Science.gov

Sample records for optical coherence interfering

  1. Coherent amplified optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Rao, Bin; Chen, Zhongping

    2007-07-01

    A technique to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a high speed 1300 nm swept source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) system was demonstrated. A semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) was employed in the sample arm to coherently amplify the weak light back-scattered from sample tissue without increasing laser power illuminated on the sample. The image quality improvement was visualized and quantified by imaging the anterior segment of a rabbit eye at imaging speed of 20,000 A-lines per second. The theory analysis of SNR gain is given followed by the discussion on the technologies that can further improve the SNR gain.

  2. Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandel, Leonard; Wolf, Emil

    1995-09-01

    The advent of lasers in the 1960s led to the development of many new fields in optical physics. This book is a systematic treatment of one of these fields--the broad area that deals with the coherence and fluctuation of light. The authors begin with a review of probability theory and random processes, and follow this with a thorough discussion of optical coherence theory within the framework of classical optics. They next treat the theory of photoelectric detection of light and photoelectric correlation. They then discuss in some detail quantum systems and effects. The book closes with two chapters devoted to laser theory and one on the quantum theory of nonlinear optics. The sound introduction to coherence theory and the quantum nature of light and the chapter-end exercises will appeal to graduate students and newcomers to the field. Researchers will find much of interest in the new results on coherence-induced spectral line shifts, nonclassical states of light, higher-order squeezing, and quantum effects of down-conversion. Written by two of the world's most highly regarded optical physicists, this book is required reading of all physicists and engineers working in optics.

  3. Overlapped optics induced perfect coherent effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian Jie; Zang, Xiao Fei; Mao, Jun Fa; Tang, Min; Zhu, Yi Ming; Zhuang, Song Lin

    2013-12-01

    For traditional coherent effects, two separated identical point sources can be interfered with each other only when the optical path difference is integer number of wavelengths, leading to alternate dark and bright fringes for different optical path difference. For hundreds of years, such a perfect coherent condition seems insurmountable. However, in this paper, based on transformation optics, two separated in-phase identical point sources can induce perfect interference with each other without satisfying the traditional coherent condition. This shifting illusion media is realized by inductor-capacitor transmission line network. Theoretical analysis, numerical simulations and experimental results are performed to confirm such a kind of perfect coherent effect and it is found that the total radiation power of multiple elements system can be greatly enhanced. Our investigation may be applicable to National Ignition Facility (NIF), Inertial Confined Fusion (ICF) of China, LED lighting technology, terahertz communication, and so on.

  4. Optical coherency matrix tomography

    PubMed Central

    Kagalwala, Kumel H.; Kondakci, H. Esat; Abouraddy, Ayman F.; Saleh, Bahaa E. A.

    2015-01-01

    The coherence of an optical beam having multiple degrees of freedom (DoFs) is described by a coherency matrix G spanning these DoFs. This optical coherency matrix has not been measured in its entirety to date—even in the simplest case of two binary DoFs where G is a 4 × 4 matrix. We establish a methodical yet versatile approach—optical coherency matrix tomography—for reconstructing G that exploits the analogy between this problem in classical optics and that of tomographically reconstructing the density matrix associated with multipartite quantum states in quantum information science. Here G is reconstructed from a minimal set of linearly independent measurements, each a cascade of projective measurements for each DoF. We report the first experimental measurements of the 4 × 4 coherency matrix G associated with an electromagnetic beam in which polarization and a spatial DoF are relevant, ranging from the traditional two-point Young’s double slit to spatial parity and orbital angular momentum modes. PMID:26478452

  5. Coherent Fiber Optic Links

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    local oscillator to achieve a receiver penalty of 1dB at a BER of 10- 9. REFERENCES [1] G Jacobsen and I Garrett: "Theory for heterodyne optical ASK...34Costas loop analysis for coherent optical receivers", Electronics Letters, 1986, Vol. 22, pp.394-396. [3] I Garrett and G Jacobsen : "Theoretical...DC block must be inserted and threshold on the BER set adjusted to zero volts. -5.21- Data [nj] POW Coherent Modulationcircuit op~ arn Diectn,, anua Rx

  6. Dental Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Yao-Sheng; Ho, Yi-Ching; Lee, Shyh-Yuan; Chuang, Ching-Cheng; Tsai, Jui-che; Lin, Kun-Feng; Sun, Chia-Wei

    2013-01-01

    This review paper describes the applications of dental optical coherence tomography (OCT) in oral tissue images, caries, periodontal disease and oral cancer. The background of OCT, including basic theory, system setup, light sources, spatial resolution and system limitations, is provided. The comparisons between OCT and other clinical oral diagnostic methods are also discussed. PMID:23857261

  7. Optical Coherence Elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Brendan F.; Kennedy, Kelsey M.; Oldenburg, Amy L.; Adie, Steven G.; Boppart, Stephen A.; Sampson, David D.

    The mechanical properties of tissue are pivotal in its function and behavior, and are often modified by disease. From the nano- to the macro-scale, many tools have been developed to measure tissue mechanical properties, both to understand the contribution of mechanics in the origin of disease and to improve diagnosis. Optical coherence elastography is applicable to the intermediate scale, between that of cells and whole organs, which is critical in the progression of many diseases and not widely studied to date. In optical coherence elastography, a mechanical load is imparted to a tissue and the resulting deformation is measured using optical coherence tomography. The deformation is used to deduce a mechanical parameter, e.g., Young's modulus, which is mapped into an image, known as an elastogram. In this chapter, we review the development of optical coherence elastography and report on the latest developments. We provide a focus on the underlying principles and assumptions, techniques to measure deformation, loading mechanisms, imaging probes and modeling, including the inverse elasticity problem.

  8. Optical Coherence Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faber, Dirk J.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.

    Seventy percent of our body is made up of water. For that reason, radiation based medical imaging techniques operate in spectral regions where water absorption is low (Fig. 18.1, panel). Well known modalities are MRI that operates at radio frequencies, and PET/SPECT which work in the high frequency range. Water absorption is also low around the part of the spectrum that is visible to the human eye. In this spectral region, scattering of the light by tissue structures roughly decreases with wavelength. Therefore, most optical imaging techniques such as (confocal) microscopy, optical tomography and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) use wavelengths between 650 and 1300 nm to allow reasonable imaging depths.

  9. Optical Coherence Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, David

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a new method for noninvasive cross-sectional imaging in biological systems. In OCT, the longitudinal locations of tissue structures are determined by measuring the time-of-flight delays of light backscattered from these structures. The optical delays are measured by low coherence interferometry. Information on lateral position is provided by transverse scanning of the probe beam. The two dimensional map of optical scattering from internal tissue microstructures is then represented in a false-color or grayscale image. OCT is the optical analog of ultrasonic pulse-echo imaging, but with greatly improved spatial resolutions (a few microns). This thesis describes the development of this new high resolution tomographic imaging technology and the demonstration of its use in a variety of tissues under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. In vitro OCT ranging and imaging studies were performed using human ocular and arterial tissues, two clinically relevant examples of transparent and turbid media, respectively. In the anterior eye, precise measurements of cornea and anterior chamber dimensions were made. In the arterial specimens, the differentiation between fatty -calcified and fibromuscular tissues was demonstrated. In vivo OCT imaging in the retina and optic nerve head in human subjects was also performed. The delineation of retinal layers, which has not been possible with other noninvasive imaging techniques, is demonstrated in these OCT images. OCT has high spatial resolution but limited penetration into turbid tissue. It has potential for diagnostic applications where high resolution is needed and optical access is available, such as in the eye, skin, surgically exposed tissues, and surfaces that can be reached by various catheters and endoscopic probes. In particular, the measurement of fine retinal structures promises improvements in the diagnosis and management of glaucoma, macular edema and other vitreo-retinal diseases

  10. Spectroscopic optical coherence elastography.

    PubMed

    Adie, Steven G; Liang, Xing; Kennedy, Brendan F; John, Renu; Sampson, David D; Boppart, Stephen A

    2010-12-06

    We present an optical technique to image the frequency-dependent complex mechanical response of a viscoelastic sample. Three-dimensional hyperspectral data, comprising two-dimensional B-mode images and a third dimension corresponding to vibration frequency, were acquired from samples undergoing external mechanical excitation in the audio-frequency range. We describe the optical coherence tomography (OCT) signal when vibration is applied to a sample and detail the processing and acquisition techniques used to extract the local complex mechanical response from three-dimensional data that, due to a wide range of vibration frequencies, possess a wide range of sample velocities. We demonstrate frequency-dependent contrast of the displacement amplitude and phase of a silicone phantom containing inclusions of higher stiffness. Measurements of an ex vivo tumor margin demonstrate distinct spectra between adipose and tumor regions, and images of displacement amplitude and phase demonstrated spatially-resolved contrast. Contrast was also observed in displacement amplitude and phase images of a rat muscle sample. These results represent the first demonstration of mechanical spectroscopy based on B-mode OCT imaging. Spectroscopic optical coherence elastography (S-OCE) provides a high-resolution imaging capability for the detection of tissue pathologies that are characterized by a frequency-dependent viscoelastic response.

  11. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Simon S.; Jia, Yali; Zhang, Miao; Su, Johnny P.; Liu, Gangjun; Hwang, Thomas S.; Bailey, Steven T.; Huang, David

    2016-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a noninvasive approach that can visualize blood vessels down to the capillary level. With the advent of high-speed OCT and efficient algorithms, practical OCTA of ocular circulation is now available to ophthalmologists. Clinical investigations that used OCTA have increased exponentially in the past few years. This review will cover the history of OCTA and survey its most important clinical applications. The salient problems in the interpretation and analysis of OCTA are described, and recent advances are highlighted. PMID:27409483

  12. Coherent optics in students' laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senderáková, Dagmar; Mesaros, Vladimir; Drzik, Milan

    2014-12-01

    Lasers provide us with unique kind of light - coherent light. Besides being the keystone of historical interferometric measuring methods, coherent waves, now accessible in a very easy way, become a base of new optical measuring and information processing methods. Moreover, holographic recording seems today to have become a common term, even among common, not especially optically educated people. The presentation deals with our attempt to take our students' interest in the coherence of light and getting them familiar with the phenomenon, indeed.

  13. Cardiovascular Optical Coherence Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonetsu, Taishi; Villiger, Martin; Bouma, Brett E.; Jang, Ik-Kyung

    The potential of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for intravascular imaging and assessing the microstructure of atherosclerosis was suggested already by Huang et al. at the very beginning of OCT [1]. For ophthalmology, the eye provides a natural window for OCT to image the retinal microstructure, and OCT has rapidly become the standard imaging modality to diagnose retinal disease and assess disease progression and response to therapy [1, 2]. Intravascular imaging is more invasive by nature and requires imaging through a catheter probe. This has triggered the development of advanced fiber-optic OCT systems with compact, rotating fiber probes, to image the vessel by circumferentially scanning the luminal wall [3, 4]. In 1998, we established the first cardiac OCT research group at the Massachusetts General Hospital to explore the clinical applications of OCT. The first imaging of rabbit aorta was reported by Fujimoto et al. [5], followed by the first swine measurements in vivo by Tearney et al. [6], and finally the first assessment of coronary arteries in patients by Jang et al. [7]. The scope of this chapter is to highlight the steps taken to bring intravascular OCT from bench to bedside over the last 15 years. We will give a general description of atherosclerosis and its pathophysiology and the specific technical implementation of OCT for intravascular imaging through a fiber-optic probe. The motivation is to provide sufficient medical details to provide a basic introduction to the terminology, principles, and challenges of intracoronary imaging.

  14. Holographic Optical Coherence Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolte, David D.; Jeong, Kwan; Turek, John; French, Paul M. W.

    This chapter gives an overview of the principles of holographic OCI. It begins with a description of off-axis holography as spatial heterodyne detection and continues with the origin and role of speckle in multichannel illumination of tissue. Image-domain holography (IDH) and Fourier-domain holography (FDH) are described. Holography in the Fourier domain has the capability for phase-contrast imaging that can acquire small sub-wavelength displacements despite long coherence length. The trade-offs between photorefractive and digital holography are discussed. The chief biological target is multicellular spheroids, specifically rat osteogenic sarcomas that are grown in vitro. After describing the physiological and optical properties of these spheroids, results from holographic OCI are presented using both photorefractive and digital holography.

  15. Tracking optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, R. Daniel; Hammer, Daniel X.; Paunescu, Lelia Adelina; Beaton, Siobahn; Schuman, Joel S.

    2004-09-01

    An experimental tracking optical coherence tomography (OCT) system has been clinically tested. The prototype instrument uses a secondary sensing beam and steering mirrors to compensate for eye motion with a closed-loop bandwidth of 1 kHz and tracking accuracy, to within less than the OCT beam diameter. The retinal tracker improved image registration accuracy to <1 transverse pixel (<60 µm). Composite OCT images averaged over multiple scans and visits show a sharp fine structure limited only by transverse pixel size. As the resolution of clinical OCT systems improves, the capability to reproducibly map complex structures in the living eye at high resolution will lead to improved understanding of disease processes and improved sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic procedures.

  16. Endoscopic Optical Coherence Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chao; Fujimoto, James G.; Tsai, Tsung-Han; Mashimo, Hiroshi

    New gastrointestinal (GI) cancers are expected to affect more than 290,200 new patients and will cause more than 144,570 deaths in the United States in 2013 [1]. When detected and treated early, the 5-year survival rate for colorectal cancer increases by a factor of 1.4 [1]. For esophageal cancer, the rate increases by a factor of 2 [1]. The majority of GI cancers begin as small lesions that are difficult to identify with conventional endoscopy. With resolutions approaching that of histopathology, optical coherence tomography (OCT) is well suited for detecting the changes in tissue microstructure associated with early GI cancers. Since the lesions are not endoscopically apparent, however, it is necessary to survey a relatively large area of the GI tract. Tissue motion is another limiting factor in the GI tract; therefore, in vivo imaging must be performed at extremely high speeds. OCT imaging can be performed using fiber optics and miniaturized lens systems, enabling endoscopic OCT inside the human body in conjunction with conventional video endoscopy. An OCT probe can be inserted through the working channel of a standard endoscope, thus enabling depth-resolved imaging of tissue microstructure in the GI tract with micron-scale resolution simultaneously with the endoscopic view (Fig. 68.1).

  17. Coherent communication with linear optics

    SciTech Connect

    Wilde, Mark M.; Brun, Todd A.; Dowling, Jonathan P.; Lee, Hwang

    2008-02-15

    We show how to implement several continuous-variable coherent protocols with linear optics. Noise can accumulate when implementing each coherent protocol with realistic optical devices. Our analysis bounds the level of noise accumulation. We highlight the connection between a coherent channel and a nonlocal quantum nondemolition interaction and give two new protocols that implement a coherent channel. One protocol is superior to a previous method for a nonlocal quantum nondemolition interaction because it requires fewer communication resources. We then show how continuous-variable coherent superdense coding implements two nonlocal quantum nondemolition interactions with a quantum channel and bipartite entanglement. We finally show how to implement continuous-variable coherent teleportation experimentally and provide a way to verify the correctness of its operation.

  18. Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Leitgeb, Rainer A.; Werkmeister, René M.; Blatter, Cedric; Schmetterer, Leopold

    2014-01-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) has revolutionized ophthalmology. Since its introduction in the early 1990s it has continuously improved in terms of speed, resolution and sensitivity. The technique has also seen a variety of extensions aiming to assess functional aspects of the tissue in addition to morphology. One of these approaches is Doppler OCT (DOCT), which aims to visualize and quantify blood flow. Such extensions were already implemented in time domain systems, but have gained importance with the introduction of Fourier domain OCT. Nowadays phase-sensitive detection techniques are most widely used to extract blood velocity and blood flow from tissues. A common problem with the technique is that the Doppler angle is not known and several approaches have been realized to obtain absolute velocity and flow data from the retina. Additional studies are required to elucidate which of these techniques is most promising. In the recent years, however, several groups have shown that data can be obtained with high validity and reproducibility. In addition, several groups have published values for total retinal blood flow. Another promising application relates to non-invasive angiography. As compared to standard techniques such as fluorescein and indocyanine-green angiography the technique offers two major advantages: no dye is required and depth resolution is required is provided. As such Doppler OCT has the potential to improve our abilities to diagnose and monitor ocular vascular diseases. PMID:24704352

  19. Optical coherence angiography

    PubMed Central

    Wylęgała, Adam; Teper, Sławomir; Dobrowolski, Dariusz; Wylęgała, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Retinal vascular diseases are one of the most common causes of blindness in the developed world. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography (OCT-A) is a new noninvasive method that uses several algorithms to detect blood movement. This enables the creation of high-resolution vascular images with contrast depicting motionless tissue. Methods: This review presents the results of articles relevant to age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy (DR), and OCT-A. The OCT-A technique can successfully be used in the diagnosis of neovascularization, retinal vein occlusion (RVO) and retinal artery occlusion (RAO), vessel abnormalities and even anterior segment neovascularization. OCT-A can also be applied to compute data such as vessel density, and flow index in both superficial and deep plexuses. Results: Many studies have compared fluorescein angiography with OCT-A. Other studies have reported differences in vascular density in AMD patients and have compared them with people having healthy eyes. Although OCT-A offers rapid picture acquisition, high repeatability and resolution, it also has many drawbacks. The most common are: motion artifacts, projections from overlying vessels and limited field of view. An interesting new application is the possibility to assess changes during antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapy. Another function of OCT-A is the possible application in the study of choriocapillaries in many fields of ocular pathology. Conclusion: OCT-A is a new promising method that allows the visualization of the retinal vascular network and the counting of blood flow parameters. This technique provides reliable images useful in clinical routines. PMID:27741104

  20. Optical amplifiers for coherent lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fork, Richard

    1996-01-01

    We examine application of optical amplification to coherent lidar for the case of a weak return signal (a number of quanta of the return optical field close to unity). We consider the option that has been explored to date, namely, incorporation of an optical amplifier operated in a linear manner located after reception of the signal and immediately prior to heterodyning and photodetection. We also consider alternative strategies where the coherent interaction, the nonlinear processes, and the amplification are not necessarily constrained to occur in the manner investigated to date. We include the complications that occur because of mechanisms that occur at the level of a few, or one, quantum excitation. Two factors combine in the work to date that limit the value of the approach. These are: (1) the weak signal tends to require operation of the amplifier in the linear regime where the important advantages of nonlinear optical processing are not accessed, (2) the linear optical amplifier has a -3dB noise figure (SN(out)/SN(in)) that necessarily degrades the signal. Some improvement is gained because the gain provided by the optical amplifier can be used to overcome losses in the heterodyned process and photodetection. The result, however, is that introduction of an optical amplifier in a well optimized coherent lidar system results in, at best, a modest improvement in signal to noise. Some improvement may also be realized on incorporating more optical components in a coherent lidar system for purely practical reasons. For example, more compact, lighter weight, components, more robust alignment, or more rapid processing may be gained. We further find that there remain a number of potentially valuable, but unexplored options offered both by the rapidly expanding base of optical technology and the recent investigation of novel nonlinear coherent interference phenomena occurring at the single quantum excitation level. Key findings are: (1) insertion of linear optical

  1. Interferometer for optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Hauger, Christoph; Wörz, Marco; Hellmuth, Thomas

    2003-07-01

    We describe a new interferometer setup for optical coherence tomography (OCT). The interferometer is based on a fiber arrangement similar to Young's two-pinhole interference experiment with spatial coherent and temporal incoherent light. Depth gating is achieved detection of the interference signal on a linear CCD array. Therefore no reference optical delay scanning is needed. The interference signal, the modulation of the signal, the axial resolution, and the depth range are derived theoretically and compared with experiments. The dynamic range of the setup is compared with OCT sensors in the time domain. To our knowledge, the first images of porcine brain and heart tissue and human skin are presented.

  2. Structured interference optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Yi, Ji; Wei, Qing; Zhang, Hao F; Backman, Vadim

    2012-08-01

    We developed a structured interference optical coherence tomography (SIOCT) to enhance the lateral resolution beyond the diffraction limit. A sinusoidal pattern is created on the interferometric beam with the reference intensity temporally modulated. In the Fourier domain, the high spatial frequencies are shifted into the detectable range, which enhances the lateral resolution beyond the diffraction limit by a factor of 2. The lateral resolution of SIOCT was characterized in our study as ~5.5 μm, surpassing the diffraction limit ~9.6 μm as in conventional Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography. SIOCT was demonstrated on phantoms and ex vivo adipose tissues.

  3. COHERENT OPTICAL SURVEILLANCE DEVICES

    DTIC Science & Technology

    AERIAL RECONNAISSANCE, *INFRARED DETECTORS, *LASERS, *OPTICAL EQUIPMENT, *PHASE SHIFT CIRCUITS, DESIGN, HELIUM, INTERFEROMETERS , MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS, NEON, PHASE DETECTORS, PHOTOMULTIPLIER TUBES, POWER DIVIDERS

  4. Experimental generation of optical coherence lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yahong; Cai, Yangjian E-mail: yangjiancai@suda.edu.cn; Ponomarenko, Sergey A. E-mail: yangjiancai@suda.edu.cn

    2016-08-08

    We report experimental generation and measurement of recently introduced optical coherence lattices. The presented optical coherence lattice realization technique hinges on a superposition of mutually uncorrelated partially coherent Schell-model beams with tailored coherence properties. We show theoretically that information can be encoded into and, in principle, recovered from the lattice degree of coherence. Our results can find applications to image transmission and optical encryption.

  5. Crawling wave optical coherence elastography.

    PubMed

    Meemon, Panomsak; Yao, Jianing; Chu, Ying-Ju; Zvietcovich, Fernando; Parker, Kevin J; Rolland, Jannick P

    2016-03-01

    Elastography is a technique that measures and maps the local elastic property of biological tissues. Aiming for detection of micron-scale inclusions, various optical elastography, especially optical coherence elastography (OCE), techniques have been investigated over the past decade. The challenges of current optical elastography methods include the decrease in elastographic resolution as compared with its parent imaging resolution, the detection sensitivity and accuracy, and the cost of the overall system. Here we report for the first time, we believe, on an elastography technique-crawling wave optical coherence elastography (CRW-OCE)-which significantly lowers the requirements on the imaging speed and opens the path to high-resolution and high-sensitivity OCE at relatively low cost. Methods of crawling wave excitation, data acquisition, and crawling wave tracking are presented.

  6. Optical coherence refractometry.

    PubMed

    Tomlins, Peter H; Woolliams, Peter; Hart, Christian; Beaumont, Andrew; Tedaldi, Matthew

    2008-10-01

    We introduce a novel approach to refractometry using a low coherence interferometer at multiple angles of incidence. We show that for plane parallel samples it is possible to measure their phase refractive index rather than the group index that is usually measured by interferometric methods. This is a significant development because it enables bulk refractive index measurement of scattering and soft samples, not relying on surface measurements that can be prone to error. Our technique is also noncontact and compatible with in situ refractive index measurements. Here, we demonstrate this new technique on a pure silica test piece and a highly scattering resin slab, comparing the results with standard critical angle refractometry.

  7. Molecularly sensitive optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Bredfeldt, Jeremy S; Vinegoni, Claudio; Marks, Daniel L; Boppart, Stephen A

    2005-03-01

    Molecular contrast in optical coherence tomography (OCT) is demonstrated by use of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) for molecular sensitivity. Femtosecond laser pulses are focused into a sample by use of a low-numerical-aperture lens to generate CARS photons, and the backreflected CARS signal is interferometrically measured. With the chemical selectivity provided by CARS and the advanced imaging capabilities of OCT, this technique may be useful for molecular contrast imaging in biological tissues. CARS can be generated and interferometrically measured over at least 600 microm of the depth of field of a low-numerical-aperture objective.

  8. Coherent signal processing in optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Manish Dinkarrao

    1999-09-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a novel method for non-invasive sub-surface imaging of biological tissue micro-structures. OCT achieves high spatial resolution ( ~ 15 m m in three dimensions) using a fiber-optically integrated system which is suitable for application in minimally invasive diagnostics, including endoscopy. OCT uses an optical heterodyne detection technique based on white light interferometry. Therefore extremely faint reflections ( ~ 10 fW) are routinely detected with high spatial localization. The goal of this thesis is twofold. The first is to present a theoretical model for describing image formation in OCT, and attempt to enhance the current level of understanding of this new modality. The second objective is to present signal processing methods for improving OCT image quality. We present deconvolution algorithms to obtain improved longitudinal resolution in OCT. This technique may be implemented without increasing system complexity as compared to current clinical OCT systems. Since the spectrum of the light backscattered from bio-scatterers is closely associated with ultrastructural variations in tissue, we propose a new technique for measuring spectra as a function of depth. This advance may assist OCT in differentiating various tissue types and detecting abnormalities within a tissue. In addition to depth resolved spectroscopy, Doppler processing of OCT signals can also improve OCT image contrast. We present a new technique, termed color Doppler OCT (CDOCT). It is an innovative extension of OCT for performing spatially localized optical Doppler velocimetry. Micron-resolution imaging of blood flow in sub-surface vessels in living tissue using CDOCT is demonstrated. The fundamental issues regarding the trade- off between the velocity estimation precision and image acquisition rate are presented. We also present novel algorithms for high accuracy velocity estimation. In many blood vessels velocities tend to be on the order of a few cm

  9. Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhongping; Zhang, Jun

    Noninvasive techniques for imaging in vivo blood flow are of great value to biomedical research and clinical diagnostics where many diseases have a vascular etiology or component. In ophthalmology, many diseases involve disturbances in ocular blood flow, including diabetic retinopathy, low tension glaucoma, anterior ischemic optic neuritis, and macular degeneration. Simultaneous imaging of tissue structure and blood flow could provide critical information for early diagnosis of ocular diseases.

  10. Optical computing for optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao; Huo, Tiancheng; Wang, Chengming; Liao, Wenchao; Chen, Tianyuan; Ai, Shengnan; Zhang, Wenxin; Hsieh, Jui-Cheng; Xue, Ping

    2016-11-01

    We propose an all-optical Fourier transformation system for real-time massive data processing in high speed optical coherence tomography (OCT). In the so-called optical computing OCT, fast Fourier transformation (FFT) of A-scan signal is optically processed in real time before being detected by photoelectric detector. Therefore, the processing time for interpolation and FFT in traditional Fourier domain OCT can be dramatically eliminated. A processing rate of 10 mega-A-scans/second was experimentally achieved, which is, to our knowledge, the highest speed for OCT imaging. Due to its fiber based all-optical configuration, this optical computing OCT system is ideal for ultrahigh speed volumetric OCT imaging in clinical application.

  11. Optical computing for optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao; Huo, Tiancheng; Wang, Chengming; Liao, Wenchao; Chen, Tianyuan; Ai, Shengnan; Zhang, Wenxin; Hsieh, Jui-Cheng; Xue, Ping

    2016-01-01

    We propose an all-optical Fourier transformation system for real-time massive data processing in high speed optical coherence tomography (OCT). In the so-called optical computing OCT, fast Fourier transformation (FFT) of A-scan signal is optically processed in real time before being detected by photoelectric detector. Therefore, the processing time for interpolation and FFT in traditional Fourier domain OCT can be dramatically eliminated. A processing rate of 10 mega-A-scans/second was experimentally achieved, which is, to our knowledge, the highest speed for OCT imaging. Due to its fiber based all-optical configuration, this optical computing OCT system is ideal for ultrahigh speed volumetric OCT imaging in clinical application. PMID:27869131

  12. Coherent optical methods for metallography

    SciTech Connect

    Pechersky, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    Numerous methods based on coherent optical techniques have been developed over the past two decades for nondestructive evaluation, vibration analysis and experimental mechanics. These methods have a great deal of potential for the enhancement of metallographic evaluations and for materials characterization in general. One such technique described in this paper is the determination of the material damping factors in metals. Damping loss factors as low as 10-5 were measured on bronze and aluminum specimens using a technique based on laser vibrometry. Differences between cast and wrought bronze were easily distinguishable as well as the difference between the bronze and aluminum. Other coherent optical techniques may be used to evaluate residual stresses and to locate and identify microcracking, subsurface voids and other imperfections. These techniques and others can serve as a bridge between microstructural investigations and the macroscopic behavior of materials.

  13. Coherent optical methods for metallography

    SciTech Connect

    Pechersky, M.J.

    1991-12-31

    Numerous methods based on coherent optical techniques have been developed over the past two decades for nondestructive evaluation, vibration analysis and experimental mechanics. These methods have a great deal of potential for the enhancement of metallographic evaluations and for materials characterization in general. One such technique described in this paper is the determination of the material damping factors in metals. Damping loss factors as low as 10-5 were measured on bronze and aluminum specimens using a technique based on laser vibrometry. Differences between cast and wrought bronze were easily distinguishable as well as the difference between the bronze and aluminum. Other coherent optical techniques may be used to evaluate residual stresses and to locate and identify microcracking, subsurface voids and other imperfections. These techniques and others can serve as a bridge between microstructural investigations and the macroscopic behavior of materials.

  14. Computational optical coherence tomography [Invited

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuan-Zhi; South, Fredrick A.; Xu, Yang; Carney, P. Scott; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2017-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has become an important imaging modality with numerous biomedical applications. Challenges in high-speed, high-resolution, volumetric OCT imaging include managing dispersion, the trade-off between transverse resolution and depth-of-field, and correcting optical aberrations that are present in both the system and sample. Physics-based computational imaging techniques have proven to provide solutions to these limitations. This review aims to outline these computational imaging techniques within a general mathematical framework, summarize the historical progress, highlight the state-of-the-art achievements, and discuss the present challenges. PMID:28663849

  15. Optical coherence domain reflectometry guidewire

    DOEpatents

    Colston, Billy W.; Everett, Matthew; Da Silva, Luiz B.; Matthews, Dennis

    2001-01-01

    A guidewire with optical sensing capabilities is based on a multiplexed optical coherence domain reflectometer (OCDR), which allows it to sense location, thickness, and structure of the arterial walls or other intra-cavity regions as it travels through the body during minimally invasive medical procedures. This information will be used both to direct the guidewire through the body by detecting vascular junctions and to evaluate the nearby tissue. The guidewire contains multiple optical fibers which couple light from the proximal to distal end. Light from the fibers at the distal end of the guidewire is directed onto interior cavity walls via small diameter optics such as gradient index lenses and mirrored corner cubes. Both forward viewing and side viewing fibers can be included. The light reflected or scattered from the cavity walls is then collected by the fibers, which are multiplexed at the proximal end to the sample arm of an optical low coherence reflectometer. The guidewire can also be used in nonmedical applications.

  16. Theory of Optical Coherence Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izatt, Joseph A.; Choma, Michael A.; Dhalla, Al-Hafeez

    Several previous publications have addressed the theory of optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging. These have included original articles, reviews, and books/book chapters . Many of these publications were authored before the major revolution that Fourier-domain techniques (here termed FDOCT) brought to OCT since their sensitivity advantage was confirmed in 2003. Thus, many of these prior works were written primarily from the perspective of time-domain OCT (TDOCT). Also, relatively few prior publications have addressed lateral resolution in OCT systems, which, from an end user perspective, is of equal importance to the axial resolving power derived from low-coherence interferometry. The goal of this chapter is to present a unified theory of OCT, which includes a discussion of imaging performance in all three dimensions and which treats both Fourier- and time-domain OCT on equal footing as specializations of the same underlying principles.

  17. Spectroscopic quantification of extremely rare molecular species in the presence of interfering optical absorption

    DOEpatents

    Ognibene, Ted; Bench, Graham; McCartt, Alan Daniel; Turteltaub, Kenneth; Rella, Chris W.; Tan, Sze; Hoffnagle, John A.; Crosson, Eric

    2017-05-09

    Optical spectrometer apparatus, systems, and methods for analysis of carbon-14 including a resonant optical cavity configured to accept a sample gas including carbon-14, an optical source configured to deliver optical radiation to the resonant optical cavity, an optical detector configured to detect optical radiation emitted from the resonant cavity and to provide a detector signal; and a processor configured to compute a carbon-14 concentration from the detector signal, wherein computing the carbon-14 concentration from the detector signal includes fitting a spectroscopic model to a measured spectrogram, wherein the spectroscopic model accounts for contributions from one or more interfering species that spectroscopically interfere with carbon-14.

  18. Coherent optical modulation for antenna remoting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzmartin, D. J.; Gels, R. G.; Balboni, E. J.

    1991-01-01

    A coherent fiber optic link employing wideband frequency modulation (FM) of the optical carrier is used to transfer radio frequency (RF) or microwave signals. This system is used to link a remotely located antenna to a conveniently located electronics processing site. The advantages of coherent analog fiber optic systems over non-coherent intensity modulated fiber optic analog transmission systems are described. An optical FM link employing an indirect transmitter to frequency modulate the optical carrier and a microwave delay line discriminator receiver is described. Measured performance data for a video signal centered at 60 MHz is presented showing the use of wideband FM in the link.

  19. Catheters for optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atif, M.; Ullah, H.; Hamza, M. Y.; Ikram, M.

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this review article is to overview technology, clinical evidence, and future applications to date optical coherence tomography (OCT) probes to yield the diagnostic purpose. We have reviewed the designing, construction and working of different categories of OCT probes developed for optical diagnostics having a potential for non invasive and improved detection of different types of cancer as well as other neoplasm. Rotational and balloon catheters, imaging needles and hand-held, linear scanning, multichannel, micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) technology based, dynamic focusing, forward view imaging, and common path interferometer based probes have been discussed in details. The fiber probes have shown excellent performance for two dimensional and three dimensional higher resolution, cross-sectional imaging of interior and exterior body tissues that can be compared with histopathology to provide the information about the angiogenesis and other lesions in the tissue. The MEMS-technology based probes are found to be more suitable for three dimensional morphological imaging.

  20. Gabor domain optical coherence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murali, Supraja

    Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography (TD-OCT), first reported in 1991, makes use of the low temporal coherence properties of a NIR broadband laser to create depth sectioning of up to 2mm under the surface using optical interferometry and point to point scanning. Prior and ongoing work in OCT in the research community has concentrated on improving axial resolution through the development of broadband sources and speed of image acquisition through new techniques such as Spectral domain OCT (SD-OCT). In SD-OCT, an entire depth scan is acquired at once with a low numerical aperture (NA) objective lens focused at a fixed point within the sample. In this imaging geometry, a longer depth of focus is achieved at the expense of lateral resolution, which is typically limited to 10 to 20 mum. Optical Coherence Microscopy (OCM), introduced in 1994, combined the advantages of high axial resolution obtained in OCT with high lateral resolution obtained by increasing the NA of the microscope placed in the sample arm. However, OCM presented trade-offs caused by the inverse quadratic relationship between the NA and the DOF of the optics used. For applications requiring high lateral resolution, such as cancer diagnostics, several solutions have been proposed including the periodic manual re-focusing of the objective lens in the time domain as well as the spectral domain C-mode configuration in order to overcome the loss in lateral resolution outside the DOF. In this research, we report for the first time, high speed, sub-cellular imaging (lateral resolution of 2 mum) in OCM using a Gabor domain image processing algorithm with a custom designed and fabricated dynamic focus microscope interfaced to a Ti:Sa femtosecond laser centered at 800 nm within an SD-OCM configuration. It is envisioned that this technology will provide a non-invasive replacement for the current practice of multiple biopsies for skin cancer diagnosis. The research reported here presents three important advances

  1. Developments in optical coherence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolland, J. P.; Meemon, P.; Thompson, K. P.; Murali, S.; Lee, K. S.

    2010-11-01

    Optical Coherence Microscopy (OCM) utilizes a high NA microscope objective in the sample arm to achieve an axially and laterally high resolution OCT image. An increase in NA, however, leads to a dramatically decreased depth of focus (DOF), and hence shortens the imaging depth range so that high lateral resolution is maintained only within a small depth region around the focal plane. One solution to increase the depth of imaging while keeping a high lateral resolution is dynamic-focusing. Utilizing the voltage controlled refocus capability of a liquid lens, we have recently presented a solution for invariant high resolution imaging using the liquid lens embedded within a fixed optics hand-held custom microscope designed specifically for optical imaging systems using a broadband light source centered at 800 nm with a 120 nm bandwidth. Subsequently, we have developed a Gabor-Domain Optical Coherence Microscopy (GD-OCM) that utilizes the high speed imaging of spectral domain OCT, the high lateral resolution of OCM, and the ability of real time refocusing of our custom design variable focus objective. Finally, key developments in Phase-Resolved Doppler OCT (PR-DOCT) are key enablers to combine high-resolution structural imaging with functional imaging. In this paper we review achievements in GD-OCM and detail how portions of in-focus cross-sectional images can be extracted and fused to form an invariant lateral resolution image with multiple cross-sectional images acquired corresponding to a discrete refocusing step along depth enabled by the varifocal device. We demonstrate sub-cellular resolution imaging of an African frog tadpole (Xenopus Laevis) taken from a 500 μm × 500 μm cross-section as well as cellular imaging in in vivo skin. Finally, A novel dual-detection full-range Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography system was developed that provides 7 μm axial resolution (in air) at about 90 kHz axial scan rate for mirror-image phase resolved Doppler imaging

  2. Retinal Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drexler, Wolfgang; Fujimoto, James G.

    The eye is essentially transparent, transmitting light with only minimal optical attenuation and scattering providing easy optical access to the anterior segment as well as the retina. For this reason, ophthalmic and especially retinal imaging has been not only the first but also most successful clinical application for optical coherence tomography (OCT). This chapter focuses on the development of OCT technology for retinal imaging. OCT has significantly improved the potential for early diagnosis, understanding of retinal disease pathogenesis, as well as monitoring disease progression and response to therapy. Development of ultrabroad bandwidth light sources and high-speed detection techniques has enabled significant improvements in ophthalmic OCT imaging performance, demonstrating the potential of three-dimensional, ultrahigh-resolution OCT (UHR OCT) to perform noninvasive optical biopsy of the living human retina, i.e., the in vivo visualization of microstructural, intraretinal morphology in situ approaching the resolution of conventional histopathology. Significant improvements in axial resolution and speed not only enable three-dimensional rendering of retinal volumes but also high-definition, two-dimensional tomograms, topographic thickness maps of all major intraretinal layers, as well as volumetric quantification of pathologic intraretinal changes. These advances in OCT technology have also been successfully applied in several animal models of retinal pathologies. The development of light sources emitting at alternative wavelengths, e.g., around #1,060 nm, not only enabled three-dimensional OCT imaging with enhanced choroidal visualization but also improved OCT performance in cataract patients due to reduced scattering losses in this wavelength region. Adaptive optics using deformable mirror technology, with unique high stroke to correct higher-order ocular aberrations, with specially designed optics to compensate chromatic aberration of the human eye, in

  3. Optical Microangiography Based on Optical Coherence Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reif, Roberto; Wang, Ruikang K.

    Proper homeostasis regulation of in vivo biological systems requires microvascular blood perfusion, which is the process of delivering blood into the tissue's capillary beds. Abnormal tissue vascularization has been associated with various diseases such as cancer, diabetes, neurological disorders, wounds, and inflammation. Understanding the changes in the vascular network or microangiography will have an important role in determining the causes and developing potential treatments for these diseases. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive method for imaging three-dimensional biological tissues with high resolution (~10 µm) and without requiring the use of contrast agents. In this chapter we review several techniques for using OCT to determine blood flow velocities and the vessel morphology (optical microangiography). Different techniques will be discussed with a brief explanation of their limitations. Also, methods for quantifying these images are presented, as well as the depiction of several applications.

  4. Electromagnetic theory of optical coherence [Invited].

    PubMed

    Friberg, Ari T; Setälä, Tero

    2016-12-01

    The coherence theory of random, vector-valued optical fields has been of great research interest in recent years. In this work we formulate the foundations of electromagnetic coherence theory both in the space-time and space-frequency domains, with particular emphasis on various types of optical interferometry. Analyzing statistically stationary, two-component (paraxial) electric fields in the classical and quantum-optical contexts we show fundamental connections between the conventional (polarization) Stokes parameters and the associated two-point (coherence) Stokes parameters. Measurement of the coherence and polarization properties of random vector beams by nanoparticle scattering and two-photon absorption is also addressed.

  5. Optical coherence tomography in dermatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sattler, Elke; Kästle, Raphaela; Welzel, Julia

    2013-06-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive diagnostic method that offers a view into the superficial layers of the skin in vivo in real-time. An infrared broadband light source allows the investigation of skin architecture and changes up to a depth of 1 to 2 mm with a resolution between 15 and 3 μm, depending on the system used. Thus OCT enables evaluation of skin lesions, especially nonmelanoma skin cancers and inflammatory diseases, quantification of skin changes, visualization of parasitic infestations, and examination of other indications such as the investigation of nails. OCT provides a quick and useful diagnostic imaging technique for a number of clinical questions and is a valuable addition or complement to other noninvasive imaging tools such as dermoscopy, high-frequency ultrasound, and confocal laser scan microscopy.

  6. Optical Coherence Tomography: Technical Aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subhash, Hrebesh M.; Wang, Ruikang K.

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a high-resolution, noninvasive, 3D imaging technique with great potential in both clinical and fundamental research applications in many areas. Owing to its exceptionally high spatial resolution and velocity sensitivity, the functional extension of OCT techniques can simultaneously provide tissue structure, blood perfusion, birefringence, and other physiological information and it has great potential for basic biomedical research and clinical medicine. OCT has the far-reaching potential to be a quantitative imaging technique that could impact many, as yet unexplored, areas and should therefore be considered a vital measurement tool. In this chapter, we will first discuss the principle of operation and then the practical aspects of the OCT system; we will also provide detailed discussion on different OCT schemes and its functional extensions.

  7. Lorentz force optical coherence elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chen; Singh, Manmohan; Han, Zhaolong; Raghunathan, Raksha; Liu, Chih-Hao; Li, Jiasong; Schill, Alexander; Larin, Kirill V.

    2016-09-01

    Quantifying tissue biomechanical properties can assist in detection of abnormalities and monitoring disease progression and/or response to a therapy. Optical coherence elastography (OCE) has emerged as a promising technique for noninvasively characterizing tissue biomechanical properties. Several mechanical loading techniques have been proposed to induce static or transient deformations in tissues, but each has its own areas of applications and limitations. This study demonstrates the combination of Lorentz force excitation and phase-sensitive OCE at ˜1.5 million A-lines per second to quantify the elasticity of tissue by directly imaging Lorentz force-induced elastic waves. This method of tissue excitation opens the possibility of a wide range of investigations using tissue biocurrents and conductivity for biomechanical analysis.

  8. Adaptive optics optical coherence tomography in glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zachary M; Wollstein, Gadi; Wang, Bo; Schuman, Joel S

    2017-03-01

    Since the introduction of commercial optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems, the ophthalmic imaging modality has rapidly expanded and it has since changed the paradigm of visualization of the retina and revolutionized the management and diagnosis of neuro-retinal diseases, including glaucoma. OCT remains a dynamic and evolving imaging modality, growing from time-domain OCT to the improved spectral-domain OCT, adapting novel image analysis and processing methods, and onto the newer swept-source OCT and the implementation of adaptive optics (AO) into OCT. The incorporation of AO into ophthalmic imaging modalities has enhanced OCT by improving image resolution and quality, particularly in the posterior segment of the eye. Although OCT previously captured in-vivo cross-sectional images with unparalleled high resolution in the axial direction, monochromatic aberrations of the eye limit transverse or lateral resolution to about 15-20 μm and reduce overall image quality. In pairing AO technology with OCT, it is now possible to obtain diffraction-limited resolution images of the optic nerve head and retina in three-dimensions, increasing resolution down to a theoretical 3 μm(3). It is now possible to visualize discrete structures within the posterior eye, such as photoreceptors, retinal nerve fiber layer bundles, the lamina cribrosa, and other structures relevant to glaucoma. Despite its limitations and barriers to widespread commercialization, the expanding role of AO in OCT is propelling this technology into clinical trials and onto becoming an invaluable modality in the clinician's arsenal.

  9. Polarization Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, B. Hyle; de Boer, Johannes F.

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an interferometric technique capable of noninvasive high-resolution cross-sectional imaging by measuring the intensity of light reflected from within tissue [1]. This results in a noncontact imaging modality that provides images similar in scale and geometry to histology. Just as different stains can be used to enhance the contrast in histology, various extensions of OCT allow for visualization of features not readily apparent in traditional OCT. For example, optical Doppler tomography [2] can enable depth-resolved imaging of flow by observing differences in phase between successive depth scans [3-5]. This chapter will focus on polarization-sensitive OCT (PS-OCT), which utilizes depth-dependent changes in the polarization state of detected light to determine the light-polarization changing properties of a sample [6-11]. These properties, including birefringence, dichroism, and optic axis orientation, can be determined directly by studying the depth evolution of Stokes parameters [7-10, 12-16] or indirectly by using the changing reflected polarization states to first determine Jones or Mueller matrices [11, 17-21]. PS-OCT has been used in a wide variety of applications, including correlating burn depth with a decrease in birefringence [14], measuring the birefringence of the retinal nerve fiber layer [22, 23], and monitoring the onset and progression of caries lesions [24]. In this chapter, a discussion of polarization theory and its application to PS-OCTwill be followed by clinical uses of the technology and will conclude with mentionof more recent work and future directions of PS-OCT.

  10. Optical Coherence Tomography of the Aging Kidney.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Peter M; Wang, Hsing-Wen; Guo, Hengchang; Anderson, Erik; Falola, Reuben; Chen, Yu

    2016-12-01

    The aging kidney exhibits a progressive decline in renal function with characteristic histopathologic changes and is a risk factor for renal transplant. However, the degree to which the kidney exhibits this decline depends on several factors that vary from one individual to the next. Optical coherence tomography is an evolving noninvasive imaging technology that has recently been used to evaluate acute tubular necrosis of living-human donor kidneys before their transplant. With the increasing use of kidneys from older individuals, it is important to determine whether optical coherence tomography also can distinguish the histopathology associated with aging. In this investigation, we used Munich-Wistar rats to evaluate the ability of optical coherence tomography to detect histopathologic changes associated with aging. Optical coherence tomography observations were correlated with renal function and conventional light microscopic evaluation of these same kidneys. With the onset of severe proteinuria at 10 to 12 months of age, optical coherence tomography revealed tubular necrosis/atrophy, interstitial fibrosis, tubular dilation, and glomerulosclerosis. With a further deterioration in kidney function at 16 to 18 months of age (as indicated by rising creatinine levels), optical coherence tomography revealed more extensive interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy, increased tubular dilation with cyst formation and more sclerotic glomeruli. The foregoing observations suggest that optical coherence tomography can be used to detect the histopathology of progressive nephropathy associated with aging.

  11. Second-harmonic optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yi; Tomov, Ivan; Wang, Yimin; Chen, Zhongping

    2004-05-01

    Second-harmonic optical coherence tomography, which uses coherence gating of second-order nonlinear optical responses of biological tissues for imaging, is described and demonstrated. Femtosecond laser pulses were used to excite second-harmonic waves from collagen harvested from rat tail tendon and a reference nonlinear crystal. Second-harmonic interference fringe signals were detected and used for image construction. Because of the strong dependence of second-harmonic generation on molecular and tissue structures, this technique imparts contrast and resolution enhancement to conventional optical coherence tomography.

  12. Dental optical coherence domain reflectometry explorer

    DOEpatents

    Everett, Matthew J.; Colston, Jr., Billy W.; Sathyam, Ujwal S.; Da Silva, Luiz B.

    2001-01-01

    A hand-held, fiber optic based dental device with optical coherence domain reflectometry (OCDR) sensing capabilities provides a profile of optical scattering as a function of depth in the tissue at the point where the tip of the dental explorer touches the tissue. This system provides information on the internal structure of the dental tissue, which is then used to detect caries and periodontal disease. A series of profiles of optical scattering or tissue microstructure are generated by moving the explorer across the tooth or other tissue. The profiles are combined to form a cross-sectional, or optical coherence tomography (OCT), image.

  13. Optical coherence tomography of chronic solar retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Garg, Sunir J; Martidis, Adam; Nelson, Mark L; Sivalingam, Arunan

    2004-02-01

    To describe the optical coherence tomographic findings in eight eyes of four patients with chronic solar retinopathy. All patients had a history of sun gazing months to years prior to presentation. Retrospective case series. Patients were examined using biomicroscopy performed by two or more experienced vitreoretinal specialists. All eight eyes had optical coherence tomography performed at the time of initial examination. All patients had a history of sun gazing and decreased vision in both eyes. On biomicroscopy, all eyes had a small, irregularly-shaped lamellar defect in the foveal center. No posterior vitreous detachment was present in any eye. Optical coherence tomography revealed a hyporeflective space at the level of the outer neurosensory retina and retinal pigment epithelium in all eyes. Optical coherence tomography demonstrates a characteristic hyporeflective space in the outer retina in patients with chronic solar retinopathy. These findings correlate with the histopathology of this condition and may be a useful clinical tool in confirming its diagnosis.

  14. [Optical coherence tomography in solar eclipse retinopathy].

    PubMed

    Calvo-González, C; Reche-Frutos, J; Santos-Bueso, E; Díaz-Valle, D; Benítez-del-Castillo, J M; García-Sánchez, J

    2006-05-01

    We describe the case of a patient suffering from acute visual loss soon after watching a solar eclipse. Optical coherence tomography was the main diagnostic tool used. Solar retinopathy is now an unusual cause of visual loss, although there are still some cases diagnosed, especially after viewing solar eclipses. Optical coherence tomography is suitable for detecting permanent retinal injuries related to solar exposure, with the outer retinal layers being typically affected.

  15. Acousto-optical tunable filter for combined wideband, spectral, and optical coherence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Machikhin, Alexander S; Pozhar, Vitold E; Viskovatykh, Alexander V; Burmak, Ludmila I

    2015-09-01

    A multimodal technique for inspection of microscopic objects by means of wideband optical microscopy, spectral microscopy, and optical coherence microscopy is described, implemented, and tested. The key feature is the spectral selection of light in the output arm of an interferometer with use of the specialized imaging acousto-optical tunable filter. In this filter, two interfering optical beams are diffracted via the same ultrasound wave without destruction of interference image structure. The basic requirements for the acousto-optical tunable filter are defined, and mathematical formulas for calculation of its parameters are derived. Theoretical estimation of the achievable accuracy of the 3D image reconstruction is presented and experimental proofs are given. It is demonstrated that spectral imaging can also be accompanied by measurement of the quantitative reflectance spectra. Examples of inspection of optically transparent and nontransparent samples demonstrate the applicability of the technique.

  16. Sequential quantum teleportation of optical coherent states

    SciTech Connect

    Yonezawa, Hidehiro; Furusawa, Akira; Loock, Peter van

    2007-09-15

    We demonstrate a sequence of two quantum teleportations of optical coherent states, combining two high-fidelity teleporters for continuous variables. In our experiment, the individual teleportation fidelities are evaluated as F{sub 1}=0.70{+-}0.02 and F{sub 2}=0.75{+-}0.02, while the fidelity between the input and the sequentially teleported states is determined as F{sup (2)}=0.57{+-}0.02. This still exceeds the optimal fidelity of one half for classical teleportation of arbitrary coherent states and almost attains the value of the first (unsequential) quantum teleportation experiment with optical coherent states.

  17. Adaptive ranging for optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Iftimia, N. V.; Bouma, B. E.; de Boer, J. F.; Park, B. H.; Cense, B.; Tearney, G. J.

    2009-01-01

    At present, optical coherence tomography systems have a limited imaging depth or axial scan range, making diagnosis of large diameter arterial vessels and hollow organs difficult. Adaptive ranging is a feedback technique where image data is utilized to adjust the coherence gate offset and range. In this paper, we demonstrate an adaptive optical coherence tomography system with a 7.0 mm range. By matching the imaging depth to the approximately 1.5 mm penetration depth in tissue, a 3 dB sensitivity improvement over conventional imaging systems with a 3.0 mm imaging depth was realized. PMID:19483942

  18. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of the Optic Disc; an Overview

    PubMed Central

    Akil, Handan; Falavarjani, Khalil Ghasemi; Sadda, Srinivas R.; Sadun, Alfredo A.

    2017-01-01

    Different diseases of the optic disc may be caused by or lead to abnormal vasculature at the optic nerve head. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a novel technology that provides high resolution mapping of the retinal and optic disc vessels. Recent studies have shown the ability of OCTA to visualize vascular abnormalities in different optic neuropathies. In addition, quantified OCTA measurements were found promising for differentiating optic neuropathies from healthy eyes. PMID:28299012

  19. Coherent optical generation of Hartley transform of real images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Eichmann, G.

    1985-12-01

    A new method to generate optical Hartley transform (OHT) for 2D real images is proposed. The method is based on polarization encoding of the coherent optical beam. Different coherent optical image processing techniques are discussed.

  20. Imaging-AOTF-based full-field spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machikhin, Alexander; Viskovatykh, Alexander; Pozhar, Vitold; Burmak, Ludmila

    2015-03-01

    A technique for spectral filtration of interference images in full-field optical coherence tomography is proposed, implemented and tested. It is based on the spectral selection of light in the registration channel of the interferometer by imaging acousto-optic tunable filter. It is demonstrated that the diffraction of two interfering optical beams via the same ultrasound wave does not destruct the coherence. This new technique, which can be named tunable-imaging-filter-based full-field spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (TIF FF SD OCT), is applicable for 3D surface and inner structure visualization of optically inhomogeneous biomedical objects with moderate spectral, lateral and axial resolution, however with rather high speed.

  1. A coherent optical feedback system for optical information processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jablonowski, D. P.; Lee, S. H.

    1975-01-01

    A unique optical feedback system for coherent optical data processing is described. With the introduction of feedback, the well-known transfer function for feedback systems is obtained in two dimensions. Operational details of the optical feedback system are given. Experimental results of system applications in image restoration, contrast control and analog computation are presented.

  2. Optical Coherence Tomography in Glaucoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berisha, Fatmire; Hoffmann, Esther M.; Pfeiffer, Norbert

    Retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thinning and optic nerve head cupping are key diagnostic features of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. The higher resolution of the recently introduced SD-OCT offers enhanced visualization and improved segmentation of the retinal layers, providing a higher accuracy in identification of subtle changes of the optic disc and RNFL thinning associated with glaucoma.

  3. Optical coherence tomography in late solar retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Janković, Aleksandar; Vukosavljević, Miroslav; Avramović, Sinisa; Draganić, Biljana

    2011-08-01

    Solar retinopathy refers to retinal injury induced by direct or indirect solar viewing. We presented a patient who had observed partial solar eclipse 51 year before. He had bilaterally decreased vision and scar of the macular region at the time of presentation. The basic diagnostic tool applied in the presented patient, optical coherence tomography, showed hyporeflexivity of the outer retina in the segment of retinal pigment epithelial-photoreceptors complex with atrophy and thinning of the foveolar region. Optical coherence tomography is a powerful, non-invasive diagnostic tool which can ease the diagnosis and estimate the level and nature of the macular region damage.

  4. Transmission optical coherence tomography sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trull, A. K.; van der Horst, J.; Bijster, J. G.; Kalkman, J.

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrate that Fourier-domain transmission OCT is a versatile tool to measure optical material properties of turbid media. We develop an analytical expression for the transmission OCT signal. Based on this analysis we determine the group refractive index, group velocity dispersion, absorption coefficient, and scattering coefficient. The optical dispersion is accurately measured for glasses, liquids, and water/glucose mixtures. The optical attenuation is measured in the spatial domain and compared to Mie calculations combined with concentration dependent scattering effects. In the wave vector domain the spectral dependence of the optical attenuation is measured and compared to literature values. The developed technique can be used for optical sensing of attenuation and dispersion.

  5. Formalism of optical coherence and polarization based on material media states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuntman, Ertan; Kuntman, M. Ali; Sancho-Parramon, Jordi; Arteaga, Oriol

    2017-06-01

    The fluctuations or disordered motion of the electromagnetic fields are described by statistical properties rather than instantaneous values. This statistical description of the optical fields is underlying in the Stokes-Mueller formalism that applies to measurable intensities. However, the fundamental concept of optical coherence, which is assessed by the ability of waves to interfere, is not treatable by this formalism because it omits the global phase. In this work we show that using an analogy between deterministic matrix states associated with optical media and quantum mechanical wave functions, it is possible to construct a general formalism that accounts for the additional terms resulting from the coherency effects that average out for incoherent treatments. This method generalizes further the concept of coherent superposition to describe how deterministic states of optical media can superpose to generate another deterministic media state. Our formalism is used to study the combined polarimetric response of interfering plasmonic nanoantennas.

  6. Coherent Digital Holographic Adaptive Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Changgeng

    A new type of adaptive optics (AO) based on the principles of digital holography (DH) is proposed and developed for the use in wide-field and confocal retinal imaging. Digital holographic adaptive optics (DHAO) dispenses with the wavefront sensor and wavefront corrector of the conventional AO system. DH is an emergent imaging technology that gives direct numerical access to the phase of the optical field, thus allowing precise control and manipulation of the optical field. Incorporation of DH in an ophthalmic imaging system can lead to versatile imaging capabilities at substantially reduced complexity and cost of the instrument. A typical conventional AO system includes several critical hardware pieces: spatial light modulator, lenslet array, and a second CCD camera in addition to the camera for imaging. The proposed DHAO system replaces these hardware components with numerical processing for wavefront measurement and compensation of aberration through the principles of DH. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  7. Optimal interferometer designs for optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Rollins, A M; Izatt, J A

    1999-11-01

    We introduce a family of power-conserving fiber-optic interferometer designs for low-coherence reflectometry that use optical circulators, unbalanced couplers, and (or) balanced heterodyne detection. Simple design equations for optimization of the signal-to-noise ratio of the interferometers are expressed in terms of relevant signal and noise sources and measurable system parameters. We use the equations to evaluate the expected performance of the new configurations compared with that of the standard Michelson interferometer that is commonly used in optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems. The analysis indicates that improved sensitivity is expected for all the new interferometer designs, compared with the sensitivity of the standard OCT interferometer, under high-speed imaging conditions.

  8. Coherence Phenomena in Coupled Optical Resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David D.

    2007-01-01

    Quantum coherence effects in atomic media such as electromagnetically-induced transparency and absorption, lasing without inversion, super-radiance and gain-assisted superluminality have become well-known in atomic physics. But these effects are not unique to atoms, nor are they uniquely quantum in nature, but rather are fundamental to systems of coherently coupled oscillators. In this talk I will review a variety of analogous photonic coherence phenomena that can occur in passive and active coupled optical resonators. Specifically, I will examine the evolution of the response that can occur upon the addition of a second resonator, to a single resonator that is side-coupled to a waveguide, as the coupling is increased, and discuss the conditions for slow and fast light propagation, coupled-resonator-induced transparency and absorption, lasing without gain, and gain-assisted superluminal pulse propagation. Finally, I will discuss the application of these systems to laser stabilization and gyroscopy.

  9. Coherent Optical Adaptive Techniques (COAT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-02-01

    E o U rt UJ c t- 3 c o ■p t) c u •H +» ft o \\ o •d H & ■H to ■ o 10 ..,. J,.-. ..»^-^A^.^-. mfiiTflMaaj— ft ! -^^ lUMI IJI...13) 2 2 2 J,(Tidp) array r n=-oo e e ^ a Jl( XR ^o +yo j o vo E 5 n--ae 0 n\\/-N , TTD XB - i 0 sinc XR Xo ( ft ...was found that the acousto-optic Bragg cell functioning as a frequency modulator can meet the unlimited dynamic range and bandwidth requirements

  10. Coherent Optical Frequency Synthesis and Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Jun; Hall, John L.; Jost, John; Ma, Long-Sheng; Peng, Jin-Long

    2002-06-01

    We demonstrate a simple optical clock based on an optical transition of iodine molecules, providing a frequency stability superior to most rf sources. Combined with a femtosecond-laser-based optical comb to provide the phase coherent clock mechanism linking the optical and microwave spectra, we derive an rf clock signal of comparable stability over an extended period. In fact, the stability (5 × 10-14 at 1 s) of the cw laser locked on the iodine transition is transferred to every comb component throughout the optical octave bandwidth (from 532 nm to 1064 nm) with a precision of 3.5 × 10-15. Stability characterization of the optical clock is below 3 × 10-13 at 1 s (currently limited by the microwave sources). The long-term stability of this simple optical standard is demonstrated to be better than 4.6 × 10-13 over a year. To realize a genuine optical frequency synthesizer, another widely tunable single-frequency cw laser has been employed to randomly access the stabilized optical comb and lock to a desired comb component. The goal is to generate on demand a highly stable single-frequency optical signal in any part of the visible spectrum with a useful output power.

  11. Coherent noise remover for optical projection tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Liangliang; Dong, Di; Yang, Yujie; Wang, Jun; Arranz, Alicia; Ripoll, Jorge; Tian, Jie

    2015-03-01

    Optical Projection Tomography (OPT) is a 3-Dimentional (3D) imaging technique for small specimens between 1mm and 10mm in size. Due to its high resolution and whole-body imaging ability, OPT has been widely used for imaging of small specimens such as murine embryos, murine organs, zebra fish, and plant sections. During an OPT imaging experiment, the ring artifacts are very common which severely impact the image quality of OPT. A ring artifact is caused by a bad pixel on the camera, or impurities on surface of lens and index matching vessel. Here we term these noises as coherent noise because they stay in the same image region during an OPT experiment. Currently, there is still no effective method to remove coherent noises. To address this problem, we propose a novel method to suppress the coherent noises before 3D OPT reconstruction. Our method consists of two steps: 1) find bad pixel positions on a blank image without specimen by using threshold segmentation, then fix the bad pixels on the projection image by using average of their neighbor pixels, 2) remove remained coherent noises on the sinogram by using Variational Coherent noise Remover (VSNR) method. After the two steps, lots of method can be used to generate the tomographic slices from the modified sinograms. We apply our method to a mouse heart imaging with our home-made OPT system. The experimental results show that our method has a good suppression on coherent noise and greatly improves the image quality. The innovation of our method is that we remove coherent noise automatically from both projection image and sinogram and they complement each other.

  12. Ultrahigh Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drexler, Wolfgang; Chen, Yu; Aguirre, Aaron D.; Považay, Boris; Unterhuber, Angelika; Fujimoto, James G.

    Since its invention in the late 1980s [1-4] and early 1990s [5-7], the original idea of OCT was to enable noninvasive optical biopsy, i.e., the in situ imaging of tissue microstructure with a resolution approaching that of histology, but without the need for tissue excision and post-processing. An important advance toward this goal was the introduction of ultrahigh-resolution OCT (UHR OCT). By improving axial OCT resolution by one order of magnitude from the 10 to 15 μm to the sub-μm region [8-11], UHR OCT enables superior visualization of tissue microstructure, including all major intraretinal layers in ophthalmic applications as well as cellular resolution OCT imaging in nontransparent tissue. This chapter reviews state-of-the-art technology that enables ultrahigh-resolution OCT covering the entire wavelength region from 500 to 1,600 nm and discusses fundamental limitations of OCT image resolution.

  13. Optical Coherence Tomography Velocimetry with Complex Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malm, A.; Waigh, T. A.; Jaradat, S.; Tomlin, R.

    2015-04-01

    We present recent results obtained with an Optical Coherence Tomography Velocimetry technique. An optical interferometer measures the velocity of a sheared fluid at specific depths of the sample using the coherence length of the light source. The technique allows the dynamics of 3 pico liter volumes to be probed inside opaque complex fluids. In a study of opaque starch suspensions, classical bulk rheology experiments show non-linear shear thickening, whereas observations of the velocity profiles as a function of distance across the gap show Newtonian behavior. The ability of the technique to measure velocity fluctuations is also discussed for the case of polyacrylamide samples which were observed to display shear banding behavior. A relationship between the viscoelasticity of the sample and the size of the apparent fluctuations is observed.

  14. Removing autocorrelation in spectral optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Jun; Wang, Lihong V.

    2006-02-01

    We have developed a new algorithm and configuration for removing the autocorrelation of the object wave in spectral optical coherence tomography. The self-interferogram of the object wave is acquired synchronously with the standard interferogram of the recombined object and reference waves. The former is then subtracted from the latter after Fourier transformation. The algorithm is validated by numerical simulation and by experimental measurement of a USAF target and a feline eye.

  15. Visible light optical coherence correlation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Broillet, Stephane; Szlag, Daniel; Bouwens, Arno; Maurizi, Lionel; Hofmann, Heinrich; Lasser, Theo; Leutenegger, Marcel

    2014-09-08

    Optical coherence correlation spectroscopy (OCCS) allows studying kinetic processes at the single particle level using the backscattered light of nanoparticles. We extend the possibilities of this technique by increasing its signal-to-noise ratio by a factor of more than 25 and by generalizing the method to solutions containing multiple nanoparticle species. We applied these improvements by measuring protein adsorption and formation of a protein monolayer on superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles under physiological conditions.

  16. OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY IN GEOGRAPHIC ATROPHY.

    PubMed

    Sacconi, Riccardo; Corbelli, Eleonora; Carnevali, Adriano; Querques, Lea; Bandello, Francesco; Querques, Giuseppe

    2017-10-06

    To analyze choriocapillaris (CC) vessel density (VD) around geographic atrophy (GA) secondary to non-neovascular dry age-related macular degeneration using optical coherence tomography angiography. We compared CC VD surrounding GA margin (500 μm radius) with control CC (outside GA margin) in a consecutive series of GA patients presenting between August 2016 and February 2017 at the Medical Retina and Imaging Unit of University Vita-Salute, IRCCS Ospedale San Raffaele in Milan. Images were obtained through thresholding and binarization. We also compared the CC VD in a sample area of 500 μm × 500 μm surrounding GA margin rated as hyperautofluorescent on fundus autofluorescence to a similar area rated as isoautofluorescent. Fifty eyes of 29 patients (19 women and 10 men; mean age 77 ± 6 years) with mean GA area of 9.43 ± 5.08 mm and mean subfoveal choroidal thickness of 164 ± 73 μm were included. Choriocapillaris VD surrounding GA margin as detected by optical coherence tomography angiography revealed a significant impairment compared with control CC outside GA margin (0.317 ± 0.083 vs. 0.461 ± 0.054, P < 0.001), which was even greater in patients with foveal involvement (P = 0.013). Furthermore, mean VD in hyperautofluorescent areas was significantly lower compared with isoautofluorescent areas (0.242 ± 0.112 vs. 0.327 ± 0.130, P = 0.001). A positive correlation was disclosed between VD surrounding GA margin and subfoveal choroidal thickness (r = 0.332, P = 0.019). Optical coherence tomography angiography discloses CC impairment surrounding GA margin. Such CC impairment at GA margin seems to precede retinal pigment epithelium alterations at fundus autofluorescence. Optical coherence tomography angiography could be a new valuable tool for detecting CC alterations and to evaluate potential therapeutic responses in clinical studies.

  17. The basics of intravascular optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Jąkała, Jacek; Kałuża, Grzegorz L.; Partyka, Łukasz; Proniewska, Klaudia; Pociask, Elżbieta; Zasada, Wojciech; Wojakowski, Wojciech; Gąsior, Zbigniew; Dudek, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has opened new horizons for intravascular coronary imaging. It utilizes near-infrared light to provide a microscopic insight into the pathology of coronary arteries in vivo. Optical coherence tomography is also capable of identifying the chemical composition of atherosclerotic plaques and detecting traits of their vulnerability. At present it is the only tool to measure the thickness of the fibrous cap covering the lipid core of the atheroma, and thus it is an exceptional modality to detect plaques that are prone to rupture (thin fibrous cap atheromas). Moreover, it facilitates distinguishing between plaque rupture and plaque erosion as a cause of acute intracoronary thrombosis. Optical coherence tomography is applied to guide angioplasties of coronary lesions and to assess outcomes of percutaneous coronary interventions broadly. It identifies stent malapposition, dissections, and thrombosis with unprecedented precision. Furthermore, OCT helps to monitor vessel healing after stenting. It evaluates the coverage of stent struts by the neointima and detects in-stent neoatherosclerosis. With so much potential, new studies are warranted to determine OCT's clinical impact. The following review presents the technical background, basics of OCT image interpretation, and practical tips for adequate OCT imaging, and outlines its established and potential clinical application. PMID:26161097

  18. Optical coherence tomography used for jade industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Shoude; Mao, Youxin; Chang, Guangming; Flueraru, Costel

    2010-11-01

    As an expensive natural stone, jade has a worldwide market. In the jade industry, the inspection and analysis basically rely on the human eye and/or experience, which cause unavoidable waste and damage of these expensive materials. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a fundamentally new type of optical sensing technology, which can perform high resolution, cross-sectional sensing of the internal structure of materials. As jade is almost translucent to infra red light, OCT becomes an ideal tool to change the traditional procedure to volume data based machine vision system. OCT can also be used for anti-counterfeit of the expensive jade ware.

  19. Optical coherence tomography guided dental drill

    DOEpatents

    DaSilva, Luiz B.; Colston, Jr., Bill W.; James, Dale L.

    2002-01-01

    A dental drill that has one or multiple single mode fibers that can be used to image in the vicinity of the drill tip. It is valuable to image below the surface being drilled to minimize damage to vital or normal tissue. Identifying the boundary between decayed and normal enamel (or dentine) would reduce the removal of viable tissue, and identifying the nerve before getting too close with the drill could prevent nerve damage. By surrounding a drill with several optical fibers that can be used by an optical coherence domain reflectometry (OCDR) to image several millimeters ahead of the ablation surface will lead to a new and improved dental treatment device.

  20. Endoscopic Optical Coherence Tomography for Clinical Gastroenterology

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Tsung-Han; Fujimoto, James G.; Mashimo, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a real-time optical imaging technique that is similar in principle to ultrasonography, but employs light instead of sound waves and allows depth-resolved images with near-microscopic resolution. Endoscopic OCT allows the evaluation of broad-field and subsurface areas and can be used ancillary to standard endoscopy, narrow band imaging, chromoendoscopy, magnification endoscopy, and confocal endomicroscopy. This review article will provide an overview of the clinical utility of endoscopic OCT in the gastrointestinal tract and of recent achievements using state-of-the-art endoscopic 3D-OCT imaging systems. PMID:26852678

  1. Coherent optical OFDM: theory and design.

    PubMed

    Shieh, W; Bao, H; Tang, Y

    2008-01-21

    Coherent optical OFDM (CO-OFDM) has recently been proposed and the proof-of-concept transmission experiments have shown its extreme robustness against chromatic dispersion and polarization mode dispersion. In this paper, we first review the theoretical fundamentals for CO-OFDM and its channel model in a 2x2 MIMO-OFDM representation. We then present various design choices for CO-OFDM systems and perform the nonlinearity analysis for RF-to-optical up-converter. We also show the receiver-based digital signal processing to mitigate self-phase-modulation (SPM) and Gordon-Mollenauer phase noise, which is equivalent to the midspan phase conjugation.

  2. Optical coherence tomography imaging of optic disc cavernous haemangioma.

    PubMed

    Katta, Mohamed; Mehta, Hemal; Ho, Ivan; Garrick, Ray; Chong, Robert

    2016-11-01

    Optic disc cavernous haemangiomas are either found incidentally or after presentation with vitreous haemorrhage. They are characterised by a cluster of grapes appearance to the multiple vascular saccules that make up the tumour. They are more often found in the retinal periphery but rarely occur at the optic disc. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging may be a useful non-invasive imaging modality to follow-up these lesions. We present the case of an asymptomatic 60-year-old lady referred from her optometrist with a lesion overlying the optic disc and the ensuing diagnosis of cavernous haemangioma using fundus fluorescein angiography and OCT.

  3. Catheter guided by optical coherence domain reflectometry

    DOEpatents

    Everett, Matthew; Colston, Billy W.; Da Silva, Luiz B.; Matthews, Dennis

    2002-01-01

    A guidance and viewing system based on multiplexed optical coherence domain reflectometry is incorporated into a catheter, endoscope, or other medical device to measure the location, thickness, and structure of the arterial walls or other intra-cavity regions at discrete points on the medical device during minimally invasive medical procedures. The information will be used both to guide the device through the body and to evaluate the tissue through which the device is being passed. Multiple optical fibers are situated along the circumference of the device. Light from the distal end of each fiber is directed onto the interior cavity walls via small diameter optics (such as gradient index lenses and mirrored corner cubes). Both forward viewing and side viewing fibers can be included. The light reflected or scattered from the cavity walls is then collected by the fibers and multiplexed at the proximal end to the sample arm of an optical low coherence reflectometer. The system may also be implemented in a nonmedical inspection device.

  4. Modeling propagation of coherent optical pulses through molecular vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Shore, B.W.; Eberly, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    Results of modeling the mutual coupling of coherent molecular response and coherent optical pulses during propagation are described. The propagation is treated numerically, with particular emphasis on both continuum and discrete behavior associated with the quasicontinuum model.

  5. Homodyne en face optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaqoob, Zahid; Fingler, Jeff; Heng, Xin; Yang, Changhuei

    2006-06-01

    We demonstrate, for what we believe to be the first time, the use of a 3×3 fiber-optic coupler to realize a homodyne optical coherence tomography (OCT) system for en face imaging of highly scattering tissues and turbid media. The homodyne OCT setup exploits the inherent phase shifts between different output ports of a 3×3 fiber-optic coupler to extract amplitude information of a sample. Our homodyne en face OCT system features a measured resolution of 14 μm axially and 9.4 μm laterally with a 90 dB signal-to-noise ratio at 10 μs integration time. En face OCT imaging of a stage 52 Xenopus laevis was successfully demonstrated at a depth of 600 μm within the sample.

  6. Dental diagnostics using optical coherence techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Nathel, H.; Colston, B.; Armitage, G.

    1994-11-15

    Optical radiation can be used for diagnostic purposes in oral medicine. However, due to the turbid, amorphous, and inhomogeneous nature of dental tissue conventional techniques used to transilluminate materials are not well suited to dental tissues. Optical coherence techniques either in the time- of frequency-domain offer the capabilities of discriminating scattered from unscattered light, thus allowing for imaging through turbid tissue. Currently, using optical time-domain reflectometry we are able to discriminate specular from diffuse reflections occurring at tissue boundaries. We have determined the specular reflectivity of enamel and dentin to be approximately 6.6 x 10{sup -5} and 1.3 x 10{sup -6}, respectively. Implications to periodontal imaging will be discussed.

  7. Cubic meter volume optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    WANG, ZHAO; POTSAID, BENJAMIN; CHEN, LONG; DOERR, CHRIS; LEE, HSIANG-CHIEH; NIELSON, TORBEN; JAYARAMAN, VIJAYSEKHAR; CABLE, ALEX E.; SWANSON, ERIC; FUJIMOTO, JAMES G.

    2017-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a powerful three-dimensional (3D) imaging modality with micrometer-scale axial resolution and up to multi-GigaVoxel/s imaging speed. However, the imaging range of high-speed OCT has been limited. Here, we report 3D OCT over cubic meter volumes using a long coherence length, 1310 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser and silicon photonic integrated circuit dual-quadrature receiver technology combined with enhanced signal processing. We achieved 15 µm depth resolution for tomographic imaging at a 100 kHz axial scan rate over a 1.5 m range. We show 3D macroscopic imaging examples of a human mannequin, bicycle, machine shop gauge blocks, and a human skull/brain model. High-bandwidth, meter-range OCT demonstrates new capabilities that promise to enable a wide range of biomedical, scientific, industrial, and research applications. PMID:28239628

  8. Cubic meter volume optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhao; Potsaid, Benjamin; Chen, Long; Doerr, Chris; Lee, Hsiang-Chieh; Nielson, Torben; Jayaraman, Vijaysekhar; Cable, Alex E; Swanson, Eric; Fujimoto, James G

    2016-12-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a powerful three-dimensional (3D) imaging modality with micrometer-scale axial resolution and up to multi-GigaVoxel/s imaging speed. However, the imaging range of high-speed OCT has been limited. Here, we report 3D OCT over cubic meter volumes using a long coherence length, 1310 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser and silicon photonic integrated circuit dual-quadrature receiver technology combined with enhanced signal processing. We achieved 15 µm depth resolution for tomographic imaging at a 100 kHz axial scan rate over a 1.5 m range. We show 3D macroscopic imaging examples of a human mannequin, bicycle, machine shop gauge blocks, and a human skull/brain model. High-bandwidth, meter-range OCT demonstrates new capabilities that promise to enable a wide range of biomedical, scientific, industrial, and research applications.

  9. Concept of coherence of learning physical optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo, Elisa M.; Jaen, Mirta; de Cudmani, Leonor C.

    1995-10-01

    The aim of the actual paper is to enhance achievements of the text 'Optica Fisica Basica: estructurada alrededor del concepto de coherencia luminosa' (in English 'Basic Physical Optics centered in the concept of coherence'). We consider that this book is a very worth tool when one has to learn or to teach some fundamental concepts of physical optics. It is well known that the topics of physical optics present not easy understanding for students. Even more they also present some difficulties for the teachers when they have to introduce them to the class. First, we think that different phenomena like diffraction and polarization could be well understood if the starting point is a deep comprehension of the concept of interference of light and, associated with this, the fundamental and nothing intuitive concept of coherence of the light. In the reference text the authors propose the use of expression 'stable interference pattern of no uniform intensity' instead of 'pattern of interference' and 'average pattern of uniform untested' instead of 'lack of interference' to make reference that light always interfere but just under restrictive conditions it can be got temporal and spatial stability of the pattern. Another idea we want to stand out is that the ability to observe a 'stable interference pattern of no uniform intensity' is associated not only with the coherence of the source but also with the dimensions of the experimental system and with the temporal and spatial characteristics of the detector used - human eye, photographic film, etc. The proposal is well support by quantitative relations. With an alternate model: a train of waves with a finite length of coherence, it is possible to get range of validity of models, to decide when a source could be considered a 'point' or 'monochromatic' or 'remote', an 'infinite' wave or a train of waves, etc. Using this concept it is possible to achieve a better understanding of phenomena like the polarization of light. Here, it

  10. Spectral fusing Gabor domain optical coherence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Meemon, Panomsak; Widjaja, Joewono; Rolland, Jannick P

    2016-02-01

    Gabor domain optical coherence microscopy (GD-OCM) is one of many variations of optical coherence tomography (OCT) techniques that aims for invariant high resolution across a 3D field of view by utilizing the ability to dynamically refocus the imaging optics in the sample arm. GD-OCM acquires multiple cross-sectional images at different focus positions of the objective lens, and then fuses them to obtain an invariant high-resolution 3D image of the sample, which comes with the intrinsic drawback of a longer processing time as compared to conventional Fourier domain OCT. Here, we report on an alternative Gabor fusing algorithm, the spectral-fusion technique, which directly processes each acquired spectrum and combines them prior to the Fourier transformation to obtain a depth profile. The implementation of the spectral-fusion algorithm is presented and its performance is compared to that of the prior GD-OCM spatial-fusion approach. The spectral-fusion approach shows twice the speed of the spatial-fusion approach for a spectrum size of less than 2000 point sampling, which is a commonly used spectrum size in OCT imaging, including GD-OCM.

  11. Optics for coherent X-ray applications.

    PubMed

    Yabashi, Makina; Tono, Kensuke; Mimura, Hidekazu; Matsuyama, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Kazuto; Tanaka, Takashi; Tanaka, Hitoshi; Tamasaku, Kenji; Ohashi, Haruhiko; Goto, Shunji; Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    2014-09-01

    Developments of X-ray optics for full utilization of diffraction-limited storage rings (DLSRs) are presented. The expected performance of DLSRs is introduced using the design parameters of SPring-8 II. To develop optical elements applicable to manipulation of coherent X-rays, advanced technologies on precise processing and metrology were invented. With propagation-based coherent X-rays at the 1 km beamline of SPring-8, a beryllium window fabricated with the physical-vapour-deposition method was found to have ideal speckle-free properties. The elastic emission machining method was utilized for developing reflective mirrors without distortion of the wavefronts. The method was further applied to production of diffraction-limited focusing mirrors generating the smallest spot size in the sub-10 nm regime. To enable production of ultra-intense nanobeams at DLSRs, a low-vibration cooling system for a high-heat-load monochromator and advanced diagnostic systems to characterize X-ray beam properties precisely were developed. Finally, new experimental schemes for combinative nano-analysis and spectroscopy realised with novel X-ray optics are discussed.

  12. Optics for coherent X-ray applications

    PubMed Central

    Yabashi, Makina; Tono, Kensuke; Mimura, Hidekazu; Matsuyama, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Kazuto; Tanaka, Takashi; Tanaka, Hitoshi; Tamasaku, Kenji; Ohashi, Haruhiko; Goto, Shunji; Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    Developments of X-ray optics for full utilization of diffraction-limited storage rings (DLSRs) are presented. The expected performance of DLSRs is introduced using the design parameters of SPring-8 II. To develop optical elements applicable to manipulation of coherent X-rays, advanced technologies on precise processing and metrology were invented. With propagation-based coherent X-rays at the 1 km beamline of SPring-8, a beryllium window fabricated with the physical-vapour-deposition method was found to have ideal speckle-free properties. The elastic emission machining method was utilized for developing reflective mirrors without distortion of the wavefronts. The method was further applied to production of diffraction-limited focusing mirrors generating the smallest spot size in the sub-10 nm regime. To enable production of ultra-intense nanobeams at DLSRs, a low-vibration cooling system for a high-heat-load monochromator and advanced diagnostic systems to characterize X-ray beam properties precisely were developed. Finally, new experimental schemes for combinative nano-analysis and spectroscopy realised with novel X-ray optics are discussed. PMID:25177986

  13. MEMS scanning micromirror for optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Strathman, Matthew; Liu, Yunbo; Keeler, Ethan G; Song, Mingli; Baran, Utku; Xi, Jiefeng; Sun, Ming-Ting; Wang, Ruikang; Li, Xingde; Lin, Lih Y

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an endoscopic-inspired imaging system employing a micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) micromirror scanner to achieve beam scanning for optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging. Miniaturization of a scanning mirror using MEMS technology can allow a fully functional imaging probe to be contained in a package sufficiently small for utilization in a working channel of a standard gastroesophageal endoscope. This work employs advanced image processing techniques to enhance the images acquired using the MEMS scanner to correct non-idealities in mirror performance. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  14. Optical coherence tomography findings in ocular argyrosis.

    PubMed

    Rahimy, Ehsan; Beardsley, Robert; Ferrucci, Steven; Ilsen, Pauline; Sarraf, David

    2013-11-25

    A 68-year-old Caucasian man with a remote history of daily colloidal silver ingestion presented for ophthalmic examination in which he was noted to have a distinct slate gray skin discoloration. Funduscopy revealed confluent perimacular drusenoid deposits bilaterally, most of which localized at the level of or anterior to the inner segment ellipsoid band by optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging. Enhanced depth imaging OCT demonstrated marked choroidal thinning. Fluorescein angiogram displayed a dark or silent choroid. Confirmatory serum silver levels were found to be markedly elevated. This report describes a unique geographic maculopathy with large drusenoid deposits anterior to the ellipsoid layer and severe choroidal thinning in association with ocular argyrosis.

  15. Optical coherence tomography investigations of ceramic lumineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Luana O.; Graça, Natalia D. R. L.; Melo, Luciana S. A.; Silva, Claudio H. V.; Gomes, Anderson S. L.

    2016-02-01

    Lumineers are veneer laminates used as an alternative for aesthetic dental solutions of the highest quality, but the only current means of its performance assessment is visual inspection. The objective of this study was to use the Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) technique working in spectral domain to analyze in vivo in a single patient, 14 lumineers 180 days after cementation. It was possible to observe images in various kinds of changes in the cementing line and the laminate. It was concluded that the OCT is an effective and promising method to clinical evaluation of the cementing line in lumineers.

  16. MEMS scanning micromirror for optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Strathman, Matthew; Liu, Yunbo; Keeler, Ethan G.; Song, Mingli; Baran, Utku; Xi, Jiefeng; Sun, Ming-Ting; Wang, Ruikang; Li, Xingde; Lin, Lih Y.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an endoscopic-inspired imaging system employing a micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) micromirror scanner to achieve beam scanning for optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging. Miniaturization of a scanning mirror using MEMS technology can allow a fully functional imaging probe to be contained in a package sufficiently small for utilization in a working channel of a standard gastroesophageal endoscope. This work employs advanced image processing techniques to enhance the images acquired using the MEMS scanner to correct non-idealities in mirror performance. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique. PMID:25657887

  17. Multi-Scale Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Michael Christopher

    An optical modality capable of quantitative, label-free, high-speed and high-resolution imaging across spatiotemporal scales coupled with sophisticated software for image reconstruction and quantitative analyses would be of great utility to scientists and engineers in the medical and life sciences fields. Currently, a combination of optical imaging techniques and software packages are needed to address the list of capabilities described previously. Optical coherence tomography is an optical imaging technique based on low coherence interferometry capable of measuring light backscattered from the sample at micrometer-level resolutions over millimeter-level penetration depths in biological tissue. Phase-sensitive extensions of OCT enable the functional assessment of biological tissue samples as well as the structural examination of samples down to the single-cell level. This dissertation describes the development and application of high-speed real-time multi-functional spectral-domain OCT (MF-SD-OCT) for structural and functional examination of biological samples across spatiotemporal scales. A discussion of the development of a GPU-accelerated high-speed MF-SD-OCT imaging system accompanied by demonstrations of the performance enhancements due to the GPU are presented initially. Next, the development of MF-SD-OCT-based quantitative methods for the structural and functional assessment and characterization and classification of biological tissue samples is discussed. The utility of these methods is demonstrated through structural, functional and optical characterization and classification of peripheral nerve and muscle tissue. The dissertation concludes with a discussion of the improvements made to spectral-domain optical coherence phase microscopy (SD-OCPM) to enable dynamic live cell imaging and the application of dynamic live cell SD-OCPM for morphological visualization of cheek epithelial cells and examination of functionally stimulated morphological changes in

  18. Coherent nonlinear optical imaging: beyond fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Min, Wei; Freudiger, Christian W; Lu, Sijia; Xie, X Sunney

    2011-01-01

    The quest for ultrahigh detection sensitivity with spectroscopic contrasts other than fluorescence has led to various novel approaches to optical microscopy of biological systems. Coherent nonlinear optical imaging, especially the recently developed nonlinear dissipation microscopy (including stimulated Raman scattering and two-photon absorption) and pump-probe microscopy (including excited-state absorption, stimulated emission, and ground-state depletion), provides new image contrasts for nonfluorescent species. Thanks to the high-frequency modulation transfer scheme, these imaging techniques exhibit superb detection sensitivity. By directly interrogating vibrational and/or electronic energy levels of molecules, they offer high molecular specificity. Here we review the underlying principles and excitation and detection schemes, as well as exemplary biomedical applications of this emerging class of molecular imaging techniques.

  19. Coherent Nonlinear Optical Imaging: Beyond Fluorescence Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Min, Wei; Freudiger, Christian W.; Lu, Sijia; Xie, X. Sunney

    2012-01-01

    The quest for ultrahigh detection sensitivity with spectroscopic contrasts other than fluorescence has led to various novel approaches to optical microscopy of biological systems. Coherent nonlinear optical imaging, especially the recently developed nonlinear dissipation microscopy, including stimulated Raman scattering and two photon absorption, and pump-probe microscopy, including stimulated emission, excited state absorption and ground state depletion, provide distinct and powerful image contrasts for non-fluorescent species. Thanks to high-frequency modulation transfer scheme, they exhibit superb detection sensitivity. By directly interrogating vibrational and/or electronic energy levels of molecules, they offer high molecular specificity. Here we review the underlying principles, excitation and detection schemes, as well as exemplary biomedical applications of this emerging class of molecular imaging techniques. PMID:21453061

  20. Birefringence insensitive optical coherence domain reflectometry system

    DOEpatents

    Everett, Matthew J.; Davis, Joseph G.

    2002-01-01

    A birefringence insensitive fiber optic optical coherence domain reflectometry (OCDR) system is provided containing non-polarization maintaining (non-PM) fiber in the sample arm and the reference arm without suffering from signal degradation caused by birefringence. The use of non-PM fiber significantly reduces the cost of the OCDR system and provides a disposable or multiplexed section of the sample arm. The dispersion in the reference arm and sample arm of the OCDR system are matched to achieve high resolution imaging. This system is useful in medical applications or for non-medical in situ probes. The disposable section of non-PM fiber in the sample arm can be conveniently replaced when contaminated by a sample or a patient.

  1. Optical coherence tomography findings in commotio retina.

    PubMed

    Sony, Parul; Venkatesh, Pradeep; Gadaginamath, Shailesh; Garg, Sat Pal

    2006-08-01

    A 16-year-old boy presented with diminished visual acuity of 6/60 following blunt trauma to his right eye with a cricket ball. Fundus examination showed commotio retinae. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) demonstrated increased reflectivity with small optically clear spaces in the area corresponding to the photoreceptor outer segment. At 2-month follow up the visual acuity improved to 6/6. A small area of retinal opacification persisted nasally, and OCT of the corresponding area continued to show increased reflectivity in the area of photoreceptor outer segment. Increased reflectivity on OCT in eyes with commotio retinae probably denotes photoreceptor outer segment disruption and seems to be reversible to a variable extent.

  2. Mid-infrared optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Colley, Christopher S; Hebden, Jeremy C; Delpy, David T; Cambrey, Alison D; Brown, Robert A; Zibik, Evgeny A; Ng, Wing H; Wilson, Luke R; Cockburn, John W

    2007-12-01

    A time domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) system is described that uses mid-infrared light (6-8 microm). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first OCT system that operates in the mid-infrared spectral region. It has been designed to characterize bioengineered tissues in terms of their structure and biochemical composition. The system is based upon a free-space Michelson interferometer with a germanium beam splitter and a liquid nitrogen cooled HgCdTe detector. A key component of this work has been the development of a broadband quantum cascade laser source (InGaAs/AlInAs containing 11 different active regions of the three well vertical transition type) that emits continuously over the 6-8 microm wavelength range. This wavelength range corresponds to the so called "mid-infrared fingerprint region" which exhibits well-defined absorption bands that are specifically attributable to the absorbing molecules. Therefore, this technology provides an opportunity for optical coherence molecular imaging without the need for molecular contrast agents. Preliminary measurements are presented.

  3. Functional Optical Coherence Tomography: Principles and Progress

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jina; Brown, William; Maher, Jason R.; Levinson, Howard; Wax, Adam

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, several functional extensions of optical coherence tomography (OCT) have emerged, and this review highlights key advances in instrumentation, theoretical analysis, signal processing and clinical application of these extensions. We review five principal extensions: Doppler OCT (DOCT), polarization-sensitive OCT (PS-OCT), optical coherence elastography (OCE), spectroscopic OCT (SOCT), and molecular imaging OCT. The former three have been further developed with studies in both ex vivo and in vivo human tissues. This review emphasizes the newer techniques of SOCT and molecular imaging OCT, which show excellent potential for clinical application but have yet to be well reviewed in the literature. SOCT elucidates tissue characteristics, such as oxygenation and carcinogenesis, by detecting wavelength-dependent absorption and scattering of light in tissues. While SOCT measures endogenous biochemical distributions, molecular imaging OCT detects exogenous molecular contrast agents. These newer advances in functional OCT broaden the potential clinical application of OCT by providing novel ways to understand tissue activity that cannot be accomplished by other current imaging methodologies. PMID:25951836

  4. Snapshot Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdez, Ashley

    Optical coherence tomography systems are used to image the retina in 3D to allow ophthalmologists diagnose ocular disease. These systems yield large data sets that are often labor-intensive to analyze and require significant expertise in order to draw conclusions, especially when used over time to monitor disease progression. Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) instantly acquires depth profiles at a single location with a broadband source. These systems require mechanical scanning to generate two- or three-dimensional images. Instead of mechanically scanning, a beamlet array was used to permit multiple depth measurements on the retina with a single snapshot using a 3x 3 beamlet array. This multi-channel system was designed, assembled, and tested using a 1 x 2 beamlet lens array instead of a 3 x 3 beamlet array as a proof of concept prototype. The source was a superluminescent diode centered at 840nm with a 45nm bandwidth. Theoretical axial resolution was 6.92um and depth of focus was 3.45mm. Glass samples of varying thickness ranging from 0.18mm to 1.14mm were measured with the system to validate that correct depth profiles can be acquired for each channel. The results demonstrated the prototype system performed as expected, and is ready to be modified for in vivo applicability.

  5. Fiber optic based optical coherence tomography (OCT) for dental applications

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, M. J., LLNL

    1998-06-02

    We have developed a hand-held fiber optic based optical coherence tomography (OCT) system for scanning of the oral cavity We have produced, using this scanning device, in viva cross-sectional images of hard and soft dental tissues in human volunteers Clinically relevant anatomical structures, including the gingival margin, periodontal sulcus, and dento-enamel junction, were visible in all the images The dento-enamel junction and the alveolar bone were identifiable in approximately two thirds of the images These images represent, to our knowledge, the first in viva OCT images of human dental tissue.

  6. Optical Coherence Tomography in a Needle Format

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenser, Dirk; McLaughlin, Robert A.; Sampson, David D.

    In this chapter, we review the technology and applications of needle probes for optical coherence tomography (OCT). Needle probes are miniaturized fiber-optic probes that can be mounted inside hypodermic needles, allowing them to be inserted deep into the body during OCT imaging. This overcomes the very limited imaging depth of OCT of only 2-3 mm in biological tissue, enabling access to deep-tissue locations that are beyond the reach of free-space optical scan heads or catheters. This chapter provides an in-depth review of the current state-of-the art in needle probe technology, including optical design and fabrication, scan mechanisms (including three-dimensional scanning), and integration into OCT systems. It also provides an overview of emerging applications of this fascinating new imaging tool in areas such as cancer diagnosis, pulmonary imaging, imaging of the eye and imaging of the brain. Finally, two case studies are presented, illustrating needle-based OCT imaging in breast cancer and lungs.

  7. Optical coherence tomography of the eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hee, Michael Richard

    1997-10-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a new technique for high-resolution, cross-sectional imaging of tissue in which the time-of-flight delay of light reflected from internal tissue structures is resolved with high precision using interferometry. Tomographic images are obtained which are analogous to those provided by ultrasound except that image contrast relies on differences in optical rather than acoustic properties of tissue. The use of light rather than sound enables higher resolution (10 μm) and non-contact imaging. A clinically viable high-sensitivity, fiber-optic based OCT instrument has been constructed based on engineering principles derived from optical communication theory. Computer algorithms have also been developed for quantitative image analysis and restoration. OCT has been used to image patients with a variety of ocular diseases. In patients with macular pathology, OCT images have been correlated with conventional clinical examination and fluorescein angiography. Optical coherence tomograms are effective in staging macular holes, evaluating the vitreoretinal interface in eyes at risk for a macular hole, and providing a structural assessment of macular hole surgery. In eyes with central serous chorioretinopathy, OCT can evaluate sensory retinal separations undetected at the slit-lamp. Serial OCT images of macular edema are able to track both the progression of macular thickening and the resolution of macular edema following laser photocoagulation. In patients with diabetic retinopathy, measurements of macular thickness correlate with visual acuity and OCT is more sensitive to small changes in retinal thickness than slit-lamp biomicroscopy. OCT may provide a novel method of defining occult choroidal neovascular membranes in patients with age-related macular degeneration. OCT can also profile the thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer with high resolution which is potentially important for the objective assessment of early glaucoma progression

  8. Doppler optical coherence tomography in cardiovascular physiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonesi, M.; Meglinski, I.; Matcher, S.

    2008-09-01

    The study of flow dynamics in complex geometry vessels is highly important in many biomedical applications where the knowledge of the mechanic interactions between the moving fluid and the housing media plays a key role for the determination of the parameters of interest, including the effect of blood flow on the possible rupture of atherosclerotic plaques. Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography (DOCT), as a functional extension of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), is an optic, non-contact, non-invasive technique able to achieve detailed analysis of the flow/vessel interactions. It allows simultaneous high resolution imaging (10 μm typical) of the morphology and composition of the vessel and determination of the flow velocity distribution along the measured cross-section. We applied DOCT system to image high-resolution one-dimensional and multi-dimensional velocity distribution profiles of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids flowing in vessels with complex geometry, including Y-shaped and T-shaped vessels, vessels with aneurism, bifurcated vessels with deployed stent and scaffolds. The phantoms were built to mimic typical shapes of human blood vessels, enabling preliminary analysis of the interaction between flow dynamics and the (complex) geometry of the vessels and also to map the related velocity profiles at several inlet volume flow rates. Feasibility studies for quantitative observation of the turbulence of flows arising within the complex geometry vessels are discussed. In addition, DOCT technique was also applied for monitoring cerebral mouse blood flow in vivo. Two-dimensional DOCT images of complex flow velocity profiles in blood vessel phantoms and in vivo sub-cranial mouse blood flow velocities distributions are presented.

  9. Doppler optical coherence tomography in cardiovascular applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonesi, M.; Matcher, S.; Meglinski, I.

    2010-06-01

    The study of flow dynamics in complex geometry vessels is highly important in various biomedical applications where the knowledge of the mechanic interactions between the moving fluid and the housing media plays a key role for the determination of the parameters of interest, including the effect of blood flow on the possible rupture of atherosclerotic plaques. Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography (DOCT), as a functional extension of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), is an optic, non-contact, noninvasive technique able to achieve detailed analysis of the flow/vessel interactions. It allows simultaneous high resolution imaging (˜10 µm typical) of the morphology and composition of the vessel and determination of the flow velocity distribution along the measured cross-section. We applied DOCT system to image high-resolution one-dimensional and multi-dimensional velocity distribution profiles of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids flowing in vessels with complex geometry, including Y-shaped and T-shaped vessels, vessels with aneurism, bifurcated vessels with deployed stent and scaffolds. The phantoms were built to mimic typical shapes of human blood vessels, enabling preliminary analysis of the interaction between flow dynamics and the (complex) geometry of the vessels and also to map the related velocity profiles at several inlet volume flow rates. Feasibility studies for quantitative observation of the turbulence of flows arising within the complex geometry vessels are discussed. In addition, DOCT technique was also applied for monitoring cerebral mouse blood flow in vivo. Two-dimensional DOCT images of complex flow velocity profiles in blood vessel phantoms and in vivo sub-cranial mouse blood flow velocities distributions are presented.

  10. Developing broadband sources for optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L. R.; Kashyap, R.; Azaña, J.; Maciejko, R.; Matei, R.; Baron, J.; Nemova, G.; Chauve, J.; Bojor, L.; Beitel, D.; Saqqa, S.; Singh, K.

    2006-09-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging medical diagnostic technology for noninvasive in situ and in vivo cross-sectional morphological imaging of transparent or nontransparent biological tissues and materials on a micrometer scale. The technique uses low coherence interferometry to extract the intensity of the reflected signal as a function of penetration depth in the sample and is analogous to ultrasound except that much shorter wavelength infrared radiation is used rather than sound waves. Among the key enabling technologies for OCT systems are high-power, broadband optical sources (BBS). Such sources are required to provide large dynamic range and sensitivity, as well as very high axial resolution. In this paper, we present our ongoing work on developing BBS based on the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) from semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) and erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs). We target sources spanning the S, C, and L bands, with milliwatts of output power and smoothly shaped output spectra. In terms of shaping the output spectra, we consider different designs of gain flattening filters based on side-tapped fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) as well as specially apodized FBGs operating in transmission. In terms of the source development, we have developed strained multiple-quantum well SOAs and hybrid SOA-EDFA structures. In the hybrid structures, we have also investigated the possibility of exploiting the unused ASE from the SOA as a secondary input to the L-band EDFA. We have also explored techniques such as double-passing to enhance efficiency as well as gain-clamping to provide some inherent spectral flattening.

  11. Optical coherence tomography - principles and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fercher, A. F.; Drexler, W.; Hitzenberger, C. K.; Lasser, T.

    2003-02-01

    There have been three basic approaches to optical tomography since the early 1980s: diffraction tomography, diffuse optical tomography and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Optical techniques are of particular importance in the medical field, because these techniques promise to be safe and cheap and, in addition, offer a therapeutic potential. Advances in OCT technology have made it possible to apply OCT in a wide variety of applications but medical applications are still dominating. Specific advantages of OCT are its high depth and transversal resolution, the fact, that its depth resolution is decoupled from transverse resolution, high probing depth in scattering media, contact-free and non-invasive operation, and the possibility to create various function dependent image contrasting methods. This report presents the principles of OCT and the state of important OCT applications. OCT synthesises cross-sectional images from a series of laterally adjacent depth-scans. At present OCT is used in three different fields of optical imaging, in macroscopic imaging of structures which can be seen by the naked eye or using weak magnifications, in microscopic imaging using magnifications up to the classical limit of microscopic resolution and in endoscopic imaging, using low and medium magnification. First, OCT techniques, like the reflectometry technique and the dual beam technique were based on time-domain low coherence interferometry depth-scans. Later, Fourier-domain techniques have been developed and led to new imaging schemes. Recently developed parallel OCT schemes eliminate the need for lateral scanning and, therefore, dramatically increase the imaging rate. These schemes use CCD cameras and CMOS detector arrays as photodetectors. Video-rate three-dimensional OCT pictures have been obtained. Modifying interference microscopy techniques has led to high-resolution optical coherence microscopy that achieved sub-micrometre resolution. This report is concluded with a

  12. Metrology of Coherence and Polarization in Sight of Singular Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelsky, Oleg V.; Polyanskii, Peter V.; Maksimyak, Peter P.; Mokhun, Igor I.

    This chapter considers new feasibilities for metrology of coherence and polarization of light fields and reviews novel approaches to singular optics from the point of view of researchers. New possible techniques are discussed that can be involved in the study and implementation of completely and partially coherent/polarized complex fields and that can be of use in optical correlation diagnostics. These considerations were inspired by revived attempts to develop generalized classical theory of partial coherence and partial polarization (Emil Wolf), as well as by achievements in quantum theory of optical coherence (for which Roy Jay Glauber was awarded the Nobel Prize in 2005).

  13. In vivo cellular visualization of the human retina using optical coherence tomography and adaptive optics

    SciTech Connect

    Olivier, S S; Jones, S M; Chen, D C; Zawadzki, R J; Choi, S S; Laut, S P; Werner, J S

    2006-01-05

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) sees the human retina sharply with adaptive optics. In vivo cellular visualization of the human retina at micrometer-scale resolution is possible by enhancing Fourier-domain optical-coherence tomography with adaptive optics, which compensate for the eye's optical aberrations.

  14. Medical imaging with optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, James G.

    2010-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging imaging modality which can generate high resolution, cross-sectional and three dimensional images of microstructure in biological systems. OCT is analogous to ultrasound B mode imaging, except that it uses light instead of sound. Imaging is performed by measuring the echo time delay of optical backscattering in the tissue as a function of transverse position. The penetration depth of OCT imaging is limited by attenuation from optical scattering to ˜ 2 to 3 mm in most tissues, however image resolutions of 1-10 um may be achieved. OCT functions as a type of ``optical biopsy" enabling in situ visualization of tissue microstructure with resolutions approaching that of conventional histopathology. Imaging can be performed in real time without the need to remove and process a specimen as in conventional biopsy. OCT technology utilizes advances in photonics and fiber optics such as femtosecond broadband lasers, high speed wavelength swept lasers and line scan camera technologies. Recent developments using Fourier domain detection achieve dramatic improvements in resolution and imaging speed. Three dimensional, volumetric imaging with extremely high voxel density is now possible, enabling microstructure and pathology to be visualized and rendered in a manner analogous to MR imaging. OCT is now widely accepted as a standard diagnostic in clinical ophthalmology, where it can image retinal pathology with unprecedented resolution improving the sensitivity of diagnosis and monitoring response to treatment. OCT is also being developed for other applications ranging from intravascular imaging in cardiology to endoscopic imaging for cancer detection. This presentation will discuss OCT technology and its applications.

  15. Three-Dimensional Optical Coherence Tomography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutin, Mikhail; Wang, Xu-Ming; Gutin, Olga

    2009-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an advanced method of noninvasive infrared imaging of tissues in depth. Heretofore, commercial OCT systems for 3D imaging have been designed principally for external ophthalmological examination. As explained below, such systems have been based on a one-dimensional OCT principle, and in the operation of such a system, 3D imaging is accomplished partly by means of a combination of electronic scanning along the optical (Z) axis and mechanical scanning along the two axes (X and Y) orthogonal to the optical axis. In 3D OCT, 3D imaging involves a form of electronic scanning (without mechanical scanning) along all three axes. Consequently, the need for mechanical adjustment is minimal and the mechanism used to position the OCT probe can be correspondingly more compact. A 3D OCT system also includes a probe of improved design and utilizes advanced signal- processing techniques. Improvements in performance over prior OCT systems include finer resolution, greater speed, and greater depth of field.

  16. Quantitative contrast-enhanced optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Winetraub, Yonatan; SoRelle, Elliott D.; Liba, Orly; de la Zerda, Adam

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a model to accurately quantify the signals produced by exogenous scattering agents used for contrast-enhanced Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). This model predicts distinct concentration-dependent signal trends that arise from the underlying physics of OCT detection. Accordingly, we show that real scattering particles can be described as simplified ideal scatterers with modified scattering intensity and concentration. The relation between OCT signal and particle concentration is approximately linear at concentrations lower than 0.8 particle per imaging voxel. However, at higher concentrations, interference effects cause signal to increase with a square root dependence on the number of particles within a voxel. Finally, high particle concentrations cause enough light attenuation to saturate the detected signal. Predictions were validated by comparison with measured OCT signals from gold nanorods (GNRs) prepared in water at concentrations ranging over five orders of magnitude (50 fM to 5 nM). In addition, we validated that our model accurately predicts the signal responses of GNRs in highly heterogeneous scattering environments including whole blood and living animals. By enabling particle quantification, this work provides a valuable tool for current and future contrast-enhanced in vivo OCT studies. More generally, the model described herein may inform the interpretation of detected signals in modalities that rely on coherence-based detection or are susceptible to interference effects. PMID:26869724

  17. Quantitative contrast-enhanced optical coherence tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Winetraub, Yonatan; SoRelle, Elliott D.; Liba, Orly; Zerda, Adam de la

    2016-01-11

    We have developed a model to accurately quantify the signals produced by exogenous scattering agents used for contrast-enhanced Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). This model predicts distinct concentration-dependent signal trends that arise from the underlying physics of OCT detection. Accordingly, we show that real scattering particles can be described as simplified ideal scatterers with modified scattering intensity and concentration. The relation between OCT signal and particle concentration is approximately linear at concentrations lower than 0.8 particle per imaging voxel. However, at higher concentrations, interference effects cause signal to increase with a square root dependence on the number of particles within a voxel. Finally, high particle concentrations cause enough light attenuation to saturate the detected signal. Predictions were validated by comparison with measured OCT signals from gold nanorods (GNRs) prepared in water at concentrations ranging over five orders of magnitude (50 fM to 5 nM). In addition, we validated that our model accurately predicts the signal responses of GNRs in highly heterogeneous scattering environments including whole blood and living animals. By enabling particle quantification, this work provides a valuable tool for current and future contrast-enhanced in vivo OCT studies. More generally, the model described herein may inform the interpretation of detected signals in modalities that rely on coherence-based detection or are susceptible to interference effects.

  18. [Macular imaging with optical coherence tomography].

    PubMed

    Pal, E; Givort, G; Laroche, A; Barale, P O; Limon, S; Ullern, M

    1998-01-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a novel noninvasive and noncontact imaging technique providing cross-sectional representations of the eye structures. OCT is analogous to Ultrasound B-scan, except that it analyzes the reflection of a 850 nm light wave. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of ocular coherence tomography for diagnosing and monitoring macular diseases. Cross-sectional images were performed with the Zeiss-Humphrey OCT. Over one year period, we examined approximately 300 patients with idiopathic full thickness macular hole, lamellar hole, cystoid macular edema, choroidal new vessels, epiretinal membrane, diabetic maculopathy, and central serous chorioretinopathy. OCT can provide new information concerning the posterior pole diseases mentioned above. OCT can also be useful in thickness measurements. OCT allows tomographic analysis of macular diseases. The information obtained is different from that obtained by histologic study which is sometimes hard to interprete. OCT is mostly useful in studying internal layers of the retina. Further applications may be developed.

  19. Quantitative contrast-enhanced optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winetraub, Yonatan; SoRelle, Elliott D.; Liba, Orly; de la Zerda, Adam

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a model to accurately quantify the signals produced by exogenous scattering agents used for contrast-enhanced Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). This model predicts distinct concentration-dependent signal trends that arise from the underlying physics of OCT detection. Accordingly, we show that real scattering particles can be described as simplified ideal scatterers with modified scattering intensity and concentration. The relation between OCT signal and particle concentration is approximately linear at concentrations lower than 0.8 particle per imaging voxel. However, at higher concentrations, interference effects cause signal to increase with a square root dependence on the number of particles within a voxel. Finally, high particle concentrations cause enough light attenuation to saturate the detected signal. Predictions were validated by comparison with measured OCT signals from gold nanorods (GNRs) prepared in water at concentrations ranging over five orders of magnitude (50 fM to 5 nM). In addition, we validated that our model accurately predicts the signal responses of GNRs in highly heterogeneous scattering environments including whole blood and living animals. By enabling particle quantification, this work provides a valuable tool for current and future contrast-enhanced in vivo OCT studies. More generally, the model described herein may inform the interpretation of detected signals in modalities that rely on coherence-based detection or are susceptible to interference effects.

  20. Angle-resolved optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desjardins, Adrien Emmanuel

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has emerged as a powerful tool for probing the microstructure of biological tissue non-invasively at high-speed. OCT measures depth-resolved reflectance of infrared light, generating cross-sectional images non-invasively with micron-scale resolution. As with other imaging modalities that employ coherent detection, OCT images are confounded by speckle noise. Speckle imposes a grainy texture on images that reduces the signal-to-noise ratio to near unity values. As a result, it conceals subtle differences in scattering properties known to be crucial for differentiating normal from diseased tissue states. In this thesis, we developed a novel OCT modality called "Angle-Resolved OCT" in which depth scans (A-lines) are obtained simultaneously from a broad range of backscattering angles. We demonstrated that high levels of speckle reduction can be achieved by averaging the magnitudes of A-lines corresponding to the same transverse locations. With both experimental and analytic approaches, we demonstrated that this averaging method does not lead to a substantial loss in spatial resolution. We developed two different imaging systems for performing Angle-Resolved OCT. With the first system, angular data was acquired simultaneously; with the second, it was acquired sequentially. The first system had superior speckle-reduction capabilities but image quality degraded significantly with small sample movements. The second system allowed for in vivo imaging, as demonstrated with Resolved OCT systems, the speckle-reduced images showed hitherto unprecedented delineation of tissue microstructure.

  1. Design and Performance of Coherent Analog Optical Links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabido, Delfin Jay Medel, Ix.

    At present, most of the work on analog optical communication links focused on direct detection techniques. Very little attention has been paid to coherent detection where at the receiving end, a local oscillator laser is used and its output is combined with the incoming optical signal before detection. Coherent detection provides several advantages over conventional direct detection techniques including improved receiver sensitivity, inherent frequency translation, and the ability to utilize angle modulation and separate dense WDM signals. Coherent optical links provide all these advantages at low optical powers which makes them less sensitive to various fiber nonlinear effects. However, coherent optical links are potentially susceptible to the effects of phase noise associated with wide laser linewidths. The work presented in this dissertation is the first attempt at a comprehensive study of a coherent analog optical link, from the design stage, its implementation, characterization and investigations into improving its performance. In this work, an experimental coherent analog optical link was constructed, and theoretical and experimental studies were conducted on the performance of coherent analog optical links as compared to conventional direct detection links. The results of these investigations show that the coherent AM-WIRNA heterodyne link can be made insensitive to laser linewidth for linewidths up to 300 MHz. To the author's best knowledge, this is the first ever demonstration of a gigahertz bandwidth linewidth-insensitive coherent analog optical link. This study indicates that the coherent AM link has a higher spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR), by up to 10 dB, than the corresponding direct detection link, when the received optical power is less than 85 muW, and for link losses greater than 7 dB. However, coherent links were found to be more susceptible to the effects of laser RIN, requiring lasers with RIN better than -140 dB/Hz. In addition, coherent

  2. Optical coherence tomography of the rat cochlea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Brian J.; de Boer, Johannes F.; Park, Boris H.; Chen, Zhongping; Nelson, J. Stuart

    2000-10-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used to image the internal structure of a rat cochlea (ex vivo). Immediately following sacrifice, the temporal bone of a Sprague-Dawley rat was harvested. Axial OCT cross sectional images (over regions of interest, 1 X 1 mm-2 X 8 mm) were obtained with a spatial resolution of 10 - 15 micrometers . The osseous borders of the lateral membranous labyrinth overlying the cochlea and the scala vestibuli, media, and tympani, which were well demarcated by the modiolus, Reissner's and the basilar membranes, were clearly identified. OCT can be used to image internal structures in the cochlea without violating the osseous labyrinth using simple surgical exposure of the promontory, and may potentially be used to diagnose inner ear pathology in vivo in both animal and human subjects labyrinth.

  3. Optical coherence tomography for diagnosing periodontal disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colston, Bill W., Jr.; Everett, Matthew J.; Da Silva, Luiz B.; Otis, Linda L.; Nathel, Howard

    1997-05-01

    We have, in this preliminary study, investigated the use of optical coherence tomography for diagnosis of periodontal disease. We took in vitro OCT images of the dental and periodontal tissues from a young pig and compared them to histological sections. These images distinguish tooth and soft tissue relationships that are important in diagnosing and assessing periodontal disease. We have imaged the attachment of gingiva to the tooth surface and located the cemento-enamel junction. This junction is an important reference point for defining attachment level in the diagnosis of periodontal disease. the boundary between enamel and dentin is also visible for most of the length of the anatomical crown, allowing quantitation of enamel thickness and character.

  4. Molecular Imaging in Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Mattison, Scott P.; Kim, Wihan; Park, Jesung; Applegate, Brian E.

    2015-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a medical imaging technique that provides tomographic images at micron scales in three dimensions and high speeds. The addition of molecular contrast to the available morphological image holds great promise for extending OCT’s impact in clinical practice and beyond. Fundamental limitations prevent OCT from directly taking advantage of powerful molecular processes such as fluorescence emission and incoherent Raman scattering. A wide range of approaches is being researched to provide molecular contrast to OCT. Here we review those approaches with particular attention to those that derive their molecular contrast directly from modulation of the OCT signal. We also provide a brief overview of the multimodal approaches to gaining molecular contrast coincident with OCT. PMID:25821718

  5. Optical coherence tractography using intrinsic contrast

    PubMed Central

    Goergen, Craig J.; Radhakrishnan, Harsha; Sakadžić, Sava; Mandeville, Emiri T.; Lo, Eng H.; Sosnovik, David E.; Srinivasan, Vivek J.

    2013-01-01

    Organs such as the heart and brain possess intricate fiber structures that are best characterized with threedimensional imaging. For instance, diffusion-based, magnetic resonance tractography (MRT) enables studies of connectivity and remodeling during development and disease macroscopically on the millimeter scale. Here we present complementary, high-resolution microscopic optical coherence imaging and analysis methods that, when used in conjunction with clearing techniques, can characterize fiber architecture in intact organs at tissue depths exceeding 1 mm. We anticipate that these techniques can be used to study fiber architecture in situ at microscopic scales not currently accessible to diffusion magentic resonance (MR), and thus, to validate and complement macroscopic structural imaging techniques. Moreover, as these techniques use intrinsic signals and do not require tissue slicing and staining, they can be used for high-throughput, nondestructive evaluation of fiber architecture across large tissue volumes. PMID:23041891

  6. Optical coherence tomography examination of hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Wei; Huang, Zheng; Xu, Jianshu; Yang, Hongqin; Li, Hui; Xie, Shusen

    2014-09-01

    Human hair is a keratinous tissue composed mostly of flexible keratin, which can form a complex architecture consisting of distinct compartments or units (e.g. hair bulb, inner root sheath, shaft). Variations in hair shaft morphology can reflect ethnical diversity, but may also indicate internal diseases, nutritional deficiency, or hair and scalp disorders. Hair shaft abnormalities in cross section and diameter, as well as ultramorphological characterization and follicle shapes, might be visualized non-invasively by high-speed 2D and 3D optical coherence tomography (OCT). In this study, swept source OCT (ThorLabs) was used to examine human hair. Preliminary results showed that the high-speed OCT was a suitable and promising tool for non-invasive analysis of hair conditions.

  7. Vascular interventions with optical coherence reflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neet, John M.

    2003-07-01

    There have been many innovations and technological advancements in balloon angioplasty since its introduction in the late 1970's, but percutaneous intervention on a totally occluded artery is still a challenge to the vascular interventionalist. Catheter-based intervention that avoids an invasive surgical procedure is a clear and desired advantage for the patient. A total occlusion challenges the interventionalist because the path of the artery can not be seen in the occluded vessel since the flow of the radiopaque contrast media is blocked. Optical coherence reflectometry techniques have been shown to be able to differentiate between artery wall and occlusive materials allowing the lumen of the blocked artery to be seen inside the occlusion. Light emitting diodes are a critical component of these systems making them technologically possible and economically feasible.

  8. Quasi In-Focus Optical Coherence Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmi, Masato; Kurata, Takayuki; Sekimoto, Mitsugu; Haruna, Masamitsu

    2004-02-01

    We propose here a unique method for in-focus imaging over the entire cross-sectional area of interest. This is the so-called quasi in-focus optical coherence tomography (OCT) or multiple OCT in which OCT images are obtained by shifting the focal plane of an objective, followed by piling up of these OCT images. A preliminary experiment was made using chicken tissue as a sample; as a result, a stripe pattern of fibrous muscle was clearly observed over a depth of more than 3 mm. In in-vitro tomographic imaging of the human stomach wall, quasi in-focus OCT can provide a very clear image of the muscularis mucosae, which is a bending film like tissue of a few tens of microns thickness, showing that our method is useful for the early-stage diagnosis of stomach cancer.

  9. Intraoperative Optical Coherence Tomography Guided Bleb Needling.

    PubMed

    Dada, Tanuj; Angmo, Dewang; Midha, Neha; Sidhu, Talvir

    2016-01-01

    Two patients with history of trabeculectomy presented with uncontrolled intraocular pressure (IOP) postoperatively. The first patient had a flat and vasularized bleb 10 weeks after the surgery, and the second subject developed encapsulated bleb 3 months postoperatively. Both patients were taken to the operating room and intraoperative optical coherence tomography (OCT) guided bleb needling was performed to restore aqueous egress into the subconjunctival space. Postoperatively, IOP of the operated eyes ranged 14-18 mmHg at week 6 and month 3. None of the eyes had any intraoperative or postoperative complications. This novel application of the intraoperative OCT for bleb needling facilitates precision surgery under direct visualization and reduces the risk of complications.

  10. Intraoperative Optical Coherence Tomography Guided Bleb Needling

    PubMed Central

    Dada, Tanuj; Angmo, Dewang; Midha, Neha; Sidhu, Talvir

    2016-01-01

    Two patients with history of trabeculectomy presented with uncontrolled intraocular pressure (IOP) postoperatively. The first patient had a flat and vasularized bleb 10 weeks after the surgery, and the second subject developed encapsulated bleb 3 months postoperatively. Both patients were taken to the operating room and intraoperative optical coherence tomography (OCT) guided bleb needling was performed to restore aqueous egress into the subconjunctival space. Postoperatively, IOP of the operated eyes ranged 14-18 mmHg at week 6 and month 3. None of the eyes had any intraoperative or postoperative complications. This novel application of the intraoperative OCT for bleb needling facilitates precision surgery under direct visualization and reduces the risk of complications. PMID:27994819

  11. Lorentz force megahertz optical coherence elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chen; Singh, Manmohan; Han, Zhaolong; Raghunathan, Raksha; Liu, Chih-Hao; Li, Jiasong; Schill, Alexander; Larin, Kirill V.

    2016-03-01

    Optical Coherence Elastography (OCE) is a rapidly developing technique for assessing tissue biomechanical properties. This study demonstrates the first use of the Lorentz force to induce elastic waves within tissue to quantify the elasticity of tissue in combination with a phase-sensitive OCE system at ~1.5 million A-scans per second. The feasibility of this technique was tested on tissue-mimicking agar phantoms of various concentrations. The results as assessed by OCE were in good agreement with standard mechanical testing of the samples. After the preliminary experiments, the stiffness of porcine liver was examined. The results demonstrate that Lorentz force MHz OCE can be applied to study the elasticity of biological tissue effectively and has the potential for clinical applications due to rapid excitation and imaging.

  12. The Choroid and Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Sezer, Taha; Altınışık, Muhammet; Koytak, İbrahim Arif; Özdemir, Mehmet Hakan

    2016-01-01

    The choroid is the most vascular tissue in the eye and it plays an important role in the pathophysiology of various common chorioretinal diseases such as central serous retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration and degenerative myopia. Quantitative assessment of the choroid has been quite challenging with traditional imaging modalities such as indocyanine green angiography and ultrasonography due to limited resolution and repeatability. With the advent of optical coherence tomography (OCT) technology, detailed visualization of the choroid in vivo is now possible. Measurements of choroidal thickness have also enabled new directions in research to study normal and pathological processes within the choroid. The aim of the present study is to review the current literature on choroidal imaging using OCT. PMID:27800255

  13. Optical Coherence Tomography in Tissue Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Youbo; Yang, Ying; Wang, Ruikang K.; Boppart, Stephen A.

    Tissue engineering holds the promise for a therapeutic solution in regenerative medicine. The primary goal of tissue engineering is the development of physiologically functional and biocompatible tissues/organs being implanted for the repair and replacement of damaged or diseased ones. Given the complexity in the developing processes of engineered tissues, which involves multi-dimensional interactions among cells of different types, three-dimensionally constructed scaffolds, and actively intervening bioreactors, a capable real-time imaging tool is critically required for expanding our knowledge about the developing process of desired tissues or organs. It has been recognized that optical coherence tomography (OCT), an emerging noninvasive imaging technique that provides high spatial resolution (up to the cellular level) and three-dimensional imaging capability, is a promising investigative tool for tissue engineering. This chapter discusses the existing and potential applications of OCT in tissue engineering. Example OCT investigations of the three major components of tissue engineering, i.e., cells, scaffolds, and bioreactors are overviewed. Imaging examples of OCT and its enabling functions and variants, e.g., Doppler OCT, polarization-sensitive OCT, optical coherence microscopy are emphasized. Remaining challenges in the application of OCT to tissue engineering are discussed, and the prospective solutions including the combination of OCT with other high-contrast and high-resolution modalities such as two-photon fluorescence microscopy are suggested as well. It is expected that OCT, along with its functional variants, will make important contributions toward revealing the complex cellular dynamics in engineered tissues as well as help us culture demanding tissue/organ implants that will advance regenerative medicine.

  14. Scattering optical coherence angiography with 1-μm swept source optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuno, Yoshiaki; Hong, Youngjoo; Makita, Shuichi; Akiba, Masahiro; Miura, Masahiro; Yatagai, Toyohiko

    2007-07-01

    Retinal and choroidal imaging by using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) with a 1-μm band probe light, and high-contrast and three-dimensional (3D) imaging of choroidal vasculature are presented. This SS-OCT has a measurement speed of 28,000 A-lines/s, a depth resolution of 10.4 μm in tissue, and a sensitivity of 99.3 dB. A software-based algorithm for scattering optical coherence angiography (S-OCA) is developed for the high-contrast and 3D imaging of the choroidal vessels. This OCT is employed for the investigation of age related macular degeneration and visualizes structures beneath the retinal pigment epithelial detachment.

  15. Optical Coherence Tomography and Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Monitoring Coats' Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hautz, Wojciech; Kocyła-Karczmarewicz, Beata

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in monitoring pediatric patients with Coats' disease. Material and Methods. This retrospective study included 9 Caucasian patients receiving treatment for Coats' disease at the Children's Memorial Health Institute Ophthalmology Department between December 2014 and May 2016. The course of the disease was monitored with OCTA in combination with OCT and fluorescein angiography (FA). Results. OCT B-scans obtained in all patients correlated with FA findings. Reliable OCTA images were obtained in 8 patients. In one patient, numerous artifacts due to poor visual acuity and retinal detachment confounded the interpretation of findings. Conclusions. OCTA and OCT, in combination with FA, are useful in Coats' disease diagnostics and treatment monitoring. As noninvasive methods, OCT and OCTA may be performed more often than FA, which enable precise monitoring of the disease and making decisions as to its further treatment. PMID:28377823

  16. Measuring the optical characteristics of medulloblastoma with optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Vuong, Barry; Skowron, Patryk; Kiehl, Tim-Rasmus; Kyan, Matthew; Garzia, Livia; Sun, Cuiru; Taylor, Michael D.; Yang, Victor X.D.

    2015-01-01

    Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant pediatric brain tumor. Standard treatment consists of surgical resection, followed by radiation and high-dose chemotherapy. Despite these efforts, recurrence is common, leading to reduced patient survival. Even with successful treatment, there are often severe long-term neurologic impacts on the developing nervous system. We present two quantitative techniques that use a high-resolution optical imaging modality: optical coherence tomography (OCT) to measure refractive index, and the optical attenuation coefficient. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate OCT analysis of medulloblastoma. Refractive index and optical attenuation coefficient were able to differentiate between normal brain tissue and medulloblastoma in mouse models. More specifically, optical attenuation coefficient imaging of normal cerebellum displayed layers of grey matter and white matter, which were indistinguishable in the structural OCT image. The morphology of the tumor was distinct in the optical attenuation coefficient imaging. These inherent properties may be useful during neurosurgical intervention to better delineate tumor boundaries and minimize resection of normal tissue. PMID:25909030

  17. Optical identification based on time domain optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Vishal; Semenov, Dmitry; Honkanen, Seppo; Hauta-Kasari, Markku

    2015-09-01

    We present a novel method for optical identification, i.e., authenticating valuable documents such as a passport, credit cards, and bank notes, using optical coherence tomography (OCT). An OCT system can capture three-dimensional (3D) images and visualize the internal structure of an object. In our work, as an object, we consider a multilayered optical identification tag composed of a limited number of thin layers (10-100 μm thick). The thickness, width, and location of the layers in the tag encode a unique identification information. Reading of the tag is done using a time domain OCT (TD-OCT) system. Typically, a TD-OCT system requires continuous mechanical scanning in one or more directions to get a 3D volume image of an object. The continuous scanning implies a complicated optical setup, which makes an OCT system fragile and expensive. We propose to avoid the conventional scanning by (1) not requiring 3D imaging, and (2) utilizing the motion of the optical tag itself. The motion is introduced to the tag reader, for example, by a user, which replaces the need for conventional scanning. The absence of a conventional scanning mechanism makes the proposed OCT method very simple and suited for identification purposes; however, it also puts some constraints to the construction of the optical tag, which we discuss in this paper in detail.

  18. Optical coherence tomography for endodontic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Soest, G.; Shemesh, H.; Wu, M.-K.; van der Sluis, L. W. M.; Wesselink, P. R.

    2008-02-01

    In root canal therapy, complications frequently arise as a result of root fracture or imperfect cleaning of fins and invaginations. To date, there is no imaging method for nondestructive in vivo evaluation of the condition of the root canal, during or after treatment. There is a clinical need for a technique to detect defects before they give rise to complications. In this study we evaluate the ability of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to image root canal walls, and its capacity to identify complicating factors in root canal treatment. While the potential of OCT to identify caries has been explored before, endodontic imaging has not been reported. We imaged extracted lower front teeth after endodontic preparation and correlated these images to histological sections. A 3D OCT pullback scan was made with an endoscopic rotating optical fiber probe inside the root canal. All oval canals, uncleaned fins, risk zones, and one perforation that were detected by histology were also imaged by OCT. As an example of an area where OCT has clinical potential, we present a study of vertical root fracture identification with OCT.

  19. Ultrahigh-resolution endoscopic optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu; Herz, Paul R.; Hsiung, Pei-Lin; Aguirre, Aaron D.; Mashimo, Hiroshi; Desai, Saleem; Pedrosa, Macos; Koski, Amanda; Schmitt, Joseph M.; Fujimoto, James G.

    2005-01-01

    Early detection of gastrointestinal cancer is essential for the patient treatment and medical care. Endoscopically guided biopsy is currently the gold standard for the diagnosis of early esophageal cancer, but can suffer from high false negative rates due to sampling errors. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging medical imaging technology which can generate high resolution, cross-sectional images of tissue in situ and in real time, without the removal of tissue specimen. Although endoscopic OCT has been used successfully to identify certain pathologies in the gastrointestinal tract, the resolution of current endoscopic OCT systems has been limited to 10 - 15 m for clinical procedures. In this study, in vivo imaging of the gastrointestinal tract is demonstrated at a three-fold higher resolution (< 5 m), using a portable, broadband, Cr4+:Forsterite laser as the optical light source. Images acquired from the esophagus, gastro-esophageal junction and colon on animal model display tissue microstructures and architectural details at high resolution, and the features observed in the OCT images are well-matched with histology. The clinical feasibility study is conducted through delivering OCT imaging catheter using standard endoscope. OCT images of normal esophagus, Barrett's esophagus, and esophageal cancers are demonstrated with distinct features. The ability of high resolution endoscopic OCT to image tissue morphology at an unprecedented resolution in vivo would facilitate the development of OCT as a potential imaging modality for early detection of neoplastic changes.

  20. Geodesic denoising for optical coherence tomography images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahrian Varnousfaderani, Ehsan; Vogl, Wolf-Dieter; Wu, Jing; Gerendas, Bianca S.; Simader, Christian; Langs, Georg; Waldstein, Sebastian M.; Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula

    2016-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an optical signal acquisition method capturing micrometer resolution, cross-sectional three-dimensional images. OCT images are used widely in ophthalmology to diagnose and monitor retinal diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and Glaucoma. While OCT allows the visualization of retinal structures such as vessels and retinal layers, image quality and contrast is reduced by speckle noise, obfuscating small, low intensity structures and structural boundaries. Existing denoising methods for OCT images may remove clinically significant image features such as texture and boundaries of anomalies. In this paper, we propose a novel patch based denoising method, Geodesic Denoising. The method reduces noise in OCT images while preserving clinically significant, although small, pathological structures, such as fluid-filled cysts in diseased retinas. Our method selects optimal image patch distribution representations based on geodesic patch similarity to noisy samples. Patch distributions are then randomly sampled to build a set of best matching candidates for every noisy sample, and the denoised value is computed based on a geodesic weighted average of the best candidate samples. Our method is evaluated qualitatively on real pathological OCT scans and quantitatively on a proposed set of ground truth, noise free synthetic OCT scans with artificially added noise and pathologies. Experimental results show that performance of our method is comparable with state of the art denoising methods while outperforming them in preserving the critical clinically relevant structures.

  1. Spectral/Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, Johannes F.

    Optical coherence tomography is a low-coherence interferometric method for imaging of biological tissue [1, 2]. For more than a decade after its inception between 1988 and 1991, the dominant implementation has been time domain OCT (TD-OCT), in which the length of a reference arm is rapidly scanned. The first spectral or Fourier domain OCT (SD/FD-OCT) implementation was reported in 1995 [3]. In SD-OCT the reference arm is kept stationary, and the depth information is obtained by a Fourier transform of the spectrally resolved interference fringes in the detection arm of a Michelson interferometer. This approach has provided a significant advantage in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), which despite reports as early as 1997 [4, 5] has taken about half a decade to be recognized fully by the OCT community in 2003 [6-8]. The first demonstration of SD-OCT for in vivo retinal imaging in 2002 [9] was followed by a full realization of the sensitivity advantage by video rate in vivo retinal imaging [10], including high-speed 3-D volumetric imaging [11], ultrahigh-resolution video rate imaging [12, 13], and Doppler blood flow determination in the human retina [14, 15]. The superior sensitivity of SD-OCT, combined with the lack of need for a fast mechanical scanning mechanism, has opened up the possibility of much faster scanning without loss of image quality and provided a paradigm shift from point sampling to volumetric mapping of biological tissue in vivo. The technology has been particularly promising for ophthalmology [16, 17]. In this chapter, the principles and system design considerations of SD-OCT will be discussed in more detail.

  2. Ultrathin lensed fiber-optic probe for optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Y.; Wang, Y.; Belfield, K. D.; Liu, X.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated and validated a novel method to develop ultrathin lensed fiber-optic (LFO) probes for optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging. We made the LFO probe by attaching a segment of no core fiber (NCF) to the distal end of a single mode fiber (SMF) and generating a curved surface at the tip of the NCF using the electric arc of a fusion splicer. The novel fabrication approach enabled us to control the length of the NCF and the radius of the fiber lens independently. By strategically choosing these two parameters, the LFO probe could achieve a broad range of working distance and depth of focus for different OCT applications. A probe with 125μm diameter and lateral resolution up to 10μm was demonstrated. The low-cost, disposable and robust LFO probe is expected to have great potential for interstitial OCT imaging. PMID:27375934

  3. Ultrathin lensed fiber-optic probe for optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Y; Wang, Y; Belfield, K D; Liu, X

    2016-06-01

    We investigated and validated a novel method to develop ultrathin lensed fiber-optic (LFO) probes for optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging. We made the LFO probe by attaching a segment of no core fiber (NCF) to the distal end of a single mode fiber (SMF) and generating a curved surface at the tip of the NCF using the electric arc of a fusion splicer. The novel fabrication approach enabled us to control the length of the NCF and the radius of the fiber lens independently. By strategically choosing these two parameters, the LFO probe could achieve a broad range of working distance and depth of focus for different OCT applications. A probe with 125μm diameter and lateral resolution up to 10μm was demonstrated. The low-cost, disposable and robust LFO probe is expected to have great potential for interstitial OCT imaging.

  4. Ex vivo imaging of human thyroid pathology using integrated optical coherence tomography and optical coherence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chao; Wang, Yihong; Aguirre, Aaron D.; Tsai, Tsung-Han; Cohen, David W.; Connolly, James L.; Fujimoto, James G.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluate the feasibility of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical coherence microscopy (OCM) for imaging of benign and malignant thyroid lesions ex vivo using intrinsic optical contrast. 34 thyroid gland specimens are imaged from 17 patients, covering a spectrum of pathology ranging from normal thyroid to benign disease/neoplasms (multinodular colloid goiter, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and follicular adenoma) and malignant thyroid tumors (papillary carcinoma and medullary carcinoma). Imaging is performed using an integrated OCT and OCM system, with <4 μm axial resolution (OCT and OCM), and 14 μm (OCT) and <2 μm (OCM) transverse resolution. The system allows seamless switching between low and high magnifications in a way similar to traditional microscopy. Good correspondence is observed between optical images and histological sections. Characteristic features that suggest malignant lesions, such as complex papillary architecture, microfollicules, psammomatous calcifications, or replacement of normal follicular architecture with sheets/nests of tumor cells, can be identified from OCT and OCM images and are clearly differentiable from normal or benign thyroid tissues. With further development of needle-based imaging probes, OCT and OCM could be promising techniques to use for the screening of thyroid nodules and to improve the diagnostic specificity of fine needle aspiration evaluation.

  5. Transsynaptic retinal degeneration in optic neuropathies: optical coherence tomography study.

    PubMed

    Sriram, Prema; Graham, Stuart L; Wang, Chenyu; Yiannikas, Con; Garrick, Raymond; Klistorner, Alexander

    2012-03-09

    Recently demonstrated neuronal loss in the inner nuclear layer of the retina in multiple sclerosis (MS) and glaucoma raises the question of a primary (possibly immune-mediated) or secondary (transsynaptic) mechanism of retinal damage in these diseases. In the present study we used optical coherence tomography to investigate retrograde retinal transsynaptic degeneration in patients with long-standing and severe loss of ganglion cells due to optic neuropathy. Fifteen eyes of glaucoma patients with visual field defect limited to upper hemifield and 15 eyes of MS patients with previous episode of optic neuritis (ON) and extensive loss of ganglion cells were imaged using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and compared with two groups of age-matched controls. Combined retinal ganglion cell layer/inner plexiform layer (GCL/IPL) thickness and inner nuclear layer (INL) thickness were analyzed. In the glaucoma group there was a significant (P = 0.0005) reduction of GCL/IPL thickness in the lower (affected) retina compared with normal controls; however INL thickness was not statistically reduced (P = 0.49). In the MS group reduction of GCL/IPL thickness in both hemifields of ON eyes was also significant (P = 0.0001 and P < 0.0001 for inferior and superior retina respectively). However, similar to the glaucomatous eyes, there was no significant reduction of INL thickness in both hemifields (P = 0.25 and P = 0.45). This study demonstrates no significant loss of INL thickness in parts of the retina with long-standing and severe loss of retinal ganglion cells.

  6. Integrated optical coherence tomography and optical coherence microscopy imaging of human pathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hsiang-Chieh; Zhou, Chao; Wang, Yihong; Aquirre, Aaron D.; Tsai, Tsung-Han; Cohen, David W.; Connolly, James L.; Fujimoto, James G.

    2010-02-01

    Excisional biopsy is the current gold standard for disease diagnosis; however, it requires a relatively long processing time and it may also suffer from unacceptable false negative rates due to sampling errors. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a promising imaging technique that provide real-time, high resolution and three-dimensional (3D) images of tissue morphology. Optical coherence microscopy (OCM) is an extension of OCT, combining both the coherence gating and the confocal gating techniques. OCM imaging achieves cellular resolution with deeper imaging depth compared to confocal microscopy. An integrated OCT/OCM imaging system can provide co-registered multiscale imaging of tissue morphology. 3D-OCT provides architectural information with a large field of view and can be used to find regions of interest; while OCM provides high magnification to enable cellular imaging. The integrated OCT/OCM system has an axial resolution of <4um and transverse resolutions of 14um and <2um for OCT and OCM, respectively. In this study, a wide range of human pathologic specimens, including colon (58), thyroid (43), breast (34), and kidney (19), were imaged with OCT and OCM within 2 to 6 hours after excision. The images were compared with H & E histology to identify characteristic features useful for disease diagnosis. The feasibility of visualizing human pathology using integrated OCT/OCM was demonstrated in the pathology laboratory settings.

  7. Master/slave: the ideal tool for coherence revival based optical coherence tomography imaging instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradu, Adrian; Rivet, Sylvain; Podoleanu, Adrian

    2017-02-01

    In this communication, we present the utility of the Master/Slave (MS) method in combination with the coherence revival technique to obtain full axial range Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) cross-section images. The MS method eliminates two major drawbacks of the conventional Fourier Transformed (FT) based OCT technology when applied to the coherence revival technique: the need of data re-sampling as well as the need to compensate for unbalanced dispersion in the interferometer.

  8. Nanoparticle contrast agents for optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriele, Michelle Lynn

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides real-time, objective, in-vivo, optical cross-sectional representations of the retina and optic nerve. Recent innovations in image acquisition, including the incorporation of Fourier/spectral-domain detection, have improved imaging speed, sensitivity and resolution. Still, there remain specific structures within ocular OCT images, such as retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), which are of clinical interest but consistently have low contrast. This makes it difficult to differentiate between surrounding layers and structures. The objectives of this project were: (1) To establish a reliable method for OCT imaging of the healthy and diseased mouse eye in order to provide a platform for testing the utility of OCT contrast agents for ocular imaging, (2) To develop antibody-conjugated gold nanoparticles suitable for targeting specific structures and enhancing OCT image contrast in the mouse eye, and (3) To examine the localized contrast-enhancing ability and biocompatibility of gold nanoparticle contrast agents in-vivo. Our organizing hypotheses were that nanoparticles could improve contrast by modulating the intensity of backscattered light detected by OCT and that they could be directed to ocular structures of interest using antibodies specific to cellular markers. A reproducible method for imaging the mouse retina and quantifying retinal thickness was developed and this technique was then applied to a mouse model for retinal ganglion cell loss, optic nerve crush. Gold nanorods were designed specifically to augment the backscattering OCT signal at the same wavelengths of light used in current ophthalmic OCT imaging schemes (resonant wavelength lambda = 840 nm). Anti-CD90.1 (Thy1.1) antibodies were conjugated to the gold nanorods and a protocol for characterization of the success of antibody conjugation was developed. Upon injection, the gold nanorods were found to remain in the vitreous post-injection, with many consumed by an early

  9. Motion contrast using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fingler, Jeffrey Paul

    Diagnosis of ophthalmic diseases like age-related macular degeneration is very important for treatment of the disease as well as the development of future treatments. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an optical interference technique which can measure the three-dimensional structural information of the reflecting layers within a sample. In retinal imaging, OCT is used as the primary diagnostic tool for structural abnormalities such as retinal holes and detachments. The contrast within the images of this technique is based upon reflectivity changes from different regions of the retina. This thesis demonstrates the developments of methods used to produce additional contrast to the structural OCT images based on the tiny fluctuations of motion experienced by the mobile scatterers within a sample. Motion contrast was observed for motions smaller than 50 nm in images of a variety of samples. Initial contrast method demonstrations used Brownian motion differences to separate regions of a mobile Intralipid solution from a static agarose gel, chosen in concentration to minimize reflectivity contrast. Zebrafish embryos in the range of 3-4 days post fertilization were imaged using several motion contrast methods to determine the capabilities of identifying regions of vascular flow. Vasculature identification was demonstrated in zebrafish for blood vessels of all orientations as small as 10 microns in diameter. Mouse retinal imaging utilized the same motion contrast methods to determine the contrast capabilities for motions associated with vasculature within the retina. Improved contrast imaging techniques demonstrated comparable images to fluorescein angiography, the gold standard of retinal vascular imaging. Future studies can improve the demonstrated contrast analysis techniques and apply them towards human retinal motion contrast imaging for ophthalmic diagnostic purposes.

  10. Nonlinear optics with coherent free electron lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bencivenga, F.; Capotondi, F.; Mincigrucci, R.; Cucini, R.; Manfredda, M.; Pedersoli, E.; Principi, E.; Simoncig, A.; Masciovecchio, C.

    2016-12-01

    We interpreted the recent construction of free electron laser (FELs) facilities worldwide as an unprecedented opportunity to bring concepts and methods from the scientific community working with optical lasers into the domain of x-ray science. This motivated our efforts towards the realization of FEL-based wave-mixing applications. In this article we present new extreme ultraviolet transient grating (X-TG) data from vitreous SiO2, collected using two crossed FEL pulses (photon frequency 38 eV) to generate the X-TG and a phase matched optical probing pulse (photon frequency 3.1 eV). This experiment extends our previous investigation, which was carried out on a nominally identical sample using a different FEL photon frequency (45 eV) to excite the X-TG. The present data are featured by a peak intensity of the X-TG signal substantially larger than that previously reported and by slower modulations of the X-TG signal at positive delays. These differences could be ascribed to the different FEL photon energy used in the two experiments or to differences in the sample properties. A systematic X-TG study on the same sample as a function of the FEL wavelength is needed to draw a consistent conclusion. We also discuss how the advances in the performance of the FELs, in terms of generation of fully coherent photon pulses and multi-color FEL emission, may push the development of original experimental strategies to study matter at the femtosecond-nanometer time-length scales, with the unique option of element and chemical state specificity. This would allow the development of advanced experimental tools based on wave-mixing processes, which may have a tremendous impact in the study of a large array of phenomena, ranging from nano-dynamics in complex materials to charge and energy transfer processes.

  11. Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography detection method

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, M J; Sathyam, U S; Colston, B W; DaSilva, L B; Fried, D; Ragadio, J N; Featherstone, J D B

    1999-05-12

    This study demonstrates the potential of polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) for non-invasive in vivo detection and characterization of early, incipient caries lesions. PS-OCT generates cross-sectional images of biological tissue while measuring the effect of the tissue on the polarization state of incident light. Clear discrimination between regions of normal and demineralized enamel is first shown in PS-OCT images of bovine enamel blocks containing well-characterized artificial lesions. High-resolution, cross-sectional images of extracted human teeth are then generated that clearly discriminate between the normal and carious regions on both the smooth and occlusal surfaces. Regions of the teeth that appeared to be demineralized in the PS-OCT images were verified using histological thin sections examined under polarized light microscopy. The PS-OCT system discriminates between normal and carious regions by measuring the polarization state of the back-scattered 1310 nm light, which is affected by the state of demineralization of the enamel. Demineralization of enamel increases the scattereing coefficient, thus depolarizing the incident light. This study shows that PS-OCT has great potential for the detection, characterization, and monitoring of incipient caries lesions.

  12. Image Artifacts in Optical Coherence Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Spaide, Richard F.; Fujimoto, James G.; Waheed, Nadia K.

    2016-01-01

    To describe image artifacts of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and their underlying causative mechanisms. To establish a common vocabulary for the artifacts observed. Methods The methods by which OCTA images are acquired, generated and displayed are reviewed as are the mechanisms by which each or all of these methods can produce extraneous image information. A common set of terminology is proposed and used. Results OCTA uses motion contrast to image blood flow and thereby images the vasculature without the need for a contrast agent. Artifacts are very common and can arise from the OCT image acquisition, intrinsic characteristics of the eye, eye motion, or image processing and display strategies. OCT image acquisition for angiography takes more time than simple structural scans and necessitates trade-offs in flow resolution, scan quality, and speed. An important set of artifacts are projection artifacts in which images of blood vessels appear at erroneous locations. Image processing used for OCTA can alter vascular appearance through segmentation defects and because of image display strategies can give false impressions of the density and location of vessels. Eye motion leads to discontinuities in displayed data. OCTA artifacts can be detected by interactive evaluation of the images. Conclusions Image artifacts are common, and can lead to incorrect interpretations of OCTA images. Because of the quantity of data available and the potential for artifacts, physician interaction in viewing the image data will be required, much like what happens in modern radiology practice. PMID:26428607

  13. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Retinal Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Chalam, K. V.; Sambhav, Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a new, non-invasive imaging system that generates volumetric data of retinal and choroidal layers. It has the ability to show both structural and blood flow information. Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography (SSADA) algorithm (a vital component of OCTA software) helps to decrease the signal to noise ratio of flow detection thus enhancing visualization of retinal vasculature using motion contrast. Published studies describe potential efficacy for OCTA in the evaluation of common ophthalmologic diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, age related macular degeneration (AMD), retinal vascular occlusions and sickle cell disease. OCTA provides a detailed view of the retinal vasculature, which allows accurate delineation of microvascular abnormalities in diabetic eyes and vascular occlusions. It helps quantify vascular compromise depending upon the severity of diabetic retinopathy. OCTA can also elucidate the presence of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in wet AMD. In this paper, we review the knowledge, available in English language publications regarding OCTA, and compare it with the conventional angiographic standard, fluorescein angiography (FA). Finally, we summarize its potential applications to retinal vascular diseases. Its current limitations include a relatively small field of view, inability to show leakage, and tendency for image artifacts. Further larger studies will define OCTA's utility in clinical settings and establish if the technology may offer a non-invasive option of visualizing the retinal vasculature, enabling us to decrease morbidity through early detection and intervention in retinal diseases. PMID:27195091

  14. Complete denture analyzed by optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negrutiu, Meda L.; Sinescu, Cosmin; Todea, Carmen; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2008-02-01

    The complete dentures are currently made using different technologies. In order to avoid deficiencies of the prostheses made using the classical technique, several alternative systems and procedures were imagined, directly related to the material used and also to the manufacturing technology. Thus, at the present time, there are several injecting systems and technologies on the market, that use chemoplastic materials, which are heat cured (90-100°C), in dry or wet environment, or cold cured (below 60°C). There are also technologies that plasticize a hard cured material by thermoplastic processing (without any chemical changes) and then inject it into a mold. The purpose of this study was to analyze the existence of possible defects in several dental prostheses using a non invasive method, before their insertion in the mouth. Different dental prostheses, fabricated from various materials were investigated using en-face optical coherence tomography. In order to discover the defects, the scanning was made in three planes, obtaining images at different depths, from 0,01 μm to 2 mm. In several of the investigated prostheses we found defects which may cause their fracture. These defects are totally included in the prostheses material and can not be vizualised with other imagistic methods. In conclusion, en-face OCT is an important investigative tool for the dental practice.

  15. Capabilities of optical coherence tomography in laryngology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakhov, Andrei; Terentjeva, Anna; Gladkova, Natalia D.; Snopova, Ludmila; Chumakov, Yuri; Feldchtein, Felix I.; Gelikonov, Valentin M.; Gelikonov, Grigory V.; Sergeev, Alexander M.

    1999-06-01

    We present first result of using the optical coherence tomography (OCT) in complex clinical studies in laryngology. Mucosa of the upper and middle portions of larynx is of special interest for OCT applications: it is clinically important, easily accessed by an endoscopic OCT probe, and possesses a well defined and rich tomographic structure. We have examined several tens of patients with abnormalities in vocal folds. The diagnosis was made based on clinical data including laryngoscopy and finally confirmed morphologically. When examining larynx mucosa, an endoscopic OCT probe has been introduced through a standard laryngoscope lumen, so that OCT imaging has been performed in parallel with visual observation. The OCT studies have demonstrated that in comparison with stratified healthy mucosa, carcinomatous regions have no tomographically differentiated structure, thus allowing one to exactly define the border of a tumor. Vocal nodules are imaged as poorly scattering regions without clear boundaries under preserved epithelium. Cysts of gland mucosa are seen with OCT as sharply delineated shadows at the depth of several hundred micrometers. We have also examined several patients with carcinoma after a course of radiation therapy and observed different changes in OCT images of adjoining epithelium corresponding to metaplasia, hyperplasia, and sclerosis.

  16. Anterior Eye Imaging with Optical Coherence Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, David; Li, Yan; Tang, Maolong

    The development of corneal and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) technology has advanced rapidly in recently years. The scan geometry and imaging wavelength are both important choices to make in designing anterior segment OCT systems. Rectangular scan geometry offers the least image distortion and is now used in most anterior OCT systems. The wavelength of OCT light source affects resolution and penetration. An optimal choice of the OCT imaging wavelength (840, 1,050, or 1,310 nm) depends on the application of interest. Newer generation Fourier-domain OCT technology can provide scan speed 100-1000 times faster than the time-domain technology. Various commercial anterior OCT systems are available on the market. A wide spectrum of diagnostic and surgical applications using anterior segment OCT had been investigated, including mapping of corneal and epithelial thicknesses, keratoconus screening, measuring corneal refractive power, corneal surgery planning and evaluation in LASIK, intracorneal ring implantation, assessment of angle closure glaucoma, anterior chamber biometry and intraocular lens implants, intraocular lens power calculation, and eye bank donor cornea screening.

  17. Full resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khare, Kedar; Geetha, Athira; Bhattacharya, Shanti

    2017-06-01

    The complex conjugate ambiguity in Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FDOCT) is a major roadblock that prevents full-detector resolution for the depth scan in single shot operation for the individual A-scan. Current techniques to eliminate this problem involve changing the experimental set-up, usually complicating the OCT system. In this work we show that the standard FDOCT spectrum data when resampled appropriately can be cast exactly in terms of type-1 discrete cosine transform (DCT). Additionally, a sparse reconstruction method in the DCT domain enables image recovery with full-detector resolution, thus effectively doubling the depth scan resolution. In a realistic simulation study we demonstrate full-detector resolution for a discrete reflective target by successfully resolving closely spaced reflective peaks that cannot be separated using the standard Fourier transform based reconstruction. Experimental results on reflective glass sheet targets further validate the methodology. The results of the proposed technique suggest that full resolution FDOCT systems may be implemented practically without additional hardware costs and system complexity.

  18. Image quality metrics for optical coherence angiography

    PubMed Central

    Lozzi, Andrea; Agrawal, Anant; Boretsky, Adam; Welle, Cristin G.; Hammer, Daniel X.

    2015-01-01

    We characterized image quality in optical coherence angiography (OCA) en face planes of mouse cortical capillary network in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and Weber contrast (Wc) through a novel mask-based segmentation method. The method was used to compare two adjacent B-scan processing algorithms, (1) average absolute difference (AAD) and (2) standard deviation (SD), while varying the number of lateral cross-sections acquired (also known as the gate length, N). AAD and SD are identical at N = 2 and exhibited similar image quality for N<10. However, AAD is relatively less susceptible to bulk tissue motion artifact than SD. SNR and Wc were 15% and 35% higher for AAD from N = 25 to 100. In addition data sets were acquired with two objective lenses with different magnifications to quantify the effect of lateral resolution on fine capillary detection. The lower power objective yielded a significant mean broadening of 17% in Full Width Half Maximum (FWHM) diameter. These results may guide study and device designs for OCA capillary and blood flow quantification. PMID:26203372

  19. Optical coherence tomography based angiography [Invited

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chieh-Li; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2017-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT)-based angiography (OCTA) provides in vivo, three-dimensional vascular information by the use of flowing red blood cells as intrinsic contrast agents, enabling the visualization of functional vessel networks within microcirculatory tissue beds non-invasively, without a need of dye injection. Because of these attributes, OCTA has been rapidly translated to clinical ophthalmology within a short period of time in the development. Various OCTA algorithms have been developed to detect the functional micro-vasculatures in vivo by utilizing different components of OCT signals, including phase-signal-based OCTA, intensity-signal-based OCTA and complex-signal-based OCTA. All these algorithms have shown, in one way or another, their clinical values in revealing micro-vasculatures in biological tissues in vivo, identifying abnormal vascular networks or vessel impairment zones in retinal and skin pathologies, detecting vessel patterns and angiogenesis in eyes with age-related macular degeneration and in skin and brain with tumors, and monitoring responses to hypoxia in the brain tissue. The purpose of this paper is to provide a technical oriented overview of the OCTA developments and their potential pre-clinical and clinical applications, and to shed some lights on its future perspectives. Because of its clinical translation to ophthalmology, this review intentionally places a slightly more weight on ophthalmic OCT angiography. PMID:28271003

  20. Photodynamic therapy monitoring with optical coherence angiography

    PubMed Central

    Sirotkina, M. A.; Matveev, L. A.; Shirmanova, M. V.; Zaitsev, V. Y.; Buyanova, N. L.; Elagin, V. V.; Gelikonov, G. V.; Kuznetsov, S. S.; Kiseleva, E. B.; Moiseev, A. A.; Gamayunov, S. V.; Zagaynova, E. V.; Feldchtein, F. I.; Vitkin, A.; Gladkova, N. D.

    2017-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising modern approach for cancer therapy with low normal tissue toxicity. This study was focused on a vascular-targeting Chlorine E6 mediated PDT. A new angiographic imaging approach known as M-mode-like optical coherence angiography (MML-OCA) was able to sensitively detect PDT-induced microvascular alterations in the mouse ear tumour model CT26. Histological analysis showed that the main mechanisms of vascular PDT was thrombosis of blood vessels and hemorrhage, which agrees with angiographic imaging by MML-OCA. Relationship between MML-OCA-detected early microvascular damage post PDT (within 24 hours) and tumour regression/regrowth was confirmed by histology. The advantages of MML-OCA such as direct image acquisition, fast processing, robust and affordable system opto-electronics, and label-free high contrast 3D visualization of the microvasculature suggest attractive possibilities of this method in practical clinical monitoring of cancer therapies with microvascular involvement. PMID:28148963

  1. Optical coherence tomography in vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessels, Ronni; de Bruin, Daniel M.; Faber, Dirk J.; van Boven, Hester H.; Vincent, Andrew D.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; van Beurden, Marc; Ruers, Theo J. M.

    2012-11-01

    Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC) is a gynecological cancer with an incidence of two to three per 100,000 women. VSCC arises from vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN), which is diagnosed through painful punch biopsy. In this study, optical coherence tomography (OCT) is used to differentiate between normal and VIN tissue. We hypothesize that (a) epidermal layer thickness measured in OCT images is different in normal tissue and VIN, and (b) quantitative analysis of the attenuation coefficient (μoct) extracted from OCT data differentiates VIN from normal vulvar tissue. Twenty lesions from 16 patients are imaged with OCT. Directly after data acquisition, a biopsy is performed. Epidermal thickness is measured and values of μoct are extracted from 200 OCT scans of normal and VIN tissue. For both methods, statistical analysis is performed using Paired Mann-Whitney-test. Correlation between the two methods is tested using a Spearman-correlation test. Both epidermal layer thickness as well as the μoct are different between normal vulvar tissue and VIN lesions (p<0.0001). Moreover, no correlation is found between the epidermal layer thickness and μoct. This study demonstrates that both the epidermal thickness and the attenuation coefficient of vulvar epithelial tissue containing VIN are different from that of normal vulvar tissue.

  2. MEMS-based endoscopic optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Huikai; Fedder, Gary K.; Pan, Yingtain

    2005-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging imaging technique that can provide high-resolution cross-sectional images of biological tissues. OCT has been used to detect various cancers including those in gastrointestinal tracts, bladder, and respiratory pathways. For in vivo imaging in visceral organs, small size and fast speed are essential, which can be achieved by using MEMS (Microelectromechanical systems) technology. In this paper, design and experimental results of a miniature endoscopic OCT imaging probe based on unique single-crystal silicon (SCS) MEMS micromirrors are reported. Several generations of one-dimensional (1D) micromirrors with a size of 1 mm by 1 mm have been fabricated. The resonant frequencies and radii of curvature of the micromirrors are about 0.5 kHz and 0.25 m, respectively. The packaged MEMS-OCT probe is 5 mm in diameter. About 15-μm axial resolutions, 20-μm transverse resolutions and 5-frames/s image rates are obtained.

  3. Anatomic Optical Coherence Tomography of Upper Airways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin Loy, Anthony; Jing, Joseph; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Yong; Elghobashi, Said; Chen, Zhongping; Wong, Brian J. F.

    The upper airway is a complex and intricate system responsible for respiration, phonation, and deglutition. Obstruction of the upper airways afflicts an estimated 12-18 million Americans. Pharyngeal size and shape are important factors in the pathogenesis of airway obstructions. In addition, nocturnal loss in pharyngeal muscular tone combined with high pharyngeal resistance can lead to collapse of the airway and periodic partial or complete upper airway obstruction. Anatomical optical coherence tomography (OCT) has the potential to provide high-speed three-dimensional tomographic images of the airway lumen without the use of ionizing radiation. In this chapter we describe the methods behind endoscopic OCT imaging and processing to generate full three dimensional anatomical models of the human airway which can be used in conjunction with numerical simulation methods to assess areas of airway obstruction. Combining this structural information with flow dynamic simulations, we can better estimate the site and causes of airway obstruction and better select and design surgery for patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

  4. Optical Coherence Tomography Guided Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Ha, Francis J; Giblett, Joel P; Nerlekar, Nitesh; Cameron, James D; Meredith, Ian T; West, Nick E J; Brown, Adam J

    2017-08-04

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an increasingly available intracoronary imaging modality that provides high-resolution imaging of coronary arteries. Its fundamental reliance on the emission and reflection of light enables rapid data acquisition without compromise of image resolution. As such, OCT can inform operators planning percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) by accurately defining luminal geometry and detailing plaque composition. Following PCI, OCT imaging delivers a thorough assessment of the treated arterial segment and can identify specific features not always visible on alternate imaging modalities, including stent edge-related dissection, plaque tissue prolapse, incomplete stent apposition and the presence of intra-coronary thrombus. Clinical trials highlight that procedural strategy is frequently altered based on OCT findings, while concerns over final stent dimensions have been mitigated through use of a sizing protocol based on external elastic lamina dimensions in the reference arterial segment. Randomised trials are now warranted to definitively ascertain whether OCT-guidance improves clinical outcomes when utilised during PCI. Copyright © 2017 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Photodynamic therapy monitoring with optical coherence angiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirotkina, M. A.; Matveev, L. A.; Shirmanova, M. V.; Zaitsev, V. Y.; Buyanova, N. L.; Elagin, V. V.; Gelikonov, G. V.; Kuznetsov, S. S.; Kiseleva, E. B.; Moiseev, A. A.; Gamayunov, S. V.; Zagaynova, E. V.; Feldchtein, F. I.; Vitkin, A.; Gladkova, N. D.

    2017-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising modern approach for cancer therapy with low normal tissue toxicity. This study was focused on a vascular-targeting Chlorine E6 mediated PDT. A new angiographic imaging approach known as M-mode-like optical coherence angiography (MML-OCA) was able to sensitively detect PDT-induced microvascular alterations in the mouse ear tumour model CT26. Histological analysis showed that the main mechanisms of vascular PDT was thrombosis of blood vessels and hemorrhage, which agrees with angiographic imaging by MML-OCA. Relationship between MML-OCA-detected early microvascular damage post PDT (within 24 hours) and tumour regression/regrowth was confirmed by histology. The advantages of MML-OCA such as direct image acquisition, fast processing, robust and affordable system opto-electronics, and label-free high contrast 3D visualization of the microvasculature suggest attractive possibilities of this method in practical clinical monitoring of cancer therapies with microvascular involvement.

  6. Optical coherence tomography and optical coherence domain reflectometry for deep brain stimulation probe guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Sung W.; Shure, Mark A.; Baker, Kenneth B.; Chahlavi, Ali; Hatoum, Nagi; Turbay, Massud; Rollins, Andrew M.; Rezai, Ali R.; Huang, David

    2005-04-01

    Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is FDA-approved for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and essential tremor. Currently, placement of DBS leads is guided through a combination of anatomical targeting and intraoperative microelectrode recordings. The physiological mapping process requires several hours, and each pass of the microelectrode into the brain increases the risk of hemorrhage. Optical Coherence Domain Reflectometry (OCDR) in combination with current methodologies could reduce surgical time and increase accuracy and safety by providing data on structures some distance ahead of the probe. For this preliminary study, we scanned a rat brain in vitro using polarization-insensitive Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). For accurate measurement of intensity and attenuation, polarization effects arising from tissue birefringence are removed by polarization diversity detection. A fresh rat brain was sectioned along the coronal plane and immersed in a 5 mm cuvette with saline solution. OCT images from a 1294 nm light source showed depth profiles up to 2 mm. Light intensity and attenuation rate distinguished various tissue structures such as hippocampus, cortex, external capsule, internal capsule, and optic tract. Attenuation coefficient is determined by linear fitting of the single scattering regime in averaged A-scans where Beer"s law is applicable. Histology showed very good correlation with OCT images. From the preliminary study using OCT, we conclude that OCDR is a promising approach for guiding DBS probe placement.

  7. Physical-layer network coding in coherent optical OFDM systems.

    PubMed

    Guan, Xun; Chan, Chun-Kit

    2015-04-20

    We present the first experimental demonstration and characterization of the application of optical physical-layer network coding in coherent optical OFDM systems. It combines two optical OFDM frames to share the same link so as to enhance system throughput, while individual OFDM frames can be recovered with digital signal processing at the destined node.

  8. COHERENCE: On the ability of cells to distinguish the coherence of optical radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budagovsky, A. V.

    2005-04-01

    The role of coherent optical radiation in photoregulatory processes caused by chemiluminescence of living cells is discussed. The effect of low and highly coherent quasi-monochromatic light on a dynamic 'host—parasite' system is studied. It is shown that plant organisms can distinguish the statistical order of irradiation. A significant increase in the functional activity was observed only for cells that were completely located within the coherence volume of the electromagnetic field. It is concluded that the cell size in living organisms is the discrimination threshold of the statistical properties of radiation and may serve as a specific biological measure of coherence.

  9. Volumetric optical coherence microscopy enabled by aberrated optics (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey A.; Liu, Siyang; Adie, Steven G.

    2017-02-01

    Optical coherence microscopy (OCM) is an interferometric imaging technique that enables high resolution, non-invasive imaging of 3D cell cultures and biological tissues. Volumetric imaging with OCM suffers a trade-off between high transverse resolution and poor depth-of-field resulting from defocus, optical aberrations, and reduced signal collection away from the focal plane. While defocus and aberrations can be compensated with computational methods such as interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy (ISAM) or computational adaptive optics (CAO), reduced signal collection must be physically addressed through optical hardware. Axial scanning of the focus is one approach, but comes at the cost of longer acquisition times, larger datasets, and greater image reconstruction times. Given the capabilities of CAO to compensate for general phase aberrations, we present an alternative method to address the signal collection problem without axial scanning by using intentionally aberrated optical hardware. We demonstrate the use of an astigmatic spectral domain (SD-)OCM imaging system to enable single-acquisition volumetric OCM in 3D cell culture over an extended depth range, compared to a non-aberrated SD-OCM system. The transverse resolution of the non-aberrated and astigmatic imaging systems after application of CAO were 2 um and 2.2 um, respectively. The depth-range of effective signal collection about the nominal focal plane was increased from 100 um in the non-aberrated system to over 300 um in the astigmatic system, extending the range over which useful data may be acquired in a single OCM dataset. We anticipate that this method will enable high-throughput cellular-resolution imaging of dynamic biological systems over extended volumes.

  10. Adaptive optics optical coherence tomography at 1 MHz

    PubMed Central

    Kocaoglu, Omer P.; Turner, Timothy L.; Liu, Zhuolin; Miller, Donald T.

    2014-01-01

    Image acquisition speed of optical coherence tomography (OCT) remains a fundamental barrier that limits its scientific and clinical utility. Here we demonstrate a novel multi-camera adaptive optics (AO-)OCT system for ophthalmologic use that operates at 1 million A-lines/s at a wavelength of 790 nm with 5.3 μm axial resolution in retinal tissue. Central to the spectral-domain design is a novel detection channel based on four high-speed spectrometers that receive light sequentially from a 1 × 4 optical switch assembly. Absence of moving parts enables ultra-fast (50ns) and precise switching with low insertion loss (−0.18 dB per channel). This manner of control makes use of all available light in the detection channel and avoids camera dead-time, both critical for imaging at high speeds. Additional benefit in signal-to-noise accrues from the larger numerical aperture afforded by the use of AO and yields retinal images of comparable dynamic range to that of clinical OCT. We validated system performance by a series of experiments that included imaging in both model and human eyes. We demonstrated the performance of our MHz AO-OCT system to capture detailed images of individual retinal nerve fiber bundles and cone photoreceptors. This is the fastest ophthalmic OCT system we know of in the 700 to 915 nm spectral band. PMID:25574431

  11. Adaptive optics optical coherence tomography at 1 MHz.

    PubMed

    Kocaoglu, Omer P; Turner, Timothy L; Liu, Zhuolin; Miller, Donald T

    2014-12-01

    Image acquisition speed of optical coherence tomography (OCT) remains a fundamental barrier that limits its scientific and clinical utility. Here we demonstrate a novel multi-camera adaptive optics (AO-)OCT system for ophthalmologic use that operates at 1 million A-lines/s at a wavelength of 790 nm with 5.3 μm axial resolution in retinal tissue. Central to the spectral-domain design is a novel detection channel based on four high-speed spectrometers that receive light sequentially from a 1 × 4 optical switch assembly. Absence of moving parts enables ultra-fast (50ns) and precise switching with low insertion loss (-0.18 dB per channel). This manner of control makes use of all available light in the detection channel and avoids camera dead-time, both critical for imaging at high speeds. Additional benefit in signal-to-noise accrues from the larger numerical aperture afforded by the use of AO and yields retinal images of comparable dynamic range to that of clinical OCT. We validated system performance by a series of experiments that included imaging in both model and human eyes. We demonstrated the performance of our MHz AO-OCT system to capture detailed images of individual retinal nerve fiber bundles and cone photoreceptors. This is the fastest ophthalmic OCT system we know of in the 700 to 915 nm spectral band.

  12. Combined optical coherence tomography and optical coherence elastography for glomerulonephritis classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chih-Hao; Du, Yong; Singh, Manmohan; Wu, Chen; Han, Zhaolong; Li, Jiasong; Mohammadzai, Qais; Raghunathan, Raksha; Hsu, Thomas; Noorani, Shezaan; Chang, Anthony; Mohan, Chandra; Larin, Kirill V.

    2016-03-01

    Acute Glomerulonephritis caused by anti-glomerular basement membrane disease has a high mortality due to delayed diagnosis. Thus, an accurate and early diagnosis is critical for preserving renal function. Currently, blood, urine, and tissue-based diagnoses can be time consuming, while ultrasound and CT imaging have relatively low spatial resolution. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive imaging technique that provides superior spatial resolution (micron scale) as compared to ultrasound and CT. Pathological changes in tissue properties can be detected based on the optical metrics analyzed from the OCT signal, such as optical attenuation and speckle variance. Moreover, OCT does not rely on ionizing radiation as with CT imaging. In addition to structural changes, the elasticity of the kidney can significantly change due to nephritis. In this work, we utilized OCT to detect the difference in tissue properties between healthy and nephritic murine kidneys. Although OCT imaging could identify the diseased tissue, classification accuracy using only optical metrics was clinically inadequate. By combining optical metrics with elasticity, the classification accuracy improved from 76% to 95%. These results show that OCT combined with OCE can be potentially useful for nephritis detection.

  13. Optical probe using eccentric optics for optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Iwaya, Mitsuharu; Watanabe, Yuuki; Sato, Manabu

    2007-03-01

    We propose and demonstrate an OCT optical probe using eccentric optics. This probe enabled both forward imaging and side imaging by dividing a circular scanning area into two semicircular scanning areas using an external motor to rotate the flexible tube. The outer diameter of the probe was 2.6 mm, and its rigid portion length was 10 mm. The lateral resolution was 23 μm, and the eccentric radius was 1.1 mm. The circumferential length in scanning was 6.9 mm, and the working distance was 5 mm. OCT images of 1.5 mm × 6.9 mm (in tissue, axial × circumference), including forward image and side image, were measured with the axial resolution of 19 μm in air and a frame rate of one frame per second. The epidermis, dermis, and sweat gland of in vivo human ventral finger tips were observed.

  14. All-optical processing in coherent nonlinear spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Oron, Dan; Dudovich, Nirit; Silberberg, Yaron

    2004-08-01

    In spectroscopy, the fingerprint of a substance is usually comprised of a sequence of spectral lines with characteristic frequencies and strengths. Identification of substances often involves postprocessing, where the measured spectrum is compared with tabulated fingerprint spectra. Here we suggest a scheme for nonlinear spectroscopy, where, through coherent control of the nonlinear process, the information from the entire spectrum can be practically collected into a single coherent entity. We apply this for all-optical analysis of coherent Raman spectra and demonstrate enhanced detection and effective background suppression using coherent processing.

  15. Nano-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, Sergey A.; Subhash, Hrebesh M.; Zam, Azhar; Leahy, Martin

    2014-03-01

    Depth resolved label-free detection of structural changes with nanoscale sensitivity is an outstanding problem in the biological and physical sciences and has significant applications in both the fundamental research and healthcare diagnostics arenas. Here we experimentally demonstrate a novel label-free depth resolved sensing technique based on optical coherence tomography (OCT) to detect structural changes at the nanoscale. Structural components of the 3D object, spectrally encoded in the remitted light, are transformed from the Fourier domain into each voxel of the 3D OCT image without compromising sensitivity. Spatial distribution of the nanoscale structural changes in the depth direction is visualized in just a single OCT scan. This label free approach provides new possibilities for depth resolved study of pathogenic and physiologically relevant molecules in the body with high sensitivity and specificity. It offers a powerful opportunity for early diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Experimental results show the ability of the approach to differentiate structural changes of 30 nm in nanosphere aggregates, located at different depths, from a single OCT scan, and structural changes less than 30 nm in time from two OCT scans. Application for visualization of the structure of human skin in vivo is also demonstrated.Depth resolved label-free detection of structural changes with nanoscale sensitivity is an outstanding problem in the biological and physical sciences and has significant applications in both the fundamental research and healthcare diagnostics arenas. Here we experimentally demonstrate a novel label-free depth resolved sensing technique based on optical coherence tomography (OCT) to detect structural changes at the nanoscale. Structural components of the 3D object, spectrally encoded in the remitted light, are transformed from the Fourier domain into each voxel of the 3D OCT image without compromising sensitivity. Spatial distribution of the nanoscale

  16. Spatial-domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langevin, L.; Gay, D.; Piché, M.

    2008-06-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive imaging technique invented in 1991 and allowing the observation of biological tissues with millimeter depth of penetration and a few micrometer resolution. In the standard time-domain OCT setup (TD-OCT), a broadband light source is used with a Michelson interferometer where one of the mirrors is replaced by the sample (which is mechanically moved transversally during data acquisition) while the other is axially vibrating. By analyzing the temporal signal at the exit of the interferometer, a high resolution tomographic cut of the sample can be obtained. A number of new OCT setups have been proposed since 1991 in order to improve the data acquisition speed. In particular, Fourier-domain OCT (FD-OCT) has allowed in vivo observation of samples by eliminating the necessity of the axial motion of the reference mirror in the setup. We propose in this paper new OCT setups having the same potential without requiring numerical treatment of the signal (as it is the case in FD-OCT). Because those setups are such that the axial information of the sample becomes linearly distributed at different points of space in an interference pattern, we call them spatial-domain OCT setups (SD-OCT). SD-OCT setups use a tilted mirror in a Michelson interferometer to produce an interference pattern which is imaged on a CCD detector. The pattern contains all the information on the sample and is obtained without mechanical motion or numerical treatment of the recorded signal. In order to validate the proposed scheme, prototypes of the setups have been made in the laboratories of COPL at Laval University; biological samples such as onion peels and phloem of trees have been tested in order to produce their tomographic images. Comparisons of some of our results with those from a commercial setup with the same samples had notably confirmed the capacity of ours prototypes to effectively image biological samples.

  17. Gabor fusion master slave optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Cernat, Ramona; Bradu, Adrian; Israelsen, Niels Møller; Bang, Ole; Rivet, Sylvain; Keane, Pearse A; Heath, David-Garway; Rajendram, Ranjan; Podoleanu, Adrian

    2017-02-01

    This paper describes the application of the Gabor filtering protocol to a Master/Slave (MS) swept source optical coherence tomography (SS)-OCT system at 1300 nm. The MS-OCT system delivers information from selected depths, a property that allows operation similar to that of a time domain OCT system, where dynamic focusing is possible. The Gabor filtering processing following collection of multiple data from different focus positions is different from that utilized by a conventional swept source OCT system using a Fast Fourier transform (FFT) to produce an A-scan. Instead of selecting the bright parts of A-scans for each focus position, to be placed in a final B-scan image (or in a final volume), and discarding the rest, the MS principle can be employed to advantageously deliver signal from the depths within each focus range only. The MS procedure is illustrated on creating volumes of data of constant transversal resolution from a cucumber and from an insect by repeating data acquisition for 4 different focus positions. In addition, advantage is taken from the tolerance to dispersion of the MS principle that allows automatic compensation for dispersion created by layers above the object of interest. By combining the two techniques, Gabor filtering and Master/Slave, a powerful imaging instrument is demonstrated. The master/slave technique allows simultaneous display of three categories of images in one frame: multiple depth en-face OCT images, two cross-sectional OCT images and a confocal like image obtained by averaging the en-face ones. We also demonstrate the superiority of MS-OCT over its FFT based counterpart when used with a Gabor filtering OCT instrument in terms of the speed of assembling the fused volume. For our case, we show that when more than 4 focus positions are required to produce the final volume, MS is faster than the conventional FFT based procedure.

  18. Functional Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bower, Bradley A.

    Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SDOCT) is a high-speed, high resolution imaging modality capable of structural and functional characterization of tissue microstructure. SDOCT fills a niche between histology and ultrasound imaging, providing non-contact, non-invasive backscattering amplitude and phase from a sample. Due to the translucent nature of the tissue, ophthalmic imaging is an ideal space for SDOCT imaging. Structural imaging of the retina has provided new insights into ophthalmic disease. The phase component of SDOCT images remains largely underexplored, though. While Doppler SDOCT has been explored in a research setting, it has yet to gain traction in the clinic. Other, functional exploitations of the phase are possible and necessary to expand the utility of SDOCT. Spectral Domain Phase Microscopy (SDPM) is an extension of SDOCT that is capable of resolving sub-wavelength displacements within a focal volume. Application of sub-wavelength displacement measurement imaging could provide a new method for non-invasive optophysiological measurement. This body of work encompasses both hardware and software design and development for implementation of SDOCT. Structural imaging was proven in both the lab and the clinic. Coarse phase changes associated with Doppler flow frequency shifts were recorded and a study was conducted to validate Doppler measurement. Fine phase changes were explored through SDPM applications. Preliminary optophysiology data was acquired to study the potential of sub-wavelength measurements in the retina. To remove the complexity associated with in-vivo human retinal imaging, a first principles approach using isolated nerve samples was applied using standard SDPM and a depthencoded technique for measuring conduction velocity. Results from amplitude as well as both coarse and fine phase processing are presented. In-vivo optophysiology using SDPM is a promising avenue for exploration, and projects furthering or extending this body

  19. Gabor fusion master slave optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Cernat, Ramona; Bradu, Adrian; Israelsen, Niels Møller; Bang, Ole; Rivet, Sylvain; Keane, Pearse A.; Heath, David-Garway; Rajendram, Ranjan; Podoleanu, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the application of the Gabor filtering protocol to a Master/Slave (MS) swept source optical coherence tomography (SS)-OCT system at 1300 nm. The MS-OCT system delivers information from selected depths, a property that allows operation similar to that of a time domain OCT system, where dynamic focusing is possible. The Gabor filtering processing following collection of multiple data from different focus positions is different from that utilized by a conventional swept source OCT system using a Fast Fourier transform (FFT) to produce an A-scan. Instead of selecting the bright parts of A-scans for each focus position, to be placed in a final B-scan image (or in a final volume), and discarding the rest, the MS principle can be employed to advantageously deliver signal from the depths within each focus range only. The MS procedure is illustrated on creating volumes of data of constant transversal resolution from a cucumber and from an insect by repeating data acquisition for 4 different focus positions. In addition, advantage is taken from the tolerance to dispersion of the MS principle that allows automatic compensation for dispersion created by layers above the object of interest. By combining the two techniques, Gabor filtering and Master/Slave, a powerful imaging instrument is demonstrated. The master/slave technique allows simultaneous display of three categories of images in one frame: multiple depth en-face OCT images, two cross-sectional OCT images and a confocal like image obtained by averaging the en-face ones. We also demonstrate the superiority of MS-OCT over its FFT based counterpart when used with a Gabor filtering OCT instrument in terms of the speed of assembling the fused volume. For our case, we show that when more than 4 focus positions are required to produce the final volume, MS is faster than the conventional FFT based procedure. PMID:28270987

  20. Carious growth monitoring with optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, A. Z.; Zezell, D. M.; Mayer, M. P. A.; Ribeiro, A. C.; Gomes, A. S. L.; Vieira, N. D., Jr.

    2006-02-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography was used to monitor subsurface caries evolution process in vitro. Human tooth was used and bacteria were employed to induce caries lesions. Twenty-five human third molars, were used in this study. The teeth were cut longitudinally at mesio-distal direction; the surfaces were coated with nail varnish except for two squared windows (2x4 mm); at the cement-enamel junction. Artificial lesions were induced by a S. Mutans microbiological culture. The samples (N = 50) were divided into groups according to the demineralization time: 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11 days. The culture medium, was changed each 48 hours. After the demineralization process the samples were rinsed with double-deionized water and stored in a humid environment. The OCT system was implemented with average power of 96 μW in the sample arm, providing a 23 μm of axial resolution. The images were produced with lateral scans step of 10 μm. The detection system was composed by a detector, a demodulator and a computer. With the images generated by OCT it was possible to determine the lesion depth as function of sample exposition time to microbiological culture. We observed that the depth of the lesion in the root dentine increased from 70 μm to 230 μm, depending of exposure time, and follows the bacterial population growth law. This OCT system accurately depicts hard dental tissue and it was able to detect early caries in its structure, providing a powerful contactless high resolution image of lesions.

  1. En-face optical coherence tomography revival

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradu, Adrian; Kapinchev, Konstantin; Barnes, Frederick; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.

    2016-03-01

    Quite recently, we introduced a novel Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) method, termed as Master Slave OCT (MS-OCT), especially to deliver en-face images. MS-OCT operates like a time domain OCT, selecting signal from a selected depth only while scanning the laser beam across the sample. Time domain OCT allows real time production of an en-face image, although relatively slowly. As a major advance, the Master Slave method allows collection of signals from any number of depths, as required by the user. MS-OCT is an OCT method that does not require resampling of data and can be used to deliver en-face images from several depths simultaneously. However, as the MS-OCT method requires important computational resources, the number of multiple depth en-face images produced in real-time is limited. Here, we demonstrate that taking advantage of the parallel processing feature of the MS-OCT technology by harnessing the capabilities of graphics processing units (GPU)s, information from 384 depth positions is acquired in one raster with real time display of 40 en-face OCT images. These exhibit comparable resolution and sensitivity to the images produced using the traditional Fourier domain based method. The GPU facilitates versatile real time selection of parameters, such as the depth positions of the 40 images out of a set of 384 depth locations, as well as their axial resolution. Here, we present in parallel with the 40 en-face OCT images of a human tooth, a confocal microscopy lookalike image, together with two B-scan OCT images along rectangular directions.

  2. Wave optics simulation approach for partial spatially coherent beams.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xifeng; Voelz, David

    2006-08-07

    A numerical wave optics approach for simulating a partial spatially coherent beam is presented. The approach involves the application of a sequence of random phase screens to an initial beam field and the summation of the intensity results after propagation. The relationship between the screen parameters and the spatial coherence function for the beam is developed and the approach is verified by comparing results with analytic formulations for a Gaussian Schell-model beam. The approach can be used for modeling applications such as free space optical laser links that utilize partially coherent beams.

  3. Applications of Doppler optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhiqiang

    A major development in biomedical imaging in the last decade has been optical coherence tomography (OCT). This technique enables microscale resolution, depth resolved imaging of the detailed morphology of transparent and nontransparent biological tissue in a noncontact and quasi-noninvasive way. In the first part of this dissertation, we will describe the development and the performance of our home-made OCT systems working with different wavelength regions based on free-space and optical fiber Michelson interferometers. The second part will focus on Doppler OCT (DOCT), an important extension of OCT, which enables the simultaneous evaluation of the structural information and of the fluid flow distribution at a localized position beneath the sample surface. Much effort has been spent during the past few years in our laboratory aimed at providing more accurate velocity measurements with an extended dynamic range. We also applied our technique in different research areas such as microfluidics and hemodynamics. Investigations on the optical properties of the biological tissues (such as absorption and scattering) corresponding to different center wavelengths, have been performed in our laboratory. We used a 10 femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser centered at about 810 nm associated with a free-space Michelson interferometer. The infrared sources were centered at about 1310 and 1560 nm with all-fiber interferometers. Comparative studies using three different sources for several in vitro biological tissues based on a graphical method illustrated how the optical properties affect the quality of the OCT images in terms of the penetration depth and backscattering intensity. We have shown the advantage of working with 810-nm emission wavelength for good backscattering amplitude and contrast, while sources emitting at 1570 nm give good penetration depth. The 1330-nm sources provide a good compromise between the two. Therefore, the choice of the source will ultimately determine the

  4. Classifying murine glomerulonephritis using optical coherence tomography and optical coherence elastography.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chih-Hao; Du, Yong; Singh, Manmohan; Wu, Chen; Han, Zhaolong; Li, Jiasong; Chang, Anthony; Mohan, Chandra; Larin, Kirill V

    2016-08-01

    Acute glomerulonephritis caused by antiglomerular basement membrane marked by high mortality. The primary reason for this is delayed diagnosis via blood examination, urine analysis, tissue biopsy, or ultrasound and X-ray computed tomography imaging. Blood, urine, and tissue-based diagnoses can be time consuming, while ultrasound and CT imaging have relatively low spatial resolution, with reduced sensitivity. Optical coherence tomography is a noninvasive and high-resolution imaging technique that provides superior spatial resolution (micrometer scale) as compared to ultrasound and CT. Changes in tissue properties can be detected based on the optical metrics analyzed from the OCT signals, such as optical attenuation and speckle variance. Furthermore, OCT does not rely on ionizing radiation as with CT imaging. In addition to structural changes, the elasticity of the kidney can significantly change due to nephritis. In this work, OCT has been utilized to quantify the difference in tissue properties between healthy and nephritic murine kidneys. Although OCT imaging could identify the diseased tissue, its classification accuracy is clinically inadequate. By combining optical metrics with elasticity, the classification accuracy improves from 76% to 95%. These results show that OCT combined with OCE can be a powerful tool for identifying and classifying nephritis. Therefore, the OCT/OCE method could potentially be used as a minimally invasive tool for longitudinal studies during the progression and therapy of glomerulonephritis as well as complement and, perhaps, substitute highly invasive tissue biopsies. Elastic-wave propagation in mouse healthy and nephritic kidneys.

  5. Multiscale imaging of human thyroid pathologies using integrated optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical coherence microscopy (OCM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chao; Wang, Yihong; Aguirre, Aaron D.; Tsai, Tsung-Han; Cohen, David W.; Connolly, James L.; Fujimoto, James G.

    2010-02-01

    We evaluate the feasibility of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical coherence microscopy (OCM) for imaging of benign and malignant thyroid lesions ex vivo using intrinsic optical contrast. Thirty four thyroid gland specimens were imaged from 17 patients, covering a spectrum of pathology, ranging from normal thyroid to neoplasia and benign disease. The integrated OCT and OCM imaging system allows seamlessly switching between low and high magnifications, in a way similar to traditional microscopy. Good correspondence was observed between optical images and histological sections. The results provide a basis for interpretation of future OCT and OCM images of the thyroid tissues and suggest the possibility of future in vivo evaluation of thyroid pathology.

  6. Optical characterization of vocal folds using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüerßen, Kathrin; Lubatschowski, Holger; Radicke, Nicole; Ptok, Martin

    2006-02-01

    The current standard procedure to ensure the diagnosis, if tissue is malignant, is still an invasive one. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a new non-invasive method to investigate biological tissue. In this study OCT was used on porcine and on human vocal folds. The optical penetration depth of the used radiation is up to 2 mm. Three different OCT application systems were used. The first is a high resolution OCT, which works in contact mode. It was used to examine porcine vocal folds ex vivo. Porcine vocal folds were assigned to defined areas and examined by OCT in contact mode followed by traditional histo-morphological analysis. The second OCT is fiber based. It also works in contact mode. Images of human vocal folds were done in contact mode. They were compared with a typical histo-morphological image of a human vocal fold. The third application system works in non contact to the tissue. It was integrated in a conventional laryngoscope. Human vocal folds were examined in vivo. Single layers of the vocal folds could be distinguished from each other with all used systems. Pathological alterations could be seen. Imaging is possible in real time. General anaesthesia is not necessary. OCT makes it possible to get a view under the surface of the vocal fold without being invasive.

  7. Adaptive optics optical coherence tomography with dynamic retinal tracking

    PubMed Central

    Kocaoglu, Omer P.; Ferguson, R. Daniel; Jonnal, Ravi S.; Liu, Zhuolin; Wang, Qiang; Hammer, Daniel X.; Miller, Donald T.

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive optics optical coherence tomography (AO-OCT) is a highly sensitive and noninvasive method for three dimensional imaging of the microscopic retina. Like all in vivo retinal imaging techniques, however, it suffers the effects of involuntary eye movements that occur even under normal fixation. In this study we investigated dynamic retinal tracking to measure and correct eye motion at KHz rates for AO-OCT imaging. A customized retina tracking module was integrated into the sample arm of the 2nd-generation Indiana AO-OCT system and images were acquired on three subjects. Analyses were developed based on temporal amplitude and spatial power spectra in conjunction with strip-wise registration to independently measure AO-OCT tracking performance. After optimization of the tracker parameters, the system was found to correct eye movements up to 100 Hz and reduce residual motion to 10 µm root mean square. Between session precision was 33 µm. Performance was limited by tracker-generated noise at high temporal frequencies. PMID:25071963

  8. Adaptive optics optical coherence tomography with dynamic retinal tracking.

    PubMed

    Kocaoglu, Omer P; Ferguson, R Daniel; Jonnal, Ravi S; Liu, Zhuolin; Wang, Qiang; Hammer, Daniel X; Miller, Donald T

    2014-07-01

    Adaptive optics optical coherence tomography (AO-OCT) is a highly sensitive and noninvasive method for three dimensional imaging of the microscopic retina. Like all in vivo retinal imaging techniques, however, it suffers the effects of involuntary eye movements that occur even under normal fixation. In this study we investigated dynamic retinal tracking to measure and correct eye motion at KHz rates for AO-OCT imaging. A customized retina tracking module was integrated into the sample arm of the 2nd-generation Indiana AO-OCT system and images were acquired on three subjects. Analyses were developed based on temporal amplitude and spatial power spectra in conjunction with strip-wise registration to independently measure AO-OCT tracking performance. After optimization of the tracker parameters, the system was found to correct eye movements up to 100 Hz and reduce residual motion to 10 µm root mean square. Between session precision was 33 µm. Performance was limited by tracker-generated noise at high temporal frequencies.

  9. High performance fiber-based optical coherent detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Youming

    The sensitivity of signal detection is of major interest for optical high speed communication systems and LIght Detection And Ranging (lidar) systems. Sensitive receivers in fiber-optical networks can reduce transmitter power or amplifier amplification requirements and extend link spans. High receiver sensitivity allows links to be established over long distances in deep space satellite communication systems and large atmospheric attenuation to be overcome in terrestrial free space communications. For lidar systems, the sensitivity of signal detection determines how far and how accurately the lidar can detect the remote objects. Optical receivers employ either coherent or direct detection. In addition to amplitude, coherent detection extracts frequency and phase information from received signals, whereas direct detection extracts the received pulse amplitude only. In theory, coherent detection should yield the highest receiver sensitivity. Another possible technique to improve detection sensitivity is to employ a fiber preamplifier. This technique has been successfully demonstrated in direct detection systems but not in the coherent detection systems. Due to the existence of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) inside the amplifier, the sensitivity of coherent detection varies with the data rate or pulse rate. For this reason, optically preamplified coherent detection is not used in applications as commonly as optically preamplified direct detection. We investigate the performance of coherent detection employing a fiber amplifier and time-domain-filter. The fiber amplifier is used as the optical preamplifier of the coherent detection system. To reduce the noise induced by the preamplifier to a maximum extent, we investigate the noise properties for both a single pass amplifier and a double pass amplifier. The relative intensity noise and linewidth broadening caused by ASE have been experimentally characterized. The results show that the double pass amplifier has

  10. Photon Dynamics in Coherently Coupled Optical Resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David D.; Chang, Hong-Rok; Fuller, K. A.

    2004-01-01

    The temporal response of coupled resonators is investigated using a linear systems analysis and coupled mode theory. Damped Rabi oscillations, slow and fast light, and coherent photon transfer techniques are demonstrated in these systems.

  11. Coherence Phenomena in Coupled Optical Resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. D.; Chang, H.

    2004-01-01

    We predict a variety of photonic coherence phenomena in passive and active coupled ring resonators. Specifically, the effective dispersive and absorptive steady-state response of coupled resonators is derived, and used to determine the conditions for coupled-resonator-induced transparency and absorption, lasing without gain, and cooperative cavity emission. These effects rely on coherent photon trapping, in direct analogy with coherent population trapping phenomena in atomic systems. We also demonstrate that the coupled-mode equations are formally identical to the two-level atom Schrodinger equation in the rotating-wave approximation, and use this result for the analysis of coupled-resonator photon dynamics. Notably, because these effects are predicted directly from coupled-mode theory, they are not unique to atoms, but rather are fundamental to systems of coherently coupled resonators.

  12. Coherence Phenomena in Coupled Optical Resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. D.; Chang, H.

    2004-01-01

    We predict a variety of photonic coherence phenomena in passive and active coupled ring resonators. Specifically, the effective dispersive and absorptive steady-state response of coupled resonators is derived, and used to determine the conditions for coupled-resonator-induced transparency and absorption, lasing without gain, and cooperative cavity emission. These effects rely on coherent photon trapping, in direct analogy with coherent population trapping phenomena in atomic systems. We also demonstrate that the coupled-mode equations are formally identical to the two-level atom Schrodinger equation in the rotating-wave approximation, and use this result for the analysis of coupled-resonator photon dynamics. Notably, because these effects are predicted directly from coupled-mode theory, they are not unique to atoms, but rather are fundamental to systems of coherently coupled resonators.

  13. Low coherence full field interference microscopy or optical coherence tomography: recent advances, limitations and future trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulhalim, I.

    2013-04-01

    Although low coherence microscopy (LCM) has been known for long time in the context of interference microscopy, coherence radar and white light interferometry, the whole subject has attracted a wide interest in the last two decades particularly accelerated by the entrance of OCT, as a noninvasive powerful technique for biomedical imaging. Today LCM can be classified into two types, both acts as three-dimensional imaging tool. The first is low temporal coherence microscopy; also known as optical coherence tomography (OCT), which is being used for medical diagnostics. The second is full field OCT in various modes and applied to various applications. FF-OCT uses low spatial and temporal coherence similar to the well-known coherence probe microscope (CPM) that have been in use for long time in optical metrology. The CPM has many advantages over conventional microscopy in its ability to discriminate between different transparent layers in a scattering medium thus allowing for precise noninvasive optical probing of dense tissue and other turbid media. In this paper the status of this technology in optical metrology applications will be discussed, on which we have been working to improve its performance, as well as its limitations and future prospective.

  14. Signal Coherence Recovery Using Acousto-Optic Fourier Transform Architectures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-14

    processing of data in ground- and space-based applications. We have implemented a prototype one-dimensional time-integrating acousto - optic (AO) Fourier...theory of optimum coherence recovery (CR) applicable in computation-limited environments. We have demonstrated direct acousto - optic implementation of CR

  15. A Method of Assembling Compact Coherent Fiber-Optic Bundles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Stefan; Liu, Duncan; Levine, Bruce Martin; Shao, Michael; Wallace, James

    2007-01-01

    A method of assembling coherent fiber-optic bundles in which all the fibers are packed together as closely as possible is undergoing development. The method is based, straightforwardly, on the established concept of hexagonal close packing; hence, the development efforts are focused on fixtures and techniques for practical implementation of hexagonal close packing of parallel optical fibers.

  16. Development of Fourier domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rui

    Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) is a high-speed, high-resolution, and noninvasive imaging technique that can obtain cross-sectional images of light scattering medium, such as biomedical tissues. In this thesis, I report three novel methods in FD-OCT technique including common-path endoscopic FD-OCT, streak-mode FD-OCT, and Doppler streak-mode FD-OCT. Finally, I apply the streak mode FD-OCT to ultrahigh-speed, noninvasive, live imaging of embryonic chick hearts. An extension of conventional FD-OCT technique is endoscopic FD-OCT, which can access internal organs by utilizing a miniaturized catheter design. However, its image signal suffers from the bending of the endoscopic catheter. To address this problem, a common-path endoscopic FD-OCT system was developed to avoid the polarization mismatch. Consequently, the OCT images were immune to the catheter bending. In addition, a Microelectromechanical system (MEMS) motor was integrated into the miniaturized probe to achieve circumferential scanning within lumen samples. In conventional FD-OCT, the imaging speed is limited by the slow line-scan rate of the camera. We developed the streak-mode FD-OCT technique, in which an area-scan camera is used instead of a line-scan camera to record the FD-OCT spectrum. Using this technique, high temporal resolution of 1000--2000 cross-sectional images of the sample were obtained in one second. Doppler FD-OCT is a functional extension of FD-OCT technique, which can measure the flow velocity within biomedical tissues. However, conventional techniques are not available to measure high speed flow due to slow imaging speed, phase wrapping, and fringe wash out issues. Based on the streak mode FD-OCT, a novel Doppler technique was developed that addressed these problems. It has been well established that cardiac dynamics play an important role in the early development of an embryonic heart. However, the mechanism by which cardiac dynamics affect the development of a

  17. Coherent tunneling by adiabatic passage in an optical waveguide system

    SciTech Connect

    Longhi, S.; Della Valle, G.; Ornigotti, M.; Laporta, P.

    2007-11-15

    We report on an experimental demonstration of light transfer in an engineered triple-well optical waveguide structure which provides a classic analog of coherent tunneling by adiabatic passage (CTAP) recently proposed for coherent transport in space of neutral atoms or electrons among tunneling-coupled optical traps or quantum wells [A. D. Greentree et al., Phys. Rev. B 70, 235317 (2004); K. Eckert et al., Phys. Rev. A 70, 023606 (2004)]. The direct visualization of CTAP wave-packet dynamics enabled by our simple optical system clearly shows that in the counterintuitive passage scheme light waves tunnel between the two outer wells without appreciable excitation of the middle well.

  18. [Principals and clinical applications of optical coherence tomography in glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Parasta, A-M; Fabian, E; Duncker, G

    2006-08-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) supplies morphological information from different retinal layers. In glaucoma, analysis of the nerve fiber layer is gaining more and more significance: Losses in this layer often precede by years functional losses in the visual field and end up in optical nerve head changes. OCT offers a means for imaging and for measurement of the nerve fiber layer besides morphological analysis of ONH as one of the earliest sensitive parameters in modern glaucoma diagnostics. However, because of the lack of extensive comparative data, the priority use of optical coherence morphometry is to be seen mainly in intraindividual follow-up.

  19. Amplifier Noise Based Optical Steganography with Coherent Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ben; Chang, Matthew P.; Caldwell, Naomi R.; Caldwell, Myles E.; Prucnal, Paul R.

    2014-12-01

    We summarize the principle and experimental setup of optical steganography based on amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise. Using ASE noise as the signal carrier, optical steganography effectively hides a stealth channel in both the time domain and the frequency domain. Coherent detection is used at the receiver of the stealth channel. Because ASE noise has short coherence length and random phase, it only interferes with itself within a very short range. Coherent detection requires the stealth transmitter and stealth receiver to precisely match the optical delay,which generates a large key space for the stealth channel. Several methods to further improve optical steganography, signal to noise ratio, compatibility with the public channel, and applications of the stealth channel are also summarized in this review paper.

  20. Coherent control of optical polarization effects in metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Seyedmohammad A.; Plum, Eric; Shi, Jinhui; Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2015-01-01

    Processing of photonic information usually relies on electronics. Aiming to avoid the conversion between photonic and electronic signals, modulation of light with light based on optical nonlinearity has become a major research field and coherent optical effects on the nanoscale are emerging as new means of handling and distributing signals. Here we demonstrate that in slabs of linear material of sub-wavelength thickness optical manifestations of birefringence and optical activity (linear and circular birefringence and dichroism) can be controlled by a wave coherent with the wave probing the polarization effect. We demonstrate this in proof-of-principle experiments for chiral and anisotropic microwave metamaterials, where we show that the large parameter space of polarization characteristics may be accessed at will by coherent control. Such control can be exerted at arbitrarily low intensities, thus arguably allowing for fast handling of electromagnetic signals without facing thermal management and energy challenges. PMID:25755071

  1. Master/slave interferometry - ideal tool for coherence revival swept source optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Bradu, Adrian; Rivet, Sylvain; Podoleanu, Adrian

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate that the master slave (MS) interferometry method can significantly simplify the practice of coherence revival swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT) technique. Previous implementations of the coherence revival technique required considerable resources on dispersion compensation and data resampling. The total tolerance of the MS method to nonlinear tuning, to dispersion in the interferometer and to dispersion due to the laser cavity, makes the MS ideally suited to the practice of coherence revival. In addition, enhanced versatility is allowed by the MS method in displaying shorter axial range images than that determined by the digital sampling of the data. This brings an immediate improvement in the speed of displaying cross-sectional images at high rates without the need of extra hardware such as graphics processing units or field programmable gate arrays. The long axial range of the coherence revival regime is proven with images of the anterior segment of healthy human volunteers.

  2. Master/slave interferometry – ideal tool for coherence revival swept source optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Bradu, Adrian; Rivet, Sylvain; Podoleanu, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate that the master slave (MS) interferometry method can significantly simplify the practice of coherence revival swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT) technique. Previous implementations of the coherence revival technique required considerable resources on dispersion compensation and data resampling. The total tolerance of the MS method to nonlinear tuning, to dispersion in the interferometer and to dispersion due to the laser cavity, makes the MS ideally suited to the practice of coherence revival. In addition, enhanced versatility is allowed by the MS method in displaying shorter axial range images than that determined by the digital sampling of the data. This brings an immediate improvement in the speed of displaying cross-sectional images at high rates without the need of extra hardware such as graphics processing units or field programmable gate arrays. The long axial range of the coherence revival regime is proven with images of the anterior segment of healthy human volunteers. PMID:27446682

  3. Measurement-based generation of shaped single photons and coherent state superpositions in optical cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecamwasam, Ruvindha L.; Hush, Michael R.; James, Matthew R.; Carvalho, André R. R.

    2017-01-01

    We propose related schemes to generate arbitrarily shaped single photons, i.e., photons with an arbitrary temporal profile, and coherent state superpositions using simple optical elements. The first system consists of two coupled cavities, a memory cavity and a shutter cavity, containing a second-order optical nonlinearity and electro-optic modulator (EOM), respectively. Photodetection events of the shutter cavity output herald preparation of a single photon in the memory cavity, which may be stored by immediately changing the optical length of the shutter cavity with the EOM after detection. On-demand readout of the photon, with arbitrary shaping, can be achieved through modulation of the EOM. The second scheme consists of a memory cavity with two outputs, which are interfered, phase shifted, and measured. States that closely approximate a coherent state superposition can be produced through postselection for sequences of detection events, with more photon detection events leading to a larger superposition. We furthermore demonstrate that no-knowledge feedback can be easily implemented in this system and used to preserve the superposition state, as well as provide an extra control mechanism for state generation.

  4. Coherent optical communication using polarization multiple-input-multiple-output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yan; Li, Guifang

    2005-09-01

    Polarization-division multiplexed (PDM) optical signals can potentially be demultiplexed by coherent detection and digital signal processing without using optical dynamic polarization control at the receiver. In this paper, we show that optical communications using PDM is analogous to wireless communications using multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) antennae and thus algorithms for channel estimation in wireless MIMO can be ready applied to optical polarization MIMO (PMIMO). Combined with frequency offset and phase estimation algorithms, simulations show that PDM quadrature phase-shift keying signals can be coherently detected by the proposed scheme using commercial semiconductor lasers while no optical phase locking and polarization control are required. This analogy further suggests the potential application of space-time coding in wireless communications to optical polarization MIMO systems and relates the problem of polarization-mode dispersion in fiber transmission to the multi-path propagation in wireless communications.

  5. Coherent optical communication using polarization multiple-input-multiple-output.

    PubMed

    Han, Yan; Li, Guifang

    2005-09-19

    Polarization-division multiplexed (PDM) optical signals can potentially be demultiplexed by coherent detection and digital signal processing without using optical dynamic polarization control at the receiver. In this paper, we show that optical communications using PDM is analogous to wireless communications using multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) antennae and thus algorithms for channel estimation in wireless MIMO can be ready applied to optical polarization MIMO (PMIMO). Combined with frequency offset and phase estimation algorithms, simulations show that PDM quadrature phase-shift keying signals can be coherently detected by the proposed scheme using commercial semiconductor lasers while no optical phase locking and polarization control are required. This analogy further suggests the potential application of space-time coding in wireless communications to optical polarization MIMO systems and relates the problem of polarization-mode dispersion in fiber transmission to the multi-path propagation in wireless communications.

  6. CHOROIDAL IMAGING USING SPECTRAL-DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY

    PubMed Central

    Regatieri, Caio V.; Branchini, Lauren; Fujimoto, James G.; Duker, Jay S.

    2012-01-01

    Background A structurally and functionally normal choroidal vasculature is essential for retinal function. Therefore, a precise clinical understanding of choroidal morphology should be important for understanding many retinal and choroidal diseases. Methods PUBMED (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=pubmed) was used for most of the literature search for this article. The criterion for inclusion of an article in the references for this review was that it included materials about both the clinical and the basic properties of choroidal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Results Recent reports show successful examination and accurate measurement of choroidal thickness in normal and pathologic states using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography systems. This review focuses on the principles of the new technology that make choroidal imaging using optical coherence tomography possible and on the changes that subsequently have been documented to occur in the choroid in various diseases. Additionally, it outlines future directions in choroidal imaging. Conclusion Optical coherence tomography is now proven to be an effective noninvasive tool to evaluate the choroid and to detect choroidal changes in pathologic states. Additionally, choroidal evaluation using optical coherence tomography can be used as a parameter for diagnosis and follow-up. PMID:22487582

  7. Optical coherence tomography in group 2A idiopathic juxtafoveolar telangiectasis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vishali; Gupta, Amod; Dogra, Mangat R; Agarwal, Anita

    2005-01-01

    To describe the optical coherence tomographic features in patients with group 2A idiopathic juxtafoveolar telangiectasis. Forty eyes of 20 consecutive patients with idiopathic juxtafoveolar telangiectasis seen between August 2002 and January 2004 were included in the study. All of the patients underwent color fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography. The main outcome measure was optical coherence tomography findings. The most consistent finding between stages 2 through 5 of group 2A idiopathic juxtafoveolar telangiectasis seen in 35 (87.5%) eyes on optical coherence tomography was the presence of hyporeflective intraretinal spaces in the absence of retinal thickening. Other findings included the presence of hyperreflectivity in the middle or inner retinal layers, suggesting retinal pigment epithelium proliferation and migration corresponding to the stellate foci of pigmentation in stage 4 and features of choroidal or subretinal neovascular membrane in stage 5. The optical coherence tomography findings in group 2A idiopathic juxtafoveolar telangiectasis were characteristic and may be helpful in making the diagnosis and defining, as far as possible, the anatomical staging.

  8. Phase-coherent synthesis of optical frequencies and waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, J.; Cundiff, S. T.; Foreman, S.; Fortier, T. M.; Hall, J. L.; Holman, K. W.; Jones, D. J.; Jost, J. D.; Kapteyn, H. C.; v. Leeuwen, K. A. H.; Ma, L. S.; Murnane, M. M.; Peng, J. L.; Shelton, R. K.

    2002-06-01

    Precision phase control of an ultrawide-bandwidth optical-frequency comb has produced remarkable and unexpected progress in both areas of optical-frequency metrology and ultrafast optics. A frequency comb (with 100 MHz spacing) spanning an entire optical octave (>300 THz) has been produced, corresponding to millions of marks on a frequency "ruler" that are stable at the Hz level. The precision comb has been used to establish a simple optical clock based on an optical transition of iodine molecules, providing an rf clock signal with a frequency stability comparable to that of an optical standard, and which is superior to almost all conventional rf sources. To realize a high-power cw optical frequency synthesizer, a separate, widely tunable single-frequency cw laser has been employed to randomly access the stabilized optical comb and lock to any desired comb component. Carrier-envelope phase stabilization of few-cycle optical pulses has recently been realized. This advance in femtosecond technology is important for both extreme non-linear optics and optical-frequency metrology. With two independent femtosecond lasers, we have not only synchronized their relative pulse timing at the femtosecond level, but have also phase-locked their carrier frequencies, thus establishing phase coherence between the two lasers. By coherently stitching the optical bandwidth together, a "synthesized" pulse has been generated with its 2nd-order autocorrelation signal displaying a shorter width than those of the two "parent" lasers.

  9. Phase-coherent synthesis of optical frequencies and waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, J.; Cundiff, S. T.; Foreman, S.; Fortier, T. M.; Hall, J. L.; Holman, K. W.; Jones, D. J.; Jost, J. D.; Kapteyn, H. C.; v. Leeuwen, K. A. H.; Ma, L. S.; Murnane, M. M.; Peng, J. L.; Shelton, R. K.

    Precision phase control of an ultrawide-bandwidth optical-frequency comb has produced remarkable and unexpected progress in both areas of optical-frequency metrology and ultrafast optics. A frequency comb (with 100 MHz spacing) spanning an entire optical octave (>300 THz) has been produced, corresponding to millions of marks on a frequency ``ruler'' that are stable at the Hz level. The precision comb has been used to establish a simple optical clock based on an optical transition of iodine molecules, providing an rf clock signal with a frequency stability comparable to that of an optical standard, and which is superior to almost all conventional rf sources. To realize a high-power cw optical frequency synthesizer, a separate, widely tunable single-frequency cw laser has been employed to randomly access the stabilized optical comb and lock to any desired comb component. Carrier-envelope phase stabilization of few-cycle optical pulses has recently been realized. This advance in femtosecond technology is important for both extreme non-linear optics and optical-frequency metrology. With two independent femtosecond lasers, we have not only synchronized their relative pulse timing at the femtosecond level, but have also phase-locked their carrier frequencies, thus establishing phase coherence between the two lasers. By coherently stitching the optical bandwidth together, a ``synthesized'' pulse has been generated with its 2nd-order autocorrelation signal displaying a shorter width than those of the two ``parent'' lasers.

  10. Accuracy of optical navigation systems for automatic head surgery: optical tracking versus optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz Díaz, Jesús; Riva, Mauro H.; Majdani, Omid; Ortmaier, Tobias

    2014-03-01

    The choice of a navigation system highly depends on the medical intervention and its accuracy demands. The most commonly used systems for image guided surgery (IGS) are based on optical and magnetic tracking systems. This paper compares two optical systems in terms of accuracy: state of the art triangulation-based optical tracking (OT) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). We use an experimental setup with a combined OCT and cutting laser, and an external OT. We simulate a robotic assisted surgical intervention, including planning, navigation, and processing, and compare the accuracies reached at a specific target with each navigation system.

  11. Method of optical coherence tomography with parallel depth-resolved signal reception and fibre-optic phase modulators

    SciTech Connect

    Morozov, A N; Turchin, I V

    2013-12-31

    The method of optical coherence tomography with the scheme of parallel reception of the interference signal (P-OCT) is developed on the basis of spatial paralleling of the reference wave by means of a phase diffraction grating producing the appropriate time delay in the Mach–Zehnder interferometer. The absence of mechanical variation of the optical path difference in the interferometer essentially reduces the time required for 2D imaging of the object internal structure, as compared to the classical OCT that uses the time-domain method of the image construction, the sensitivity and the dynamic range being comparable in both approaches. For the resulting field of the interfering object and reference waves an analytical expression is derived that allows the calculation of the autocorrelation function in the plane of photodetectors. For the first time a method of linear phase modulation by 2π is proposed for P-OCT systems, which allows the use of compact high-frequency (a few hundred kHz) piezoelectric cell-based modulators. For the demonstration of the P-OCT method an experimental setup was created, using which the images of the inner structure of biological objects at the depth up to 1 mm with the axial spatial resolution of 12 μm were obtained. (optical coherence tomography)

  12. Optical coherence tomography of the prostate nerves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitchian, Shahab

    Preservation of the cavernous nerves during prostate cancer surgery is critical in preserving a man's ability to have spontaneous erections following surgery. These microscopic nerves course along the surface of the prostate within a few millimeters of the prostate capsule, and they vary in size and location from one patient to another, making preservation of the nerves difficult during dissection and removal of a cancerous prostate gland. These observations may explain in part the wide variability in reported sexual potency rates (9--86%) following prostate cancer surgery. Any technology capable of providing improved identification, imaging, and visualization of the cavernous nerves during prostate cancer surgery would be of great assistance in improving sexual function after surgery, and result in direct patient benefit. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive optical imaging technique capable of performing high-resolution cross-sectional in vivo and in situ imaging of microstructures in biological tissues. OCT imaging of the cavernous nerves in the rat and human prostate has recently been demonstrated. However, improvements in the OCT system and the quality of the images for identification of the cavernous nerves is necessary before clinical use. The following chapters describe complementary approaches to improving identification and imaging of the cavernous nerves during OCT of the prostate gland. After the introduction to OCT imaging of the prostate gland, the optimal wavelength for deep imaging of the prostate is studied in Chapter 2. An oblique-incidence single point measurement technique using a normal-detector scanning system was implemented to determine the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients, mua and m's , of fresh canine prostate tissue, ex vivo, from the diffuse reflectance profile of near-IR light as a function of source-detector distance. The effective attenuation coefficient, mueff, and the Optical Penetration Depth (OPD) were

  13. Coherent feedback control of multipartite quantum entanglement for optical fields

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Zhihui; Jia, Xiaojun; Xie, Changde; Peng, Kunchi

    2011-12-15

    Coherent feedback control (CFC) of multipartite optical entangled states produced by a nondegenerate optical parametric amplifier is theoretically studied. The features of the quantum correlations of amplitude and phase quadratures among more than two entangled optical modes can be controlled by tuning the transmissivity of the optical beam splitter in the CFC loop. The physical conditions to enhance continuous variable multipartite entanglement of optical fields utilizing the CFC loop are obtained. The numeric calculations based on feasible physical parameters of realistic systems provide direct references for the design of experimental devices.

  14. The Development, Commercialization, and Impact of Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, James; Swanson, Eric

    2016-01-01

    This review was written for the special issue of IOVS to describe the history of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and its evolution from a nonscientific, historic perspective. Optical coherence tomography has become a standard of care in ophthalmology, providing real-time information on structure and function – diagnosing disease, evaluating progression, and assessing response to therapy, as well as helping to understand disease pathogenesis and create new therapies. Optical coherence tomography also has applications in multiple clinical specialties, fundamental research, and manufacturing. We review the early history of OCT describing how research and development evolves and the important role of multidisciplinary collaboration and expertise. Optical coherence tomography had its origin in femtosecond optics, but used optical communications technologies and required advanced engineering for early OCT prototypes, clinical feasibility studies, entrepreneurship, and corporate development in order to achieve clinical acceptance and clinical impact. Critical advances were made by early career researchers, clinician scientists, engineering experts, and business leaders, which enabled OCT to have a worldwide impact on health care. We introduce the concept of an “ecosystem” consisting of research, government funding, collaboration and competition, clinical studies, innovation, entrepreneurship and industry, and impact – all of which must work synergistically. The process that we recount is long and challenging, but it is our hope that it might inspire early career professionals in science, engineering, and medicine, and that the clinical and research community will find this review of interest. PMID:27409459

  15. The Development, Commercialization, and Impact of Optical Coherence Tomography.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, James; Swanson, Eric

    2016-07-01

    This review was written for the special issue of IOVS to describe the history of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and its evolution from a nonscientific, historic perspective. Optical coherence tomography has become a standard of care in ophthalmology, providing real-time information on structure and function - diagnosing disease, evaluating progression, and assessing response to therapy, as well as helping to understand disease pathogenesis and create new therapies. Optical coherence tomography also has applications in multiple clinical specialties, fundamental research, and manufacturing. We review the early history of OCT describing how research and development evolves and the important role of multidisciplinary collaboration and expertise. Optical coherence tomography had its origin in femtosecond optics, but used optical communications technologies and required advanced engineering for early OCT prototypes, clinical feasibility studies, entrepreneurship, and corporate development in order to achieve clinical acceptance and clinical impact. Critical advances were made by early career researchers, clinician scientists, engineering experts, and business leaders, which enabled OCT to have a worldwide impact on health care. We introduce the concept of an "ecosystem" consisting of research, government funding, collaboration and competition, clinical studies, innovation, entrepreneurship and industry, and impact - all of which must work synergistically. The process that we recount is long and challenging, but it is our hope that it might inspire early career professionals in science, engineering, and medicine, and that the clinical and research community will find this review of interest.

  16. Optical injection enables coherence resonance in quantum-dot lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziemann, D.; Aust, R.; Lingnau, B.; Schöll, E.; Lüdge, K.

    2013-07-01

    We demonstrate that optically injected semiconductor quantum-dot lasers operated in the frequency-locked regime exhibit the counterintuitive effect of coherence resonance, i.e., the regularity of noise-induced spiking is a non-monotonic function of the spontaneous emission noise, and it is optimally correlated at a non-zero value of the noise intensity. We uncover the mechanism of coherence resonance from a microscopically based model of the quantum-dot laser structure, and show that it is related to excitability under optical injection and to a saddle-node infinite period (SNIPER) bifurcation occurring for small injection strength at the border of the frequency locking regime. By a model reduction we argue that the phenomenon of coherence resonance is generic for a wide class of optically injected lasers.

  17. 1 Gbit/s Coherent Optical Communication System using a 1W Optical Power Amplifier

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-07

    An experimental 1 Gbit/s, coherent optical communication system that uses a 1 W semiconductor optical power amplifier is reported. The system is...per bit at a 10-6 bit error rate have been obtained. This link performance can support gigabit per second rates across geosynchronous distances. Optical communication , Optical amplifiers

  18. High efficiency coherent optical memory with warm rubidium vapour

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, M.; Sparkes, B.M.; Campbell, G.; Lam, P.K.; Buchler, B.C.

    2011-01-01

    By harnessing aspects of quantum mechanics, communication and information processing could be radically transformed. Promising forms of quantum information technology include optical quantum cryptographic systems and computing using photons for quantum logic operations. As with current information processing systems, some form of memory will be required. Quantum repeaters, which are required for long distance quantum key distribution, require quantum optical memory as do deterministic logic gates for optical quantum computing. Here, we present results from a coherent optical memory based on warm rubidium vapour and show 87% efficient recall of light pulses, the highest efficiency measured to date for any coherent optical memory suitable for quantum information applications. We also show storage and recall of up to 20 pulses from our system. These results show that simple warm atomic vapour systems have clear potential as a platform for quantum memory. PMID:21285952

  19. Imaging of the Rotator Cuff With Optical Coherence Tomography.

    PubMed

    Hartshorn, Timothy; Ren, Jian; Vangsness, C Thomas

    2015-09-01

    This study evaluated the utility of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in imaging porcine and human rotator cuff (RTC) tissue, analyzed its effectiveness in identifying clinical pathology, and correlated these findings with histologic examination. Twelve human cadaveric and 6 porcine shoulders were evaluated. Six-millimeter-wide bone sections were harvested from the proximal humerus of each specimen, with each containing the entire enthesis of the respective RTC tendon, as well as 2 cm of tendon medial to the enthesis. Only the supraspinatus tendon was evaluated in the human specimens, whereas the enthesis of multiple RTC tendons were evaluated in the porcine model. All specimens were imaged using OCT and correlated with histologic evaluation. Optical coherence tomography evaluation of macroscopically healthy tissue consistently showed an easily identifiable banding pattern (birefringence) in contrast to a disorganized, homogeneous appearance in grossly diseased tissue. Optical coherence tomography was more effective for qualitative evaluation of RTC tissue, identification of bursal-sided RTC tears, and localization of calcific deposits, whereas intrasubstance tendon delaminations and partial articular-sided tendon avulsion lesions were relatively more difficult to identify. Optical coherence tomography correlated well with histologic evaluation in all specimens. Optical coherence tomography provides high-resolution, subsurface imaging of rotator cuff tissue in real-time to a depth of up to 4 mm with excellent correlation to histology in a cadaveric model. Optical coherence tomography could be an effective adjunctive tool for the identification and localization of rotator cuff pathology. The use of OCT in arthroscopic shoulder surgery potentially provides a minimally invasive modality for qualitative assessment of rotator cuff pathology. This may allow for a decrease in soft tissue dissection, improved qualitative assessment of cuff tissue, and improved patient

  20. Applications of Optical Coherence Tomography in Pediatric Clinical Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Avery, Robert A.; Rajjoub, Raneem D.; Trimboli-Heidler, Carmelina; Waldman, Amy T.

    2015-01-01

    For nearly two centuries, the ophthalmoscope has permitted examination of the retina and optic nerve—the only axons directly visualized by the physician. The retinal ganglion cells project their axons, which travel along the innermost retina to form the optic nerve, marking the beginning of the anterior visual pathway. Both the structure and function of the visual pathway are essential components of the neurologic examination as it can be involved in numerous acquired, congenital and genetic central nervous system conditions. The development of optical coherence tomography now permits the pediatric neuroscientist to visualize and quantify the optic nerve and retinal layers with unprecedented resolution. As optical coherence tomography becomes more accessible and integrated into research and clinical care, the pediatric neuroscientist may have the opportunity to utilize and/or interpret results from this device. This review describes the basic technical features of optical coherence tomography and highlights its potential clinical and research applications in pediatric clinical neuroscience including optic nerve swelling, optic neuritis, tumors of the visual pathway, vigabatrin toxicity, nystagmus, and neurodegenerative conditions. PMID:25803824

  1. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography finding in posterior microphthalmos.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Mukesh; Das, Taraprasad; Kesarwani, Siddharth

    2012-11-01

    An eight-year-old boy presented with decreased vision in both eyes. At presentation, the visual acuity was 6/60 in both eyes with high plus spheres. Anterior segment examination was normal. Fundus examination and spectral domain optical coherence tomography were consistent with posterior microphthalmos and showed an elevated foveal contour and fold in the outer plexiform layer. External limiting membrane, photoreceptor and retinal pigment epithelium were not involved in the fold. To the best of our knowledge this is the first such case report with optical coherence tomography imaging of the retinal layer involved in a case of posterior microphthalmos.

  2. Optical coherent technologies in next generation access networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwatsuki, Katsumi; Tsukamoto, Katsutoshi

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews optical coherent technologies in next generation access networks with the use of radio over fiber (RoF), which offer key enabling technologies of wired and wireless integrated and/or converged broadband access networks to accommodate rapidly widespread cloud computing services. We describe technical issues on conventional RoF based on subcarrier modulation (SCM) and their countermeasures. Two examples of RoF access networks with optical coherent technologies to solve the technical issues are introduced; a video distribution system with FM conversion and wired and wireless integrated wide-area access network with photonic up- and down-conversion.

  3. Propagation-induced polarization changes in partially coherent optical beams.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, G P; Wolf, E

    2000-11-01

    Propagation of a partially coherent optical beam inside a linear, nondispersive, dielectric medium is studied, taking into account the vector nature of the electromagnetic field. Propagation-induced polarization changes are studied by using the Gaussian-Schell model for the cross-spectral-density tensor. The degree of polarization changes with propagation and also becomes nonuniform across the beam cross section. The extent of these changes depends on the coherence radius associated with the cross-correlation function. For optical beams with symmetric spectra, the bandwidth of the source spectra is found to play a relatively minor role.

  4. High-resolution second harmonic optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yi; Tomov, Ivan V.; Wang, Yimin; Chen, Zhongping

    2005-04-01

    A high-resolution Second Harmonic Optical Coherence Tomography (SH-OCT) system is demonstrated using a spectrum broadened femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser. An axial resolution of 4.2 μm at the second harmonic wave center wavelength of 400 nm has been achieved. Because the SH-OCT system uses the second harmonic generation signals that strongly depend on the orientation, polarization and local symmetry properties of chiral molecules, this technique provides unique contrast enhancement to conventional optical coherence tomography. The system is applied to image biological tissues like the rat-tail tendon. Images of highly organized collagen fibrils in the rat-tail tendon have been demonstrated.

  5. Foveomacular retinitis and associated optical coherence tomography findings.

    PubMed

    Topouzis, Fotis; Koskosas, Archimidis; Pappas, Theofanis; Anastasopoulos, Eleftherios; Raptou, Anastasia; Psilas, Konstantinos

    2007-01-01

    A 45-year-old man presented with clinical manifestations of foveomacular retinitis, including visual symptoms and foveal lesions characteristic of solar retinopathy, but repeated questions failed to elicit a history of sun gazing. Cross-sectional retinal images produced by optical coherence tomography revealed localized loss of retinal pigment epithelium cells in both eyes. A different pattern of reflectivity at the level of the photoreceptor layer was observed between the right and left eye, reflecting asymmetry in tissue damage. This case is described to provide additional evidence that solar retinopathy and foveomacular retinitis are the same entity and may also have common optical coherence tomography findings.

  6. Optical coherence tomography findings of bilateral foveal leukemic infiltration

    PubMed Central

    Le, John Q; Braich, Puneet S; Brar, Vikram S

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a 59-year-old man with a history of atypical chronic myelogenous leukemia who presented with a several-week history of decreased vision in both eyes. His clinical examination revealed bilateral foveal infiltration, which was also demonstrated on optical coherence tomography. After a failed induction with imatinib (Gleevec®), he was treated with omacetaxine (Synribo®) with an appropriate hematologic response. As his leukemia improved with chemotherapy, his retinal lesions regressed as demonstrated by serial optical coherence tomography and fundus photographs, with near complete restoration of foveal architecture. PMID:27540313

  7. Fiber optic coherent laser radar 3d vision system

    SciTech Connect

    Sebastian, R.L.; Clark, R.B.; Simonson, D.L.

    1994-12-31

    Recent advances in fiber optic component technology and digital processing components have enabled the development of a new 3D vision system based upon a fiber optic FMCW coherent laser radar. The approach includes a compact scanner with no moving parts capable of randomly addressing all pixels. The system maintains the immunity to lighting and surface shading conditions which is characteristic of coherent laser radar. The random pixel addressability allows concentration of scanning and processing on the active areas of a scene, as is done by the human eye-brain system.

  8. [Applications of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in neuro-ophthalmology].

    PubMed

    Kernstock, C; Friebe, K; Tonagel, F

    2013-11-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has revolutionised ophthalmology. Due to modern instruments with extremely high resolution there are more and more applications also in neuro-ophthalmological disorders. This review gives an overview on typical changes in OCT for the following diseases: autosomal dominant optic atrophy, Leber hereditary optic neuropathy, toxic, traumatic and compressive optic neuropathy, optic nerve drusen, anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy, optic disc pit, papilledema, optic neuritis (isolated or associated with multiple sclerosis or neuromyelitis optica), neurodegenerative diseases and hereditary retinal diseases. A diagnosis exclusively based on an OCT examination is not always possible, but in several diseases there are pathognomonic changes that directly lead to the correct diagnosis. Particularly with the often complex settings in neuro-ophtalmology the OCT should be seen as a supplementary modality and not as a replacement for other techniques.

  9. Optical coherence tomography in x-linked adrenoleukodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Jannelle J; Sotirchos, Elias S; Saidha, Shiv; Raymond, Gerald V; Calabresi, Peter A

    2013-09-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is a metabolic disease caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene, which codes for a peroxisomal membrane protein, leading to the accumulation of very long-chain fatty acids. Thinning of the retinal nerve fiber layer and macula has been described in adult-onset adrenomyeloneuropathy; however, assessment of these structures in the presymptomatic stage remains largely unexplored. Optical coherence tomography is a high-resolution medical imaging technology that has been widely used to assess ophthalmological diseases and more recently in neurological disease states to quantify the axonal and neuronal injury in the retina that results from demyelination of the optic nerve. Fourteen boys with presymptomatic X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy and 14 age-matched healthy controls underwent retinal imaging with optical coherence tomography. Optical coherence tomography-derived retinal thickness measures did not differ between adrenoleukodystrophy subjects and healthy controls. Our results suggest that structural retinal abnormalities are not detectable before the development of neurological manifestations in adrenoleukodystrophy. Further investigation of the utility of optical coherence tomography scanning in individuals with symptomatic disease should be considered to determine if its measures could be used as a biomarker of disease progression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Control of coherent backscattering by breaking optical reciprocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bromberg, Y.; Redding, B.; Popoff, S. M.; Cao, H.

    2016-02-01

    Reciprocity is a universal principle that has a profound impact on many areas of physics. A fundamental phenomenon in condensed-matter physics, optical physics, and acoustics, arising from reciprocity, is the constructive interference of quantum or classical waves which propagate along time-reversed paths in disordered media, leading to, for example, weak localization and metal-insulator transition. Previous studies have shown that such coherent effects are suppressed when reciprocity is broken. Here we experimentally show that by tuning a nonreciprocal phase we can coherently control complex coherent phenomena, rather than simply suppress them. In particular, we manipulate coherent backscattering of light, also known as weak localization. By utilizing a magneto-optical effect, we control the interference between time-reversed paths inside a multimode fiber with strong mode mixing, observe the optical analog of weak antilocalization, and realize a continuous transition from weak localization to weak antilocalization. Our results may open new possibilities for coherent control of waves in complex systems.

  11. Coherence gating and adaptive optics in the eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Donald T.; Qu, Junle; Jonnal, Ravi S.; Thorn, Karen E.

    2003-07-01

    An en face coherence gated camera equipped with adaptive optics (AO) has been constructed for imaging single cells in the living human retina. The high axial resolution of coherence gating combined with the high transverse resolution of AO provides a powerful imaging tool whose image quality can surpass either methodology performing alone. The AO system relies on a 37-actuator Xinetics mirror and a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor that executes up to 22 corrections per second. The coherence gate is realized with a free-space Michelson interferometer that employs a scientific-grade 12-bit CCD array for recording 2-D retinal interferograms. Images were collected of microstructures the size of single cells in the in vivo retina. Early results suggest that a coherence gated adaptive optics camera should substantially improve our ability to detect single cells in the retina over the current state-of-the-art AO retina cameras, including conventional flood illuminated and confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopes. To our knowledge, this is the first effort to combine coherence gating and adaptive optics.

  12. CHRONICLE: First International School on Coherent Optics and Holography (Prague, September 1-12, 1980)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukhenskiĭ, M. F.; Semenov, A. S.

    1981-07-01

    A brief review is given of papers presented at the First International School on Coherent Optics and Holography (Prague, 1980) and at the Second Czechoslovak Conference on Integrated Optics. The School was organized in sessions on coherence of light, fiber optics, integrated optics, holography, optical diagnostic methods, and adaptive optics.

  13. Optical refractive synchronization: linewidth coherency analysis and measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, James R.

    1999-11-01

    The direction of this paper is to describe the various analytical tools and measurement techniques used at SilkRoad to evalute the transmission-laser cavity control and optical beam train going into the electro optical modulator and subsequently into the otpical transmission fiber. The measurement values for the line width and the coherent length of the laser beam,and the subsequent Laguerre orders that are generated in the electro-optical modulator, are critical to the operation of the SilkRoad Optical Refractive Synchronization transmission technique. We begin the paper with the various analytical techniques that are used to calculate the line width and the coherency length. Following the analytical model, we describe the various measurement techniques and the subsequent data that results from our experiments.

  14. Coherence-Gated Sensorless Adaptive Optics Multiphoton Retinal Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Cua, Michelle; Wahl, Daniel J.; Zhao, Yuan; Lee, Sujin; Bonora, Stefano; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Jian, Yifan; Sarunic, Marinko V.

    2016-01-01

    Multiphoton microscopy enables imaging deep into scattering tissues. The efficient generation of non-linear optical effects is related to both the pulse duration (typically on the order of femtoseconds) and the size of the focused spot. Aberrations introduced by refractive index inhomogeneity in the sample distort the wavefront and enlarge the focal spot, which reduces the multiphoton signal. Traditional approaches to adaptive optics wavefront correction are not effective in thick or multi-layered scattering media. In this report, we present sensorless adaptive optics (SAO) using low-coherence interferometric detection of the excitation light for depth-resolved aberration correction of two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) in biological tissue. We demonstrate coherence-gated SAO TPEF using a transmissive multi-actuator adaptive lens for in vivo imaging in a mouse retina. This configuration has significant potential for reducing the laser power required for adaptive optics multiphoton imaging, and for facilitating integration with existing systems. PMID:27599635

  15. Coherence-Gated Sensorless Adaptive Optics Multiphoton Retinal Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cua, Michelle; Wahl, Daniel J.; Zhao, Yuan; Lee, Sujin; Bonora, Stefano; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Jian, Yifan; Sarunic, Marinko V.

    2016-09-01

    Multiphoton microscopy enables imaging deep into scattering tissues. The efficient generation of non-linear optical effects is related to both the pulse duration (typically on the order of femtoseconds) and the size of the focused spot. Aberrations introduced by refractive index inhomogeneity in the sample distort the wavefront and enlarge the focal spot, which reduces the multiphoton signal. Traditional approaches to adaptive optics wavefront correction are not effective in thick or multi-layered scattering media. In this report, we present sensorless adaptive optics (SAO) using low-coherence interferometric detection of the excitation light for depth-resolved aberration correction of two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) in biological tissue. We demonstrate coherence-gated SAO TPEF using a transmissive multi-actuator adaptive lens for in vivo imaging in a mouse retina. This configuration has significant potential for reducing the laser power required for adaptive optics multiphoton imaging, and for facilitating integration with existing systems.

  16. Coherence-Gated Sensorless Adaptive Optics Multiphoton Retinal Imaging.

    PubMed

    Cua, Michelle; Wahl, Daniel J; Zhao, Yuan; Lee, Sujin; Bonora, Stefano; Zawadzki, Robert J; Jian, Yifan; Sarunic, Marinko V

    2016-09-07

    Multiphoton microscopy enables imaging deep into scattering tissues. The efficient generation of non-linear optical effects is related to both the pulse duration (typically on the order of femtoseconds) and the size of the focused spot. Aberrations introduced by refractive index inhomogeneity in the sample distort the wavefront and enlarge the focal spot, which reduces the multiphoton signal. Traditional approaches to adaptive optics wavefront correction are not effective in thick or multi-layered scattering media. In this report, we present sensorless adaptive optics (SAO) using low-coherence interferometric detection of the excitation light for depth-resolved aberration correction of two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) in biological tissue. We demonstrate coherence-gated SAO TPEF using a transmissive multi-actuator adaptive lens for in vivo imaging in a mouse retina. This configuration has significant potential for reducing the laser power required for adaptive optics multiphoton imaging, and for facilitating integration with existing systems.

  17. Frequency multiplexed long range swept source optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Zurauskas, Mantas; Bradu, Adrian; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel swept source optical coherence tomography configuration, equipped with acousto-optic deflectors that can be used to simultaneously acquire multiple B-scans originating from different depths. The sensitivity range of the configuration is evaluated while acquiring five simultaneous B-scans. Then the configuration is employed to demonstrate long range B-scan imaging by combining two simultaneous B-scans from a mouse head sample. PMID:23760762

  18. Precision spectral manipulation: A demonstration using a coherent optical memory

    SciTech Connect

    Sparkes, B. M.; Cairns, C.; Hosseini, M.; Higginbottom, D.; Campbell, G. T.; Lam, P. K.; Buchler, B. C.

    2014-12-04

    The ability to coherently spectrally manipulate quantum information has the potential to improve qubit rates across quantum channels and find applications in optical quantum computing. Here we present experiments that use a multi-element solenoid combined with the three-level gradient echo memory scheme to perform precision spectral manipulation of optical pulses. If applied in a quantum information network, these operations would enable frequency-based multiplexing of qubits.

  19. Optical Coherence Tomography: History, Current Status, and Laboratory Work

    PubMed Central

    Gabriele, Michelle L.; Wollstein, Gadi; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Kagemann, Larry; Xu, Juan; Folio, Lindsey S.

    2011-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging has become widespread in ophthalmology over the past 15 years, because of its ability to visualize ocular structures at high resolution. This article reviews the history of OCT imaging of the eye, its current status, and the laboratory work that is driving the future of the technology. PMID:21493951

  20. Compact low-cost detection electronics for optical coherence imaging

    PubMed Central

    Akcay, A. C.; Lee, K. S.; Furenlid, L. R.; Costa, M. A.; Rolland, J. P.

    2015-01-01

    A compact and low-cost detection electronics scheme for optical coherence imaging is demonstrated. The performance of the designed electronics is analyzed in comparison to a commercial lock-in amplifier of equal bandwidth. Images of a fresh-onion sample are presented for each detection configuration. PMID:26617422

  1. Simultaneous measurement of group refractive index and thickness of optical samples using optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hsu-Chih; Liu, Yi-Cheng

    2010-02-10

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT), based on a Michelson interferometer and utilizing low coherence light as the optical source, is a novel technique for the noninvasive imaging of optical scattering media. A simple OCT scheme based on a 3 x 3 fiber coupler is presented for the simultaneous measurement of the refractive index and thickness of optical samples. The proposed system enables the refractive index and thickness to be determined without any prior knowledge of the sample parameters and is characterized by a simple and compact configuration, a straightforward measurement procedure, and a low cost. The feasibility of the proposed approach is demonstrated experimentally using BK7 and B270 optical glass samples.

  2. Coherent DWDM technology for high speed optical communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, Ross

    2011-10-01

    The introduction of coherent digital optical transmission enables a new generation of high speed optical data transport and fiber impairment mitigation. An initial implementation of 40 Gb/s coherent systems using Dual Polarization Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (DP-QPSK) is already being installed in carrier networks. New systems running at 100 Gb/s DP-QPSK data rate are in development and early technology lab and field trial phase. Significant investment in the 100 Gb/s ecosystem (optical components, ASICs, transponders and systems) bodes well for commercial application in 2012 and beyond. Following in the footsteps of other telecommunications fields such as wireless and DSL, we can expect coherent optical transmission to evolve from QPSK to higher order modulations schemes such as Mary PSK and/or QAM. This will be an interesting area of research in coming years and poses significant challenges in terms of electro-optic, DSP, ADC/DAC design and fiber nonlinearity mitigation to reach practical implementation ready for real network deployments.

  3. Characterization of the dental pulp using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauffman, C. M. F.; Carvalho, M. T.; Araujo, R. E.; Freitas, A. Z.; Zezell, D. M.; Gomes, A. S. L.

    2006-02-01

    The inner structure of teeth, i.e. the root canal anatomy, is very complex. However a good knowledge of endodontic architecture is the first step towards successful endodontic treatment. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a powerful technique to generate images of hard and soft tissue. Its images show dependency on the optical properties of the tissue under analysis. Changes in the scattering and absorption of tissues can be observed through the OCT images. In this work, we used optical coherence tomography to perform in vitro studies of the inner structure of the first molar of albino rats (Rattus norvegicus). Focusing on the pulp chamber and in the root canal, we compare the images generated with the OCT technique to the histology. We are analyzing the feasibility of OCT to help on the diagnostic of endodontic diseases.

  4. Spectroscopic polarization-sensitive full-field optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Arnaud

    2012-04-23

    Full-field optical coherence tomography (FF-OCT) is a recent optical imaging technology based on low-coherence interference microscopy for imaging of semi-transparent samples with ~1 µm spatial resolution. FF-OCT produces en-face tomographic images obtained by arithmetic combination of interferometric images acquired by an array camera. In this paper, we demonstrate a unique multimodal FF-OCT system, capable of measuring simultaneously the intensity, the power spectrum and the phase-retardation of light backscattered by the sample being imaged. Compared to conventional FF-OCT, this multimodal system provides enhanced imaging contrasts at the price of a moderate increase in experimental complexity and cost. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  5. Role of interfering optical fields in the trapping and melting of gold nanorods and related clusters.

    PubMed

    Deng, Hai-Dong; Li, Guang-Can; Dai, Qiao-Feng; Ouyang, Min; Lan, Sheng; Gopal, Achanta Venu; Trofimov, Vyacheslav A; Lysak, Tatiana M

    2012-05-07

    We investigate the simultaneous trapping and melting of a large number of gold (Au) nanorods by using a single focused laser beam at 800 nm which is in resonance with the longitudinal surface plasmon resonance of Au nanorods. The trapping and melting processes were monitored by the two-photon luminescence of Au nanorods. A multi-ring-shaped pattern was observed in the steady state of the trapping process. In addition, optical trapping of clusters of Au nanorods in the orbits circling the focus was observed. The morphology of the structure after trapping and melting of Au nanorods was characterized by scanning electron microscope. It was revealed that Au nanorods were selectively melted in the trapping region. While Au nanorods distributed in the dark rings were completely melted, those located in the bright rings remain unmelted. The multi-ring-shaped pattern formed by the interference between the incident light and the scattered light plays an important role in the trapping and melting of Au nanorods.

  6. Coherent optical non-reciprocity in axisymmetric resonators.

    PubMed

    Lenferink, Erik J; Wei, Guohua; Stern, Nathaniel P

    2014-06-30

    We describe an approach to optical non-reciprocity that exploits the local helicity of evanescent electric fields in axisymmetric resonators. By interfacing an optical cavity to helicity-sensitive transitions, such as Zeeman levels in a quantum dot, light transmission through a waveguide becomes direction-dependent when the state degeneracy is lifted. Using a linearized quantum master equation, we analyze the configurations that exhibit non-reciprocity, and we show that reasonable parameters from existing cavity QED experiments are sufficient to demonstrate a coherent non-reciprocal optical isolator operating at the level of a single photon.

  7. Investigations of a Coherently Driven Semiconductor Optical Cavity QED System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-30

    is performed through use of a 980 nm band external cavity tunable diode laser as a pump source Fig. 2a. The pump laser emission is directed into...coherent optical probing with a 1300 nm tunable laser solid lines and optical pumping with a 980 nm pump laser dashed lines. Optical component acronyms...recording the transmitted signal with an InGaAs avalanche photodiode APD. The pump laser is fixed on-resonance with a WGM which typically has a Q limited

  8. Visible-light optical coherence tomography for retinal oximetry.

    PubMed

    Yi, Ji; Wei, Qing; Liu, Wenzhong; Backman, Vadim; Zhang, Hao F

    2013-06-01

    We applied a visible-light spectroscopic optical coherence tomography (vis-OCT) for in vivo retinal oximetry. To extract hemoglobin oxygen saturation (sO(2)) in individual retinal vessels, we established a comprehensive analytical model to describe optical absorption, optical scattering, and blood cell packing factor in the whole blood and fit the acquired vis-OCT signals from the bottom of each imaged vessel. We found that averaged sO(2) values in arterial and venous bloods were 95% and 72%, respectively.

  9. Fourier phase in Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Uttam, Shikhar; Liu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Phase of an electromagnetic wave propagating through a sample-of-interest is well understood in the context of quantitative phase imaging in transmission-mode microscopy. In the past decade, Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography has been used to extend quantitative phase imaging to the reflection-mode. Unlike transmission-mode electromagnetic phase, however, the origin and characteristics of reflection-mode Fourier phase are poorly understood, especially in samples with a slowly varying refractive index. In this paper, the general theory of Fourier phase from first principles is presented, and it is shown that Fourier phase is a joint estimate of subresolution offset and mean spatial frequency of the coherence-gated sample refractive index. It is also shown that both spectral-domain phase microscopy and depth-resolved spatial-domain low-coherence quantitative phase microscopy are special cases of this general theory. Analytical expressions are provided for both, and simulations are presented to explain and support the theoretical results. These results are further used to show how Fourier phase allows the estimation of an axial mean spatial frequency profile of the sample, along with depth-resolved characterization of localized optical density change and sample heterogeneity. Finally, a Fourier phase-based explanation of Doppler optical coherence tomography is also provided. PMID:26831383

  10. Fourier phase in Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Uttam, Shikhar; Liu, Yang

    2015-12-01

    Phase of an electromagnetic wave propagating through a sample-of-interest is well understood in the context of quantitative phase imaging in transmission-mode microscopy. In the past decade, Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography has been used to extend quantitative phase imaging to the reflection-mode. Unlike transmission-mode electromagnetic phase, however, the origin and characteristics of reflection-mode Fourier phase are poorly understood, especially in samples with a slowly varying refractive index. In this paper, the general theory of Fourier phase from first principles is presented, and it is shown that Fourier phase is a joint estimate of subresolution offset and mean spatial frequency of the coherence-gated sample refractive index. It is also shown that both spectral-domain phase microscopy and depth-resolved spatial-domain low-coherence quantitative phase microscopy are special cases of this general theory. Analytical expressions are provided for both, and simulations are presented to explain and support the theoretical results. These results are further used to show how Fourier phase allows the estimation of an axial mean spatial frequency profile of the sample, along with depth-resolved characterization of localized optical density change and sample heterogeneity. Finally, a Fourier phase-based explanation of Doppler optical coherence tomography is also provided.

  11. Polarization Effects in Optical Coherence Tomography of Various Biological Tissues

    PubMed Central

    de Boer, Johannes F.; Srinivas, Shyam M.; Park, B. Hyle; Pham, Tuan H.; Chen, Zhongping; Milner, Thomas E.; Nelson, J. Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) was used to obtain spatially resolved ex vivo images of polarization changes in skeletal muscle, bone, skin and brain. Through coherent detection of two orthogonal polarization states of the signal formed by interference of light reflected from the biological sample and a mirror in the reference arm of a Michelson interferometer, the depth resolved change in polarization was measured. Inasmuch as any fibrous structure will influence the polarization of light, PS-OCT is a potentially powerful technique investigating tissue structural properties. In addition, the effects of single polarization state detection on OCT image formation is demonstrated. PMID:25774083

  12. Time-domain optical coherence tomography with digital holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massatsch, Pia; Charrière, Florian; Cuche, Etienne; Marquet, Pierre; Depeursinge, Christian D.

    2005-04-01

    We show that digital holography can be combined easily with optical coherence tomography approach. Varying the reference path length is the means used to acquire a series of holograms at different depths, providing after reconstruction images of slices at different depths in the specimen thanks to the short-coherence length of light source. A metallic object, covered by a 150-µm-thick onion cell, is imaged with high resolution. Applications in ophthalmology are shown: structures of the anterior eye, the cornea, and the iris, are studied on enucleated porcine eyes. Tomographic images of the iris border close to the pupil were obtained 165 µm underneath the eye surface.

  13. CHRONICLE: Fifth International School on Coherent Optics, Jena, East Germany, September 10-15, 1984

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukhenskiĭ, M. F.; Semenov, A. S.

    1985-04-01

    A brief review is given of lectures and papers presented at the Fifth International School on Coherent Optics (Jena, East Germany, 1984). The program was divided into three sections: fiber optics, integrated optics, fiber-optic sensors.

  14. High bandwidth optical coherent transient true-time delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reibel, Randy Ray

    An approach to reaching high bandwidth optical coherent transient (OCT) true-time delay (TTD) is described and demonstrated in this thesis. Utilizing the stimulated photon echo process in rare-earth ion doped crystals, such as Tm3+:YAG, TTD of optical signals with bandwidths >20 GHz and high time bandwidth products >104 are possible. TTD regenerators using OCT's have been demonstrated at low bandwidths (<40 MHz) showing picosecond delay resolutions with microsecond delays. With the advent of high bandwidth chirped lasers and high bandwidth electro-optic phase modulators, OCT TTD of broadband optical signals is now possible in the multi-gigahertz regime. To achieve this goal, several theoretical and technical aspects had to be explored. Theoretical discussions and numerical simulations are given using the Maxwell-Bloch equations with arbitrary phase. These simulations show good signal fidelity and high (60%) power efficiencies on echoes produced from gratings programmed with linear frequency chirps. New approaches for programming spectral gratings were also examined that utilized high bandwidth electro-optic modulators. In this technique, the phase modulation sidebands on an optical carrier are linearly chirped, creating an analog to the common linear frequency chirp. This approach allows multi-gigahertz true-time delay spectral grating programming. These new programming approaches are examined and characterized, both through simulation and experiment. A high bandwidth injection locked amplifier, based on semiconductor diode lasers, had to be developed and characterized to boost optical powers from both electro-optic phase modulators as well as chirped lasers. The injection locking system in conjunction with acousto-optic modulators were used in high bandwidth TTD demonstrations in Tm3+:YAG. Ultimately, high bandwidth binary phase shift keyed probe pulses were used in a demonstration of broadband true-time delay at a data rate of 1 GBit/s. The techniques, theory

  15. Probing myocardium biomechanics using quantitative optical coherence elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shang; Lopez, Andrew L.; Morikawa, Yuka; Tao, Ge; Li, Jiasong; Larina, Irina V.; Martin, James F.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2015-03-01

    We present a quantitative optical coherence elastographic method for noncontact assessment of the myocardium elasticity. The method is based on shear wave imaging optical coherence tomography (SWI-OCT), where a focused air-puff system is used to induce localized tissue deformation through a low-pressure short-duration air stream and a phase-sensitive OCT system is utilized to monitor the propagation of the induced tissue displacement with nanoscale sensitivity. The 1-D scanning of M-mode OCT imaging and the application of optical phase retrieval and mapping techniques enable the reconstruction and visualization of 2-D depth-resolved shear wave propagation in tissue with ultra-high frame rate. The feasibility of this method in quantitative elasticity measurement is demonstrated on tissue-mimicking phantoms with the estimated Young's modulus compared with uniaxial compression tests. We also performed pilot experiments on ex vivo mouse cardiac muscle tissues with normal and genetically altered cardiomyocytes. Our results indicate this noncontact quantitative optical coherence elastographic method can be a useful tool for the cardiac muscle research and studies.

  16. Nonlinear characterization of elasticity using quantitative optical coherence elastography

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Yi; Zaki, Farzana R.; Chandra, Namas; Chester, Shawn A.; Liu, Xuan

    2016-01-01

    Optical coherence elastography (OCE) has been used to perform mechanical characterization on biological tissue at the microscopic scale. In this work, we used quantitative optical coherence elastography (qOCE), a novel technology we recently developed, to study the nonlinear elastic behavior of biological tissue. The qOCE system had a fiber-optic probe to exert a compressive force to deform tissue under the tip of the probe. Using the space-division multiplexed optical coherence tomography (OCT) signal detected by a spectral domain OCT engine, we were able to simultaneously quantify the probe deformation that was proportional to the force applied, and to quantify the tissue deformation. In other words, our qOCE system allowed us to establish the relationship between mechanical stimulus and tissue response to characterize the stiffness of biological tissue. Most biological tissues have nonlinear elastic behavior, and the apparent stress-strain relationship characterized by our qOCE system was nonlinear an extended range of strain, for a tissue-mimicking phantom as well as biological tissues. Our experimental results suggested that the quantification of force in OCE was critical for accurate characterization of tissue mechanical properties and the qOCE technique was capable of differentiating biological tissues based on the elasticity of tissue that is generally nonlinear. PMID:27896009

  17. Coherent optical photons from shock waves in crystals.

    PubMed

    Reed, Evan J; Soljacić, Marin; Gee, Richard; Joannopoulos, J D

    2006-01-13

    We predict that coherent electromagnetic radiation in the 1-100 THz frequency range can be generated in crystalline materials when subject to a shock wave or soliton-like propagating excitation. To our knowledge, this phenomenon represents a fundamentally new form of coherent optical radiation source that is distinct from lasers and free-electron lasers. The radiation is generated by the synchronized motion of large numbers of atoms when a shock wave propagates through a crystal. General analytical theory and NaCl molecular dynamics simulations demonstrate coherence lengths on the order of mm (around 20 THz) and potentially greater. The emission frequencies are determined by the shock speed and the lattice constants of the crystal and can potentially be used to determine atomic-scale properties of the shocked material.

  18. Coherent Atom Optics with fast metastable rare gas atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Grucker, J.; Baudon, J.; Karam, J.-C.; Perales, F.; Vassilev, G.; Ducloy, M.; Bocvarski, V.

    2006-12-01

    Coherent atom optics experiments making use of an ultra-narrow beam of fast metastable atoms generated by metastability exchange are reported. The transverse coherence of the beam (coherence radius of 1.7 {mu}m for He*, 1.2 {mu}m for Ne*, 0.87 {mu}m for Ar*) is demonstrated via the atomic diffraction by a non-magnetic 2{mu}m-period reflection grating. The combination of the non-scalar van der Waals (vdW) interaction with the Zeeman interaction generated by a static magnetic field gives rise to ''vdW-Zeeman'' transitions among Zeeman sub-levels. Exo-energetic transitions of this type are observed with Ne*(3P2) atoms traversing a copper micro-slit grating. They can be used as a tunable beam splitter in an inelastic Fresnel bi-prism atom interferometer.

  19. Optical coherence tomography in ophthalmic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jay; Zhao, Yonghua; Kulkarni, Manish D.; Kirschbaum, Alan R.; Everett, Matthew J.; Harman, Jonathan W.; Pedersen, Per

    2003-07-01

    Image resolution, tissue penetration, and scan speed are among the most important parameters when designing an OCT system for ophthalmic use. Human retinal tissue is highly reflective in the near infrared spectrum range. A SLD at 820nm with 25nm FWHM spectral bandwidth provides 10μm coherence length in retinal tissue. Its appropriate power level, simplicity of use, high resolution, and relatively low cost, make the 820nm SLD the best choice light source for retinal OCT. A 1300nm SLD can penetrate deeper into the sclera tissue and since the 1300nm wavelength is highly absorbed in the vitreous, the ANSI laser safety standard allows higher maximum permissible power to the human eye. Higher scan speed can also be achieved. In this paper, we report two OCT systems that are designed specifically for retinal and anterior segment imaging of the human eye. Retinal OCT scans 400 A-scans per second, 2mm depth in tissue, and 10 μm image resolution with an 820nm SLD. Anterior segment OCT (AC-OCT) scans 2000 A-scans per second, 6mm depth in tissue, and 16μm image resolution with a 1300nm SLD. Benefits of suitable wavelength selection in scanning different tissue are clearly seen in the OCT images. Retinal OCT (OCT3) demonstrates significant improvement over the previous generation (OCT1/OCT2) from both a technical and cost point of view. AC-OCT performs 8 frames of 256 A-scans per second and is capable of imaging the human eye in vivo with minimum eye motion artifacts. It has potential use in refractive surgery, angle-closure glaucoma, and cataract surgery.

  20. Optical Coherence Angiographic Demonstration of Retinal Changes From Chronic Optic Neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Chen, John J; AbouChehade, Jackson E; Iezzi, Raymond; Leavitt, Jacqueline A; Kardon, Randy H

    2017-04-01

    Glaucoma causes a decrease in peripapillary perfused capillary density on optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography. However, other chronic optic neuropathies have not been explored with OCT angiography to see if these changes were specific to glaucoma. The authors evaluated OCT angiography in 10 patients who suffered various kinds of chronic optic neuropathies, including optic neuritis and ischaemic optic neuropathy, and found that all optic neuropathies showed a decrease in peripapillary vessel density on OCT angiography, regardless of the aetiology of the optic neuropathy. The peripapillary vessel loss on OCT angiography correlated well with the areas of retinal nerve fibre layer thinning seen on OCT.

  1. Gabor-based fusion technique for Optical Coherence Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Rolland, Jannick P; Meemon, Panomsak; Murali, Supraja; Thompson, Kevin P; Lee, Kye-sung

    2010-02-15

    We recently reported on an Optical Coherence Microscopy technique, whose innovation intrinsically builds on a recently reported - 2 microm invariant lateral resolution by design throughout a 2 mm cubic full-field of view - liquid-lens-based dynamic focusing optical probe [Murali et al., Optics Letters 34, 145-147, 2009]. We shall report in this paper on the image acquisition enabled by this optical probe when combined with an automatic data fusion method developed and described here to produce an in-focus high resolution image throughout the imaging depth of the sample. An African frog tadpole (Xenopus laevis) was imaged with the novel probe and the Gabor-based fusion technique, demonstrating subcellular resolution in a 0.5 mm (lateral) x 0.5 mm (axial) without the need, for the first time, for x-y translation stages, depth scanning, high-cost adaptive optics, or manual intervention. In vivo images of human skin are also presented.

  2. Trends in optical coherence tomography applied to medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2014-01-01

    The number of publications on optical coherence tomography (OCT) continues to double every three years. Traditionally applied to imaging the eye, OCT is now being extended to fields outside ophthalmology and optometry. Widening its applicability, progress in the core engine of the technology, and impact on development of novel optical sources, make OCT a very active and rapidly evolving field. Trends in the developments of different specific devices, such as optical sources, optical configurations and signal processing will be presented. Encompassing studies on both the configurations as well as on signal processing themes, current research in Kent looks at combining spectral domain with time domain imaging for long axial range and simultaneous imaging at several depths. Results of the collaborative work of the Applied Optics Group in Kent with organisers of this conference will be presented, with reference to 3D monitoring of abfraction.

  3. Digital signal processing techniques for coherent optical communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldfarb, Gilad

    Coherent detection with subsequent digital signal processing (DSP) is developed, analyzed theoretically and numerically and experimentally demonstrated in various fiber-optic transmission scenarios. The use of DSP in conjunction with coherent detection unleashes the benefits of coherent detection which rely on the preservaton of full information of the incoming field. These benefits include high receiver sensitivity, the ability to achieve high spectral-efficiency and the use of advanced modulation formats. With the immense advancements in DSP speeds, many of the problems hindering the use of coherent detection in optical transmission systems have been eliminated. Most notably, DSP alleviates the need for hardware phase-locking and polarization tracking, which can now be achieved in the digital domain. The complexity previously associated with coherent detection is hence significantly diminished and coherent detection is once gain considered a feasible detection alternative. In this thesis, several aspects of coherent detection (with or without subsequent DSP) are addressed. Coherent detection is presented as a means to extend the dispersion limit of a duobinary signal using an analog decision-directed phase-lock loop. Analytical bit-error ratio estimation for quadrature phase-shift keying signals is derived. To validate the promise for high spectral efficiency, the orthogonal-wavelength-division multiplexing scheme is suggested. In this scheme the WDM channels are spaced at the symbol rate, thus achieving the spectral efficiency limit. Theory, simulation and experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of this approach. Infinite impulse response filtering is shown to be an efficient alternative to finite impulse response filtering for chromatic dispersion compensation. Theory, design considerations, simulation and experimental results relating to this topic are presented. Interaction between fiber dispersion and nonlinearity remains the last major challenge

  4. Signal to noise ratio of free space homodyne coherent optical communication after adaptive optics compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jian; Mei, Haiping; Deng, Ke; Kang, Li; Zhu, Wenyue; Yao, Zhoushi

    2015-12-01

    Designing and evaluating the adaptive optics system for coherent optical communication link through atmosphere requires to distinguish the effects of the residual wavefront and disturbed amplitude to the signal to noise ratio. Based on the new definition of coherent efficiency, a formula of signal to noise ratio for describing the performance of coherent optical communication link after wavefront compensation is derived in the form of amplitude non-uniformity and wavefront error separated. A beam quality metric is deduced mathematically to evaluate the effect of disturbed amplitude to the signal to noise ratio. Experimental results show that the amplitude fluctuation on the receiver aperture may reduce the signal to noise ratio about 24% on average when Fried coherent length r0=16 cm.

  5. Imaging systems based on the encoding of optical coherence functions.

    PubMed

    James, J Christopher; Bennett, Gisele Welch; Rhodes, William T

    2005-09-01

    An imaging scheme is described that is based on the transmission of image-forming information encoded within optical coherence functions. The scheme makes use of dynamic random-valued encoding-decoding masks placed in the input-output planes of any linear optical system. The mask transmittance functions are complex conjugates of each other, as opposed to a similar coherence encoding scheme proposed earlier by two of this paper's authors that used identical masks. [Rhodes and Welch, in Euro-American Workshop on Optoelectronic Information Processing, SPIE Critical Review Series (SPIE, 1999), Vol. CR74, p. 1]. General analyses of the two coherence encoding schemes are performed by using the more general mutual coherence function as opposed to the mutual intensity function used in the earlier scheme. The capabilities and limitations of both encoding schemes are discussed by using simple examples that combine the encoding-decoding masks with free-space propagation, passage through a four-f system, and a single-lens imaging system.

  6. Molecular species-sensitive optical coherence tomography using coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marks, Daniel L.; Bredfeldt, Jeremy; Hambir, Selezion; Dlott, Dana D.; Kitchell, Barbara; Gruebele, Martin; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2003-07-01

    We present our progress in developing a novel technique and instrument that images specific molecular species in biological tissues using Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). Standard OCT instruments measure only the scattering from structural features, such as refractive index changes. We utilize Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) Spectroscopy, a nonlinear optics technique that can selectively stimulate molecular groups, to gather compositional information from the sample. Being a coherent process, our instrument will produce interference between the nonlinear anti-Stokes signal produced in the sample and a reference molecular sample to both exclude background and nonresonant signals and range features in the tissue. Because of this, we will also gain the benefits of sensitivity that interferometry can provide. By utilizing the tunability of an optical parametric oscillator, we can address a range of molecular resonances from 1500 cm-1 to 3500 cm-1. This frequency range offers the possibility of measuring the distributions and densities of proteins, lipids, and nuclear material that we believe will be useful for determining the early presence of epithelial carcinomas. We demonstrate the principle of this imaging method by producing interference between two separately produced CARS signals from the same probe and Stokes beams.

  7. Performance evaluation of adaptive optics for atmospheric coherent laser communications.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Chen, Shanqiu; Li, XinYang; Xian, Hao

    2014-06-30

    With extremely high sensitivity, the coherent laser communications has a large potential to be used in the long-range and high data-rate free space communication links. However, for the atmospheric turbulent links, the most significant factor that limits the performance of the coherent laser communications is the effect of atmospheric turbulence. In this paper, we try to integrate the adaptive optics (AO) to the coherent laser communications and analyze the performances. It is shown that, when the atmospheric turbulence condition D/r0 is not larger than 1, can the coherent laser communication system works well without the correction of an AO system. When it is in the gentle turbulent condition (around D/r0 = 2), only the tip and tilt correction can improve the mixing efficiency and the bit-error rate (BER) significantly. In the moderate (around D/r0 = 10) or relatively strong (around D/r0 = 17) turbulent condition, the AO system has to correct about 9 or 35 turbulent modes or more respectively to achieve a favorable performance. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that the AO technique has great potential to improve the performances of the atmospheric coherent laser communications.

  8. Optical Coherence Tomography in Pulmonary Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murgu, Septimiu Dan; Brenner, Matthew; Chen, Zhongping; Suter, Melissa J.

    Advances in pulmonary diagnostics and therapeutics offer a major potential for optical imaging applications both in clinical practice and research settings. Complexities of pulmonary structures and function have restricted widespread OCT investigations and clinical applications, but these will likely be overcome by developments in OCT technology [1]. Some factors that have limited adaptation of OCT into the pulmonary setting in the past have been the shallow depth of penetration, resolution limitations, relatively slow access times, need to examine large surface areas with numerous branching airways, motion artifacts, as well as a need for development of practical imaging probes to reach the relevant locations in a minimally invasive way. Considerable recent engineering and analytical advances in OCT technology [2-8] have already overcome several of these obstacles and will enable much more extensive investigations into the role for structural and functional pulmonary OCT imaging [1].

  9. Optical coherence tomography angiography of optic disc perfusion in non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Ling, Jia-Wen; Yin, Xue; Lu, Qian-Yi; Chen, Yi-Yi; Lu, Pei-Rong

    2017-01-01

    To compare the optic disc blood flow of non-arteritic ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) eyes with normal eyes. The optic disc blood flow densities of diagnosed non-acute phase NAION eyes (21 eyes, 14 individuals) and normal eyes (19 eyes, 12 individuals) were detected via Optovue optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). The optic disc blood flow was measured via Image J software. Correlations between optic disc perfusion and visual function variables were assessed by linear regression analysis. The average percentage of the optic disc non-perfusion areas in the non-acute phase NAION patients (17.84%±6.18%) was increased, when compared to the normal control eyes (8.61%±1.65%), and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.01). Moreover, there was a proportional correlation between the visual field mean defect (MD) and the optic disc non-perfusion area percentage, and the relationship was statistically significant (t=3.65, P<0.01, R(2)=0.4118). In addition, the critical correlation between the best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and the optic disc non-perfusion area percentage was statistically significant (t=4.32, P<0.01, R(2)=0.4957). The optic disc non-perfusion area percentages detected via OCTA in NAION eyes were significantly increased when compared with the normal eyes. Both the BCVA and MD were correlated with the optic disc flow detected, revealing that OCTA may be valuable in the diagnosis and estimation of NAION.

  10. Quantum communication with coherent states and linear optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrazola, Juan Miguel; Lütkenhaus, Norbert

    2014-10-01

    We introduce a general mapping for encoding quantum communication protocols involving pure states of multiple qubits, unitary transformations, and projective measurements into another set of protocols that employ a coherent state of light in a linear combination of optical modes, linear-optics transformations, and measurements with single-photon threshold detectors. This provides a general framework for transforming protocols in quantum communication into a form in which they can be implemented with current technology. We explore the similarity between properties of the original qubit protocols and the coherent-state protocols obtained from the mapping and make use of the mapping to construct additional protocols in the context of quantum communication complexity and quantum digital signatures. Our results have the potential of bringing a wide class of quantum communication protocols closer to their experimental demonstration.

  11. Combined Endoscopic Optical Coherence Tomography and Laser Induced Fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, Jennifer K.; Tumlinson, Alexandre R.; Utzinger, Urs

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) are promising modalities for tissue characterization in human patients and animal models. OCT detects coherently backscattered light, whereas LIF detects fluorescence emission of endogenous biochemicals, such as reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), collagen, and fluorescent proteins, or exogenous substances such as cyanine dyes. Given the complementary mechanisms of contrast for OCT and LIF, the combination of the two modalities could potentially provide more sensitive and specific detection of disease than either modality alone. Sample probes for both OCT and LIF can be implemented using small diameter optical fibers, suggesting a particular synergy for endoscopic applications. In this chapter, the mechanisms of contrast and diagnostic capability for both OCT and LIF are briefly examined. Evidence of complementary capability is described. Example published combined OCT-LIF systems are reviewed, one successful commercial instrument is discussed, and example applications are provided.

  12. Dynamic spectral-domain optical coherence elastography for tissue characterization.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xing; Adie, Steven G; John, Renu; Boppart, Stephen A

    2010-06-21

    A dynamic spectral-domain optical coherence elastography (OCE) imaging technique is reported. In this technique, audio-frequency compressive vibrations are generated by a piezoelectric stack as external excitation, and strain rates in the sample are calculated and mapped quantitatively using phase-sensitive spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. At different driving frequencies, this technique provides contrast between sample regions with different mechanical properties, and thus is used to mechanically characterize tissue. We present images of a three-layer silicone tissue phantom and rat tumor tissue ex vivo, based on quantitative strain rate. Both acquisition speed and processing speed are improved dramatically compared with previous OCE imaging techniques. With high resolution, high acquisition speed, and the ability to characterize the mechanical properties of tissue, this OCE technique has potential use in non-destructive volumetric imaging and clinical applications.

  13. Parametric imaging of viscoelasticity using optical coherence elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijesinghe, Philip; McLaughlin, Robert A.; Sampson, David D.; Kennedy, Brendan F.

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate imaging of soft tissue viscoelasticity using optical coherence elastography. Viscoelastic creep deformation is induced in tissue using step-like compressive loading and the resulting time-varying deformation is measured using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography. From a series of co-located B-scans, we estimate the local strain rate as a function of time, and parameterize it using a four-parameter Kelvin-Voigt model of viscoelastic creep. The estimated viscoelastic strain and time constant are used to visualize viscoelastic creep in 2D, dual-parameter viscoelastograms. We demonstrate our technique on six silicone tissue-simulating phantoms spanning a range of viscoelastic parameters. As an example in soft tissue, we report viscoelastic contrast between muscle and connective tissue in fresh, ex vivo rat gastrocnemius muscle and mouse abdominal transection. Imaging viscoelastic creep deformation has the potential to provide complementary contrast to existing imaging modalities, and may provide greater insight into disease pathology.

  14. Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography images using digital filtering

    PubMed Central

    Ozcan, Aydogan; Bilenca, Alberto; Desjardins, Adrien E.; Bouma, Brett E.; Tearney, Guillermo J.

    2009-01-01

    Speckle noise is a ubiquitous artifact that limits the interpretation of optical coherence tomography images. Here we apply various speckle-reduction digital filters to optical coherence tomography images and compare their performance. Our results indicate that shift-invariant, nonorthogonal wavelet-transform-based filters together with enhanced Lee and adaptive Wiener filters can significantly reduce speckle and increase the signal-to-noise ratio, while preserving strong edges. The speckle reduction capabilities of these filters are also compared with speckle reduction from incoherent angular compounding. Our results suggest that by using these digital filters, the number of individual angles required to attain a certain level of speckle reduction can be decreased. PMID:17728812

  15. Coherent control of plasmonic nanoantennas using optical eigenmodes

    PubMed Central

    Kosmeier, Sebastian; De Luca, Anna Chiara; Zolotovskaya, Svetlana; Di Falco, Andrea; Dholakia, Kishan; Mazilu, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The last decade has seen subwavelength focusing of the electromagnetic field in the proximity of nanoplasmonic structures with various designs. However, a shared issue is the spatial confinement of the field, which is mostly inflexible and limited to fixed locations determined by the geometry of the nanostructures, which hampers many applications. Here, we coherently address numerically and experimentally single and multiple plasmonic nanostructures chosen from a given array, resorting to the principle of optical eigenmodes. By decomposing the light field into optical eigenmodes, specifically tailored to the nanostructure, we create a subwavelength, selective and dynamic control of the incident light. The coherent control of plasmonic nanoantennas using this approach shows an almost zero crosstalk. This approach is applicable even in the presence of large transmission aberrations, such as present in holographic diffusers and multimode fibres. The method presents a paradigm shift for the addressing of plasmonic nanostructures by light. PMID:23657743

  16. Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography Using Femtosecond Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, J. G.; Aguirre, A. D.; Chen, Y.; Herz, P. R.; Hsiung, P.-L.; Ko, T. H.; Nishizawa, N.; Kärtner, F. X.

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging optical imaging modality for biomedical research and clinical medicine. OCT can perform high resolution, cross-sectional tomographic imaging in materials and biological systems by measuring the echo time delay and magnitude of backreflected or backscattered light [1]. In medical applications, OCT has the advantage that imaging can be performed in situ and in real time, without the need to remove and process specimens as in conventional excisional biopsy and histopathology. OCT can achieve axial image resolutions of 1 to 15 μm; one to two orders of magnitude higher than standard ultrasound imaging. The image resolution in OCT is determined by the coherence length of the light source and is inversely proportional to its bandwidth. Femtosecond lasers can generate extremely broad bandwidths and have enabled major advances in ultrahigh-resolution OCT imaging. This chapter provides an overview of OCT technology and ultrahigh-resolution OCT imaging using femtosecond lasers.

  17. Chirp optical coherence tomography of layered scattering media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberland, Udo; Blazek, Vladimir; Schmitt, Hans J.

    1998-07-01

    A new noninvasive technique that reveals cross sectional images of scattering media is presented. It is based on a continuous wave frequency modulated radar, but uses a tunable laser in the near infrared. As the full width at half maximum resolution of 16 micrometers is demonstrated with an external cavity laser, the chirp optical coherence tomography becomes an alternative to conventional short coherence tomography with the advantage of a simplified optical setup. The analysis of two-layer solid phantoms shows that the backscattered light gets stronger with decreasing anisotropic factor and increasing scattering coefficient, as predicted by Monte Carlo simulations. By introducing a two-phase chirp sequence, the combination of lateral resolved perfusion and depth resolved structure is shown.

  18. Optical Field Shaping with Broadband Coherent Raman Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Alexei; Wang, Kai; Zhi, Miaochan; Bahari, Aysan; Shutova, Mariia; Zhdanova, Alexandra

    2016-05-01

    We work toward developing a novel light source capable of producing sub-cycle optical waveforms with prescribed temporal and spatial shapes. Our Raman-based technique utilizes highly coherent molecular motion to modulate light and produce a broadband spectrum of mutually coherent sidebands. The total bandwidth of our source spans infrared, visible, and ultraviolet spectral regions, generating bursts of light synchronized with respect to molecular oscillations. Controlled spectral and temporal shaping of the resultant waveform allows arbitrary ultrafast, potentially non-sinusoidal, field synthesis. Our use of spatial light modulators to shape the transverse beam profiles adds another dimension to the laser field engineering. These are steps toward production of space- and time-tailored sub-cycle optical fields. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation (Grant No. PHY-1307153) and the Welch Foundation (Grant No. A-1547).

  19. Optical coherence elastography: current status and future applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Cuiru; Standish, Beau; Yang, Victor X. D.

    2011-04-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has several advantages over other imaging modalities, such as angiography and ultrasound, due to its inherently high in vivo resolution, which allows for the identification of morphological tissue structures. Optical coherence elastography (OCE) benefits from the superior spatial resolution of OCT and has promising applications, including cancer diagnosis and the detailed characterization of arterial wall biomechanics, both of which are based on the elastic properties of the tissue under investigation. We present OCE principles based on techniques associated with static and dynamic tissue excitation, and their corresponding elastogram image-reconstruction algorithms are reviewed. OCE techniques, including the development of intravascular- or catheter-based OCE, are in their early stages of development but show great promise for surgical oncology or intravascular cardiology applications.

  20. All-optically integrated multimodality imaging system: combined photoacoustic microscopy, optical coherence tomography, and fluorescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhongjiang; Yang, Sihua; Xing, Da

    2016-10-01

    We have developed a multimodality imaging system by optically integrating all-optical photoacoustic microscopy (AOPAM), optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fluorescence microscopy (FLM) to provide complementary information including optical absorption, optical back-scattering and fluorescence contrast of biological tissue. By sharing the same low-coherence Michelson interferometer, AOPAM and OCT could be organically optically combined to obtain the absorption and scattering information of the biological tissues. Also, owing to using the same laser source and objective lens, intrinsically registered photoacoustic and fluorescence signals are obtained to present the radiative and nonradiative transition process of absorption. Simultaneously photoacoustic angiography, tissue structure and fluorescence molecular in vivo images of mouse ear were acquired to demonstrate the capabilities of the optically integrated trimodality imaging system, which can present more information to study tumor angiogenesis, vasculature, anatomical structure and microenvironments in vivo.

  1. Polarimetry noise in fiber-based optical coherence tomography instrumentation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ellen Ziyi; Vakoc, Benjamin J.

    2011-01-01

    High noise levels in fiber-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) have broadly limited its clinical utility. In this study we investigate contribution of polarization mode dispersion (PMD) to the polarimetry noise. We develop numerical models of the PS-OCT system including PMD and validate these models with empirical data. Using these models, we provide a framework for predicting noise levels, for processing signals to reduce noise, and for designing an optimized system. PMID:21935044

  2. Concise Review of Optical Coherence Tomography in Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Su, Min-I; Chen, Chun-Yen; Yeh, Hung-I; Wang, Kuang-Te

    2016-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a novel image modality with higher resolution in the catheterization laboratory. It can differentiate tissue characteristics and provide detailed information, including dissection, tissue prolapse, thrombi, and stent apposition. In this study, we comprehensively reviewed the current pros and cons of OCT clinical applications and presented our clinical experiences associated with the advantages and limitations of this new imaging modality. PMID:27471350

  3. Optical coherence tomography based microangiography findings in hydroxychloroquine toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Kam, Jason; Zhang, Qinqin; Lin, Jason; Liu, Jin; Rezaei, Kasra

    2016-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography based microangiography (OMAG) is a new, non-invasive imaging modality capable of providing three dimentional (3D) retinal and choroidal microvascular maps without a need for exogenous dye. In this study, we evaluated the retinal and choroidal microvascular architecture of the macula in a patient with hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) toxicity using OMAG. Detailed microvascular information of the retina and the underlying choroid showed loss of parafoveal outer retinal vasculature with sparing of the central fovea vasculature. PMID:27190770

  4. Coherent optical determination of the leaf angle distribution of corn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, F. T. (Principal Investigator); Pihlman, M.

    1981-01-01

    A coherent optical technique for the diffraction analysis of an image is presented. Developments in radar remote sensing shows a need to understand plant geometry and its relationship to plant moisture, soil moisture, and the radar backscattering coefficient. A corn plant changes its leaf angle distribution, as a function of time, from a uniform distribution to one that is strongly vertical. It is shown that plant and soil moisture may have an effect on plant geometry.

  5. The study of plant tissue by optical coherent microscopy method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirskaya, V. V.; Margaryants, N. B.; Zhukova, E. V.

    2016-08-01

    The article presents the results of application of the optical coherent microscopy technique using a high-resolution automatic Linnik interference microscope to study the structure of plant tissues exemplified by surface periderm layers of a tuberous nightshade (solánum tuberosum) bulb. The results of 3D visualization of the structure of the sample under examination are provided. Scanning depth was 32 µm, with axial and lateral resolution of the device 1 µm.

  6. High-resolution parallel optical coherence tomography in scattering samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laubscher, M.; Ducros, Mathieu G.; Karamata, Boris; Bourquin, Stephane; Lasser, Theo

    2001-11-01

    Parallel optical coherence tomography in scattering samples is demonstrated using a 58 by 58 smart-pixel detector array. A femtosecond mode-locked Ti:Sapphire laser in combination with a free space Michelson interferometer was employed to achieve 4micrometers longitudinal resolution and 9mm transverse resolution on a 260x260 micrometers 2 field of view. We imaged a resolution target covered by an intralipid solution with different scattering coefficients as well as onion cells.

  7. Design of a handheld optical coherence microscopy endoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korde, Vrushali R.; Liebmann, Erica; Barton, Jennifer K.

    2009-02-01

    Optical Coherence Microscopy (OCM) combines coherence gating, high numerical aperture optics, and a fiber core pinhole to provide high axial and lateral resolution with relatively large depth of imaging. We present a handheld rigid OCM endoscope with a 6 mm diameter tip, 1 mm scan width, and 1 mm imaging depth. This probe will allow noninvasive imaging of fine structural detail in vivo. X-Y scanning is performed distally with mirrors mounted to micro galvonometer scanners incorporated into the endoscope handle. Two scanning doublet lenses relay the stop from the galvonometers to the afocal relay stop. The endoscope optical design consists of an afocal Hopkins relay lens system and a 0.4 NA objective. To allow focusing at various depths in the tissue, the endoscope housing is designed in two pieces screwed together with a fine pitch threads. A small rotation of the outer housing moves the lenses proximal and distal relative to the window, causing the focal location in the tissue to change. The space between the final objective lens and the window is filled with distilled water to avoid misalignment of the focus and coherence gate. A knife edge test was performed and the line spread function FWHM was measured to be 2.25 μm. The MTF has at least 0.3 contrast at a 5 μm line pair. This rigid handheld OCM endoscope will be useful for application ranging from minimally invasive surgical imaging to assessing dysplasia and sun damage in skin.

  8. Physical basis of holographic optical coherence imaging of living tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolte, David D.; Jeong, Kwan; Yu, Ping; Turek, John J.

    2004-07-01

    This paper reviews the physical basis of holographic optical coherence imaging (OCI) applied in image-domain holography (IDH) and Fourier-domain holography (FDH). Holographic OCI is a multi-spatial-channel direct imaging approach that is closely related to short-coherence speckle interferometry and speckle holography, drawing in addition from laser-ranging concepts and techniques of optical coherence tomography (OCT). It produces a series of en face images at successive depths that can be presented in a so-called video "fly-through". Interchannel cross-talk is described as multichannel spatial heterodyne that produces image-bearing speckle. The speckle holograms are proposed to relate to specific structure in the tissue and may be useful as a clinical diagnostic. For instance, sub-cellular motility (a metric of the vitality of a cell and a means to quantify the response to inter-cellular signaling) can be detected with wide field of view without the need for cellular-scale optical resolution. This can be applied across biologically significant areas of tissue with potential for intraoperative applications to asses the state of health beneath the surface of broad areas of excised tissue.

  9. Dynamic-focusing microscope objective for optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murali, Supraja; Rolland, Jannick

    2007-01-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a novel optical imaging technique that has assumed significant importance in bio-medical imaging in the last two decades because it is non-invasive and provides accurate, high resolution images of three dimensional cross-sections of body tissue, exceeding the capabilities of the current predominant imaging technique - ultrasound. In this paper, the application of high resolution OCT, known as optical coherence microscopy (OCM) is investigated for in vivo detection of abnormal skin pathology for the early diagnosis of cancer. A main challenge in OCM is maintaining invariant resolution throughout the sample. The technology presented is based on a dynamic focusing microscope imaging probe conceived for skin imaging and the detection of abnormalities in the epithelium. A novel method for dynamic focusing in the biological sample is presented using variable-focus lens technology to obtain three dimensional images with invariant resolution throughout the cross-section and depth of the sample is presented and discussed. A low coherence broadband source centered at near IR wavelengths is used to illuminate the sample. The design, analysis and predicted performance of the dynamic focusing microscope objective designed for dynamic three dimensional imaging at 5μm resolution for the chosen broadband spectrum is presented.

  10. Optical Coherence Tomography as a Tool for Ocular Dynamics Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Siedlecki, Damian; Kowalik, Waldemar; Kasprzak, Henryk

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of the study is to demonstrate that the ocular dynamics of the anterior chamber of the eye can be estimated quantitatively by means of optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods. A commercial high speed, high resolution optical coherence tomographer was used. The sequences of tomographic images of the iridocorneal angle of three subjects were captured and each image from the sequence was processed in MATLAB environment in order to detect and identify the contours of the cornea and iris. The data on pulsatile displacements of the cornea and iris and the changes of the depth of the gap between them were retrieved from the sequences. Finally, the spectral analysis of the changes of these parameters was performed. Results. The results of the temporal and spectral analysis manifest the ocular microfluctuation that might be associated with breathing (manifested by 0.25 Hz peak in the power spectra), heart rate (1–1.5 Hz peak), and ocular hemodynamics (3.75–4.5 Hz peak). Conclusions. This paper shows that the optical coherence tomography can be used as a tool for noninvasive estimation of the ocular dynamics of the anterior segment of the eye, but its usability in diagnostics of the ocular hemodynamics needs further investigations. PMID:26557659

  11. Enhancement of short coherence digital holographic microscopy by optical clearing.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhiyuan; Guo, Xiaorui; Zhang, Yilong; Li, Dongmei; He, Yonghong

    2017-04-01

    In this work, we used a short coherence digital holographic microscopy system to demonstrate cross-talk noise suppression and imaging performance enhancement by optical clearing. Performance of the system on both phantom and in vitro porcine skin tissues before and after the treatment of 70% v./v. glycerol-saline solution was investigated. Our results showed that optical clearing effectively inhibits the cross-talk noise and improves the image quality in the deep of the in vitro porcine skin tissues. The imaging depth was increased by about 30% after topical application of the glycerol-saline solution for 30 min.

  12. Enhancement of short coherence digital holographic microscopy by optical clearing

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Zhiyuan; Guo, Xiaorui; Zhang, Yilong; Li, Dongmei; He, Yonghong

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we used a short coherence digital holographic microscopy system to demonstrate cross-talk noise suppression and imaging performance enhancement by optical clearing. Performance of the system on both phantom and in vitro porcine skin tissues before and after the treatment of 70% v./v. glycerol-saline solution was investigated. Our results showed that optical clearing effectively inhibits the cross-talk noise and improves the image quality in the deep of the in vitro porcine skin tissues. The imaging depth was increased by about 30% after topical application of the glycerol-saline solution for 30 min. PMID:28736654

  13. Evaluation of whole blood coagulation process by optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiangqun; Lin, Jia

    2010-11-01

    This study was to investigate the feasibility of using optical coherence tomography (OCT) to evaluate whole blood coagulation process. Attenuation coefficients and 1/e light penetration depth (D1/e) against time of human whole blood during in vitro clot formation under static were measured from the OCT profiles of reflectance vs depth. The results obtained clearly showed that the optical parameters are able to identify three stages during the in vitro blood clotting process. It is concluded that D1/e measured by OCT is a potential parameter to quantify and follow the liquid-gel transition of blood during clotting.

  14. Dynamically focused optical coherence tomography for endoscopic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Divetia, Asheesh; Hsieh, Tsung-Hsi; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Zhongping; Bachman, Mark; Li, Guann-Pyng

    2005-03-01

    We report a demonstration of a small liquid-filled polymer lens that may be used to dynamically provide scanning depth focus for endoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT) applications. The focal depth of the lens is controlled by changing the hydraulic pressure within the lens, enabling dynamic focal depth control without the need for articulated parts. The 1 mm diameter lens is shown to have resolving power of 5 μm, and can enable depth scans of 2.5 mm, making it suitable for use with OCT-enabled optical biopsy applications.

  15. Optical laser systems at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    DOE PAGES

    Minitti, Michael P.; Robinson, Joseph S.; Coffee, Ryan N.; ...

    2015-04-22

    Ultrafast optical lasers play an essential role in exploiting the unique capabilities of recently commissioned X-ray free-electron laser facilities such as the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Pump–probe experimental techniques reveal ultrafast dynamics in atomic and molecular processes and reveal new insights in chemistry, biology, material science and high-energy-density physics. This manuscript describes the laser systems and experimental methods that enable cutting-edge optical laser/X-ray pump–probe experiments to be performed at LCLS.

  16. High efficiency coherent beam combining of semiconductor optical amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Creedon, Kevin J; Redmond, Shawn M; Smith, Gary M; Missaggia, Leo J; Connors, Michael K; Kansky, Jan E; Fan, Tso Yee; Turner, George W; Sanchez-Rubio, Antonio

    2012-12-01

    We demonstrate 40 W coherently combined output power in a single diffraction-limited beam from a one-dimensional 47-element array of angled-facet slab-coupled optical waveguide amplifiers at 1064 nm. The output from each emitter was collimated and overlapped onto a diffractive optical element combiner using a common transform lens. Phase locking was achieved via active feedback on each amplifier's drive current to maximize the power in the combined beam. The combining efficiency at all current levels was nearly constant at 87%.

  17. Three-dimensional multifunctional optical coherence tomography for skin imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, En; Makita, Shuichi; Hong, Young-Joo; Kasaragod, Deepa; Sasaoka, Tomoko; Yamanari, Masahiro; Sugiyama, Satoshi; Yasuno, Yoshiaki

    2016-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) visualizes cross-sectional microstructures of biological tissues. Recent developments of multifunctional OCT (MF-OCT) provides multiple optical contrasts which can reveal currently unknown tissue properties. In this contribution we demonstrate multifunctional OCT specially designed for dermatological investigation. And by utilizing it to measure four different body parts of in vivo human skin, three-dimensional scattering OCT, OCT angiography, polarization uniformity tomography, and local birefringence tomography images were obtained by a single scan. They respectively contrast the structure and morphology, vasculature, melanin content and collagen traits of the tissue.

  18. The diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma by optical coherence tomography (OCT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J. H.; Du, Y.

    2016-06-01

    We have attempted to explore the intrinsic differences in the optical properties of the nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and normal tissue by optical coherence tomography (OCT). OCT imaging of normal tissue provided three layers of epithelium, lamina propria, and the brighter interface of basement membrane; while carcinomas disrupted the layered construction embedded in signal-poor images. The morphologies were consistent with histological findings. Sensitivity and specificity were 90% and 100%, respectively. This pilot study demonstrates that NPC could be diagnosed by visualization, which implies that OCT might be potentially used to differentiate normal from NPC tissue in the early stage as an invasive biopsy.

  19. Optical laser systems at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    PubMed Central

    Minitti, Michael P.; Robinson, Joseph S.; Coffee, Ryan N.; Edstrom, Steve; Gilevich, Sasha; Glownia, James M.; Granados, Eduardo; Hering, Philippe; Hoffmann, Matthias C.; Miahnahri, Alan; Milathianaki, Despina; Polzin, Wayne; Ratner, Daniel; Tavella, Franz; Vetter, Sharon; Welch, Marc; White, William E.; Fry, Alan R.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrafast optical lasers play an essential role in exploiting the unique capabilities of recently commissioned X-ray free-electron laser facilities such as the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Pump–probe experimental techniques reveal ultrafast dynamics in atomic and molecular processes and reveal new insights in chemistry, biology, material science and high-energy-density physics. This manuscript describes the laser systems and experimental methods that enable cutting-edge optical laser/X-ray pump–probe experiments to be performed at LCLS. PMID:25931064

  20. Optical laser systems at the Linac Coherent Light Source.

    PubMed

    Minitti, Michael P; Robinson, Joseph S; Coffee, Ryan N; Edstrom, Steve; Gilevich, Sasha; Glownia, James M; Granados, Eduardo; Hering, Philippe; Hoffmann, Matthias C; Miahnahri, Alan; Milathianaki, Despina; Polzin, Wayne; Ratner, Daniel; Tavella, Franz; Vetter, Sharon; Welch, Marc; White, William E; Fry, Alan R

    2015-05-01

    Ultrafast optical lasers play an essential role in exploiting the unique capabilities of recently commissioned X-ray free-electron laser facilities such as the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Pump-probe experimental techniques reveal ultrafast dynamics in atomic and molecular processes and reveal new insights in chemistry, biology, material science and high-energy-density physics. This manuscript describes the laser systems and experimental methods that enable cutting-edge optical laser/X-ray pump-probe experiments to be performed at LCLS.

  1. Gold nanoparticles evaluation using functional optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    StrÄ kowski, Marcin R.; Głowacki, Maciej; Kamińska, Aleksandra; Sawczak, Mirosław

    2017-02-01

    The main object of this research was to assess the ability to characterize the gold nanoparticles using optical modalities like optical coherence tomography. Since the nanoparticles, especially gold one, have been very attractive for medical diagnosis and treatment the amount of research activities have been growing rapidly. The nanoparticles designed for different applications like contrast agents or drugs delivery change the optical features of tissue in different way. Therefore, the expanded analysis of scattering optical signal may lead to obtain much more useful information about the tissues health and the treatment efficiency. The noninvasive measurements of the concentration and distribution of the nanoparticles, as well as their size in the media have been taken under consideration. For this purpose the polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography system with spectroscopic analysis (PS-SOCT) has been designed and used. In this contribution we are going to present the PS-SOCT measurement data obtained for the gold nanoparticles. The measurements have been taken for the liquid (gold nanoparticles in water) samples changing the particles concentrations in time.

  2. Imaging mouse cerebellum with serial optical coherence scanner (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chao J.; Williams, Kristen; Orr, Harry; Taner, Akkin

    2017-02-01

    We present the serial optical coherence scanner (SOCS), which consists of a polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography and a vibratome with associated controls for serial imaging, to visualize the cerebellum and adjacent brainstem of mouse. The cerebellar cortical layers and white matter are distinguished by using intrinsic optical contrasts. Images from serial scans reveal the large-scale anatomy in detail and map the nerve fiber pathways in the cerebellum and adjacent brainstem. The optical system, which has 5.5 μm axial resolution, utilizes a scan lens or a water-immersion microscope objective resulting in 10 μm or 4 μm lateral resolution, respectively. The large-scale brain imaging at high resolution requires an efficient way to collect large datasets. It is important to improve the SOCS system to deal with large-scale and large number of samples in a reasonable time. The imaging and slicing procedure for a section took about 4 minutes due to a low speed of the vibratome blade to maintain slicing quality. SOCS has potential to investigate pathological changes and monitor the effects of therapeutic drugs in cerebellar diseases such as spinocerebellar ataxia 1 (SCA1). The SCA1 is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by atrophy and eventual loss of Purkinje cells from the cerebellar cortex, and the optical contrasts provided by SOCS is being evaluated for biomarkers of the disease.

  3. Effectiveness of adaptive optics system in satellite-to-ground coherent optical communication.

    PubMed

    Jian, Huang; Ke, Deng; Chao, Liu; Peng, Zhang; Dagang, Jiang; Zhoushi, Yao

    2014-06-30

    Adaptive optics (AO) systems can suppress the signal fade induced by atmospheric turbulence in satellite-to-ground coherent optical communication. The lower bound of the signal fade under AO compensation was investigated by analyzing the pattern of aberration modes for a one-stage imaging AO system. The distribution of the root mean square of the residual aberration is discussed on the basis of the spatial and temporal characteristics of the residual aberration of the AO system. The effectiveness of the AO system for improving the performance of coherent optical communication is presented in terms of the bit error rate and system availability.

  4. Optical Coherence Tomography for Brain Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Gangjun; Chen, Zhongping

    Recently, there has been growing interest in using OCT for brain imaging. A feasibility study of OCT for guiding deep brain probes has found that OCT can differentiate the white matter and gray matter because the white matter tends to have a higher peak reflectivity and steeper attenuation rate compared to gray matter. In vivo 3D visualization of the layered organization of a rat olfactory bulb with OCT has been demonstrated. OCT has been used for single myelin fiber imaging in living rodents without labeling. The refractive index in the rat somatosensory cortex has also been measured with OCT. In addition, functional extension of OCT, such as Doppler-OCT (D-OCT), polarization sensitive-OCT (PS-OCT), and phase-resolved-OCT (PR-OCT), can image and quantify physiological parameters in addition to the morphological structure image. Based on the scattering changes during neural activity, OCT has been used to measure the functional activation in neuronal tissues. PS-OCT, which combines polarization sensitive detection with OCT to determine tissue birefringence, has been used for the localization of nerve fiber bundles and the mapping of micrometer-scale fiber pathways in the brain. D-OCT, also named optical Doppler tomography (ODT), combines the Doppler principle with OCT to obtain high resolution tomographic images of moving constituents in highly scattering biological tissues. D-OCT has been successfully used to image cortical blood flow and map the blood vessel network for brain research. In this chapter, the principle and technology of OCT and D-OCT are reviewed and examples of potential applications are described.

  5. Monitoring of tissue modification with optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Luo, Qingming; Yao, Lei; Cheng, Haiying; Zeng, Shaoqun

    2002-04-01

    An experimental monitoring of tissue modification of in vitro and in vivo rabbit dura mater with administration of osmotical agents, 40% glucose solution and glycerol, using optical coherence tomography was presented. The preliminary results of experimental study of influence of osmotical liquids (glucose solutions, glycerol) of rabbit dura mater were reported. The significant decreasing of the light from surface and increasing of the light from the deep of dura mater under action of osmotical solutions and the increasing of OCT imaging depth were demonstrated. Experiments showed that administration of osmolytes to dura mater allowed for effective and temporary control of its optical characteristics, which made dura mater more transparent, increased the ability of light penetrating the tissue, and consequently improved the optical imaging depth. It is a significant study, which can improve penetration of optical imaging of cerebral function and acquire more information of the deep brain tissue.

  6. Complex conjugate resolved heterodyne swept source optical coherence tomography using coherence revival

    PubMed Central

    Dhalla, Al-Hafeez; Nankivil, Derek; Izatt, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a simple and low-cost technique for resolving the complex conjugate ambiguity in Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) that is applicable to many swept source OCT (SSOCT) systems. First, we review the principles of coherence revival, wherein an interferometer illuminated by an external cavity tunable laser (ECTL) exhibits interference fringes when the two arms of the interferometer are mismatched by an integer multiple of the laser cavity length. Second, we report observations that the spectral interferogram obtained from SSOCT systems employing certain ECTLs are automatically phase modulated when the arm lengths are mismatched this way. This phase modulation results in a frequency-shifted interferogram, effectively creating an extended-depth heterodyne SSOCT system without the use of acousto-optic or electro-optic modulators. We suggest that this phase modulation may be caused by the ECTL cavity optical pathlength varying slightly over the laser sweep, and support this hypothesis with numerical simulations. We also report on the successful implementation of this technique with two commercial swept source lasers operating at 840nm and 1040nm, with sweep rates of 8kHz and 100kHz respectively. The extended imaging depth afforded by this technique was demonstrated by measuring the sensitivity fall-off profiles of each laser with matched and mismatched interferometer arms. The feasibility of this technique for clinical systems is demonstrated by imaging the ocular anterior segments of healthy human volunteers. PMID:22435108

  7. Complex conjugate resolved heterodyne swept source optical coherence tomography using coherence revival.

    PubMed

    Dhalla, Al-Hafeez; Nankivil, Derek; Izatt, Joseph A

    2012-03-01

    We describe a simple and low-cost technique for resolving the complex conjugate ambiguity in Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) that is applicable to many swept source OCT (SSOCT) systems. First, we review the principles of coherence revival, wherein an interferometer illuminated by an external cavity tunable laser (ECTL) exhibits interference fringes when the two arms of the interferometer are mismatched by an integer multiple of the laser cavity length. Second, we report observations that the spectral interferogram obtained from SSOCT systems employing certain ECTLs are automatically phase modulated when the arm lengths are mismatched this way. This phase modulation results in a frequency-shifted interferogram, effectively creating an extended-depth heterodyne SSOCT system without the use of acousto-optic or electro-optic modulators. We suggest that this phase modulation may be caused by the ECTL cavity optical pathlength varying slightly over the laser sweep, and support this hypothesis with numerical simulations. We also report on the successful implementation of this technique with two commercial swept source lasers operating at 840nm and 1040nm, with sweep rates of 8kHz and 100kHz respectively. The extended imaging depth afforded by this technique was demonstrated by measuring the sensitivity fall-off profiles of each laser with matched and mismatched interferometer arms. The feasibility of this technique for clinical systems is demonstrated by imaging the ocular anterior segments of healthy human volunteers.

  8. High-resolution full-field spatial coherence gated optical tomography using monochromatic light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Vishal; Nandy, Sreyankar; Singh Mehta, Dalip

    2013-09-01

    We demonstrate dispersion free, high-resolution full-field spatial coherence gated optical tomography using spatially incoherent monochromatic light source. Spatial coherence properties of light source were synthesized by means of combining a static diffuser and vibrating multi mode fiber bundle. Due to low spatial coherence of light source, the axial resolution of the system was achieved similar to that of conventional optical coherence tomography which utilizes low temporal coherence. Experimental results of fringe visibility versus optical path difference are presented for varying numerical apertures objective lenses. High resolution optically sectioned images of multilayer onion skin, and red blood cells are presented.

  9. A miniature forward-imaging optical coherence tomography (OCT) probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joos, Karen M.; Shen, Jin-Hui

    2012-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has had a tremendous global health impact upon the current ability to diagnose, treat, and monitor multiple eye diseases. We propose that a miniature forward-imaging OCT probe can be developed for real-time ocular imaging. A miniature 25-gauge forward-imaging probe was designed and developed to use with an 850 nm spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) system (Bioptigen, Inc. Durham, NC). Imaging parameters were determined. Ocular tissues were examined with the miniature OCT probe. A miniature SDOCT probe was developed with the scanning driver within the hand piece. The SDOCT fiber-scanning probe maximally transmitted power of 800 μW. The scanning range was 3 mm when the probe tip was held 3 to 5 mm from the tissue surface. The axial resolution was 6 μm and the lateral resolution was 30-35 μm. The 25-gauge forward-imaging probe was used to image cellophane tape, eyelid skin, cornea, conjunctiva, sclera, iris, anterior lens, anterior chamber angle, retina, retinal tear, retinal detachment, optic nerve head, and optic nerve sheath. Images obtained from the miniature probe appeared similar to images from a 3 mm scanning range of a commercial large handheld OCT probe (Bioptigen, Inc. Durham, NC).

  10. Integrated intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) - ultrasound (US) imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Jiechen; Yang, Hao-Chung; Li, Xiang; Zhou, Qifa; Hu, Changhong; Zhang, Jun; Shung, K. Kirk; Chen, Zhongping

    2010-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) are considered two complementary imaging techniques in the detection and diagnosis of atherosclerosis. OCT permits visualization of micron-scale features of atherosclerosis plaque, and IVUS offers full imaging depth of vessel wall. Under the guidance of IVUS, minimal amount of flushing agent will be needed to obtain OCT imaging of the interested area. We report on a dual-modality optical coherence tomography (OCT) - ultrasound (US) system for intravascular imaging. To the best of our knowledge, we have developed the first integrated OCT-US probe that combines OCT optical components with an ultrasound transducer. The OCT optical components mainly consist of a single mode fiber, a gradient index (GRIN) lens for light beam focusing, and a right-angled prism for reflecting light into biological tissue. A 40MHz PZT-5H side-viewing ultrasound transducer was fabricated to obtain the ultrasound image. These components were integrated into a single probe, enabling both OCT and ultrasound imaging at the same time. In vitro OCT and ultrasound images of a rabbit aorta were obtained using this dual-modality imaging system. This study demonstrates the feasibility of an OCT-US system for intravascular imaging which is expected to have a prominent impact on early detection and characterization of atherosclerosis.

  11. Optical low-coherence tomography of bronchial tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamford, Karl J.; James, Stephen W.; Barr, Hugh; Tatam, Ralph P.

    1999-12-01

    An optical fiber based low coherence interferometer for measuring the Epithelium thickness of Bronchial tissue, for early diagnosis of Carcinoma in situ, is presented. Previous simulation of laser induced fluorescence using an electromagnetic scattering model has extracted the relative permittivity value for the Submucosa and Epithelium layers indicating a difference of up to 0.14. The optical system presented here uses a low coherence source operating at 840 nm with a bandwidth of 30 nm, coupled into single mode optical fiber. A Fizeau cavity is formed between the fiber end and the tissue under investigation. A remote processing interferometer is used to monitor changes in permittivity between the different tissue layers. An initial experiment has demonstrated a sensitivity measurement of 40 dB for a permittivity difference measurement of 0.61. Preliminary results have shown that the discontinuity between the Bronchial Epithelium layer and its surrounding medium can be identified allowing the thickness of the Epithelium layer to be measured to an accuracy of 20 micrometers . Since interferometric noise contributions are only significant within the processing interferometer, the fiber optic Fizeau interferometer technique is a strong candidate for the development of an endoscope for the early detection of cancer within Gastrointestinal and Respiratory tracts.

  12. Numerical dispersion compensation for Partial Coherence Interferometry and Optical Coherence Tomography.

    PubMed

    Fercher, A; Hitzenberger, C; Sticker, M; Zawadzki, R; Karamata, B; Lasser, T

    2001-12-03

    Dispersive samples introduce a wavelength dependent phase distortion to the probe beam. This leads to a noticeable loss of depth resolution in high resolution OCT using broadband light sources. The standard technique to avoid this consequence is to balance the dispersion of the sample byarrangingadispersive materialinthereference arm. However, the impact of dispersion is depth dependent. A corresponding depth dependent dispersion balancing technique is diffcult to implement. Here we present a numerical dispersion compensation technique for Partial Coherence Interferometry (PCI) and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) based on numerical correlation of the depth scan signal with a depth variant kernel. It can be used a posteriori and provides depth dependent dispersion compensation. Examples of dispersion compensated depth scan signals obtained from microscope cover glasses are presented.

  13. High resolution coherence domain depth-resolved nailfold capillaroscopy based on correlation mapping optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subhash, Hrebesh M.; O'Gorman, Sean; Neuhaus, Kai; Leahy, Martin

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we demonstrate a novel application of correlation mapping optical coherence tomography (cm-OCT) for volumetric nailfold capillaroscopy (NFC). NFC is a widely used non-invasive diagnostic method to analyze capillary morphology and microvascular abnormalities of nailfold area for a range of disease conditions. However, the conventional NFC is incapable of providing volumetric imaging, when volumetric quantitative microangiopathic parameters such as plexus morphology, capillary density, and morphologic anomalies of the end row loops most critical. cm-OCT is a recently developed well established coherence domain magnitude based angiographic modality, which takes advantage of the time-varying speckle effect, which is normally dominant in the vicinity of vascular regions compared to static tissue region. It utilizes the correlation coefficient as a direct measurement of decorrelation between two adjacent B-frames to enhance the visibility of depth-resolved microcirculation.

  14. Invited Article: A compact optically coherent fiber frequency comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinclair, L. C.; Deschênes, J.-D.; Sonderhouse, L.; Swann, W. C.; Khader, I. H.; Baumann, E.; Newbury, N. R.; Coddington, I.

    2015-08-01

    We describe the design, fabrication, and performance of a self-referenced, optically coherent frequency comb. The system robustness is derived from a combination of an optics package based on polarization-maintaining fiber, saturable absorbers for mode-locking, high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) detection of the control signals, and digital feedback control for frequency stabilization. The output is phase-coherent over a 1-2 μm octave-spanning spectrum with a pulse repetition rate of ˜200 MHz and a residual pulse-to-pulse timing jitter <3 fs well within the requirements of most frequency-comb applications. Digital control enables phase coherent operation for over 90 h, critical for phase-sensitive applications such as timekeeping. We show that this phase-slip free operation follows the fundamental limit set by the SNR of the control signals. Performance metrics from three nearly identical combs are presented. This laptop-sized comb should enable a wide-range of applications beyond the laboratory.

  15. Invited Article: A compact optically coherent fiber frequency comb.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, L C; Deschênes, J-D; Sonderhouse, L; Swann, W C; Khader, I H; Baumann, E; Newbury, N R; Coddington, I

    2015-08-01

    We describe the design, fabrication, and performance of a self-referenced, optically coherent frequency comb. The system robustness is derived from a combination of an optics package based on polarization-maintaining fiber, saturable absorbers for mode-locking, high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) detection of the control signals, and digital feedback control for frequency stabilization. The output is phase-coherent over a 1-2 μm octave-spanning spectrum with a pulse repetition rate of ∼200 MHz and a residual pulse-to-pulse timing jitter <3 fs well within the requirements of most frequency-comb applications. Digital control enables phase coherent operation for over 90 h, critical for phase-sensitive applications such as timekeeping. We show that this phase-slip free operation follows the fundamental limit set by the SNR of the control signals. Performance metrics from three nearly identical combs are presented. This laptop-sized comb should enable a wide-range of applications beyond the laboratory.

  16. Phase resolved digital signal processing in optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, Johannes F.; Tripathi, Renu; Park, Boris H.; Nassif, Nader

    2002-06-01

    We present phase resolved digital signal processing techniques for Optical Coherence Tomography to correct for the non Gaussian shape of source spectra and for Group Delay Dispersion (GDD). A broadband source centered at 820 nm was synthesized by combining the spectra of two superluminescent diodes to improve axial image resolution in an optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. Spectral shaping was used to reduce the side lobes (ringing) in the axial point spread function due to the non-Gaussian shape of the spectra. Images of onion cells taken with each individual source and the combined sources, respectively, show the improved resolution and quality enhancement in a turbid biological sample. An OCT system operating at 1310 nm was used to demonstrate that the broadening effect of group delay dispersion (GDD) on the coherence function could be eliminated completely by introducing a quadratic phase shift in the Fourier domain of the interferometric signal. The technique is demonstrated by images of human skin grafts with group delay dispersion mismatch between sample and reference arm before and after digital processing.

  17. PREFACE: XVIII International Youth Scientific School "Coherent Optics and Optical Spectroscopy"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salakhov, M. Kh; Samartsev, V. V.; Gainutdinov, R. Kh

    2015-05-01

    Kazan Federal University has held the annual International Youth School "Coherent Optics and Optical Spectroscopy" since 1997. The choice of the topic is not accidental. Kazan is the home of photon echo which was predicted at Kazan Physical-Technical Institute in 1963 by Prof. U.G. Kopvil'em and V.R. Nagibarov and observed in Columbia University by N.A. Kurnit, I.D. Abella, and S.R. Hartmann in 1964. Since then, photon echo has become a powerful tool of coherent optical spectroscopy and optical information processing, which have been developed here in Kazan in close collaboration between Kazan Physical-Technical Institute and Kazan Federal University. The main subjects of the XVIII International Youth School are: Nonlinear and coherent optics; Atomic and molecular spectroscopy; Coherent laser spectroscopy; Problems of quantum optics; Quantum theory of radiation; and Nanophotonics and Scanning Probe Microscopy. The unchallenged organizers of that school are Kazan Federal University and Kazan E.K. Zavoisky Physical-Technical Institute. The rector of the School is Professor Myakzyum Salakhov, and the vice-rector is Professor Vitaly Samartsev. The International Youth Scientific School "Coherent Optics and Optical Spectroscopy" follows the global pattern of comprehensive studies of matter properties and their interaction with electromagnetic fields. Since 1997 more than 100 famous scientists from the USA, Germany, Ukraine, Belarus and Russia have given plenary lecture presentations. Here over 1000 young scientists had an opportunity to participate in lively discussions about the latest scientific news. Many young people have submitted interesting reports on photonics, quantum electronics, laser physics, quantum optics, traditional optical and laser spectroscopy, non-linear optics, material science and nanotechnology. Here we are publishing the fullsize papers prepared from the most interesting lectures and reports selected by the Program Committee of the School. The

  18. An electro-optic resonant modulator for coherent optical communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, D. L.; Chen, C.-C.; Hemmati, H.

    1991-01-01

    A resonant cavity electro-optic phase modulator has been designed and implemented to operate at a data rate of 10 Mbps. The modulator consists of an electro-optic crystal located in a highly resonant cavity. The cavity is electro-optically switched on and off resonance, and the phase dispersion near the cavity resonance provides the output phase modulation. The performance of the modulator was measured by first heterodyne detecting the signal to an intermediate frequency, and measuring the spectral characteristics using an RF spectrum analyzer. The measured phase shift is shown to be in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. Further theoretical analysis shows that the design of the modulator can be scaled to operate at 100 Mbps.

  19. Swept-source anatomic optical coherence elastography of porcine trachea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Ruofei; Price, Hillel; Mitran, Sorin; Zdanski, Carlton; Oldenburg, Amy L.

    2016-02-01

    Quantitative endoscopic imaging is at the vanguard of novel techniques in the assessment upper airway obstruction. Anatomic optical coherence tomography (aOCT) has the potential to provide the geometry of the airway lumen with high-resolution and in 4 dimensions. By coupling aOCT with measurements of pressure, optical coherence elastography (OCE) can be performed to characterize airway wall stiffness. This can aid in identifying regions of dynamic collapse as well as informing computational fluid dynamics modeling to aid in surgical decision-making. Toward this end, here we report on an anatomic optical coherence tomography (aOCT) system powered by a wavelength-swept laser source. The system employs a fiber-optic catheter with outer diameter of 0.82 mm deployed via the bore of a commercial, flexible bronchoscope. Helical scans are performed to measure the airway geometry and to quantify the cross-sectional-area (CSA) of the airway. We report on a preliminary validation of aOCT for elastography, in which aOCT-derived CSA was obtained as a function of pressure to estimate airway wall compliance. Experiments performed on a Latex rubber tube resulted in a compliance measurement of 0.68+/-0.02 mm2/cmH2O, with R2=0.98 over the pressure range from 10 to 40 cmH2O. Next, ex vivo porcine trachea was studied, resulting in a measured compliance from 1.06+/-0.12 to 3.34+/-0.44 mm2/cmH2O, (R2>0.81). The linearity of the data confirms the elastic nature of the airway. The compliance values are within the same order-of-magnitude as previous measurements of human upper airways, suggesting that this system is capable of assessing airway wall compliance in future human studies.

  20. Evaluation of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer in Patients with Idiopathic Optic Perineuritis using Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Byon, Ik Soo; Jung, Jae Ho; Choi, Jae-Hwan; Seo, Je Hyun; Lee, Ji Eun; Choi, Hee-Young

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the effect of idiopathic Optic perineuritis on the retinal nerve fiber layer, and determine the ability of optical coherence tomography to evaluate retinal nerve fiber loss after idiopathic Optic perineuritis. Four patients were assessed in this study. In all cases, average retinal nerve fiber layer was significantly thinner in the affected eye in comparison with the normal reference value and with the value for the contralateral normal eye at 12 months after the onset of optic perineuritis. Our study revealed that retinal nerve fiber layer loss occurs in idiopathic optic nerve sheath inflammation. PMID:27928329

  1. MULTIMODAL IMAGING OF ACUTE EXUDATIVE POLYMORPHOUS VITELLIFORM MACULOPATHY WITH OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY AND ADAPTIVE OPTICS SCANNING LASER OPHTHALMOSCOPY.

    PubMed

    Skondra, Dimitra; Nesper, Peter L; Fawzi, Amani A

    2017-05-16

    To report a case of acute exudative polymorphous vitelliform maculopathy including the findings of optical coherence tomography angiography and adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. Findings on clinical examination, color fundus photography, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, infrared reflectance, autofluorescence, optical coherence tomography angiography, and adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. A 54-year-old white man with no significant medical history and history of smoking presented with bilateral multiple serous and vitelliform detachments consistent with acute exudative polymorphous vitelliform maculopathy. Extensive infectious, inflammatory, and malignancy workup was negative. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography showed thickened, hyperreflective ellipsoid zone, subretinal fluid, and focal as well as diffuse subretinal hyperreflective material corresponding to the vitelliform lesions. Optical coherence tomography angiography showed normal retinal and choroidal vasculature, whereas adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy showed circular focal "target" lesions at the level of the photoreceptors in the area of foveal detachment. Multimodal imaging is valuable in evaluating patients with acute exudative polymorphous vitelliform maculopathy.

  2. Stacked Gold Nanodisks for Bimodal Photoacoustic and Optical Coherence Imaging.

    PubMed

    Wi, Jung-Sub; Park, Jisoo; Kang, Heesung; Jung, Donggeun; Lee, Sang-Won; Lee, Tae Geol

    2017-06-27

    Herein, we report on biological imaging nanoprobes: physically synthesized gold nanodisks that have inherent optical advantages-a wide range of resonant wavelengths, tunable ratio of light absorption-to-scattering, and responsiveness to random incident light-due to their two-dimensional circular nanostructure. Based on our proposed physical synthesis where gold is vacuum deposited onto a prepatterned polymer template and released from the substrate in the form of a nanodisk, monodisperse two-dimensional gold nanodisks were prepared with independent control of their diameter and thickness. The optical benefits of the Au nanodisk were successfully demonstrated by the measurement of light absorbance of the nanodisks and the application of stacked nanodisks, where a smaller sized Au nanodisk was laid atop a larger nanodisk, as bimodal contrast agents for photoacoustic microscopy and optical coherence tomography.

  3. Fiber optic coherent laser radar 3D vision system

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R.B.; Gallman, P.G.; Slotwinski, A.R.; Wagner, K.; Weaver, S.; Xu, Jieping

    1996-12-31

    This CLVS will provide a substantial advance in high speed computer vision performance to support robotic Environmental Management (EM) operations. This 3D system employs a compact fiber optic based scanner and operator at a 128 x 128 pixel frame at one frame per second with a range resolution of 1 mm over its 1.5 meter working range. Using acousto-optic deflectors, the scanner is completely randomly addressable. This can provide live 3D monitoring for situations where it is necessary to update once per second. This can be used for decontamination and decommissioning operations in which robotic systems are altering the scene such as in waste removal, surface scarafacing, or equipment disassembly and removal. The fiber- optic coherent laser radar based system is immune to variations in lighting, color, or surface shading, which have plagued the reliability of existing 3D vision systems, while providing substantially superior range resolution.

  4. Integrated intravascular optical coherence tomography ultrasound imaging system

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Jiechen; Yang, Hao-Chung; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Jun; Zhou, Qifa; Hu, Changhong; Shung, K. Kirk; Chen, Zhongping

    2010-01-01

    We report on a dual-modality optical coherence tomography (OCT) ultrasound (US) system for intravascular imaging. To the best of our knowledge, we have developed the first integrated OCT-US probe that combines OCT optical components with an US transducer. The OCT optical components mainly consist of a single-mode fiber, a gradient index lens for light-beam focusing, and a right-angled prism for reflecting light into biological tissue. A 40-MHz piezoelectric transducer (PZT-5H) side-viewing US transducer was fabricated to obtain the US image. These components were integrated into a single probe, enabling both OCT and US imaging at the same time. In vitro OCT and ultrasound images of a rabbit aorta were obtained using this dual-modality imaging system. This study demonstrates the feasibility of an OCT-US system for intravascular imaging, which is expected to have a prominent impact on early detection and characterization of atherosclerosis. PMID:20210424

  5. Biological elements carry out optical tasks in coherent imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, P.; Bianco, V.; Paturzo, M.; Miccio, L.; Memmolo, P.; Merola, F.; Marchesano, V.

    2016-03-01

    We show how biological elements, like live bacteria species and Red Blood Cells (RBCs) can accomplish optical functionalities in DH systems. Turbid media allow coherent microscopy despite the strong light scattering these provoke, acting on light just as moving diffusers. Furthermore, a turbid medium can have positive effects on a coherent imaging system, providing resolution enhancement and mimicking the action of noise decorrelation devices, thus yielding an image quality significantly higher than the quality achievable through a transparent medium in similar recording conditions. Besides, suspended RBCs are demonstrated to behave as controllable liquid micro-lenses, opening new possibilities in biophotonics for endoscopy imaging purposes, as well as telemedicine for point-of-care diagnostics in developing countries and low-resource settings.

  6. Ultrahigh-resolution full-field optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Arnaud; Grieve, Kate; Moneron, Gael; Lecaque, Romain; Vabre, Laurent; Boccara, Claude

    2004-05-10

    We have developed a white-light interference microscope for ultrahigh-resolution full-field optical coherence tomography of biological media. The experimental setup is based on a Linnik-type interferometer illuminated by a tungsten halogen lamp. En face tomographic images are calculated by a combination of interferometric images recorded by a high-speed CCD camera. Spatial resolution of 1.8 microm x 0.9 microm (transverse x axial) is achieved owing to the extremely short coherence length of the source, the compensation of dispersion mismatch in the interferometer arms, and the use of relatively high-numerical-aperture microscope objectives. A shot-noise-limited detection sensitivity of 90 dB is obtained in an acquisition time per image of 4 s. Subcellular-level images of plant, animal, and human tissues are presented.

  7. Improved visualization of outer retinal morphology with aberration cancelling reflective optical design for adaptive optics - optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Hyuck; Werner, John S.; Zawadzki, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    We present an aberration cancelling optical design for a reflective adaptive optics - optical coherence tomography (AO-OCT) retinal imaging system. The optical performance of this instrument is compared to our previous multimodal AO-OCT/AO-SLO retinal imaging system. The feasibility of new instrumentation for improved visualization of microscopic retinal structures is discussed. Examples of images acquired with this new AO-OCT instrument are presented. PMID:24298411

  8. Passive endoscopic polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography with completely fiber based optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, Lucas; Lee, Anthony M. D.; Pahlevaninezhad, Hamid; Ng, Samson; MacAulay, Calum E.; Poh, Catherine; Lane, Pierre

    2015-03-01

    Polarization Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography (PSOCT) is a functional extension of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) that is sensitive to well-structured, birefringent tissue such as scars, smooth muscle and cartilage. In this work, we present a novel completely fiber based swept source PSOCT system using a fiber-optic rotary pullback catheter. This PSOCT implementation uses only passive optical components and requires no calibration while adding minimal additional cost to a standard structural OCT imaging system. Due to its complete fiber construction, the system can be made compact and robust, while the fiber-optic catheter allows access to most endoscopic imaging sites. The 1.5mm diameter endoscopic probe can capture 100 frames per second at pullback speeds up to 15 mm/s allowing rapid traversal of large imaging fields. We validate the PSOCT system with known birefringent tissues and demonstrate in vivo PSOCT imaging of human oral scar tissue.

  9. Compressive sensing optical coherence tomography using randomly accessible lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harfouche, Mark; Satyan, Naresh; Vasilyev, Arseny; Yariv, Amnon

    2014-05-01

    We propose and demonstrate a novel a compressive sensing swept source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) system that enables high speed images to be taken while maintaining the high resolution offered from a large bandwidth sweep. Conventional SSOCT systems sweep the optical frequency of a laser ω(t) to determine the depth of the reflectors at a given lateral location. A scatterer located at delay τ appears as a sinusoid cos (ω(t)τ ) at the photodetector. The finite optical chirp rate and the speed of analog to digital and digital to analog converters limit the acquisition rate of an axial scan. The proposed acquisition modality enables much faster image acquisition rates by interrogating the beat signal at randomly selected optical frequencies while preserving resolution and depth of field. The system utilizes a randomly accessible laser, a modulated grating Y-branch laser, to sample the interference pattern from a scene at randomly selected optical frequencies over an optical bandwidth of 5 THz , corresponding to a resolution of 30 μm in air. The depth profile is then reconstructed using an l1 minimization algorithm with a LASSO constraint. Signal-dependent noise sources, shot noise and phase noise, are analyzed and taken into consideration during the recovery. Redundant dictionaries are used to improve the reconstruction of the depth profile. A compression by a factor of 10 for sparse targets up to a depth of 15 mm in noisy environments is shown.

  10. Imaging Coronary Atherosclerosis and Vulnerable Plaques with Optical Coherence Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tearney, Guillermo J.; Jang, Ik-Kyung; Kashiwagi, Manubu; Bouma, Brett E.

    Intracoronary optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an invasive microscopic imaging technology that has been developed for the identification of vulnerable plaque. OCT acquires cross-sectional images of tissue reflectance and, since it may be implemented through an optical fiber probe, it is readily adaptable to coronary catheters for insertion into coronary arteries and circumferential imaging of arterial pathology. The first investigation of vascular optical coherence tomography ex vivo demonstrated the potential of this technique to identify arterial microstructure. Subsequent development of OCT technology enabled image acquisition at rates sufficient for intracoronary imaging in human patients. In this chapter, we review studies conducted with this technology at the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH). Results from these studies show that a wide variety of microscopic features, including those associated with TCFAs, can be identified by OCT imaging both ex vivo and in living human patients. These findings suggest that this technology will play an important role in improving our understanding of coronary artery disease, guiding local therapy, and decreasing themortality of AMI.

  11. Optical coherence-gated imaging in biological tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yingtian; Birngruber, Reginald; Engelhardt, Ralf

    1996-05-01

    Optical coherent-domain tomography (OCT) uses low-coherence light interference to achieve on-axis optical sectioning and lateral scan for 3D optical imaging in scattering media. Owing to its exceptional resolution of approximately 10 micrometers and high dynamic range in excess of 100 dB, this technique is potential for the detection of the microstructures in biological tissues. Although not being able to resolve to the cell extent in most biological tissues because of multiple light scattering, it can still provide important diagnostic information for either low- scattering or superficial, high-scattering biological tissues according to our preliminary clinical experiments. In this paper, after showing the influences of multiple scattering effects on imaging contrast, we will present some 2D OCT images for evaluating the effects of laser thermal keratoplasty, then show the images of in vitro porcine bladder and human tongue. These results show that OCT can be developed into a promising means of noninvasive evaluation of laser-tissue effects, e.g. laser coagulation and ablation, in vivo location of superficial lesion and cancerous regions to aid minimum invasive surgery.

  12. Detecting cell death with optical coherence tomography and envelope statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhat, Golnaz; Yang, Victor X. D.; Czarnota, Gregory J.; Kolios, Michael C.

    2011-02-01

    Currently no standard clinical or preclinical noninvasive method exists to monitor cell death based on morphological changes at the cellular level. In our past work we have demonstrated that quantitative high frequency ultrasound imaging can detect cell death in vitro and in vivo. In this study we apply quantitative methods previously used with high frequency ultrasound to optical coherence tomography (OCT) to detect cell death. The ultimate goal of this work is to use these methods for optically-based clinical and preclinical cancer treatment monitoring. Optical coherence tomography data were acquired from acute myeloid leukemia cells undergoing three modes of cell death. Significant increases in integrated backscatter were observed for cells undergoing apoptosis and mitotic arrest, while necrotic cells induced a decrease. These changes appear to be linked to structural changes observed in histology obtained from the cell samples. Signal envelope statistics were analyzed from fittings of the generalized gamma distribution to histograms of envelope intensities. The parameters from this distribution demonstrated sensitivities to morphological changes in the cell samples. These results indicate that OCT integrated backscatter and first order envelope statistics can be used to detect and potentially differentiate between modes of cell death in vitro.

  13. Evaluation of dermal fillers with noncontact optical coherence elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Manmohan; Wang, Shang; Yee, Richard W.; Han, Zhaolong; Aglyamov, Salavat R.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2017-02-01

    Over 2 million dermal filler procedures are performed each year in the USA alone, and this figure is only expected to increase as the aging population continues to grow. Dermal filler treatments can last from a few months to years depending on the type of filler and its placement. Although adverse reactions are rare, they can be quite severe due to ischemic events and filler migration. Previously, techniques such as ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging have been used to evaluate the filler injections. However, these techniques are not practical for real-time filler injection guidance due to limitations such as the physical presence of the transducer. In this work, we propose the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for image-guided dermal filler injections due to the high spatial and temporal resolution of OCT. In addition, we utilize a noncontact optical coherence elastography (OCE) technique, to evaluate the efficacy of the dermal filler injection. A grid of air-pulse OCE measurements was taken, and the dynamic response of the skin to the air-pulse was translated to the Young's modulus and shear viscosity. Our results show that OCT was able to visualize the dermal filler injection process, and that OCE was able to localize the dermal filler injection sites. Combined with functional techniques such as optical microangiography, and recent advanced in OCT hardware, OCT may be able to provide real-time injection guidance in 3D by visualizing blood vessels to prevent ischemic events.

  14. Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography applied to intervertebral disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matcher, Stephen J.; Winlove, Peter; Gangnus, Sergei V.

    2003-07-01

    Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PSOCT) is a powerful new optical imaging modality that is sensitive to the birefringence properties of tissues. It thus has potential applications in studying the large-scale ordering of collagen fibers within connective tisues and changes related to pathology. As a tissue for study by PSOCT, intervertebral disk respresents an interesting system as the collagen organization is believed to show pronounced variations with depth, on a spatial scale of about 100 μm. We have used a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system to measure the birefringence properties of bovine caudal intervertebral disk and compared this with equine flexor tendon. The result for equine tendon, δ = (3.0 +/- 0.5)x10-3 at 1.3 μm, is in broad agreement with values reported for bovine tendon, while bovine intervertebral disk displays a birefringence of about half this, δ = 1.2 x 10-3 at 1.3 μm. While tendon appears to show a uniform fast-axis over 0.8 mm depth, intervertebral disk shows image contrast at all orientations relative to a linearly polarized input beam, suggesting a variation in fast-axis orientation with depth. These initial results suggest that PSOCT could be a useful tool to study collagen organization within this tissue and its variation with applied load and disease.

  15. Miniature endoscopic optical coherence tomography for calculus detection.

    PubMed

    Kao, Meng-Chun; Lin, Chun-Li; Kung, Che-Yen; Huang, Yi-Fung; Kuo, Wen-Chuan

    2015-08-20

    The effective treatment of periodontitis involves the detection and removal of subgingival dental calculus. However, subgingival calculus is more difficult to detect than supragingival calculus because it is firmly attached to root surfaces within periodontal pockets. To achieve a smooth root surface, clinicians often remove excessive amounts of root structure because of decreased visibility. In addition, enamel pearl, a rare type of ectopic enamel formation on the root surface, can easily be confused with dental calculus in the subgingival environment. In this study, we developed a fiber-probe swept-source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) technique and combined it with the quantitative measurement of an optical parameter [standard deviation (SD) of the optical coherence tomography (OCT) intensity] to differentiate subgingival calculus from sound enamel, including enamel pearl. Two-dimensional circumferential images were constructed by rotating the miniprobe (0.9 mm diameter) while acquiring image lines, and the adjacent lines in each rotation were stacked to generate a three-dimensional volume. In OCT images, compared to sound enamel and enamel pearls, dental calculus showed significant differences (P<0.001) in SD values. Finally, the receiver operating characteristic curve had a high capacity (area under the curve=0.934) for discriminating between healthy regions (including enamel pearl) and dental calculus.

  16. Temperature dependence of coherent phonons in TbVO4 crystal probed by ultrafast optical spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Z.; Ma, H.; Li, D.; Wang, L.; Ma, G.; Guo, F.; Chen, J.

    2011-07-01

    Coherent optical phonons in terbium vanadate (TbVO4) are investigated by using femtosecond time-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy at temperatures from 20 to 300 K. Combined with the Raman spectrum, the coherent phonon mode is attributed to an optical phonon mode of B1g symmetry. The main generation mechanism of the coherent optical phonons is revealed to be the impulsive stimulated Raman scattering. The temperature dependence of the dephasing time reveals that the main mechanism of the coherent phonon population decay is anharmonic phonon-phonon coupling, which causes a redshift of the coherent phonon frequency with increasing temperature.

  17. Evaluating Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy With Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Min; Zhou, Yao; Gao, Simon S.; Liu, Wei; Huang, Yongheng; Huang, David; Jia, Yali

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We observed and analyzed the morphologic characteristics of polypoidal lesions and abnormal branching vascular network (BVN) in patients with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods A retrospective observational case series was done of patients with PCV. All patients were scanned with a 70-kHz spectral-domain OCT system using the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography (SSADA) algorithm to distinguish blood flow from static tissue. The OCTA images of these patients were compared to those from indocyanine green angiography (ICGA). Semiautomated segmentation was used to further analyze the polypoidal lesion and the BVN. Results We studied 13 eyes of 13 patients 51 to 69 years old. A total of 11 patients were treatment-naive. Two patients had multiple anti-VEGF injections and one underwent photodynamic therapy (PDT). Optical coherence tomography angiography was able to detect the BVN in all cases. Using cross-sectional OCTA, BVN locations were shown to be in the space between the RPE and Bruch's membrane. Using en face OCTA, the BVN vascular pattern could be shown more clearly than by ICGA. Polypoidal lesions showed high flow signals in different patterns in 12 cases in the outer retina slab. Using cross-sectional OCTA, the polyps were shown to be just below the top of the pigment epithelial detachment (PED). In one case, the polypoidal lesion was not detectable at the outer retina slab. Conclusions Optical coherence tomography angiography is a noninvasive imaging tool for detecting vascular changes in PCV. Branching vascular networks showed more clearly on OCTA than on ICGA. Polypoidal lesions had variable patterns on OCTA and were not always detected. The OCTA patterns of the polypoidal lesions and the BVN are helpful in understanding the pathology of PCV. PMID:27472276

  18. Femtosecond optical spectroscopy and microscopy with phase coherent pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunqiang

    This dissertation focuses on femtosecond optical spectroscopy and microscopy by using ultrashort laser pulse shaping technology. Collinear phase coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy on the organic dye Coumarin 102 was performed. The collinear phase coherent three-pulse sequences in the near infrared wavelength (800 nm) were generated by an acousto-optic pulse shaper. Coumarin 102 has a broad absorption band of around 400 nm. Two-photon absorption of the 800 nm light in Coumarin 102 is essential to perform the experiment. For comparison another set of experiments with the light frequency doubled to 400 nm was also performed. The results obtained show similar features with different details. The energy level information, e.g. linewidth, can be retrieved from the two-dimensional spectral peaks. With pulse shaping technology the possibility to perform ultrafast laser microscopy aiming at potential biomedical application was also explored. The information utilized to differentiate chemicals is two-photon absorption and the structural information can also be retrieved from self-phase modulation. The nonlinear signal from these experiments is very small compared with input laser power. A heterodyne detection method was performed by creating a spectral hole in the laser spectrum with the pulse shaper. The signal generated is mixed with the local oscillator. The results from Rhodamine 6G, oxyHemoglobin and pheomelanin show the difference and imply promising further development with this method. The last part of this dissertation is a previous work on a novel structure wavelength tunable semiconductor laser based on asymmetric twin waveguide technology. To integrate several optoelectronic devices together, several schemes are available. Asymmetric twin waveguide technology is the only integration platform which does not require material regrowth and quantum well intermixing. The tunable laser based on this technology can be used as a local oscillator in a coherent optical

  19. Fiber optic low-coherence Michelson interferometer for silicon growth measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michael, Robert R., Jr.; Lawson, Christopher M.

    1994-02-01

    We report on the use of optical low coherence reflectometry for silicon characterization. The measurement system uses a low coherence light source (edge-emitting LED) in conjunction with a fiber optic Michelson interferometer. This non-contact fiber optic measurement system has been used to measure silicon thickness and flatness to an accuracy of +/- 1.5 micrometers in the laboratory.

  20. Coherent Detection of High-Rate Optical PPM Signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, Victor; Fernandez, Michela Munoz

    2006-01-01

    A method of coherent detection of high-rate pulse-position modulation (PPM) on a received laser beam has been conceived as a means of reducing the deleterious effects of noise and atmospheric turbulence in free-space optical communication using focal-plane detector array technologies. In comparison with a receiver based on direct detection of the intensity modulation of a PPM signal, a receiver based on the present method of coherent detection performs well at much higher background levels. In principle, the coherent-detection receiver can exhibit quantum-limited performance despite atmospheric turbulence. The key components of such a receiver include standard receiver optics, a laser that serves as a local oscillator, a focal-plane array of photodetectors, and a signal-processing and data-acquisition assembly needed to sample the focal-plane fields and reconstruct the pulsed signal prior to detection. The received PPM-modulated laser beam and the local-oscillator beam are focused onto the photodetector array, where they are mixed in the detection process. The two lasers are of the same or nearly the same frequency. If the two lasers are of different frequencies, then the coherent detection process is characterized as heterodyne and, using traditional heterodyne-detection terminology, the difference between the two laser frequencies is denoted the intermediate frequency (IF). If the two laser beams are of the same frequency and remain aligned in phase, then the coherent detection process is characterized as homodyne (essentially, heterodyne detection at zero IF). As a result of the inherent squaring operation of each photodetector, the output current includes an IF component that contains the signal modulation. The amplitude of the IF component is proportional to the product of the local-oscillator signal amplitude and the PPM signal amplitude. Hence, by using a sufficiently strong local-oscillator signal, one can make the PPM-modulated IF signal strong enough to

  1. Capturing the vital vascular fingerprint with optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gangjun; Chen, Zhongping

    2013-08-01

    Using fingerprints as a method to identify an individual has been accepted in forensics since the nineteenth century, and the fingerprint has become one of the most widely used biometric characteristics. Most of the modern fingerprint recognition systems are based on the print pattern of the finger surface and are not robust against spoof attaching. We demonstrate a novel vital vascular fingerprint system using Doppler optical coherence tomography that provides highly sensitive and reliable personal identification. Because the system is based on blood flow, which only exists in a livng person, the technique is robust against spoof attaching.

  2. Modulation of optical spatial coherence by surface plasmon polaritons.

    PubMed

    Divitt, Shawn; Frimmer, Martin; Visser, Taco D; Novotny, Lukas

    2016-07-01

    The interference pattern observed in Young's double-slit experiment is intimately related to the statistical correlations of the waves emitted by the slits. As the waves in the slits become more correlated, the visibility of the interference pattern increases. Here, we experimentally modulate the statistical correlations between the optical fields emitted by a pair of slits in a metal film. The interaction between the slits is mediated by surface plasmon polaritons and can be tuned by the slit separation, which allows us to either increase or decrease the spatial coherence of the emerging fields relative to that of the incoming fields.

  3. Probing beyond the laser coherence time in optical clock comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hume, David B.; Leibrandt, David R.

    2016-03-01

    We develop differential measurement protocols that circumvent the laser noise limit in the stability of optical clock comparisons by synchronous probing of two clocks using phase-locked local oscillators. This allows for probe times longer than the laser coherence time, avoids the Dick effect, and supports Heisenberg-limited measurement precision. We present protocols for such frequency comparisons and develop numerical simulations of the protocols with realistic noise sources. These methods provide a route to reduce frequency ratio measurement durations by more than an order of magnitude.

  4. Polarization-sensitive full-field optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Moneron, Gael; Boccara, Albert-Claude; Dubois, Arnaud

    2007-07-15

    We present a polarization-sensitive full-field optical coherence tomography system that can produce high-resolution images of the linear retardance and reflectivity properties of biological media. En face images can be delivered at a frame rate of 3.5 Hz by combination of interferometric images acquired by two CCD cameras in an interference microscope illuminated with a tungsten halogen lamp. Isotropic spatial resolution of approximately 1.0 microm is achieved. The technique is demonstrated on ex vivo muscle tissues.

  5. Optical coherence tomography for glucose monitoring in blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullah, Hafeez; Hussain, Fayyaz; Ikram, Masroor

    2015-08-01

    In this review, we have discussed the potential application of the emerging imaging modality, i.e., optical coherence tomography (OCT) for glucose monitoring in biological tissues. OCT provides monitoring of glucose diffusion in different fibrous tissues like in sclera by determining the permeability rate with acceptable accuracy both in type 1 and in type 2 diabetes. The maximum precision of glucose measurement in Intralipid suspensions, for example, with the OCT technique yields the accuracy up to 4.4 mM for 10 % Intralipid and 2.2 mM for 3 % Intralipid.

  6. Methods to assess sensitivity of optical coherence tomography systems

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Anant; Pfefer, T. Joshua; Woolliams, Peter D.; Tomlins, Peter H.; Nehmetallah, George

    2017-01-01

    Measuring the sensitivity of an optical coherence tomography (OCT) system determines the minimum sample reflectivity it can detect and provides a figure of merit for system optimization and comparison. The published literature lacks a detailed description of OCT sensitivity measurement procedures. Here we describe a commonly-used measurement method and introduce two new phantom-based methods, which also offer a means to directly visualize low reflectivity conditions relevant to biological tissue. We provide quantitative results for the three methods from different OCT system configurations and discuss the methods’ advantages and disadvantages. PMID:28270992

  7. Coherence properties of a doubly resonant monolithic optical parametric oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nabors, C. D.; Yang, S. T.; Day, T.; Byer, R. L.

    1990-01-01

    A doubly resonant optical parametric oscillator (DRO) pumped with the second harmonic of a narrow-linewidth Nd:YAG laser is described. The linewidth of the DRO signal was less than 13 kHz, the DRO was shown to generate a phase-locked subharmonic of the pump at degeneracy, and the signal and the idler were shown to be mutually coherent with the pump and to be phase-anticorrelated with each other away from degeneracy. The signal-idler heterodyne linewidth was 500 Hz, and pump phase modulation was shown to transfer to the DRO phase at degeneracy.

  8. Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography – a review [Invited

    PubMed Central

    de Boer, Johannes F.; Hitzenberger, Christoph K.; Yasuno, Yoshiaki

    2017-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is now a well-established modality for high-resolution cross-sectional and three-dimensional imaging of transparent and translucent samples and tissues. Conventional, intensity based OCT, however, does not provide a tissue-specific contrast, causing an ambiguity with image interpretation in several cases. Polarization sensitive (PS) OCT draws advantage from the fact that several materials and tissues can change the light’s polarization state, adding an additional contrast channel and providing quantitative information. In this paper, we review basic and advanced methods of PS-OCT and demonstrate its use in selected biomedical applications. PMID:28663869

  9. Balanced detection for spectral domain optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Wen-Chuan; Lai, Chih-Ming; Huang, Yi-Shiang; Chang, Cheng-Yi; Kuo, Yue-Ming

    2013-08-12

    The use and advantages of applying balanced-detection (BD) operation method to high speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) are presented in this study, which we believe is the first such demonstration. Compared to conventional SDOCT, BD-SDOCT provides two unique advantages. First, the method can suppress background noise and autocorrelation artifacts in biological tissues. Second, it is a power-efficient method which is particularly helpful for high speed SDOCT to eliminate random intensity noise and to achieve shot noise limited detection. This performance allows in vivo three-dimensional tissue visualization with high imaging quality and high speed.

  10. One step geometrical calibration method for optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz Díaz, Jesús; Stritzel, Jenny; Rahlves, Maik; Majdani, Omid; Reithmeier, Eduard; Ortmaier, Tobias; Roth, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel one-step calibration methodology for geometrical distortion correction for optical coherence tomography (OCT). A calibration standard especially designed for OCT is introduced, which consists of an array of inverse pyramidal structures. The use of multiple landmarks situated on four different height levels on the pyramids allow performing a 3D geometrical calibration. The calibration procedure itself is based on a parametric model of the OCT beam propagation. It is validated by experimental results and enables the reduction of systematic errors by more than one order of magnitude. In future, our results can improve OCT image reconstruction and interpretation for medical applications such as real time monitoring of surgery.

  11. Coherent Optical Processing of Phased Array Radar Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    Interfacing a coherent optical processor, which utilizes an electron-beam addressed, potassium dideuterium phosphate (KDP) crystal modulator, with a linear phased array is studied. An abbreviated development of typical radar signals from a linear array is included. A plan for formating the spatial modulator with linear array signals is presented. The theoretical expectations which include target angle and Doppler are derived. A simulated set of M signals which are typical of a linear array of M elements was devised. This set of signals was used to modulate the wave front of collimated laser light via the KDP crystal according to the format presented.

  12. Dark-field circular depolarization optical coherence microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Kalpesh; Zhang, Pengfei; Yeo, Eugenia Li Ling; Kah, James Chen Yong; Chen, Nanguang

    2013-01-01

    Optical coherence microscopy (OCM) is a widely used structural imaging modality. To extend its application in molecular imaging, gold nanorods are widely used as contrast agents for OCM. However, they very often offer limited sensitivity as a result of poor signal to background ratio. Here we experimentally demonstrate that a novel OCM implementation based on dark-field circular depolarization detection can efficiently detect circularly depolarized signal from gold nanorods and at the same time efficiently suppress the background signals. This results into a significant improvement in signal to background ratio. PMID:24049689

  13. First characterization of coherent optical vortices from harmonic undulator radiation.

    PubMed

    Hemsing, E; Dunning, M; Hast, C; Raubenheimer, T; Xiang, Dao

    2014-09-26

    We describe the experimental generation and measurement of coherent light that carries orbital angular momentum from a relativistic electron beam radiating at the second harmonic of a helical undulator. The measured helical phase of the light is shown to be in agreement with predictions of the sign and magnitude of the phase singularity and is more than 2 orders of magnitude greater than the incoherent signal. Our setup demonstrates that such optical vortices can be produced in modern free-electron lasers in a simple afterburner arrangement for novel two-mode pump-probe experiments.

  14. Electrostatic micromachine scanning mirror for optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Zara, J M; Yazdanfar, S; Rao, K D; Izatt, J A; Smith, S W

    2003-04-15

    Compact electrostatic micromirror structures for use in the scanning arm of an optical coherence tomography (OCT) system are described. These devices consist of millimeter-scale mirrors resting upon micrometer-scale polyimide hinges that are tilted by a linear micromachine actuator, the integrated force array (IFA). The IFA is a network of deformable capacitor cells that electrostatically contract with an applied voltage. The support structures, hinges, and actuators are fabricated by photolithography from polyimide-upon-silicon wafers. These devices were inserted into the scanning arm of an experimental OCT imaging system to produce in vitro and in vivo images at frame rates of 4 to 8 Hz.

  15. Requirement of optical coherence for continuous-variable quantum teleportation.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, T; Sanders, B C

    2001-08-13

    We show that the sender and the receiver each require coherent devices in order to achieve unconditional continuous variable quantum teleportation (CVQT), and this requirement cannot be achieved with conventional laser sources, linear optics, ideal photon detectors, and perfect Fock state sources. The appearance of successful CVQT in recent experiments is due to interpreting the measurement record fallaciously in terms of one preferred ensemble (or decomposition) of the correct density matrix describing the state. Our analysis is unrelated to technical problems such as laser phase drift or finite squeezing bandwidth.

  16. Automated detection of dilated capillaries on optical coherence tomography angiography

    PubMed Central

    Dongye, Changlei; Zhang, Miao; Hwang, Thomas S.; Wang, Jie; Gao, Simon S.; Liu, Liang; Huang, David; Wilson, David J.; Jia, Yali

    2017-01-01

    Automated detection and grading of angiographic high-risk features in diabetic retinopathy can potentially enhance screening and clinical care. We have previously identified capillary dilation in angiograms of the deep plexus in optical coherence tomography angiography as a feature associated with severe diabetic retinopathy. In this study, we present an automated algorithm that uses hybrid contrast to distinguish angiograms with dilated capillaries from healthy controls and then applies saliency measurement to map the extent of the dilated capillary networks. The proposed algorithm agreed well with human grading. PMID:28271005

  17. Choriocapillaris evaluation in choroideremia using optical coherence tomography angiography

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Simon S.; Patel, Rachel C.; Jain, Nieraj; Zhang, Miao; Weleber, Richard G.; Huang, David; Pennesi, Mark E.; Jia, Yali

    2016-01-01

    The choriocapillaris plays an important role in supporting the metabolic demands of the retina. Studies of the choriocapillaris in disease states with optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) have proven insightful. However, image artifacts complicate the identification and quantification of the choriocapillaris in degenerative diseases such as choroideremia. Here, we demonstrate a supervised machine learning approach to detect intact choriocapillaris based on training with results from an expert grader. We trained a random forest classifier to evaluate en face structural OCT and OCTA information along with spatial image features. Evaluation of the trained classifier using previously unseen data showed good agreement with manual grading. PMID:28101400

  18. Clinical Utility of Optical Coherence Tomography in Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Zachary M.; Wollstein, Gadi; Schuman, Joel S.

    2016-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has established itself as the dominant imaging modality in the management of glaucoma and retinal diseases, providing high-resolution visualization of ocular microstructures and objective quantification of tissue thickness and change. This article reviews the history of OCT imaging with a specific focus on glaucoma. We examine the clinical utility of OCT with respect to diagnosis and progression monitoring, with additional emphasis on advances in OCT technology that continue to facilitate glaucoma research and inform clinical management strategies. PMID:27537415

  19. Primate retina imaging with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducros, Mathieu G.; Marsack, Jason D.; Rylander, H. Grady; Thomsen, Sharon L.; Milner, Thomas E.

    2001-12-01

    Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PSOCT) is applied to determine the depth-resolved polarization state of light backreflected from the eye. The birefringence of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) was observed and measured from PSOCT images recorded postmortem in a Rhesus monkey. An image-processing algorithm was developed to identify birefringent regions in acquired PSOCT retinal images and automatically determine the thickness of the RNFL. Values of the RNFL thickness determined from histology and PSOCT were compared. PSOCT may provide a new method to determine RNFL thickness and birefringence for glaucoma diagnostics.

  20. Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography images using tissue viscoelasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Brendan F.; Curatolo, Andrea; Hillman, Timothy R.; Saunders, Christobel M.; Sampson, David D.

    2011-02-01

    We present a technique to reduce speckle in optical coherence tomography images of soft tissues. An average is formed over a set of B-scans that have been decorrelated by viscoelastic creep strain. The necessary correction for the deformation-induced spatial distortions between B-scans is achieved through geometrical co-registration using an affine transformation. Speckle reduction by up to a factor of 1.65 is shown in images of tissue-mimicking soft fibrin phantoms and excised human lymph node tissue with no observable loss of spatial resolution.

  1. Application of optical coherence tomography based microangiography for cerebral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baran, Utku; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2016-03-01

    Requirements of in vivo rodent brain imaging are hard to satisfy using traditional technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging and two-photon microscopy. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging tool that can easily reach at high speeds and provide high resolution volumetric images with a relatively large field of view for rodent brain imaging. Here, we provide the overview of recent developments of functional OCT based imaging techniques for neuroscience applications on rodents. Moreover, a summary of OCT-based microangiography (OMAG) studies for stroke and traumatic brain injury cases on rodents are provided.

  2. 100-Gb/s coherent optical fiber communication with frequency domain equalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fan; Li, Juhao; Yang, Chuanchuan; Chen, Zhangyuan; Zhao, Chunxu; Zhang, Su

    2010-12-01

    Multi- and single-carrier (SC) coherent optical fiber communication with frequency domain equalization (FDE) is discussed with emphasis on 100-Gb/s operation. 120-Gb/s coherent optical (CO-SCFDE) system over 317-km standard single-mode fiber is demonstrated. Coherent optical orthogonal frequency-division-multiplexing (CO-OFDM) and single-carrier frequency-division-multiplexing scheme (CO-SCFDM) are theoretically and experimentally compared.

  3. Enhanced optical clearing of skin in vivo and optical coherence tomography in-depth imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xiang; Jacques, Steven L.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Zhu, Dan

    2012-06-01

    The strong optical scattering of skin tissue makes it very difficult for optical coherence tomography (OCT) to achieve deep imaging in skin. Significant optical clearing of in vivo rat skin sites was achieved within 15 min by topical application of an optical clearing agent PEG-400, a chemical enhancer (thiazone or propanediol), and physical massage. Only when all three components were applied together could a 15 min treatment achieve a three fold increase in the OCT reflectance from a 300 μm depth and 31% enhancement in image depth Zthreshold.

  4. Characterizing matrix remodeling in collagen gels using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levitz, David; Hinds, Monica T.; Hanson, Stephen R.; Jacques, Steven L.

    2010-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has shown promise at non-destructively characterizing engineered tissues such as collagen gels. However, as the collagen gels develop, the OCT images lose contrast of structures as the gels develop, making visual assessment difficult. Our group proposed quantitatively characterizing these gels by fitting the optical properties from the OCT signals. In this paper, we imaged collagen gels seeded with smooth muscle cells (SMCs) over a 5-day period and used the data to measure their optical properties. Our results showed that over time, the reflectivity of the samples increased 10-fold, corresponding to a decrease in anisotropy factor g, without much change in the scattering coefficient μs. Overall, the optical properties appeared to be dominated by scattering from the collagen matrix, not the cells. However, SMCs remodeled the collagen matrix, and this collagen remodeling by the cells is what causes the observed changes in optical properties. Moreover, the data showed that the optical properties were sensitive to the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), enzymes that break down local collagen fibrils into smaller fragments. Blocking MMPs in the SMC gels greatly impeded both the remodeling process and change in optical properties at day 5. Treating day 1 acellular gels with MMP-8 for 3 hr managed to partially reproduce the remodeling observed in SMC gels at day 5. Altogether, we conclude that matrix remodeling in general, and MMPs specifically, greatly affect the local optical properties of the sample, and OCT is a unique tool that can assess MMP activity in collagen gels both non-destructively and label free.

  5. Magnetomotive optical coherence tomography for elastography of small biosamples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldenburg, Amy

    2008-10-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a 3D micron-resolution imaging modality using the low-coherence properties of near-infrared light to render depth-resolved images typically a few millimeters into biological tissue. Visco-elasticity is an important parameter for detecting and staging various human diseases. We report a method for analyzing the visco-elastic properties of small tissue samples using magnetomotive OCT. Superparamagnetic nanoparticles (MNPs, ˜20nm) are diffused into a tissue sample. Subsequently, an electromagnet is modulated with a chirped frequency waveform from 0-1kHz, providing a modulated force on the MNPs in the tissue. The mechanical response of the tissue is recorded using OCT at linerates of 1-10kHz. Because OCT is a coherence imaging technique, sub-wavelength displacements are detected in the phase of the interferogram. The mechanical frequency response and associated phase lag fit a model for a damped harmonic oscillator, and results in homogeneous agarose cylinders can be interpreted in terms of Love's solutions for longitudinal vibration modes. A rat mammary tumor biopsy was also analyzed with this technique during formaldehyde fixation, and a trend toward higher frequency correlates with stiffening of the tissue during the fixation process. In collaboration with Stephen Boppart, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

  6. Optical coherence tomography image enhancement by using gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponce-de-Leon, Y. R.; Lopez-Rios, J. A.; Pichardo-Molina, J. L.; Alcalá Ochoa, N.

    2011-08-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is an imaging technique to get cross-sectional images with resolutions of a few microns and deep penetration in tissue of some millimeters. For many years OCT has been applied to analyze different human tissues like eyes, skin, teeth, urinary bladders, gastrointestinal, respiratory or genitourinary tracts and recently breast cancer tissues have been studied. Many of these tissues are composed specially of lipids and collagen, proteins which cause multiple light scattering (MLS) reducing significantly the optical depth and the contrast of OCT imaging. So, one of the big challenges of this technique is to acquire images with good contrast. Gold nanoparticles (NPs) exhibit interesting optical properties due to its plasmon resonance frequency. Optical absorbance is strong when gold NPs have dimension under 50 nm, but over this size optical scattering becomes dominant. In this work we show the preliminary results of the use of gold NPs as a contrast medium to enhance the OCT images quality. Our experimental results show which type of particles (morphology and size) present the best enhancement in the region of 1325 nm which corresponds to the central wavelength source excitation. All our experiments were carried out with a commercial OCT (thorlabs) system and our NPs were tested in water and gel phantoms.

  7. Quantitative characterization of developing collagen gels using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levitz, David; Hinds, Monica T.; Choudhury, Niloy; Tran, Noi T.; Hanson, Stephen R.; Jacques, Steven L.

    2010-03-01

    Nondestructive optical imaging methods such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) have been proposed for characterizing engineered tissues such as collagen gels. In our study, OCT was used to image collagen gels with different seeding densities of smooth muscle cells (SMCs), including acellular gels, over a five-day period during which the gels contracted and became turbid with increased optical scattering. The gels were characterized quantitatively by their optical properties, specified by analysis of OCT data using a theoretical model. At 6 h, seeded cell density and scattering coefficient (μs) were correlated, with μs equal to 10.8 cm-1/(106 cells/mL). Seeded cell density and the scattering anisotropy (g) were uncorrelated. Over five days, the reflectivity in SMC gels gradually doubled with little change in optical attenuation, which indicated a decrease in g that increased backscatter, but only a small drop in μs. At five days, a subpopulation of sites on the gel showed substantially higher reflectivity (approximately a tenfold increase from the first 24 h). In summary, the increased turbidity of SMC gels that develops over time is due to a change in the structure of collagen, which affects g, and not simply due to a change in number density of collagen fibers due to contraction.

  8. Imaging of oral pathological tissue using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canjau, Silvana; Todea, Carmen; Sinescu, Cosmin; Duma, Virgil-Florin; Topala, Florin I.; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2014-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) constitutes 90% of oral cancer. Early detection is a cornerstone to improve survival. Interaction of light with tissues may highlight changes in tissue structure and metabolism. We propose optical coherence tomography (OCT), as a non-invasive diagnosis method, being a new high-resolution optical technique that permits tri-dimensional (3-D), real-time imaging of near surface abnormalities in complex tissues. In this study half of the excisional biopsy was directed to the pathologist and the other half was assigned for OCT investigation. Histopathology validated the results. Areas of OSCC of the buccal mucosa were identified in the OCT images. The elements obserced included extensive epithelial down-growth, the disruption of the basement membrane, with areas of erosion, an epithelial layer that was highly variable in thickness and invasion into the sub-epithelial layers. Therefore, OCT appears to be a highly promising imaging modality.

  9. Pharmaceutical Film Coating Catalog for Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hungyen; Dong, Yue; Markl, Daniel; Zhang, Zijian; Shen, Yaochun; Zeitler, J Axel

    2017-10-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has recently been demonstrated to measure the film coating thickness of pharmaceutical tablets and pellets directly. The results enable the analysis of inter- and intra-tablet coating variability at an off-line and in-line setting. To date, only a few coating formulations have been tried and there is very little information on the applicability of OCT to other coatings. As it is well documented that optical methods including OCT are prone to scattering leading to limited penetration, some pharmaceutical coatings may not be measurable altogether. This study presents OCT measurements of 22 different common coatings for the assessment of OCT applicability. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Monte Carlo Simulations of Arterial Imaging with Optical Coherence Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Amendt, P.; Estabrook, K.; Everett, M.; London, R.A.; Maitland, D.; Zimmerman, G.; Colston, B.; da Silva, L.; Sathyam, U.

    2000-02-01

    The laser-tissue interaction code LATIS [London et al., Appl. Optics 36, 9068 ( 1998)] is used to analyze photon scattering histories representative of optical coherence tomography (OCT) experiment performed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Monte Carlo photonics with Henyey-Greenstein anisotropic scattering is implemented and used to simulate signal discrimination of intravascular structure. An analytic model is developed and used to obtain a scaling law relation for optimization of the OCT signal and to validate Monte Carlo photonics. The appropriateness of the Henyey-Greenstein phase function is studied by direct comparison with more detailed Mie scattering theory using an ensemble of spherical dielectric scatterers. Modest differences are found between the two prescriptions for describing photon angular scattering in tissue. In particular, the Mie scattering phase functions provide less overall reflectance signal but more signal contrast compared to the Henyey-Greenstein formulation.

  11. Lasers for coherent optical satellite links with large dynamics.

    PubMed

    Chiodo, Nicola; Djerroud, Khelifa; Acef, Ouali; Clairon, André; Wolf, Peter

    2013-10-20

    We present the experimental realization of a laser system for ground-to-satellite optical Doppler ranging at the atmospheric turbulence limit. Such a system needs to display good frequency stability (a few parts in 10-14) while allowing large and well-controlled frequency sweeps of ±12  GHz at rates exceeding 100  MHz/s. Furthermore it needs to be sufficiently compact and robust for transportation to different astronomical observation sites, where it is to be interfaced with satellite ranging telescopes. We demonstrate that our system fulfills those requirements and should therefore allow operation of ground to low Earth orbit satellite coherent optical links limited only by atmospheric turbulence.

  12. Nanoshells as an optical coherence tomography contrast agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, Jennifer K.; Halas, Naomi J.; West, Jennifer L.; Drezek, Rebekah A.

    2004-07-01

    Nanoshells are a layered dielectric core/metal shell composite nanostructure with an optical resonance geometrically tunable through the visible and near infrared. Due to their small size, ability to generate a strong backscattering signal, and potential for surface modification, they may be an ideal in vivo optical coherence tomography contrast agent. We performed a pilot study to assess their capabilities. Images of a cuvette filled with dilute nanoshells, 2 μm polystyrene microspheres, or a combination were obtained. When compared to microspheres, images of the nanoshells where much brighter and attenuation of the bottom cuvette interface less. Injection of micropheres into the tail vein of mice and hamsters caused a noticeable brightening of OCT images of the dorsal skin. These pilot studies indicate that nanoshells may be an excellent OCT contrast agent; work is continuing to determine optimum nanoshell parameters and applications.

  13. Feasibility study of an optically coherent telescope array in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traub, W. A.

    1983-01-01

    Numerical methods of image construction which can be used to produce very high angular resolution images at optical wavelengths of astronomical objects from an orbiting array of telescopes are discussed and a concept is presented for a phase-coherent optical telescope array which may be deployed by space shuttle in the 1990's. The system would start as a four-element linear array with a 12 m baseline. The initial module is a minimum redundant array with a photon-counting collecting area three times larger than space telescope and a one dimensional resolution of better than 0.01 arc seconds in the visible range. Later additions to the array would build up facility capability. The advantages of a VLBI observatory in space are considered as well as apertures for the telescopes.

  14. Thickness estimation with optical coherence tomography and statistical decision theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jinxin; Yao, Jianing; Cirucci, Nick; Ivanov, Trevor; Rolland, Jannick P.

    2015-10-01

    Thickness estimation, which has a broad range of applications, plays an important role in the field of optical metrology. In this study, we investigate a new approach—combining optical coherence tomography (OCT) and statistical decision theory—for thickness estimation. We first discussed and quantified the intensity noise of three commonly used broadband sources, a super-continuum source, a super-luminescent diode (SLD), and a swept source. Furthermore, a maximum-likelihood (ML) estimator was implemented to interpret the OCT raw data. Based on the mathematical model and the ML estimator, simulations were set up to investigate the impact of different broadband sources in OCT for a thickness estimation task. We then validated the theoretical framework with physical phantoms. Results demonstrate unbiased nanometer-class thickness estimates with the ML estimator. The framework can be potentially used for film and surface shape metrology.

  15. Adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography processing using a graphics processing unit.

    PubMed

    Shafer, Brandon A; Kriske, Jeffery E; Kocaoglu, Omer P; Turner, Timothy L; Liu, Zhuolin; Lee, John Jaehwan; Miller, Donald T

    2014-01-01

    Graphics processing units are increasingly being used for scientific computing for their powerful parallel processing abilities, and moderate price compared to super computers and computing grids. In this paper we have used a general purpose graphics processing unit to process adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography (AOOCT) images in real time. Increasing the processing speed of AOOCT is an essential step in moving the super high resolution technology closer to clinical viability.

  16. Adaptive-optics Optical Coherence Tomography Processing Using a Graphics Processing Unit*

    PubMed Central

    Shafer, Brandon A.; Kriske, Jeffery E.; Kocaoglu, Omer P.; Turner, Timothy L.; Liu, Zhuolin; Lee, John Jaehwan; Miller, Donald T.

    2015-01-01

    Graphics processing units are increasingly being used for scientific computing for their powerful parallel processing abilities, and moderate price compared to super computers and computing grids. In this paper we have used a general purpose graphics processing unit to process adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography (AOOCT) images in real time. Increasing the processing speed of AOOCT is an essential step in moving the super high resolution technology closer to clinical viability. PMID:25570838

  17. Phase-coherent all-optical frequency division by three

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Dong-Hoon; Klein, Marvin E.; Meyn, Jan-Peter; Wallenstein, Richard; Gross, Petra; Boller, Klaus-Jochen

    2003-01-01

    The properties of all-optical phase-coherent frequency division by 3, based on a self-phase-locked continuous-wave (cw) optical parametric oscillator (OPO), are investigated theoretically and experimentally. The frequency to be divided is provided by a diode laser master-oscillator power-amplifier system operated at a wavelength of 812 nm and used as the pump source of the OPO. Optical self-phase-locking of the OPO signal and idler waves is achieved by mutual injection locking of the signal wave and the intracavity frequency-doubled idler wave. The OPO process and the second-harmonic generation of the idler wave are simultaneously phase matched through quasi-phase-matching using two periodically poled sections of different period manufactured within the same LiNbO{sub 3} crystal. An optical self-phase-locking range of up to 1 MHz is experimentally observed. The phase coherence of frequency division by three is measured via the phase stability of an interference pattern formed by the input and output waves of the OPO. The fractional frequency instability of the divider is measured to be smaller than 7.6x10{sup -14} for a measurement time of 10 s (resolution limited). The self-phase-locking characteristics of the cw OPO are theoretically investigated by analytically solving the coupled field equations in the steady-state regime. For the experimental parameters of the OPO, the calculations predict a locking range of 1.3 MHz and a fractional frequency instability of 1.6x10{sup -15}, in good agreement with the experimental results.

  18. Coherent optical array receiver for PPM signals under atmospheric turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz Fernandez, Michela

    The performance of a coherent free-space optical communications system operating in the presence of turbulence is investigated. Maximum Likelihood Detection techniques are employed to optimally detect Pulse Position Modulated signals with a focal-plane detector array and to reconstruct the turbulence-degraded signals. Laboratory equipment and experimental setup used to carry out these experiments at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory are described. The key components include two lasers operating at 1064 nm wavelength for use with coherent detection, a 16 element (4 X 4) InGaAs focal-plane detector array, and a data-acquisition and signal-processing assembly needed to sample and collect the data and analyze the results. The detected signals are combined using the least-mean-square (LMS) algorithm. In the first part of the experimental results we show convergence of the algorithm for experimentally obtained signal tones in the presence of atmospheric turbulence. The second part of the experimental results shows adaptive combining of experimentally obtained heterodyned pulse position modulated (PPM) signals with pulse-to-pulse coherence in the presence of simulated spatial distortions resembling atmospheric turbulence. The adaptively combined PPM signals are phased up via an LMS algorithm suitably optimized to operate with PPM in the presence of additive shot noise. A convergence analysis of the algorithm is presented, and results with both computer-simulated and experimentally obtained PPM signals are analyzed. The third part of the experimental results, in which the main goal of this thesis is achieved, includes an investigation of the performance of the Coherent Optical Receiver Experiment (CORE) at JPL. Bit Error Rate (BER) results are presented for single and multichannel optical receivers where quasi shot noise-limited performance is achieved under simulated turbulence conditions using noncoherent postdetection processing techniques. Theoretical BER expressions are

  19. EN FACE OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY AND OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY OF MULTIPLE EVANESCENT WHITE DOT SYNDROME: New Insights Into Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Pichi, Francesco; Srvivastava, Sunil K; Chexal, Saradha; Lembo, Andrea; Lima, Luiz H; Neri, Piergiorgio; Saitta, Andrea; Chhablani, Jay; Albini, Thomas A; Nucci, Paolo; Freund, K Bailey; Chung, Hyewon; Lowder, Careen Y; Sarraf, David

    2016-12-01

    To localize the various levels of abnormalities in multiple evanescent white dot syndrome by comparing "en face" optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography with various conventional imaging modalities. In this retrospective case series, multimodal imaging was performed in 9 retinal centers on 36 patients with multiple evanescent white dot syndrome and included widefield fundus autofluorescence (FAF), fluorescein angiography (FA), and indocyanine green angiography, and B-scan and "en face" C-scan enhanced depth imaging and spectral domain OCT. Optical coherence tomography angiography was also performed at the level of the superficial and deep retinal capillary plexus and choroid. Multiple evanescent white dot syndrome lesions were more numerous and more easily detectable with FA and FAF. Two types of lesions were identified with FAF, FA, and indocyanine green angiography: larger widely scattered "spots" (approximately 200 μ in diameter) that were hyperfluorescent with FA, hyperautofluorescent with FAF, and hyporeflective in indocyanine green angiography, representing abnormalities primarily at the retinal pigment epithelium/photoreceptor junction; and punctate "dots" (less than 100 μ in diameter) that were hyperfluorescent with FA, hyperautofluorescent, or isoautofluorescent with FAF, and hypofluorescent with indocyanine green angiography and that localized to the outer nuclear layer. These lesions colocalized with "en face" OCT. The larger confluent "spots" were hyporeflective and colocalized to the level of the ellipsoid zone, whereas smaller hyperreflective "dots" colocalized to the outer nuclear layer. The location of the "dots" in the outer nuclear layer was further confirmed by structural spectral domain optical coherence tomography which showed coalescence of the dots into hyperreflective lines extending from the external limiting membrane to the outer plexiform layer in certain cases. Optical coherence tomography angiography analysis of the

  20. EN FACE OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY AND OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY OF MULTIPLE EVANESCENT WHITE DOT SYNDROME: New Insights Into Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Pichi, Francesco; Srvivastava, Sunil K; Chexal, Saradha; Lembo, Andrea; Lima, Luiz H; Neri, Piergiorgio; Saitta, Andrea; Chhablani, Jay; Albini, Thomas A; Nucci, Paolo; Freund, K Bailey; Chung, Hyewon; Lowder, Careen Y; Sarraf, David

    2016-08-22

    To localize the various levels of abnormalities in multiple evanescent white dot syndrome by comparing "en face" optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography with various conventional imaging modalities. In this retrospective case series, multimodal imaging was performed in 9 retinal centers on 36 patients with multiple evanescent white dot syndrome and included widefield fundus autofluorescence (FAF), fluorescein angiography (FA), and indocyanine green angiography, and B-scan and "en face" C-scan enhanced depth imaging and spectral domain OCT. Optical coherence tomography angiography was also performed at the level of the superficial and deep retinal capillary plexus and choroid. Multiple evanescent white dot syndrome lesions were more numerous and more easily detectable with FA and FAF. Two types of lesions were identified with FAF, FA, and indocyanine green angiography: larger widely scattered "spots" (approximately 200 μ in diameter) that were hyperfluorescent with FA, hyperautofluorescent with FAF, and hyporeflective in indocyanine green angiography, representing abnormalities primarily at the retinal pigment epithelium/photoreceptor junction; and punctate "dots" (less than 100 μ in diameter) that were hyperfluorescent with FA, hyperautofluorescent, or isoautofluorescent with FAF, and hypofluorescent with indocyanine green angiography and that localized to the outer nuclear layer. These lesions colocalized with "en face" OCT. The larger confluent "spots" were hyporeflective and colocalized to the level of the ellipsoid zone, whereas smaller hyperreflective "dots" colocalized to the outer nuclear layer. The location of the "dots" in the outer nuclear layer was further confirmed by structural spectral domain optical coherence tomography which showed coalescence of the dots into hyperreflective lines extending from the external limiting membrane to the outer plexiform layer in certain cases. Optical coherence tomography angiography analysis of the

  1. Molecular imaging true-colour spectroscopic optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robles, Francisco E.; Wilson, Christy; Grant, Gerald; Wax, Adam

    2011-12-01

    Molecular imaging holds a pivotal role in medicine due to its ability to provide invaluable insight into disease mechanisms at molecular and cellular levels. To this end, various techniques have been developed for molecular imaging, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. For example, fluorescence imaging achieves micrometre-scale resolution, but has low penetration depths and is mostly limited to exogenous agents. Here, we demonstrate molecular imaging of endogenous and exogenous chromophores using a novel form of spectroscopic optical coherence tomography. Our approach consists of using a wide spectral bandwidth laser source centred in the visible spectrum, thereby allowing facile assessment of haemoglobin oxygen levels, providing contrast from readily available absorbers, and enabling true-colour representation of samples. This approach provides high spectral fidelity while imaging at the micrometre scale in three dimensions. Molecular imaging true-colour spectroscopic optical coherence tomography (METRiCS OCT) has significant implications for many biomedical applications including ophthalmology, early cancer detection, and understanding fundamental disease mechanisms such as hypoxia and angiogenesis.

  2. Vascular wall stress during intravascular optical coherence tomography imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Cuiru; Yang, Victor

    2015-03-01

    Biomechanical properties of arterial wall is crucial for understanding the changes in the cardiovascular system. Catheters are used during intravascular optical coherence tomography (IVOCT) imaging. The presence of a catheter alters the flow field, pressure distribution and frictional resistance to flow in an artery. In this paper, we first study the transmural stress distribution of the catheterized vessel. COMSOL (COMSOL 4.4) was used to simulate the blood flow induced deformation in a catheterized vessel. Blood is modeled as an incompressible Newtonian fluid. Stress distribution from an three-layer vascular model with an eccentric catheter are simulated, which provides a general idea about the distribution of the displacement and the stress. Optical coherence elastography techniques were then applied to porcine carotid artery samples to look at the deformation status of the vascular wall during saline or water injection. Preliminary simulation results show nonuniform stress distribution in the circumferential direction of the eccentrically catheterized vascular model. Three strain rate methods were tested for intravascular OCE application. The tissue Doppler method has the potential to be further developed to image the vascular wall biomechnical properties in vivo. Although results in this study are not validated quantitatively, the experiments and methods may be valuable for intravascular OCE studies, which may provide important information for cardiovascular disease prevention, diagnosis and treatment.

  3. Digital image correlation-based optical coherence elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Cuiru; Standish, Beau; Vuong, Barry; Wen, Xiao-Yan; Yang, Victor

    2013-12-01

    Optical coherence elastography (OCE) provides deformation or material properties, mapping of soft tissue. We aim to develop a robust speckle tracking OCE technique with improved resolution and accuracy. A digital image correlation (DIC)-based OCE technique was developed by combining an advanced DIC algorithm with optical coherence tomography (OCT). System calibration and measurement error evaluation demonstrated that this DIC-based OCE technique had a resolution of ˜0.6 μm displacement and <0.5% strain measurement in the axial scan direction. The measured displacement ranged from 0.6 to 150 μm, obtained via phantom imaging. The capability of the DIC-based OCE technique, for differentiation of stiffness, was evaluated by imaging a candle gel phantom with an irregularly shaped stiff inclusion. OCE imaging of a chicken breast sample differentiated the fat, membrane, and muscle layers. Strain elastograms of an aneurysm sample showed heterogeneity of the tissue and clear contrast between the adventitia and media. These promising results demonstrated the capability of the DIC-based OCE for the characterization of the various components of the tissue sample. Further improvement of the system will be conducted to make this OCE technique a practical tool for measuring and differentiating material properties of soft tissue.

  4. Depth Profilometry via Multiplexed Optical High-Coherence Interferometry

    PubMed Central

    Kazemzadeh, Farnoud; Wong, Alexander; Behr, Bradford B.; Hajian, Arsen R.

    2015-01-01

    Depth Profilometry involves the measurement of the depth profile of objects, and has significant potential for various industrial applications that benefit from non-destructive sub-surface profiling such as defect detection, corrosion assessment, and dental assessment to name a few. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of depth profilometry using an Multiplexed Optical High-coherence Interferometry MOHI instrument. The MOHI instrument utilizes the spatial coherence of a laser and the interferometric properties of light to probe the reflectivity as a function of depth of a sample. The axial and lateral resolutions, as well as imaging depth, are decoupled in the MOHI instrument. The MOHI instrument is capable of multiplexing interferometric measurements into 480 one-dimensional interferograms at a location on the sample and is built with axial and lateral resolutions of 40 μm at a maximum imaging depth of 700 μm. Preliminary results, where a piece of sand-blasted aluminum, an NBK7 glass piece, and an optical phantom were successfully probed using the MOHI instrument to produce depth profiles, demonstrate the feasibility of such an instrument for performing depth profilometry. PMID:25803289

  5. Coherent control of atomic transport in spinor optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Mischuck, Brian; Deutsch, Ivan H.; Jessen, Poul S.

    2010-02-15

    Coherent transport of atoms trapped in an optical lattice can be controlled by microwave-induced spin flips that correlate with site-to-site hopping. We study the controllability of homogeneous one-dimensional systems of noninteracting atoms in the absence of site addressability. Given these restrictions, we construct a deterministic protocol to map an initially localized Wannier state to a wave packet that is coherently distributed over n sites. As an example, we consider a one dimensional quantum walk in the presence of both realistic photon scattering and inhomogeneous broadening of the microwave transition due to the optical lattice. Using composite pulses to suppress errors, fidelities of over 95% can be achieved for a 25-step walk. We extend the protocol for state preparation to analytic solutions for arbitrary unitary maps given homogeneous systems and in the presence of time-dependent uniform forces. Such control is important for applications in quantum information processing, such as quantum computing and quantum simulations of condensed matter phenomena.

  6. Phase-resolved acoustic radiation force optical coherence elastography.

    PubMed

    Qi, Wenjuan; Chen, Ruimin; Chou, Lidek; Liu, Gangjun; Zhang, Jun; Zhou, Qifa; Chen, Zhongping

    2012-11-01

    Many diseases involve changes in the biomechanical properties of tissue, and there is a close correlation between tissue elasticity and pathology. We report on the development of a phase-resolved acoustic radiation force optical coherence elastography method (ARF-OCE) to evaluate the elastic properties of tissue. This method utilizes chirped acoustic radiation force to produce excitation along the sample's axial direction, and it uses phase-resolved optical coherence tomography (OCT) to measure the vibration of the sample. Under 500-Hz square wave modulated ARF signal excitation, phase change maps of tissue mimicking phantoms are generated by the ARF-OCE method, and the resulting Young's modulus ratio is correlated with a standard compression test. The results verify that this technique could efficiently measure sample elastic properties accurately and quantitatively. Furthermore, a three-dimensional ARF-OCE image of the human atherosclerotic coronary artery is obtained. The result indicates that our dynamic phase-resolved ARF-OCE method can delineate tissues with different mechanical properties.

  7. Coherent Magnetic Response at Optical Frequencies Using Atomic Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, Nicholas R.; Buckholtz, Zachary N.; Simmons, Zachary J.; Mueller, Eli A.; Yavuz, Deniz D.

    2017-01-01

    In optics, the interaction of atoms with the magnetic field of light is almost always ignored since its strength is many orders of magnitude weaker compared to the interaction with the electric field. In this article, by using a magnetic-dipole transition within the 4 f shell of europium ions, we show a strong interaction between a green laser and an ensemble of atomic ions. The electrons move coherently between the ground and excited ionic levels (Rabi flopping) by interacting with the magnetic field of the laser. By measuring the Rabi flopping frequency as the laser intensity is varied, we report the first direct measurement of a magnetic-dipole matrix element in the optical region of the spectrum. Using density-matrix simulations of the ensemble, we infer the generation of coherent magnetization with magnitude 5.5 ×10-3 A /m , which is capable of generating left-handed electromagnetic waves of intensity 1 nW /cm2 . These results open up the prospect of constructing left-handed materials using sharp transitions of atoms.

  8. Cell death monitoring using quantitative optical coherence tomography methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhat, Golnaz; Yang, Victor X. D.; Kolios, Michael C.; Czarnota, Gregory J.

    2011-03-01

    Cell death is characterized by a series of predictable morphological changes, which modify the light scattering properties of cells. We present a multi-parametric approach to detecting changes in subcellular morphology related to cell death using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Optical coherence tomography data were acquired from acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells undergoing apoptosis over a period of 48 hours. Integrated backscatter (IB) and spectral slope (SS) were computed from OCT backscatter spectra and statistical parameters were extracted from a generalized gamma (GG) distribution fit to OCT signal intensity histograms. The IB increased by 2-fold over 48 hours with significant increases observed as early as 4 hours. The SS increased in steepness by 2.5-fold with significant changes at 12 hours, while the GG parameters were sensitive to apoptotic changes at 24 to 48 hours. Histology slides indicated nuclear condensation and fragmentation at 24 hours, suggesting the late scattering changes could be related to nuclear structure. A second series of measurements from AML cells treated with cisplatin, colchicine or ionizing radiation suggested that the GG parameters could potentially differentiate between modes of cell death. Distinct cellular morphology was observed in histology slides obtained from cells treated under each condition.

  9. Endoscopic optical coherence tomography for imaging the tympanic membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkhardt, Anke; Walther, Julia; Cimalla, Peter; Bornitz, Matthias; Koch, Edmund

    2011-06-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an imaging modality that enables micrometer-scale contactless subsurface imaging of biological tissue. Endoscopy, as another imaging method, has the potential of imaging tubular organs and cavities and therefore has opened up several application areas not accessible before. The combination of OCT and endoscopy uses the advantages of both methods and consequently allows additional imaging of structures beneath surfaces inside cavities. Currently, visual investigations on the surface of the human tympanic membrane are possible but only with expert eyes. up to now, visual imaging of the outer ear up to the tympanic membrane can be carried out by an otoscope, an operating microscope or an endoscope. In contrast to these devices, endoscopy has the advantage of imaging the whole tympanic membrane with one view. The intention of this research is the development of an endoscopic optical coherence tomography (EOCT) device for imaging the tympanic membrane depth-resolved and structures behind it. Detection of fluids in the middle ear, which function as an indicator for otitis media, could help to avoid the application of antibiotics. It is possible to detect a congeries of fluids with the otoscope but the ambition is to the early detection by OCT. The developed scanner head allows imaging in working distances in the range from zero up to 5 mm with a field of view of 2 mm. In the next step, the scanner head should be improved to increase the working distance and the field of view.

  10. Self-spectral calibration for spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xianling; Gao, Wanrong; Bian, Haiyi; Chen, Chaoliang; Liao, Jiuling

    2013-06-01

    A different real-time self-wavelength calibration method for spectral domain optical coherence tomography is presented in which interference spectra measured from two arbitrary points on the tissue surface are used for calibration. The method takes advantages of two favorable conditions of optical coherence tomography (OCT) signal. First, the signal back-scattered from the tissue surface is generally much stronger than that from positions in the tissue interior, so the spectral component of the surface interference could be extracted from the measured spectrum. Second, the tissue surface is not a plane and a phase difference exists between the light reflected from two different points on the surface. Compared with the zero-crossing automatic method, the introduced method has the advantage of removing the error due to dispersion mismatch or the common phase error. The method is tested experimentally to demonstrate the improved signal-to-noise ratio, higher axial resolution, and slower sensitivity degradation with depth when compared to the use of the zero-crossing method and applied to two-dimensional cross-sectional images of human finger skin.

  11. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography findings in retinal arterial macroaneurysms.

    PubMed

    Alnawaiseh, Maged; Schubert, Friederike; Nelis, Pieter; Wirths, Gabriele; Rosentreter, André; Eter, Nicole

    2016-07-22

    Optical coherence tomography angiography is a novel imaging technique that allows dyeless in vivo visualization of the retinal and choroidal vasculature. The purpose of this study was to describe optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography findings in patients with retinal arterial macroaneurysms (RAMs). Three eyes of three patients with RAMs were retrospectively included. Fundus photography, OCT, fluorescein angiography (FA), and OCT angiography were performed. The entire imaging data was analyzed in detail. OCT angiography could detect the RAMs noninvasively without dye injection. By simultaneously observing the OCT scans, it was possible to determine the depth of the RAMs in the retina, to detect the exact localization in relation to the main vessel, and to determine the level of blood flow in the RAMs. OCT angiography can clearly visualize RAMs without use of a dye. It also allows layer-specific observation of blood flow in each layer of the RAM. OCT angiography provides additional dynamic information on RAMs, which is not obtained with FA and facilitates a better understanding of its morphology and activity. This information in combination with ICG and fluorescein angiography can help to optimize direct laser treatment.

  12. Optical coherence tomography visualizes neurons in human entorhinal cortex.

    PubMed

    Magnain, Caroline; Augustinack, Jean C; Konukoglu, Ender; Frosch, Matthew P; Sakadžić, Sava; Varjabedian, Ani; Garcia, Nathalie; Wedeen, Van J; Boas, David A; Fischl, Bruce

    2015-02-09

    The cytoarchitecture of the human brain is of great interest in diverse fields: neuroanatomy, neurology, neuroscience, and neuropathology. Traditional histology is a method that has been historically used to assess cell and fiber content in the ex vivo human brain. However, this technique suffers from significant distortions. We used a previously demonstrated optical coherence microscopy technique to image individual neurons in several square millimeters of en-face tissue blocks from layer II of the human entorhinal cortex, over 50 µm in depth. The same slices were then sectioned and stained for Nissl substance. We registered the optical coherence tomography (OCT) images with the corresponding Nissl stained slices using a nonlinear transformation. The neurons were then segmented in both images and we quantified the overlap. We show that OCT images contain information about neurons that is comparable to what can be obtained from Nissl staining, and thus can be used to assess the cytoarchitecture of the ex vivo human brain with minimal distortion. With the future integration of a vibratome into the OCT imaging rig, this technique can be scaled up to obtain undistorted volumetric data of centimeter cube tissue blocks in the near term, and entire human hemispheres in the future.

  13. Digital image correlation-based optical coherence elastography.

    PubMed

    Sun, Cuiru; Standish, Beau; Vuong, Barry; Wen, Xiao-Yan; Yang, Victor

    2013-12-01

    Optical coherence elastography (OCE) provides deformation or material properties, mapping of soft tissue. We aim to develop a robust speckle tracking OCE technique with improved resolution and accuracy. A digital image correlation (DIC)-based OCE technique was developed by combining an advanced DIC algorithm with optical coherence tomography (OCT). System calibration and measurement error evaluation demonstrated that this DIC-based OCE technique had a resolution of ~0.6 μm displacement and <0.5% strain measurement in the axial scan direction. The measured displacement ranged from 0.6 to 150 μm, obtained via phantom imaging. The capability of the DIC-based OCE technique, for differentiation of stiffness, was evaluated by imaging a candle gel phantom with an irregularly shaped stiff inclusion. OCE imaging of a chicken breast sample differentiated the fat, membrane, and muscle layers. Strain elastograms of an aneurysm sample showed heterogeneity of the tissue and clear contrast between the adventitia and media. These promising results demonstrated the capability of the DIC-based OCE for the characterization of the various components of the tissue sample. Further improvement of the system will be conducted to make this OCE technique a practical tool for measuring and differentiating material properties of soft tissue.

  14. Optical coherence tomography angiography in pediatric choroidal neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Veronese, Chiara; Maiolo, Chiara; Huang, David; Jia, Yali; Armstrong, Grayson W.; Morara, Mariachiara; Ciardella, Antonio P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To report two cases of pediatric choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and the associated neo-vascular and retinal findings identified on Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography (OCTA) imaging. Methods A 14-year-old boy with handheld laser-induced maculopathy-related CNV and a 13-year-old boy with idiopathic CNV were evaluated with visual acuity testing, slit-lamp exam, fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography, spectral domain optical coherence tomography, and OCTA. Results Macular CNV were identified in both pediatric patients using OCTA imaging. The first case demonstrated a classic pediatric type II CNV with a “tree-like” pattern and a single vessel in-growth site, while the second case demonstrated a type I CNV with a “glomerular” pattern. Conclusion Distinct choroidal neovascular patterns were visualized in these two cases of pediatric CNV when compared to adult subtypes. OCTA is a noninvasive imaging modality capable of evaluating and characterizing pediatric CNV and their associated vascular patterns. PMID:27990495

  15. Determination of glucose concentration using Fourier domain optical coherence tomogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sharkawy, Yasser H.

    2009-02-01

    In order to enhance cell culture growth in biosensors such as those for glucose detection must be developed that are capable of monitoring cell culture processes continuously and accurate. Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) is used to obtain cell images with nanometer level resolution by analyzing the interference pattern by the mixing of reference and objective light to determine glucose concentration in doped double distilled water and create a glucose signature spectrum in salt-sugar solution. We demonstrate ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging of in vitro biological cells and an improved deflection angle measurements formal and back projection method is used to reconstruct the two-dimensional glucose concentration performs refractive index distribution. Slopes of OCT signals decreased substantially and almost linearly with the increase of glucose concentration from 2.5 to 15 mg/dl. Phantom studies demonstrated 1% accuracy of scattering- coefficient measurement. Our theoretical and experimental studies suggest that glucose concentration can potentially be measured non-invasively with high sensitivity and accuracy with OCT systems.

  16. High-speed optical coherence tomography signal processing on GPU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiqi; Shi, Guohua; Zhang, Yudong

    2011-01-01

    The signal processing speed of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) has become a bottleneck in many medical applications. Recently, a time-domain interpolation method was proposed. This method not only gets a better signal-to noise ratio (SNR) but also gets a faster signal processing time for the SD-OCT than the widely used zero-padding interpolation method. Furthermore, the re-sampled data is obtained by convoluting the acquired data and the coefficients in time domain. Thus, a lot of interpolations can be performed concurrently. So, this interpolation method is suitable for parallel computing. An ultra-high optical coherence tomography signal processing can be realized by using graphics processing unit (GPU) with computer unified device architecture (CUDA). This paper will introduce the signal processing steps of SD-OCT on GPU. An experiment is performed to acquire a frame SD-OCT data (400A-lines×2048 pixel per A-line) and real-time processed the data on GPU. The results show that it can be finished in 6.208 milliseconds, which is 37 times faster than that on Central Processing Unit (CPU).

  17. Interpretation of optical three-dimensional coherent spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titze, Michael; Li, Hebin

    2017-09-01

    As an extension to powerful two-dimensional coherent spectroscopy, optical three-dimensional (3D) coherent spectroscopy has been experimentally implemented and found beneficial in studying various systems in physics and chemistry. A critical challenge is how to interpret 3D spectra and extract useful quantitative information, given the richness and complexity of 3D data. Here, we demonstrate how the information of a system's optical response is manifested in 3D spectra by theoretical simulations of a few representative examples including a homogeneous three-level V system, an inhomogeneous three-level V system, and an inhomogeneous three-level ladder system. These examples show that important parameters of the system can be extracted from the spectral pattern, peak positions, amplitudes, and line shapes. The method developed here can be used to analyze 3D spectra of more sophisticated systems which might be a generalization or combination of the three examples, contributing to develop a general approach for the interpretation of 3D spectra.

  18. Model for coherence transfer in a backward optical parametric oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes, Carlos; Aschieri, Pierre; Picozzi, Antonio

    2011-09-01

    The mirrorless backward optical parametric oscillator (BOPO), where the signal and idler waves are propagating in opposite directions, will establish a distributed feedback mechanism and thus optical parametric oscillation without the need to apply mirrors or external feedback to the cavity. It has been recently demonstrated experimentally by exploiting the periodic poling technique in second-order nonlinear crystals, that the sub-micrometer structured medium achieves an efficient quasi-phase-matching of the three wave interaction in the backward configuration. A remarkable property of such BOPO is the high degree of coherence of the backward wave component, whose spectrum may be several order of magnitudes narrower than that of the pump, due to the convectioninduced phase-locking mechanism. Experimentally and numerically proved the transfer of coherent phase modulations from the pump wave to the parametrically down-converted waves, we show here that this is also possible for a broad bandwidth spectrally incoherent pump. In order to accurately describe the nonlinear counter-propagation dynamics of the three dispersive waves, we have developed for the first time to our knowledge a new numerical scheme which combines the method of the trajectories usually employed to solve the three-wave interaction and the intraband group velocity dispersion effect is performed in the spectral domain with the help of the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) technique. The model accurately conserves the number of photons and the Manley-Rowe invariants. This allowed us to predict various configurations of MOPOs in which, thanks to the convection-induced phase-locking mechanism, a highly coherent backward wave is spontaneously generated from a highly incoherent pump wave.

  19. Assessment of Optic Nerve Head Drusen Using Enhanced Depth Imaging and Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, Anna L.; Tatham, Andrew J.; Medeiros, Felipe A.; Weinreb, Robert N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Optic nerve head drusen (ONHD) are calcific deposits buried or at the surface of the optic disc. Although ONHD may be associated with progressive visual field defects, the mechanism of drusen-related field loss is poorly understood. Methods for detecting and imaging disc drusen include B-scan ultrasonography, fundus autofluorescence, and optical coherence tomography (OCT). These modalities are useful for drusen detection but are limited by low resolution or poor penetration of deep structures. This review was designed to assess the potential role of new OCT technologies in imaging ONHD. Evidence Acquisition Critical appraisal of published literature and comparison of new imaging devices to established technology. Results The new imaging modalities of enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) and swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) are able to provide unprecedented in vivo detail of ONHD. Using these devices it is now possible to quantify optic disc drusen dimensions and assess integrity of neighboring retinal structures, including the retinal nerve fiber layer. Conclusions EDI-OCT and SS-OCT have the potential to allow better detection of longitudinal changes in drusen and neural retina and improve our understanding of drusen-related visual field loss. PMID:24662838

  20. Optical trapping Rayleigh dielectric particles with focused partially coherent dark hollow beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hua-Feng; Zhang, Wei-Jun; Qu, Jun; Huang, Wei

    2015-12-01

    The focusing properties of coherent and partially coherent dark hollow beams (DHBs) through a paraxial ABCD optical system are theoretically investigated. It is found that the evolution behavior of the intensity distribution of focused partially coherent DHBs is closely related to their spatial coherence. The radiation forces (RFs) of focused coherent and partially coherent DHBs acting on a Rayleigh dielectric particle are also theoretically investigated. Numerical results show that the coherent and partially coherent DHBs can be focused into a tight focal spot, which can be used to stably trap a Rayleigh dielectric particle with high refractive index at the focus point. The influences of different beam parameters, including the spatial coherence, beam waist width, beam order, and hollow parameter of partially coherent DHBs, on the RFs and the trap stiffness are analyzed in detail. Finally, the stability conditions for effective trapping particles are also discussed.

  1. High resolution atomic coherent control via spectral phase manipulation of an optical frequency comb.

    PubMed

    Stowe, Matthew C; Cruz, Flavio C; Marian, Adela; Ye, Jun

    2006-04-21

    We demonstrate high resolution coherent control of cold atomic rubidium utilizing spectral phase manipulation of a femtosecond optical frequency comb. Transient coherent accumulation is directly manifested by the enhancement of signal amplitude and spectral resolution via the pulse number. The combination of frequency comb technology and spectral phase manipulation enables coherent control techniques to enter a new regime with natural linewidth resolution.

  2. High Resolution Atomic Coherent Control via Spectral Phase Manipulation of an Optical Frequency Comb

    SciTech Connect

    Stowe, Matthew C.; Cruz, Flavio C.; Marian, Adela; Ye Jun

    2006-04-21

    We demonstrate high resolution coherent control of cold atomic rubidium utilizing spectral phase manipulation of a femtosecond optical frequency comb. Transient coherent accumulation is directly manifested by the enhancement of signal amplitude and spectral resolution via the pulse number. The combination of frequency comb technology and spectral phase manipulation enables coherent control techniques to enter a new regime with natural linewidth resolution.

  3. Optical coherence tomography in differential diagnosis of skin pathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladkova, Natalia D.; Petrova, Galina P.; Derpaluk, Elena; Nikulin, Nikolai K.; Snopova, Ludmila; Chumakov, Yuri; Feldchtein, Felix I.; Gelikonov, Valentin M.; Gelikonov, Grigory V.; Kuranov, Roman V.

    2000-05-01

    The capabilities of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for imaging in vivo of optical patterns of pathomorphological processes in the skin and use of their optical patterns in clinical practice for differential diagnosis of dermatoses are presented. Images of skin tissue 0.8 - 1.5 mm deep were acquired with a resolution of 5, 12 and 20 micrometer using three compact fiber OCT devices developed at the Institute of Applied Physics RAS. The acquisition time of images of skin regions 2 - 6 mm in length was 2 - 4 s. The OCT capabilities were analyzed based on the study of 50 patients with different dermatoses. OCT images were interpreted by comparing with parallel histology. It is shown that OCT can detect in vivo optical patterns of morphological alterations in such general papulous dermatoses as lichen ruber planus and psoriasis, a capability that can be used in differential diagnosis of these diseases. Most informative are OCT images obtained with a resolution of 5 micrometer. The results of our study demonstrate the practical importance of OCT imaging for diagnosis of different dermatoses. OCT is noninvasive and, therefore, makes it possible to perform frequent multifocal examination of skin without any adverse effects.

  4. Robust intravascular optical coherence elastography driven by acoustic radiation pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Soest, Gijs; Bouchard, Richard R.; Mastik, Frits; de Jong, Nico; van der Steen, Anton F. W.

    2007-07-01

    High strain spots in the vessel wall indicate the presence of vulnerable plaques. The majority of acute cardiovascular events are preceded by rupture of such a plaque in a coronary artery. Intracoronary optical coherence tomography (OCT) can be extended, in principle, to an elastography technique, mapping the strain in the vascular wall. However, the susceptibility of OCT to frame-to-frame decorrelation, caused by tissue and catheter motion, inhibits reliable tissue displacement tracking and has to date obstructed the development of OCT-based intravascular elastography. We introduce a new technique for intravascular optical coherence elastography, which is robust against motion artifacts. Using acoustic radiation force, we apply a pressure to deform the tissue synchronously with the line scan rate of the OCT instrument. Radial tissue displacement can be tracked based on the correlation between adjacent lines, instead of subsequent frames in conventional elastography. The viability of the method is demonstrated with a simulation study. The root mean square (rms) error of the displacement estimate is 0.55 μm, and the rms error of the strain is 0.6%. It is shown that high-strain spots in the vessel wall, such as observed at the sites of vulnerable atherosclerotic lesions, can be detected with the technique. Experiments to realize this new elastographic method are presented. Simultaneous optical and ultrasonic pulse-echo tracking demonstrate that the material can be put in a high-frequency oscillatory motion with an amplitude of several micrometers, more than sufficient for accurate tracking with OCT. The resulting data are used to optimize the acoustic pushing sequence and geometry.

  5. Modern fibre-optic coherent lidars for remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Chris

    2015-10-01

    This paper surveys some growth areas in optical sensing that exploit near-IR coherent laser sources and fibreoptic hardware from the telecoms industry. Advances in component availability and performance are promising benefits in several military and commercial applications. Previous work has emphasised Doppler wind speed measurements and wind / turbulence profiling for air safety, with recent sharp increases in numbers of lidar units sold and installed, and with wider recognition that different lidar / radar wavebands can and should complement each other. These advances are also enabling fields such as microDoppler measurement of sub-wavelength vibrations and acoustic waves, including non-lineof- sight acoustic sensing in challenging environments. To shed light on these different applications we review some fundamentals of coherent detection, measurement probe volume, and parameter estimation - starting with familiar similarities and differences between "radar" and "laser radar". The consequences of changing the operating wavelength by three or four orders of magnitude - from millimetric or centimetric radar to a typical fibre-optic lidar working near 1.5 μm - need regular review, partly because of continuing advances in telecoms technology and computing. Modern fibre-optic lidars tend to be less complicated, more reliable, and cheaper than their predecessors; and they more closely obey the textbook principles of easily adjusted and aligned Gaussian beams. The behaviours of noises and signals, and the appropriate processing strategies, are as expected different for the different wavelengths and applications. For example, the effective probe volumes are easily varied (e.g. by translating a fibre facet) through six or eight orders of magnitude; as the average number of contributing scatterers varies, from <<1 through ~1 to >>1, we should review any assumptions about "many" scatterers and Gaussian statistics. Finally, some much older but still relevant scientific

  6. Optical coherence microscopy of mouse cortical vasculature surrounding implanted electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Daniel X.; Lozzi, Andrea; Abliz, Erkinay; Greenbaum, Noah; Turner, Kevin P.; Pfefer, T. Joshua; Agrawal, Anant; Krauthamer, Victor; Welle, Cristin G.

    2014-03-01

    Optical coherence microscopy (OCM) provides real-time, in-vivo, three-dimensional, isotropic micron-resolution structural and functional characterization of tissue, cells, and other biological targets. Optical coherence angiography (OCA) also provides visualization and quantification of vascular flow via speckle-based or phase-resolved techniques. Performance assessment of neuroprosthetic systems, which allow direct thought control of limb prostheses, may be aided by OCA. In particular, there is a need to examine the underlying mechanisms of chronic functional degradation of implanted electrodes. Angiogenesis, capillary network remodeling, and changes in flow velocity are potential indicators of tissue changes that may be associated with waning electrode performance. The overall goal of this investigation is to quantify longitudinal changes in vascular morphology and capillary flow around neural electrodes chronically implanted in mice. We built a 1315-nm OCM system to image vessels in neocortical tissue in a cohort of mice. An optical window was implanted on the skull over the primary motor cortex above a penetrating shank-style microelectrode array. The mice were imaged bi-weekly to generate vascular maps of the region surrounding the implanted microelectrode array. Acute effects of window and electrode implantation included vessel dilation and profusion of vessels in the superficial layer of the cortex (0-200 μm). In deeper layers surrounding the electrode, no qualitative differences were seen in this early phase. These measurements establish a baseline vascular tissue response from the cortical window preparation and lay the ground work for future longitudinal studies to test the hypothesis that vascular changes will be associated with chronic electrode degradation.

  7. Coherent detection and digital signal processing for fiber optic communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ip, Ezra

    The drive towards higher spectral efficiency in optical fiber systems has generated renewed interest in coherent detection. We review different detection methods, including noncoherent, differentially coherent, and coherent detection, as well as hybrid detection methods. We compare the modulation methods that are enabled and their respective performances in a linear regime. An important system parameter is the number of degrees of freedom (DOF) utilized in transmission. Polarization-multiplexed quadrature-amplitude modulation maximizes spectral efficiency and power efficiency as it uses all four available DOF contained in the two field quadratures in the two polarizations. Dual-polarization homodyne or heterodyne downconversion are linear processes that can fully recover the received signal field in these four DOF. When downconverted signals are sampled at the Nyquist rate, compensation of transmission impairments can be performed using digital signal processing (DSP). Software based receivers benefit from the robustness of DSP, flexibility in design, and ease of adaptation to time-varying channels. Linear impairments, including chromatic dispersion (CD) and polarization-mode dispersion (PMD), can be compensated quasi-exactly using finite impulse response filters. In practical systems, sampling the received signal at 3/2 times the symbol rate is sufficient to enable an arbitrary amount of CD and PMD to be compensated for a sufficiently long equalizer whose tap length scales linearly with transmission distance. Depending on the transmitted constellation and the target bit error rate, the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) should have around 5 to 6 bits of resolution. Digital coherent receivers are naturally suited for the implementation of feedforward carrier recovery, which has superior linewidth tolerance than phase-locked loops, and does not suffer from feedback delay constraints. Differential bit encoding can be used to prevent catastrophic receiver failure due

  8. Comparison of Anterior Segment Measurements with Optical Low-coherence Reflectometry and Partial-coherence Interferometry Optical Biometers

    PubMed Central

    Can, Ertuğrul; Duran, Mustafa; Çetinkaya, Tuğba; Arıtürk, Nurşen

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate a new noncontact optical biometer using partial-coherence interferometry and to compare the clinical measurements with those obtained from the device using optical low-coherence reflectometry (OLCR). SETTING AND DESIGN: Ondokuz Mayis University, Samsun, Turkey. Nonrandomized, prospective clinical trial SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study was performed on the healthy phakic eyes of volunteers in the year 2014. Measurements of axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD), central corneal thickness (CCT), mean keratometry (K), and white-to-white (WTW) measurements obtained with the low-time coherence interferometry (LTCI) were compared with those obtained with the OLCR. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: The results were evaluated using Bland–Altman analyses. The differences between both methods were assessed using the paired t-test, and its correlation was evaluated by Pearson's coefficient. RESULTS: We examined seventy participants with a mean age of 33.06 (±9.7) (range: 19–53) years. AL measurements with LTCI and OLCR were 23.7 (±1.08) mm and 23.7 (±1.1) mm, respectively. ACD was 3.6 (±0.4) mm and 3.5 (±0.4) mm for LTCI and OLCR, respectively. The mean CCT measurements for both devices were 533 (±28) mm and 522 (±28) mm, respectively. The mean K readings measurements for LTCI and OLCR were 43.3 (±1.5) D and 43.3 (±1.5) D, respectively. The mean WTW distance measurements for both devices were 12.0 (±0.5) mm and 12.1 (±0.5) mm, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Measurements with LTCI correlated well with those with the OLCR. These two devices showed good agreement for the measurement of all parameters. PMID:27994390

  9. Comparison of Anterior Segment Measurements with Optical Low-coherence Reflectometry and Partial-coherence Interferometry Optical Biometers.

    PubMed

    Can, Ertuğrul; Duran, Mustafa; Çetinkaya, Tuğba; Arıtürk, Nurşen

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate a new noncontact optical biometer using partial-coherence interferometry and to compare the clinical measurements with those obtained from the device using optical low-coherence reflectometry (OLCR). Ondokuz Mayis University, Samsun, Turkey. Nonrandomized, prospective clinical trial. The study was performed on the healthy phakic eyes of volunteers in the year 2014. Measurements of axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD), central corneal thickness (CCT), mean keratometry (K), and white-to-white (WTW) measurements obtained with the low-time coherence interferometry (LTCI) were compared with those obtained with the OLCR. The results were evaluated using Bland-Altman analyses. The differences between both methods were assessed using the paired t-test, and its correlation was evaluated by Pearson's coefficient. We examined seventy participants with a mean age of 33.06 (±9.7) (range: 19-53) years. AL measurements with LTCI and OLCR were 23.7 (±1.08) mm and 23.7 (±1.1) mm, respectively. ACD was 3.6 (±0.4) mm and 3.5 (±0.4) mm for LTCI and OLCR, respectively. The mean CCT measurements for both devices were 533 (±28) mm and 522 (±28) mm, respectively. The mean K readings measurements for LTCI and OLCR were 43.3 (±1.5) D and 43.3 (±1.5) D, respectively. The mean WTW distance measurements for both devices were 12.0 (±0.5) mm and 12.1 (±0.5) mm, respectively. Measurements with LTCI correlated well with those with the OLCR. These two devices showed good agreement for the measurement of all parameters.

  10. Frequency-time coherence for all-optical sampling without optical pulse source

    PubMed Central

    Preußler, Stefan; Raoof Mehrpoor, Gilda; Schneider, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Sampling is the first step to convert an analogue optical signal into a digital electrical signal. The latter can be further processed and analysed by well-known electrical signal processing methods. Optical pulse sources like mode-locked lasers are commonly incorporated for all-optical sampling, but have several drawbacks. A novel approach for a simple all-optical sampling is to utilise the frequency-time coherence of each signal. The method is based on only using two coupled modulators driven with an electrical sine wave. Since no optical source is required, a simple integration in appropriate platforms, such as Silicon Photonics might be possible. The presented method grants all-optical sampling with electrically tunable bandwidth, repetition rate and time shift. PMID:27687495

  11. Enhanced coherent OTDR for long span optical transmission lines containing optical fiber amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, Shin-Ichi; Tanaka, Kuniaki; Koyamada, Yahei; Sumida, Masatoyo

    1995-05-01

    We have newly constructed an enhanced coherent optical time domain reflectometer (C-OTDR) for use in testing optical cable spans in transmission lines containing erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA's), which is based on heterodyne detection using acousto-optic (AO) switches. In order to avoid any optical surges in the EDFA's in the transmission lines, optical dummy pulses were added between the signal pulses by an AO switch to keep the probe power from the C-OTDR as uniform as possible. We achieved a large single-way dynamic range of 42 dB with 5 dBm less probe power. The measurable portion of the fiber spans was more than 80 km in optical transmission lines containing EDFA's. This is twice the previously reported value.

  12. High-resolution retinal imaging using adaptive optics and Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography

    DOEpatents

    Olivier, Scot S.; Werner, John S.; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Laut, Sophie P.; Jones, Steven M.

    2010-09-07

    This invention permits retinal images to be acquired at high speed and with unprecedented resolution in three dimensions (4.times.4.times.6 .mu.m). The instrument achieves high lateral resolution by using adaptive optics to correct optical aberrations of the human eye in real time. High axial resolution and high speed are made possible by the use of Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography. Using this system, we have demonstrated the ability to image microscopic blood vessels and the cone photoreceptor mosaic.

  13. Quantitative assessment of hyaline cartilage elasticity during optical clearing using optical coherence elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chih-Hao; Singh, Manmohan; Li, Jiasong; Han, Zhaolong; Wu, Chen; Wang, Shang; Idugboe, Rita; Raghunathan, Raksha; Zakharov, Valery P.; Sobol, Emil N.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Twa, Michael; Larin, Kirill V.

    2015-03-01

    We report the first study on using optical coherence elastography (OCE) to quantitatively monitor the elasticity change of the hyaline cartilage during the optical clearing administrated by glucose solution. The measurement of the elasticity is verified using uniaxial compression test, demonstrating the feasibility of using OCE to quantify the Young's modulus of the cartilage tissue. As the results, we found that the stiffness of the hyaline cartilage increases during the optical clearing of the tissue. This study might be potentially useful for the early detection of osteoarthritis disease.

  14. High frame-rate en face optical coherence tomography system using KTN optical beam deflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmi, Masato; Shinya, Yusuke; Imai, Tadayuki; Toyoda, Seiji; Kobayashi, Junya; Sakamoto, Tadashi

    2017-02-01

    We developed high frame-rate en face optical coherence tomography (OCT) system using KTa1-xNbxO3 (KTN) optical beam deflector. In the imaging system, the fast scanning was performed at 200 kHz by the KTN optical beam deflector, while the slow scanning was performed at 800 Hz by the galvanometer mirror. As a preliminary experiment, we succeeded in obtaining en face OCT images of human fingerprint with a frame rate of 800 fps. This is the highest frame-rate obtained using time-domain (TD) en face OCT imaging. The 3D-OCT image of sweat gland was also obtained by our imaging system.

  15. Coherent electro-optical detection of terahertz radiation from an optical parametric oscillator.

    PubMed

    Meng, F Z; Thomson, M D; Molter, D; Löffler, T; Jonuscheit, J; Beigang, R; Bartschke, J; Bauer, T; Nittmann, M; Roskos, H G

    2010-05-24

    We report the realization of coherent electro-optical detection of nanosecond terahertz (THz) pulses from an optical parametric oscillator, which is pumped by a Q-switched nanosecond Nd:YVO4 laser at 1064 nm and emits at approximately 1.5 THz. The beam profile and wavefront of the THz beam at focus are electro-optically characterized toward the realization of a real-time THz camera. A peak dynamic range of approximately 37 dB/radical Hz is achieved with single-pixel detection.

  16. Three-dimensional optic axis determination using variable-incidence-angle polarization-optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugryumova, Nadezhda; Gangnus, Sergei V.; Matcher, Stephen J.

    2006-08-01

    Polarization optical coherence tomography (PSOCT) is a powerful technique to nondestructively map the retardance and fast-axis orientation of birefringent biological tissues. Previous studies have concentrated on the case where the optic axis lies on the plane of the surface. We describe a method to determine the polar angle of the optic axis of a uniaxial birefringent tissue by making PSOCT measurements with a number of incident illumination directions. The method is validated on equine flexor tendon, yielding a variability of 4% for the true birefringence and 3% for the polar angle. We use the method to map the polar angle of fibers in the transitional region of equine cartilage.

  17. Collaborative effects of wavefront shaping and optical clearing agent in optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hyeonseung; Lee, Peter; Jo, YoungJu; Lee, KyeoReh; Tuchin, Valery V.; Jeong, Yong; Park, YongKeun

    2016-12-01

    We demonstrate that simultaneous application of optical clearing agents (OCAs) and complex wavefront shaping in optical coherence tomography (OCT) can provide significant enhancement of penetration depth and imaging quality. OCA reduces optical inhomogeneity of a highly scattering sample, and the wavefront shaping of illumination light controls multiple scattering, resulting in an enhancement of the penetration depth and signal-to-noise ratio. A tissue phantom study shows that concurrent applications of OCA and wavefront shaping successfully operate in OCT imaging. The penetration depth enhancement is further demonstrated for ex vivo mouse ears, revealing hidden structures inaccessible with conventional OCT imaging.

  18. Optical coherence tomography segmentation reveals ganglion cell layer pathology after optic neuritis.

    PubMed

    Syc, Stephanie B; Saidha, Shiv; Newsome, Scott D; Ratchford, John N; Levy, Michael; Ford, E'tona; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M; Durbin, Mary K; Oakley, Jonathan D; Meyer, Scott A; Frohman, Elliot M; Calabresi, Peter A

    2012-02-01

    Post-mortem ganglion cell dropout has been observed in multiple sclerosis; however, longitudinal in vivo assessment of retinal neuronal layers following acute optic neuritis remains largely unexplored. Peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer thickness, measured by optical coherence tomography, has been proposed as an outcome measure in studies of neuroprotective agents in multiple sclerosis, yet potential swelling during the acute stages of optic neuritis may confound baseline measurements. The objective of this study was to ascertain whether patients with multiple sclerosis or neuromyelitis optica develop retinal neuronal layer pathology following acute optic neuritis, and to systematically characterize such changes in vivo over time. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging, including automated retinal layer segmentation, was performed serially in 20 participants during the acute phase of optic neuritis, and again 3 and 6 months later. Imaging was performed cross-sectionally in 98 multiple sclerosis participants, 22 neuromyelitis optica participants and 72 healthy controls. Neuronal thinning was observed in the ganglion cell layer of eyes affected by acute optic neuritis 3 and 6 months after onset (P < 0.001). Baseline ganglion cell layer thicknesses did not demonstrate swelling when compared with contralateral unaffected eyes, whereas peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer oedema was observed in affected eyes (P = 0.008) and subsequently thinned over the course of this study. Ganglion cell layer thickness was lower in both participants with multiple sclerosis and participants with neuromyelitis optica, with and without a history of optic neuritis, when compared with healthy controls (P < 0.001) and correlated with visual function. Of all patient groups investigated, those with neuromyelitis optica and a history of optic neuritis exhibited the greatest reduction in ganglion cell layer thickness. Results from our in vivo longitudinal study

  19. Optical Coherence Tomography-Guided Decisions in Retinoblastoma Management.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Sameh E; VandenHoven, Cynthia; MacKeen, Leslie D; Héon, Elise; Gallie, Brenda L

    2017-06-01

    Assess the role of handheld optical coherence tomography (OCT) in guiding management decisions during diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of eyes affected by retinoblastoma. Retrospective, noncomparative, single-institution case series. All children newly diagnosed with retinoblastoma from January 2011 to December 2015 who had an OCT session during their active treatment at The Hospital for Sick Children (SickKids) in Toronto, Canada. The OCT sessions for fellow eyes of unilateral retinoblastoma without any suspicious lesion and those performed more than 6 months after the last treatment were excluded. Data collected included age at presentation, sex, family history, RB1 mutation status, 8th edition TNMH cancer staging and International Intraocular Retinoblastoma Classification (IIRC), and number of OCT sessions per eye. Details of each session were scored for indication-related details (informative or not) and assessed for guidance (directive or not), diagnosis (staging changed, new tumors found or excluded), treatment (modified, stopped, or modality shifted), or follow-up modified. Frequency of OCT-guided management decisions, stratified by indication and type of guidance (confirmatory vs. influential). Sixty-three eyes of 44 children had 339 OCT sessions over the course of clinical management (median number of OCT scans per eye, 5; range, 1-15). The age at presentation and presence of a heritable RB1 mutation significantly correlated with an increased number of OCT sessions. Indications included evaluation of post-treatment scar (55%) or fovea (16%), and posterior pole scanning for new tumors (11%). Of all sessions, 92% (312/339) were informative; 19 of 27 noninformative sessions had large, elevated lesions; of these, 14 of 19 were T2a or T2b (IIRC group C or D) eyes. In 94% (293/312) of the informative sessions, OCT directed treatment decisions (58%), diagnosis (16%), and follow-up (26%). Optical coherence tomography influenced and changed management from pre

  20. Meta-analysis of optical low-coherence reflectometry versus partial coherence interferometry biometry

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jinhai; McAlinden, Colm; Huang, Yingying; Wen, Daizong; Savini, Giacomo; Tu, Ruixue; Wang, Qinmei

    2017-01-01

    A meta-analysis to compare ocular biometry measured by optical low-coherence reflectometry (Lenstar LS900; Haag Streit) and partial coherence interferometry (the IOLMaster optical biometer; Carl Zeiss Meditec). A systematic literature search was conducted for articles published up to August 6th 2015 in the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Medline, Embase, China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database and Wanfang Data. A total of 18 studies involving 1921 eyes were included. There were no statistically significant differences in axial length (mean difference [MD] 0 mm; 95% confidence interval (CI) −0.08 to 0.08 mm; p = 0.92), anterior chamber depth (MD 0.02 mm; 95% CI −0.07 to 0.10 mm; p = 0.67), flat keratometry (MD −0.05 D; 95% CI −0.16 to 0.06 D; p = 0.39), steep keratometry (MD −0.09 D; 95% CI −0.20 to 0.03 D; p = 0.13), and mean keratometry (MD −0.15 D; 95% CI −0.30 to 0.00 D; p = 0.05). The white to white distance showed a statistically significant difference (MD −0.14 mm; 95% CI −0.25 to −0.02 mm; p = 0.02). In conclusion, there was no difference in the comparison of AL, ACD and keratometry readings between the Lenstar and IOLMaster. However the WTW distance indicated a statistically significant difference between the two devices. Apart from the WTW distance, measurements for AL, ACD and keratometry readings may be used interchangeability with both devices. PMID:28233846

  1. Optical Coherence Tomographic Comparison of Cuban Epidemic and Leber’s Hereditary Optic Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Santiesteban-Freixas, Rosaralis; Pola-Alvarado, Lester; Columbie-Garbey, Yannara; Gonzalez-Quevedo, Alina; Juvier-Riesgo, Tamara; Hernandez-Echevarria, Odelaisys; Hedges, Thomas R.; Mendoza-Santiesteban, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Following the epidemic of optic and peripheral neuropathy, which occurred in Cuba between 1991 and 1993, a number of patients have been re-evaluated, including testing with optical coherence tomography (OCT) and electrophysiology. At the same time, a number of patients with Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy have also been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to detect residual loss of retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) in patients who suffered Cuban epidemic optic neuropathy (CEON), and to compare these findings with those in patients with Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). Optical coherence tomography as well as clinical examinations were performed on 11 patients diagnosed with CEON 15 years following the epidemic and 14 patients with LHON. OCT in CEON patients showed thinning of the RNFL in the temporal sector and normal thickness in other quadrants. However, patients with chronic LHON had more diffuse RNFL loss throughout the retina. OCT findings corresponded with clinical findings in CEON and LHON. There was drop out of the papillomacular bundle in both diseases. Two patients in the acute stages of LHON and three LHON carriers showed thinning of the temporal RNFL only. This is the first report of OCT in CEON that shows residual damage in the papillomacular bundle compared with chronic LHON where there is more diffuse and progressive loss of the RNFL. The importance of OCT for the diagnosis and evaluation of similar optic neuropathies is emphasised. PMID:27928368

  2. Multimodal non-contact photoacoustic imaging and optical coherence tomography using all optical detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leiss-Holzinger, Elisabeth; Bauer-Marschallinger, Johannes; Berer, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    We present a multimodal optical setup, allowing non-contact photoacoustic imaging (PAI) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Optical coherence tomography is sensitive to changes in the specimen's refractive index, thereby offering complementary information to photoacoustic signals which are induced by light absorption. A multimodal setup, allowing OCT and photoacoustic measurements, should ideally not rely on any physical contact to a specimen and, thus, commonly used transducers for photoacoustic signal detection which require acoustic coupling to the specimen should be avoided. In this work photoacoustic signals are acquired by measuring the surface displacement of a specimen using a fiber-optic Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Photoacoustic signals are excited with a Nd:YAG pulse laser. The interferometer for non-contact photoacoustic detection and the OCT system are realized in the same fiber-optic network. Light from the PAI detection laser and the OCT source are multiplexed into a single optical fiber and the same objective is used for both imaging modalities. Light reflected from specimens is demultiplexed and guided to the respective imaging systems. To allow fast non-contact PAI and OCT imaging the detection spot is scanned across the specimens' surface using a galvanometer scanner. As the same fiber-network and optical components are used for photoacoustic and OCT imaging the obtained, images are co-registered intrinsically. Imaging is demonstrated on a tissue mimicking sample.

  3. Efficient reduction of speckle noise in Optical Coherence Tomography.

    PubMed

    Szkulmowski, Maciej; Gorczynska, Iwona; Szlag, Daniel; Sylwestrzak, Marcin; Kowalczyk, Andrzej; Wojtkowski, Maciej

    2012-01-16

    Speckle pattern, which is inherent in coherence imaging, influences significantly axial and transversal resolution of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) instruments. The well known speckle removal techniques are either sensitive to sample motion, require sophisticated and expensive sample tracking systems, or involve sophisticated numerical procedures. As a result, their applicability to in vivo real-time imaging is limited. In this work, we propose to average multiple A-scans collected in a fully controlled way to reduce the speckle contrast. This procedure involves non-coherent averaging of OCT A-scans acquired from adjacent locations on the sample. The technique exploits scanning protocol with fast beam deflection in the direction perpendicular to lateral dimension of the cross-sectional image. Such scanning protocol reduces the time interval between A-scans to be averaged to the repetition time of the acquisition system. Consequently, the averaging algorithm is immune to bulk motion of an investigated sample, does not require any sophisticated data processing to align cross-sectional images, and allows for precise control of lateral shift of the scanning beam on the object. The technique is tested with standard Spectral OCT system with an extra resonant scanner used for rapid beam deflection in the lateral direction. Ultrahigh speed CMOS camera serves as a detector and acquires 200,000 spectra per second. A dedicated A-scan generation algorithm allows for real-time display of images with reduced speckle contrast at 6 frames/second. This technique is applied to in vivo imaging of anterior and posterior segments of the human eye and human skin.

  4. Optical modeling of sunlight by using partially coherent sources in organic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Alaibakhsh, Hamzeh; Darvish, Ghafar

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the effects of coherent and partially coherent sources in optical modeling of organic solar cells. Two different organic solar cells are investigated: one without substrate and the other with a millimeter-sized glass substrate. The coherent light absorption is calculated with rigorous coupled-wave analysis. The result of this method is convolved with a distribution function to calculate the partially coherent light absorption. We propose a new formulation to accurately model sunlight as a set of partially coherent sources. In the structure with glass substrate, the accurate sunlight modeling results in the elimination of coherent effects in the thick substrate, but the coherency in other layers is not affected. Using partially coherent sources instead of coherent sources for simulations with sunlight results in a smoother absorption spectrum, but the change in the absorption efficiency is negligible.

  5. Multi-contrast imaging of human posterior eye by Jones matrix optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuno, Yoshiaki

    2017-04-01

    A multi-contrast imaging of pathologic posterior eyes is demonstrated by Jones matrix optical coherence tomography (Jones matrix OCT). The Jones matrix OCT provides five tomographies, which includes scattering, local attenuation, birefringence, polarization uniformity, and optical coherence angiography, by a single scan. The hardware configuration, algorithms of the Jones matrix OCT as well as its application to ophthalmology is discussed.

  6. Potentials of radial partially coherent beams in free-space optical communication: a numerical investigation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Minghao; Yuan, Xiuhua; Ma, Donglin

    2017-04-01

    Nonuniformly correlated partially coherent beams (PCBs) have extraordinary propagation properties, making it possible to further improve the performance of free-space optical communications. In this paper, a series of PCBs with varying degrees of coherence in the radial direction, academically called radial partially coherent beams (RPCBs), are considered. RPCBs with arbitrary coherence distributions can be created by adjusting the amplitude profile of a spatial modulation function imposed on a uniformly correlated phase screen. Since RPCBs cannot be well characterized by the coherence length, a modulation depth factor is introduced as an indicator of the overall distribution of coherence. By wave optics simulation, free-space and atmospheric propagation properties of RPCBs with (inverse) Gaussian and super-Gaussian coherence distributions are examined in comparison with conventional Gaussian Schell-model beams. Furthermore, the impacts of varying central coherent areas are studied. Simulation results reveal that under comparable overall coherence, beams with a highly coherent core and a less coherent margin exhibit a smaller beam spread and greater on-axis intensity, which is mainly due to the self-focusing phenomenon right after the beam exits the transmitter. Particularly, those RPCBs with super-Gaussian coherence distributions will repeatedly focus during propagation, resulting in even greater intensities. Additionally, RPCBs also have a considerable ability to reduce scintillation. And it is demonstrated that those properties have made RPCBs very effective in improving the mean signal-to-noise ratio of small optical receivers, especially in relatively short, weakly fluctuating links.

  7. Miniature optical coherence tomography system based on silicon photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margallo-Balbás, Eduardo; Pandraud, Gregory; French, Patrick J.

    2008-02-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a promising medical imaging technique. It has found applications in many fields of medicine and has a large potential for the optical biopsy of tumours. One of the technological challenges impairing faster adoption of OCT is the relative complexity of the optical instrumentation required, which translates into expensive and bulky setups. In this paper we report an implementation of Time Domain OCT (TD-OCT) based on a silicon photonic platform. The devices are fabricated using Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) wafers, on which rib waveguides are defined. While most of the components needed are well-known in this technology, a fast delay line with sufficient scanning range is a specific requirement of TD-OCT. In the system reported, this was obtained making use of the thermo-optical effect of silicon. By modulating the thermal resistance of the waveguide to the substrate, it is possible to establish a trade-off between maximum working frequency and power dissipation. Within this trade-off, the systems obtained can be operated in the kHz range, and they achieve temperature shifts corresponding to scanning ranges of over 2mm. Though the current implementation still requires external sources and detectors to be coupled to the Planar Lightwave Circuit (PLC), future work will include three-dimensional integration of these components onto the substrate. With the potential to include the read-out and driving electronics on the same die, the reported approach can yield extremely compact and low-cost TD-OCT systems, enabling a wealth of new applications, including gastrointestinal pills with optical biopsy capabilities.

  8. Clinical study of bladder diseases using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagainova, Elena; Gladkova, Natalia D.; Strelzova, O.; Sumin, A.; Gelikonov, Grigory V.; Feldchtein, Felix I.; Iksanov, Rashid R.

    2000-11-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), a new optical bioimaging technique was used to evaluate the state of mucosa in the urinary bladder. The state of mucosa of the bladder was evaluated in patients with prostatic adenoma (11 male patients) during the course of prostatectomy operation via a resection cytoscope. An OCT probe was inserted into the biopsy channel of a cystoscope. The sites to be imaged by OCT were determined visually and, after OCT study, underwent excisional biopsy and subsequent histological examination. Children (9 girls) were examined during diagnostic cystoscopy. Our analysis of diagnostic capabilities of OCT in urology relies on the comparison of OCT information on normal and morphologically altered tissues. OCT is able to provide objective data concerning the structure of mucosa of the bladder due to the difference in optical properties of different layers in tissue. The epithelium and the layers of connective tissue, both in norm and pathology, are clearly visualized in the tomograms. Our OCT study of healthy mucosa of the urinary bladder has demonstrated that the epithelium appears in the tomograms as an upper highly backscattering layer. An underlying optically less transparent layer, much greater in size than the previous one, corresponds to the connective tissue of the mucosa. Inside this layer, elongated poorly backscattering formations with clear contours are seen; they do not alter the longitudinal structure of the submucosal layer. These formations are blood vessels. Optical patterns characteristic of chronic inflammation are obtained. They correspond, as confirmed histologically, to liquid accumulation, cellular infiltration of mucosal layers, hypervascularization, and fibrosis. OCT information on proliferative processes, such as papillomatosis of the urinary bladder and squamous cell carcinoma, is analyzed. It is shown that OCT can reliably reveal edema of the mucous membrane of the bladder and identify the character of appearing

  9. Advanced scanning methods with tracking optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, R. Daniel; Iftimia, Nicusor V.; Ustun, Teoman; Wollstein, Gadi; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Gabriele, Michelle L.; Dilworth, William D.; Kagemann, Larry; Schuman, Joel S.

    2013-01-01

    An upgraded optical coherence tomography system with integrated retinal tracker (TOCT) was developed. The upgraded system uses improved components to extend the tracking bandwidth, fully integrates the tracking hardware into the optical head of the clinical OCT system, and operates from a single software platform. The system was able to achieve transverse scan registration with sub-pixel accuracy (~10 μm). We demonstrate several advanced scan sequences with the TOCT, including composite scans averaged (co-added) from multiple B-scans taken consecutively and several hours apart, en face images collected by summing the A-scans of circular, line, and raster scans, and three-dimensional (3D) retinal maps of the fovea and optic disc. The new system achieves highly accurate OCT scan registration yielding composite images with significantly improved spatial resolution, increased signal-to-noise ratio, and reduced speckle while maintaining well-defined boundaries and sharp fine structure compared to single scans. Precise re-registration of multiple scans over separate imaging sessions demonstrates TOCT utility for longitudinal studies. En face images and 3D data cubes generated from these data reveal high fidelity image registration with tracking, despite scan durations of more than one minute. PMID:19498823

  10. Coherent ultra dense wavelength division multiplexing passive optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahpari, Ali; Ferreira, Ricardo; Ribeiro, Vitor; Sousa, Artur; Ziaie, Somayeh; Tavares, Ana; Vujicic, Zoran; Guiomar, Fernando P.; Reis, Jacklyn D.; Pinto, Armando N.; Teixeira, António

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we firstly review the progress in ultra-dense wavelength division multiplexing passive optical network (UDWDM-PON), by making use of the key attributes of this technology in the context of optical access and metro networks. Besides the inherit properties of coherent technology, we explore different modulation formats and pulse shaping. The performance is experimentally demonstrated through a 12 × 10 Gb/s bidirectional UDWDM-PON over hybrid 80 km standard single mode fiber (SSMF) and optical wireless link. High density, 6.25 GHz grid, Nyquist shaped 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (16QAM) and digital frequency shifting are some of the properties exploited together in the tests. Also, bidirectional transmission in fiber, relevant in the context, is analyzed in terms of nonlinear and back-reflection effects on receiver sensitivity. In addition, as a basis for the discussion on market readiness, we experimentally demonstrate real-time detection of a Nyquist-shaped quaternary phase-shift keying (QPSK) signal using simple 8-bit digital signal processing (DSP) on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA).

  11. Method for optical coherence elastography of the cornea

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Matthew R.; Dupps, William J.; Rollins, Andrew M.; Roy, Abhijit Sinha; Hu, Zhilin

    2011-01-01

    The material properties of the cornea are important determinants of corneal shape and refractive power. Corneal ectatic diseases, such as keratoconus, are characterized by material property abnormalities, are associated with progressive thinning and distortion of the cornea, and represent a leading indication for corneal transplantation. We describe a corneal elastography technique based on optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging, in which displacement of intracorneal optical features is tracked with a 2-D cross-correlation algorithm as a step toward nondestructive estimation of local and directional corneal material properties. Phantom experiments are performed to measure the effects of image noise and out-of-plane displacement on effectiveness of displacement tracking and demonstrated accuracy within the tolerance of a micromechanical translation stage. Tissue experiments demonstrate the ability to produce 2-D maps of heterogeneous intracorneal displacement with OCT. The ability of a nondestructive optical method to assess tissue under in situ mechanical conditions with physiologic-range stress levels provides a framework for in vivo quantification of 3-D corneal elastic and viscoelastic resistance, including analogs of shear deformation and Poisson’s ratio that may be relevant in the early diagnosis of corneal ectatic disease. PMID:21280911

  12. Method for optical coherence elastography of the cornea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Matthew R.; Dupps, William J.; Rollins, Andrew M.; Roy, Abhijit Sinha; Hu, Zhilin

    2011-01-01

    The material properties of the cornea are important determinants of corneal shape and refractive power. Corneal ectatic diseases, such as keratoconus, are characterized by material property abnormalities, are associated with progressive thinning and distortion of the cornea, and represent a leading indication for corneal transplantation. We describe a corneal elastography technique based on optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging, in which displacement of intracorneal optical features is tracked with a 2-D cross-correlation algorithm as a step toward nondestructive estimation of local and directional corneal material properties. Phantom experiments are performed to measure the effects of image noise and out-of-plane displacement on effectiveness of displacement tracking and demonstrated accuracy within the tolerance of a micromechanical translation stage. Tissue experiments demonstrate the ability to produce 2-D maps of heterogeneous intracorneal displacement with OCT. The ability of a nondestructive optical method to assess tissue under in situ mechanical conditions with physiologic-range stress levels provides a framework for in vivo quantification of 3-D corneal elastic and viscoelastic resistance, including analogs of shear deformation and Poisson's ratio that may be relevant in the early diagnosis of corneal ectatic disease.

  13. Compact piezoelectric transducer fiber scanning probe for optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Tsai, Tsung-Han; Ahsen, Osman O; Liang, Kaicheng; Lee, Hsiang-Chieh; Xue, Ping; Li, Xingde; Fujimoto, James G

    2014-01-15

    We developed a compact, optical fiber scanning piezoelectric transducer (PZT) probe for endoscopic and minimally invasive optical coherence tomography (OCT). Compared with previous forward-mount fiber designs, we present a reverse-mount design that achieves a shorter rigid length. The fiber was mounted at the proximal end of a quadruple PZT tube and scanned inside the hollow PZT tube to reduce the probe length. The fiber resonant frequency was 338 Hz using a 17-mm-long fiber. A 0.9 mm fiber deflection was achieved with a driving amplitude of 35 V. Using a GRIN lens-based optical design with a 1.3× magnification, a ∼6 μm spot was scanned over a 1.2 mm diameter field. The probe was encased in a metal hypodermic tube with a ∼25 mm rigid length and covered with a 3.2 mm outer diameter (OD) plastic sheath. Imaging was performed with a swept source OCT system based on a Fourier domain modelocked laser (FDML) light source at a 240 kHz axial scan rate and 8 μm axial resolution (in air). En face OCT imaging of skin in vivo and human colon ex vivo was demonstrated.

  14. Coherent Fiber Optic Coupling Techniques For Downhole Imaging Camerasl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, George R.

    1987-10-01

    Cameras used to monitor underground nuclear testing experiments are subjected to a variety of harsh conditions which must be accounted for during the design phase. Since experiments are buried several thousand feet below ground, reliability is of foremost concern. Many of the cameras designed at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory contain coherent fiber optic components such as microchannel plate image intensifiers, fiber optic reducers, and diode or CCD imaging arrays. Coupling of these components calls for hardware which will maintain precise contact and alignment in conditions of high vibration, large thermal transition, and high humidity. In addition, the hardware must be easily assembled by untrained technical personnel under less than ideal conditions (windy, dusty, rainy, etc.). A high speed imaging camera based upon a Fairchild CCD array chip was designed at Livermore in 1984. Problems in coupling the array window to a fiber optic reducer were aggravated by mounting of the array chip rigidly to the main video circuit board. A new array chip daughter board, attached by flat ribbon cable and supported by a spring loaded lever combination was designed to overcome the problem. The hardware did not increase the overall size of the existing camera and increased the unit cost by less than 1 K$. The design of this hardware will be discussed along with useful techniques for designers of cameras used in harsh environments.

  15. Handheld simultaneous scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography system

    PubMed Central

    LaRocca, Francesco; Nankivil, Derek; Farsiu, Sina; Izatt, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    Scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) are widely used retinal imaging modalities that can assist in the diagnosis of retinal pathologies. The combination of SLO and OCT provides a more comprehensive imaging system and a method to register OCT images to produce motion corrected retinal volumes. While high quality, bench-top SLO-OCT systems have been discussed in the literature and are available commercially, there are currently no handheld designs. We describe the first design and fabrication of a handheld SLO/spectral domain OCT probe. SLO and OCT images were acquired simultaneously with a combined power under the ANSI limit. High signal-to-noise ratio SLO and OCT images were acquired simultaneously from a normal subject with visible motion artifacts. Fully automated motion estimation methods were performed in post-processing to correct for the inter- and intra-frame motion in SLO images and their concurrently acquired OCT volumes. The resulting set of reconstructed SLO images and the OCT volume were without visible motion artifacts. At a reduced field of view, the SLO resolved parafoveal cones without adaptive optics at a retinal eccentricity of 11° in subjects with good ocular optics. This system may be especially useful for imaging young children and subjects with less stable fixation. PMID:24298396

  16. Handheld probes and galvanometer scanning for optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duma, V.-F.; Dobre, G.; Demian, D.; Cernat, R.; Sinescu, C.; Topala, F. I.; Negrutiu, M. L.; Hutiu, Gh.; Bradu, A.; Rolland, J. P.; Podoleanu, A. G.

    2015-09-01

    As part of the ongoing effort of the biomedical imaging community to move Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) systems from the lab to the clinical environment and produce OCT systems appropriate for multiple types of investigations in a medical department, handheld probes equipped with different types of scanners need to be developed. These allow different areas of a patient's body to be investigated using OCT with the same system and even without changing the patient's position. This paper reviews first the state of the art regarding OCT handheld probes. Novel probes with a uni-dimensional (1D) galvanometer-based scanner (GS) developed in our groups are presented. Their advantages and limitations are discussed. Aspects regarding the use of galvoscanners with regard to Micro-Electro- Mechanical Systems (MEMS) are pointed out, in relationship with our studies on optimal scanning functions of galvanometer devices in OCT. These scanning functions are briefly discussed with regard to their main parameters: profile, theoretical duty cycle, scan frequency, and scan amplitude. The optical design of the galvoscanner and refractive optics combination in the probe head, optimized for various applications, is considered. Perspectives of the field are pointed out in the final part of the paper.

  17. Inverse problems of combined photoacoustic and optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elbau, Peter; Mindrinos, Leonidas; Scherzer, Otmar

    2017-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and photoacoustic tomography (PAT) are emerging non-invasive biological and medical imaging techniques. It is a recent trend in experimental science to design experiments that perform PAT and OCT imaging at once. In this paper we present a mathematical model describing the dual experiment. Since OCT is mathematically modelled by Maxwell's equations or some simplifications of it, whereas the light propagation in quantitative photoacoustics is modelled by (simplifications of) the radiative transfer equation, the first step in the derivation of a mathematical model of the dual experiment is to obtain a unified mathematical description, which in our case are Maxwell's equations. As a by-product we therefore derive a new mathematical model of photoacoustic tomography based on Maxwell's equations. It is well known by now, that without additional assumptions on the medium, it is not possible to uniquely reconstruct all optical parameters from either one of these modalities alone. We show that in the combined approach one has additional information, compared to a single modality, and the inverse problem of reconstruction of the optical parameters becomes feasible.

  18. Optical Coherence Tomography in Patients with Chiari I Malformation

    PubMed Central

    Perrini, Paolo; Miccoli, Mario; Baggiani, Angelo; Nardi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims. To evaluate optic nerve head with spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) in patients with Chiari I malformation (CMI) compared to healthy controls. Methods. Cross-sectional study. OCT of the optic nerve head of 22 patients with CMI and 22 healthy controls was quantitatively analyzed. The healthy controls were matched for age and sex with the study population. Mean retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness was calculated for both eyes; the mean thickness value was also registered for each quadrant and for each subfield of the four quadrants. Results. CMI patients showed a reduction of the RNFL thickness in both eyes. This reduction was more statistically significant (P < 0.05) for the inferior quadrant in the right eye and in each quadrant than nasal one in the left eye. Conclusion. A distress of the retinal nerve fibers could explain the observed reduction of the RNFL thickness in patients with CMI; in our series the reduction of the RNFL thickness seems lower when CMI is associated with syringomyelia. PMID:25815335

  19. Quasiparticle Representation of Coherent Nonlinear Optical Signals of Multiexcitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fingerhut, Benjamin; Bennet, Kochise; Roslyak, Oleksiy; Mukamel, Shaul

    2013-03-01

    Elementary excitations of many-Fermion systems can be described within the quasiparticle approach which is widely used in the calculation of transport and optical properties of metals, semiconductors, molecular aggregates and strongly correlated quantum materials. The excitations are then viewed as independent harmonic oscillators where the many-body interactions between the oscillators are mapped into anharmonicities. We present a Green's function approach based on coboson algebra for calculating nonlinear optical signals and apply it onwards the study of two and three exciton states. The method only requires the diagonalization of the single exciton manifold and avoids equations of motion of multi-exciton manifolds. Using coboson algebra many body effects are recast in terms of tetradic exciton-exciton interactions: Coulomb scattering and Pauli exchange. The physical space of Fermions is recovered by singular-value decomposition of the over-complete coboson basis set. The approach is used to calculate third and fifth order quantum coherence optical signals that directly probe correlations in two- and three exciton states and their projections on the two and single exciton manifold.

  20. Noninvasive imaging of oral mucosae with optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Cheng-Yu; Chen, Wei-Chuan; Tsai, Meng-Tsan

    2017-04-01

    In this study, a swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT) system is developed for in vivo visualization of structural and vascular morphology oral mucosa. For simplification of optical probe fabrication, probe weight, and system setup, the body of the scanning probe is fabricated by a 3D printer to fix the optical components and the mechanical scanning device, and a partially reflective slide is attached at the output end of probe to achieve a common-path configuration. Aside from providing the ability of 3D structural imaging with the developed system, 3D vascular images of oral mucosa can be simultaneously obtained. Then, different locations of oral mucosa are scanned with common-path OCT. The results show that epithelium and lamina propria layers as well as fungiform papilla can be identified and microvascular images can be acquired. With the proposed probe, the system cost and volume can be greatly reduced. Experimental results indicate that such common-path OCT system could be further implemented for oral cancer diagnosis.

  1. Metrological reliability of optical coherence tomography in biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goloni, C. M.; Temporão, G. P.; Monteiro, E. C.

    2013-09-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been proving to be an efficient diagnostics technique for imaging in vivo tissues, an optical biopsy with important perspectives as a diagnostic tool for quantitative characterization of tissue structures. Despite its established clinical use, there is no international standard to address the specific requirements for basic safety and essential performance of OCT devices for biomedical imaging. The present work studies the parameters necessary for conformity assessment of optoelectronics equipment used in biomedical applications like Laser, Intense Pulsed Light (IPL), and OCT, targeting to identify the potential requirements to be considered in the case of a future development of a particular standard for OCT equipment. In addition to some of the particular requirements standards for laser and IPL, also applicable for metrological reliability analysis of OCT equipment, specific parameters for OCT's evaluation have been identified, considering its biomedical application. For each parameter identified, its information on the accompanying documents and/or its measurement has been recommended. Among the parameters for which the measurement requirement was recommended, including the uncertainty evaluation, the following are highlighted: optical radiation output, axial and transverse resolution, pulse duration and interval, and beam divergence.

  2. Cancellation of coherent synchrotron radiation kicks with optics balance.

    PubMed

    Di Mitri, S; Cornacchia, M; Spampinati, S

    2013-01-04

    Minimizing transverse emittance is essential in linear accelerators designed to deliver very high brightness electron beams. Emission of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR), as a contributing factor to emittance degradation, is an important phenomenon to this respect. A manner in which to cancel this perturbation by imposing certain symmetric conditions on the electron transport system has been suggested.We first expand on this idea by quantitatively relating the beam Courant-Snyder parameters to the emittance growth and by providing a general scheme of CSR suppression with asymmetric optics, provided it is properly balanced along the line. We present the first experimental evidence of this cancellation with the resultant optics balance of multiple CSR kicks: the transverse emittance of a 500 pC, sub-picosecond, high brightness electron beam is being preserved after the passage through the achromatic transfer line of the FERMI@Elettra free electron laser, and emittance growth is observed when the optics balance is intentionally broken. We finally show the agreement between the theoretical model and the experimental results. This study holds the promise of compact dispersive lines with relatively large bending angles, thus reducing costs for future electron facilities.

  3. Full-field optical coherence tomography apply in sphere measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Wei; Li, Weiwei; li, Juncheng; Wang, Jingyu; Wang, Jianguo

    2016-10-01

    The geometry of a spherical surface, for example that of a precision optic, is completely determined by the radius -of-curvature at one point and the deviation from the perfect spherical form at all other points of the sphere. Full-field Optical Coherence Tomography (FF-OCT) is a parallel detection OCT technique that utilizes a 2D detector array. This technique avoids mechanical scanning in imaging optics, thereby speeding up the imaging process and enhancing the quality of images. The current paper presents an FF-OCT instrument that is designed to be used in sphere measurement with the principle of multiple delays (MD) OCT to evaluate the curvature and radius of curved objects in single-shot imaging. The optimum combination of the MD principle with the FF-OCT method was evaluated, and the radius of a metal ball was measured with this method. The generated 2n-1 contour lines were obtained by using an MDE with n delays in a single en-face OCT image. This method of measurement, it engaged in the measurement accuracy of spherical and enriches the means of measurement, to make a spherical scan techniques flexible application.

  4. Crowded optic nerve head evaluation with optical coherence tomography in anterior ischemic optic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Moghimi, S; Afzali, M; Akbari, M; Ebrahimi, K B; Khodabande, A; Yazdani-Abyaneh, A R; Ghafouri, S N H; Coh, P; Okhravi, S; Fard, M A

    2017-04-07

    PurposeTo characterize the optic nerve head (ONH) structure in patients with non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) compared to healthy control subjects using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) via the enhanced depth imaging method.MethodsIn this prospective, cross-sectional, comparative study, we assessed 66 eyes of 33 patients with unilateral NAION and 31 eyes of 31 healthy normal subjects in an academic institution. The peripapillary nerve fiber layer thickness, disc area, and quantitative parameters of the ONH structures, including the Bruch's membrane opening (BMO) area, anterior laminar depth, and prelaminar thickness and depth were compared between the three groups.ResultsLinear mixed model analysis after adjusting for age, sex, and axial length showed that the BMO area was similar in eyes with NAION (1.89±0.33 mm(2)), their fellow eyes (1.85±0.35 mm(2)), and control eyes (1.88±0.37 mm(2); all P>0.99). Anterior laminar depth was also similar in the three groups. The mean prelaminar tissue thickness of the NAION eyes was 445±176 μm, which was thinner than the prelaminar tissue of their unaffected fellow eyes (mean, 539±227 μm, P=0.004), but both were thicker than the prelaminar tissue of the normal subjects (mean 243±145 μm, P=0.001 and P<0.001, respectively).ConclusionsThe thick prelaminar thickness is associated with unilateral NAION in the affected and unaffected eyes.Eye advance online publication, 7 April 2017; doi:10.1038/eye.2017.56.

  5. Micro-optical coherence tomography of the mammalian cochlea

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Janani S.; Batts, Shelley A.; Chu, Kengyeh K.; Sahin, Mehmet I.; Leung, Hui Min; Tearney, Guillermo J.; Stankovic, Konstantina M.

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian cochlea has historically resisted attempts at high-resolution, non-invasive imaging due to its small size, complex three-dimensional structure, and embedded location within the temporal bone. As a result, little is known about the relationship between an individual’s cochlear pathology and hearing function, and otologists must rely on physiological testing and imaging methods that offer limited resolution to obtain information about the inner ear prior to performing surgery. Micro-optical coherence tomography (μOCT) is a non-invasive, low-coherence interferometric imaging technique capable of resolving cellular-level anatomic structures. To determine whether μOCT is capable of resolving mammalian intracochlear anatomy, fixed guinea pig inner ears were imaged as whole temporal bones with cochlea in situ. Anatomical structures such as the tunnel of Corti, space of Nuel, modiolus, scalae, and cell groupings were visualized, in addition to individual cell types such as neuronal fibers, hair cells, and supporting cells. Visualization of these structures, via volumetrically-reconstructed image stacks and endoscopic perspective videos, represents an improvement over previous efforts using conventional OCT. These are the first μOCT images of mammalian cochlear anatomy, and they demonstrate μOCT’s potential utility as an imaging tool in otology research. PMID:27633610

  6. Optical Coherence Tomography: Clinical Applications in Medical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mujaini, Abdullah; Wali, Upender K.; Azeem, Sitara

    2013-01-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a success story of scientific and technological co-operation between a physicist and a clinician. The concept of cross-sectional imaging revolutionalized the applicability of OCT in the medical profession. OCT is a non-contact, topographic, biomicroscopic device that provides high resolution, cross-sectional digital images of live biological tissues in vivo and in real time. OCT is based on the property of tissues to reflect and backscatter light involving low-coherence interferometry. The spatial resolution of as little as 3 microns or even less has allowed us to study tissues almost at a cellular level. Overall, OCT is an invaluable adjunct in the diagnosis and follow up of many diseases of both anterior and posterior segments of the eye, primarily or secondary to systemic diseases. The digitalization and advanced software has made it possible to store and retrieve huge patient data for patient services, clinical applications and academic research. OCT has revolutionized the sensitivity and specificity of diagnosis, follow up and response to treatment in almost all fields of clinical practice involving primary ocular pathologies and secondary ocular manifestations in systemic diseases like diabetes mellitus, hypertension, vascular and neurological diseases, thus benefitting non-ophthalmologists as well. Systemically, OCT is proving to be a helpful tool in substantiating early diagnosis in diseases like multiple sclerosis and drug induced retinopathies by detecting early changes in morphology of the retinal nerve fiber layer. PMID:23599874

  7. Application of anterior segment optical coherence tomography in glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Reetika; Sharma, Ajay; Arora, Tarun; Sharma, Sourabh; Sobti, Amit; Jha, Bhaskar; Chaturvedi, Neha; Dada, Tanuj

    2014-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a cross-sectional, three-dimensional, high-resolution imaging modality that uses low coherence interferometry to achieve axial resolution in the range of 3-20 μm. Two OCT platforms have been developed: time domain (TD-OCT) and spectral (or Fourier) domain (SD/FD-OCT). Visante anterior segment OCT (Carl Zeiss Meditec) is a TD-OCT widely used for anterior segment imaging. The SD-OCT systems with both posterior and anterior segment imaging capabilities include the RTVue, iVue (Optovue), the Cirrus (Carl Zeiss Meditec), and the Spectralis (Heidelberg Engineering, Inc.). Each of the SD-OCTs has a wavelength in the range of 820-879 nm. Anterior segment OCT is a non-contact method providing high resolution tomographic cross-sectional imaging of anterior segment structures. Anterior segment OCT provides qualitative and quantitative assessment of the anterior segment structures important to the pathogenesis and the anatomical variations of glaucoma, and the approach to and success of treatment. We summarize the clinical applications of anterior segment OCT in glaucoma.

  8. Imaging of artificial cartilage with optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eder, K.; Schmitt, R.; Müller-Rath, R.

    2008-02-01

    Tissue Engineering methods have become more and more relevant for orthopedic applications, especially for cartilage repair with autologous chondrocytes. In order to monitor the healing process and bonding between cartilage and the artificial implant, the boundary zone must be imaged non-invasively, for example with OCT. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a short coherent light based measuring technique which allows the generation of cross-section images of semi-transparent media with a depth resolution of up to 5 μm and a measuring depth of 1-2 mm. Especially for the imaging of cartilage OCT offers new diagnostic possibilities, as conventional methods such as ultrasound and x-ray imaging often do not yield satisfactory resolution or contrast. In this paper, an OCT measurement setup for imaging of human cartilage tissue with OCT is demonstrated, allowing a detection of local damaging and lesions. Furthermore, both compressed and uncompressed collagen gel pads were implanted into human cartilage samples. OCT measurements are presented for samples in different stages of growth, focusing on the boundary zones. Comparisons with histologies are shown, demonstrating the ability of OCT to enable a monitoring of the healing progress in tissue engineering based therapy.

  9. Optical Coherence Tomography and Autofluorescence Imaging of Human Tonsil

    PubMed Central

    Pahlevaninezhad, Hamid; Lee, Anthony M. D.; Rosin, Miriam; Sun, Ivan; Zhang, Lewei; Hakimi, Mehrnoush; MacAulay, Calum; Lane, Pierre M.

    2014-01-01

    For the first time, we present co-registered autofluorescence imaging and optical coherence tomography (AF/OCT) of excised human palatine tonsils to evaluate the capabilities of OCT to visualize tonsil tissue components. Despite limited penetration depth, OCT can provide detailed structural information about tonsil tissue with much higher resolution than that of computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and Ultrasound. Different tonsil tissue components such as epithelium, dense connective tissue, lymphoid nodules, and crypts can be visualized by OCT. The co-registered AF imaging can provide matching biochemical information. AF/OCT scans may provide a non-invasive tool for detecting tonsillar cancers and for studying the natural history of their development. PMID:25542010

  10. 4D embryonic cardiography using gated optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, M. W.; Rothenberg, F.; Roy, D.; Nikolski, V. P.; Hu, Z.; Watanabe, M.; Wilson, D. L.; Efimov, I. R.; Rollins, A. M.

    2006-01-01

    Simultaneous imaging of very early embryonic heart structure and function has technical limitations of spatial and temporal resolution. We have developed a gated technique using optical coherence tomography (OCT) that can rapidly image beating embryonic hearts in four-dimensions (4D), at high spatial resolution (10-15 μm), and with a depth penetration of 1.5 - 2.0 mm that is suitable for the study of early embryonic hearts. We acquired data from paced, excised, embryonic chicken and mouse hearts using gated sampling and employed image processing techniques to visualize the hearts in 4D and measure physiologic parameters such as cardiac volume, ejection fraction, and wall thickness. This technique is being developed to longitudinally investigate the physiology of intact embryonic hearts and events that lead to congenital heart defects.

  11. Spectrometer calibration for spectroscopic Fourier domain optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Szkulmowski, Maciej; Tamborski, Szymon; Wojtkowski, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    We propose a simple and robust procedure for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FdOCT) that allows to linearize the detected FdOCT spectra to wavenumber domain and, at the same time, to determine the wavelength of light for each point of detected spectrum. We show that in this approach it is possible to use any measurable physical quantity that has linear dependency on wavenumber and can be extracted from spectral fringes. The actual values of the measured quantity have no importance for the algorithm and do not need to be known at any stage of the procedure. As example we calibrate a spectral OCT spectrometer using Doppler frequency. The technique of spectral calibration can be in principle adapted to of all kind of Fourier domain OCT devices. PMID:28018723

  12. Imaging of mouse embryonic eye development using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syed, Saba H.; Kasiraj, Alyssa; Larina, Irina V.; Dickinson, Mary E.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2010-02-01

    Congenital abnormalities are often caused by genetic disorders which alter the normal development of the eye. Embryonic eye imaging in mouse model is important for understanding of normal and abnormal eye development and can contribute to prevention and treatment of eye defects in humans. In this study, we used Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography (SS-OCT) to image eye structure in mouse embryos at 12.5 to 17.5 days post coitus (dpc). The imaging depth of the OCT allowed us to visualize the whole eye globe at these stages. Different ocular tissues including lens, cornea, eyelids, and hyaloid vasculature were visualized. These results suggest that OCT imaging is a useful tool to study embryonic eye development in the mouse model.

  13. Raman spectra and optical coherent tomography images of skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva-Luna, A. E.; Castro-Ramos, J.; Vazquez-Montiel, S.; Flores-Gil, A.; Delgado-Atencio, J. A.; Vazquez-Villa, A.

    2011-03-01

    The optical coherence tomography images are useful to see the internal profile and the structure of material samples. In this work, OCT images were recorded in 10 volunteers with different skin tone which were related to Raman spectra. The areas where we obtained OCT images and Raman spectra were a) index finger nail, b) between index finger and middle finger, c) middle finger tip, d) half of middle finger, e) the thumb finger tip and f) between index finger and thumb, areas measured were for the purpose of finding extracellular fluids with contain triglycerides, cholesterol and glucose that are reported in the literature. The excitation wavelength used for this work was 785 nm, a spectrometer of 6 cm-1 resolution. The spectral region used ranges from 300 to 1800 cm-1. We use an OCT with 930 nm of Central Wavelength, 1.6 mm of Image Depth, 6 mm of image width and 6.2 μm of axial resolution.

  14. Characteristic Findings of Optical Coherence Tomography in Retinal Angiomatous Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Eun-Hae; Kim, Chul Gu; Cho, Sung Won; Lee, Tae Gon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To identify the unique pathologic findings of retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP) in optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods Retrospectively, 29 eyes of 25 patients with age-related macular degeneration and complicated RAP were analyzed. All 29 eyes had choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in the area of pigment epithelial detachment (PED) or adjacent to it, which was visible with fluorescein angiography or indocyanine green angiography. Cross-sectional images were obtained by OCT scanning through the CNV lesions. Results Six distinctive findings of OCT included drusen (100%), inner retinal cyst (80%), outer retinal cyst (68%), fibrovascular PED (84%), serous retinal detachment (40%), and PED (68%). Conclusions Through analysis of OCT findings, we revealed six different types of lesions distinctive of RAP which may provide helpful diagnostic information for subsequent treatment and predicting the prognosis of RAP. PMID:24082773

  15. Detecting early stage osteoarthritis by optical coherence tomography?

    PubMed Central

    Jahr, Holger; Brill, Nicolai; Nebelung, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common chronic disease of our joints, manifested by a dynamically increasing degeneration of hyaline articular cartilage (AC). While currently no therapy can reverse this process, the few available treatment options are hampered by the inability of early diagnosis. Loss of cartilage surface, or extracellular matrix (ECM), integrity is considered the earliest sign of OA. Despite the increasing number of imaging modalities surprisingly few imaging biomarkers exist. In this narrative review, recent developments in optical coherence tomography are critically evaluated for their potential to assess different aspects of AC quality as biomarkers of OA. Special attention is paid to imaging surface irregularities, ECM organization and the evaluation of posttraumatic injuries by light-based modalities. PMID:26862954

  16. Magnetic and Plasmonic Contrast Agents in Optical Coherence Tomography.

    PubMed

    Oldenburg, Amy L; Blackmon, Richard L; Sierchio, Justin M

    2016-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has gained widespread application for many biomedical applications, yet the traditional array of contrast agents used in incoherent imaging modalities do not provide contrast in OCT. Owing to the high biocompatibility of iron oxides and noble metals, magnetic and plasmonic nanoparticles, respectively, have been developed as OCT contrast agents to enable a range of biological and pre-clinical studies. Here we provide a review of these developments within the past decade, including an overview of the physical contrast mechanisms and classes of OCT system hardware addons needed for magnetic and plasmonic nanoparticle contrast. A comparison of the wide variety of nanoparticle systems is also presented, where the figures of merit depend strongly upon the choice of biological application.

  17. Magnetic and Plasmonic Contrast Agents in Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Oldenburg, Amy L.; Blackmon, Richard L.; Sierchio, Justin M.

    2016-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has gained widespread application for many biomedical applications, yet the traditional array of contrast agents used in incoherent imaging modalities do not provide contrast in OCT. Owing to the high biocompatibility of iron oxides and noble metals, magnetic and plasmonic nanoparticles, respectively, have been developed as OCT contrast agents to enable a range of biological and pre-clinical studies. Here we provide a review of these developments within the past decade, including an overview of the physical contrast mechanisms and classes of OCT system hardware addons needed for magnetic and plasmonic nanoparticle contrast. A comparison of the wide variety of nanoparticle systems is also presented, where the figures of merit depend strongly upon the choice of biological application. PMID:27429543

  18. LightPipes: software for education in coherent optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vdovin, Gleb V.; van Brug, Hedser H.; van Goor, Frederik A.

    1997-12-01

    LightPipes is a portable set of software tools, designed to model the propagation of coherent light in optical systems using a numerical approximations of the scalar theory of diffraction. Models of interferometers, laser resonators, waveguides, holographic setups and many more can be easily built using the components of the package. The command-line shell-based version of the toolbox written originally in C works under Unix, MSDOS and MAC OS. The toolbox also exists as a stand-alone program written in C++, which can be compiled virtually under any existing operational system. A MathCad port of LightPipes provides an extended user interface and full compatibility with the MathCad environment, the Java port allows for running the package over the net using the Netscape web browser.

  19. Spontaneous Coronary Dissection: "Live Flash" Optical Coherence Tomography Guided Angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Bento, Angela Pimenta; Fernandes, Renato Gil Dos Santos Pinto; Neves, David Cintra Henriques Silva; Patrício, Lino Manuel Ribeiro; de Aguiar, José Eduardo Chambel

    2016-01-01

    Optical Coherence tomography (OCT) is a light-based imaging modality which shows tremendous potential in the setting of coronary imaging. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is an infrequent cause of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The diagnosis of SCAD is made mainly with invasive coronary angiography, although adjunctive imaging modalities such as computed tomography angiography, IVUS, and OCT may increase the diagnostic yield. The authors describe a clinical case of a young woman admitted with the diagnosis of ACS. The ACS was caused by SCAD detected in the coronary angiography and the angioplasty was guided by OCT. OCT use in the setting of SCAD has been already described and the true innovation in this case was this unique use of OCT. The guidance of angioplasty with live and short images was very useful as it allowed clearly identifying the position of the guidewires at any given moment without the use of prohibitive amounts of contrast.

  20. Specificity of noninvasive blood glucose monitoring with optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larin, Kirill V.; Ashitkov, Taras V.; Motamedi, Massoud; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2003-07-01

    Management of diabetic disease requires frequent monitoring of blood glucose concentration. Development of a noninvasive technique capable of reliable and sensitive monitoring of blood glucose concentration would considerably improve quality of life of diabetic patients and reduce mortality associated with this disease. Recently, we proposed to use Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) technique for noninvasive glucose monitoring. In this paper, we tested in animals several aspects of specificity of noninvasive blood glucose monitoring with the OCT technique. Influence of temperature and tissue heterogeneity on the OCT signal profile is experimentally studied in this paper. We also theoretically investigated the changes in tissue scattering induced by variation of concentration of glucose and other osmolytes. Obtained results suggest that although several physical and chemical agents could potentially interfere with blood glucose concentration measurements using the OCT technique, their effect is smaller compared to that of glucose under normal physiological conditions.

  1. Epiretinal membrane: optical coherence tomography-based diagnosis and classification

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, William; Prospero Ponce, Claudia M; Agarwal, Daniel R; Gelman, Rachel; Christoforidis, John B

    2016-01-01

    Epiretinal membrane (ERM) is a disorder of the vitreomacular interface characterized by symptoms of decreased visual acuity and metamorphopsia. The diagnosis and classification of ERM has traditionally been based on clinical examination findings. However, modern optical coherence tomography (OCT) has proven to be more sensitive than clinical examination for the diagnosis of ERM. Furthermore, OCT-derived findings, such as central foveal thickness and inner segment ellipsoid band integrity, have shown clinical relevance in the setting of ERM. To date, no OCT-based ERM classification scheme has been widely accepted for use in clinical practice and investigation. Herein, we review the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and classification of ERMs and propose an OCT-based ERM classification system. PMID:27099458

  2. Epiretinal membrane: optical coherence tomography-based diagnosis and classification.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, William; Prospero Ponce, Claudia M; Agarwal, Daniel R; Gelman, Rachel; Christoforidis, John B

    2016-01-01

    Epiretinal membrane (ERM) is a disorder of the vitreomacular interface characterized by symptoms of decreased visual acuity and metamorphopsia. The diagnosis and classification of ERM has traditionally been based on clinical examination findings. However, modern optical coherence tomography (OCT) has proven to be more sensitive than clinical examination for the diagnosis of ERM. Furthermore, OCT-derived findings, such as central foveal thickness and inner segment ellipsoid band integrity, have shown clinical relevance in the setting of ERM. To date, no OCT-based ERM classification scheme has been widely accepted for use in clinical practice and investigation. Herein, we review the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and classification of ERMs and propose an OCT-based ERM classification system.

  3. Single cardiac cycle three-dimensional intracoronary optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Shik; Park, Hyun-Sang; Jang, Sun-Joo; Song, Joon Woo; Cho, Han Saem; Kim, Sunwon; Bouma, Brett E; Kim, Jin Won; Oh, Wang-Yuhl

    2016-12-01

    While high-speed intracoronary optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides three-dimensional (3D) visualization of coronary arteries in vivo, imaging speeds remain insufficient to avoid motion artifacts induced by heartbeat, limiting the clinical utility of OCT. In this paper, we demonstrate development of a high-speed intracoronary OCT system (frame rate: 500 frames/s, pullback speed: 100 mm/s) along with prospective electrocardiogram (ECG) triggering technology, which enabled volumetric imaging of long coronary segments within a single cardiac cycle (70 mm pullback in 0.7 s) with minimal cardiac motion artifact. This technology permitted detailed visualization of 3D architecture of the coronary arterial wall of a swine in vivo and fine structure of the implanted stent.

  4. Split-spectrum phase-gradient optical coherence tomography angiography

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Gangjun; Jia, Yali; Pechauer, Alex D.; Chandwani, Rahul; Huang, David

    2016-01-01

    A phase gradient angiography (PGA) method is proposed for optical coherence tomography (OCT). This method allows the use of phase information to map the microvasculature in tissue without the correction of bulk motion and laser trigger jitter induced phase artifacts. PGA can also be combined with the amplitude/intensity to improve the performance. Split-spectrum technique can further increase the signal to noise ratio by more than two times. In-vivo imaging of human retinal circulation is shown with a 70 kHz, 840 nm spectral domain OCT system and a 200 kHz, 1050 nm swept source OCT system. Four different OCT angiography methods are compared. The best performance was achieved with split-spectrum amplitude and phase-gradient angiography. PMID:27570689

  5. The Use of Optical Coherence Tomography in Intraoperative Ophthalmic Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Paul; Migacz, Justin; O’Connell, Rachelle; Maldonado, Ramiro S.; Izatt, Joseph A.; Toth, Cynthia A.

    2012-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has transformed diagnostic ophthalmic imaging but until recently has been limited to the clinic setting. The development of spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT), with its improved speed and resolution, along with the development of a handheld OCT scanner, enabled portable imaging of patients unable to sit in a conventional tabletop scanner. This handheld SD-OCT unit has proven useful in examinations under anesthesia and, more recently, in intraoperative imaging of preoperative and postoperative manipulations. Recently, several groups have pioneered the development of novel OCT modalities, such as microscope-mounted OCT systems. Although still immature, the development of these systems is directed toward real-time imaging of surgical maneuvers in the intraoperative setting. This article reviews intraoperative imaging of the posterior and anterior segment using the handheld SD-OCT and recent advances toward real-time microscope-mounted intrasurgical imaging. PMID:21790116

  6. Optical Coherence Tomography and Raman Spectroscopy of the retina

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J W; Zawadzki, R J; Liu, R; Chan, J; Lane, S; Werner, J S

    2009-01-16

    Imaging the structure and correlating it with the biochemical content of the retina holds promise for fundamental research and for clinical applications. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is commonly used to image the 3D structure of the retina and while the added functionality of biochemical analysis afforded by Raman scattering could provide critical molecular signatures for clinicians and researchers, there are many technical challenges to combining these imaging modalities. We present an ex vivo OCT microscope combined with Raman spectroscopy capable of collecting morphological and molecular information about a sample simultaneously. The combined instrument will be used to investigate remaining technical challenges to combine these imaging modalities, such as the laser power levels needed to achieve a Raman signal above the noise level without damaging the sample.

  7. Automated quantification of lung structures from optical coherence tomography images

    PubMed Central

    Pagnozzi, Alex M.; Kirk, Rodney W.; Kennedy, Brendan F.; Sampson, David D.; McLaughlin, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Characterization of the size of lung structures can aid in the assessment of a range of respiratory diseases. In this paper, we present a fully automated segmentation and quantification algorithm for the delineation of large numbers of lung structures in optical coherence tomography images, and the characterization of their size using the stereological measure of median chord length. We demonstrate this algorithm on scans acquired with OCT needle probes in fresh, ex vivo tissues from two healthy animal models: pig and rat. Automatically computed estimates of lung structure size were validated against manual measures. In addition, we present 3D visualizations of the lung structures using the segmentation calculated for each data set. This method has the potential to provide an in vivo indicator of structural remodeling caused by a range of respiratory diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:24298402

  8. Microvascular contrast enhancement in optical coherence tomography using microbubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assadi, Homa; Demidov, Valentin; Karshafian, Raffi; Douplik, Alexandre; Vitkin, I. Alex

    2016-07-01

    Gas microbubbles (MBs) are investigated as intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) contrast agents. Agar + intralipid scattering tissue phantoms with two embedded microtubes were fabricated to model vascular blood flow. One was filled with human blood, and the other with a mixture of human blood + MB. Swept-source structural and speckle variance (sv) OCT images, as well as speckle decorrelation times, were evaluated under both no-flow and varying flow conditions. Faster decorrelation times and higher structural and svOCT image contrasts were detected in the presence of MB in all experiments. The effects were largest in the svOCT imaging mode, and uniformly diminished with increasing flow velocity. These findings suggest the feasibility of utilizing MB for tissue hemodynamic investigations and for microvasculature contrast enhancement in OCT angiography.

  9. Statistical analysis of motion contrast in optical coherence tomography angiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yuxuan; Guo, Li; Pan, Cong; Lu, Tongtong; Hong, Tianyu; Ding, Zhihua; Li, Peng

    2015-11-01

    Optical coherence tomography angiography (Angio-OCT), mainly based on the temporal dynamics of OCT scattering signals, has found a range of potential applications in clinical and scientific research. Based on the model of random phasor sums, temporal statistics of the complex-valued OCT signals are mathematically described. Statistical distributions of the amplitude differential and complex differential Angio-OCT signals are derived. The theories are validated through the flow phantom and live animal experiments. Using the model developed, the origin of the motion contrast in Angio-OCT is mathematically explained, and the implications in the improvement of motion contrast are further discussed, including threshold determination and its residual classification error, averaging method, and scanning protocol. The proposed mathematical model of Angio-OCT signals can aid in the optimal design of the system and associated algorithms.

  10. Improving resolution of optical coherence tomography for imaging of microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Kai; Lu, Hui; Wang, James H.; Wang, Michael R.

    2015-03-01

    Multi-frame superresolution technique has been used to improve the lateral resolution of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) for imaging of 3D microstructures. By adjusting the voltages applied to ? and ? galvanometer scanners in the measurement arm, small lateral imaging positional shifts have been introduced among different C-scans. Utilizing the extracted ?-? plane en face image frames from these specially offset C-scan image sets at the same axial position, we have reconstructed the lateral high resolution image by the efficient multi-frame superresolution technique. To further improve the image quality, we applied the latest K-SVD and bilateral total variation denoising algorithms to the raw SD-OCT lateral images before and along with the superresolution processing, respectively. The performance of the SD-OCT of improved lateral resolution is demonstrated by 3D imaging a microstructure fabricated by photolithography and a double-layer microfluidic device.

  11. Scalable multiplexing for parallel imaging with interleaved optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hee Yoon; Marvdashti, Tahereh; Duan, Lian; Khan, Saara A.; Ellerbee, Audrey K.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate highly parallel imaging with interleaved optical coherence tomography (iOCT) using an in-house-fabricated, air-spaced virtually-imaged phased array (VIPA). The air-spaced VIPA performs spectral encoding of the interferograms from multiple lateral points within a single sweep of the source and allows us to tune and balance several imaging parameters: number of multiplexed points, ranging depth, and sensitivity. In addition to a thorough discussion of the parameters and operating principles of the VIPA, we experimentally demonstrate the effect of different VIPA designs on the multiplexing potential of iOCT. Using a 200-kHz light source, we achieve an effective A-scan rate of 3.2-MHz by multiplexing 16 lateral points onto a single wavelength sweep. The improved sensitivity of this system is demonstrated for 3D imaging of biological samples such as a human finger and a fruit fly. PMID:25401031

  12. Endoscopic optical coherence tomography based on a microelectromechanical mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yingtian; Xie, Huikai; Fedder, Gary K.

    2001-12-01

    An endoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT) system based on a microelectromechanical mirror to facilitate lateral light scanning is described. The front-view OCT scope, adapted to the instrument channel of a commercial endoscopic sheath, allows real-time cross-sectional imaging of living biological tissue via direct endoscopic visual guidance. The transverse and axial resolutions of the OCT scope are roughly 20 and 10.2 μm, respectively. Cross-sectional images of 500 × 1000 pixels covering an area of 2.9 mm × 2.8 mm can be acquired at ~5 frames/s and with nearly 100-dB dynamic range. Applications in thickness measurement and bladder tissue imaging are demonstrated.

  13. Optical coherence tomography speckle decorrelation for detecting cell death

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhat, Golnaz; Mariampillai, Adrian; Yang, Victor X. D.; Czarnota, Gregory J.; Kolios, Michael C.

    2011-03-01

    We present a dynamic light scattering technique applied to optical coherence tomography (OCT) for detecting changes in intracellular motion caused by cellular reorganization during apoptosis. We have validated our method by measuring Brownian motion in microsphere suspensions and comparing the measured values to those derived based on particle diffusion calculated using the Einstein-Stokes equation. Autocorrelations of OCT signal intensities acquired from acute myeloid leukemia cells as a function of treatment time demonstrated a significant drop in the decorrelation time after 24 hours of cisplatin treatment. This corresponded with nuclear fragmentation and irregular cell shape observed in histological sections. A similar analysis conducted with multicellular tumor spheroids indicated a shorter decorrelation time in the spheroid core relative to its edges. The spheroid core corresponded to a region exhibiting signs of cell death in histological sections and increased backscatter intensity in OCT images.

  14. Epidermal segmentation in high-definition optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Li, Annan; Cheng, Jun; Yow, Ai Ping; Wall, Carolin; Wong, Damon Wing Kee; Tey, Hong Liang; Liu, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Epidermis segmentation is a crucial step in many dermatological applications. Recently, high-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT) has been developed and applied to imaging subsurface skin tissues. In this paper, a novel epidermis segmentation method using HD-OCT is proposed in which the epidermis is segmented by 3 steps: the weighted least square-based pre-processing, the graph-based skin surface detection and the local integral projection-based dermal-epidermal junction detection respectively. Using a dataset of five 3D volumes, we found that this method correlates well with the conventional method of manually marking out the epidermis. This method can therefore serve to effectively and rapidly delineate the epidermis for study and clinical management of skin diseases.

  15. Optical coherence Doppler tomography for quantitative cerebral blood flow imaging

    PubMed Central

    You, Jiang; Du, Congwu; Volkow, Nora D.; Pan, Yingtian

    2014-01-01

    Optical coherence Doppler tomography (ODT) is a promising neurotechnique that permits 3D imaging of the cerebral blood flow (CBF) network; however, quantitative CBF velocity (CBFv) imaging remains challenging. Here we present a simple phase summation method to enhance slow capillary flow detection sensitivity without sacrificing dynamic range for fast flow and vessel tracking to improve angle correction for absolute CBFv quantification. Flow phantom validation indicated that the CBFv quantification accuracy increased from 15% to 91% and the coefficient of variation (CV) decreased 9.3-fold; in vivo mouse brain validation showed that CV decreased 4.4-/10.8- fold for venular/arteriolar flows. ODT was able to identify cocaine-elicited microischemia and quantify CBFv disruption in branch vessels and capillaries that otherwise would have not been possible. PMID:25401033

  16. Molecular Contrast Optical Coherence Tomography: A Review¶

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Changhuei

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews the current state of research on the use of molecular contrast agents in optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging techniques. After a brief discussion of the basic principle of OCT and the importance of incorporating molecular contrast agent usage into this imaging modality, we shall present an overview of the different molecular contrast OCT (MCOCT) methods that have been developed thus far. We will then discuss several important practical issues that define the possible range of contrast agent choice, the design criteria for engineered molecular contrast agent and the implementability of a given MCOCT method for clinical or biological applications. We will conclude by outlining a few areas of pursuit that deserve a greater degree of research and development. PMID:15588122

  17. Single cardiac cycle three-dimensional intracoronary optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Shik; Park, Hyun-Sang; Jang, Sun-Joo; Song, Joon Woo; Cho, Han Saem; Kim, Sunwon; Bouma, Brett E.; Kim, Jin Won; Oh, Wang-Yuhl

    2016-01-01

    While high-speed intracoronary optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides three-dimensional (3D) visualization of coronary arteries in vivo, imaging speeds remain insufficient to avoid motion artifacts induced by heartbeat, limiting the clinical utility of OCT. In this paper, we demonstrate development of a high-speed intracoronary OCT system (frame rate: 500 frames/s, pullback speed: 100 mm/s) along with prospective electrocardiogram (ECG) triggering technology, which enabled volumetric imaging of long coronary segments within a single cardiac cycle (70 mm pullback in 0.7 s) with minimal cardiac motion artifact. This technology permitted detailed visualization of 3D architecture of the coronary arterial wall of a swine in vivo and fine structure of the implanted stent. PMID:28018710

  18. Review of intraoperative optical coherence tomography: technology and applications [Invited

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco-Zevallos, Oscar M.; Viehland, Christian; Keller, Brenton; Draelos, Mark; Kuo, Anthony N.; Toth, Cynthia A.; Izatt, Joseph A.

    2017-01-01

    During microsurgery, en face imaging of the surgical field through the operating microscope limits the surgeon’s depth perception and visualization of instruments and sub-surface anatomy. Surgical procedures outside microsurgery, such as breast tumor resections, may also benefit from visualization of the sub-surface tissue structures. The widespread clinical adoption of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in ophthalmology and its growing prominence in other fields, such as cancer imaging, has motivated the development of intraoperative OCT for real-time tomographic visualization of surgical interventions. This article reviews key technological developments in intraoperative OCT and their applications in human surgery. We focus on handheld OCT probes, microscope-integrated OCT systems, and OCT-guided laser treatment platforms designed for intraoperative use. Moreover, we discuss intraoperative OCT adjuncts and processing techniques currently under development to optimize the surgical feedback derivable from OCT data. Lastly, we survey salient clinical studies of intraoperative OCT for human surgery. PMID:28663853

  19. QAM quantum stream cipher using digital coherent optical transmission.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Masataka; Yoshida, Masato; Hirooka, Toshihiko; Kasai, Keisuke

    2014-02-24

    A Quantum Stream Cipher (QSC) using Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) is presented to greatly increase the secure degree compared with ASK or PSK/QSC. We propose encoding multi-bit data in one symbol with a multi-bit basis state, resulting in QAM/QSC, which employs amplitude and phase encryption of the light beam simultaneously. A 16 QAM/QSC experiment at 10 Gbit/s was successfully carried out over 160 km using a digital coherent optical transmission technique, where 16 QAM data were encrypted in a constellation with 32 × 32~4096 × 4096 symbols. We show experimentally that the Number of Masked Signals (NMS) in the quantum noise Γ(QAM) for QAM/QSC becomes a square multiple larger than Γ(ASK) for ASK/QSC. Γ(QAM) exceeds 10,000. This result indicates that the QSC technique is more robust against eavesdroppers than ASK or PSK/QSC.

  20. The Application of Optical Coherence Tomography in Musculoskeletal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rashidifard, Christopher; Vercollone, Christopher; Martin, Scott; Liu, Bin; Brezinski, Mark E.

    2013-01-01

    Many musculoskeletal disorders (MDs) are associated with irreversible bone and cartilage damage; this is particularly true for osteoarthritis (OA). Therefore, a clinical need exists for modalities which can detect OA and other MDs at early stages. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an infrared-based imaging, currently FDA approved in cardiology and ophthalmology, which has a resolution greater than 10 microns and acquisition rate of 120 frames/second. It has shown feasibility for imaging early OA, identifying changes prior to cartilage thinning both in vitro and in vivo in patients and in OA animal models. In addition, OCT has shown an ability to identify early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and guide tendon repair, but has the potential for an even greater impact. Clinical trials in OA are currently underway, as well as in several other MDs. PMID:23424683

  1. Sparsity based denoising of spectral domain optical coherence tomography images

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Leyuan; Li, Shutao; Nie, Qing; Izatt, Joseph A.; Toth, Cynthia A.; Farsiu, Sina

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we make contact with the field of compressive sensing and present a development and generalization of tools and results for reconstructing irregularly sampled tomographic data. In particular, we focus on denoising Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SDOCT) volumetric data. We take advantage of customized scanning patterns, in which, a selected number of B-scans are imaged at higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). We learn a sparse representation dictionary for each of these high-SNR images, and utilize such dictionaries to denoise the low-SNR B-scans. We name this method multiscale sparsity based tomographic denoising (MSBTD). We show the qualitative and quantitative superiority of the MSBTD algorithm compared to popular denoising algorithms on images from normal and age-related macular degeneration eyes of a multi-center clinical trial. We have made the corresponding data set and software freely available online. PMID:22567586

  2. Solar retinopathy and associated optical coherence tomography findings.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jennifer C; Lee, Lawrence R

    2004-11-01

    Solar retinopathy is a rare but well-recognised clinical entity of macular damage, caused by viewing a solar eclipse or direct sun-gazing. Visual deterioration from solar retinopathy typically ranges from 6/9 to 6/60 and in most cases the visual loss is reversible. We present a case of solar retinopathy following direct sun-gazing and illustrate the damage within the retinal structure with optical coherence tomographic (OCT) findings. The visual prognosis of solar retinopathy is usually favourable but prevention remains the mainstay of treatment. The optometrist may play an important role in patient education and reassurance, as well as differentiating solar retinopathy from other likely macular abnormalities.

  3. Optical coherence tomography of the rat cochlea: preliminary investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Brian J.; de Boer, Johannes F.; Park, Boris H.; Chen, Zhongping; Nelson, J. Stuart

    1999-06-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used to image the internal structure of a rat cochlea. Immediately following sacrifice, the temporal bone of a SPrague-Dawley rat was harvested. Axial OCT cross sectional images (over regions of interest, 1 x 1 mm to 2 x 8 mm) were obtained with a spatial resolution of 10-15 μm. The osseous borders of the lateral membranous labyrinth overlying the cochlea and the scala vestibuli, media, and tympani which were well demarcated by the modiolus, Reissner's and the basilar membranes were clearly identified. OCT can be used to image internal structures in the cochlea without violating the osseous labyrinth, and may potentially be used to diagnose inner ear pathology in vivo in both animal and human subjects.

  4. Endoscopic optical coherence tomography: technologies and clinical applications [Invited

    PubMed Central

    Gora, Michalina J.; Suter, Melissa J.; Tearney, Guillermo J.; Li, Xingde

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we review the current state of technology development and clinical applications of endoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT). Key design and engineering considerations are discussed for most OCT endoscopes, including side-viewing and forward-viewing probes, along with different scanning mechanisms (proximal-scanning versus distal-scanning). Multi-modal endoscopes that integrate OCT with other imaging modalities are also discussed. The review of clinical applications of endoscopic OCT focuses heavily on diagnosis of diseases and guidance of interventions. Representative applications in several organ systems are presented, such as in the cardiovascular, digestive, respiratory, and reproductive systems. A brief outlook of the field of endoscopic OCT is also discussed. PMID:28663882

  5. Colposcopic imaging using visible-light optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Lian; McRaven, Michael D.; Liu, Wenzhong; Shu, Xiao; Hu, Jianmin; Sun, Cheng; Veazey, Ronald S.; Hope, Thomas J.; Zhang, Hao F.

    2017-05-01

    High-resolution colposcopic optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides key anatomical measures, such as thickness and minor traumatic injury of vaginal epithelium, of the female reproductive tract noninvasively. This information can be helpful in both fundamental investigations in animal models and disease screenings in humans. We present a fiber-based visible-light OCT and two probe designs for colposcopic application. One probe conducts circular scanning using a DC motor, and the other probe is capable of three-dimensional imaging over a 4.6×4.6-mm2 area using a pair of galvo scanners. Using this colposcopic vis-OCT with both probes, we acquired high-resolution images from whole isolated macaque vaginal samples and identified biopsy lesions.

  6. Comparison of optical coherence reflectometry and ultrasound central corneal pachymetry.

    PubMed

    Gillis, A; Zeyen, T

    2004-01-01

    In 50 eyes of 25 patients we prospectively measured the central corneal thickness (CCT) comparing the OLCR (Optical Low Coherence Reflectometry) pachymeter with the contact ultrasound pachymeter. The OLCR system was mounted on to a Haag-Streit slit lamp. Every single measurement was the result of 5 scans. With the contact ultrasound Sonomed pachymeter we performed 5 separate measurements and calculated the mean. The correlation between the two measurements was excellent (r = 0.99). The mean standard deviation (SD) of the measurements taken with the non-contact OLCR pachymeter was significantly lower than with the contact ultrasound pachymeter, 0.49 microm and 4.71 microm respectively (p < 0.01). The variability of the CCT measurements taken with the non-contact OLCR pachymeter is significantly lower than the variability of the CCT measurements taken with the contact ultrasound pachymetry.

  7. Single shot line-field optical coherence elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chih-Hao; Schill, Alexander; Singh, Manmohan; Wu, Chen; Li, Jiasong; Han, Zhaolong; Raghunathan, Raksha; Kazemi, Tina; Nair, Achuth; Hsu, Thomas; Larin, Kirill V.

    2016-03-01

    Elastic wave imaging optical coherence elastography (EWI-OCE) is an emerging technique that can quantify local biomechanical properties of tissues. However, long acquisition times make this technique unfeasible for clinical use. Here, we demonstrate a noncontact single shot line-field OCE technique using a line-field interferometer and an air-pulse delivery system. The spatial-temporal elastic wave propagation profile was acquired in a single shot and used to quantify the elastic wave group velocity in tissue. Results on tissue-mimicking phantoms and chicken breast muscle agreed well with mechanical compression testing, demonstrating that the presented method can effectively reduce the OCE acquisition time to a few milliseconds in biological application.

  8. Virtual histology of the human heart using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosi, Christina M.; Moazami, Nader; Rollins, Andrew M.; Efimov, Igor R.

    2009-09-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) allows for the visualization of micron-scale structures within nontransparent biological tissues. For the first time, we demonstrate the use of OCT in identifying components of the cardiac conduction system and other structures in the explanted human heart. Reconstructions of cardiac structures up to 2 mm below the tissue surface were achieved and validated with Masson Trichrome histology in atrial, ventricular, sinoatrial nodal, and atrioventricular nodal preparations. The high spatial resolution of OCT provides visualization of cardiac fibers within the myocardium, as well as elements of the cardiac conduction system; however, a limiting factor remains its depth penetration, demonstrated to be ~2 mm in cardiac tissues. Despite its currently limited imaging depth, the use of OCT to identify the structural determinants of both normal and abnormal function in the intact human heart is critical in its development as a potential aid to intracardiac arrhythmia diagnosis and therapy.

  9. Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography for imaging human atherosclerosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Wen-Chuan; Chou, Nai-Kuan; Chou, Chien; Lai, Chih-Ming; Huang, Huan-Jang; Wang, Shoei-Shen; Shyu, Jeou-Jong

    2007-05-01

    Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) combines the advantages of OCT with image contrast enhancement, which is based on its ability to detect phase retardation and the fast-axis angle. Both PS-OCT images and histopathology have demonstrated similar features that allowed differentiation of atherosclerotic structures (i.e., plaques) from normal tissue. Moreover, the picrosirius polarization method was used to confirm PS-OCT assessment of collagen in the fibrous cap of atherosclerotic plaques, and high-frequency (40 MHz) ultrasound images were used to identify calcium in the vessel wall. Our preliminary ex vivo investigation of human aortic specimens indicated that PS-OCT might help to identify atherosclerotic lesions.

  10. Optical coherence tomography for vulnerability assessment of sandstone.

    PubMed

    Bemand, Elizabeth; Liang, Haida

    2013-05-10

    Sandstone is an important cultural heritage material, in both architectural and natural settings, such as neolithic rock art panels. The majority of deterioration effects in porous materials such as sandstone are influenced by the presence and movement of water through the material. The presence of water within the porous network of a material results in changes in the optical coherence tomography signal intensity that can be used to monitor the wetting front of water penetration of dry porous materials at various depths. The technique is able to detect wetting front velocities from 1 cm s(-1) to 10(-6) cm s(-1), covering the full range of hydraulic conductivities likely to occur in natural sandstones from pervious to impervious.

  11. Triggered optical coherence tomography for capturing rapid periodic motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ernest W.; Kobler, James B.; Yun, Seok H.

    2011-07-01

    Quantitative cross-sectional imaging of vocal folds during phonation is potentially useful for diagnosis and treatments of laryngeal disorders. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a powerful technique, but its relatively low frame rates makes it challenging to visualize rapidly vibrating tissues. Here, we demonstrate a novel method based on triggered laser scanning to capture 4-dimensional (4D) images of samples in motu at audio frequencies over 100 Hz. As proof-of-concept experiments, we applied this technique to imaging the oscillations of biopolymer gels on acoustic vibrators and aerodynamically driven vibrations of the vocal fold in an ex vivo calf larynx model. Our results suggest that triggered 4D OCT may be useful in understanding and assessing the function of vocal folds and developing novel treatments in research and clinical settings.

  12. Evaluation of microfluidic channels with optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czajkowski, J.; Prykäri, T.; Alarousu, E.; Lauri, J.; Myllylä, R.

    2010-11-01

    Application of time domain, ultra high resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT) in evaluation of microfluidic channels is demonstrated. Presented study was done using experimental UHR-OCT device based on a Kerr-lens mode locked Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser, a photonic crystal fibre and modified, free-space Michelson interferometer. To show potential of the technique, microfluidic chip fabricated by VTT Center for Printed Intelligence (Oulu, Finland) was measured. Ability for full volumetric reconstruction in non-contact manner enabled complete characterization of closed entity of a microfluidic channel without contamination and harm for the sample. Measurement, occurring problems, and methods of postprocessing for raw data are described. Results present completely resolved physical structure of the channel, its spatial dimensions, draft angles and evaluation of lamination quality.

  13. Endoscopic optical coherence tomography: technologies and clinical applications [Invited].

    PubMed

    Gora, Michalina J; Suter, Melissa J; Tearney, Guillermo J; Li, Xingde

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we review the current state of technology development and clinical applications of endoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT). Key design and engineering considerations are discussed for most OCT endoscopes, including side-viewing and forward-viewing probes, along with different scanning mechanisms (proximal-scanning versus distal-scanning). Multi-modal endoscopes that integrate OCT with other imaging modalities are also discussed. The review of clinical applications of endoscopic OCT focuses heavily on diagnosis of diseases and guidance of interventions. Representative applications in several organ systems are presented, such as in the cardiovascular, digestive, respiratory, and reproductive systems. A brief outlook of the field of endoscopic OCT is also discussed.

  14. Structural characterization of hair fiber by optical coherence tomography (OCT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, Anderson Zanardi; Robes Velasco, Maria Valeria; Paulo Raele, Marcus; Kaneko, Telma Mary; Vieira, Nilson Dias, Jr.; Baby, Andre Rolim

    2008-09-01

    In this work we use the optical coherence tomography (OCT) technique to produce in vitro transversal section images of human hair. It was possible to identify in the A-scan protocol its principal structures: cuticle, cortex and medulla. The mean diameter of medulla was 29 +/- 7 μm and hair diameter was 122 +/- 16 μm in our samples of standard Afro-ethnic hair. We also compared the OCT signal before and after chemical treatment with 18% w/w ammonium thioglycolate solution. After chemical treatment, it was not possible to identify the main structures of hair fiber, due the index matching promoted by deleterious action of chemical agent. A tridimensional image was built starting from 601 cross-sectional images (slices). Each slice was taken in steps of 6.0 μm at 8 frames per second, and the whole 3D image was built in 60 seconds.

  15. Real-time multi-functional optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyle Park, Boris; Pierce, Mark D.; Cense, Barry; de Boer, Johannes F.

    2003-04-01

    We demonstrate real-time acquisition, processing, and display of tissue structure, birefringence, and blood flow in a multi-functional optical coherence tomography (MF-OCT) system. This is accomplished by efficient data processing of the phase-resolved inteference patterns without dedicated hardware or extensive modification to the high-speed fiber-based OCT system. The system acquires images of 2048 depth scans per second, covering an area of 5 mm in width × 1.2 mm in depth with real-time display updating images in a rolling manner 32 times each second. We present a video of the system display as images from the proximal nail fold of a human volunteer are taken.

  16. Clinical applications of optical coherence tomography in urology

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hsing-Wen; Chen, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Since optical coherence tomography (OCT) was first demonstrated in 1991, it has advanced significantly in technical aspects such as imaging speed and resolution, and has been clinically demonstrated in a diverse set of medical and surgical applications, including ophthalmology, cardiology, gastroenterology, dermatology, oncology, among others. This work reviews current clinical applications in urology, particularly in bladder, urether, and kidney. Clinical applications in bladder and urether mainly focus on cancer detection and staging based on tissue morphology, image contrast, and OCT backscattering. The application in kidney includes kidney cancer detection based on OCT backscattering attenuation and non-destructive evaluation of transplant kidney viability or acute tubular necrosis based on both tissue morphology from OCT images and function from Doppler OCT (DOCT) images. OCT holds the promise to positively impact the future clinical practices in urology. PMID:28243507

  17. High resolution retinal imaging with a compact adaptive optics spectral domain optical coherence tomography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Daniel X.; Iftimia, Nicusor V.; Bigelow, Chad E.; Ustun, Teoman E.; Bloom, Benjamin; Ferguson, R. Daniel; Burns, Stephen A.

    2007-02-01

    Adaptive optics (AO) is used to correct ocular aberrations primarily in the cornea, lens, and tear film of every eye. Among other applications, AO allows high lateral resolution images to be acquired with scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) is a high-speed imaging technique that can acquire cross-sectional scans with micron-scale axial resolution at tens to hundreds of kHz line rates. We present a compact clinical AO-SDOCT system that achieves micron-scale axial and lateral resolution of retinal structures. The system includes a line scanning laser ophthalmscope (LSLO) for simultaneous wide-field retinal viewing and selection of regions-of-interest. OCT and LSLO imaging and AO correction performance are characterized. We present a case study of a single subject with hyper-reflective lesions associated with stable, resolved central serous retinopathy to compare and contrast AO as applied to scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography. The two imaging modes are found to be complementary in terms of information on structure morphology. Both provide additional information lacking in the other. This preliminary finding points to the power of combining SLO and SDOCT in a single research instrument for exploration of disease mechanisms, retinal cellular architecture, and visual psychophysics.

  18. Spectroscopic optical coherence tomography for ex vivo brain tumor analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenz, Marcel; Krug, Robin; Dillmann, Christopher; Gerling, Alexandra; Gerhardt, Nils C.; Welp, Hubert; Schmieder, Kirsten; Hofmann, Martin R.

    2017-02-01

    For neurosurgeries precise tumor resection is essential for the subsequent recovery of the patients since nearby healthy tissue that may be harmed has a huge impact on the life quality after the surgery. However, so far no satisfying methodology has been established to assist the surgeon during surgery to distinguish between healthy and tumor tissue. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) potentially enables non-contact in vivo image acquisition at penetration depths of 1-2 mm with a resolution of approximately 1-15 μm. To analyze the potential of OCT for distinction between brain tumors and healthy tissue, we used a commercially available Thorlabs Callisto system to measure healthy tissue and meningioma samples ex vivo. All samples were measured with the OCT system and three dimensional datasets were generated. Afterwards they were sent to the pathology for staining with hematoxylin and eosin and then investigated with a bright field microscope to verify the tissue type. This is the actual gold standard for ex vivo analysis. The images taken by the OCT system exhibit variations in the structure for different tissue types, but these variations may not be objectively evaluated from raw OCT images. Since an automated distinction between tumor and healthy tissue would be highly desirable to guide the surgeon, we applied Spectroscopic Optical Coherence Tomography to further enhance the differences between the tissue types. Pattern recognition and machine learning algorithms were applied to classify the derived spectroscopic information. Finally, the classification results are analyzed in comparison to the histological analysis of the samples.

  19. Integral ceramic superstructure evaluation using time domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinescu, Cosmin; Bradu, Adrian; Topala, Florin I.; Negrutiu, Meda Lavinia; Duma, Virgil-Florin; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2014-02-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive low coherence interferometry technique that includes several technologies (and the corresponding devices and components), such as illumination and detection, interferometry, scanning, adaptive optics, microscopy and endoscopy. From its large area of applications, we consider in this paper a critical aspect in dentistry - to be investigated with a Time Domain (TD) OCT system. The clinical situation of an edentulous mandible is considered; it can be solved by inserting 2 to 6 implants. On these implants a mesostructure will be manufactured and on it a superstructure is needed. This superstructure can be integral ceramic; in this case materials defects could be trapped inside the ceramic layers and those defects could lead to fractures of the entire superstructure. In this paper we demonstrate that a TD-OCT imaging system has the potential to properly evaluate the presence of the defects inside the ceramic layers and those defects can be fixed before inserting the prosthesis inside the oral cavity. Three integral ceramic superstructures were developed by using a CAD/CAM technology. After the milling, the ceramic layers were applied on the core. All the three samples were evaluated by a TD-OCT system working at 1300 nm. For two of the superstructures evaluated, no defects were found in the most stressed areas. The third superstructure presented four ceramic defects in the mentioned areas. Because of those defects the superstructure may fracture. The integral ceramic prosthesis was send back to the dental laboratory to fix the problems related to the material defects found. Thus, TD-OCT proved to be a valuable method for diagnosing the ceramic defects inside the integral ceramic superstructures in order to prevent fractures at this level.

  20. Investigation of murine vasodynamics by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meißner, Sven; Müller, Gregor; Walther, Julia; Krüger, Alexander; Cuevas, Maximiliano; Eichhorn, Birgit; Ravens, Ursula; Morawietz, Henning; Koch, Edmund

    2007-07-01

    In vivo imaging of blood vessels obtain useful insights in characterizing the dynamics of vasoconstriction and vasodilation. Fourier domain optical Coherence Tomography (FD-OCT) imaging technique permits in vivo investigation of blood vessels in their anatomical context without preparation traumata by temporal resolved image stacks. OCT is an optical, contact less imaging technique based on Michelson interferometry of short coherent near infrared light. Particularly by the possibility of a contact-less measurement and the high axial resolution up to 10 microns OCT is superior to an investigation by ultra sound measurement. Furthermore we obtain a high time resolution of vessel dynamic measurements with the used Fourier domain OCT-system by a high A-scan rate [1,22kHz]. In this study the model of saphenous artery was chosen for analyzing function and dynamics. The arteria saphena in the mouse is a suitable blood vessel due to the small inner diameter, a sensitive response to vasoactive stimuli and an advantageous anatomically position. Male wild type mice (C57BL/6) at the age of 8 weeks were fed control or high-fat diet for 10 weeks before analyzing the vasodynamics. The blood vessel was stimulated by dermal application of potassium to induce vasoconstriction or Sodium-Nitroprusside (SNP) to induce vasodilation. The morphology of the a. saphena and vein was determined by 3D image stacks. Time series (72 seconds, 300x512 pixel per frame) of cross-sectional images were analysed using semi automatic image processing software. Time course of dynamic parameters of the vessel was measured.