range) is relatively small. Therefore, the key to this concept is to create large changes in the effective focal length of the system with very small changes in the focal lengths of individual elements by leveraging the optical power of conventional optical elements surrounding the active optics. By appropriately designing the optical system, these variable focal-length lenses can provide the flexibility necessary to change the overall system focal length, and therefore magnification, that is normally accomplished with mechanical motion in conventional zoom lenses.

  7. The Use Of Fiber Optic Chemical Sensors (FOGS) In Medical Applications: Enzyme-Based Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klainer, Stanley M.; Harris, J. Milton

    1988-06-01

    The potential of fiber optic chemical sensors (FOGS) for medical applications is an accepted fact. Indeed, many companies are arduously pursuing the pH, pCO2, and p02 sensors. These, however, only represent the beginning of what, eventually, could be the next generation approach to diagnostics and monitoring. The key to a good FOGS system is to: (i) make, or adapt, accepted laboratory chemistry so that it works, without loss of sensitivity or specificity, on a fiber optic; (ii) assure that sensor neither affects, or is affected by, the biological meltum into which it is placed; (iii) have optimized, dedicated instrumentation to illuminate the sensor, and to handle and process its output signal; and (iv) perform a necessary diagnostic, monitoring or clinical function better, faster, more accurately or less expensively than existing approacbes. Theoretically, there are no limits to the reactions that can be selected to identify and quantify a particular chemical or physical happening using a species specific FOGS. In practice, however, the choices are restricted because: (i) many of the existing tests use sample prepreparation, such as concentration and purification, which is not possible for many FOGS usages; (ii) the chemistry on the fiber must meet FDA criteria; (iii) the chemistry is not stable enough for long term storage and (iv) measurements which are marginal in the laboratory, will not work on a fiber. In the present research the potential of using enzymes as the sensing material is being evaluated. To date emphasis has been placed on the immobilization of the enzyme on the fiber optic without loss of activity or specificity. The selected enzyme for this effort is 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. It was selected with the eventual goal of analyzing bile acid concentrations.

  8. Triboluminescent Fiber-Optic Sensors Measure Stresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogowski, Robert S.

    1994-01-01

    Triboluminescence exploited in fiber-optic sensor system for measuring changes in pressures, strains, vibrations, and acoustic emissions, in structural members. Sensors embedded in members for in situ monitoring of condition of structure. System passive in sense no source of radiation required to interrogate optical fiber. Technique has potential for wide range of applications in which detection and measurement of structural stress required.

  9. Three-gas detection system with IR optical sensor based on NDIR technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Qiulin; Tang, Licheng; Yang, Mingliang; Xue, Chenyang; Zhang, Wendong; Liu, Jun; Xiong, Jijun

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, a three-gas detection system with a environmental parameter compensation method is proposed based on Non-dispersive infra-red (NDIR) technique, which can be applied to detect multi-gas (methane, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide). In this system, an IR source and four single-channel pyroelectric sensors are integrated in the miniature optical gas chamber successfully. Inner wall of the chamber coated with Au film is designed as paraboloids. The infrared light is reflected twice before reaching to detectors, thus increasing optical path. Besides, a compensation method is presented to overcome the influence in variation of environment (ambient temperature, humidity and pressure), thus leading to improve the accuracy in gas detection. Experimental results demonstrated that detection ranges are 0-50,000 ppm for CH4, 0-44,500 ppm for CO, 0-48,000 ppm for CO2 and the accuracy is ±0.05%.

  10. Spectroscopic Analysis of Various Phases of Water with an Intrinsic Near-Infrared Optical Sensor System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igbinosun, Osazonamen J.

    Results and analysis are reported for near-infrared spectra obtained using an intrinsic optical sensor system. An experimental facility was designed to integrate fiber optic cables with an FTIR spectrometer. Wavelength-dependent spectral signatures were observed for the solid, liquid, and adsorbed phases of water at 1.94 and 1.45 micrometers. The data obtained can be used to characterize the water abundance of a medium on very small scales and can aid our understanding of the behavior of water and thermal properties of planetary surfaces by observing, for example, ice formation in void spaces between mineral grains. This system will be further developed for use in an environmental simulation facility to analyze Mars analog soils. The implications of this work could impact future space missions in regard to the availability of critical resources for human missions and the search for non-terrestrial life.

  11. Small arms mini-fire control system: fiber-optic barrel deflection sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Rajic, Slobodan; Datskos, Panos G

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally the methods to increase firearms accuracy, particularly at distance, have concentrated on barrel isolation (free floating) and substantial barrel wall thickening to gain rigidity. This barrel stiffening technique did not completely eliminate barrel movement but the problem was significantly reduced to allow a noticeable accuracy enhancement. This process, although highly successful, came at a very high weight penalty. Obviously the goal would be to lighten the barrel (firearm), yet achieve even greater accuracy. Thus, if lightweight barrels could ultimately be compensated for both their static and dynamic mechanical perturbations, the result would be very accurate, yet significantly lighter weight, weapons. We discuss our development of a barrel reference sensor system that is designed to accomplish this ambitious goal. Our optical fiber-based sensor monitors the barrel muzzle position and autonomously compensates for any induced perturbations. The reticle is electronically adjusted in position to compensate for the induced barrel deviation in real time.

  12. Small arms mini-fire control system: fiber-optic barrel deflection sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajic, S.; Datskos, P.; Lawrence, W.; Marlar, T.; Quinton, B.

    2012-06-01

    Traditionally the methods to increase firearms accuracy, particularly at distance, have concentrated on barrel isolation (free floating) and substantial barrel wall thickening to gain rigidity. This barrel stiffening technique did not completely eliminate barrel movement but the problem was significantly reduced to allow a noticeable accuracy enhancement. This process, although highly successful, came at a very high weight penalty. Obviously the goal would be to lighten the barrel (firearm), yet achieve even greater accuracy. Thus, if lightweight barrels could ultimately be compensated for both their static and dynamic mechanical perturbations, the result would be very accurate, yet significantly lighter weight, weapons. We discuss our development of a barrel reference sensor system that is designed to accomplish this ambitious goal. Our optical fiber-based sensor monitors the barrel muzzle position and autonomously compensates for any induced perturbations. The reticle is electronically adjusted in position to compensate for the induced barrel deviation in real time.

  13. Applications of Optical Sensors to the Detection of Light Scattered from Gelling Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulone, Donatella; Manno, Mauro; San Biagio, Pier Luigi; Martorana, Vincenzo

    Visible light, scattered within an angle of few degrees, (Small Angle Light Scattering, SALS) yields information on the spatial correlations and dynamical properties on the scale of the micrometers. In this way a quick and non-invasive characterization of a variety of samples is feasible. Lately the SALS instruments have been built around multielement optical sensors (CCD, CMOS), allowing the simultaneous measurement of the complete structure factor even during fast kinetics. An assessment of some sensor matrices of different technology will be presented. The omolecular assemblies produced by polysaccharides or proteins can be functional or dysfunctional, their properties being either desirable or detrimental. Anyhow, their morphology often depends, in a very delicate way, on the presence of cosolutes, on the thermal history, on the biopolymer concentration etc. We present some applications of low angle dynamic and static light scattering to the study of gelling systems (agarose, pectin, insulin).

  14. Optical fiber synaptic sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisarchik, A. N.; Jaimes-Reátegui, R.; Sevilla-Escoboza, R.; García-Lopez, J. H.; Kazantsev, V. B.

    2011-06-01

    Understanding neuron connections is a great challenge, which is needed to solve many important problems in neurobiology and neuroengineering for recreation of brain functions and efficient biorobotics. In particular, a design of an optical synapse capable to communicate with neuron spike sequences would be crucial to improve the functionality of neuromimmetic networks. In this work we propose an optical synaptic sensor based on an erbium-doped fiber laser driven by a FitzHung-Nagumo electronic neuron, to connect with another electronic neuron. Two possible optical synaptic configurations are analyzed for optoelectronic coupling between neurons: laser cavity loss modulation and pump laser modulation. The control parameters of the proposed optical synapse provide additional degrees of flexibility to the neuron connection traditionally controlled only by coupling strengths in artificial networks.

  15. Experience with wavefront sensor and deformable mirror interfaces for wide-field adaptive optics systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basden, A. G.; Atkinson, D.; Bharmal, N. A.; Bitenc, U.; Brangier, M.; Buey, T.; Butterley, T.; Cano, D.; Chemla, F.; Clark, P.; Cohen, M.; Conan, J.-M.; de Cos, F. J.; Dickson, C.; Dipper, N. A.; Dunlop, C. N.; Feautrier, P.; Fusco, T.; Gach, J. L.; Gendron, E.; Geng, D.; Goodsell, S. J.; Gratadour, D.; Greenaway, A. H.; Guesalaga, A.; Guzman, C. D.; Henry, D.; Holck, D.; Hubert, Z.; Huet, J. M.; Kellerer, A.; Kulcsar, C.; Laporte, P.; Le Roux, B.; Looker, N.; Longmore, A. J.; Marteaud, M.; Martin, O.; Meimon, S.; Morel, C.; Morris, T. J.; Myers, R. M.; Osborn, J.; Perret, D.; Petit, C.; Raynaud, H.; Reeves, A. P.; Rousset, G.; Sanchez Lasheras, F.; Sanchez Rodriguez, M.; Santos, J. D.; Sevin, A.; Sivo, G.; Stadler, E.; Stobie, B.; Talbot, G.; Todd, S.; Vidal, F.; Younger, E. J.

    2016-06-01

    Recent advances in adaptive optics (AO) have led to the implementation of wide field-of-view AO systems. A number of wide-field AO systems are also planned for the forthcoming Extremely Large Telescopes. Such systems have multiple wavefront sensors of different types, and usually multiple deformable mirrors (DMs). Here, we report on our experience integrating cameras and DMs with the real-time control systems of two wide-field AO systems. These are CANARY, which has been operating on-sky since 2010, and DRAGON, which is a laboratory AO real-time demonstrator instrument. We detail the issues and difficulties that arose, along with the solutions we developed. We also provide recommendations for consideration when developing future wide-field AO systems.

  16. Experimental study of low-cost fiber optic distributed temperature sensor system performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dashkov, Michael V.; Zharkov, Alexander D.

    2016-03-01

    The distributed control of temperature is an actual task for various application such as oil & gas fields, high-voltage power lines, fire alarm systems etc. The most perspective are optical fiber distributed temperature sensors (DTS). They have advantages on accuracy, resolution and range, but have a high cost. Nevertheless, for some application the accuracy of measurement and localization aren't so important as cost. The results of an experimental study of low-cost Raman based DTS based on standard OTDR are represented.

  17. Optical Fiber Networks for Remote Fiber Optic Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Vallejo, Montserrat; Lopez-Amo, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of optical fiber sensor networks for remote sensing. Firstly, the state of the art of remote fiber sensor systems has been considered. We have summarized the great evolution of these systems in recent years; this progress confirms that fiber-optic remote sensing is a promising technology with a wide field of practical applications. Afterwards, the most representative remote fiber-optic sensor systems are briefly explained, discussing their schemes, challenges, pros and cons. Finally, a synopsis of the main factors to take into consideration in the design of a remote sensor system is gathered. PMID:22666011

  18. Optical fiber networks for remote fiber optic sensors.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Vallejo, Montserrat; Lopez-Amo, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of optical fiber sensor networks for remote sensing. Firstly, the state of the art of remote fiber sensor systems has been considered. We have summarized the great evolution of these systems in recent years; this progress confirms that fiber-optic remote sensing is a promising technology with a wide field of practical applications. Afterwards, the most representative remote fiber-optic sensor systems are briefly explained, discussing their schemes, challenges, pros and cons. Finally, a synopsis of the main factors to take into consideration in the design of a remote sensor system is gathered.

  19. Integration of fiber-optic sensor arrays into a multi-modal tactile sensor processing system for robotic end-effectors.

    PubMed

    Kampmann, Peter; Kirchner, Frank

    2014-04-16

    With the increasing complexity of robotic missions and the development towards long-term autonomous systems, the need for multi-modal sensing of the environment increases. Until now, the use of tactile sensor systems has been mostly based on sensing one modality of forces in the robotic end-effector. The use of a multi-modal tactile sensory system is motivated, which combines static and dynamic force sensor arrays together with an absolute force measurement system. This publication is focused on the development of a compact sensor interface for a fiber-optic sensor array, as optic measurement principles tend to have a bulky interface. Mechanical, electrical and software approaches are combined to realize an integrated structure that provides decentralized data pre-processing of the tactile measurements. Local behaviors are implemented using this setup to show the effectiveness of this approach.

  20. Integration of Fiber-Optic Sensor Arrays into a Multi-Modal Tactile Sensor Processing System for Robotic End-Effectors

    PubMed Central

    Kampmann, Peter; Kirchner, Frank

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing complexity of robotic missions and the development towards long-term autonomous systems, the need for multi-modal sensing of the environment increases. Until now, the use of tactile sensor systems has been mostly based on sensing one modality of forces in the robotic end-effector. The use of a multi-modal tactile sensory system is motivated, which combines static and dynamic force sensor arrays together with an absolute force measurement system. This publication is focused on the development of a compact sensor interface for a fiber-optic sensor array, as optic measurement principles tend to have a bulky interface. Mechanical, electrical and software approaches are combined to realize an integrated structure that provides decentralized data pre-processing of the tactile measurements. Local behaviors are implemented using this setup to show the effectiveness of this approach. PMID:24743158

  1. Hydrogen Optical Fiber Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Lieberman, Robert A.; Beshay, Manal; Cordero, Steven R.

    2008-07-28

    Optically-based hydrogen sensors promise to deliver an added level of safety as hydrogen and fuel cell technologies enter the mainstream. More importantly, they offer reduced power consumption and lower cost, which are desirable for mass production applications such as automobiles and consumer appliances. This program addressed two of the major challenges previously identified in porous optrode-based optical hydrogen sensors: sensitivity to moisture (ambient humidity), and interference from the oxygen in air. Polymer coatings to inhibit moisture and oxygen were developed in conjunction with newer and novel hydrogen sensing chemistries. The results showed that it is possible to achieve sensitive hydrogen detection and rapid response with minimal interference from oxygen and humidity. As a result of this work, a new and more exciting avenue of investigation was developed: the elimination of the porous optrode and deposition of the sensor chemistry directly into the polymer film. Initial results have been promising, and open up a wider range of potential applications from extended optical fiber sensing networks, to simple plastic "stickers" for use around the home and office.

  2. Rare Earth Optical Temperature Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L. (Inventor); Jenkins, Phillip (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A rare earth optical temperature sensor is disclosed for measuring high temperatures. Optical temperature sensors exist that channel emissions from a sensor to a detector using a light pipe. The invention uses a rare earth emitter to transform the sensed thermal energy into a narrow band width optical signal that travels to a detector using a light pipe. An optical bandpass filter at the detector removes any noise signal outside of the band width of the signal from the emitter.

  3. Fiber Optic Sensor for Acoustic Detection of Partial Discharges in Oil-Paper Insulated Electrical Systems

    PubMed Central

    Posada-Roman, Julio; Garcia-Souto, Jose A.; Rubio-Serrano, Jesus

    2012-01-01

    A fiber optic interferometric sensor with an intrinsic transducer along a length of the fiber is presented for ultrasound measurements of the acoustic emission from partial discharges inside oil-filled power apparatus. The sensor is designed for high sensitivity measurements in a harsh electromagnetic field environment, with wide temperature changes and immersion in oil. It allows enough sensitivity for the application, for which the acoustic pressure is in the range of units of Pa at a frequency of 150 kHz. In addition, the accessibility to the sensing region is guaranteed by immune fiber-optic cables and the optical phase sensor output. The sensor design is a compact and rugged coil of fiber. In addition to a complete calibration, the in-situ results show that two types of partial discharges are measured through their acoustic emissions with the sensor immersed in oil. PMID:22666058

  4. An optical read-out system for the LISA gravitational reference sensor: present status and perspectives.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grado, A.; De Rosa, R.; Di Fiore, L.; Garufi, F.; Milano, L.; Russano, G.; Spagnuolo, V.

    2017-05-01

    Since a few years, the LISA-PF group in Napoli has been working to the development of an optical read-out system, based on optical levers and position sensitive detectors, for the LISA Gravitational Reference Sensor (GRS). This is intended as a more sensitive extra sensing device, in addition to capacitive readout that is the reference solution already tested on flight by the LISA-Pathfinder mission. The reliability of the proposed ORO device and the fulfillment of the sensitivity goals have been already demonstrated in bench-top measurements and tested with torsion pendulum facilities. In this paper we report on the present status of this activity, presenting the results obtained so-far and the perspectives for the future LISA mission.

  5. Shack-Hartmann wavefront-sensor-based adaptive optics system for multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Jae Won; Ballesta, Jerome; So, Peter T. C.

    2010-07-01

    The imaging depth of two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy is partly limited by the inhomogeneity of the refractive index in biological specimens. This inhomogeneity results in a distortion of the wavefront of the excitation light. This wavefront distortion results in image resolution degradation and lower signal level. Using an adaptive optics system consisting of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and a deformable mirror, wavefront distortion can be measured and corrected. With adaptive optics compensation, we demonstrate that the resolution and signal level can be better preserved at greater imaging depth in a variety of ex-vivo tissue specimens including mouse tongue muscle, heart muscle, and brain. However, for these highly scattering tissues, we find signal degradation due to scattering to be a more dominant factor than aberration.

  6. Shack-Hartmann wavefront-sensor-based adaptive optics system for multiphoton microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Jae Won; Ballesta, Jerome; So, Peter T.C.

    2010-01-01

    The imaging depth of two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy is partly limited by the inhomogeneity of the refractive index in biological specimens. This inhomogeneity results in a distortion of the wavefront of the excitation light. This wavefront distortion results in image resolution degradation and lower signal level. Using an adaptive optics system consisting of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and a deformable mirror, wavefront distortion can be measured and corrected. With adaptive optics compensation, we demonstrate that the resolution and signal level can be better preserved at greater imaging depth in a variety of ex-vivo tissue specimens including mouse tongue muscle, heart muscle, and brain. However, for these highly scattering tissues, we find signal degradation due to scattering to be a more dominant factor than aberration. PMID:20799824

  7. Algorithm for a novel fiber-optic weigh-in-motion sensor system

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, K.W. Jr.; Muhs, J.D.

    1991-08-01

    Over the past decade, the demand from both government and private industry for small, lightweight, vehicle weigh-in-motion (WIM) systems has grown substantially. During the 1980s several techniques for weighing vehicles in motion were developed that include piezoelectric cables, capacitive mats, and hydraulic and bending-plate load cells. These different systems have advantages and disadvantages that trade off between accuracy, physical size and system complexity. The smaller portable systems demonstrate medium to poor accuracy and repeatability while the larger more accurate systems are nonportable. A small, lightweight, and portable WIM system based on a fiber-optic pressure transducer has been developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to meet the demands of government and industry. The algorithm for extracting vehicle weight from the time-dependent sensor response is developed and presented in this report, along with data collected by the system for several classes of vehicles. These results show that the ORNL fiber-optic WIM system is a viable alternative to other commercial systems that are presently available. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  8. High speed optical wireless data transmission system for particle sensors in high energy physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, W.; Corsini, R.; Ciaramella, E.; Dell'Orso, R.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.

    2015-08-01

    High speed optical fiber or copper wire communication systems are frequently deployed for readout data links used in particle physics detectors. Future detector upgrades will need more bandwidth for data transfer, but routing requirements for new cables or optical fiber will be challenging due to space limitations. Optical wireless communication (OWC) can provide high bandwidth connectivity with an advantage of reduced material budget and complexity of cable installation and management. In a collaborative effort, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna and INFN Pisa are pursuing the development of a free-space optical link that could be installed in a future particle physics detector or upgrade. We describe initial studies of an OWC link using the inner tracker of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector as a reference architecture. The results of two experiments are described: the first to verify that the laser source transmission wavelength of 1550 nm will not introduce fake signals in silicon strip sensors while the second was to study the source beam diameter and its tolerance to misalignment. For data rates of 2.5 Gb/s and 10 Gb/s over a 10 cm working distance it was observed that a tolerance limit of ±0.25 mm to ±0.8 mm can be obtained for misaligned systems with source beam diameters of 0.38 mm to 3.5 mm, respectively.

  9. Spectrum-Modulating Fiber-Optic Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beheim, Glenn; Fritsch, Klaus

    1989-01-01

    Family of spectrum-modulating fiber-optic sensors undergoing development for use in aircraft-engine control systems. Fiber-optic sensors offer advantages of small size, high bandwidth, immunity to electromagnetic interference, and light weight. Furthermore, they reduce number of locations on aircraft to which electrical power has to be supplied.

  10. Spectrum-Modulating Fiber-Optic Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beheim, Glenn; Fritsch, Klaus

    1989-01-01

    Family of spectrum-modulating fiber-optic sensors undergoing development for use in aircraft-engine control systems. Fiber-optic sensors offer advantages of small size, high bandwidth, immunity to electromagnetic interference, and light weight. Furthermore, they reduce number of locations on aircraft to which electrical power has to be supplied.

  11. Adaptive optic vision correction system using the Z-View wavefront sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yueai; Warden, Laurence; Sandler, David; Dreher, Andreas

    2005-12-01

    High order aberrations in human eye can deteriorate visual acuity and contrast sensitivity. Such aberrations can not be corrected with traditional low-order (defocus and astigmatism) spectacles or contact lenses. A state-of-the-art adaptive optics vision correction system was developed using Ophthonix's Z-View diffractive wavefront sensor and a commercial miniature deformable mirror. While being measured and corrected by this system, the patient can also view a Snellen chart or a Contrast Sensitivity chart through the system in order to experience the vision benefits both in visual acuity and contrast sensitivity. Preliminary study has shown the potential that this system could be used in a doctor's office to provide patients with a subjective feel of the objective high order prescription measured on Z-View.

  12. Distributed sensor for water and pH measurements using fiber optics and swellable polymeric systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michie, W. C.; Culshaw, B.; McKenzie, I.; Konstantakis, M.; Graham, N. B.; Moran, C.; Santos, F.; Bergqvist, E.; Carlstrom, B.

    1995-01-01

    We report on the design, construction and test of a generic form of sensor for making distributed measurements of a range of chemical parameters. The technique combines optical time-domain reflectometry with chemically sensitive water-swellable polymers (hydrogels). Initial experiments have concentrated on demonstrating a distributed water detector; however, gels have been developed that enable this sensor to be

  13. MEMS Fabry-Perot sensor interrogated by optical system-on-a-chip for simultaneous pressure and temperature sensing.

    PubMed

    Pang, Cheng; Bae, Hyungdae; Gupta, Ashwani; Bryden, Kenneth; Yu, Miao

    2013-09-23

    We present a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) based Fabry-Perot (FP) sensor along with an optical system-on-a-chip (SOC) interrogator for simultaneous pressure and temperature sensing. The sensor employs a simple structure with an air-backed silicon membrane cross-axially bonded to a 45° polished optical fiber. This structure renders two cascaded FP cavities, enabling simultaneous pressure and temperature sensing in close proximity along the optical axis. The optical SOC consists of a broadband source, a MEMS FP tunable filter, a photodetector, and the supporting circuitry, serving as a miniature spectrometer for retrieving the two FP cavity lengths. Within the measured pressure and temperature ranges, experimental results demonstrate that the sensor exhibits a good linear response to external pressure and temperature changes.

  14. Optical Sensor Technology Development and Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    B. G. Parker

    2005-01-24

    The objectives of this ESP (Enhanced Surveillance) project are to evaluate sensor performance for future aging studies of materials, components and weapon systems. The goal of this project is to provide analysis capability to experimentally identify and characterize the aging mechanisms and kinetics of Core Stack Assembly (CSA) materials. The work on fiber optic light sources, hermetic sealing of fiber optics, fiber optic hydrogen sensors, and detection systems will be discussed.

  15. Novel Modified Optical Fibers for High Temperature In-Situ Miniaturized Gas Sensors in Advanced Fossil Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pickrell, Gary; Scott, Brian

    2014-06-30

    This report covers the technical progress on the program “Novel Modified Optical Fibers for High Temperature In-Situ Miniaturized Gas Sensors in Advanced Fossil Energy Systems”, funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Materials Science & Engineering and Electrical & Computer Engineering Departments at Virginia Tech, and summarizes technical progress from July 1st, 2005 –June 30th, 2014. The objective of this program was to develop novel fiber materials for high temperature gas sensors based on evanescent wave absorption in optical fibers. This project focused on two primary areas: the study of a sapphire photonic crystal fiber (SPCF) for operation at high temperature and long wavelengths, and a porous glass based fiber optic sensor for gas detection. The sapphire component of the project focused on the development of a sapphire photonic crystal fiber, modeling of the new structures, fabrication of the optimal structure, development of a long wavelength interrogation system, testing of the optical properties, and gas and temperature testing of the final sensor. The fabrication of the 6 rod SPCF gap bundle (diameter of 70μm) with a hollow core was successfully constructed with lead-in and lead-out 50μm diameter fiber along with transmission and gas detection testing. Testing of the sapphire photonic crystal fiber sensor capabilities with the developed long wavelength optical system showed the ability to detect CO2 at or below 1000ppm at temperatures up to 1000°C. Work on the porous glass sensor focused on the development of a porous clad solid core optical fiber, a hollow core waveguide, gas detection capabilities at room and high temperature, simultaneous gas species detection, suitable joining technologies for the lead-in and lead-out fibers and the porous sensor, sensor system sensitivity improvement, signal processing improvement, relationship between pore structure and fiber

  16. Toward Optical Sensors: Review and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabri, Naseer; Aljunid, S. A.; Salim, M. S.; Ahmad, R. B.; Kamaruddin, R.

    2013-04-01

    Recent advances in fiber optics (FOs) and the numerous advantages of light over electronic systems have boosted the utility and demand for optical sensors in various military, industry and social fields. Environmental and atmospheric monitoring, earth and space sciences, industrial chemical processing and biotechnology, law enforcement, digital imaging, scanning, and printing are exemplars of them. The ubiquity of photonic technologies could drive down prices which reduced the cost of optical fibers and lasers. Fiber optic sensors (FOSs) offer a wide spectrum of advantages over traditional sensing systems, such as small size and longer lifetime. Immunity to electromagnetic interference, amenability to multiplexing, and high sensitivity make FOs the sensor technology of choice in several fields, including the healthcare and aerospace sectors. FOSs show reliable and rigid sensing tasks over conventional electrical and electronic sensors. This paper presents an executive review of optical fiber sensors and the most beneficial applications.

  17. Fiber optic hydrogen sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, M.A.; Sanchez, R.; Dulleck, G.R.

    1996-05-01

    This report covers the development of fiber optic hydrogen and temperature sensors for monitoring dissolved hydrogen gas in transformer oil. The concentration of hydrogen gas is a measure of the corona and spark discharge within the transformer and reflects the state of health of the transformer. Key features of the instrument include use of palladium alloys to enhance hydrogen sensitivity, a microprocessor controlled instrument with RS-232, liquid crystal readout, and 4-20 ma. current loop interfaces. Calibration data for both sensors can be down loaded to the instrument through the RS-232 interface. This project was supported by the Technology Transfer Initiative in collaboration with J. W. Harley, Inc. through the mechanism of a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA).

  18. Optical fiber gas sensor development and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, W.; Ho, H. L.

    2008-12-01

    This paper reports recent development and application of optical fiber gas sensors using absorption spectroscopy, including open-path gas sensors using fiber coupled micro-optic cells and photonic bandgap (PBG) fibers. A fiber-optic sensor system capable of detecting dissolved fault gases in oil-insulated equipment in power industry is presented. The gases include methane (CH4), acetylene (C2H2) and ethylene (C2H4). In addition, the development of gas sensor using PBG fiber will be reported.

  19. Ultra-sensitive optical oxygen sensors for characterisation of nearly anoxic systems

    PubMed Central

    Lehner, Philipp; Staudinger, Christoph; Borisov, Sergey M.; Klimant, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    Oxygen quantification in trace amounts is essential in many fields of science and technology. Optical oxygen sensors proved invaluable tools for oxygen measurements in a broad concentration range but until now neither optical nor electrochemical oxygen sensors were able to quantify oxygen in the sub-nanomolar concentration range. Herein we present new optical oxygen sensing materials with unmatched sensitivity. They rely on the combination of ultra-long decaying (several hundred milliseconds lifetime) phosphorescent boron- and aluminium-chelates and highly oxygen-permeable and chemically stable perfluorinated polymers. The sensitivity of the new sensors is improved up to 20-fold compared to state-of-the-art analogues. The limits of detection are as low as 5 parts per billion, volume in gas phase under atmospheric pressure or 7 picomolar in solution. The sensors enable completely new applications for monitoring of oxygen in previously inaccessible concentration ranges. PMID:25042041

  20. Research of labyrinth seals clearance test system based on optical fiber sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jun; Qin, Dongxing; Wang, Qimei; Dong, Zheng

    2006-11-01

    When light irradiates to a test part, the change of the position of the test part can make the intensity of the reflecting light alter accordingly, based on this mechanism of reflective light intensity modulation, a new scheme with optical-fiber displacement sensor is put forward to testing the tip clearance of labyrinth seals. By analysis and treatment of the data from calibration test in static condition, the relationship of the optical-fiber displacement sensor's output in static state and the position from the test part to the sensor are obtained, also influence of different environments to the response curves is analyzed. The results of the experiment show that the presented scheme is feasible, and the high measuring accuracy of the optical-fiber sensor can meet the prospective purpose.

  1. Microfiber Optical Sensors: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Jingyi; Wang, Yipei; Tong, Limin

    2014-01-01

    With diameter close to or below the wavelength of guided light and high index contrast between the fiber core and the surrounding, an optical microfiber shows a variety of interesting waveguiding properties, including widely tailorable optical confinement, evanescent fields and waveguide dispersion. Among various microfiber applications, optical sensing has been attracting increasing research interest due to its possibilities of realizing miniaturized fiber optic sensors with small footprint, high sensitivity, fast response, high flexibility and low optical power consumption. Here we review recent progress in microfiber optical sensors regarding their fabrication, waveguide properties and sensing applications. Typical microfiber-based sensing structures, including biconical tapers, optical gratings, circular cavities, Mach-Zehnder interferometers and functionally coated/doped microfibers, are summarized. Categorized by sensing structures, microfiber optical sensors for refractive index, concentration, temperature, humidity, strain and current measurement in gas or liquid environments are reviewed. Finally, we conclude with an outlook for challenges and opportunities of microfiber optical sensors. PMID:24670720

  2. An Optical Actuation System and Curvature Sensor for a MR-compatible Active Needle

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Seok Chang; Quek, Zhan Fan; Renaud, Pierre; Black, Richard J.; Daniel, Bruce L.; Cutkosky, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    A side optical actuation method is presented for a slender MR-compatible active needle. The needle includes an active region with a shape memory alloy (SMA) wire actuator, where the wire generates a contraction force when optically heated by a laser delivered though optical fibers, producing needle tip bending. A prototype, with multiple side heating spots, demonstrates twice as fast an initial response compared to fiber tip heating when 0.8 W of optical power is applied. A single-ended optical sensor with a gold reflector is also presented to measure the curvature as a function of optical transmission loss. Preliminary tests with the sensor prototype demonstrate approximately linear response and a repeatable signal, independent of the bending history. PMID:26509099

  3. Optical humidity sensor

    DOEpatents

    Tarvin, Jeffrey A.

    1987-01-01

    An optical dielectric humidity sensor which includes a dielectric mirror having multiple alternating layers of two porous water-adsorbent dielectric materials with differing indices of refraction carried by a translucent substrate. A narrow-band polarized light source is positioned to direct light energy onto the mirror, and detectors are positioned to receive light energy transmitted through and reflected by the mirror. A ratiometer indicates humidity in the atmosphere which surrounds the dielectric mirror as a function of a ratio of light energies incident on the detectors.

  4. Optical humidity sensor

    DOEpatents

    Tarvin, J.A.

    1987-02-10

    An optical dielectric humidity sensor is disclosed which includes a dielectric mirror having multiple alternating layers of two porous water-adsorbent dielectric materials with differing indices of refraction carried by a translucent substrate. A narrow-band polarized light source is positioned to direct light energy onto the mirror, and detectors are positioned to receive light energy transmitted through and reflected by the mirror. A ratiometer indicates humidity in the atmosphere which surrounds the dielectric mirror as a function of a ratio of light energies incident on the detectors. 2 figs.

  5. Shack-Hartmann sensor based optical quality testing of whole slide imaging systems for digital pathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakeri, S. M.; Hulsken, Bas; van Vliet, Lucas J.; Stallinga, Sjoerd

    2015-03-01

    Whole Slide Imaging (WSI) systems are used in the emerging field of digital pathology for capturing high-resolution images of tissue slides at high throughput. We present a technique to measure the optical aberrations of WSI systems using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor as a function of field position. The resulting full-field aberration maps for the lowest order astigmatism and coma are analyzed using nodal aberration theory. According to this theory two coefficients describe the astigmatism and coma inherent to the optical design and another six coefficients are needed to describe the cumulative effects of all possible misalignments on astigmatism and coma. The nodal aberration theory appears to fit well to the experimental data. We have measured and analyzed the full-field aberration maps for two different objective lens-tube lens assemblies and found that only the optical design related astigmatism coefficient differed substantially between the two cases, but in agreement with expectations. We have also studied full-field aberration maps for intentional decenter and tilt and found that these affect the misalignment coefficient for constant coma (decenter) and the misalignment coefficient for linear astigmatism (tilt), while keeping all other nodal aberration theory coefficients constant.

  6. Optical fibre sensors for the monitoring of a microwave plasma UV lamp and ozone generation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Keeffe, S.; Ortoneda, M.; Cullen, J. D.; Shaw, A.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Lewis, E.; Phipps, D. A.; Al-Shamma'a, A. I.

    2008-09-01

    The food industry is keen to have new techniques that improve the safety and shelf life of food products without the use of preservatives. The use of UV light and ozone (O3) gas are becoming increasingly popular as methods to decontaminate food and thus extending its shelf life. A microwave radiation device that is a novel source of both germicidal UV and O3 suitable for the food industry has been developed, which offers speed, cost and energy benefits over existing sources. With this system comes the need to monitor a number of conditions, primarily UV intensity and ozone gas concentrations. An optical fibre sensor system is being developed to analyse these properties, in order to control and optimise the outputs of the microwave plasma UV lamp.

  7. Fiber optical sensors for aircraft applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pechstedt, Ralf D.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper selected fiber optical point sensors that are of potential interest for deployment in aircraft are discussed. The operating principles together with recent measurement results are described. Examples include a high-temperature combined pressure and temperature sensor for engine health, hydraulics and landing gear monitoring, an ultra-high sensitive pressure sensor for oil, pneumatic and fluid aero systems applications and a combined acceleration and temperature sensor for condition monitoring of rotating components.

  8. Continuous pH monitoring in a perfused bioreactor system using an optical pH sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Antony S.; Vani, Sundeep; Taylor, Thomas D.; Anderson, Melody M.

    2002-01-01

    Monitoring and regulating the pH of the solution in a bioprocess is one of the key steps in the success of bioreactor operation. An in-line optical pH sensor, based on the optical absorption properties of phenol red present in the medium, was developed and tested in this work for use in NASA space bioreactors based on a rotating wall-perfused vessel system supporting a baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cell culture. The sensor was tested over three 30-day and one 124-day cell runs. The pH sensor initially was calibrated and then used during the entire cell culture interval. The pH reported by the sensor was compared to that measured by a fiber optically coupled Shimadzu spectrophotometer and a blood gas analyzer. The maximum standard error of prediction for all the four cell runs for development pH sensor against BGA was +/-0.06 pH unit and for the fiber optically coupled Shimadzu spectrophotometer against the blood gas analyzer was +/-0.05 pH unit. The pH sensor system performed well without need of recalibration for 124 days. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Continuous pH monitoring in a perfused bioreactor system using an optical pH sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Antony S.; Vani, Sundeep; Taylor, Thomas D.; Anderson, Melody M.

    2002-01-01

    Monitoring and regulating the pH of the solution in a bioprocess is one of the key steps in the success of bioreactor operation. An in-line optical pH sensor, based on the optical absorption properties of phenol red present in the medium, was developed and tested in this work for use in NASA space bioreactors based on a rotating wall-perfused vessel system supporting a baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cell culture. The sensor was tested over three 30-day and one 124-day cell runs. The pH sensor initially was calibrated and then used during the entire cell culture interval. The pH reported by the sensor was compared to that measured by a fiber optically coupled Shimadzu spectrophotometer and a blood gas analyzer. The maximum standard error of prediction for all the four cell runs for development pH sensor against BGA was +/-0.06 pH unit and for the fiber optically coupled Shimadzu spectrophotometer against the blood gas analyzer was +/-0.05 pH unit. The pH sensor system performed well without need of recalibration for 124 days. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Optical fiber sensors for life support applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieberman, R. A.; Schmidlin, E. M.; Ferrell, D. J.; Syracuse, S. J.

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary experimental results on systems designed to demonstrate sensor operation in regenerative food production and crew air supply applications are presented. The systems use conventional fibers and sources in conjunction with custom wavelength division multiplexers in their optical signal processing sections and nonstandard porous optical fibers in the optical sensing elements. It is considered to be possible to create practical sensors for life-support system applications, and particularly, in regenerative food production environments, based on based on reversible sensors for oxygen, carbon monoxide, and humidity.

  11. Optical fiber sensors for life support applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieberman, R. A.; Schmidlin, E. M.; Ferrell, D. J.; Syracuse, S. J.

    1992-07-01

    Preliminary experimental results on systems designed to demonstrate sensor operation in regenerative food production and crew air supply applications are presented. The systems use conventional fibers and sources in conjunction with custom wavelength division multiplexers in their optical signal processing sections and nonstandard porous optical fibers in the optical sensing elements. It is considered to be possible to create practical sensors for life-support system applications, and particularly, in regenerative food production environments, based on based on reversible sensors for oxygen, carbon monoxide, and humidity.

  12. Monitoring system for the displacement of the moveable end of a bridge using optical fiber sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Ki-Tae

    2008-12-01

    The displacement of the moveable end bearing of a bridge is a very critical item that must be measured when evaluating the behavior of a bridge that might be affected by a falling deck or temperature variations, and the movement of the bearing shoe must be periodic monitored by maintenance personnel. But this type of monitoring method is inefficient since the maintenance personnel must perform the inspection in close proximity to the bridge substructure, which takes time and effort. So, for efficient maintenance, inspectors must be able to monitor the bearing shoe without proximity to substructure, which will necessitate the development of a reliable, movable end bearing monitoring system that is convenient for maintenance or monitoring personnel. However, with the existing system, the cabling is very complex and the noise affected by electromagnetic waves might occur. For this reason, this study was intended to develop the sensor system to monitor the displacement of the movable end bearing, using optical fiber sensor, which is durable and is not affected by electromagnetic waves. To that end, an optical fiber measuring device for monitoring the displacement of movable end bearing was developed, and a displacement-measuring algorithm, that uses measured data, was accordingly proposed. The monitoring system that was developed in the study is able to comprehensively collect the displacement data of the movable end bearing without the need to approach the substructure of the bridge by the maintenance personnel. Moreover, thanks to the high reliability of the data, it is expected to significantly enhance the work efficiency as well.

  13. Optical Breath Gas Extravehicular Activity Sensor for the Advanced Portable Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, William R.; Casias, Miguel E.; Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.; Chullen, Cinda; Campbell, Colin

    2016-01-01

    The function of the infrared gas transducer used during extravehicular activity (EVA) in the current space suit is to measure and report the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the ventilation loop. The next generation portable life support system (PLSS) requires highly accurate CO2 sensing technology with performance beyond that presently in use on the International Space Station extravehicular mobility unit (EMU). Further, that accuracy needs to be provided over the full operating pressure range of the suit (3 to 25 psia). Accommodation within space suits demands that optical sensors meet stringent size, weight, and power requirements. A laser diode (LD) sensor based on infrared absorption spectroscopy is being developed for this purpose by Vista Photonics, Inc. Version 1.0 prototype devices were delivered to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in September 2011. The prototypes were upgraded with more sophisticated communications and faster response times to version 2.0 and delivered to JSC in July 2012. The sensors incorporate a laser diode based CO2 channel that also includes an incidental water vapor (humidity) measurement. The prototypes are controlled digitally with an field-programmable gate array microcontroller architecture. Based on the results of the iterative instrument development, further prototype development and testing of instruments were performed leveraging the lessons learned where feasible. The present development extends and upgrades the earlier hardware for the advanced PLSS 2.5 prototypes for testing at JSC. The prototypes provide significantly enhanced accuracy for water vapor measurement and eliminate wavelength drift affecting the earlier versions. Various improvements to the electronics and gas sampling are currently being advanced including the companion development of engineering development units that will ultimately be capable of radiation tolerance. The combination of low power electronics with the performance of a long wavelength

  14. "Reactive" optical sensor for Hg(2+) and its application in environmental aqueous media and biological systems.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi; Chen, Jiayun; Pan, Dong; Li, Hongwei; Yao, Yunhui; Lyu, Zu; Yang, Liting; Ma, Li-Jun

    2017-03-01

    A new rhodamine B-based "reactive" optical sensor (1) for Hg(2+) was synthesized. Sensor 1 shows a unique colorimetric and fluorescent "turn-on" selectivity to Hg(2+) over 14 other metal ions with a hypersensitivity (detection limits are 27.6 nM (5.5 ppb) and 6.9 nM (1.4 ppb), respectively) in neutral buffer solution. To test its applicability in the environment, sensor 1 was applied to quantify and visualize low levels of Hg(2+) in tap water and river water samples. The results indicate sensor 1 is a highly sensitive fluorescent sensor for Hg(2+) with a detection limit of 1.7 ppb in tap water and river water. Moreover, sensor 1 is a convenient visualizing sensor for low levels of Hg(2+) (0.1 ppm) in water environment (from colorless to light pink). In addition, sensor 1 shows good potential as a fluorescent visualizing sensor for Hg(2+) in fetal bovine serum and living 293T cells. The results indicate that sensor 1 shows good potential as a highly sensitive sensor for the detection of Hg(2+) in environmental and biological samples. Graphical Abstract A new rhodamine B-based "reactive" optical sensor (1) for Hg(2+) was synthesized. 1 shows a unique colorimetric and fluorescent "turn-on" selectivity to Hg(2+) over 14 other metal ions with a hypersensitivity in water environment. And it is a convenient visualizing probe for low levels of Hg(2+) in environment aqueous media, fetal bovine serum and living 293T cells.

  15. Development of a novel proton dosimetry system using an array of fiber-optic Cerenkov radiation sensors.

    PubMed

    Son, Jaeman; Kim, Meyoung; Shin, Dongho; Hwang, Uijung; Lee, Sebyeong; Lim, Youngkyung; Park, Jeonghoon; Park, Sung yong; Cho, Kwanho; Kim, Daeyong; Jang, Kyoung Won; Yoon, Myonggeun

    2015-12-01

    This study describes the development and evaluation of a new dosimetric system for proton therapy using an array of fiber-optic Cerenkov radiation sensors (AFCRS). The AFCRS was superior to a conventional, multi-layer ion chamber (MLIC) system in real-time data acquisition and cost effectiveness.

  16. Emerging technology in fiber optic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyott, Richard B.

    1991-03-01

    Some recent innovations in interferoinetric fiber optic sensors include special fibers new components and sensor systems. Many of the concepts have precedents in microwaves. 1. GENERAL PRINCIPLES The application of optical fibers to sensors is diffuse compared with their application to optical communications which is essentially focused on the single problem of how to get information from A to B. A fiber sensor is viable when it can do something not possible with better than more cheaply than any existing method. The probability of the emergence of a new sensor depends on the length of time that a need for the sensor and the possibility of meeting that need have co-existed regardless of whether the need or the possibility has appeared first. 2. TYPES OF SENSOR Fiber sensors can be divided into: a) Multimode fiber sensors which depend on amplitude effects b) Single mode (single path) fiber sensors which depend on phase effects. Since multimode fiber has existed for many decades the emergence of a new multimode sensor depends mostly on the discovery of a new need for such a sensor. On the other hand single mode/single path (i. e. polarization maintaining) fiber is relatively new and so is still being applied to existing needs. This is particularly so of recent innovations in fibers and components. SPIE Vol. 1396 Applications of Optical Engineering Proceedings of OE/Midwest ''90 / 709

  17. Optical pressure sensor based on the combined system of a variable liquid lens and a point diffraction interferometer.

    PubMed

    García, Anmi; Gómez, Manuel; Acosta, Eva

    2012-03-01

    We propose an experimental efficient optical pressure sensor based on a variable liquid lens and a modified point diffraction interferometer. The working principle of the sensor is based on the fact that a variation in pressure induces a change in lens curvature and hence in its focal length, which can be tracked and measured with the interferometer. The pressure is then measured by recording and processing the interferometric images. The sensor in this proposal can change its dynamic range by the simple axial movement of one of the components of the optical system. In this work we show the performance of the system within three working ranges: from 0 to 1 kPa with accuracy of approximately 0.01 kPa, from 0 to 7 kPa with 0.05 kPa accuracy, and from 0 to 30 kPa with 0.3 kPa accuracy. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  18. Interferometric Fiber Optic Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byeong Ha; Kim, Young Ho; Park, Kwan Seob; Eom, Joo Beom; Kim, Myoung Jin; Rho, Byung Sup; Choi, Hae Young

    2012-01-01

    Fiber optic interferometers to sense various physical parameters including temperature, strain, pressure, and refractive index have been widely investigated. They can be categorized into four types: Fabry-Perot, Mach-Zehnder, Michelson, and Sagnac. In this paper, each type of interferometric sensor is reviewed in terms of operating principles, fabrication methods, and application fields. Some specific examples of recently reported interferometeric sensor technologies are presented in detail to show their large potential in practical applications. Some of the simple to fabricate but exceedingly effective Fabry-Perot interferometers, implemented in both extrinsic and intrinsic structures, are discussed. Also, a wide variety of Mach-Zehnder and Michelson interferometric sensors based on photonic crystal fibers are introduced along with their remarkable sensing performances. Finally, the simultaneous multi-parameter sensing capability of a pair of long period fiber grating (LPG) is presented in two types of structures; one is the Mach-Zehnder interferometer formed in a double cladding fiber and the other is the highly sensitive Sagnac interferometer cascaded with an LPG pair. PMID:22736961

  19. Interferometric fiber optic sensors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byeong Ha; Kim, Young Ho; Park, Kwan Seob; Eom, Joo Beom; Kim, Myoung Jin; Rho, Byung Sup; Choi, Hae Young

    2012-01-01

    Fiber optic interferometers to sense various physical parameters including temperature, strain, pressure, and refractive index have been widely investigated. They can be categorized into four types: Fabry-Perot, Mach-Zehnder, Michelson, and Sagnac. In this paper, each type of interferometric sensor is reviewed in terms of operating principles, fabrication methods, and application fields. Some specific examples of recently reported interferometeric sensor technologies are presented in detail to show their large potential in practical applications. Some of the simple to fabricate but exceedingly effective Fabry-Perot interferometers, implemented in both extrinsic and intrinsic structures, are discussed. Also, a wide variety of Mach-Zehnder and Michelson interferometric sensors based on photonic crystal fibers are introduced along with their remarkable sensing performances. Finally, the simultaneous multi-parameter sensing capability of a pair of long period fiber grating (LPG) is presented in two types of structures; one is the Mach-Zehnder interferometer formed in a double cladding fiber and the other is the highly sensitive Sagnac interferometer cascaded with an LPG pair.

  20. Silicon fiber optic sensors

    DOEpatents

    Pocha, Michael D.; Swierkowski, Steve P.; Wood, Billy E.

    2007-10-02

    A Fabry-Perot cavity is formed by a partially or wholly reflective surface on the free end of an integrated elongate channel or an integrated bounding wall of a chip of a wafer and a partially reflective surface on the end of the optical fiber. Such a constructed device can be utilized to detect one or more physical parameters, such as, for example, strain, through the optical fiber using an optical detection system to provide measuring accuracies of less than aboutb0.1%.

  1. What must be the accuracy and target of optical sensor systems for patient monitoring?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Klaus H.; Kessler, Manfred D.

    2002-06-01

    Although the treatment in the intensive care unit has improved in recent years enabling greater surgical engagements and improving patients survival rate, no adequate monitoring is available in imminent severe pathological cases. Otherwise such kind of monitoring is necessary for early or prophylactic treatment in order to avoid or reduce the severity of the disease and protect the patient from sepsis or multiple organ failure. In these cases the common monitoring is limited, because clinical physiological and laboratory parameters indicate either the situation of macro-circulation or late disturbances of microcirculation, which arise previously on sub-cellular level. Optical sensor systems enable to reveal early variations in local capillary flow. The correlation between clinical parameters and changes in condition of oxygenation as a function of capillary flow disturbances is meaningful for the further treatment. The target should be to develop a predictive parameter, which is useful for detection and follow-up of changes in circulation.

  2. Monolithic fiber optic sensor assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, Scott

    2015-02-10

    A remote sensor element for spectrographic measurements employs a monolithic assembly of one or two fiber optics to two optical elements separated by a supporting structure to allow the flow of gases or particulates therebetween. In a preferred embodiment, the sensor element components are fused ceramic to resist high temperatures and failure from large temperature changes.

  3. Error Measurements in an Acousto-Optic Tunable Filter Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-01

    Acousto - Optic Tunable Filter--Fiber Bragg Grating (AOTF-FBG) system. This analysis was targeted to investigate the measurement error in the AOTF-FBG system...Fiber bragg grating, Wavelength division multiplexing, Acousto - optic tunable filter.

  4. Fiber optic and laser sensors VII

    SciTech Connect

    Udd, E.; De Paula, R.P.

    1989-01-01

    This book contains articles on fiber optic and laser sensors. Included are these topics: Fiber optic sensor development at universities, Fiber optic sensing techniques, Magnetics, and Acoustics and pressure sensors.

  5. Improved Optical Fiber Chemical Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egalon, Claudio O.; Rogowski, Robert S.

    1994-01-01

    Calculations, based on exact theory of optical fiber, have shown how to increase optical efficiency sensitivity of active-core, step-index-profile optical-fiber fluorosensor. Calculations result of efforts to improve efficiency of optical-fiber chemical sensor of previous concept described in "Making Optical-Fiber Chemical Sensors More Sensitive" (LAR-14525). Optical fiber chemical detector of enhanced sensitivity made in several configurations. Portion of fluorescence or chemiluminescence generated in core, and launched directly into bound electromagnetic modes that propagate along core to photodetector.

  6. Fluorescent optical position sensor

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2005-11-15

    A fluorescent optical position sensor and method of operation. A small excitation source side-pumps a localized region of fluorescence at an unknown position along a fluorescent waveguide. As the fluorescent light travels down the waveguide, the intensity of fluorescent light decreases due to absorption. By measuring with one (or two) photodetectors the attenuated intensity of fluorescent light emitted from one (or both) ends of the waveguide, the position of the excitation source relative to the waveguide can be determined by comparing the measured light intensity to a calibrated response curve or mathematical model. Alternatively, excitation light can be pumped into an end of the waveguide, which generates an exponentially-decaying continuous source of fluorescent light along the length of the waveguide. The position of a photodetector oriented to view the side of the waveguide can be uniquely determined by measuring the intensity of the fluorescent light emitted radially at that location.

  7. Development of optical fiber Bragg grating force-reflection sensor system of medical application for safe minimally invasive robotic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Hoseok; Kim, Kiyoung; Lee, Jungju

    2011-07-01

    Force feedback plays a very important role in medical surgery. In minimally invasive surgery (MIS), however, the very long and stiff bars of surgical instruments greatly diminish force feedback for the surgeon. In the case of minimally invasive robotic surgery (MIRS), force feedback is totally eliminated. Previous researchers have reported that the absence of force feedback increased the average force magnitude applied to the tissue by at least 50%, and increased the peak force magnitude by at least a factor of two. Therefore, it is very important to provide force information in MIRS. Recently, many sensors are being developed for MIS and MIRS, but some obstacles to their application in actual medical surgery must be surmounted. The most critical problems are size limit and sterilizability. Optical fiber sensors are among the most suitable sensors for the surgical environment. The optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor, in particular, offers an important additional advantage over other optical fiber sensors in that it is not influenced by the intensity of the light source. In this paper, we present the initial results of a study on the application of a FBG sensor to measure reflected forces in MIRS environments and suggest the possibility of successful application to MIRS systems.

  8. Precision Fiber Optic Sensor Market Forecast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, Jeff D.; Glasco, Jon; Dixon, Frank W.

    1986-01-01

    The worldwide market for precision fiber optic sensors is forecasted, 1984-1994. The forecast is based upon o Analysis of fiber optic sensor and related component current technology, and a forecast of technology advancement o Review and projection of demand for precision sensing, and the penetration which fiber optics will make into this market The analysis and projections are based mainly on interviews conducted worldwide with research teams, government agencies, systems contractors, medical and industrial laboratories, component suppliers and others. The worldwide market for precision (interferometric) fiber optic sensing systems is forecasted to exceed $0.8 billion by 1994. The forecast is segmented by geographical region (Europe, Japan and North America) and by function; o Gyroscope o Sonar o Gradiometer/Magnetometer o Other - Chemical Composition - Atmospheric Acoustic - Temperature - Position - Pressure Requirements for components are reviewed. These include special fiber, emitters and detectors, modulators, couplers, switches, integrated optical circuits and integrated optoelectronics. The advancement in component performance is forecasted. The major driving forces creating fiber optic sensor markets are reviewed. These include fiber optic sensor technical and economic advantages, increasingly stringent operational requirements, and technology evolution. The leading fiber optic sensor and related component development programs are reviewed. Component sources are listed. Funding sources for sensor and component development are outlined, and trends forecasted.

  9. Improved artificial bee colony algorithm for wavefront sensor-less system in free space optical communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Chaojun; Han, Xiang'e.

    2015-10-01

    Adaptive optics (AO) technology is an effective way to alleviate the effect of turbulence on free space optical communication (FSO). A new adaptive compensation method can be used without a wave-front sensor. Artificial bee colony algorithm (ABC) is a population-based heuristic evolutionary algorithm inspired by the intelligent foraging behaviour of the honeybee swarm with the advantage of simple, good convergence rate, robust and less parameter setting. In this paper, we simulate the application of the improved ABC to correct the distorted wavefront and proved its effectiveness. Then we simulate the application of ABC algorithm, differential evolution (DE) algorithm and stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) algorithm to the FSO system and analyze the wavefront correction capabilities by comparison of the coupling efficiency, the error rate and the intensity fluctuation in different turbulence before and after the correction. The results show that the ABC algorithm has much faster correction speed than DE algorithm and better correct ability for strong turbulence than SPGD algorithm. Intensity fluctuation can be effectively reduced in strong turbulence, but not so effective in week turbulence.

  10. Field test of a distributed fiber-optic intrusion sensor system for long perimeters.

    PubMed

    Juarez, Juan C; Taylor, Henry F

    2007-04-10

    Field tests in desert terrain of a distributed sensor system for detecting and locating intruders based on the phase-sensitive optical-time-domain reflectometer (phi-OTDR) are described. The sensing element is a single-mode telecommunications fiber in a 4.5 mm diameter cable buried in a trench filled with loose sand. Light pulses from a continuous-wave Er:fiber Fabry-Perot laser with a narrow (<3 kHz) instantaneous linewidth and low (few kilohertz per second) frequency drift are injected into one end of the fiber, and the orthogonal polarizations of the backscattered light are monitored with separate receivers. Localized phase changes in the optical carrier are sensed by subtracting a phi-OTDR trace from an earlier stored trace. High sensitivity and consistent detection of intruders on foot and of vehicles traveling down a road near the cable line was realized over a cable length of 8.5 km and a total fiber path of 19 km in real time.

  11. Polarization discrimination in a phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometer intrusion-sensor system.

    PubMed

    Juarez, Juan C; Taylor, Henry F

    2005-12-15

    A distributed sensor system for detecting and locating intruders based on a phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometer (phi-OTDR) that utilizes polarization discrimination is described. The sensing element is a single-mode telecommunications fiber in a 3 mm diameter cable buried along a monitored perimeter in a 20-46 cm deep, 10 cm wide trench in clay soil. Light pulses from a continuous-wave Er fiber Fabry-Perot laser with a narrow (< 3 kHz) instantaneous linewidth and low (a few Kilohertz per second) frequency drift are injected into one end of the fiber, and the orthogonal polarizations of the backscattered light are monitored with separate receivers. Localized phase changes in the optical carrier are sensed by subtraction of a phi-OTDR trace from an earlier stored trace. In field tests with a monitored length of 12 km, detection of intruders on foot as far as 4.5 m from the cable line was consistently achieved.

  12. Fiber optic Cerenkov radiation sensor system to estimate burn-up of spent fuel: characteristic evaluation of the system using Co-60 source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, S. H.; Jang, K. W.; Jeon, D.; Hong, S.; Kim, S. G.; Sim, H. I.; Yoo, W. J.; Park, B. G.; Lee, B.

    2013-09-01

    Cerenkov radiation occurs when charged particles are moving faster than the speed of light in a transparent dielectric medium. In optical fibers, the Cerenkov light also can be generated due to their dielectric components. Accordingly, the radiation-induced light signals can be obtained using optical fibers without any scintillating material. In this study, to measure the intensities of Cerenkov radiation induced by gamma-rays, we have fabricated the fiber-optic Cerenkov radiation sensor system using silica optical fibers, plastic optical fibers, multi-anode photomultiplier tubes, and a scanning system. To characterize the Cerenkov radiation generated in optical fibers, the spectra of Cerenkov radiation generated in the silica and plastic optical fibers were measured. Also, the intensities of Cerenkov radiation induced by gamma-rays generated from a cylindrical Co-60 source with or without lead shielding were measured using the fiberoptic Cerenkov radiation sensor system.

  13. Comparative assessment of three algorithms to control a deformable mirror for an adaptive optics system with no wavefront sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasiri-Avanaki, M. R.; Sarmadi, H.; Meadway, A.; Podoleanu, A. Gh.; Hojjatoleslami, S. A.

    2011-03-01

    The images obtained from confocal imaging systems present less resolution than the theoretical limit due to imperfection of the optical components and their arrangement. This imperfection deteriorates the wavefront and introduces aberrations to the optical system. Adaptive optics (AO) systems composed of a wavefront sensor (WFS) and a deformable mirror represent the most used solution to this problem. Such adaptive optics systems are expensive. In addition, in microscopy, WFSs cannot be used due to stray reflections in the system and high aberrations introduced by the specimen. For these reasons, sensor-less AO systems have been developed to control the deformable mirror (DM) using an optimization algorithm in an iterative manner. At each iteration, the algorithm produces a new set of voltage and sends it to the mirror so as to optimize its shape, in such a way, as to maximize the strength of the photodetector current in the imaging system. In this paper the results of the application of three optimization techniques in the sensor-less AO are compared. The three optimization techniques are simulated annealing (SA), genetic algorithm (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO). SA and GA have been previously implemented and PSO is explained in this paper.

  14. Fiber optic multimode displacement sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Karl A.; Jarzynski, Jacek

    1996-04-01

    An underwater Optical Motion Sensor (OMS) based on a design first presented by W. B. Spillman, Schlieren multimode fiber-optic hydrophone, Applied Physics Letters 37(2), 15 July 1980, p. 145-146 is described. The displacement sensor uses the same acoustooptical intensity modulation mechanism as Spillman, however the sensing mechanism is isolated from the ambient fluid environment by a small cylindrical aluminum enclosure (1″ OD×3/4″). The enclosure contains an inertial mass and the fiber collimators. The inertial mass is suspended in the center of the enclosure by three small wires rigidly mounted to the walls. The mass and wires act as a cantilever beam system with a mechanical resonance near 100 Hz. The transduction mechanism consists of two opposed optical gratings aligned and positioned between the fiber collimators. One grating is mounted on the inertial mass while the other is mounted on the lower end cap of the enclosure. Relative motion between the gratings causes a modulation of the light transmitted through the gratings. The modulated beam is focused onto a photodetector and converted to electric current. The frequency response is flat from 200 Hz-9 kHz with a minimum detectable displacement of 0.002 A and the dynamic range is 136 dB. The small size and light weight give the sensor an effective density of 1.08 g/cm3 making it almost neutrally buoyant in water. This in conjunction with the performance characteristics make this sensor suitable for use in acoustical sensing applications.

  15. Multipoint fiber-optic-based corrosion sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins-Filho, Joaquim F.; Fontana, Eduardo; Guimarães, J.; Souza Coêlho, I. J.

    2008-04-01

    We present an optical fiber sensor for the corrosion process in metal (Aluminum) using the optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR) technique. Our proposed sensor system consists of several sensor heads connected to a commercial OTDR by a single-mode optical fiber and fiber couplers. Each sensor head consists of an optical fiber having the cleaved end coated with an aluminum film. For laboratory measurements the corrosion action was simulated by controlled etching of the Al film on the sensor head. The OTDR detects the light reflected by each sensor head. As the aluminum is etched the reflection decreases and the etch rate can be obtained from the OTDR traces. We present experimental results for the measurement of the corrosion rate of aluminum films in controlled laboratory conditions and also for the evaluation of the maximum number of sensor heads the system supports. Our proposed sensor system is multipoint, self-referenced, has no moving parts and can detect the corrosion rate for each head several kilometers away from the OTDR. This system may have applications in harsh environments such as in deepwater oil wells, for the evaluation of the corrosion process in the inner wall of the casing pipes.

  16. Proceedings for Optical Fiber Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-01-01

    This conference is the eighth in the Optical Fiber Sensor (OFS) Series, the first being held in London in 1983. There has been considerable progress over the past nine years and recently a number of the technological hurdles which have slowed the development of this technology have been overcome. The number of commercially available fiber optic sensors is still growing, however workers in the fiber sensor area now have a better appreciation of the strengths of conventional sensor technology and realize the stiffness of the competition. However a number of workers in the user community, initially skeptical, are beginning to see the real advantages fiber optic sensor technology has to offer. It has always been the OFS conference charter to publish original, significant research in the area of fiber optic sensors. As the technology matures it is natural that emphasis shifts towards applications-oriented research and development. Since the last OFS conference, there have been a number of important demonstrations of fiber optic sensor technology - for example a 48 channel all optical towed array was successfully tested at sea by the U.S. Navy. In the area of fiber optic gyroscopes, progress has also been rapid towards the demonstration of the viability of this technology for wide ranging applications. As these areas mature a number of other applications--especially smart skins, are rapidly expanding. This gives opportunities for the development of new sensing and interrogation techniques.

  17. Development of beam monitoring system for proton pencil beam scanning using fiber-optic radiation sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Jaeman; Koo, Jihye; Moon, Sunyoung; Yoon, Myonggeun; Jeong, Jonghwi; Kim, Sun-Young; Lim, Youngkyung; Lee, Se Byeong; Shin, Dongho; Kim, Meyoung; Kim, Dongwook

    2017-10-01

    We aimed to develop a beam monitoring system based on a fiber-optic radiation sensor (FORS), which can be used in real time in a beam control room, to monitor a beam in proton therapy, where patients are treated using a pencil beam scanning (PBS) mode, by measuring the beam spot width (BSW) and beam spot position (BSP) of the PBS. We developed two-dimensional detector arrays to monitor the PBS beam in the beam control room. We measured the BSW for five energies of the PBS beam and compared the measurements with those of Lynx and EBT3 film. In order to confirm the BSP, we compared the BSP values of the PBS calculated from radiation treatment planning (RTP), to five BSP values measured using FORS at 224.2 MeV. When comparing BSW values obtained using developed monitoring system to the measurements obtained using commercial EBT3 film, the average difference in BSW value of the PBS beam was 0.1 ± 0.1 mm. In the comparison of BSW values with the measurements obtained using Lynx, the average difference was 0.2 ± 0.1 mm. When comparing BSP measurements to the values calculated from RTP, the average difference was 0.4 ± 0.2 mm. The study results confirmed that the developed FORS-based beam monitoring system can monitor a PBS beam in real time in a beam control room, where proton beam is controlled for the patient.

  18. Investigation of the relative orientation of the system of optical sensors to monitor the technosphere objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrochenko, Andrey; Konyakhin, Igor

    2017-06-01

    In connection with the development of robotics have become increasingly popular variety of three-dimensional reconstruction of the system mapping and image-set received from the optical sensors. The main objective of technical and robot vision is the detection, tracking and classification of objects of the space in which these systems and robots operate [15,16,18]. Two-dimensional images sometimes don't contain sufficient information to address those or other problems: the construction of the map of the surrounding area for a route; object identification, tracking their relative position and movement; selection of objects and their attributes to complement the knowledge base. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the surrounding space allows you to obtain information on the relative positions of objects, their shape, surface texture. Systems, providing training on the basis of three-dimensional reconstruction of the results of the comparison can produce two-dimensional images of three-dimensional model that allows for the recognition of volume objects on flat images. The problem of the relative orientation of industrial robots with the ability to build threedimensional scenes of controlled surfaces is becoming actual nowadays.

  19. Fiber optic sensor technology - An opportunity for smart aerospace structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, J. S.; Rogowski, R. S.; Claus, R. O.

    1988-01-01

    Fiber optic sensors provide the opportunity for fabricating materials with internal sensors which can serve as lifetime health monitors, analogous to a central nervous system. The embedded fiber optic sensors can be interrogated by various techniques to measure internal strain, temperature, pressure, acoustic waves and other parameters indicative of structural integrity. Experiments have been conducted with composite samples with embedded sensors to measure strain using optical time domain reflectometry, modal interference and an optical phase locked loop. Fiber optic sensors have been developed to detect acoustic emission and impact damage and have been demonstrated for cure monitoring. These sensors have the potential for lifetime monitoring of structural properties, providing real time nondestructive evaluation.

  20. Optical rotation sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotge, J. R.; Simmons, B. J.; Kroncke, G. T.; Stech, D. J.

    1986-05-01

    Research efforts were concentrated on passive ring laser rotation sensor technology. Initial efforts were performed on supportive projects, e.g., laser stabilization, followed by a 0.62 sq m passive resonant ring laser gyro (PRRLG), leading to the development of a 60 sq m system mounted on the pneumatically supported isolation test platform (Iso-Pad) at FJSRL. Numerous sub-system tasks and a feasibility 0.62 sq m PRRLG were completed, supporting projections of very high resolution performance by a large 60 sq m PRRLG. The expected performance of the large PRRLG, on the order of 10 to the minus 10th power ERU (earth rate units), would provide an accurate error model applicable to Air Force operational ring laser gyros, a new source of geophysical data, e.g., earth wobble and variations in earth rotation, a proven design concept applicable to Air Force sensor needs as reference to MX instruments tests, and relativity experiments. This report documents the many accomplishments leading to, and the status of the large PRRLG at the date of the PRRLG stop order, November 1985.

  1. Fiber Optic Sensor Components and Systems for Smart Materials and Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, R.

    1999-01-01

    The general objective of the funded research effort has been the development of discrete and distributed fiber sensors and fiber optic centered opto-electronic networks for the intelligent monitoring of phenomena in various aerospace structures related to NASA Marshall specific applications. In particular, we have proposed and have been developing technologies that we believe to be readily transferrable and which involve new fabrication techniques. The associated sensors developed can be incorporated into the matrix or on the surfaces of structures for the purpose of sensing stress, strain, temperature-both low and high, pressure field variations, phase changes, and the presence of various chemical constituents.

  2. Optical Communication System for Remote Monitoring and Adaptive Control of Distributed Ground Sensors Exhibiting Collective Intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, S.M.; Stantz, K.M.; Trahan, M.W.; Wagner, J.S.

    1998-11-01

    Comprehensive management of the battle-space has created new requirements in information management, communication, and interoperability as they effect surveillance and situational awareness. The objective of this proposal is to expand intelligent controls theory to produce a uniquely powerful implementation of distributed ground-based measurement incorporating both local collective behavior, and interoperative global optimization for sensor fusion and mission oversight. By using a layered hierarchal control architecture to orchestrate adaptive reconfiguration of autonomous robotic agents, we can improve overall robustness and functionality in dynamic tactical environments without information bottlenecks. In this concept, each sensor is equipped with a miniaturized optical reflectance modulator which is interactively monitored as a remote transponder using a covert laser communication protocol from a remote mothership or operative. Robot data-sharing at the ground level can be leveraged with global evaluation criteria, including terrain overlays and remote imaging data. Information sharing and distributed intelli- gence opens up a new class of remote-sensing applications in which small single-function autono- mous observers at the local level can collectively optimize and measure large scale ground-level signals. AS the need for coverage and the number of agents grows to improve spatial resolution, cooperative behavior orchestrated by a global situational awareness umbrella will be an essential ingredient to offset increasing bandwidth requirements within the net. A system of the type described in this proposal will be capable of sensitively detecting, tracking, and mapping spatial distributions of measurement signatures which are non-stationary or obscured by clutter and inter- fering obstacles by virtue of adaptive reconfiguration. This methodology could be used, for example, to field an adaptive ground-penetrating radar for detection of underground structures in

  3. A flowing liquid test system for assessing the linearity and time-response of rapid fibre optic oxygen partial pressure sensors.

    PubMed

    Chen, R; Hahn, C E W; Farmery, A D

    2012-08-15

    The development of a methodology for testing the time response, linearity and performance characteristics of ultra fast fibre optic oxygen sensors in the liquid phase is presented. Two standard medical paediatric oxygenators are arranged to provide two independent extracorporeal circuits. Flow from either circuit can be diverted over the sensor under test by means of a system of rapid cross-over solenoid valves exposing the sensor to an abrupt change in oxygen partial pressure, P O2. The system is also capable of testing the oxygen sensor responses to changes in temperature, carbon dioxide partial pressure P CO2 and pH in situ. Results are presented for a miniature fibre optic oxygen sensor constructed in-house with a response time ≈ 50 ms and a commercial fibre optic sensor (Ocean Optics Foxy), when tested in flowing saline and stored blood.

  4. Low noise optical position sensor

    DOEpatents

    Spear, Jonathan David

    1999-01-01

    A novel optical position sensor is described that uses two component photodiodes electrically connected in parallel, with opposing polarities. A lens provides optical gain and restricts the acceptance angle of the detector. The response of the device to displacements of an optical spot is similar to that of a conventional bi-cell type position sensitive detector. However, the component photodiode design enables simpler electronic amplification with inherently less electrical noise than the bi-cell. Measurements by the sensor of the pointing noise of a focused helium-neon laser as a function of frequency demonstrate high sensitivity and suitability for optical probe beam deflection experiments.

  5. Low noise optical position sensor

    DOEpatents

    Spear, J.D.

    1999-03-09

    A novel optical position sensor is described that uses two component photodiodes electrically connected in parallel, with opposing polarities. A lens provides optical gain and restricts the acceptance angle of the detector. The response of the device to displacements of an optical spot is similar to that of a conventional bi-cell type position sensitive detector. However, the component photodiode design enables simpler electronic amplification with inherently less electrical noise than the bi-cell. Measurements by the sensor of the pointing noise of a focused helium-neon laser as a function of frequency demonstrate high sensitivity and suitability for optical probe beam deflection experiments. 14 figs.

  6. Design and Performance Evaluation of Sensors and Actuators for Advanced Optical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    Current state-of-the-art commercial sensors and actuators do not meet many of NASA s next generation spacecraft and instrument needs. Nor do they satisfy the DoD needs for satellite missions, especially micro/nano satellite missions. In an effort to develop advanced optical devices and instruments that meet mission requirements, NASA Langley recently completed construction of a new cleanroom housing equipment capable of fabricating high performance active optic and adaptive optic technologies including deformable mirrors, reconfigurable lenses (both refractive and diffractive), spectrometers, spectro-polarimeters, tunable filters and many other active optic devices. In addition to performance, these advanced optic technologies offer advantages in speed, size, weight, power consumption, and radiation tolerance. The active optic devices described in this paper rely on birefringent liquid crystal materials to alter either the phase or the polarization of the incoming light. Design considerations and performance evaluation results for various NASA applications are presented. Applications presented will include large space telescopes, optical communications, spacecraft windows, coronagraphs, and star trackers. Keywords: Photonics, Adaptive Optics, Tunable Filters, MEMs., MOEMs, Coronagraph, Star Tracker

  7. Advances in optical fiber sensors for vehicle detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meller, Scott A.; de Vries, Marten J.; Arya, Vivek; Claus, Richard O.; Zabaronick, Noel

    1998-01-01

    THe primary objective for this project is the design of optical fiber-based sensor instrumentation for specific ITS applications. Specifically, this paper discusses research on optical fiber sensors that can be used for traffic monitoring and vehicle classification. This paper also discusses developments on the application of optical fiber sensor that can be used for monitoring visibility. This research is directly beneficial to the implementation of driver advisory and safety systems, traffic control system, and other ITS applications. This paper summarizes research performed on optical fiber sensors used for measuring traffic flow on highways and discusses progress on optical fiber sensors used for monitoring visibility.

  8. Fiber-Optic Differential Displacement Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tcheng, Ping

    1996-01-01

    Dual fiber-optic sensor measures small relative displacements of two proximate objects along common surface. Dual sensor comprises two fiber-optic sensors in differential configuration increasing sensitivity to displacement while decreasing sensitivity to thermal expansion and contraction.

  9. A Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor Interrogation System Based on a Linearly Wavelength-Swept Thermo-Optic Laser Chip

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyung-Seok; Lee, Hwi Don; Kim, Hyo Jin; Cho, Jae Du; Jeong, Myung Yung; Kim, Chang-Seok

    2014-01-01

    A linearized wavelength-swept thermo-optic laser chip was applied to demonstrate a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor interrogation system. A broad tuning range of 11.8 nm was periodically obtained from the laser chip for a sweep rate of 16 Hz. To measure the linear time response of the reflection signal from the FBG sensor, a programmed driving signal was directly applied to the wavelength-swept laser chip. The linear wavelength response of the applied strain was clearly extracted with an R-squared value of 0.99994. To test the feasibility of the system for dynamic measurements, the dynamic strain was successfully interrogated with a repetition rate of 0.2 Hz by using this FBG sensor interrogation system. PMID:25177803

  10. Feasibility of fiber optic displacement sensor scanning system for imaging of dental cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Husna Abdul; Che Ani, Adi Izhar; Harun, Sulaiman Wadi; Yasin, Moh.; Apsari, Retna; Ahmad, Harith

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential of intensity modulated fiber optic displacement sensor scanning system for the imaging of dental cavity. Here, we discuss our preliminary results in the imaging of cavities on various teeth surfaces, as well as measurement of the diameter of the cavities which are represented by drilled holes on the teeth surfaces. Based on the analysis of displacement measurement, the sensitivities and linear range for the molar, canine, hybrid composite resin, and acrylic surfaces are obtained at 0.09667 mV/mm and 0.45 mm 0.775 mV/mm and 0.4 mm 0.5109 mV/mm and 0.5 mm and 0.25 mV/mm and 0.5 mm, respectively, with a good linearity of more than 99%. The results also show a clear distinction between the cavity and surrounding tooth region. The stability, simplicity of design, and low cost of fabrication make it suitable for restorative dentistry.

  11. A system for assessing motion artifacts in the signal of a micro-optic in-ear vital signs sensor.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Stefan; Hülsbusch, Markus; Starke, Dietmar; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2008-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are among the most common causes of death in developed industrial nations. It is of great interest of both physician and patient to determine the cardiovascular risk factors early in order to take preventive measures. To assist these investigations we develop a wearable in-ear measuring system (IN-MONIT) for 24/7 monitoring of heart rate and oxygen saturation (SpO2). The central component is a micro-optic remission/reflection sensor (MORES) located inside the auditory canal. From the measured photoplethysmographic curves the aforementioned vital signs can be derived. In the following we present a recording system for assessing motion artifact influence in the in-ear sensor data. Two accelerometer sensors record posture and motion while at the same time SpO2, heart rate and PPG are measured using both a commercial sensor and the in-ear sensor. The data is transmitted wirelessly to a control PC for storage and further investigation. Using this system we assessed the influence of motion artifacts produced by daily life activities on infrared and red in-ear PPG data and on readings of the reference sensor.

  12. Optical networks for wideband sensor array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Lin Horng

    2011-12-01

    This thesis presents the realization of novel systems for optical sensing networks with an array of long-period grating (LPG) sensors. As a launching point of the thesis, the motivation to implement optical sensing network in precisely catering LPG sensors is presented. It highlights the flexibility of the sensing network to act as the foundation in order to boost the application of the various LPG sensor design in biological and chemical sensing. After the thorough study on the various optical sensing networks, sub-carrier multiplexing (SCM) and optical time division multiplexing (OTDM) schemes are adopted in conjunction with tunable laser source (TLS) to facilitate simultaneous interrogation of the LPG sensors array. In fact, these systems are distinct to have the capability to accommodate wideband optical sensors. Specifically, the LPG sensors which is in 20nm bandwidth are identified to operate in these systems. The working principles of the systems are comprehensively elucidated in this thesis. It highlights the mathematical approach to quantify the experimental setup of the optical sensing network. Additionally, the system components of the designs are identified and methodically characterized so that the components well operate in the designed environment. A mockup has been setup to demonstrate the application in sensing of various liquid indices and analyse the response of the LPG sensors in order to evaluate the performance of the systems. Eventually, the resemblance of the demultiplexed spectral response to the pristine spectral response are quantified to have excellent agreement. Finally, the promising result consistency of the systems is verified through repeatability test.

  13. Fiber-Optic Chemical Sensors and Fiber-Optic Bio-Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Pospíšilová, Marie; Kuncová, Gabriela; Trögl, Josef

    2015-01-01

    This review summarizes principles and current stage of development of fiber-optic chemical sensors (FOCS) and biosensors (FOBS). Fiber optic sensor (FOS) systems use the ability of optical fibers (OF) to guide the light in the spectral range from ultraviolet (UV) (180 nm) up to middle infrared (IR) (10 µm) and modulation of guided light by the parameters of the surrounding environment of the OF core. The introduction of OF in the sensor systems has brought advantages such as measurement in flammable and explosive environments, immunity to electrical noises, miniaturization, geometrical flexibility, measurement of small sample volumes, remote sensing in inaccessible sites or harsh environments and multi-sensing. The review comprises briefly the theory of OF elaborated for sensors, techniques of fabrications and analytical results reached with fiber-optic chemical and biological sensors. PMID:26437407

  14. Fiber-Optic Chemical Sensors and Fiber-Optic Bio-Sensors.

    PubMed

    Pospíšilová, Marie; Kuncová, Gabriela; Trögl, Josef

    2015-09-30

    This review summarizes principles and current stage of development of fiber-optic chemical sensors (FOCS) and biosensors (FOBS). Fiber optic sensor (FOS) systems use the ability of optical fibers (OF) to guide the light in the spectral range from ultraviolet (UV) (180 nm) up to middle infrared (IR) (10 μm) and modulation of guided light by the parameters of the surrounding environment of the OF core. The introduction of OF in the sensor systems has brought advantages such as measurement in flammable and explosive environments, immunity to electrical noises, miniaturization, geometrical flexibility, measurement of small sample volumes, remote sensing in inaccessible sites or harsh environments and multi-sensing. The review comprises briefly the theory of OF elaborated for sensors, techniques of fabrications and analytical results reached with fiber-optic chemical and biological sensors.

  15. Robust optical sensors for safety critical automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Locht, Cliff; De Knibber, Sven; Maddalena, Sam

    2008-02-01

    Optical sensors for the automotive industry need to be robust, high performing and low cost. This paper focuses on the impact of automotive requirements on optical sensor design and packaging. Main strategies to lower optical sensor entry barriers in the automotive market include: Perform sensor calibration and tuning by the sensor manufacturer, sensor test modes on chip to guarantee functional integrity at operation, and package technology is key. As a conclusion, optical sensor applications are growing in automotive. Optical sensor robustness matured to the level of safety critical applications like Electrical Power Assisted Steering (EPAS) and Drive-by-Wire by optical linear arrays based systems and Automated Cruise Control (ACC), Lane Change Assist and Driver Classification/Smart Airbag Deployment by camera imagers based systems.

  16. Integrated multi-channel nano-engineered optical hydrogen and temperature sensor detection systems for launch vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, M. Z.; Moreno, J.; Aitchison, J. S.; Mojahedi, M.; Kazemi, A. A.

    2008-08-01

    Launch vehicles and other satellite users need launch services that are highly reliable, less complex, easier to test, and cost effective. Being a very small molecule, hydrogen is prone to leakage through seals and micro-cracks. Hydrogen detection in space application is very challenging; public acceptance of hydrogen fuel would require the integration of a reliable hydrogen safety sensor. For detecting leakage of cryogenic fluids in spaceport facilities, launch vehicle industry and aerospace agencies are currently relying heavily on the bulky mass spectrometers, which fill one or more equipment racks, and weigh several hundred kilograms. Therefore, there is a critical need for miniaturized sensors and instruments suitable for use in space applications. This paper describes a novel multi-channel integrated nano-engineered optical sensor to detect hydrogen and monitor the temperature. The integrated optic sensor is made of multi-channel waveguide elements that measure hydrogen concentration in real Time. Our sensor is based on the use of a high index waveguide with a Ni/Pd overlay to detect hydrogen. When hydrogen is absorbed into the Ni/Pd alloy there is a change in the absorption of the material and the optical signal in the waveguide is increased. Our design uses a thin alloy (few nanometers thick) overlay which facilitates the absorption of the hydrogen and will result in a response time of approximately few seconds. Like other Pd/Pd-Ni based sensors the device response varies with temperature and hence the effects of temperature variations must be taken into account. One solution to this problem is simultaneous measurement of temperature in addition to hydrogen concentration at the same vicinity. Our approach here is to propose a temperature sensor that can easily be integrated on the same platform as the hydrogen sensor reported earlier by our group. One suitable choice of material system is silicon on insulator (SOI). Here, we propose a micro ring resonators

  17. A new MRI-compatible optical fiber tactile sensor for use in minimally invasive robotic surgery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, Roozbeh; Dargahi, Javad; Packirisamy, Muthukumaran; Cecere, Renzo

    2010-09-01

    In conventional open surgery, using finger palpation, surgeons can distinguish between different types of tissues. However, in the current commercially available minimally invasive robotic surgery (MIRS) systems, direct tactile feedback is negligible. In the present paper, based on a novel concept, a new bend-type optical fiber tactile sensor is proposed, designed, simulated, fabricated, and tested. In both dynamic and static loading conditions, the proposed tactile sensor measures forces interacting between tissues and surgical tools whether they are distributed contact forces or concentrated contact forces, or even if these forces are in combination. As a result, the sensor can identify the size and the position of blood vessels or of abnormal tissues, one of which could be a tumorous lump within normal tissues. In addition, the static force measurement provided by the sensor allows surgeons to maintain contact stability in any static interactions between surgical tools and tissues while at the same time avoiding tissue damage because of excessive contact force. In the meantime, because the sensor is based uniquely on optical fibers, it is insensitive to electromagnetic fields. As a result, it is compatible with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) devices, which are currently in widespread use in surgical operating rooms.

  18. Fiber optic gas sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Peng (Inventor); Buric, Michael P. (Inventor); Swinehart, Philip R. (Inventor); Maklad, Mokhtar S. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A gas sensor includes an in-fiber resonant wavelength device provided in a fiber core at a first location. The fiber propagates a sensing light and a power light. A layer of a material is attached to the fiber at the first location. The material is able to absorb the gas at a temperature dependent gas absorption rate. The power light is used to heat the material and increases the gas absorption rate, thereby increasing sensor performance, especially at low temperatures. Further, a method is described of flash heating the gas sensor to absorb more of the gas, allowing the sensor to cool, thereby locking in the gas content of the sensor material, and taking the difference between the starting and ending resonant wavelengths as an indication of the concentration of the gas in the ambient atmosphere.

  19. Innovative system of very wide field optical sensors for space surveillance in the LEO region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimare, L.; Farnocchia, D.; Gronchi, G.; Milani, A.; Bernardi, F.; Rossi, A.

    2011-09-01

    We present the results of a large scale simulation, reproducing the behavior of a data center for the build-up and maintenance of a complete catalog of space debris in the upper part of the low Earth orbits region (LEO). The purpose is to determine the achievable performances of a network of advanced optical sensors, through the use of the newest orbit determination algorithms developed by the Department of Mathematics of Pisa (DM). Such a network was designed and proposed to the European Space Agency (ESA) in the Space Situational Awareness (SSA) framework by Carlo Gavazzi Space SpA (CGS), Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF), DM and Istituto di Scienza e Tecnologie dell'Informazione (ISTI-CNR). The latest developed orbit determination algorithms were used to process simulated observations from the proposed network. In particular two innovative methods for preliminary orbit determination based on the first integrals of the Kepler problem were compared, by using them to process the same data. In both cases, the results showed that it is possible to use a network of optical sensors to build up a catalog containing more than 98% of the objects with perigee height between 1100 and 2000 km, and diameter greater than 8 cm. Such a catalog is obtained in just two months of observations. However, such results depend upon specific assumptions on the sensor and on the software technologies.

  20. Optical Manufacturing and Testing Requirements Identified by the NASA Science Instruments, Observatories and Sensor Systems Technology Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Barney, Rich; Bauman, Jill; Feinberg, Lee; Mcleese, Dan; Singh, Upendra

    2011-01-01

    In August 2010, the NASA Office of Chief Technologist (OCT) commissioned an assessment of 15 different technology areas of importance to the future of NASA. Technology assessment #8 (TA8) was Science Instruments, Observatories and Sensor Systems (SIOSS). SIOSS assess the needs for optical technology ranging from detectors to lasers, x-ray mirrors to microwave antenna, in-situ spectrographs for on-surface planetary sample characterization to large space telescopes. The needs assessment looked across the entirety of NASA and not just the Science Mission Directorate. This paper reviews the optical manufacturing and testing technologies identified by SIOSS which require development in order to enable future NASA high priority missions.

  1. Fiber optic and laser sensors V; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, Aug. 17-19, 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Paula, Ramon P. (Editor); Udd, Eric (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The papers contained in this volume focus on recent developments in fiber optic and laser sensors. Topics discussed include electric and magnetic field sensors, fiber optic pressure sensors, fiber optic gyros, fiber optic sensors for aerospace applications, fiber sensor multiplexing, temperature sensors, and specialized fiber optic sensors. Papers are presented on remote fiber optic sensors for angular orientation; fiber optic rotation sensor for space missions; adaptation of an electro-optic monitoring system to aerospace structures; optical fiber sensor for dust concentration measurements; and communication-sensing system using a single optical fiber.

  2. A Fiber-Optic Sensor for Acoustic Emission Detection in a High Voltage Cable System

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tongzhi; Pang, Fufei; Liu, Huanhuan; Cheng, Jiajing; Lv, Longbao; Zhang, Xiaobei; Chen, Na; Wang, Tingyun

    2016-01-01

    We have proposed and demonstrated a Michelson interferometer-based fiber sensor for detecting acoustic emission generated from the partial discharge (PD) of the accessories of a high-voltage cable system. The developed sensor head is integrated with a compact and relatively high sensitivity cylindrical elastomer. Such a sensor has a broadband frequency response and a relatively high sensitivity in a harsh environment under a high-voltage electric field. The design and fabrication of the sensor head integrated with the cylindrical elastomer is described, and a series of experiments was conducted to evaluate the sensing performance. The experimental results demonstrate that the sensitivity of our developed sensor for acoustic detection of partial discharges is 1.7 rad/(m⋅Pa). A high frequency response up to 150 kHz is achieved. Moreover, the relatively high sensitivity for the detection of PD is verified in both the laboratory environment and gas insulated switchgear. The obtained results show the great potential application of a Michelson interferometer-based fiber sensor integrated with a cylindrical elastomer for in-situ monitoring high-voltage cable accessories for safety work. PMID:27916900

  3. A Fiber-Optic Sensor for Acoustic Emission Detection in a High Voltage Cable System.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tongzhi; Pang, Fufei; Liu, Huanhuan; Cheng, Jiajing; Lv, Longbao; Zhang, Xiaobei; Chen, Na; Wang, Tingyun

    2016-11-30

    We have proposed and demonstrated a Michelson interferometer-based fiber sensor for detecting acoustic emission generated from the partial discharge (PD) of the accessories of a high-voltage cable system. The developed sensor head is integrated with a compact and relatively high sensitivity cylindrical elastomer. Such a sensor has a broadband frequency response and a relatively high sensitivity in a harsh environment under a high-voltage electric field. The design and fabrication of the sensor head integrated with the cylindrical elastomer is described, and a series of experiments was conducted to evaluate the sensing performance. The experimental results demonstrate that the sensitivity of our developed sensor for acoustic detection of partial discharges is 1.7 rad / ( m ⋅ Pa ) . A high frequency response up to 150 kHz is achieved. Moreover, the relatively high sensitivity for the detection of PD is verified in both the laboratory environment and gas insulated switchgear. The obtained results show the great potential application of a Michelson interferometer-based fiber sensor integrated with a cylindrical elastomer for in-situ monitoring high-voltage cable accessories for safety work.

  4. Development of an optical fiber flow velocity sensor.

    PubMed

    Harada, Toshio; Kamoto, Kenji; Abe, Kyutaro; Izumo, Masaki

    2009-01-01

    A new optical fiber flow velocity sensor was developed by using an optical fiber information network system in sewer drainage pipes. The optical fiber flow velocity sensor operates without electric power, and the signals from the sensor can be transmitted over a long distance through the telecommunication system in the optical fiber network. Field tests were conducted to check the performance of the sensor in conduits in the pumping station and sewage pond managed by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government. Test results confirmed that the velocity sensor can be used for more than six months without any trouble even in sewer drainage pipes.

  5. SnO2-MOF-Fabry-Perot humidity optical sensor system based on fast Fourier transform technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Aldaba, A.; Lopez-Torres, D.; Ascorbe, J.; Rota-Rodrigo, S.; Elosua, C.; Lopez-Amo, M.; Arregui, F. J.; Corres, J. M.; Auguste, J.-L.; Jamier, R.; Roy, P.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a new sensor system for relative humidity measurements based on a SnO2 sputtering deposition on a microstructured optical fiber (MOF) low-finesse Fabry-Perot (FP) sensing head is presented and characterized. The interrogation of the sensing head is carried out by monitoring the Fast Fourier Transform phase variations of the FP interference frequency. This method is low-sensitive to signal amplitude variations and also avoids the necessity of tracking the evolution of peaks and valleys in the spectrum. The sensor is operated within a wide humidity range (20%-90% relative humidity) with a maximum sensitivity achieved of 0.14rad/%. The measurement method uses a commercial optical interrogator as the only active element, this compact solution allows real time analysis of the data.

  6. Evaluation of Underwater Adhesives and Friction Coatings for In Situ Attachment of Fiber Optic Sensor System for Subsea Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Henry H.; Le, Suy Q.; Orndoff, Evelyne S.; Smith, Frederick D.; Tapia, Alma S.; Brower, David V.

    2012-01-01

    Integrity and performance monitoring of subsea pipelines and structures provides critical information for managing offshore oil and gas production operation and preventing environmentally damaging and costly catastrophic failure. Currently pipeline monitoring devices require ground assembly and installation prior to the underwater deployment of the pipeline. A monitoring device that could be installed in situ on the operating underwater structures could enhance the productivity and improve the safety of current offshore operation. Through a Space Act Agreement (SAA) between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) and Astro Technology, Inc. (ATI), JSC provides technical expertise and testing facilities to support the development of fiber optic sensor technologies by ATI. This paper details the first collaboration effort between NASA JSC and ATI in evaluating underwater applicable adhesives and friction coatings for attaching fiber optic sensor system to subsea pipeline. A market survey was conducted to examine different commercial ]off ]the ]shelf (COTS) underwater adhesive systems and to select adhesive candidates for testing and evaluation. Four COTS epoxy based underwater adhesives were selected and evaluated. The adhesives were applied and cured in simulated seawater conditions and then evaluated for application characteristics and adhesive strength. The adhesive that demonstrated the best underwater application characteristics and highest adhesive strength were identified for further evaluation in developing an attachment system that could be deployed in the harsh subsea environment. Various friction coatings were also tested in this study to measure their shear strengths for a mechanical clamping design concept for attaching fiber optic sensor system. A COTS carbide alloy coating was found to increase the shear strength of metal to metal clamping interface by up to 46 percent. This study provides valuable data for

  7. Fiber optic sensor and method for making

    DOEpatents

    Vartuli, James Scott; Bousman, Kenneth Sherwood; Deng, Kung-Li; McEvoy, Kevin Paul; Xia, Hua

    2010-05-18

    A fiber optic sensor including a fiber having a modified surface integral with the fiber wherein the modified surface includes an open pore network with optical agents dispersed within the open pores of the open pore network. Methods for preparing the fiber optic sensor are also provided. The fiber optic sensors can withstand high temperatures and harsh environments.

  8. Fiber-Optic Temperature Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maram, Jonathan M.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed sensor measures temperatures over wide range, from cryogenic liquids to burning gases. Made in part of optical fibers, sensor lighter in weight than thermocouple and immune to electromagnetic interference. Device does not respond to temperatures elsewhere than at sensing tip. Thermal expansion and contraction of distance between fiber end and mirror alters interference between light reflected from those two surfaces, thereby giving interferometric indication of temperatures.

  9. Development of a measuring system of contact force during braille reading using an optical 6-axis force sensor.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, T; Oouchi, S; Yamaguchi, T; Shimojo, M; Shimada, S

    2006-01-01

    A system with an optical 6-axis force sensor was developed to measure contact force during braille reading. In using this system, we encountered two problems. One is a variability of output values depending on the contact point. This was solved by using two transformation techniques. The other is that subjects read braille in a different manner from the usual. We compared two manners of braille reading, one-handed vs two-handed, and found a small reduction in reading speed. Using this system, we collected data from four braille readers and quantitatively showed more minute contact force trajectories than those in earlier studies.

  10. Fibre optic sensors for heat transfer studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Pranay G.

    This thesis describes the design and development of a prototype sensor, based on a miniature optical fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer, for heat transfer studies on model turbomachinery components in transient flow wind tunnels. These sensors overcome a number of difficulties which are often encountered in using conventional electrical thin-film resistance gauges such as in the measurement of rapidly varying heat transfer rates, spatial resolution, electromagnetic interference, calibration and signal processing. The special features of the optical sensor are: (1) short length (less than 5 mm), and therefore embeddable in thin structures of model components; (2) direct measurement of heat flux rates; (3) calorimetric operation with temperature resolution of less than 25 mK over a measurement bandwidth of 100 kHz; (4) capability of measuring heat flux less than 5 kWm(exp -2) with measurement range in excess of 10 MWm(exp -2); (5) temporal response time of less than 10 microseconds; (6) minimal thermal disturbances because models are often made of ceramic materials with thermal properties similar to those of the optical fiber from which sensors are made;(7) possibility of using in models with dissimilar thermal properties to the optical fiber, for example, metals; (8) spatial resolution of less than 5 microns; (9) remote operation; (10) an ability to be multiplexed; and (11) immunity to electromagnetic interference. A detailed discussion of the design considerations for the sensor, system development, evaluation of the sensor performance both in the laboratory and wind tunnel environments is presented in this thesis. The performance of the sensor compared favorably with electrical gauges namely, platinum thin-film resistance thermometers. A 4-sensor multiplexed system has been successfully operated, and is reported in the thesis. A brief discussion is also included to indicate that the same sensor design may be considered for applications in other engineering areas.

  11. Fibre Optic Sensors for Heat Transfer Studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Pranay G.

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. This thesis describes the design and development of a prototype sensor, based on a miniature optical fibre Fabry-Perot interferometer, for heat transfer studies on model turbomachinery components in transient flow wind tunnels. These sensors overcome a number of difficulties which are often encountered in using conventional electrical thin-film resistance gauges such as in the measurement of rapidly varying heat transfer rates, spatial resolution, electromagnetic interference, calibration and signal processing. The special features of the optical sensor are: (i) short length (<5 mm), and therefore embeddable in thin structures of model components; (ii) direct measurement of heat flux rates; (iii) calorimetric operation with temperature resolution of <25 mK over a measurement bandwidth of 100 kHz: (iv) capability of measuring heat flux <5 kWm^ {-2} with measurement range in excess of 10 MWm^{-2}; (v) temporal response time of <10 mus; (vi) minimal thermal disturbances because models are often made of ceramic materials with thermal properties similar to those of the optical fibre from which sensors are made; (vii) possibility of using in models with dissimilar thermal properties to the optical fibre, for example, metals; (viii) spatial resolution of <5 mu m; (ix) remote operation; (x) an ability to be multiplexed; and (xi) immunity to electromagnetic interference. A detailed discussion of the design considerations for the sensor, system development, evaluation of the sensor performance both in the laboratory and wind tunnel environments is presented in this thesis. The performance of the sensor compared favourably with electrical gauges namely, platinum thin-film resistance thermometers. A 4-sensor multiplexed system has been sucessfully operated, and is reported in the thesis. A brief discussion is also included to indicate that the same sensor design may be considered for applications in other engineering

  12. Integrated-Optic Oxygen Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendoza, Edgar A.; Lieberman, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Compact optical oxygen sensors with self-calibration capabilities are undergoing development. A sensor of this type features a single-chip, integrated-optic design implemented by photolithographic fabrication of optical waveguides in a photosensitive porous glass. The porosity serves as both a matrix for retention of an oxygen-sensitive fluorescent indicator chemical and a medium for diffusion of oxygen to the chemical from the ambient air to be monitored. Each sensor includes at least one such waveguide exposed to the atmosphere and at least one covered with metal for isolation from the atmosphere. The covered one serves as a reference channel. In operation, the concentration of oxygen is deduced from the intensity and lifetime of the fluorescence in the exposed channel, with the help of calibration data acquired via the reference channel. Because the sensory chemical is placed directly in and throughout the cross section of the light path, approximately 99 percent of the light in the waveguide is available for interaction with the chemical, in contradistinction to only about 1 percent of the light in an optical sensor that utilizes evanescentwave coupling. Hence, a sensor of this type is significantly more sensitive.

  13. Hybrid Piezoelectric/Fiber-Optic Sensor Sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Mark; Qing, Xinlin

    2004-01-01

    Hybrid piezoelectric/fiber-optic (HyPFO) sensor sheets are undergoing development. They are intended for use in nondestructive evaluation and long-term monitoring of the integrity of diverse structures, including aerospace, aeronautical, automotive, and large stationary ones. It is anticipated that the further development and subsequent commercialization of the HyPFO sensor systems will lead to economic benefits in the form of increased safety, reduction of life-cycle costs through real-time structural monitoring, increased structural reliability, reduction of maintenance costs, and increased readiness for service. The concept of a HyPFO sensor sheet is a generalization of the concept of a SMART Layer(TradeMark), which is a patented device that comprises a thin dielectric film containing an embedded network of distributed piezoelectric actuator/sensors. Such a device can be mounted on the surface of a metallic structure or embedded inside a composite-material structure during fabrication of the structure. There is has been substantial interest in incorporating sensors other than piezoelectric ones into SMART Layer(TradeMark) networks: in particular, because of the popularity of the use of fiber-optic sensors for monitoring the "health" of structures in recent years, it was decided to incorporate fiber-optic sensors, giving rise to the concept of HyPFO devices.

  14. Optical satellite data volcano monitoring: a multi-sensor rapid response system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duda, Kenneth A.; Ramsey, Michael; Wessels, Rick L.; Dehn, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    of the ASTER Urgent Request Protocol (URP) for natural disaster monitoring and scientific analysis, has expanded the project to other volcanoes around the world and is in progress through 2011. The focus on ASTER data is due to the suitability of the sensor for natural disaster monitoring and the availability of data. The instrument has several unique facets that make it especially attractive for volcanic observations (Ramsey and Dehn, 2004). Specifically, ASTER routinely collects data at night, it has the ability to generate digital elevation models using stereo imaging, it can collect data in various gain states to minimize data saturation, it has a cross-track pointing capability for faster targeting, and it collects data up to ±85° latitude for better global coverage. As with any optical imaging-based remote sensing, the viewing conditions can negatively impact the data quality. This impact varies across the optical and thermal infrared wavelengths as well as being a function of the specific atmospheric window within a given wavelength region. Water vapor and cloud formation can obscure surface data in the visible and near infrared (VNIR)/shortwave infrared (SWIR) region due mainly to non-selective scattering of the incident photons. In the longer wavelengths of the thermal infrared (TIR), scattering is less of an issue, but heavy cloud cover can still obscure the ground due to atmospheric absorption. Thin clouds can be optically-transparent in the VNIR and TIR regions, but can cause errors in the extracted surface reflectance or derived surface temperatures. In regions prone to heavy cloud cover, optical remote sensing can be improved through increased temporal resolution. As more images are acquired in a given time period the chances of a clear image improve dramatically. The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) routine monitoring, which commonly collects 4-6 images per day of any north Pacific volcano, takes advantage of this fact. The rapid

  15. Optical sensors based on plastic fibers.

    PubMed

    Bilro, Lúcia; Alberto, Nélia; Pinto, João L; Nogueira, Rogério

    2012-01-01

    The recent advances of polymer technology allowed the introduction of plastic optical fiber in sensor design. The advantages of optical metrology with plastic optical fiber have attracted the attention of the scientific community, as they allow the development of low-cost or cost competitive systems compared with conventional technologies. In this paper, the current state of the art of plastic optical fiber technology will be reviewed, namely its main characteristics and sensing advantages. Several measurement techniques will be described, with a strong focus on interrogation approaches based on intensity variation in transmission and reflection. The potential applications involving structural health monitoring, medicine, environment and the biological and chemical area are also presented.

  16. Human psychophysiological activity monitoring methods using fiber optic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyczkowski, M.; Uzieblo-Zyczkowska, B.

    2010-10-01

    The paper presents the concept of fiber optic sensor system for human psycho-physical activity detection. A fiber optic sensor that utilizes optical phase interferometry or intensity in modalmetric to monitor a patient's vital signs such as respiration cardiac activity, blood pressure and body's physical movements. The sensor, which is non-invasive, comprises an optical fiber interferometer that includes an optical fiber proximately situated to the patient so that time varying acusto-mechanical signals from the patient are coupled into the optical fiber. The system can be implemented in embodiments ranging form a low cost in-home to a high end product for in hospital use.

  17. All-digital demodulation system of interferometric fiber optic sensors using an improved PGC algorithm based on fundamental frequency mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ai-ling; Wang, Kai-han; Zhang, Shuai; Wang, Yan

    2015-05-01

    We present an all-digital demodulation system of interferometric fiber optic sensor based on an improved arctangent-differential-self-multiplying (arctan-DSM) algorithm. The total harmonic distortion (THD) and the light intensity disturbance (LID) are also suppressed, the same as those in the traditional arctan-DSM algorithm. Moreover, the lowest sampling frequency is also reduced by introducing anti-aliasing filter, so the occupation of the system memory is reduced. The simulations show that the improved algorithm can correctly demodulate cosine signal and chirp signal with lower sampling frequency.

  18. Optical network of silicon micromachined sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Mark L.; Burns, David W.; Zook, J. David

    1996-03-01

    The Honeywell Technology Center, in collaboration with the University of Wisconsin and the Mobil Corporation, and under funding from this ARPA sponsored program, are developing a new type of `hybrid' micromachined silicon/fiber optic sensor that utilizes the best attributes of each technology. Fiber optics provide a noise free method to read out the sensor without electrical power required at the measurement point. Micromachined silicon sensor techniques provide a method to design many different types of sensors such as temperature, pressure, acceleration, or magnetic field strength and report the sensor data using FDM methods. Our polysilicon resonant microbeam structures have a built in Fabry-Perot interferometer that offers significant advantages over other configurations described in the literature. Because the interferometer is an integral part of the structure, the placement of the fiber becomes non- critical, and packaging issues become considerably simpler. The interferometer spacing are determined by the thin-film fabrication processes and therefore can be extremely well controlled. The main advantage, however, is the integral vacuum cavity that ensures high Q values. Testing results have demonstrated relaxed alignment tolerances in packaging these devices, with an excellent Signal to Noise Ratio. Networks of 16 or more sensors are currently being developed. STORM (Strain Transduction by Optomechanical Resonant Microbeams) sensors can also provide functionality and self calibration information which can be used to improve the overall system reliability. Details of the sensor and network design, as well as test results, are presented.

  19. Measurement of radial expansion and tumbling motion of a high-speed rotor using an optical sensor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günther, P.; Dreier, F.; Pfister, T.; Czarske, J.; Haupt, T.; Hufenbach, W.

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate the load capacity and the strength properties of high-speed rotors, dynamic deformation and vibration measurements are of importance, in particular at lightweight composite devices which cannot be simulated reliably. This is a challenging task in metrology since non-contact inspection techniques are required which offer micron uncertainties and high temporal resolution simultaneously, also under vacuum conditions. In order to meet these requirements, a non-incremental laser Doppler distance sensor system was developed using fiber and diffractive optics. In this paper we present for the first time high-speed deformation measurements of a cylindrical steel rotor using this novel sensor system. The radial rotor expansion of only some microns was determined despite the presence of an unsteady tumbling motion of the rotor, which was measured simultaneously. Future prospects are discussed including the possibility to measure non-metallic devices such as fiber-reinforced composites.

  20. Development of dual-probe atomic force microscopy system using optical beam deflection sensors with obliquely incident laser beams.

    PubMed

    Tsunemi, Eika; Kobayashi, Kei; Matsushige, Kazumi; Yamada, Hirofumi

    2011-03-01

    We developed a dual-probe (DP) atomic force microscopy (AFM) system that has two independently controlled probes. The deflection of each cantilever is measured by the optical beam deflection (OBD) method. In order to keep a large space over the two probes for an objective lens with a large numerical aperture, we employed the OBD sensors with obliquely incident laser beams. In this paper, we describe the details of our developed DP-AFM system, including analysis of the sensitivity of the OBD sensor for detection of the cantilever deflection. We also describe a method to eliminate the crosstalk caused by the vertical translation of the cantilever. In addition, we demonstrate simultaneous topographic imaging of a test sample by the two probes and surface potential measurement on an α-sexithiophene (α-6T) thin film by one probe while electrical charges were injected by the other probe.

  1. Development of dual-probe atomic force microscopy system using optical beam deflection sensors with obliquely incident laser beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsunemi, Eika; Kobayashi, Kei; Matsushige, Kazumi; Yamada, Hirofumi

    2011-03-01

    We developed a dual-probe (DP) atomic force microscopy (AFM) system that has two independently controlled probes. The deflection of each cantilever is measured by the optical beam deflection (OBD) method. In order to keep a large space over the two probes for an objective lens with a large numerical aperture, we employed the OBD sensors with obliquely incident laser beams. In this paper, we describe the details of our developed DP-AFM system, including analysis of the sensitivity of the OBD sensor for detection of the cantilever deflection. We also describe a method to eliminate the crosstalk caused by the vertical translation of the cantilever. In addition, we demonstrate simultaneous topographic imaging of a test sample by the two probes and surface potential measurement on an α-sexithiophene (α-6T) thin film by one probe while electrical charges were injected by the other probe.

  2. High-Temperature Optical Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamovsky, Grigory; Juergens, Jeffrey R.; Varga, Donald J.; Floyd, Bertram M.

    2010-01-01

    A high-temperature optical sensor (see Figure 1) has been developed that can operate at temperatures up to 1,000 C. The sensor development process consists of two parts: packaging of a fiber Bragg grating into a housing that allows a more sturdy thermally stable device, and a technological process to which the device is subjected to in order to meet environmental requirements of several hundred C. This technology uses a newly discovered phenomenon of the formation of thermally stable secondary Bragg gratings in communication-grade fibers at high temperatures to construct robust, optical, high-temperature sensors. Testing and performance evaluation (see Figure 2) of packaged sensors demonstrated operability of the devices at 1,000 C for several hundred hours, and during numerous thermal cycling from 400 to 800 C with different heating rates. The technology significantly extends applicability of optical sensors to high-temperature environments including ground testing of engines, flight propulsion control, thermal protection monitoring of launch vehicles, etc. It may also find applications in such non-aerospace arenas as monitoring of nuclear reactors, furnaces, chemical processes, and other hightemperature environments where other measurement techniques are either unreliable, dangerous, undesirable, or unavailable.

  3. Optical high acidity sensor

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, B.S.; Nekimken, H.L.; Carey, W.P.; O`Rourke, P.E.

    1997-07-22

    An apparatus and method for determining acid concentrations in solutions having acid concentrations of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar is disclosed. The apparatus includes a chamber for interrogation of the sample solution, a fiber optic light source for passing light transversely through the chamber, a fiber optic collector for receiving the collimated light after transmission through the chamber, a coating of an acid resistant polymeric composition upon at least one fiber end or lens, the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution within the chamber and having a detectable response to acid concentrations within the range of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar, a measurer for the response of the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution, and a comparer of the measured response to predetermined standards whereby the acid molarity of the sample solution within the chamber can be determined. Preferably, a first lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic light source, the first lens adapted to collimate light from the fiber optic light source, and a second lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic collector for focusing the collimated light after transmission through the chamber. 10 figs.

  4. Optical high acidity sensor

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, Betty S.; Nekimken, Howard L.; Carey, W. Patrick; O'Rourke, Patrick E.

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus and method for determining acid concentrations in solutions having acid concentrations of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar is disclosed. The apparatus includes a chamber for interrogation of the sample solution, a fiber optic light source for passing light transversely through the chamber, a fiber optic collector for receiving the collimated light after transmission through the chamber, a coating of an acid resistant polymeric composition upon at least one fiber end or lens, the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution within the chamber and having a detectable response to acid concentrations within the range of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar, a measurer for the response of the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution, and, a comparer of the measured response to predetermined standards whereby the acid molarity of the sample solution within the chamber can be determined. Preferably, a first lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic light source, the first lens adapted to collimate light from the fiber optic light source, and a second lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic collector for focusing the collimated light after transmission through the chamber.

  5. Fiber-optic shock position sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, J.D.

    1993-03-01

    This report describes work performed for the development of a fiber-optic shock position sensor used to measure the location of a shock front in the neighborhood of a nuclear explosion. Such a measurement would provide a hydrodynamic determination of nuclear yield. The original proposal was prompted by the Defense Nuclear Agency's interest in replacing as many electrical sensors as possible with their optical counterparts for the verification of a treaty limiting the yield of a nuclear device used in underground testing. Immunity to electromagnetic pulse is the reason for the agency's interest; unlike electrical sensors and their associated cabling, fiber-optic systems do not transmit to the outside world noise pulses from the device containing secret information.

  6. A Novel Error Model of Optical Systems and an On-Orbit Calibration Method for Star Sensors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuang; Geng, Yunhai; Jin, Rongyu

    2015-12-12

    In order to improve the on-orbit measurement accuracy of star sensors, the effects of image-plane rotary error, image-plane tilt error and distortions of optical systems resulting from the on-orbit thermal environment were studied in this paper. Since these issues will affect the precision of star image point positions, in this paper, a novel measurement error model based on the traditional error model is explored. Due to the orthonormal characteristics of image-plane rotary-tilt errors and the strong nonlinearity among these error parameters, it is difficult to calibrate all the parameters simultaneously. To solve this difficulty, for the new error model, a modified two-step calibration method based on the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) and Least Square Methods (LSM) is presented. The former one is used to calibrate the main point drift, focal length error and distortions of optical systems while the latter estimates the image-plane rotary-tilt errors. With this calibration method, the precision of star image point position influenced by the above errors is greatly improved from 15.42% to 1.389%. Finally, the simulation results demonstrate that the presented measurement error model for star sensors has higher precision. Moreover, the proposed two-step method can effectively calibrate model error parameters, and the calibration precision of on-orbit star sensors is also improved obviously.

  7. A Novel Error Model of Optical Systems and an On-Orbit Calibration Method for Star Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuang; Geng, Yunhai; Jin, Rongyu

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the on-orbit measurement accuracy of star sensors, the effects of image-plane rotary error, image-plane tilt error and distortions of optical systems resulting from the on-orbit thermal environment were studied in this paper. Since these issues will affect the precision of star image point positions, in this paper, a novel measurement error model based on the traditional error model is explored. Due to the orthonormal characteristics of image-plane rotary-tilt errors and the strong nonlinearity among these error parameters, it is difficult to calibrate all the parameters simultaneously. To solve this difficulty, for the new error model, a modified two-step calibration method based on the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) and Least Square Methods (LSM) is presented. The former one is used to calibrate the main point drift, focal length error and distortions of optical systems while the latter estimates the image-plane rotary-tilt errors. With this calibration method, the precision of star image point position influenced by the above errors is greatly improved from 15.42% to 1.389%. Finally, the simulation results demonstrate that the presented measurement error model for star sensors has higher precision. Moreover, the proposed two-step method can effectively calibrate model error parameters, and the calibration precision of on-orbit star sensors is also improved obviously. PMID:26703599

  8. Design and evaluation of an optical fine-pointing control system for telescopes utilizing a digital star sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostroff, A. J.; Romanczyk, K. C.

    1973-01-01

    One of the most significant problems associated with the development of large orbiting astronomical telescopes is that of maintaining the very precise pointing accuracy required. A proposed solution to this problem utilizes dual-level pointing control. The primary control system maintains the telescope structure attitude stabilized within the field of view to the desired accuracy. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of optically stabilizing the star images to the desired accuracy a regulating system has been designed and evaluated. The control system utilizes a digital star sensor and an optical star image motion compensator, both of which have been developed for this application. These components have been analyzed mathematically, analytical models have been developed, and hardware has been built and tested.

  9. Fiber Optic Sensors for the Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-01

    arm is ex- posed to the effects of the perturbation. The source, which is normally a narrow line laser diode is first split through a coupler. These...optic sensors can give real time, instantaneous results. In general, a fiber optic sensor uses a light source, for example, a laser . This light is...semiconductor lasers . Microbend Sensor The first type of intensity moaulated sensor is a microbend sensor. As an optical fiber bends, there is a loss

  10. Optical fiber sensors for flow measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Sallehuddin; Green, Robert G.; Dutton, Ken

    2000-08-01

    The overall aim of this project is to investigate the use of optical fiber sensors for on-line monitoring of particles and droplets having low concentration being conveyed by a fluid. In this project, the system employs lensed optical fiber sensors developed using a low cost approach. A general mathematical model for the lens constructed at each end of the fiber optic was derived which takes into consideration that a large divergent beam is undesirable because it reduces the energy centered in the beam and can cause overlapping of adjacent transmitted beams at the receivers. Initially, the optical fibers are polished. Then, the lenses are formed using a specially-made heating platform. The receiver fiber is coupled to a photodiode, enabling the received light level to be measured. Optical fiber sensors are suitable for monitoring flowing materials where the conveyed component ratio is less than 10% vol./vol. The use of optical fibers provides an opportunity to design sensors with a very wide bandwidth, thus enabling the measurement of high speed flowing particles or droplets. The light extinction method used in this project is suitable for measurement of particles or droplets equal and greater than 100 micrometers .

  11. Sensor system for non-invasive optical carboxy-and methemoglobin determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timm, Ulrich; Gewiss, Helge; Kraitl, Jens; Brock, Beate; Ewald, Hartmut

    2017-02-01

    The pulse oximetry is a non-invasive method to monitor the oxygen saturation and is clinically used for many years. However this technology has some limitations. In case of the presence of dysfunctional hemoglobin derivatives as carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) or methemoglobin (MetHb) the readings of the pulse oximeter are distorted. This erroneous diagnosis of the patient's status can result in a life threatening situation. This paper will describe a sensor system for noninvasive determination of carboxy- and methemoglobin.

  12. A pH sensing system using fluorescence-based fibre optical sensor capable of small volume sample measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Shijie; McAuliffe, Michael A. P.; Salaj-Kosla, Urszula; Wolfe, Raymond; Lewis, Liam; Huyet, Guillaume

    2017-02-01

    In this work, a low cost optical pH sensing system that allows for small volume sample measurements was developed. The system operates without the requirement of laboratory instruments (e.g. laser source, spectrometer and CCD camera), this lowers the cost and enhances the portability. In the system, an optical arrangement employing a dichroic filter was used which allows the excitation and emission light to be transmitted using a single fibre thus improving the collection efficiency of the fluorescence signal and also the ability of inserting measurement. The pH sensor in the system uses bromocresol purple as the indicator which is immobilised by sol-gel technology through a dip-coating process. The sensor material was coated on the tip of a 1 mm diameter optical fibre which makes it possible for inserting into very small volume samples to measure the pH. In the system, a LED with a peak emission wavelength of 465 nm is used as the light source and a silicon photo-detector is used to detect the uorescence signal. Optical filters are applied after the LED and in front of the photo-detector to separate the excitation and emission light. The fluorescence signal collected is transferred to a PC through a DAQ and processed by a Labview-based graphic-user-interface (GUI). Experimental results show that the system is capable of sensing pH values from 5.3 to 8.7 with a linear response of R2=0.969. Results also show that the response times for a pH changes from 5.3 to 8.7 is approximately 150 s and for a 0.5 pH changes is approximately 50 s.

  13. Fiber optic (flight quality) sensors for advanced aircraft propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppel, Gary L.

    1994-01-01

    Development of flight prototype, fiber-optic sensing system components for measuring nine sensed parameters (three temperatures, two speeds, three positions, and one flame) on an F404-400 aircraft engine is described. Details of each sensor's design, functionality, and environmental testing, and the electro-optics architecture for sensor signal conditioning are presented. Eight different optical sensing techniques were utilized. Design, assembly, and environmental testing of an engine-mounted, electro-optics chassis unit (EOU), providing MIL-C-1553 data output, are related. Interconnection cables and connectors between the EOU and the sensors are identified. Results of sensor/cable/circuitry integrated testing, and installation and ground testing of the sensor system on an engine in October 1993 and April 1994 are given, including comparisons with the engine control system's electrical sensors. Lessons learned about the design, fabrication, testing, and integration of the sensor system components are included.

  14. A mid-infrared carbon monoxide sensor system using wideband absorption spectroscopy and a single-reflection spherical optical chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Ming; Zheng, Chuantao; Miao, Shuzhuo; Song, Fang; Wang, Yiding

    2017-09-01

    A mid-infrared carbon monoxide (CO) sensor system based on a dual-channel differential detection method was developed using a broadband light source in the 4.60 μm wavelength region and a single-reflection spherical optical chamber with ∼0.373 m absorption path length. CO detection was realized by targeting the wideband strong absorption lines within 4.55-4.65 μm. A dual-channel pyroelectric detector as well as a self-developed digital signal processor (DSP) based orthogonal lock-in amplifier was employed to process CO sensing signal. A minimum detection limit of ∼0.5 ppm in volume (ppmv) was achieved with a measurement time of 6 s, based on an Allan deviation analysis of the sensor system. The response time (1000 → 0 ppmv) was determined to be ∼7 s for the CO sensor operation. Due to the characteristics of low detection limit, fast response time and high cost performance, the proposed sensor has relatively good prospect in coal-mining operation.

  15. Rare Earth Optical Temperature Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Wolford, David S.

    2000-01-01

    A new optical temperature sensor suitable for high temperatures (greater than 1700 K) and harsh environments is introduced. The key component of the sensor is the rare earth material contained at the end of a sensor that is in contact with the sample being measured. The measured narrow wavelength band emission from the rare earth is used to deduce the sample temperature. A simplified relation between the temperature and measured radiation was verified experimentally. The upper temperature limit of the sensor is determined by material limits to be approximately 2000 C. The lower limit, determined by the minimum detectable radiation, is found to be approximately 700 K. At high temperatures 1 K resolution is predicted. Also, millisecond response times are calculated.

  16. Optical fiber sensors for spacecraft applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friebele, E. J.; Askins, C. G.; Bosse, A. B.; Kersey, A. D.; Patrick, H. J.; Pogue, W. R.; Putnam, M. A.; Simon, W. R.; Tasker, F. A.; Vincent, W. S.; Vohra, S. T.

    1999-12-01

    Optical fiber sensors offer a number of advantages for spacecraft applications. A principal application is strain sensing for structural health monitoring, shape determination, and spacecraft qualification testing. This paper will review the results of recent work at the Naval Research Laboratory where optical fiber strain sensors have been used on spacecraft structures and ground test hardware. The sensors have been both surface mounted to the structure and embedded in fiber-reinforced polymer composites. The issue of potential strength reduction of high-performance composites due to embedded optical fiber sensors and leads has been studied, low-cost fabrication of tubular struts with embedded sensors has been demonstrated, and a novel technique for fiber ingress-egress from composite parts has been developed. Applications of fiber sensors discussed in this paper include distributed dynamic strain monitoring of a honeycomb composite plate and a lightweight reflector during acoustic qualification tests, ultrahigh-sensitivity static strain and temperature measurements for precision structures, and on-line system identification of a lightweight laboratory truss.

  17. Fiber optic moisture sensor

    DOEpatents

    Kirkham, R.R.

    1984-08-03

    A method and apparatus for sensing moisture changes by utilizing optical fiber technology. One embodiment uses a reflective target at the end of an optical fiber. The reflectance of the target varies with its moisture content and can be detected by a remote unit at the opposite end of the fiber. A second embodiment utilizes changes in light loss along the fiber length. This can be attributed to changes in reflectance of cladding material as a function of its moisture content. It can also be affected by holes or inserts interposed in the cladding material and/or fiber. Changing light levels can also be coupled from one fiber to another in an assembly of fibers as a function of varying moisture content in their overlapping lengths of cladding material.

  18. Logical and pseudo-logical optical fibre networks based on two-state (binary) optical fibre sensors for industrial monitoring and control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczot, Feliks

    2005-09-01

    The possibilities of development of logical and pseudo-logical optical fibre networks for monitoring and control of equipment and industrial sites are presented. Such networks composed of simple binary attenuation and optical fibre communication lines may also be used as fast and reliable systems developing a final command signal - logical and/or pseudo-logical, depending or the architecture of network and the type of located sensors. They realise the process similar to standard electronic logical sets but use the optical signal directly on the monitored or controlled device. The analysis of serial and parallel networks was carried out in the "dark" mode detection. The examples of networks in power industry were presented where technical and economical merits of logical and pseudo-logical monitoring and controlling networks are clearly visible.

  19. Compact optical MEMS accelerometers and temperature sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timotijevic, Branislav; Petremand, Yves; Bayat, Dara; Luetzelschwab, Markus; Aebi, Laurent; Tormen, Maurizio

    2017-02-01

    Continuous and accurate monitoring of acceleration and temperature inside large turbo- and hydro-generators is of crucial importance to prevent extremely expensive system damages and false positives. Development of optical, metalfree sensors for such systems has gained a lot of attention due to the fact that they are resistant to typically very strong electromagnetic fields and that they are non-conductive. We present miniature temperature and accelerometer optical sensors using a common silicon MEMS platform. A linear response with a deviation as small as 1% between set and measured accelerations has been obtained in an acceleration range 0-40g. Preliminary tests for temperature sensors indicate a linear response with sensitivity better than 1°C in a range of 20°C to 150°C.

  20. Optical fiber sensor interrogation improved by active fiber loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Tao; Huang, Jie; Lan, Xinwei; Han, Qun; Xiao, Hai

    2012-06-01

    This paper summarizes the recent progress of improving optical fiber sensor interrogation technique by introducing acitve fiber loop into demodulation system. Various types of sensors including multimode interferometer chemical vapor sensor and etc are implemented in the active fiber loop interrogation system. The experiments show an improved signal to noise ratio by active fiber loop.

  1. Optical viscosity sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Cheng-Ling; Peyroux, Juliette; Perez, Alex; Tsui, Chi-Leung; Wang, Wei-Chih

    2009-03-01

    Viscosity measurement by bend loss of fiber is presented. The sensing principle makes use of the damping characteristic of a vibrating optical fiber probe with fix-free end configuration. By measuring the displacement of the fiber probe, the viscosity can be determined by matching the probe's displacement with the displacement built in the database obtained by either experimental method or Finite element calculation. Experimental results are presented by measuring the sucrose and glycerol solutions of different concentrations with a viscosity varying from 1 to 15 cP. Stokes' flow assumption is utilized to attenuate the mass density effect and simplify the viscosity measurement.

  2. Development of an optical fiber engine sensor suite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Mark S.; Spillman, William B., Jr.

    1996-10-01

    For many years, programs have focused on single optical fiber sensors for each measurement required on an engine. Sensor systems therefore required signal processing for each of these individual sensors. While this approach provided the best individual sensor for each measurement, the system cost and complexity suffered. BFGoodrich has begun a new program focused on developing an optical fiber engine sensor suite based on one single sensing mechanism to monitor the majority of the measurements on an engine. The sensors will be optically multiplexed to a single signal processing unit thereby reducing cost, weight and size for the overall system. This program is a joint effort among three BFGoodrich divisions: Aircraft Sensors Division (Rosemount Aerospace), Aircraft Integrated Systems Division and Engine Electrical Systems Division. The program is described and results to date on choosing and developing the single sensing mechanism are presented.

  3. Optical micromachined pressure sensor for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelidis, Diogenes; Parsons, Philip

    1992-08-01

    An optical pressure sensor has been designed using silicon micromachining technology. A resonant silicon beam is mounted above a diaphragm and its resonant frequency changes with applied pressure. The sensor is temperature compensated by way of a second pressure-insensitive resonator. Both resonators are optically addressed via the same optical fiber. The sensor is designed to give an overall accuracy of 0.5 percent full-scale pressure, which is currently between 130 kPa or 3 MPa. Optical technology allows the optical pressure sensor to operate in a harsh aerospace environment where electronic pressure sensors cannot survive.

  4. Comparison of several stochastic parallel optimization algorithms for adaptive optics system without a wavefront sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Huizhen; Li, Xinyang

    2011-04-01

    Optimizing the system performance metric directly is an important method for correcting wavefront aberrations in an adaptive optics (AO) system where wavefront sensing methods are unavailable or ineffective. An appropriate "Deformable Mirror" control algorithm is the key to successful wavefront correction. Based on several stochastic parallel optimization control algorithms, an adaptive optics system with a 61-element Deformable Mirror (DM) is simulated. Genetic Algorithm (GA), Stochastic Parallel Gradient Descent (SPGD), Simulated Annealing (SA) and Algorithm Of Pattern Extraction (Alopex) are compared in convergence speed and correction capability. The results show that all these algorithms have the ability to correct for atmospheric turbulence. Compared with least squares fitting, they almost obtain the best correction achievable for the 61-element DM. SA is the fastest and GA is the slowest in these algorithms. The number of perturbation by GA is almost 20 times larger than that of SA, 15 times larger than SPGD and 9 times larger than Alopex.

  5. Immunoassay procedures for fiber optic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ligler, Frances S.

    1988-04-01

    There is an increasing need for the development of an ultrasensitive immunoassay for use with fiber optic sensors. These detection systems can be used for such applications as disease diagnosis, detection of chemical and biological warfare agents or drugs of abuse, pollution control, therapeutic monitoring, and explosive detection. This specific program is designed to produce generic chemistries for use with existing fiber optic-based sensors to detect pathogens of particular threat to Army personnel as determined by USAMRIID. The detection system under development involves the attachment of antibodies to an optical fiber at high density. In addition, the immobilization must be achieved in a way which retains the antibody's ability to bind antigen. The functionality of the antibody will be tested through the binding of a labelled antigen. In the future, this assay could incorporate the antibodies developed by the Army for pathogens of particularly military concern.

  6. Enzyme-based online monitoring and measurement of antioxidant activity using an optical oxygen sensor coupled to an HPLC system.

    PubMed

    Quaranta, Michela; Nugroho Prasetyo, Endry; Koren, Klaus; Nyanhongo, Gibson S; Murkovic, Michael; Klimant, Ingo; Guebitz, Georg M

    2013-03-01

    It is estimated that up to 50% of the adult population take antioxidant products on a daily basis to promote their health status. Strangely, despite the well-recognized importance of antioxidants, currently there is no international standard index for labeling owing to the lack of standardized methods for antioxidant measurement in complex products. Here, an online high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-based method to detect and measure the total antioxidant capacity of antioxidant samples is presented. In this approach, complex samples containing antioxidants are separated by the HPLC system, which is further coupled to an antioxidant measuring system consisting of an optical oxygen sensor, laccase, and tetramethoxy azobismethylene quinone (TMAMQ). The antioxidants, separated via HPLC, reduce TMAMQ to syringaldazine, which is then reoxidized by laccase while simultaneously consuming O(2). The amount of consumed oxygen is directly proportional to the concentration of antioxidants and is measured by the optical oxygen sensor. The sensor is fabricated by coating a glass capillary with an oxygen-sensitive thin layer made of platinum(II) meso-tetra(4-fluorophenyl)tetrabenzoporphyrin and polystyrene, which makes real-time analysis possible (t(90) = 1.1 s in solution). Four selected antioxidants (3 mM), namely, catechin, ferulic acid, naringenin (used as a control), and Trolox, representing flavonol, hydrocinnamic acid, flavanone, and vitamin E, respectively, were injected into the online antioxidant monitoring system, separated, and then mixed with the TMAMQ/laccase solution, which resulted in oxygen consumption. This study shows that, with the use of such a system, the antioxidant activity of individual antioxidant molecules in a sample and their contribution to the total antioxidant activity of the sample can be correctly assigned.

  7. Fiber optical ranging sensor for proximity fuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Fang; Chi, Zeying; You, Mingjun; Chen, Wenjian

    1996-09-01

    A fiber optical ranging sensor used in laser proximity fuze is described in this paper. In the fuze, pulse laser diode (LD) is used as light source and trigger signal is generated by comparing the reflected light pulses with the reference pulses by a correlator after they were converted into electric signals by PIN photodiodes. Multi-mode fibers and integrated optical devices are used in the system so that the structure can be more compact. Optical fiber delay line is used to offer precise delay time for reference channel.

  8. Design, development, and testing of a lightweight optical sensor cover system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurley, Mike; Christiansen, Scott

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses aspects of the design, development, and testing of the sensor cover on the Clementine (DSPSE) spacecraft. Particular attention is given to defining the typically ambiguous issue of cleanliness. To characterize performance with respect to these requirements, a simple and effective method for testing prototype seals was developed. This testing was useful for comparing various types of seals as well as for providing information about achievable cleanliness levels. The results were invaluable input for defining a realistic final cleanliness requirement that satisfied everyone from mechanisms to sensor engineers. Balancing torque margins (reliability) versus cost and/or weight of the system can be significantly influenced by the choice of seal type. Several seal types are discussed in terms of both cleanliness and ease of implementation. These design issues influence the actuator selection and structural integrity of the door. The cover system designed and fabricated as described above was thoroughly tested both on a component level and on the Clementine system level. Testing included characterization, vibration, pyro-shock, life, and thermal/vacuum. The extensive testing identified problems early enough that they could be resolved prior to integration and launch.

  9. Flight Tests on a Fiber Optic Temperature Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuma, Margaret L.; Sawatari, Takeo; Lin, Yuping; Elam, Kristie A.

    1998-01-01

    For aircraft engine control, one key parameter to detect on an airplane is the exhaust gas temperature (EGT). Presently, thermocouples are used to perform this measurement. These electrical sensors perform adequately; however, fully utilizing the benefits of optical sensors requires replacing electrical architectures with optical architectures. Part of this requires replacing electrical sensors with optical sensors, such as the EGT sensor chosen for these tests. The objective of the development and testing of this prototype sensor system was to determine the feasibility of operating an optical sensor in a hostile aircraft environment. The fiber optic sensor system was developed to measure temperatures from 20C to 600C in an aircraft environment and was utilized to monitor the EGT of an OV-10D aircraft engine. The sensor has successfully flown over 50 hours and proven to be immune to surface deterioration of the optical element (located inside the sensor head) and able to withstand and operate in normal and sustained severe flight conditions where forces on the airplane exceeded 4 g's. Potential commercial uses for this sensor include monitoring temperature for aeropropulsion system control, military vehicle and naval engine control, conventional and nuclear power plant monitoring and industrial plan monitoring where EMI issues are critical.

  10. Self-Repairing Polymer Optical Fiber Strain Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Young Jun

    This research develops a self-repairing polymer optical fiber strain sensor for structural health monitoring applications where the sensor network must survive under extreme conditions. Inspired by recent research in self-healing material systems, this dissertation demonstrates a self-repairing strain sensor waveguide, created by self-writing in a photopolymerizable resin system. In an initial configuration, the waveguide sensor was fabricated between two multi-mode (MM) optical fibers via ultraviolet (UV) lightwaves in the UV curable resin and operated as a strain sensor by interrogation of the infrared (IR) power transmission through the waveguide. After failure of the sensor occurred due to loading, the waveguide re-bridged the gap between the two optical fibers through the UV resin. The response of the waveguide sensors was sensitive to the applied strain and repeatable during multiple loading cycles with low observed hysteresis, however was not always monotonic. The strain response of the original sensor and the self-repaired sensor showed similar behaviors. Packaging the sensor in a polymer capillary improved the performance of the sensor by removing previous "no-response" zones. The resulting sensor output was monotonic throughout the measurement range. The hysteresis in the sensor behavior between multiple loading cycles was also significantly reduced. However, a jump in sensor output voltage was observed after the sensor self-repair process, which presents challenges for calibration of the sensor. The sensor configuration was modified to a Fabry-Perot interferometer to improve the sensor response. The measurable strain range was extended through multiple sensor self-repairs, and strain measurements were demonstrated up to 150% applied tensile strain. A hybrid sensor was fabricated by splicing a short segment of MM optical fiber to the input single-mode (SM) optical fiber. The hybrid sensor provided the high quality of waveguide fabrication previously

  11. Optical sensors for harsh environment applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, R.; Maity, S.; Bekal, A.; Vartak, S.; Sridharan, A. K.; Mitra, C.

    2015-05-01

    The development of a harsh environment ammonia slip sensor based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy is presented. A hybrid optical sensor design, through combination of wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) and alignment control, is proposed as an approach towards reliable in-situ measurements in misalignment prone harsh environments. 1531.59 nm, 1553.4 nm and 1555.56 nm are suggested as possible absorption lines for trace ammonia measurement (<1ppm at 10m path length at 500K) in gas turbine exhaust conditions. Design and performance of the alignment control system are presented in detail. Effect of misalignment related measurement degradation is investigated and significant improvement in measurement fidelity is demonstrated through the use of the hybrid optical sensor design.

  12. Fiber-Optic pH Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesh, A. Balaji; Radhakrishnan, T. K.

    The new enhancement in the determination of pH using optical fiber system is described here. This work uses the membrane made of cellulose acetate membrane for reagent immobilization and congo red (pKa 3.7) and neutral red (pKa 7.2) as pH indicators. An effective covalent chemical binding procedure is used to immobilize the indicatorsE The response time, reversibility, linear range, reproducibility, and long-term stability of fiber optic sensor with congo red as well as neutral red have been determined. The linear range measured for the sensor based on the congo red and neutral red is 4.2-6.3 and 4.1-9.0, respectively. The response time of sensor membrane is measured by varying the substance pH values between 11.0 and 2.0.

  13. Fiber coupling efficiency analysis of free space optical communication systems with holographic modal wave-front sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Shi, Wenxiao; Yao, Kainan; Cao, Jingtai; Wu, Pengxia; Chi, Xuefen

    2014-08-01

    Degradation of fiber coupling efficiency, caused by atmospheric turbulence, seriously hinders the performance of free space optical (FSO) communication systems. Holographic modal wave-front sensor (HMWFS), noted for its fast detecting rates and insensitivity to beam scintillation, is creatively applied to FSO communication systems in this paper. We analyze the principle of HMWFS and the relationship between fiber coupling efficiency and Strehl rate in theory, then simulate wave-front aberrations detection and correction in FSO communication systems. Additionally, the impact on fiber coupling efficiency of the FSO communication systems before and after aberrations correction based on HMWFS is fully discussed. The results show that HMWFS cater for weak atmospheric turbulence with the root-mean-square (RMS) value of residual aberrations less than 0.04λ and the peak-to-valley (PV) value less than 0.25λ, while the fiber coupling efficiency is increased from nearly 30% to more than 70%.

  14. Evaluations of fiber optic sensors for interior applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sandoval, M.W.; Malone, T.P.

    1996-02-01

    This report addresses the testing and evaluation of commercial fiber optic intrusion detection systems in interior applications. The applications include laying optical fiber cable above suspended ceilings to detect removal of ceiling tiles, embedding optical fibers inside a tamper or item monitoring blanket that could be placed over an asset, and installing optical fibers on a door to detect movement or penetration. Detection capability of the fiber optic sensors as well as nuisance and false alarm information were focused on during the evaluation. Fiber optic sensor processing, system components, and system setup are described.

  15. Fiber-Optic Ammonia Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Michael T.

    2003-01-01

    Reversible, colorimetric fiber-optic sensors are undergoing development for use in measuring concentrations of ammonia in air at levels relevant to human health [0 to 50 parts per million (ppm)]. A sensor of this type includes an optical fiber that has been modified by replacing a portion of its cladding with a polymer coat that contains a dye that reacts reversibly with ammonia and changes color when it does so. The change in color is measured as a change in the amount of light transmitted from one end of the fiber to the other. Responses are reversible and proportional to the concentration of ammonia over the range from 9 to 175 ppm and in some cases the range of reversibility extends up to 270 ppm. The characteristic time for the response of a sensor to rise from 10 to 90 percent of full scale is about 25 seconds. These sensors are fully operational in pure carbon dioxide and are not adversely affected by humidity. This work was done by Michael T. Carter

  16. A Complete Optical Sensor System Based on a POF-SPR Platform and a Thermo-Stabilized Flow Cell for Biochemical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Cennamo, Nunzio; Chiavaioli, Francesco; Trono, Cosimo; Tombelli, Sara; Giannetti, Ambra; Baldini, Francesco; Zeni, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    An optical sensor platform based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) in a plastic optical fiber (POF) integrated into a thermo-stabilized flow cell for biochemical sensing applications is proposed. This device has been realized and experimentally tested by using a classic receptor-analyte assay. For this purpose, the gold surface of the POF was chemically modified through the formation of a self-assembling monolayer. The surface robustness of the POF-SPR platform has been tested for the first time thanks to the flow cell. The experimental results show that the proposed device can be successfully used for label-free biochemical sensing. The final goal of this work is to achieve a complete, small-size, simple to use and low cost optical sensor system. The whole system with the flow cell and the optical sensor are extensively described, together with the experimental results obtained with an immunoglobulin G (IgG)/anti-IgG assay. PMID:26861328

  17. A Complete Optical Sensor System Based on a POF-SPR Platform and a Thermo-Stabilized Flow Cell for Biochemical Applications.

    PubMed

    Cennamo, Nunzio; Chiavaioli, Francesco; Trono, Cosimo; Tombelli, Sara; Giannetti, Ambra; Baldini, Francesco; Zeni, Luigi

    2016-02-04

    An optical sensor platform based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) in a plastic optical fiber (POF) integrated into a thermo-stabilized flow cell for biochemical sensing applications is proposed. This device has been realized and experimentally tested by using a classic receptor-analyte assay. For this purpose, the gold surface of the POF was chemically modified through the formation of a self-assembling monolayer. The surface robustness of the POF-SPR platform has been tested for the first time thanks to the flow cell. The experimental results show that the proposed device can be successfully used for label-free biochemical sensing. The final goal of this work is to achieve a complete, small-size, simple to use and low cost optical sensor system. The whole system with the flow cell and the optical sensor are extensively described, together with the experimental results obtained with an immunoglobulin G (IgG)/anti-IgG assay.

  18. A laser-optical sensor system for blade vibration detection of high-speed compressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, Mathias; Dreier, Florian; Günther, Philipp; Wilke, Ulrich; Fischer, Andreas; Büttner, Lars; Holzinger, Felix; Schiffer, Heinz-Peter; Czarske, Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    Improved efficiency as well as increased lifetime of turbines and compressors are important goals in turbomachinery development. A significant enhancement to accomplish these aims can be seen in online monitoring of the operating parameters of the machines. During the operation of compressors it is of high interest to predict critical events like flutter or stall which can be achieved by observing blade deformations and vibrations. We have developed a laser Doppler distance sensor (LDDS), which is capable of simultaneously measuring the radial blade expansions, the circumferential blade deflections as well as the circumferential velocities of the rotor blade tips. As a result, an increase of blade vibrations is measured before stall at characteristic frequencies. While the detected vibration frequencies and the vibration increase are in agreement with the measurement results of a commercial capacitive blade tip timing system, the measured values of the vibration amplitudes differ by a factor of three. This difference can be mainly attributed to the different measurement locations and to the different measurement approaches. Since the LDDS is applicable to metal as well as ceramic, carbon-fiber and glass-fiber reinforced composite blades, a universally applicable sensor system for stall prediction and status monitoring is presented.

  19. Renewable Reagent Fiber Optic Based Ammonia Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, Richard J.; Burgess, Lloyd W.

    1990-02-01

    Many fiber optic based chemical sensors have been described which rely on a reagent chemistry fixed at the fiber endface to provide analyte specificity. In such systems, problems involving probe-to-probe reproducibility, reagent photolability and reagent leaching are frequently encountered. As a result, calibration and standardization of these sensors becomes difficult or impossible and thus inhibits their application for long term in situ chemical monitoring. Many of these problems can be addressed and several additional advantages gained by continuously renewing the reagent chemistry. To illustrate this concept, a fiber optic ammonia sensor is described in which the reagent is delivered under direct control to a sensing volume of approximately 400 nanoliters located at the probe tip. Using an acid-base indicator (bromothymol blue) as the reagent, the sample ammonia concentrations are related to modulations in light intensity with a lower limit of detection of 10 ppb. The sensor performance was studied with respect to reagent pH, concentration and reagent delivery rate. Compared with previous fiber optic ammonia sensors, the ability to reproducibly renew the reagent has resulted in improvements with respect to response and return times, probe-to-probe reproducibility, probe lifetime and flexibility of use.

  20. Deflection Sensors Utilizing Optical Multi-Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shehadeh, Shadi H.; Cada, Michael; Qasymeh, Montasir; Ma, Yuan

    2010-06-01

    Deflection sensors have attracted significant attention due to their wide application in pressure and temperature measurements in practical systems. Several techniques have been proposed, studied, and tested to realize optical deflection sensor elements, including Mach-Zehnder (MZI), and Fabry-Pérot interferometers. In this work, a novel optical deflection sensor that is comprised of two cascaded optical resonators is proposed and analyzed. The proposed structure is designed to operate in the multi-stable (input to output) regime. As the first resonator is equipped with a movable mirror, which is connected to a diaphragm in order to sense changes in deflection, the second resonator is filled with non-linear material. It is demonstrated that such a structure has a novel memory property, aside from having the ability to yield instant deflection measurements. This novel property is attributed to the non-linear refractive index of the medium of the second resonator. Furthermore, the sensor sensitivity (which is the ratio of the change in the output light intensity to the change in the induced deflection) is enhanced due to the input-output multi-stable behavior of the proposed structure. This device possesses a promising potential for applications in future smart sensors.

  1. Threshold temperature optical fibre sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stasiewicz, K. A.; Musial, J. E.

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a new approach to manufacture a threshold temperature sensor based on a biconical optical fibre taper. The presented sensor employs the influence of variable state of concentration of some isotropic materials like wax or paraffin. Application of the above- mentioned materials is an attempt to prove that there is a possibility to obtain a low-cost, repeatable and smart sensor working as an in-line element. Optical fibre taper was obtained from a standard single mode fibre (SMF28®) by using a low pressure gas burner technique. The diameter of the manufactured tapers was 6.0 ± 0.5 μm with the length of elongation equal to 30.50 ± 0.16 mm. The applied technology allowed to produce tapers with the losses of 0.183 ± 0.015 dB. Application of materials with different temperature transition points made it possible to obtain the threshold work at the temperatures connected directly with their conversion temperature. External materials at the temperatures above their melting points do not influence the propagation losses. For each of them two types of the protection area and position of the optical fibre taper were applied.

  2. Optical Angular Motion Sensor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-05-31

    equations , i.e. curve fitting. Thermal testing was performed on the brassboard unit to demonstrate performance over a 40-100 de- grees Fahrenheit...5.1 System Equations The system equations presented here are an outgrowth of the analysis des- cribed in the OA1S Phase I report. Modifications are made...characteristics, a key require- ment in 0*43 applications. Using a similar approach, but under a separate sub- section, equations relating the effects of

  3. Triangular-shaped bulk optic glass Faraday current sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Beatrice C.; Ning, Yanong N.; Jackson, David A.

    1993-03-01

    A new triangular topology for a bulk optic Faraday current sensor is presented with a demonstrated resolution of 20 mA/(root)Hz over a measurement range from 1 to 3000 A. The sensitivity of the system was 2.35 X 10-5 rad/A. This sensor is relatively easy to fabricate and overcome problems encountered using current sensors based upon bulk optic 'square' configurations and all fiber systems.

  4. Fiber optic acoustic emission sensors for harsh environment health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borinski, Jason W.; Duke, John C., Jr.; Horne, Michael R.

    2001-07-01

    Optical fiber sensors are rapidly emerging as viable alternatives to piezoelectric devices as effective means of detecting and quantifying acoustic emission (AE). Compared to traditional piezoelectric-based sensors, optical fiber sensors offer much smaller size, reduced weight, ability to operate at temperatures up to 2000 degree(s)C, immunity to electromagnetic interference, resistance to corrosive environments, inherent safety within flammable environments, and the ability to multiplex multiple sensors on a single fiber. The authors have investigated low-profile fiber optic-based AE sensors for non-destructive evaluation (NDE) systems. In particular, broadband and resonant type optical fiber sensors were developed for monitoring acoustic emission for NDE of pressurized composite vessels and commercial airframe structures. The authors developed an in-plane, broadband sensor design based on optical strain gage technology. In addition, an out-of-plane, resonant sensor was developed using micromachining techniques. The sensors have been evaluated for performance using swept frequency and impulse excitation techniques and compared to conventional piezoelectric transducers. Further, application experiments were conducted using these sensors on both aluminum lap-joints and composite fracture coupons, with collocated piezoelectric transducers. The results indicate that optical fiber AE sensors can be used as transducers sensitive to acoustic events and the indication of imminent failure of a structure, making these sensors useful in many applications where conventional piezoelectric transducers are not well suited.

  5. Electro-optical voltage sensor head

    DOEpatents

    Woods, Gregory K.

    1998-01-01

    A miniature electro-optic voltage sensor system capable of accurate operation at high voltages. The system employs a transmitter, a sensor disposed adjacent to but out of direct electrical contact with a conductor on which the voltage is to be measured, a detector, and a signal processor. The transmitter produces a beam of electromagnetic radiation which is routed into the sensor where the beam undergoes the Pockels electro-optic effect. The electro-optic effect causes phase shifting in the beam, which is in turn converted to a pair of independent beams, from which the voltage of a system based on its E-field is determined when the two beams are normalized by the signal processor. The sensor converts the beam by splitting the beam in accordance with the axes of the beam's polarization state (an ellipse whose ellipticity varies between -1 and +1 in proportion to voltage) into at least two AM signals. These AM signals are fed into a signal processor and processed to determine the voltage between a ground conductor and the conductor on which voltage is being measured.

  6. Electro-optical voltage sensor head

    DOEpatents

    Woods, G.K.

    1998-03-24

    A miniature electro-optic voltage sensor system capable of accurate operation at high voltages is disclosed. The system employs a transmitter, a sensor disposed adjacent to but out of direct electrical contact with a conductor on which the voltage is to be measured, a detector, and a signal processor. The transmitter produces a beam of electromagnetic radiation which is routed into the sensor where the beam undergoes the Pockels electro-optic effect. The electro-optic effect causes phase shifting in the beam, which is in turn converted to a pair of independent beams, from which the voltage of a system based on its E-field is determined when the two beams are normalized by the signal processor. The sensor converts the beam by splitting the beam in accordance with the axes of the beam`s polarization state (an ellipse whose ellipticity varies between -1 and +1 in proportion to voltage) into at least two AM signals. These AM signals are fed into a signal processor and processed to determine the voltage between a ground conductor and the conductor on which voltage is being measured. 6 figs.

  7. Specialized wavefront sensors for adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, Daniel R.; Mansell, J. D.; Gruetzner, James K.; Morgan, R.; Warren, Mial E.

    1995-08-01

    The performance of an adaptive optical system is strongly dependent upon correctly measuring the wavefront of the arriving light. The most common wavefront measurement techniques used to date are the shearing interferometer and the Shack-Hartmann sensor. Shack-Hartmann sensors rely on the use of lenslet arrays to sample the aperture appropriately. These have traditionally been constructed using MLM or step and repeat technology, and more recently with binary optics technology. Diffractive optics fabrication methodology can be used to remove some of the limitations of the previous technologies and can allow for low-cost production of sophisticated elements. We have investigated several different specialized wavefront sensor configurations using both Shack-Hartmann and shearing interferometer principles. We have taken advantage of the arbitrary nature of these elements to match pupil shapes of detector and telescope aperture and to introduce magnification between the lenslet array and the detector. We have fabricated elements that facilitate matching the sampling to the current atmospheric conditions. The sensors were designed using a far-field diffraction model and a photolithography layout program. They were fabricated using photolithography and RIE etching. Several different designs are presented with some experimental results from a small-scale adaptive optics brass-board.

  8. Active optical sensor technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melfi, Harvey

    1990-01-01

    An account is given of the development status, performance capabilities, and prospective applications of lidar systems in earth remote sensing, as envisioned by researchers at NASA-Marshall, NASA-Goddard, NASA-Langley, and NASA-Wallops Island. Lidar systems can conduct measurements in research efforts concerned with wind fields, altimetry, ozone depletion, water vapor mixing ratios, temperature and pressure, phytoplankton chlorophyll fluorescence, forest folliage, and ice sheets. It is in all cases that lidar lasers be lightweight, compact, and efficient; most lasers need to be tunable. Detectors used range from photomultipliers to photodiodes.

  9. Fibre optic sensor with disturbance localization in one optical fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyczkowski, M.; Ciurapinski, W.

    2007-05-01

    Ordinary perimeter security systems consist of many individual sensors with detection range 200-300 meters. These limitations are connected with physical phenomena that are used in microwave and infrared barriers as well as in ground and fence cable sensors. On the contrary, fiber optic perimeter sensors can be applied in the range of many kilometers and zone length 200-300 meters is degradation of their possibilities. This paper presents investigation results of a new generation of the fiber optic perimeter sensor in a two Sagnac and Sagna'c interferometers configuration. This system can detect a potential intruder and determine its position along a protected zone. We propose a method that makes use of the inherent properties of both interferometers. After demodulation of signals from both interferometers, obtained amplitude characteristic of the Sagnac interferometer depends on position of a disturbance along the both interferometer. So, quotient of both demodulated characteristics is proportional to the position of the disturbance. Arrangement of a laboratory model of the sensor and its signal processing scheme is presented. During research of a laboratory model, it was possible to detect the position of the disturbance with resolution of about 50m along a 10-km long sensor.

  10. Accuracy of PARTwear Inertial Sensor and Optojump Optical Measurement System for Measuring Ground Contact Time During Running.

    PubMed

    Ammann, Rahel; Taube, Wolfgang; Wyss, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Ammann, R, Taube, W, and Wyss, T. Accuracy of PARTwear inertial sensor and Optojump optical measurement system for measuring ground contact time during running. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 2057-2063, 2016-The aim of this study was to validate the detection of ground contact time (GCT) during running in 2 differently working systems: a small inertial measurement sensor, PARTwear (PW), worn on the shoe laces, and the optical measurement system, Optojump (OJ), placed on the track. Twelve well-trained subjects performed 12 runs each on an indoor track at speeds ranging from 3.0 to 9.0 m·s. GCT of one step per run (total 144) was simultaneously obtained by the PW, the OJ, and a high-speed video camera (HSC), whereby the latter served as reference system. The sampling rate was 1,000 Hz for all methods. Compared with the HSC, the PW and the OJ systems underestimated GCT by -1.3 ± 6.1% and -16.5 ± 6.7% (p-values ≤ 0.05), respectively. The intraclass correlation coefficients between PW and HSC and between OJ and HSC were 0.984 and 0.853 (p-values < 0.001), respectively. Despite the constant systematic underestimation of GCT, analyses indicated that PW successfully recorded GCT over a wide range of speeds. However, results showed only moderate validity for the OJ system, with increasing errors when speed decreased. In conclusion, the PW proved to be a highly useful and valid application, and its use can be recommended not only for laboratory settings but also for field applications. In contrast, data on GCT obtained by OJ during running must be treated with caution, specifically when running speed changes or when comparisons are made with GCT data collected by other measurement systems.

  11. Integration of an Emerging Highly Sensitive Optical CO2 Sensor for Ocean Monitoring on an Existing Data Acquisition System SeaKeeper 1000 (trademark)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    be deployed in geat numbers to autonomously monitor the overall patterns of CO2 emissions and ocean acidification . OBJECTIVES  Meet the...Integration of an Emerging Highly Sensitive Optical CO2 Sensor for Ocean Monitoring on an Existing Data Acquisition System SeaKeeper 1000TM Annual...challenging requirements for ocean pCO2 monitoring using an innovative sensor design based on high sensitivity fluorescence detection.  Assemble the system

  12. Integration of an Emerging Highly Sensitive Optical CO2 Sensor for Ocean Monitoring on an Existing Data Acquisition System SeaKeeper 1000(TM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    be deployed in geat numbers to autonomously monitor the overall patterns of CO2 emissions and ocean acidification . OBJECTIVES  Meet the...Integration of an Emerging Highly Sensitive Optical CO2 Sensor for Ocean Monitoring on an Existing Data Acquisition System SeaKeeper 1000TM Annual...challenging requirements for ocean pCO2 monitoring using an innovative sensor design based on high sensitivity fluorescence detection.  Assemble the system

  13. Great prospects for fiber optics sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, T. E.

    1983-01-01

    Fiber optic sensors provide noise immunity and galvanic insulation at the measurement point. Interest in such sensors is increasing for these reasons. In the United States sales are expected to increase from 12 million dollars in 1981 to 180 million in 1991. Interferometric sensors based on single modus fibers deliver extremely high sensitivity, while sensors based on multi-modus fibers are more easily manufactured. The fiber optic sensors which are available today are based on point measurements. Development of fiber optic sensors in Norway is being carried out at the Central institute and has resulted in the development of medical manometers which are now undergoing clinical testing.

  14. Low-cost fiber optic weigh-in-motion sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safaai-Jazi, A.; Ardekani, S. A.; Mehdikhani, M.

    1990-11-01

    A design for a fiber optic weigh in motion (WIM) sensor is proposed. A prototype of the proposed sensor is designed, manufactured, and tested in the laboratory for different load frequency combinations using a material testing system (MTS) machine. Statistical analysis of data are performed to assess the response of the sensor under varying load frequencies for comparison.

  15. Fibre optic sensor on robot end effector for flexible assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Yung, K.L.; Lau, W.S.; Choi, C.K.; Shan, Y.Y.

    1995-12-31

    A fibre optic sensor system was constructed for use on robot end effectors for flexible assembly. The sensor detected the deviations between robot end effector and the workpiece. The signal was fed back to robot controller to shift the end effector until the centre of end effector and the centre of workpiece were aligned at the correct orientation. Then workpiece can be grasped symmetrically. Sensor fusion concept was used to guard against sensor system failure. Fuzzy linguistic variable and control rule concept were introduced in the sensor integration. The experimental setup for the sensor integrated system was shown. The accuracy was also discussed.

  16. Fiber-optic liquid level sensor

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    1991-01-01

    A fiber-optic liquid level sensor measures the height of a column of liquid through the hydrostatic pressure it produces. The sensor employs a fiber-optic displacement sensor to detect the pressure-induced displacement of the center of a corrugated diaphragm.

  17. Remote structural monitoring of the Cathedral of Como using an optical fiber Bragg sensor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whelan, Maurice P.; Albrecht, Daniel; Capsoni, Antonio

    2002-07-01

    This paper describes a prototype system being developed for on-line structural monitoring of the cathedral of Como, Italy. Monitoring is based on relative displacement and temperature measurements employing optical fibre Bragg grating transducers. System features include an edge-filter demodulation scheme with wavelength multiplexing, palmtop-based control with customised software, automated data acquisition and analysis and GSM-based data transmission via email. The system also offers the option to be solar powered, allowing it to be located in areas with limited access, such as on the cathedral roof. Initial results obtained over an eight-month demonstration period are also presented. The intention is to develop this prototype into a complete system for on-line structural monitoring of the Cathedral, offering real decision support to those responsible for its maintenance.

  18. Optical waveguide tamper sensor technology

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, R.F.; Butler, M.A.; Sinclair, M.B.

    1997-03-01

    Dielectric optical waveguides exhibit properties that are well suited to sensor applications. They have low refractive index and are transparent to a wide range of wavelengths. They can react with the surrounding environment in a variety of controllable ways. In certain sensor applications, it is advantageous to integrate the dielectric waveguide on a semiconductor substrate with active devices. In this work, we demonstrate a tamper sensor based on dielectric waveguides that connect epitaxial GaAs-GaAlAs sources and detectors. The tamper sensing function is realized by attaching particles of absorbing material with high refractive index to the surface of the waveguides. These absorbers are then attached to a lid or cover, as in an integrated circuit package or multi-chip module. The absorbers attenuate the light in the waveguides as a function of absorber interaction. In the tamper indicating mode, the absorbers are placed randomly on the waveguides, to form a unique attenuation pattern that is registered by the relative signal levels on the photodetectors. When the lid is moved, the pattern of absorbers changes, altering the photodetector signals. This dielectric waveguide arrangement is applicable to a variety of sensor functions, and specifically can be fabricated as a chemical sensor by the application of cladding layers that change their refractive index and/or optical absorption properties upon exposure to selected chemical species. An example is found in palladium claddings that are sensitive to hydrogen. A description of designs and a basic demonstration of the tamper sensing and chemical sensing functions is described herein.

  19. Blood detection in the spinal column of whole cooked chicken using an optical fibre based sensor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheridan, C.; O'Farrell, M.; Lyons, W. B.; Lewis, E.; Flanagan, C.; Jackman, N.

    2005-01-01

    An optical fibre based sensor has been developed to aid the quality assurance of food cooked in industrial ovens by monitoring the product in situ as it cooks. The sensor measures the product colour as it cooks by examining the reflected visible light from the surface as well as the core of the product. This paper examines the use of the sensor for the detection of blood in the spinal area of cooked whole chickens. The results presented here show that the sensor can be successfully used for this purpose.

  20. Fiber optic sensors with internal referencing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamovsky, Grigory; Maitland, Duncan J., IV

    1988-01-01

    The main problem with amplitude modulating type sensors is that any variation in the intensity of the optical signal which occurs throughout the sensing system is interpreted by the photodetector as resulting from the sensor itself and is reflected as an error in the sensed parameter. To account for these errors, a referencing technique with the signal and reference channels separated in the time domain over the same fiber link can be used. Selected sensing and signal processing techniques involving temporally separated signal and referencing channels are described. A transition from the time into the frequency domain is also discussed. Experimental data are presented.

  1. Experimental qualification by extensive evaluation of fibre optic strain sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilder, Constanze; Kusche, Nadine; Schukar, Vivien G.; Münzenberger, Sven; Habel, Wolfgang R.

    2013-09-01

    Fibre optic strain sensors used in practical applications have to provide reliable measurements. Therefore, the applied sensor and the sensor systems must be validated experimentally. This can be achieved with facilities which use physically independent measurement systems in order to avoid the influences caused by the application of a reference sensor. This paper describes the testing methods of the specially developed validation facility KALFOS for the qualification and evaluation of surface-applied strain sensors. For reliable sensor results, the performance of fibre optic strain patches with and without FBG under combined thermal and mechanical loading was investigated. Additionally, the strain gauge factor of the fibre optic strain patches with FBG was determined experimentally and compared to the specified strain gauge factor. These results will be the basis for the development of guidelines and standards concerning the application of the sensors.

  2. Low-Cost Linear Optical Sensors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinsey, Kenneth F.; Meisel, David D.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the properties and application of three light-to-voltage optical sensors. The sensors have been used for sensing diffraction patterns, the inverse-square law, and as a fringe counter with an interferometer. (MVL)

  3. Research on signal demodulation technology of Mach-Zehnder optical fiber sensor vibration system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Juncheng; Cheng, Pengshen; Hu, Tong

    2017-08-01

    Mach-Zehnder (M-Z) interferometer is frequently used in optical fiber vibration system. And signal demodulation technology plays an important role in the signal processing of M-Z optical fiber vibration system. In order to accurately get the phase information of the vibration signals, the signal demodulation technique based on M-Z interference principle is studied. In this paper, by analyzing the principles of 3 × 3 fiber coupler homodyne demodulation method and phase-generating carrier (PGC) technology, the advantages and disadvantages of the two demodulation methods for different vibration signal are presented. Then the method of judging signal strength is proposed. The correlation between the demodulation effects and strength of the perturbation signals is analyzed. Finally, the simulation experiments are carried out to compare the demodulation effects of the two demodulation methods, the results demonstrate that PGC demodulation technology has great advantages in weak signals, and the 3 × 3 fiber coupler is more suitable for strong signals.

  4. Fiber-optic voltage sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, C. B.

    1990-07-01

    A fiber-optic voltage sensor is described which includes a source of light, a reference fiber for receiving a known percentage of the light and an electrostrictive element having terminals across which is applied, and a voltage to be measured. The electrostrictive element is responsive to the applied voltage to assume an altered physical state. A measuring fiber also receives a known percentage of light from the light source and is secured about the electrostrictive element. The measuring fiber is provided with a cladding and exhibits an evanescent wave in the cladding. The measuring fiber has a known length which is altered when the electrostrictive element assumes its altered physical state. A differential sensor is provided which senses the intensity of light in both the reference fiber and the measuring fiber and provides an output indicative of the difference between the intensities.

  5. Design of optics for compact star sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Minyi; Shi, Rongbao; Shen, Weimin

    2016-10-01

    In order to adapt to small size and low cost space platform such as mini-satellites, this paper studies the design of optics for compact star sensor. At first, the relationship between limiting magnitude and optical system specifications which includes field of view and entrance pupil diameter is analyzed, based on its Pyramid identification algorithm and signal-to-noise ratio requirement. The specifications corresponding to different limiting magnitude can be obtained after the detector is selected, and both of the complexity of optical lens and the size of baffle can be estimated. Then the range of the limiting magnitude can be determined for the miniaturization of the optical system. Taking STAR1000 CMOS detector as an example, the compact design of the optical system can be realized when the limiting magnitude is in the interval of 4.9Mv 5.5Mv. At last, the lens and baffle of a CMOS compact star sensor is optimally designed, of which length and weight is respectively 124 millimeters and 300 grams.

  6. Optical Beam-Shear Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Stefan; Szwaykowski, Piotr

    2007-01-01

    A technique for measuring optical beam shear is based on collecting light from the four quadrants of the beam and comparing the optical power collected from each quadrant with that from the other three quadrants. As used here, "shear" signifies lateral displacement of a beam of light from a nominal optical axis. A sensor for implementing this technique consists of a modified focusing lens and a quad-cell photodetector, both centered on the nominal optical axis. The modification of the lens consists in cutting the lens into four sectors (corresponding to the four quadrants) by sawing along two orthogonal diameters, then reassembling the lens following either of two approaches described next. In one approach, the lens is reassembled by gluing the sectors back together. In the simplest variant of this approach, the kerf of the saw matches the spacing of the photodetector cells, so that the focus of each sector crosses the axis of symmetry to fall on the opposite photodetector cell (see figure). In another variant of this approach, the lens sectors are spaced apart to make their individual foci to fall on separate photodetector cells, without crossing the optical axis. In the case of a sufficiently wide beam, the modified lens could be replaced with four independent lenses placed in a square array, each focusing onto an independent photodetector

  7. Optical sensor of magnetic fields

    DOEpatents

    Butler, M.A.; Martin, S.J.

    1986-03-25

    An optical magnetic field strength sensor for measuring the field strength of a magnetic field comprising a dilute magnetic semi-conductor probe having first and second ends, longitudinally positioned in the magnetic field for providing Faraday polarization rotation of light passing therethrough relative to the strength of the magnetic field. Light provided by a remote light source is propagated through an optical fiber coupler and a single optical fiber strand between the probe and the light source for providing a light path therebetween. A polarizer and an apparatus for rotating the polarization of the light is provided in the light path and a reflector is carried by the second end of the probe for reflecting the light back through the probe and thence through the polarizer to the optical coupler. A photo detector apparatus is operably connected to the optical coupler for detecting and measuring the intensity of the reflected light and comparing same to the light source intensity whereby the magnetic field strength may be calculated.

  8. Integrated optical tamper sensor with planar waveguide

    DOEpatents

    Carson, Richard F.; Casalnuovo, Stephen A.

    1993-01-01

    A monolithic optical tamper sensor, comprising an optical emitter and detector, connected by an optical waveguide and placed into the critical entry plane of an enclosed sensitive region, the tamper sensor having a myriad of scraps of a material optically absorbent at the wavelength of interest, such that when the absorbent material is in place on the waveguide, an unique optical signature can be recorded, but when entry is attempted into the enclosed sensitive region, the scraps of absorbent material will be displaced and the optical/electrical signature of the tamper sensor will change and that change can be recorded.

  9. Integrated optical tamper sensor with planar waveguide

    DOEpatents

    Carson, R.F.; Casalnuovo, S.A.

    1993-01-05

    A monolithic optical tamper sensor, comprising an optical emitter and detector, connected by an optical waveguide and placed into the critical entry plane of an enclosed sensitive region, the tamper sensor having a myriad of scraps of a material optically absorbent at the wavelength of interest, such that when the absorbent material is in place on the waveguide, an unique optical signature can be recorded, but when entry is attempted into the enclosed sensitive region, the scraps of absorbent material will be displaced and the optical/electrical signature of the tamper sensor will change and that change can be recorded.

  10. Advancement of Miniature Optic Gas Sensor (MOGS) Probe Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda

    2015-01-01

    Advancement of Miniature Optic Gas Sensor (MOGS) Probe Technology" project will investigate newly developed optic gas sensors delivered from a Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Phase II effort. A ventilation test rig will be designed and fabricated to test the sensors while integrated with a Suited Manikin Test Apparatus (SMTA). Once the sensors are integrated, a series of test points will be completed to verify that the sensors can withstand Advanced Suit Portable Life Support System (PLSS) environments and associated human metabolic profiles for changes in pressure and levels of Oxygen (ppO2), carbon dioxide (ppCO2), and humidity (ppH2O).

  11. Fiber-optically sensorized composite wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Joannes M.; Black, Richard J.; Moslehi, Behzad; Oblea, Levy; Patel, Rona; Sotoudeh, Vahid; Abouzeida, Essam; Quinones, Vladimir; Gowayed, Yasser; Soobramaney, Paul; Flowers, George

    2014-04-01

    Electromagnetic interference (EMI) immune and light-weight, fiber-optic sensor based Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) will find increasing application in aerospace structures ranging from aircraft wings to jet engine vanes. Intelligent Fiber Optic Systems Corporation (IFOS) has been developing multi-functional fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor systems including parallel processing FBG interrogators combined with advanced signal processing for SHM, structural state sensing and load monitoring applications. This paper reports work with Auburn University on embedding and testing FBG sensor arrays in a quarter scale model of a T38 composite wing. The wing was designed and manufactured using fabric reinforced polymer matrix composites. FBG sensors were embedded under the top layer of the composite. Their positions were chosen based on strain maps determined by finite element analysis. Static and dynamic testing confirmed expected response from the FBGs. The demonstrated technology has the potential to be further developed into an autonomous onboard system to perform load monitoring, SHM and Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) of composite aerospace structures (wings and rotorcraft blades). This platform technology could also be applied to flight testing of morphing and aero-elastic control surfaces.

  12. System of the optic-electronic sensors for control position of the radio telescope elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konyakhin, Igor; Stepashkin, Ivan; Petrochenko, Andrey

    2016-04-01

    A promising area of modern astronomy is the study of the field of millimeter waves. The use of this band is due to a large extent the spectrum characteristics of the propagation of waves in the atmosphere, short wavelength. Currently, Russia jointly with Uzbekistan is implementing a project to build a radio astronomy observatory on the Suffa plateau (Uzbekistan). The main instrument of the observatory is fully steerable radio telescope RT-70 type. Main mirror telescope is a fragment of an axisymmetric parabolic with a focal length of 21 m, consisting of 1200 reflecting panels; main mirror diameter - 70 m; diameter of counter reflector - 3 m. A feature of the radio telescope as a means of research in the millimeter wavelength range are high for the quality requirements parabolic surface of the primary mirror (standard deviation of points on the surface of the theoretical parabolic is not more than 0.05 mm), to the stability of the mutual arrangement of the primary mirror and the counter reflector (not more than 0, 07 mm) for precision guidance in the corners of the mirror system azimuth and elevation (margin of error 1.5-2"). Weight of structure, temperature changes and air shock result in significant deformation elements radio telescope construction (progressive linear displacements of points of the surface of the main mirror), reaching in the marginal zone of 30 mm; counter reflector shift of up to 60 mm; Unlike the angular position of the axis of the beam pattern of the radio telescope of the measured angle transducers can reach 10 ". Therefore, to ensure the required quality of the reflective elements RT-70 systems, as well as the implementation of precision-guided munitions needs complex measuring deformation elements telescope design. This article deals with the construction of opto-electronic system of remote optoelectronic displacement sensor control elements mirror telescope system.

  13. Passive long range acousto-optic sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, Dan

    2006-08-01

    Alexander Graham Bell's photophone of 1880 was a simple free space optical communication device that used the sun to illuminate a reflective acoustic diaphragm. A selenium photocell located 213 m (700 ft) away converted the acoustically modulated light beam back into sound. A variation of the photophone is presented here that uses naturally formed free space acousto-optic communications links to provide passive multichannel long range acoustic sensing. This system, called RAS (remote acoustic sensor), functions as a long range microphone with a demonstrated range in excess of 40 km (25 miles).

  14. High-impact resistance optical sensor windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askinazi, Joel; Ceccorulli, Mark L.; Goldman, Lee

    2011-06-01

    Recent field experience with optical sensor windows on both ground and airborne platforms has shown a significant increase in window fracturing from foreign object debris (FOD) impacts and as a by-product of asymmetrical warfare. Common optical sensor window materials such as borosilicate glass do not typically have high impact resistance. Emerging advanced optical window materials such as aluminum oxynitride offer the potential for a significant improvement in FOD impact resistance due to their superior surface hardness, fracture toughness and strength properties. To confirm the potential impact resistance improvement achievable with these emerging materials, Goodrich ISR Systems in collaboration with Surmet Corporation undertook a set of comparative FOD impact tests of optical sensor windows made from borosilicate glass and from aluminum oxynitride. It was demonstrated that the aluminum oxynitride windows could withstand up to three times the FOD impact velocity (as compared with borosilicate glass) before fracture would occur. These highly encouraging test results confirm the utility of this new highly viable window solution for use on new ground and airborne window multispectral applications as well as a retrofit to current production windows. We believe that this solution can go a long way to significantly reducing the frequency and life cycle cost of window replacement.

  15. Micromachined optical fiber current sensor.

    PubMed

    Heredero, R L; Fernández de Caleya, R; Guerrero, H; Los Santos, P; Cruz Acero, M; Esteve, J

    1999-09-01

    We describe a micromachined optical fiber current sensor. The sensing element consists of a squared silicon membrane (8 mm long and 20 microm thick) that has a cylindrical permanent magnet (NdFeB alloy, 3-mm diameter, 1.5 mm high) fixed on its central region. This structure allows the permanent magnet to vibrate in the presence of the magnetic field gradient generated by an ac. A linear relation between the electrical current and the magnet displacement was measured with white-light interferometry with an optical fiber low-finesse Fabry-Perot microcavity. A measurement range of 0-70 A and a minimum detectable intensity of 20 mA were obtained when distance D between the membrane and the electrical power line was 5 mm. The output signal directly shows a linear response with distance D.

  16. Applications of advanced optical fiber sensors at UESTC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Yun-Jiang

    2012-02-01

    Based on many years research, a number of novel fiber-optic sensors and systems are developed by the Fiber Optics Group at University of Electronic Science & Technology of China (UESTC). This paper presents a review of the applications of these sensors and systems developed in recent years, including: (1) Micro fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometric sensors for high temperature strain measurement applications; (2) Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors for safety monitoring applications in transportations industry; (3) Long-distance Brillouin optical time-domain analyzer (BOTDA) for high performance temperature/strain measurement; (4) Fiber-optic fences based on FBG and phasesensitive optical time-domain reflectometer (Φ-OTDR) for intrusion monitoring applications.

  17. Optical fiber sensors and signal processing for intelligent structure monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogowski, Robert; Claus, R. O.; Lindner, D. K.; Thomas, Daniel; Cox, Dave

    1988-01-01

    The analytic and experimental performance of optical fiber sensors for the control of vibration of large aerospace and other structures are investigated. In particular, model domain optical fiber sensor systems, are being studied due to their apparent potential as distributed, low mass sensors of vibration over appropriate ranges of both low frequency and low amplitude displacements. Progress during the past three months is outlined. Progress since September is divided into work in the areas of experimental hardware development, analytical analysis, control design and sensor development. During the next six months, tests of a prototype closed-loop control system for a beam are planned which will demonstrate the solution of several optical fiber instrumentation device problems, the performance of the control system theory which incorporates the model of the modal domain sensor, and the potential for distributed control which this sensor approach offers.

  18. Development of an Optical Read-Out System for the LISA/NGO Gravitational Reference Sensor: A Status Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Fiore, L.; De Rosa, R.; Garufi, F.; Grado, A.; Milano, L.; Spagnuolo, V.; Russano, G.

    2013-01-01

    The LISA group in Napoli is working on the development of an Optical Read-Out (ORO) system, based on optical levers and position sensitive detectors, for the LISA gravitational reference sensor. ORO is not meant as an alternative, but as an addition, to capacitive readout, that is the reference solution for LISA/NGO and will be tested on flight by LISA-Pathfinder. The main goal is the introduction of some redundancy with consequent mission risk mitigation. Furthermore, the ORO system is more sensitive than the capacitive one and its usage would allow a significant relaxation of the specifications on cross-couplings in the drag free control loops. The reliability of the proposed ORO device and the fulfilment of the sensitivity requirements have been already demonstrated in bench-top measurements and tests with the four mass torsion pendulum developed in Trento as a ground testing facility for LISA-Pathfinder and LISA hardware. In this paper we report on the present status of this activity presenting the last results and perspectives on some relevant aspects. 1) System design, measured sensitivity and noise characterization. 2) Possible layouts for integration in LISA/NGO and bench-top tests on real scale prototypes. 3) Search for space compatible components and preliminary tests. We will also discuss next steps in view of a possible application in LISA/NGO.

  19. Optical Sensors Based on Plastic Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Bilro, Lúcia; Alberto, Nélia; Pinto, João L.; Nogueira, Rogério

    2012-01-01

    The recent advances of polymer technology allowed the introduction of plastic optical fiber in sensor design. The advantages of optical metrology with plastic optical fiber have attracted the attention of the scientific community, as they allow the development of low-cost or cost competitive systems compared with conventional technologies. In this paper, the current state of the art of plastic optical fiber technology will be reviewed, namely its main characteristics and sensing advantages. Several measurement techniques will be described, with a strong focus on interrogation approaches based on intensity variation in transmission and reflection. The potential applications involving structural health monitoring, medicine, environment and the biological and chemical area are also presented. PMID:23112707

  20. Hybrid optical fiber sensor and artificial neural network system for bioethanol quality control and productivity enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusken, Edmilton; Salgado, Ricardo M.; Rossell, Carlos E. V.; Ohishi, Takaaki; Suzuki, Carlos K.

    2008-04-01

    Bioethanol is produced by bio-chemical process that converts sugar or biomass feedstock into ethanol. After bio-chemical process, the solution is distilled under controlled conditions of pressure and temperature, in order to obtain an ethanol-water solution. However, the ethanol concentration analysis is generally performed off-line and, sometimes, a re-distillation process becomes necessary. In this research, an optical apparatus based on Fresnel reflection has been used in combination with artificial neural networks for determination of bioethanol concentration in hydro-alcoholic solution at any temperature. The volumetric concentration and temperature effect was investigated. This intelligent system can effectively detect and update in real-time the correction of distillation parameters to reduce losses of bioethanol and also to improve the quality in a production plant.

  1. Optical nanoparticle sensors for quantitative intracellular imaging.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Eun Koo; Kopelman, Raoul

    2009-01-01

    Real-time measurements of biological/chemical/physical processes, with no interferences, are an ultimate goal for in vivo intracellular studies. To construct intracellular biosensors that meet such a goal, nanoparticle (NP) platforms seem to be most promising, because of their small size and excellent engineerability. This review describes the development of NP-based opical sensors and their intracellular applications. The sensor designs are classified into two types, based on the sensor structures regarding analyte receptor and signal transducer. Type 1 sensors, with a single component for both receptor and transducer, work by mechanisms similar to those of 'molecular probes'. Type 2 sensors, with a separate component for receptor and transducer, work by different mechanisms that require the presence of specific NPs. A synergistic increase in optical signal or selectivity has been reported for these second type of NP sensors. With ongoing rapid advances in nanotechnology and instrumentation, these NP systems will soon be capable of sensing at the single-molecule level, at the point of interest within the living cell, and capable of simultaneously detecting multiple analytes and physical parameters.

  2. Interferometric fiber optic displacement sensor

    DOEpatents

    Farah, John

    1999-01-01

    A method is presented to produce a change in the optical path length in the gap between two single mode optical fibers proportional to the lateral displacement of either fiber end normal to its axis. This is done with the use of refraction or diffraction at the interface between a guiding and non-guiding media to change the direction of propagation of the light in the gap. A method is also presented for laying a waveguide on a cantilever so that the displacement of the tip of the cantilever produces a proportional path length change in the gap by distancing the waveguide from the neutral axis of the cantilever. The fiber is supported as a cantilever or a waveguide is deposited on a micromachined cantilever and incorporated in an interferometer which is made totally on a silicon substrate with the use of integrated-optic technology. A resonant element in the form of a micro-bridge is incorporated in the ridge waveguide and produces a frequency output which is readily digitizeable and immune to laser frequency noise. Finally, monolithic mechanical means for phase modulation are provided on the same sensor substrate. This is done by vibrating the cantilever or micro-bridge either electrically or optically.

  3. Interferometric fiber optic displacement sensor

    DOEpatents

    Farah, J.

    1995-05-30

    A method is presented to produce a change in the optical path length in the gap between two single mode optical fibers proportional to the lateral displacement of either fiber end normal to its axis. This is done with the use of refraction or diffraction at the interface between a guiding and non-guiding media to change the direction of propagation of the light in the gap. A method is also presented for laying a waveguide on a cantilever so that the displacement of the tip of the cantilever produces a proportional path length change in the gap by distancing the waveguide from the neutral axis of the cantilever. The fiber is supported as a cantilever or a waveguide is deposited on a micromachined cantilever and incorporated in an interferometer which is made totally on a silicon substrate with the use of integrated-optic technology. A resonant element in the form of a micro-bridge is incorporated in the ridge waveguide and produces a frequency output which is readily digitizeable and immune to laser frequency noise. Finally, monolithic mechanical means for phase modulation are provided on the same sensor substrate. This is done by vibrating the cantilever or micro-bridge either electrically or optically. 29 figs.

  4. Interferometric fiber optic displacement sensor

    DOEpatents

    Farah, John

    1995-01-01

    A method is presented to produce a change in the optical path length in the gap between two single mode optical fibers proportional to the lateral displacement of either fiber end normal to its axis. This is done with the use of refraction or diffraction at the interface between a guiding and non-guiding media to change the direction of propagation of the light in the gap. A method is also presented for laying a waveguide on a cantilever so that the displacement of the tip of the cantilever produces a proportional path length change in the gap by distancing the waveguide from the neutral axis of the cantilever. The fiber is supported as a cantilever or a waveguide is deposited on a micromachined cantilever and incorporated in an interferometer which is made totally on a silicon substrate with the use of integrated-optic technology. A resonant element in the form of a micro-bridge is incorporated in the ridge waveguide and produces a frequency output which is readily digitizeable and immune to laser frequency noise. Finally, monolithic mechanical means for phase modulation are provided on the same sensor substrate. This is done by vibrating the cantilever or micro-bridge either electrically or optically.

  5. Interferometric fiber optic displacement sensor

    DOEpatents

    Farah, J.

    1999-04-06

    A method is presented to produce a change in the optical path length in the gap between two single mode optical fibers proportional to the lateral displacement of either fiber end normal to its axis. This is done with the use of refraction or diffraction at the interface between a guiding and non-guiding media to change the direction of propagation of the light in the gap. A method is also presented for laying a waveguide on a cantilever so that the displacement of the tip of the cantilever produces a proportional path length change in the gap by distancing the waveguide from the neutral axis of the cantilever. The fiber is supported as a cantilever or a waveguide is deposited on a micromachined cantilever and incorporated in an interferometer which is made totally on a silicon substrate with the use of integrated-optic technology. A resonant element in the form of a micro-bridge is incorporated in the ridge waveguide and produces a frequency output which is readily digitizeable and immune to laser frequency noise. Finally, monolithic mechanical means for phase modulation are provided on the same sensor substrate. This is done by vibrating the cantilever or micro-bridge either electrically or optically. 23 figs.

  6. Sensitivity of optical mass sensor enhanced by optomechanical coupling

    SciTech Connect

    He, Yong

    2015-03-23

    Optical mass sensors based on cavity optomechanics employ radiation pressure force to drive mechanical resonator whose mechanical susceptibility can be described by nonlinear optical transmission spectrum. In this paper, we present an optical mass sensor based on a two-cavity optomechanical system where the mechanical damping rate can be decreased by adjusting a pump power so that the mass sensitivity which depends on the mechanical quality factor has been enhanced greatly. Compared with that of an optical mass sensor based on single-cavity optomechanics, the mass sensitivity of the optical mass sensor is improved by three orders of magnitude. This is an approach to enhance the mass sensitivity by means of optomechanical coupling, which is suitable for all mass sensor based on cavity optomechanics. Finally, we illustrate the accurate measurement for the mass of a few chromosomes, which can be achieved based on the current experimental conditions.

  7. Plasmon-enhanced optical sensors: a review.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Cushing, Scott K; Wu, Nianqiang

    2015-01-21

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) has found extensive applications in chemi-sensors and biosensors. Plasmons play different roles in different types of optical sensors. SPR transduces a signal in a colorimetric sensor through shifts in the spectral position and intensity in response to external stimuli. SPR can also concentrate the incident electromagnetic field in a nanostructure, modulating fluorescence emission and enabling plasmon-enhanced fluorescence to be used for ultrasensitive detection. Furthermore, plasmons have been extensively used for amplifying a Raman signal in a surface-enhanced Raman scattering sensor. This paper presents a review of recent research progress in plasmon-enhanced optical sensing, giving emphasis on the physical basis of plasmon-enhanced sensors and how these principles guide the design of sensors. In particular, this paper discusses the design strategies for nanomaterials and nanostructures to plasmonically enhance optical sensing signals, also highlighting the applications of plasmon-enhanced optical sensors in healthcare, homeland security, food safety and environmental monitoring.

  8. Revolution of Sensors in Micro-Electromechanical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esashi, Masayoshi

    2012-08-01

    Microsensors realized by micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) technology play a key role as the input devices of systems. In this report, the following sensors are reviewed: piezoresistive and capacitive pressure sensors, surface acoustic wave (SAW) wireless pressure sensors, tactile sensor networks for robots, accelerometers, angular velocity sensors (gyroscopes), range image sensors using optical scanners, infrared imagers, chemical sensing systems as Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography, flow sensors for fluids, and medical sensors such as ultrafine optical-fiber blood pressure sensors and implantable pressure sensors.

  9. Optoacoustic fiber optic interferometric sensors for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego, Daniel; Lamela, Horacio

    2011-06-01

    A non-metallic interferometric optical fiber ultrasonic wideband sensor is presented for optoacoustic imaging applications. The ultrasonic sensitivity of intrinsic fiber optic interferometric sensors depends strongly of the material which is composed of. We compare experimentally the acoustic sensitivity of two fiber optic sensors based on singlemode silica optical fiber and multimode graded-index perfluorinated polymer optical fiber, respectively. Both sensors are designed for detection of optoacoustic wave sources with frequencies in the range from 100 kHz to 5 MHz. These results are also compared with a PVDF ultra wideband sensor. We evaluated detection of real world optoacoustic signals, generated from an optically absorbing object embedded in a tissue mimicking phantom, between our silica optical fiber sensor and an array of piezoelectric transducers. Reconstructed two dimensional acoustic images of the phantom are presented and compared with images obtained with the Laser Optoacoustic Imaging System, LOIS-64B, demonstrating the feasibility of our fiber optic sensor as a wideband ultrasonic sensor.

  10. A novel wireless mobile platform integrated with optical fibre sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Bochao; Yang, Shuo; Sun, Tong; Grattan, Kenneth T. V.

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a novel design of wireless mobile platform which enables effective integration of a number of optical fibre sensors with an advanced mobile wireless sensor network (WSN) and allows for potential applications such as monitoring in remote and harsh environments and tracking, exploiting fully the advantages offered both by mobile WSN and by advanced optical fibre sensing technologies. The platform which was designed and implemented consists of an optical fibre sensor module and a smart mobile WSN module, which shows important advantages for mobile sensing and tracking and mesh networking. In this study, a fibre Bragg grating (FBG)-based temperature sensor was specially designed and integrated successfully into the optical fibre sensor module as an exemplar to investigate the performance of the integrated system based on the mobile WSN platform. The positive experimental results obtained have confirmed the functionality of the platform designed and demonstrated its capacity for real-time optical fibre sensor data monitoring, processing and wireless transmission. The successful creation of this type of wireless mobile platform with optical fibre sensors would be expected to make an important impact on many sectors, where either conventional optical sensor designs or WSNs alone cannot meet the systems requirements.

  11. Semiconductor sensor for optically measuring polarization rotation of optical wavefronts using rare earth iron garnets

    DOEpatents

    Duncan, Paul G.

    2002-01-01

    Described are the design of a rare earth iron garnet sensor element, optical methods of interrogating the sensor element, methods of coupling the optical sensor element to a waveguide, and an optical and electrical processing system for monitoring the polarization rotation of a linearly polarized wavefront undergoing external modulation due to magnetic field or electrical current fluctuation. The sensor element uses the Faraday effect, an intrinsic property of certain rare-earth iron garnet materials, to rotate the polarization state of light in the presence of a magnetic field. The sensor element may be coated with a thin-film mirror to effectively double the optical path length, providing twice the sensitivity for a given field strength or temperature change. A semiconductor sensor system using a rare earth iron garnet sensor element is described.

  12. Assessment of fiber optic pressure sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Hashemian, H.M.; Black, C.L.; Farmer, J.P.

    1995-04-01

    This report presents the results of a six-month Phase 1 study to establish the state-of-the-art in fiber optic pressure sensing and describes the design and principle of operation of various fiber optic pressure sensors. This study involved a literature review, contact with experts in the field, an industrial survey, a site visit to a fiber optic sensor manufacturer, and laboratory testing of a fiber optic pressure sensor. The laboratory work involved both static and dynamic performance tests. In addition, current requirements for environmental and seismic qualification of sensors for nuclear power plants were reviewed to determine the extent of the qualification tests that fiber optic pressure sensors may have to meet before they can be used in nuclear power plants. This project has concluded that fiber optic pressure sensors are still in the research and development stage and only a few manufacturers exist in the US and abroad which supply suitable fiber optic pressure sensors for industrial applications. Presently, fiber optic pressure sensors are mostly used in special applications for which conventional sensors are not able to meet the requirements.

  13. Optical associative memories for sensor fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralston, Lynda M.; Yoepp, John H.; Bardos, Andrew M.

    1992-08-01

    Modern military mission scenarios require very efficient access to multiple, large databases. Static `reference' databases and highly volatile databases which contain intelligence from sensors and other sources must be processed, cross referenced, and correlated. An architecture has been developed for a content addressable (associative) optical memory system. The system exploits the parallel access capabilities of optical disk memories to provide keyword correlation of free form text or structured databases within one revolution of the disk. The system consists of an optical disk drive augmented with an optical correlator and related electronics and software. The search string (keyword) is loaded into a spatial light modulator and optical matched filtering provides massively parallel readout to locate the desired data patterns on the disk. A digital degree-of-match (DOM) word is generated for each sector on the disk. Post processing based in digital electronics and software performs fuzzy computations to combine the DOMs for the current and previous keywords enabling the system to efficiently perform multi-step, content-based searches of the disk. Data stored in the best matching sectors is retrieved during the next revolution of the disk using the drive's standard read mechanism. The sustained processing rate of the optical correlator is 71 gigabits per second.

  14. A fiber-optic current sensor for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Rose, A. H.; Tang, D.; Day, G. W.

    1990-01-01

    A robust, accurate, broad-band, alternating current sensor using fiber optics is being developed for space applications at power frequencies as high as 20 kHz. It can also be used in low and high voltage 60 Hz terrestrial power systems and in 400 Hz aircraft systems. It is intrinsically electromagnetic interference (EMI) immune and has the added benefit of excellent isolation. The sensor uses the Faraday effect in optical fiber and standard polarimetric measurements to sense electrical current. The primary component of the sensor is a specially treated coil of single-mode optical fiber, through which the current carrying conductor passes. Improved precision is accomplished by temperature compensation by means of signals from a novel fiber-optic temperature sensor embedded in the sensing head. The technology contained in the sensor is examined and the results of precision tests conducted at various temperatures within the wide operating range are given. The results of early EMI tests are also given.

  15. A fiber-optic current sensor for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Rose, A. H.; Tang, D.; Day, G. W.

    1990-01-01

    A robust, accurate, broadband, alternating current sensor using fiber optics is being developed for space applications at power frequencies as high as 20 kHz. It can also be used in low- and high-voltage 60-Hz terrestrial power systems and in 400-Hz aircraft systems. It is intrinsically EMI (electromagnetic interference) immune and has the added benefit of excellent isolation. The sensor uses the Faraday effect in optical fiber and standard polarimetric measurements to sense electrical current. The primary component of the sensor is a specially treated coil of single-mode optical fiber, through which the current carrying conductor passes. Improved precision is accomplished by temperature compensation by means of signals from a fiber-optic temperature sensor embedded in the sensing head. The authors report on the technology contained in the sensor and also relate the results of precision tests conducted at various temperatures within the wide operating range. The results of early EMI tests are shown.

  16. A fiber-optic current sensor for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Rose, A. H.; Tang, D.; Day, G. W.

    1990-01-01

    A robust, accurate, broadband, alternating current sensor using fiber optics is being developed for space applications at power frequencies as high as 20 kHz. It can also be used in low and high voltage 60-Hz terrestrial power systems and in 400-Hz aircraft systems. It is intrinsically electromagnetic interference (EMI) immune and has the added benefit of excellent isolation. The sensor uses the Faraday effect in optical fiber and standard polarimetric measurements to sense electrical current. The primary component of the sensor is a specially treated coil of single-mode optical fiber, through which the current carrying conductor passes. Improved precision is accomplished by temperature compensation by means of signals from a novel fiber-optic temperature sensor embedded in the sensing head. The technology used in the sensor is examined and the results of precision tests conducted at various temperatures within the wide operating range are given. The results of early EMI tests are also given.

  17. A fiber-optic current sensor for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Rose, A. H.; Tang, D.; Day, G. W.

    1990-01-01

    A robust, accurate, broadband, alternating current sensor using fiber optics is being developed for space applications at power frequencies as high as 20 kHz. It can also be used in low and high voltage 60-Hz terrestrial power systems and in 400-Hz aircraft systems. It is intrinsically electromagnetic interference (EMI) immune and has the added benefit of excellent isolation. The sensor uses the Faraday effect in optical fiber and standard polarimetric measurements to sense electrical current. The primary component of the sensor is a specially treated coil of single-mode optical fiber, through which the current carrying conductor passes. Improved precision is accomplished by temperature compensation by means of signals from a novel fiber-optic temperature sensor embedded in the sensing head. The technology used in the sensor is examined and the results of precision tests conducted at various temperatures within the wide operating range are given. The results of early EMI tests are also given.

  18. A fiber-optic current sensor for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Rose, A. H.; Tang, D.; Day, G. W.

    1990-01-01

    A robust, accurate, broadband, alternating current sensor using fiber optics is being developed for space applications at power frequencies as high as 20 kHz. It can also be used in low- and high-voltage 60-Hz terrestrial power systems and in 400-Hz aircraft systems. It is intrinsically EMI (electromagnetic interference) immune and has the added benefit of excellent isolation. The sensor uses the Faraday effect in optical fiber and standard polarimetric measurements to sense electrical current. The primary component of the sensor is a specially treated coil of single-mode optical fiber, through which the current carrying conductor passes. Improved precision is accomplished by temperature compensation by means of signals from a fiber-optic temperature sensor embedded in the sensing head. The authors report on the technology contained in the sensor and also relate the results of precision tests conducted at various temperatures within the wide operating range. The results of early EMI tests are shown.

  19. Integrated Sensor Systems for UAS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    2. Optical particle counter 0.27 5.4 3. Pyranometer 0.17 ɘ.2 4. Temp. & relative humidity 0.05 ɘ.1 5. Data acquisition system 0.15 ɘ.2 6...payload volume showing sensor instrument installation. The insert shows the Manta exterior with the cloud droplet probe and pyranometer mounted on...Instrumentation Above- 2.7 Aethalometer cloud 14 Optical particle counter Up and down pyranometers Condensation particle counter In- 3.7

  20. Biomimetic optical sensor for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, Susan A.; Gorospe, George E.; Wright, Cameron H. G.; Barrett, Steven F.

    2015-05-01

    We report on a fiber optic sensor based on the physiological aspects of the eye and vision-related neural layers of the common housefly (Musca domestica) that has been developed and built for aerospace applications. The intent of the research is to reproduce select features from the fly's vision system that are desirable in image processing, including high functionality in low-light and low-contrast environments, sensitivity to motion, compact size, lightweight, and low power and computation requirements. The fly uses a combination of overlapping photoreceptor responses that are well approximated by Gaussian distributions and neural superposition to detect image features, such as object motion, to a much higher degree than just the photoreceptor density would imply. The Gaussian overlap in the biomimetic sensor comes from the front-end optical design, and the neural superposition is accomplished by subsequently combining the signals using analog electronics. The fly eye sensor is being developed to perform real-time tracking of a target on a flexible aircraft wing experiencing bending and torsion loads during flight. We report on results of laboratory experiments using the fly eye sensor to sense a target moving across its field of view.

  1. A novel fiber optic concrete sensor based on EFPI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wentao; Dai, Jingyun; Sun, Baochen; Du, Yanliang

    2007-07-01

    In this paper, a novel fiber optic concrete sensor based on extrinsic fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer (EFPI) is designed and analyzed. Two fiber ends are inserted into a glass capillary and encapsulated into a cement cylinder to act as the sensor head. In this way, the cement cylinder itself is the sensor head instead of the traditional steel tube, which makes it very convenient to embed the sensor head into the concrete, because the cement consists with the concrete well. Based on the theory of white light interferometry and the theory of elasticity, the wavelength modulation method and the strain transfer are analyzed theoretically. The demodulation system is also introduced in this paper. The experiment being made by our research group is aimed at testing the consistency, stability, reliability and the sensitivity of the fiber optic sensor. The sensor head of the cement cylinder is embedded into a model ferroconcrete beam together with traditional strain gauges. The experiment is carried out using the PEM-500A hydraulic pulsation fatigue test machine after 2 million stress circles. The readout of the fibre optic sensor and the strain gauges is recorded and made a contrast. It can be found from the result that the fibre optic sensors have good stability and reliability, the accuracy for the fibre optic sensor is better than 0.5 micro-strain, which shows that the sensor can meet the demand of the long-term monitoring of large-size concrete structure.

  2. Design of Fiber Optic Sensors for Measuring Hydrodynamic Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, Donald R.; Quiett, Carramah; Griffin, DeVon (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The science of optical hydrodynamics involves relating the optical properties to the fluid dynamic properties of a hydrodynamic system. Fiber-optic sensors are being designed for measuring the hydrodynamic parameters of various systems. As a flowing fluid makes an encounter with a flat surface, it forms a boundary layer near this surface. The region between the boundary layer and the flat plate contains information about parameters such as viscosity, compressibility, pressure, density, and velocity. An analytical model has been developed for examining the hydrodynamic parameters near the surface of a fiber-optic sensor. An analysis of the conservation of momentum, the continuity equation and the Navier-Stokes equation for compressible flow were used to develop expressions for the velocity and the density as a function of the distance along the flow and above the surface. When examining the flow near the surface, these expressions are used to estimate the sensitivity required to perform direct optical measurements and to derive the shear force for indirect optical measurements. The derivation of this result permits the incorporation of better design parameters for other fiber-based sensors. Future work includes analyzing the optical parametric designs of fiber-optic sensors, modeling sensors to utilize the parameters for hydrodynamics and applying different mixtures of hydrodynamic flow. Finally, the fabrication of fiber-optic sensors for hydrodynamic flow applications of the type described in this presentation could enhance aerospace, submarine, and medical technology.

  3. Non-contact optical Liquid Level Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiseleva, L. L.; Tevelev, L. V.; Shaimukhametov, R. R.

    2016-06-01

    Information about characteristics of the optical liquid level sensor are present. Sensors are used to control of the light level limit fluid - water, kerosene, alcohol, solutions, etc. Intrinsically safe, reliable and easy to use. The operating principle of the level sensor is an optoelectronic infrared device.

  4. Indium oxide based fiber optic SPR sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, Sarika; Sharma, Navneet K.

    2016-05-06

    Surface plasmon resonance based fiber optic sensor using indium oxide layer is presented and theoretically studied. It has been found that with increase in thickness of indium oxide layer beyond 170 nm, the sensitivity of SPR sensor decreases. 170 nm thick indium oxide layer based SPR sensor holds maximum sensitivity.

  5. Fiber optic interferometric sensors for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Y. C.

    1994-01-01

    This paper addresses two fiber optic sensor development programs in the Photonics Laboratory, NASA Ames Research Center, one in progress and the other being initiated. The ongoing program involves development of advanced acoustic sensors for wind tunnel applications. The new undertaking involves development of a novel sensor technique for studies of aerodynamic transition from laminar to turbulent flow.

  6. Fiber optic interferometric sensors for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Y. C.

    1994-01-01

    This paper addresses two fiber optic sensor development programs in the Photonics Laboratory, NASA Ames Research Center, one in progress and the other being initiated. The ongoing program involves development of advanced acoustic sensors for wind tunnel applications. The new undertaking involves development of a novel sensor technique for studies of aerodynamic transition from laminar to turbulent flow.

  7. Recent progress in optical chemical sensors.

    PubMed

    Qazi, Hummad Habib; bin Mohammad, Abu Bakar; Akram, Muhammad

    2012-11-29

    Optical chemical sensors have promoted escalating interest in the determination of various pollutants in the environment, which are creating toxicity and may cause serious health problems. This review paper focuses particularly on the recent progress and developments in this field; the working principles and basic classes of optical chemical sensors have been briefly described.

  8. Recent Progress in Optical Chemical Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Qazi, Hummad Habib; Mohammad, Abu Bakar bin; Akram, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    Optical chemical sensors have promoted escalating interest in the determination of various pollutants in the environment, which are creating toxicity and may cause serious health problems. This review paper focuses particularly on the recent progress and developments in this field; the working principles and basic classes of optical chemical sensors have been briefly described. PMID:23443392

  9. Optical Fiber Grating Hydrogen Sensors: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Jixiang; Zhu, Li; Wang, Gaopeng; Xiang, Feng; Qin, Yuhuan; Wang, Min; Yang, Minghong

    2017-01-01

    In terms of hydrogen sensing and detection, optical fiber hydrogen sensors have been a research issue due to their intrinsic safety and good anti-electromagnetic interference. Among these sensors, hydrogen sensors consisting of fiber grating coated with sensitive materials have attracted intensive research interests due to their good reliability and distributed measurements. This review paper mainly focuses on optical fiber hydrogen sensors associated with fiber gratings and various materials. Their configurations and sensing performances proposed by different groups worldwide are reviewed, compared and discussed in this paper. Meanwhile, the challenges for fiber grating hydrogen sensors are also addressed. PMID:28287499

  10. Digitally encoded all-optical sensor multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pervez, Anjum

    1992-01-01

    A digital, all-optical temperature sensor design concept based on optical sampling and digital encoding is presented. The proposed sensor generates 2M binary digital codewords of length M bits. The codewords are generated serially and, therefore, only a single output fiber line is required. A multiplexing scheme, which minimizes the power requirement per sensor array and facilitates a cost-effective digit regeneration for remote monitoring over long distance, is presented. The sensor arrays are used as building blocks to configure large scale sensor networks based on LAN topologies.

  11. Optical Fiber Grating Hydrogen Sensors: A Review.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jixiang; Zhu, Li; Wang, Gaopeng; Xiang, Feng; Qin, Yuhuan; Wang, Min; Yang, Minghong

    2017-03-12

    In terms of hydrogen sensing and detection, optical fiber hydrogen sensors have been a research issue due to their intrinsic safety and good anti-electromagnetic interference. Among these sensors, hydrogen sensors consisting of fiber grating coated with sensitive materials have attracted intensive research interests due to their good reliability and distributed measurements. This review paper mainly focuses on optical fiber hydrogen sensors associated with fiber gratings and various materials. Their configurations and sensing performances proposed by different groups worldwide are reviewed, compared and discussed in this paper. Meanwhile, the challenges for fiber grating hydrogen sensors are also addressed.

  12. Defining ray sets for the analysis of lenslet-based optical systems including plenoptic cameras and Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Lori

    Plenoptic cameras and Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors are lenslet-based optical systems that do not form a conventional image. The addition of a lens array into these systems allows for the aberrations generated by the combination of the object and the optical components located prior to the lens array to be measured or corrected with post-processing. This dissertation provides a ray selection method to determine the rays that pass through each lenslet in a lenslet-based system. This first-order, ray trace method is developed for any lenslet-based system with a well-defined fore optic, where in this dissertation the fore optic is all of the optical components located prior to the lens array. For example, in a plenoptic camera the fore optic is a standard camera lens. Because a lens array at any location after the exit pupil of the fore optic is considered in this analysis, it is applicable to both plenoptic cameras and Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors. Only a generic, unaberrated fore optic is considered, but this dissertation establishes a framework for considering the effect of an aberrated fore optic in lenslet-based systems. The rays from the fore optic that pass through a lenslet placed at any location after the fore optic are determined. This collection of rays is reduced to three rays that describe the entire lenslet ray set. The lenslet ray set is determined at the object, image, and pupil planes of the fore optic. The consideration of the apertures that define the lenslet ray set for an on-axis lenslet leads to three classes of lenslet-based systems. Vignetting of the lenslet rays is considered for off-axis lenslets. Finally, the lenslet ray set is normalized into terms similar to the field and aperture vector used to describe the aberrated wavefront of the fore optic. The analysis in this dissertation is complementary to other first-order models that have been developed for a specific plenoptic camera layout or Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor application

  13. Improved Thermal-Vacuum Compatible Flat Plate Radiometric Source For System-Level Testing Of Optical Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, Mark A.; Kent, Craig J.; Bousquet, Robert; Brown, Steven W.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we describe an improved thermal-vacuum compatible flat plate radiometric source which has been developed and utilized for the characterization and calibration of remote optical sensors. This source is unique in that it can be used in situ, in both ambient and thermal-vacuum environments, allowing it to follow the sensor throughout its testing cycle. The performance of the original flat plate radiometric source was presented at the 2009 SPIE1. Following the original efforts, design upgrades were incorporated into the source to improve both radiometric throughput and uniformity. The pre-thermal-vacuum (pre-TVAC) testing results of a spacecraft-level optical sensor with the improved flat plate illumination source, both in ambient and vacuum environments, are presented. We also briefly discuss potential FPI configuration changes in order to improve its radiometric performance.

  14. Improved thermal-vacuum compatible flat plate radiometric source for system-level testing of remote optical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Mark A.; Kent, Craig J.; Bousquet, Robert; Brown, Steven W.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we describe an improved thermal-vacuum compatible flat plate radiometric source which has been developed and utilized for the characterization and calibration of remote optical sensors. This source is unique in that it can be used in situ, in both ambient and thermal-vacuum environments, allowing it to follow the sensor throughout its testing cycle. The performance of the original flat plate radiometric source was presented at the 2009 SPIE1. Following the original efforts, design upgrades were incorporated into the source to improve both radiometric throughput and uniformity. The pre-thermal-vacuum (pre-TVAC) testing results of a spacecraft-level optical sensor with the improved flat plate illumination source, both in ambient and vacuum environments, are presented. We also briefly discuss potential FPI configuration changes in order to improve its radiometric performance. Keywords: Calibration, radiometry, remote sensing, source.

  15. Fiber optic sensors for corrosion detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Alphonso C.

    1993-01-01

    The development of fiber optic sensors for the detection of a variety of material parameters has grown tremendously over the past several years. Additionally, the potential for analytical applications of fiber optic sensors have become more widely used. New pH sensors have also been developed using fiber optic techniques to detect fluorescence characteristics from immobilized fluorogenic reagent chemicals. The primary purpose of this research was to investigate the feasibility of using fiber optic sensors to detect the presence of Al(sup 3+) ions made in the process of environmental corrosion of aluminum materials. The Al(sup 3+) ions plus a variety of other type of metal ions can be detected using analytical techniques along with fiber optic sensors.

  16. Fibre-optic sensors in health care

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grazia Mignani, Anna; Baldini, Francesco

    1997-05-01

    Biomedical fibre-optic sensors are attractive for the measurement of physical, chemical and biochemical parameters and for spectral measurements directly performed on the patient. An overview of fibre-optic sensors for in vivo monitoring is given, with particular attention paid to the advantages that these sensors are able to offer in different application fields such as cardiovascular and intensive care, angiology, gastroenterology, ophthalmology, oncology, neurology, dermatology and dentistry.

  17. Localized long gage fiber optic strain sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, N. Y.; Huang, S.; Measures, R. M.

    1998-04-01

    Long gage length integrated strain sensing is frequently required in structural measurement applications. An optical fiber structural sensing system based on a low-coherence Michelson interferometer was built and shown to be of low cost and capable of absolute measurement and moderate accuracy for quasistatic measurement of strain or structural deformations. This type of sensor was found to be useful for monitoring the hoop-strain around structures like shells, cylinders and columns. We have also shown that localization of the sensing section of an optical fiber can be achieved through the use of one or more Bragg gratings. In effect, the sensing section of the optical fiber acts as a Fabry-Pérot interferometer. When a low-coherence source is used, interference is only attained when the cavity length of this Fabry-Pérot matches the optical path difference (OPD) between the two mirrors of a fiber optic Michelson interferometer. Changes in the sensing length are determined from the commensurate changes that must be made to the reference Michelson interferometer to maintain some fixed degree of interference. Recently, we have developed a novel single-ended localized fiber optic sensor for making absolute strain measurements over arbitrary (cm to m) long gage lengths using a tunable laser. The sensor's gage is again defined between two in-fiber broad-bandwidth Bragg gratings or one grating and the mirror coated end of the same fiber. For this sensing system the change in the OPD of the sensing Fabry-Pérot interferometer with respect to the OPD of a fixed Michelson reference interferometer is determined from the measurement of the phase change, recorded by a low-pass filtered photodetector, associated with a known sweep of the laser wavelength. This tunable laser demodulation scheme avoids the use of moving parts and lends itself to a compact, portable system. This type of sensor is particularly well suited for certain structural applications, such as monitoring the

  18. A Differential Reflective Intensity Optical Fiber Angular Displacement Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Binghui; He, Lei; Yan, Guodong; Feng, Yong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a novel differential reflective intensity optical fiber angular displacement sensor was proposed. This sensor can directly measure the angular and axial linear displacement of a flat surface. The structure of the sensor probe is simple and its basic principle was first analyzed according to the intensity modulation mechanisms. Secondly, in order to trim the dark output voltage to zero, the photoelectric conversion circuit was developed to adjust the signals. Then, the sensor model including the photoelectric conversion circuit has been established, and the influence of design parameters on the sensor output characteristic has been simulated. Finally, the design parameters of the sensor structure were obtained based on the simulation results; and an experimental test system was built for the sensor calibration. Experimental results show that the linear angular range and the sensitivity of the sensor were 74.4 and 0.051 V/°, respectively. Its change rules confirm the operating principle of the sensor well. PMID:27649199

  19. A Differential Reflective Intensity Optical Fiber Angular Displacement Sensor.

    PubMed

    Jia, Binghui; He, Lei; Yan, Guodong; Feng, Yong

    2016-09-16

    In this paper, a novel differential reflective intensity optical fiber angular displacement sensor was proposed. This sensor can directly measure the angular and axial linear displacement of a flat surface. The structure of the sensor probe is simple and its basic principle was first analyzed according to the intensity modulation mechanisms. Secondly, in order to trim the dark output voltage to zero, the photoelectric conversion circuit was developed to adjust the signals. Then, the sensor model including the photoelectric conversion circuit has been established, and the influence of design parameters on the sensor output characteristic has been simulated. Finally, the design parameters of the sensor structure were obtained based on the simulation results; and an experimental test system was built for the sensor calibration. Experimental results show that the linear angular range and the sensitivity of the sensor were 74.4 and 0.051 V/°, respectively. Its change rules confirm the operating principle of the sensor well.

  20. Fiber optic pressure sensor development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, H.F.

    1995-01-26

    The primary goal of this project is to develop fiber optic Fabry-Perot sensor technology for the monitoring of pressure in combustion chambers of large stationary natural-gas-fueled engines. Emphasis is on the engineering of a reliable sensor which can be commercialized in the near term. The Fiber Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FFPI), which consists of a very small (0.005 in. diameter) fused quartz optical fiber with two internal mirrors, is the sensing element in each of the tests carried out during the course of this project. Light from a tiny semiconductor laser is sent down a fiber to each FFPI, and the reflected light is converted to an electrical signal by a photodetector. A signal processor converts this raw data to a continuous plot of pressure vs. time for each cylinder. Under Project PR-219-9225, the transducers, optoelectronic subsystem, and signal processor developed under Project PR-219-9120 were completely redesigned to achieve improved performance and reliability. In the new transducer design, the stainless steel housing is completely sealed so that the aluminum element containing the FFPI is not directly exposed to the combustion chamber gases. The key to the new system design is the use of a high-quality telecommunications grade distributed feedback (DFB) laser as the light source to power all of the sensors in an engine. The new digital processor overcomes a nonlinearity in the relation between pressure and sensor output signal inherent in the earlier scheme, and interfaces directly with a host computer or network. This report describes the development carried out in five major task areas: (1) transducer development, (2) optical subsystem development, (3) signal processor development, (4) system assembly and laboratory testing, and (5) field testing at Colorado State University.

  1. Dependence of the compensation error on the error of a sensor and corrector in an adaptive optics phase-conjugating system

    SciTech Connect

    Kiyko, V V; Kislov, V I; Ofitserov, E N

    2015-08-31

    In the framework of a statistical model of an adaptive optics system (AOS) of phase conjugation, three algorithms based on an integrated mathematical approach are considered, each of them intended for minimisation of one of the following characteristics: the sensor error (in the case of an ideal corrector), the corrector error (in the case of ideal measurements) and the compensation error (with regard to discreteness and measurement noises and to incompleteness of a system of response functions of the corrector actuators). Functional and statistical relationships between the algorithms are studied and a relation is derived to ensure calculation of the mean-square compensation error as a function of the errors of the sensor and corrector with an accuracy better than 10%. Because in adjusting the AOS parameters, it is reasonable to proceed from the equality of the sensor and corrector errors, in the case the Hartmann sensor is used as a wavefront sensor, the required number of actuators in the absence of the noise component in the sensor error turns out 1.5 – 2.5 times less than the number of counts, and that difference grows with increasing measurement noise. (adaptive optics)

  2. SU-E-T-111: Development of Proton Dosimetry System Using Fiber-Optic Cerenkov Radiation Sensor Array

    SciTech Connect

    Son, J; Kim, M; Shin, D; Lim, Y; Lee, S; Kim, J; Kim, J; Hwang, U; Yoon, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: We had developed and evaluated a new dosimetric system for proton therapy using array of fiber-optic Cerenkov radiation sensor (FOCRS) which can measure a percent depth dose (PDD) instantly. In this study, the Bragg peaks and spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) of the proton beams measured by FOCRS array were compared with those measured by an ion chamber. Methods and Method: We fabricated an optical fiber array of FOCRS in a handmade phantom which is composed of poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA). There are 75 holes of 1mm diameter inside the phantom which is designed to be exposed in direction of beam when it is emerged in water phantom. The proton beam irradiation was carried out using IBA cyclotron PROTEUS 235 at national cancer center in Korea and a commercial data acquisition system was used to digitize the analog signal. Results: The measured Bragg peak and SOBP for the proton ranges of 7∼ 20 cm were well matched with the result from ion chamber. The comparison results show that the depth of proton beam ranges and the width of SOBP measured by array of FOCRS are comparable with the measurement from multi-layer ion chamber (MLIC) although there are some uncertainty in the measurement of FOCRS array for some specific beam ranges. Conclusion: The newly developed FOCRS array based dosimetric system for proton therapy can efficiently reduce the time and effort needed for proton beam range measurement compared to the conventional method and has the potential to be used for the proton pencil beam application.

  3. A small-volume PVTX system for broadband spectroscopic calibration of downhole optical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Christopher Michael; Pelletier, Michael T.; Atkinson, Robert; Shen, Jing; Moore, Jeff; Anders, Jimmy; Perkins, David L.; Myrick, Michael L.

    2017-07-01

    An instrument is presented that is capable of measuring the optical spectrum (long-wave ultraviolet through short-wave mid-infrared) of fluids under a range of temperature and pressure conditions from ambient pressure up to 138 MPa (20 000 psi) and 422 K (300 °F) using ˜5 ml of fluid. Temperature, pressure, and density are measured in situ in real-time, and composition is varied by adding volatile and nonvolatile components. The stability and accuracy of the conditions are reported for pure ethane, and the effects of temperature and pressure on characteristic regions of the optical spectrum of ethane are illustrated after correction for temperature and pressure effects on the optical cell path length, as well as normalization to the measured density. Molar absorption coefficients and integrated molar absorption coefficients for several vibrational combination bands are presented.

  4. Optoacoustic imaging using fiber-optic interferometric sensors.

    PubMed

    Lamela, Horacio; Gallego, Daniel; Oraevsky, Alexander

    2009-12-01

    An interferometric sensor based on nonmetallic silica optical fiber is presented as an ultrasonic wideband transducer for optoacoustic imaging applications. We have characterized the sensitivity of the optical fiber sensor by detecting optoacoustic signals from an optically absorbing object embedded in a tissue-mimicking phantom and have compared the signals recorded with those detected from the same phantom using an array of piezoelectric transducers. The optical fiber sensor was also scanned along the phantom surface in order to reconstruct two-dimensional optoacoustic images of the phantom. These images have been compared with images obtained using the Laser Optoacoustic Imaging System, LOIS-64B, demonstrating the feasibility of our fiber-optic sensor as a wideband ultrasonic transducer.

  5. OPTICAL FIBER SENSOR TECHNOLOGIES FOR EFFICIENT AND ECONOMICAL OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang

    2003-04-01

    This report summarizes technical progress over the fourth year of the ''Optical Fiber Sensor Technologies for Efficient and Economical Oil Recovery'' program, funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. During the reporting period, research efforts under the program were focused on the development and evaluation of the fiber optic flow sensor system, and field testing in Tulsa, OK and the second field test of the pressure and temperature sensors in Coalinga, CA. The feasibility of a self-compensating fiber optic flow sensor based on a cantilever beam and interferometer for real-time flow rate measurements in the fluid filled pipes of oil field was clearly demonstrated. In addition, field testing of the pressure and temperature sensors deployed downhole continued. These accomplishments are summarized here: (1) Theoretical analysis and simulations were performed to ensure performance of the design. (2) The sensor fabrication and packaging techniques were investigated and improved. (3) Prototype flow sensors were fabricated based on the fabrication experience of hundreds of test sensors. (4) A lab-scale flow testing system was constructed and used for sensor evaluation. (5) Field-testing was performed in both the indoor and outdoor flow testing facility at the University of Tulsa, OK. (6) Testing of a multimode white light pressure and temperature sensor system continued at the oil site of Chevron/Texaco Company (Coalinga CA).

  6. Fiber optic, Fabry-Perot high temperature sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, K.; Quick, B.

    1984-01-01

    A digital, fiber optic temperature sensor using a variable Fabry-Perot cavity as the sensor element was analyzed, designed, fabricated, and tested. The fiber transmitted cavity reflection spectra is dispersed then converted from an optical signal to electrical information by a charged coupled device (CCD). A microprocessor-based color demodulation system converts the wavelength information to temperature. This general sensor concept not only utilizes an all-optical means of parameter sensing and transmitting, but also exploits microprocessor technology for automated control, calibration, and enhanced performance. The complete temperature sensor system was evaluated in the laboratory. Results show that the Fabry-Perot temperature sensor has good resolution (0.5% of full seale), high accuracy, and potential high temperature ( 1000 C) applications.

  7. Smoke and mirrors: a fiber optic smoke sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitesel, Henry K.; Overby, John K.; Ransford, Michael J.; Tatem, Patricia A.

    1994-11-01

    Smoke detectors in general, are usually threshold devices that frequently experience false alarms. Optical smoke detectors usually depend on the measurement of optical power absorption and scattering across an air gap and are usually threshold devices. Fiber optic sensor technology offers potential improvements for existing smoke detector technology. We have developed a new smoke sensor design based on wavelength selective absorption and scattering that generates a continuous measurement of smoke density. This technique provides first order compensation for water and dirt coatings on the optical surfaces and for optical power and ambient light changes. The sensor has a 2 inch sensing region and utilizes multimode technology with an 850 nanometer LED source. Experimental models of the fiber optic smoke sensors were tested successfully in our laboratory and on the ex-USS SHADWELL. Operational performance advantages of the fiber optic smoke sensor are expected in the areas of monitoring visibility, reducing false alarms, improving reliability, and continuous measurement of smoke density; this will improve fire detection capability and will assist in developing fire fighting strategy. Application of the sensors are planned for the shipboard environment to provide sensor input to new damage control management systems.

  8. Refractive Plasmonic Sensor Based on Fano Resonances in an Optical System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, Wei-Jie; Wang, Yi-Lin; Zhang, Yun-Yun; Cui, Lu-Na; Yu, Li

    2017-02-01

    Not Available Supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology of China under Grant No 2016YFA0301300, the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos 11374041 and 11574035, and the State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications.

  9. Applications of Fiber Optical Sensors in Petroleum Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehghani, Maryam

    2011-12-01

    Fiber optic sensor systems have been in the oilfield for a number of years now, however, they have had many shortcomings, including high price points, which have prevented widespread adoption. We can integrate fiber optic sensors into oil and gas companies products and processes and take advantage both technically and economically of the ever more rapid advances in technology. We can design all sorts of fiber optic sensors that cover various sections of petroleum industry operations. Most of researches have been in this part of technology since that is where most of the applications are. However, the other types of sensors have also developed as well. Most of fiber optical sensors have just one or perhaps a few detectors, but some high resolution imaging systems with large detector element arrays have also developed. Some fiber optical sensors are frequently incorporated as components in larger products. They are also used independently in process control and other types of applications in petroleum industry. This paper describes various aspects of fiber optic sensors and their applications, and addresses their role in petroleum industry.

  10. Optical fiber sensor for allergen detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendoula, R.; Wacogne, B.; Giust, R.; Cherioux, F.; Sandoz, P.; Gharbi, T.

    2005-08-01

    The sensor is dedicated to the detection of allergens. We use a biochemical reaction in the vicinity of the core of an optical fiber which modifies the propagation conditions of the optical wave by evanescent coupling. The detection involves a intrinsic optical fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer.

  11. An optical fiber sensor for monitoring civil infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, M.Q.; Suzuki, Hideyo

    1994-12-31

    This paper reports the development of and experimental study on an optical fiber sensor for monitoring civil infrastructure systems. This optical sensor employs a vibrating wire whose tension can be modulated by external force, strain, or vibration and transformed into the change of frequency of wire vibration. The frequency of wire is detected by light sent to and reflected from the wire through an optical fiber cable. Compared to other optical fiber sensors developed so far, the proposed sensor has two significant advantages: one is that the sensing head is a vibrating wire (rather than an optical fiber), which can sense a specific physical quantity without being interfered by miscellaneous effects; the other is that the wire vibration is a well understood and reliable physical phenomenon and its frequency is optically measured and transmitted without attenuation or distortion through the optical fiber to recording and other devices. These advantages make the sensor extremely simple, reliable and robust, and hence more readily deployable in civil infrastructure applications. Three prototypes have been developed and their static and dynamic characteristics have been experimentally tested. One of the prototypes was embedded into a concrete specimen to measure its strain and the result agrees with that from a conventional strain gauge. The experimental study with prototypes demonstrates the high performance of the developed optical sensor in terms of accuracy, high frequency range, and other characteristics.

  12. Crosstalk analysis, its effects and reduction techniques among photovoltaic devices used as transparent optical sensors for a wearable line-of-sight detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortes Torres, Carlos C.; Sampei, Kota; Ogawa, Miho; Ozawa, Masataka; Miki, Norihisa

    2015-06-01

    Our group has developed a wearable eye-tracking system that comprises transparent optical sensors on eyeglasses to detect the reflection from the eye and thus, the position of the eye, where photovoltaic cells are used as the sensors. In this paper, crosstalk, or electric interference, among the photovoltaic cells is discussed. The crosstalk makes the neighboring sensors dependent on each other, which leads to large errors in eye-tracking. We experimentally investigated the source of crosstalk by testing different designs of photovoltaic cells and their interconnection. It was revealed that sharing of the electrolyte by the photovoltaic devices was dominant. In addition, overlapping circuits were found to contribute to the crosstalk. We revised the design of the sensors and successfully reduced the crosstalk and improved the accuracy.

  13. Multi-point hydrogen detection system using hetero-core structured optical fiber hydrogen tip sensor based on surface plasmon resonance and pseudorandom noise code correlation reflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosoki, Ai; Nishiyama, Michiko; Igawa, Hirotaka; Seki, Atsushi; Watanabe, Kazuhiro

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, the multi-point hydrogen detection system using the hetero-core optical fiber hydrogen tip sensor based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and Pseudorandom Noise code correlation reflectometry (PNCR) has been proposed. This method makes use of the correlation between a launched pseudorandom noise code signal and its reflection, can obtain a high signal to noise ration. We demonstrated the 4 sensors characteristics to 4% hydrogen. It was observed from experimental results that all sensors induced a response time of 15 s for 4% hydrogen for the 25-nm Au / 60-nm Ta2O5 / 5-nm Pd multi-layers film. In addition, all sensors were detected the hydrogen concentration with sufficient sensitivities.

  14. Electro-optic high voltage sensor

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, James R.; Seifert, Gary D.

    2003-09-16

    A small sized electro-optic voltage sensor capable of accurate measurement of high voltages without contact with a conductor or voltage source is provided. When placed in the presence of an electric field, the sensor receives an input beam of electromagnetic radiation. A polarization beam displacer separates the input beam into two beams with orthogonal linear polarizations and causes one linearly polarized beam to impinge a crystal at a desired angle independent of temperature. The Pockels effect elliptically polarizes the beam as it travels through the crystal. A reflector redirects the beam back through the crystal and the beam displacer. On the return path, the polarization beam displacer separates the elliptically polarized beam into two output beams of orthogonal linear polarization. The system may include a detector for converting the output beams into electrical signals and a signal processor for determining the voltage based on an analysis of the output beams.

  15. Noninvasive blood pressure measurement scheme based on optical fiber sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xianxuan; Yuan, Xueguang; Zhang, Yangan

    2016-10-01

    Optical fiber sensing has many advantages, such as volume small, light quality, low loss, strong in anti-jamming. Since the invention of the optical fiber sensing technology in 1977, optical fiber sensing technology has been applied in the military, national defense, aerospace, industrial, medical and other fields in recent years, and made a great contribution to parameter measurement in the environment under the limited condition .With the rapid development of computer, network system, the intelligent optical fiber sensing technology, the sensor technology, the combination of computer and communication technology , the detection, diagnosis and analysis can be automatically and efficiently completed. In this work, we proposed a noninvasive blood pressure detection and analysis scheme which uses optical fiber sensor. Optical fiber sensing system mainly includes the light source, optical fiber, optical detector, optical modulator, the signal processing module and so on. wavelength optical signals were led into the optical fiber sensor and the signals reflected by the human body surface were detected. By comparing actual testing data with the data got by traditional way to measure the blood pressure we can establish models for predicting the blood pressure and achieve noninvasive blood pressure measurement by using spectrum analysis technology. Blood pressure measurement method based on optical fiber sensing system is faster and more convenient than traditional way, and it can get accurate analysis results in a shorter period of time than before, so it can efficiently reduce the time cost and manpower cost.

  16. Requirements On Fibre Optic Sensors For Wellhead Monitoring Subsea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Arne; Ellingsen, Reinold; Hordvik, Audun; Thingbo, Dag

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the requirements on fibre optic sensors for subsea wellhead monitoring. A possible advantage of fibre optics is increased reliability of the monitoring system. However, to achieve this a substantial amount of development and testing has to be performed. A very important factor in the selection of sensor principles for further development is their possibility for success. New technologies have to solve problems and not increase the probability for failures.

  17. Passive optical sensor for lightning detection on overhead power lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosolem, J. B.; Barbosa, C. F.; Florídia, C.; Bezerra, E. L.

    2009-10-01

    In this work we present the results of a passive optical sensor for monitoring lightning strikes on overhead power lines, which can also be used for several other applications. The optic sensor is very simple and cheap and basically consists in the use of an antenna connected directly to a semiconductor laser. No batteries and solar panels are necessary to implement this sensing system in power lines towers. It was tested in laboratory and showed a good performance.

  18. Optical Fiber Sensors for the Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignani, A. G.; Falciai, R.; Trono, C.

    Two examples of optical fiber sensors for the protection of the cultural heritage were given. The varnished optical fiber could be used also as temperature sensor. In fact, thanks to the good temperature sensitivity and reversibility of gum mastic, it could be considered as a transducer for the implementation of a temperature sensor to be permanently inlayed in the painting. By embedding the optical fiber in the painting together with the picture varnish for example on a comer, continuous temperature monitoring could be possible, in order to prevent risk conditions that can arise when illuminating the painting with the use of lamps, as happens during television shots.

  19. Bioinspired Sensor Systems

    PubMed Central

    del Valle, Manel

    2011-01-01

    This editorial summarizes and classifies the contributions presented by different authors to the special issue of the journal Sensors dedicated to Bioinspired Sensor Systems. From the coupling of sensor arrays or networks, plus computer processing abilities, new applications to mimic or to complement human senses are arising in the context of ambient intelligence. Principles used, and illustrative study cases have been presented permitting readers to grasp the current status of the field. PMID:22346637

  20. Fiber optic NIR evanescent wave absorption sensor systems for in-situ monitoring of hydrocarbon compounds in waste and ground water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buerck, Jochen; Denter, P.; Mensch, M.; Kraemer, K.; Scholz, Michael

    1999-02-01

    In situ measurements with the prototype of a portable fiber- optic sensor system for the monitoring of nonpolar hydrocarbons (HC) in ground water or industrial waste water are presented. This sensor system can be used for quantitative in situ analysis of pollutants such as aromatic solvents, fuels, mineral oils or chlorinated HCs in a broad concentration range from around 200 (mu) g(DOT) L-1 up to a few 100 mg(DOT) L-1. The sensing principle is based on solid phase extraction of analyte molecules into a hydrophobic silicone cladding of a quartz glass optical fiber and the direct absorptiometric measurement of the extracted species in the polymer through the evanescent wave. The sensor can be connected via all-silica fibers with a length of up to 100 m to a filter photometer developed at the IFIA, thus allowing even remote analysis in monitoring wells. This instrument provides a sum concentration signal of the extracted organic compounds by measuring the integral absorption at the C-H overtone bands in the near-infrared spectral range. In situ measurements with the sensor system were performed in a ground water circulation well at the VEGAS research facility (Universitat Stuttgart). Here, the sensor proved to trace the HC sum concentration of xylene isomers in process water pumped from the well to a stripper column. In further experiments the sensor was combined with an oil sampling device and was tested with simulated waste waters of a commercial vehicle plant contaminated with different types of mineral oil. In this case the sensor system was able to detect the presence of mineral oil films floating on water or oil-in-water emulsions with concentrations greater than 20 ppm (v/v) within a few minutes.

  1. Development of a Robust Optical Glucose Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cote, Gerard Laurence

    1990-01-01

    The long term objective of this research was the development of a noninvasive, optically-based, polarimetric sensor to monitor in vivo glucose concentrations. The goal of diabetes therapy is to approximate the 24-hour blood glucose profile of a normal individual. There have been major advances in the development of reliable, versatile, and accurate pumps for the delivery of insulin to diabetic patients and in the development of control algorithms for closed-loop insulin delivery, however, there remain major obstacles to the development of clinically useful, continuous glucose sensors. The development of an accurate noninvasive glucose sensor would have significant application in the diagnosis and management of diabetes mellitis both in conjunction with, and independent of, the glucose pump controller applications. The linear polarization vector of light routes when it interacts with an optically active material such as glucose. The amount of rotation of polarization is directly proportional to the glucose concentration and to the path length. The ability to quantitate blood glucose levels for the limited available path length in our primary sensing site, namely, the anterior chamber of the eye, therefore depends on the signal-to-noise ratio of the polarization detector. Our primary research focused on the development and testing of a prototype optical polarimetry system using D + glucose solution in a test cell, as well as using an enucleated human eye to assess the sensitivity of the system to measure physiologic glucose levels for the approximate one centimeter path length present in the anterior chamber of the eye. Our research has led to the development of a true phase technique in which helium neon laser light was coupled through a rotating linear polarizer along with two stationary linear polarizers and two detectors to produce reference and signal outputs whose amplitudes varied sinusoidally and whose phase was proportional to the rotation of light caused by

  2. Improved Thermal-Vacuum Compatible Flat Plate Radiometric Souce for System-Level Testing of Optical Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, Mark A.; Kent, Craig J.; Bousquet, Robert; Brown, Steven W.

    2015-01-01

    This work describes the development of an improved vacuum compatible flat plate radiometric source used for characterizing and calibrating remote optical sensors, in situ, throughout their testing period. The original flat plate radiometric source was developed for use by the VIIRS instrument during the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP). Following this effort, the FPI has had significant upgrades in order to improve both the radiometric throughput and uniformity. Results of the VIIRS testing with the reconfigured FPI are reported and discussed.

  3. Line scanning time-of-flight laser sensor for intelligent transport systems, combining wide field-of-view optics of 30 deg, high scanning speed of 0.9 ms/line, and simple sensor configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imaki, Masaharu; Kameyama, Shumpei; Ishimura, Eitaro; Nakaji, Masaharu; Yoshinaga, Hideo; Hirano, Yoshihito

    2017-03-01

    We developed a line scanning time-of-flight (TOF) laser sensor for an intelligent transport system (ITS), which combines wide field-of-view (FOV) receiving optics of 30 deg and a high-speed microelectro mechanical system scanner of 0.9 ms/line with a simple sensor configuration. The newly developed high-aspect ratio photodiode realizes the scanless and wide FOV receiver. The sinusoidal wave intensity modulation method is used for the TOF measurement. This enables the noise reduction of the trans-impedance amplifier by applying the LC-resonant method. The vehicle detection and axle counting, which are the important functions in ITS, are also demonstrated.

  4. Sensitivity enhancement of fiber optic FBG sensor for acoustic emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Dae-Cheol; Yoon, Dong-Jin; Kwon, Il-Bum; Lee, Seung-Suk

    2009-03-01

    A fiber optic Bragg grating based acoustic emission sensor system is developed to provide on-line monitoring of cracks or leaks in reactor vessel head penetration of nuclear power plants. Various type of fiber Bragg grating sensor including the variable length of sensing part was fabricated and prototype sensor system was tested by using PZT pulser and pencil lead break sources. In this study, we developed a cantilever type fiber sensor to enhance the sensitivity and to resonant frequency control. Two types of sensor attachment were used. First, the fiber Bragg grating sensor was fully bonded to the surface using bonding agent. Second one is that one part of fiber was partially bonded to surface and the other part of fiber will be remained freely. The resonant frequency of the fiber Bragg grating sensor will depend on the length of sensing part. Various kinds of resonant type fiber Bragg grating acoustic emission sensors were developed. Also several efforts were done to enhance the sensitivity of FBG AE sensor, which include FBG spectrum optimization and electrical and optical noise reduction. Finally, based on the self-developed acquisition system, a series of tests demonstrate the ability of the developed fiber sensor system to detect a pencil lead break event and continuous leak signal.

  5. SINGLE-CRYSTAL SAPPHIRE OPTICAL FIBER SENSOR INSTRUMENTATION

    SciTech Connect

    A. Wang; G. Pickrell; R. May

    2002-09-10

    In this research program, several optical instruments for high temperature measurement based on single crystal sapphire material are introduced and tested for real-time, reliable, long-term monitoring of temperatures for coal gasifier. These are sapphire fiber extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric (EFPI) sensor; intensity-measurement based polarimetric sapphire sensor and broadband polarimetric differential interferometric (BPDI) sapphire sensor. Based on current evaluation and analysis of the experimental results, the broadband polarimetric differential interferometric (BPDI) sensor system was chosen for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the self-calibrating measurement of optical path differences (OPD) in a single-crystal sapphire disk, which is a function of both the temperature dependent birefringence and the temperature dependent dimensional changes. The BPDI sensor system extracts absolute temperature information by absolute measurement of phase delays. By encoding temperature information in optical spectrum instead of optical intensity, this sensor guarantees its relative immunity to optical source power fluctuations and fiber losses, thus providing a high degree of long-term measurement stability which is highly desired in industrial applications. The entire prototype for BPDI system including the single crystal sapphire probe, zirconia prism, alumina extension tube, optical components and signal processing hardware and software have shown excellent performance in the laboratory experiments shown in this report.

  6. Optical sensors for turbine engine applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Mark S.; Myhre, Douglas C.

    1999-01-01

    The environment of the gas turbine engine is one of the harshest environments that require sensors for control and monitoring. The combination of extreme temperatures and vibration levels poses a difficult problem for even the most robust electrical sensor. Optical sensors are becoming an attractive alternative to electrical sensors for this application because of their higher temperature operation and remote sensing capability. In this paper, we present an overview of some of the senor being developed and/or offered by BF Goodrich for turbine engine applications. The issues involved in designing a sensor for this environment and some of the packaging issues will also be discussed.

  7. Interferometric fiber optic sensors for biomedical applications of optoacoustic imaging.

    PubMed

    Lamela, Horacio; Gallego, Daniel; Gutierrez, Rebeca; Oraevsky, Alexander

    2011-03-01

    We present a non-metallic interferometric silica optical fiber ultrasonic wideband sensor for optoacoustic imaging applications. The ultrasonic sensitivity of this sensor has been characterized over the frequency range from 1 to 10 MHz. A comparative analysis has been carried out between this sensor and an array of piezoelectric transducers using optoacoustic signals generated from an optical absorbent embedded in a tissue mimicking phantom. Also, a two dimensional reconstructed image of the phantom using the fiber interferometric sensor is presented and compared to the image obtained using the Laser Optoacoustic Imaging System, LOIS-64B. The feasibility of our fiber optic based sensor for wideband ultrasonic detection is demonstrated. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Intelligent detection and identification in fiber-optical perimeter intrusion monitoring system based on the FBG sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Huijuan; Qian, Ya; Zhang, Wei; Li, Hanyu; Xie, Xin

    2015-12-01

    A real-time intelligent fiber-optic perimeter intrusion detection system (PIDS) based on the fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor network is presented in this paper. To distinguish the effects of different intrusion events, a novel real-time behavior impact classification method is proposed based on the essential statistical characteristics of signal's profile in the time domain. The features are extracted by the principal component analysis (PCA), which are then used to identify the event with a K-nearest neighbor classifier. Simulation and field tests are both carried out to validate its effectiveness. The average identification rate (IR) for five sample signals in the simulation test is as high as 96.67%, and the recognition rate for eight typical signals in the field test can also be achieved up to 96.52%, which includes both the fence-mounted and the ground-buried sensing signals. Besides, critically high detection rate (DR) and low false alarm rate (FAR) can be simultaneously obtained based on the autocorrelation characteristics analysis and a hierarchical detection and identification flow.

  9. Phase unwrapping algorithms for use in a true real-time optical body sensor system for use during radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Parkhurst, James; Price, Gareth; Sharrock, Phil; Moore, Christopher

    2011-12-10

    An evaluation of the suitability of eight existing phase unwrapping algorithms to be used in a real-time optical body surface sensor based on Fourier fringe profilometry is presented. The algorithms are assessed on both the robustness of the results they give and their speed of execution. The algorithms are evaluated using four sets of real human body surface data, each containing five-hundred frames, obtained from patients undergoing radiotherapy, where fringe discontinuity is significant. We also present modifications to an existing algorithm, noncontinuous quality-guided path algorithm (NCQUAL), in order to decrease its execution time by a factor of 4 to make it suitable for use in a real-time system. The results obtained from the modified algorithm are compared with those of the existing algorithms. Three suitable algorithms were identified: two-stage noncontinuous quality-guided path algorithm (TSNCQUAL)-the modified algorithm presented here-for online processing and Flynn's minimum discontinuity algorithm (FLYNN) and preconditioned conjugate gradient method (PCG) algorithms for enhanced accuracy in off-line processing.

  10. Structural diagnostics using optical fiber sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surace, Giuseppe; Chiaradia, Agostino

    1997-11-01

    After establishing the basis for assessing the structural implications of introducing a widespread sensor architecture in laminated composite materials in order to precisely identify and locate damage, the paper addresses the problem of structural diagnostics with a discussion of the development of several optical sensors. The research project will first investigate a passive optical fiber impact sensor to be implemented in the matrix of a composite material used in aeronautic and automotive applications. The senor's operating principle is based on the changes in propagation conditions occurring in a fiber subjected to transverse compression: under these circumstances, structural microdistortions produce local energy losses and hence a reduction in the optical power which propagates in the fiber and can be measured at its opposite end. As optical power losses also take place as a result of micro-bending of the optical fiber's longitudinal axis, a preliminary feasibility study will measure power attenuation versus fiber curve radius as the first step in the development of an optical fiber delamination sensor which locates separations between the layers of a composite material, i.e. debonding of sandwich panel core faces. Finally, an active impact sensor will be developed which uses optical fiber's sensitivity to pressure changes to detect the pressure gradient caused by an approaching vehicle or obstacle. The automotive industry will be able to make strategic use of these sensors, for example by installing them on vehicle sides to active the side airbag in the event of impact or collision.

  11. Optical Sensors Using Stimulated Brillouin Scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, Caleb A (Inventor); Zavriyev, Anton (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A method for enhancing a sensitivity of an optical sensor having an optical cavity counter-propagates beams of pump light within the optical cavity to produce scattered light based on Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS). The properties of the pump light are selected to generate fast-light conditions for the scattered light, such that the scattered light includes counter-propagating beams of fast light. The method prevents the pump light from resonating within the optical cavity, while allowing the scattered light to resonate within the optical cavity. At least portions of the scattered light are interfered outside of the optical cavity to produce a beat note for a measurement of the optical sensor. The disclosed method is particularly applicable to optical gyroscopes.

  12. Optical sensors in water monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauglitz, Guenter

    2007-07-01

    An upcoming problem in Europe is the protection of water resources and control of water quality. Coastal areas, rivers, ground water, wetlands, and especially drinking water require permanent monitoring to avoid pollution by small organic molecules or especially endocrine disrupting compounds. Biosensors have demonstrated the proof-of-principle of immunochemistry for these applications. It turns out that especially optical methods based on fluorescence detection can be successfully used for the development of fast, sensitive, cost-effective, and easy-to-use analytical systems meeting the requirements given by European Community Directives and national legislation. Results obtained with the RIANA and AWACSS systems are discussed here.

  13. Development Of Porous Glass Fiber Optic Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macedo, P. B.; Barkatt, Aa.; Feng, X.; Finger, S. M.; Hojaji, H.; Laberge, N.; Mohr, R.; Penafiel, M.; Saad, E.

    A method for producing rugged, continuous porous glass fiber optic sensors was developed. pH and temperature sensors based on this technology have been successfully produced. The sensor portion of the fiber is made porous by selective leaching of a specially formulated borosilicate glass fiber. This results in a strong, monolithic structure where the sensor portion of the fiber remains integrally attached to the rest of the fiber (which acts as a light pipe), essentially eliminating losses at the sensor-light pipe interface. Pore size in the sensor can be controllably varied by modifying heat treatment conditions, making these sensors suitable for chemical concentration measurements in liquids and gases. Appropriate dyes were chemically bonded by silanization to the large interior surface area of the porous sensors to produce the pH and temperature sensors. Cresol red and phenol red were used for pH and pinacyanol chloride was used for temperature sensing. The sensitivity of these devices can be controlled by varying the concentration of the chemically bonded dye and the length of the porous region. Optical absorbance measurements were made in the visible range. The tip of the sensors was coated with a thin, porous layer of gold to reflect the incident light, resulting in a double pass across the porous sensor. Experimental measurements were made over a pH range of 3 to 8 and a temperature range of 28-70 C. These porous glass fiber optic sensors were found to be rugged and reliable due to their monolithic structure and large interior surface area for attachment of active species. A broad range of sensors based on this technology could be developed by using different active species, such as enzymes and other biochemicals, which could be bonded to the interior surface of the porous glass sensor.

  14. Novel optical sensors for detection of toxins, viruses and bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmerson, Gregory D.; Sparrow, Ian J. G.; Bhatta, Devaki; SohnaSohna, Jean E.

    2008-10-01

    A novel optical sensor system for rapid, sensitive and robust biological detection is presented. Sensor elements based on integrated optical circuits confine all optical signals into a planar format, resulting in a small, low-cost and mechanically stable refractive index sensor, without any external bulk optics. Consequently, the sensor elements are able to operate in real-world environments, resilient to vibration and temperature changes, whilst maintaining refractive index resolution of 10-6. Oxide surfaces on the sensor are ideal for protein attachment and have a long lifetime in buffer solutions (>100hrs). Real-time, label-free detection of biological agents has been demonstrated using antibodies attached to the sensor surface. The sensor design results in a large penetration depth of the sensing light, up to 1μm into the sample liquid, conferring the ability to detect various classes of biological targets, spanning toxins, viruses and bacteria. Each sensing element utilizes parallel multiple wavelength data to provide additional information at the point of measurement, resulting in on-chip temperature and strain referencing, focused towards increased accuracy and reduction of false alarms. The large size range of biological detection, coupled with the long lifetime of the sensors makes the system ideally suited to applications ranging from medical diagnostics to confirmatory detectors for homeland security

  15. Diffractive Optic Fluid Shear Stress Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, D.; Scalf, J.; Forouhar, S.; Muller, R.; Taugwalder, F.; Gharib, M.; Fourguette, D.; Madarress, D.

    2000-01-01

    Light scattering off particles flowing through a two-slit inteference pattern can be used to measure the shear stress of the fluid. We have designed and fabricated a miniature diffractive optic sensor based on this principle.

  16. Diffractive Optic Fluid Shear Stress Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, D.; Scalf, J.; Forouhar, S.; Muller, R.; Taugwalder, F.; Gharib, M.; Fourguette, D.; Modarress, D.

    2000-01-01

    Light scattering off particles flowing through a two-slit interference pattern can be used to measure the shear stress of the fluid. We have designed and fabricated a miniature diffractive optic sensor based on this principle.

  17. Development and Testing of a Friction-Based Post-Installable Sensor for Subsea Fiber-Optic Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bentley, Nicole L.; Brower, David V.; Le, Suy Q.; Seaman, Calvin H.; Tang, Henry H.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the design and development of a friction-based coupling device for a fiber-optic monitoring system that can be deployed on existing subsea structures. This paper provides a summary of the design concept, prototype development, prototype performance testing, and design refinements of the device. The results of the laboratory testing of the first prototype performed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) are included in this paper. Limitations of the initial design were identified and future design improvements were proposed. These new features will enhance the coupling of the device and improve the monitoring system measurement capabilities. A major challenge of a post-installed instrumentation monitoring system is to ensure adequate coupling between the instruments and the structure of interest for reliable measurements. Friction-based coupling devices have the potential to overcome coupling limitations caused by marine growth and soil contamination on subsea structures, flowlines or risers. The work described in this paper investigates the design of a friction-based coupling device (friction clamp), which is applicable for pipelines and structures that are suspended in the water column and those that are resting on the seabed. The monitoring elements consist of fiber-optic sensors that are bonded to a metal clamshell with a high-friction coating. The friction clamp has a single hinge design to facilitate the operation of the clamp and dual rows of opposing fasteners to distribute the clamping force on the structure. The friction clamp can be installed by divers in shallow depths or by remotely operated vehicles in deep-water applications. NASA-JSC was involved in the selection and testing of the friction coating, and in the design and testing of the prototype clamp device. Four-inch diameter and eight-inch diameter sub-scale friction clamp prototypes were built and tested to evaluate the strain

  18. Development and Testing of a Friction-Based Post-Installable Sensor for Subsea Fiber-Optic Monitoring Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bentley, Nicole; Brower, David; Le, Suy Q.; Seaman, Calvin; Tang, Henry

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the design and development of a friction-based coupling device for a fiber-optic monitoring system that can be deployed on existing subsea structures. This paper provides a summary of the design concept, prototype development, prototype performance testing, and design refinements of the device. The results of the laboratory testing of the first prototype performed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) are included in this paper. Limitations of the initial design were identified and future design improvements were proposed. These new features will enhance the coupling of the device and improve the monitoring system measurement capabilities. A major challenge of a post-installed instrumentation monitoring system is to ensure adequate coupling between the instruments and the structure of interest for reliable measurements. Friction-based coupling devices have the potential to overcome coupling limitations caused by marine growth and soil contamination on subsea structures, flowlines or risers. The work described in this paper investigates the design of a friction-based coupling device (friction clamp), which is applicable for pipelines and structures that are suspended in the water column and those that are resting on the seabed. The monitoring elements consist of fiber-optic sensors that are bonded to a metal clamshell with a high-friction coating. The friction clamp has a single hinge design to facilitate the operation of the clamp and dual rows of opposing fasteners to distribute the clamping force on the structure. The friction clamp can be installed by divers in shallow depths or by remotely operated vehicles in deep-water applications. NASA-JSC was involved in the selection and testing of the friction coating, and in the design and testing of the prototype clamp device. Four-inch diameter and eight-inch diameter sub-scale friction clamp prototypes were built and tested to evaluate the strain

  19. [INVITED] Developments in optical fibre sensors for industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alwis, L.; Sun, T.; Grattan, K. T. V.

    2016-04-01

    It can be seen that optical fibre sensing technology has huge potential to address industrial applications. They offer various advantages over the conventional electrical systems and are increasingly becoming cost effective. Different types of fibre structure and configurations can be utilised to tailor specific applications. The paper aims to highlight the developments in optical fibre sensors for industrial applications.

  20. Low-Cost Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor

    DOEpatents

    Sheem, Sang K.

    2003-07-22

    The size and cost of fabricating fiber optic pressure sensors is reduced by fabricating the membrane of the sensor in a non-planar shape. The design of the sensors may be made in such a way that the non-planar membrane becomes a part of an air-tight cavity, so as to make the membrane resilient due to the air-cushion effect of the air-tight cavity. Such non-planar membranes are easier to make and attach.

  1. Low-Cost Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor

    DOEpatents

    Sheem, Sang K.

    2004-05-18

    The size and cost of fabricating fiber optic pressure sensors is reduced by fabricating the membrane of the sensor in a non-planar shape. The design of the sensors may be made in such a way that the non-planar membrane becomes a part of an air-tight cavity, so as to make the membrane resilient due to the air-cushion effect of the air-tight cavity. Such non-planar membranes are easier to make and attach.

  2. Optical Temperature Sensor Has Digital Output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, K.; Quick, W.; Strahan, V. H.

    1983-01-01

    New instrument measures temperature reliabily and accurately. Device uses Fabry-Perot multiple-beam sensor. Both temperature sensor and optical lines are free of all electrical and electromagnetic effects and interference. Variation in spacer is made sensitive to other physical quantities, such as pressure. Sensing element itself is quite small, enhancing use in confined areas.

  3. Optical sensor based on sensitive polymer layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Will, Matthias; Martan, Tomas; Müller, Ralf; Brodersen, Olaf; Mohr, Gerhard J.

    2008-11-01

    In chemical, oil, and food industries, there are still higher requirements on miniaturization of optical sensors for a concentration measurement of gases e.g. a CO2, O2, and NH3. The paper deals with development of miniaturised optical sensor for an aqueous carbon dioxide measurement using a sensitive polymer layer. The optical sensor module consists of two parts, a remission sensor and a removable layered structure (with incorporated dyed polymer) which is closely placed on the surface of a remission sensor. A dyed polymer film is used as an optical-chemical transducer working on a principle of colour changes caused by a chemical reaction of an analyte and indicator dye. A novel remission sensor module was developed for an evaluation of the spectral absorption changes of sensitive polymer layer. The remission sensor module composed of LED diodes located in a central cavity of the sensor module and PIN diodes situated around the cavity. The LEDs emit light with optimised wavelengths and irradiate the polymer film. Light response (the changes of the spectral absorption) of the irradiated polymer film is detected by PIN diodes. A colour shift is further analyzed and evaluated by electronics without using a photometer.

  4. A portable optical human sweat sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-omari, Mahmoud; Liu, Gengchen; Mueller, Anja; Mock, Adam; Ghosh, Ruby N.; Smith, Kyle; Kaya, Tolga

    2014-11-01

    We describe the use of HNQ (2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone or Lawsone) as a potential sweat sensor material to detect the hydration levels of human beings. We have conducted optical measurements using both artificial and human sweat to validate our approach. We have determined that the dominant compound that affects HNQ absorbance in artificial sweat is sodium. The presence of lactate decreases the reactivity of HNQ while urea promotes more interactions of sodium and potassium ions with HNQ. The interactions between the hydroxyl group of HNQ and the artificial sweat components (salts, lactic acid, and urea) were investigated comprehensively. We have also proposed and developed a portable diode laser absorption sensor system that converts the absorbance at a particular wavelength range (at 455 ± 5 nm, where HNQ has an absorbance peak) into light intensity measurements via a photocell. The absorbance intensity values obtained from our portable sensor system agrees within 10.4% with measurements from a laboratory based ultraviolet-visible spectrometer. Findings of this research will provide significant information for researchers who are focusing on real-time, in-situ hydration level detection.

  5. Optical fiber sensor system for oil contamination measurement based on 3D fluorescence spectrum parameterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Liping; Shi, Jinshan

    2000-10-01

    In recent years oil contamination in water is more serious and destroys the mode of life and relation to water body environments. Excitation fluorescence method is one of the main approaches to monitor oil contamination on line. But average intensity of oil fluorescence only indicates its density, not indicates the type of contamination oil. Two-dimensional fluorescence spectrum is more difficult to determine the kind of oil, because the different oil has fluorescence spectrum overlapping to a great extent. In this paper, the 3D fluorescence spectrum parameterization is introduced. It can extract several characteristic parameters to measure the kid of oil to be measured. A prototype of optical fiber 3D fluorescence spectrum meter we developed carries out the identification of different oil types, such as crude oil, diesel oil and kerosene. The experiment arrangement conceived to measure pulse xenon lamp induced of oil component in water. The experiment results state clearly that the 3D fluorescence spectrum parameterization and software are successful to measure oil density and identify the type of oil in situ.

  6. Dependence of the compensation error on the error of a sensor and corrector in an adaptive optics phase-conjugating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyko, V. V.; Kislov, V. I.; Ofitserov, E. N.

    2015-08-01

    In the framework of a statistical model of an adaptive optics system (AOS) of phase conjugation, three algorithms based on an integrated mathematical approach are considered, each of them intended for minimisation of one of the following characteristics: the sensor error (in the case of an ideal corrector), the corrector error (in the case of ideal measurements) and the compensation error (with regard to discreteness and measurement noises and to incompleteness of a system of response functions of the corrector actuators). Functional and statistical relationships between the algorithms are studied and a relation is derived to ensure calculation of the mean-square compensation error as a function of the errors of the sensor and corrector with an accuracy better than 10%. Because in adjusting the AOS parameters, it is reasonable to proceed from the equality of the sensor and corrector errors, in the case the Hartmann sensor is used as a wavefront sensor, the required number of actuators in the absence of the noise component in the sensor error turns out 1.5 - 2.5 times less than the number of counts, and that difference grows with increasing measurement noise.

  7. Optical sensors for water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pellerin, Brian A.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent advancements in commercially available in situ sensors, data platforms, and new techniques for data analysis provide an opportunity to monitor water quality in rivers, lakes, and estuaries on the time scales in which changes occur. For example, measurements that capture the variability in freshwater systems over time help to assess how shifts in seasonal runoff, changes in precipitation intensity, and increased frequencies of disturbances (such as fire and insect outbreaks) affect the storage, production, and transport of carbon and nitrogen in watersheds. Transmitting these data in real-time also provides information that can be used for early trend detection, help identify monitoring gaps, and provide sciencebased decision support across a range of issues related to water quality, freshwater ecosystems, and human health.

  8. Graphene-based all-fiber-optic temperature sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Huihui; Tian, Zhengwen; Jin, Shaoshen; Yu, Jianhui; Liao, Guozhen; Zhang, Jun; Tang, Jieyuan; Luo, Yunhan; Chen, Zhe

    2014-03-01

    A novel all fiber-optic temperature sensor based on graphene film coated on a side polished fiber (SPF) was demonstrated. Significantly enhanced interaction between the propagating light and the graphene film can be achieved via strong evanescent light of the SPF. The experiments shows that the strong interaction results in temperature sensing with a dynamic optical power variation of 11.3dB in SPF. The novel temperature fiber sensor possesses a linear correlation coefficient of 99.4%, a sensitivity of 0.13dB/°C, a precision of better than 0.03°C. Furthermore, the graphene-based all fiber-optic temperature sensor is easy to fabricate, compatible with fiber-optic systems and possesses high potentiality in photonics applications such as all fiber-optic temperature sensing network.

  9. Dual-fiber optic microcantilever proximity sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goedeke, Shawn; Allison, Stephen W.; Farahi, R. H.; Rajic, Slobodan; Datskos, Panos G.

    2001-12-01

    Microcantilevers are key components of many Micro-Electro- Mechanical Systems (MEMS) and Micro-Optical-Electro- Mechanical Systems (MOEMS) because slight changes to them physically or chemically lead to changes in mechanical characteristics. An inexpensive dual-fiberoptic microcantilever proximity sensor and model to predict its performance are reported here. Motion of a magnetic- material-coated cantilever is the basis of a system under development for measuring magnetic fields. The dual fiber proximity sensor will be used to monitor the motion of the cantilever. The specific goal is to sense induction fields produced by a current carrying conductor. The proximity sensor consists of two fibers side by side with claddings in contact. The fiber core diameter, 50 microns, and cladding thickness, 10 microns, are as small as routinely available commercially with the exception of single mode fiber. Light is launched into one fiber from a light-emitting diode (LED). It emerges from that fiber and reflects from the cantilever into the adjacent receiving fiber connected to a detector. The sensing end is cast molded with a diameter of 3 mm over the last 20 mm, yielding a low profile sensor. This reflective triangulation approach is probably the oldest and simplest fiber proximity sensing approach, yet the novelty here is in demonstrating high sensitivity at low expense from a triangular microstructure with amorphous magnetic coatings of iron, cobalt, permalloy, etc. The signal intensity versus distance curve yields an approximate Gaussian shape. For a typical configuration, the signal grows from 10% to 90% of maximum in traversing from 6 to 50 microns from a coated cantilever. With signal levels exceeding a volt, nanometer resolution should be readily achievable for periodic signals.

  10. Fresnel-reflection-based fiber optic cryogenic temperature sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampath, Umesh; Kim, Dae-gil; Kim, Hyunjin; Song, Minho

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, Fresnel reflection based fiber-optic sensor for the real-time monitoring of cryogenic temperature is presented. The proposed sensor system utilizes a linear thermo-optic coefficient of polymer and Fresnel reflection of the fiber end. Epoxy resin and poly methyl metha acrylate (PMMA) are used as sensor head material. The designed sensor head measures the temperature ranging from -180°C to 25°C with an average sensitivity of 0.039dB/°C for epoxy resin and 0.029dB/°C for PMMA. Experimental results have proven the stability and the effectiveness of the proposed sensor system to measure the applied cryogenic temperatures.

  11. An Innovative Optical Sensor for the Online Monitoring and Control of Biomass Concentration in a Membrane Bioreactor System for Lactic Acid Production

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Rong; Ebrahimi, Mehrdad; Quitmann, Hendrich; Aden, Matthias; Czermak, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Accurate real-time process control is necessary to increase process efficiency, and optical sensors offer a competitive solution because they provide diverse system information in a noninvasive manner. We used an innovative scattered light sensor for the online monitoring of biomass during lactic acid production in a membrane bioreactor system because biomass determines productivity in this type of process. The upper limit of the measurement range in fermentation broth containing Bacillus coagulans was ~2.2 g·L−1. The specific cell growth rate (µ) during the exponential phase was calculated using data representing the linear range (cell density ≤ 0.5 g·L−1). The results were consistently and reproducibly more accurate than offline measurements of optical density and cell dry weight, because more data were gathered in real-time over a shorter duration. Furthermore, µmax was measured under different filtration conditions (transmembrane pressure 0.3–1.2 bar, crossflow velocity 0.5–1.5 m·s−1), showing that energy input had no significant impact on cell growth. Cell density was monitored using the sensor during filtration and was maintained at a constant level by feeding with glucose according to the fermentation kinetics. Our novel sensor is therefore suitable for integration into control strategies for continuous fermentation in membrane bioreactor systems. PMID:27007380

  12. An Innovative Optical Sensor for the Online Monitoring and Control of Biomass Concentration in a Membrane Bioreactor System for Lactic Acid Production.

    PubMed

    Fan, Rong; Ebrahimi, Mehrdad; Quitmann, Hendrich; Aden, Matthias; Czermak, Peter

    2016-03-21

    Accurate real-time process control is necessary to increase process efficiency, and optical sensors offer a competitive solution because they provide diverse system information in a noninvasive manner. We used an innovative scattered light sensor for the online monitoring of biomass during lactic acid production in a membrane bioreactor system because biomass determines productivity in this type of process. The upper limit of the measurement range in fermentation broth containing Bacillus coagulans was ~2.2 g·L(-1). The specific cell growth rate (µ) during the exponential phase was calculated using data representing the linear range (cell density ≤ 0.5 g·L(-1)). The results were consistently and reproducibly more accurate than offline measurements of optical density and cell dry weight, because more data were gathered in real-time over a shorter duration. Furthermore, µ(max) was measured under different filtration conditions (transmembrane pressure 0.3-1.2 bar, crossflow velocity 0.5-1.5 m·s(-1)), showing that energy input had no significant impact on cell growth. Cell density was monitored using the sensor during filtration and was maintained at a constant level by feeding with glucose according to the fermentation kinetics. Our novel sensor is therefore suitable for integration into control strategies for continuous fermentation in membrane bioreactor systems.

  13. Smart fabrics: integrating fiber optic sensors and information networks.

    PubMed

    El-Sherif, Mahmoud

    2004-01-01

    "Smart Fabrics" are defined as fabrics capable of monitoring their own "health", and sensing environmental conditions. They consist of special type of sensors, signal processing, and communication network embedded into textile substrate. Available conventional sensors and networking systems are not fully technologically mature for such applications. New classes of miniature sensors, signal processing and networking systems are urgently needed for such application. Also, the methodology for integration into textile structures has to be developed. In this paper, the development of smart fabrics with embedded fiber optic systems is presented for applications in health monitoring and diagnostics. Successful development of such smart fabrics with embedded sensors and networks is mainly dependent on the development of the proper miniature sensors technology, and on the integration of these sensors into textile structures. The developed smart fabrics will be discussed and samples of the results will be presented.

  14. Optical fiber sensor development for turbine applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunphy, James R.; Meltz, Gerald

    1989-07-01

    A twin-core optical fiber sensor is being developed for application to turbine engine diagnostics. It promises advantages of small, nonintrusive dimensions, inherent immunity to EMI, high temperature durability, and the capability to perform static strain and temperature measurements simultaneously. This paper summarizes the sensor concept, nonrotating risk reduction experiments, and rotating demonstration tests. During these experiments, the optical fiber sensors were attached to modified F100 turbine disks and operated in extreme conditions with temperatures higher than 1200 F, strains approaching 3000 microstrain, and spin rates greater than 7000 rpm.

  15. Free space optical sensor network for fixed infrastructure sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Navik; Milner, Stuart D.; Davis, Christopher C.

    2009-08-01

    Free space optical (FSO) links for indoor sensor networks can provide data rates that can range from bits/s to hundreds of Mb/s. In addition, they offer physical security, and in contrast with omnidirectional RF networks, they avoid interference with other electronic systems. These features are advantageous for communication over short distances in fixed infrastructure sensor networks. In this paper the system architecture for a fixed infrastructure FSO sensor network is presented. The system includes a network of small, low power (mW), sensor systems, or "motes," that transmit data optically to a central "cluster head," which controls the network traffic of all the motes and can aggregate the sensor information. The cluster head is designed with multiple vertical cavity surface emitting lasers oriented in different directions and controlled to diverge at 12º in order to provide signal coverage over a wide field of view. Both the cluster head and motes form a local area network. Our system design focuses on low-power wireless motes that can maintain successful communication over distances up to a few meters without having to use stringent optical alignment techniques, and our network design focuses on controlling mote sleep cycles for energy efficiency. This paper presents the design as well as the experimental link and optical communications performance of a prototype FSO-based sensor network.

  16. Optical FIBer Intrusion LOCation Sensor System (FIBLOC) for Surface and Subsurface Perimeter Protection. Phase 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    of Management and Wudget. Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188). Weenington. DC 20503 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE 3. REPORT...of construction attempted to mimic widely- used cable manufacturing procedures. It became apparent that specialized tooling and equipment were...used in the FIBLOC system. 7 i§ mU Figure 2-2. Schematic of mirrored fiber with coupler. 2.5 FIBLOC CABLE FABRICATION. The tools used to fabricate the

  17. Multi-resolution optical 3D sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühmstedt, Peter; Heinze, Matthias; Schmidt, Ingo; Breitbarth, Martin; Notni, Gunther

    2007-06-01

    A new multi resolution self calibrating optical 3D measurement system using fringe projection technique named "kolibri FLEX multi" will be presented. It can be utilised to acquire the all around shape of small to medium objects, simultaneously. The basic measurement principle is the phasogrammetric approach /1,2,3/ in combination with the method of virtual landmarks for the merging of the 3D single views. The system consists in minimum of two fringe projection sensors. The sensors are mounted on a rotation stage illuminating the object from different directions. The measurement fields of the sensors can be chosen different, here as an example 40mm and 180mm in diameter. In the measurement the object can be scanned at the same time with these two resolutions. Using the method of virtual landmarks both point clouds are calculated within the same world coordinate system resulting in a common 3D-point cloud. The final point cloud includes the overview of the object with low point density (wide field) and a region with high point density (focussed view) at the same time. The advantage of the new method is the possibility to measure with different resolutions at the same object region without any mechanical changes in the system or data post processing. Typical parameters of the system are: the measurement time is 2min for 12 images and the measurement accuracy is below 3μm up to 10 μm. The flexibility makes the measurement system useful for a wide range of applications such as quality control, rapid prototyping, design and CAD/CAM which will be shown in the paper.

  18. Plasmon-Enhanced Optical Sensors: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming; Cushing, Scott K

    2014-01-01

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) has found extensive applications in chemi-sensors and biosensors. Plasmons play different roles in different types of optical sensors. SPR transduces a signal in a colorimetric sensor through shifts in the spectral position and intensity in response to external stimuli. SPR can also concentrate the incident electromagnetic field in a nanostructure, modulating fluorescence emission and enabling plasmon-enhanced fluorescence to be used for ultrasensitive detection. Furthermore, plasmons have been extensively used for amplifying a Raman signal in a surface-enhanced Raman scattering sensor. This paper presents a review of recent research progress in plasmon-enhanced optical sensing, giving an emphasis on the physical basis of plasmon-enhanced sensors and how these principles guide the design of sensors. In particular, this paper discusses the design strategies for nanomaterials and nanostructures to plasmonically enhance optical sensing signals, also highlighting the applications of plasmon-enhanced optical sensors in health care, homeland security, food safety and environmental monitoring. PMID:25365823

  19. Monolithic integrated-optic TDLAS sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frish, Michael B.; Scherer, David R.; Wainner, Richard T.; Allen, Mark G.; Shankar, Raji; Loncar, Marko

    2012-06-01

    We are developing prototype chip-scale low-power integrated-optic gas-phase chemical sensors based on infrared Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS). TDLAS is able to sense many gas phase chemicals with high sensitivity and selectivity. Using semiconductor fabrication and assembly techniques, the low-cost integrated optic TDLAS technology will permit mass production of sensors that have wide ranging industrial, medical, environmental, and consumer applications. Novel gas sensing elements using low-loss resonant photonic crystal cavities or waveguides will permit monolithic integration of a laser source, sampling elements, and detector on a semiconductor materials system substrate. Practical challenges to fabricating these devices include: a) selecting and designing the high-Q micro-resonator sensing element appropriate for the selected analyte; and b) device thermal management, especially stabilizing laser temperature with the precision needed for sensitive spectroscopic detection. In this paper, we analyze the expected sensitivity of micro-resonator-based structures for chemical sensing, and demonstrate a novel approach for exploiting laser waste heat to stabilize the laser temperature.

  20. Recent Developments in Fiber Optics Humidity Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Ascorbe, Joaquin; Corres, Jesus M.; Arregui, Francisco J.; Matias, Ignacio R.

    2017-01-01

    A wide range of applications such as health, human comfort, agriculture, food processing and storage, and electronic manufacturing, among others, require fast and accurate measurement of humidity. Sensors based on optical fibers present several advantages over electronic sensors and great research efforts have been made in recent years in this field. The present paper reports the current trends of optical fiber humidity sensors. The evolution of optical structures developed towards humidity sensing, as well as the novel materials used for this purpose, will be analyzed. Well-known optical structures, such as long-period fiber gratings or fiber Bragg gratings, are still being studied towards an enhancement of their sensitivity. Sensors based on lossy mode resonances constitute a platform that combines high sensitivity with low complexity, both in terms of their fabrication process and the equipment required. Novel structures, such as resonators, are being studied in order to improve the resolution of humidity sensors. Moreover, recent research on polymer optical fibers suggests that the sensitivity of this kind of sensor has not yet reached its limit. Therefore, there is still room for improvement in terms of sensitivity and resolution. PMID:28422074

  1. Electro-optic voltage sensor head

    DOEpatents

    Crawford, T.M.; Davidson, J.R.; Woods, G.K.

    1999-08-17

    The invention is an electro-optic voltage sensor head designed for integration with existing types of high voltage transmission and distribution apparatus. The sensor head contains a transducer, which comprises a transducing material in which the Pockels electro-optic effect is observed. In the practice of the invention at least one beam of electromagnetic radiation is routed into the transducing material of the transducer in the sensor head. The beam undergoes an electro-optic effect in the sensor head when the transducing material is subjected to an E-field. The electro-optic effect is observed as a differential phase a shift, also called differential phase modulation, of the beam components in orthogonal planes of the electromagnetic radiation. In the preferred embodiment the beam is routed through the transducer along an initial axis and then reflected by a retro-reflector back substantially parallel to the initial axis, making a double pass through the transducer for increased measurement sensitivity. The preferred embodiment of the sensor head also includes a polarization state rotator and at least one beam splitter for orienting the beam along major and minor axes and for splitting the beam components into two signals which are independent converse amplitude-modulated signals carrying E-field magnitude and hence voltage information from the sensor head by way of optic fibers. 6 figs.

  2. Electro-optic voltage sensor head

    DOEpatents

    Crawford, Thomas M.; Davidson, James R.; Woods, Gregory K.

    1999-01-01

    The invention is an electro-optic voltage sensor head designed for integration with existing types of high voltage transmission and distribution apparatus. The sensor head contains a transducer, which comprises a transducing material in which the Pockels electro-optic effect is observed. In the practice of the invention at least one beam of electromagnetic radiation is routed into the transducing material of the transducer in the sensor head. The beam undergoes an electro-optic effect in the sensor head when the transducing material is subjected to an E-field. The electro-optic effect is observed as a differential phase a shift, also called differential phase modulation, of the beam components in orthogonal planes of the electromagnetic radiation. In the preferred embodiment the beam is routed through the transducer along an initial axis and then reflected by a retro-reflector back substantially parallel to the initial axis, making a double pass through the transducer for increased measurement sensitivity. The preferred embodiment of the sensor head also includes a polarization state rotator and at least one beam splitter for orienting the beam along major and minor axes and for splitting the beam components into two signals which are independent converse amplitude-modulated signals carrying E-field magnitude and hence voltage information from the sensor head by way of optic fibers.

  3. Recent Developments in Fiber Optics Humidity Sensors.

    PubMed

    Ascorbe, Joaquin; Corres, Jesus M; Arregui, Francisco J; Matias, Ignacio R

    2017-04-19

    A wide range of applications such as health, human comfort, agriculture, food processing and storage, and electronic manufacturing, among others, require fast and accurate measurement of humidity. Sensors based on optical fibers present several advantages over electronic sensors and great research efforts have been made in recent years in this field. The present paper reports the current trends of optical fiber humidity sensors. The evolution of optical structures developed towards humidity sensing, as well as the novel materials used for this purpose, will be analyzed. Well-known optical structures, such as long-period fiber gratings or fiber Bragg gratings, are still being studied towards an enhancement of their sensitivity. Sensors based on lossy mode resonances constitute a platform that combines high sensitivity with low complexity, both in terms of their fabrication process and the equipment required. Novel structures, such as resonators, are being studied in order to improve the resolution of humidity sensors. Moreover, recent research on polymer optical fibers suggests that the sensitivity of this kind of sensor has not yet reached its limit. Therefore, there is still room for improvement in terms of sensitivity and resolution.

  4. Dynamic temperature measurements with embedded optical sensors.

    SciTech Connect

    Dolan, Daniel H.,; Seagle, Christopher T; Ao, Tommy

    2013-10-01

    This report summarizes LDRD project number 151365, \\Dynamic Temperature Measurements with Embedded Optical Sensors". The purpose of this project was to develop an optical sensor capable of detecting modest temperature states (<1000 K) with nanosecond time resolution, a recurring diagnostic need in dynamic compression experiments at the Sandia Z machine. Gold sensors were selected because the visible re ectance spectrum of gold varies strongly with temperature. A variety of static and dynamic measurements were performed to assess re ectance changes at di erent temperatures and pressures. Using a minimal optical model for gold, a plausible connection between static calibrations and dynamic measurements was found. With re nements to the model and diagnostic upgrades, embedded gold sensors seem capable of detecting minor (<50 K) temperature changes under dynamic compression.

  5. Real time corner detection for miniaturized electro-optical sensors onboard small unmanned aerial systems.

    PubMed

    Forlenza, Lidia; Carton, Patrick; Accardo, Domenico; Fasano, Giancarmine; Moccia, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the target detection algorithm for the image processor of a vision-based system that is installed onboard an unmanned helicopter. It has been developed in the framework of a project of the French national aerospace research center Office National d'Etudes et de Recherches Aérospatiales (ONERA) which aims at developing an air-to-ground target tracking mission in an unknown urban environment. In particular, the image processor must detect targets and estimate ground motion in proximity of the detected target position. Concerning the target detection function, the analysis has dealt with realizing a corner detection algorithm and selecting the best choices in terms of edge detection methods, filtering size and type and the more suitable criterion of detection of the points of interest in order to obtain a very fast algorithm which fulfills the computation load requirements. The compared criteria are the Harris-Stephen and the Shi-Tomasi, ones, which are the most widely used in literature among those based on intensity. Experimental results which illustrate the performance of the developed algorithm and demonstrate that the detection time is fully compliant with the requirements of the real-time system are discussed.

  6. Real Time Corner Detection for Miniaturized Electro-Optical Sensors Onboard Small Unmanned Aerial Systems

    PubMed Central

    Forlenza, Lidia; Carton, Patrick; Accardo, Domenico; Fasano, Giancarmine; Moccia, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the target detection algorithm for the image processor of a vision-based system that is installed onboard an unmanned helicopter. It has been developed in the framework of a project of the French national aerospace research center Office National d’Etudes et de Recherches Aérospatiales (ONERA) which aims at developing an air-to-ground target tracking mission in an unknown urban environment. In particular, the image processor must detect targets and estimate ground motion in proximity of the detected target position. Concerning the target detection function, the analysis has dealt with realizing a corner detection algorithm and selecting the best choices in terms of edge detection methods, filtering size and type and the more suitable criterion of detection of the points of interest in order to obtain a very fast algorithm which fulfills the computation load requirements. The compared criteria are the Harris-Stephen and the Shi-Tomasi, ones, which are the most widely used in literature among those based on intensity. Experimental results which illustrate the performance of the developed algorithm and demonstrate that the detection time is fully compliant with the requirements of the real-time system are discussed. PMID:22368499

  7. Inertial navigation sensor integrated obstacle detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhanu, Bir (Inventor); Roberts, Barry A. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A system that incorporates inertial sensor information into optical flow computations to detect obstacles and to provide alternative navigational paths free from obstacles. The system is a maximally passive obstacle detection system that makes selective use of an active sensor. The active detection typically utilizes a laser. Passive sensor suite includes binocular stereo, motion stereo and variable fields-of-view. Optical flow computations involve extraction, derotation and matching of interest points from sequential frames of imagery, for range interpolation of the sensed scene, which in turn provides obstacle information for purposes of safe navigation.

  8. Microbend fiber-optic chemical sensor

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2002-01-01

    A microbend fiber-optic chemical sensor for detecting chemicals in a sample, and a method for its use, is disclosed. The sensor comprises at least one optical fiber having a microbend section (a section of small undulations in its axis), for transmitting and receiving light. In transmission, light guided through the microbend section scatters out of the fiber core and interacts, either directly or indirectly, with the chemical in the sample, inducing fluorescence radiation. Fluorescence radiation is scattered back into the microbend section and returned to an optical detector for determining characteristics of the fluorescence radiation quantifying the presence of a specific chemical.

  9. SMART composite high pressure vessels with integrated optical fiber sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blazejewski, Wojciech; Czulak, Andrzej; Gasior, Pawel; Kaleta, Jerzy; Mech, Rafal

    2010-04-01

    In this paper application of integrated Optical Fiber Sensors for strain state monitoring of composite high pressure vessels is presented. The composite tanks find broad application in areas such as: automotive industry, aeronautics, rescue services, etc. In automotive application they are mainly used for gaseous fuels storage (like CNG or compressed Hydrogen). In comparison with standard steel vessels, composite ones have many advantages (i.e. high mechanical strength, significant weight reduction, etc). In the present work a novel technique of vessel manufacturing, according to this construction, was applied. It is called braiding technique, and can be used as an alternative to the winding method. During braiding process, between GFRC layers, two types of optical fiber sensors were installed: point sensors in the form of FBGs as well as interferometric sensors with long measuring arms (SOFO®). Integrated optical fiber sensors create the nervous system of the pressure vessel and are used for its structural health monitoring. OFS register deformation areas and detect construction damages in their early stage (ensure a high safety level for users). Applied sensor system also ensured a possibility of strain state monitoring even during the vessel manufacturing process. However the main application of OFS based monitoring system is to detect defects in the composite structure. An idea of such a SMART vessel with integrated sensor system as well as an algorithm of defect detection was presented.

  10. Optimizing the sampling density of a wave-front sensor in adaptive optics systems: application to scanning laser ophthalmoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laslandes, Marie; Salas, Matthias; Hitzenberger, Christoph K.; Pircher, Michael

    2017-02-01

    We present the optimization of an adaptive optics loop for retinal imaging. Generally, the wave-front is overdetermined compared to the number of corrector elements. The sampling of the sensor can be reduced while maintaining an efficient correction, leading to higher sensitivity, faster correction and larger dynamic range. An analytical model was developed to characterize the link between number of actuators, number of micro-lenses and correction performance. The optimized correction loop was introduced into a scanning laser ophthalmoscope. In vivo images of foveal photoreceptors were recorded and the obtained image quality is equivalent to the state of the art in retinal AO-imaging.

  11. Optical sensors for process monitoring in biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ploetz, F.; Schelp, Carsten; Anders, K.; Eberhardt, F.; Scheper, Thomas-Helmut; Bueckmann, F.

    1991-09-01

    The development and application of various optical sensors will be presented. Among these are optical sensors (optrodes) with immobilized enzymes, coenzymes, and labeled antibodies. The NADH formation of coenzyme dependent enzymes was used for detection of lactate, pyrovate mannitol, ethanol, and formate. An enzyme optrode based on a pH-optrode as a transducer for the monitoring of urea and penicillin in fermentation media was developed. For preparing an oxygen optrode, oxygen-sensitive fluorophores were entrapped in a gaspermeable silicone matrix that is attached to the distal end of a bifurcated fiber optic waveguide bundle. By labeling of immuncomponent with fluorophores or enzymes, which transpose fluorophores or chromophores, immunreactions were observed by an optical sensors.

  12. Optical Fibre Pressure Sensors in Medical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Poeggel, Sven; Tosi, Daniele; Duraibabu, DineshBabu; Leen, Gabriel; McGrath, Deirdre; Lewis, Elfed

    2015-01-01

    This article is focused on reviewing the current state-of-the-art of optical fibre pressure sensors for medical applications. Optical fibres have inherent advantages due to their small size, immunity to electromagnetic interferences and their suitability for remote monitoring and multiplexing. The small dimensions of optical fibre-based pressure sensors, together with being lightweight and flexible, mean that they are minimally invasive for many medical applications and, thus, particularly suited to in vivo measurement. This means that the sensor can be placed directly inside a patient, e.g., for urodynamic and cardiovascular assessment. This paper presents an overview of the recent developments in optical fibre-based pressure measurements with particular reference to these application areas. PMID:26184228

  13. Optical Fibre Pressure Sensors in Medical Applications.

    PubMed

    Poeggel, Sven; Tosi, Daniele; Duraibabu, DineshBabu; Leen, Gabriel; McGrath, Deirdre; Lewis, Elfed

    2015-07-15

    This article is focused on reviewing the current state-of-the-art of optical fibre pressure sensors for medical applications. Optical fibres have inherent advantages due to their small size, immunity to electromagnetic interferences and their suitability for remote monitoring and multiplexing. The small dimensions of optical fibre-based pressure sensors, together with being lightweight and flexible, mean that they are minimally invasive for many medical applications and, thus, particularly suited to in vivo measurement. This means that the sensor can be placed directly inside a patient, e.g., for urodynamic and cardiovascular assessment. This paper presents an overview of the recent developments in optical fibre-based pressure measurements with particular reference to these application areas.

  14. Hypervelocity impact testing of spacecraft optical sensors

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    Hypervelocity tests of spacecraft optical sensors were conducted to determine if the optical signature from an impact inside the optical sensor sunshade resembled signals that have been observed on-orbit. Impact tests were conducted in darkness and with the ejected debris illuminated. The tests were conducted at the Johnson Space Center Hypervelocity Impact Test Facility. The projectile masses and velocities that may be obtained at the facility are most representative of the hypervelocity particles thought to be responsible for a group of anomalous optical sensors responses that have been observed on-orbit. The projectiles are a few micrograms, slightly more massive than the microgram particles thought to be responsible for the signal source. The test velocities were typically 7.3 km/s, which are somewhat slower than typical space particles.

  15. Effects of the source, surface, and sensor couplings and colorimetric of laser speckle pattern on the performance of optical imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darwiesh, M.; El-Sherif, Ashraf F.; El-Ghandour, Hatem; Aly, Hussein A.; Mokhtar, A. M.

    2011-03-01

    Optical imaging systems are widely used in different applications include tracking for portable scanners; input pointing devices for laptop computers, cell phones, and cameras, fingerprint-identification scanners, optical navigation for target tracking, and in optical computer mouse. We presented an experimental work to measure and analyze the laser speckle pattern (LSP) produced from different optical sources (i.e. various color LEDs, 3 mW diode laser, and 10mW He-Ne laser) with different produced operating surfaces (Gabor hologram diffusers), and how they affects the performance of the optical imaging systems; speckle size and signal-to-noise ratio (signal is represented by the patches of the speckles that contain or carry information, and noise is represented by the whole remaining part of the selected image). The theoretical and experimental studies of the colorimetry (color correction is done in the color images captured by the optical imaging system to produce realistic color images which contains most of the information in the image by selecting suitable gray scale which contains most of the informative data in the image, this is done by calculating the accurate Red-Green-Blue (RGB) color components making use of the measured spectrum for light sources, and color matching functions of International Telecommunication Organization (ITU-R709) for CRT phosphorus, Tirinton-SONY Model ) for the used optical sources are investigated and introduced to present the relations between the signal-to-noise ratios with different diffusers for each light source. The source surface coupling has been discussed and concludes that the performance of the optical imaging system for certain source varies from worst to best based on the operating surface. The sensor /surface coupling has been studied and discussed for the case of He-Ne laser and concludes the speckle size is ranged from 4.59 to 4.62 μm, which are slightly different or approximately the same for all produced

  16. Electro-optic high voltage sensor

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, James R.; Seifert, Gary D.

    2002-01-01

    A small sized electro-optic voltage sensor capable of accurate measurement of high levels of voltages without contact with a conductor or voltage source is provided. When placed in the presence of an electric field, the sensor receives an input beam of electromagnetic radiation into the sensor. A polarization beam displacer serves as a filter to separate the input beam into two beams with orthogonal linear polarizations. The beam displacer is oriented in such a way as to rotate the linearly polarized beams such that they enter a Pockels crystal having at a preferred angle of 45 degrees. The beam displacer is therefore capable of causing a linearly polarized beam to impinge a crystal at a desired angle independent of temperature. The Pockels electro-optic effect induces a differential phase shift on the major and minor axes of the input beam as it travels through the Pockels crystal, which causes the input beam to be elliptically polarized. A reflecting prism redirects the beam back through the crystal and the beam displacer. On the return path, the polarization beam displacer separates the elliptically polarized beam into two output beams of orthogonal linear polarization representing the major and minor axes. The system may include a detector for converting the output beams into electrical signals, and a signal processor for determining the voltage based on an analysis of the output beams. The output beams are amplitude modulated by the frequency of the electric field and the amplitude of the output beams is proportional to the magnitude of the electric field, which is related to the voltage being measured.

  17. Magneto-optic current sensor

    DOEpatents

    Lanagan, Michael T.; Valsko-Vlasov, Vitalii K.; Fisher, Brandon L.; Welp, Ulrich

    2003-10-07

    An optical current transducer configured to sense current in the conductor is disclosed. The optical current transducer includes a light source and a polarizer that generates linearly polarized light received from a the light source. The light is communicated to a magneto-optic garnet that includes, among other elements, bismuth, iron and oxygen and is coupled to the conductor. The magneto-optic garnet is configured to rotate the polarization of the linearly polarized light received from the polarizer. The optical current transducer also includes an analyzer in optical communication with the magneto-optic garnet. The analyzer detects the rotation of the linearly polarized light caused by the magneto-optic garnet.

  18. Pattern detection through the use of long-gauge length spatially weighted fiber optic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spillman, William B., Jr.; Huston, Dryver R.

    1996-11-01

    Multiplexed and distributed sensor systems are generally employed when the number of sensing points makes the use of an individually addressed sensor array prohibitive based upon some system cost function. Fiber optic sensing techniques offer great potential for the creation of multiplexed, quasi-distributed and distributed sensor systems. In addition, fiber optic sensors can be spatially weighted and configured for maximum sensitivity to particular patterns of extended parameter fields. This allows such sensors to perform a patten recognition preprocessing function, reducing system cost and processing overhead. In this paper, the appropriate use of multiplexed sensor systems, distributed sensor systems and long gauge length sensor systems with pattern matching capability are discussed as a function of system size and purpose. Design options for long gauge length sensors in terms of preprocessing functionality also are discussed. Finally, a specific example of the use of a spatially weighted sensor for vehicle identification is covered.

  19. Fiber optic sensors for structural health monitoring of air platforms.

    PubMed

    Guo, Honglei; Xiao, Gaozhi; Mrad, Nezih; Yao, Jianping

    2011-01-01

    Aircraft operators are faced with increasing requirements to extend the service life of air platforms beyond their designed life cycles, resulting in heavy maintenance and inspection burdens as well as economic pressure. Structural health monitoring (SHM) based on advanced sensor technology is potentially a cost-effective approach to meet operational requirements, and to reduce maintenance costs. Fiber optic sensor technology is being developed to provide existing and future aircrafts with SHM capability due to its unique superior characteristics. This review paper covers the aerospace SHM requirements and an overview of the fiber optic sensor technologies. In particular, fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor technology is evaluated as the most promising tool for load monitoring and damage detection, the two critical SHM aspects of air platforms. At last, recommendations on the implementation and integration of FBG sensors into an SHM system are provided.

  20. Fiber Optic Sensors for Structural Health Monitoring of Air Platforms

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Honglei; Xiao, Gaozhi; Mrad, Nezih; Yao, Jianping

    2011-01-01

    Aircraft operators are faced with increasing requirements to extend the service life of air platforms beyond their designed life cycles, resulting in heavy maintenance and inspection burdens as well as economic pressure. Structural health monitoring (SHM) based on advanced sensor technology is potentially a cost-effective approach to meet operational requirements, and to reduce maintenance costs. Fiber optic sensor technology is being developed to provide existing and future aircrafts with SHM capability due to its unique superior characteristics. This review paper covers the aerospace SHM requirements and an overview of the fiber optic sensor technologies. In particular, fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor technology is evaluated as the most promising tool for load monitoring and damage detection, the two critical SHM aspects of air platforms. At last, recommendations on the implementation and integration of FBG sensors into an SHM system are provided. PMID:22163816

  1. Fiber optic control system integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppel, G. L.; Glasheen, W. M.; Russell, J. C.

    1987-01-01

    A total fiber optic, integrated propulsion/flight control system concept for advanced fighter aircraft is presented. Fiber optic technology pertaining to this system is identified and evaluated for application readiness. A fiber optic sensor vendor survey was completed, and the results are reported. The advantages of centralized/direct architecture are reviewed, and the concept of the protocol branch is explained. Preliminary protocol branch selections are made based on the F-18/F404 application. Concepts for new optical tools are described. Development plans for the optical technology and the described system are included.

  2. Application of a fiber-optic NIR-EFA sensor system for in situ monitoring of aromatic hydrocarbons in contaminated groundwater.

    PubMed

    Buerck, J; Roth, S; Kraemer, K; Scholz, M; Klaas, N

    2001-05-07

    Interaction of analyte molecules with the evanescent wave of light guided in optical fibers is among the most promising novel sensing schemes that can be applied for environmental monitoring and on-line process analysis. By combining this measuring principle with the solid-phase extraction of analyte molecules into the polymer cladding of a fiber, it is possible to perform direct absorption measurements in the cladding, if the fiber is adapted to a conventional spectrometer/photometer. A big advantage of this arrangement is that the measurement is scarcely disturbed by matrix effects (background absorption of water in IR measurements, stray light due to turbidity in the sample). By using near-infrared (NIR) evanescent field absorption (EFA) measurements in quartz glass fibers coated with a hydrophobic silicone membrane it is possible to design and construct sensors for monitoring apolar hydrocarbons (HCs) in aqueous matrices.The paper presents a fiber-optic sensor system for the determination of aromatic HCs in groundwater or industrial wastewater. Generally, this instrument is suitable for quantitative in situ monitoring of pollutants such as aromatic solvents, fuels, mineral oils or chlorinated HCs with relatively low water saturation solubility (typically between 0.01 and 10 g l(-1)). The sensor probe is connected via all-silica fibers to a filter photometer developed at the IFIA, thus, allowing even remote analysis in a monitoring well. This portable instrument provides a total concentration signal of the organic compounds extracted into the fiber cladding by measuring the integral absorption at the 1st C--H overtone bands in the NIR spectral range. In situ measurements with the sensor system were performed in a groundwater circulation well at the VEGAS research facility of the University of Stuttgart (Germany). The NIR-EFA sensor system was tested within the frame of an experiment that was carried through in a tank containing sandy gravel with a groundwater

  3. Optical technology for flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayanagi, M.

    1986-01-01

    Optical applications to the flight control system including optical data bus, sensors, and transducers are analyzed. Examples of optical data bus include airborne light optical fiber technology (ALOFT), F-5E, YA-7D, MIL-STD-1553 fiber optic data bus and NAL-optic data bus. This NAL-optic data bus is applied to STOL, and its characteristics are stressed. Principles and advantages of optical pulse-digital transducers are discussed.

  4. Soldier systems sensor fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brubaker, Kathryne M.

    1998-08-01

    This paper addresses sensor fusion and its applications in emerging Soldier Systems integration and the unique challenges associated with the human platform. Technology that,provides the highest operational payoff in a lightweight warrior system must not only have enhanced capabilities, but have low power components resulting in order of magnitude reductions coupled with significant cost reductions. These reductions in power and cost will be achieved through partnership with industry and leveraging of commercial state of the art advancements in microelectronics and power sources. As new generation of full solution fire control systems (to include temperature, wind and range sensors) and target acquisition systems will accompany a new generation of individual combat weapons and upgrade existing weapon systems. Advanced lightweight thermal, IR, laser and video senors will be used for surveillance, target acquisition, imaging and combat identification applications. Multifunctional sensors will provide embedded training features in combat configurations allowing the soldier to 'train as he fights' without the traditional cost and weight penalties associated with separate systems. Personal status monitors (detecting pulse, respiration rate, muscle fatigue, core temperature, etc.) will provide commanders and highest echelons instantaneous medical data. Seamless integration of GPS and dead reckoning (compass and pedometer) and/or inertial sensors will aid navigation and increase position accuracy. Improved sensors and processing capability will provide earlier detection of battlefield hazards such as mines, enemy lasers and NBC (nuclear, biological, chemical) agents. Via the digitized network the situational awareness database will automatically be updated with weapon, medical, position and battlefield hazard data. Soldier Systems Sensor Fusion will ultimately establish each individual soldier as an individual sensor on the battlefield.

  5. Polymer Optical Fiber Sensor and the Prediction of Sensor Response Utilizing Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haroglu, Derya

    The global market researches showed that there is a growing trend in the field of polymer optical fiber (POF) and POF sensors. Telecommunications, medicine, defense, aerospace, and automotive are the application areas of fiber optic sensors, where the automotive industry is the most promising application area for innovations in the field of POF sensors. The POF sensors in automobiles are particularly for detection of seat occupancy, and intelligent pedestrian protection systems. This dissertation investigates graded index perfluorinated polymer optical fiber as an intensity modulated intrinsic sensor for application in automotive seat occupancy sensing. Since a fiber optic sensor has a high bandwidth, is small in size, is lightweight, and is immune to electromagnetic interference (EMI) it offers higher performance than that of its electrical based counterparts such as strain gauge, elastomeric bladder, and resistive sensor systems. This makes the fiber optic sensor a potential suitable material for seat occupancy sensing. A textile-based fiber optic sensor was designed to be located in the area beneath the typical seated human's thighs. The pressure interval under which the proposed POF sensor design could perform well was found to be between 0.18 and 0.21 N/cm2, where perfluorinated (PF) graded index (GI) POF (62.5/750 mum) was used as the POF material. In addition, the effect of the automotive seat covering including face material (fabric) and foam backing to the sensor's performance was analyzed. The face fabric structure and the thickness of foam backing were not found to be significant factors to change the sensor results. A research study, survey, was conducted of which purpose was to better understand market demands in terms of sensor performance characteristics for automotive seat weight sensors, as a part of the Quality Function Deployment (QFD) House of Quality analysis. The companies joined the survey agreed on the first 5 most important sensor

  6. Novel ultrahigh resolution optical fibre temperature sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poeggel, Sven; Duraibabu, Dineshbabu; Dooly, Gerard; Lewis, Elfed; Leen, Gabriel

    2016-05-01

    In this paper a novel patent pending high resolution optical fibre temperature sensor, based on an optical fibre pressure and temperature sensor (OFTPS), which is surrounded by an oil filled chamber, is presented. The OFPTS is based on a Fabry Perot interferometer (FPI) which has an embedded fibre Bragg grating (FBG). The high ratio between the volume of the oil filled outer cavity and the FPIs air filled cavity, results in a highly sensitive temperature sensor. The FBG element of the device can be used for wide range temperature measurements, and combining this capability with the high resolution capability of the FPI/oil cavity results in a wide range and high resolution temperature sensing device. The outer diameter of the sensor is less than 1mm in diameter and can be designed to be even smaller. The sensors temperature response was measured in a range of ΔT = 7K and resulted in a shift in the optical spectrum of ΔλF = 61.42nm. Therefore the Q-point of the reflected optical FPI spectrum is shifting with a sensitivity of sot = 8.77 nm/K . The sensitivity can easily be further increased by changing the oil/air volumetric ratio and therefore adapt the sensor to a wide variety of applications.

  7. 1700 deg C optical temperature sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mossey, P. W.; Shaffernocker, W. M.; Mulukutla, A. R.

    1986-01-01

    A new gas temperature sensor was developed that shows promise of sufficient ruggedness to be useful as a gas turbine temperature sensor. The sensor is in the form of a single-crystal aluminum oxide ceramic, ground to a cone shape and given an emissive coating. A lens and an optical fiber conduct the thermally emitted light to a remote and near-infrared photodetector assembly. Being optically coupled and passive, the sensor is highly immune to all types of electrical interference. Candidate sensors were analyzed for optical sensor performance, heat transfer characteristics, stress from gas loading. This led to the selection of the conical shape as the most promising for the gas turbine environment. One uncoated and two coated sensing elements were prepared for testing. Testing was conducted to an indicated 1750 C in a propane-air flame. Comparison with the referee optical pyrometer shows an accuracy of + or - 25 C at 1700 C for this initial development. One hundred cycles from room temperature to 1700 C left the sapphire cone intact, but some loss of the platinum, 6% rhodium coating was observed. Several areas for improving the overall performance and durability are identified.

  8. Optical protein sensor for detecting cancer markers in saliva.

    PubMed

    Tan, Winny; Sabet, Leyla; Li, Yang; Yu, Tianwei; Klokkevold, Perry R; Wong, David T; Ho, Chih-Ming

    2008-10-15

    A surface immobilized optical protein sensor has been utilized to detect Interleukin-8 (IL-8) protein, an oral cancer marker, and can reach limit of detection (LOD) at 1.1 pM in buffer without using enzymatic amplification. Only after applying enzymatic amplification to increase the signal level by a few orders of magnitude, ELISA can reach the LOD of 1 pM level. We then develop the confocal optics based sensor for further reducing the optical noise and can extend the LOD of the surface immobilized optical protein sensor two orders in magnitude. These improvements have allowed us to detect IL-8 protein at 4.0 fM in buffer. In addition, these sensitive LODs were achieved without the use of enzymatic signal amplification, such that the simplified protocol can further facilitate the development of point-of-care devices. The ultra sensitive optical protein sensor presented in this paper has a wide number of applications in disease diagnoses. Measurements for detecting biomarkers in clinical sample are much more challenging than the measurements in buffer, due to high background noise contributed by large collections of non-target molecules. We used clinical saliva samples to validate the functionality of the optical protein sensor. Clinical detection of disease-specific biomarkers in saliva offers a non-invasive, alternative approach to using blood or urine. Currently, the main challenge of using saliva as a diagnostic fluid is its inherently low concentration of biomarkers. We compare the measurements of 40 saliva samples; half from oral cancer patients and half from a control group. The data measured by the optical protein sensor is compared with the traditional Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbant Assay (ELISA) values to validate the accuracy of our system. These positive results enable us to proceed to using confocal optical protein sensor to detect other biomarkers, which have much lower concentrations.

  9. INSENS sensor system

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D.W.; Baker, J.; Benzel, D.M.; Fuess, D.A.

    1993-09-29

    This paper describes an unattended ground sensor system that has been developed for the immigration and Naturalization Service (INS). The system, known as INSENS, was developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for use by the United States Border Patrol. This system assists in the detection of illegal entry of aliens and contraband (illegal drugs, etc.) into the United States along its land borders. Key to the system is its flexible modular design which allows future software and hardware enhancements to the system without altering the fundamental architecture of the system. Elements of the system include a sensor system capable of processing signals from multiple directional probes, a repeater system, and a handheld monitor system. Seismic, passive infrared (PIR), and magnetic probes are currently supported. The design of the INSENS system elements and their performance are described.

  10. Broadband ultrasound field mapping system using a wavelength tuned, optically scanned focused laser beam to address a Fabry Perot polymer film sensor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Edward; Beard, Paul

    2006-07-01

    An optical system for rapidly mapping broad-band ultrasound fields with high spatial resolution has been developed. The transduction mechanism is based upon the detection of acoustically induced changes in the optical thickness of a thin polymer film acting as a Fabry Perot sensing interferometer (FPI). By using a PC-controlled galvanometer mirror to line-scan a focused laser beam over the surface of the FPI, and a wavelength-tuned phase bias control system to optimally set the FPI working point, a notional 1D ultrasound array was synthesized. This system enabled ultrasound fields to be mapped over an aperture of 40 mm, in 50-microm steps with an optically defined element size of 50 microm and an acquisition time of 50 ms per step. The sensor comprised a 38-microm polymer film FPI which was directly vacuum-deposited onto an impedance-matched polycarbonate backing stub. The -3 dB acoustic bandwidth of the sensor was 300 kHz to 28 MHz and the peak noise-equivalent-pressure was 10 kPa over a 20-MHz measurement bandwidth. To demonstrate the system, the outputs of various planar and focused pulsed ultrasound transducers with operating frequencies in the range 3.5 to 20 MHz were mapped. It is considered that this approach offers a practical and inexpensive alternative to piezoelectric-based arrays and scanning systems for rapid transducer field characterization and biomedical and industrial ultrasonic imaging applications.

  11. Fiber Optic Chemical Sensors Using Immobilized Bioreceptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walt, David R.; Luo, Shufang; Munkholm, Christiane

    1988-06-01

    Optrodes employing immobilized enzymes were developed using covalent attachment of sensor reagents. This development is an extension of the original application of this sensor technology in which a pH sensor was constructed with the pH sensitive dye fluorescein incorporated into a polymer covalently attached to the fiber tip. This sensor displayed significantly improved response times over previous fiber optic sensors because of reduced diffusion limitations. In addition, the signal intensities were greatly enhanced by the high concentration of fluorescent dye localized at the fiber tip. With the anticipation that these qualities would be preserved, a class of sensors based on the immobilization of biomolecules in the polymer matrix became the next goal. This paper will first describe a fiber optic probe prepared by immobilizing esterase in a crosslinked polyacrylamide matrix. The immobilized esterase converts the nonfluorescent fluoresceindiacetate into fluorescein. Both the steady state level and kinetic generation of fluorescence can be related to the concentration of fluoresceindiacetate. A fiber optic sensor for penicillin has been made by coimmobili zing penicillinase with a pH sensitive fluorescent dye. Penicillinase converts penicillin to penicilloic acid which produces a microenvironmental pH change in the dye-containing polymer matrix resulting in a concommitant change in fluorescence. The change in fluorescence is proportional to the concentration of penicillin and a 95% response is reached in 40-60 seconds. The sensor has a detection limit of 2.5 x 10-4 M. Another class of sensors using immobilized bioreceptors will be based on the principles of fluoroimmunoassay. This paper will discuss some basic principles and problems of 1) fluorescence quenching immunoassays, 2) fluorescence excitation transfer immunoassays, and 3) energy transfer immunoassays for digoxin. Both advantages and inherent problems for these sensor preparations will be addressed.

  12. A mobile wireless sensor network platform for use with optical fibre sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Bochao; Yang, Shuo; Sun, Tong; Grattan, Kenneth T. V.

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents a novel design of a system for using smart mobile robots to deploy a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) for different optical fibre sensors, allowing for potential applications where there is a remote and harsh monitoring environment and allowing for the advantages of the optical fibre technology for the sensor itself to be used. The platform which was designed is comprised of a smart mobile robot, an optical fibre sensor module and a WSN module integrated with a localization component based on Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI), which has important advantages for mobile sensing and tracking, flexible deployment and mesh networking. The design principle and implementation-related issues for the platform have been discussed in this study. To investigate the performance of the mobile WSN platform, an experiment simulating measurement in a real environment has been performed. With the positive experimental data obtained, the functionalities of the platform are successfully demonstrated, which enables the real-time monitoring and transmission of sensor data and in addition estimated positional information. The exploitation of this kind of mobile WSN platform with fibre optic sensors is expected to make an impact on many applications, including those where advanced optical fibre sensing is particularly advantageous, yet where conventional WSNs cannot meet the requirements of the total sensing system.

  13. Polyimide-coated embedded optical fiber sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, Dilip K.; Nelson, Gary W.; Griffin, Stephen E.; Harrington, C. T.; He, Yi-Fei; Reinhart, Lawrence J.; Paine, D. C.; Morse, Theodore F.

    1991-10-01

    The present paper describes the behavior of embedded optical sensor fibers in a high- temperature PEEK (polyether ether ketone) carbon fiber composite. Sheets of this material, 200 micrometers thick, were layered in alternating directions for the carbon fibers. Typically, 16 sheets were used to form 3' X 6' or 3' X 8' panels by placing the optical fibers in the middle of the `prepreg' sheets, which were then heated to the processing temperature, and subjected to a pressure of 300 psi during the cool-down phase. Since the ordinary polymeric coatings of optical fibers cannot survive the 380 degree(s)C to 400 degree(s)C processing temperature of PEEK impregnated fiber composites, all of the optical sensor fibers tested were polyimide coated. The optical, mechanical, and thermal properties are reported and it is concluded that polyimide coated fibers can withstand PEEK processing conditions.

  14. Optical fiber sensor-based detection of partial discharges in power transformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Jiangdong; Xiao, Hai; Huo, Wei; Luo, Ming; May, Russ; Wang, Anbo; Liu, Yilu

    2001-07-01

    In this paper, a fiber optic acoustic sensor system is designed and tested for on-line detection of the partial discharges inside high voltage power transformers. The fiber optic sensor uses a silica diaphragm and a single mode optical fiber encapsulated in a silica glass tube to form an extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer. Test results indicate that the developed fiber optic sensors are capable of detecting the acoustic signals propagating inside the transformer oil with high resolution and high frequency.

  15. Electronic Nose System Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has designed and built an electronic nose system -- ENose -- to take on the duty of staying alert for smells that could indicate hazardous conditions in a closed spacecraft environment. Its sensors (shown here) are tailored so they conduct electricity differently when an air stream carries a particular chemical across them. JPL has designed and built a 3-pound flight version. The active parts are 32 sensors, each with a different mix of polymers saturated with carbon. When certain chemicals latch onto a sensor, they change how the sensor conducts electricity. This signal tells how much of a compound is in the air. The electronic nose flown aboard STS-95 in 1998 was capable of successfully detecting 10 toxic compounds.

  16. Fiber optic, Faraday rotation current sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Veeser, L.R.; Day, G.W.

    1986-01-01

    At the Second Megagauss Conference in 1979, there were reports of experiments that used the Faraday magneto-optic effect in a glass rod to measure large electric current pulses or magnetic fields. Since then we have seen the development of single-mode optical fibers that can carry polarized light in a closed loop around a current load. A fiber optic Faraday rotation sensor will integrate the flux, instead of sampling it at a discrete point, to get a measurement independent of the current distribution. Early Faraday rotation experiments using optical fibers to measure currents dealt with problems such as fiber birefringence and difficulties in launching light into the tiny fiber cores. We have built on those experiments, working to reduce the effects of shocks and obtaining higher bandwidths, absolute calibration, and computerized recording and data analysis, to develop the Faraday rotation sensors into a routine current diagnostic. For large current pulses we find reduced sensitivity to electromagnetic interference and other backgrounds than for Rogowski loops; often the fiber optic sensors are useful where conductive probes cannot be used at all. In this paper we describe the fiber optic sensors and some practical matters involved in fielding them.

  17. High-sensitivity fiber optic acoustic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Ping; Liu, Deming; Liao, Hao

    2016-11-01

    Due to the overwhelming advantages compared with traditional electronicsensors, fiber-optic acoustic sensors have arisen enormous interest in multiple disciplines. In this paper we present the recent research achievements of our group on fiber-optic acoustic sensors. The main point of our research is high sensitivity interferometric acoustic sensors, including Michelson, Sagnac, and Fabry-Pérot interferometers. In addition, some advanced technologies have been proposed for acoustic or acoustic pressure sensing such as single-mode/multimode fiber coupler, dual FBGs and multi-longitudinal mode fiber laser based acoustic sensors. Moreover, our attention we have also been paid on signal demodulation schemes. The intensity-based quadrature point (Q-point) demodulation, two-wavelength quadrature demodulation and symmetric 3×3 coupler methodare discussed and compared in this paper.

  18. [The recent development of fiber-optic chemical sensor].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Wei, Jian-ping; Yang, Bo; Gao, Zhi-yang; Zhang, Li-wei; Yang, Xue-feng

    2014-08-01

    The present article provides a brief review of recent research on fiber-optic chemical sensor technology and the future development trends. Especially, fiber-optic pH chemical sensor, fiber-optic ion chemicl sensor, and fiber-optic gas chemical sensor are introduced respectively. Sensing film preparation methods such as chemical bonding method and sol-gel method were briefly reviewed. The emergence of new type fiber-microstructured optical fiber opened up a new development direction for fiber-optic chemical sensor. Because of its large inner surface area, flexible design of structure, having internal sensing places in fibers, it has rapidly become an important development direction and research focus of the fiber-optic chemical sensors. The fiber-optic chemical sensor derived from microstructured optical fiber is also discussed in detail. Finally, we look to the future of the fiber-optic chemical sensor.

  19. Unbalanced Michelson's interferometer as a fiber optic distributed sensor of external signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chojnacki, M.; Szustakowski, Mieczyslaw; Zyczkowski, Marek

    2001-08-01

    The subject of this work is a novel fiber optic distributed sensor system. The system uses a technique called multiplexed reflectometric interferometry to measure dynamic strain in a network of single mode optical fiber sensors. The sensor is constructed on unbalanced fiber optic Michelson's interferometer is activated by series of double pulse. The time interval between those pulses depends on the length of the section of sensor. Acousto-optical modulator acts as an optical frequency shifter. A change in a frequency of electrical pulses exciting the modulator result in a frequency shift in each generated wave packet.

  20. Double-Tubing Encapsulated Fiber Optic Temperature Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Juncheng; Pickrell, Gary; Huang, Zhengyu; Qi, Bing; Zhang, Po; Duan, Yuhong; Wang, Anbo

    2003-09-01

    Increasing the efficiency of oil production operations requires improved sensors to supply critical information such as mixed-phase fluid flow, pressure and temperature measurements within the down-hole oil environment. In order to provide robust and reliable fiber optic temperature sensors capable of operating in the harsh down-hole oil environment, where temperatures might exceed 250 °C and pressures might reach 20,000 psi (140 Mpa), a novel type of fiber optic temperature sensor has been developed. This temperature sensor functions as an EFPI (extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric) sensor. One unique contribution of this work is that the glass tubing used is a borosilicate glass with a relatively high coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and long gauge length, allowing a much higher sensitivity to be achieved, without hysteresis. The sensor structure utilizes a dual tubing design (tubing within a tubing) to allow pressure isolation. An LED light beam is used as the signal interrogation source to remotely interrogate the sensor which may be located tens of thousands of meters away, connected by an optical fiber. A white-light interferometer measurement system is utilized to process the returned interference signal and to precisely determine the length of the Fabry-Perot interferometric cavity. Another unique feature of this work is that the sensor has been packaged with a specially developed hermetic protection process to prevent water penetration and to improve the mechanical integrity of the sensor. This protection process has allowed the successful hydraulic deployment of fiber optic sensors through 3 mm ID stainless steel tubing into a functioning oil well. Data on the resolution, repeatability and pressure sensitivity are presented.