Science.gov

Sample records for optical damage characterization

  1. Damage detection and characterization using fiber optic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glisic, Branko; Sigurdardottir, Dorotea; Yao, Yao; Hubbell, David

    2013-04-01

    Fiber optic sensors (FOS) have significantly evolved and have reached their market maturity during the last decade. Their widely recognized advantages are high precision, long-term stability, and durability. But in addition to these advantageous performances, FOS technologies allow for affordable instrumentation of large areas of structure enabling global large-scale monitoring based on long-gauge sensors and integrity monitoring based on distributed sensors. These two approaches are particularly suitable for damage detection and characterization, i.e., damage localization and to certain extent quantification and propagation, as illustrated by two applications presented in detail in this paper: post-tensioned concrete bridge and segmented concrete pipeline. Early age cracking was detected, localized and quantified in the concrete deck of a pedestrian bridge using embedded long-gauge FOS. Post-tensioning of deck closed the cracks; however, permanent weakening in a bridge joint occurred due to cracking and it was identified and quantified. The damage was confirmed using embedded distributed FOS and a separate load test of the bridge. Real-size concrete pipeline specimens and surrounding soil were equipped with distributed FOS and exposed to permanent ground displacement in a large-scale testing facility. Two tests were performed on different pipeline specimens. The sensors bonded on the pipeline specimens successfully detected and localized rupture of pipeline joints, while the sensors embedded in the soil were able to detect and localize the failure plane. Comparison with strain-gauges installed on the pipeline and visual inspection after the test confirmed accurate damage detection and characterization.

  2. Tissue Damage Characterization Using Non-invasive Optical Modalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, David

    The ability to determine the degree of cutaneous and subcutaneous tissue damage is essential for proper wound assessment and a significant factor for determining patient treatment and morbidity. Accurate characterization of tissue damage is critical for a number of medical applications including surgical removal of nonviable tissue, severity assessment of subcutaneous ulcers, and depth assessment of visually open wounds. The main objective of this research was to develop a non-invasive method for identifying the extent of tissue damage underneath intact skin that is not apparent upon visual examination. This work investigated the relationship between tissue optical properties, blood flow, and tissue viability by testing the hypotheses that (a) changes in tissue oxygenation and/or microcirculatory blood flow measurable by Diffuse Near Infrared Spectroscopy (DNIRS) and Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopy (DCS) differ between healthy and damaged tissue and (b) the magnitude of those changes differs for different degrees of tissue damage. This was accomplished by developing and validating a procedure for measuring microcirculatory blood flow and tissue oxygenation dynamics at multiple depths (up to 1 centimeter) using non-invasive DCS and DNIRS technologies. Due to the lack of pressure ulcer animal models that are compatible with our optical systems, a proof of concept was conducted in a porcine burn model prior to conducting clinical trials in order to assess the efficacy of the system in-vivo. A reduction in total hemoglobin was observed for superficial (5%) and deep burns (35%) along with a statistically significant difference between the optical properties of superficial and deep burns (p < 0.05). Burn depth and viable vessel density were estimated via histological samples. 42% of vessels in the dermal layer were viable for superficial burns, compared to 25% for deep burns. The differences detected in optical properties and hemoglobin content by optical measurements

  3. Optical characterization of damage resistant kilolayer'' rugate filters

    SciTech Connect

    Elder, M.L.; Jancaitis, K.S.; Milam, D.; Campbell, J.H.

    1990-12-17

    Multilayer dielectric optical coatings produced by high temperature plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (PCVD) have been previously shown to have very high surface and bulk damage thresholds (above 40J/cm{sup 2}). Because these experimental coatings are deposited on tubular substrates, conventional wavelength scanning cannot accurately measure the coating peak reflectance and bandwidth. Measurement of the variation of transmittance with incidence angle at fixed wavelength permits analysis of the coating spectral response. The results indicate that the PCVD coatings behave as nearly ideal'' rugate filters. Their optical performance agrees well with that predicted for a rugate by Southwell's coupled-wave theory and by the characteristic-matrix model. These 1000-layer-pair filters have maximum reflectances exceeding 99.9%, peak reflectance wavelengths within 0.5% of the design wavelength, and FWHM bandwidths narrower than 10 nm. Minor perturbations to the ideal rugate sinusoidal profile do not appreciably affect the coating optical performance. Comparison with calculations suggest that the only significant deviation of the PCVD structure from that of an ideal rugate is a small (0.7%) drift in the index period. Excellent optical performance and high damage resistance makes PCVD rugate coatings potentially useful for several high power laser applications. 13 refs., 7 figs.

  4. Damage detection and characterization using long-gauge and distributed fiber optic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glišić, Branko; Hubbell, David; Sigurdardottir, Dorotea Hoeg; Yao, Yao

    2013-08-01

    Fiber optic strain sensors have significantly evolved and have reached their market maturity during the last decade. Their widely recognized advantages are high precision, long-term stability, and durability. In addition to these benefits, fiber optic (FO) techniques allow for affordable instrumentation of large areas of civil structures and infrastructure enabling global large-scale monitoring based on long-gauge sensors, and integrity monitoring based on distributed sensors. The FO techniques that enable these two approaches are based on fiber Bragg-gratings and Brillouin optical time-domain analysis. The aim of this paper is to present both FO techniques and both structural assessment approaches, and to validate them through large-scale applications. Although many other currently applied methods fail to detect the damage in real, on-site conditions, the presented approaches were proven to be suitable for damage detection and characterization, i.e., damage localization and, to certain extent, quantification. This is illustrated by two applications presented in detail in this paper: the first on a post-tensioned concrete bridge and the second on segmented concrete pipeline.

  5. Characterization of photoactivated singlet oxygen damage in single-molecule optical trap experiments.

    PubMed

    Landry, Markita P; McCall, Patrick M; Qi, Zhi; Chemla, Yann R

    2009-10-21

    Optical traps or "tweezers" use high-power, near-infrared laser beams to manipulate and apply forces to biological systems, ranging from individual molecules to cells. Although previous studies have established that optical tweezers induce photodamage in live cells, the effects of trap irradiation have yet to be examined in vitro, at the single-molecule level. In this study, we investigate trap-induced damage in a simple system consisting of DNA molecules tethered between optically trapped polystyrene microspheres. We show that exposure to the trapping light affects the lifetime of the tethers, the efficiency with which they can be formed, and their structure. Moreover, we establish that these irreversible effects are caused by oxidative damage from singlet oxygen. This reactive state of molecular oxygen is generated locally by the optical traps in the presence of a sensitizer, which we identify as the trapped polystyrene microspheres. Trap-induced oxidative damage can be reduced greatly by working under anaerobic conditions, using additives that quench singlet oxygen, or trapping microspheres lacking the sensitizers necessary for singlet state photoexcitation. Our findings are relevant to a broad range of trap-based single-molecule experiments-the most common biological application of optical tweezers-and may guide the development of more robust experimental protocols.

  6. Use of nondestructive inspection and fiber optic sensing for damage characterization in carbon fiber fuselage structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neidigk, Stephen; Le, Jacqui; Roach, Dennis; Duvall, Randy; Rice, Tom

    2014-04-01

    To investigate a variety of nondestructive inspection technologies and assess impact damage characteristics in carbon fiber aircraft structure, the FAA Airworthiness Assurance Center, operated by Sandia National Labs, fabricated and impact tested two full-scale composite fuselage sections. The panels are representative of structure seen on advanced composite transport category aircraft and measured approximately 56"x76". The structural components consisted of a 16 ply skin, co-cured hat-section stringers, fastened shear ties and frames. The material used to fabricate the panels was T800 unidirectional pre-preg (BMS 8-276) and was processed in an autoclave. Simulated hail impact testing was conducted on the panels using a high velocity gas gun with 2.4" diameter ice balls in collaboration with the University of California San Diego (UCSD). Damage was mapped onto the surface of the panels using conventional, hand deployed ultrasonic inspection techniques, as well as more advanced ultrasonic and resonance scanning techniques. In addition to the simulated hail impact testing performed on the panels, 2" diameter steel tip impacts were used to produce representative impact damage which can occur during ground maintenance operations. The extent of impact damage ranges from less than 1 in2 to 55 in2 of interply delamination in the 16 ply skin. Substructure damage on the panels includes shear tie cracking and stringer flange disbonding. It was demonstrated that the fiber optic distributed strain sensing system is capable of detecting impact damage when bonded to the backside of the fuselage.

  7. Sub-picosecond laser induced damage test facility for petawatt reflective optical components characterizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sozet, Martin; Néauport, Jérôme; Lavastre, Eric; Roquin, Nadja; Gallais, Laurent; Lamaignère, Laurent

    2015-05-01

    While considering long pulse or short pulse high power laser facilities, optical components performances and in particular laser damage resistance are always factors limiting the overall system performances. Consequently, getting a detailed knowledge of the behavior of these optical components under irradiations with large beam in short pulse range is of major importance. In this context, a Laser Induced Damage Threshold test facility called DERIC has been developed at the Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, Bordeaux. It uses an Amplitude Systemes laser source which delivers Gaussian pulses of 500 fs at 1053 nm. 1-on-1, S-on-1 and RasterScan test procedures are implemented to study the behavior of monolayer and multilayer dielectric coatings.

  8. Standardization in optics characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ristau, Detlev

    2000-11-01

    In many advanced fields of optical technology, progresses are extremely dependent on reliable characterization procedures employed for quality assessment in volume manufacturing as well as for the optimization of high performance optical components. With the rapid development of laser technology and modern optics, especially optical metrology gained of importance for the quality management in the industrial production environment and also for research in optical components. Besides absorption and scatter losses, the spectral characteristics and laser induced damage thresholds are considered nowadays as common quality factors, which are often indicated in optics catalogues and are considered by the customers for the design of optical systems. As a consequence of this trend, standardization of measurement procedures for the characterization of optical components became a crucial point for the optics industry and for critical applications of optical components in laser systems as well as conventional optical devices. During the last decade, adapted standard measurement techniques have been elaborated and discussed in the Technical Committee ISO/TC 172 of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) resulting in practical International Standards or Draft Standards for the measurement of optical absorption, scattering, reflectance and laser induced damage thresholds. In this paper, the current state of standardized characterization techniques for optical components is summarized. Selected standards for the measurement of absorption (ISO 11551), scattering (ISO/DIS 13696) and laser induced damage thresholds (ISO/DIS 11254, Parts 1 and 2) will be described and discussed in view of recent trends in laser technology and its applications in semiconductor lithography.

  9. Optical characterization of free-falling mold-damaged wheat kernels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delwiche, Stephen R.

    2007-09-01

    One of the most common molds that infects the seeds of small cereals worldwide, such as wheat, is Fusarium Head Blight (FHB). The mycotoxin, deoxynivalenol (also known as DON or vomitoxin) is often produced by this mold, which, upon ingestion, causes health problems to not only livestock (especially non-ruminants), but to humans as well. In the United States, the FDA has established advisory levels for DON in food and feeds, a practice that is likewise conducted by most countries of the world. Our previous research has shown that commercial high-speed optical sorters are on average 50 percent efficient at the removal of mold-damaged kernels; however, under more careful control in the laboratory, this efficiency can rise to 95 percent or better. Ongoing research is examining the potential to achieve the higher efficiencies at conditions that are more akin to those of commercial processing. For example, multispectral information is collected on single kernels in freefall at the sub-millisecond level. Knowledge gained from this research will provide design criteria for improvement of high-speed optical sorters for reduction of DON in raw cereals commodities, as well as in finished food products.

  10. Damage characterization of SOC mirrors, AGT-86

    SciTech Connect

    Syn, C.K.; Edwards, D.F.; Wirtenson, G.R.

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-three different coating designs were exposed to the intense soft x-ray radiation from the Blackjack 5 source. A number of post- test measurements were made to characterize the x-ray effects. Reported here are the results of the metallographic characterizations. The objectives were to identify the probable causes of any observed damage and to determine the damage mechanisms and their temporal behaviors. These characterization data have been correlated with light scattering data and code predictions to aid in the development of a fundamental understanding of the requirements for the survivability of optical coatings in a nuclear environment. 7 refs; 6 figs; 1 tab.

  11. Method for producing damage resistant optics

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, Lloyd A.; Burnham, Alan K.; Penetrante, Bernardino M.; Brusasco, Raymond M.; Wegner, Paul J.; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.; Kozlowski, Mark R.; Feit, Michael D.

    2003-01-01

    The present invention provides a system that mitigates the growth of surface damage in an optic. Damage to the optic is minimally initiated. In an embodiment of the invention, damage sites in the optic are initiated, located, and then treated to stop the growth of the damage sites. The step of initiating damage sites in the optic includes a scan of the optic using a laser to initiate defects. The exact positions of the initiated sites are identified. A mitigation process is performed that locally or globally removes the cause of subsequent growth of the damaged sites.

  12. Evaluating Subsurface Damage in Optical Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y.

    2011-02-01

    Hard brittle materials (e.g. glasses and ceramics) increasingly appeal to general interests because of their excellent physical, mechanical and chemical properties such as super hardness and strength at extreme temperature and chemical stability. The precision manufacturing of these materials is primarily achieved by grinding and polishing, which generally employs abrasives to wear the materials. With this manufacturing technology, the materials are removed due principally to the fracture of brittle materials, which will leave a cracked layer on the surface of manufactured components, namely subsurface damage (SSD). The subsurface damage affects the strength, performance and lifetime of components. As a result, investigation into the subsurface damage is needed. A host of characterizing techniques have been developed during the past several decades. These techniques based on different mechanisms provide researchers with invaluable information on the subsurface damage in various materials. In this article the typical SSD evaluation techniques are reviewed, which are regularly used in optical workshops or laboratories.

  13. Structurally integrated fiber optic damage assessment system for composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Measures, R. M.; Glossop, N. D. W.; Lymer, J.; Leblanc, M.; West, J.

    1989-07-01

    Progress toward the development of a fiber optic damage assessment system for composite materials is reported. This system, based on the fracture of embedded optical fibers, has been characterized with respect to the orientation and location of the optical fibers in the composite. Together with a special treatment, these parameters have been tailored to yield a system capable of detecting the threshold of damage for various impacted Kevlar/epoxy panels. The technique has been extended to measure the growth of a damage region which could arise from either impact, manufacturing flaws, or static overloading. The mechanism of optical fiber fracture has also been investigated. In addition, the influence of embedded optical fibers on the tensile and compressive strength of the composite material has been studied. Image enhanced backlighting has been shown to be a powerful and convenient method of assessing internal damage to translucent composite materials.

  14. Structurally integrated fiber optic damage assessment system for composite materials.

    PubMed

    Measures, R M; Glossop, N D; Lymer, J; Leblanc, M; West, J; Dubois, S; Tsaw, W; Tennyson, R C

    1989-07-01

    Progress toward the development of a fiber optic damage assessment system for composite materials is reported. This system, based on the fracture of embedded optical fibers, has been characterized with respect to the orientation and location of the optical fibers in the composite. Together with a special treatment, these parameters have been tailored to yield a system capable of detecting the threshold of damage for various impacted Kevlar/epoxy panels. The technique has been extended to measure the growth of a damage region which could arise from either impact, manufacturing flaws, or static overloading. The mechanism of optical fiber fracture has also been investigated. In addition, the influence of embedded optical fibers on the tensile and compressive strength of the composite material has been studied. Image enhanced backlighting has been shown to be a powerful and convenient method of assessing internal damage to translucent composite materials.

  15. Structurally Integrated Fiber Optic Damage Assessment System For Composite Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Measures, R. M.; Glossop, N. D. W.; Lymer, J.; Leblanc, M.; West, J.; Dubois, S.; Tsaw, W.; Tennyson, R. C.

    1989-01-01

    Progress toward the development of a fiber optic damage assessment system for composite materials is reported. This system, which is based on the fracture of embedded optical fibers, has been characterized with respect to the orientation and location of the optical Fibers in the composite. Together with a special treatment, these parameters have been tailored to yield a system capable of detecting the threshold of damage for various impacted Kevlar/epoxy panels. The technique has been extended to measure the growth of a damage region which could arise either from impact, manufacturing flaws, or static overloading. The mechanism of optical fiber fracture has also been investigated. In addition, the influence of imbedded optical fibers on the tensile and compressive strength of the composite material has been studied. Image enhanced backlighting has been shown to be a powerful and convenient method of assessing internal damage to translucent composite materials.

  16. Methods for globally treating silica optics to reduce optical damage

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Philip Edward; Suratwala, Tayyab Ishaq; Bude, Jeffrey Devin; Shen, Nan; Steele, William Augustus; Laurence, Ted Alfred; Feit, Michael Dennis; Wong, Lana Louie

    2012-11-20

    A method for preventing damage caused by high intensity light sources to optical components includes annealing the optical component for a predetermined period. Another method includes etching the optical component in an etchant including fluoride and bi-fluoride ions. The method also includes ultrasonically agitating the etching solution during the process followed by rinsing of the optical component in a rinse bath.

  17. Optical components damage parameters database system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Yizheng; Li, Xinglan; Jin, Yuquan; Xie, Dongmei; Tang, Dingyong

    2012-10-01

    Optical component is the key to large-scale laser device developed by one of its load capacity is directly related to the device output capacity indicators, load capacity depends on many factors. Through the optical components will damage parameters database load capacity factors of various digital, information technology, for the load capacity of optical components to provide a scientific basis for data support; use of business processes and model-driven approach, the establishment of component damage parameter information model and database systems, system application results that meet the injury test optical components business processes and data management requirements of damage parameters, component parameters of flexible, configurable system is simple, easy to use, improve the efficiency of the optical component damage test.

  18. Large area damage testing of optics

    SciTech Connect

    Sheehan, L.; Kozlowski, M.; Stolz, C.

    1996-04-26

    The damage threshold specifications for the National Ignition Facility will include a mixture of standard small-area tests and new large-area tests. During our studies of laser damage and conditioning processes of various materials we have found that some damage morphologies are fairly small and this damage does not grow with further illumination. This type of damage might not be detrimental to the laser performance. We should therefore assume that some damage can be allowed on the optics, but decide on a maximum damage allowance of damage. A new specification of damage threshold termed {open_quotes}functional damage threshold{close_quotes} was derived. Further correlation of damage size and type to system performance must be determined in order to use this measurement, but it is clear that it will be a large factor in the optics performance specifications. Large-area tests have verified that small-area testing is not always sufficient when the optic in question has defect-initiated damage. This was evident for example on sputtered polarizer and mirror coatings where the defect density was low enough that the features could be missed by standard small- area testing. For some materials, the scale-length at which damage non-uniformities occur will effect the comparison of small-area and large-area tests. An example of this was the sub-aperture tests on KD*P crystals on the Beamlet test station. The tests verified the large-area damage threshold to be similar to that found when testing a small-area. Implying that for this KD*P material, the dominate damage mechanism is of sufficiently small scale-length that small-area testing is capable of determining the threshold. The Beamlet test station experiments also demonstrated the use of on-line laser conditioning to increase the crystals damage threshold.

  19. Optical detection of DNA damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Kim R.; Apostol, A.; Cembrano, J.

    1999-02-01

    A rapid and sensitive fluorescence assay for oxidative damage to calf thymus DNA is reported. A decrease in the transition temperature for strand separation resulted from exposure of the DNA to the reactive decomposition products of 3- morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1) (i.e., nitric oxide, superoxide, peroxynitrite, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radicals). A decrease in melting temperature of 12 degrees Celsius was indicative of oxidative damage including single strand chain breaks. Double stranded (ds) and single stranded (ss) forms of DNA were determined using the indicator dyes ethidium bromide and PicoGreen. The change in DNA 'melting' curves was dependant on the concentration of SIN-1 and was most pronounced at 75 degrees Celsius. This chemically induced damage was significantly inhibited by sodium citrate, tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (Tris), and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), but was unaffected by superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, ethylenediamine tetraacietic acid (EDTA), or deferoxamine. Lowest observable effect level for SIN-1-induced damage was 200 (mu) M.

  20. Electro-Optical Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-06-01

    In the Electro-Optical Characterization group, within the National Center for Photovoltaic's Measurements and Characterization Division, we use various electrical and optical experimental techniques to relate photovoltaic device performance to the methods and materials used to produce them. The types of information obtained by these techniques range from small-scale atomic-bonding information to large-scale macroscopic quantities such as optical constants and electron-transport properties. Accurate and timely measurement of the electro-optical properties as a function of device processing provides researchers and manufacturers with the knowledge needed to troubleshoot problems and develop the knowledge base necessary for reducing cost, maximizing efficiency, improving reliability, and enhancing manufacturability. We work collaboratively with you to solve materials- and device-related R&D problems. This sheet summarizes our primary techniques and capabilities.

  1. FIBER OPTIC BIOSENSOR FOR DNA DAMAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes a fiber optic biosensor for the rapid and sensitive detection of radiation-induced or chemically-induced oxidative DNA damage. The assay is based on the hybridization and temperature-induced dissociation (melting curves) of synthetic oligonucleotides. The...

  2. FIBER OPTIC BIOSENSOR FOR DNA DAMAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes a fiber optic biosensor for the rapid and sensitive detection of radiation-induced or chemically-induced oxidative DNA damage. The assay is based on the hybridization and temperature-induced dissociation (melting curves) of synthetic oligonucleotides. The...

  3. Characterizing optical polishing pitch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varshneya, Rupal; DeGroote, Jessica E.; Gregg, Leslie L.; Jacobs, Stephen D.

    2003-05-01

    Characterization data for five experimental optical polishing pitch products were compared to those for corresponding standard commercial optical polishing pitches. The experimental pitches were tested for three physical properties: hardness, viscosity at 90°C, and softening point. A Shore A Durometer test was used to measure hardness. Viscosity data were collected using a Stony Brook Scientific falling needle viscometer. Softening point was determined using the ASTM D3104-97 method. Results demonstrate that the softest and the hardest batches of the experimental grades of optical pitch are comparable to the industry-accepted standards, while the other grades of pitch are not. The experimental methodology followed in this research may allow opticians to rapidly compare different brands of pitch to help identify batch-to-batch differences and control pitch quality before use.

  4. Optical characterization of muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Luís; Lage, Armindo; Pais Clemente, Manuel; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2011-10-01

    Optical characterization and internal structure of biological tissues is highly important for biomedical optics. In particular for optical clearing processes, such information is of vital importance to understand the mechanisms involved through the variation of the refractive indices of tissue components. The skeletal muscle presents a fibrous structure with an internal arrangement of muscle fiber cords surrounded by interstitial fluid that is responsible for strong light scattering. To determine the refractive index of muscle components we have used a simple method of measuring tissue mass and refractive index during dehydration. After performing measurements for natural and ten dehydration states of the muscle samples, we have determined the dependence between the refractive index of the muscle and its water content. Also, we have joined our measurements with some values reported in literature to perform some calculations that have permitted to determine the refractive index of the dried muscle fibers and their corresponding volume percentage inside the natural muscle.

  5. Optical characterization of muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Luís; Lage, Armindo; Pais Clemente, Manuel; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2012-03-01

    Optical characterization and internal structure of biological tissues is highly important for biomedical optics. In particular for optical clearing processes, such information is of vital importance to understand the mechanisms involved through the variation of the refractive indices of tissue components. The skeletal muscle presents a fibrous structure with an internal arrangement of muscle fiber cords surrounded by interstitial fluid that is responsible for strong light scattering. To determine the refractive index of muscle components we have used a simple method of measuring tissue mass and refractive index during dehydration. After performing measurements for natural and ten dehydration states of the muscle samples, we have determined the dependence between the refractive index of the muscle and its water content. Also, we have joined our measurements with some values reported in literature to perform some calculations that have permitted to determine the refractive index of the dried muscle fibers and their corresponding volume percentage inside the natural muscle.

  6. Optical characterization of microcrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, L.; Eimerl, D.; Velsko, S.

    1987-12-10

    A new method to optical characterization of microcrystals is described and illustrated with experimental results. Techniques for characterizing the linear and nonlinear parameters of new materials at early stages of crystal growth have been developed. The linear indices of refraction and their dispersion are determined using combined methods of spindle stage microscopy and refractometry. This method has been extended to measurements at nonvisible wavelengths. An SHG apparatus of novel design is used to evaluate the overall nonlinearity. Both methods are used to study materials with single crystal domains as small as 50 ..mu..m. 14 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Extreme nonlinear optics and laser damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldutis, Evaldas

    2010-11-01

    The study of laser induced damage threshold caused by series of identical laser pulses (LID-T-N) on gamma radiation resistant glasses and their analogs is performed applying know-how ultra stable laser radiation. The presented results and analysis of earlier received results show that nonlinear optical phenomena in extreme conditions of interaction are different from the traditional nonlinear optical processes, because they depend not only on intensity of electromagnetic field of laser radiation, but also on the pulse number in series of identical laser pulses. This range of laser intensities is not wide; it is different for each material and determines the range of Extreme Nonlinear Optics. The dependence of LID-T-N on pulse number N for different kinds of high quality transparent glasses was observed. The study of dynamics of these processes (i.e. the study of dependence on N) at different intensities in series of incident laser pulses provides new information about properties of the materials useful for studying laser damage fundamentals and their application. The expectation that gamma radiation resistant glasses could give useful information for technology of resistant optics for high power lasers has not proved. The received results well correspond with the earlier proposed model of laser damage.

  8. Damage Characterization in Copper Deformed under Hydrostatic Stress - Experimental Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Flater, P. J.; House, J. W.; Nixon, M. E.

    2006-07-28

    The results of an experimental investigation designed to determine the effect of damage created by hydrostatic tensile loading on the properties of copper are reported. Three metallurgical conditions of half-hard OFHC copper were investigated; as worked; annealed 2hr at 400 deg. C ({approx}40 micron grain diameter); and annealed 2hr at 800 deg. C ({approx}80 micron grain diameter). Mechanical property characterization included uniaxial compression tests. High rate plasticity and damage was introduced by Taylor and rod-on-rod impact tests. The damage from the high rate experiments was characterized using optical and scanning electron microscopy. Quasi-static compression specimens machined from recovered high rate samples were tested to determine the influence of damage on the mechanical response of the material. The compression test results will be discussed in relationship to the starting microstructure and the extent of damaged introduced into the material.

  9. Modeling and characterization of recompressed damaged materials

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, R; Cazamias, J U; Kalantar, D H; LeBlanc, M M; Springer, H K

    2004-02-11

    Experiments have been performed to explore conditions under which spall damage is recompressed with the ultimate goal of developing a predictive model. Spall is introduced through traditional gas gun techniques or with laser ablation. Recompression techniques producing a uniaxial stress state, such as a Hopkinson bar, do not create sufficient confinement to close the porosity. Higher stress triaxialities achieved through a gas gun or laser recompression can close the spall. Characterization of the recompressed samples by optical metallography and electron microscopy reveal a narrow, highly deformed process zone. At the higher pressures achieved in the gas gun, little evidence of spall remains other than differentially etched features in the optical micrographs. With the very high strain rates achieved with laser techniques there is jetting from voids and other signs of turbulent metal flow. Simulations of spall and recompression on micromechanical models containing a single void suggest that it might be possible to represent the recompression using models similar to those employed for void growth. Calculations using multiple, randomly distributed voids are needed to determine if such models will yield the proper behavior for more realistic microstructures.

  10. Atomic oxygen damage characterization by photothermal scanning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, A. W.; Wood, N. J.; Zakaria, A. B.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we use a photothermal imaging technique to characterize the damage caused to an imperfectly coated gold-coated Kapton sample exposed to successively increased fluences of atomic oxygen in a laboratory atomic source.

  11. Phonons, defects and optical damage in crystalline acetanilide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosic, Thomas J.; Hill, Jeffrey R.; Dlott, Dana D.

    1986-04-01

    Intense picosecond pulses cause accumulated optical damage in acetanilide crystals at low temperature. Catastrophic damage to the irradiated volume occurs after an incubation period where defects accumulate. The optical damage is monitored with subanosecond time resolution. The generation of defects is studied with damage-detected picosecond spectroscopy. The accumulation of defects is studied by time-resolved coherent Raman scattering, which is used to measure optical phonon scattering from the accumulating defects.

  12. Fracture Induced Sub-Band Absorption as a Precursor to Optical Damage on Fused Silica Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, P E; Bude, J D; Suratwala, T I; Shen, N; Laurence, T A; Steele, W A; Menapace, J; Feit, M D; Wong, L L

    2010-03-05

    The optical damage threshold of indentation induced flaws on fused silica surfaces was explored. Mechanical flaws were characterized by laser damaged testing, SEM, optical, and photoluminescence microscopy. Localized polishing, chemical etching, and the control of indentation morphology were used to isolate the structural features which limit optical damage. A thin defect layer on fracture surfaces, including those smaller than the wavelength of visible light, was found to be the dominant source of laser damage initiation during illumination with 355nm, 3ns laser pulses. Little evidence was found that either displaced or densified material or fluence intensification plays a significant role in optical damage at fluences >35J/cm{sup 2}. Elimination of the defect layer was shown to increase the overall damage performance of fused silica optics.

  13. CHARACTERIZATION OF THERMALLY DAMAGED LX-17

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, P C

    2007-07-11

    Thermal damage was applied to LX-17 at 190 C for several hours. The damaged LX-17 samples, after cooled down to room temperature, were characterized for their material properties (density, porosity, permeability, moduli), safety, and performance. Weight losses upon thermal exposure were insignificant (< 0.1% wt.). The damaged LX-17 samples expanded, resulting in a bulk density reduction of 4.3%. Subsequent detonation measurements (cylinder tests) were conducted on the thermally-damaged LX-17 samples. The results showed that the fractions of damaged LX-17 reacted were slightly lower than those of pristine LX-17. The thermally damaged LX-17 had a detonation velocity of 7.315 mm/{micro}s, lower than that (7.638 mm/{micro}s) of pristine LX-17. Detonation energy density for the damaged LX-17 was 5.08 kJ/cm{sup 3}, about 9.0% lower than the detonation energy density of 5.50 kJ/cm{sup 3} for the pristine LX-17. The break-out curves showed reaction zone lengths for pristine LX-17 and damaged LX-17 were similar but the damaged samples had ragged detonation fronts.

  14. Automated damage test facilities for materials development and production optic quality assurance at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Battersby, C; Dickson, R; Jennings, R; Kimmons, J; Kozlowski, M R; Maricle, S; Mouser, R; Runkel, M; Schwartz, S; Sheehan, L M; Weinzapfel, C

    1998-12-22

    The Laser Program at LLNL has developed automated facilities for damage testing optics up to 1 meter in diameter. The systems were developed to characterize the statistical distribution of localized damage performance across large-aperture National Ignition Facility optics. Full aperture testing is a key component of the quality assurance program for several of the optical components. The primary damage testing methods used are R:1 mapping and raster scanning. Automation of these test methods was required to meet the optics manufacturing schedule. The automated activities include control and diagnosis of the damage-test laser beam as well as detection and characterization of damage events.

  15. Triboluminescent Materials for Smart Optical Damage Sensors for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aggarwal, M. D.; Penn, B. G.; Miller, J.; Sadate, S.; Batra, A. K.

    2008-01-01

    There is a need to develop a new technique of damage detection for composites, which could detect cracking or delamination from any desired location within a material structure in real time. Recently, triboluminescent materials have been proposed as smart sensors of structural damage. To sense the damage, these materials can be epoxy bonded, coated in a polymer matrix, or embedded in a composite host structure. When the damage or fracture takes place in the host structure, the resultant fracture of triboluminescent crystals creates a light emission. This will warn in real time that structural damage has occurred. The triboluminescent emission of the candidate phosphor has to be bright enough that the light reaching from the point of fracture to the detector through a fiber optic cable is detectable. There are a large number of triboluminescent materials, but few satisfy the above criterion. The authors have synthesized an organic material known as Europium tetrakis (dibenzoylmethide) triethylammonium (EuD4TEA), which is a potential candidate for application as a damage sensor and could be made into a wireless sensor with the addition of microchip, antenna, and electronics. Preliminary results on the synthesis and characterization of this material are presented.

  16. Nanosecond laser damage of optical multimode fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Guido; Krüger, Jörg

    2016-07-01

    For pulse laser materials processing often optical step index and gradient index multimode fibers with core diameters ranging from 100 to 600 μm are used. The design of a high power fiber transmission system must take into account limitations resulting from both surface and volume damage effects. Especially, breakdown at the fiber end faces and selffocusing in the fiber volume critically influence the fiber performance. At least operation charts are desirable to select the appropriate fiber type for given laser parameters. In industry-relevant studies the influence of fiber core diameter and end face preparation on laser-induced (surface) damage thresholds (LIDT) was investigated for frequently used all-silica fiber types (manufacturer LEONI). Experiments on preform material (initial fiber material) and compact specimens (models of the cladding and coating material) accompanied the tests performed in accordance with the relevant LIDT standards ISO 21254-1 and ISO 21254-2 for 1-on-1 and S-on-1 irradiation conditions, respectively. The relation beam diameter vs. LIDT was investigated for fused silica fibers. Additionally, laser-induced (bulk) damage thresholds of fused silica preform material F300 (manufacturer Heraeus) in dependence on external mechanical stress simulating fiber bending were measured. All experiments were performed with 10-ns laser pulses at 1064 and 532 nm wavelength with a Gaussian beam profile.

  17. Optical damage limits in chalcogenide nonlinear crystals used in 1064nm pumped nanosecond optical parametric oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Valentin; Marchev, Georgi; Tyazhev, Aleksey; Starikova, Marina; Esteban-Martin, Adolfo; Panyutin, Vladimir; Badikov, Valeriy; Shevyrdyaeva, Galina; Badikov, Dmitrii; Reza, Manuel; Sheina, Svetlana; Fintisova, Anna

    2013-07-01

    We investigated optical damage (surface and bulk) in wide band-gap (absorption edge below 532 nm) sulphide and selenide nonlinear crystals that can be used in 1064-nm pumped optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) for generation of idler pulses above 4 μm without two-photon absorption losses at the pump wavelength. The optical damage has been characterized at the pump wavelength for different repetition rates. Surface damage has been studied for uncoated and antireflection-coated (mainly with a single layer for pump and signal wavelengths) samples. Optical damage inside the OPO has a lower threshold and represents at present the principal limitation for the achievable output. It is related to peak and not to average intensities and in many of the studied crystals bulk damage in the form of scattering centers occurs before surface damage. Such bulk damage formation is faster at higher repetition rate. Lower repetition rates increase the lifetime of the crystal but do not solve the problem. In the most successful nonlinear crystal (both in terms of output energy and average power), orange-phase HgGa2S4, the safe pump intensity in extracavity measurements is below 100 MW/cm2 which corresponds to less than 1 J/cm2 for the 8 ns pulse duration (both values peak on-axis). In the OPO, however, peak on-axis fluence should not exceed 0.3 J/cm2 limited by the formation of bulk scattering centers. The damage resistivity of yellow-phase HgGa2S4 or Cd-doped HgGa2S4 is higher and of the almost colorless CdGa2S4 it is roughly two times higher but the latter has no sufficient birefringence for phase-matching.

  18. Cleanliness and damage measurements of optics in atmospheric sensing high energy lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, G.A.; Chyba, T.H.; Cimolino, M.C.

    1996-12-31

    Langley Research Center has several atmospheric remote sensing programs which utilize, high energy pulsed lasers. These lasers typically have many damaged optics after several million shots. Damage is defined herein as color changes and/or optical flaws seen in microscopic inspection, and does not necessarily relate to measured performance degradation of the optic. Inspections and measurements of some of these optics indicate that energy thresholds for several million shots damage is about an order of magnitude lower than that for single shot damage. Damage initiation is often at micron size areas at the coating interface, which grows and sometimes develops as erosion of the top of the coating. There is a wide range in polish and coating quality of new optics, even on different faces of the same optic. Military Standard 1246C can be used to provide overall particulate, and molecular film, or nonvolatile residue (NTVR) cleanliness scales. Microscopic inspections and photography at I0x to 500x with brightfield (perpendicular) and darkfield (oblique) illumination are useful in assigning cleanliness levels of new and in-service optics. Microextraction (effecting concentration of molecular films to small areas) provides for enhanced optical detection and surface film chemical analysis by electron-microscope energy-dispersive-spectroscopy (EDS). Similar measurement techniques can be used to characterize and document optical damage initiation and optical damage growth. Surface contamination interferes with and complicates measurements of polish and coating quality, and of optical damage. This work indicates ultrasonic cleaning, and packaging of optics in Teflon sleeves or cups is advantageous over conventional cleaning and packaging for characterization of new optics.

  19. Cleanliness and damage measurements of optics in atmospheric-sensing high-energy lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, Gale A.; Chyba, Thomas H.; Cimolino, Marc C.

    1996-05-01

    Langley Research Center has several atmospheric remote sensing programs which utilize high energy pulsed lasers. These lasers typically have many damaged optics after several million shots. Damage is defined herein as color changes and/or optical flaws seen in microscopic inspection, and does not necessarily relate to measured performance degradation of the optic. Inspections and measurements of some of these optics indicate that energy thresholds for several million shots damage is about an order of magnitude lower than that for single shot damage. Damage initiation is often at micron size areas at the coating interface, which grows and sometimes develops as erosion of the top of the coating. There is a wide range in polish and coating quality of new optics, even on different faces of the same optic. Military Standard 1246C can be used to provide overall particulate, and molecular film, or nonvolatile residue cleanliness scales. Microscopic inspections and photography at 10X to 500X with brightfield (perpendicular) and darkfield (oblique) illumination are useful in assigning cleanliness levels of new and in-service optics. Microextraction (effecting concentration of molecular films to small areas) provides for enhanced optical detection and surface film chemical analysis by electron-microscope energy-dispersive-spectroscopy. Similar measurement techniques can be used to characterize and document optical damage initiation and optical damage growth. Surface contamination interferes with and complicated measurements of polish and coating quality, and of optical damage. Our work indicates ultrasonic cleaning, and packaging of optics in Teflon sleeves or cups is advantageous over conventional cleaning and packaging for characterization of new optics.

  20. Triboluminescent Materials for Smart Optical Damage Sensors for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aggarwal, Mohan D.; Penn, Benjamin G.; Miller, Jim

    2007-01-01

    Triboluminescence is light that is produced by pressure, friction or mechanical shock. New composite materials are constantly being reengi neered in an effort to make lightweight spacecrafts for various NASA missions. For these materials there is interest in monitoring the con dition of the composite in real time to detect any delamination or cr acking due to damage, fatigue or external forces. Methods of periodic inspection of composite structures for mechanical damage such as ult rasonic testing are rather mature. However, there is a need to develop a new technique of damage detection for composites, which could dete ct cracking or delamination from any desired location within a materi al structure in real time. This could provide a valuable tool in the confident use of composite materials for various space applications. Recently, triboluminnescent materials have been proposed as smart sen sors of structural damage. To sense the damage, these materials can b e epoxy bonded or coated in a polymer matrix or embedded in a composi te host structure. When the damage or fracture takes place in the hos t structure, it will lead to the fracture of triboluminescent crystal s resulting in a light emission. This will warn, in real time, that a structural damage has occurred. The triboluminescent emission of the candidate phosphor has to be sufficiently bright, so that the light signal reaching from the point of fracture to the detector through a fiber optic cable is sufficiently strong to be detected. There are a large number of triboluminescent materials, but few satisfy the above criterion. Authors have synthesized a Eu based organic material know n as Europium tetrakis (dibenzoylmethide) triethylammonium .(EuD(sub 4)TEA), one of the bright triboluminescent materials, which is a pote ntial candidate for application as a damage sensor and could be made into a wireless sensor with the addition of microchip, antenna and el ectronics. Preliminary results on the synthesis and

  1. Triboluminescent Materials for Smart Optical Damage Sensors for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aggarwal, Mohan D.; Penn, Benjamin G.; Miller, Jim

    2007-01-01

    Triboluminescence is light that is produced by pressure, friction or mechanical shock. New composite materials are constantly being reengi neered in an effort to make lightweight spacecrafts for various NASA missions. For these materials there is interest in monitoring the con dition of the composite in real time to detect any delamination or cr acking due to damage, fatigue or external forces. Methods of periodic inspection of composite structures for mechanical damage such as ult rasonic testing are rather mature. However, there is a need to develop a new technique of damage detection for composites, which could dete ct cracking or delamination from any desired location within a materi al structure in real time. This could provide a valuable tool in the confident use of composite materials for various space applications. Recently, triboluminnescent materials have been proposed as smart sen sors of structural damage. To sense the damage, these materials can b e epoxy bonded or coated in a polymer matrix or embedded in a composi te host structure. When the damage or fracture takes place in the hos t structure, it will lead to the fracture of triboluminescent crystal s resulting in a light emission. This will warn, in real time, that a structural damage has occurred. The triboluminescent emission of the candidate phosphor has to be sufficiently bright, so that the light signal reaching from the point of fracture to the detector through a fiber optic cable is sufficiently strong to be detected. There are a large number of triboluminescent materials, but few satisfy the above criterion. Authors have synthesized a Eu based organic material know n as Europium tetrakis (dibenzoylmethide) triethylammonium .(EuD(sub 4)TEA), one of the bright triboluminescent materials, which is a pote ntial candidate for application as a damage sensor and could be made into a wireless sensor with the addition of microchip, antenna and el ectronics. Preliminary results on the synthesis and

  2. Modeling and Characterization of Recompressed Damaged Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, R; Belak, J; Campbell, G

    2002-12-16

    Ductile metals subjected to shock loading can develop internal damage through nucleation growth and coalescence of voids. The extent of damage can range from a well-defined spall plane induced by light shocks to more widespread damage caused by strong shocks. Because damage materials are often part of a dynamic system, significant additional deformation can occur in extensively damaged materials. To represent material behavior in simulation codes for stockpile stewardship calculations, both the damage and the recompression processes must be modeled accurately. Currently, no experimentally based models of recompression behavior are available for use in numerical simulations. The goals of this project are to (1) perform recompression experiments on samples containing controlled and well-characterized damage, (2) develop a model capturing the recompression behavior and residual strength based on the experimental data and micro-mechanical models, and (3) implement the model in an Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASCI) code (ALE3D). The recompression model, together with failure models based on underlying physical mechanisms, will provide a more accurate representation of material behavior-information that is needed for simulations of explosively loaded materials such as those required by the Stockpile Stewardship Program.

  3. Effect of polishing induced subsurface damages on laser induced damage in fused silica optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiang; Zhao, Heng; Huang, Ying; Cai, Chao; Hu, JiangChuan; Ma, Ping

    2016-10-01

    Conventional used ceria polishing would induce both of Ce contaminants and subsurface damages, which mainly restricts the laser induced damage resistance of fused silica optics. To control the near surface defects, nanometer sized colloidal silica are used to polish fused silica optics after the normal ceria polishing process. Then the contaminant elements and subsurface damages of the polished samples were analyzed by secondary ion mass spectrometry and Nomarski microscopy. It reveals that ceria polishing would introduce lots of subsurface damages whereas colloidal silica polishing induces much fewer subsurface damages especially no fracture induced severe subsurface damages. The laser damage tests reveal that subsequent colloidal silica polishing of the ceria pre-polished samples could gradually eliminate the ceria polishing induced subsurface damages and lower the laser induced damage density accordingly with the increased polishing time. But unlike the damage density, only the severe subsurface damages are totally eliminated could the damage threshold be substantially improved. These results incline to indicate that the subsurface damages have great influence on the laser induced damage density and the fracture related severe subsurface damages will greatly restrict the damage threshold in polished optics.

  4. Optical Materials Characterization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-01

    cannot withstand large stress, we measure the stress- optical effect with a modified Twyman -Green interferometer , which has a sensitivity of about 0.01X...possible for us to detect the shift of 0.01 fringe in a Twyman -Green interferometer . This precision is necessary because the stress-optical effect...polycrystalline ZnSe. In the past, we have obtained the component in by measuring the shift in fringes of Twyman -Green and Fizeau interferometers as a

  5. Subsurface defects of fused silica optics and laser induced damage at 351 nm.

    PubMed

    Hongjie, Liu; Jin, Huang; Fengrui, Wang; Xinda, Zhou; Xin, Ye; Xiaoyan, Zhou; Laixi, Sun; Xiaodong, Jiang; Zhan, Sui; Wanguo, Zheng

    2013-05-20

    Many kinds of subsurface defects are always present together in the subsurface of fused silica optics. It is imperfect that only one kind of defects is isolated to investigate its impact on laser damage. Therefore it is necessary to investigate the impact of subsurface defects on laser induced damage of fused silica optics with a comprehensive vision. In this work, we choose the fused silica samples manufactured by different vendors to characterize subsurface defects and measure laser induced damage. Contamination defects, subsurface damage (SSD), optical-thermal absorption and hardness of fused silica surface are characterized with time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), fluorescence microscopy, photo-thermal common-path interferometer and fully automatic micro-hardness tester respectively. Laser induced damage threshold and damage density are measured by 351 nm nanosecond pulse laser. The correlations existing between defects and laser induced damage are analyzed. The results show that Cerium element and SSD both have a good correlation with laser-induced damage thresholds and damage density. Research results evaluate process technology of fused silica optics in China at present. Furthermore, the results can provide technique support for improving laser induced damage performance of fused silica.

  6. Laser-matter coupling mechanisms governing particulate-induced damage on optical surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, M. J.; Feigenbaum, E.; Demos, S. G.; Raman, R. N.; Qiu, S. R.; Shen, N.; Harris, C.; Negres, R. A.; Norton, M.; Cross, D.; Rubenchik, A. M.

    2016-12-01

    A comprehensive study of laser-induced damage associated with particulate damage on optical surfaces is presented. Contaminant-driven damage on silica windows and multilayer dielectrics is observed to range from shallow pitting to more classical fracture-type damage, depending on particle-substrate material combination, as well as laser pulse characteristics. Ejection dynamics is studied in terms of plasma emission spectroscopy and pump-probe shadowgraphy. Our data is used to assess the momentum coupling between incident energy and the ejected plasma, which dominates the laser-particle-substrate interaction. Beam propagation analysis is also presented to characterize the impact of contaminant-driven surface pitting on optical performance.

  7. Marine Optical Characterizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Dennis K.

    1996-01-01

    The team's major emphasis during this reporting period has been focused on the completion of the operational versions of the Marine Optical Buoys (MOBY's). Other work areas consisted of designing and testing bio-optical instrumentation, evaluating several of the SeaWiFS bio-optical protocols, processing data collected during field experiments, and reprocessing several of the Marine Optical Characteristics Experiment (MOCE) 2 and 3 bio-optical data sets. The team conducted one trip to the operations site in Honolulu, Hawaii, making necessary preparations for future field experiments. Part of the team also traveled to Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, Salinas, CA, and to American Holographic Co. Fitchburg MA, to assist with the fabrication of the next generation Marine Optical Buoys. Technical memoranda are being written to address the remote sensing reflectance, and instrument self-shading protocols. During the Ocean Color 96 meeting discussions with the Spanish on acquiring research vessel support during the MODIS validation period were conducted. A proposal will be generated towards this purpose for an experiment to be conducted off the North African coast during the summer of 1999.

  8. Thermal Damage Characterization of Energetic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, P C; DeHaven, M R; Springer, H K; Maienschein, J L

    2009-08-14

    We conducted thermal damage experiments at 180?C on PBXN-9 and characterized its material properties. Volume expansion at high temperatures was very significant which led to a reduction in material density. 2.6% of weight loss was observed, which was higher than other HMX-based formulations. Porosity of PBXN-9 increased to 16% after thermal exposure. Small-scale safety tests (impact, friction, and spark) showed no significant sensitization when the damaged samples were tested at room temperature. Gas permeation measurements showed that gas permeability in damaged materials was several orders of magnitude higher than that in pristine materials. In-situ measurements of gas permeability and density were proved to be possible at higher temperatures.

  9. Precision short-pulse damage test station utilizing optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification

    SciTech Connect

    Jovanovic, I; Brown, C; Wattellier, B; Nielsen, N; Molander, W; Stuart, B; Pennington, D; Barty, C J

    2004-03-22

    The next generation of high-energy petawatt (HEPW)-class lasers will utilize multilayer dielectric diffraction gratings for pulse compression, due to their high efficiency and high damage threshold for picosecond pulses. The peak power of HEPW lasers will be determined by the aperture and damage threshold of the final dielectric grating in the pulse compressor and final focusing optics. We have developed a short-pulse damage test station for accurate determination of the damage threshold of the optics used on future HEPW lasers. Our damage test station is based on a highly stable, high-beam-quality optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier (OPCPA) operating at 1053 nm at a repetition rate of 10 Hz. We present the design of our OPCPA system pumped by a commercial Q-switched pump laser and the results of the full system characterization. Initial short-pulse damage experiments in the far field using our system have been performed.

  10. Optic probe for semiconductor characterization

    DOEpatents

    Sopori, Bhushan L [Denver, CO; Hambarian, Artak [Yerevan, AM

    2008-09-02

    Described herein is an optical probe (120) for use in characterizing surface defects in wafers, such as semiconductor wafers. The optical probe (120) detects laser light reflected from the surface (124) of the wafer (106) within various ranges of angles. Characteristics of defects in the surface (124) of the wafer (106) are determined based on the amount of reflected laser light detected in each of the ranges of angles. Additionally, a wafer characterization system (100) is described that includes the described optical probe (120).

  11. Characterizing optical chirality

    SciTech Connect

    Bliokh, Konstantin Y.; Nori, Franco

    2011-02-15

    We examine the recently introduced measure of chirality of a monochromatic optical field [Y. Tang and A. E. Cohen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 163901 (2010)] using the momentum (plane-wave) representation and helicity basis. Our analysis clarifies the physical meaning of the measure of chirality and unveils its close relation to the polarization helicity, spin angular momentum, energy density, and Poynting energy flow. We derive the operators of the optical chirality and of the corresponding chiral momentum, which acquire remarkably simple forms in the helicity representation.

  12. Analysis of optics damage growth at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Z. M.; Nostrand, M.; Whitman, P.; Bude, J.

    2015-11-01

    Optics damage growth modeling and analysis at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) has been performed on fused silica. We will show the results of single shot growth comparisons, damage site lifetime comparisons as well as growth metrics for each individual NIF beamline. These results help validate the consistency of the damage growth models and allow us to have confidence in our strategic planning in regards to projected optic usage.

  13. Online damage inspection of optics for ATP system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jing; Jiang, Yu; Mao, Yao; Gan, Xun; Liu, Qiong

    2016-09-01

    In the Electro-Optical acquisition-tracking-pointing system (ATP), the optical components will be damaged with the several influencing factors. In this situation, the rate will increase sharply when the arrival of damage to some extent. As the complex processing techniques and long processing cycle of optical components, the damage will cause the great increase of the system development cost and cycle. Therefore, it is significant to detect the laser-induced damage in the ATP system. At present, the major research on the on-line damage detection technology of optical components is for the large optical system in the international. The relevant detection systems have complicated structures and many of components, and require enough installation space reserved, which do not apply for ATP system. To solve the problem mentioned before, This paper use a method based on machine vision to detect the damage on-line for the present ATP system. To start with, CCD and PC are used for image acquisition. Secondly, smoothing filters are used to restrain false damage points produced by noise. Then, with the shape feature included in the damage image, the OTSU Method which can define the best segmentation threshold automatically is used to achieve the goal to locate the damage regions. At last, we can supply some opinions for the lifetime of the optical components by analyzing the damage data, such as damage area, damage position. The method has the characteristics of few-detectors and simple-structures which can be installed without any changes of the original light path. With the method, experimental results show that it is stable and effective to achieve the goal of detecting the damage of optical components on-line in the ATP system.

  14. Enhanced damage characterization using wavefield imaging methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackshire, James L.

    2017-02-01

    Wavefield imaging methods are becoming a popular tool for characterizing and studying elastic field interactions in a wide variety of material systems. By using a scanning laser vibrometry detection system, the transient displacement fields generated by an ultrasonic source can be visualized and studied in detail. As a tool for quantitative nondestructive evaluation, the visualization of elastic waves provides a unique opportunity for understanding the scattering of elastic waves from insipient damage, where the detection and characterization of damage features using ultrasound can be enhanced in many instances. In the present effort, the detection and direct imaging of fatigue cracks in metals, and delaminations in composites, is described. An examination of the transient displacement fields near the scattering sites show additional details related to the local damage morphology, which can be difficult to account for using traditional far-field NDE sensing methods. A combination of forward models and experimental wavefield imaging methods were used to explore enhancement opportunities for the full 3-dimensional characterization of surface-breaking cracks and delaminations.

  15. Laser induced damage in optical materials: tenth ASTM symposium.

    PubMed

    Glass, A J; Guenther, A H

    1979-07-01

    The tenth annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers (Boulder Damage Symposium) was held at the National Bureau of Standards in Boulder, Colorado, 12-14 September 1978. The symposium was held under the auspices of ASTM Committee F-1, Subcommittee on Laser Standards, with the joint sponsorship of NBS, the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency, the Department of Energy, and the Office of Naval Research. About 175 scientists attended, including representatives of the United Kingdom, France, Canada, Japan, West Germany, and the Soviet Union. The symposium was divided into sessions concerning the measurement of absorption characteristics, bulk material properties, mirrors and surfaces, thin film damage, coating materials and design, and breakdown phenomena. As in previous years, the emphasis of the papers presented was directed toward new frontiers and new developments. Particular emphasis was given to materials for use from 10.6 microm to the UV region. Highlights included surface characterization, thin film-substrate boundaries, and advances in fundamental laser-matter threshold interactions and mechanisms. The scaling of damage thresholds with pulse duration, focal area, and wavelength was also discussed. In commemoration of the tenth symposium in this series, a number of comprehensive review papers were presented to assess the state of the art in various facets of laser induced damage in optical materials. Alexander J. Glass of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory and Arthur H. Guenther of the Air Force Weapons Laboratory were co-chairpersons. The eleventh annual symposium is scheduled for 30-31 October 1979 at the National Bureau of Standards, Boulder, Colorado.

  16. Damage characterization in concrete using diffuse ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shokouhi, Parisa; Niederleithinger, Ernst

    2012-05-01

    Diffuse ultrasonic measurements were used to characterize the state of stress-induced damage (volumetric microcracking) in concrete specimens. The test specimens were subjected to cycles of stepwise uniaxial compression. At each step, the loading (stress- or strain-controlled) was held constant and a series of ultrasonic measurements parallel and perpendicular to the loading were obtained. Unusually long signals were recorded, so that the diffuse ultrasonic regime tailing the coherent field could be studied. In the diffuse regime, the measured ultrasonic response is a superposition of reflections from scatters within concrete and thus, very sensitive to the changes in concrete microstructure. Using Coda Wave Interferometry (CWI), the evolution of diffuse velocity with the increasing load was monitored. The rate of change in the diffusion velocities was shown to be a good indication of the state of (low to medium intensity) damage in concrete.

  17. Surface finish and subsurface damage in polycrystalline optical materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafrir, Shai Negev

    We measure and describe surface microstructure and subsurface damage (SSD) induced by microgrinding of hard metals and hard ceramics used in optical applications. We examine grinding of ceramic materials with bonded abrasives, and, specifically, deterministic microgrinding (DMG). DMG, at fixed nominal infeed rate and with bound diamond abrasive tools, is the preferred technique for optical fabrication of ceramic materials. In DMG material removal is by microcracking. DMG provides cost effective high manufacturing rates, while attaining higher strength and performance, i.e., low level of subsurface damage (SSD). A wide range of heterogeneous materials of interest to the optics industry were studied in this work. These materials include: A binderless tungsten carbide, nonmagnetic Ni-based tungsten carbides, magnetic Co-based tungsten carbides, and, in addition, other hard optical ceramics, such as aluminum oxynitride (Al23O27N5/ALON), polycrystalline alumina (Al2O3/PCA), and chemical vapor deposited (CVD) silicon carbide (Si4C/SiC). These materials are all commercially available. We demonstrate that spots taken with magnetorheological finishing (MRF) platforms can be used for estimating SSD depth induced by the grinding process. Surface morphology was characterized using various microscopy techniques, such as: contact interferometer, noncontact white light interferometer, light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The evolution of surface roughness with the amount of material removed by the MRF process, as measured within the spot deepest point of penetration, can be divided into two stages. In the first stage the induced damaged layer and associated SSD from microgrinding are removed, reaching a low surface roughness value. In the second stage we observe interaction between the MRF process and the material's microstructure as MRF exposes the subsurface without introducing new damage. Line scans taken parallel to the MR

  18. Marine optical characterizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Dennis K.; Ge, Yuntao; Hovey, Phil; King, ED; Stengel, Eric; Yuen, Marilyn; Koval, Larisa

    1995-01-01

    During the past three months, the MOCE Team conducted two field experiments in Mill Creek,Chesapeake Bay, from July 24 to August 4, and at the MOBY operations site at Snug Harbor, Honolulu, Hawaii, from August 15-30, prepared two technical memoranda, and continued MOCE-2 and MOCE-3 data reduction. The primary purposes of the experiments were to test the SeaWiFS 'remote sensing reflectance' protocol, obtain turbid water data for ocean color satellite algorithm development, perform calibration for both Near Infrared (NIR) and Visible Rainbow Spectrometer system, continue assembling the operational Marine Optical Buoy, and to test the MOBY cellular phone communications link at the Lanai mooring site.

  19. Final optics damage inspection (FODI) for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Conder, A; Alger, T; Azevedo, S; Chang, J; Glenn, S; Kegelmeyer, L; Liebman, J; Spaeth, M; Whitman, P

    2007-10-23

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will routinely fire high energy shots (approaching 10 kJ per beamline) through the final optics, located on the target chamber. After a high fluence shot, exceeding 4J/cm2 at 351 nm wavelength, the final optics will be inspected for laser-induced damage. The FODI (Final Optics Damage Inspection) system has been developed for this purpose, with requirements to detect laser-induced damage initiation and to track and size it's the growth to the point at which the optic is removed and the site mitigated. The FODI system is the 'corner stone' of the NIF optic recycle strategy. We will describe the FODI system and discuss the challenges to make optics inspection a routine part of NIF operations.

  20. Laser induced damage in optical materials: eleventh ASTM symposium.

    PubMed

    Bennett, H E; Glass, A J; Guenther, A H; Newnam, B

    1980-07-15

    The eleventh Symposium on Optical Materials for High-Power Lasers (Boulder Damage Symposium) was held at the National Bureau of Standards in Boulder, Colorado, 30-31 October 1979. The symposium was held under the auspices of ASTM Committee F-1, Subcommittee on Laser Standards, with the joint sponsorship of NBS, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the Department of Energy, and the Office of Naval Research. About 150 scientists attended the symposium, including representatives of the United Kingdom, France, Canada, Japan, West Germany, and Denmark. The symposium was divided into sessions concerning transparent optical materials and the measurement of their properties, mirrors and surfaces, thin film characteristics, thin film damage, considerations for high-power systems, and finally theory and breakdown. As in previous years, the emphasis of the papers presented at the symposium was directed toward new frontiers and new developments. Particular emphasis was given to materials for high-power apparatus. The wavelength range of prime interest was from 10.6 microm to the UV region. Highlights included surface characterization, thin film-substrate boundaries, and advances in fundamental laser-matter threshold interactions and mechanisms. The scaling of damage thresholds with pulse duration, focal area, and wavelength was discussed in detail. Harold E. Bennett of the Naval Weapons Center, Alexander J. Glass of the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Arthur H. Guenther of the Air Force Weapons Laboratory, and Brian E. Newnam of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory were cochairpersons. The twelfth annual symposium is scheduled for 30 September-1 October 1980 at the National Bureau of Standards, Boulder, Colorado.

  1. Nonoptical characterization of optical coatings.

    PubMed

    Guenther, K H

    1981-10-15

    Besides the theoretical design of optical interference coatings, the knowledge of their nonoptical properties like chemical composition, structural features, mechanical peculiarities, and environmental stability is often a basic condition for their industrial production. After some remarks on specifications and standards relevant for optical coatings this paper gives a review on various possibilities for nonoptical characterization of optical coatings. Those methods of surface analysis, depth profiling, and electron microscopy available to and widely used by a major coating manufacturer-like Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive (ED) and wavelength dispersive (WD) electron probe microanalysis (EPMA)-are pointed out in more detail and illustrated with examples from daily practice. Other characterization methods, which are less common but very interesting, are also briefly reviewed.

  2. Nondestructive characterization of fatigue damage with thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roesner, Henrik; Sathish, Shamachary; Meyendorf, Norbert

    2001-08-01

    A thermal imaging NDE method has been developed for nondestructive characterization of early stages of fatigue damage. The method is based on evaluation of the thermal effects induced in a material by a short-term mechanical loading. The mechanical loading causes in addition to thermoelastic temperature change, an increase due to heat dissipation that depends upon the microstructure of the material in a characteristic manner. The origin of this heat dissipation is the mechanical damping process. Utilizing the initial temperature rise due to a short-term mechanical loading, the dissipated energy per cycle was evaluated as a thermal parameter. This new thermal NDE parameter allows a quantitative characterization of the mechanical hysteresis, without the need for calibration to eliminate influences of thermal boundary conditions. The measurement of the thermal NDE parameters has been performed on Ti-6Al-4V dog-bone specimens, fatigued in low cycle fatigue (LCF) as well as in high cycle fatigue (HCF) experiments. Characteristic dependence of the NDE parameters on the already accumulated fatigue damage has been observed. The advantage of the thermal method is the applicability to components under service conditions because of simplicity, rapid measurements (a few seconds) and the ability of locally resolved evaluations.

  3. Predicting threshold and location of laser damage on optical surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Siekhaus, Wigbert

    1987-01-01

    An apparatus useful in the prediction of the damage threshold of various optical devices, the location of weak spots on such devices and the location, identification, and elimination of optical surface impurities comprising, a focused and pulsed laser, an photo electric detector/imaging means, and a timer. The weak spots emit photoelectrons when subjected to laser intensities that are less than the intensity actually required to produce the damage. The weak spots may be eliminated by sustained exposure to the laser beam.

  4. Seismic damage identification for steel structures using distributed fiber optics.

    PubMed

    Hou, Shuang; Cai, C S; Ou, Jinping

    2009-08-01

    A distributed fiber optic monitoring methodology based on optic time domain reflectometry technology is developed for seismic damage identification of steel structures. Epoxy with a strength closely associated to a specified structure damage state is used for bonding zigzagged configured optic fibers on the surfaces of the structure. Sensing the local deformation of the structure, the epoxy modulates the signal change within the optic fiber in response to the damage state of the structure. A monotonic loading test is conducted on a steel specimen installed with the proposed sensing system using selected epoxy that will crack at the designated strain level, which indicates the damage of the steel structure. Then, using the selected epoxy, a varying degree of cyclic loading amplitudes, which is associated with different damage states, is applied on a second specimen. The test results show that the specimen's damage can be identified by the optic sensors, and its maximum local deformation can be recorded by the sensing system; moreover, the damage evolution can also be identified.

  5. Laser induced damage in optical materials: ninth ASTM symposium.

    PubMed

    Glass, A J; Guenther, A H

    1978-08-01

    The Ninth Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers (Boulder Damage Symposium) was held at the National Bureau of Standards in Boulder, Colorado, 4-6 October 1977. The symposium was under the auspices of ASTM Committee F-1, Subcommittee on Laser Standards, with the joint sponsorship of NBS, the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency, the Department of Energy (formerly ERDA), and the Office of Naval Research. About 185 scientists attended, including representatives of the United Kingdom, France, Canada, Australia, Union of South Africa, and the Soviet Union. The Symposium was divided into sessions concerning Laser Windows and Materials, Mirrors and Surfaces, Thin Films, Laser Glass and Glass Lasers, and Fundamental Mechanisms. As in previous years, the emphasis of the papers was directed toward new frontiers and new developments. Particular emphasis was given to materials for use from 10.6 microm to the uv region. Highlights included surface characterization, thin film-substrate boundaries, and advances in fundamental laser-matter threshold interactions and mechanisms. The scaling of damage thresholds with pulse duration, focal area, and wavelength were also discussed. Alexander J. Glass of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory and Arthur H. Guenther of the Air Force Weapons Laboratory were co-chairpersons. The Tenth Annual Symposium is scheduled for 12-14 September 1978 at the National Bureau of Standards, Boulder, Colorado.

  6. Damage modeling and statistical analysis of optics damage performance in MJ-class laser systems.

    PubMed

    Liao, Zhi M; Raymond, B; Gaylord, J; Fallejo, R; Bude, J; Wegner, P

    2014-11-17

    Modeling the lifetime of a fused silica optic is described for a multiple beam, MJ-class laser system. This entails combining optic processing data along with laser shot data to account for complete history of optic processing and shot exposure. Integrating with online inspection data allows for the construction of a performance metric to describe how an optic performs with respect to the model. This methodology helps to validate the damage model as well as allows strategic planning and identifying potential hidden parameters that are affecting the optic's performance.

  7. Subsurface damage detection and damage mechanism analysis of chemical-mechanical polished optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Hui; Yang, Wei; Bi, Guo; Yang, Ping; Guo, Yinbiao

    2014-09-01

    Detection of the subsurface damage depth in optical elements has significance on the subsequent material removal amount and improving element surface quality. The paper focuses on the subsurface damage of chemical-mechanical polished K9 specimen, and analyses the chemical-mechanical polishing mechanism and the cause of subsurface damage. A most suitable etchant is chosen and the step-by-step etching method is applied to measure the subsurface damage depth. A microscope is used to detect the damage morphology and the variation trend at different depth. Research shows that the subsurface damage caused by chemical-mechanical polishing is Hertz scratch, and the scratch quantity below surface presents a variation of zero-more-less-disappeared. The K9 specimen is polished for 3 min under the pressure of 2.5 Kgf and the spindle speed of 43139 r/min, thus resulting in a subsurface damage depth 15.3μm.

  8. Calpain inhibitor attenuated optic nerve damage in acute optic neuritis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Das, Arabinda; Guyton, M. Kelly; Smith, Amena; Wallace, Gerald; McDowell, Misty L.; Matzelle, Denise D.; Ray, Swapan K.; Banik, Naren L.

    2012-01-01

    Optic neuritis (ON), which is an acute inflammatory autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS), often occurs in multiple sclerosis (MS). ON is an early diagnostic sign in most MS patients caused by damage to the optic nerve leading to visual dysfunction. Various features of both MS and ON can be studied following induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS, in Lewis rats. Inflammation and cell death in the optic nerve, with subsequent damage to the retinal ganglion cells in the retina, are thought to correlate with visual dysfunction. Thus, characterizing the pathophysiological changes that lead to visual dysfunction in EAE animals may help develop novel targets for therapeutic intervention. We treated EAE animals with and without the calpain inhibitor calpeptin (CP). Our studies demonstrated that the Ca2+-activated neutral protease calpain was upregulated in the optic nerve following induction of EAE at the onset of clinical signs (OCS) of the disease and these changes were attenuated following treatment with CP. These reductions correlated with decreases in inflammation (cytokines, iNOS, COX-2, NF-κB), and microgliosis (i.e. activated microglia). We observed that calpain inhibition reduced astrogliosis (reactive astroglia) and expression of aquaporin 4 (AQP4). The balance of Th1/Th2 cytokine production and also expression of the Th1-related CCR5 and CXCR3 chemokine receptors influence many pathological processes and play both causative and protective roles in neuron damage. Our data indicated that CP suppressed cytokine imbalances. Also, Bax:Bcl-2 ratio, production of tBid, PARP-1, expression and activities of calpain and caspases, and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation were attenuated after treatment with CP. Our results demonstrated that CP decreased demyelination [loss of myelin basic protein (MBP)] and axonal damage [increase in dephosphorylated neurofilament protein (de-NFP), and also

  9. Optical characterization of beef muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Gang; Xia, Jinjun

    2005-11-01

    An objective and reliable method for meat quality measurement will benefit both consumers and meat industry. Among various techniques, optical methods have the advantage of being fast, flexible, inexpensive and nondestructive, which are important characteristics for online quality control. Although there have been great progress in this area, many results are inconsistent and controversial because of the lack of fundamental understanding of in light-meat interactions. Optical measurements on meat tissues are affected by both meat scattering and absorption properties. In the project, a method based on diffuse approximation solution of light transport in tissue was used to derive meat scattering and absorption coefficients. Differentiating muscle scattering properties from absorption properties are important for muscle characterization because they represent distinctly different aspects of muscle physical and chemical components. Our preliminary results showed that scattering coefficients can detect variations in beef steak tenderness. This new technique is promising to be used as an indicator for beef tenderness. However, a more extensive study with larger sample population will be necessary to fully test the capability of using optical scattering for beef tenderness characterization.

  10. Minimizing radiation damage in nonlinear optical crystals

    DOEpatents

    Cooke, D.W.; Bennett, B.L.; Cockroft, N.J.

    1998-09-08

    Methods are disclosed for minimizing laser induced damage to nonlinear crystals, such as KTP crystals, involving various means for electrically grounding the crystals in order to diffuse electrical discharges within the crystals caused by the incident laser beam. In certain embodiments, electrically conductive material is deposited onto or into surfaces of the nonlinear crystals and the electrically conductive surfaces are connected to an electrical ground. To minimize electrical discharges on crystal surfaces that are not covered by the grounded electrically conductive material, a vacuum may be created around the nonlinear crystal. 5 figs.

  11. Minimizing radiation damage in nonlinear optical crystals

    DOEpatents

    Cooke, D. Wayne; Bennett, Bryan L.; Cockroft, Nigel J.

    1998-01-01

    Methods are disclosed for minimizing laser induced damage to nonlinear crystals, such as KTP crystals, involving various means for electrically grounding the crystals in order to diffuse electrical discharges within the crystals caused by the incident laser beam. In certain embodiments, electrically conductive material is deposited onto or into surfaces of the nonlinear crystals and the electrically conductive surfaces are connected to an electrical ground. To minimize electrical discharges on crystal surfaces that are not covered by the grounded electrically conductive material, a vacuum may be created around the nonlinear crystal.

  12. Laser Damage in Thin Film Optical Coatings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-01

    OTHER RELEVANT ISSUES The damage thresholds of refractory oxides used as AR coatings for alexandrite laser rods were determined and measured by...used and a limited number of TiO 2/SiO2 coatings were put on alexandrite substrates. Single layer AR coatings of MgF2 and NaAIF 6 were also tested for...measurements were made using an alexandrite laser at a wavelength of 790 nm. with a pulse duration of 200 nsec at 30Hz for 2 seconds. The near spot

  13. Predicting threshold and location of laser damage on optical surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Siekhaus, W.

    1985-02-04

    Disclosed is an apparatus useful in the prediction of the damage threshold of various optical devices, the location of weak spots on such devices and the location, identification, and elimination of optical surface impurities. The apparatus comprises a focused and pulsed laser, a photo electric detector/imaging means, and a timer. The weak spots emit photoelectrons when subjected to laser intensities that are less than the intensity actually required to produce the damage. The weak spots may be eliminated by sustained exposure to the laser beam.

  14. Improved Method for Laser Damage Testing Coated Optics

    SciTech Connect

    Borden, M R; Folta, J A; Stolz, C J; Taylor, J R; Wolfe, J E; Griffin, A J; Thomas, M D

    2005-10-25

    The damage test procedure for qualifying a coating run of anti-reflection coated optics consists of scanning a pulsed 1064 nm laser over a 1 cm x 1 cm area on a test sample to illuminate approximately 2400 sites. Scans are repeated at 3 J/cm{sup 2} increments until the fluence specification for the optic is reached. In the past, initiation of 1 or more damage sites was classified as a failed coating run, requiring the production optics in the corresponding coating lot be reworked and recoated. Recent laser damage growth tests of 300 repetitive pulses performed on numerous damage sites revealed that all were stable up to 20 J/cm{sup 2}. Therefore the acceptance criteria has been modified to allow a moderate number of damage sites, as long as they are smaller than the allowed dig size and are stable (do not grow). Consequently many coating runs that previously would have been rejected are now accepted, resulting in higher yield, lower cost, and improved delivery schedule. The new test also provides assurance that initiated damage sites are stable during long term operation.

  15. Proton radiation damage in optical filter glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grillot, Patrick N.; Rosenberg, William J.

    1989-01-01

    Samples of Schott BG-39 and Hoya CM-500 blue-green filter glass were subjected to proton radiation to determine their acceptability for spaceflight. Initial testing done with 2.7 MeV protons showed negligible change in optical transmittance with doses as high as 5.2 x 10 to the 14th protons per sq cm. Irradiation with protons of energy up to 63 MeV caused a significant reduction in transmittance in the Schott samples at doses of 5.3 x 10 to the 12th protons per sq cm, while negligible change occurred in the Hoya samples.

  16. Large-aperture, high-damage-threshold optics for beamlet

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.H.; Atherton, L.J.; DeYoreo, J.J.

    1996-06-01

    Beamlet serves as a test bed for the proposed National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser design and components. Therefore, its optics are similar in size and quality to those proposed for the NIF. In general, the optics in the main laser cavity and transport section of Beamlet are larger and have higher damage thresholds than the optics manufactured for any of the previous laser systems. In addition, the quality of the Beamlet optical materials is higher, leading to better wavefront quality, higher optical transmission, and lower-intensity modulation of the output laser beam than, for example, that typically achieved on Nova. In this article, the authors discuss the properties and characteristics of the large-aperture optics used on Beamlet.

  17. Large-aperture, high-damage-threshold optics for beamlet

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.H.; Atherton, L.J.; DeYoreo, J.J.; Kozlowski, M.R.; Maney, R.T.; Montesanti, R.C.; Sheehan, L.M.; Barker, C.E.

    1995-02-23

    Beamlet serves as a test bed for the proposed NIF laser design and components. Therefore, its optics are similar in size and quality to those proposed for the NIF. In general, the optics in the main laser cavity and transport section of Beamlet are larger and have higher damage thresholds than the optics manufactured for any of our previous laser systems. In addition, the quality of the Beamlet optical materials is higher, leading to better wavefront quality, higher optical transmission, and lower-intensity modulation of the output laser beam than, for example, that typically achieved on Nova. In this article, we discuss the properties and characteristics of the large-aperture optics used on Beamlet.

  18. Mechanisms to explain damage growth in optical materials

    SciTech Connect

    Demos, S G; Kozlowski, M R; Staggs, M; Chase, L L; Burnham, A; Radousky, H B

    2001-01-10

    Damage growth in optical materials used in large aperture laser systems is an issue of great importance when determining component lifetime and therefore cost of operation. Understanding the mechanisms and photophysical processes associated with damage growth are important in order to devise mitigation techniques. In this work we examined plasma-modified material and cracks for their correlation to damage growth on fused silica and DKDP samples. We employ an in-situ damage testing optical microscope that allows the acquisition of light scattering and fluorescence images of the area of interest prior to, and following exposure to a high fluence, 355-nm, 3-ns laser pulse. In addition, high-resolution images of the damage event are recorded using the associated plasma emission. Experimental results indicate that both aforementioned features can initiate plasma formation at fluences as low as 2 J/cm{sup 2}. The intensity of the recorded plasma emission remains low for fluences up to approximately 5 J/cm{sup 2} but rapidly increases thereafter. Based on the experimental results, we propose as possible mechanisms leading to damage growth the initiation of avalanche ionization by defects at the damage modified material and presence of field intensification due to cracks.

  19. Mechanisms to Explain Damage Growth in Optical Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Demos, S G; Kozlowski, M R; Staggs, M; Chase, L L; Burnham, A; Radousky, H B

    2000-12-18

    Damage growth in optical materials used in large aperture laser systems is an issue of great importance when determining component lifetime and therefore cost of operation. Understanding the mechanisms and photophysical processes associated with damage growth are important in order to devise mitigation techniques. In this work we examined plasma-modified material and cracks for their correlation to damage growth on fused silica and DKDP samples. We employ an in-situ damage testing optical microscope that allows the acquisition of light scattering and fluorescence images of the area of interest prior to, and following exposure to a high fluence, 355-nm, 3-ns laser pulse. In addition, high-resolution images of the damage event are recorded using the associated plasma emission. Experimental results indicate that both aforementioned features can initiate plasma formation at fluences as low as 2 J/cm{sup 2}. The intensity of the recorded plasma emission remains low for fluences up to approximately 5 J/cm{sup 2} but rapidly increases thereafter. Based on the experimental results, we propose as possible mechanisms leading to damage growth the initiation of avalanche ionization by defects at the damage modified material and presence of field intensification due to cracks.

  20. Virtual Mie particle model of laser damage to optical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Kazuya; Haraguchi, Koshi

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, devices being developed for application systems have used laser beams that have high average power, high peak power, short pulse width, and short wavelength. Therefore, optical elements using such application systems require a high laser damage threshold. The laser damage threshold is provided by International Organization for Standardization 11254 (ISO11254). One of the measurement methods of the laser damage threshold provided by ISO11254 is an online method to measure the intensity of light scattering due to a laser damage trace. In this paper, we propose a measurement method for the laser damage threshold that realizes high sensitivity and high accuracy by using polarized light and lock-in detection. Since the scattering light with laser damage is modeled on the asperity of the optical element-surface as Mie particles (virtual Mie particles), we consider the intensity change of scattering light as a change in the radius of a virtual Mie particle. To evaluate this model, the laser damage trace on the optical element-surface was observed by an atomic force microscopy (AFM). Based on the observed AFM image, we analyzed the frequency domain by the Fourier transform, and estimated the dominant virtual Mie particle radius in the AFM measurement area. In addition, we measured the laser damage threshold. The light source was the fifth generation of a Nd:YAG laser (λ =213nm). The specifications of the laser were: repetition frequency 10Hz, pulse width 4ns, linear type polarization, laser pulse energy 4mJ, and laser transverse mode TEM00. The laser specifications were a repetition frequency, pulse width, pulse energy and beam diameter of 10Hz, 4ns, 4mJ and 13mm, respectively. The laser damage thresholds of an aluminum coated mirror and a dielectric multi-layer mirror designed at a wavelength of 213nm as measured by this method were 0.684 J/cm2 and 0.998J/cm2, respectively. These laser damage thresholds were 1/4 the laser damage thresholds measured based

  1. Laser induced damage in optical materials: twelfth ASTM symposium.

    PubMed

    Bennett, H E; Glass, A J; Guenther, A H; Newnam, B

    1981-09-01

    The twelfth annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers (Boulder Damage Symposium) was held at the National Bureau of Standards in Boulder, Colorado, 30 Sept.-l Oct., 1980. The symposium was held under the auspices of ASTM Committee F-l, Subcommittee on Laser Standards, with the joint sponsorship of NBS, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the Department of Energy, the Office of Naval Research, and the Air Force Office of Scientific research. Over 150 scientists attended the symposium, including representatives of the United Kingdom, France, Japan, and West Germany. The symposium was divided into sessions concerning materials and measurements, mirrors and surfaces, thin films, and finally fundamental mechanisms. As in previous years, the emphasis of the papers presented at the symposium was directed toward new frontiers and new developments. Particular emphasis was given to materials for high power systems. The wavelength range of prime interest was from 10.6 microm to the UV region. Highlights included surface characterization, thin film-substrate boundaries, and advances in fundamental laser-matter threshold interactions and mechanisms. The scaling of damage thresholds with pulse duration, focal area, and wavelength was discussed in detail. Harold E. Bennett of the Naval Weapons Center, Alexander J. Glass of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Arthur H. Guenther of the Air Force Weapons Laboratory, and Brian E. Newnam of the Los Alamos National Laboratory were cochairmen of the symposium. The thirteenth annual symposium is scheduled for 17-18 Nov. 1981 at the National Bureau of Standards, Boulder, Colorado.

  2. Optical-thermal characterization of cutaneous transilluminators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfefer, T. Joshua; Mehrabi, Ali; James, Robert; Landry, Robert; Weininger, Sandy; Chang, Isaac; Kaufman, Diana; Miller, Sharon

    2009-11-01

    In recent years, there has been an increase in the popularity of light-emitting diode (LED)-based, battery-powered transilluminators (BPTs) for facilitating transdermal vascular access in adults and neonates. BPTs are believed to have lower potential for inducing skin burns than prior devices based on high-power broadband lamps; however, the optical and thermal outputs of BPTs are not well documented and safety limits for these devices are not well established. In this study, we characterize and assess the optical and thermal outputs of six BPTs that incorporate red, orange and white LEDs. Optical measurements included spectral irradiance and peak local irradiance. Thermal measurements included transient temperature readings for an exposure time of 4 min in ambient air and ex vivo tissue pre-heated to physiological temperatures. The greatest mean temperature rise produced in tissue by a non-white-light diode BPT was 2.5 °C, whereas a mean temperature rise of 9.1 °C was measured in a BPT that incorporated white-light diodes with relatively high irradiance levels. The dominant cause of temperature rise was most likely heat generation within the devices. Thermal damage analyses based on temperature limits and the Arrhenius equation indicate that although some of the devices studied approach the threshold for damage, none appear to exceed it under normal operating conditions. The results demonstrated that ambient air measurements may be suitable for identifying worst-case BPT temperatures. This study highlights the potential risk of LED-based medical devices as well as the need for additional research on related issues such as neonatal thermal injury thresholds.

  3. Damage mechanisms avoided or managed for NIF large optics

    SciTech Connect

    Manes, K. R.; Spaeth, M. L.; Adams, J. J.; Bowers, M. W.; Bude, J. D.; Carr, C. W.; Conder, A. D.; DiNicola, J. M. G.; Dixit, S. N.; Feigenbaum, E.; Finucane, R. G.; Guss, G. M.; Henesian, M. A.; Honig, J.; Kalantar, D. H.; Kegelmeyer, L. M.; Liao, Z. M.; MacGowan, B. J.; Matthews, M. J.; Mehta, N. C.; Norton, M. A.; Nostrand, M. C.; Sacks, R. A.; Siegel, L. R.; Stolz, C. J.; Suratwala, T. I.; Trenholme, J. B.; Wegner, P. J.; Whitman, P. K.; Widmayer, C. C.; Yang, S. T.; McCandless, K. P.; Miller, P. E.; Negres, R. A.; Orth, C. D.; Cross, D. A.; Demos, S. G.

    2016-02-09

    After every other failure mode has been considered, in the end, the high-performance limit of all lasers is set by optical damage. The demands of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) pushed lasers designed as ICF drivers into this limit from their very earliest days. The first ICF lasers were small, and their pulses were short. Their goal was to provide as much power to the target as possible. Typically, they faced damage due to high intensity on their optics. As requests for higher laser energy, longer pulse lengths, and better symmetry appeared, new kinds of damage also emerged, some of them anticipated and others unexpected. This paper will discuss the various types of damage to large optics that had to be considered, avoided to the extent possible, or otherwise managed as the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser was designed, fabricated, and brought into operation. Furthermore, it has been possible for NIF to meet its requirements because of the experience gained in previous ICF systems and because NIF designers have continued to be able to avoid or manage new damage situations as they have appeared.

  4. Damage mechanisms avoided or managed for NIF large optics

    DOE PAGES

    Manes, K. R.; Spaeth, M. L.; Adams, J. J.; ...

    2016-02-09

    After every other failure mode has been considered, in the end, the high-performance limit of all lasers is set by optical damage. The demands of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) pushed lasers designed as ICF drivers into this limit from their very earliest days. The first ICF lasers were small, and their pulses were short. Their goal was to provide as much power to the target as possible. Typically, they faced damage due to high intensity on their optics. As requests for higher laser energy, longer pulse lengths, and better symmetry appeared, new kinds of damage also emerged, some of themmore » anticipated and others unexpected. This paper will discuss the various types of damage to large optics that had to be considered, avoided to the extent possible, or otherwise managed as the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser was designed, fabricated, and brought into operation. Furthermore, it has been possible for NIF to meet its requirements because of the experience gained in previous ICF systems and because NIF designers have continued to be able to avoid or manage new damage situations as they have appeared.« less

  5. Laser-induced damage in optical materials: sixteenth ASTM symposium.

    PubMed

    Bennett, H E; Guenther, A H; Milam, D; Newnam, B E

    1987-03-01

    The Sixteenth Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers (Boulder Damage Symposium) was held at the National Bureau of Standards in Boulder, CO, 15-17 Oct. 1984. The Symposium was held under the auspices of ASTM Committee F-1, Subcommittee on Laser Standards, with the joint sponsorship of NBS, the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency, the Department of Energy, the Office of Naval Research, and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research. Approximately 180 scientists attended the Symposium, including representatives from England, France, The Netherlands, Scotland, and West Germany. The Symposium was divided into sessions concerning Materials and Measurements, Mirrors and Surfaces, Thin Films, and Fundamental Mechanisms. As in previous years, the emphasis of the papers presented at the Symposium was directed toward new frontiers and new developments. Particular emphasis was given to materials for high-power apparatus. The wavelength range of prime interest was from 10.6,microm to the UV region. Highlights included surface characterization, thin-film-substrate boundaries, and advances in fundamental laser-matter threshold interactions and mechanisms. Harold E. Bennett of the U.S. Naval Weapons Center, Arthur H. Guenther of the U.S. Air Force Weapons Laboratory, David Milam of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Brian E. Newnam of the Los Alamos National Laboratory were cochairmen of the Symposium.

  6. Modeling of Laser Induced Damage in NIF UV Optics

    SciTech Connect

    Feit, M D; Rubenchik, A M

    2001-02-21

    Controlling damage to nominally transparent optical elements such as lenses, windows and frequency conversion crystals on high power lasers is a continuing technical problem. Scientific understanding of the underlying mechanisms of laser energy absorption, material heating and vaporization and resultant mechanical damage is especially important for UV lasers with large apertures such as NIF. This LDRD project was a single year effort, in coordination with associated experimental projects, to initiate theoretical descriptions of several of the relevant processes. In understanding laser damage, we distinguish between damage initiation and the growth of existent damage upon subsequent laser irradiation. In general, the effect of damage could be ameliorated by either preventing its initiation or by mitigating its growth. The distinction comes about because initiation is generally due to extrinsic factors such as contaminants, which provide a means of local laser energy absorption. Thus, initiation tends to be local and stochastic in nature. On the other hand, the initial damaging event appears to modify the surrounding material in such a way that multiple pulse damage grows more or less regularly. More exactly, three ingredients are necessary for visible laser induced damage. These are adequate laser energy, a mechanism of laser energy absorption and mechanical weakness. For damage growth, the material surrounding a damage site is already mechanically weakened by cracks and probably chemically modified as well. The mechanical damage can also lead to electric field intensification due to interference effects, thus increasing the available laser energy density. In this project, we successfully accounted for the pulselength dependence of damage threshold in bulk DKDP crystals with the hypothesis of small absorbers with a distribution of sizes. We theoretically investigated expected scaling of damage initiation craters both to baseline detailed numerical simulations

  7. GIS characterization of spatially distributed lifeline damage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Toprak, Selcuk; O'Rourke, Thomas; Tutuncu, Ilker

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the visualization of spatially distributed water pipeline damage following an earthquake using geographical information systems (GIS). Pipeline damage is expressed as a repair rate (RR). Repair rate contours are developed with GIS by dividing the study area into grid cells (n ?? n), determining the number of particular pipeline repairs in each grid cell, and dividing the number of repairs by the length of that pipeline in each cell area. The resulting contour plot is a two-dimensional visualization of point source damage. High damage zones are defined herein as areas with an RR value greater than the mean RR for the entire study area of interest. A hyperbolic relationship between visual display of high pipeline damage zones and grid size, n, was developed. The relationship is expressed in terms of two dimensionless parameters, threshold area coverage (TAC) and dimensionless grid size (DGS). The relationship is valid over a wide range of different map scales spanning approximately 1,200 km2 for the largest portion of the Los Angeles water distribution system to 1 km2 for the Marina in San Francisco. This relationship can aid GIS users to get sufficiently refined, but easily visualized, maps of damage patterns.

  8. Nondestructive optical characterization of MEMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pryputniewicz, Ryszard J.

    2013-10-01

    Advances in emerging technology of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) are one of the most challenging tasks in today's experimental mechanics. More specifically, development of these miniature devices requires sophisticated design, analysis, fabrication, testing, and characterization tools that have multiphysics and multiscale capabilities, especially as MEMS are being developed for use at harsh conditions. In harsh-environment and high-performance guidance applications inertial sensors must be sensitive to low rates of rotation yet survive the high blast loads associated with the initial launch. In this multi-year study a set of tuning fork gyroscopes (TFGs) were subjected to a series of increasing g-loads (culminating at approximately 60,000 g's) with measurements of shape made after each test. High-g-testing was conducted within the large test chamber using a custom fabricated mini powder gun. A custom set of test sample packages were hermetically sealed with glass lids to allow optical inspection of components while preserving the operating (vacuum) environment. Optical and interferometric measurements have been made prior to and after each shock g-loading. The shape of the TFG test articles was measured using optoelectronic laser interferometric microscope (OELIM) methodology. Line traces were extracted from pertinent structures to clearly examine changes in the TFG. Failure of the die was observed in the form of fractures below the chip surface as well as fractures in the glass lid sealing the package.

  9. Impurity-doped optical shock, detonation and damage location sensor

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, J.D.

    1995-02-07

    A shock, detonation, and damage location sensor providing continuous fiber-optic means of measuring shock speed and damage location, and could be designed through proper cabling to have virtually any desired crush pressure. The sensor has one or a plurality of parallel multimode optical fibers, or a singlemode fiber core, surrounded by an elongated cladding, doped along their entire length with impurities to fluoresce in response to light at a different wavelength entering one end of the fiber(s). The length of a fiber would be continuously shorted as it is progressively destroyed by a shock wave traveling parallel to its axis. The resulting backscattered and shifted light would eventually enter a detector and be converted into a proportional electrical signals which would be evaluated to determine shock velocity and damage location. The corresponding reduction in output, because of the shortening of the optical fibers, is used as it is received to determine the velocity and position of the shock front as a function of time. As a damage location sensor the sensor fiber cracks along with the structure to which it is mounted. The size of the resulting drop in detector output is indicative of the location of the crack. 8 figs.

  10. Impurity-doped optical shock, detonation and damage location sensor

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    1995-01-01

    A shock, detonation, and damage location sensor providing continuous fiber-optic means of measuring shock speed and damage location, and could be designed through proper cabling to have virtually any desired crush pressure. The sensor has one or a plurality of parallel multimode optical fibers, or a singlemode fiber core, surrounded by an elongated cladding, doped along their entire length with impurities to fluoresce in response to light at a different wavelength entering one end of the fiber(s). The length of a fiber would be continuously shorted as it is progressively destroyed by a shock wave traveling parallel to its axis. The resulting backscattered and shifted light would eventually enter a detector and be converted into a proportional electrical signals which would be evaluated to determine shock velocity and damage location. The corresponding reduction in output, because of the shortening of the optical fibers, is used as it is received to determine the velocity and position of the shock front as a function of time. As a damage location sensor the sensor fiber cracks along with the structure to which it is mounted. The size of the resulting drop in detector output is indicative of the location of the crack.

  11. Correlation of polishing-induced shallow subsurface damages with laser-induced gray haze damages in fused silica optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiang; Zhao, Heng; Wang, Gang; Zhou, Peifan; Ma, Ping

    2016-08-01

    Laser-induced damage in fused silica optics greatly restricts the performances of laser facilities. Gray haze damage, which is always initiated on ceria polished optics, is one of the most important damage morphologies in fused silica optics. In this paper, the laser-induced gray haze damages of four fused silica samples polished with CeO2, Al2O3, ZrO2, and colloidal silica slurries are investigated. Four samples all present gray haze damages with much different damage densities. Then, the polishing-induced contaminant and subsurface damages in four samples are analyzed. The results reveal that the gray haze damages could be initiated on the samples without Ce contaminant and are inclined to show a tight correlation with the shallow subsurface damages.

  12. Damage characterization for particles filled semi-crystalline polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauro, Franck; Balieu, Romain; Bennani, Bruno; Haugou, Gregory; Bourel, Benjamin; Chaari, Fahmi; Matsumoto, Tsukatada; Mottola, Ernesto

    2015-09-01

    Damage evolution and characterization in semi-crystalline polymer filled with particles under various loadings is still a challenge. A specific damage characterization method using Digital Image Correlation is proposed for a wide range of strain rates considering tensile tests with hydraulic jacks as well as Hopkinson's bars. This damage measurement is obtained by using and adapting the SEE method [1] which was developed to characterize the behaviour laws at constant strain rates of polymeric materials in dynamic. To validate the characterization process, various damage measurement techniques are used under quasi-static conditions before to apply the procedure in dynamic. So, the well-known damage characterization by loss of stiffness technique under quasi-static loading is applied to a polypropylene. In addition, an in-situ tensile test, carried out in a microtomograph, is used to observe the cavitation phenomenon in real time. A good correlation is obtained between all these techniques and consequently the proposed technique is supposed suitable for measuring the ductile damage observed in semi-crystalline polymers under dynamic loading. By applying it to the semi-crystalline polymer at moderate and high speed loadings, the damage evolution is measured and it is observed that the damage evolution is not strain rate dependent but the failure strain on the contrary is strain rate dependent.

  13. The effect of dynamic etching on surface quality and laser damage resistance for fused silica optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Yan, Hongwei; Yuan, Xiaodong; Li, Yuan; Yang, Ke; Yan, Lianghong; Zhang, Lijuan; Liu, Taixiang; Li, Heyang

    2017-05-01

    Fused silica optics were treated by dynamic etching using buffered hydrofluoric acid (BHF) with different etching depths. The transmissivity of fused silica slightly increases in deep UV (DUV) range after dynamic etching. Surface qualities of fused silica were characterized in terms of surface roughness, surface profile and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The results show that dynamic etching has a slight impact on surface RMS roughness.PL defects gradually reduces by dynamic etching, and laser damage resistance of fused silica continuously increases with etching depth extending. When removal depth increases to 12μm, the damage threshold is the double that of the unetched surface. However, surface profile continuously deteriorates with etching depth increasing. Appropriate etching amount is very important for improving damage resistance and mitigating surface profile deteriorating of fused silica during etching process simultaneously. The study is expected to contribute to the practical application of dynamic etching for mitigating laser induced degradation of fused silica optics under UV laser irradiation.

  14. The thermal damage process of the contaminated optical element used in high energy laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Kai; Song, Rui; Xu, Xiaojun

    2017-05-01

    Fused silica optics were treated by dynamic etching using buffered hydrofluoric acid (BHF) with different etching depths. The transmissivity of fused silica slightly increases in deep UV (DUV) range after dynamic etching. Surface qualities of fused silica were characterized in terms of surface roughness, surface profile and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The results show that dynamic etching has a slight impact on surface RMS roughness.PL defects gradually reduces by dynamic etching, and laser damage resistance of fused silica continuously increases with etching depth extending. When removal depth increases to 12μm, the damage threshold is the double that of the unetched surface. However, surface profile continuously deteriorates with etching depth increasing. Appropriate etching amount is very important for improving damage resistance and mitigating surface profile deteriorating of fused silica during etching process simultaneously. The study is expected to contribute to the practical application of dynamic etching for mitigating laser induced degradation of fused silica optics under UV laser irradiation.

  15. A chemical precursor to optical damage. Studies by laser ionization mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Nogar, N.S.; Estler, R.C.

    1987-01-01

    Mass spectrometry has been used in conjunction with Nomarski microscopy to characterize the initiation of optical damage in selected commercial optics. For a sample with an Al/sub 2/O/sub 3//SiO/sub 2/ multilayer coating (351 nm) on a Si substrate, our results suggest layer by layer removal of the coating material with low-fluence irradiation at 1.06 mu. In addition, carbon impurities were observed in the low-damage threshold sample. For the Sc/sub 2/O/sub 3//SiO/sub 2/ multilayer coated (351 nm) 7940 substrates, transient iron signals were observed at each increasing fluence level, with concomitant appearance of small circular (10 mu) pits in the surface. These pits were also associated with macroscopic damage features due to threshold testing.

  16. Characterization of laser damage performance of fused silica using photothermal absorption technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Wen; Shi, Feng; Dai, Yifan; Peng, Xiaoqiang

    2017-06-01

    The subsurface damage and metal impurities have been the main laser damage precursors of fused silica while subjected to high power laser irradiation. Light field enhancement and thermal absorption were used to explain the appearance of damage pits while the laser energy is far smaller than the energy that can reach the intrinsic threshold of fused silica. For fused silica optics manufactured by magnetorheological finishing or advanced mitigation process, no scratch-related damage site occurs can be found on the surface. In this work, we implemented a photothermal absorption technique based on thermal lens method to characterize the subsurface defects of fused silica optics. The pump beam is CW 532 nm wavelength laser. The probe beam is a He-Ne laser. They are collinear and focused through the same objective. When pump beam pass through the sample, optical absorption induces the local temperature rise. The lowest absorptance that we can detect is about the order of magnitude of 0.01 ppm. When pump beam pass through the sample, optical absorption induces the local temperature rise. The photothermal absorption value of fused silica samples range from 0.5 to 10 ppm. The damage densities of the samples were plotted. The damage threshold of samples at 8J/cm2 were gived to show laser damage performance of fused silica.The results show that there is a strong correlation between the thermal absorption and laser damage density. The photothermal absorption technique can be used to predict and evaluate the laser damage performance of fused silica optics.

  17. Damage to the Optic Chiasm in Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein–Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Mice

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Sheryl L; Palmer, Vanessa L; Whittaker, Heather; Smith, Blair Cardigan; Kim, Annie; Schellenberg, Angela E; Thiessen, Jonathan D; Buist, Richard; Del Bigio, Marc R; Martin, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Optic chiasm lesions in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)–experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice were characterized using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and validated using electron microscopy (EM). MR images were collected from 3 days after induction to remission, approximately 20 days after induction. Hematoxylin and eosin, solochrome cyanin–stained sections, and EM images were obtained from the optic chiasms of some mice approximately 4 days after disease onset when their scores were thought to be the highest. T2-weighted imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient map hyperintensities corresponded to abnormalities in the optic chiasms of EAE mice. Mixed inflammation was concentrated at the lateral surface. Degeneration of oligodendrocytes, myelin, and early axonal damage were also apparent. A marked increase in chiasm thickness was observed. T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted MRI can detect abnormalities in the optic chiasms of MOG-EAE mice. MRI is an important method in the study of this model toward understanding optic neuritis. PMID:25520558

  18. Mutant human myocilin induces strain specific differences in ocular hypertension and optic nerve damage in mice.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Colleen M; Luan, Tomi; Zhang, Zhang; Putliwala, Tasneem; Wordinger, Robert J; Millar, J Cameron; John, Simon W M; Pang, Iok-Hou; Clark, Abbot F

    2012-07-01

    Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is a causative risk factor for the development and progression of glaucoma. Glaucomatous mutations in myocilin (MYOC) damage the trabecular meshwork and elevate IOP in humans and in mice. Animal models of glaucoma are important to discover and better understand molecular pathogenic pathways and to test new glaucoma therapeutics. Although a number of different animal models of glaucoma have been developed and characterized, there are no true models of human primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). The overall goal of this work is to develop the first inducible mouse model of POAG using a human POAG relevant transgene (i.e. mutant MYOC) expression in mouse eyes to elevate IOP and cause pressure-induced damage to the optic nerve. Four mouse strains (A/J, BALB/cJ, C57BL/6J, and C3H/HeJ) were used in this study. Ad5.MYOC.Y437H (5 × 10(7) pfu) was injected intravitreally into one eye, with the uninjected contralateral eye serving as the control eye. Conscious IOP measurements were taken using a TonoLab rebound tonometer. Optic nerve damage was determined by scoring PPD stained optic nerve cross sections. Retinal ganglion cell and superior colliculus damage was assessed by Nissl stain cell counts. Intravitreal administration of viral vector Ad5.MYOC.Y437H caused a prolonged, reproducible, and statistically significant IOP elevation in BALB/cJ, A/J, and C57BL/6J mice. IOPs increased to approximately 25 mm Hg for 8 weeks (p < 0.0001). In contrast, the C3H/HeJ mouse strain was resistant to Ad5.MYOC.Y437H induced IOP elevation for the 8-week time period. IOPs were stable (12-15 mm Hg) in the uninjected control eyes. We also determined whether there were any strain differences in pressure-induced optic nerve damage. Even though IOP was similarly elevated in three of the strains tested (BALB/cJ, C57BL/6J, and A/J) only the A/J strain had considerable and significant optic nerve damage at the end of 8 weeks with optic nerve damage score of 2.64

  19. Optical transmission scanning for damage quantification in impacted GFRP composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomenko, Anton; Karpenko, Oleksii; Koricho, Ermias G.; Haq, Mahmoodul; Cloud, Gary L.; Udpa, Lalita

    2016-04-01

    Glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) composites constitute nearly 90% of the global composites market and are extensively used in aerospace, marine, automotive and construction industries. While their advantages of lightweight and superior mechanical properties are well explored, non-destructive evaluation (NDE) techniques that allow for damage/defect detection and assessment of its extent and severity are not fully developed. Some of the conventional NDE techniques for GFRPs include ultrasonics, X-ray, IR thermography, and a variety of optical techniques. Optical methods, specifically measuring the transmission properties (e.g. ballistic optical imaging) of specimens, provide noninvasive, safe, inexpensive, and compact solutions and are commonly used in biomedical applications. In this work, this technique is adapted for rapid NDE of GFRP composites. In its basic form, the system for optical transmission scanning (OTS) consists of a light source (laser diode), a photo detector and a 2D translation stage. The proposed technique provides high-resolution, rapid and non-contact OT (optical transmittance)-scans, and does not require any coupling. The OTS system was used for inspection of pristine and low-velocity impacted (damaged) GFRP samples. The OT-scans were compared with conventional ultrasonic C-scans and showed excellent agreement but with better resolution. Overall, the work presented lays the groundwork for cost-effective, non-contact, and rapid NDE of GFRP composite structures.

  20. Optical arbitrary waveform characterization using linear spectrograms.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhi; Leaird, Daniel E; Long, Christopher M; Boppart, Stephen A; Weiner, Andrew M

    2010-08-01

    We demonstrate the first application of linear spectrogram methods based on electro-optic phase modulation to characterize optical arbitrary waveforms generated under spectral line-by-line control. This approach offers both superior sensitivity and self-referencing capability for retrieval of periodic high repetition rate optical arbitrary waveforms.

  1. MRF Applications: Measurement of Process-dependent Subsurface Damage in Optical Materials using the MRF Wedge Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Menapace, J A; Davis, P J; Steele, W A; Wong, L L; Suratwala, T I; Miller, P E

    2005-11-02

    Understanding the behavior of fractures and subsurface damage in the processes used during optic fabrication plays a key role in determining the final quality of the optical surface finish. During the early stages of surface preparation, brittle grinding processes induce fractures at or near an optical surface whose range can extend from depths of a few mm to hundreds of mm depending upon the process and tooling being employed. Controlling the occurrence, structure, and propagation of these sites during subsequent grinding and polishing operations is highly desirable if one wishes to obtain high-quality surfaces that are free of such artifacts. Over the past year, our team has made significant strides in developing a diagnostic technique that combines magnetorheological finishing (MRF) and scanning optical microscopy to measure and characterize subsurface damage in optical materials. The technique takes advantage of the unique nature of MRF to polish a prescribed large-area wedge into the optical surface without propagating existing damage or introducing new damage. The polished wedge is then analyzed to quantify subsurface damage as a function of depth from the original surface. Large-area measurement using scanning optical microscopy provides for improved accuracy and reliability over methods such as the COM ball-dimple technique. Examples of the technique's use will be presented that illustrate the behavior of subsurface damage in fused silica that arises during a variety of intermediate optical fabrication process steps.

  2. Damage precursor measurements on UV-optical coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Ettrich, K.; Blaschke, H.; Welsch, E.

    1995-12-31

    For application in UV thin film optics the thermal contribution to the laser-induced optical breakdown was investigated utilizing time-resolved photothermal probe beam deflection (MIRAGE) technique. The potentiality of this method for the determination of both the subdamage range and the onset of single-shot-damage of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiO{sub 2} and LaF{sub 3}/MgF{sub 2} high-reflective coatings by using the thermal branch of the MIRAGE technique could be demonstrated. Examining the dielectric mirrors by 248 nm KrF laser irradiation, distinct damage precursor features were found. Thus, the physical origin of the UV pulsed radiation breakdown in HR coatings can be elucidated.

  3. Characterizing damage in ceramic matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyekenyesi, Andrew L.; Baker, Christopher; Morscher, Gregory

    2014-04-01

    With the upcoming implementation of ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) within aerospace systems (e.g., aviation turbine engines), an in-depth understanding of the failure process due to mechanical loads is required. This includes developing a basic understanding of the complex, multi-mechanism failure process as well as the associated nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques that are capable of recognizing and quantifying the damage. Various NDE techniques have been successfully utilized for assessing the damage state of woven CMCs, in particular, consisting of silicon carbide fibers and silicon carbide matrices (SiC/SiC). The multiple NDE techniques, studied by the authors of this paper, included acousto-ultrasonics, modal acoustic emissions, electrical resistance, impedance based structural health monitoring, pulsed thermography as well as thermoelastic stress analysis. The observed damage within the composites was introduced using multiple experimental tactics including uniaxial tensile tests, creep tests, and most recently, ballistic impact. This paper offers a brief review and summary of results for each of the applied NDE tools.

  4. Laser conditioning characterization and damage threshold prediction of hafnia/silica multilayer mirrors by photothermal microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Papandrew, A B; Stolz, C J; Wu, Z L; Loomis, G E; Falabella, S

    2000-12-11

    Laser conditioning has been shown to improve the laser damage threshold of some optical coatings by greater than 2x. Debate continues within the damage community regarding laser-conditioning mechanisms, but it is clear that nodular ejection is one of the byproducts of the laser conditioning process. To better understand why laser conditioning is so effective, photothermal microscopy was used to measure absorption of coating defects before and after laser exposure. Although a modest absorption reduction was expected due to the lower electric field peaks within a pit and the absence of potentially absorbing nodular seeds, surprisingly, absorption reductions up to 150x were observed. Photothermal microscopy has also been successfully used to correlate laser-induced damage threshold and absorption of defects in hafnia/silica multilayer optical coatings. Defects with high absorption, as indicated by high photothermal signal, have low damage thresholds. Previously a linear correlation of damage threshold and defect photothermal signal was established with films designed and damage tested at 1{omega} (1053 nm) and Brewster's angle (56.4{sup o}), but characterized by photothermal microscopy at 514.5 nm and near-normal angle of incidence (10{sup o}). In this study coatings designed, characterized by photothermal microscopy, and damage tested at the same wavelength, incident angle, and polarization did not have a correlation between defect photothermal signal and absorption.

  5. Laser conditioning characterization and damage threshold prediction of hafnia/silica multilayer mirrors by photothermal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papandrew, A. B.; Stolz, Christopher J.; Wu, Zhouling; Loomis, Gary E.; Falabella, Steven

    2001-04-01

    Laser conditioning has been shown to improve the laser damage threshold of some optical coatings by greater than 2x. Debate continues within the damage community regarding laser-conditioning mechanisms, but it is clear that nodular ejection is one of the byproducts of the laser conditioning process. To better understand why laser conditioning is so effective, photothermal microscopy was used to measure absorption of coating defects before and after laser exposure. Although a modest absorption reduction was expected due to the lower electric field peaks within a pit and the absence of potentially absorbing nodular seeds, surprisingly, absorption reductions up to 150x were observed. Photothermal microscopy has also been successfully used to correlate laser-induced damage threshold and absorption of defects in hafnia/silica multilayer optical coatings. Defects with high absorption, as indicated by high photothermal signal, have low damage thresholds. Previously a linear correlation of damage threshold and defect photothermal signal was established with films designed and damage tested at 1(omega) (1053 nm) and Brewster's angle (56.4 degree(s)), but characterized by photothermal microscopy at 514.5 nm and near-normal angle of incidence (10 degree(s)). In this study coatings designed, characterized by photothermal microscopy, and damage tested at the same wavelength, incident angle, and polarization did not have a correlation between defect photothermal signal and absorption.

  6. Characterization on Smart Optics Using Ellipsometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, Kyo D.

    2002-01-01

    Recently, NASA Langley Research Center developed a smart active optical concept to filter narrow band pass or to control optical intensity. To characterize developed smart optics materials, we have measured thickness and reflection properties of the materials using a WVASE32 ellipsometry. This project allowed us to: (1) prepare the smart optical materials for measurement of thickness and optical properties at NASA Langley Research Center; (2) measure thickness and optical properties of the smart optical materials; (3) evaluate the measured properties in terms of applications for narrow band-pass filters. The outcomes of this research provide optical properties and physical properties of the smart optics on a selected spectral range. The applications of this development were used for field-controlled spectral smart filters.

  7. Laser induced damage in optical materials: 8th ASTM symposium.

    PubMed

    Glass, A J; Guenther, A H

    1977-05-01

    The Eighth Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers (Boulder Damage Symposium) was hosted by the National Bureau of Standards in Boulder, Colorado, from 13 to 15 July 1976. The Symposium was held under the auspices of ASTM Committee F-1, Subcommittee on Laser Standards, with the joint sponsorship of NBS, the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency, the Energy Research and Development Administration, and the Office of Naval Research. About 160 scientists attended the Symposium, including representatives of the United Kingdom, France, Canada, and Brazil. The Symposium was divided into five half-day sessions concerning Bulk Material Properties and Thermal Behavior, Mirrors and Surfaces, Thin Film Properties, Thin Film Damage, and Scaling Laws and Fundamental Mechanisms. As in previous years, the emphasis of the papers presented at the Symposium was directed toward new frontiers and new developments. Particular emphasis was given to new materials for use at 10.6 microm in mirror substrates, windo s, and coatings. New techniques in film deposition and advances in diamond-turning of optics were described. The scaling of damage thresholds with pulse duration, focal area, and wavelength were discussed. Alexander J. Glass of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory and Arthur H. Guenther of the Air Force Weapons Laboratory were co-chairpersons of the Symposium. The Ninth Annual Symposium is scheduled for 4-6 October 1977 at the National Bureau of Standards, Boulder, Colorado.

  8. Damage monitoring of CFRP retrofit using optical fiber sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Kunal; Breaux Frketic, Jolie; Olawale, David; Dickens, Tarik

    2015-04-01

    With nearly 25% of bridge infrastructure deemed deficient, repair of concrete structures is a critical need. FRP materials as thin laminates or fabrics are appearing to be an ideal alternative to traditional repair technology, because of their high strength to weight ratios and stiffness to weight ratios. In addition, FRP materials offer significant potential for lightweight, high strength, cost-effective and durable retrofit. One drawback of using CFRP retrofitting is its brittle-type failure; caused by its nearly linear elastic nature of the stress-strain behavior. This causes a strength reduction of the retrofitted member, thus the health of the retrofit applied on the structure becomes equally important to sustain the serviceability of the structure. This paper provides a system to monitor damage on the CFRP retrofits through optical fiber sensors which are woven into the structure to provide damage sensing. Precracked reinforced concrete beams were retrofitted using CFRP laminates with the most commonly used FRP application technique. The beams were tested under constant stress to allow the retrofitting to fail while evaluating the performance of the sensing system. Debonding failure modes at a stress of 9 MPa were successfully detected by TL optical fiber sensors in addition to detection during flexural failure. Real-time failure detection of FRP strengthened beams was successfully achieved and the retrofit damage-monitoring scheme aims at providing a tool to reduce the response time and decision making involved in maintenance of deficient structures.

  9. High-resolution 3-D imaging of surface damage sites in fused silica with Optical Coherence Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Guss, G; Bass, I; Hackel, R; Mailhiot, C; Demos, S G

    2007-10-30

    In this work, we present the first successful demonstration of a non-contact technique to precisely measure the 3D spatial characteristics of laser induced surface damage sites in fused silica for large aperture laser systems by employing Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). What makes OCT particularly interesting in the characterization of optical materials for large aperture laser systems is that its axial resolution can be maintained with working distances greater than 5 cm, whether viewing through air or through the bulk of thick optics. Specifically, when mitigating surface damage sites against further growth by CO{sub 2} laser evaporation of the damage, it is important to know the depth of subsurface cracks below the damage site. These cracks are typically obscured by the damage rubble when imaged from above the surface. The results to date clearly demonstrate that OCT is a unique and valuable tool for characterizing damage sites before and after the mitigation process. We also demonstrated its utility as an in-situ diagnostic to guide and optimize our process when mitigating surface damage sites on large, high-value optics.

  10. Full-Scale Prestress Loss Monitoring of Damaged RC Structures Using Distributed Optical Fiber Sensing Technology

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Chunguang; Zhou, Zhi; Ou, Jinping

    2012-01-01

    For the safety of prestressed structures, prestress loss is a critical issue that will increase with structural damage, so it is necessary to investigate prestress loss of prestressed structures under different damage scenarios. Unfortunately, to date, no qualified techniques are available due to difficulty for sensors to survive in harsh construction environments of long service life and large span. In this paper, a novel smart steel strand based on the Brillouin optical time domain analysis (BOTDA) sensing technique was designed and manufactured, and then series of tests were used to characterize properties of the smart steel strands. Based on prestress loss principle analysis of damaged structures, laboratory tests of two similar beams with different damages were used to verify the concept of full-scale prestress loss monitoring of damaged reinforced concrete (RC) beams by using the smart steel strands. The prestress losses obtained from the Brillouin sensors are compared with that from conventional sensors, which provided the evolution law of prestress losses of damaged RC beams. The monitoring results from the proposed smart strand can reveal both spatial distribution and time history of prestress losses of damaged RC beams. PMID:22778590

  11. Full-scale prestress loss monitoring of damaged RC structures using distributed optical fiber sensing technology.

    PubMed

    Lan, Chunguang; Zhou, Zhi; Ou, Jinping

    2012-01-01

    For the safety of prestressed structures, prestress loss is a critical issue that will increase with structural damage, so it is necessary to investigate prestress loss of prestressed structures under different damage scenarios. Unfortunately, to date, no qualified techniques are available due to difficulty for sensors to survive in harsh construction environments of long service life and large span. In this paper, a novel smart steel strand based on the Brillouin optical time domain analysis (BOTDA) sensing technique was designed and manufactured, and then series of tests were used to characterize properties of the smart steel strands. Based on prestress loss principle analysis of damaged structures, laboratory tests of two similar beams with different damages were used to verify the concept of full-scale prestress loss monitoring of damaged reinforced concrete (RC) beams by using the smart steel strands. The prestress losses obtained from the Brillouin sensors are compared with that from conventional sensors, which provided the evolution law of prestress losses of damaged RC beams. The monitoring results from the proposed smart strand can reveal both spatial distribution and time history of prestress losses of damaged RC beams.

  12. Development of damage resistant sputtered oxide optical coatings for use at 248 NM

    SciTech Connect

    Pawlewicz, W.T.; Martin, P.M.; Hays, D.D.; Mann, I.B.

    1981-10-01

    This report summarizes the results of a six-month effort to develop damage-resistant Kr*F laser mirrors by using and refining reactive sputter deposition techniques for the fabricaton of multilayer oxide optical coatings. Mirror performance goals included a reflectivity of 99% at 248 nm and a laser damage threshold of 5 J/cm/sup 2/ for 20 ns pulses. Oxide multilayer coating combinations selected for development were SiO/sub 2//Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, SiO/sub 2//HfO/sub 2/ and SiO/sub 2//Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/. Selection was based on review and compilation of the optical properties of oxide materials reported in the recent literature. Twenty-eight coatings of selected designs were fabricated on LLNL substrates for laser damage testing by LLNL. Forty other coatings were fabricated on PNL substrates for optical, microstructural and topographical characterization by PNL aimed at optimization of their performance. Specimens for damage testing consisted of single layers of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, HfO/sub 2/ and Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/ in thicknesses of lambda/2, 3lambda/2 and 2lambda at 248 nm plus high reflectors of the design LL (HL)/sup m/ HLL.

  13. Optical damage studies of mercury thiogallate nonlinear crystals for use in 1-μm pumped optical parametric oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Valentin; Marchev, Georgi; Tyazhev, Aleksey; Beutler, Marcus; Panyutin, Vladimir; Starikova, Marina; Esteban-Martin, Adolfo; Badikov, Valeriy; Shevyrdyaeva, Galina; Badikov, Dmitrii; Reza, Manuel; Sheina, Svetlana; Fintisova, Anna

    2013-11-01

    We investigated optical damage (surface and bulk) in one of the most promising wide bandgap nonoxide nonlinear crystals, HgGaS, that can be used in ˜1-μm pumped optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) and synchronously pumped OPOs (SPOPOs) for generation of idler pulses above 4 μm without two-photon absorption losses at the pump wavelength. The optical damage has been characterized at the pump wavelength for different repetition rates using uncoated and antireflection-coated (mainly with a single layer for pump and signal wavelengths) samples. HgGaS is the most successful nonlinear crystal (both in terms of output energy and average power) for such OPOs, but optical damage inside the OPO has a lower threshold and represents at present the principal limitation for the achievable output. It is related to peak pulse and not to average intensity, and bulk damage in the form of scattering centers occurs before surface damage. Such bulk damage formation is faster at higher repetition rates. Lower repetition rates increase the lifetime of the crystal but do not solve the problem. The safe pump fluence in extracavity measurements is <1 J/cm2, which corresponds to ˜100 MW/cm2 for the 8-ns pulse duration (both values peak on-axis). In the OPO, however, peak on-axis fluence should not exceed 0.3 J/cm2 limited by the formation of bulk scattering centers in orange-phase HgGaS. In the nanosecond OPO regime, the damage resistivity of Cd-doped HgGaS is higher and that of the almost colorless CdGa2S4 is roughly two times higher, but the latter has no sufficient birefringence for phase-matching. In SPOPOs operating in the ˜100 MHz regime, the damage limitations are related both to the peak pulse and the average intensities, but here HgGaS seems the best nonoxide candidate to obtain first steady-state operation with Yb-based mode-locked laser pump sources.

  14. Adhesive Characterization and Progressive Damage Analysis of Bonded Composite Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Girolamo, Donato; Davila, Carlos G.; Leone, Frank A.; Lin, Shih-Yung

    2014-01-01

    The results of an experimental/numerical campaign aimed to develop progressive damage analysis (PDA) tools for predicting the strength of a composite bonded joint under tensile loads are presented. The PDA is based on continuum damage mechanics (CDM) to account for intralaminar damage, and cohesive laws to account for interlaminar and adhesive damage. The adhesive response is characterized using standard fracture specimens and digital image correlation (DIC). The displacement fields measured by DIC are used to calculate the J-integrals, from which the associated cohesive laws of the structural adhesive can be derived. A finite element model of a sandwich conventional splice joint (CSJ) under tensile loads was developed. The simulations indicate that the model is capable of predicting the interactions of damage modes that lead to the failure of the joint.

  15. Clean Assembly Practices to Prevent Contamination and Damage to Optics

    SciTech Connect

    Pryatel, J; Gourdin, W H

    2005-12-19

    A key lesson learned from the earliest optics installed in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) was that the traditional approach for maintaining cleanliness, such as the use of cleanrooms and associated garments and protocols, is inadequate. Assembly activities often negate the benefits provided by cleanrooms, and in fact generate contamination with high damage potential. As a result, NIF introduced ''clean assembly protocols'' and related practices to supplement the traditional clean room protocols. These new protocols included ''clean-as-you-go'' activities and regular bright light inspections. Introduction of these new protocols has greatly reduced the particle contamination found on more recently installed optics. In this paper we will describe the contamination mechanisms we have observed and the details of the clean assembly protocols we have successfully introduced to mitigate them.

  16. Characterization of ALON optical ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Charles T.; Hartnett, Thomas M.; Fisher, Donald; Sunne, Wayne

    2005-05-01

    ALONTM Optical Ceramic is a durable window material for UV, Visible and Mid IR window and dome applications. The mechanical, thermal, and optical properties of ALON products produced commercially by Surmet Corporation have been measured and this new data will be presented. Comparisons to previously measured data will be made. Optical quality, low scatter ALON having high strength that is nearly double previously reported has been made. Average strength values of 700 MPa at 21°C and 631 MPa at 500°C have been measured for ALON specimens prepared by precision surface finishing techniques. Polished optical domes tested have survived severe thermal shock tests. These strength levels are comparable to those for single crystal sapphire. Strength, thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, refractive index, emissivity and absorption coefficient will be presented. The possible mechanisms for the increased strength will be discussed.

  17. Intracavity Optical Damage Due To Electrons, Ions And Ultraviolet Photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haglund, Richard F.

    1988-06-01

    Many of the damage problems experienced by intracavity laser optics, particularly for discharge-pumped and electron-beam-pumped laser systems, arise from the electronic interactions of low-energy electrons, ions and ultraviolet photons with the surface and near-surface regions of the optical material. We shall describe results of recent experiments which display some of the electronic mechanisms involved in these processes, through which incident electronic energy is absorbed, localized, transformed and ultimately dissipated in ways which change the surface composition and electronic structure of model wide bandgap optical materials. We consider discuss recent experimental results on the metallization of dielectric surfaces, the effects of adsorbed overlayers in inhibiting desorption of excited neutral atoms, and the effects of glass processing on response to electron and ion irradiation. We also point out some of the ways in which the changes in the optical surfaces wrought by the low-energy and low-intensity irradiation arising from the laser pumping mechanism can influence thermal, chemical and plasma properties of the surface in ways which alter the surface response to intense laser radiation.

  18. Plastic optical fibre sensor for damage detection in offshore structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, K. S. C.; Koh, C. G.

    2010-03-01

    It is important to ensure the safe and reliable use of massive engineering structures such as offshore platforms, including all aspects of safety and design code compliance. Although routine inspection is an integral part of the safety protocol in operating and maintaining these structures, regular assessment of the effectiveness and efficiency of existing safety evaluation methods is clearly desired in view of emerging technologies for structural health monitoring of engineering structures. The recent advancement in plastic optical fibre (POF) materials and processing render POF sensors an attractive alternative to glass-based optical fibre sensors as they offer much greater being flexibility, high resistance to fracture and hence the ease in their handling and installation. In this paper, some preliminary results demonstrating the use of plastic optical fibre sensors for damage detection and structural health monitoring for offshore and marine-related applications will be summarized. In this study, POF will be used for crack detection in tubular steel specimens in conjunction with a high-resolution photon-counting optical time-domain reflectrometry (v-OTDR). Although the use of OTDR technique is an established method in the telecommunication industry, this study is new in that it is now possible, with the availability of v-OTDR and graded-index perfluorinated POF, to detect and locate the crack position in the host structure to within 10 cm accuracy or better. It will also be shown that this technique could readily be configured to monitor crack growth in steel tubular members.

  19. Plastic optical fibre sensor for damage detection in offshore structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, K. S. C.; Koh, C. G.

    2009-12-01

    It is important to ensure the safe and reliable use of massive engineering structures such as offshore platforms, including all aspects of safety and design code compliance. Although routine inspection is an integral part of the safety protocol in operating and maintaining these structures, regular assessment of the effectiveness and efficiency of existing safety evaluation methods is clearly desired in view of emerging technologies for structural health monitoring of engineering structures. The recent advancement in plastic optical fibre (POF) materials and processing render POF sensors an attractive alternative to glass-based optical fibre sensors as they offer much greater being flexibility, high resistance to fracture and hence the ease in their handling and installation. In this paper, some preliminary results demonstrating the use of plastic optical fibre sensors for damage detection and structural health monitoring for offshore and marine-related applications will be summarized. In this study, POF will be used for crack detection in tubular steel specimens in conjunction with a high-resolution photon-counting optical time-domain reflectrometry (v-OTDR). Although the use of OTDR technique is an established method in the telecommunication industry, this study is new in that it is now possible, with the availability of v-OTDR and graded-index perfluorinated POF, to detect and locate the crack position in the host structure to within 10 cm accuracy or better. It will also be shown that this technique could readily be configured to monitor crack growth in steel tubular members.

  20. Optical fiber dispersion characterization study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geeslin, A.; Arriad, A.; Riad, S. M.; Padgett, M. E.

    1979-01-01

    The theory, design, and results of optical fiber pulse dispersion measurements are considered. Both the hardware and software required to perform this type of measurement are described. Hardware includes a thermoelectrically cooled injection laser diode source, an 800 GHz gain bandwidth produce avalanche photodiode and an input mode scrambler. Software for a HP 9825 computer includes fast Fourier transform, inverse Fourier transform, and optimal compensation deconvolution. Test set construction details are also included. Test results include data collected on a 1 Km fiber, a 4 Km fiber, a fused spliced, eight 600 meter length fibers concatenated to form 4.8 Km, and up to nine optical connectors.

  1. Radiation treatment inhibits monocyte entry into the optic nerve head and prevents neuronal damage in a mouse model of glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Gareth R.; Soto, Ileana; Zhu, Xianjun; Ryan, Margaret; Macalinao, Danilo G.; Sousa, Gregory L.; Caddle, Lura B.; MacNicoll, Katharine H.; Barbay, Jessica M.; Porciatti, Vittorio; Anderson, Michael G.; Smith, Richard S.; Clark, Abbot F.; Libby, Richard T.; John, Simon W.M.

    2012-01-01

    Glaucoma is a common ocular disorder that is a leading cause of blindness worldwide. It is characterized by the dysfunction and loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Although many studies have implicated various molecules in glaucoma, no mechanism has been shown to be responsible for the earliest detectable damage to RGCs and their axons in the optic nerve. Here, we show that the leukocyte transendothelial migration pathway is activated in the optic nerve head at the earliest stages of disease in an inherited mouse model of glaucoma. This resulted in proinflammatory monocytes entering the optic nerve prior to detectable neuronal damage. A 1-time x-ray treatment prevented monocyte entry and subsequent glaucomatous damage. A single x-ray treatment of an individual eye in young mice provided that eye with long-term protection from glaucoma but had no effect on the contralateral eye. Localized radiation treatment prevented detectable neuronal damage and dysfunction in treated eyes, despite the continued presence of other glaucomatous stresses and signaling pathways. Injection of endothelin-2, a damaging mediator produced by the monocytes, into irradiated eyes, combined with the other glaucomatous stresses, restored neural damage with a topography characteristic of glaucoma. Together, these data support a model of glaucomatous damage involving monocyte entry into the optic nerve. PMID:22426214

  2. Radiation treatment inhibits monocyte entry into the optic nerve head and prevents neuronal damage in a mouse model of glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Howell, Gareth R; Soto, Ileana; Zhu, Xianjun; Ryan, Margaret; Macalinao, Danilo G; Sousa, Gregory L; Caddle, Lura B; MacNicoll, Katharine H; Barbay, Jessica M; Porciatti, Vittorio; Anderson, Michael G; Smith, Richard S; Clark, Abbot F; Libby, Richard T; John, Simon W M

    2012-04-01

    Glaucoma is a common ocular disorder that is a leading cause of blindness worldwide. It is characterized by the dysfunction and loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Although many studies have implicated various molecules in glaucoma, no mechanism has been shown to be responsible for the earliest detectable damage to RGCs and their axons in the optic nerve. Here, we show that the leukocyte transendothelial migration pathway is activated in the optic nerve head at the earliest stages of disease in an inherited mouse model of glaucoma. This resulted in proinflammatory monocytes entering the optic nerve prior to detectable neuronal damage. A 1-time x-ray treatment prevented monocyte entry and subsequent glaucomatous damage. A single x-ray treatment of an individual eye in young mice provided that eye with long-term protection from glaucoma but had no effect on the contralateral eye. Localized radiation treatment prevented detectable neuronal damage and dysfunction in treated eyes, despite the continued presence of other glaucomatous stresses and signaling pathways. Injection of endothelin-2, a damaging mediator produced by the monocytes, into irradiated eyes, combined with the other glaucomatous stresses, restored neural damage with a topography characteristic of glaucoma. Together, these data support a model of glaucomatous damage involving monocyte entry into the optic nerve.

  3. Shell-NASA Vibration-Based Damage Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rollins, John M.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes collaborative research between Shell International Exploration and Production (IE&P) scientists and ISAG personnel to investigate the feasibility of ultrasonic-based characterization of spacecraft tile damage for in-space inspection applications. The approach was proposed by Shell personnel in a Shell-NASA "speed-matching" session in early 2011 after ISAG personnel described challenges inherent in the inspection of MMOD damage deep within spacecraft thermal protection system (TPS) tiles. The approach leveraged Shell's relevant sensor and analytical expertise. The research addressed the difficulties associated with producing 3D models of MMOD damage cavities under the surface of a TPS tile, given that simple image-based sensing is constrained by line of sight through entry holes that have diameters considerably smaller than the underlying damage cavities. Damage cavity characterization is needed as part of a vehicle inspection and risk reduction capability for long-duration, human-flown space missions. It was hoped that cavity characterization could be accomplished through the use of ultrasonic techniques that allow for signal penetration through solid material.

  4. Modeling of laser-induced damage and optic usage at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Zhi M.; Nostrand, Mike; Carr, Wren; Bude, Jeff; Suratwala, Tayyab I.

    2016-07-01

    Modeling of laser-induced optics damage has been introduced to benchmark existing optic usage at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) which includes the number of optics exchanged for damage repair. NIF has pioneered an optics recycle strategy to allow it to run the laser at capacity since fully commissioned in 2009 while keeping the cost of optics usage manageable. We will show how the damage model is being used to evaluate strategies to streamline our optics loop efficiency, as we strive to increase the laser shot rate without increasing operating costs.

  5. Real-time damage assessment using fiber optic grating sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvert, Sean G.; Conte, Joel P.; Moaveni, Babak; Schulz, Whitten L.; de Callafon, Raymond

    2003-11-01

    Over the past few years Blue Road Research and the University of California at San Diego have been collaborating to develop a bridge health monitoring system using long gage length fiber optic strain sensors and modal analysis. Two programs supporting this effort have been funded by the National Science Foundation and from this work several papers have been published showing its strong progress1-5. In 2002, the Federal Highway Administration and Caltrans performed a full-scale test on some of the components that will be used for the planned I-5/Gilman Advanced technology Bridge in California, USA. As a part of this test Blue Road Research used its developmental system to validate the use of this damage detection technique and to compare the results with conventional modal analysis tools.

  6. Surface periodic structures under the optical damage of transparent dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libenson, Mikhail N.; Makin, Vladimir S.; Shiryaev, V. A.; Soileau, M. J.

    1995-07-01

    Experimental studies of the laser element's radiation strength show that optical damage of transparent dielectrics may be accompanied by the formation of surface periodic structures (SPS). SPS with ripples oriented normally to the strength vector of the incident electric field were found on the output surface of a dielectric plate (alkali- halide crystal) under focusing near or middle IR laser radiations of a microsecond duration. This relief was assumed to arise from heating caused by interference between the incident light and the wave scattered from the surface defects on the assumption that scattered wave represents a rapidly decreasing field of the Coulomb type. More correct SPS model developed by V. S. Makin proposes participation of surface electromagnetic waves (SEW). As known, optical damage is accompanied by the development of plasma flash. When emission of electronics from solid surface is strong, the plasma dielectric constant runs out to be negative with its modulus exceeding the dielectric constant of the transparent medium. This causes the generation conditions for SEW to be fulfield on the dielectric-plasma boundary, which results in interference between the incident light and SEW, thus leading to formation of SPS. The model explains reasonably well, why these SPS can be observed only on the output surface when developing plasma produces no screening effect on the surface. For CO2 laser irradiation, the necessary electronic concentration is high but reasonable value and amounts about 1019 cm-. However, SPS formed by the short-wavelengths radiation cannot find correct explanation in the framework of this model, since electronic concentration at the wavelengths (lambda) equals micrometers should be no less than 1021 cm-3 in this case.

  7. Damage characterization of high-strength multiphase steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heibel, S.; Nester, W.; Clausmeyer, T.; Tekkaya, A. E.

    2016-11-01

    High-strength steels show an entirely different material behavior than conventional deep-drawing steels. This fact is caused among others by the multiphase nature of their structure. The Forming Limit Diagram as the classic failure criterion in forming simulation is only partially suitable for this class of steels. An improvement of the failure prediction can be obtained by using damage mechanics. Therefore, an exact knowledge of the material-specific damage is essential for the application of various damage models. In this paper the results of microstructure analysis of a dual-phase steel and a complex-phase steel with a tensile strength of 1000 MPa are shown comparatively at various stress conditions. The objective is to characterize the basic damage mechanisms and based on this to assess the crack sensitivity of both steels. First a structural analysis with regard to non-metallic inclusions, the microstructural morphology, phase identification and the difference in microhardness between the structural phases is carried out. Subsequently, the development of the microstructure at different stress states between uniaxial and biaxial tension is examined. The damage behavior is characterized and quantified by the increase in void density, void size and the quantity of voids. The dominant damage mechanism of the dual-phase steel is the void initiation at phase boundaries, within harder structural phases and at inclusions. In contrast the complex-phase steel shows a significant growth of a smaller amount of voids which initiate only at inclusions. To quantify the damage tolerance and the susceptibility of cracking the criterion of the fracture forming limit line (FFL) is used. The respective statements are supported by results of investigations regarding the edge-crack sensitivity.

  8. Characterization of magneto-optical media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajjar, Roger A.; Wu, Te-Ho; Mansuripur, M.

    1991-01-01

    Amorphous rare earth-transition metal (RE-TM) alloys and compositionally modulated TM/TM films were characterized in terms of their magnetic, magneto-optic, and galvanomagnetic properties. The loop tracer, vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) facility were used to characterize and analyze the various properties of these magneto-optical storage media. Kerr effect, ellipticity, coercivity, and anisotropy at various temperatures, magnetoresistance, and resistivity are among the properties measured in Co/Pt films, Co/Pd films, and TbFeCo films.

  9. Apparatus and method for characterizing ultrafast polarization varying optical pulses

    DOEpatents

    Smirl, Arthur; Trebino, Rick P.

    1999-08-10

    Practical techniques are described for characterizing ultrafast potentially ultraweak, ultrashort optical pulses. The techniques are particularly suited to the measurement of signals from nonlinear optical materials characterization experiments, whose signals are generally too weak for full characterization using conventional techniques.

  10. Radiation damages to amorphous-carbon optical coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juha, L.; Bittner, M.; De Grazia, M.; Feldhaus, J.; Gaudin, J.; Guizard, S.; Jacobi, S.; Kozlova, M.; Krasa, J.; Krzywinski, J.; Merdji, H.; Michaelsen, C.; Mocek, T.; Nietubyc, R.; Jurek, M.; Polan, J.; Prag, A. R.; Rus, B.; Sobierajski, R.; Steeg-Keitel, B.; Stoermer, M.; Stupka, M.; Vorlicek, V.; Wiesmann, J.; Wild, J.

    2005-08-01

    The multi-mJ, 21-nm soft-x-ray laser at the PALS facility was focused on the surface of amorphous carbon (a-C) coating, developed for heavily loaded XUV/x-ray optical elements. AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy) images show 3-micrometer expansion of the irradiated material. Raman spectra, measured with an Ar+ laser microbeam in both irradiated and unirradiated areas, confirm a high degree of graphitization in the irradiated layer. In addition to this highfluence (~ 1 J/cm2), single-shot experiment, it was necessary to carry out an experiment to investigate consequences of prolonged XUV irradiation at relatively low fluence. High-order harmonic (HH) beam generated at the LUCA facility in CEA/Saclay Research Center was used as a source of short-wavelength radiation delivering high-energy photons on the surface at a low single-shot fluence but with high-average power. a-C irradiated at a low fluence, i.e., < 0.1 mJ/cm2 by many HH shots exhibits an expansion for several nanometers. Although it is less dramatic change of surface morphology than that due to single-hot x-ray-laser exposure even the observed nanometer-sized changes caused by the HH beam on a-C surface could influence reflectivity of a grazing incidence optical element. These results seem to be important for estimating damages to the surfaces of highly irradiated optical elements developed for guiding and focusing the ultraintense XUV/x-ray beams provided by new generation sources (i.e., VUV FEL and XFEL in Hamburg; LCLS in Stanford) because, up to now, only melting and vaporization, but not graphitization, have been taken into account.

  11. Laser-Induced Damage Threshold and Certification Procedures for Optical Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This document provides instructions for performing laser-induced-damage-threshold tests and pass-fail certification tests on optical materials used in pulsed-laser systems. The optical materials to which these procedures apply include coated and uncoated optical substrates, laser crystals, Q-switches, polarizers, and other optical components employed in pulsed-laser systems.

  12. Terahertz material characterization for nonreciprocal integrated optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mičica, Martin; Postava, Kamil; Vanwolleghem, Mathias; Horák, Tomáś; Lampin, Jean François; Pištora, Jaromír.

    2015-05-01

    Interest in nonreciprocal terahertz (THz) integrated optics makes necessity to look for new materials active in this region and precisely characterize their optical properties. In this paper we present important aspects of the methods for determination of optical functions in far infrared (FIR) and THz spectral range. The techniques are applied to polyethylene cyclic olefin copolymer (Topas) and hexaferrites (BaFe12O19, SrFe12O19). Topas is promising material in integrated optics for THz radiation, thanks to its low absorption in this region. On the other hand, hexaferrites with its magneto-optic properties can be used for nonreciprocal integrated optic parts and radiation control. Samples were studied by THz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) in spectral range 2 - 100 cm-1 by transmission and reflection. Advantage of presented THz time domain spectroscopy is measurement of the electric field wavefunction, which allows to obtain both the amplitude and phase spectra. In results we provide measured data, processing, and final computed optical properties of Topas and hexaferrites which reveal interesting optical behaviour in THz spectral range.

  13. Studies on transmitted beam modulation effect from laser induced damage on fused silica optics.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yi; Ma, Ping; Li, Haibo; Liu, Zhichao; Chen, Songlin

    2013-07-15

    UV laser induced damage (LID) on exit surface of fused silica could cause modulation effect to transmitted beam and further influence downstream propagation properties. This paper presents our experimental and analytical studies on this topic. In experiment, a series of measurement instruments are applied, including beam profiler, interferometer, microscope, and optical coherent tomography (OCT). Creating and characterizing of LID on fused silica sample have been implemented. Morphological features are studied based on their particular modulation effects on transmitted beam. In theoretical investigation, analytical modeling and numerical simulation are performed. Modulation effects from amplitude, phase, and size factors are analyzed respectively. Furthermore, we have novelly designed a simplified polygon model to simulate actual damage site with multiform modulation features, and the simulation results demonstrate that the modeling is usable and representative.

  14. Optical Characterization of Parathyroid Tissues.

    PubMed

    Brandao, M P; Iwakura, R; Honorato-Sobrinho, A A; Haleplian, K; Ito, A S; de Freitas, L C Conti; Bachmann, L

    2016-07-05

    The parathyroid glands are small and often similar to lymph nodes, fat, and thyroid tissue. These glands are difficult to identify during surgery and a biopsy of the parathyroid for identification can lead to damage of the gland. The use of static and time-resolved fluorescence techniques to detect biochemical composition and tissue structure alterations could help to develop a portable, minimally invasive, and nondestructive method to assist medical evaluation of parathyroid tissues. In this study, we investigated 10 human parathyroid samples by absorbance, fluorescence, excitation, and time-resolved fluorescence measurements. Moreover, we compared the results of time-resolved fluorescence measurements with 59 samples of thyroid tissues. The fluorescence lifetimes with emission at 340 nm were 1.09 ± 0.10 and 4.46 ± 0.06 ns for healthy tissue, 1.01 ± 0.25 and 4.39 ± 0.36 ns for benign lesions, and 0.67 ± 0.36 and 3.92 ± 0.72 ns for malignant lesions. The lifetimes for benign and malignant lesions were significantly different, as attested by the analysis of variance with confidence levels higher than 87%. For each class of samples (healthy, benign, and malignant) we perceived statistical differences between the thyroid and parathyroid tissue, independently. After further investigations, fluorescence methods could become a tool to identify normal and pathological parathyroid tissues and distinguish thyroid from parathyroid tissues. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Characterization of polarizing splitter optics in extreme environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, Ryand J. F.; Olson, Matthew; Morelli, Gregg L.

    2013-03-01

    Development of laser systems capable of surviving extreme conditions experienced in military applications requires mounts and components that are able to survive these conditions. The characterization of mounted and/or bonded optical assemblies in harsh environments is critical for the development of laser and optical systems for functionality in these extreme conditions. Customized mounts, bonding assemblies and packaging strategies are utilized to develop and field reliable and robust optical subassemblies. Thin film polarizers operating at 45° and polarizing beam splitter cubes were chosen for initial testing based on past experiences, advancements in optical coating and construction technologies and material properties. Shock, vibration, shear strength, tensile strength and temperature testing are performed on mounted polarizing beam splitter cubes and thin film polarizers from two manufacturers. Previous testing showed that polarizing beam splitter cubes constructed using epoxy would become damaged in the laser resonator. The cubes being tested in this report are constructed using epoxy- free direct optical contact bonding. Thin film polarizers operating at 45° are chosen opposed to Brewster's angle thin film polarizers to reduce the size and simplify design and construction since an optical wedge is not required. The components and mounts are each environmentally tested beyond the manufacturers' specifications for shock, vibration, and temperature. Component functionality is monitored during and after the environmental testing. Experimental results from the testing will be discussed as will the impact on future laser resonator designs.

  16. Characterization of Polarizing Splitter Optics in Extreme Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, Ryand; Olson, Matthew; Morelli, Gregg

    2013-01-04

    Development of laser systems capable of surviving extreme conditions experienced in military applications requires mounts and components that are able to survive these conditions. The characterization of mounted and/or bonded optical assemblies in harsh environments is critical for the development of laser and optical systems for functionality in these extreme conditions. Customized mounts, bonding assemblies and packaging strategies are utilized to develop and field reliable and robust optical subassemblies. Thin film polarizers operating at 45o and polarizing beam splitter cubes were chosen for initial testing based on past experiences, advancements in optical coating and construction technologies and material properties. Shock, vibration, shear strength, tensile strength and temperature testing are performed on mounted polarizing beam splitter cubes and thin film polarizers from two manufacturers. Previous testing showed that polarizing beam splitter cubes constructed using epoxy would become damaged in the laser resonator. The cubes being tested in this report are constructed using epoxy- free direct optical contact bonding. Thin film polarizers operating at 45o are chosen opposed to Brewster’s angle thin film polarizers to reduce the size and simplify design and construction since an optical wedge is not required. The components and mounts are each environmentally tested beyond the manufacturers’ specifications for shock, vibration, and temperature. Component functionality is monitored during and after the environmental testing. Experimental results from the testing will be discussed as will the impact on future laser resonator designs.

  17. Characterization of passive polymer optical waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joehnck, Matthias; Kalveram, Stefan; Lehmacher, Stefan; Pompe, Guido; Rudolph, Stefan; Neyer, Andreas; Hofstraat, Johannes W.

    1999-05-01

    The characterization of monomode passive polymer optical devices fabricated according to the POPCORN technology by methods originated from electron, ion and optical spectroscopy is summarized. Impacts of observed waveguide perturbations on the optical characteristics of the waveguide are evaluated. In the POPCORN approach optical components for telecommunication applications are fabricated by photo-curing of liquid halogenated (meth)acrylates which have been applied on moulded thermoplastic substrates. For tuning of waveguide material refractive indices with respect to the substrate refractive index frequently comonomer mixtures are used. The polymerization characteristics, especially the polymerization kinetics of individual monomers, determine the formation of copolymers. Therefore the unsaturation as function of UV-illumination time in the formation of halogenated homo- and copolymers has been examined. From different suitable copolymer system, after characterization of their glass transition temperatures, their curing behavior and their refractive indices as function of the monomer ratios, monomode waveguides applying PMMA substrates have been fabricated. To examine the materials composition also in the 6 X 6 micrometers 2 waveguides they have been visualized by transmission electron microscopy. With this method e.g. segregation phenomena could be observed in the waveguide cross section characterization as well. The optical losses in monomode waveguides caused by segregation and other materials induce defects like micro bubbles formed as a result of shrinkage have been quantized by return loss measurements. Defects causing scattering could be observed by convocal laser scanning microscopy and by conventional light microscopy.

  18. Modeling and Characterization of Damage Processes in Metallic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaessgen, E. H.; Saether, E.; Smith, S. W.; Hochhalter, J. D.; Yamakov, V. I.; Gupta, V.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a broad effort that is aimed at understanding the fundamental mechanisms of crack growth and using that understanding as a basis for designing materials and enabling predictions of fracture in materials and structures that have small characteristic dimensions. This area of research, herein referred to as Damage Science, emphasizes the length scale regimes of the nanoscale and the microscale for which analysis and characterization tools are being developed to predict the formation, propagation, and interaction of fundamental damage mechanisms. Examination of nanoscale processes requires atomistic and discrete dislocation plasticity simulations, while microscale processes can be examined using strain gradient plasticity, crystal plasticity and microstructure modeling methods. Concurrent and sequential multiscale modeling methods are being developed to analytically bridge between these length scales. Experimental methods for characterization and quantification of near-crack tip damage are also being developed. This paper focuses on several new methodologies in these areas and their application to understanding damage processes in polycrystalline metals. On-going and potential applications are also discussed.

  19. Investigation on the defect structure and optical damage resistance of In:Tm:LiNbO3 crystals with different doping concentrations of In3+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhen; Tong, Jianqiang; Zhang, Xin; Gao, Jie; Zhang, Xiaoling; Xu, Zhaopeng

    2014-12-01

    In:Tm:LiNbO3 crystals were grown by the Czochralski technique with fixed concentrations of Tm2O3 and differing concentrations of In2O3. Their ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra were measured in order to investigate their defect structures and their optical damage resistance was characterized by the transmission light spot distortion method. The results show that the optical damage resistance of the In:Tm:LiNbO3 crystals improves with the doping concentration of In2O3 increasing. The dependence of the optical damage resistance on the defect structure of In:Tm:LiNbO3 crystals is discussed in detail.

  20. Optical Characterization of Metallic Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Wenbo; Lin, Bing

    2005-01-01

    Airborne metallic particulates from industry and urban sources are highly conducting aerosols. The characterization of these pollutant particles is important for environment monitoring and protection. Because these metallic particulates are highly reflective, their effect on local weather or regional radiation budget may also need to be studied. In this work, light scattering characteristics of these metallic aerosols are studied using exact solutions on perfectly conducting spherical and cylindrical particles. It is found that for perfectly conducting spheres and cylinders, when scattering angle is larger than approx. 90 deg. the linear polarization degree of the scattered light is very close to zero. This light scattering characteristics of perfectly conducting particles is significantly different from that of other aerosols. When these perfectly conducting particles are immersed in an absorbing medium, this light scattering characteristics does not show significant change. Therefore, measuring the linear polarization of scattered lights at backward scattering angles can detect and distinguish metallic particulates from other aerosols. This result provides a great potential of metallic aerosol detection and monitoring for environmental protection.

  1. Catastrophic Optical Damage in High-Power, Broad-Area Laser Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Aland K.; Bertaska, Rick K.

    Catastrophic optical damage (COD) is semiconductor material within the optical cavity of laser diodes that is thermally damaged by the laser light. COD results in the failure of laser diodes. The phenomena of COD in high-power, broad-area laser diodes are described along with methods to eliminate it.

  2. Three-Dimensional Characterization and Modeling of Microstructural Weak Links for Spall Damage in FCC Metals

    DOE PAGES

    Krishnan, Kapil; Brown, Andrew; Wayne, Leda; ...

    2014-11-25

    Local microstructural weak links for spall damage were investigated using three-dimensional (3-D) characterization in multicrystalline copper samples (grain size ≈ 450 µm) shocked with laser-driven plates at low pressures (2 to 4 GPa). The thickness of samples and flyer plates, approximately 1000 and 500 µm respectively, led to short pressure pulses that allowed isolating microstructure effects on local damage characteristics. Electron Backscattering Diffraction and optical microscopy were used to relate the presence, size, and shape of porosity to local microstructure. The experiments were complemented with 3-D finite element simulations of individual grain boundaries (GBs) that resulted in large damage volumesmore » using crystal plasticity coupled with a void nucleation and growth model. Results from analysis of these damage sites show that the presence of a GB-affected zone, where strain concentration occurs next to a GB, correlates strongly with damage localization at these sites, most likely due to the inability of maintaining strain compatibility across these interfaces, with additional effects due to the inclination of the GB with respect to the shock. Results indicate that strain compatibility plays an important role on intergranular spall damage in metallic materials.« less

  3. Three-Dimensional Characterization and Modeling of Microstructural Weak Links for Spall Damage in FCC Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, Kapil; Brown, Andrew; Wayne, Leda; Vo, Johnathan; Opie, Saul; Lim, Harn; Peralta, Pedro; Luo, Sheng-Nian; Byler, Darrin; McClellan, Kenneth J.; Koskelo, Aaron; Dickerson, Robert

    2014-11-25

    Local microstructural weak links for spall damage were investigated using three-dimensional (3-D) characterization in multicrystalline copper samples (grain size ≈ 450 µm) shocked with laser-driven plates at low pressures (2 to 4 GPa). The thickness of samples and flyer plates, approximately 1000 and 500 µm respectively, led to short pressure pulses that allowed isolating microstructure effects on local damage characteristics. Electron Backscattering Diffraction and optical microscopy were used to relate the presence, size, and shape of porosity to local microstructure. The experiments were complemented with 3-D finite element simulations of individual grain boundaries (GBs) that resulted in large damage volumes using crystal plasticity coupled with a void nucleation and growth model. Results from analysis of these damage sites show that the presence of a GB-affected zone, where strain concentration occurs next to a GB, correlates strongly with damage localization at these sites, most likely due to the inability of maintaining strain compatibility across these interfaces, with additional effects due to the inclination of the GB with respect to the shock. Results indicate that strain compatibility plays an important role on intergranular spall damage in metallic materials.

  4. Thermal and optical characterization for POLARBEAR-2 optical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Y.; Stebor, N.; Ade, P. A. R.; Akiba, Y.; Arnold, K.; Anthony, A. E.; Atlas, M.; Barron, D.; Bender, A.; Boettger, D.; Borrilll, J.; Chapman, S.; Chinone, Y.; Cukierman, A.; Dobbs, M.; Elleflot, T.; Errard, J.; Fabbian, G.; Feng, C.; Gilbert, A.; Halverson, N. W.; Hasegawa, M.; Hattori, K.; Hazumi, M.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hori, Y.; Jaehnig, G. C.; Jaffe, A. H.; Katayama, N.; Keating, B.; Kermish, Z.; Keskitalo, Reijo; Kisner, T.; Le Jeune, M.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E. M.; Linder, E.; Matsuda, F.; Matsumura, T.; Meng, X.; Morii, H.; Myers, M. J.; Navaroli, M.; Nishino, H.; Okamura, T.; Paar, H.; Peloton, J.; Poletti, D.; Rebeiz, G.; Reichardt, C. L.; Richards, P. L.; Ross, C.; Schenck, D. E.; Sherwin, B. D.; Siritanasak, P.; Smecher, G.; Sholl, M.; Steinbach, B.; Stompor, R.; Suzuki, A.; Suzuki, J.; Takada, S.; Takakura, S.; Tomaru, T.; Wilson, B.; Yadav, A.; Yamaguchi, H.; Zahn, O.

    2014-08-01

    POLARBEAR-2 (PB-2) is a cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization experiment for B-mode detection. The PB-2 receiver has a large focal plane and aperture that consists of 7588 transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers at 250 mK. The receiver consists of the optical cryostat housing reimaging lenses and infrared filters, and the detector cryostat housing TES bolometers. The large focal plane places substantial requirements on the thermal design of the optical elements at the 4K, 50K, and 300K stages. Infrared filters and lenses inside the optical cryostat are made of alumina for this purpose. We measure basic properties of alumina, such as the index of refraction, loss tangent and thermal conductivity. All results meet our requirements. We also optically characterize filters and lenses made of alumina. Finally, we perform a cooling test of the entire optical cryostat. All measured temperature values satisfy our requirements. In particular, the temperature rise between the center and edge of the alumina infrared filter at 50 K is only 2:0 ± 1:4 K. Based on the measurements, we estimate the incident power to each thermal stage.

  5. VRPD Novel Combinatory Approaches to Repair Visual System After Optic Nerve Damage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0319 TITLE: VRPD Novel Combinatory Approaches to Repair Visual System After Optic Nerve Damage PRINCIPAL...Novel Combinatory Approaches to Repair Visual System After Optic Nerve Damage 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0319 5c. PROGRAM... nerve damage, which occurs in battlefield and post- combat in a delayed manner. In our studies, we have discovered that combining genetic modulations

  6. Reduction of damage initiation density in fused silica optics via UV laser conditioning

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, John E.; Maricle, Stephen M.; Brusasco, Raymond M.; Penetrante, Bernardino M.

    2004-03-16

    The present invention provides a method for reducing the density of sites on the surface of fused silica optics that are prone to the initiation of laser-induced damage, resulting in optics which have far fewer catastrophic defects and are better capable of resisting optical deterioration upon exposure for a long period of time to a high-power laser beam having a wavelength of about 360 nm or less. The initiation of laser-induced damage is reduced by conditioning the optic at low fluences below levels that normally lead to catastrophic growth of damage. When the optic is then irradiated at its high fluence design limit, the concentration of catastrophic damage sites that form on the surface of the optic is greatly reduced.

  7. Low tip damage AFM technique development for nano structures characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Biao; Wang, Charles C.; Huang, Po-Fu; Uritsky, Yuri

    2010-06-01

    Ambient dynamic mode (tapping mode or intermittent-contact mode) AFM imaging has been used extensively for the characterization of the topography of nano structures. However, the results are beset with artifacts, because hard tapping of the AFM tip on sample surface usually causes premature tip damage. Through careful study of the cantilever amplitude and phase signals as functions of tip-to-sample distance, principle of non-contact AFM operation was discovered to enable high resolution and low tip damage AFM image acquisition [1, 2]. However, current study discovers that the conventional way of acquiring amplitude and phase versus distance curves gives erroneous non-contact operating range, because the tip gets damaged during the data acquisition process. A new technique is developed to reliably map the operating parameters of an intact tip that ensures the AFM be operated with the correct non-contact settings. Two examples are given to illustrate the successful applications of this new technique. The first example involves the size characterization of polystyrene latex (PSL) nano particles used for light scattering tool calibration. The second example is the development of robust recipes for the measurement of the depth of phase-shift mask trenches.

  8. NDE for Characterizing Oxidation Damage in Reinforced Carbon-Carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Don J.; Rauser, Richard W.; Jacobson, nathan S.; Wincheski, Russell A.; Walker, James L.; Cosgriff, Laura A.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, coated reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) samples of similar structure and composition as that from the NASA space shuttle orbiter s thermal protection system were fabricated with slots in their coating simulating craze cracks. These specimens were used to study oxidation damage detection and characterization using NDE methods. These specimens were heat treated in air at 1143 and 1200 C to create cavities in the carbon substrate underneath the coating as oxygen reacted with the carbon and resulted in its consumption. The cavities varied in diameter from approximately 1 to 3 mm. Single-sided NDE methods were used since they might be practical for on-wing inspection, while x-ray micro-computed tomography (CT) was used to measure cavity sizes in order to validate oxidation models under development for carbon-carbon materials. An RCC sample having a naturally-cracked coating and subsequent oxidation damage was also studied with x-ray micro-CT. This effort is a follow-on study to one that characterized NDE methods for assessing oxidation damage in an RCC sample with drilled holes in the coating. The results of that study are briefly reviewed in this article as well. Additionally, a short discussion on the future role of simulation to aid in these studies is provided.

  9. Optical Characterization of Molecular Contaminant Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Visentine, James T.

    2007-01-01

    A semi-empirical method of optical characterization of thin contaminant films on surfaces of optical components has been conceived. The method was originally intended for application to films that become photochemically deposited on such optical components as science windows, lenses, prisms, thinfilm radiators, and glass solar-cell covers aboard spacecraft and satellites in orbit. The method should also be applicable, with suitable modifications, to thin optical films (whether deposited deliberately or formed as contaminants) on optical components used on Earth in the computer microchip laser communications and thin-film industries. The method is expected to satisfy the need for a means of understanding and predicting the reductions in spectral transmittance caused by contaminant films and the consequent deterioration of performances of sensitive optical systems. After further development, this method could become part of the basis of a method of designing optical systems to minimize or compensate for the deleterious effects of contaminant films. In the original outer-space application, these deleterious effects are especially pronounced because after photochemical deposition, the films become darkened by further exposure to solar vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation. In this method, thin contaminant films are theoretically modeled as thin optical films, characterized by known or assumed values of thickness, index of refraction, and absorption coefficient, that form on the outer surfaces of the original antireflection coating on affected optical components. The assumed values are adjusted as needed to make actual spectral transmittance values approximate observed ones as closely as possible and to correlate these values with amounts of VUV radiation to which the optical components have been exposed. In an initial study, the method was applied in correlating measured changes in transmittance of high-purity fused silica photochemically coated with silicone films of

  10. Physical limits of semiconductor laser operation: A time-resolved analysis of catastrophic optical damage

    SciTech Connect

    Ziegler, Mathias; Hempel, Martin; Tomm, Jens W.; Elsaesser, Thomas; Larsen, Henning E.; Andersen, Peter E.; Clausen, Soennik; Elliott, Stella N.

    2010-07-12

    The early stages of catastrophic optical damage (COD) in 808 nm emitting diode lasers are mapped by simultaneously monitoring the optical emission with a 1 ns time resolution and deriving the device temperature from thermal images. COD occurs in highly localized damage regions on a 30 to 400 ns time scale which is determined by the accumulation of excess energy absorbed from the optical output. We identify regimes in which COD is avoided by the proper choice of operation parameters.

  11. Optical damage performance measurements of multilayer dielectric gratings for high energy short pulse lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessi, D.; Carr, C. W.; Negres, R. A.; Hackel, R. P.; Stanion, K. A.; Cross, D. A.; Guss, G.; Nissen, J. D.; Luthi, R.; Fair, J. E.; Britten, J. A.; Haefner, C.

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the laser damage resistance of multilayer dielectric (MLD) diffraction gratings used in the pulse compressors for high energy, high peak power laser systems such as the Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC) Petawatt laser on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Our study includes measurements of damage threshold and damage density (ρ(Φ)) with picosecond laser pulses at 1053 nm under relevant operational conditions. Initial results indicate that sparse defects present on the optic surface from the manufacturing processes are responsible for damage initiation at laser fluences below the damage threshold indicated by the standard R-on-1 test methods, as is the case for laser damage with nanosecond pulse durations. As such, this study supports the development of damage density measurements for more accurate predictions on the damage performance of large area optics.

  12. Nano-indentation and laser-induced damage testing in optical multilayer-dielectric gratings [Nanomechanics and laser-induced damage in optical multilayer dielectric gratings

    DOE PAGES

    Mehrotra, K.; Corning Research & Development Corp., Coming, NY; Taylor, B. N.; ...

    2017-03-16

    Here, we demonstrate how a nanomechanical test can be used to generate metrics to complement laser-induced–damage testing (LIDT) measurements and show that differences in optical performance of the gratings (arising from changes in cleaning process and/or fabrication methods) can be related to their mechanical reliability. Data are presented on LIDT measurements in diffractive gratings of silica deposited on optical multilayers. The nano-indentation response of the diffraction gratings is measured in a new mode that allows for the extraction of a measurable metric characterizing the brittleness of the gratings, as well as their ductility. We show that lower LIDT’s are positivelymore » correlated with an increased grating brittleness, and therefore identify a nanomechanical approach to describe LIDT’s. We present extensive numerical simulations of nano-indentation tests and identify different deformation modes including stretching, shear concentration, and bending as precursors to mechanical failure in the nano-indentation test. The effects of geometrical inhomogeneities on enhanced stress generation in these gratings are specifically examined and addressed.« less

  13. Damage to coated ZnSe optical components by high-power CO2 laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, C. R.; Kreutz, Ernst-Wolfgang; Wesner, David A.

    1994-07-01

    Coated ZnSe optical components are irradiated with high-power, pulsed CO2 laser radiation ((lambda equals 10.6 micrometers , pulse length approximately 100 ns) at fluences up to 210 J/cm2. The components are characterized at various stages of irradiation by thermography, optical microscopy, stylus profilometry, and surface chemical analysis (x-ray photoemission and Auger electron spectroscopy). During irradiation no temperature in the component surface is observed. Two types of coating damage occur within the irradiated area of the component: a breaking apart of the ZnSe overlayer of the coating system over relatively large areas, and the formation of isolate craters of diameter approximately 30 - 50 micrometers extending in depth approximately 3 micrometers through the coating system down to the ZnSe substrate. Chemically, the irradiated area is characterized by an oxidation of both Zn and Se and an increase in the stoichiometric ratio of Zn to Se. These effects are especially pronounced at the crater defects, and are attributed to localized optical absorption, leading to thermal stress and chemical reactions of Zn and Se with atmospheric or adsorbed water and/or oxygen.

  14. Optical Detection of Early Damage in Retinal Ganglion Cells in a Mouse Model of Partial Optic Nerve Crush Injury

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Ji; Puyang, Zhen; Feng, Liang; Duan, Lian; Liang, Peiji; Backman, Vadim; Liu, Xiaorong; Zhang, Hao F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Elastic light backscattering spectroscopy (ELBS) has exquisite sensitivity to the ultrastructural properties of tissue and thus has been applied to detect various diseases associated with ultrastructural alterations in their early stages. This study aims to test whether ELBS can detect early damage in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Methods We used a mouse model of partial optic nerve crush (pONC) to induce rapid RGC death. We confirmed RGC loss by axon counting and characterized the changes in retinal morphology by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and in retinal function by full-field electroretinogram (ERG), respectively. To quantify the ultrastructural properties, elastic backscattering spectroscopic analysis was implemented in the wavelength-dependent images recorded by reflectance confocal microscopy. Results At 3 days post-pONC injury, no significant change was found in the thickness of the RGC layer or in the mean amplitude of the oscillatory potentials measured by OCT and ERG, respectively; however, we did observe a significantly decreased number of axons compared with the controls. At 3 days post-pONC, we used ELBS to calculate the ultrastructural marker (D), the shape factor quantifying the shape of the local mass density correlation functions. It was significantly reduced in the crushed eyes compared with the controls, indicating the ultrastructural fragmentation in the crushed eyes. Conclusions Elastic light backscattering spectroscopy detected ultrastructural neuronal damage in RGCs following the pONC injury when OCT and ERG tests appeared normal. Our study suggests a potential clinical method for detecting early neuronal damage prior to anatomical alterations in the nerve fiber and ganglion cell layers. PMID:27784071

  15. Combined advanced finishing and UV laser conditioning process for producing damage resistant optics

    DOEpatents

    Menapace, Joseph A.; Peterson, John E.; Penetrante, Bernardino M.; Miller, Philip E.; Parham, Thomas G.; Nichols, Michael A.

    2005-07-26

    A method for reducing the density of sites on the surface of fused silica optics that are prone to the initiation of laser-induced damage, resulting in optics which have far fewer catastrophic defects, and are better capable of resisting optical deterioration upon exposure to a high-power laser beam.

  16. Scalable process for mitigation of laser-damaged potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystal optic surfaces with removal of damaged antireflective coating.

    PubMed

    Elhadj, S; Steele, W A; VanBlarcom, D S; Hawley, R A; Schaffers, K I; Geraghty, P

    2017-03-10

    We investigate an approach for the recycling of laser-damaged large-aperture deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate (DKDP) crystals used for optical switching (KDP) and for frequency conversion (DKDP) in megajoule-class high-power laser systems. The approach consists of micromachining the surface laser damage sites (mitigation), combined with multiple soaks and ultrasonication steps in a coating solvent to remove, synergistically, both the highly adherent machining debris and the laser-damage-affected antireflection coating. We identify features of the laser-damage-affected coating, such as the "solvent-persistent" coating and the "burned-in" coating, that are difficult to remove by conventional approaches without damaging the surface. We also provide a solution to the erosion problem identified in this work when colloidal coatings are processed during ultrasonication. Finally, we provide a proof of principle of the approach by testing the full process that includes laser damage mitigation of DKDP test parts, coat stripping, reapplication of a new antireflective coat, and a laser damage test demonstrating performance up to at least 12  J/cm2 at UV wavelengths, which is well above current requirements. This approach ultimately provides a potential path to a scalable recycling loop for the management of optics in large, high-power laser systems that can reduce cost and extend lifetime of highly valuable and difficult to grow large DKDP crystals.

  17. Scalable process for mitigation of laser-damaged potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystal optic surfaces with removal of damaged antireflective coating

    DOE PAGES

    Elhadj, S.; Steele, W. A.; VanBlarcom, D. S.; ...

    2017-03-07

    Here, we investigate an approach for the recycling of laser-damaged large-aperture deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate (DKDP) crystals used for optical switching (KDP) and for frequency conversion (DKDP) in megajoule-class high-power laser systems. The approach consists of micromachining the surface laser damage sites (mitigation), combined with multiple soaks and ultrasonication steps in a coating solvent to remove, synergistically, both the highly adherent machining debris and the laser-damage-affected antireflection coating. We then identify features of the laser-damage-affected coating, such as the “solvent-persistent” coating and the “burned-in” coating, that are difficult to remove by conventional approaches without damaging the surface. We also providemore » a solution to the erosion problem identified in this work when colloidal coatings are processed during ultrasonication. Finally, we provide a proof of principle of the approach by testing the full process that includes laser damage mitigation of DKDP test parts, coat stripping, reapplication of a new antireflective coat, and a laser damage test demonstrating performance up to at least 12 J/cm2 at UV wavelengths, which is well above current requirements. Our approach ultimately provides a potential path to a scalable recycling loop for the management of optics in large, high-power laser systems that can reduce cost and extend lifetime of highly valuable and difficult to grow large DKDP crystals.« less

  18. Production, Characterization, and Acceleration of Optical Microbunches

    SciTech Connect

    Sears, Christopher M.S.

    2008-06-20

    Optical microbunches with a spacing of 800 nm have been produced for laser acceleration research. The microbunches are produced using a inverse Free-Electron-Laser (IFEL) followed by a dispersive chicane. The microbunched electron beam is characterized by coherent optical transition radiation (COTR) with good agreement to the analytic theory for bunch formation. In a second experiment the bunches are accelerated in a second stage to achieve for the first time direct net acceleration of electrons traveling in a vacuum with visible light. This dissertation presents the theory of microbunch formation and characterization of the microbunches. It also presents the design of the experimental hardware from magnetostatic and particle tracking simulations, to fabrication and measurement of the undulator and chicane magnets. Finally, the dissertation discusses three experiments aimed at demonstrating the IFEL interaction, microbunch production, and the net acceleration of the microbunched beam. At the close of the dissertation, a separate but related research effort on the tight focusing of electrons for coupling into optical scale, Photonic Bandgap, structures is presented. This includes the design and fabrication of a strong focusing permanent magnet quadrupole triplet and an outline of an initial experiment using the triplet to observe wakefields generated by an electron beam passing through an optical scale accelerator.

  19. Production, characterization, and acceleration of optical microbunches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sears, Christopher M. S.

    Optical microbunches with a spacing of 800 nm have been produced for laser acceleration research. The microbunches are produced using a inverse Free-Electron-Laser (IFEL) followed by a dispersive chicane. The microbunched electron beam is characterized by coherent optical transition radiation (COTR) with good agreement to the analytic theory for bunch formation. In a second experiment the bunches are accelerated in a second stage to achieve for the first time direct net acceleration of electrons traveling in a vacuum with visible light. This dissertation presents the theory of microbunch formation and characterization of the microbunches. It also presents the design of the experimental hardware from magnetostatic and particle tracking simulations, to fabrication and measurement of the undulator and chicane magnets. Finally, the dissertation discusses three experiments aimed at demonstrating the IFEL interaction, microbunch production, and the net acceleration of the microbunched beam. At the close of the dissertation, a separate but related research effort on the tight focusing of electrons for coupling into optical scale, Photonic Bandgap, structures is presented. This includes the design and fabrication of a strong focusing permanent magnet quadrupole triplet and an outline of an initial experiment using the triplet to observe wakefields generated by an electron beam passing through an optical scale accelerator.

  20. Optical and Chemical Characterization of Polyimide in a GEO-like Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelhart, D.; Plis, E.; Ferguson, D.; Cooper, R.; Hoffmann, R.

    2016-09-01

    Ground- and space-based optical observations of space objects rely on knowledge about how spacecraft materials interact with light. However, this is not a static property. Each material's optical fingerprint changes continuously throughout a spacecraft's orbital lifetime. These changes in optical signature occur because energetic particles break bonds within a material and new bonds subsequently form. The newly formed bonds can be identical to the original bonds or different, resulting in a new material. The chemical bonds comprising the material dictate which wavelengths of light are absorbed. Understanding the processes of material damage and recovery individually will allow development of a predictive model for materials' optical properties as a function of exposure to the space environment. In order to characterize the properties, we have exposed samples of polyimide to high energy electrons comparable to those found in a geostationary earth orbit in order to simulate damage on orbit. The resultant changes in the material's optical fingerprint were then characterized in the wavelength range of 0.2 to 25 microns. The chemical modifications to the material that result in these optical changes have also been identified. After initial electron-induced damage, the rate and mechanism of material recovery have been monitored and found to be extremely sensitive to the exposure of the damaged material to air. The implications of that fact and experimental progress toward complete in vacuo characterization will be discussed.

  1. Functional characterization of the TERRA transcriptome at damaged telomeres

    PubMed Central

    Porro, Antonio; Feuerhahn, Sascha; Delafontaine, Julien; Riethman, Harold; Rougemont, Jacques; Lingner, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Telomere deprotection occurs during tumorigenesis and aging upon telomere shortening or loss of the telomeric shelterin component TRF2. Deprotected telomeres undergo changes in chromatin structure and elicit a DNA damage response (DDR) that leads to cellular senescence. The telomeric long noncoding RNA TERRA has been implicated in modulating the structure and processing of deprotected telomeres. Here, we characterize the human TERRA transcriptome at normal and TRF2-depleted telomeres and demonstrate that TERRA upregulation is occurring upon depletion of TRF2 at all transcribed telomeres. TRF2 represses TERRA transcription through its homodimerization domain, which was previously shown to induce chromatin compaction and to prevent the early steps of DDR activation. We show that TERRA associates with SUV39H1 H3K9 histone methyltransferase, which promotes accumulation of H3K9me3 at damaged telomeres and end-to-end fusions. Altogether our data elucidate the TERRA landscape and defines critical roles for this RNA in the telomeric DNA damage response. PMID:25359189

  2. Characterizing microbial diversity and damage in mural paintings.

    PubMed

    Rosado, Tânia; Mirão, José; Candeias, António; Caldeira, Ana Teresa

    2015-02-01

    Mural paintings are some of the oldest and most important cultural expressions of mankind and play an important role for the understanding of societies and civilizations. These cultural assets have high economic and cultural value and therefore their degradation has social and economic impact. The present work presents a novel microanalytical approach to understand the damages caused by microbial communities in mural paintings. This comprises the characterization and identification of microbial diversity and evaluation of damage promoted by their biological activity. Culture-dependent methods and DNA-based approaches like denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing are important tools in the isolation and identification of the microbial communities allowing characterization of the biota involved in the biodeterioration phenomena. Raman microspectrometry, infrared spectrometry, and variable pressure scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry are also useful tools for evaluation of the presence of microbial contamination and detection of the alteration products resulting from metabolic activity of the microorganisms. This study shows that the degradation status of mural paintings can be correlated to the presence of metabolically active microorganisms.

  3. Correlating optical damage threshold with intrinsic defect populations in fused silica as a function of heat treatment temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, N.; Matthews, M. J.; Elhadj, S.; Miller, P. E.; Nelson, A. J.; Hamilton, J.

    2013-04-03

    Here, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is used for the production of fused silica optics in high-power laser applications. However, relatively little is known about the ultraviolet laser damage threshold of CVD films and how they relate to intrinsic defects produced during deposition. We present here a study relating structural and electronic defects in CVD films to 355 nm pulsed-laser damage threshold as a function of post-deposition annealing temperature (THT). Plasma-enhanced CVD based on SiH4/N2O under oxygen-rich conditions was used to deposit 1.5, 3.1 and 6.4 µm thick films on etched SiO2 substrates. Rapid annealing was performed using a scanned CO2 laser beam up to THT ~ 2100 K. The films were then characterized using x-ray photoemission spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and photoluminescence spectroscopy. A gradual transition in the damage threshold of annealed films was observed for THT values up to 1600 K, correlating with a decrease in non-bridging silanol and oxygen deficient centres. An additional sharp transition in damage threshold also occurs at ~1850 K indicating substrate annealing. Based on our results, a mechanism for damage-related defect annealing is proposed, and the potential of using high-THT CVD SiO2 to mitigate optical damage is also discussed.

  4. Impact damage detection in filament wound tubes utilizing embedded optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Anthony R.; Hayes, Simon A.; Fernando, Gerard F.; Hale, Ken F.

    1995-04-01

    Filament wound tubes are currently being used extensively in service because of their superior specific properties and the relatively simple manufacturing technique involved in their properties. However, the reinforcing fibers can suffer from low velocity impact damage (approximately 10 ms-1) during service. Such damage can result in poor post- impact properties which in certain applications can reduce the burst strength below safe working levels. This paper discusses the use of optical fiber sensors, embedded during the filament winding process, to provide information on specified levels of impact damage incurred by the tube during service. The sensors being developed use silica based optical fibers in composites made from E-glass reinforcing fibers and high temperature cure epoxy resins. Various methods of damage detection are being evaluated to select the optimum sensor arrangement. These systems detect changes in the transmission characteristics of the optical fiber. The objective being to produce a working damage detection system which provides sensitive, cheap, accurate and reliable information about the levels of impact damage sustained by the tube. This paper presents initial results from the impact damage detection systems being evaluated for use in filament wound tubes. Issues relating to chemical compatibility between optical fiber sensors and the epoxy resin system were also investigated as part of this study. These results aid selection of the correct optical fiber properties to achieve reliable and sensitive systems. The advantages of using a new profile sensor compared to an optical fiber are also discussed.

  5. Sensitivity of Airburst Damage Prediction to Asteroid Characterization Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathias, Donovan; Wheeler, Lorien; Dotson, Jessie L.

    2016-10-01

    Characterizing the level of risk posed by asteroid impacts is quintessential to developing informed mitigation criteria, response plans, and long-term survey and characterization strategies for potentially hazardous asteroids. A physics-based impact risk (PBIR) model has been created to assess the consequences of potential asteroid strikes by combining probabilistic sampling of uncertain impact parameters with numerical simulation of the atmospheric flight, breakup, and resulting ground damage for each sampled impact case. The model incudes a Monte Carlo framework that allows the uncertainties in the potential impact parameters to be described in terms of probability distributions, and produces statistical results that support inference regarding the threat level across those ranges. This work considers the PBIR model outputs in terms of potential threat characterization metrics for decision support. Several metrics are assessed, from the single estimated casualty (Ec) parameter to more descriptive distribution functions. Distributions are shown for aggregate risk, risk versus asteroid size, and risk to specific geographic regions. In addition, these results show how the uncertain properties of potential impactors can lead to different conclusions about optimal survey and characterization strategies.

  6. Enhanced Damage-Resistant Optics for Spaceflight Laser Systems: Workshop findings and recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, Norman; Cimolino, Marc; Guenther, Arthur; Mcminn, Ted; Rainer, Frank; Schmid, Ansgar; Seitel, Steven C.; Soileau, M. J.; Theon, John S.; Walz, William

    1991-01-01

    NASA has defined a program to address critical laser-induced damage issues peculiar to its remote sensing systems. The Langley Research Center (LaRC), with input from the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), has developed a program plan focusing on the certification of optical materials for spaceflight applications and the development of techniques to determine the reliability of such materials under extended laser exposures. This plan involves cooperative efforts between NASA and optics manufacturers to quantify the performance of optical materials for NASA systems and to ensure NASA's continued application of the highest quality optics possible for enhanced system reliability. A review panel was organized to assess NASA's optical damage concerns and to evaluate the effectiveness of the LaRC proposed program plan. This panel consisted of experts in the areas of laser-induced damage, optical coating manufacture, and the design and development of laser systems for space. The panel was presented information on NASA's current and planned laser remote sensing programs, laser-induced damage problems already encountered in NASA systems, and the proposed program plan to address these issues. Additionally, technical presentations were made on the state of the art in damage mechanisms, optical materials testing, and issues of coating manufacture germane to laser damage.

  7. Nano-cathodoluminescence reveals the effect of electron damage on the optical properties of nitride optoelectronics and the damage threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, James T.; Zhang, Siyuan; Lhuillier, Jeremy; Zhu, Dandan; Fu, Wai Yuen; Howkins, Ashley; Boyd, Ian; Stowe, David; Wallis, David J.; Humphreys, Colin J.; Oliver, Rachel A.

    2016-10-01

    Nano-cathodoluminescence (Nano-CL) reveals optical emission from individual InGaN quantum wells for applications in optoelectronic devices. We show the luminescent intensity decays over time with exposure to the electron beam for energies between 80 and 200 keV. Measurements of the CL intensity over time show an exponential decline in intensity, which we propose is due to the formation of nitrogen Frenkel defects. The measured CL damage decreases with reductions in the electron accelerating voltage and we suggest that the electron induced structural damage may be suppressed below the proposed damage threshold. The electron beam induced damage leads to a non-radiative region that extends over the measured minority carrier diffusion length. Nano-CL may thus serve as a powerful technique to study III-nitride optoelectronics.

  8. Synthesis and optical characterization of silicon nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Cho, Bomin; Lee, Sung-Gi; Woo, Hee-Gweon; Sohn, Honglae

    2013-01-01

    Various reaction conditions, such as quantity of reducing agent and reaction time were investigated with the aim of finding a simple, optimized synthetic route for the synthesis of luminescent silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs). Si NPs were synthesized from the reaction of ethylenediammonium chloride and magnesium silicide via a low temperature solution route. Optical characterizations of silicon nanoparticles were achieved by using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. As the reaction time longer, silicon nanoparticles grew and their emission wavelength shifted to the longer wavelength. The monotonic shift of the photoluminescence as a function of excitation wavelength resulted in the excitation of different sizes of nanocrystals that had different optical transition energies.

  9. Laser Damage Testing of Small Optics for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, R; Runkel, M; Taylor, J R

    2004-01-24

    A damage test procedure was established for optical components that have large incident beam footprints. The procedure was applied on coated samples for a high powered 1053 nm, 3-ns pulse length laser system.

  10. Laser damage testing of small optics for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, Robert; Runkel, Mike; Taylor, John R

    2005-06-10

    A damage test procedure was established for optical components that have large incident beam footprints. The procedure was applied on coated samples for a high-powered 1053-nm, 3-ns pulse-length laser system.

  11. Characterization of concrete at various freeze-thaw damage conditions using SH-waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeseman, Katelyn; Hoegh, Kyle; Khazanovich, Lev

    2016-02-01

    Evaluation of migration-based reconstructions can give a qualitative characterization of large scale or excessive subsurface damage. However, for detection of stochastic damage mechanisms such as freeze-thaw damage, evaluation of the individual time-history data can provide additional information. A comparison of the spatially diverse measurements on several concrete slabs with varying freeze-thaw damage levels is given in this study. Signal characterization scans of different levels of freeze-thaw damage at various transducer spacing is investigated. The results show promise for a SH-wave classification system applicable for nondestructive characterization of freeze-thaw damage conditions.

  12. Increase of bulk optical damage threshold fluences of KDP crystals by laser irradiation and heat treatment

    DOEpatents

    Swain, J.E.; Stokowski, S.E.; Milam, D.; Kennedy, G.C.; Rainer, F.

    1982-07-07

    The bulk optical damage threshold fluence of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals is increased by irradiating the crystals with laser pulses of duration 1 to 20 nanoseconds of increasing fluence, below the optical damage threshold fluence for untreated crystals, or by baking the crystals for times of the order of 24 hours at temperatures of 110 to 165/sup 0/C, or by a combination of laser irradiation and baking.

  13. Rugged Packaging for Damage Resistant Inertial Fusion Energy Optics

    SciTech Connect

    Stelmack, Larry

    2003-11-17

    The development of practical fusion energy plants based on inertial confinement with ultraviolet laser beams requires durable, stable final optics that will withstand the harsh fusion environment. Aluminum-coated reflective surfaces are fragile, and require hard overcoatings resistant to contamination, with low optical losses at 248.4 nanometers for use with high-power KrF excimer lasers. This program addresses the definition of requirements for IFE optics protective coatings, the conceptual design of the required deposition equipment according to accepted contamination control principles, and the deposition and evaluation of diamondlike carbon (DLC) test coatings. DLC coatings deposited by Plasma Immersion Ion Processing were adherent and abrasion-resistant, but their UV optical losses must be further reduced to allow their use as protective coatings for IFE final optics. Deposition equipment for coating high-performance IFE final optics must be designed, constructed, and operated with contamination control as a high priority.

  14. Characterization of Adaptive Optics at Keck Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    van Dam, M A; Macintosh, B A

    2003-07-24

    In this paper, the adaptive optics (AO) system at Keck Observatory is characterized. The AO system is described in detail. The physical parameters of the lenslets, CCD and deformable mirror, the calibration procedures and the signal processing algorithms are explained. Results of sky performance tests are presented: the AO system is shown to deliver images with an average Strehl ratio of up to 0.37 at 1.59 {micro}m using a bright guide star. An error budget that is consistent with the observed image quality is presented.

  15. Optical Measurement Technique for Space Column Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrows, Danny A.; Watson, Judith J.; Burner, Alpheus W.; Phelps, James E.

    2004-01-01

    A simple optical technique for the structural characterization of lightweight space columns is presented. The technique is useful for determining the coefficient of thermal expansion during cool down as well as the induced strain during tension and compression testing. The technique is based upon object-to-image plane scaling and does not require any photogrammetric calibrations or computations. Examples of the measurement of the coefficient of thermal expansion are presented for several lightweight space columns. Examples of strain measured during tension and compression testing are presented along with comparisons to results obtained with Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT) position transducers.

  16. Design, synthesis, and characterization of nucleosomes containing site-specific DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Taylor, John-Stephen

    2015-12-01

    How DNA damaged is formed, recognized, and repaired in chromatin is an area of intense study. To better understand the structure activity relationships of damaged chromatin, mono and dinucleosomes containing site-specific damage have been prepared and studied. This review will focus on the design, synthesis, and characterization of model systems of damaged chromatin for structural, physical, and enzymatic studies.

  17. Optical Material Characterization Using Microdisk Cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michael, Christopher P.

    Since Jack Kilby recorded his "Monolithic Idea" for integrated circuits in 1958, microelectronics companies have invested billions of dollars in developing the silicon material system to increase performance and reduce cost. For decades, the industry has made Moore's Law, concerning cost and transistor density, a self-fulfilling prophecy by integrating technical and material requirements vertically down their supply chains and horizontally across competitors in the market. At recent technology nodes, the unacceptable scaling behavior of copper interconnects has become a major design constraint by increasing latency and power consumption---more than 50% of the power consumed by high speed processors is dissipated by intrachip communications. Optical networks at the chip scale are a potential low-power high-bandwidth replacement for conventional global interconnects, but the lack of efficient on-chip optical sources has remained an outstanding problem despite significant advances in silicon optoelectronics. Many material systems are being researched, but there is no ideal candidate even though the established infrastructure strongly favors a CMOS-compatible solution. This thesis focuses on assessing the optical properties of materials using microdisk cavities with the intention to advance processing techniques and materials relevant to silicon photonics. Low-loss microdisk resonators are chosen because of their simplicity and long optical path lengths. A localized photonic probe is developed and characterized that employs a tapered optical-fiber waveguide, and it is utilized in practical demonstrations to test tightly arranged devices and to help prototype new fabrication methods. A case study in AlxGa1-xAs illustrates how the optical scattering and absorption losses can be obtained from the cavity-waveguide transmission. Finally, single-crystal Er2O3 epitaxially grown on silicon is analyzed in detail as a potential CMOS-compatable gain medium due to its high Er3

  18. Optical damage performance of conductive widegap semiconductors: spatial, temporal, and lifetime modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Elhadj, Selim; Yoo, Jae-hyuck; Negres, Raluca A.; Menor, Marlon G.; Adams, John J.; Shen, Nan; Cross, David A.; Bass, Isaac L.; Bude, Jeff D.

    2016-12-19

    The optical damage performance of electrically conductive gallium nitride (GaN) and indium tin oxide (ITO) films is addressed using large area, high power laser beam exposures at 1064 nm sub-bandgap wavelength. Analysis of the laser damage process assumes that onset of damage (threshold) is determined by the absorption and heating of a nanoscale region of a characteristic size reaching a critical temperature. We use this model to rationalize semi-quantitatively the pulse width scaling of the damage threshold from picosecond to nanosecond timescales, along with the pulse width dependence of the damage threshold probability derived by fitting large beam damage density data. Multi-shot exposures were used to address lifetime performance degradation described by an empirical expression based on the single exposure damage model. A damage threshold degradation of at least 50% was observed for both materials. Overall, the GaN films tested had 5-10 × higher optical damage thresholds than the ITO films tested for comparable transmission and electrical conductivity. This route to optically robust, large aperture transparent electrodes and power optoelectronics may thus involve use of next generation widegap semiconductors such as GaN.

  19. Optical damage performance of conductive widegap semiconductors: spatial, temporal, and lifetime modeling

    DOE PAGES

    Elhadj, Selim; Yoo, Jae-hyuck; Negres, Raluca A.; ...

    2016-12-19

    The optical damage performance of electrically conductive gallium nitride (GaN) and indium tin oxide (ITO) films is addressed using large area, high power laser beam exposures at 1064 nm sub-bandgap wavelength. Analysis of the laser damage process assumes that onset of damage (threshold) is determined by the absorption and heating of a nanoscale region of a characteristic size reaching a critical temperature. We use this model to rationalize semi-quantitatively the pulse width scaling of the damage threshold from picosecond to nanosecond timescales, along with the pulse width dependence of the damage threshold probability derived by fitting large beam damage densitymore » data. Multi-shot exposures were used to address lifetime performance degradation described by an empirical expression based on the single exposure damage model. A damage threshold degradation of at least 50% was observed for both materials. Overall, the GaN films tested had 5-10 × higher optical damage thresholds than the ITO films tested for comparable transmission and electrical conductivity. This route to optically robust, large aperture transparent electrodes and power optoelectronics may thus involve use of next generation widegap semiconductors such as GaN.« less

  20. Optical characterization of nonimaging focusing heliostat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, Kok-Keong

    2011-10-01

    A novel nonimaging focusing heliostat consisted of many small movable element mirrors that can be dynamically maneuvered in a line-tilting manner has been proposed for the astigmatic correction in a wide range of incident angle from 0° to 70°. In this article, a comprehensive optical characterization of the new heliostat with total reflective area of 25 m2 and slant range of 25 m using ray-tracing method has been carried to analyze the performance including solar concentration ratio, ratio of aberrated-to-ideal image area, intercept efficiency and spillage loss. The optical characterization of the heliostat in the application of solar power tower system has embraced the cases of 1×1, 9×9, 11×11, 13×13, 15×15, 17×17 and 19×19 arrays of concave mirrors provided that the total reflective area remains the same. The simulated result has shown that the maximum solar concentration ratio at a high incident angle of 65° can be improved from 1.76 suns (single mirror) to 104.99 suns (9×9 mirrors), to 155.93 suns (11×11 mirrors), to 210.44 suns (13×13 mirrors), to 246.21 suns (15×15 mirrors), to 259.80 suns (17×17 mirrors) and to 264.73 suns (19×19 mirrors).

  1. Apparatus and method for characterizing ultrafast polarization varying optical pulses

    DOEpatents

    Smirl, A.; Trebino, R.P.

    1999-08-10

    Practical techniques are described for characterizing ultrafast potentially ultraweak, ultrashort optical pulses. The techniques are particularly suited to the measurement of signals from nonlinear optical materials characterization experiments, whose signals are generally too weak for full characterization using conventional techniques. 2 figs.

  2. Pump and probe damage testing for investigation of transient material modifications associated with laser damage in optical materials

    SciTech Connect

    Negres, R A; Feit, M D; DeMange, P; Bude, J D; Demos, S G

    2007-10-18

    Laser-induced breakdown in the bulk of transparent dielectric materials is associated with the generation of extreme localized conditions of temperatures and pressures. In this work, we perform pump and probe damage testing experiments to investigate the evolution of transient absorption by the host material arising from modifications following confined laser energy deposition in fused silica and DKDP materials. Specifically, we measure the size of the damage sites observed in the region of spatial overlap between the pump and probe pulses versus probe time delay and energy. Results of this proof-of-principle experimental work confirm that material modifications under extreme conditions created during a damage event include transient optical absorption. In addition, we found that the relaxation times of the induced absorption are very distinct for DKDP and SiO{sub 2} even under identical excitation conditions, on the order of 100 ns and 100 {micro}s, respectively.

  3. Damage induced in red blood cells by infrared optical trapping: an evaluation based on elasticity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, Marcos A. S.; Moura, Diógenes S.; Fontes, Adriana; de Araujo, Renato E.

    2016-07-01

    We evaluated the damage caused to optically trapped red blood cells (RBCs) after 1 or 2 min of exposure to near-infrared (NIR) laser beams at 785 or 1064 nm. Damage was quantified by measuring cell elasticity using an automatic, real-time, homemade, optical tweezer system. The measurements, performed on a significant number (hundreds) of cells, revealed an overall deformability decrease up to ˜104% after 2 min of light exposure, under 10 mW optical trapping for the 785-nm wavelength. Wavelength dependence of the optical damage is attributed to the light absorption by hemoglobin. The results provided evidence that RBCs have their biomechanical properties affected by NIR radiation. Our findings establish limits for laser applications with RBCs.

  4. Use of Ga Doping to Suppress Optical Damage in Near-Stoichiometric LiNbO3 Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Masaru; Takekawa, Shunji; Liu, Yuowen; Kitamura, Kenji

    2009-02-01

    We investigated the effect of Ga doping on optical damage (photorefractive damage) in near-stoichiometric LiNbO3 (SLN) crystals. SLN crystals doped with Ga (Ga:SLN) were grown from a Li-rich solution by a top-seeded solution growth method. The optical damage resistance of the crystals was investigated at 532 nm. Crystals with a Ga doping concentration of at least 0.49 mol % showed no optical damage. The Ga doping shifted the OH- absorption peak position from 2.88 to 2.85 µm for crystals with a 0.49 mol % concentration. This concentration is lower than the 1 mol % Mg doping concentration required to suppress optical damage in SLN crystals. This attractive optical damage resistance characteristic makes Ga:SLN crystals another candidate as an optical damage resistant material, in addition to Sc-doped SLN crystals, for applications such as electrooptic devices and quasi-phase-matched frequency converters.

  5. Mapping and inspection of damage and artifacts in large-scale optics

    SciTech Connect

    Rainer, F.

    1997-12-22

    We have developed tools for accurately and economically mapping and inspecting damage and artifacts in the bulk as well as on the surface of meter-sized optics intended for use on large-scale lasers such as Beamlet and NIF. Optics are illuminated by white light through the optic edge or externally at grazing incidence using linear fiber- optics arrays. The mega-pixel camera records a digital map of the entire optic with precise addresses of highlighted artifacts. From these coordinated, artifacts are located and digitally recorded with resolution of less than 5 microns using a long-working-distance microscope. Total internal reflection of edge illumination efficiency couples light into the entire optic to inspect for bulk artifacts, such as bubbles, inclusions, edge-cladding flaws and laser- induced damage as well as surface scratches and pits which propagate into the substrate. Surface contamination such as dust, fingerprints, coating flaws, and cleaning flaws are highlighted by external grazing illumination. The procedures permit accurate recording of the evolution of damage after many laser shots as well as correlation of damage from one optic to the next in a laser chain.

  6. Parabolic Trough VSHOT Optical Characterization in 2005-2006 (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Wendelin, T.

    2006-02-01

    This presentation regarding parabolic trough VSHOT optical characterization describes trough deployment and operation phases including: development, manufacture/installation, and maintenance/operation.

  7. Smart Optical Material Characterization System and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sang Hyouk (Inventor); Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Disclosed is a system and method for characterizing optical materials, using steps and equipment for generating a coherent laser light, filtering the light to remove high order spatial components, collecting the filtered light and forming a parallel light beam, splitting the parallel beam into a first direction and a second direction wherein the parallel beam travelling in the second direction travels toward the material sample so that the parallel beam passes through the sample, applying various physical quantities to the sample, reflecting the beam travelling in the first direction to produce a first reflected beam, reflecting the beam that passes through the sample to produce a second reflected beam that travels back through the sample, combining the second reflected beam after it travels back though the sample with the first reflected beam, sensing the light beam produced by combining the first and second reflected beams, and processing the sensed beam to determine sample characteristics and properties.

  8. Optical characterization of lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hui

    Lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals (LCLCs) represent a special class of lyotropic mesophases markedly different from conventional amphiphilic mesogens. Materials forming LCLCs are composed of plank-like molecules with a polyaromatic central core and hydrophilic ionic groups at the periphery. The individual molecules tend to assemble into rodlike aggregates that form the N phase once the concentration exceeds about 0.1M. The LCLC materials show a tremendous potential for applications in optics as self-assembling polarizing and compensating films and in the area of real-time biological sensing. The emerging applications require an understanding of basic properties of LCLC. This work addresses these needs by providing the optical characterization of LCLC. We studied in detail the optical anisotropic properties of three different nematic LCLCs: disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), Blue 27, and Violet 20. We determined the birefringence of these three materials as the function of the temperature T and wavelength lambda and the corresponding dependencies of the absorption coefficients for Blue 27 and Violet 20. The birefringence is negative and significantly lower in the absolute value as compared to the birefringence of typical thermotropic N materials. We determined the scalar order parameter of the nematic phase of Blue 27 and its temperature dependence. The scalar order parameter is close to the one predicted by the classic Onsager theory for solutions of rigid rods. However, this similarity is not complete, as the measured scalar order parameter depends on temperature. The I-N pretransitional fluctuations in an aqueous solution of DSCG were studied by light scattering. We obtained the correlation length of the orientational order-parameter fluctuations of isotropic DSCG solution. The pretransitional behavior of light scattering does not completely follow the classic Landau-de Gennes model. This feature is explained by the variable length of DSCG aggregates as a function

  9. Photonic Crystal Optical Tweezers with High Efficiency for Live Biological Samples and Viability Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Peifeng; Wu, Jingda; Liu, Gary W.; Keeler, Ethan G.; Pun, Suzie H.; Lin, Lih Y.

    2016-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a new optical trapping method for single cells that utilizes modulated light fields to trap a wide array of cell types, including mammalian, yeast, and Escherichia coli cells, on the surface of a two-dimensional photonic crystal. This method is capable of reducing the required light intensity, and thus minimizing the photothermal damage to living cells, thereby extending cell viability in optical trapping and cell manipulation applications. To this end, a thorough characterization of cell viability in optical trapping environments was performed. This study also demonstrates the technique using spatial light modulation in patterned manipulation of live cell arrays over a broad area.

  10. Photonic Crystal Optical Tweezers with High Efficiency for Live Biological Samples and Viability Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Peifeng; Wu, Jingda; Liu, Gary W.; Keeler, Ethan G.; Pun, Suzie H.; Lin, Lih Y.

    2016-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a new optical trapping method for single cells that utilizes modulated light fields to trap a wide array of cell types, including mammalian, yeast, and Escherichia coli cells, on the surface of a two-dimensional photonic crystal. This method is capable of reducing the required light intensity, and thus minimizing the photothermal damage to living cells, thereby extending cell viability in optical trapping and cell manipulation applications. To this end, a thorough characterization of cell viability in optical trapping environments was performed. This study also demonstrates the technique using spatial light modulation in patterned manipulation of live cell arrays over a broad area. PMID:26814808

  11. Photonic Crystal Optical Tweezers with High Efficiency for Live Biological Samples and Viability Characterization.

    PubMed

    Jing, Peifeng; Wu, Jingda; Liu, Gary W; Keeler, Ethan G; Pun, Suzie H; Lin, Lih Y

    2016-01-27

    We propose and demonstrate a new optical trapping method for single cells that utilizes modulated light fields to trap a wide array of cell types, including mammalian, yeast, and Escherichia coli cells, on the surface of a two-dimensional photonic crystal. This method is capable of reducing the required light intensity, and thus minimizing the photothermal damage to living cells, thereby extending cell viability in optical trapping and cell manipulation applications. To this end, a thorough characterization of cell viability in optical trapping environments was performed. This study also demonstrates the technique using spatial light modulation in patterned manipulation of live cell arrays over a broad area.

  12. Electrical and Optical Characterization of Molecular Nanojunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Daniel R.

    2011-12-01

    Electrical conduction at the single molecule scale has been studied extensively with molecular nanojunctions. Measurements have revealed a wealth of interesting physics. I3owever; our understanding is hindered by a lack of methods for simultaneous local imaging or spectroscopy to determine the conformation and local environment of the molecule of interest. Optical molecular spectroscopies have made significant progress in recent years, with single molecule sensitivity achieved through the use of surface-enhanced spectroscopies. In particular surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has been demonstrated to have single molecule sensitivity for specific plasmonic structures. Many unanswered quest ions remain about the SERS process, particularly the role of chemical enhancements of the Raman signal. The primary goal of the research presented here is to combine both electrical and optical characterization techniques to obtain a more complete picture of electrical conduction at the single or few molecule level. We have successfully demonstrated that nanojunctions are excellent SERS substrates with the ability to achieve single molecule sensitivity. This is a major accomplishment with practical applications in optical sensor design. We present a method for mass producing nanojunctions with SERS sensitivity optimized through computer modeling. We have demonstrated simultaneous optical and electrical measurements of molecular junctions with single molecule electrical and SERS sensitivity. Measurements show strong correlations between electrical conductance and changes to the SERS response of nanojunctions. These results allow for one of the most conclusive demonstrations of single molecule SERS to date. This measurement technique provides the framework for three additional studies discussed here as well as opening up the possibilities for numerous other experiments. One measurement examines heating in nanowires rather than nanojunctions. We observe that, the

  13. Characterization of automotive paint by optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Wang, Chengming; Sun, Zhenwen; Mei, Hongcheng; Huang, Wei; Xu, Lei; Xie, Lanchi; Guo, Jingjing; Yan, Yuwen; Li, Zhihui; Xu, Xiaojing; Xue, Ping; Liu, Ningning

    2016-09-01

    Automotive paint is common trace evidence that plays a significant role in many vehicle-related criminal cases. However, the conventional methods of obtaining tomographic images tend to damage the samples. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a novel method to obtain high-resolution and cross-sectional images of the automotive paints in a non-destructive, and high-speed manner. In this study, OCT was applied to image and analyze the automotive paint, using scanning electron microscope (SEM) as reference. Eight automotive paint samples of different brands were examined. The images of multi-layer structures provided by OCT system with 5μm depth resolution were consistent with those by SEM. To distinguish different paints with similar visual appearance, we extracted internal structural features from the images using peak analysis and optical attenuation fit. Six characterized parameters were found to distinguish the samples including the optical path length (OPL) of base coat, the optical attenuation coefficient (OAC) of base coat, the OPL of clear coat, the back-scattering ratio (BSR) of clear coat and base coat, the OPL of primer surfacer, and the BSR of base coat and primer. Statistical differences were evaluated by an independent t-test with p<0.05. OCT was applied to analyze repainted paint as well. Three-dimensional OCT reconstruction of the paints was also implemented to create en face (transverse section) images for morphology examination and comparison. These results suggest that OCT imaging can provide additional new features for analyzing the automotive paints and thereby may be a promising supplement to traditional methods. Meanwhile, the OCT system is favorable for achieving in-situ and real-time examination at the scene of crime.

  14. Optical characterization platform for transparent insulation materials in solar energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platzer, Werner J.

    1994-09-01

    The precise optical characterization of transparent insulation materials used in windows, flat- plate collectors or for transparent insulation of buildings, is an important step to design solar collector and daylighting systems with these materials and to estimate energy benefits, peak loads, efficiencies, and different potential risks such as overheating, thermal damage or glare. Physically the aim is clear: Angle-dependent transmittance and reflectance properties for the solar and visible wavelength ranges yield the necessary information for the engineer to enable him to design a good system. However, it is far from trivial to obtain these data with sufficient precision for the rather different materials. The class of TIMs poses mainly the following problems, originating in their special character. TIMs often: (a) have a rather coarse structure, (b) show considerable scattering, (c) are relatively thick, (d) are spectrally selective, (e) and are not always rotationally symmetric. Therefore the optical measurement process has to: (a) integrate over a relatively large sample area (b) be able to detect intensity scattered in the sample (c) take into account the complex structure of the sample (d) and weight the different spectral bands correctly. We have set-up a set of radiation sources and integrating detector spheres which are able to measure directional-hemispherical and hemispherical-hemispherical reflectance and transmittance (hence also absorptance) for the visible and the solar wavelength range. This was possible by applying a PTFE-based coating to the spheres, having a unique spectrally flat response over the whole range, and using non-selective broadband detectors. Careful design tried to optimize integrating sphere geometry. Moreover, spectral measurements between 285-1100 nm are possible with an optical multichannel analyzer utilizing glass fiber optics. The whole experimental set-up will be presented and discussed together with representative results.

  15. Entry and exit facet laser damage of optical windows with random antireflective surface structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapkota, Gopal; Case, Jason R.; Potter, Matthew G.; Busse, Lynda E.; Shaw, L. Brandon; Sanghera, Jasbinder S.; Aggarwal, Ishwar D.; Poutous, Menelaos K.

    2016-12-01

    Nanosecond duration, high intensity and high average power laser pulses induce damage on uncoated optics, due to localized field enhancement at the exit surface of the components. Anti-reflection (AR) coated optics, due to their (multiple) thin film boundaries, have similar field enhancement regions, which lead to laser damage on both entry and exit sides. Nano-scale structured optical interfaces with AR performance (ARSS) have been widely demonstrated, and found to have higher laser damage resistance than conventional AR coatings. Comprehensive tests of optical entry and exit structured-surface laser damage using nanosecond pulses for ARSS are not widely available. We measured the laser damage of random anti-reflective surface structures (rARSS), on planar, optical quality, fused silica substrates, using single 6-8ns duration pulses at 1064 nm wavelength. The single-sided rARSS substrates were optimized for Fresnel reflectance suppression at 1064 nm, and the measured transmittance at normal incidence was increased by 3.2%, with a possible theoretical maximum of 3.5%. The high energy laser beam was focused to increase the incident intensity, in order to probe values above and below the damage thresholds reported in the literature. The source laser Q-switch durations were used to directly control incident fluence. Multiple locations were tested for each Q-switch setting, to build a statistical relationship between the fluence and damaging events. Single-sided, AR random surface structured substrates were tested, using entry and exit side orientations, to determine any effects the random structures may have in the damage induced by the field enhancement on the exit side. We found that the AR randomly structured surfaces have a higher resistance, to the onset of laser damage, when they are located at the entry (structured) side of the substrates. In comparison, when the same AR random structures are in the beam exit side of the substrates, the onset of laser damage

  16. The improvement of laser induced damage resistance of optical workpiece surface by hydrodynamic effect polishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Wenqiang; Guan, Chaoliang; Li, Shengyi; Wang, Zhuo

    2016-10-01

    Surface and subsurface damage in optical element will greatly decrease the laser induced damage threshold (LIDT) in the intense laser optical system. Processing damage on the workpiece surface can be inevitably caused when the material is removed in brittle or plastic mode. As a non-contact polishing technology, hydrodynamic effect polishing (HEP) shows very good performance on generating an ultra-smooth surface without damage. The material is removed by chemisorption between nanoparticle and workpiece surface in the elastic mode in HEP. The subsurface damage and surface scratches can be effectively removed after the polishing process. Meanwhile ultra-smooth surface with atomic level surface roughness can be achieved. To investigate the improvement of LIDT of optical workpiece, polishing experiment was conducted on a magnetorheological finishing (MRF) silica glass sample. AFM measurement results show that all the MRF directional plastic marks have been removed clearly and the root-mean-square (rms) surface roughness has decreased from 0.673nm to 0.177nm after HEP process. Laser induced damage experiment was conducted with laser pulse of 1064nm wavelength and 10ns time width. Compared with the original state, the LEDT of the silica glass sample polished by HEP has increased from 29.78J/cm2 to 45.47J/cm2. It demonstrates that LIDT of optical element treated by HEP can be greatly improved for ultra low surface roughness and nearly defect-free surface/subsurface.

  17. Effect of spatial coherence on damage occurrence in multimode optical fibers.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Amir; Malka, Dror; Zalevsky, Zeev; Ishaaya, Amiel A

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the influence of spatial coherence on damage occurrence in highly multimode optical fibers using ultraviolet (UV) nanosecond pulses, with the aim of delivering high fluence in the UV. In some cases, the optical damage is initiated below the fiber facet damage threshold and takes place along the propagation path; such damage is believed to be caused by local constructive interference, creating "hot spots." In order to reduce the degree of spatial coherence, we used a large-diameter core (1.5 mm) fiber as a mode scrambler. Different lengths of this large core fiber were used to deliver energy to a fiber core with a smaller diameter (0.6 mm), in which the damage occurrence was observed. The experimental results indicate that there is a correlation between the degree of spatial coherence and the occurrence of optical damages, typically observed a few millimeters from the fiber facet. Numerical simulations, based on the beam-propagation method, support the degradation of spatial coherence, due to the excitation of high-order modes. Finally, by degrading the spatial coherence of the beam, we establish a new record by delivering more than 100 mJ via a 1.5 mm core diameter fiber in the UV, corresponding to ∼26 times the critical power for self-focusing. Our work sheds light on the ability to deliver high energies of nanosecond-pulsed UV laser radiation through multimode optical fibers.

  18. Particle damage sources for fused silica optics and their mitigation on high energy laser systems.

    PubMed

    Bude, J; Carr, C W; Miller, P E; Parham, T; Whitman, P; Monticelli, M; Raman, R; Cross, D; Welday, B; Ravizza, F; Suratwala, T; Davis, J; Fischer, M; Hawley, R; Lee, H; Matthews, M; Norton, M; Nostrand, M; VanBlarcom, D; Sommer, S

    2017-05-15

    High energy laser systems are ultimately limited by laser-induced damage to their critical components. This is especially true of damage to critical fused silica optics, which grows rapidly upon exposure to additional laser pulses. Much progress has been made in eliminating damage precursors in as-processed fused silica optics (the advanced mitigation process, AMP3), and very high damage resistance has been demonstrated in laboratory studies. However, the full potential of these improvements has not yet been realized in actual laser systems. In this work, we explore the importance of additional damage sources-in particular, particle contamination-for fused silica optics fielded in a high-performance laser environment, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser system. We demonstrate that the most dangerous sources of particle contamination in a system-level environment are laser-driven particle sources. In the specific case of the NIF laser, we have identified the two important particle sources which account for nearly all the damage observed on AMP3 optics during full laser operation and present mitigations for these particle sources. Finally, with the elimination of these laser-driven particle sources, we demonstrate essentially damage free operation of AMP3 fused silica for ten large optics (a total of 12,000 cm(2) of beam area) for shots from 8.6 J/cm(2) to 9.5 J/cm(2) of 351 nm light (3 ns Gaussian pulse shapes). Potentially many other pulsed high energy laser systems have similar particle sources, and given the insight provided by this study, their identification and elimination should be possible. The mitigations demonstrated here are currently being employed for all large UV silica optics on the National Ignition Facility.

  19. Tools for Predicting Optical Damage on Inertial Confinement Fusion-Class Laser Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nostrand, M C; Carr, C W; Liao, Z M; Honig, J; Spaeth, M L; Manes, K R; Johnson, M A; Adams, J J; Cross, D A; Negres, R A; Widmayer, C C; Williams, W H; Matthews, M J; Jancaitis, K S; Kegelmeyer, L M

    2010-12-20

    Operating a fusion-class laser to its full potential requires a balance of operating constraints. On the one hand, the total laser energy delivered must be high enough to give an acceptable probability for ignition success. On the other hand, the laser-induced optical damage levels must be low enough to be acceptably handled with the available infrastructure and budget for optics recycle. Our research goal was to develop the models, database structures, and algorithmic tools (which we collectively refer to as ''Loop Tools'') needed to successfully maintain this balance. Predictive models are needed to plan for and manage the impact of shot campaigns from proposal, to shot, and beyond, covering a time span of years. The cost of a proposed shot campaign must be determined from these models, and governance boards must decide, based on predictions, whether to incorporate a given campaign into the facility shot plan based upon available resources. Predictive models are often built on damage ''rules'' derived from small beam damage tests on small optics. These off-line studies vary the energy, pulse-shape and wavelength in order to understand how these variables influence the initiation of damage sites and how initiated damage sites can grow upon further exposure to UV light. It is essential to test these damage ''rules'' on full-scale optics exposed to the complex conditions of an integrated ICF-class laser system. Furthermore, monitoring damage of optics on an ICF-class laser system can help refine damage rules and aid in the development of new rules. Finally, we need to develop the algorithms and data base management tools for implementing these rules in the Loop Tools. The following highlights progress in the development of the loop tools and their implementation.

  20. Two-dimensional damage mapping of a glass-epoxy composite test sample by optical transmission analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davin, Tanguy; Serio, Bruno; Hunsinger, Jean-Jacques; Lebuffe, Stéphane

    2016-04-01

    Under mechanical stress, the optical transmission coefficient of a translucent composite material changes. In this study, the optical response, defined as transmitted luminous flux function of the stress, is used to characterize the optomechanical behavior. Tensile tests were carried out on composite specimens made of glass fibers and epoxy resin. A visible imaging instrument has been developed to characterize this opto-mechanical response. The used camera has permitted to map the two-dimensional behavior, resulting from the heterogeneous stress field. Monotonic tests have been conducted as well as fatigue tests, to analyze de damage state along the material cycle life. In this study, both the principle and the experimental setup of this contactless method are described.

  1. Improving 351-nm Damage Performance of Large-Aperture Fused Silica and DKDP Optics

    SciTech Connect

    Burnham, A K; Hackel, L; Wegner, P; Parham, T; Hrubesh, L; Penetrante, B; Whitman, P; Demos, S; Menapace, J; Runkel, M; Fluss, M; Feit, M; Key, M; Biesiada, T

    2002-01-07

    A program to identify and eliminate the causes of UV laser-induced damage and growth in fused silica and DKDP has developed methods to extend optics lifetimes for large-aperture, high-peak-power, UV lasers such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Issues included polish-related surface damage initiation and growth on fused silica and DKDP, bulk inclusions in fused silica, pinpoint bulk damage in DKDP, and UV-induced surface degradation in fused silica and DKDP in a vacuum. Approaches included an understanding of the mechanism of the damage, incremental improvements to existing fabrication technology, and feasibility studies of non-traditional fabrication technologies. Status and success of these various approaches are reviewed. Improvements were made in reducing surface damage initiation and eliminating growth for fused silica by improved polishing and post-processing steps, and improved analytical techniques are providing insights into mechanisms of DKDP damage. The NIF final optics hardware has been designed to enable easy retrieval, surface-damage mitigation, and recycling of optics.

  2. Laser damage threshold studies on urea L-malic acid: A nonlinear optical crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Vanishri, S.; Bhat, H. L.; Deepthy, A.; Nampoori, V. P. N.; Matos Gomes, E. de; Belsley, M.

    2006-04-15

    A detailed study of surface laser damage performed on a nonlinear optical crystal, urea L-malic acid, using 7 ns laser pulses at 10 Hz repetition rate from a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at wavelengths of 532 and 1064 nm is reported. The single shot and multiple shot surface laser damage threshold values are determined to be 26.64{+-}0.19 and 20.60{+-}0.36 GW cm{sup -2} at 1064 nm and 18.44{+-}0.31 and 7.52{+-}0.22 GW cm{sup -2} at 532 nm laser radiation, respectively. The laser damage anisotropy is consistent with the Vickers mechanical hardness measurement performed along three crystallographic directions. The Knoop polar plot also reflects the damage morphology. Our investigation reveals a direct correlation between the laser damage profile and hardness anisotropy. Thermal breakdown of the crystal is identified as the possible mechanism of laser induced surface damage.

  3. Investigating the relationship between material properties and laser-induced damage threshold of dielectric optical coatings at 1064 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassiri, Riccardo; Clark, Caspar; Martin, Iain W.; Markosyan, Ashot; Murray, Peter G.; Tessmer, Joseph; Rowan, Sheila; Fejer, Martin M.

    2015-11-01

    The Laser Induced Damage Threshold (LIDT) and material properties of various multi-layer amorphous dielectric optical coatings, including Nb2O5, Ta2O5, SiO2, TiO2, ZrO2, AlN, SiN, LiF and ZnSe, have been studied. The coatings were produced by ion assisted electron beam and thermal evaporation; and RF and DC magnetron sputtering at Helia Photonics Ltd, Livingston, UK. The coatings were characterized by optical absorption measurements at 1064 nm by Photothermal Common-path Interferometry (PCI). Surface roughness and damage pits were analyzed using atomic force microscopy. LIDT measurements were carried out at 1064 nm, with a pulse duration of 9.6 ns and repetition rate of 100 Hz, in both 1000-on-1 and 1-on-1 regimes. The relationship between optical absorption, LIDT and post-deposition heat-treatment is discussed, along with analysis of the surface morphology of the LIDT damage sites showing both coating and substrate failure.

  4. Synthesis, characterization and optical properties of nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shoutian

    ZnO, Si, silica, Ge, Ga oxide, W oxide and Mo oxide nanoparticles have been synthesized and characterized, and their optical properties have been investigated. These particles were synthesized by a Laser Vaporization and Controlled Condensation (LVCC) technique in a modified diffusion cloud chamber. The particles deposited on smooth substrates reveal highly organized web-like structures with uniform micrometer size pores. The effect of solvents on the web-like structures was also investigated. ZnO nanoparticles were also prepared by wet chemical methods such as the reversed micelle and sol solutions technique. The photoluminescence quantum yield is enhanced 10 times once the surfaces of the ZnO nanoparticles are coated with a layer of stearate molecules. Many techniques have been used to characterize the nanoparticles. SEM gives information about particle size and morphology; X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy determine the crystallinity and crystal structure; XPS and FTIR reveal the surface chemical composition; UV-vis spectroscopy and photoluminescence measurements characterize the optical properties of nanoparticles. Silica nanoparticles, prepared in an amorphous phase, show bright blue photoluminescence upon irradiation with UV light, but the luminescence has a very short lifetime (less than 20 ns). Si nanoparticles, with a diamond-like crystal phase, acquire oxidized-surfaces on exposure to air. The surface-oxidized Si nanocrystals show a short- lived blue emission characteristic of the SiO2 coating and a longer-lived red emission at room temperature. The lifetime of the red emission depends on the emission wavelength. Some substituted benzene molecules and tungsten oxide nanoparticles can quench the red photoluminescence of the Si nanocrystals. Tungsten oxide and molybdenum oxide nanoparticles show photochromic properties: they change color to blue when irradiated. The photons drive a transition from one chemical state to another. The color change of

  5. Optical fiber sensors for damage analysis in aerospace materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schindler, Paul; May, Russell; Claus, Richard

    1995-01-01

    Under this grant, fiber optic sensors were investigated for use in the nondestructive evaluation of aging aircraft. Specifically, optical fiber sensors for detection and location of impacts on a surface, and for detection of corrosion in metals were developed. The use of neural networks was investigated for determining impact location by processing the output of a network of fiberoptic strain sensors distributed on a surface. This approach employs triangulation to determine location by comparing the arrival times at several sensors, of the acoustic signal generated by the impact. For this study, a neural network simulator running on a personal computer was used to train a network using a back-propagation algorithm. Fiber optic extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer (EFPI) strain sensors are attached to or embedded in the surface, so that stress waves emanating from an impact can be detected. The ability of the network to determine impact location by time-or-arrival of acoustic signals was assessed by comparing network outputs with actual experimental results using impacts on a panel instrumented with optical fiber sensors. Using the neural network to process the sensor outputs, the impact location can be inferred to centimeter range accuracy directly from the arrival time data. In addition, the network can be trained to determine impact location, regardless of material anisotropy. Results demonstrate that a back-propagation network identifies impact location for an anisotropic graphite/bismaleimide plate with the same accuracy as that for an isotropic aluminum plate. Two different approaches were investigated for the development of fiber optic sensors for corrosion detection in metals, both utilizing optical fiber sensors with metal coatings. In the first approach, an extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric fiber optic strain sensor was placed under tensile stress, and while in the resulting strained position, a thick coating of metal was applied. Due to an increase in

  6. Bulk growth, structure, optical properties and laser damage threshold of organic nonlinear optical crystals of Imidazolium L-Ascorbate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saripalli, Ravi Kiran; Bhat, H. L.; Elizabeth, Suja

    2016-09-01

    Bulk, transparent organic nonlinear optical (NLO) single-crystals of imidazolium L-Ascorbate (ImLA) were grown using slow-evaporation. Crystal structure was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Preliminary linear optical measurements through UV-Visible and infrared spectroscopy revealed good optical transmittance and a low near-UV cutoff wavelength at 256 nm. Kurtz and Perry powder test revealed that ImLA is a phase-matchable NLO material with a second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of 1.2 times larger than that of standard KH2PO4 (KDP). Laser damage thresholds were determined for ImLA.

  7. A model based bayesian solution for characterization of complex damage scenarios in aerospace composite structures.

    PubMed

    Reed, H; Leckey, Cara A C; Dick, A; Harvey, G; Dobson, J

    2017-09-05

    Ultrasonic damage detection and characterization is commonly used in nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of aerospace composite components. In recent years there has been an increased development of guided wave based methods. In real materials and structures, these dispersive waves result in complicated behavior in the presence of complex damage scenarios. Model-based characterization methods utilize accurate three dimensional finite element models (FEMs) of guided wave interaction with realistic damage scenarios to aid in defect identification and classification. This work describes an inverse solution for realistic composite damage characterization by comparing the wavenumber-frequency spectra of experimental and simulated ultrasonic inspections. The composite laminate material properties are first verified through a Bayesian solution (Markov chain Monte Carlo), enabling uncertainty quantification surrounding the characterization. A study is undertaken to assess the efficacy of the proposed damage model and comparative metrics between the experimental and simulated output. The FEM is then parameterized with a damage model capable of describing the typical complex damage created by impact events in composites. The damage is characterized through a transdimensional Markov chain Monte Carlo solution, enabling a flexible damage model capable of adapting to the complex damage geometry investigated here. The posterior probability distributions of the individual delamination petals as well as the overall envelope of the damage site are determined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Single shot damage mechanism of Mo/Si multilayer optics under intense pulsed XUV-exposure.

    PubMed

    Khorsand, A R; Sobierajski, R; Louis, E; Bruijn, S; van Hattum, E D; van de Kruijs, R W E; Jurek, M; Klinger, D; Pelka, J B; Juha, L; Burian, T; Chalupsky, J; Cihelka, J; Hajkova, V; Vysin, L; Jastrow, U; Stojanovic, N; Toleikis, S; Wabnitz, H; Tiedtke, K; Sokolowski-Tinten, K; Shymanovich, U; Krzywinski, J; Hau-Riege, S; London, R; Gleeson, A; Gullikson, E M; Bijkerk, F

    2010-01-18

    We investigated single shot damage of Mo/Si multilayer coatings exposed to the intense fs XUV radiation at the Free-electron LASer facility in Hamburg - FLASH. The interaction process was studied in situ by XUV reflectometry, time resolved optical microscopy, and "post-mortem" by interference-polarizing optical microscopy (with Nomarski contrast), atomic force microscopy, and scanning transmission electron microcopy. An ultrafast molybdenum silicide formation due to enhanced atomic diffusion in melted silicon has been determined to be the key process in the damage mechanism. The influence of the energy diffusion on the damage process was estimated. The results are of significance for the design of multilayer optics for a new generation of pulsed (from atto- to nanosecond) XUV sources.

  9. Characterization of commercial fiber optic connectors - Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, Larry A.; Williams, Randy J.

    1998-09-01

    Several types of commercial fiber optic connectors were characterized for potential use in a Sandia designed Laser Diode Ignition (LDI) system. The characterization included optical performance while the connectors were subjected to the more dynamic environmental conditions experienced in weapons applications. The environmental testing included temperature cycling, random vibration, and mechanical shock. This report presents a performance assessment of the fiber optic connectors and fiber included in the characterization. The desirable design features are described for a fiber optic connector that must survive the dynamic environment of weapon systems. The more detailed performance of each connector type will be included as resources permit.

  10. Lattice damage assessment and optical waveguide properties in LaAlO3 single crystal irradiated with swift Si ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Crespillo, M. L.; Huang, Q.; Wang, T. J.; Liu, P.; Wang, X. L.

    2017-02-01

    As one of the representative ABO3 perovskite-structured oxides, lanthanum aluminate (LaAlO3) crystal has emerged as one of the most valuable functional-materials, and has attracted plenty of fundamental research and promising applications in recent years. Electronic, magnetic, optical and other properties of LaAlO3 strongly depend on its crystal structure, which could be strongly modified owing to the nuclear or electronic energy loss deposited in an ion irradiation environment and, therefore, significantly affecting the performance of LaAlO3-based devices. In this work, utilizing swift (tens of MeV) Si-ion irradiation, the damage behavior of LaAlO3 crystal induced by nuclear or electronic energy loss has been studied in detail utilizing complementary characterization techniques. Differing from other perovskite-structured crystals in which the electronic energy loss could lead to the formation of an amorphous region based on the thermal spike mechanism, in this case, intense electronic energy loss in LaAlO3 will not induce any obvious structural damage. The effects of ion irradiation on the mechanical properties, including hardness increase and elastic modulus decrease, have been confirmed. On the other hand, considering the potential applications of LaAlO3 in the field of integrated optoelectronics, the optical-waveguide properties of the irradiation region have been studied. The significant correspondence (symmetrical inversion) between the iWKB-reconstructed refractive-index profile and SRIM-simulated dpa profile further proves the effects (irradiation-damage production and refractive-index decrease) of nuclear energy loss during the swift-ion penetration process in LaAlO3 crystal. In the case of the rather-thick damage layer produced by swift-ion irradiation, obtaining a damage profile will be constrained owing to the analysis-depth limitation of the characterization techniques (RBS/channeling), and our analysis process (optical guided-mode measurement and

  11. Damages to optical silica glass: processes and mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Sheng-Nian; Zheng, Lianqing; An, Qi; Wu, Heng-An; Xia, Kaiwen; Ni, Sidao

    2007-01-01

    We present recent results of molecular dynamics simulations to illustrate the processes and mechanisms in damages to silica glass, including densification, cavitation, fragmentation and agglomeration via photon, electron, ion and neutron radiations and stresses. Radiation of glass creates point defects (vacancies and interstitials), and subsequent structure relaxation induces densification. Nanovoid below a certain size and rapid-quenching of silica liquid can also densify a glass. Hot spots due to photon-absorbing impurities in glass may cause local densification and cavitation as well. Densification can also be induced by compressional stress, and spall, by tensile stress. The densified glasses, regardless of the exact processes, share similar structural and vibrational properties, for example, the five-fold coordinated Si atoms. Densification is essentially a kinetic frustration during structure relaxation driven by excessive free energy, e.g., due to defects or stresses. The point-defect mechanism is dominant for densification without compression and complemented by thermal spike mechanism in thermal processes. Defects, thermal effects and stresses may interplay in a general damage process in silica glass.

  12. Wideband optical coatings for protecting artwork from ultraviolet and infrared radiation damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piegari, Angela; Polato, Pietro

    2003-09-01

    The damaging effects of illumination on artwork are well known. Art conservation requires protection from both vandalism and radiation damage. Glass is an appropriate material for these requirements but it partially transmits UV and IR radiation. An optical coating on glass that eliminates UV and IR radiation coming from natural or artificial illumination, is proposed. This coated glass, positioned in front of the artwork, is also able to reduce reflection without altering the appearance or colour.

  13. Thermo-Elastic Characterization of Heat Damage in Carbon Fiber Epoxy Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathish, S.; Welter, J.; Reibel, R.; Buynak, C.

    2006-03-01

    Several nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques are in use to inspect heat damage in organic matrix composites. Majority of the techniques detect major damage like cracking, delamination and blistering. An NDE technique sensitive to early stages of heat damage ("incipient" damage) is still elusive. This paper presents, a novel non-contact NDE method, based on detection and measurement of heat developed during the propagation of an acoustic wave through the material. The methodology was used to characterize the heat damage in carbon fiber epoxy composite. The results of temperature changes in heat damaged regions in the composite and its correlation with exposure time are presented.

  14. Damage Resistant Optical Glasses for High Power Lasers: A Continuing Glass Science and Technology Challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J H

    2002-08-28

    A major challenge in the development of optical glasses for high-power lasers is reducing or eliminating laser-induced damage to the interior (bulk) and the polished surface of the glass. Bulk laser damage in glass generally originates from inclusions. With the development of novel glass melting and forming processes it is now possible to make both fused silica and a suit of meta-phosphate laser glasses in large sizes ({approx}>0.5-lm diameter), free of inclusions and with high optical homogeneity ({approx} 10{sup -6}). Considerable attention also has been focused on improving the laser damage resistance to polished optical glass surfaces. Studies have shown that laser-induced damage to surfaces grows exponentially with the number of shots when illuminated with nano-second pulses at 351-nm above a given fluence threshold. A new approach for reducing and eliminating laser-induced surface damage relies on a series of post-polishing treatment steps. This damage improvement method is briefly reviewed.

  15. An embedded fibre optic sensor for impact damage detection in composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glossop, Neil David William

    1989-09-01

    A structurally embedded fiber optic damage detection sensor for composite materials is described. The system is designed specifically for the detection of barely visible damage resulting from low velocity impacts in Kevlar-epoxy laminates. By monitoring the light transmission properties of optical fiber embedded in the composite, it was shown that the integrity of the material can be accurately determined. The effect of several parameters on the sensitivity of the system was investigated, including the effect of the optical fiber orientation and depth of embedding within the composite. A novel surface was also developed for the optical fibers to ensure they will fracture at the requisite damage level. The influence of the optical fiber sensors on the tensile and compressive material properties and on the impact resistance of the laminate was also studied. Extensive experimental results from impact tests are reported and a numerical model of the impact event is presented which is able to predict and model the damage mechanism and sensor system. A new and powerful method of nondestructive evaluation for translucent composite materials based on image enhanced backlighting is also described.

  16. Characterization of Genetic Miscoding Lesions Caused by Postmortem Damage

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Hansen, Anders J.; Willerslev, Eske; Rudbeck, Lars; Barnes, Ian; Lynnerup, Niels; Cooper, Alan

    2003-01-01

    The spectrum of postmortem damage in mitochondrial DNA was analyzed in a large data set of cloned sequences from ancient human specimens. The most common forms of damage observed are two complementary groups of transitions, termed “type 1” (adenine→guanine/thymine→cytosine) and “type 2” (cytosine→thymine/guanine→adenine). Single-primer extension PCR and enzymatic digestion with uracil-N-glycosylase confirm that each of these groups of transitions result from a single event, the deamination of adenine to hypoxanthine, and cytosine to uracil, respectively. The predominant form of transition-manifested damage varies by sample, though a marked bias toward type 2 is observed with increasing amounts of damage. The two transition types can be used to identify the original strand, light (L) or heavy (H), on which the initial damage event occurred, and this can increase the number of detected jumping-PCR artifacts by up to 80%. No bias toward H-strand–specific damage events is noted within the hypervariable 1 region of human mitochondria, suggesting the rapid postmortem degradation of the secondary displacement (D-loop) H strand. The data also indicate that, as damage increases within a sample, fewer H strands retain the ability to act as templates for enzymatic amplification. Last, a significant correlation between archaeological site and sample-specific level of DNA damage was detected. PMID:12489042

  17. In situ compressive damage of cement paste characterized by lab source X-ray computer tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Keshu; Xue, Xiaobo

    2013-08-15

    This paper aims at illustrating the potential of lab source X-ray CT for studying the damage behavior of cement based materials through in situ load experiments. This approach permits quantifying the microstructure prior and during loading. The load damage is separated from the specimen deformation using an image interpolation method. A quantitative relationship between external load and internal specimen damage is analyzed using the statistical information of gray scale values of the CT data. Local damage degrees are defined on 3D subset, and the 3D spatial distribution of damage information is clarified in this research. - Highlights: • On line damage is characterized by lab source X-ray CT. • Loading damage is separated with the specimen deformation. • Local damage is analyzed using gray scale values of the CT data. • 3D spatial distribution of the local damage information is clarified.

  18. Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) optical filter characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Gale A.

    1989-01-01

    The Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) is a solar occultation experiment that will fly on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite to measure mixing ratio profiles of O3, H2O, NO2, NO, CH4, HCl, and HF. The inversion of the HALOE data will be critically dependent on a detailed knowledge of eight optical filters. A filter characterization program was undertaken to measure in-band transmissions, out-of-band transmissions, in-band transmission shifts with temperature, reflectivities, and age stability. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometers were used to perform measurements over the spectral interval 400/cm to 6300/cm (25 micrometers to 1.6 micrometers). Very high precision (0.1 percent T) in-band measurements and very high resolution (0.0001 percent T) out-of-band measurements have been made. The measurements revealed several conventional leaks at 0.01 percent transmission and greatly enhanced (1,000) leaks to the 2-element filters when placed in a Fabry-Perot cavity. Filter throughput changes by 5 percent for a 25 C change in filter temperature.

  19. Laser damage threshold of gelatin and a copper phthalocyanine doped gelatin optical limiter

    SciTech Connect

    Brant, M.C.; McLean, D.G.; Sutherland, R.L.

    1996-12-31

    The authors demonstrate optical limiting in a unique guest-host system which uses neither the typical liquid or solid host. Instead, they dope a gelatin gel host with a water soluble Copper (II) phthalocyaninetetrasulfonic acid, tetrasodium salt (CuPcTs). They report on the gelatin`s viscoelasticity, laser damage threshold, and self healing of this damage. The viscoelastic gelatin has mechanical properties quite different than a liquid or solid. The authors` laser measurements demonstrate that the single shot damage threshold of the undoped gelatin host increases with decreasing gelatin concentration. The gelatin also has a much higher laser damage threshold than a stiff acrylic. Unlike brittle solids, the soft gelatin self heals from laser induced damage. Optical limiting test also show the utility of a gelatin host doped with CuPcTs. The CuPcTs/gelatin matrix is not damaged at incident laser energies 5 times the single shot damage threshold of the gelatin host. However, at this high laser energy the CuPcTs is photo bleached at the beam waist. The authors repair photo bleached sites by annealing the CuPcTs/gelatin matrix.

  20. Prediction of feather damage in laying hens using optical flows and Markov models.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyoung-joo; Roberts, Stephen J; Drake, Kelly A; Dawkins, Marian Stamp

    2011-04-06

    Feather pecking in laying hens is a major welfare and production problem for commercial egg producers, resulting in mortality, loss of production as well as welfare issues for the damaged birds. Damaging outbreaks of feather pecking are currently impossible to control, despite a number of proposed interventions. However, the ability to predict feather damage in advance would be a valuable research tool for identifying which management or environmental factors could be the most effective interventions at different ages. This paper proposes a framework for forecasting the damage caused by injurious pecking based on automated image processing and statistical analysis. By frame-by-frame analysis of video recordings of laying hen flocks, optical flow measures are calculated as indicators of the movement of the birds. From the optical flow datasets, measures of disturbance are extracted using hidden Markov models. Based on these disturbance measures and age-related variables, the levels of feather damage in flocks in future weeks is predicted. Applying the proposed method to real-world datasets, it is shown that the disturbance measures offer improved predictive values for feather damage thus enabling an identification of flocks with probable prevalence of damage and injury later in lay.

  1. The potential of optical coherence tomography in meniscal tear characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Hang-yin; Guo, Shuguang; Thieman, Kelley M.; Wise, Brent T.; Pozzi, Antonio; Xie, Huikai; Horodyski, MaryBeth

    2009-02-01

    Meniscal tear is one of the most common knee injuries leading to pain and discomfort. Partial and total meniscectomies have been widely used to treat the avascular meniscal injuries in which tears do not heal spontaneously. However, the meniscectomies would cause an alteration of the tibiofemoral contact mechanics resulting in progressive osteoarthritis (OA). To mitigate the progression of OA, maximal preservation of meniscal tissue is recommended. The clinical challenge is deciding which meniscal tears are amenable to repair and which part of damaged tissues should be removed. Current diagnosis techniques such as arthroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging can provide macrostructural information of menisci, but the microstructural changes that occur prior to the observable meniscal tears cannot be identified by these techniques. Serving as a nondestructive optical biopsy, optical coherence tomography (OCT), a newly developed imaging modality, can provide high resolution, cross-sectional images of tissues and has been shown its capabilty in arthroscopic evaulation of articular cartilage. Our research was to demonstrate the potential of using OCT for nondestructive characterization of the histopathology of different types of meniscal tears from clinical cases in dogs, providing a fundamental understanding of the failure mechanism of meniscal tears. First, cross-sectional images of torn canine menisci obtained from the OCT and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) were be compared. By studying the organization of collegan fibrils in torn menisci from the SEM images, the feasibility of using OCT to characterize the organization of collegan fibrils was elucidated. Moreover, the crack size of meniscal tears was quantatitively measured from the OCT images. Changes in the crack size of the tear may be useful for understanding the failure mechanism of meniscal tears.

  2. Laser-induced damage of fused silica on high-power laser: beam intensity modulation, optics defect, contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dongfeng; Sun, Mingyin; Wu, Rong; Lu, Xinqiang; Lin, Zunqi; Zhu, Jianqiang

    2015-11-01

    The wedged focus lens of fused silica, one of the final optics assembly's optics, focuses the 351 nm beam onto target and separates the residual 1053 and 527 nm light with 351 nm light. After the experiment with beam energies at 3ω range from 3 to 5KJ, and pulse shapes about 3ns, the wedged focus lens has laser-induced damage at particular area. Analysis the damage result, there are three reasons to induce these damages. These reasons are beam intensity modulation, optics defect and contamination that cause different damage morphologies. The 3ω beam intensity modulation, one of three factors, is the mostly import factor to induce damage. Here, the n2 nonlinear coefficient of fused silica material can lead to small-scale self-focusing filament because of optics thickness and beam intensity. And some damage-filaments' tails are bulk damage spots because there are subsurface scratches or metal contaminations.

  3. Optical Assembly and Characterization System for Nano-Photonics Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    Unlimited Final Report: Optical Assembly and Characterization System for Nano -Photonics Research The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this...reviewed journals: Final Report: Optical Assembly and Characterization System for Nano -Photonics Research Report Title With this equipment funding support...Assembly and Characterization System for Nano -Photonics Research PI: Prof. Weidong Zhou, University of Texas at Arlington (UTA) 500 S. Cooper St

  4. X-ray-excited optical luminescence of protein crystals: a new tool for studying radiation damage during diffraction data collection

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Robin L.; Yorke, Briony A.; Pearson, Arwen R.

    2012-01-01

    During X-ray irradiation protein crystals radiate energy in the form of small amounts of visible light. This is known as X-ray-excited optical luminescence (XEOL). The XEOL of several proteins and their constituent amino acids has been characterized using the microspectrophotometers at the Swiss Light Source and Diamond Light Source. XEOL arises primarily from aromatic amino acids, but the effects of local environment and quenching within a crystal mean that the XEOL spectrum of a crystal is not the simple sum of the spectra of its constituent parts. Upon repeated exposure to X-rays XEOL spectra decay non-uniformly, suggesting that XEOL is sensitive to site-specific radiation damage. However, rates of XEOL decay were found not to correlate to decays in diffracting power, making XEOL of limited use as a metric for radiation damage to protein crystals. PMID:22525748

  5. X-ray-excited optical luminescence of protein crystals: a new tool for studying radiation damage during diffraction data collection.

    PubMed

    Owen, Robin L; Yorke, Briony A; Pearson, Arwen R

    2012-05-01

    During X-ray irradiation protein crystals radiate energy in the form of small amounts of visible light. This is known as X-ray-excited optical luminescence (XEOL). The XEOL of several proteins and their constituent amino acids has been characterized using the microspectrophotometers at the Swiss Light Source and Diamond Light Source. XEOL arises primarily from aromatic amino acids, but the effects of local environment and quenching within a crystal mean that the XEOL spectrum of a crystal is not the simple sum of the spectra of its constituent parts. Upon repeated exposure to X-rays XEOL spectra decay non-uniformly, suggesting that XEOL is sensitive to site-specific radiation damage. However, rates of XEOL decay were found not to correlate to decays in diffracting power, making XEOL of limited use as a metric for radiation damage to protein crystals. © 2012 International Union of Crystallography

  6. Damage Threshold Characterization in Structural Composite Materials and Composite Joints

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-28

    WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER Montana State University...Badaliance and Aaron Sears Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana Final Technical Report, for FA9550-06-1-0444, AFOSR/DEPSCOR 06 Program...strain field for damage state which consists only of a crack across the ends of the dropped plies (usually the first damage), and a 3-mm long L1

  7. Probabilistic Damage Characterization Using the Computationally-Efficient Bayesian Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, James E.; Hochhalter, Jacob D.

    2016-01-01

    This work presents a computationally-ecient approach for damage determination that quanti es uncertainty in the provided diagnosis. Given strain sensor data that are polluted with measurement errors, Bayesian inference is used to estimate the location, size, and orientation of damage. This approach uses Bayes' Theorem to combine any prior knowledge an analyst may have about the nature of the damage with information provided implicitly by the strain sensor data to form a posterior probability distribution over possible damage states. The unknown damage parameters are then estimated based on samples drawn numerically from this distribution using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling algorithm. Several modi cations are made to the traditional Bayesian inference approach to provide signi cant computational speedup. First, an ecient surrogate model is constructed using sparse grid interpolation to replace a costly nite element model that must otherwise be evaluated for each sample drawn with MCMC. Next, the standard Bayesian posterior distribution is modi ed using a weighted likelihood formulation, which is shown to improve the convergence of the sampling process. Finally, a robust MCMC algorithm, Delayed Rejection Adaptive Metropolis (DRAM), is adopted to sample the probability distribution more eciently. Numerical examples demonstrate that the proposed framework e ectively provides damage estimates with uncertainty quanti cation and can yield orders of magnitude speedup over standard Bayesian approaches.

  8. Optical model for spectroscopic ellipsometry analysis of plasma-induced damage to SiOC films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishida, Kentaro; Ono, Kouichi; Eriguchi, Koji

    2017-06-01

    We propose a new optical model for assigning the physical structure of plasma-damaged SiOC films examined by spectroscopic ellipsometry. A two-parameter Bruggeman’s effective medium approximation is used for estimating the thickness and volume fraction of a low-dielectric (ɛ) region (ɛ ˜ 1) in the SiO2 background. We introduced an optical model consisting of damaged and undamaged layers. The thickness and fraction of the damaged layer are fitted. Prediction was performed using this model for SiOC samples exposed to various plasmas, and the results were compared with those of scanning electron microscopy. We further applied this model to estimating the depth of damaged region in combination with a layer-by-layer wet-etching technique. In the case of He plasma exposure, the structural change induced by the damage extends 90-130 nm in depth. Since the degradation of interlayer dielectrics affects the circuit performance, the proposed optical model should be used for designing plasma processes.

  9. Damage of silica-based optical fibers in laser supported detonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efremov, V. P.; Fortov, V. E.; Frolov, A. A.

    2015-11-01

    The study of detonation-like mode of laser induced damage propagation is presented. This mode is new investigation object of laser destruction of silica-based optical fibers. The fiber destruction images were obtained in evolution and in static (on saved samples).

  10. Noneffect of electronegative gases on pulsed laser-induced optical surface damage thresholds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kardach, J. A.; Stewart, A. F.; Guenther, A. H.

    1984-11-01

    Laser-induced damage testing was conducted on a variety of optical surfaces using an Nd:YAG laser. The samples tested included conventional dielectric coatings of ZrO2, diamond-turned copper, bare surfaces of fused silica and ARG-2 glass, and porous surface layers of both leached ARG-2 glass and some solgel coatings. Measurements were made in vacuum and in nitrogen, Freon 14 (CF4), and SF6 at pressures up to 2 atm. It is found that the ambient gas has no observable effect on the surface damage threshold, in agreement with previous observations that damage sites are initiated on or just below the surface of optical elements.

  11. Fiber optic system for deflection and damage detection in morphing wing structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheerer, M.; Djinovic, Z.; Schüller, M.

    2013-04-01

    Within the EC Clean Sky - Smart Fixed Wing Aircraft initiative concepts for actuating morphing wing structures are under development. In order for developing a complete integrated system including the actuation, the structure to be actuated and the closed loop control unit a hybrid deflection and damage monitoring system is required. The aim of the project "FOS3D" is to develop and validate a fiber optic sensing system based on low-coherence interferometry for simultaneous deflection and damage monitoring. The proposed system uses several distributed and multiplexed fiber optic Michelson interferometers to monitor the strain distribution over the actuated part. In addition the same sensor principle will be used to acquire and locate the acoustic emission signals originated from the onset and growth of defects like impact damages, cracks and delamination's. Within this paper the authors present the concept, analyses and first experimental results of the mentioned system.

  12. Linking Material Properties and Microstructures to Characterize Damage Associated with an Underground Explosion in Granite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, J. E.; Broome, S.; Sussman, A. J.; Townsend, M.; Schultz-Fellenz, E. S.

    2013-12-01

    The Source Physics Experiment, conducted in granite in Nevada, is a series of explosive tests designed to study the generation and propagation of seismic waves. Extensive seismic monitoring and site rock characterization are being used to improve the predictive capability of models for detecting and characterizing underground explosions. Site rock characterization includes geomechanical and material properties testing, core-scale fracture identification, and optical microscopy studies. Geomechanical and material properties determined via laboratory testing of the site rocks include unconfined compressive strength, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, and bulk density. Detailed fracture mapping and characterization of meso- and micro-scale fractures in recovered cores are being conducted and include mineralization changes and the extent of crushed or fractured zone away from the source. We report on the analysis of microfractures in these cores, which provide a detailed and quantitative dataset on the extent and nature of damage in the recovered cores. Microfracture density and character (open, sealed, healed) are recorded in order to differentiate sets of microfractures associated with explosive tests. Densities (mf/mm) of open microfractures correlate with source-related damage, and increase from pre- to post-test samples. Microfracture densities are affected by pre-existing fractures, depending on fracture-zone mineralogy and alteration. These microfracture density data, linked to the bulk material properties, geomechanical properties, and the structural features of the rock at the core-scale, define a damage zone surrounding the source at depth. This link is essential to understanding how the bulk material properties manifest themselves in the rock and how that might affect energy propagation. Work by Los Alamos National Laboratory was sponsored by the National Nuclear Security Administration Award No. DE-AC52-06NA25946/NST10-NCNS-PD00. Work by National Security

  13. Characterization of damaged skin by impedance spectroscopy: chemical damage by dimethyl sulfoxide.

    PubMed

    White, Erick A; Orazem, Mark E; Bunge, Annette L

    2013-10-01

    To relate changes in the electrochemical impedance spectra to the progression and mechanism of skin damage arising from exposure to dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Electrochemical impedance spectra measured before and after human cadaver skin was treated with neat DMSO or phosphate buffered saline (control) for 1 h or less were compared with electrical circuit models representing two contrasting theories describing the progression of DMSO damage. Flux of a model lipophilic compound (p-chloronitrobenzene) was also measured. The impedance spectra collected before and after 1 h treatment with DMSO were consistent with a single circuit model; whereas, the spectra collected after DMSO exposure for 0.25 h were consistent with the model circuits observed before and after DMSO treatment for 1 h combined in series. DMSO treatments did not significantly change the flux of p-chloronitrobenzene compared to control. Impedance measurements of human skin exposed to DMSO for less than about 0.5 h were consistent with the presence of two layers: one damaged irreversibly and one unchanged. The thickness of the damaged layer increased proportional to the square-root of treatment time until about 0.5 h, when DMSO affected the entire stratum corneum. Irreversible DMSO damage altered the lipophilic permeation pathway minimally.

  14. Guided Wave and Damage Detection in Composite Laminates Using Different Fiber Optic Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fucai; Murayama, Hideaki; Kageyama, Kazuro; Shirai, Takehiro

    2009-01-01

    Guided wave detection using different fiber optic sensors and their applications in damage detection for composite laminates were systematically investigated and compared in this paper. Two types of fiber optic sensors, namely fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) and Doppler effect-based fiber optic (FOD) sensors, were addressed and guided wave detection systems were constructed for both types. Guided waves generated by a piezoelectric transducer were propagated through a quasi-isotropic carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) laminate and acquired by these fiber optic sensors. Characteristics of these fiber optic sensors in ultrasonic guided wave detection were systematically compared. Results demonstrated that both the FBG and FOD sensors can be applied in guided wave and damage detection for the CFRP laminates. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of guided wave signal captured by an FOD sensor is relatively high in comparison with that of the FBG sensor because of their different physical principles in ultrasonic detection. Further, the FOD sensor is sensitive to the damage-induced fundamental shear horizontal (SH0) guided wave that, however, cannot be detected by using the FBG sensor, because the FOD sensor is omnidirectional in ultrasound detection and, in contrast, the FBG sensor is severely direction dependent. PMID:22412347

  15. Guided wave and damage detection in composite laminates using different fiber optic sensors.

    PubMed

    Li, Fucai; Murayama, Hideaki; Kageyama, Kazuro; Shirai, Takehiro

    2009-01-01

    Guided wave detection using different fiber optic sensors and their applications in damage detection for composite laminates were systematically investigated and compared in this paper. Two types of fiber optic sensors, namely fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) and Doppler effect-based fiber optic (FOD) sensors, were addressed and guided wave detection systems were constructed for both types. Guided waves generated by a piezoelectric transducer were propagated through a quasi-isotropic carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) laminate and acquired by these fiber optic sensors. Characteristics of these fiber optic sensors in ultrasonic guided wave detection were systematically compared. Results demonstrated that both the FBG and FOD sensors can be applied in guided wave and damage detection for the CFRP laminates. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of guided wave signal captured by an FOD sensor is relatively high in comparison with that of the FBG sensor because of their different physical principles in ultrasonic detection. Further, the FOD sensor is sensitive to the damage-induced fundamental shear horizontal (SH(0)) guided wave that, however, cannot be detected by using the FBG sensor, because the FOD sensor is omnidirectional in ultrasound detection and, in contrast, the FBG sensor is severely direction dependent.

  16. Fatigue Damage Monitoring of a Composite Step Lap Joint Using Distributed Optical Fibre Sensors.

    PubMed

    Wong, Leslie; Chowdhury, Nabil; Wang, John; Chiu, Wing Kong; Kodikara, Jayantha

    2016-05-14

    Over the past few decades, there has been a considerable interest in the use of distributed optical fibre sensors (DOFS) for structural health monitoring of composite structures. In aerospace-related work, health monitoring of the adhesive joints of composites has become more significant, as they can suffer from cracking and delamination, which can have a significant impact on the integrity of the joint. In this paper, a swept-wavelength interferometry (SWI) based DOFS technique is used to monitor the fatigue in a flush step lap joint composite structure. The presented results will show the potential application of distributed optical fibre sensor for damage detection, as well as monitoring the fatigue crack growth along the bondline of a step lap joint composite structure. The results confirmed that a distributed optical fibre sensor is able to enhance the detection of localised damage in a structure.

  17. Fatigue Damage Monitoring of a Composite Step Lap Joint Using Distributed Optical Fibre Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Leslie; Chowdhury, Nabil; Wang, John; Chiu, Wing Kong; Kodikara, Jayantha

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few decades, there has been a considerable interest in the use of distributed optical fibre sensors (DOFS) for structural health monitoring of composite structures. In aerospace-related work, health monitoring of the adhesive joints of composites has become more significant, as they can suffer from cracking and delamination, which can have a significant impact on the integrity of the joint. In this paper, a swept-wavelength interferometry (SWI) based DOFS technique is used to monitor the fatigue in a flush step lap joint composite structure. The presented results will show the potential application of distributed optical fibre sensor for damage detection, as well as monitoring the fatigue crack growth along the bondline of a step lap joint composite structure. The results confirmed that a distributed optical fibre sensor is able to enhance the detection of localised damage in a structure. PMID:28773496

  18. Cryo-Infrared Optical Characterization at NASA GSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boucarut, Ray; Quijada, Manuel A.; Henry, Ross M.

    2004-01-01

    The development of large space infrared optical systems, such as the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST), has increased requirements for measurement accuracy in the optical properties of materials. Many materials used as optical components in infrared optical systems, have strong temperature dependence in their optical properties. Unfortunately, data on the temperature dependence of most of these materials is sparse. In this paper, we provide a description of the capabilities existing in the Optics Branch at the Goddard Space Flight Center that enable the characterization of the refractive index and absorption coefficient changes and other optical properties in infrared materials at cryogenic temperatures. Details of the experimental apparatus, which include continuous flow liquid helium optical cryostat, and a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer are discussed.

  19. Optical characterization of window materials for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedjojuwono, Ken K.; Clark, Natalie; Humphreys, William M.

    2013-09-01

    An optical metrology laboratory has been developed to characterize the optical properties of optical window materials to be used for aerospace applications. Several optical measurement systems have been selected and developed to measure spectral transmittance, haze, clarity, birefringence, striae, wavefront quality, and wedge. In addition to silica based glasses, several optical lightweight polymer materials and transparent ceramics have been investigated in the laboratory. The measurement systems and selected empirical results for non-silica materials are described. These measurements will be used to form the basis of acceptance criteria for selection of window materials for future aerospace vehicle and habitat designs.

  20. Optical Characterization of Window Materials for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedjojuwono, Ken K.; Clark, Natalie; Humphreys, William M., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    An optical metrology laboratory has been developed to characterize the optical properties of optical window materials to be used for aerospace applications. Several optical measurement systems have been selected and developed to measure spectral transmittance, haze, clarity, birefringence, striae, wavefront quality, and wedge. In addition to silica based glasses, several optical lightweight polymer materials and transparent ceramics have been investigated in the laboratory. The measurement systems and selected empirical results for non-silica materials are described. These measurements will be used to form the basis of acceptance criteria for selection of window materials for future aerospace vehicle and habitat designs.

  1. Orbital Debris Characterization via Laboratory Optical Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowardin, Healther

    2011-01-01

    Optical observations of orbital debris offer insights that differ from radar measurements (specifically the size parameter,wavelength regime,and altitude range). For example, time-dependent photometric data yield lightcurves in multiple bandpasses that aid in material identification and possible periodic orientations. These data can also be used to help identify shapes and optical properties at multiple phase angles. Capitalizing on optical data products and applying them to generate a more complete understanding of orbital objects is a key objective of NASA's Optical Measurement Program, and the primary reason for the creation of the Optical Measurements Center(OMC). The OMC attempts to emulate space-based illumination conditions using equipment and techniques that parallel telescopic observations and source-target-sensor orientations.

  2. Damage mechanics characterization on fatigue behavior of a solder joint material

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, C.L.; Yang, F.; Fang, H.E.

    1998-08-01

    This paper presents the first part of a comprehensive mechanics approach capable of predicting the integrity and reliability of solder joint material under fatigue loading without viscoplastic damage considerations. A separate report will be made to present a comprehensive damage model describing life prediction of the solder material under thermomechanical fatigue loading. The method is based on a theory of damage mechanics which makes possible a macroscopic description of the successive material deterioration caused by the presence of microcracks/voids in engineering materials. A damage mechanics model based on the thermodynamic theory of irreversible processes with internal state variables is proposed and used to provide a unified approach in characterizing the cyclic behavior of a typical solder material. With the introduction of a damage effect tensor, the constitutive equations are derived to enable the formulation of a fatigue damage dissipative potential function and a fatigue damage criterion. The fatigue evolution is subsequently developed based on the hypothesis that the overall damage is induced by the accumulation of fatigue and plastic damage. This damage mechanics approach offers a systematic and versatile means that is effective in modeling the entire process of material failure ranging from damage initiation and propagation leading eventually to macro-crack initiation and growth. As the model takes into account the load history effect and the interaction between plasticity damage and fatigue damage, with the aid of a modified general purpose finite element program, the method can readily be applied to estimate the fatigue life of solder joints under different loading conditions.

  3. The characterization of widespread fatigue damage in fuselage structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Willard, Scott A.; Miller, Matthew

    1994-01-01

    The characteristics of widespread fatigue damage (WSFD) in fuselage riveted structure were established by detailed nondestructive and destructive examinations of fatigue damage contained in a full size fuselage test article. The objectives of this were to establish an experimental data base for validating emerging WSFD analytical prediction methodology and to identify first order effects that contribute to fatigue crack initiation and growth. Detailed examinations were performed on a test panel containing four bays of a riveted lap splice joint. The panel was removed from a full scale fuselage test article after receiving 60,000 full pressurization cycles. The results of in situ examinations document the progression of fuselage skin fatigue crack growth through crack linkup. Detailed tear down examinations and fractography of the lap splice joint region revealed fatigue crack initiation sites, crack morphology, and crack linkup geometry. From this large data base, distributions of crack size and locations are presented and discussions of operative damage mechanisms are offered.

  4. The characterization of widespread fatigue damage in fuselage structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Willard, Scott A.; Miller, Matthew

    1994-01-01

    The characteristics of widespread fatigue damage (WSFD) in fuselage riveted structure were established by detailed nondestructive and destructive examinations of fatigue damage contained in a full size fuselage test article. The objectives of this work were to establish an experimental data base for validating emerging WSFD analytical prediction methodology and to identify first order effects that contribute to fatigue crack initiation and growth. Detailed examinations were performed on a test panel containing four bays of a riveted lap splice joint. The panel was removed from a full scale fuselage test article after receiving 60,000 full pressurization cycles. The results of in situ examinations document the progression of fuselage skin fatigue crack growth through crack linkup. Detailed tear down examinations and fractography of the lap splice joint region revealed fatigue crack initiation sites, crack morphology and crack linkup geometry. From this large data base, distributions of crack size and locations are presented and discussions of operative damage mechanisms are offered.

  5. Time resolved studies of catastrophic optical mirror damage in red-emitting laser diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Stella N.; Smowton, Peter M.; Ziegler, Mathias; Tomm, Jens W.; Zeimer, Ute

    2010-06-15

    We have observed the changing light intensity during catastrophic optical mirror damage (COMD) on the timescale of tens of nanoseconds using red-emitting AlGaInP quantum well based laser diodes. Using as-cleaved facets and this material system, which is susceptible to COMD, we recorded the drop in light intensity and the area of damage to the facet, as a function of current, for single, high current pulses. We found that in the current range up to 40 A, the total COMD process up to the drop of light intensity to nonlasing levels takes place on a timescale of hundreds of nanoseconds, approaching a limiting value of 200 ns, and that the measured area of facet damage showed a clear increase with drive current. Using a straightforward thermal model, we propose an explanation for the limiting time at high currents and the relationship between the time to COMD and the area of damaged facet material.

  6. Image dissector photocathode solar damage test program. [solar radiation shielding using a fast optical lens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    Image dissector sensors of the same type which will be used in the NASA shuttle star tracker were used in a series of tests directed towards obtaining solar radiation/time damage criteria. Data were evaluated to determine the predicted level of operability of the star tracker if tube damage became a reality. During the test series a technique for reducing the solar damage effect was conceived and verified. The damage concepts are outlined and the test methods and data obtained which were used for verification of the technique's feasibility are presented. The ability to operate an image dissector sensor with the solar image focussed on the photocathode by a fast optical lens under certain conditions is feasible and the elimination of a mechanical protection device is possible.

  7. Development of high damage threshold optics for petawatt-class short-pulse lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, B.C.; Perry, M.D.; Boyd, R.D.

    1995-02-22

    The authors report laser-induced damage threshold measurements on pure and multilayer dielectrics and gold-coated optics at 1053 and 526 nm for pulse durations, {tau}, ranging from 140 fs to 1 ns. Damage thresholds of gold coatings are limited to 500 mJ/cm{sup 2} in the subpicosecond range for 1053-nm pulses. In dielectrics, qualitative differences in the morphology of damage and a departure from the diffusion-dominated {tau}1/2 scaling indicate that damage results from plasma formation and ablation for {tau}{le}10 ps and from conventional melting and boiling for {tau}>50 ps. A theoretical model based on electron production via multiphoton ionization, Joule heating, and collisional (avalanche) ionization is in quantitative agreement with both the pulsewidth and wavelength scaling of experimental results.

  8. Analytical and Experimental Characterization of Damage Processes in Composite Laminates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    INDIVIDUAL 221L TELEPHONE NUMBER 2.6IESMO L~~~.CoL(In do~? A( meA0 ode) 00 FORM 1473, 83 APR EDITION OF I JAN 73 IS OBSOLETE. ABSTRACT This report...Mechanics of Metal Matrix Composite Laminates," Strain Localization and Size Effect Due to Cracking and Damage, edited by J. Mazars and Z.P. Bazant , Elsevier...Effect Due to Cracking and Damage, edited by J. Mazars and Z.P. Bazant , Elsevier Scientific Publishers, London, 1988. 17 14. Kaveh-Ahangar, A., Ph.D

  9. The pathogenic role of transforming growth factor-β2 in glaucomatous damage to the optic nerve head.

    PubMed

    Fuchshofer, Rudolf

    2011-08-01

    In patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), the optic nerve head (ONH) shows characteristic cupping correlated with visual field defects. The progressive optic neuropathy is characterized by irreversible loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGC). The critical risk factor for axonal damage at the ONH is an elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). The increase in IOP correlates with axonal loss in the ONH, which might be due to an impaired axoplasmatic flow leading to the loss of RGCs. Damage to the optic nerve is thought to occur in the lamina cribrosa (LC) region of the ONH, which is composed of characteristic sieve-like connective tissue cribriform plates through which RGC axons exit the eye. The cupping of the optic disc, and the compression and excavation of LC are characteristic signs of glaucomatous ONH remodelling. In ONH of POAG patients a disorganized distribution and deposition of elastic fibers and a typical pronounced thickening of the connective tissue septae surrounding the optic nerve fibers is found. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β2 could be one of the pathogenic factors responsible for the structural alterations in POAG patients as the TGF-β2 levels in the ONH of glaucomatous eyes are elevated as well as in the aqueous homour. TGF-β2 leads to an increased synthesis of extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules mediated by connective tissue growth factor and to an impaired ECM degradation in cultured ONH astrocytes. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-4 effectively antagonizes the effects of TGF-β2 on matrix deposition. The BMP antagonist gremlin blocks this inhibition, allowing TGF-β2 stimulation of ECM synthesis. Overall, the ECM in the ONH is kept in balance in the OHN by factors that augment or block the activity of TGF-β2.

  10. Multiwavelength multistatic optical scattering for aerosol characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Andrea M.

    The main focus of this research is the development of a technique to remotely characterize aerosol properties, such as particle size distribution, concentration, and refractive index as a function of wavelength, through the analysis of optical scattering measurements. The proposed technique is an extension of the multistatic polarization ratio technique that has been developed by prior students at the Penn State Lidar Lab to include multiple wavelengths. This approach uses the ratio of polarized components of the scattering phase functions at multiple wavelengths across the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum to extract the microphysical and optical properties of aerosols. The scattering intensities at each wavelength are vertically separated across the face of the imager using a transmission diffraction grating, so that scattering intensities for multiple wavelengths at many angles are available for analysis in a single image. The ratio of the scattering phase function intensities collected using parallel and perpendicular polarized light are formed for each wavelength and analysis of the ratio is used to determine the microphysical properties of the aerosols. One contribution of the present work is the development of an inversion technique based on a genetic algorithm that retrieves lognormal size distributions from scattering measurements by minimizing the squared error between measured polarization ratios and polarization ratios calculated using the Mie solution to Maxwell's equations. The opportunities and limitations of using the polarization ratio are explored, and a genetic algorithm is developed to retrieve single mode and trimodal lognormal size distributions from multiwavelength, angular scattering data. The algorithm is designed to evaluate particles in the diameter size range of 2 nm to 60 im, and uses 1,000 linear spaced diameters within this range to compute the modeled polarization ratio. The algorithm returns geometric mean radii and

  11. Characterization of Fiber Optic CMM Probe System

    SciTech Connect

    K.W.Swallow

    2007-05-15

    This report documents a study completed on the fiber optic probe system that is a part of the Werth optical CMM. This study was necessary due to a lack of documentation from the vendor for the proper use and calibration of the fiber probe, and was performed in support of the Lithographie Galvanoformung Abformung (LIGA) development program at the FM&T. As a result of this study, a better understanding of the fiber optic probe has been developed, including guidelines for its proper use and calibration.

  12. Improving UV laser damage threshold of fused silica optics by wet chemical etching technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Hui; Li, Yaguo; Yuan, Zhigang; Wang, Jian; Xu, Qiao; Yang, Wei

    2015-07-01

    Fused silica is widely used in high-power laser systems because of its good optical performance and mechanical properties. However, laser damage initiation and growth induced by 355 nm laser illumination in optical elements have become a bottleneck in the development of high energy laser system. In order to improve the laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT), the fused silica optics were treated by two types of HF-based etchants: 1.7%wt. HF acid and buffer oxide etchant (BOE: the mixture of 0.4%wt. HF and 12%wt. NH4F), respectively, for varied etching time. Damage testing shows that both the etchants increase the damage threshold at a certain depth of material removal, but further removal of material lowers the LIDT markedly. The etching rates of both etchants keep steady in our processing procedure, ~58 μg/min and ~85 μg/min, respectively. The micro-surface roughness (RMS and PV) increases as etching time extends. The hardness (H) and Young's modulus (E) of the fused silica etched for diverse time, measured by nano-indenter, show no solid evidence that LIDT can be related to hardness or Young's modulus.

  13. Image Science and Analysis Group Spacecraft Damage Detection/Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheaton, Ira M., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This project consisted of several tasks that could be served by an intern to assist the ISAG in detecting damage to spacecrafts during missions. First, this project focused on supporting the Micrometeoroid Orbital Debris (MMOD) damage detection and assessment for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) using imagery from the last two HST Shuttle servicing missions. In this project, we used coordinates of two windows on the Shuttle Aft flight deck from where images were taken and the coordinates of three ID points in order to calculate the distance from each window to the three points. Then, using the specifications from the camera used, we calculated the image scale in pixels per inch for planes parallel to and planes in the z-direction to the image plane (shown in Table 1). This will help in the future for calculating measurements of objects in the images. Next, tabulation and statistical analysis were conducted for screening results (shown in Table 2) of imagery with Orion Thermal Protection System (TPS) damage. Using the Microsoft Excel CRITBINOM function and Goal Seek, the probabilities of detection of damage to different shuttle tiles were calculated as shown in Table 3. Using developed measuring tools, volume and area measurements will be created from 3D models of Orion TPS damage. Last, mathematical expertise was provided to the Photogrammetry Team. These mathematical tasks consisted of developing elegant image space error equations for observations along 3D lines, circles, planes, etc. and checking proofs for minimal sets of sufficient multi-linear constraints. Some of the processes and resulting equations are displayed in Figure 1.

  14. Optical Sensing using Fiber Bragg Gratings for Monitoring Structural Damage in Composite Over-Wrapped Vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    Composite Over-Wrap Vessels are widely used in the aerospace community. They are made of thin-walled bottles that are over wrapped with high strength fibers embedded in a matrix material. There is a strong drive to reduce the weight of space borne vehicles and thus pushes designers to adopt COPVs that are over wrapped with graphite fibers embedded in its epoxy matrix. Unfortunately, this same fiber-matrix configuration is more susceptible to impact damage than others and to make matters worse; there is a regime where impacts that damage the over wrap leave no visible scar on the COPV surface. In this paper FBG sensors are presented as a means of monitoring and detecting these types of damage. The FBG sensors are surface mounted to the COPVs and optically interrogated to explore the structural properties of these composite pressure vessels. These gratings optically inscribed into the core of a single mode fiber are used as a tool to monitor the stress strain relation in the composite matrix. The response of these fiber-optic sensors is investigated by pressurizing the cylinder up to its burst pressure of around 4500 psi. A Fiber Optic Demodulation System built by Blue Road Research, is used for interrogation of the Bragg gratings.

  15. Characterization of nodular and thermal defects in hafnia/silica multilayer coatings using optical, photothermal, and atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Stolz, C.J.; Yoshiyama, J.M.; Salleo, A.; Wu, Z.L.; Green, J.; Krupka, R.

    1997-12-24

    Multilayer coatings manufactured from metallic hafnium and silica sources by reactive electron beam deposition, are being developed for high fluence optics in a fusion laser with a wavelength of 1053 nm and a 3 ns pulse length. Damage threshold studies have revealed a correlation between laser damage and nodular defects, but interestingly laser damage is also present in nodule-free regions. Photothermal studies of optical coatings reveal the existence of defects with strong optical absorption in nodule-free regions of the coating. A variety of microscopic techniques were employed to characterize the effects for a better understanding of the thermal properties of nodular defects and role of thermal defects in laser damage. Photothermal microscopy, utilizing the surface thermal lensing technique, was used to map the thermal characteristics of 3 mm x 3 mm areas of the coatings. High resolution subaperture scans, with a 1 pm step size and a 3 um pump beam diameter, W= conducted on the defects to characterize their photothermal properties. Optical and atomic force microscopy was used to visually identify defects and characterize their topography. The defects were then irradiated to determine the role of nodular and thermal defects in limiting the damage threshold of the multilayer.

  16. Comparison of Laser-Induced Damage With Forward-Firing and Diffusing Optical Fiber During Laser-Assisted Lipoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Changhwan; Park, Hoyong; Lee, Ho

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives Laser-assisted lipoplasty is made possible by using an optical fiber that delivers light endoscopically to subcutaneous fat tissue. Most optical fibers for laser-assisted lipoplasty are designed to be irradiated in a forward direction. In this study, we compared forward-firing fiber and diffusing fiber for use in laser-assisted lipoplasty. The effective parameters of the ablation pattern which resulted from the laser-induced damage are discussed for both systems. In particular, we note the effect resulting from the different beam emission patterns and the contours of laser fluence. Methods We used two different laser delivery systems (a forward-firing fiber and a diffusing fiber) to examine how the beam emission pattern affects the laser-assisted coagulation and damage pattern of in vitro fat tissues. A porcine liver tissue (water-rich tissue) was used as a secondary laser target to investigate how the laser-assisted coagulation pattern depends on both the type of tissue (water-rich and lipid-rich tissue) as well as the delivery system. An evaluation using a digital camera and a thermal camera was conducted for the tissue ablation processes in order to observe the generated heat transfer in fat and liver. Results The overall shape of the laser-assisted coagulation zone was different from the beam emission pattern in the case where a forward-firing fiber was used within fat tissue. The center of the laser-affected zone is characterized by the formation of a reservoir of melted fat. In the thermal image analysis, there existed a discrepancy between the temperature distribution of the fat tissue and the liver tissue during the forward-firing fiber irradiation. In the liver tissue ablation process, the temperature distribution during the laser ablation also demonstrated an elongated ellipse that matches well with the laser-induced damage zone. The temperature distribution in fat tissue adhered to a more discoid pattern that corresponded to the

  17. Comparison of laser-induced damage with forward-firing and diffusing optical fiber during laser-assisted lipoplasty.

    PubMed

    Kim, Changhwan; Park, Hoyong; Lee, Ho

    2013-09-01

    Laser-assisted lipoplasty is made possible by using an optical fiber that delivers light endoscopically to subcutaneous fat tissue. Most optical fibers for laser-assisted lipoplasty are designed to be irradiated in a forward direction. In this study, we compared forward-firing fiber and diffusing fiber for use in laser-assisted lipoplasty. The effective parameters of the ablation pattern which resulted from the laser-induced damage are discussed for both systems. In particular, we note the effect resulting from the different beam emission patterns and the contours of laser fluence. We used two different laser delivery systems (a forward-firing fiber and a diffusing fiber) to examine how the beam emission pattern affects the laser-assisted coagulation and damage pattern of in vitro fat tissues. A porcine liver tissue (water-rich tissue) was used as a secondary laser target to investigate how the laser-assisted coagulation pattern depends on both the type of tissue (water-rich and lipid-rich tissue) as well as the delivery system. An evaluation using a digital camera and a thermal camera was conducted for the tissue ablation processes in order to observe the generated heat transfer in fat and liver. The overall shape of the laser-assisted coagulation zone was different from the beam emission pattern in the case where a forward-firing fiber was used within fat tissue. The center of the laser-affected zone is characterized by the formation of a reservoir of melted fat. In the thermal image analysis, there existed a discrepancy between the temperature distribution of the fat tissue and the liver tissue during the forward-firing fiber irradiation. In the liver tissue ablation process, the temperature distribution during the laser ablation also demonstrated an elongated ellipse that matches well with the laser-induced damage zone. The temperature distribution in fat tissue adhered to a more discoid pattern that corresponded to the laser-induced damage zone. Based on our

  18. Nondestructive Characterization of Low Velocity Impact Damage in Transparent Laminate Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    by defects and/or damage. Ultrasonic testing was conducted using a 64-element 10-MHz linear phased array transducer. A total of 32 active...criterion for transparent materials used in protective systems. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Damage, characterization, transparent, ultrasound, NDE 16. SECURITY...inclusions, secondary phases , etc.) and interlayer defects in the laminates (disbonds, delaminations, etc.) can reduce material properties but may

  19. Characterization of Depleted-Uranium Strength and Damage Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, III, George T.; Chen, Shuh-Rong; Bronkhorst, Curt A.; Dennis-Koller, Darcie; Cerreta, Ellen K.; Cady, Carl M.; McCabe, Rodney J.; Addessio, Francis L.; Schraad, Mark W.; Thoma, Dan J.; Lopez, Mike F.; Mason, Thomas A.; Papin, Pallas A.; Trujillo, Carl P.; Korzekwa, Deniece R.; Luscher, Darby J.; Hixson, Robert S.; Maudlin, Paul J.; Kelly, A. M.

    2012-12-17

    The intent of this report is to document the status of our knowledge of the mechanical and damage behavior of Depleted Uranium(DU hereafter). This report briefly summaries the motivation of the experimental and modeling research conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory(LANL) on DU since the early 1980’s and thereafter the current experimental data quantifying the strength and damage behavior of DU as a function of a number of experimental variables including processing, strain rate, temperature, stress state, and shock prestraining. The effect of shock prestraining on the structure-property response of DU is described and the effect on post-shock mechanical behavior of DU is discussed. The constitutive experimental data utilized to support the derivation of two constitutive strength (plasticity) models, the Preston-Tonks-Wallace (PTW) and Mechanical Threshold Stress (MTS) models, for both annealed and shock prestrained DU are detailed and the Taylor cylinder validation tests and finite-element modeling (FEM) utilized to validate these strength models is discussed. The similarities and differences in the PTW and MTS model descriptions for DU are discussed for both the annealed and shock prestrained conditions. Quasi-static tensile data as a function of triaxial constraint and spallation test data are described. An appendix additionally briefly describes low-pressure equation-of-state data for DU utilized to support the spallation experiments. The constitutive behavior of DU screw/bolt material is presented. The response of DU subjected to dynamic tensile extrusion testing as a function of temperature is also described. This integrated experimental technique is planned to provide an additional validation test in the future. The damage data as a function of triaxiality, tensile and spallation data, is thereafter utilized to support derivation of the Tensile Plasticity (TEPLA) damage model and simulations for comparison to the DU spallation data are presented

  20. Wideband optical coatings for artwork protection from ultraviolet and infrared radiation damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piegari, Angela M.; Polato, Pietro

    2003-11-01

    The damaging effects of illumination on artworks are well known. Art conservation requires protection against vandalism and protection against radiation damage. Glass is an appropriate material for both requirements, but it partially transmits ultraviolet and infrared radiation. An optical coating on glass that eliminates the ultraviolet and the infrared radiation coming from natural or artificial source of illumination, is proposed. This coated glass, positioned in front of the artwork, is also able to reduce the visible radiation without altering the vision or the color rendering.

  1. High-resolution optical spectrum characterization using optical channel estimation and spectrum stitching technique.

    PubMed

    Jin, Chao; Bao, Yuan; Li, Zhaohui; Gui, Tao; Shang, Haiyan; Feng, Xinhuan; Li, Jianping; Yi, Xingwen; Yu, Changyuan; Li, Guifang; Lu, Chao

    2013-07-01

    A technique is proposed to measure the high-resolution and wide-band characterization of amplitude, phase responses, and polarization property of optical components. This technique combines the optical spectrum stitching and optical channel estimation methods. Two kinds of fiber Bragg grating based Fabry-Perot cavities with ultrafine structures have been characterized based on this technique. By using 1024 point fast Fourier transform and a narrow linewidth, wavelength-tunable laser source, a frequency resolution of ~10 MHz is realized with an optical measurement range beyond 250 GHz.

  2. Characterization of Oxidative Guanine Damage and Repair in Mammalian Telomeres

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhilong; Rhee, David B.; Lu, Jian; Bohr, Christina T.; Zhou, Fang; Vallabhaneni, Haritha; de Souza-Pinto, Nadja C.; Liu, Yie

    2010-01-01

    8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG) and 2,6-diamino-4-hydroxy-5-formamidopyrimidine (FapyG) are among the most common oxidative DNA lesions and are substrates for 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1)–initiated DNA base excision repair (BER). Mammalian telomeres consist of triple guanine repeats and are subject to oxidative guanine damage. Here, we investigated the impact of oxidative guanine damage and its repair by OGG1 on telomere integrity in mice. The mouse cells were analyzed for telomere integrity by telomere quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (telomere–FISH), by chromosome orientation–FISH (CO–FISH), and by indirect immunofluorescence in combination with telomere–FISH and for oxidative base lesions by Fpg-incision/Southern blot assay. In comparison to the wild type, telomere lengthening was observed in Ogg1 null (Ogg1−/−) mouse tissues and primary embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) cultivated in hypoxia condition (3% oxygen), whereas telomere shortening was detected in Ogg1−/− mouse hematopoietic cells and primary MEFs cultivated in normoxia condition (20% oxygen) or in the presence of an oxidant. In addition, telomere length abnormalities were accompanied by altered telomere sister chromatid exchanges, increased telomere single- and double-strand breaks, and preferential telomere lagging- or G-strand losses in Ogg1−/− mouse cells. Oxidative guanine lesions were increased in telomeres in Ogg1−/− mice with aging and primary MEFs cultivated in 20% oxygen. Furthermore, oxidative guanine lesions persisted at high level in Ogg1−/− MEFs after acute exposure to hydrogen peroxide, while they rapidly returned to basal level in wild-type MEFs. These findings indicate that oxidative guanine damage can arise in telomeres where it affects length homeostasis, recombination, DNA replication, and DNA breakage repair. Our studies demonstrate that BER pathway is required in repairing oxidative guanine damage in telomeres and maintaining

  3. Characterization of the Los Alamos IPG YLR-6000 fiber laser using multiple optical paths and laser focusing optics

    SciTech Connect

    Milewski, John O; Bernal, John E

    2009-01-01

    Fiber laser technology has been identified as the replacement power source for the existing Los Alamos TA-55 production laser welding system. An IPG YLR-6000 fiber laser was purchased, installed at SM-66 R3, and accepted in February 2008. No characterization of the laser and no welding was performed in the Feb 2008 to May 2009 interval. T. Lienert and J. Bernal (Ref. 1, July 2009) determined the existing 200 mm Rofin collimator and focus heads used with the Rofin diode pumped lasers were inadequate for use with the IPG laser due to clipping of the IPG laser beam. Further efforts in testing of the IPG laser with Optoskand fiber delivery optics and a Rofin 120 mm collimator proved problematic due to optical fiber damage. As a result, IPG design optical fibers were purchased as replacements for subsequent testing. Within the same interval, an IPG fiber-to-fiber (F2F) connector, custom built for LANL, (J. Milewski, S. Gravener, Ref.2) was demonstrated and accepted at IPG Oxford, MA in August 2009. An IPG service person was contracted to come to LANL to assist in the installation, training, troubleshooting and characterization of the multiple beam paths and help perform laser head optics characterization. The statement of work is provided below: In summary the laser system, optical fibers, F2F connector, Precitec head, and a modified Rofin type (w/120mm Optoskand collimator) IWindowIBoot system focus head (Figure 1) were shown to perform well at powers up to 6 kW CW. Power measurements, laser spot size measurements, and other characterization data and lessons learned are contained within this report. In addition, a number of issues were identified that will require future resolution.

  4. Electroretinography combined with spectral domain optical coherence tomography to detect retinal damage in shaken baby syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Yuri; Yokoi, Tadashi; Sachiko, Nishina; Okuyama, Makiko; Azuma, Noriyuki

    2013-08-01

    In order to correlate anatomical changes with visual function in shaken baby syndrome, we performed electroretinography and spectral domain optical coherence tomography on a 2-month-old girl and a 9-month-old girl after the retinal hemorrhages absorbed. Both patients had significant abnormalities in spectral domain optical coherence tomography images of the macular area. The amplitudes of the focal macular electroretinograms were more severely decreased than those of the full-field electroretinograms. Combining spectral domain coherence tomography with focal macular electroretinograms might better estimate the functional damage to the macula in patients with shaken baby syndrome.

  5. Subsurface damage distribution characterization of ground surfaces using Abbott-Firestone curves.

    PubMed

    Laheurte, Raynald; Darnis, Philippe; Darbois, Nathalie; Cahuc, Olivier; Neauport, Jérôme

    2012-06-04

    Measurement of subsurface damage (SSD) induced by grinding process is of major interest in the development of high laser damage fused silica optical components manufacturing processes. Most SSD measurements methods give only access to the peak to peak value. We herein report on the benefit of using Abbott-Firestone curves to get an insight of the SSD distribution inside the optical material. We evidence on various diamond wheel ground fused silica substrates that such an approach is complementary to a classical SSD peak to peak measurement and bring useful information to optimize a grinding process.

  6. Highly automated optical characterization with FTIR spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, G. L. E.; Szofran, F. R.

    1989-01-01

    The procedure for evaluating the characteristics of II-VI semiconducting infrared sensor materials with a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer system will be discussed. While the method of mapping optical characteristics with a spectrometer has been employed previously, this system is highly automated compared to other systems where the optical transmission data are obtained using a FTIR system with a small stationary aperture in the optical path and moving the specimen behind the aperture. The hardware and software, including an algorithm developed for extracting cut-on wavelengths of spectra, as well as several example results, are described to illustrate the advanced level of the system. Additionally, data from transverse slices and longitudinal wafers of the aforementioned semiconductors will be used to show the accuracy of the system in predicting trends in materials such as shapes of growth interfaces and compositional uniformity.

  7. Assessing the reliability of nondestructive evaluation methods for damage characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldrin, John C.; Annis, Charles; Sabbagh, Harold A.; Knopp, Jeremy S.; Lindgren, Eric A.

    2014-02-01

    A comprehensive approach to NDE characterization error evaluation is presented that follows the framework of the `ahat-versus-a' model evaluation process for probability of detection (POD) assessment. Before characterization error model building is performed, an intermediate step must evaluate the presence and frequency of several possible classes of poor characterization results. A case study is introduced based on the estimation the length, depth and width of surface breaking cracks using bolt hole eddy current (BHEC) NDE. This study highlights the importance of engineering and statistical expertise in the model-building process to ensure all key effects and possible interactions are addressed.

  8. Nanosecond laser damage resistance of differently prepared semi-finished parts of optical multimode fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Guido; Vogel, Jens; Preuß, Rüdiger; Vaziri, Pouya; Zoheidi, Mohammadali; Eberstein, Markus; Krüger, Jörg

    2007-12-01

    Optical multimode fibers are applied in materials processing (e.g. automotive industry), defense, aviation technology, medicine and biotechnology. One challenging task concerning the production of multimode fibers is the enhancement of laser-induced damage thresholds. A higher damage threshold enables a higher transmitted average power at a given fiber diameter or the same power inside a thinner fiber to obtain smaller focus spots. In principle, different material parameters affect the damage threshold. Besides the quality of the preform bulk material itself, the drawing process during the production of the fiber and the preparation of the fiber end surfaces influence the resistance. Therefore, the change of the laser-induced damage threshold of preform materials was investigated in dependence on a varying thermal treatment and preparation procedure. Single and multi-pulse laser-induced damage thresholds of preforms (F300, Heraeus) were measured using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm wavelength emitting pulses with a duration of 15 ns, a pulse energy of 12 mJ and a repetition rate of 10 Hz. The temporal and spatial shape of the laser pulses were controlled accurately. Laser-induced damage thresholds in a range from 150 J cm -2 to 350 J cm -2 were determined depending on the number of pulses applied to the same spot, the thermal history and the polishing quality of the samples, respectively.

  9. Optical coatings on glass for preserving artworks from illumination induced damage: design and testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farini, A.; Arrighi, R.; Di Sarcina, I.; Piegari, A. M.

    2005-06-01

    The deteriorating effect of light on artworks exposed in museums and galleries has been noticed for many years. A number of methods, which act on the illumination source, are presently in use to reduce the damage. A complementary approach is proposed here that consists in blocking the radiation, outside the range of sensitivity of the human eye, before it reaches the artwork. This result can be achieved by an optical coating deposited on the glass pane that is usually put in front of the artworks to protect them from vandalism. In addition to the preservation from illumination induced damage, the proposed coating is also able to improve the observation of the artwork by reducing the reflection effects of uncoated glass. Optical, colorimetric and psychophysical measurements on test samples are reported.

  10. Monitoring of early catastrophic optical damage in laser diodes based on facet reflectivity measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S. Y.; Feng, S. W.; Zhang, Y. M.; An, Z. F.; Yang, H. W.; He, X.; Wang, X.; Qiao, Y. B.

    2017-05-01

    We propose a convenient, inexpensive technique to monitor the fast early stage of catastrophic optical damage (COD) in 808-nm high-power laser diodes (LDs). Using an optical system based on the 1550-nm laser diode illuminant and photodiode, we measured the facet reflectivity, which gives information about the surface morphology of the output facet with a temporal resolution of 2 ns, allowing us to trace the rapid early COD process in a transient, real-time mode. The formation of the detected 4-μm-long COD damaged area, which caused a local uneven surface at the output facet and a rapid drop in facet reflectivity at 1550 nm from 28% to 2%, was completed within 20-30 ns, 10 ns shorter than that in the longer-wavelength devices.

  11. Modelling single shot damage thresholds of multilayer optics for high-intensity short-wavelength radiation sources.

    PubMed

    Loch, R A; Sobierajski, R; Louis, E; Bosgra, J; Bijkerk, F

    2012-12-17

    The single shot damage thresholds of multilayer optics for high-intensity short-wavelength radiation sources are theoretically investigated, using a model developed on the basis of experimental data obtained at the FLASH and LCLS free electron lasers. We compare the radiation hardness of commonly used multilayer optics and propose new material combinations selected for a high damage threshold. Our study demonstrates that the damage thresholds of multilayer optics can vary over a large range of incidence fluences and can be as high as several hundreds of mJ/cm(2). This strongly suggests that multilayer mirrors are serious candidates for damage resistant optics. Especially, multilayer optics based on Li(2)O spacers are very promising for use in current and future short-wavelength radiation sources.

  12. Characterization of surface/subsurface damage for ceramics with nanoindentation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Yumei; Chai, Guozhong; Gu, Shengting

    2010-08-01

    Ceramics are increasingly used in the fields of aerospace, communication, mechanical and modern biomedical engineering. With high hardness, strength and abrasive resistance, the machined ceramic components are most likely to contain surface/subsurface damages, influencing strongly the performance and reliability of ceramic components. Nanoindentation test is an advanced technology in measuring the elastic modulus and hardness of the materials in micro-nano scale based on Oliver-Phar's equation. Nanoindentation has been employed extensively to characterize the mechanical properties of a wide range of materials including ceramics. To characterize the surface/subsurface damage in ceramics, a degraded elastic modulus based damage variable is defined to describe the damage induced property degradation of the materials based on the traditional Kachanov continuum damage mechanics (CDM) framework. A simple characterization method for surface/subsurface damage is realized based on nanoindentation test. The alumina bulk samples are chosen to study the surface/subsurface indentation induced damage by nanoindentaiton. The elastic modulus under various indenting loads is measured with Conical and Berkovich tip. The variation of the elastic modulus and indentation induced damage with load and displacement are analyzed in detail. Experimental results show that the proposed method is feasible and satisfactory.

  13. Wavelength dependence of femtosecond laser-induced damage threshold of optical materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gallais, L. Douti, D.-B.; Commandré, M.; Batavičiūtė, G.; Pupka, E.; Ščiuka, M.; Smalakys, L.; Sirutkaitis, V.; Melninkaitis, A.

    2015-06-14

    An experimental and numerical study of the laser-induced damage of the surface of optical material in the femtosecond regime is presented. The objective of this work is to investigate the different processes involved as a function of the ratio of photon to bandgap energies and compare the results to models based on nonlinear ionization processes. Experimentally, the laser-induced damage threshold of optical materials has been studied in a range of wavelengths from 1030 nm (1.2 eV) to 310 nm (4 eV) with pulse durations of 100 fs with the use of an optical parametric amplifier system. Semi-conductors and dielectrics materials, in bulk or thin film forms, in a range of bandgap from 1 to 10 eV have been tested in order to investigate the scaling of the femtosecond laser damage threshold with the bandgap and photon energy. A model based on the Keldysh photo-ionization theory and the description of impact ionization by a multiple-rate-equation system is used to explain the dependence of laser-breakdown with the photon energy. The calculated damage fluence threshold is found to be consistent with experimental results. From these results, the relative importance of the ionization processes can be derived depending on material properties and irradiation conditions. Moreover, the observed damage morphologies can be described within the framework of the model by taking into account the dynamics of energy deposition with one dimensional propagation simulations in the excited material and thermodynamical considerations.

  14. Bulk optical damage thresholds for doped and undoped, crystalline and ceramic yttrium aluminum garnet.

    PubMed

    Do, Binh T; Smith, Arlee V

    2009-06-20

    We measured the bulk optical damage thresholds of pure and Nd-doped ceramic yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG), and of pure, Nd-doped, Cr-doped, and Yb-doped crystalline YAG. We used 9.9 ns, 1064 nm, single-longitudinal mode, TEM00 pulses, to determine that the breakdown thresholds are deterministic, with multiple-pulse thresholds ranging from 1.1 to 2.2 kJ/cm2.

  15. A study of the optical and radiation damage properties of lead tungstate crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Woody, C.L.; Kierstead, J.A.; Stoll, S.P.; Zhu, R.Y.; Ma, D.A.; Newman, H.B.

    1995-12-31

    Lead tungstate (PbWO{sub 4}) is a new scintillating material which is of great interest for use in high energy electromagnetic calorimeters. It has a very high density, short radiation length and small Moliere radius and has a scintillation light output which peaks between 450--550 nm with a decay time in the range from 5--15 ns. It is presently being considered for use in two large, high resolution electromagnetic calorimeters, one for the CMS experiment and the other for the ALICE experiment, at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. In order to meet the stringent demands of these two experiments, the crystals are required to be of high purity, produced uniform light output, and, in the case of CMS, be resistant to radiation damage up to several megarads. Here, a study has been made of the optical and radiation damage properties of undoped and niobium doped lead tungstate crystals. Data were obtained on the optical absorbance, the intensity and decay time of the scintillation light output, and the radioluminescence and photoluminescence emission spectra. Radiation damage was studied in several undoped and niobium doped samples using {sup 60}Co gamma ray irradiation. The change in optical absorption and observed scintillation light output was measured as a function of dose up to total cumulative doses on the order of 800 krad. The radiation induced phosphorescence and thermoluminescence was also measured, as well as recovery from damage by optical bleaching and thermal annealing. An investigation was also made to determine trace element impurities in several samples.

  16. The Nature of Macular Damage in Glaucoma as Revealed by Averaging Optical Coherence Tomography Data

    PubMed Central

    Hood, Donald C.; Raza, Ali S.; de Moraes, Carlos Gustavo V.; Johnson, Chris A.; Liebmann, Jeffrey M.; Ritch, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To better understand the nature of glaucomatous damage, especially to the macula, the inner retinal thickness maps obtained with frequency domain optical coherence tomography (fdOCT) were averaged. Methods Frequency domain optical coherence tomography macular and optic disc cube scans were obtained from 54 healthy eyes and 156 eyes with glaucomatous optic neuropathy. A manually corrected algorithm was used for layer segmentation. Patients' eyes were grouped both by mean deviation (MD) and hemifield classification using standard categories and 24-2 (6° grid) visual fields (VFs). To obtain average difference maps, the thickness of retinal nerve fiber (RNF) and retinal ganglion cell plus inner plexiform (RGC+) layers were averaged and subtracted from the average control values. Results On the average difference maps, RGC+ and RNF layer thinning was seen in the patient groups with VFs classified as normal. The pattern of the thinning was the same, but the degree of thinning increased with decreased MD and with classification category (from normal to arcuate). This RGC+ thinning was largely within the central four points of the 24-2 (6° grid) field, after correcting for RGC displacement. Conclusion 1. VF categories represent different degrees of the same pattern of RGC+ and RNFL layer thinning. 2. RGC+ damage occurs in the central macula even in patients with VFs classified as normal. 3. The 6° grid (24-2) pattern is not optimally designed to detect macular damage. 4. A schematic model of RGC projections is proposed to explain the pattern of macular loss, including the greater vulnerability of the inferior retinal region. Translational relevance The 24-2 is not an optimal test pattern for detecting or following glaucomatous damage. Further, we suggest clinical fdOCT reports include RGC+ and RNFL probability plots combined with VF information. PMID:23626924

  17. Optical characterization of vocal folds using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüerßen, Kathrin; Lubatschowski, Holger; Radicke, Nicole; Ptok, Martin

    2006-02-01

    The current standard procedure to ensure the diagnosis, if tissue is malignant, is still an invasive one. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a new non-invasive method to investigate biological tissue. In this study OCT was used on porcine and on human vocal folds. The optical penetration depth of the used radiation is up to 2 mm. Three different OCT application systems were used. The first is a high resolution OCT, which works in contact mode. It was used to examine porcine vocal folds ex vivo. Porcine vocal folds were assigned to defined areas and examined by OCT in contact mode followed by traditional histo-morphological analysis. The second OCT is fiber based. It also works in contact mode. Images of human vocal folds were done in contact mode. They were compared with a typical histo-morphological image of a human vocal fold. The third application system works in non contact to the tissue. It was integrated in a conventional laryngoscope. Human vocal folds were examined in vivo. Single layers of the vocal folds could be distinguished from each other with all used systems. Pathological alterations could be seen. Imaging is possible in real time. General anaesthesia is not necessary. OCT makes it possible to get a view under the surface of the vocal fold without being invasive.

  18. Growth behavior of laser-induced damage on fused silica optics under UV, ns laser irradiation.

    PubMed

    Negres, Raluca A; Norton, Mary A; Cross, David A; Carr, Christopher W

    2010-09-13

    The growth behavior of laser-induced damage sites is affected by a large number of laser parameters as well as site morphology. Here we investigate the effects of pulse duration on the growth rate of damage sites located on the exit surface of fused silica optics. Results demonstrate a significant dependence of the growth parameters on laser pulse duration at 351 nm from 1 ns to 15 ns, including the observation of a dominant exponential versus linear, multiple-shot growth behavior for long and short pulses, respectively. These salient behaviors are tied to the damage morphology and suggest a shift in the fundamental growth mechanisms for pulses in the 1-5 ns range.

  19. Collagen remodeling in photo-thermal damaged skin with optical coherence tomography and multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shu-lian; Li, Hui; Zhang, Xiao-man; Yu, Lili

    2009-08-01

    Cutaneous photo-thermal damage is the common damages in clinical medicine; it is a complex and dynamic process that follows an orderly sequence of events. The sequence can be roughly divided into three distinct, yet sequentially overlapping phases-inflammation, granulation tissue formation, and tissue remodeling. Characteristic structural changes associated with each phase could provide a basis for photo-thermal damage assessment with imaging technologies. Monitoring the skin tissue response during the skin after irradiated by laser and tracing the process of skin remodeling would help to understand the mechanism of photo-thermal. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and multiphoton microscopy (MPM) imaging were used to observe the process of the collagen remodeling in mouse dermis photo-thermal injured which after irradiated by intense pulsed light source (IPLs) in this paper. Our finding showed that the OCT and MPM techniques can image the process of collagen remodeling in mouse dermis.

  20. Optical Characterization of Commercial Lithiated Graphite Battery Electrodes and in Situ Fiber Optic Evanescent Wave Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ghannoum, AbdulRahman; Norris, Ryan C; Iyer, Krishna; Zdravkova, Liliana; Yu, Aiping; Nieva, Patricia

    2016-07-27

    Optical characterization of graphite anodes in lithium ion batteries (LIB) is presented here for potential use in estimating their state of charge (SOC). The characterization is based on reflectance spectroscopy of the anode of commercial LIB cells and in situ optical measurements using an embedded optical fiber sensor. The optical characterization of the anode using wavelengths ranging from 500 to 900 nm supports the dominance of graphite over the solid electrolyte interface in governing the anode's reflectance properties. It is demonstrated that lithiated graphite's reflectance has a significant change in the near-infrared band, 750-900 nm, compared with the visible spectrum as a function of SOC. An embedded optical sensor is used to measure the transmittance of graphite anode in the near-infrared band, and the results suggest that a unique inexpensive method may be developed to estimate the SOC of a LIB.

  1. Optical modulation study of repaired damage morphologies of fused silica by scalar diffraction theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bo; Zhou, Qingyan; Jiang, Yong; Xiang, Xia; Liao, Wei; Jiang, Xiaolong; Wang, Haijun; Luan, Xiaoyu; Zheng, Wanguo; Yuan, Xiaodong

    2017-01-01

    The cone and Gaussian repaired damage craters are two typical morphologies induced by CO2 laser evaporation and nonevaporation technologies. The mathematical models are built for these two types of repaired craters, and the light modulation at 355 nm induced by the millimeter-scale repaired damage morphology is studied by scalar diffraction theory. The results show that the modulation of the Gaussian repaired morphology has one peak and then decreases with the increasing distance from 0 to 30 cm. While the modulation for cone repaired morphology remains stable after decreasing quickly with the increasing distance. When the horizontal radius increases, the modulation looks like a saw-tooth. However, the modulation has irregular variations for two kinds of morphologies with the increasing vertical depth. The simulated results agree well with experimental results. The horizontal and vertical dimensions, and downstream distance have different influences on the modulation. The risk of damage to downstream optical components can be suppressed to improve the stability of the optical system if the shape and size of repaired craters are well controlled and the positions of downstream optical components are selected appropriately.

  2. Quantitative characterization of aberrations in x-ray optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiboth, Frank; Kahnt, Maik; Scholz, Maria; Seyrich, Martin; Wittwer, Felix; Garrevoet, Jan; Falkenberg, Gerald; Schropp, Andreas; Schroer, Christian G.

    2016-09-01

    Due to the weak interaction of X-rays with matter and their small wavelength on the atomic scale, stringent requirements are put on X-ray optics manufacturing and metrology. As a result, these optics often suffer from aberrations. Until now, X-ray optics were mainly characterized by their focal spot size and efficiency. How- ever, both measures provide only insufficient information about optics quality. Here, we present a quantitative analysis of residual aberrations in current beryllium compound refractive lenses using ptychography followed by a determination of the wavefront error and subsequent Zernike polynomial decomposition. Known from visible light optics, we show that these measures can provide an adequate tool to determine and compare the quality of various X-ray optics.

  3. Characterization of corrosion damage in prestressed concrete using acoustic emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangual, Jesé; ElBatanouny, Mohamed K.; Vélez, William; Ziehl, Paul; Matta, Fabio; González, Miguel

    2012-04-01

    The corrosion of reinforced concrete structures is a major issue from both a structural safety and maintenance management point of view. Early detection of the internal degradation process provides the owner with sufficient options to develop a plan of action. An accelerated corrosion test was conducted in a small scale concrete specimen reinforced with a 0.5 inch (13 mm) diameter prestressing strand to investigate the correlation between corrosion rate and acoustic emission (AE). Corrosion was accelerated in the laboratory by supplying anodic current via a rectifier while continuously monitoring acoustic emission activity. Results were correlated with traditional electrochemical techniques such as half-cell potential and linear polarization. The location of the active corrosion activity was found through a location algorithm based on time of flight of the stress waves. Intensity analysis was used to plot the relative significance of the damage states present in the specimen and a preliminary grading chart is presented. Results indicate that AE may be a useful non-intrusive technique for the detection and quantification of corrosion damage.

  4. Characterization of swift heavy ion irradiation damage in ceria

    DOE PAGES

    Yablinsky, Clarissa A.; Devanathan, Ram; Pakarinen, Janne; ...

    2015-03-04

    Swift heavy ion induced radiation damage is investigated for ceria (CeO2), which serves as a UO2 fuel surrogate. Microstructural changes resulting from an irradiation with 940 MeV gold ions of 42 keV/nm electronic energy loss are investigated by means of electron microscopy accompanied by electron energy loss spectroscopy showing that there exists a small density reduction in the ion track core. While chemical changes in the ion track are not precluded, evidence of them was not observed. Classical molecular dynamics simulations of thermal spikes in CeO2 with an energy deposition of 12 and 36 keV/nm show damage consisting of isolatedmore » point defects at 12 keV/nm, and defect clusters at 36 keV/nm, with no amorphization at either energy. Furthermore, inferences are drawn from modeling about density changes in the ion track and the formation of interstitial loops that shed light on features observed by electron microscopy of swift heavy ion irradiated ceria.« less

  5. Characterization of swift heavy ion irradiation damage in ceria

    SciTech Connect

    Yablinsky, Clarissa A.; Devanathan, Ram; Pakarinen, Janne; Gan, Jian; Severin, Daniel; Trautmann, Christina; Allen, Todd R.

    2015-03-04

    Swift heavy ion induced radiation damage is investigated for ceria (CeO2), which serves as a UO2 fuel surrogate. Microstructural changes resulting from an irradiation with 940 MeV gold ions of 42 keV/nm electronic energy loss are investigated by means of electron microscopy accompanied by electron energy loss spectroscopy showing that there exists a small density reduction in the ion track core. While chemical changes in the ion track are not precluded, evidence of them was not observed. Classical molecular dynamics simulations of thermal spikes in CeO2 with an energy deposition of 12 and 36 keV/nm show damage consisting of isolated point defects at 12 keV/nm, and defect clusters at 36 keV/nm, with no amorphization at either energy. Furthermore, inferences are drawn from modeling about density changes in the ion track and the formation of interstitial loops that shed light on features observed by electron microscopy of swift heavy ion irradiated ceria.

  6. Characterization of Damage in Triaxial Braid Composites Under Tensile Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littell, Justin D.; Binienda, Wieslaw K.; Roberts, Gary D.; Goldberg, Robert K.

    2009-01-01

    Carbon fiber composites utilizing flattened, large tow yarns in woven or braided forms are being used in many aerospace applications. Their complex fiber architecture and large unit cell size present challenges in both understanding deformation processes and measuring reliable material properties. This report examines composites made using flattened 12k and 24k standard modulus carbon fiber yarns in a 0 /+60 /-60 triaxial braid architecture. Standard straight-sided tensile coupons are tested with the 0 axial braid fibers either parallel with or perpendicular to the applied tensile load (axial or transverse tensile test, respectively). Nonuniform surface strain resulting from the triaxial braid architecture is examined using photogrammetry. Local regions of high strain concentration are examined to identify where failure initiates and to determine the local strain at the time of initiation. Splitting within fiber bundles is the first failure mode observed at low to intermediate strains. For axial tensile tests splitting is primarily in the 60 bias fibers, which were oriented 60 to the applied load. At higher strains, out-of-plane deformation associated with localized delamination between fiber bundles or damage within fiber bundles is observed. For transverse tensile tests, the splitting is primarily in the 0 axial fibers, which were oriented transverse to the applied load. The initiation and accumulation of local damage causes the global transverse stress-strain curves to become nonlinear and causes failure to occur at a reduced ultimate strain. Extensive delamination at the specimen edges is also observed.

  7. Characterization of swift heavy ion irradiation damage in ceria

    SciTech Connect

    Yablinsky, Clarissa A.; Devanathan, Ram; Pakarinen, Janne; Gan, Jian; Severin, Daniel; Trautmann, Christina; Allen, Todd R.

    2015-03-04

    Swift heavy ion induced radiation damage is investigated for ceria (CeO2), which serves as a UO2 fuel surrogate. Microstructural changes resulting from an irradiation with 940 MeV gold ions of 42 keV/nm electronic energy loss are investigated by means of electron microscopy accompanied by electron energy loss spectroscopy showing that there exists a small density reduction in the ion track core. While chemical changes in the ion track are not precluded, evidence of them was not observed. Classical molecular dynamics simulations of thermal spikes in CeO2 with an energy deposition of 12 and 36 keV/nm show damage consisting of isolated point defects at 12 keV/nm, and defect clusters at 36 keV/nm, with no amorphization at either energy. Inferences are drawn from modeling about density changes in the ion track and the formation of interstitial loops that shed light on features observed by electron microscopy of swift heavy ion irradiated ceria.

  8. Sub-surface damage issues for effective fabrication of large optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonnellier, X.; Shore, P.; Morantz, P.; Baldwin, A.; Walker, D.; Yu, G.; Evans, R.

    2008-07-01

    A new ultra precision large optics grinding machine, BoX® has been developed at Cranfield University. BoX® is located at the UK's Ultra Precision Surfaces laboratory at the OpTIC Technium. This machine offers a rapid and economic solution for grinding large off-axis aspherical and free-form optical components. This paper presents an analysis of subsurface damage assessments of optical ground materials produced using diamond resin bonded grinding wheels. The specific materials used, Zerodur® and ULE® are currently under study for making extremely large telescope (ELT) segmented mirrors such as in the E-ELT project. The grinding experiments have been conducted on the BoX® grinding machine using wheels with grits sizes of 76 μm, 46 μm and 25 μm. Grinding process data was collected using a Kistler dynamometer platform. The highest material removal rate (187.5 mm3/s) used ensures that a 1 metre diameter optic can be ground in less than 10 hours. The surface roughness and surface profile were measured using a Form Talysurf. The subsurface damage was revealed using a sub aperture polishing process in combination with an etching technique. These results are compared with the targeted form accuracy of 1 μm p-v over a 1 metre part, surface roughness of 50-150 nm RMS and subsurface damage in the range of 2-5 μm. This process stage was validated on a 400 mm ULE® blank and a 1 metre hexagonal Zerodur® part.

  9. Assessment of retinal ganglion cell damage in glaucomatous optic neuropathy: Axon transport, injury and soma loss.

    PubMed

    Nuschke, Andrea C; Farrell, Spring R; Levesque, Julie M; Chauhan, Balwantray C

    2015-12-01

    Glaucoma is a disease characterized by progressive axonal pathology and death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), which causes structural changes in the optic nerve head and irreversible vision loss. Several experimental models of glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON) have been developed, primarily in non-human primates and, more recently and commonly, in rodents. These models provide important research tools to study the mechanisms underlying glaucomatous damage. Moreover, experimental GON provides the ability to quantify and monitor risk factors leading to RGC loss such as the level of intraocular pressure, axonal health and the RGC population. Using these experimental models we are able to gain a better understanding of GON, which allows for the development of potential neuroprotective strategies. Here we review the advantages and disadvantages of the relevant and most often utilized methods for evaluating axonal degeneration and RGC loss in GON. Axonal pathology in GON includes functional disruption of axonal transport (AT) and structural degeneration. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP), rhodamine-B-isothiocyanate (RITC) and cholera toxin-B (CTB) fluorescent conjugates have proven to be effective reporters of AT. Also, immunohistochemistry (IHC) for endogenous AT-associated proteins is often used as an indicator of AT function. Similarly, structural degeneration of axons in GON can be investigated via changes in the activity and expression of key axonal enzymes and structural proteins. Assessment of axonal degeneration can be measured by direct quantification of axons, qualitative grading, or a combination of both methods. RGC loss is the most frequently quantified variable in studies of experimental GON. Retrograde tracers can be used to quantify RGC populations in rodents via application to the superior colliculus (SC). In addition, in situ IHC for RGC-specific proteins is a common method of RGC quantification used in many studies. Recently, transgenic mouse models

  10. Characterization of crosslinked electro-optic polyimides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinhardt, Michael B.; Cahill, Paul A.; Seager, Carl H.; Beuhler, Allyson J.; Wargowski, David A.; Singer, Kenneth D.; Kowalczyk, Tony C.; Kosc, Tanya Z.; Ermer, Susan P.

    1994-05-01

    The electro-optical properties of UltradelR 9000D polyimides doped with DCM and DADC, a bis(carbazole) analog of DCM with improved thermal stability, are reported. Cure temperatures were restricted to 240 degree(s)C or less to minimize potential thermal degradation of these dyes. Low poling fields of 30 V/micrometers were used in these experiments and yielded r13 coefficients in the 0.1 - 0.8 pm/V range. Photothermal deflection measurements of dye-doped Ultradel 9000D samples showed low optical absorption losses in systems cured at 175 degree(s)C, but losses exceeded 20 dB/cm in samples cured at 300 degree(s)C.

  11. (Optical characterization techniques applied to ceramic oxides)

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, M.M.

    1990-10-15

    The traveler collaborated with M.J.M. Leask, J.M. Baker, B. Bleaney, and others at the Clarendon Laboratory, Oxford University, Oxford, UK, to Study Tetragonal rare-earth phosphates and vanadates by optical and magnetic spectroscopy. This work is related to similar studies that have been performed at ORNL by the Synthesis and Properties of Novel Materials Group in the Solid State Division.

  12. Development of a multi-frequency diffuse photon density wave device for the characterization of tissue damage at multiple depths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, David; Weingarten, Michael S.; Neidrauer, Michael T.; Samuels, Joshua A.; Huneke, Richard B.; Kuzmin, Vladimir L.; Lewin, Peter A.; Zubkov, Leonid A.

    2014-02-01

    The ability to determine the depth and degree of cutaneous and subcutaneous tissue damage is critical for medical applications such as burns and pressure ulcers. The Diffuse Photon Density Wave (DPDW) methodology at near infrared wavelengths can be used to non-invasively measure the optical absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of tissue at depths of several millimeters. A multi-frequency DPDW system with one light source and one detector was constructed so that light is focused onto the tissue surface using an optical fiber and lens mounted to a digitally-controlled actuator which changes the distance between light source and detector. A variable RF generator enables the modulation frequency to be selected between 50 to 400MHz. The ability to digitally control both source-detector separation distance and modulation frequency allows for virtually unlimited number of data points, enabling precise selection of the volume and depth of tissue that will be characterized. Suspensions of Intralipid and india ink with known absorption and reduced scattering coefficients were used as optical phantoms to assess device accuracy. Solid silicon phantoms were formulated for stability testing. Standard deviations for amplitude and phase shift readings were found to be 0.9% and 0.2 degrees respectively, over a one hour period. The ability of the system to quantify tissue damage in vivo at multiple depths was tested in a porcine burn model.

  13. Earthquake Damage Assessment over Port-au-Prince (Haiti) by Fusing Optical and SAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaniello, V.; Piscini, A.; Bignami, C.; Anniballe, R.; Pierdicca, N.; Stramondo, S.

    2016-08-01

    This work proposes methodologies aiming at evaluating the sensitivity of optical and SAR change features obtained from satellite images with respect to the damage grade. The proposed methods are derived from the literature ([1], [2], [3], [4]) and the main novelty concerns the estimation of these change features at object scale.The test case is the Mw 7.0 earthquake that hit Haiti on January 12, 2010.The analysis of change detection indicators is based on ground truth information collected during a post- earthquake survey. We have generated the damage map of Port-au-Prince by considering a set of polygons extracted from the open source Open Street Map geo- database. The resulting damage map was calculated in terms of collapse ratio [5].We selected some features having a good sensitivity with damage at object scale [6]: the Normalised Difference Index, the Kullback-Libler Divergence, the Mutual Information and the Intensity Correlation Difference.The Naive Bayes and the Support Vector Machine classifiers were used to evaluate the goodness of these features. The classification results demonstrate that the simultaneous use of several change features from EO observations can improve the damage estimation at object scale.

  14. Few-cycle pulse laser induced damage threshold determination of ultra-broadband optics.

    PubMed

    Kafka, Kyle R P; Talisa, Noah; Tempea, Gabriel; Austin, Drake R; Neacsu, Catalin; Chowdhury, Enam A

    2016-12-12

    A systematic study of few-cycle pulse laser induced damage threshold (LIDT) determination was performed for commercially-available ultra-broadband optics, (i.e. chirped mirrors, silver mirrors, beamsplitters, etc.) in vacuum and in air, for single and multi-pulse regime (S-on-1). Multi-pulse damage morphology at fluences below the single-pulse LIDT was studied in order to investigate the mechanisms leading to the onset of damage. Stark morphological contrast was observed between multi-pulse damage sites formed in air versus those in vacuum. One effect of vacuum testing compared to air included suppression of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) formation, possibly influenced by a reduced presence of damage debris. Another effect of vacuum was occasional lowering of LIDT, which appears to be due to the stress-strain performance of the coating design during laser irradiation and under the external stress of vacuum ambience. A fused silica substrate is also examined, and a non-LIPSS nanostructuring is observed on the surface. Possible mechanisms are discussed.

  15. Laser-induced damage thresholds of optical coatings at different temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikami, K.; Motokoshi, S.; Fujita, M.; Jitsuno, T.; Tanaka, K. A.

    2011-12-01

    Laser-induced damage thresholds for dielectric and metal single-layer coatings at different temperature conditions (123-473 K) were measured by 1064-nm wavelength and 4-ns pulses to elucidate the effects of initial temperature to laser damage mechanisms. SiO2, MgF2, gold, silver and copper single-layer coatings were prepared as experimental samples. In the experimental results, temperature dependence of LIDTs for optical substrates and all dielectric single-layer coatings indicated same trend as that for bulk silica glasses, which increased linearly with decreasing the temperature. However, all metallic coatings had the inverse trend of the dependence for dielectric coatings. The effects of initial temperature to laser damage mechanisms were considered with separated processes from the experimental results. In the conclusions, free-electron generation and electron multiple caused difficultly at low temperature and the laser-induced damage thresholds increased. On the other hand, plasma heating caused easily at low temperature and the laser-damage thresholds decreased.

  16. Scintillating glass fiber neutron sensors: 1, Production and optical characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Abel, K.H.; Arthur, R.J.; Bliss, M.

    1993-10-01

    The production and optical characterization of cerium-doped lithium silicate scintillating fibers used as thermal neutron detectors are discussed. The bulk glass continuing enriched {sup 6}Li is produced starting from high-purity commercial materials which are further purified at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The fibers are drawn at PNL in a hot down-draw process. The fibers are coated with a silicone polymer that serves as both an optical cladding and a physical buffer coat. Optical characterization has included measurements of light output as a function of glass composition, optical attenuation lengths, and fluorescence lifetimes. Fibers have been prepared in our laboratory with as-drawn attenuation lengths (l/e distance) in excess of 2 meters over sub-meter distances.

  17. Indoor characterization of reflective concentrator optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, Tobias; Frick, Manuel; Hornung, Thorsten; Nitz, Peter

    2013-09-01

    We report about the indoor characterization of small point focusing mirrors at Fraunhofer ISE. The goal is to determine the mean slope error of the concentrator. This is achieved by measuring the concentration distribution in the focal plane of such a mirror. We modified and expanded a test site which is used for Fresnel lens characterization [1]. A modified version of the method presented in [2] is employed to measure the concentration distribution. By comparing ray tracing simulation results of the ideal mirror to the measurement, the mean slope error can be deduced.

  18. Dielectric Characterization of a Nonlinear Optical Material

    PubMed Central

    Lunkenheimer, P.; Krohns, S.; Gemander, F.; Schmahl, W. W.; Loidl, A.

    2014-01-01

    Batisite was reported to be a nonlinear optical material showing second harmonic generation. Using dielectric spectroscopy and polarization measurements, we provide a thorough investigation of the dielectric and charge-transport properties of this material. Batisite shows the typical characteristics of a linear lossy dielectric. No evidence for ferro- or antiferroelectric polarization is found. As the second-harmonic generation observed in batisite points to a non-centrosymmetric structure, this material is piezoelectric, but most likely not ferroelectric. In addition, we found evidence for hopping charge transport of localized charge carriers and a relaxational process at low temperatures. PMID:25109553

  19. Multi-Pulse Effects in the Damage to the LCLS Reflective Optics

    SciTech Connect

    Ryutov, D

    2004-07-29

    A number of experiments to be performed on the planned Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) will have to use various types of reflective optics (see, e.g., [1]). On the other hand, LCLS will operate at a rate of 120 x-ray pulses per second. Therefore, when considering effects leading to the damage to its optics, one has to be concerned not only with a possible damage within one pulse, but also with effects accumulating during many pulses. We identify and analyze two of such effects: a thermal fatigue, and the intensity-dependent radiation damage. The first effect is associated with thermal stresses and deformations that occur in every pulse. The heating of the surface layers of the optics leads to a peculiar distribution of stresses, with a strong concentration near the surface. The quasistatic analysis of this problem was presented in [2]. In the present study, we show that transients in both transverse and longitudinal acoustic perturbations play a significant role and generally worsen the situation. If the maximum stresses approach the yield strength, the thermal fatigue causes degradation of the surface within a few thousands pulses. The second effect is related to formation of clusters of ionized atoms which lead to gross deformation of the lattice and formation of numerous vacancies and interstitials. At maximum LCLS fluxes, the number of displacements per atom may reach values exceeding unity during a few hours of operation of LCLS, meaning degradation of reflective properties of the surface of the optics. We derive constraints on the admissible fluence per pulse and suggest ways for decreasing the impact of the multipulse effects.

  20. Fabrication and Characterization of Nano-Optic Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-01

    FINAL 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS FABRICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NANO -OPTIC DEVICES 6. AUTHOR(S) PROFESSOR SCHERER 7. PERFORMING...has to be pumped to overcome lasing threshold. This compares to thousands of modes which have to be pumped in conventional semiconductor lasers in...lasers, advances in high speed lasers and detectors, low power micro -optical interconnects, and high efficiency LEDs for illumination and display

  1. Optical fiber sensors for materials and structures characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindner, D. K.; Claus, R. O.

    1991-01-01

    The final technical report on Optical Fiber Sensors for Materials and Structures Characterization, covering the period August 1990 through August 1991 is presented. Research programs in the following technical areas are described; sapphire optical fiber sensors; vibration analysis using two-mode elliptical core fibers and sensors; extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer development; and coatings for fluorescent-based sensor. Research progress in each of these areas was substantial, as evidenced by the technical publications which are included as appendices.

  2. Damage investigation on tungsten and diamond diffractive optics at a hard x-ray free-electron laser.

    PubMed

    Uhlén, Fredrik; Nilsson, Daniel; Holmberg, Anders; Hertz, Hans M; Schroer, Christian G; Seiboth, Frank; Patommel, Jens; Meier, Vivienne; Hoppe, Robert; Schropp, Andreas; Lee, Hae Ja; Nagler, Bob; Galtier, Eric; Krzywinski, Jacek; Sinn, Harald; Vogt, Ulrich

    2013-04-08

    Focusing hard x-ray free-electron laser radiation with extremely high fluence sets stringent demands on the x-ray optics. Any material placed in an intense x-ray beam is at risk of being damaged. Therefore, it is crucial to find the damage thresholds for focusing optics. In this paper we report experimental results of exposing tungsten and diamond diffractive optics to a prefocused 8.2 keV free-electron laser beam in order to find damage threshold fluence levels. Tungsten nanostructures were damaged at fluence levels above 500 mJ/cm(2). The damage was of mechanical character, caused by thermal stress variations. Diamond nanostructures were affected at a fluence of 59 000 mJ/cm(2). For fluence levels above this, a significant graphitization process was initiated. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and µ-Raman analysis were used to analyze exposed nanostructures.

  3. Characterization of swift heavy ion irradiation damage in ceria

    SciTech Connect

    Yablinsky, Clarissa; Devanathan, Ram; Pakarinen, Janne; Gan, Jian; Severin, Daniel; Trautmann, Christina; Allen, T. R.

    2015-05-14

    We have examined microstructural evolution in irradiated ceria (CeO2) using swift heavy ion irradiation, electron microscopy, and atomistic simulation. CeO2, a UO2 fuel surrogate, was irradiated with gold ions at an energy of 1 GeV to fluences up to 1x1014 ions/cm2. Transmission electron microscopy accompanied by electron energy loss spectroscopy showed that the ion tracks were of similar size at all fluences, and that there was no chemical change in the ion track core. Classical molecular dynamics simulations of thermal spikes in CeO2 with energy deposition of 12 and 36 keV/nm show damage consisting of isolated point defects at the lower energy and defect clusters at 36 keV/nm, with no amorphization at either energy. Inferences are drawn from modeling about density changes in the ion track and the formation of interstitial loops that shed light on features observed by electron microscopy of swift heavy ion irradiated ceria.

  4. Near field optical characterization of explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNesby, Kevin L.; Homan, Barrie E.; Benjamin, Richard A.; Boyle, Vincent M.; Biss, Matthew M.; Densmore, John M.

    2017-01-01

    Techniques and instrumentation allow for simultaneous, real-time mapping of temperature, pressure, chemical species and energy deposition during and following explosions. This work provides quantitative, simultaneous measurement in the explosive near and far-field (0-500 charge diameters) of surface temperatures, peak air-shock pressures, chemical species signatures and shock energy deposition that characterize explosions.

  5. Optical Metamaterials: Design, Characterization and Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaturvedi, Pratik

    2009-01-01

    Artificially engineered metamaterials have emerged with properties and functionalities previously unattainable in natural materials. The scientific breakthroughs made in this new class of electromagnetic materials are closely linked with progress in developing physics-driven design, novel fabrication and characterization methods. The intricate…

  6. Optical Metamaterials: Design, Characterization and Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaturvedi, Pratik

    2009-01-01

    Artificially engineered metamaterials have emerged with properties and functionalities previously unattainable in natural materials. The scientific breakthroughs made in this new class of electromagnetic materials are closely linked with progress in developing physics-driven design, novel fabrication and characterization methods. The intricate…

  7. Optical Characterization of Natural Nontoxic Nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Devulapalli; Yelleswarapu, Chandra

    2013-03-01

    Synthetic nanomaterials - carbon nanotubes, semiconductor nanoparticles, nanowires and nanorods, metal clusters in polymer films - are extensively studied for potential photonic applications. Naturally occurring halloysite nanotubes offer additional advantages of high tensile strength, nontoxcity and biocompatibility. Halloysite is receiving lot of attention for application as low cost nanoscale container for encapsulation of biologically active molecules, drugs, and anticorrosion agents. We studied the optical properties of halloysite nanotube samples of length ~1000 nm with 50 nm external diameter and 15 nm internal diameter. The hollysite sample was provided by Prof. Yuri Lvov, Institute for Micromanufacturing, Louisiana Tech. The sample suspended in water at a concentration 2.5 mg/ml exhibits a broad optical absorption band in the visible region with a peak ~600 nm. Z-scan studies are carried out, with 3 nsec laser pulses of frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser, using 1 mm glass cell containing the sample suspended in acetone at a concentration 0.66 mg/ml. Open aperture z-scan measurements indicate two-photon absorption. Closed aperture z-scan measurements exhibit a positive nonlinear refractive index. Results of photoacoustic z-scan currently in progress will also be presented.

  8. Visible luminescent Si nanocrystals: optical characterization and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svechnikov, Sergey V.; Kaganovich, E. B.

    1998-04-01

    Following the recent study on optical characterization and applications of porous silicon, this report provides a review of our research and development of visible luminescent Si nanocrystals with goal to extend functions of Si based materials. We present laser methods for obtaining porous silicon layers and silicon nanocrystalline composite films. Time resolve photoluminescence and optical properties are discussed. The report provides the results of films microstructure control by optical method. We present several examples of multilayers structures applications: lateral coordinate sensitive photovoltaic devices, new irreversible storage media for pulse recording, diffraction gratings, and cold cathode electron emitters.

  9. Optical characterization of the PALM-3000 3388-actuator deformable mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Jennifer; Bouchez, Antonin H.; Burruss, Rick S.; Dekany, Richard G.; Guiwits, Stephen R.; Troy, Mitchell

    2010-07-01

    We describe the lab characterization of the new 3,388-actuator deformable mirror (DM3388) produced by Xinetics, Inc. for the PALM-3000 adaptive optics (AO) system1 under development by Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Caltech Optical Observatories. This square grid 66-by-66 actuator mirror has the largest number of actuators of any deformable mirror currently available and will enable high-contrast imaging for direct exoplanet imaging science at the Palomar 200" diameter Hale Telescope. We present optical measurements of the powered and unpowered mirror surface, influence functions, linearity of the actuators, and creep of the actuators. We also quantify the effect of changes in humidity.

  10. Characterization of transimpedance amplifier as optical to electrical converter on designing optical instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanto, D.; Ula, R. K.

    2017-05-01

    Optical to electrical converter is the main components for designing of the optical instrumentations. In addition, this component is also used as signal conditioning. This component usually consists of a photo detector and amplifier. In this paper, characteristics of commercial amplifiers from Thorlabs PDA50B-EC has been observed. The experiment was conducted by diode laser with power of -5 dBm and wavelength 1310 nm; the optical attenuator to vary optical power from 0 to 60 dB, optical to electrical converter from Thorlabs Amplifier PDA50B-EC; multimode optical fiber to guide the laser; and digital voltmeter to measure the output of converter. The results of the characterization indicate that each channel amplification has a non-linear correlation between optical and electrical parameter; optical conversion measurement range of 20-23 dB to full scale; and different measurement coverage area. If this converter will be used as a part component of optical instrumentation so it should be adjusted suitably with the optical power source. Then, because of the correlation equation is not linear so calculation to determine the interpretation also should be considered in addition to the transfer function of the optical sensor.

  11. Damage resistant optics for a mega-joule solid-state laser

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.H.; Rainer, F.; Kozlowski, M.; Wolfe, C.R.; Thomas, I.; Milanovich, F.

    1990-12-17

    Research on Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) has progressed rapidly in the past several years. As a consequence, LLNL is developing plans to upgrade the current 120 kJ solid state (Nd{sup +3}-phosphate glass) Nova laser to a 1.5 to 2 megajoule system with the goal of achieving fusion ignition. The design of the planned Nova Upgrade is briefly discussed. Because of recent improvements in the damage resistance of optical materials it is now technically and economically feasible to build a megajoule-class solid state laser. Specifically, the damage threshold of Nd{sup +3}-doped phosphate laser glass, multilayer dielectric coatings, and non-linear optical crystals (e.g., KDP) have been dramatically improved. These materials now meet the fluence requirements for a 1.5--2 MJ Nd{sup 3+}-glass laser operating at 1054 and 351 nm and at a pulse length of 3 ns. The recent improvements in damage thresholds are reviewed; threshold data at both 1064 and 355 nm and the measured pulse length scaling are presented. 20 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Damage resistant optics for a mega-joule solid-state laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, J. H.; Rainer, F.; Kozlowski, M. R.; Wolfe, C. R.; Thomas, I.; Milanovich, F.

    1990-12-01

    Research on Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) has progressed rapidly in the past several years. As a consequence, LLNL is developing plans to upgrade the current 120 kJ solid state (Nd3+ phosphate glass) Nova laser to a 1.5 to 2 megajoule system with the goal of achieving fusion ignition. The design of the planned Nova Upgrade is briefly discussed. Because of recent improvements in the damage resistance of optical materials it is now technically and economically feasible to build a megajoule-class solid state laser. Specifically, the damage threshold of Nd(+3)-doped phosphate laser glass, multilayer dielectric coatings, and non-linear optical crystals (e.g., KDP) have been dramatically improved. These materials now meet the fluence requirements for a 1.5 to 2 MJ Nd(+3)-glass laser operating at 1054 and 351 nm and at a pulse length of 3 ns. The recent improvements in damage thresholds are reviewed; threshold data at both 1064 and 355 nm and the measured pulse length scaling are presented.

  13. Optimization of radiation damage to proteins using X-ray nanofocusing optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boularaoui, Selwa; Evans-Lutterodt, K.; Lee, S.; Isakovic, A. F.

    2013-03-01

    The need to understand protein structure and perform treatment lead to the use of X-ray and particle-based radiation. Since the use of such radiation has undesirable side effects, mostly through the damage to proteins, it is important to continuously work on decreasing radiation damage. We outline the proposal to use the kinoform refractive optics to focus X-rays on the nanoscale to minimize the radiation damage to protein crystals under study. These optics devices are nanofabricated from low-Z elements (silicon, diamond) and can be used at synchrotron X-ray radiation facilities. We discuss the automated setup that performs nanopositioning of the nanofocusing element, and collects the chemical and structural protein solution under study. We offer simple mathematical models in irradiation and in treatment that help optimize the radiation parameters. This work is supported in part by Khalifa University IRF-Level 1 Fund. The work at BNL-NSLS is supported through US DOE, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  14. Improving Beamline X-ray Optics by Analyzing the Damage to Crystallographic Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Zientek, John J.; Maj, Jozef; Navrotski, Gary; Srajer, George; Harmata, Charles M.; Maj, Lech; Lazarski, Krystofer; mikula, Stanislaw

    2015-01-01

    The mission of the X-ray Characterization Laboratory in the X-ray Science Division (XSD) at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) is to support both the users and the Optics Fabrication Facility that produces high performance optics for synchrotron X-ray beamlines. The Topography Test Unit (TTU) in the X-ray Lab has been successfully used to characterize diffracting crystals and test monochromators by quantifying residual surface stresses. This topographic method has also been adapted for testing standard X-ray mirrors, characterizing concave crystal optics and in principle, can be used to visualize residual stresses on any optic made from single crystalline material. The TTU has been instrumental in quantitatively determining crystal mounting stresses which are mechanically induced by positioning, holding, and cooling fixtures. It is this quantitative aspect that makes topography so useful since the requirements and responses for crystal optics and X-ray mirrors are quite different. In the case of monochromator crystals, even small residual or induced stresses, on the order of tens of kPa, can cause detrimental distortions to the perfect crystal rocking curves. Mirrors, on the other hand, are much less sensitive to induced stresses where stresses that are an order of magnitude greater can be tolerated. This is due to the fact that the surface rather than the lattice-spacing determines a mirror’s performance. For the highly sensitive crystal optics, it is essential to measure the in-situ rocking curves using topographs as mounting fixtures are adjusted. In this way, high heat-load monochromator crystals can be successfully mounted with minimum stress. Topographical analysis has been shown to be a highly effective method to visualize and quantify the distribution of stresses, to help identify methods that mitigate stresses, and most notably to improve diffractive crystal optic rocking curves.

  15. Low-velocity impact damage characterization of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) using infrared thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yin; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Zheng-wei; Zhang, Jin-yu; Tao, Sheng-jie

    2016-05-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) after low-velocity impact is detected using infrared thermography, and different damages in the impacted composites are analyzed in the thermal maps. The thermal conductivity under pulse stimulation, frictional heating and thermal conductivity under ultrasonic stimulation of CFRP containing low-velocity impact damage are simulated using numerical simulation method. Then, the specimens successively exposed to the low-velocity impact are respectively detected using the pulse infrared thermography and ultrasonic infrared thermography. Through the numerical simulation and experimental investigation, the results obtained show that the combination of the above two detection methods can greatly improve the capability for detecting and evaluating the impact damage in CFRP. Different damages correspond to different infrared thermal images. The delamination damage, matrix cracking and fiber breakage are characterized as the block-shape hot spot, line-shape hot spot, and

  16. Failure Analysis Study and Long-Term Reliability of Optical Assemblies with End-Face Damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kichak, Robert A.; Ott, Melanie N.; Leidecker, Henning W.; Chuska, Richard F.; Greenwell, Christopher J.

    2008-01-01

    In June 2005, the NESC received a multi-faceted request to determine the long term reliability of fiber optic termini on the ISS that exhibited flaws not manufactured to best workmanship practices. There was a lack of data related to fiber optic workmanship as it affects the long term reliability of optical fiber assemblies in a harsh environment. A fiber optic defect analysis was requested which would find and/or create various types of chips, spalls, scratches, etc., that were identified by the ISS personnel. Once the defects and causes were identified the next step would be to perform long term reliability testing of similar assemblies with similar defects. The goal of the defect analysis would be for the defects to be observed and documented for deterioration of fiber optic performance. Though this report mostly discusses what has been determined as evidence of poor manufacturing processes, it also concludes the majority of the damage could have been avoided with a rigorous process in place.

  17. Nonlinear optical characterization of Disperse Orange 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derkowska-Zielinska, Beata; Fedus, Kamil; Wang, Hongzhen; Cassagne, Christophe; Boudebs, Georges

    2017-10-01

    The nonlinear optical responses of Disperse Orange 3 (DO3) dissolved in tetrahydrofuran (THF) with different concentrations were investigated by Z-scan D4σ technique employing 12 ps and 17 ps pulses of Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm and 1064 nm, respectively. The comparison of the experimental results at both wavelengths demonstrates the strong influence of the resonant phenomena related to the linear absorption on the nonlinear response at 532 nm. In particular, DO3 solution was found to exhibit negative resonant nonlinear refraction with negligible saturable and multi-photon absorption. Moreover, the competition between negative and positive nonlinear refractive indices (n2) of the solute and the solvent was observed at low concentrations. The linear dependence of n2 on the latter quantity allowed to estimate an effective second-order hyperpolarizability of DO3 molecule at 532 nm.

  18. Detection and characterization of impact damage in composite panels using multiple ultrasonic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Westin B.; Michaels, Thomas E.; Michaels, Jennifer E.

    2015-03-01

    Abrupt impacts to solid laminate composite panels often produce internal damage that is not visible on the impacted surface. It is important that such damage be promptly detected since it can compromise the strength of composite structures. Ultrasonic C-scan imaging has been extensively used to detect and characterize impact damage using both pulse-echo and through-transmission methods. More recently developed guided wave imaging methods, such as sparse array imaging with baseline subtraction and wavefield imaging, have also been used to successfully detect damage in composite panels; however, their performance is generally not comparable to that achieved with bulk wave C-scans. For this study, various force impacts were used to create defect conditions ranging from barely detectable damage to extensive damage that was visible on the impact surface. Guided wave signals were recorded from an attached sparse transducer array before and after the impacts, and panels were scanned using both conventional ultrasonic C-scan methods and acoustic wavefield imaging. For each method, imaging results are presented and compared in terms of their ability to locate and characterize impact damage.

  19. The influence of neutron radiation damage on the optical properties of plastic scintillator UPS 923A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mthembu, Skhathisomusa; Davydov, Yuri; Baranov, Vladimir; Mellado Garcia, Bruce; Mdhluli, Joyful; Sideras-Haddad, Elias

    2017-09-01

    Plastic scintillators are vital in the reconstruction of hadronic particle energy and tracks resulting from the collision of high energy particles in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. These plastic scintillators are exposed to harsh radiation environments and are susceptible to radiation damage. The effects of radiation damage on the transmittance, luminescence and light yield of Ukraine polystyrene-based scintillator UPS 923A were studied. Samples were irradiated with fast neutrons, of varying energies and fluences, using the IBR-2 reactor FLNP (Frank Laboratory for Nuclear Problems) at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. Results show a small change in the transmittance of the higher energy visible spectrum, and a noticeable change in the light yield of the samples as a result of the damage. There is no change observed on the luminescence as a result of radiation damage at studied fluences. The doses and uences of the neutrons shall be increased and changes in optical properties as a result of the radiation shall be further studied.

  20. In vivo assessment of thermal damage in the liver using optical spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Buttemere, Clay R; Chari, Ravi S; Anderson, Christopher D; Washington, M Kay; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita; Lin, Wei-Chiang

    2004-01-01

    Resection is not a viable treatment option for the majority of liver cancer patients. Alternatives to resection include thermotherapies such as radio-frequency ablation; however, these therapies lack adequate intraoperative feedback regarding the degree and margins of tissue thermal damage. In this proof of principle study, we test the ability of fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to assess local thermal damage in vivo. Spectra were acquired in vivo from healthy canine liver tissue undergoing radio-frequency ablation using a portable fiber-optic-based spectroscopic system. The major observed spectral alterations on thermal coagulation were a red shift in the fluorescence emission peak at 480 nm, a decrease in the overall fluorescence intensity, and an increase in the diffuse reflectance from 450 to 750 nm. Spectral changes were quantified and correlated to tissue histology. We found a good correlation between the proposed spectral correlates of thermal damage and histology. The results of this study suggest that fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy show strong potential as tools to monitor liver tissue thermal damage intraoperatively.

  1. Optical characterization of sputtered carbon films

    SciTech Connect

    Ager, J.W. III

    1992-05-01

    Spattered carbon films are widely used as protective overcoats for thin film disk media. Raman spectroscopy is nondestructive and relatively rapid and is well suited for the characterization of carbon films. Specific features in the Raman spectra are empirically correlated with the rates of specific types of mechanical wear for both hydrogenated and unhydrogenated films. This observation is interpreted in terms of a random covalent network, in which the mechanical performance of the film is determined by the nature of the bonding that links sp{sup 2}-bonded domains.

  2. Study on subsurface damage of optical glass after grinding with free abrasives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yuzhu; Jiao, Lingyan; Zhu, Yongwei; Tong, Yi

    2016-10-01

    As a practical engineering device, laser gyro has replaced other types of gyro and become the dominant product of inertial navigation devices, and the mirror substrate is the key part for successful development of laser gyro. Normally, the mirror must have a high reflectivity, for example 99.99% or more, but the premise is that the super smooth surface with the order of Å must be fabricated first 1. In the process of super smooth surface, grinding procedure is a very important step; its quality determines the subsurface damage depth of the mirror. In this paper, based on optical quartz glass as the study object, three different size abrasives are used to grind the blank respectively; then the particle size distribution, surface roughness and microstructure are tested; finally, angle polishing method to measure subsurface damage depth is adopted. Some reasonable theory parameters are obtained through analysis of the test data, also having certain significance for practice.

  3. Multiplexed Bragg grating optical fiber sensors for damage evaluation in highway bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idriss, R. L.; Kodindouma, M. B.; Kersey, A. D.; Davis, M. A.

    1998-04-01

    A multiplexed Bragg grating optical fiber monitoring system is designed and integrated at the construction stage in an experimental full scale laboratory bridge. The test bridge is a 40 ft span non-composite steel girder concrete deck bridge. The network of sensors is used to measure the strain throughout the bridge, with sensors bonded to the tension steel in the slab and attached to the bottom flange of the girders. Resistive strain gages and Bragg grating sensors are placed side by side to compare results. The strain data are obtained for the pristine structure, then damage is introduced at midspan for an exterior girder. Several levels of damage in the form of cuts in one of the girders are imposed with the final cut resulting in a half depth fracture of the girder. The load path in the structure is obtained using the built in sensor system.

  4. Characterization of novel optical fibers for use in laser detonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowden, M. D.; Drake, R. C.; Singleton, C. A.

    2006-08-01

    A system for launching flyers using a Q-switched Nd: YAG laser has been developed for shock initiation of secondary explosives. Flyers have been launched at velocities approaching 6 km s -1. Optical fibers are used to transport the optical energy from the laser to the detonator. The launch of these flyers with sufficient velocity requires a fluence in the region of 35 J cm -2, significantly above the damage threshold of most optical fibers. This damage is typically caused by laser absorption at the input face due to imperfections in the surface polishing. A variety of optical fibers with high quality input faces have been tested at fluences up to 50 J cm -2, and their damage thresholds and beam profiles have been measured. The standard fiber used in this system is a low hydroxyl (-OH) content, 400μm diameter core silica fiber, with CO2 laser polished faces. In addition to this, fibers tapering down to 300μm and 200μm core diameter were investigated, as a means of increasing the efficiency of the system, along with mechanically polished fibers. The fiber currently enters the detonator body from the rear. Depending on the application, it may be required for the fiber to enter from the side. To facilitate this, fibers with a machined output face, designed to produce an output at approximately 90 degrees to the fiber axis were tested. Finally, a 2:1 fiber splitter was tested, as a first step to enable simultaneous firing of several detonators. Multiple initiation points are desirable for applications such as programmable initiation, and it is intended to study fiber splitters with a higher split ratio, such as 4:1 and 8:1. The results of these experiments are presented, and assessments made of suitability for transmission of high-power Qswitched Nd:YAG laser pulses.

  5. Acousto-ultrasonics-based fatigue damage characterization: Linear versus nonlinear signal features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Zhongqing; Zhou, Chao; Hong, Ming; Cheng, Li; Wang, Qiang; Qing, Xinlin

    2014-03-01

    Engineering structures are prone to fatigue damage over service lifespan, entailing early detection and continuous monitoring of the fatigue damage from its initiation through growth. A hybrid approach for characterizing fatigue damage was developed, using two genres of damage indices constructed based on the linear and the nonlinear features of acousto-ultrasonic waves. The feasibility, precision and practicability of using linear and nonlinear signal features, for quantitatively evaluating multiple barely visible fatigue cracks in a metallic structure, was compared. Miniaturized piezoelectric elements were networked to actively generate and acquire acousto-ultrasonic waves. The active sensing, in conjunction with a diagnostic imaging algorithm, enabled quantitative evaluation of fatigue damage and facilitated embeddable health monitoring. Results unveiled that the nonlinear features of acousto-ultrasonic waves outperform their linear counterparts in terms of the detectability. Despite the deficiency in perceiving small-scale damage and the possibility of conveying false alarms, linear features show advantages in noise tolerance and therefore superior practicability. The comparison has consequently motivated an amalgamation of linear and nonlinear features of acousto-ultrasonic waves, targeting the prediction of multi-scale damage ranging from microscopic fatigue cracks to macroscopic gross damage.

  6. Characterization of optical components for use in harsh environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bright, Michelle; Morelli, Gregg

    2006-08-01

    The characterization of mounted and/or bonded optical assemblies for survivability in harsh environments is crucial for the development of robust laser-optical firing systems. Customized mounts, bonded assemblies and packaging strategies were utilized for each of the laser resonator optics with the goal of developing and fielding a reliable initiation system for use in extreme conditions. Specific components were selected for initial testing based on past experience, material properties and optical construction. Shock, vibration and temperature testing was performed on three mounted optical components; polarizing cube beam splitters, Q-switch assemblies and xenon flashlamps. Previously, flashlamps of a solder-sealed construction type were successfully tested and characterized. This test regiment characterized the more fragile glass-to-metal seal constructed flashlamps. Components were shock-tested to a maximum impulse level of 5700 G's with a 1.1 millisecond long pulse. Vibration tests were performed to a maximum level of 15.5 grms for forty seconds in each of three axes. During each test, components were functionally tested and visually inspected at a specified point to verify survival. Temperature tests were performed over a range extending from a maximum of 75 degrees C to a minimum of -55 degrees C, allowing for a two hour soak at each temperature set point. Experimental results obtained from these tests will be discussed as will their impact on future component mounting strategies.

  7. Fractal-based analysis of optical coherence tomography data to quantify retinal tissue damage.

    PubMed

    Somfai, Gábor Márk; Tátrai, Erika; Laurik, Lenke; Varga, Boglárka E; Ölvedy, Vera; Smiddy, William E; Tchitnga, Robert; Somogyi, Anikó; DeBuc, Delia Cabrera

    2014-09-01

    The sensitivity of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) images to identify retinal tissue morphology characterized by early neural loss from normal healthy eyes is tested by calculating structural information and fractal dimension. OCT data from 74 healthy eyes and 43 eyes with type 1 diabetes mellitus with mild diabetic retinopathy (MDR) on biomicroscopy was analyzed using a custom-built algorithm (OCTRIMA) to measure locally the intraretinal layer thickness. A power spectrum method was used to calculate the fractal dimension in intraretinal regions of interest identified in the images. ANOVA followed by Newman-Keuls post-hoc analyses were used to test for differences between pathological and normal groups. A modified p value of <0.001 was considered statistically significant. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to describe the ability of each parameter to discriminate between eyes of pathological patients and normal healthy eyes. Fractal dimension was higher for all the layers (except the GCL + IPL and INL) in MDR eyes compared to normal healthy eyes. When comparing MDR with normal healthy eyes, the highest AUROC values estimated for the fractal dimension were observed for GCL + IPL and INL. The maximum discrimination value for fractal dimension of 0.96 (standard error =0.025) for the GCL + IPL complex was obtained at a FD ≤ 1.66 (cut off point, asymptotic 95% Confidence Interval: lower-upper bound = 0.905-1.002). Moreover, the highest AUROC values estimated for the thickness measurements were observed for the OPL, GCL + IPL and OS. Particularly, when comparing MDR eyes with control healthy eyes, we found that the fractal dimension of the GCL + IPL complex was significantly better at diagnosing early DR, compared to the standard thickness measurement. Our results suggest that the GCL + IPL complex, OPL and OS are more susceptible to initial damage when comparing MDR with control healthy eyes. Fractal

  8. Comparison of defects responsible for nanosecond laser-induced damage and ablation in common high index optical coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yejia; Abdulameer, Mohammed R.; Emmert, Luke A.; Day, Travis; Patel, Dinesh; Menoni, Carmen S.; Rudolph, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Spatiotemporally resolved optical laser-induced damage is an experimental technique used to study nanosecond laser damage and initiation of ablation in dielectric metal-oxide films used for optical coatings. It measures the fluence (intensity) at the initiation of damage during a single laser pulse. The technique was applied to coatings of HfO2, Sc2O3, and Ta2O5, which were prepared by ion-beam sputtering, and HfO2 which was prepared by electron-beam evaporation. Using the data obtained, we were able to retrieve the defect density distributions of these films without a priori assumptions about their functional form.

  9. Optical sensing of the fatigue damage state of CFRP under realistic aeronautical load sequences.

    PubMed

    Zuluaga-Ramírez, Pablo; Arconada, Álvaro; Frövel, Malte; Belenguer, Tomás; Salazar, Félix

    2015-03-09

    We present an optical sensing methodology to estimate the fatigue damage state of structures made of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP), by measuring variations on the surface roughness. Variable amplitude loads (VAL), which represent realistic loads during aeronautical missions of fighter aircraft (FALSTAFF) have been applied to coupons until failure. Stiffness degradation and surface roughness variations have been measured during the life of the coupons obtaining a Pearson correlation of 0.75 between both variables. The data were compared with a previous study for Constant Amplitude Load (CAL) obtaining similar results. Conclusions suggest that the surface roughness measured in strategic zones is a useful technique for structural health monitoring of CFRP structures, and that it is independent of the type of load applied. Surface roughness can be measured in the field by optical techniques such as speckle, confocal perfilometers and interferometry, among others.

  10. Optical Sensing of the Fatigue Damage State of CFRP under Realistic Aeronautical Load Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Zuluaga-Ramírez, Pablo; Arconada, Álvaro; Frövel, Malte; Belenguer, Tomás; Salazar, Félix

    2015-01-01

    We present an optical sensing methodology to estimate the fatigue damage state of structures made of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP), by measuring variations on the surface roughness. Variable amplitude loads (VAL), which represent realistic loads during aeronautical missions of fighter aircraft (FALSTAFF) have been applied to coupons until failure. Stiffness degradation and surface roughness variations have been measured during the life of the coupons obtaining a Pearson correlation of 0.75 between both variables. The data were compared with a previous study for Constant Amplitude Load (CAL) obtaining similar results. Conclusions suggest that the surface roughness measured in strategic zones is a useful technique for structural health monitoring of CFRP structures, and that it is independent of the type of load applied. Surface roughness can be measured in the field by optical techniques such as speckle, confocal perfilometers and interferometry, among others. PMID:25760056

  11. Nonlinear characterization of elasticity using quantitative optical coherence elastography

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Yi; Zaki, Farzana R.; Chandra, Namas; Chester, Shawn A.; Liu, Xuan

    2016-01-01

    Optical coherence elastography (OCE) has been used to perform mechanical characterization on biological tissue at the microscopic scale. In this work, we used quantitative optical coherence elastography (qOCE), a novel technology we recently developed, to study the nonlinear elastic behavior of biological tissue. The qOCE system had a fiber-optic probe to exert a compressive force to deform tissue under the tip of the probe. Using the space-division multiplexed optical coherence tomography (OCT) signal detected by a spectral domain OCT engine, we were able to simultaneously quantify the probe deformation that was proportional to the force applied, and to quantify the tissue deformation. In other words, our qOCE system allowed us to establish the relationship between mechanical stimulus and tissue response to characterize the stiffness of biological tissue. Most biological tissues have nonlinear elastic behavior, and the apparent stress-strain relationship characterized by our qOCE system was nonlinear an extended range of strain, for a tissue-mimicking phantom as well as biological tissues. Our experimental results suggested that the quantification of force in OCE was critical for accurate characterization of tissue mechanical properties and the qOCE technique was capable of differentiating biological tissues based on the elasticity of tissue that is generally nonlinear. PMID:27896009

  12. Optical nano-antennas: Fabrication, characterization and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Anil

    As optical counterpart of microwave antennas, optical nano-antennas are important devices for converting propagating radiation into confined/enhanced fields at nanoscale. The recent advances in resonant sub-wavelength optical antennas have now offered researchers a continuum of electromagnetic spectrum---from radio frequencies all the way up to X-rays---to design, analyze and predict new phenomena that were previously unknown. Their applications in areas with pressing needs, e.g., in sensing, imaging, energy harvesting, and disease cure and prevention, have brought revolutionary improvements. This dissertation investigates important characteristics of these plasmonic resonators through optical and electron-beam excitation using nanostructures defined by lithography as well as a newly developed direct metal patterning technique. The important challenges in optical antenna research include both fundamental understanding of the underlying physics as well as issues related to fabrication of low cost, high throughput nanostructures beyond the diffraction limit. The nanoscale feature size of optical antennas limits our ability to design, manufacture, and characterize their resonant behavior. In this regard, I demonstrate how electron-beam lithography can be coupled with a new solid-state electrochemical process to directly pattern metal nanostructures with possibility of sub-10 nm features at low cost, minimal infrastructure, and ambient conditions. Using bowtie antennas as representative of the general class of optical nano-antennas, I show how optical imaging can be used as a simple tool to characterize their resonant behavior. Further understanding of their spatial and spectral modes is gathered using finite-difference time domain simulations. The extremely high fields generated in gaps of closely coupled bowties are used in non-linear signal generation and several sumfrequency phenomena are identified. The sub-wavelength confinement of fields in optical antennas

  13. Continuous-wave laser damage and conditioning of particle contaminated optics.

    PubMed

    Brown, Andrew; Ogloza, Albert; Taylor, Lucas; Thomas, Jeff; Talghader, Joseph

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes the physical processes that occur when high-power continuous-wave laser light interacts with absorbing particles on a low-absorption optical surface. When a particulate-contaminated surface is illuminated by high-power continuous-wave laser light, a short burst of light is emitted from the surface, and the particles rapidly heat over a period of milliseconds to thousands of degrees Celsius, migrating over and evaporating from the surface. The surviving particles tend to coalesce into larger ones and leave a relatively flat residue on the surface. The total volume of the material on the surface has decreased dramatically. The optical surface itself heats substantially during illumination, but the surface temperature can decrease as the material is evaporated. Optical surfaces that survive this process without catastrophic damage are found to be more resistant to laser damage than surfaces that have not undergone the process. The surface temperature of the conditioned surfaces under illumination is lower than that of unconditioned surfaces. These conditioning effects on particles occurred within the first 30 s of laser exposure, with subsequent laser shots not affecting particle distributions. High-speed photography showed the actual removal and agglomeration of individual particles to occur within about 0.7 ms. Elemental changes were measured using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy, with conditioned residuals being higher in hydrocarbon content than pristine particles. The tests in this study were conducted on high-reflectivity distributed Bragg reflector coated optics with carbon microparticles in the size range of 20-50 μm, gold particles of size 250 nm, and silica 1 μm in size.

  14. Alternating Current Stimulation for Vision Restoration after Optic Nerve Damage: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Schittkowski, Michael P.; Antal, Andrea; Ambrus, Géza Gergely; Paulus, Walter; Dannhauer, Moritz; Michalik, Romualda; Mante, Alf; Bola, Michal; Lux, Anke; Kropf, Siegfried; Brandt, Stephan A.; Sabel, Bernhard A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Vision loss after optic neuropathy is considered irreversible. Here, repetitive transorbital alternating current stimulation (rtACS) was applied in partially blind patients with the goal of activating their residual vision. Methods We conducted a multicenter, prospective, randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled trial in an ambulatory setting with daily application of rtACS (n = 45) or sham-stimulation (n = 37) for 50 min for a duration of 10 week days. A volunteer sample of patients with optic nerve damage (mean age 59.1 yrs) was recruited. The primary outcome measure for efficacy was super-threshold visual fields with 48 hrs after the last treatment day and at 2-months follow-up. Secondary outcome measures were near-threshold visual fields, reaction time, visual acuity, and resting-state EEGs to assess changes in brain physiology. Results The rtACS-treated group had a mean improvement in visual field of 24.0% which was significantly greater than after sham-stimulation (2.5%). This improvement persisted for at least 2 months in terms of both within- and between-group comparisons. Secondary analyses revealed improvements of near-threshold visual fields in the central 5° and increased thresholds in static perimetry after rtACS and improved reaction times, but visual acuity did not change compared to shams. Visual field improvement induced by rtACS was associated with EEG power-spectra and coherence alterations in visual cortical networks which are interpreted as signs of neuromodulation. Current flow simulation indicates current in the frontal cortex, eye, and optic nerve and in the subcortical but not in the cortical regions. Conclusion rtACS treatment is a safe and effective means to partially restore vision after optic nerve damage probably by modulating brain plasticity. This class 1 evidence suggests that visual fields can be improved in a clinically meaningful way. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01280877 PMID:27355577

  15. Characterization of fretting fatigue damage using nondestructive approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matikas, Theodore E.; Shell, Eric B.; Nicolaou, Perikles D.

    1999-02-01

    Ti-6Al-4V alloy specimens cut form a forged plate with a duplex microstructure, similar to the microstructure used in fan blades were tested under conditions of high-cycle fretting fatigue. The contact geometry, the normal stress, as well as the cyclic stress were selectee such that the mixed, slip-stick regime prevails during the experiments. Following testing, the specimens as well as the fretting pads were characterized by a variety of techniques including white light interference profilometry, scanning electron microscopy, ultrasonic force microscopy, microhardness testing, and electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The results revealed that the surface roughness of the slip region increases compared to the roughness of the stick, and non-contact ones. In addition, at the higher spatial frequencies, the power spectral density (PSD) of the slip region increases compared to the PSD of the stick and non- contact regions, thus revealing that an increase of the population of the smaller size asperities occurs. The microstructure of the material below the slip zone was found to be transformed to a finer one; and the percentage of the transformed beta phase has been decreased substantially. The elastic property variation of this region was determined by ultrasonic force microscopy; the results revealed that in contrast to what found for the bulk of the material, there are significant local differences of the elastic properties inside the fretting-affected zone. In addition, the changes in the plastic behavior of the region below the slip zone, was determined using microhardness measurements. It was found that this transformed microstructure area, has also a higher hardness compared to the hardness of the bulk structure. Booth elastic and plastic property variations were attributed to the increased percent of alpha phase and the decreased amount of beta in the transformed zone, since the former phase exhibits higher elastic moduli as well as flow stresses.In addition

  16. Combined Advanced Finishing and UV-Laser Conditioning for Producing UV-Damage-Resistant Fused Silica Optics

    SciTech Connect

    Menapace, J A; Penetrante, B; Golini, D; Slomba, A; Miller, P E; Parham, T; Nichols, M; Peterson, J

    2001-11-01

    Laser induced damage initiation on fused silica optics can limit the lifetime of the components when used in high power UV laser environments. Foe example in inertial confinement fusion research applications, the optics can be exposed to temporal laser pulses of about 3-nsec with average fluences of 8 J/cm{sup 2} and peak fluences between 12 and 15 J/cm{sup 2}. During the past year, we have focused on optimizing the damage performance at a wavelength of 355-nm (3{omega}), 3-nsec pulse length, for optics in this category by examining a variety of finishing technologies with a challenge to improve the laser damage initiation density by at least two orders of magnitude. In this paper, we describe recent advances in improving the 3{omega} damage initiation performance of laboratory-scale zirconium oxide and cerium oxide conventionally finished fused silica optics via application of processes incorporating magnetorheological finishing (MRF), wet chemical etching, and UV laser conditioning. Details of the advanced finishing procedures are described and comparisons are made between the procedures based upon large area 3{omega} damage performance, polishing layer contamination, and optical subsurface damage.

  17. Optical measurement system for characterizing plastic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gahleitner, R.; Niel, Kurt S.; Frank, S.

    2008-02-01

    Injection molded plastic parts are often influenced with the surface defect tiger stripes, which dramatically reduce the visual quality. Tiger stripes are known as alternating bands of bright and dull regions normally to the molded flow direction. This defect highly depends on the injection time and on the formation of the plastic compound. In the last years, the intensity of the tiger stripes defect was controlled visually. For quantifying the tiger strip defect a new, efficient, repeatable, reliable and nondestructive optical measurement system is proposed. To evaluate the dependency of the injection time, a number of five DIN-A5 plastic specimens are molded. Each of the five plates consists of the same material but they have different injection times. For the measurement, one specimen is put into the specimen holder, which is placed on the drawer of a closed cabinet. In this inside black painted cabinet a LED light source and a CCD Camera are mounted. The beams of the LED light are diffuse reflected on the surface of the specimen. To catch only parallel beams by the lens of the camera a large distance between specimen and camera is realized by two justified mirrors in the cabinet. The bright and dull regions of the tiger stripe defect have different diffuse reflection parameters. Thus in a picture of defined brightness the visibility of this defect is very good. To enhance the repeatability the failure of the camera noise and of the light oscillation is reduced by mends of averaging multiple images. Next, the surface structure is filtered out of the image and a representing number of horizontal grey-value lines are extracted. The so called tiger line signal is the difference between the grey line and a calculated polynomial function (degree of 6) and shows the surface defect of each line oscillating on the zero x-axis. For each tiger line signal the mean squared error is evaluated. To calculate a quantitative value of the whole surface, all line errors are

  18. Electrospinning polymer nanofibers - Electrical and optical characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Saima N.

    Electro spinning is a technique used for the production of thin continuous fibers from a variety of materials including polymers, composites and ceramics [1-3]. The extremely small diameters (˜nm) and high surface to volume and aspect ratios found in electrospun fibers can not be achieved through conventional spinning. Electrically conducting polymers are materials which simultaneously possess the physical and chemical properties of organic polymers and the electronic characteristics of metals. In this work fibers were electrospun from polymer blends of polyaniline doped with Camphorsulfonic acid (PAn.HCSA) and polyethylene oxide (PEO) in chloroform. Electrical conductivities of the fibers were measured using the four-point-probe method. The conductivities of the cast films were measured for comparison purposes. It was noticed that the conductivity of both the fibers and films increase exponentially with the concentration of (PAn.HCSA), the conductivity of the film however is higher than that of the mat for any given concentration of PAn.HCSA in PEO. Electrical conductivities of single fibers containing different PAn: HCSA concentrations were measured for the first time and were found to be the highest (3.2S/cm) among the mats and films. The effect of the non-conductive PEO on the conductivity of the polyaniline fibers was studied. Keeping the PAn.HCSA concentration constant films and fibers were obtained from blends containing PEO (300,000 g/mol) and PEO (900,000 g/mol). Higher electrical conductivities were recorded in fibers and mats containing PEO (900,000 g/mol) than those containing PEO (300,000 g/mol). Silicon Carbide (SiC) fibers were obtained by electrospinning a blend of SiC and PEO in chloroform and sintering the as spun fibers at temperatures of 800°C and 1000°C. The compositional analysis of the annealed samples confirmed the presence of (30-40) mum long SiC fibers with diameters in the range (1-3) mum. Optical spectra of the fibers show red

  19. Characterizing matrix remodeling in collagen gels using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levitz, David; Hinds, Monica T.; Hanson, Stephen R.; Jacques, Steven L.

    2010-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has shown promise at non-destructively characterizing engineered tissues such as collagen gels. However, as the collagen gels develop, the OCT images lose contrast of structures as the gels develop, making visual assessment difficult. Our group proposed quantitatively characterizing these gels by fitting the optical properties from the OCT signals. In this paper, we imaged collagen gels seeded with smooth muscle cells (SMCs) over a 5-day period and used the data to measure their optical properties. Our results showed that over time, the reflectivity of the samples increased 10-fold, corresponding to a decrease in anisotropy factor g, without much change in the scattering coefficient μs. Overall, the optical properties appeared to be dominated by scattering from the collagen matrix, not the cells. However, SMCs remodeled the collagen matrix, and this collagen remodeling by the cells is what causes the observed changes in optical properties. Moreover, the data showed that the optical properties were sensitive to the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), enzymes that break down local collagen fibrils into smaller fragments. Blocking MMPs in the SMC gels greatly impeded both the remodeling process and change in optical properties at day 5. Treating day 1 acellular gels with MMP-8 for 3 hr managed to partially reproduce the remodeling observed in SMC gels at day 5. Altogether, we conclude that matrix remodeling in general, and MMPs specifically, greatly affect the local optical properties of the sample, and OCT is a unique tool that can assess MMP activity in collagen gels both non-destructively and label free.

  20. Ellipsometric Characterization of Optical, Magneto - and Magnetic Recording Media.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zheng

    This dissertation presents nondestructive optical characterization methods developed for thin films and bulk materials. These methods can be used to accurately measure polarization rotation and ellipticity, the reflection and transmission coefficients, the wavelength dependence of birefringence, Kerr rotation and ellipticity; the dielectric tensor of magneto-optical (MO) media, as well as the optical constants and thickness of thin film stacks. A series of optical, magneto-optical and magnetic recording media have been studied. A variable angle, multi-wavelength ellipsometer, and a MO Kerr spectrometer were used for these measurements. A general-purpose computer program has been used to analyze the experimental data. The in -plane and vertical birefringence of polycarbonate plastic substrates of optical disks have been measured for wavelengths between 360 nm and 860 nm, which covers the full range of interest for blue as well as for the current red and infrared recording. A dielectric tensor database for MO thin film materials of rm(BiDy)_3(FeGa) _5O_{12} garnet, MnBi, multilayered Co/Pt, amorphous TbFeCoTa, fcc cobalt, and Heusler alloy PtMnSb has been established in the wavelength range of 400-780 nm. These materials are then evaluated based on the intrinsic MO figure of merit. In the area of hard disk magnetic recording, the optical constants of nickel phosphorous (NiP) coated substrate, CoNi/NiP magnetic film on NiP coated substrate, and the carbon overcoating layer have been obtained at several wavelengths. The excellent agreement between theory and experiment has shown that this nondestructive method is a sensitive tool for the characterization of optical thin film stacks.

  1. Optical characterization of SiC wafers

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, J.C.; Pophristic, M.; Long, F.H.; Ferguson, I.

    1999-07-01

    Raman spectroscopy has been used to investigate wafers of both 4H-SiC and 6H-SiC. The two-phonon Raman spectra from both 4H- and 6H-SiC have been measured and found to be polytype dependent, consistent with changes in the vibrational density of states. They have observed electronic Raman scattering from nitrogen defect levels in both 4H- and 6H-SiC at room temperature. They have found that electronic Raman scattering from the nitrogen defect levels is significantly enhanced with excitation by red or near IR laser light. These results demonstrate that the laser wavelength is a key parameter in the characterization of SiC by Raman scattering. These results suggest that Raman spectroscopy can be used as a noninvasive, in situ diagnostic for SiC wafer production and substrate evaluation. They also present results on time-resolved photoluminescence spectra of n-type SiC wafers.

  2. Energetic laser cleaning of metallic particles and surface damage on silica optics: investigation of the underlying mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Nan; Demos, Stavros G.; Negres, Raluca A.; Rubenchik, Alexander M.; Harris, Candace D.; Matthews, Manyalibo J.

    2015-11-01

    Surface particulate contamination on optics can lead to laser-induced damage hence limit the performance of high power laser system. In this work we focus on understanding the fundamental mechanisms that lead to damage initiation by metal contaminants. Using time resolved microscopy and plasma spectroscopy, we studied the dynamic process of ejecting ~30 μm stainless steel particles from the exit surface of fused silica substrate irradiated with 1064 nm, 10 ns and 355 nm, 8 ns laser pulses. Time-resolved plasma emission spectroscopy was used to characterize the energy coupling and temperature rise associated with single, 10-ns pulsed laser ablation of metallic particles bound to transparent substrates. Plasma associated with Fe(I) emission lines originating from steel microspheres was observe to cool from <24,000 K to ~15,000 K over ~220 ns as τ-0.22, consistent with radiative losses and adiabatic gas expansion of a relatively free plasma. Simultaneous emission lines from Si(II) associated with the plasma etching of the SiO2 substrate were observed yielding higher plasma temperatures, ~35,000 K, relative to the Fe(I) plasma. The difference in species temperatures is consistent with plasma confinement at the microsphere-substrate interface as the particle is ejected, and is directly visualized using pump-probe shadowgraphy as a function of pulsed laser energy.

  3. Characterizing Damage of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Blueberries.

    PubMed

    Wiman, Nik G; Parker, Joyce E; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Walton, Vaughn M

    2015-06-01

    Brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a severe economic pest of growing importance in the United States, Canada, and Europe. While feeding damage from H. halys has been characterized in tree fruit, vegetables, and agronomic crops, less is known about the impacts of stink bugs on small fruits such as blueberries. In this study, we examined H. halys feeding on two representative early and late ripening blueberry cultivars in Oregon and New Jersey. This research examined how different densities of H. halys confined on blueberry clusters for week-long periods affected fruit quality at harvest. After fruit were ripe, we stained and quantified the number of salivary sheaths on berries as an indication of feeding pressure. Feeding by H. halys damaged the fruits by causing increased levels of external discoloration, and internal damage in the form of tissue necrosis. Exposure of berries to H. halys was also associated with decreasing berry weights and lower soluble solids in fruits. However, the different cultivars did not respond consistently to feeding pressure from H. halys. Weekly variability in feeding pressure of two of the cultivars as quantified by the number of stylet sheaths per berry was largely accounted for by environmental variables. We conclude that H. halys does have potential to severely damage blueberries and may become an important economic pest. Characterization of damage is important because correct identification of insect damage is key for successful management.

  4. Roles of Treg/Th17 Cell Imbalance and Neuronal Damage in the Visual Dysfunction Observed in Experimental Autoimmune Optic Neuritis Chronologically.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuanyuan; You, Caiyun; Zhang, Zhuhong; Zhang, Jingkai; Yan, Hua

    2015-12-01

    Optic neuritis associated with multiple sclerosis and its animal model, experimental autoimmune optic neuritis (EAON), is characterized by inflammation, T cell activation, demyelination, and neuronal damage, which might induce permanent vision loss. Elucidating the chronological relationship among the features is critical for treatment of demyelinating optic neuritis. EAON was induced in C57BL/6 mice immunized with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein subcutaneously, and visual function was assessed by flash-visual evoked potential (F-VEP) at days 7, 11, 14, 19, 23, 28 post-immunization. Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) apoptosis was measured by terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick-end labeling. Demyelination and axonal damage were verified with myelin basic protein (MBP) and β-amyloid precursor protein staining, respectively. Real-time polymerase chain reaction quantified IL-17, IL-1β, TGF-β, FoxP3, IL-6, and IL-10 mRNA expression in the optic nerve, as well as FoxP3 and IL-17 staining. Systemic changes of Th17 and Treg cells were tested by flow cytometry in spleen. F-VEP latency was prolonged at 11 days and peaked at 23 days commensurate with demyelination. However, F-VEP amplitude was reduced at 11 days, preceding axon damage, and was exacerbated at 23 days when a peak in RGC apoptosis was detected. Th17 cells up-regulated as early as 7 days and peaked at 11 days, while Treg cells down-regulated inversely compared to Th17 cells change as verified by IL-17 and FoxP3 expression; spleen cell samples were slightly different, demonstrating marked changed at 14 days. Treg/Th17 cell imbalance in the optic nerve precedes and may initiate neuronal damage of axons and RGCs. These changes are commensurate with the appearances of visual dysfunction reflected in F-VEP and hence may offer a novel therapeutic avenue for vision preservation.

  5. Damage mechanisms of MoN/SiN multilayer optics for next-generation pulsed XUV light sources.

    PubMed

    Sobierajski, R; Bruijn, S; Khorsand, A R; Louis, E; van de Kruijs, R W E; Burian, T; Chalupsky, J; Cihelka, J; Gleeson, A; Grzonka, J; Gullikson, E M; Hajkova, V; Hau-Riege, S; Juha, L; Jurek, M; Klinger, D; Krzywinski, J; London, R; Pelka, J B; Płociński, T; Rasiński, M; Tiedtke, K; Toleikis, S; Vysin, L; Wabnitz, H; Bijkerk, F

    2011-01-03

    We investigated the damage mechanism of MoN/SiN multilayer XUV optics under two extreme conditions: thermal annealing and irradiation with single shot intense XUV pulses from the free-electron laser facility in Hamburg - FLASH. The damage was studied "post-mortem" by means of X-ray diffraction, interference-polarizing optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and scanning transmission electron microscopy. Although the timescale of the damage processes and the damage threshold temperatures were different (in the case of annealing it was the dissociation temperature of Mo2N and in the case of XUV irradiation it was the melting temperature of MoN) the main damage mechanism is very similar: molecular dissociation and the formation of N2, leading to bubbles inside the multilayer structure.

  6. Reliable and repeatable characterization of optical streak cameras.

    PubMed

    Charest, Michael R; Torres, Peter; Silbernagel, Christopher T; Kalantar, Daniel H

    2008-10-01

    Optical streak cameras are used as primary diagnostics for a wide range of physics and laser experiments at facilities such as the National Ignition Facility. To meet the strict accuracy requirements needed for these experiments, the systematic nonlinearities of the streak cameras (attributed to nonlinearities in the optical and electrical components that make up the streak camera system) must be characterized. In some cases the characterization information is used as a guide to help determine how experiment data should be taken. In other cases, the characterization data are applied to the raw data images to correct for the nonlinearities. In order to characterize an optical streak camera, a specific set of data is collected, where the response to defined inputs are recorded. A set of analysis software routines has been developed to extract information such as spatial resolution, dynamic range, and temporal resolution from this data set. The routines are highly automated, requiring very little user input and thus provide very reliable and repeatable results that are not subject to interpretation. An emphasis on quality control has been placed on these routines due to the high importance of the camera characterization information.

  7. Reliable and Repeatable Characterication of Optical Streak Cameras

    SciTech Connect

    Kalantar, D; Charest, M; Torres III, P; Charest, M

    2008-05-06

    Optical streak cameras are used as primary diagnostics for a wide range of physics and laser experiments at facilities such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF). To meet the strict accuracy requirements needed for these experiments, the systematic nonlinearities of the streak cameras (attributed to nonlinearities in the optical and electrical components that make up the streak camera system) must be characterized. In some cases the characterization information is used as a guide to help determine how experiment data should be taken. In other cases, the characterization data are applied to the raw data images to correct for the nonlinearities. In order to characterize an optical streak camera, a specific set of data is collected, where the response to defined inputs are recorded. A set of analysis software routines has been developed to extract information such as spatial resolution, dynamic range, and temporal resolution from this data set. The routines are highly automated, requiring very little user input and thus provide very reliable and repeatable results that are not subject to interpretation. An emphasis on quality control has been placed on these routines due to the high importance of the camera characterization information.

  8. Reliable and Repeatable Characterization of Optical Streak Cameras

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Charest Jr., Peter Torres III, Christopher Silbernagel, and Daniel Kalantar

    2008-10-31

    Optical streak cameras are used as primary diagnostics for a wide range of physics and laser experiments at facilities such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF). To meet the strict accuracy requirements needed for these experiments, the systematic nonlinearities of the streak cameras (attributed to nonlinearities in the optical and electrical components that make up the streak camera system) must be characterized. In some cases the characterization information is used as a guide to help determine how experiment data should be taken. In other cases, the characterization data are applied to the raw data images to correct for the nonlinearities. In order to characterize an optical streak camera, a specific set of data is collected, where the response to defined inputs are recorded. A set of analysis software routines has been developed to extract information such as spatial resolution, dynamic range, and temporal resolution from this data set. The routines are highly automated, requiring very little user input and thus provide very reliable and repeatable results that are not subject to interpretation. An emphasis on quality control has been placed on these routines due to the high importance of the camera characterization information.

  9. Rapid characterization of fuel atomizers using an optical patternator

    SciTech Connect

    Sankar, S.V.; Maher, K.E.; Robart, D.M.; Bachalo, W.D.

    1999-07-01

    Planar laser scattering (PLS) and planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) techniques are currently being used for rapid characterization of fuel sprays associated with gas turbine atomizers, diesel injectors, and automotive fuel injectors. These techniques can be used for qualitative, quantitative, and rapid measurement of fuel mass, spray geometry, and Sauter mean diameters in various sprays. The spatial distribution of the fuel mass can be inferred directly from the PLIF image, and the Sauter mean diameter can be measured by simultaneously recording the PLIF and PLS images and then rationing the two. A spray characterization system incorporating the PLS and/or PLIF techniques has been loosely termed an optical patternator, and in this study, it has been used to characterize both steady and pulsed sprays. The results obtained with the optical patternator have been directly validated using a phase Doppler particle analyzer (PDPA).

  10. Characterization of an optical phased array for use in free space optical communication antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anisimov, Igor; Harris, Scott R.; Stadler, Brian K.

    2008-08-01

    Liquid Crystal Optical Phased Arrays (LCOPA) capable of steering optical beams over large angles require very large number of individually addressable electrodes that can be reduced by grouping the electrodes into periodic pattern to modulate phase profiles with consequent stepwise phase corrections made by an additional LCOPA. Such phase ramp-corrector configuration allows for reductions in the total number of the addressed electrodes and results in lower costs of development and manufacturing of LCOPA devices. Characterization of the device made by Teledyne Scientific for an experimental RF/EO antenna has been accomplished. Issues concerning optical beam steering efficiency, incident angle dependency and transparent electrodes alignment were investigated.

  11. Cross-correlation frequency-resolved optical gating for characterization of an ultrashort optical pulse train

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Yuta; Imasaka, Totaro

    2017-05-01

    A technique involving cross-correlation frequency-resolved optical gating is applied in characterizing an optical pulse train consisting of several spectral components. An optical beat was used as a reference pulse for measuring the relative spectral phase among the spectral components in the test pulse generated by four-wave Raman mixing in hydrogen gas. It was confirmed that a change in the relative phase can be measured by monitoring the shift in the interference fringe and that Raman emissions generated by four-wave Raman mixing are phase locked.

  12. Characterization of risk factors for DNA damage among paddy farm worker exposed to mixtures of organophosphates.

    PubMed

    How, Vivien; Hashim, Zailina; Ismail, Patimah; Omar, Dzolkhifli; Said, Salmiah Md; Tamrin, Shamsul Bahri Mohd

    2015-01-01

    This is a cross-sectional study conducted among paddy farmers to characterize potential risk factors that influence levels of DNA damage from exposure to mixtures of organophosphates. Comet assay was used to determine the level of DNA damage by measuring the comet tail length from the exfoliated buccal mucosa. The result suggests that farmers who chronically exposure to a mixture of organophosphates has at least 2-fold significant increase of DNA damage as compared with control group. Factor analysis and linear regression both suggest that DNA damage reported by farmers may influence individual, occupational, and residential factors and are reported as significant predictor factors, whereas this effect is mainly caused by individual factors among the control group. The findings of the present study suggest that either farmer or control group bear certain extent of genotoxic burden contributed by different risk factors.

  13. Damage assessment in hybrid laminates using an array of embedded fiber optic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, Timothy S. P.; Singh, Margaret M.; Gregson, Peter J.; Dakin, John P.; Powell, Philip M.

    1999-05-01

    Hybrid laminates typically consist of alternate layers of fiber-reinforced polymer and aluminium alloy. Developed primarily for fatigue critical aerospace applications, the hybrid laminates are orthotropic materials with lower density and higher strength compared to the aluminium alloy monolith. One of the damage mechanism of particular interest is that of fatigue crack growth, which for hybrid laminates is a relatively complex process that includes a combination of delamination and fiber bridging. To facilitate the development of a unified model for both crack and damage growth processes, a remote sensing system, reliant upon fiber optic sensor technology, has been utilized to monitor strain within the composite layer. The fiber optic system, with capacity for sub microstrain resolution, combines time domain multiplexing with line switching to monitor continuously an array of Bragg grating sensors. Herein are detailed the findings from a study performed using an array of 40 sensors distributed across a small area of a test price containing a fatigue crack initiated at a through- thickness fastener hole. Together with details of system operation, sensor measurements of the strain profiles associated with the developing delamination zone are reported.

  14. Optical coherence tomography imaging of retinal damage in real time under a stimulus electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Ethan; Agrawal, Anant; Connors, Megan; Hansen, Barry; Charkhkar, Hamid; Pfefer, Joshua

    2011-10-01

    We have developed a novel method to study the effects of electrical stimulation of the local retina directly under an epiretinal stimulus electrode in real time. Using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and a superfused retinal eyecup preparation, we obtained high-resolution images of the rabbit retina directly under an optically transparent saline-filled fluoropolymer stimulation tube electrode. During OCT imaging, 50 Hz trains of biphasic current pulses 1 ms/phase (23-749 µC cm-2 ph-1) were applied to the retinal surface for 5 min. After imaging, the stimulated regions were stained with the dye propidium iodide (PI) to reveal cytotoxic damage. Pulse train stimulation at 44-133 µC cm-2 ph-1 had little effect on the retina; however, trains >=442 µC cm-2 ph-1 caused increases in the reflectance of the inner plexiform layer (IPL) and edema. The damage seen in retinal OCT images matched the pattern observed in histological sections, and in the PI staining. With pulse trains >=442 µC cm-2 ph-1, rapid increases in the reflectivity of the IPL could be observed under the stimulus electrode. Below the electrode, we observed a ring-like pattern of retinal detachment in the subretinal space. The OCT imaging method may be useful for analyzing overstimulation of neuronal tissue by electrodes in many brain regions. This paper was originally submitted for the special issue containing contributions from the Sixth Biennial Research Congress of The Eye and the Chip.

  15. Recent progresses on insights of laser damage mechanisms and influence of contamination in optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jitsuno, T.; Murakami, H.; Kato, K.; Sato, E.; Mikami, K.; Motokoshi, S.; Miyanaga, N.; Azechi, H.

    2013-07-01

    In high power laser system, laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) in optical coating is very important for obtaining high performances. The dependence of LIDT on the pulse duration and the repetition rate are well known phenomena. But recently, LIDT was found to have strong temperature dependences in the bulk, surface of substrates, and in coatings. This temperature dependence of LIDT was carefully measured, and the damage formation model was constructed regarding to this temperature dependence. This paper introduces LFEX laser system for First Ignition scheme in the laser fusion. A large-scale pulse compression chamber was designed and constructed, and segmented grating system has been employed for large-scale pulse compressor. This compressor provided good pulse compression performances, but we observed a heavy oil-contamination of optics in this chamber. We have analyzed contaminants and evaluated the effects of the contamination. We also developed new cleaning methods to remove contamination from the coating, and the quantitative analysis of contamination on LIDT was made. We have investigated the characteristics of LIDT in dielectric coatings under the controlled contamination. LIDT of coating drops to 1/2 in the saturated toluene vapor at room temperature.

  16. Near-field characteristics of broad area diode lasers during catastrophic optical damage failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hempel, Martin; Tomm, Jens W.; Baeumler, Martina; Konstanzer, Helmer; Mukherjee, Jayanta; Elsaesser, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    One of the failure mechanisms preventing diode lasers in reaching ultra high optical output powers is the catastrophic optical damage (COD). It is a sudden degradation mechanism which impairs the device functionality completely. COD is caused by a positive feedback loop of absorbing laser light and increasing temperature at a small portion of the active material, leading to a thermal runaway on a nanosecond timescale. We analyze commercial gain-guided AlGaAs/GaAs quantum well broad area diode lasers in single pulse step tests. The near-field emission on the way to and at the COD is resolved on a picosecond time scale by a streak-camera combined with a microscope. In the final phase of the step tests the COD is occurring at ~50 times threshold current. The growth of the COD defect site is monitored and defect propagation velocities between 30 and 190 μm/μs are determined. The final shape of the damage is verified by opening the device and taking a micro-photoluminescence map of the active layer.

  17. Femtosecond laser-induced damage threshold of electron beam deposited dielectrics for 1-m class optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervy, Adrien; Gallais, Laurent; Chériaux, Gilles; Mouricaud, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    In order to transport multi-petawatt (PW) femtosecond laser beams with large spectral bandwidth, specific mirrors have to be designed and manufactured. We report on an experimental study of the laser-damage resistance and other optical properties of coating materials deposited in a 1-m class coating chamber. The study is conducted on single-layer coatings deposited by electron beam evaporation at 500 fs. Based on the experience of large optics for nanosecond applications, hafnia and silica are particularly investigated. However, in the case of sub-15 fs, the spectral specifications for PW beam transport mirrors cannot be reached by classical high laser-resistant quarter-wave SiO2/HfO2 stacks. Therefore, we investigate the laser resistance of different dielectrics of interest deposited with electron-beam processes: Al2O3, Y2O3, Sc2O3, HfO2, Ta2O5, TiO2. The influence of multiple pulse irradiations and environmental conditions, such as vacuum and temperature, is studied. With the investigation of multilayer stacks, we also show that there is no difference in behavior when a film is studied as a single layer or embedded in a stack. Based on these results, we were able to optimize high reflective (>99.5%), broadband (300 nm) and high laser-induced damage threshold (2.5 J/cm2) mirrors for PW applications.

  18. Experimental characterization and numerical modelling of polymeric film damage, constituting the stratospheric super pressurized balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaabane, Makram; Chaabane, Makram; Dalverny, Olivier; Deramecourt, Arnaud; Mistou, Sébastien

    The super-pressure balloons developed by CNES are a great challenge in scientific ballooning. Whatever the balloon type considered (spherical, pumpkin...), it is necessary to have good knowledge of the mechanical behavior of the envelope regarding to the flight level and the lifespan of the balloon. It appears during the working stages of the super pressure balloons that these last can exploded prematurely in the course of the first hours of flight. For this reason CNES and LGP are carrying out research programs about experimentations and modelling in order to predict a good stability of the balloons flight and guarantee a life time in adequacy with the technical requirement. This study deals with multilayered polymeric film damage which induce balloons failure. These experimental and numerical study aims, are a better understanding and predicting of the damage mechanisms bringing the premature explosion of balloons. The following damages phenomena have different origins. The firsts are simple and triple wrinkles owed during the process and the stocking stages of the balloons. The second damage phenomenon is associated to the creep of the polymeric film during the flight of the balloon. The first experimental results we present in this paper, concern the mechanical characterization of three different damage phenomena. The severe damage induced by the wrinkles of the film involves a significant loss of mechanical properties. In a second part the theoretical study, concerns the choice and the development of a non linear viscoelastic coupled damage behavior model in a finite element code.

  19. Performance optimization of a diagnostic system based upon a simulated strain field for fatigue damage characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sbarufatti, C.; Manes, A.; Giglio, M.

    2013-11-01

    The work presented hereafter is about the development of a diagnostic system for crack damage detection, localization and quantification on a typical metallic aeronautical structure (skin stiffened through riveted stringers). Crack detection and characterization are based upon strain field sensitivity to damage. The structural diagnosis is carried out by a dedicated smart algorithm (Artificial Neural Network) which is trained on a database of Finite Element simulations relative to damaged and undamaged conditions, providing the system with an accurate predictor at low overall cost. The algorithm, trained on numerical damage experience, is used in a simulated environment to provide reliable preliminary information concerning the algorithm performances for damage diagnosis, thus further reducing the experimental costs and efforts associated with the development and optimization of such systems. The same algorithm has been tested on real experimental strain patterns acquired during real fatigue crack propagation, thus verifying the capability of the numerically trained algorithm for anomaly detection, damage assessment and localization on a real complex structure. The load variability, the discrepancy between the Finite Element Model and the real structure, and the uncertainty in the algorithm training process have been addressed in order to enhance the robustness of the system inference process. Some further algorithm training strategies are discussed, aimed at minimizing the risk for false alarms while maintaining a high probability of damage detection.

  20. Shock induced damage and damage threshold of optical K9 glass investigated by laser-driven shock wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yunfei; Yu, Guoyang; Jiang, Lilin; Zheng, Xianxu; Liu, Yuqiang; Yang, Yanqiang

    2011-04-01

    The shock wave driven by short laser pulse is used to study the damage of brittle material K9 glass. The damage morphology of K9 glass surface indicates that the material has experienced different loading modes, respectively, at the central area and the surrounding area of the shock wave. At the central area of shock wave, the wavefront is plane and has a uniform pressure distribution, the material mainly suffers a longitudinal shock pressure; but on the edge the shock wave, the wavefront is approximately spherical, besides longitudinal pressure, transverse tensile stress will emerge inside the material. In the latter case, the damage threshold of the material is much smaller than that in the case of compressing by longitudinal pressure only. According to the relationship between damage area and shock pressure, an experimental method is proposed to measure the damage threshold of materials under shock loading. The damage threshold of K9 glass under spherical shock wave is measured to be about 1.12 GPa; and the damage threshold under plane shock wave is estimated to be between 1.82 and 1.98 GPa. They are much bigger than the damage threshold under static pressure. This method could also be used to measure the damage threshold of other materials when loaded by dynamic pressure.

  1. High-Sensitivity Optical Pulse Characterization Using Sagnac Electro-Optic Spectral Shearing Interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Dorrer, C.; Bromage, J.

    2010-05-04

    An electro-optic spectral shearing interferometer for high-sensitivity optical pulse characterization is described. Two replicas of the test pulse counterpropagate in a Sagnac interferometer with orthogonal polarization states, resulting in two relatively sheared copolarized replicas after temporal phase modulation. The polarization interferometer is intrinsically stable, and its birefringence sets the delay between interfering replicas to reduce the spectrometer resolution requirement. Experimental implementations demonstrate real-time pulse characterization at average powers as low as 1 nWwith spectral shears as high as 280 GHz.

  2. New Order-Parameter-Based Method for Characterizing Radiation Damage in Amorphous Materials.

    PubMed

    Galanakis, Nikolaos; Travis, Karl P

    2017-10-02

    We present a new method of characterizing damage arising from α-recoil cascades in amorphous materials including glasses. The approach taken is topological, yielding information on atom connectivity and utilizing complete sets of orthogonal functions (spherical harmonics and Hermite functions) to compute order parameters. The utility of our new approach is demonstrated by first applying it to models of radiation-damaged crystalline zircon, enabling validation against the standard defect counting method (Wigner-Seitz). We then apply it to a simple model of a glass, obtained by supercooling a Lennard-Jones liquid, for which defect counting methods are inapplicable. The method shows great promise for use in characterizing damage in more complicated glasses, particularly those of interest in the immobilization of nuclear waste, and when used in conjunction with nonequilibrium computer simulation could be a powerful tool to elucidate experimental data on the radiation tolerance of such wasteforms.

  3. Multimodal, multiphoton microscopy and image correlation analysis for characterizing corneal thermal damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Wen; Chang, Yu-Lin; Liu, Jia-Shiu; Hseuh, Chiu-Mei; Hovhannisyan, Vladimir; Chen, Shean-Jen; Tan, Hsin-Yuan; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2009-09-01

    We used the combination of multiphoton autofluorescence (MAF), forward second-harmonic generation (FWSHG), and backward second-harmonic generation (BWSHG) imaging for the qualitative and quantitative characterization of thermal damage of ex vivo bovine cornea. We attempt to characterize the structural alterations by qualitative MAF, FWSHG, and BWSHG imaging in the temperature range of 37 to 90°C. In addition to measuring the absolute changes in the three types of signals at the stromal surface, we also performed image correlation analysis between FWSHG and BWSHG and demonstrate that with increasing thermal damage, image correlation between FWSHG and BWSHG significantly increases. Our results show that while MAF and BWSHG intensities may be used as preliminary indicators of the extent of corneal thermal damage, the most sensitive measures are provided by the decay in FWSHG intensity and the convergence of FWSHG and BWSHG images.

  4. The optical effect of a semiconductor laser on protecting wheat from UV-B radiation damage.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zong-Bo; Zhu, Xin-Jun; Li, Fang-Min; Liu, Xiao; Yue, Ming

    2007-07-01

    Lasers have been widely used in the field of biology along with the development of laser technology, but the mechanism of the bio-effect of lasers is not explicit. The objective of this paper was to test the optical effect of a laser on protecting wheat from UV-B damage. A patent instrument was employed to emit semiconductor laser (wavelength 650 nm) and incoherent red light, which was transformed from the semiconductor laser. The wavelength, power and lightfleck diameter of the incoherent red light are the same as those of the semiconductor laser. The semiconductor laser (wavelength 650 nm, power density 3.97 mW mm(-2)) and incoherent red light (wavelength 650 nm, power density 3.97 mW mm(-2)) directly irradiated the embryo of wheat seeds for 3 min respectively, and when the seedlings were 12-day-old they were irradiated by UV-B radiation (10.08 kJ m(-2)) for 12 h in the dark. Changes in the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), glutathione (GSH), ascorbate (AsA), carotenoids (CAR), the production rate of superoxide radical (O(2)(-)), the activities of peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the growth parameters of seedlings (plant height, leaf area and fresh weight) were measured to test the optical effect of the laser. The results showed that the incoherent red light treatment could not enhance the activities of SOD, POD and CAT and the concentration of AsA and CAR. When the plant cells were irradiated by UV-B, the incoherent red light treatment could not eliminate active oxygen and prevent lipid peroxidation in wheat. The results also clearly demonstrate that the plant DNA was damaged by UV-B radiation and semiconductor laser irradiance had the capability to protect plants from UV-B-induced DNA damage, while the incoherent red light could not. This is the first investigation reporting the optical effect of a semiconductor laser on protecting wheat from UV-B radiation damage.

  5. Damage effect on the fracture toughness of nodular cast iron: Part I. Damage characterization and plastic flow stress modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, M. J.; Prioul, C.; François, D.

    1997-11-01

    After chemical, morphological, and mechanical characterization of ductile cast iron, the damage mechanisms were studied by tensile tests inside the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The evolutions of Young’s modulus and of Poisson’s ratio were measured in uniaxial tensile tests. Compression tests were used to measure the pressure sensitivity coefficient of the flow stress. The damage is produced by early initiation of cavities at the pole cap of graphite nodules by debonding of the interface, followed by the growth of cavities. The mechanical behavior was modeled in the elastic region by calculating the Hashin-Shtrickman bounds. This provided the elastic constants for the graphite nodules. The plastic behavior was modeled by considering that the graphite nodules were replaced by voids. The critical interfacial stress for debonding was determined by analytical as well as by finite-element calculations. The growth rate of cavities was deduced from the evolution of the Poisson’s ratio and was compared with predictions from Gurson’s potential. The stress-strain behavior could be modeled either by extension of the Mori-Tanaka analysis in the plastic range or by finite-element computations. This allowed a fair prediction of the observed behavior.

  6. Nondestructive Structural Damage Detection in Flexible Space Structures Using Vibration Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricles, James M.

    1991-01-01

    Spacecraft are susceptible to structural damage over their operating life from impact, environmental loads, and fatigue. Structural damage that is not detected and not corrected may potentially cause more damage and eventually catastrophic structural failure. NASA's current fleet of reusable spacecraft, namely the Space Shuttle, has been flown on several missions. In addition, configurations of future NASA space structures, e.g. Space Station Freedom, are larger and more complex than current structures, making them more susceptible to damage as well as being more difficult to inspect. Consequently, a reliable structural damage detection capability is essential to maintain the flight safety of these structures. Visual inspections alone can not locate impending material failure (fatigue cracks, yielding); it can only observe post-failure situations. An alternative approach is to develop an inspection and monitoring system based on vibration characterization that assesses the integrity of structural and mechanical components. A methodology for detecting structural damage is presented. This methodology is based on utilizing modal test data in conjunction with a correlated analytical model of the structure to: (1) identify the structural dynamic characteristics (resonant frequencies and mode shapes) from measurements of ambient motions and/or force excitation; (2) calculate modal residual force vectors to identify the location of structural damage; and (3) conduct a weighted sensitivity analysis in order to assess the extent of mass and stiffness variations, where structural damage is characterized by stiffness reductions. The approach is unique from other existing approaches in that varying system mass and stiffness, mass center locations, the perturbation of both the natural frequencies and mode shapes, and statistical confidence factors for structural parameters and experimental instrumentation are all accounted for directly.

  7. Quantitative characterization of developing collagen gels using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levitz, David; Hinds, Monica T.; Choudhury, Niloy; Tran, Noi T.; Hanson, Stephen R.; Jacques, Steven L.

    2010-03-01

    Nondestructive optical imaging methods such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) have been proposed for characterizing engineered tissues such as collagen gels. In our study, OCT was used to image collagen gels with different seeding densities of smooth muscle cells (SMCs), including acellular gels, over a five-day period during which the gels contracted and became turbid with increased optical scattering. The gels were characterized quantitatively by their optical properties, specified by analysis of OCT data using a theoretical model. At 6 h, seeded cell density and scattering coefficient (μs) were correlated, with μs equal to 10.8 cm-1/(106 cells/mL). Seeded cell density and the scattering anisotropy (g) were uncorrelated. Over five days, the reflectivity in SMC gels gradually doubled with little change in optical attenuation, which indicated a decrease in g that increased backscatter, but only a small drop in μs. At five days, a subpopulation of sites on the gel showed substantially higher reflectivity (approximately a tenfold increase from the first 24 h). In summary, the increased turbidity of SMC gels that develops over time is due to a change in the structure of collagen, which affects g, and not simply due to a change in number density of collagen fibers due to contraction.

  8. Instrumentation for characterizing a new class of optical domes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lal, Amit K.; Jo, Joshua S.; Kupiec, Stephen; Scott, Eddie; Trolinger, James

    2009-05-01

    New generations of infrared transmitting optical domes are currently being developed to improve the drag, range, speed, and payload capabilities of missiles. Traditionally, these domes have been hemispheres, which can be well characterized with conventional optical interferometers. These interferometers, however, are not generally well-suited to the new shapes, such as tangent ogives, because the transmitted and reflected wavefronts can differ by many wavelengths from the planar or spherical wavefronts that are normally used as a reference. In this paper, we present an innovative technique to characterize unconventional optical components such as aspheric domes, mirrors, and freeform optics. The measurements are based on an innovative instrument that combines an instantaneous digital phase-shifting infrared interferometer with a dynamic spatial light modulator that extends the range of the interferometer. The goal of the measurement is to determine the wavefront error, within a small fraction of a wavelength, caused by the deviation of the optical component from a perfect geometrical shape of any type (i.e. not spherical). Experimental results are presented from several infrared components.

  9. Structural and electrical characterization of HBr/O{sub 2} plasma damage to Si substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Fukasawa, Masanaga; Nakakubo, Yoshinori; Matsuda, Asahiko; Takao, Yoshinori; Eriguchi, Koji; Ono, Kouichi; Minami, Masaki; Uesawa, Fumikatsu; Tatsumi, Tetsuya

    2011-07-15

    Silicon substrate damage caused by HBr/O{sub 2} plasma exposure was investigated by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), high-resolution Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The damage caused by H{sub 2}, Ar, and O{sub 2} plasma exposure was also compared to clarify the ion-species dependence. Although the damage basically consists of a surface oxidized layer and underlying dislocated Si, the damage structure strongly depends on the incident ion species, ion energy, and oxidation during air and plasma exposure. In the case of HBr/O{sub 2} plasma exposure, hydrogen generated the deep damaged layer ({approx}10 nm), whereas ion-enhanced diffusion of oxygen, supplied simultaneously by the plasma, caused the thick surface oxidation. In-line monitoring of damage thicknesses by SE, developed with an optimized optical model, showed that the SE can be used to precisely monitor damage thicknesses in mass production. Capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics of a damaged layer were studied before and after diluted-HF (DHF) treatment. Results showed that a positive charge is generated at the surface oxide-dislocated Si interface and/or in the bulk oxide after plasma exposure. After DHF treatment, most of the positive charges were removed, while the thickness of the ''Si recess'' was increased by removing the thick surface oxidized layer. As both the Si recess and remaining dislocated Si, including positive charges, cause the degradation of electrical performance, precise monitoring of the surface structure and understanding its effect on device performance is indispensable for creating advanced devices.

  10. Characterization of ultrafast devices using novel optical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Md Ershad

    Optical techniques have been extensively used to examine the high frequency performance of a number of devices including High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs), Heterojunction Bipolar Phototransistors (HPTs) and Low Temperature GaAs (LT-GaAs) Photoconductive Switches. To characterize devices, frequency and time domain techniques, namely optical heterodyning and electro-optic sampling, having measurement bandwidths in excess of 200 GHz, were employed. Optical mixing in three-terminal devices has been extended for the first time to submillimeter wave frequencies. Using a new generation of 50-nm gate pseudomorphic InP-based HEMTs, optically mixed signals were detected to 552 GHz with a signal-to-noise ratio of approximately 5 dB. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest frequency optical mixing obtained in three- terminal devices to date. A novel harmonic three-wave detection scheme was used for the detection of the optically generated signals. The technique involved downconversion of the signal in the device by the second harmonic of a gate-injected millimeter wave local oscillator. Measurements were also conducted up to 212 GHz using direct optical mixing and up to 382 GHz using a fundamental three-wave detection scheme. New interesting features in the bias dependence of the optically mixed signals have been reported. An exciting novel development from this work is the successful integration of near-field optics with optical heterodyning. The technique, called near-field optical heterodyning (NFOH), allows for extremely localized injection of high-frequency stimulus to any arbitrary point of an ultrafast device or circuit. Scanning the point of injection across the sample provides details of the high frequency operation of the device with high spatial resolution. For the implementation of the technique, fiber-optic probes with 100 nm apertures were fabricated. A feedback controlled positioning system was built for accurate placement and scanning of the

  11. Development of a laser damage growth mitigation process, based on CO2 laser micro processing, for the Laser MegaJoule fused silica optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doualle, Thomas; Gallais, Laurent; Monneret, Serge; Bouillet, Stephane; Bourgeade, Antoine; Ameil, Christel; Lamaignère, Laurent; Cormont, Philippe

    2016-12-01

    In the context of high power laser systems, the laser damage resistance of fused silica surfaces at 351 nm in the nanosecond regime is a major concern. Under successive nanosecond laser irradiations, an initiated damage can grow which can make the component unsuitable. The localized CO2 laser processing has demonstrated its ability to mitigate (stopping) laser damage growth. In order to mitigate large damage sites (millimetric), a method based on fast microablation of silica has been proposed by Bass et al. [Bass et al., Proc. SPIE 7842, 784220 (2010)]. This is accomplished by scanning of the CO2 laser spot with a fast galvanometer beam scanner to form a crater with a typical conical shape. The objective of the present work is to develop a similar fast micro-ablation process for application to the Laser MegaJoule optical components. We present in this paper the developed experimental system and process. We describe also the characterization tools used in this study for shape measurements which are critical for the application. Experimental and numerical studies of the downstream intensifications, resulting of cone formation on the fused silica surface, are presented. The experimental results are compared to numerical simulations for different crater shape in order to find optimal process conditions to minimize the intensifications in the LMJ configuration. We show the laser damage test experimental conditions and procedures to evaluate the laser damage resistance of the mitigated sites and discuss the efficiency of the process for our application.

  12. Optical characterization and polarization calibration for rigid endoscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Missael; Gruev, Viktor

    2017-02-01

    Polarization measurements give orthogonal information to spectral images making them a great tool in the characterization of environmental parameters in nature. Thus, polarization imagery has proven to be remarkably useful in a vast range of biomedical applications. One such application is the early diagnosis of flat cancerous lesions in murine colorectal tumor models, where polarization data complements NIR fluorescence analysis. Advances in nanotechnology have led to compact and precise bio-inspired imaging sensors capable of accurately co-registering multidimensional spectral and polarization information. As more applications emerge for these imagers, the optics used in these instruments get very complex and can potentially compromise the original polarization state of the incident light. Here we present a complete optical and polarization characterization of three rigid endoscopes of size 1.9mm x 10cm (Karl Storz, Germany), 5mm x 30cm, and 10mm x 33cm (Olympus, Germany), used in colonoscopy for the prevention of colitis-associated cancer. Characterization results show that the telescope optics act as retarders and effectively depolarize the linear component. These incorrect readings can cause false-positives or false-negatives leading to an improper diagnosis. In this paper, we offer a polarization calibration scheme for these endoscopes based on Mueller calculus. By modeling the optical properties from training data as real-valued Mueller matrices, we are able to successfully reconstruct the initial polarization state acquired by the imaging system.

  13. Monitoring fatigue damage of an adhesive joint using fiber optics sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, C. S.; Yang, Y. J.; Liaw, S. K.

    2017-05-01

    Adhesive joining has many merits over traditional joining techniques. However, adhesive joints are susceptible to damage and degradation caused by service loading. If such degradation went undetected, serious structural failures and catastrophic outcome might follow. It is difficult and economically unviable to carry out regular examination on the joint integrity using conventional non-destructive evaluation techniques, especially in the case of practical structures with large scale adhesive joining. In this work, optical fibers with Bragg grating (FBG) sensors embedded in single lap joints has been demonstrated to be able to detect internal damage caused by monotonic and cyclic loading. FBG sensor works by reflecting specific wavelengths from a broad spectrum incident light. The wavelengths reflected depend on the strain on the FBG. Internal damages will perturb the strain field in the joint and thus change the shape of the reflected FBG spectrum. With embedded FBG sensors, it is possible to achieve on-line monitoring of the joint integrity in an economical way.

  14. Fabrication of supersmooth optical elements with low surface and subsurface damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Guangda; Shen, Zhengxiang; Ma, Bin; Wang, Xiaoqiang; Wang, ZhanShan; Liu, Huasong; Ji, Yiqin

    2012-10-01

    Bowl feed polishing technique still plays a very important role in the manufacturing of supper smooth optical components in industry because of low cost and high productivity. A superpolishing process based on the bowl feed technique with fine ceria hydrosol slurries is presented in this paper - which is a viable method to generate supersmooth surface meets the strict requirements of low surface and subsurface damage. A concept of super-smooth surfaces machining "Process Controlling" is introduced, which takes super-smooth surfaces machining as a chain consisted of some key nodes. Moreover, the samples were etched by Hydrofluoric acid solution to reduce the residual subsurface damage produced in previous procedure, when after fine grinding and lapping process. Meanwhile, using hydro-selection technique, the average abrasive size of polish slurry decreases remarkably, and the distribution become more uniform, which is helpful to get low surface roughness. In order to reduce the fine scratches of the top surface produced during the polishing process, the slurry is intervened exposures to ultrasonic vibration to prevent the self-reunition of the fine polishing abrasives. Finally, the middle frequency roughness of the samples, almost without scratches and pits left on the surface, is less than 0.3nm Rms, the high frequency roughness is better than 0.158 nm rms, and the subsurface damage is less than 1mircon.

  15. Characterization factors for global warming in life cycle assessment based on damages to humans and ecosystems.

    PubMed

    De Schryver, An M; Brakkee, Karin W; Goedkoop, Mark J; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2009-03-15

    Human and ecosystem health damage due to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is generally poorly quantified in the life cycle assessment of products, preventing an integrated comparison of the importance of GHGs with other stressor types, such as ozone depletion and acidifying emissions. In this study, we derived new characterization factors for 63 GHGs that quantify the impact of an emission change on human and ecosystem health damage. For human health damage, the Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) per unit emission related to malaria, diarrhea, malnutrition, drowning, and cardiovascular diseases were quantified. For ecosystem health damage, the Potentially Disappeared Fraction (PDF) over space and time of various species groups, including plants, butterflies, birds, and mammals, per unit emission was calculated. The influence of value choices in the modeling procedure was analyzed by defining three coherent scenarios, based on Cultural theory perspectives. It was found that the characterization factor for human health damage by carbon dioxide (CO2) ranges from 1.1 x 10(-2) to 1.8 x 10(+1) DALY per kton of emission, while the characterization factor for ecosystem damage by CO2 ranges from 5.4 x 10(-2) to 1.2 x 10(+1) disappeared fraction of species over space and time ((km2 x year)/kton), depending on the scenario chosen. The characterization factor of a GHG can change up to 4 orders of magnitude, depending on the scenario. The scenario-specific differences are mainly explained by the choice for a specific time horizon and stresses the importance of dealing with value choices in the life cycle impact assessment of GHG emissions.

  16. Characterization of GaAs monolithic circuits by optical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, H.-L. A.; Lee, T. T.; Polak-Dingels, P.; Chauchard, E.; Webb, K.

    1989-09-01

    Optical techniques for broadband microwave signal generation and detection have been developed to characterize monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs). Emphasis is on the enhancement of measurement accuracy and the identification of limitations. De-embedded complex S-parameters are derived from time-domain data obtained from both a GaAs photoconductive switch and electro-optic sampling of a Ka-band MMIC power amplifier. These parameters are directly compared with those measured from a network analyzer of the same circuit.

  17. Characterization of tissue optical properties for prostate PDT using interstitial diffuse optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Xing; Wang, Ken Kang-hsin; Zhu, Timothy C.

    2012-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an important treatment modality for localized diseases such as prostate cancer. In prostate PDT, light distribution is an important factor because it is directly related to treatment efficacy. During PDT, light distribution is determined by tissue optical property distributions (or heterogeneity). In this study, an interstitial diffuse optical tomography (iDOT) method was used to characterize optical properties in tissues. Optical properties (absorption and reduced scattering coefficients) of the prostate gland were reconstructed by solving the inverse problem using an adjoint model based on diffusion equation using a modified matlab public user code NIRFAST. In the modified NIRFAST method, linear sources were modeled for the reconstruction. Cross talking between absorption coefficients and reduced scattering coefficients were studied to have minimal effect, and a constrained optical property method (set either absorption coefficient or reduced scattering coefficient to be homogeneous) is also studied. A prostate phantom with optical anomalies was used to verify the iDOT method. The reconstructed results were compared with the known optical properties, and the spatial distribution of optical properties for this phantom was successfully reconstructed.

  18. Performance Characterization of Digital Optical Data Transfer Systems for Use in the Space Radiation Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Robert A.; Ladbury, Ray L.; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Radiation effects in photonic and microelectronic components can impact the performance of high-speed digital optical data link in a variety of ways. This segment of the short course focuses on radiation effects in digital optical data links operating in the MHz to GHz regime. (Some of the information is applicable to frequencies above and below this regime) The three basic component level effects that should be considered are Total Ionizing Dose (TID), Displacement Damage Dose (DDD) and Single Event Effects (SEE). In some cases the system performance degradation can be quantified from component level tests, while in others a more holistic characterization approach must be taken. In Section 2.0 of this segment of the Short Course we will give a brief overview of the space radiation environment follow by a summary of the basic space radiation effects important for microelectronics and photonics listed above. The last part of this section will give an example of a typical mission radiation environment requirements. Section 3.0 gives an overview of intra-satellite digital optical data link systems. It contains a discussion of the digital optical data link and it's components. Also, we discuss some of the important system performance metrics that are impacted by radiation effects degradation of optical and optoelectronic component performance. Section 4.0 discusses radiation effects in optical and optoelectronic components. While each component effect will be discussed, the focus of this section is on degradation of passive optical components and SEE in photodiodes (other mechanisms are covered in segment II of this short course entitled "Photonic Devices with Complex and Multiple Failure Modes"). Section 5.0 will focus on optical data link system response to the space radiation environment. System level SEE ground testing will be discussed. Then we give a discussion of system level assessment of data link performance when operating in the space radiation environment.

  19. Preparation, Characterization and Application of Optical Switch Probes

    PubMed Central

    Petchprayoon, Chutima; Marriott, Gerard

    2011-01-01

    Optical switches represent a new class of molecular probe with applications in high contrast imaging and optical manipulation of protein interactions. Small molecule, organic optical switches based on nitrospirobenzopyran (NitroBIPS) and their reactive derivatives and conjugates undergo efficient, rapid and reversible, orthogonal optically-driven transitions between a colorless spiro (SP) state and a colored merocyanine (MC) state. The excited MC-state also emits fluorescence, which serves as readout of the state of the switch. Defined optical perturbations of SP and MC generate a defined waveform of MC-fluorescence that can be isolated against unmodulated background signals by using a digital optical lock-in detection approach or to control specific dipolar interactions on proteins. The protocols describe general procedures for the synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of NitroBIPS and specifically labeled conjugates along with methods for the manipulation of dipolar interactions on proteins and imaging of the MC-state of NitroBIPS within living cells. PMID:22140655

  20. Characterization facility for magneto-optic media and systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mansuripur, M.; Fu, H.; Gadetsky, S.; Sugaya, S.; Wu, T. H.; Zambuto, J.; Gerber, R.; Goodman, T.; Erwin, J. K.

    1993-01-01

    Objectives of this research are: (1) to measure the hysteresis loop, Kerr rotation angle, anisotropy energy profile, Hall voltage, and magnetoresistance of thin-film magneto-optic media using our loop-tracer; (2) measure the wavelength-dependence of the Kerr rotation angle, Theta(sub k), and ellipticity, epsilon(sub k), for thin-film media using our magneto-optic Kerr spectrometer (MOKS); (3) measure the dielectric tensor of thin-film and multilayer samples using our variable-angle magneto-optic ellipsometer (VAMOE); (4) measure the hysteresis loop, coercivity, remanent magnetization, saturation magnetization, and anisotropy energy constant for thin film magnetic media using vibrating sample magnetometry; (5) observe small magnetic domains and investigate their interaction with defects using magnetic force microscopy; (6) perform static read/write/erase experiments on thin-film magneto-optic media using our static test station; (7) integrate the existing models of magnetization, magneto-optic effects, coercivity, and anisotropy in an interactive and user-friendly environment, and analyze the characterization data obtained in the various experiments, using this modeling package; (8) measure focusing- and tracking-error signals on a static testbed, determine the 'feedthrough' for various focusing schemes, investigate the effects of polarization and birefringence, and compare the results with diffraction-based calculations; and (9) measure the birefringence of optical disk substrates using two variable angle ellipsometers.

  1. Characterization of fiber optic Cerenkov radiation sensor for detecting neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, K. W.; Yagi, T.; Pyeon, C. H.; Shin, S. H.; Yoo, W. J.; Misawa, T.; Lee, B.

    2013-09-01

    Cerenkov radiation can be observed easily as a shimmer of blue light from the water in boiling- and pressurized-water reactors, or spent fuel storage pools. In this research, we fabricated the fiber-optic Cerenkov radiation sensor using a Gdfoil, rutile crystal and optical fiber for detecting neutrons. Also, the reference sensor for measuring background gammarays was fabricated with the rutile crystal and optical fiber. The neutron fluxes could be obtained by measuring the signal difference between two sensors. To characterize the fiber-optic Cerenkov radiation sensor, we measured neutron fluxes using a Cf-252 neutron source according to depths of polyethylene. As the results, the counts of fiber-optic Cerenkov radiation sensor were higher than those of reference sensor due to additional interactions between Gd-foil and neutrons. Also, the counts of Cerenkov radiation decreased with increasing polyethylene thickness. It is anticipated that the novel and simple fiber-optic Cerenkov radiation sensor using the Cerenkov effect can be widely used to detect the neutrons in hazardous nuclear facilities.

  2. Applications of digital holography to measurements and optical characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, Xinzhu; Yu, Chongxiu; Yu, Miao; Hsu, Dashsiung

    2011-09-01

    With recent advances in high-speed computer and video capture technology, holographic films used in classical holography can be replaced with charged-coupled devices (CCD) and complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors to record and numerically reconstruct a hologram, which is now known as digital holography. Digital holography introduces something new to optical science. Wet chemical processing and other time-consuming procedures can be removed, so numerical recording and reconstruction can be realized in almost real time. It allows us to characterize the phase of a light field as well the intensity, and so the whole wave field can be measured and stored in a computer. Digital holography is expanding applications of holography and becoming a scientific and technological tool. Its use has now increased for measuring amplitude and the phase of object waves, displacement and three dimensional shape, particle distributions and motions, characterization of the refractive index and biological tissues, and vibration analysis, etc. Here, basic principles of digital holography for optical measurement and characterization are described. Taking into consideration the rapid advance in CCD and CMOS sensors as the background, the state-of-the-art applications of digital holography to optical measurement and characterization are presented.

  3. Ultrafast optical technique for the characterization of altered materials

    DOEpatents

    Maris, Humphrey J.

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a method and a system for non-destructively examining a semiconductor sample (30) having at least one localized region underlying a surface (30a) through into which a selected chemical species has been implanted or diffused. A first step induces at least one transient time-varying change in optical constants of the sample at a location at or near to a surface of the sample. A second step measures a response of the sample to an optical probe beam, either pulsed or continuous wave, at least during a time that the optical constants are varying. A third step associates the measured response with at least one of chemical species concentration, chemical species type, implant energy, a presence or absence of an introduced chemical species region at the location, and a presence or absence of implant-related damage. The method and apparatus in accordance with this invention can be employed in conjunction with a measurement of one or more of the following effects arising from a time-dependent change in the optical constants of the sample due to the application of at least one pump pulse: (a) a change in reflected intensity; (b) a change in transmitted intensity; (c) a change in a polarization state of the reflected and/or transmitted light; (d) a change in the optical phase of the reflected and/or transmitted light; (e) a change in direction of the reflected and/or transmitted light; and (f) a change in optical path length between the sample's surface and a detector.

  4. Ultrafast optical technique for the characterization of altered materials

    DOEpatents

    Maris, H.J.

    1998-01-06

    Disclosed herein is a method and a system for non-destructively examining a semiconductor sample having at least one localized region underlying a surface through into which a selected chemical species has been implanted or diffused. A first step induces at least one transient time-varying change in optical constants of the sample at a location at or near to a surface of the sample. A second step measures a response of the sample to an optical probe beam, either pulsed or continuous wave, at least during a time that the optical constants are varying. A third step associates the measured response with at least one of chemical species concentration, chemical species type, implant energy, a presence or absence of an introduced chemical species region at the location, and a presence or absence of implant-related damage. The method and apparatus in accordance with this invention can be employed in conjunction with a measurement of one or more of the following effects arising from a time-dependent change in the optical constants of the sample due to the application of at least one pump pulse: (a) a change in reflected intensity; (b) a change in transmitted intensity; (c) a change in a polarization state of the reflected and/or transmitted light; (d) a change in the optical phase of the reflected and/or transmitted light; (e) a change in direction of the reflected and/or transmitted light; and (f) a change in optical path length between the sample`s surface and a detector. 22 figs.

  5. Methods for Mitigating Growth of Laser-Initiated Surface Damage on Fused Silcia Optics at 351nm

    SciTech Connect

    Hrubesh, L W; Norton, M A; Molander, W A; Donohue, E E; Maricle, S M; Penetrante, B M; Brusasco, R M; Grundler, W; Butler, J A; Carr, J W; Hill, R M; Summers, L J; Feit, M D; Rubenchik, A; Key, M H; Wegner, P J; Burnham, A K; Hackel, L A; Kozlowski, M R

    2001-12-12

    We report a summary of the surface damage, growth mitigation effort at 351nm for polished fused silica optics. The objective was to experimentally validate selected methods that could be applied to pre-initiated or retrieved-from-service optics, to stop further damage growth. A specific goal was to obtain sufficient data and information on successful methods for fused silica optics to select a single approach for processing large aperture, fused-silica optics used in high-peak-power laser applications. This paper includes the test results and the evaluation thereof, for several mitigation methods for fused silica surfaces. The mitigation methods tested in this study are wet chemical etching, cold plasma etching, CW-CO{sub 2} laser processing, and micro-flame torch processing. We found that CW-CO{sub 2} laser processing produces the most significant and consistent results to halt laser-induced surface damage growth on fused silica. We recorded successful mitigation of the growth of laser-induced surface damage sites as large as 0.5mm diameter, for 1000 shots at 351nm and fluences in the range of 8 to 13J/cm{sup 2}, {approx}11ns pulse length. We obtained sufficient data for elimination of damage growth using CO{sub 2} laser processing on sub-aperture representative optics, to proceed with application to large aperture ({approx}40 x 40cm{sup 2}) fused silica.

  6. Analysis of optic disc damage by optical coherence tomography in terms of therapy in non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Balogh, Zsuzsa; Kasza, Márta; Várdai, Julianna; Reznek, Izabella; Damjanovich, Judit; Csutak, Adrienne; Berta, András; Nagy, Valéria

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the relationship between the rate of nerve fiber loss in non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) and time delay before therapy. Total 24 patients received the same treatment within or after 2wk (early and late groups). There were significantly lower level of destruction of nerve fibers (P=0.0014) and significantly better visual field sensitivity (P=0.039) in early group. The results indicate that therapy should be started within 2wk. The degree of ischemic damage due to NAION correlates well with retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and the ischemia-induced decrease in visual field sensitivity. PMID:27672604

  7. Rear-Surface Laser Damage on 355-nm Silica Optics Owing to Fresnel Diffraction on Front-Surface Contamination Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Génin, François Y.; Feit, Michael D.; Kozlowski, Mark R.; Rubenchik, Alexander M.; Salleo, Alberto; Yoshiyama, James

    2000-07-01

    Light intensity modulations caused by opaque obstacles (e.g., dust) on silica lenses in high-power lasers often enhance the potential for laser-induced damage. To study this effect, particles (10 250 m) with various shapes were sputter deposited on the input surface and irradiated with a 3-ns laser beam at 355 nm. Although a clean silica surface damages at fluences above 15 J cm 2 , a surface contaminated with particles can damage below 11.5 J cm 2 . A pattern that conforms to the shape of the input surface particle is printed on the output surface. Repetitive illumination resulted in catastrophic drilling of the optic. The damage pattern correlated with an interference image of the particle before irradiation. The image shows that the incident beam undergoes phase (and amplitude) modulations after it passes around the particle. We modeled the experiments by calculating the light intensity distribution behind an obscuration by use of Fresnel diffraction theory. The comparison between calculated light intensity distribution and the output surface damage pattern showed good agreement. The model was then used to predict the increased damage vulnerability that results from intensity modulations as a function of particle size, shape, and lens thickness. The predictions provide the basis for optics cleanliness specifications on the National Ignition Facility to reduce the likelihood of optical damage.

  8. Characterization of impact damage in woven fiber composites using fiber Bragg grating sensing and NDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiche, Cristobal; Liu, Kuang C.; Seaver, Mark; Wei, Jun; Chattopadhyay, Aditi

    2009-03-01

    Woven fiber composites are currently being investigated due to their advantages over other materials, making them suitable for low weight, high stiffness, and high interlaminar fracture toughness applications such as missiles, body armor, satellites, and many other aerospace applications. Damage characterization of woven fabrics is a complex task due to their tendency to exhibit different failure modes based on the weave configuration, orientation, ply stacking and other variables. A multiscale model is necessary to accurately predict progressive damage. The present research is an experimental study on damage characterization of three different woven fiber laminates under low energy impact using Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors and flash thermography. A correlation between the measured strain from FBG sensors and the damaged area obtained from flash thermography imaging has been developed. It was observed that the peak strain in the fabrics were strongly dependent on the weave geometry and decreased at different rates as damage area increased due to dissimilar failure modes. Experimental observations were validated with the development of a multiscale model. A FBG sensor placement model was developed which showed that FBG sensor location and orientation plays a key role in the sensing capabilities of strain on the samples.

  9. Characterization of optical systems for the ALPS II experiment.

    PubMed

    Spector, Aaron D; Põld, Jan H; Bähre, Robin; Lindner, Axel; Willke, Benno

    2016-12-12

    ALPS II is a light shining through a wall style experiment that will use the principle of resonant enhancement to boost the conversion and reconversion probabilities of photons to relativistic WISPs. This will require the use of long baseline low-loss optical cavities. Very high power build up factors in the cavities must be achieved in order to reach the design sensitivity of ALPS II. This necessitates a number of different sophisticated optical and control systems to maintain the resonance and ensure maximal coupling between the laser and the cavity. In this paper we report on the results of the characterization of these optical systems with a 20 m cavity and discuss the results in the context of ALPS II.

  10. Characterization of optical systems for the ALPS II experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spector, Aaron D.; Põld, Jan H.; Bähre, Robin; Lindner, Axel; Willke, Benno

    2016-12-01

    ALPS II is a light shining through a wall style experiment that will use the principle of resonant enhancement to boost the conversion and reconversion probabilities of photons to relativistic WISPs. This will require the use of long baseline low-loss optical cavities. Very high power build up factors in the cavities must be achieved in order to reach the design sensitivity of ALPS II. This necessitates a number of different sophisticated optical and control systems to maintain the resonance and ensure maximal coupling between the laser and the cavity. In this paper we report on the results of the characterization of these optical systems with a 20 m cavity and discuss the results in the context of ALPS II.

  11. Optical characterization of porous silicon microcavities for glucose oxidase biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palestino, G.; Agarwal, V.; Garcia, D. B.; Legros, R.; Pérez, E.; Gergely, C.

    2008-04-01

    PSi microcavity (PSiMc) is characterized by a narrow resonance peak in the optical spectrum that is very sensitive to small changes in the refractive index. We report that the resonant optical cavities of PSi structures can be used to enhance the detection of labeled fluorescent biomolecules. Various PSi configurations were tested in order to compare the optical response of the PSi devices to the capture of organic molecules. Morphological and topographical analyses were performed on PSiMc using Atomic Force (AFM) and Scanning Electron (SEM) microscopies. The heterogeneity in pores lengths resulting from etching process assures a better penetration of larger molecules into the pores and sensor sensitivity depends on the pore size. Molecular detection is monitored by the successive red shifts in the reflectance spectra after the stabilization of PSiMc with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES). The glucose oxidase was cross linked into the PSiMc structures following a silane-glutaraldehyde (GTA) chemistry.

  12. Polydimethylsiloxane thin film characterization using all-optical photoacoustic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiaotian; Wu, Nan; Tian, Ye; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Xingwei

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a nondestructive ultrasound testing method for characterization of the resonant frequencies of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) thin film by using a miniature fiber optic photoacoustic (PA) probe. The PA probe was fabricated with an optical fiber and a synthesized gold nanocomposite. During the experiment, a cured PDMS thin film with a thickness of 220 μm was immersed into a water medium using a custom-designed holder to clamp the film. An acoustic pulse was generated by the PA probe and propagated through the water media to excite the fixed film. A fiber optic pressure sensor based on the Fabry-Perot principle was used to collect the excited acoustic signals on the other side of the film. The acquired response of the acoustic pulse was used to compute the resonant frequencies of the PDMS thin film based on a deconvolution method.

  13. Characterization of multi-layered impact damage in polymer matrix composites using lateral thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitlow, Travis; Sathish, Shamachary

    2017-02-01

    Polymer matrix composites (PMCs) are increasingly being integrated into aircraft structures. However, these components are susceptible to impact related delamination, which, on aircrafts, can occur due to a number of reasons during aircraft use and maintenance. Quantifying impact damage is an important aspect for life-management of aircraft and requires in-depth knowledge of the damage zone on a ply-by-ply level. Traditionally, immersion ultrasound has provided relative high resolution images of impact damage. Ultrasonic time-of-flight data can be used to determine the front surface delamination depth and an approximation of the delaminated area. However, such inspections require the material to be immersed in water and can be time consuming. The objective of this work is to develop a quick and robust methodology to non-destructively characterize multi-layered impact damage using lateral thermography. Initial results suggest lateral heat flow is sensitive to the depth of impact damage. The anticipated outcome of this project is to estimate the extent of through-thickness impact damage. Initial results are shown and future efforts are discussed.

  14. Cone and seed pests of Pinus pinea: assessment and characterization of damage.

    PubMed

    Bracalini, Matteo; Benedettelli, Stefano; Croci, Francesco; Terreni, Perla; Tiberi, Riziero; Panzavolta, Tiziana

    2013-02-01

    Cone and seed insects have played a key role in the decline of stone pine nut production in Italy. To evaluate the impact caused by native Palearctic and exotic insects, a greater knowledge of pest symptoms is required. During 2008-2009, first and second-year stone pine cones, as well as the seeds produced, were examined in Tuscany (Italy) to assess viability. Insect damage was characterized based on external signs on the cones and seed endosperms, and the impact of recorded insect species on nut production was evaluated. In the current study, cones attacked by anobiid beetles and Dioryctria spp. were observed, as well as asymptomatic dead cones and cones with resin drops and patches, that could not easily be related to a damaging agent. As regards the anobiid beetles, adults of Ernobius parens (Mulsant and Rey) and E. impressithorax Pic emerged from cones in laboratory rearing. A low number of cones damaged by Dioryctria spp. was recorded whereas high percentages of cones showed resin exudates. The presence of resin cannot be definitely related to a damaging agent, although the feeding activity of Leptoglossus occidentalis Heidemann could be one of the reasons. Damage by L. occidentalis was assessed by seed observation. Most of the seeds displayed tissues that had been damaged by this pest.

  15. Dynamic spectral-domain optical coherence elastography for tissue characterization.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xing; Adie, Steven G; John, Renu; Boppart, Stephen A

    2010-06-21

    A dynamic spectral-domain optical coherence elastography (OCE) imaging technique is reported. In this technique, audio-frequency compressive vibrations are generated by a piezoelectric stack as external excitation, and strain rates in the sample are calculated and mapped quantitatively using phase-sensitive spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. At different driving frequencies, this technique provides contrast between sample regions with different mechanical properties, and thus is used to mechanically characterize tissue. We present images of a three-layer silicone tissue phantom and rat tumor tissue ex vivo, based on quantitative strain rate. Both acquisition speed and processing speed are improved dramatically compared with previous OCE imaging techniques. With high resolution, high acquisition speed, and the ability to characterize the mechanical properties of tissue, this OCE technique has potential use in non-destructive volumetric imaging and clinical applications.

  16. Optical characterization of thermal properties of biological tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez-Arroyo, A.; Sánchez Pérez, C.; Alemán-García, N.; Piña-Barba, C.

    2013-11-01

    In this work we utilize heat conduction measurements trough the photothermal beam deflection technique to characterize thermal properties of biological tissue. We design a heat flux sensor based on the phenomenon of photothermal laser beam deflection within a thermo-optic slab (acrylic), where the deflection is quantified by an optical fiber angle sensor. We analytically model the heat flux sensor response based on heat wave propagation theory that well agree with experimental data. We present heat conduction measurements on different tissues applying a heat pulse. Hence we obtain the thermal effusivity coefficient of bovine tendon and chicken liver and heart. It has been shown that thermal conduction depends on the tissués chemical composition as well on their structural arrangements, so any modification in tissue will affect on heat conduction rendering this method potentially useful as an auxiliary in biomedical studies. Nowadays there are several thermal effusivity and diffusivity measurement techniques with classic calorimetry (using thermistors) for research and industrial applications. However there are only few integrated optical devices already proposed, turning this optical technique in an innovative and alternative sensing system for thermal properties characterization.

  17. Electro-optical characterization of GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Larry C.; Dunham, Glen; Addis, F. W.; Huber, Dan; Daling, Dave

    1987-01-01

    The electro-optical characterization of gallium arsenide p/n solar cells is discussed. The objective is to identify and understand basic mechanisms which limit the performance of high efficiency gallium arsenide solar cells. The approach involves conducting photoresponse and temperature dependent current-voltage measurements, and interpretation of the data in terms of theory to determine key device parameters. Depth concentration profiles are also utilized in formulating a model to explain device performance.

  18. Research on laser-induced damage resistance of fused silica optics by the fluid jet polishing method.

    PubMed

    Lv, Liang; Ma, Ping; Huang, Jinyong; He, Xiang; Cai, Chao; Zhu, Heng

    2016-03-20

    Laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) is one important evaluation index for optical glasses applied in large laser instruments which are exposed to high light irradiation flux. As a new kind of precise polishing technology, fluid jet polishing (FJP) has been widely used in generating planar, spherical, and aspherical optics with high-accuracy surfaces. Laser damage resistances of fused silica optics by the FJP process are studied in this paper. Fused silica samples with various FJP parameters are prepared, and laser damage experiments are performed with 351 nm wavelength and a 5.5 ns pulse width laser. Experimental results demonstrate that the LIDT of the samples treated with FJP processes did not increase, compared to their original state. The surface quality of the samples is one factor for the decrease of LIDT. For ceria solution polished samples, the cerium element remaining is another factor of the lower LIDT.

  19. Diffractive optics for combined spatial- and mode- division demultiplexing of optical vortices: design, fabrication and optical characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffato, Gianluca; Massari, Michele; Romanato, Filippo

    2016-04-01

    During the last decade, the orbital angular momentum (OAM) of light has attracted growing interest as a new degree of freedom for signal channel multiplexing in order to increase the information transmission capacity in today’s optical networks. Here we present the design, fabrication and characterization of phase-only diffractive optical elements (DOE) performing mode-division (de)multiplexing (MDM) and spatial-division (de)multiplexing (SDM) at the same time. Samples have been fabricated with high-resolution electron-beam lithography patterning a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) resist layer spun over a glass substrate. Different DOE designs are presented for the sorting of optical vortices differing in either OAM content or beam size in the optical regime, with different steering geometries in far-field. These novel DOE designs appear promising for telecom applications both in free-space and in multi-core fibers propagation.

  20. Diffractive optics for combined spatial- and mode- division demultiplexing of optical vortices: design, fabrication and optical characterization

    PubMed Central

    Ruffato, Gianluca; Massari, Michele; Romanato, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    During the last decade, the orbital angular momentum (OAM) of light has attracted growing interest as a new degree of freedom for signal channel multiplexing in order to increase the information transmission capacity in today’s optical networks. Here we present the design, fabrication and characterization of phase-only diffractive optical elements (DOE) performing mode-division (de)multiplexing (MDM) and spatial-division (de)multiplexing (SDM) at the same time. Samples have been fabricated with high-resolution electron-beam lithography patterning a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) resist layer spun over a glass substrate. Different DOE designs are presented for the sorting of optical vortices differing in either OAM content or beam size in the optical regime, with different steering geometries in far-field. These novel DOE designs appear promising for telecom applications both in free-space and in multi-core fibers propagation. PMID:27094324

  1. The use of optical flow to characterize muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Zoccolan, D; Giachetti, A; Torre, V

    2001-09-30

    Muscle contraction is usually measured and characterized with force and displacement transducers. The contraction of muscle fibers, however, evokes in the tissue a two and even three-dimensional displacement field, which is not properly quantified by these transducers because they provide just a single scalar quantity. This problem can be circumvented by using optical measurements and standard tools of computer vision, developed for the analysis of time varying image sequences. By computing the so called optical flow, i.e. the apparent motion of points in a time varying image sequence, it is possible to recover a two-dimensional motion field, describing rather precisely the displacement caused by muscle contraction in a flattened piece of skin. The obtained two-dimensional optical flow can be further analyzed by computing its elementary deformation components, providing a novel and accurate characterization of the contraction induced by different motoneurons. This technique is demonstrated analyzing the displacement caused by muscle contraction in the skin of the leech, Hirudo medicinalis. The proposed technique can be applied to monitor and characterize all contractions in almost flat tissues with enough visual texture.

  2. Characterization and Operation of Liquid Crystal Adaptive Optics Phoropter

    SciTech Connect

    Awwal, A; Bauman, B; Gavel, D; Olivier, S; Jones, S; Hardy, J L; Barnes, T; Werner, J S

    2003-02-05

    Adaptive optics (AO), a mature technology developed for astronomy to compensate for the effects of atmospheric turbulence, can also be used to correct the aberrations of the eye. The classic phoropter is used by ophthalmologists and optometrists to estimate and correct the lower-order aberrations of the eye, defocus and astigmatism, in order to derive a vision correction prescription for their patients. An adaptive optics phoropter measures and corrects the aberrations in the human eye using adaptive optics techniques, which are capable of dealing with both the standard low-order aberrations and higher-order aberrations, including coma and spherical aberration. High-order aberrations have been shown to degrade visual performance for clinical subjects in initial investigations. An adaptive optics phoropter has been designed and constructed based on a Shack-Hartmann sensor to measure the aberrations of the eye, and a liquid crystal spatial light modulator to compensate for them. This system should produce near diffraction-limited optical image quality at the retina, which will enable investigation of the psychophysical limits of human vision. This paper describes the characterization and operation of the AO phoropter with results from human subject testing.

  3. Measuring single-shot, picosecond optical damage threshold in Ge, Si, and sapphire with a 5.1-μm laser

    SciTech Connect

    Agustsson, R.; Pogorelsky, I.; Arab, E.; Murokh, A.; O"Shea, B.; Ovodenko, A.; Rosenzweig, J.; Solovyov, V.; Tilton, R.

    2015-11-18

    Optical photonic structures driven by picosecond, GW-class lasers are emerging as promising novel sources of electron beams and high quality X-rays. Due to quadratic dependence on wavelength of the laser ponderomotive potential, the performance of such sources scales very favorably towards longer drive laser wavelengths. However, to take full advantage of photonic structures at mid-IR spectral region, it is important to determine optical breakdown limits of common optical materials. To this end, an experimental study was carried out at a wavelength of 5 µm, using a frequency-doubled CO2 laser source, with 5 ps pulse length. Single-shot optical breakdowns were detected and characterized at different laser intensities, and damage threshold values of 0.2, 0.3, and 7.0 J/cm2, were established for Ge, Si, and sapphire, respectively. As a result, the measured damage threshold values were stable and repeatable within individual data sets, and across varying experimental conditions.

  4. Measuring single-shot, picosecond optical damage threshold in Ge, Si, and sapphire with a 5.1-μm laser

    DOE PAGES

    Agustsson, R.; Pogorelsky, I.; Arab, E.; ...

    2015-11-18

    Optical photonic structures driven by picosecond, GW-class lasers are emerging as promising novel sources of electron beams and high quality X-rays. Due to quadratic dependence on wavelength of the laser ponderomotive potential, the performance of such sources scales very favorably towards longer drive laser wavelengths. However, to take full advantage of photonic structures at mid-IR spectral region, it is important to determine optical breakdown limits of common optical materials. To this end, an experimental study was carried out at a wavelength of 5 µm, using a frequency-doubled CO2 laser source, with 5 ps pulse length. Single-shot optical breakdowns were detectedmore » and characterized at different laser intensities, and damage threshold values of 0.2, 0.3, and 7.0 J/cm2, were established for Ge, Si, and sapphire, respectively. As a result, the measured damage threshold values were stable and repeatable within individual data sets, and across varying experimental conditions.« less

  5. Characterization of irradiation damage distribution near TiO{sub 2}/SrTiO{sub 3} interfaces using coherent acoustic phonon interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Yarotski, Dmitry; Yan Li; Jia Quanxi; Taylor, Antoinette J.; Fu Engang; Wang Yongqiang; Uberuaga, Blas P.

    2012-06-18

    We apply ultrafast coherent acoustic phonon interferometry to characterize the distribution of the radiation damage near the TiO{sub 2}/SrTiO{sub 3} interfaces. We show that the optical and mechanical properties of anatase TiO{sub 2} remain unaffected by the radiation dosages in the 0.1 Division-Sign 5 dpa (displacements per atom) range, while the degraded optical response indicates a significant defect accumulation in the interfacial region of SrTiO{sub 3} at 0.1 dpa and subsequent amorphization at 3 dpa. Comparison between the theoretical simulations and the experimental results reveals an almost threefold reduction of the sound velocity in the irradiated SrTiO{sub 3} layer with peak damage levels of 3 and 5 dpa.

  6. Stimulated recovery of the optical transmission of PbWO 4 scintillation crystals for electromagnetic calorimeters after radiation damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dormenev, V.; Kuske, T.; Novotny, R. W.; Borisevich, A.; Fedorov, A.; Korjik, M.; Mechinski, V.; Missevitch, O.; Lugert, S.

    2010-11-01

    In this paper we describe the phenomenon of the stimulated recovery of radiation damage in lead tungstate scintillation crystals achieved via illumination by visible and infrared light. It allows fast and efficient in-situ recovery of the optical transmission either during beam-off periods or on-line during data accumulation. The application can substantially improve or extend the running period of the experiment by keeping the damage at a tolerable level.

  7. Simultaneous quadruple modal nonlinear optical imaging for gastric diseases diagnosis and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zi; Zheng, Wei; Lin, Jian; Huang, Zhiwei

    2015-03-01

    We report the development of a unique simultaneous quadruple-modal nonlinear optical microscopy (i.e., stimulated Raman scattering (SRS), second-harmonic generation (SHG), two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF), and third-harmonic generation (THG)) platform for characterization of the gastric diseases (i.e., gastritis, intestinal metaplasia (IM), intestinal type adenocarcinoma). SRS highlights the goblet cells found in IM. SHG images the distribution of collagen in lamina propria. Collagen is found to aggregate for intestinal type adenocarcinoma. TPEF reveals the cell morphology and can reflect the damage inside glands caused by the diseases. THG visualizes the nuclei with high spatial resolution, which facilitates the identification of neutrophils that are usually used as a feature of inflammation. This work shows that the co-registration of quadruple-modal images can be an effective means for diagnosis and characterization of gastric diseases at the cellular and molecular levels.

  8. Investigating photoexcitation-induced mitochondrial damage by chemotherapeutic corroles using multimode optical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jae Youn; Lubow, David J.; Sims, Jessica D.; Gray, Harry B.; Mahammed, Atif; Gross, Zeev; Medina-Kauwe, Lali K.; Farkas, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    We recently reported that a targeted, brightly fluorescent gallium corrole (HerGa) is highly effective for breast tumor detection and treatment. Unlike structurally similar porphryins, HerGa exhibits tumor-targeted toxicity without the need for photoexcitation. We have now examined whether photoexcitation further modulates HerGa toxicity, using multimode optical imaging of live cells, including two-photon excited fluorescence, differential interference contrast (DIC), spectral, and lifetime imaging. Using two-photon excited fluorescence imaging, we observed that light at specific wavelengths augments the HerGa-mediated mitochondrial membrane potential disruption of breast cancer cells in situ. In addition, DIC, spectral, and fluorescence lifetime imaging enabled us to both validate cell damage by HerGa photoexcitation and investigate HerGa internalization, thus allowing optimization of light dose and timing. Our demonstration of HerGa phototoxicity opens the way for development of new methods of cancer intervention using tumor-targeted corroles.

  9. Nonlinear optical and laser damage threshold studies of an ammonium p-toluenesulfonate crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peramaiyan, G.; Mohan Kumar, R.

    2015-05-01

    An organic nonlinear optical (NLO) crystal of ammonium p-toluenesulfonate (AMPTS) was grown by a slow evaporation solution growth technique. A single crystal X-ray diffraction study revealed that the AMPTS crystal belongs to orthorhombic system with the space group of Pna21. From the UV-Vis-NIR spectral study, refractive index and extinction coefficient were determined. The nonlinear refractive index, nonlinear absorption coefficient and third-order NLO susceptibility were calculated to be -5.2872 × 10-8 cm2/W, 7.035 × 10-3 cm/W and 3.44 × 10-6 esu, respectively, by Z-scan studies. The laser damage threshold of AMPTS crystal was found to be 4.08, 4.0 and 3.95 GW/cm2 for (10-1), (-110) and (001) planes, respectively, using a Nd:YAG laser source. Etching study revealed the surface quality of AMPTS crystal.

  10. Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1981. Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers (13th). Held in Boulder, Colorado on 17-18 November 1981

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    the incident optical field. This argument was originally made by Willis and Emmony [5] for coherently inferfering avalanche currents generated by 10.6...Phys. Soc. Japan 25, 1679 (1968). [5] L. J. Willis and D. C. Emmony, "Laser Damage in Germanium," Optics and Laser Technology, 222, October 1975. 113...Vaidyanathan, A. H. R. Pantell, F. Pradere , J. Hanus, M. Schott and Guenther, and S. S. Mitra, Ibys. lEv. B 22, 6480 H. Puthoff, J. Chan Phys

  11. Materials and processes laboratory composite materials characterization task, part 1. Damage tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nettles, A. T.; Tucker, D. S.; Patterson, W. J.; Franklin, S. W.; Gordon, G. H.; Hart, L.; Hodge, A. J.; Lance, D. G.; Russel, S. S.

    1991-01-01

    A test run was performed on IM6/3501-6 carbon-epoxy in which the material was processed, machined into specimens, and tested for damage tolerance capabilities. Nondestructive test data played a major role in this element of composite characterization. A time chart was produced showing the time the composite material spent within each Branch or Division in order to identify those areas which produce a long turnaround time. Instrumented drop weight testing was performed on the specimens with nondestructive evaluation being performed before and after the impacts. Destructive testing in the form of cross-sectional photomicrography and compression-after-impact testing were used. Results show that the processing and machining steps needed to be performed more rapidly if data on composite material is to be collected within a reasonable timeframe. The results of the damage tolerance testing showed that IM6/3501-6 is a brittle material that is very susceptible to impact damage.

  12. Optical transmission radiation damage and recovery stimulation of DSB: Ce3+ inorganic scintillation material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisevich, A.; Dormenev, V.; Korjik, M.; Kozlov, D.; Mechinsky, V.; Novotny, R. W.

    2015-02-01

    Recently, a new scintillation material DSB: Ce3+ was announced. It can be produced in a form of glass or nano-structured glass ceramics with application of standard glass production technology with successive thermal annealing. When doped with Ce3+, material can be applied as scintillator. Light yield of scintillation is near 100 phe/MeV. Un-doped material has a wide optical window from 4.5eV and can be applied to detect Cherenkov light. Temperature dependence of the light yield LY(T) is 0.05% which is 40 times less than in case of PWO. It can be used for detectors tolerant to a temperature variation between -20° to +20°C. Several samples with dimensions of 15x15x7 mm3 have been tested for damage effects on the optical transmission under irradiation with γ-quanta. It was found that the induced absorption in the scintillation range depends on the doping concentration and varies in range of 0.5-7 m-1. Spontaneous recovery of induced absorption has fast initial component. Up to 25% of the damaged transmission is recuperated in 6 hours. Afterwards it remains practically constant if the samples are kept in the dark. However, induced absorption is reduced by a factor of 2 by annealing at 50°C and completely removed in a short time when annealing at 100°C. A significant acceleration of the induced absorption recovery is observed by illumination with visible and IR light. This effect is observed for the first time in a Ce-doped scintillation material. It indicates, that radiation induced absorption in DSB: Ce scintillation material can be retained at the acceptable level by stimulation with light in a strong irradiation environment of collider experiments.

  13. Robust, efficient, optical-damage-resistant, 200 mJ nanosecond ultraviolet light source for satellite-based lidar applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, Darrell Jewell; Smith, Arlee Virgil

    2005-03-01

    Conventional wisdom contends that high-energy nanosecond UV laser sources operate near the optical damage thresholds of their constituent materials. This notion is particularly true for nonlinear frequency converters like optical parametric oscillators, where poor beam quality combined with high intra-cavity fluence leads to catastrophic failure of crystals and optical coatings. The collective disappointment of many researchers supports this contention. However, we're challenging this frustrating paradigm by developing high-energy nanosecond UV sources that are efficient, mechanically robust, and most important, resistant to optical damage. Based on sound design principles developed through numerical modeling and rigorous laboratory testing, our sources generate 8-10 ns 190 mJ pulses at 320 nm with fluences < 1 J/sq-cm Using modified but otherwise conventional Nd:YAG lasers, we achieve near-IR to UV conversion efficiency exceeding 21%.

  14. [Study on the damage of SiO2 thin films on LiNbO3 crystal in optical parametric oscillator by XRD spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Niu, Rui-Hua; Han, Jing-Hua; Luo, Jin; Lu, Feng; Zhu, Qi-Hua; Li, Tong; Yang, Li-Ming; Feng, Guo-Ying; Zhou, Shou-Huan

    2010-12-01

    In an attempt to elucidate the damage in high transmission thin films on LiNbO3 crystal in optical parametric oscillator, the authors employed XRD spectrometry to investigate the spectrum of laser-induced damage in thin film as well as the morphology of the damage. The authors observed that the damage of thin film was characterized by the depressions/craters in the surface of the films, which were surrounded by a deposition layer with the deceasing thickness from the center of the craters. The XRD measurements indicate that the film was crystallized. The authors analyzed the causes of morphologies and the mechanism of crystallization with the aid of the model for impurity-induced damage in thin solid films. The crystallization was due to the solidification of liquid and gaseous mixtures that result from the strong absorbing to the incident laser. The crater was generated because the mixtures were ejected under the extensive pressure of the laser plasma shock wave. During the process that the mixtures deposit around the craters, the density of the mixtures will decrease and crystallization takes place. As a result, the color of the deposition layer becomes lighter from inside to outside, and the crystallization of the thin film materials was observed by XRD spectrometry.

  15. Thermomechanical characterization and development of SMA-embedded CFRP composites with self-damage control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Byung-Koog; Xu, Ya; Oishi, Ryutaro; Nagai, Hideki; Yoshida, Hitoshi; Akimune, Yoshio; Otsuka, Kazuhiro; Kishi, Teruo

    2002-07-01

    The focus of this work is the thermomechanical characterization and effect of damage recovery on the pre-strained SMA wire embedded CFRP composites for developing the smart composites with self-damage control. The SMA utilized in this work is a Ni-45at percent Ti wire with a diameter of 0.4 mm. A steel mold was specially designed to embed the pre-strained TiNi wire into CFRP preperg and prevent their recovery during the cure cycle. TiNi/CFRP composites were fabricated by hot-pressing in the temperature range of 150-180 degrees C by controlling the applied pressure. The overall research is divided into four parts: fabrication of SMA wire embedded CFRP composites, experimental characterization of thermomechanical behavior on SMA wire by electrical heating, recovery effect of self-damage control in composites and sensing effect by detecting the electrical resistance at SMA wire. Compressive recovery force induced by thermomechanical actuation of SMA depends on pre-strained level and volume fraction of TiNi. The hot-pressed TiNi/CFRP specimens were loaded under tensile test in order to induce a transverse crack or partial damage. Specially, transverse crack easily happen at 90 degrees stacking CFRP layers. The damage degree due to generation of transverse cracks is quantified by real-time measurements of electrical resistance of SMA in composites during tensile load. After electrical heating, the generated transverse cracks at composites successfully repaired due to compressive force introduced by pre-strained TiNi wires and resulting in the self-damage recovery effect.

  16. Investigation of proton damage in III-V semiconductors by optical spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yaccuzzi, E.; Giudici, P.; Khachadorian, S.; Strittmatter, A.; Hoffmann, A.; Suárez, S.; Reinoso, M.; Goñi, A. R.

    2016-06-21

    We studied the damage produced by 2 MeV proton radiation on epitaxially grown InGaP/GaAs structure by means of spatially resolved Raman and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The irradiation was performed parallel to the sample surface in order to determine the proton penetration range in both compounds. An increase in the intensity of longitudinal optical phonons and a decrease in the luminescence were observed. We associate these changes with the creation of defects in the damaged region, also responsible for the observed change of the carrier concentration in the GaAs layer, determined by the shift of the phonon-plasmon coupled mode frequency. From the spatially resolved profile of the PL and phonon intensities, we obtained the proton range in both materials and we compared them with stopping and range of ions in matter simulations. The comparison between the experimentally obtained proton range and simulations shows a very good agreement for GaAs but a discrepancy of 20% for InGaP. This discrepancy can be explained in terms of limitations of the model to simulate the electronic orbitals and bonding structure of the simulated compound. In order to overcome this limitation, we propose an increase in 40% in the electronic stopping power for InGaP.

  17. Image Processing and control of a programmable spatial light modulator for optic damage protection

    SciTech Connect

    Awwal, A; Leach, R; Brunton, G; Tse, E; Matone, J; Heebner, J

    2010-12-06

    The heart of the National Ignition Facility is a megajoule-class laser system consisting of 192 beams used to drive inertial confinement fusion reactions. A recently installed system of programmable, liquid-crystal-based spatial light modulators adds the capability of arbitrarily shaping the spatial beam profiles in order to enhance operational flexibility. Its primary intended use is for introducing 'blocker' obscurations shadowing isolated flaws on downstream optical elements that would otherwise be damaged by high fluence laser illumination. Because an improperly shaped blocker pattern can lead to equipment damage, both the position and shape of the obscurations must be carefully verified prior to high-fluence operations. An automatic alignment algorithm is used to perform detection and estimation of the imposed blocker centroid positions compared to their intended locations. Furthermore, in order to minimize the spatially-varying nonlinear response of the device, a calibration of the local magnification is performed at multiple sub-image locations. In this paper, we describe the control and associated image processing of this device that helps to enhance the safety and longevity of the overall system.

  18. Why soft UV-A damages DNA: An optical micromanipulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapp, A.; Greulich, K. O.

    2013-09-01

    Optical micromanipulation studies have solved a puzzle on DNA damage and repair. Such knowledge is crucial for understanding cancer and ageing. So far it was not understood, why the soft UV component of sunlight, UV-A, causes the dangerous DNA double strand breaks. The energy of UV-A photons is below 4 eV per photon, too low to directly cleave the corresponding chemical bonds in DNA. This is occasionally used to claim that artificial sunbeds, which mainly use UV-A, would not impose a risk on health. UV-A is only sufficient for induction of single strand breaks. The essential new observation is that, when on the opposite strand there is another single strand break at a distance of up to 20 base pairs. These two breaks will be converted into a break of the whole double strand with all its known consequences for cancer and ageing. However, in natural sun the effect is counteracted. Simultaneous red light illumination reduces UV induced DNA damages to 1/3. Since sunlight has a red component, skin tanning with natural sun is not as risky as might appear at a first glance.

  19. Laser treatment of female stress urinary incontinence: optical, thermal, and tissue damage simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, Luke A.; Chang, Chun-Hung; Myers, Erinn M.; Kennelly, Michael J.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2016-02-01

    Treatment of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI) by laser thermal remodeling of subsurface tissues is studied. Light transport, heat transfer, and thermal damage simulations were performed for transvaginal and transurethral methods. Monte Carlo (MC) provided absorbed photon distributions in tissue layers (vaginal wall, endopelvic fascia, urethral wall). Optical properties (n,μa,μs,g) were assigned to each tissue at λ=1064 nm. A 5-mm-diameter laser beam and power of 5 W for 15 s was used, based on previous experiments. MC output was converted into absorbed energy, serving as input for ANSYS finite element heat transfer simulations of tissue temperatures over time. Convective heat transfer was simulated with contact cooling probe set at 0 °C. Thermal properties (κ,c,ρ) were assigned to each tissue layer. MATLAB code was used for Arrhenius integral thermal damage calculations. A temperature matrix was constructed from ANSYS output, and finite sum was incorporated to approximate Arrhenius integral calculations. Tissue damage properties (Ea,A) were used to compute Arrhenius sums. For the transvaginal approach, 37% of energy was absorbed in endopelvic fascia layer with 0.8% deposited beyond it. Peak temperature was 71°C, treatment zone was 0.8-mm-diameter, and almost all of 2.7-mm-thick vaginal wall was preserved. For transurethral approach, 18% energy was absorbed in endopelvic fascia with 0.3% deposited beyond it. Peak temperature was 80°C, treatment zone was 2.0-mm-diameter, and only 0.6 mm of 2.4-mm-thick urethral wall was preserved. A transvaginal approach is more feasible than transurethral approach for laser treatment of SUI.

  20. Characterization of disposable optical sensors for heavy metal determination.

    PubMed

    Vuković, Jadranka; Avidad, María Ariza; Capitán-Vallvey, Luis Fermín

    2012-05-30

    This paper presents the development, characterization and quality control of analytical methods based on the use of disposable optical sensors for determination of heavy metals. Chromogenic reagents such as 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol, (2-pyridylazo)resorcinol, Zincon, Ferrozine, and Chromazurol S were used to develop optical sensors of heavy metal ions found as contaminants in pharmaceutical substances and products, such as Zn(II), Cu(II), Ni(II), Fe(II), and Fe(III). The chromogenic reagents were immobilized in polymeric membranes by spin-coating from cocktails containing all reagents needed. The methods were prevalidated using a comprehensive quality control strategy based on a system of mathematical/statistical testing and diagnosis of each prevalidation step. This system involved characterization of analytical groups; checking of two limiting groups; testing of data homogeneity; recognition of outliers; and determination of analytical functions, limiting values, precision and accuracy. The prevalidation strategy demonstrated the reliability of the proposed method and pointed out some limitations. Combining the optical sensors with multicomponent linear regression allowed simultaneous determination of multiple metals in synthetic mixtures with different compositions. Good agreement between experimental and theoretical amounts of heavy metals in the mixtures was obtained for the majority of sensors and metals. Even better agreement was obtained between the experimental and theoretical total amounts of metals in the mixtures. The proposed analytical methods were successfully applied to the determination of zinc in pharmaceutical preparations of insulin and the determination of metal mixtures in a commercial nasal spray of isotonic seawater. The reliable and sensitive individual optical sensors developed in this study may be useful for designing a multimembrane optical tongue that with appropriate further optimization can be used for screening heavy metals in

  1. Simplifying numerical ray tracing for characterization of optical systems.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Yakir Luc; Speiser, Daniel I; Johnsen, Sönke

    2014-07-20

    Ray tracing, a computational method for tracing the trajectories of rays of light through matter, is often used to characterize mechanical or biological visual systems with aberrations that are larger than the effect of diffraction inherent in the system. For example, ray tracing may be used to calculate geometric point spread functions (PSFs), which describe the image of a point source after it passes through an optical system. Calculating a geometric PSF is useful because it gives an estimate of the detail and quality of the image formed by a given optical system. However, when using ray tracing to calculate a PSF, the accuracy of the estimated PSF directly depends on the number of discrete rays used in the calculation; higher accuracies may require more computational power. Furthermore, adding optical components to a modeled system will increase its complexity and require critical modifications so that the model will describe the system correctly, sometimes necessitating a completely new model. Here, we address these challenges by developing a method that represents rays of light as a continuous function that depends on the light's initial direction. By utilizing Chebyshev approximations (via the chebfun toolbox in MATLAB) for the implementation of this method, we greatly simplified the calculations for the location and direction of the rays. This method provides high precision and fast calculation speeds that allow the characterization of any symmetrical optical system (with a centered point source) in an analytical-like manner. Next, we demonstrate our methods by showing how they can easily calculate PSFs for complicated optical systems that contain multiple refractive and/or reflective interfaces.

  2. Acoustic emission detection for composite damage assessment using embedded ordinary single-mode fiber-optic interferometric sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kexing; Ferguson, Suzanne M.; McEwen, Keith; Tapanes, Edward; Measures, Raymond M.

    1990-12-01

    An interferometric fiber optic sensor using ordinary single-mode fibers is developed to detect acoustic emission (AE) for damage assessment of composite materials. This fiber sensor has been embedded in both graphite/epoxy and Kevlar/epoxy composite specimens and used to produce the fast direct correlation of acoustic emission with their concomitant forms of damage, such as matrix crack or material fiber rupture. Applications of the sensor for assessment of damage due to impact and out-of-plane loading are presented. Limitations of the sensor are also discussed.

  3. Fatigue damage characterization of braided and woven fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites at room and elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montesano, John

    The use of polymer matrix composites (PMC) for manufacturing primary load-bearing structural components has significantly increased in many industrial applications. Specifically in the aerospace industry, PMCs are also being considered for elevated temperature applications. Current aerospace-grade composite components subjected to fatigue loading are over-designed due to insufficient understanding of the material failure processes, and due to the lack of available generic fatigue prediction models. A comprehensive literature survey reveals that there are few fatigue studies conducted on woven and braided fabric reinforced PMC materials, and even fewer at elevated temperatures. It is therefore the objective of this study to characterize and subsequently model the elevated temperature fatigue behaviour of a triaxial braided PMC, and to investigate the elevated temperature fatigue properties of two additional woven PMCs. An extensive experimental program is conducted using a unique test protocol on the braided and woven composites, which consists of static and fatigue testing at various test temperatures. The development of mechanically-induced damage is monitored using a combination of non-destructive techniques which included infrared thermography, fiber optic sensors and edge replication. The observed microscopic damage development is quantified and correlated to the exhibited macroscopic material behaviour at all test temperatures. The fiber-dominated PMC materials considered in this study did not exhibit notable time- or temperature-dependent static properties. However, fatigue tests reveal that the local damage development is in fact notably influenced by temperature. The elevated temperature environment increases the toughness of the thermosetting polymers, which results in consistently slower fatigue crack propagation rates for the respective composite materials. This has a direct impact on the stiffness degradation rate and the fatigue lives for the braided

  4. Comparison of simultaneous on-line optical and acoustic laser damage detection methods in the nanosecond pulse duration domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somoskoi, T.; Vass, Cs; Mero, M.; Mingesz, R.; Bozoki, Z.; Osvay, K.

    2015-05-01

    We carried out single-shot laser-induced damage threshold measurements on dielectric high reflectors guided by the corresponding ISO standard. Four simultaneous on-line detection techniques were tested and compared using 532 nm, 9 ns and 266 nm, 6 ns laser pulses. Two methods, microscope aided visual inspection and detection of scattered light off the damaged surface, were based on optical signals. The other two techniques exploited the acoustic waves accompanying a damage event in ambient air and in the substrate by a microphone and a piezoelectric sensor, respectively. A unified criterion based on the statistical analysis of the detector signals was applied to assign an objective and unambiguous damage threshold value for all of our diverse detection methods. Microscope aided visual inspection showed the lowest damage thresholds for both wavelengths. However, the sensitivity of the other three techniques proved to be only slightly lower.

  5. Glucuronic acid γ-lactone: an organic nonlinear optical crystal with high laser-induced damage threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saripalli, Ravi Kiran; Bhat, Handady L.; Elizabeth, Suja

    2017-01-01

    Laser applications of nonlinear optical (NLO) crystals are limited by their laser damage threshold. We report a detailed study of the laser damage threshold of an NLO crystal glucuronic acid γ-lactone. Second-harmonic generation efficiency of glucuronic acid γ-lactone was estimated to be 3.5 times that of standard potassium dihydrogen phosphate. Conic sections due to spontaneous noncollinear phase matching were observed. Surface laser damage studies carried out for 1064-nm radiation on a (010) plate of the crystal yielded high-threshold values of 77.72±0.27 and 32.72±0.41 GW/cm2 for single- and multiple-shot damages, respectively. The possible mechanisms for the laser-induced damage are discussed.

  6. Damage characterization of a unidirectional off-axis graphite-bismaleimide laminate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cain, Karen Jennifer

    The aim of this study was to characterize the physical deterioration and behaviour of a fibre-reinforced composite under cyclic loading. To investigate the effects of matrix dominated shear fracture, cyclic tests with a stress ratio R = 0.1 were performed on unidirectional 10° off axis graphite-bismaleimide (BMI) coupons. Static tests, including preliminary creep tests, were also performed to compare the damage evolution under different loading conditions. In all cases, strain gauges were mounted on the specimen surface in order to monitor the stress-strain response and modulus changes in selected material directions. Micro-cracking was monitored using acetate replicas of the specimen edge and surface. Microscopic evaluation was also performed on the fracture surface to give additional information. Longitudinal debond cracks at the fibre-matrix interface were found to be the dominant fracture mechanism. The presence of hackles on the fracture surface indicated shear dominant cracking. The shear moduli and strains were found to vary significantly during testing. Using this data, different damage parameters in the material coordinate directions were assessed. The damage parameters based on shear moduli were found to be the most indicative of damage evolution. Damage increased quickly and tended to saturate under cyclic loading conditions after approximately 20% life, indicating that a dominant fatigue crack had initiated and damage was no longer uniformly distributed. Cyclic specimens with longer lives showed larger amounts of uniform longitudinal cracking and shear modulus degradation. Static results indicated that with increasing stress, the damage based on longitudinal crack growth and on shear modulus increased. One unique feature found through microscopic examination of the static and cyclic fracture surfaces was that cyclic specimens had bare fibres exposed due to fretting of the crack faces.

  7. Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2005, Proceedings of SPIE,

    SciTech Connect

    Exarhos, Gregory J.; Guenther, Arthur H.; Ristau, Detlev; Lewis, Keith L.; Soileau, M. J.; Stolz, Christopher J.

    2005-12-27

    This volume contains papers presented at the 37th Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High-Power Lasers that was held at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Boulder, Colorado, 19-21 September 2005. The symposium was cosponsored by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (USA), and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (USA). Cooperating organizations were the Center for High Technology Materials at the University of New Mexico (USA), Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (Germany), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (USA), QinetiQ (United Kingdom), and the College of Optics and Photonics, CREOL and FPCE, University of Central Florida (USA). The symposium, was attended by 145 scientist and engineers from China, France, Lithuania, Russia, France, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, Russia, the United States, and the United Kingdom. One-third of the attendees and nearly half of the presentations were from abroad. A mini-symposium on Tuesday afternoon, that addressed damage issues associated with petawatt lasers, highlighted our growing interest in the emerging area. Including the mini-symposium, 87 papers were presented in oral and poster sessions.

  8. Simple method for manufacturing and optical characterization of tapered optical fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakrzewski, A.; Pięta, A.; Patela, S.

    2016-12-01

    Photonic devices often use light delivered by a single-mode telecommunication fibre. However, as the diameter of the core of the optical fibre is of 10 microns, and the transverse dimensions of the photonic waveguides are usually micrometer or less, there is an issue of incompatibility. The problem may be solved by application of tapered optical fibres. For efficient light coupling, the taper should be prepared so as to create a beam of long focal length and small spot diameter in the focus. The article describes the design, fabrication and characterization of tapered optical fibres prepared with a fibre-optic fusion splicer. We modelled the tapers with FDTD method, for estimation of the influence of the tapered length and angle on the spot diameter and the focal length of an outgoing beam. We fabricated tapers from a standard single mode fibre by the Ericsson 995 PMfi- bre-optic fusion splicer. We planned the splicing technology so as to get the needed features of the beam. We planned a multistep fusion process, with optimized fusion current and fusion time. The experimental measurements of best tapered optical fibres were carried out by the knife-edge method.

  9. Optical and Chemical Characterization of Aerosols Produced from Cooked Meats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedziela, R. F.; Foreman, E.; Blanc, L. E.

    2011-12-01

    Cooking processes can release a variety compounds into the air immediately above a cooking surface. The distribution of compounds will largely depend on the type of food that is being processed and the temperatures at which the food is prepared. High temperatures release compounds from foods like meats and carry them away from the preparation surface into cooler regions where condensation into particles can occur. Aerosols formed in this manner can impact air quality, particularly in urban areas where the amount of food preparation is high. Reported here are the results of laboratory experiments designed to optically and chemically characterize aerosols derived from cooking several types of meats including ground beef, salmon, chicken, and pork both in an inert atmosphere and in synthetic air. The laboratory-generated aerosols are studied using a laminar flow cell that is configured to accommodate simultaneous optical characterization in the mid-infrared and collection of particles for subsequent chemical analysis by gas chromatography. Preliminary optical results in the visible and ultra-violet will also be presented.

  10. Characterization of thermomechanical damage on tungsten surfaces during long-duration plasma transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, David; Crosby, Tamer; Sheng, Andrew; Ghoniem, Nasr M.

    2014-12-01

    A new experimental facility constructed at UCLA for the simulation of high heat flux effects on plasma-facing materials is described. The High Energy Flux Test Facility (HEFTY) is equipped with a Praxair model SG-100 plasma gun, which is nominally rated at 80 kW of continuous operation, of which approximately 30 kW reaches the target due to thermal losses. The gun is used to impart high intermittent heat flux to metal samples mounted within a cylindrical chamber. The system is capable of delivering an instantaneous heat flux in the range of 30-300 MW/m2, depending on sample proximity to the gun. The duration of the plasma heat flux is in the range of 1-1000 s, making it ideal for studies of mild plasma transients of relatively long duration. Tungsten and tungsten-copper alloy metal samples are tested in these transient heat flux conditions, and the surface is characterized for damage evaluation using optical, SEM, XRD, and micro-fabrication techniques. Results from a Finite Element (FE) thermo-elastoplasticity model indicate that during the heat-up phase of a plasma transient pulse, the majority of the sample surface is under compressive stresses leading to plastic deformation of the surface. Upon sample cooling, the recovered elastic strain of cooler parts of the sample exceeds that from parts that deformed plastically, resulting in a tensile surface self-stress (residual surface stress). The intensity of the residual tensile surface stress is experimentally correlated with the onset of complex surface fracture morphology on the tungsten surface, and extending below the surface region. Micro-compression mechanical tests of W micro-pillars show that the material has significant plasticity, failing by a "barreling" mode before plasma exposure, and by normal dislocation slip and localized shear after plasma exposure. Ongoing modeling of the complex thermo-fracture process, coupled with elasto-plasticity is based on a phase field approach for distributed fracture, and

  11. Common Practice Lightning Strike Protection Characterization Technique to Quantify Damage Mechanisms on Composite Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szatkowski, George N.; Dudley, Kenneth L.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Ely, Jay J.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Ticatch, Larry A.; Mielnik, John J.; Mcneill, Patrick A.

    2013-01-01

    heating parameters which occur during lightning attachment. Following guidance defined in the universal common practice LSP test documents, protected and unprotected CFRP panels were evaluated at 20, 40 and 100KAmps. This report presents analyzed data demonstrating the scientific usefulness of the common practice approach. Descriptions of the common practice CFRP test articles, LSP test bed fixture, and monitoring techniques to capture the electrical, mechanical and thermal parameters during lightning attachment are presented here. Two methods of measuring the electrical currents were evaluated, inductive current probes and a newly developed fiberoptic sensor. Two mechanical displacement methods were also examined, optical laser measurement sensors and a digital imaging correlation camera system. Recommendations are provided to help users implement the common practice test approach and obtain LSP test characterizations comparable across data sets.

  12. Use of atomic force microscopy for characterizing damage evolution during fatigue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cretegny, Laurent

    2000-10-01

    A study of the development of surface fatigue damage in PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel and copper by atomic force microscopy (AFM) was performed. AFM observations allow highly automated, quantitative characterization of surface deformation with a resolution of 5 nm or better, which is ideal for understanding fatigue damage evolution. A secondary objective was to establish a correlation between fatigue life exhausted and impedance spectroscopy. Strain controlled fatigue tests were conducted both in high and low cycle fatigue regimes, and interruptions of the fatigue tests allowed characterizing the evolution of the surface upset at various life-fractions. In the low strain amplitude tests on stainless steel (Deltaepsilonpl/2 = 0.0026%), surface damage occurred in the shape of narrow streaks at the interface between martensite laths where reverted austenite was present. The streaks eventually coalesced to form crack nuclei. In high strain amplitude tests (Deltaepsilon pl/2 = 0.049%), fatigue surface damage was essentially dominated by the formation of extrusions. In copper, both low (Deltaepsilonpl/2 = 0.061%) and high (Deltaepsilonpl/2 = 0.134%) strain amplitude tests showed the formation of slip bands (mainly extrusions) across entire grains. Protrusions were present only in copper specimens tested at the high strain amplitude. Crack nucleation in the low strain amplitude tests occurred in both materials at the interface between a region that sustained a high level of deformation and one with little evidence of surface upset. This commonality between these two materials that are otherwise very dissimilar in nature suggests a universal scheme for location of fatigue crack nucleation sites during HCF. A procedure was developed in this study to quantitatively characterize the amount of irreversible surface strain. The proposed formalism is applicable to any material, independently of the type of surface damage, and leads to a criterion for crack nucleation based on

  13. Optical artefact characterization and correction in volumetric scintillation dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Daniel; Hui, Cheukkai; Archambault, Louis; Mohan, Radhe; Beddar, Sam

    2014-01-01

    The goals of this study were (1) to characterize the optical artefacts affecting measurement accuracy in a volumetric liquid scintillation detector, and (2) to develop methods to correct for these artefacts. The optical artefacts addressed were photon scattering, refraction, camera perspective, vignetting, lens distortion, the lens point spread function, stray radiation, and noise in the camera. These artefacts were evaluated by theoretical and experimental means, and specific correction strategies were developed for each artefact. The effectiveness of the correction methods was evaluated by comparing raw and corrected images of the scintillation light from proton pencil beams against validated Monte Carlo calculations. Blurring due to the lens and refraction at the scintillator tank-air interface were found to have the largest effect on the measured light distribution, and lens aberrations and vignetting were important primarily at the image edges. Photon scatter in the scintillator was not found to be a significant source of artefacts. The correction methods effectively mitigated the artefacts, increasing the average gamma analysis pass rate from 66% to 98% for gamma criteria of 2% dose difference and 2 mm distance to agreement. We conclude that optical artefacts cause clinically meaningful errors in the measured light distribution, and we have demonstrated effective strategies for correcting these optical artefacts. PMID:24321820

  14. Optical artefact characterization and correction in volumetric scintillation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Daniel; Hui, Cheukkai; Archambault, Louis; Mohan, Radhe; Beddar, Sam

    2014-01-01

    The goals of this study were (1) to characterize the optical artefacts affecting measurement accuracy in a volumetric liquid scintillator detector, and (2) to develop methods to correct for these artefacts. The optical artefacts addressed were photon scattering, refraction, camera perspective, vignetting, lens distortion, the lens point spread function, stray radiation, and noise in the camera. These artefacts were evaluated by theoretical and experimental means, and specific correction strategies were developed for each artefact. The effectiveness of the correction methods was evaluated by comparing raw and corrected images of the scintillation light from proton pencil beams against validated Monte Carlo calculations. Blurring due to the lens and refraction at the scintillator tank-air interface were found to have the largest effect on the measured light distribution, and lens aberrations and vignetting were important primarily at the image edges. Photon scatter in the scintillator was not found to be a significant source of artefacts. The correction methods effectively mitigated the artefacts, increasing the average gamma analysis pass rate from 66% to 98% for gamma criteria of 2% dose difference and 2 mm distance to agreement. We conclude that optical artefacts cause clinically meaningful errors in the measured light distribution, and we have demonstrated effective strategies for correcting these optical artefacts.

  15. In vivo optical characterization of pediatric epileptogenic lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, W.-C.; Ragheb, J.; Bhatia, S.; Johnson, Mahlon D.; Sandberg, D.; Fernandez, A.; Morrison, G.; Duchowny, M.; Jayakar, P.

    2007-02-01

    Epileptogenic lesions and their margins are often difficult to define intraoperatively. We hypothesize that optical spectroscopy can detect unique pathophysiological features of epileptogenic lesions in children and hence differentiate them from normal brain. This hypothesis was tested by comparing the in vivo optical and fluorescence characteristics of epileptogenic brain lesions (non-neoplastic) with those of normal brain. Patients were recruited from those receiving epilepsy surgeries at Miami Children's Hospital. Using a portable spectroscopic system, optical characterization of brain was performed intraoperatively. Fluorescence spectra were measured at 337 nm excitation, and diffuse reflectance spectra were measured between 400 and 850 nm. To date, seven epilepsy patients have been enrolled in the study. A couple interesting trends have been observed in the recorded optical spectra. First, sites within the resection zone, as defined by the intracranial electroencephalogram data, often show higher diffuse reflectance signals than normal sites do. This is especially prominent around 500 nm and between 650 and 850 nm. Secondly, several investigated sites with abnormal electroencephalogram and/or pathology show a unique blue shift in their fluorescence spectra, which is not seen in other cases.

  16. Holographic frequency resolved optical gating for spatio-temporal characterization of ultrashort optical pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Nikhil; Yang, Chuan; Xu, Yong; Liu, Zhiwen

    2014-09-01

    We introduce a novel method for characterizing the spatio-temporal evolution of ultrashort optical field by recording the spectral hologram of frequency resolved optical gating (FROG) trace. We show that FROG holography enables the measurement of phase (up to an overall constant) and group delay of the pulse which cannot be measured by conventional FROG method. To illustrate our method, we perform numerical simulation to generate holographic collinear FROG (cFROG) trace of a chirped optical pulse and retrieve its complex profile at multiple locations as it propagates through a hypothetical dispersive medium. Further, we experimentally demonstrate our method by retrieving a 67 fs pulse at three axial locations in the vicinity of focus of an objective lens and compute its group delay.

  17. Characterized Brillouin scattering in silica optical fiber tapers based on Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis.

    PubMed

    Zou, Weiwen; Jiang, Wenning; Chen, Jianping

    2013-03-11

    This paper demonstrates stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) characterization in silica optical fiber tapers drawn from commercial single mode optical fibers by hydrogen flame. They have different waist diameters downscaled from 5 μm to 42 μm. The fully-distributed SBS measurement along the fiber tapers is implemented by Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis technique with millimeter spatial resolution. It is found that the Brillouin frequency shift (BFS) in the waist of all fiber tapers is approximately the same (i.e., ~11.17 GHz at 1550 nm). However, the BFS is gradually reduced and the Brillouin gain decreases from the waist to the untapered zone in each fiber taper.

  18. Mechanical force characterization in manipulating live cells with optical tweezers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanhua; Sun, Dong; Huang, Wenhao

    2011-02-24

    Laser trapping with optical tweezers is a noninvasive manipulation technique and has received increasing attentions in biological applications. Understanding forces exerted on live cells is essential to cell biomechanical characterizations. Traditional numerical or experimental force measurement assumes live cells as ideal objects, ignoring their complicated inner structures and rough membranes. In this paper, we propose a new experimental method to calibrate the trapping and drag forces acted on live cells. Binding a micro polystyrene sphere to a live cell and moving the mixture with optical tweezers, we can obtain the drag force on the cell by subtracting the drag force on the sphere from the total drag force on the mixture, under the condition of extremely low Reynolds number. The trapping force on the cell is then obtained from the drag force when the cell is in force equilibrium state. Experiments on numerous live cells demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed force calibration approach.

  19. Characterization of optical surface degradation: Angular resolved scatterometer

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, D.F.; Gillespie, C.H.; Wirtenson, G.R.

    1987-02-26

    The Angular Resolved Scatterometer (ARS) is a sensitive diagnostic instrument for quantitatively specifying the degree of degradation for optical surfaces. ARS test results are reported for coatings undergoing aboveground (AGT) prompt x-ray irradiation. With the ARS, the light scattered from an optical surface is measured as a function of scattering angle, wavelength, and polarization. From these data the power spectral density (PSD) is calculated and contains the bandwidth-limited spatial information about the surface. Subtle changes in surface properties (e.g., radiation-induced absorption, polarization changes, or localized incipient melting) that would not be detected by surface roughness or reflectance measurements appear as a significant PSD change. The ARS data are an integration over all spatial frequencies and thus accurately and uniquely characterize each surface.

  20. Broadband diffuse optical characterization of elastin for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Konugolu Venkata Sekar, Sanathana; Beh, Joo Sin; Farina, Andrea; Dalla Mora, Alberto; Pifferi, Antonio; Taroni, Paola

    2017-10-01

    Elastin is a key structural protein of dynamic connective tissues widely found in the extracellular matrix of skin, arteries, lungs and ligaments. It is responsible for a range of diseases related to aging of biological tissues. The optical characterization of elastin can open new opportunities for its investigation in biomedical studies. In this work, we present the absorption spectra of elastin using a broadband (550-1350nm) diffuse optical spectrometer. Distortions caused by fluorescence and finite bandwidth of the laser source on estimated absorption were effectively accounted for in measurements and data analysis and compensated. A comprehensive summary and comparison between collagen and elastin is presented, highlighting distinct features for its accurate quantification in biological applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Damage monitoring using fiber optic sensors and by analysing electro-mechanical admittance signatures obtained from piezo sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheshwari, Muneesh; Annamdas, Venu Gopal M.; Pang, John Hock Lye; Tjin, Swee C.; Asundi, Anand

    2015-12-01

    Damage monitoring is the need of the hour in this age of infrastructure. Many methods are being used for damage monitoring in different mechanical and civil structures. Some of them are strain based methods in which abruptly increased strain signifies the presence of damage in the structure. This article focuses on crack monitoring of a fixedfixed beam using fiber optic sensors which can measure strain locally or globally. The two types of fiber optic sensors used in this research are fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and fiber optic polarimetric sensors (FOPS). FBG and FOPS are used for local strain monitoring (at one point only) and global strain monitoring (in the entire specimen) respectively. At the centre of the specimen, a piezoelectric wafer active sensor (PWAS) is also attached. PWAS is used to obtain electromechanical admittance (EMA) signatures. Further, these EMA signatures are analysed to access the damage state in the beam. These multiple smart materials together provide improved information on damages in the specimen which is very valuable for the structural health monitoring (SHM) of the specimen.

  2. Impact of storage induced outgassing organic contamination on laser induced damage of silica optics at 351 nm.

    PubMed

    Bien-Aimé, K; Belin, C; Gallais, L; Grua, P; Fargin, E; Néauport, J; Tovena-Pecault, I

    2009-10-12

    The impact of storage conditions on laser induced damage density at 351 nm on bare fused polished silica samples has been studied. Intentionally outgassing of polypropylene pieces on silica samples was done. We evidenced an important increase of laser induced damage density on contaminated samples demonstrating that storage could limit optics lifetime performances. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Gas Chromatography -Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) have been used to identify the potential causes of this effect. It shows that a small quantity of organic contamination deposited on silica surface is responsible for this degradation. Various hypotheses are proposed to explain the damage mechanism. The more likely hypothesis is a coupling between surface defects of optics and organic contaminants.

  3. Investigations on structural, optical, dielectric, laser damage threshold and NLO properties of 2-amino-5-nitropyridinium p-tolunesulfonate (2A5NPT) single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandian, Muthu Senthil; Sivasubramani, V.; Ramasamy, P.

    2016-05-01

    The highly efficient organic nonlinear optical (NLO) 2-amino-5-nitropyridinium p-tolunesulfonate single crystals have been grown by conventional slow evaporation technique using Millipore water as a solvent in the period of 60 days. The single crystal XRD confirms the unit cell parameters of the grown crystal. The morphology of the grown crystal was analyzed using Bruker-Kappa APEXII single crystal instrument and their planes are identified. The optical transmittance range and the cut-off wavelength are recorded using UV-Visible NIR characterization. The laser damage threshold (LDT) studies were carried out using Nd:YAG laser and LDT value was found to be 3.7 GW/cm2. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss of 2A5NPT single crystals were measured. The SHG efficiency was tested by powder Kurtz-Perry technique and the SHG efficiency is 15 times greater than that of standard KDP material.

  4. Characterization of tissue scaffolds using optics and ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huynh, N. T.; Parker, N. G.; He, D.; Ruan, H.; Hayes-Gill, B. R.; Mather, M. L.; Crowe, J. A.; Rose, F. R. A. J.; Povey, M. J. W.; Morgan, S. P.

    2011-03-01

    Tissue scaffolds are an integral part of the tissue engineering process, assisting in the culturing of cells in three dimensions. It is important to understand both the properties of the scaffold and the growth of cells within the scaffold. This paper describes a system to characterise scaffolds using acoustic techniques alone and the development of an ultrasound modulated optical tomography system to study the growth of cells within the scaffolds. Our interest is in characterising the properties of gel-based and polymer foam-based scaffolds. Results from a purely acoustic system have been used to investigate the properties of foam scaffolds manufactured from synthetic polyesters poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) via a supercritical fluid process. As these are porous materials, they are particularly challenging acoustically as the pores scatter sound significantly. However, it is demonstrated that acoustic signals are detectable through a 6mm thick scaffold. Although acoustics alone can be used to characterize many properties of the scaffolds, useful information can also be obtained from optical techniques e.g. monitoring the growth of cells within the scaffold via optical absorption or fluorescence techniques. Light scattering is of course a significant problem for relatively thick engineered tissue (~5mm). The acoustic approach has been extended to include laser illumination and detection of the ultrasound modulated optical pulse. Images of optically-absorbing materials embedded in gel-based tissue phantoms will be presented demonstrating that a lateral resolution of 250μm and an axial resolution of ~90μm can be achieved in scattering samples.

  5. Characterization of the Biomechanical Behavior of the Optic Nerve Sheath

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raykin, Julia; Wang, Roy; Forte, Taylor E.; Feola, Andrew; Samuels, Brian; Myers, Jerry; Nelson, Emily; Gleason, Rudy; Ethier, C. Ross

    2016-01-01

    A major priority in current space medicine research is to characterize the mechanisms in Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome, a group of ophthalmic changes that occur in some astronauts following long-duration spaceflight [1]. It is hypothesized that microgravity-induced cephalad fluid shifts lead to increases in intracranial pressure (ICP), which drives maladaptive remodeling of the optic nerve sheath (ONS). In this study, we investigated the effects of mechanical loading on the porcine ONS to better understand the mechanical response of the ONS to increased ICP.

  6. Development and characterization of monolithic multilayer Laue lens nanofocusing optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazaretski, E.; Xu, W.; Bouet, N.; Zhou, J.; Yan, H.; Huang, X.; Chu, Y. S.

    2016-06-01

    We have developed an experimental approach to bond two independent linear Multilayer Laue Lenses (MLLs) together. A monolithic MLL structure was characterized using ptychography at 12 keV photon energy, and we demonstrated 12 nm and 24 nm focusing in horizontal and vertical directions, respectively. Fabrication of 2D MLL optics allows installation of these focusing elements in more conventional microscopes suitable for x-ray imaging using zone plates, and opens easier access to 2D imaging with high spatial resolution in the hard x-ray regime.

  7. Development and characterization of monolithic multilayer Laue lens nanofocusing optics

    DOE PAGES

    Nazaretski, E.; Xu, W.; Bouet, N.; ...

    2016-06-27

    In this study, we have developed an experimental approach to bond two independent linear Multilayer Laue Lenses (MLLs) together. A monolithic MLL structure was characterized using ptychography at 12 keV photon energy, and we demonstrated 12 nm and 24 nm focusing in horizontal and vertical directions, respectively. Fabrication of 2D MLL optics allows installation of these focusing elements in more conventional microscopes suitable for x-ray imaging using zone plates, and opens easier access to 2D imaging with high spatial resolution in the hard x-ray regime.

  8. Optical exposure characterization and comparisons for Sn EUV systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Huatan; Thompson, Keith C.; Srivastava, Shailendra N.; Antonsen, Erik L.; Alman, Darren A.; Jurczyk, Brian E.; Ruzic, David N.

    2006-03-01

    A critical issue for EUVL is the minimization of collector degradation from intense plasma erosion, debris deposition and hydrocarbon/oxide contamination. Collector optics reflectivity and lifetime heavily depends on surface chemistry and interactions between fuels and various mirror materials, such as silicon, in addition to high-energy ion and neutral particle erosion effects. As a continuation of our prior investigation of DPP and LPP Xe plasma interactions with collector optics surfaces, the University of Illinois has analyzed collector samples before and after exposure in a Sn-upgraded Xtreme Technologies EUV source. Sn DPP post-exposure characterization includes multiple samples, Si/Mo multilayer film with normal incidence, 200 nm thick Ru film with grazing incidence, as well as a Gibbsian segregated (GS) Mo-Au alloy developed on silicon using a DC dual-magnetron co-sputtering system at UIUC. Pre and post exposed sample characterization studies actually investigates the surface roughness properties, erosion resistance and self-healing characteristics to maintain reflectivity over a longer period of mirror lifetime. Surface analysis draws heavily on the expertise of the Center for Microanalysis of Materials at UIUC, and investigates mirror degradation mechanisms by measuring changes in surface roughness, texture, and grain sizes as well as analysis of the implantation of energetic Sn ions, Sn diffusion, and mixing of multi-layers. Results from atomic force microscopy (AFM) and auger electron spectroscopy (AES) measurements show exposure effects on surface roughness and contamination. The best estimates of thickness and the resultant erosion measurements are obtained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Implantation, diffusion, and mixing effects are analyzed with depth profiles using AES. Materials characterization on samples, removed after varying exposure times in the XTS source, together with in-situ EUV reflectivity measurements, can identify the onset

  9. Development and characterization of monolithic multilayer Laue lens nanofocusing optics

    SciTech Connect

    Nazaretski, E.; Xu, W.; Bouet, N.; Zhou, J.; Yan, H.; Huang, X.; Chu, Y. S.

    2016-06-27

    In this study, we have developed an experimental approach to bond two independent linear Multilayer Laue Lenses (MLLs) together. A monolithic MLL structure was characterized using ptychography at 12 keV photon energy, and we demonstrated 12 nm and 24 nm focusing in horizontal and vertical directions, respectively. Fabrication of 2D MLL optics allows installation of these focusing elements in more conventional microscopes suitable for x-ray imaging using zone plates, and opens easier access to 2D imaging with high spatial resolution in the hard x-ray regime.

  10. Fabrication and characterization of polyester and acrylic polyurethane optical waveguides.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, S K; Pandey, C D; Joshi, J C; Dawar, A L; Tripathy, K N; Gupta, V L

    1989-01-01

    Asystematic study of the fabrication and characterization of planar optical waveguides based on polyester and acrylic polyurethane coatings has been made. Mode effective refractive-index measurements have been made on a large number of these waveguides fabricated on glass prepared in different conditions. The results show that the mixture of polyester and acrylic polyol in the initial solution can be used to control the refractive index from 1.563 to 1.595. The propagation losses are estimated to be 10-20 and 6-12 dB/cm for polyester and acrylic-based waveguides, respectively.

  11. Thermal and optical characterization of the calcium phosphate biomaterial hydroxyapatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bento, A. C.; Almond, D. P.; Brown, S. R.; Turner, I. G.

    1996-05-01

    Thermal wave interferometry (TWI) has been used to measure the thermophysical properties of hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings, prepared by the plasma-spraying process on titanium alloy substrates. The properties measured were thermal diffusivity, thermal conductivity, thermal effusivity, and volumetric heat capacity and the optical absorption coefficient. The thermal conductivity obtained was found to be of similar magnitude to that of human tooth enamel. The results presented confirm the usefulness of TWI as a nondestructive technique for the characterization of plasma-sprayed HA coatings.

  12. Self-characterization of linear and nonlinear adaptive optics systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampton, Peter J.; Conan, Rodolphe; Keskin, Onur; Bradley, Colin; Agathoklis, Pan

    2008-01-01

    We present methods used to determine the linear or nonlinear static response and the linear dynamic response of an adaptive optics (AO) system. This AO system consists of a nonlinear microelectromechanical systems deformable mirror (DM), a linear tip-tilt mirror (TTM), a control computer, and a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. The system is modeled using a single-input-single-output structure to determine the one-dimensional transfer function of the dynamic response of the chain of system hardware. An AO system has been shown to be able to characterize its own response without additional instrumentation. Experimentally determined models are given for a TTM and a DM.

  13. Characterization of a Pulsed HF Optical Resonance Transfer Laser.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    AD-A 124 708 CHARACTERIZATION OF A PULSED HIE OPTICAL RESONANCE I TRANSFE R LASER(U ) AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT -PATTERSON AFA O H SCHOOL OF...these valves failed and the third leaked and had to be replaced. All three needle valves were replaced by stainless steel which should function well...use in an HP environment). The He feed (see figure 7) to the reference cell is controlled by a stainless steel needle valve (N) and a brass bellows

  14. Experimental characterization of damage at countersunk bolted joints tested under quasi-static bearing loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, Alexandru Paul

    The use of composite materials in aerospace vehicles has allowed for creation of lighter structures that provide excellent stiffness. Although they allow for easy disassembly and inspection of critical assemblies, bolted joints are common damage initiation sites in composite structures. In order for aging aircraft to be considered for life extension programs, the damage at these locations must be characterized and well-understood. Failure studies require that data be provided through experimental tests. The drawback of the present test standard for bolted composite joints is that it was initially designed for testing polymers. This thesis discusses deficiencies in the measurement of bearing strength as a result of this shortcoming, although the battery of bearing tests is modeled after this established test standard. The goal of the present work is to characterize the bearing load induced damage in laminates with pin bearing and countersunk fasteners through a series of bearing tests on laminated composites using a new modified ASTM D5961 fixture designed for testing countersunk bolted joints. This thesis examines variations in measurement of bearing strength that comes with using different test fixtures. The reliability of each test fixture to represent real conditions is evaluated using test fixtures that represent real joint configurations. Results for damage conditions and joint responses are compared. This thesis presents a study of the damage initiation and accumulation in composite specimens loaded in bearing using three different test fixtures: Procedure A, Procedure C, and Procedure A Modified. Procedure A, which is used to load the test specimen in double-shear via a straight pin, is a well known test fixture that comes from ASTM D5961. Procedure C has a countersunk fastener that loads the test specimen in single-shear. These types of fasteners are preferred in the aerospace industry over traditional bolts in order to maintain a smooth aerodynamic profile

  15. Application of a novel optical fiber sensor to detection of acoustic emissions by various damages in CFRP laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qi; Yu, Fengming; Okabe, Yoji; Kobayashi, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    In this research, we applied a novel optical fiber sensor, phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating balanced sensor with high sensitivity and broad bandwidth, to acoustic emission (AE) detection in carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRPs). AE signals generated in the tensile testing of angle-ply and cross-ply CFRP laminates were both detected by the novel optical fiber sensor and traditional PZT sensors. The cumulative hits detected by both sensors coincided after applying simple data processing to eliminate the noise, and clearly exhibited Kaiser effect and Felicity effect. Typical AE signals detected by both sensors were discussed and were tried to relate to micro CFRP damages observed via microscope. These results demonstrate that this novel optical fiber sensor can reliably detect AE signals from various damages. It has the potential to be used in practical AE detection, as an alternative to the piezoelectric PZT sensor.

  16. Characterization of impact damage in composite laminates using guided wavefield imaging and local wavenumber domain analysis.

    PubMed

    Rogge, Matthew D; Leckey, Cara A C

    2013-09-01

    Delaminations in composite laminates resulting from impact events may be accompanied by minimal indication of damage at the surface. As such, inspections are required to ensure defects are within allowable limits. Conventional ultrasonic scanning techniques have been shown to effectively characterize the size and depth of delaminations but require physical contact with the structure and considerable setup time. Alternatively, a non-contact scanning laser vibrometer may be used to measure guided wave propagation in the laminate structure generated by permanently bonded transducers. A local Fourier domain analysis method is presented for processing guided wavefield data to estimate spatially dependent wavenumber values, which can be used to determine delamination depth. The technique is applied to simulated wavefields and results are analyzed to determine limitations of the technique with regards to determining defect size and depth. Based on simulation results, guidelines for application of the technique are developed. Finally, experimental wavefield data is obtained in quasi-isotropic carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminates with impact damage. The recorded wavefields are analyzed and wavenumber is measured to an accuracy of up to 8.5% in the region of shallow delaminations. These results show the promise of local wavenumber domain analysis to characterize the depth of delamination damage in composite laminates. The technique can find application in automated vehicle health assurance systems with potential for high detection rates and greatly reduced operator effort and setup time.

  17. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) for Characterizing Oxidation Damage in Cracked Reinforced Carbon-Carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Don J.; Jacobson, Nathan S.; Rauser, Richard W.; Wincheski, Russell A.; Walker, James L.; Cosgriff, Laura A.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, coated reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) samples of similar structure and composition as that from the NASA space shuttle orbiter's thermal protection system were fabricated with slots in their coating simulating craze cracks. These specimens were used to study oxidation damage detection and characterization using nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods. These specimens were heat treated in air at 1143 C and 1200 C to create cavities in the carbon substrate underneath the coating as oxygen reacted with the carbon and resulted in its consumption. The cavities varied in diameter from approximately 1 to 3mm. Single-sided NDE methods were used because they might be practical for on-wing inspection, while X-ray micro-computed tomography (CT) was used to measure cavity sizes in order to validate oxidation models under development for carbon-carbon materials. An RCC sample having a naturally cracked coating and subsequent oxidation damage was also studied with X-ray micro-CT. This effort is a follow-on study to one that characterized NDE methods for assessing oxidation damage in an RCC sample with drilled holes in the coating.

  18. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) for Characterizing Oxidation Damage in Cracked Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Don J.; Rauser, Richard W.; Jacobson, Nathan S.; Wincheski, Russell A.; Walker, James L.; Cosgriff, Laura A.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, coated reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) samples of similar structure and composition as that from the NASA space shuttle orbiter's thermal protection system were fabricated with slots in their coating simulating craze cracks. These specimens were used to study oxidation damage detection and characterization using nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods. These specimens were heat treated in air at 1143 and 1200 C to create cavities in the carbon substrate underneath the coating as oxygen reacted with the carbon and resulted in its consumption. The cavities varied in diameter from approximately 1 to 3 mm. Single-sided NDE methods were used since they might be practical for on-wing inspection, while x-ray micro-computed tomography (CT) was used to measure cavity sizes in order to validate oxidation models under development for carbon-carbon materials. An RCC sample having a naturally-cracked coating and subsequent oxidation damage was also studied with x-ray micro-CT. This effort is a follow-on study to one that characterized NDE methods for assessing oxidation damage in an RCC sample with drilled holes in the coating.

  19. Rapid Fire Damage Assessment by Using a Synergic Approach with Radar and Optical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadau, Enrico G.; Burini, Alessandro; Putignano, Cosimo; Goryl, Philippe; Gascon, Ferran; Miranda, Nuno; Laur, Henri

    2010-12-01

    Forest fires represent the main cause of forest degradation in the Mediterranean area. This phenomenon, progressively increasing, reached an average of 57,000 fires per year in the period 2000-2008 with the destruction of almost 450,000 ha of vegetated areas in southern European countries. Fires occurring in the Mediterranean area are rarely significant in terms of pollution or greenhouse gases released to the atmosphere. Nevertheless, they have a dramatic impact on forest and scrub in regions with relatively sparse vegetation, as well as on human lives and infrastructures. The most effective passive remote- sensing methods for detecting and mapping burn scars in vegetated areas, rely upon the observation of near- infrared (NIR) and short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) bands, with wavelengths comprised between 0.8 and 2.3μm. An innovative method to separate reflectance variation due to vegetation damages from changes due to other factors influencing the at-satellite reflectance is that of identifying pseudo-invariant features to be used as reference targets in different scenes. On the other hand, SAR seems to be another good candidate for fire assessment, because of sensitivity of backscattering to the geometric structure of targets and surfaces, particularly during the fire, when the smoke makes the approach with optical sensors not feasible. The incident wave is influenced by several target's parameters, such as moisture, orientation, roughness. When a fire occurs, the landscape is modified dramatically; the grassland, the leaves and bushes are completely burned, while the trunks can disappear depending on the fire intensity. The backscattering of a vegetated area is mainly dominated by a volumetric scattering mechanism, with the backscattered wave is highly depolarized; after a fire, when all the vegetation has been burnt, the backscattering is dominated by a surface scattering mechanism (burnt soil) or by the double bounce mechanism (by the presence of scattered

  20. TOD characterization of the Gatekeeper electro-optical security system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosselink, Guido; Anbeek, Hugo; Bijl, Piet; Hogervorst, Maarten A.

    2013-06-01

    The Triangle Orientation Discrimination (TOD) test method was applied to characterize thermal and visual range performance of the Gatekeeper Electro Optical Security System. Gatekeeper developed by Thales Nederland BV, is currently in use with the Royal Netherlands Navy. The system houses uncooled infrared and colour TV cameras providing up to 360° view in azimuth. The images displayed to the operator are automatically optimized based on the scene intensity distribution. Because of this built-in scene-based optimization, proper measurement of the system requires careful surround illumination of the TOD setup over a large part of the camera Field Of View. The tests provided very accurate threshold estimates with relatively small observer differences. The resulting TOD curves that characterize the sensor system in terms of acuity and contrast sensitivity can be used as input to a Target Acquisition model to predict range performance for operational scenarios.

  1. Interferometric at-wavelength flare characterization of EUV optical systems

    DOEpatents

    Naulleau, Patrick P.; Goldberg, Kenneth Alan

    2001-01-01

    The extreme ultraviolet (EUV) phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer (PS/PDI) provides the high-accuracy wavefront characterization critical to the development of EUV lithography systems. Enhancing the implementation of the PS/PDI can significantly extend its spatial-frequency measurement bandwidth. The enhanced PS/PDI is capable of simultaneously characterizing both wavefront and flare. The enhanced technique employs a hybrid spatial/temporal-domain point diffraction interferometer (referred to as the dual-domain PS/PDI) that is capable of suppressing the scattered-reference-light noise that hinders the conventional PS/PDI. Using the dual-domain technique in combination with a flare-measurement-optimized mask and an iterative calculation process for removing flare contribution caused by higher order grating diffraction terms, the enhanced PS/PDI can be used to simultaneously measure both figure and flare in optical systems.

  2. Silicon Photomultiplier characterization and radiation damage investigation for high energy particle physics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garutti, E.; Klanner, R.; Laurien, S.; Parygin, P.; Popova, E.; Ramilli, M.; Xu, C.

    2014-03-01

    Within the framework of the CALICE collaboration, our group has characterized Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) from various producers, in order to enhance the single cell performances of a highly granular analog hadron calorimeter, with particular emphasis on improving the linearity of the response, ensuring environmental stability, calibration portability and reducing the parameters spread among the different channels. As an outcome, new plastic scintillator tiles coupled to KETEK PM1125 SMD SiPM have been commissioned, characterized and mounted on calorimeter modules: details and results of the characterization procedure, together with the performances of the new tile and SiPM design will be discussed. The radiation tolerance to X-rays of KETEK PM1125 is also under investigation. The amount and type of damage caused by irradiation of the devices exposed to 3 kGy and 20 MGy doses will be presented.

  3. Debris- and radiation-induced damage effects on EUV nanolithography source collector mirror optics performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allain, J. P.; Nieto, M.; Hendricks, M.; Harilal, S. S.; Hassanein, A.

    2007-05-01

    Exposure of collector mirrors facing the hot, dense pinch plasma in plasma-based EUV light sources to debris (fast ions, neutrals, off-band radiation, droplets) remains one of the highest critical issues of source component lifetime and commercial feasibility of nanolithography at 13.5-nm. Typical radiators used at 13.5-nm include Xe and Sn. Fast particles emerging from the pinch region of the lamp are known to induce serious damage to nearby collector mirrors. Candidate collector configurations include either multi-layer mirrors (MLM) or single-layer mirrors (SLM) used at grazing incidence. Studies at Argonne have focused on understanding the underlying mechanisms that hinder collector mirror performance at 13.5-nm under fast Sn or Xe exposure. This is possible by a new state-of-the-art in-situ EUV reflectometry system that measures real time relative EUV reflectivity (15-degree incidence and 13.5-nm) variation during fast particle exposure. Intense EUV light and off-band radiation is also known to contribute to mirror damage. For example offband radiation can couple to the mirror and induce heating affecting the mirror's surface properties. In addition, intense EUV light can partially photo-ionize background gas (e.g., Ar or He) used for mitigation in the source device. This can lead to local weakly ionized plasma creating a sheath and accelerating charged gas particles to the mirror surface and inducing sputtering. In this paper we study several aspects of debris and radiation-induced damage to candidate EUVL source collector optics materials. The first study concerns the use of IMD simulations to study the effect of surface roughness on EUV reflectivity. The second studies the effect of fast particles on MLM reflectivity at 13.5-nm. And lastly the third studies the effect of multiple energetic sources with thermal Sn on 13.5-nm reflectivity. These studies focus on conditions that simulate the EUVL source environment in a controlled way.

  4. Formation of plasma induced surface damage in silica glass etching for optical waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, D. Y.; Lee, J. H.; Kim, D. S.; Jung, S. T.

    2004-06-01

    Ge, B, P-doped silica glass films are widely used as optical waveguides because of their low losses and inherent compatibility with silica optical fibers. These films were etched by ICP (inductively coupled plasma) with chrome etch masks, which were patterned by reactive ion etching (RIE) using chlorine-based gases. In some cases, the etched surfaces of silica glass were very rough (root-mean square roughness greater than 100 nm) and we call this phenomenon plasma induced surface damage (PISD). Rough surface cannot be used as a platform for hybrid integration because of difficulty in alignment and bonding of active devices. PISD reduces the etch rate of glass and it is very difficult to remove residues on a rough surface. The objective of this study is to elucidate the mechanism of PISD formation. To achieve this goal, PISD formation during different etching conditions of chrome etch mask and silica glass was investigated. In most cases, PISD sources are formed on a glass surface after chrome etching, and metal compounds are identified in theses sources. Water rinse after chrome etching reduces the PISD, due to the water solubility of metal chlorides. PISD is decreased or even disappeared at high power and/or low pressure in glass etching, even if PISD sources were present on the glass surface before etching. In conclusion, PISD sources come from the chrome etching process, and polymer deposition on these sources during the silica etching cause the PISD sources to grow. In the area close to the PISD source there is a higher ion flux, which causes an increase in the etch rate, and results in the formation of a pit.

  5. Implementation of Optical Characterization for Flexible Organic Electronics Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskarakis, A.; Logothetidis, S.

    One of the most rapidly evolving sectors of the modern science and technology is the flexible organic electronic devices (FEDs) that are expected to significantly improve and revolutionize our everyday life. The FED application includes the generation of electricity by renewable sources (by organic photovoltaic cells - OPVs), power storage (thin film batteries), the visualization of information (by organic displays), the working and living environment (ambient lighting, sensors), safety, market (smart labels, radio frequency identification tags - RFID), textiles (smart fabrics with embedded display and sensor capabilities), as well as healthcare (smart sensors for vital sign monitoring), etc. Although there has been important progresses in inorganic-based Si devices, there are numerous advances in the organic (semiconducting, conducting), inorganic, and hybrid (organic-inorganic) materials that exhibit desirable properties and stability, and in the synthesis and preparation methods. The understanding of the organic material properties can lead to the fast progress of the functionality and performance of FEDs. The investigation of the optical properties of these materials can promote the understanding of the optical, electrical, structural properties of organic semiconductors and electrodes and can contribute to the optimization of the synthesis process and the tuning of their structure and morphology. In this chapter, we will describe briefly some of the advances toward the implementation of optical characterization methods, such as Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE) from the infrared to the visible and ultraviolet spectral region for the study of materials (flexible polymer substrates, barrier layers, transparent electrodes) to be used for application in the fabrication of FEDs.

  6. Optical distributed sensors for feedback control: Characterization of photorefractive resonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Indebetouw, Guy; Lindner, D. K.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of the project was to explore, define, and assess the possibilities of optical distributed sensing for feedback control. This type of sensor, which may have some impacts in the dynamic control of deformable structures and the monitoring of small displacements, can be divided into data acquisition, data processing, and control design. Analogue optical techniques, because they are noninvasive and afford massive parallelism may play a significant role in the acquisition and the preprocessing of the data for such a sensor. Assessing these possibilities was the aim of the first stage of this project. The scope of the proposed research was limited to: (1) the characterization of photorefractive resonators and the assessment of their possible use as a distributed optical processing element; and (2) the design of a control system utilizing signals from distributed sensors. The results include a numerical and experimental study of the resonator below threshold, an experimental study of the effect of the resonator's transverse confinement on its dynamics above threshold, a numerical study of the resonator above threshold using a modal expansion approach, and the experimental test of this model. A detailed account of each investigation, including methodology and analysis of the results are also included along with reprints of published and submitted papers.

  7. Characterization of Gigabit Ethernet Over Highly Turbulent Optical Wireless Links

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G W; Cornish, J P; Wilburn, J W; Young, R A; Ruggiero, A J

    2002-07-01

    We report on the performance characterization and issues associated with using Gigabit Ethernet (GigE) over a highly turbulent (C{sub n}{sup 2} > 10{sup -12}) 1.3 km air-optic lasercom links. Commercial GigE hardware is a cost-effective and scalable physical layer standard that can be applied to air-optic communications. We demonstrate a simple GigE hardware interface to a singlemode fiber-coupled, 1550 nm, WDM air-optic transceiver. TCPAP serves as a robust and universal foundation protocol that has some tolerance of data loss due to atmospheric fading. Challenges include establishing and maintaining a connection with acceptable throughput under poor propagation conditions. The most useful link performance diagnostic is shown to be scintillation index, where a value of 0.2 is the maximum permissible for adequate GigE throughput. Maximum GigE throughput observed was 49.7% of that obtained with a fiber jumper when scintillation index is 0.1. Shortcomings in conventional measurements such as bit error rate are apparent. Prospects for forward mor correction and other link enhancements will be discussed.

  8. Characterization of total ionizing dose damage in COTS pinned photodiode CMOS image sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zujun Ma, Wuying; Huang, Shaoyan; Yao, Zhibin; Liu, Minbo; He, Baoping; Sheng, Jiangkun; Xue, Yuan; Liu, Jing

    2016-03-15

    The characterization of total ionizing dose (TID) damage in COTS pinned photodiode (PPD) CMOS image sensors (CISs) is investigated. The radiation experiments are carried out at a {sup 60}Co γ-ray source. The CISs are produced by 0.18-μm CMOS technology and the pixel architecture is 8T global shutter pixel with correlated double sampling (CDS) based on a 4T PPD front end. The parameters of CISs such as temporal domain, spatial domain, and spectral domain are measured at the CIS test system as the EMVA 1288 standard before and after irradiation. The dark current, random noise, dark signal non-uniformity (DSNU), photo response non-uniformity (PRNU), overall system gain, saturation output, dynamic range (DR), signal to noise ratio (SNR), quantum efficiency (QE), and responsivity versus the TID are reported. The behaviors of the tested CISs show remarkable degradations after radiation. The degradation mechanisms of CISs induced by TID damage are also analyzed.

  9. Optically characterizing collagen gels made with different cell types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levitz, David; Choudhury, Niloy; Vartanian, Keri; Hinds, Monica T.; Hanson, Stephen R.; Jacques, Steven L.

    2009-02-01

    The ability of optical imaging techniques such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) to non-destructively characterize tissue-engineered constructs has generated enormous interest recently. Collagen gels are 3D structures that represent a simple common model of many engineered tissues that contain 2 primary scatterers: collagen and cells. We are testing the ability of OCT data to characterize the remodeling of such collagen-based constructs by 3 different types of cells: vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs), endothelial cells (ECs), and osteoblasts (OBs). Collagen gels were prepared with SMCs, ECs, and OBs with a seeding density of 1×106 cells/ml; additionally, acellular controls were also prepared. The disk-shaped constructs were allowed to remodel in the incubator for 5 days, with OCT imaging occurring on days 1 and 5. From the OCT data, the attenuation and reflectivity were evaluated by fitting the data to a theoretical model that relates the tissue optical properties (scattering coefficient and anisotropy factor) and imaging conditions to the OCT signal. The degree of gel compaction was determined from the volume of the culture medium that feeds the constructs. We found that gel compaction (relative to the acellular control) occurred in the SMC constructs, but not in the OB or EC constructs. The optical property data showed that at day 5 the SMC constructs had an overall higher reflectivity (lower g) relative to day 1, whereas there was no obvious change in reflectivity of the EC, OB constructs and acellular controls relative to day 1. Moreover, there was a difference in the attenuation of the OB constructs on day 5 relative to day 1, but not in the other constructs. The apparent decrease in anisotropy observed in the SMC constructs, but not in the OB and EC constructs and acellular controls, suggests that OCT is sensitive to the remodeling of the collagen matrix that accompanies gel compaction, and can offer highly localized information on the construct

  10. System and method for laser-based, non-evaporative repair of damage sites in the surfaces of fused silica optics

    DOEpatents

    Adams, John J.; Bolourchi, Masoud; Bude, Jeffrey D.; Guss, Gabriel M.; Jarboe, Jeffery A.; Matthews, Manyalibo J.; Nostrand, Michael C; Wegner, Paul J.

    2016-09-06

    A method for repairing a damage site on a surface of an optical material is disclosed. The method may involve focusing an Infrared (IR) laser beam having a predetermined wavelength, with a predetermined beam power, to a predetermined full width ("F/W") 1/e.sup.2 diameter spot on the damage site. The focused IR laser beam is maintained on the damage site for a predetermined exposure period corresponding to a predetermined acceptable level of downstream intensification. The focused IR laser beam heats the damage site to a predetermined peak temperature, which melts and reflows material at the damage site of the optical material to create a mitigated site.

  11. Characterization of Materials for Use as Optical Phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rascón, E. Ortiz; Bruce, N. C.; Flores Flores, J. O.; Berru, R. Sato

    2010-12-01

    We present the results of optical characterization of silicon dioxide nanoparticle solutions. These are spherical particles with a controlled diameter between 100 nm and 600 nm. The importance of this work lies in using these solutions to develop a phantom with optical properties that closely match those of human breast tissue at near-IR wavelengths. Characterization involves illuminating the solution with a laser beam transmitted through a recipient of known width containing the solution. Resulting intensity profiles from the light spot are measured as function of the detector position. The experiments were realized using light with wavelengths 633 nm and 820 nm. Measured intensity profiles were fitted to the calculated profiles obtained from diffusion theory, using the method of images. Fitting results give us the absorption and transport scatter coefficients. These coefficients can be modified by changing the particle concentration of the solution. We found that these coefficients are the same order of magnitude as those of human tissue reported in published studies.

  12. Metrological characterization of the pulsed Rb clock with optical detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micalizio, S.; Calosso, C. E.; Godone, A.; Levi, F.

    2012-08-01

    We report on the implementation and metrological characterization of a vapour-cell Rb frequency standard working in a pulsed regime. The three main parts of the clock, physics package, optics and electronics, are described in detail in this paper. The prototype is designed and optimized to detect the clock transition in the optical domain. Specifically, the reference atomic transition, excited with a Ramsey scheme, is detected by observing the interference pattern on a laser absorption signal. The metrological analysis includes the observation and characterization of the clock signal and the measurement of frequency stability and drift. In terms of Allan deviation, the measured frequency stability is as low as 1.7 × 10-13τ-1/2, τ being the averaging time, and reaches the value of a few units of 10-15 for τ = 104 s, an unprecedented result for a vapour-cell clock. We discuss the physical effects leading to this result in this paper with particular care to laser and microwave noises transferred to the clock signal. The frequency drift, probably related to temperature, stays below 10-14 per day, and no evidence of flicker floor is observed. We also mention some possible improvements that in principle would lead to a clock stability below the 10-13 level at 1 s and to a drift of a few units of 10-15 per day.

  13. An optical characterization platform for transparent insulation materials in solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Platzer, W.J.

    1994-12-31

    The precise optical characterization of transparent insulation materials used in windows, flat-plate collectors or for transparent insulation of buildings, is an important step to design solar collector and daylighting systems with these materials and to estimate energy benefits, peak loads, efficiencies, and different potential risks such as overheating, thermal damage or glare. Physically the aim is clear: Angle-dependent transmittance and reflectance properties for the solar and visible wavelength ranges yield the necessary information for the engineer to enable him to design a good system. However, it is far from trivial to obtain these data with sufficient precision for the rather different materials. The authors have set-up a set of radiation sources and integrating detector spheres which are able to measure directional-hemispherical and hemispherical-hemispherical reflectance and transmittance (hence also absorptance) for the visible and the solar wavelength range. This was possible by applying a PTFE-based coating to the spheres, having a unique spectrally flat response over the whole range, and using non-selective broadband detectors. Careful design tried to optimize integrating sphere geometry. Moreover, spectral measurements between 285--1,100nm are possible with an optical multichannel analyzer utilizing glass fiber optics. The whole experimental set-up will be presented and discussed together with representative results.

  14. Exploration of the multiparameter space of nanosecond-laser damage growth in fused silica optics

    SciTech Connect

    Negres, Raluca A.; Liao, Zhi M.; Abdulla, Ghaleb M.; Cross, David A.; Norton, Mary A.; Carr, Christopher W.

    2011-08-01

    Historically, the rate at which laser-induced damage sites grow on the exit surface of SiO{sub 2} optics under subsequent illumination with nanosecond-laser pulses of any wavelength was believed to depend solely on laser fluence. We demonstrate here that much of the scatter in previous growth observations was due to additional parameters that were not previously known to affect growth rate, namely the temporal pulse shape and the size of a site. Furthermore, the remaining variability observed in the rate at which sites grow is well described in terms of Weibull statistics. The effects of site size and laser fluence may both be expressed orthogonally in terms of Weibull coefficients. In addition, we employ a clustering algorithm to explore the multiparameter growth space and expose average growth trends. Conversely, this analysis approach also identifies sites likely to exhibit growth rates outside the norm. The ability to identify which sites are likely to grow abnormally fast in advance of the manifestation of such behavior will significantly enhance the accuracy of predictive models over those based on average growth behaviors.

  15. Nonlinear absorption and optical damage threshold of carbon-based nanostructured material embedded in a protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janulewicz, K. A.; Hapiddin, A.; Joseph, D.; Geckeler, K. E.; Sung, J. H.; Nickles, P. V.

    2014-12-01

    Physical processes in laser-matter interaction used to be determined by generation of fast electrons resulting from efficient conversion of the absorbed laser radiation. Composite materials offer the possibility to control the absorption by choice of the host material and dopants. Reported here strong absorption of ultrashort laser pulse in a composite carbon-based nanomaterial including single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) or multilayer graphene was measured in the intensity range between 1012 and 1016 W cm-2. A protein (lysozyme) was used as the host. The maximum absorption of femtosecond laser pulse has reached 92-96 %. The optical damage thresholds of the coatings were registered at an intensity of (1.1 ± 0.5) × 1013 W cm-2 for the embedded SWCNTs and at (3.4 ± 0.3) × 1013 W cm-2 for the embedded graphene. Encapsulated variant of the dispersed nanomaterial was investigated as well. It was found that supernatant protein in the coating material tends to dominate the absorption process, independently of the embedded nanomaterial. The opposite was observed for the encapsulated material.

  16. Growth, optical, thermal and laser damage threshold studies of 4-aminopyridinium 4-nitrophenolate 4-nitrophenol crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagadesan, A.; Peramaiyan, G.; Mohan Kumar, R.; Arjunan, S.

    2015-05-01

    Organic nonlinear optical (NLO) single crystals of 4-aminopyridinium 4-nitrophenolate 4-nitrophenol (4AP4NP) were grown by the slow evaporation solution growth technique. The unit cell parameters and space group of 4AP4NP crystal were found out by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. From the UV-vis-NIR spectral studies, the lower cut-off wavelength of the grown crystal was found to be 474 nm. The laser damage threshold study shows that 4AP4NP crystal withstands the laser radiation up to 3.67 GW cm-2. Thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses revealed that 4AP4ANP is thermally stable up to 175 °C. The specific heat capacity of 4AP4NP was measured to be 3.9135 J g-1 K-1 at 33 °C. Kurtz and Perry powder study reveals that 4AP4NP is a phase-matchable NLO material. The four independent tensor coefficients of dielectric permittivity were found to be ε11=25.09, ε22=25.84, ε33=26.69 and ε13=0.8 from the dielectric measurement.

  17. Exploration of the multiparameter space of nanosecond-laser damage growth in fused silica optics.

    PubMed

    Negres, Raluca A; Liao, Zhi M; Abdulla, Ghaleb M; Cross, David A; Norton, Mary A; Carr, Christopher W

    2011-08-01

    Historically, the rate at which laser-induced damage sites grow on the exit surface of SiO2 optics under subsequent illumination with nanosecond-laser pulses of any wavelength was believed to depend solely on laser fluence. We demonstrate here that much of the scatter in previous growth observations was due to additional parameters that were not previously known to affect growth rate, namely the temporal pulse shape and the size of a site. Furthermore, the remaining variability observed in the rate at which sites grow is well described in terms of Weibull statistics. The effects of site size and laser fluence may both be expressed orthogonally in terms of Weibull coefficients. In addition, we employ a clustering algorithm to explore the multiparameter growth space and expose average growth trends. Conversely, this analysis approach also identifies sites likely to exhibit growth rates outside the norm. The ability to identify which sites are likely to grow abnormally fast in advance of the manifestation of such behavior will significantly enhance the accuracy of predictive models over those based on average growth behaviors.

  18. Impacts of SiO2 planarization on optical thin film properties and laser damage resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, T.; Wang, H.; Jankowska, E.; Reagan, B. A.; Rocca, J. J.; Stolz, C. J.; Mirkarimi, P.; Folta, J.; Roehling, J.; Markosyan, A.; Route, R. R.; Fejer, M. M.; Menoni, C. S.

    2016-12-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Colorado State University (CSU) have co-developed a planarization process to smooth nodular defects. This process consists of individually depositing then etching tens of nanometers of SiO2 with a ratio of 2:1, respectively. Previous work shows incorporating the angular dependent ion surface etching and unidirectional deposition reduces substrate defect cross-sectional area by 90%. This work investigates the micro-structural and optical modifications of planarized SiO2 films deposited by ion beam sputtering (IBS). It is shown the planarized SiO2 thin films have 3x increase in absorption and 18% reduction in thin film stress as compared to control (as deposited) SiO2. Planarized SiO2 films exhibit 13% increase in RMS surface roughness with respect to the control and super polished fused silica substrates. Laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) results indicate the planarization process has no effect on the onset fluence but alters the shape of the probability vs fluence trace.

  19. Comparisons between laser damage and optical electric field behaviors for hafnia/silica antireflection coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Bellum, John; Kletecka, Damon; Rambo, Patrick; Smith, Ian; Schwarz, Jens; Atherton, Briggs

    2011-03-20

    We compare designs and laser-induced damage thresholds (LIDTs) of hafnia/silica antireflection (AR) coatings for 1054 nm or dual 527 nm/1054 nm wavelengths and 0 deg. to 45 deg. angles of incidence (AOIs). For a 527 nm/1054 nm, 0 deg. AOI AR coating, LIDTs from three runs arbitrarily selected over three years are {approx}20 J/cm{sup 2} or higher at 1054 nm and <10 J/cm{sup 2} at 527 nm. Calculated optical electric field intensities within the coating show two intensity peaks for 527 nm but not for 1054 nm, correlating with the lower (higher) LIDTs at 527 nm (1054 nm). For 1054 nm AR coatings at 45 deg. and 32 deg. AOIs and S and P polarizations (Spol and Ppol), LIDTs are high for Spol (>35 J/cm{sup 2}) but not as high for Ppol (>30 J/cm{sup 2} at 32 deg. AOI; {approx}15 J/cm{sup 2} at 45 deg. AOI). Field intensities show that Ppol discontinuities at media interfaces correlate with the lower Ppol LIDTs at these AOIs. For Side 1 and Side 2 dual 527 nm/1054 nm AR coatings of a diagnostic beam splitter at 22.5 deg. AOI, Spol and Ppol LIDTs (>10 J/cm{sup 2} at 527 nm; >35 J/cm{sup 2} at 1054 nm) are consistent with Spol and Ppol intensity behaviors.

  20. Early characterization of occlusal overloaded cervical dental hard tissues by en face optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcauteanu, Corina; Negrutiu, Meda; Sinescu, Cosmin; Stoica, Eniko Tunde; Ionita, Ciprian; Florin, Topala; Vasile, Liliana; Bradu, Adrian; Dobre, George; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2011-06-01

    Early diagnosis of occlusal overload is an important issue in dental medicine. The high occlusal forces can cause irreversible damage to the dental hard tissues. Our study proposes the early microstructural characterization of occlusal overloaded bicuspids, with abnormal crown morphology, by en face optical coherence tomography (eFOCT). The dental samples were investigated using an eFOCT system operating at 1300 nm in B-scan and C-scan mode. The eFOCT images obtained from these teeth visualized cracks, which didn't reach the tooth surface. The μCT and histological images confirmed the microstructural defects identified on eFOCT images. In conclusion, eFOCT is a promising imaging method for the early diagnosis of occlusal overload on bicuspids with normal crown morphology and for the prophylaxis of dental wear.

  1. Characterization of the optical parameters of high aspect ratio polymer micro-optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krajewski, Rafal; Van Erps, Jurgen; Wissmann, Markus; Kujawinska, Malgorzata; Parriaux, Olivier; Tonchev, S.; Mohr, Jurgen; Thienpont, Hugo

    2008-04-01

    Over the last decades the significant grow of interest of photonics devices is observed in various fields of applications. Due to the market demands, the current research studies are focused on the technologies providing miniaturized, reliable low-cost micro-optical systems, particularly the ones featuring the fabrication of high aspect ratio structures. A high potential of these technologies comes from the fact that fabrication process is not limited to single optical components, but entire systems integrating sets of elements could be fabricated. This could in turn result in a significant saving on the assembly and packaging costs. We present a brief overview of the most common high aspect ratio fabrication technologies for micro-optical components followed by some characterization studies of these techniques. The sidewall quality and internal homogeneity will be considered as the most crucial parameters, having an impact on the wavefront propagation in the fabricated components. We show the characterization procedure and measurement results for components prototyped with Deep Proton Writing and glass micromachining technology replicated with Hot Embossing and Elastomeric Mould Vacuum Casting technology. We discuss the pros and cons for using these technologies for the production of miniaturized interferometers blocks. In this paper we present the status of our research on the new technology chain and we show the concept of microinterferometers to be fabricated within presented technology chain.

  2. A micron resolution optical scanner for characterization of silicon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, R. A.; Dugad, S. R.; Garde, C. S.; Gopal, A. V.; Gupta, S. K.; Prabhu, S. S.

    2014-02-01

    The emergence of high position resolution (˜10 μm) silicon detectors in recent times have highlighted the urgent need for the development of new automated optical scanners of micron level resolution suited for characterizing microscopic features of these detectors. More specifically, for the newly developed silicon photo-multipliers (SiPM) that are compact, possessing excellent photon detection efficiency with gain comparable to photo-multiplier tube. In a short time, since their invention the SiPMs are already being widely used in several high-energy physics and astrophysics experiments as the photon readout element. The SiPM is a high quantum efficiency, multi-pixel photon counting detector with fast timing and high gain. The presence of a wide variety of photo sensitive silicon detectors with high spatial resolution requires their performance evaluation to be carried out by photon beams of very compact spot size. We have designed a high resolution optical scanner that provides a monochromatic focused beam on a target plane. The transverse size of the beam was measured by the knife-edge method to be 1.7 μm at 1 - σ level. Since the beam size was an order of magnitude smaller than the typical feature size of silicon detectors, this optical scanner can be used for selective excitation of these detectors. The design and operational details of the optical scanner, high precision programmed movement of target plane (0.1 μm) integrated with general purpose data acquisition system developed for recording static and transient response photo sensitive silicon detector are reported in this paper. Entire functionality of scanner is validated by using it for selective excitation of individual pixels in a SiPM and identifying response of active and dead regions within SiPM. Results from these studies are presented in this paper.

  3. A micron resolution optical scanner for characterization of silicon detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, R. A.; Dugad, S. R. Gopal, A. V.; Gupta, S. K.; Prabhu, S. S.; Garde, C. S.

    2014-02-15

    The emergence of high position resolution (∼10 μm) silicon detectors in recent times have highlighted the urgent need for the development of new automated optical scanners of micron level resolution suited for characterizing microscopic features of these detectors. More specifically, for the newly developed silicon photo-multipliers (SiPM) that are compact, possessing excellent photon detection efficiency with gain comparable to photo-multiplier tube. In a short time, since their invention the SiPMs are already being widely used in several high-energy physics and astrophysics experiments as the photon readout element. The SiPM is a high quantum efficiency, multi-pixel photon counting detector with fast timing and high gain. The presence of a wide variety of photo sensitive silicon detectors with high spatial resolution requires their performance evaluation to be carried out by photon beams of very compact spot size. We have designed a high resolution optical scanner that provides a monochromatic focused beam on a target plane. The transverse size of the beam was measured by the knife-edge method to be 1.7 μm at 1 − σ level. Since the beam size was an order of magnitude smaller than the typical feature size of silicon detectors, this optical scanner can be used for selective excitation of these detectors. The design and operational details of the optical scanner, high precision programmed movement of target plane (0.1 μm) integrated with general purpose data acquisition system developed for recording static and transient response photo sensitive silicon detector are reported in this paper. Entire functionality of scanner is validated by using it for selective excitation of individual pixels in a SiPM and identifying response of active and dead regions within SiPM. Results from these studies are presented in this paper.

  4. A micron resolution optical scanner for characterization of silicon detectors.

    PubMed

    Shukla, R A; Dugad, S R; Garde, C S; Gopal, A V; Gupta, S K; Prabhu, S S

    2014-02-01

    The emergence of high position resolution (∼10 μm) silicon detectors in recent times have highlighted the urgent need for the development of new automated optical scanners of micron level resolution suited for characterizing microscopic features of these detectors. More specifically, for the newly developed silicon photo-multipliers (SiPM) that are compact, possessing excellent photon detection efficiency with gain comparable to photo-multiplier tube. In a short time, since their invention the SiPMs are already being widely used in several high-energy physics and astrophysics experiments as the photon readout element. The SiPM is a high quantum efficiency, multi-pixel photon counting detector with fast timing and high gain. The presence of a wide variety of photo sensitive silicon detectors with high spatial resolution requires their performance evaluation to be carried out by photon beams of very compact spot size. We have designed a high resolution optical scanner that provides a monochromatic focused beam on a target plane. The transverse size of the beam was measured by the knife-edge method to be 1.7 μm at 1 - σ level. Since the beam size was an order of magnitude smaller than the typical feature size of silicon detectors, this optical scanner can be used for selective excitation of these detectors. The design and operational details of the optical scanner, high precision programmed movement of target plane (0.1 μm) integrated with general purpose data acquisition system developed for recording static and transient response photo sensitive silicon detector are reported in this paper. Entire functionality of scanner is validated by using it for selective excitation of individual pixels in a SiPM and identifying response of active and dead regions within SiPM. Results from these studies are presented in this paper.

  5. Characterization of energetic formulations optimized for optical initiation

    SciTech Connect

    Zucker, Jonathan M; Tappan, Bryce C; Oschwald, David M; Preston, Daniel N; Burnside, Nathan

    2010-01-01

    . By characterizing the energy required to initiate several different materials, more effective formulations can be designed using the better performing materials. Presented here are the results of laser initiation tests on a variety of compositions, principally combinations of PETN, DAATO{sub 3.5}, HMX, Ag{sub 2}BTA (silver bistetrazolamine), CuBTA, BNCP (bis-5-nitrotetrazolato tetraamine cobalt perchloriate), nm Ag, and a variety of MICs (metastable intermolecular compounds). Also presented are the conclusions as to which formulations are most suitable for optically initiated systems.

  6. Wideband optical propagation measurement system for characterization of indoor optical wireless channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavehrad, Mohsen; Fadlullah, Jarir

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of the presented research is to characterize an indoor wireless optical communication channel. Until recently, there have not been any comprehensive published measurements results presenting characteristics of this channel for high data rates, e. g. 1Gbit/s. To this end, a measurement setup is implemented, with a high-power laser diode acting as the optical transmitter and an avalanche photodiode acting as the receiver. Using a network analyzer, the laser is modulated by CW frequencies up to 1 GHz, which is the bandwidth of the receiver, as limited by the intrinsic capacitance and the response-time of the avalanche photodiode. A single collimated optical spot with a small elliptical shape on the ceiling is tested. The impacts of receiver orientation and configuration on the channel frequency response are investigated. These measurements will enable us to explore the possibility of higher data transmission rates, potentially beyond 1 Gbps, on indoor optical wireless channels. These channels can be a viable alternative to inherently insecure and interference-prone RF wireless channels, and therefore, could be the basis of next-generation high data rate wireless local area networks.

  7. Optical sensing using fiber Bragg gratings for monitoring structural damage in composite over-wrapped pressure vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, J.

    2005-09-01

    Composite Over-Wrap Vessels are widely used in the aerospace community. They made of thin-walled bottles that are over wrapped with high strength fibers embedded in a matrix material. There is a strong drive to reduce the weight of space borne vehicles and thus pushes designers to adopt COPVs that are over wrapped with graphite fibers embedded in its epoxy matrix. Unfortunately, this same fiber/matrix configuration is more susceptible to impact damage than others and to make matters worse; there is a regime where impacts that damage the over wrap leave no visible scar on the COPV surface. In this paper FBG sensors are presented as a means of monitoring and detecting these types of damage. The FBG sensors are surface mounted to the COPVs and optically interrogated to explore the structural properties of these composite pressure vessels. These gratings optically inscribed into the core of a single mode fiber are used as a tool to monitor the stress strain relation in the composite matrix. The response of these fiber-optic sensors is investigated by pressurizing the cylinder up to its burst pressure of around 4500 psi. A Fiber Optic Demodulation System built by Blue Road Research, is used for interrogation of the Bragg gratings.

  8. Mitigation of Laser Damage Growth in Fused Silica NIF Optics with a Galvanometer Scanned Carbon Dioxide Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, I L; Draggoo, V; Guss, G M; Hackel, R P; Norton, M A

    2006-04-06

    Economic operation of the National Ignition Facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory depends on controlling growth of laser damage in the large, high cost optics exposed to UV light at 351 nm. Mitigation of the growth of damage sites on fused silica surfaces greater than several hundred microns in diameter has been previously reported by us using galvanometer scanning of a tightly focused 10.6 {micro}m CO{sub 2} laser spot over an area encompassing the laser damage. Further investigation revealed that fused silica vapor re-deposited on the surface as ''debris'' led to laser damage at unexpectedly low fluences when exposed to multiple laser shots at 351 nm. Additionally, laser power and spatial mode fluctuations in the mitigation laser led to poor repeatability of the process. We also found that the shape of the mitigation pit could produce downstream intensification that could damage other NIF optics. Modifications were made to both the laser system and the mitigation process in order to address these issues. Debris was completely eliminated by these changes, but repeatability and downstream intensification issues still persist.

  9. Developing a trend prediction model of subsurface damage for fixed-abrasive grinding of optics by cup wheels.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhichao; Cheng, Haobo

    2016-11-10

    Fixed-abrasive grinding by cup wheels plays an important role in the production of precision optics. During cup wheel grinding, we strive for a large removal rate while maintaining fine integrity on the surface and subsurface layers (academically recognized as surface roughness and subsurface damage, respectively). This study develops a theoretical model used to predict the trend of subsurface damage of optics (with respect to various grinding parameters) in fixed-abrasive grinding by cup wheels. It is derived from the maximum undeformed chip thickness model, and it successfully correlates the pivotal parameters of cup wheel grinding with the subsurface damage depth. The efficiency of this model is then demonstrated by a set of experiments performed on a cup wheel grinding machine. In these experiments, the characteristics of subsurface damage are inspected by a wedge-polishing plus microscopic inspection method, revealing that the subsurface damage induced in cup wheel grinding is composed of craterlike morphologies and slender cracks, with depth ranging from ∼6.2 to ∼13.2  μm under the specified grinding parameters. With the help of the proposed model, an optimized grinding strategy is suggested for realizing fine subsurface integrity as well as high removal rate, which can alleviate the workload of subsequent lapping and polishing.

  10. Optical and mechanical characterization and analysis of nanoscale systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamont, Daniel N.

    This thesis discusses research focused on the analysis and characterization of nanoscale systems. These studies are organized into three sections based on the research topic and methodology: Part I describes research using scanning probe microscopy, Part II describes research using photonic crystals and Part III describes research using spectroscopy. A brief description of the studies contained in each part follows. Part I discusses our work using scanning probe microscopy. In Chapter 3, we present our work using apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy to study the optical properties of an isolated subwavelength slit in a gold film, while in chapter 4 atomic force microscopy and a three point bending model are used to explore the mechanical properties of individual multiwall boron nitride nanotubes. Part II includes our studies of photonic crystals. In Chapter 6 we discuss the fabrication and characterization of a photonic crystal material that utilizes electrostatic colloidal crystal array self assembly to form a highly ordered, non closed packed template; and in Chapter 7 we discuss the fabrication and characterization of a novel, simple and efficient approach to rapidly fabricate large-area 2D particle arrays on water surfaces. Finally, in Part III we present our spectroscopic studies. In Chapter 9 we use fluorescence quenching and fluorescence lifetime measurements to study electron transfer in aggregates of cadmium selenide and cadmium telluride nanoparticles assemblies. Chapter 10 features our work using the electronic structure of zinc sulfide semiconductor nanoparticles to sensitize the luminescence of Tb3+ and Eu 3+ lanthanide cations, and Chapter 11 presents our recent work studying photo-induced electron transfer between donor and acceptor moieties attached to a cleft-forming bridge. v.

  11. Optical characterization of vitreous structure in health and disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampathkumar, Ashwin; Khoshnevis, Matin; Ketterling, Jeffrey A.; Sebag, J.

    2015-03-01

    Patients with myopic vitreopathy (MV) and posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) see floaters, which often can degrade contrast sensitivity to a significant extent. The floaters are associated with irregularly shaped vitreous opacities. In contrast, asteroid hyalosis (AH), which is characterized by microscopic, spherical, white asteroid bodies (ABs) that move with vitreous displacement during eye movements, does not interfere significantly with vision. We hypothesize that the irregular surface of vitreous opacities associated with MV distinguish MV from AH and its smooth-surfaced ABs. A finite-element model was developed to characterize the light-scattering field of vitreous opacities in MV and AH. Vitreous opacities were modeled as spherical bodies and illuminated by a plane wave of light in the optical wavelength of 400-1000 nm. The model has provisions to add random perturbations to the spherical surfaces to vary light-scattering properties and mimic disturbances in vision from simple diffraction rings to more-complex patterns. Samples of ex vivo porcine vitreous (0.4-0.5 ml) were placed in a custom spectrophotometer and the static, light-scattering field of the sample was measured in the spectral range of 400-1000 nm with a resolution of 0.3 nm. Model solutions mimicking healthy vitreous and AH were experimentally validated using a laboratory optical apparatus. Model-based estimates of scattering cross-sections of calibrated gold nanoparticles were found to be in good agreement with experimental measurements. Simulation results potentially can complement experimental data to quantitatively characterize vitreous opacities and distinguish between structures that significantly impact vision, such as those due to myopic vitreopathy and aging, from those that have little impact, like ABs. Such techniques to determine the structural significance of vitreous opacification would be very useful in selecting patients for surgery as well as evaluating the efficacy of

  12. Characterization of corneal damage from Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection by the use of multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yu-Lin; Chen, Wei-Liang; Lo, Wen; Chen, Shean-Jen; Tan, Hsin-Yuan; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2010-11-01

    Using multiphoton autofluorescence (MAF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy, we investigate the morphology and the structure of the corneal epithelium and stroma collagen of bovine cornea following injection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We found that corneal epithelial cells are damaged and stromal collagen becoming increasingly autofluorescent with time. We also characterized infected cornea cultured for 0, 6, 12, and 24 h by quantitative ratiometric MAF to SHG index (MAFSI) analysis. MAFSI results show that the destruction of the stromal collagen corresponds to a decrease in SHG intensity and increase of MAF signal with time.

  13. Synthesis, crystal growth and characterization of nonlinear optical organic crystal: p-Toluidinium p-toluenesulphonate

    SciTech Connect

    Vijayakumar, P.; Anandha Babu, G.; Ramasamy, P.

    2012-04-15

    Graphical abstract: p-Toluidinium p-toluenesulphonate (p-TTS) an organic nonlinear optical crystal has been grown from the aqueous solution by slow evaporation solution growth technique. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that p-TTS crystallizes in monoclinic crystal system. p-TTS single crystal belongs to negative birefringence crystal. Second harmonic conversion efficiency of p-TTS has been found to be 1.3 times higher than that of KDP. Multiple shot surface laser damage threshold is determined to be 0.30 GW/cm{sup 2} at 1064 nm laser radiation. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It deals with the synthesis, growth and characterization of p-TTS an organic NLO crystal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wide optical transparency window between 280 nm and 1100 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Negative birefringence crystal and dispersion of birefringence is negligibly small. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal study reveals that the grown crystal is stable up to 210 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multiple shot surface laser damage threshold is 0.30 GW/cm{sup 2} at 1064 nm laser radiation. -- Abstract: p-Toluidinium p-toluenesulphonate (p-TTS) an organic nonlinear optical crystal has been grown from the aqueous solution by slow evaporation solution growth technique. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that p-TTS crystallizes in monoclinic crystal system. The structural perfection of the grown p-TTS single crystal has been analyzed by high-resolution X-ray diffraction rocking curve measurements. Fourier transform infrared spectral studies have been performed to identify the functional groups. The optical transmittance window and the lower cutoff wavelength of the grown crystals have been identified by UV-vis-IR studies. Birefringence of p-TTS crystal has been studied using channel spectrum measurement. The laser damage threshold value was measured using Nd:YAG laser. The second harmonic conversion efficiency of p-TTS has

  14. Design, synthesis and characterization of novel nonlinear optical chromophores for electro-optical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feng

    This dissertation involves the design, synthesis and characterization of second order nonlinear optical chromophores for electro-optic applications. The design concept, that poling efficiency and macroscopic nonlinearities can be improved by modifying a chromophore's shape, has been explored. Chapter 1 gives an introduction into theoretical background of nonlinear optics and electro-optic phenomenon in organic molecules and poled polymers. Chapter 2 involves the design and synthesis of GLD-2 and GLD-3 chromophores, both with bulky substituents on the ring-fused bridge. The optical studies and HRS measurement show that the two alkyl groups on the bridge blueshift the lambdamax in chloroform by 20 nm and decrease the beta values. DSC and TGA thermal analysis show Td of GLD-2 and GLD-3 over 240°C. The maximum achievable r33 of GLD-2/PMMA is 61 pm/V, compared to the 92.4 pm/V of GLD-1/PMMA. But GLD-2/APC shows r33 of 45.2pm/V, higher than GLD-1/APC due to the improved compatibility with APC. The optical loss of 13 wt% GLD-2/PMMA at 1.55mum is 1.4 dB compared to the 2.3 dB of 17 wt% GLD-1/PMMA. Optical loss studies prove that adding two bulky substituents on bridge help attenuate electrostatic interactions. GLD-3 show deteriorated solubility in common used organic solvents, probably due to the combination of two TBDMS and two lengthy alkyl groups. Chapter 3 presents synthesis of thiophene-based chromophores with variously positioned TBDMS groups. The optical studies of these chromophores show one TBDMSO substitution on the thiophene bridge yields little influence on the lambda max in chloroform. FTCDS chromophore with two TBDMS groups, one on donor and one on thiophene bridge, shows to be the best structure with regards the thermal stability and achievable maximum EO coefficient value, 65.9 pm/V, at only 24 wt% loading density at 1.3 mum. Chapter 4 deals with three novel bridges for NLO chromophores. Synthetic methodologies of the diketone precursor of rigidified

  15. EFFECTS OF LASER RADIATION ON MATTER. LASER PLASMA: Thermally induced optical damage to barium-sodium niobate crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baryshev, S. A.; Goncharova, I. F.; Konvisar, P. G.; Kuznetsov, V. A.

    1990-06-01

    Thermally induced optical damage (TIOD) was observed in undoped barium-sodium niobate (BSN) crystals as a result of changes in their temperature. This damage was deduced from the behavior of YAG:Nd3+ laser radiation when a BSN crystal was inserted in the resonator and also using a helium-neon laser probe beam. The experimental results were satisfactorily explained by the familiar pyroelectric model of TIOD and, in the crystals studied, an inhomogeneity of the conductivity rather than an inhomogeneity of the pyroelectric constant played the main role.

  16. Crystal growth, perfection, linear and nonlinear optical, photoconductivity, dielectric, thermal and laser damage threshold properties of 4-methylimidazolium picrate: an interesting organic crystal for photonic and optoelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajesh, K.; Arun, A.; Mani, A.; Praveen Kumar, P.

    2016-10-01

    The 4-methylimidazolium picrate has been synthesized and characterized successfully. Single and powder x-ray diffrac