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Sample records for optical devices ldrd

  1. Chiral multichromic single crystals for optical devices (LDRD 99406).

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, Richard Alan; Felix, Ana M. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-12-01

    This report summarizes our findings during the study of a novel system that yields multi-colored materials as products. This system is quite unusual as it leads to multi-chromic behavior in single crystals, where one would expect that only a single color would exist. We have speculated that these novel solids might play a role in materials applications such as non-linear optics, liquid crystal displays, piezoelectric devices, and other similar applications. The system examined consisted of a main-group alkyl compound (a p block element such as gallium or aluminum) complexed with various organic di-imines. The di-imines had substituents of two types--either alkyl or aromatic groups attached to the nitrogen atoms. We observed that single crystals, characterized by X-ray crystallography, were obtained in most cases. Our research during January-July, 2006, was geared towards understanding the factors leading to the multi-chromic nature of the complexes. The main possibilities put forth initially considered (a) the chiral nature of the main group metal, (b) possible reduction of the metal to a lower-valent, radical state, (c) the nature of the ligand(s) attached to the main group metal, and (d) possible degradation products of the ligand leading to highly-colored products. The work carried out indicates that the most likely explanation considered involves degradation of the aromatic ligands (a combination of (c) and (d)), as the experiments performed can clearly rule out (a) and (b).

  2. MEMS Adaptive Optics Devices: LDRD No. 02-1385 Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    DAGEL, DARYL J.; ALLEN, JAMES J.

    2002-12-01

    The primary goal of this portion of the LDRD is to develop a vertical programmable diffraction grating that can be fabricated with Sandia's Ultra-planar Multi-level MEMS Technology, the SUMMiT V{trademark} process. This grating is targeted for use in a chemical detection system dubbed the Polychromator. A secondary goal is to design diffraction grating structures with additional degrees of freedom (DOF). Gratings with 2.5 microns of vertical stroke have been realized. In addition, rotational DOF grating structures have been successfully actuated, and a structure has been developed that minimizes residual stress effects.

  3. Final report on LDRD project : advanced optical trigger systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Roose, Lars D.; Hadley, G. Ronald; Mar, Alan; Serkland, Darwin Keith; Geib, Kent Martin; Sullivan, Charles Thomas; Keeler, Gordon Arthur; Bauer, Thomas M.; Peake, Gregory Merwin; Loubriel, Guillermo Manuel; Montano, Victoria A.

    2008-09-01

    are difficult to scale and manufacture with the required uniformity. As a promising alternative to multiple discrete edge-emitting lasers, a single wafer of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) can be lithographically patterned to achieve the desired layout of parallel line-shaped emitters, in which adjacent lasers utilize identical semiconductor material and thereby achieve a degree of intrinsic optical uniformity. Under this LDRD project, we have fabricated arrays of uncoupled circular-aperture VCSELs to approximate a line-shaped illumination pattern, achieving optical fill factors ranging from 2% to 30%. We have applied these VCSEL arrays to demonstrate single and dual parallel line-filament triggering of PCSS devices. Moreover, we have developed a better understanding of the illumination requirements for stable triggering of multiple-filament PCSS devices using VCSEL arrays. We have found that reliable triggering of multiple filaments requires matching of the turn-on time of adjacent VCSEL line-shaped-arrays to within approximately 1 ns. Additionally, we discovered that reliable triggering of PCSS devices at low voltages requires more optical power than we obtained with our first generation of VCSEL arrays. A second generation of higher-power VCSEL arrays was designed and fabricated at the end of this LDRD project, and testing with PCSS devices is currently underway (as of September 2008).

  4. III-antimonide/nitride based semiconductors for optoelectronic materials and device studies : LDRD 26518 final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, Steven Ross; Hargett, Terry W.; Serkland, Darwin Keith; Waldrip, Karen Elizabeth; Modine, Normand Arthur; Klem, John Frederick; Jones, Eric Daniel; Cich, Michael Joseph; Allerman, Andrew Alan; Peake, Gregory Merwin

    2003-12-01

    The goal of this LDRD was to investigate III-antimonide/nitride based materials for unique semiconductor properties and applications. Previous to this study, lack of basic information concerning these alloys restricted their use in semiconductor devices. Long wavelength emission on GaAs substrates is of critical importance to telecommunication applications for cost reduction and integration into microsystems. Currently InGaAsN, on a GaAs substrate, is being commercially pursued for the important 1.3 micrometer dispersion minima of silica-glass optical fiber; due, in large part, to previous research at Sandia National Laboratories. However, InGaAsN has not shown great promise for 1.55 micrometer emission which is the low-loss window of single mode optical fiber used in transatlantic fiber. Other important applications for the antimonide/nitride based materials include the base junction of an HBT to reduce the operating voltage which is important for wireless communication links, and for improving the efficiency of a multijunction solar cell. We have undertaken the first comprehensive theoretical, experimental and device study of this material with promising results. Theoretical modeling has identified GaAsSbN to be a similar or potentially superior candidate to InGaAsN for long wavelength emission on GaAs. We have confirmed these predictions by producing emission out to 1.66 micrometers and have achieved edge emitting and VCSEL electroluminescence at 1.3 micrometers. We have also done the first study of the transport properties of this material including mobility, electron/hole mass, and exciton reduced mass. This study has increased the understanding of the III-antimonide/nitride materials enough to warrant consideration for all of the target device applications.

  5. 4-wave mixing for phase-matching free nonlinear optics in quantum cascade structures : LDRD 08-0346 final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, Weng Wah; Wanke, Michael Clement; Allen, Dan G.; Yang, Zhenshan; Waldmueller, Ines

    2010-10-01

    Optical nonlinearities and quantum coherences have the potential to enable efficient, high-temperature generation of coherent THz radiation. This LDRD proposal involves the exploration of the underlying physics using intersubband transitions in a quantum cascade structure. Success in the device physics aspect will give Sandia the state-of-the-art technology for high-temperature THz quantum cascade lasers. These lasers are useful for imaging and spectroscopy in medicine and national defense. Success may have other far-reaching consequences. Results from the in-depth study of coherences, dephasing and dynamics will eventually impact the fields of quantum computing, optical communication and cryptology, especially if we are successful in demonstrating entangled photons or slow light. An even farther reaching development is if we can show that the QC nanostructure, with its discrete atom-like intersubband resonances, can replace the atom in quantum optics experiments. Having such an 'artificial atom' will greatly improve flexibility and preciseness in experiments, thereby enhancing the discovery of new physics. This is because we will no longer be constrained by what natural can provide. Rather, one will be able to tailor transition energies and optical matrix elements to enhance the physics of interest. This report summarizes a 3-year LDRD program at Sandia National Laboratories exploring optical nonlinearities in intersubband devices. Experimental and theoretical investigations were made to develop a fundamental understanding of light-matter interaction in a semiconductor system and to explore how this understanding can be used to develop mid-IR to THz emitters and nonclassical light sources.

  6. Final Report on LDRD Project: High-Bandwidth Optical Data Interconnects for Satellite Applications

    SciTech Connect

    SERKLAND, DARWIN K.; GEIB, KENT M.; BLANSETT, ETHAN L.; KARPEN, GARY D.; PEAKE, GREGORY M.; HARGETT, TERRY; MONTANO, VICTORIA; SULLIVAN, CHARLES T.; ALLERMAN, ANDREW A.; RIENSTRA, JEFFREY L.

    2003-04-01

    This report describes the research accomplishments achieved under the LDRD Project ''High-Bandwidth Optical Data Interconnects for Satellite Applications.'' The goal of this LDRD has been to address the future needs of focal-plane-array (FPA) sensors by exploring the use of high-bandwidth fiber-optic interconnects to transmit FPA signals within a satellite. We have focused primarily on vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) based transmitters, due to the previously demonstrated immunity of VCSELs to total radiation doses up to 1 Mrad. In addition, VCSELs offer high modulation bandwidth (roughly 10 GHz), low power consumption (roughly 5 mW), and high coupling efficiency (greater than -3dB) to optical fibers. In the first year of this LDRD, we concentrated on the task of transmitting analog signals from a cryogenic FPA to a remote analog-to-digital converter. In the second year, we considered the transmission of digital signals produced by the analog-to-digital converter to a remote computer on the satellite. Specifically, we considered the situation in which the FPA, analog-to-digital converter, and VCSEL-based transmitter were all cooled to cryogenic temperatures. This situation requires VCSELs that operate at cryogenic temperature, dissipate minimal heat, and meet the electrical drive requirements in terms of voltage, current, and bandwidth.

  7. Final LDRD report : design and fabrication of advanced device structures for ultra high efficiency solid state lighting.

    SciTech Connect

    Koleske, Daniel David; Bogart, Katherine Huderle Andersen; Shul, Randy John; Wendt, Joel Robert; Crawford, Mary Hagerott; Allerman, Andrew Alan; Fischer, Arthur Joseph

    2005-04-01

    The goal of this one year LDRD was to improve the overall efficiency of InGaN LEDs by improving the extraction of light from the semiconductor chip. InGaN LEDs are currently the most promising technology for producing high efficiency blue and green semiconductor light emitters. Improving the efficiency of InGaN LEDs will enable a more rapid adoption of semiconductor based lighting. In this LDRD, we proposed to develop photonic structures to improve light extraction from nitride-based light emitting diodes (LEDs). While many advanced device geometries were considered for this work, we focused on the use of a photonic crystal for improved light extraction. Although resonant cavity LEDs and other advanced structures certainly have the potential to improve light extraction, the photonic crystal approach showed the most promise in the early stages of this short program. The photonic crystal (PX)-LED developed here incorporates a two dimensional photonic crystal, or photonic lattice, into a nitride-based LED. The dimensions of the photonic crystal are selected such that there are very few or no optical modes in the plane of the LED ('lateral' modes). This will reduce or eliminate any radiation in the lateral direction so that the majority of the LED radiation will be in vertical modes that escape the semiconductor, which will improve the light-extraction efficiency. PX-LEDs were fabricated using a range of hole diameters and lattice constants and compared to control LEDs without a photonic crystal. The far field patterns from the PX-LEDs were dramatically modified by the presence of the photonic crystal. An increase in LED brightness of 1.75X was observed for light measured into a 40 degree emission cone with a total increase in power of 1.5X for an unencapsulated LED.

  8. Eyeglass Large Aperture, Lightweight Space Optics FY2000 - FY2002 LDRD Strategic Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, R

    2003-02-10

    differences in their requirements and implementations, the fundamental difficulty in utilizing large aperture optics is the same for all of these applications: It is extremely difficult to design large aperture space optics which are both optically precise and can meet the practical requirements for launch and deployment in space. At LLNL we have developed a new concept (Eyeglass) which uses large diffractive optics to solve both of these difficulties; greatly reducing both the mass and the tolerance requirements for large aperture optics. During previous LDRD-supported research, we developed this concept, built and tested broadband diffractive telescopes, and built 50 cm aperture diffraction-limited diffractive lenses (the largest in the world). This work is fully described in UCRL-ID-136262, Eyeglass: A Large Aperture Space Telescope. However, there is a large gap between optical proof-of-principle with sub-meter apertures, and actual 50 meter space telescopes. This gap is far too large (both in financial resources and in spacecraft expertise) to be filled internally at LLNL; implementation of large aperture diffractive space telescopes must be done externally using non-LLNL resources and expertise. While LLNL will never become the primary contractor and integrator for large space optical systems, our natural role is to enable these devices by developing the capability of producing very large diffractive optics. Accordingly, the purpose of the Large Aperture, Lightweight Space Optics Strategic Initiative was to develop the technology to fabricate large, lightweight diffractive lenses. The additional purpose of this Strategic Initiative was, of course, to demonstrate this lens-fabrication capability in a fashion compellingly enough to attract the external support necessary to continue along the path to full-scale space-based telescopes. During this 3 year effort (FY2000-FY2002) we have developed the capability of optically smoothing and diffractively-patterning thin meter

  9. Optical devices

    DOEpatents

    Chaves, Julio C.; Falicoff, Waqidi; Minano, Juan C.; Benitez, Pablo; Dross, Oliver; Parkyn, Jr., William A.

    2010-07-13

    An optical manifold for efficiently combining a plurality of blue LED outputs to illuminate a phosphor for a single, substantially homogeneous output, in a small, cost-effective package. Embodiments are disclosed that use a single or multiple LEDs and a remote phosphor, and an intermediate wavelength-selective filter arranged so that backscattered photoluminescence is recycled to boost the luminance and flux of the output aperture. A further aperture mask is used to boost phosphor luminance with only modest loss of luminosity. Alternative non-recycling embodiments provide blue and yellow light in collimated beams, either separately or combined into white.

  10. Fiber optic monitoring device

    DOEpatents

    Samborsky, James K.

    1993-01-01

    A device for the purpose of monitoring light transmissions in optical fibers comprises a fiber optic tap that optically diverts a fraction of a transmitted optical signal without disrupting the integrity of the signal. The diverted signal is carried, preferably by the fiber optic tap, to a lens or lens system that disperses the light over a solid angle that facilitates viewing. The dispersed light indicates whether or not the monitored optical fiber or system of optical fibers is currently transmitting optical information.

  11. Optical devices: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Technological developments in the field of optics devices which have potential utility outside the aerospace community are described. Optical instrumentation, light generation and transmission, and laser techniques are among the topics covered. Patent information is given.

  12. Fiber optic monitoring device

    DOEpatents

    Samborsky, J.K.

    1993-10-05

    A device for the purpose of monitoring light transmissions in optical fibers comprises a fiber optic tap that optically diverts a fraction of a transmitted optical signal without disrupting the integrity of the signal. The diverted signal is carried, preferably by the fiber optic tap, to a lens or lens system that disperses the light over a solid angle that facilitates viewing. The dispersed light indicates whether or not the monitored optical fiber or system of optical fibers is currently transmitting optical information. 4 figures.

  13. Optical thin film devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Shuzheng

    1991-11-01

    Thin film devices are applied to almost all modern scientific instruments, and these devices, especially optical thin film devices, play an essential role in the performances of the instruments, therefore, they are attracting more and more attention. Now there are numerous kinds of thin film devices and their applications are very diversified. The 300-page book, 'Thin Film Device and Applications,' by Prof. K. L. Chopra gives some general ideas, and my paper also outlines the designs, fabrication, and applications of some optical thin film devices made in my laboratory. Optical thin film devices have been greatly developed in the recent decades. Prof. A. Thelan has given a number of papers on the theory and techniques, Prof. H. A. Macleod's book, 'Thin Film Optical Filters,' has concisely concluded the important concepts of optical thin film devices, and Prof. J. A. Dobrowobski has proposed many successful designs for optical thin film devices. Recently, fully-automatic plants make it easier to produce thin film devices with various spectrum requirements, and some companies, such as Balzers, Leybold AG, Satis Vacuum AG, etc., have manufactured such kinds of coating plants for research or mass-production, and the successful example is the production of multilayer antireflection coatings with high stability and reproducibility. Therefore, it could be said that the design of optical thin film devices and coating plants is quite mature. However, we cannot expect that every problem has been solved, the R&D work still continues, the competition still continues, and new design concepts, new techniques, and new film materials are continually developed. Meanwhile, the high-price of fully-automatic coating plants makes unpopular, and automatic design of coating stacks is only the technique for optimizing the manual design according to the physical concepts and experience, in addition, not only the optical system, but also working environment should be taken into account when

  14. Multichannel optical sensing device

    DOEpatents

    Selkowitz, S.E.

    1985-08-16

    A multichannel optical sensing device is disclosed, for measuring the outdoor sky luminance or illuminance or the luminance or illuminance distribution in a room, comprising a plurality of light receptors, an optical shutter matrix including a plurality of liquid crystal optical shutter elements operable by electrical control signals between light transmitting and light stopping conditions, fiber optical elements connected between the receptors and the shutter elements, a microprocessor based programmable control unit for selectively supplying control signals to the optical shutter elements in a programmable sequence, a photodetector including an optical integrating spherical chamber having an input port for receiving the light from the shutter matrix and at least one detector element in the spherical chamber for producing output signals corresponding to the light, and output units for utilizing the output signals including a storage unit having a control connection to the microprocessor based programmable control unit for storing the output signals under the sequence control of the programmable control unit.

  15. Multichannel optical sensing device

    DOEpatents

    Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    1990-01-01

    A multichannel optical sensing device is disclosed, for measuring the outr sky luminance or illuminance or the luminance or illuminance distribution in a room, comprising a plurality of light receptors, an optical shutter matrix including a plurality of liquid crystal optical shutter elements operable by electrical control signals between light transmitting and light stopping conditions, fiber optic elements connected between the receptors and the shutter elements, a microprocessor based programmable control unit for selectively supplying control signals to the optical shutter elements in a programmable sequence, a photodetector including an optical integrating spherical chamber having an input port for receiving the light from the shutter matrix and at least one detector element in the spherical chamber for producing output signals corresponding to the light, and output units for utilizing the output signals including a storage unit having a control connection to the microprocessor based programmable control unit for storing the output signals under the sequence control of the programmable control unit.

  16. Superlattice optical device

    DOEpatents

    Biefeld, R.M.; Fritz, I.J.; Gourley, P.L.; Osbourn, G.C.

    A semiconductor optical device which includes a superlattice having direct transitions between conduction band and valence band states with the same wave vector, the superlattice being formed from a plurality of alternating layers of two or more different materials, at least the material with the smallest bandgap being an indirect bandgap material.

  17. Superlattice optical device

    DOEpatents

    Biefeld, Robert M.; Fritz, Ian J.; Gourley, Paul L.; Osbourn, Gordon C.

    1986-01-01

    A semiconductor optical device which includes a superlattice having direct transitions between conduction band and valence band states with the same wave vector, the superlattice being formed from a plurality of alternating layers of two or more different materials, at least the material with the smallest bandgap being an indirect bandgap material.

  18. Optical-to-optical interface device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, A. D.; Bleha, W. P.; Miller, L.; Grinberg, J.; Fraas, L.; Margerum, D.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to develop an optical-to-optical interface device capable of performing real-time incoherent-to-incoherent optical image conversion. The photoactivated liquid crystal light valve developed earlier represented a prototype liquid crystal light valve device capable of performing these functions. A device was developed which had high performance and extended lifetime.

  19. LDRD final report on Si nanocrystal as device prototype for spintronics applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, Malcolm S.; Verley, Jason C.; Pan, Wei; Banks, James Clifford; Brewer, Luke N.; Sheng, Josephine Juin-Jye; Barton, Daniel Lee; Dunn, Roberto G.

    2006-11-01

    The silicon microelectronics industry is the technological driver of modern society. The whole industry is built upon one major invention--the solid-state transistor. It has become clear that the conventional transistor technology is approaching its limitations. Recent years have seen the advent of magnetoelectronics and spintronics with combined magnetism and solid state electronics via spin-dependent transport process. In these novel devices, both charge and spin degree freedoms can be manipulated by external means. This leads to novel electronic functionalities that will greatly enhance the speed of information processing and memory storage density. The challenge lying ahead is to understand the new device physics, and control magnetic phenomena at nanometer length scales and in reduced dimensions. To meet this goal, we proposed the silicon nanocrystal system, because: (1) It is compatible with existing silicon fabrication technologies; (2) It has shown strong quantum confinement effects, which can modify the electric and optical properties through directly modifying the band structure; and (3) the spin-orbital coupling in silicon is very small, and for isotopic pure {sup 28}Si, the nuclear spin is zero. These will help to reduce the spin-decoherence channels. In the past fiscal year, we have studied the growth mechanism of silicon-nanocrystals embedded in silicon dioxide, their photoluminescence properties, and the Si-nanocrystal's magnetic properties in the presence of Mn-ion doping. Our results may demonstrate the first evidence of possible ferromagnetic orders in Mn-ion implanted silicon nanocrystals, which can lead to ultra-fast information process and ultra-dense magnetic memory applications.

  20. New optical coupler devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadan, Tarek Abd-Elazim

    2000-06-01

    New optical coupler devices have been designed with both analytical and numerical simulation tools. Using these tools, design rules were derived for both 3dB and full adiabatic couplers. The design rules are in excellent agreement with numerical calculations using the beam propagation method (BPM). It is shown that the length scaling for the 3dB adiabatic couplers compared to full adiabatic couplers makes the former more difficult to design. The design in each case is optimized to obtain an upper limit of performance. A comparison is carried out between two different design geometries to select the optimum adiabatic coupler design which requires the shortest length for a given coupler performance. An improvement in, the fabrication tolerance of the optimum design has yielded a new more-tolerant 3dB adiabatic- coupler, which is distinguished by a coupler region where both waveguide width and separation are tapered. A novel 1 x 4 coupler-multiplexer permutation switch (CMPS) is proposed for applications in wavelength- division-multiplexing (WDM) networks. The CMPS integrates the functions of a 1 x 4 multiplexer followed by a 4 x 4 switch-array in a single compact device. It consists of a single-mode/multimode-waveguide grating-assisted backward-coupler multiplexer followed by a digital optical switch (DOS). Two different InP-based designs of the CMPS, which use InGaAsP/InP multiple-quantum well (MQW) output waveguides, are introduced. In both of these designs, the CMPS channels are unequally spaced which reduces unwanted four-wave mixing. Finally the electro-optic response is measured in single- crystal LiNbO 3 thin films obtained by crystal-ion-slicing (CIS). This technique uses ion implantation of singlecrystal bulk samples followed by selective etching. Post liftoff annealing (PLA) is shown to be a key step in improving the light transmission properties of these films for hybriddevice applications. It is shown that PLA must be used, as opposed to pre- liftoff

  1. Designed supramolecular assemblies for biosensors and photoactive devices. LDRD final report

    SciTech Connect

    Song, X.Z.; Shelnutt, J.A.; Hobbs, J.D.; Cesarano, J.

    1997-02-01

    The objective of this project is the development of a new class of supramolecular assemblies for applications in biosensors and biodevices. The supramolecular assemblies are based on membranes and Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films composed of naturally-occurring or synthetic lipids, which contain electrically and/or photochemically active components. The LB films are deposited onto electrically-active materials (metal, semiconductors). The active components film components (lipo-porphyrins) at the surface function as molecular recognition sites for sensing proteins and other biomolecules, and the porphyrins and other components (e.g., fullerenes) incorporated into the films serve as photocatalysts and vectorial electron-transport agents. Computer-aided molecular design (CAMD) methods are used to tailor the structure of these film components to optimize function. Molecular modeling is also used to predict the location, orientation, and motion of these molecular components within the films. The result is a variety of extended, self-assembled molecular structures that serve as devices for sensing proteins and biochemicals or as other bioelectronic devices.

  2. Final Report and Documentation for the Optical Backplane/Interconnect for High Speed Communication LDRD

    SciTech Connect

    ROBERTSON, PERRY J.; CHEN, HELEN Y.; BRANDT, JAMES M.; SULLIVAN, CHARLES T.; PIERSON, LYNDON G.; WITZKE, EDWARD L.; GASS, KARL

    2001-03-01

    Current copper backplane technology has reached the technical limits of clock speed and width for systems requiring multiple boards. Currently, bus technology such as VME and PCI (types of buses) will face severe limitations are the bus speed approaches 100 MHz. At this speed, the physical length limit of an unterminated bus is barely three inches. Terminating the bus enables much higher clock rates but at drastically higher power cost. Sandia has developed high bandwidth parallel optical interconnects that can provide over 40 Gbps throughput between circuit boards in a system. Based on Sandia's unique VCSEL (Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser) technology, these devices are compatible with CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) chips and have single channel bandwidth in excess of 20 GHz. In this project, we are researching the use of this interconnect scheme as the physical layer of a greater ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) based backplane. There are several advantages to this technology including small board space, lower power and non-contact communication. This technology is also easily expandable to meet future bandwidth requirements in excess of 160 Gbps sometimes referred to as UTOPIA 6. ATM over optical backplane will enable automatic switching of wide high-speed circuits between boards in a system. In the first year we developed integrated VCSELs and receivers, identified fiber ribbon based interconnect scheme and a high level architecture. In the second year, we implemented the physical layer in the form of a PCI computer peripheral card. A description of future work including super computer networking deployment and protocol processing is included.

  3. COHERENT OPTICAL SURVEILLANCE DEVICES

    DTIC Science & Technology

    AERIAL RECONNAISSANCE, *INFRARED DETECTORS, *LASERS, *OPTICAL EQUIPMENT, *PHASE SHIFT CIRCUITS, DESIGN, HELIUM, INTERFEROMETERS , MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS, NEON, PHASE DETECTORS, PHOTOMULTIPLIER TUBES, POWER DIVIDERS

  4. Studies of Bistable Optical Devices.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-15

    a concept to simultaneously process over 2500 parallel bits in a nanosecond, in a linear array. 3. Studies of bistability in new materials and new...Bistable Optical Devices. 25 IV. Bistability in New Materials .... ............ .. 34 A. Saturable Absorber Dyes ... ........... .. 34 A-1. Experimental...large number of resolvable spots. We have investigated.both new materials and new geo- metries for use in bistable optical devices with a view toward

  5. Integrated optic waveguide devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramer, O. G.

    1980-01-01

    Integrated optic waveguide circuits with a phase bias and modulator on the same chip were designed, fabricated, and tested for use in a fiber-optic rotation sensor (gyro) under development. Single mode fiber-optic pigtails were permanently coupled to the four ports of the chip. The switch format was based on coherent coupling between waveguides formed in Z-cut LiNbO3. The control of the coupling was achieved by electro-optically varying the phase propagation constants of each guide. Fiber-to-chip interfacing required the development of appropriate fixturing and manipulation techniques to achieve the close tolerance needed for high coupling efficiency between a fiber with an approximately 5 micron m core and a channel guide with a roughly 2 micron m by 5 micron m cross section. Switch and chip performance at 0.85 micron m is discussed as well as potential improvements related to insertion loss reduction, switching voltages, and suppression of Li2O out-diffusion.

  6. Optical storage device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Sharon S.

    1991-01-01

    A new holographic image storage device which uses four-wave mixing in two photorefractive crystals is described. Photorefractive crystals promise information storage densities on the order of 10(exp 9) to 10(exp 12) bits per cubic centimeter at real-time rates. Several studies in recent years have investigated the use of photorefractive crystals for storing holographic image information. However, all of the previous studies have focused on techniques for storing information in a single crystal. The disadvantage of using a single crystal is that the read process is destructive. Researchers have developed techniques for fixing the information in a crystal so that it may be read many times. However, when fixed, the information cannot be readily erased and overwritten with new information. It two photorefractive crystals are used, holographic image information may be stored dynamically. That is, the stored image information may be read out more than once, and it may be easily erased and overwritten with new image information.

  7. Fabrication of Optical Fiber Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres, Miguel V.

    In this paper we present the main research activities of the Laboratorio de Fibras Opticas del Instituto de Ciencia de los Materiales de la Universidad de Valencia. We show some of the main results obtained for devices based on tapered fibers, fiber Bragg gratings, acousto-optic effects and photonic crystal fibers.

  8. Confined cooperative self-assembly and synthesis of optically and electrically active nanostructures : final LDRD report

    SciTech Connect

    Coker, Eric Nicholas; Haddad, Raid Edward; Fan, Hongyou; Ta, Anh; Bai, Feng; Rodriguez, Mark Andrew; Huang, Jian Yu

    2011-10-01

    In this project, we developed a confined cooperative self-assembly process to synthesize one-dimensional (1D) j-aggregates including nanowires and nanorods with controlled diameters and aspect ratios. The facile and versatile aqueous solution process assimilates photo-active macrocyclic building blocks inside surfactant micelles, forming stable single-crystalline high surface area nanoporous frameworks with well-defined external morphology defined by the building block packing. Characterizations using TEM, SEM, XRD, N{sub 2} and NO sorption isotherms, TGA, UV-vis spectroscopy, and fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy indicate that the j-aggregate nanostructures are monodisperse and may further assemble into hierarchical arrays with multi-modal functional pores. The nanostructures exhibit enhanced and collective optical properties over the individual chromophores. This project was a small footprint research effort which, nonetheless, produced significant progress towards both the stated goal as well as unanticipated research directions.

  9. Nonlinear Optical Acrylic Polymers and Use Thereof in Optical and Electro-Optic Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-07

    COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Nonlinear Optical Acrylic Polymers and Use Thereof in Optical and Electro - Optic Devices 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...generators, computational devices and the like. 15. SUBJECT TERMS optical devices, electro - optical devices, optical signal processing...THEREOF IN OPTICAL AND ELECTRO - OPTIC DEVICES [75] Inventors: Le*lie H. Sperling, Bethlehem; Clarence J. Murphy, Stroudsburg; Warren A. Rosen

  10. 1999 LDRD Laboratory Directed Research and Development

    SciTech Connect

    Rita Spencer; Kyle Wheeler

    2000-06-01

    This is the FY 1999 Progress Report for the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program at Los Alamos National Laboratory. It gives an overview of the LDRD Program, summarizes work done on individual research projects, relates the projects to major Laboratory program sponsors, and provides an index to the principal investigators. Project summaries are grouped by their LDRD component: Competency Development, Program Development, and Individual Projects. Within each component, they are further grouped into nine technical categories: (1) materials science, (2) chemistry, (3) mathematics and computational science, (4) atomic, molecular, optical, and plasma physics, fluids, and particle beams, (5) engineering science, (6) instrumentation and diagnostics, (7) geoscience, space science, and astrophysics, (8) nuclear and particle physics, and (9) bioscience.

  11. Optical Structural Health Monitoring Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckner, Benjamin D.; Markov, Vladimir; Earthman, James C.

    2010-01-01

    This non-destructive, optical fatigue detection and monitoring system relies on a small and unobtrusive light-scattering sensor that is installed on a component at the beginning of its life in order to periodically scan the component in situ. The method involves using a laser beam to scan the surface of the monitored component. The device scans a laser spot over a metal surface to which it is attached. As the laser beam scans the surface, disruptions in the surface cause increases in scattered light intensity. As the disruptions in the surface grow, they will cause the light to scatter more. Over time, the scattering intensities over the scanned line can be compared to detect changes in the metal surface to find cracks, crack precursors, or corrosion. This periodic monitoring of the surface can be used to indicate the degree of fatigue damage on a component and allow one to predict the remaining life and/or incipient mechanical failure of the monitored component. This wireless, compact device can operate for long periods under its own battery power and could one day use harvested power. The prototype device uses the popular open-source TinyOS operating system on an off-the-shelf Mica2 sensor mote, which allows wireless command and control through dynamically reconfigurable multi-node sensor networks. The small size and long life of this device could make it possible for the nodes to be installed and left in place over the course of years, and with wireless communication, data can be extracted from the nodes by operators without physical access to the devices. While a prototype has been demonstrated at the time of this reporting, further work is required in the system s development to take this technology into the field, especially to improve its power management and ruggedness. It should be possible to reduce the size and sensitivity as well. Establishment of better prognostic methods based on these data is also needed. The increase of surface roughness with

  12. Electro-optic component mounting device

    DOEpatents

    Gruchalla, M.E.

    1994-09-13

    A technique is provided for integrally mounting a device such as an electro-optic device in a transmission line to avoid series resonant effects. A center conductor of the transmission line has an aperture formed therein for receiving the device. The aperture splits the center conductor into two parallel sections on opposite sides of the device. For a waveguide application, the center conductor is surrounded by a conductive ground surface which is spaced apart from the center conductor with a dielectric material. One set of electrodes formed on the surface of the electro-optic device is directly connected to the center conductor and an electrode formed on the surface of the electro-optic device is directly connected to the conductive ground surface. The electrodes formed on the surface of the electro-optic device are formed on curved sections of the surface of the device to mate with correspondingly shaped electrodes on the conductor and ground surface to provide a uniform electric field across the electro-optic device. The center conductor includes a passage formed therein for passage of optical signals to an electro-optic device. 10 figs.

  13. Electro-optic component mounting device

    DOEpatents

    Gruchalla, Michael E.

    1994-01-01

    A technique is provided for integrally mounting a device such as an electro-optic device (50) in a transmission line to avoid series resonant effects. A center conductor (52) of the transmission line has an aperture (58) formed therein for receiving the device (50). The aperture (58) splits the center conductor into two parallel sections on opposite sides of the device. For a waveguide application, the center conductor is surrounded by a conductive ground surface (54), which is spaced apart from the center conductor with a dielectric material (56). One set of electrodes formed on the surface of the electro-optic device (50) is directly connected to the center conductor 52 and an electrode formed on the surface of the electro-optic device is directly connected to the conductive ground surface (54). The electrodes formed on the surface of the electro-optic device are formed on curved sections of the surface of the device to mate with correspondingly shaped electrodes on the conductor and ground surface to provide a uniform electric field across the electro-optic device. The center conductor includes a passage ( 60) formed therein for passage of optical signals to an electro-optic device.

  14. Advanced Electro-Optic Surety Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Watterson, C.E.

    1997-05-01

    The Advanced Electro-Optic Surety Devices project was initiated in march 1991 to support design laboratory guidance on electro-optic device packaging and evaluation. Sandia National Laboratory requested AlliedSignal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD), to prepare for future packaging efforts in electro-optic integrated circuits. Los Alamos National Laboratory requested the evaluation of electro-optic waveguide devices for nuclear surety applications. New packaging techniques involving multiple fiber optic alignment and attachment, binary lens array development, silicon V-groove etching, and flip chip bonding were requested. Hermetic sealing of the electro-optic hybrid and submicron alignment of optical components present new challenges to be resolved. A 10-channel electro-optic modulator and laser amplifier were evaluated for potential surety applications.

  15. Optical processing for semiconductor device fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    1994-01-01

    A new technique for semiconductor device processing is described that uses optical energy to produce local heating/melting in the vicinity of a preselected interface of the device. This process, called optical processing, invokes assistance of photons to enhance interface reactions such as diffusion and melting, as compared to the use of thermal heating alone. Optical processing is performed in a 'cold wall' furnace, and requires considerably lower energies than furnace or rapid thermal annealing. This technique can produce some device structures with unique properties that cannot be produced by conventional thermal processing. Some applications of optical processing involving semiconductor-metal interfaces are described.

  16. Transmissive infrared frequency selective surfaces and infrared antennas : final report for LDRD 105749.

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, Joel Robert; Hadley, G. Ronald; Samora, Sally; Loui, Hung; Cruz-Cabrera, Alvaro Augusto; Davids, Paul; Kemme, Shanalyn A.; Basilio, Lorena I.; Johnson, William Arthur; Peters, David William

    2009-09-01

    Plasmonic structures open up new opportunities in photonic devices, sometimes offering an alternate method to perform a function and sometimes offering capabilities not possible with standard optics. In this LDRD we successfully demonstrated metal coatings on optical surfaces that do not adversely affect the transmission of those surfaces at the design frequency. This technology could be applied as an RF noise blocking layer across an optical aperture or as a method to apply an electric field to an active electro-optic device without affecting optical performance. We also demonstrated thin optical absorbers using similar patterned surfaces. These infrared optical antennas show promise as a method to improve performance in mercury cadmium telluride detectors. Furthermore, these structures could be coupled with other components to lead to direct rectification of infrared radiation. This possibility leads to a new method for infrared detection and energy harvesting of infrared radiation.

  17. 2007 LDRD ANNUAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    French, T

    2008-12-16

    I am pleased to present the fiscal year 2007 Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) annual report. This represents the first year that SRNL has been eligible for LDRD participation and our results to date demonstrate we are off to an excellent start. SRNL became a National Laboratory in 2004, and was designated the 'Corporate Laboratory' for the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) in 2006. As you will see, we have made great progress since these designations. The LDRD program is one of the tools SRNL is using to enable achievement of our strategic goals for the DOE. The LDRD program allows the laboratory to blend a strong basic science component into our applied technical portfolio. This blending of science with applied technology provides opportunities for our scientists to strengthen our capabilities and delivery. The LDRD program is vital to help SRNL attract and retain leading scientists and engineers who will help build SRNL's future and achieve DOE mission objectives. This program has stimulated our research staff creativity, while realizing benefits from their participation. This investment will yield long term dividends to the DOE in its Environmental Management, Energy, and National Security missions.

  18. THz transceiver characterization : LDRD project 139363 final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Nordquist, Christopher Daniel; Wanke, Michael Clement; Cich, Michael Joseph; Reno, John Louis; Fuller, Charles T.; Wendt, Joel Robert; Lee, Mark; Grine, Albert D.

    2009-09-01

    LDRD Project 139363 supported experiments to quantify the performance characteristics of monolithically integrated Schottky diode + quantum cascade laser (QCL) heterodyne mixers at terahertz (THz) frequencies. These integrated mixers are the first all-semiconductor THz devices to successfully incorporate a rectifying diode directly into the optical waveguide of a QCL, obviating the conventional optical coupling between a THz local oscillator and rectifier in a heterodyne mixer system. This integrated mixer was shown to function as a true heterodyne receiver of an externally received THz signal, a breakthrough which may lead to more widespread acceptance of this new THz technology paradigm. In addition, questions about QCL mode shifting in response to temperature, bias, and external feedback, and to what extent internal frequency locking can improve stability have been answered under this project.

  19. Interferometric ring lasers and optical devices

    DOEpatents

    Hohimer, J.P.; Craft, D.C.

    1995-03-14

    Two ring diode lasers are optically coupled together to produce tunable, stable output through a Y-junction output coupler which may also be a laser diode or can be an active waveguide. These devices demonstrate a sharp peak in light output with an excellent side-mode-rejection ratio. The rings can also be made of passive or active waveguide material. With additional rings the device is a tunable optical multiplexer/demultiplexer. 11 figs.

  20. Interferometric ring lasers and optical devices

    DOEpatents

    Hohimer, John P.; Craft, David C.

    1995-01-01

    Two ring diode lasers are optically coupled together to produce tunable, stable output through a Y-junction output coupler which may also be a laser diode or can be an active waveguide. These devices demonstrate a sharp peak in light output with an excellent side-mode-rejection ratio. The rings can also be made of passive or active waveguide material. With additional rings the device is a tunable optical multiplexer/demultiplexer.

  1. Electro-optic KTN Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, Shogo; Fujiura, Kazuo

    We have grown KTN crystals with optical quality, and developed high-speed beam deflectors and variable focal length lenses based on KTN's large electro-optic effect. Furthermore, by using the KTN beam deflectors, we have developed a swept light source for OCT operable at 200 kHz.

  2. Millimetre and FIR Broadband Quasi Optical Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haynes, V.; Maffei, B.; Melhuish, S. J.; Piccirillo, L.; Pisano, G.; Shakeshaft, D.

    2009-12-01

    We present a set of techniques and materials we are currently developing which enable very broadband and highly effective optical devices in the spectral region from 20 GHz to 20 THz. Many of these devices have already been employed in terrestrial, airborne and space based telescope systems.

  3. Device applications of cryogenic optical refrigeration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melgaard, Seth D.; Seletskiy, Denis V.; Epstein, Richard I.; Alden, Jay V.; Sheik-Bahae, Mansoor

    2014-02-01

    With the coldest solid-state temperatures (ΔT <185K from 300K) achievable by optical refrigeration, it is now timely to apply this technology to cryogenic devices. Along with thermal management and pump absorption, this work addresses the most key engineering challenge of transferring cooling power to the payload while efficiently rejecting optical waste-heat fluorescence. We discuss our optimized design of such a thermal link, which shows excellent performance in optical rejection and thermal properties.

  4. NITINOL Interconnect Device for Optical Fiber Waveguides

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    LE EL,~NAVSEA REPORT NO. S27L~kV-NL 4P fNSWNC TR 81-129 1 JULY 1981 0 NITINOL INTERC&INECT DEVICE FOR OPTICAL FIBER WAVEGUIDES FINAL REPORT A...ACCESSION NO. 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER NSWC TR 81-129I 1-19 -A )ci , ’ 4 TI TL E (and Sbtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED NITINOL ... NITINOL Optical Fibers 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse side if neceeewy and identify by block number) Two different interconnect devices for optical

  5. Thin nearly wireless adaptive optical device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knowles, Gareth J. (Inventor); Hughes, Eli (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A thin nearly wireless adaptive optical device capable of dynamically modulating the shape of a mirror in real time to compensate for atmospheric distortions and/or variations along an optical material is provided. The device includes an optical layer, a substrate, at least one electronic circuit layer with nearly wireless architecture, an array of actuators, power electronic switches, a reactive force element, and a digital controller. Actuators are aligned so that each axis of expansion and contraction intersects both substrate and reactive force element. Electronics layer with nearly wireless architecture, power electronic switches, and digital controller are provided within a thin-film substrate. The size and weight of the adaptive optical device is solely dominated by the size of the actuator elements rather than by the power distribution system.

  6. Thin, nearly wireless adaptive optical device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knowles, Gareth (Inventor); Hughes, Eli (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A thin, nearly wireless adaptive optical device capable of dynamically modulating the shape of a mirror in real time to compensate for atmospheric distortions and/or variations along an optical material is provided. The device includes an optical layer, a substrate, at least one electronic circuit layer with nearly wireless architecture, an array of actuators, power electronic switches, a reactive force element, and a digital controller. Actuators are aligned so that each axis of expansion and contraction intersects both substrate and reactive force element. Electronics layer with nearly wireless architecture, power electronic switches, and digital controller are provided within a thin-film substrate. The size and weight of the adaptive optical device is solely dominated by the size of the actuator elements rather than by the power distribution system.

  7. Thin, nearly wireless adaptive optical device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knowles, Gareth (Inventor); Hughes, Eli (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A thin, nearly wireless adaptive optical device capable of dynamically modulating the shape of a mirror in real time to compensate for atmospheric distortions and/or variations along an optical material is provided. The device includes an optical layer, a substrate, at least one electronic circuit layer with nearly wireless architecture, an array of actuators, power electronic switches, a reactive force element, and a digital controller. Actuators are aligned so that each axis of expansion and contraction intersects both substrate and reactive force element. Electronics layer with nearly wireless architecture, power electronic switches, and digital controller are provided within a thin-film substrate. The size and weight of the adaptive optical device is solely dominated by the size of the actuator elements rather than by the power distribution system.

  8. FY06 LDRD Final Report Next-generation x-ray optics: focusing hard x-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Pivovaroff, M; Soufli, R

    2007-03-01

    The original goal of our research was to open up a new class of scientific experiments by increasing the power of newly available x-ray sources by orders of magnitude. This was accomplished by developing a new generation of x-ray optics, based on hard x-ray (10-200 keV) reflective and diffractive focusing elements. The optical systems we envision begin with a core reflective optic, which has the ability to capture and concentrate x-rays across a wide range of energies and angles band, combined with diffractive optics, based on large-scale multilayer structures, that will further enhance the spatial, spectral and temporal resolving power of the system. Enabling technologies developed at LLNL such as precise mounting of thermally formed substrates, smoothing techniques and multilayer films of ultra-high reflectance and precision were crucial in the development and demonstration of our research objectives. Highlights of this phase of the project include: the design and fabrication of a concentrator optic for the Pleiades Thomson X-ray source located at LLNL, smoothing of glass substrates through application of polyimide films, and the design, fabrication and testing of novel volume multilayers structures. Part of our research into substrate smooth led to the development of a new technique (patent pending) to construct high-quality, inexpensive x-ray optics. This innovation resulted in LLNL constructing a x-ray optic for the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) and allowed LLNL to join the international experiment.

  9. Guided-Wave Optic Devices for Integrated Optic Information Processing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-08

    integrating miniature optical components such as laser light sources, modulators, switches, deflectors , lenses, prisms, and detectors in a common substrate...ZnO composite waveguides, and 2 . Planar Guided-Wave Magneto- Optic Bragg Diffraction and Devices in YIG-GGG Waveguides. Some very significant progress... optical wavelength. We have recently obtained further theoretical results. ( 2 ) For example, as shown in Fig. l(a) and 1(b), the topographical

  10. Optically transduced MEMS gyro device

    DOEpatents

    Nielson, Gregory N; Bogart, Gregory R; Langlois, Eric; Okandan, Murat

    2014-05-20

    A bulk micromachined vibratory gyro in which a proof mass has a bulk substrate thickness for a large mass and high inertial sensitivity. In embodiments, optical displacement transduction is with multi-layer sub-wavelength gratings for high sensitivity and low cross-talk with non-optical drive elements. In embodiments, the vibratory gyro includes a plurality of multi-layer sub-wavelength gratings and a plurality of drive electrodes to measure motion of the proof mass induced by drive forces and/or moments and induced by the Coriolis Effect when the gyro experiences a rotation. In embodiments, phase is varied across the plurality gratings and a multi-layer grating having the best performance is selected from the plurality.

  11. Plasma channel optical pumping device and method

    DOEpatents

    Judd, O.P.

    1983-06-28

    A device and method are disclosed for optically pumping a gaseous laser using blackbody radiation produced by a plasma channel which is formed from an electrical discharge between two electrodes spaced at opposite longitudinal ends of the laser. A preionization device which can comprise a laser or electron beam accelerator produces a preionization beam which is sufficient to cause an electrical discharge between the electrodes to initiate the plasma channel along the preionization path. The optical pumping energy is supplied by a high voltage power supply rather than by the preionization beam. High output optical intensities are produced by the laser due to the high temperature blackbody radiation produced by the plasma channel, in the same manner as an exploding wire type laser. However, unlike the exploding wire type laser, the disclosed invention can be operated in a repetitive manner by utilizing a repetitive pulsed preionization device. 5 figs.

  12. Active Optical Devices and Applications. Volume 228

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    obscuration, 5-cm-thick solid, segmented (6 petals) Zerodur . Mirror A is near the limit of what can be fabricated with current technology. The honeycomb...DEW Descriptors, Keywords: Active Optical Device Application Large Optics Adaptive Technology Wavefront Sensor Deformable Mirror Performance...Cuneo, Jr., U.S. Air Force, NASA Headquarters 228-01 Wavefront sensors and deformable mirrors for visible wavelengths 4 Noah Bareket, Lockheed

  13. DIMENSION MEASURING OPTICAL SIGHTING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Kerr, G.E.

    1959-08-01

    A sighting device to check the uniformity of thickness of a lining applied to a container is presented. The sighting devlce comprises two tubular members having their ends in threaded connection with one another and a lens lying within the outer end of one of the tubular members. A ground glass inscribed with two concentric circles is located at the outer end of the other tubular section so that the image of the circular junctures, with and without the lining at the closed end of the container, can be focused on the proper circle inscribed in the ground glass so as to determine whether the lining has uniformity and whether there are thin spots.

  14. Photonic crystal cavities and integrated optical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Lin; Li, ZhiYuan

    2015-11-01

    This paper gives a brief introduction to our recent works on photonic crystal (PhC) cavities and related integrated optical structures and devices. Theoretical background and numerical methods for simulation of PhC cavities are first presented. Based on the theoretical basis, two relevant quantities, the cavity mode volume and the quality factor are discussed. Then the methods of fabrication and characterization of silicon PhC slab cavities are introduced. Several types of PhC cavities are presented, such as the usual L3 missing-hole cavity, the new concept waveguide-like parallel-hetero cavity, and the low-index nanobeam cavity. The advantages and disadvantages of each type of cavity are discussed. This will help the readers to decide which type of PhC cavities to use in particular applications. Furthermore, several integrated optical devices based on PhC cavities, such as optical filters, channel-drop filters, optical switches, and optical logic gates are described in both the working principle and operation characteristics. These devices designed and realized in our group demonstrate the wide range of applications of PhC cavities and offer possible solutions to some integrated optical problems.

  15. Two position optical element actuator device

    DOEpatents

    Holdener, Fred R.; Boyd, Robert D.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention is a two position optical element actuator device utilizing a powered means to hold an actuation arm, to which an optical element is attached, in a first position. A non-powered means drives the actuation arm to a second position, when the powered means ceases to receive power. The optical element may be a electromagnetic (EM) radiation or particle source, an instrument, or EM radiation or particle transmissive, reflective or absorptive elements. A bearing is used to transfer motion and smoothly transition the actuation arm from the first to second position.

  16. Optical tracking using charge-coupled devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanton, Richard H.; Alexander, James W.; Dennison, Edwin W.; Glavich, Thomas A.; Hovland, Larry F.

    1987-01-01

    The extraction of precise positional information from CCD images of point-source and extended optical targets is considered, and three examples of CCD optical trackers for space-based operation are described. For ideal point sources, a centerfinding accuracy of 1/100 pixel and a measuremet jitter of less than 1/250 pixel have been obtained using thinned, backside-illuminated devices. Tracker accuracy is shown to be limited by small variation in the optical image shape. Techniques for tracking, and methods for searching the entire field for the desired targets, are also discussed.

  17. Bi-stable optical element actuator device

    DOEpatents

    Holdener, Fred R.; Boyd, Robert D.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention is a bistable optical element actuator device utilizing a powered means to move an actuation arm, to which an optical element is attached, between two stable positions. A non-powered means holds the actuation arm in either of the two stable positions. The optical element may be a electromagnetic (EM) radiation or particle source, an instrument, or EM radiation or particle transmissive reflective or absorptive elements. A bearing is used to transfer motion and smoothly transition the actuation arm between the two stable positions.

  18. Final Report on LDRD project 130784 : functional brain imaging by tunable multi-spectral Event-Related Optical Signal (EROS).

    SciTech Connect

    Speed, Ann Elizabeth; Spahn, Olga Blum; Hsu, Alan Yuan-Chun

    2009-09-01

    Functional brain imaging is of great interest for understanding correlations between specific cognitive processes and underlying neural activity. This understanding can provide the foundation for developing enhanced human-machine interfaces, decision aides, and enhanced cognition at the physiological level. The functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) based event-related optical signal (EROS) technique can provide direct, high-fidelity measures of temporal and spatial characteristics of neural networks underlying cognitive behavior. However, current EROS systems are hampered by poor signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) and depth of measure, limiting areas of the brain and associated cognitive processes that can be investigated. We propose to investigate a flexible, tunable, multi-spectral fNIRS EROS system which will provide up to 10x greater SNR as well as improved spatial and temporal resolution through significant improvements in electronics, optoelectronics and optics, as well as contribute to the physiological foundation of higher-order cognitive processes and provide the technical foundation for miniaturized portable neuroimaging systems.

  19. Poling of Microwave Electro-Optic Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, Kenneth D.

    1997-01-01

    The desire to transmit high frequency, microwave RF signals over fiber optic cables has necessitated the need for electro-optic modulation devices. However, in order to reap these potential benefits, it is necessary to develop the devices and their associated fabrication processes, particularly those processes associated with the poling of the devices. To this end, we entered into a cooperative research agreement with Richard Kunath of NASA LeRC. A graduate student in my group, Tony Kowalczyk, worked closely with the group at NASA to develop processes for construction of a microwave frequency electro-optic modulator. Materials were commercially obtained from Amoco Chemical and in collaboration with Lockheed-Martin. The photolithography processes were developed at NASA LeRC and the electric-field poling process was carried out in our laboratory at CWRU. During the grant period, the poling process conditions were investigated for these multilayer devices. Samples were poled and the resulting nonlinear optical properties were evaluated in our laboratory. Following the grant period, Kowalczyk went to NASA under a NRC fellowship, and I continued to collaborate as a consultant. Publications listed at the end of this report came out of this work. Another manuscript is in preparation and will be submitted shortly.

  20. Physics and Advanced Technologies LDRD Final Report:Adaptive Optics Imaging and Spectroscopy of the Solar System

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbard, S; Max, C; Macintosh, B; Grossman, A

    2004-01-21

    This focus of this project was the investigation of the planets Uranus and Neptune and Saturn's moon Titan using adaptive optics imaging and spectroscopy at the 10-meter W.M. Keck Telescopes. These bodies share a common type of atmosphere, one that is rich in methane and has a hydrocarbon haze layer produced by methane photolysis. Neptune and Uranus have atmospheric features which change on short timescales; we have investigated their altitude, composition, and connection to events occurring deeper in the planets' tropospheres. Titan has a solid surface located under its atmosphere, the composition of which is still quite uncertain. With spectra that sample the vertical structure of the atmosphere and narrowband observations that selectively probe Titan's surface we have determined the surface reflectivity of Titan at near-infrared wavelengths.

  1. Advanced silicon device technologies for optical interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wosinski, Lech; Wang, Zhechao; Lou, Fei; Dai, Daoxin; Lourdudoss, Sebastian; Thylen, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Silicon photonics is an emerging technology offering novel solutions in different areas requiring highly integrated communication systems for optical networking, sensing, bio-applications and computer interconnects. Silicon photonicsbased communication has many advantages over electric wires for multiprocessor and multicore macro-chip architectures including high bandwidth data transmission, high speed and low power consumption. Following the INTEL's concept to "siliconize" photonics, silicon device technologies should be able to solve the fabrication problems for six main building blocks for realization of optical interconnects: light generation, guiding of light including wavelength selectivity, light modulation for signal encoding, detection, low cost assembly including optical connecting of the devices to the real world and finally the electronic control systems.

  2. Integrated nanophotonic devices for optical interconnections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yidong; Feng, Xue; Cui, Kaiyu; Li, Yongzhuo; Wang, Yu

    2016-03-01

    Nanostructure is an effective solution for realizing optoelectronic devices with compact size and high performances simultaneously. This paper reports our research progress on integrated nanophotonic devices for optical interconnections. We proposed a parent-sub micro ring structure for optical add-drop multiplexer (OADM) with compact footprint, large free spectral range, and uniform channel spacing. All eight channels can be multiplexed and de-multiplexed with 2.6 dB drop loss, 0.36 nm bandwidth (>40 GHz), -20 dB channel crosstalk, and high thermal tuning efficiency of 0.15 nm/mW. A novel principle of optical switch was proposed and demonstrated based on the coupling of the defect modes in photonic crystal waveguide. Switching functionality with bandwidth up to 24 nm and extinction ratio in excess of 15 dB over the entire bandwidth was achieved, while the footprint was only 8 μm×17.6 μm. We proposed an optical orbital angular momentum (OAM) coding and decoding method to increase the data-carrying capacity of wireless optical interconnect. An integrated OAM emitter, where the topological charge can be continuously varied from -4 to 4 was realized. Also we studied ultrafast modulated nLED as the integrated light source for optical interconnections using a nanobeam cavity with stagger holes.

  3. Adaptive Optics Views of the Hubble Deep Fields Final report on LLNL LDRD Project 03-ERD-002

    SciTech Connect

    Max, C E; Gavel, D; Pennington, D; Gibbard, S; van Dam, M; Larkin, J; Koo, D; Raschke, L; Melbourne, J

    2007-02-17

    We used laser guide star adaptive optics at the Lick and Keck Observatories to study active galactic nuclei and galaxies, with emphasis on those in the early Universe. The goals were to observe large galaxies like our own Milky Way in the process of their initial assembly from sub-components, to identify central active galactic nuclei due to accreting black holes in galaxy cores, and to measure rates of star formation and evolution in galaxies. In the distant universe our focus was on the GOODS and GEMS fields (regions in the Northern and Southern sky that include the Hubble Deep Fields) as well as the Extended Groth Strip and COSMOS fields. Each of these parts of the sky has been intensively studied at multiple wavelengths by the Hubble Space Telescope, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, the XMM Space Telescope, the Spitzer Space Telescope, and several ground-based telescopes including the Very Large Array radio interferometer, in order to gain an unbiased view of a significant statistical sample of galaxies in the early universe.

  4. Method of forming a sharp edge on an optical device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleetwood, C. M.; Rice, S. H.

    1980-01-01

    A sharp edge is formed on an optical device by placing the optical device in a holding mechanism; grinding one surface so that it and a surface of the holding mechanism are co-planar; and polishing both the surface of the optical device and the surface of the holding mechanism with felt until an edge on the surface of the optical device adjacent to the surface of the holding mechanism obtains a desired sharpness.

  5. Nanocoaxes for Optical and Electronic Devices

    PubMed Central

    Rizal, Binod; Merlo, Juan M.; Burns, Michael J.; Chiles, Thomas C.; Naughton, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of micro/nanoelectronics technology, including the shrinking of devices and integrated circuit components, has included the miniaturization of linear and coaxial structures to micro/nanoscale dimensions. This reduction in the size of coaxial structures may offer advantages to existing technologies and benefit the exploration and development of new technologies. The reduction in the size of coaxial structures has been realized with various permutations between metals, semiconductors and dielectrics for the core, shield, and annulus. This review will focus on fabrication schemes of arrays of metal – nonmetal – metal nanocoax structures using non-template and template methods, followed by possible applications. The performance and scientific advantages associated with nanocoax-based optical devices including waveguides, negative refractive index materials, light emitting diodes, and photovoltaics are presented. In addition, benefits and challenges that accrue from the application of novel nanocoax structures in energy storage, electronic and sensing devices are summarized. PMID:25279400

  6. Final LDRD report :

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Blythe G.; Rajasekhara, Shreyas; Enos, David George; Dingreville, Remi Philippe Michel; Doyle, Barney Lee; Hattar, Khalid Mikhiel; Weiner, Ruth F.

    2013-09-01

    We present the results of a three-year LDRD project focused on understanding microstructural evolution and related property changes in Zr-based nuclear cladding materials towards the development of high fidelity predictive simulations for long term dry storage. Experiments and modeling efforts have focused on the effects of hydride formation and accumulation of irradiation defects. Key results include: determination of the influence of composition and defect structures on hydride formation; measurement of the electrochemical property differences between hydride and parent material for understanding and predicting corrosion resistance; in situ environmental transmission electron microscope observation of hydride formation; development of a predictive simulation for mechanical property changes as a function of irradiation dose; novel test method development for microtensile testing of ionirradiated material to simulate the effect of neutron irradiation on mechanical properties; and successful demonstration of an Idaho National Labs-based sample preparation and shipping method for subsequent Sandia-based analysis of post-reactor cladding.

  7. Plasma etching for advanced polymer optical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitting, Donald S.

    Plasma etching is a common microfabrication technique which can be applied to polymers as well as glasses, metals, and semiconductors. The fabrication of low loss and reliable polymer optical devices commonly makes use of advanced microfabrication processing techniques similar in nature to those utilized in standard semiconductor fabrication technology. Among these techniques, plasma/reactive ion etching is commonly used in the formation of waveguiding core structures. Plasma etching is a powerful processing technique with many potential applications in the emerging field of polymer optical device fabrication. One such promising application explored in this study is in the area of thin film-substrate adhesion enhancement. Two approaches involving plasma processing were evaluated to improve substrate-thin film adhesion in the production of polymer waveguide optical devices. Plasma treatment of polymer substrates such as polycarbonate has been studied to promote the adhesion of fluoropolymer thin film coatings for waveguide device fabrication. The effects of blanket oxygen plasma etchback on substrate, microstructural substrate feature formation, and the long term performance and reliability of these methods were investigated. Use of a blanket oxygen plasma to alter the polycarbonate surface prior to fluoropolymer casting was found to have positive but limited capability to improve the adhesive strength between these polymers. Experiments show a strong correlation between surface roughness and adhesion strength. The formation of small scale surface features using microlithography and plasma etching on the polycarbonate surface proved to provide outstanding adhesion strength when compared to any other known treatment methods. Long term environmental performance testing of these surface treatment methods provided validating data. Test results showed these process approaches to be effective solutions to the problem of adhesion between hydrocarbon based polymer

  8. Multipass optical device and process for gas and analyte determination

    DOEpatents

    Bernacki, Bruce E.

    2011-01-25

    A torus multipass optical device and method are described that provide for trace level determination of gases and gas-phase analytes. The torus device includes an optical cavity defined by at least one ring mirror. The mirror delivers optical power in at least a radial and axial direction and propagates light in a multipass optical path of a predefined path length.

  9. Optical links in handheld multimedia devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Geffen, S.; Duis, J.; Miller, R.

    2008-04-01

    Ever emerging applications in handheld multimedia devices such as mobile phones, laptop computers, portable video games and digital cameras requiring increased screen resolutions are driving higher aggregate bitrates between host processor and display(s) enabling services such as mobile video conferencing, video on demand and TV broadcasting. Larger displays and smaller phones require complex mechanical 3D hinge configurations striving to combine maximum functionality with compact building volumes. Conventional galvanic interconnections such as Micro-Coax and FPC carrying parallel digital data between host processor and display module may produce Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) and bandwidth limitations caused by small cable size and tight cable bends. To reduce the number of signals through a hinge, the mobile phone industry, organized in the MIPI (Mobile Industry Processor Interface) alliance, is currently defining an electrical interface transmitting serialized digital data at speeds >1Gbps. This interface allows for electrical or optical interconnects. Above 1Gbps optical links may offer a cost effective alternative because of their flexibility, increased bandwidth and immunity to EMI. This paper describes the development of optical links for handheld communication devices. A cable assembly based on a special Plastic Optical Fiber (POF) selected for its mechanical durability is terminated with a small form factor molded lens assembly which interfaces between an 850nm VCSEL transmitter and a receiving device on the printed circuit board of the display module. A statistical approach based on a Lean Design For Six Sigma (LDFSS) roadmap for new product development tries to find an optimum link definition which will be robust and low cost meeting the power consumption requirements appropriate for battery operated systems.

  10. Integrated optic polymer waveguide devices for sensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Dilip K.

    1994-11-01

    Organic polymeric materials and devices have attracted considerable attention in recent years. Non-linear optical polymers have show promise of very high electro-optical coefficients and useful device characteristics with compatible device processing on semiconductor wafers leading to development of compact, high reliability OEICs. In this paper, the state-of-the-art technology and performance of polymeric integrated optical waveguide devices will be received and feasibility of using these devices as sensor elements (e.g., to measure temperature, pressure, displacement, vibration, chemical analysis, etc.) and also as components in optical sensor subsystems (e.g., optical gyro chip) explored.

  11. All optical logic operations using semiconductor optical amplifier based devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiang

    High-speed optical processing technologies are essential for the construction of all-optical networks in the information era. In this Ph. D. thesis dissertation, essential mechanisms related to the semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) based device such as the gain and phase dynamics when a short pulse in propagating inside SOA, and, all-optical Boolean function, XOR, AND and OR have been studied. In order to realize the all-optical logic using SOA, the nonlinear gain and phase dynamics in SOA need to be studied first. The experimental results of 10--90% gain recovery curve have been presented. The recovery time is related to the carrier lifetime of the SOA and it varies with gain compression and bias current. For pulse width of a few picosecond, intraband effects need to be considered. In the SOA, phase change is also induced when a short pulse is propagating inside SOA. Unlike the conventional way of estimating the phase shift using alpha factor, the maximum phase shift is obtained first, then the effective alpha factor is calculated. The experimental results of all optical Boolean function XOR and OR at 80 Gb/s are presented using SOA-MZI-DI and SOA-DI respectively. These are the highest operating speed that has been reported. The all optical AND operation at 40 Gb/s using SOA-MZI have also been reported here. The numerical simulation shows that the performance of these all-optical Boolean operations is limited by the carrier lifetime of the SOA. The Boolean functions are the first step towards all optical circuits. The designs of a parity checker and a pseudo-random binary sequence (PRBS) generator are demonstrated. The error analysis using quality factor and eye-diagram is also presented.

  12. LDRD Annual Report FY2006

    SciTech Connect

    Sketchley, J A; Kotta, P; De Yoreo, J; Jackson, K; van Bibber, K

    2007-03-20

    The Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program, authorized by Congress in 1991 and administered by the Laboratory Science and Technology Office, is our primary means for pursuing innovative, long-term, high-risk, and potentially high-payoff research that supports the missions of the Laboratory, the Department of Energy, and National Nuclear Security Administration in national security, energy security, environmental management, bioscience and technology to improve human health, and breakthroughs in fundamental science and technology. The accomplishments described in this Annual Report demonstrate the strong alignment of the LDRD portfolio with these missions and contribute to the Laboratory's success in meeting its goals. The LDRD budget of $92 million for FY2006 sponsored 188 projects. These projects were selected through an extensive peer-review process to ensure the highest scientific quality and mission relevance. Each year, the number of deserving proposals far exceeds the funding available, making the selection a tough one indeed. Our ongoing investments in LDRD have reaped long-term rewards for the Laboratory and the nation. Many Laboratory programs trace their roots to research thrusts that began several years ago under LDRD sponsorship. In addition, many LDRD projects contribute to more than one mission area, leveraging the Laboratory's multidisciplinary team approach to science and technology. Safeguarding the nation from terrorist activity and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction will be an enduring mission of this Laboratory, for which LDRD will continue to play a vital role. The LDRD Program is a success story. Our projects continue to win national recognition for excellence through prestigious awards, papers published in peer-reviewed journals, and patents granted. With its reputation for sponsoring innovative projects, the LDRD Program is also a major vehicle for attracting and retaining the best and the brightest

  13. Virtual input device with diffractive optical element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ching Chin; Chu, Chang Sheng

    2005-02-01

    As a portable device, such as PDA and cell phone, a small size build in virtual input device is more convenient for complex input demand. A few years ago, a creative idea called 'virtual keyboard' is announced, but up to now there's still no mass production method for this idea. In this paper we'll show the whole procedure of making a virtual keyboard. First of all is the HOE (Holographic Optical Element) design of keyboard image which yields a fan angle about 30 degrees, and then use the electron forming method to copy this pattern in high precision. And finally we can product this element by inject molding. With an adaptive lens design we can get a well correct keyboard image in distortion and a wilder fan angle about 70 degrees. With a batter alignment of HOE pattern lithography, we"re sure to get higher diffraction efficiency.

  14. Delivering optical power to subcutaneous implanted devices.

    PubMed

    Ayazian, Sahar; Hassibi, Arjang

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a new, easy-to-implement, and MRI-compatible approach for delivering power to implantable devices is presented. The idea is to harvest the energy of light within the therapeutic window wavelengths, where the optical absorption is small, by using subcutaneous photovoltaic (PV) cells. Depending on the application, this energy can then be used to directly drive the embedded electronics of an implanted device or recharge its battery. To show the feasibility of this system, a CMOS chip based on this concept has been implemented and tested. The experimental results demonstrate that μW's of power in ambient light conditions can be harvested using mm(2)-size PV cells. This amount of power is sufficient to address the needs of many low-power applications.

  15. Synchrotron Radiation Sources and Optical Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocco, D.; Zangrando, M.

    This chapter will briefly describe the photon transport system, from the sources to the experimental stations, including an overview of the characteristics of the synchrotron radiation (SR). The target of this chapter is to give, to an occasional user of the SR source, a general overview on the possible different available sources and the different possible optical systems, with particular emphasis to the soft X-ray region, without entering too much into details. If one wish to have a deep knowledge on the subjects treated here, there are four books that can answer almost all the possible questions on SR sources and optical devices, and they are reported in the references [W.B. Peatman, Gratings, Mirrors, and Slits (Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, New York, 1997); D. Attwood, Soft X-rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1999); H. Wiedemann, Synchrotron Radiation (Springer, Heidelberg, 2002); A. Erko, M. Idir, T. Krist, A.G. Michette, Modern Developments in X-ray and Neutron Optics, Springer Series in Optical Science, vol. 137 (Springer, Heidelberg, 2008)].

  16. Detectors, devices and electronics for optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fajer, V.

    2007-06-01

    Objectives: The present course is devoted to engineers, physicists, and techniques which require basic tools for applying in experiments, measurements and research with optical instruments. Content: It is composed of the following topics: photodetectors, semiconductor devices, photomultiplier tubes, Faraday modulators, lock in amplifiers and automatic polarimeters. It begins with the definitions, classification and general characteristics of the photodetectors and its selection criteria for specific applications. There is included a section relative to different types of photodiodes and its differential characteristics, the photomultipliers are described showing its validity and application range. The different characteristics of Faraday cells which are widely employed as optical modulators are analyzed. Lock in amplifiers are shown and its applications in experimental arrangements. Content: It is composed of the following topics: photodetectors, semiconductor devices, photomultiplier tubes, Faraday modulators, lock in amplifiers and automatic polarimeters. It begins with the definitions, classification and general characteristics of the photodetectors and its selection criteria for specific applications. There is included a section relative to different types of photodiodes and its differential characteristics, the photomultipliers are described showing its validity and application range. The different characteristics of Faraday cells which are widely employed as optical modulators are analyzed. Lock in amplifiers are shown and its applications in experimental arrangements. Conclusion: this course could be given as a postgraduate course for Master in Science or Ph. D depending on the number and content of selected topics. It has been applied as an obligatory subject of the Optical Master in Science curriculum in the Superior Technical Institute (José Antonio Echeverría) of Havana, Cuba.

  17. SRNL LDRD ANNUAL REPORT 2008

    SciTech Connect

    French, T

    2008-12-29

    The Laboratory Director is pleased to have the opportunity to present the 2008 Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) annual report. This is my first opportunity to do so, and only the second such report that has been issued. As will be obvious, SRNL has built upon the excellent start that was made with the LDRD program last year, and researchers have broken new ground in some important areas. In reviewing the output of this program this year, it is clear that the researchers implemented their ideas with creativity, skill and enthusiasm. It is gratifying to see this level of participation, because the LDRD program remains a key part of meeting SRNL's and DOE's strategic goals, and helps lay a solid scientific foundation for SRNL as the premier applied science laboratory. I also believe that the LDRD program's results this year have demonstrated SRNL's value as the EM Corporate Laboratory, having advanced knowledge in a spectrum of areas, including reduction of the technical risks of cleanup, separations science, packaging and transportation of nuclear materials, and many others. The research in support of Energy Security and National and Homeland Security has been no less notable. SRNL' s researchers have shown again that the nascent LDRD program is a sound investment for DOE that will pay off handsomely for the nation as time goes on.

  18. Optical imaging device of retinal function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kardon, Randy H.; Kwon, Young; Truitt, Paul; Nemeth, Sheila C.; T'so, Dan; Soliz, Peter

    2002-06-01

    An optical imaging device of retina function (OID-RF) has been constructed to record changes in reflected 700-nm light from the fundus caused by retinal activation in response to a visual 535-nm stimulus. The resulting images reveal areas of the retina activated by visual stimulation. This device is a modified fundus camera designed to provide a patterned, moving visual stimulus over a 45-degree field of view to the subject in the green wavelength portion of the visual spectrum while simultaneously imaging the fundus in another, longer wavelength range. Data was collected from 3 normal subjects and recorded for 13 seconds at 4 Hz; 3 seconds were recorded during pre-stimulus baseline, 5 seconds during the stimulus, and 5 seconds post-stimulus. This procedure was repeated several times and, after image registration, the images were averaged to improve signal to noise. The change in reflected intensity from the retina due to the stimulus was then calculated by comparison to the pre-stimulus state. Reflected intensity from areas of stimulated retina began to increase steadily within 1 second after stimulus onset and decayed after stimulus offset. These results indicated that a functional optical signal can be recorded from the human eye.

  19. Optical biosensors: a revolution towards quantum nanoscale electronics device fabrication.

    PubMed

    Dey, D; Goswami, T

    2011-01-01

    The dimension of biomolecules is of few nanometers, so the biomolecular devices ought to be of that range so a better understanding about the performance of the electronic biomolecular devices can be obtained at nanoscale. Development of optical biomolecular device is a new move towards revolution of nano-bioelectronics. Optical biosensor is one of such nano-biomolecular devices that has a potential to pave a new dimension of research and device fabrication in the field of optical and biomedical fields. This paper is a very small report about optical biosensor and its development and importance in various fields.

  20. Tiger LDRD final report

    SciTech Connect

    Steich, D J; Brugger, S T; Kallman, J S; White, D A

    2000-02-01

    This final report describes our efforts on the Three-Dimensional Massively Parallel CEM Technologies LDRD project (97-ERD-009). Significant need exists for more advanced time domain computational electromagnetics modeling. Bookkeeping details and modifying inflexible software constitute a vast majority of the effort required to address such needs. The required effort escalates rapidly as problem complexity increases. For example, hybrid meshes requiring hybrid numerics on massively parallel platforms (MPPs). This project attempts to alleviate the above limitations by investigating flexible abstractions for these numerical algorithms on MPPs using object-oriented methods, providing a programming environment insulating physics from bookkeeping. The three major design iterations during the project, known as TIGER-I to TIGER-III, are discussed. Each version of TIGER is briefly discussed along with lessons learned during the development and implementation. An Application Programming Interface (API) of the object-oriented interface for Tiger-III is included in three appendices. The three appendices contain the Utilities, Entity-Attribute, and Mesh libraries developed during the project. The API libraries represent a snapshot of our latest attempt at insulated the physics from the bookkeeping.

  1. Power selective optical filter devices and optical systems using same

    DOEpatents

    Koplow, Jeffrey P

    2014-10-07

    In an embodiment, a power selective optical filter device includes an input polarizer for selectively transmitting an input signal. The device includes a wave-plate structure positioned to receive the input signal, which includes at least one substantially zero-order, zero-wave plate. The zero-order, zero-wave plate is configured to alter a polarization state of the input signal passing in a manner that depends on the power of the input signal. The zero-order, zero-wave plate includes an entry and exit wave plate each having a fast axis, with the fast axes oriented substantially perpendicular to each other. Each entry wave plate is oriented relative to a transmission axis of the input polarizer at a respective angle. An output polarizer is positioned to receive a signal output from the wave-plate structure and selectively transmits the signal based on the polarization state.

  2. Final LDRD report :

    SciTech Connect

    Kronawitter, Coleman X.; Antoun, Bonnie R.; Mao, Samuel S.

    2012-01-01

    The distinction between electricity and fuel use in analyses of global power consumption statistics highlights the critical importance of establishing efficient synthesis techniques for solar fuelsthose chemicals whose bond energies are obtained through conversion processes driven by solar energy. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) processes show potential for the production of solar fuels because of their demonstrated versatility in facilitating optoelectronic and chemical conversion processes. Tandem PEC-photovoltaic modular configurations for the generation of hydrogen from water and sunlight (solar water splitting) provide an opportunity to develop a low-cost and efficient energy conversion scheme. The critical component in devices of this type is the PEC photoelectrode, which must be optically absorptive, chemically stable, and possess the required electronic band alignment with the electrochemical scale for its charge carriers to have sufficient potential to drive the hydrogen and oxygen evolution reactions. After many decades of investigation, the primary technological obstacle remains the development of photoelectrode structures capable of efficient conversion of light with visible frequencies, which is abundant in the solar spectrum. Metal oxides represent one of the few material classes that can be made photoactive and remain stable to perform the required functions.

  3. Optical fiber grating tuning device and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Fei; Yeh, T.

    2008-12-01

    A new design for tuning optical fiber grating is proposed. The fiber grating is placed in the grooves between a pair of slides, in which one end of the fiber is bonded on the bottom slide, and the other end of the fiber is bonded on the top slide, the grating section of the fiber is confined in grooves, so that the fiber grating is remaining straight without buckling during axial compressive force applied to the fiber. An actuator is used for driving slide to apply force on fiber to axially compress or stretch the fiber grating. The wavelength of the fiber grating is tuned according to applied stress on the fiber. The applications of the device include tunable fiber laser, tunable fiber filter etc.

  4. Optically-gated Non-latched High Gain Power Device

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-21

    4. EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON OTPT AND OPTICAL INTENSITY MODULATION OF OTPT PARAMETERS 33 4.1 Optical source, driver, and fiber details 33 4.2...off dynamics characterizations 36 4.5. Optical intensity modulation of OTPT parameters 37 5. EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON HYBRID OTPT-PSD AND OPTICAL...device design and optimization was completed including epitaxial charge-balance mechanisms and robustness studies . Effect on device performance parameters

  5. Optical sensors and multisensor arrays containing thin film electroluminescent devices

    DOEpatents

    Aylott, Jonathan W.; Chen-Esterlit, Zoe; Friedl, Jon H.; Kopelman, Raoul; Savvateev, Vadim N.; Shinar, Joseph

    2001-12-18

    Optical sensor, probe and array devices for detecting chemical biological, and physical analytes. The devices include an analyte-sensitive layer optically coupled to a thin film electroluminescent layer which activates the analyte-sensitive layer to provide an optical response. The optical response varies depending upon the presence of an analyte and is detected by a photodetector and analyzed to determine the properties of the analyte.

  6. Portable Handheld Optical Window Inspection Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihlefeld, Curtis; Dokos, Adam; Burns, Bradley

    2010-01-01

    The Portable Handheld Optical Window Inspection Device (PHOWID) is a measurement system for imaging small defects (scratches, pits, micrometeor impacts, and the like) in the field. Designed primarily for window inspection, PHOWID attaches to a smooth surface with suction cups, and raster scans a small area with an optical pen in order to provide a three-dimensional image of the defect. PHOWID consists of a graphical user interface, motor control subsystem, scanning head, and interface electronics, as well as an integrated camera and user display that allows a user to locate minute defects before scanning. Noise levels are on the order of 60 in. (1.5 m). PHOWID allows field measurement of defects that are usually done in the lab. It is small, light, and attaches directly to the test article in any orientation up to vertical. An operator can scan a defect and get useful engineering data in a matter of minutes. There is no need to make a mold impression for later lab analysis.

  7. Methods of making composite optical devices employing polymer liquid crystal

    DOEpatents

    Jacobs, S.D.; Marshall, K.L.; Cerqua, K.A.

    1991-10-08

    Composite optical devices are disclosed using polymer liquid crystal materials both as optical and adhesive elements. The devices are made by assembling a heated polymer liquid crystal compound, while in a low viscosity form between optically transparent substrates. The molecules of the polymer are oriented, while in the liquid crystalline state and while above the glass transition temperature (T[sub g]) of the polymer, to provide the desired optical effects, such as polarization, and selective reflection. The liquid crystal polymer cements the substrates together to form an assembly providing the composite optical device. 7 figures.

  8. Methods of making composite optical devices employing polymer liquid crystal

    DOEpatents

    Jacobs, Stephen D.; Marshall, Kenneth L.; Cerqua, Kathleen A.

    1991-01-01

    Composite optical devices using polymer liquid crystal materials both as optical and adhesive elements. The devices are made by assembling a heated polymer liquid crystal compound, while in a low viscosity form between optically transparent substrates. The molecules of the polymer are oriented, while in the liquid crystalline state and while above the glass transition temperature (T.sub.g) of the polymer, to provide the desired optical effects, such as polarization, and selective reflection. The liquid crystal polymer cements the substrates together to form an assembly providing the composite optical device.

  9. Binary Arithmetic Using Optical Symbolic Substitution and Cascadable Surface-Emitting Laser Logic Devices,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    LOGIC DEVICES, *OPTICAL CIRCUITS, *OPTICAL SWITCHING, HETEROJUNCTIONS, PHOTOTRANSISTORS, ELECTROOPTICS, LASER CAVITIES, OPTICAL PROCESSING, PARALLEL PROCESSING, BISTABLE DEVICES, GATES(CIRCUITS), VOLTAGE, BINARY ARITHMETIC .

  10. LDRD FY 2014 Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Anita Gianotto; Dena Tomchak

    2013-08-01

    As required by DOE Order 413.2B the FY 2014 Program Plan is written to communicate ares of investment and approximate amounts being requested for the upcoming fiscal year. The program plan also includes brief highlights of current or previous LDRD projects that have an opportunity to impact our Nation's current and future energy challenges.

  11. Method And Apparatus For Coupling Optical Elements To Optoelectronic Devices For Manufacturing Optical Transceiver Modules

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Gene R.; Armendariz, Marcelino G.; Bryan, Robert P.; Carson, Richard F.; Chu, Dahwey; Duckett, III, Edwin B.; Giunta, Rachel Knudsen; Mitchell, Robert T.; McCormick, Frederick B.; Peterson, David W.; Rising, Merideth A.; Reber, Cathleen A.; Reysen, Bill H.

    2005-06-14

    A process is provided for aligning and connecting at least one optical fiber to at least one optoelectronic device so as to couple light between at least one optical fiber and at least one optoelectronic device. One embodiment of this process comprises the following steps: (1) holding at least one optical element close to at least one optoelectronic device, at least one optical element having at least a first end; (2) aligning at least one optical element with at least one optoelectronic device; (3) depositing a first non-opaque material on a first end of at least one optoelectronic device; and (4) bringing the first end of at least one optical element proximate to the first end of at least one optoelectronic device in such a manner that the first non-opaque material contacts the first end of at least one optoelectronic device and the first end of at least one optical element. The optical element may be an optical fiber, and the optoelectronic device may be a vertical cavity surface emitting laser. The first non-opaque material may be a UV optical adhesive that provides an optical path and mechanical stability. In another embodiment of the alignment process, the first end of at least one optical element is brought proximate to the first end of at least one optoelectronic device in such a manner that an interstitial space exists between the first end of at least one optoelectronic device and the first end of at least one optical element.

  12. Optical waveguide device with an adiabatically-varying width

    DOEpatents

    Watts; Michael R. , Nielson; Gregory N.

    2011-05-10

    Optical waveguide devices are disclosed which utilize an optical waveguide having a waveguide bend therein with a width that varies adiabatically between a minimum value and a maximum value of the width. One or more connecting members can be attached to the waveguide bend near the maximum value of the width thereof to support the waveguide bend or to supply electrical power to an impurity-doped region located within the waveguide bend near the maximum value of the width. The impurity-doped region can form an electrical heater or a semiconductor junction which can be activated with a voltage to provide a variable optical path length in the optical waveguide. The optical waveguide devices can be used to form a tunable interferometer (e.g. a Mach-Zehnder interferometer) which can be used for optical modulation or switching. The optical waveguide devices can also be used to form an optical delay line.

  13. Optical limiting device and method of preparation thereof

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Hsing-Lin; Xu, Su; McBranch, Duncan W.

    2003-01-01

    Optical limiting device and method of preparation thereof. The optical limiting device includes a transparent substrate and at least one homogeneous layer of an RSA material in polyvinylbutyral attached to the substrate. The device may be produced by preparing a solution of an RSA material, preferably a metallophthalocyanine complex, and a solution of polyvinylbutyral, and then mixing the two solutions together to remove air bubbles. The resulting solution is layered onto the substrate and the solvent is evaporated. The method can be used to produce a dual tandem optical limiting device.

  14. Tapered rib fiber coupler for semiconductor optical devices

    DOEpatents

    Vawter, Gregory A.; Smith, Robert Edward

    2001-01-01

    A monolithic tapered rib waveguide for transformation of the spot size of light between a semiconductor optical device and an optical fiber or from the fiber into the optical device. The tapered rib waveguide is integrated into the guiding rib atop a cutoff mesa type semiconductor device such as an expanded mode optical modulator or and expanded mode laser. The tapered rib acts to force the guided light down into the mesa structure of the semiconductor optical device instead of being bound to the interface between the bottom of the guiding rib and the top of the cutoff mesa. The single mode light leaving or entering the output face of the mesa structure then can couple to the optical fiber at coupling losses of 1.0 dB or less.

  15. Systems, Devices, and Materials for Digital Optical Processing.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Title, Mark Alan

    The massive parallelism and flexibility of three -dimensional optical communication may allow the development of new parallel computers free from the constraints of planar electronic technology. To bring the optical computer from possibility to reality, however, requires technological and scientific development in new optical systems, devices, and materials. We present here research results in each of these areas. First described is a prototype optical information processing system using CdS/liquid crystal spatial light modulators for optical logic and memory. This system has been developed as the first step in the implementation of a fine-grained, globally-interconnected optical processing element array. Notable system features include the implementation of programmable electronic control and the analysis of the optical power distribution within the processor, both directly applicable to the design of new and more advanced optical information processing systems. Next presented is the design and initial performance data for a new spatial light modulator combining an array of silicon phototransistors with the electro-optic material (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti)O _3, opening new possibilities for "intelligent" optical logic, memory, and switching devices. Important to the optimal performance of this Si/PLZT device is the fabrication of embedded electrodes in the electro-optic material, reducing the device operating voltage and switching energy while improving the uniformity of the optical modulation. An extensive computer model of embedded electrode performance and details of the electrode fabrication by reactive ion beam etching and electroless Ni deposition are presented. Finally, in the area of optical materials development we present initial results in the RF magnetron deposition of electro -optic PLZT on r-plane sapphire. This work is important to the fabrication of a monolithic, Si/PLZT-on-sapphire spatial light modulator, promising superior performance to devices using

  16. Electro-optic device with gap-coupled electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Deri, Robert J.; Rhodes, Mark A.; Bayramian, Andrew J.; Caird, John A.; Henesian, Mark A.; Ebbers, Christopher A.

    2013-08-20

    An electro-optic device includes an electro-optic crystal having a predetermined thickness, a first face and a second face. The electro-optic device also includes a first electrode substrate disposed opposing the first face. The first electrode substrate includes a first substrate material having a first thickness and a first electrode coating coupled to the first substrate material. The electro-optic device further includes a second electrode substrate disposed opposing the second face. The second electrode substrate includes a second substrate material having a second thickness and a second electrode coating coupled to the second substrate material. The electro-optic device additionally includes a voltage source electrically coupled to the first electrode coating and the second electrode coating.

  17. Practical training: from ideas to optical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstoba, Nadezhda; Voznesenskaya, Anna; Orekhova, Maria

    2016-09-01

    The Student Research Laboratory for Optical Engineering in the ITMO University is the space for self-education and skills improving in the field of optics, optical engineering, photonics, light engineering for all the people: for students, graduates and experts. It is the space for realization of project for the motivated groups of people.

  18. Advanced polychromator systems for remote chemical sensing (LDRD project 52575).

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B.; Pfeifer, Kent Bryant; Allen, James Joe

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this LDRD project was to develop a programmable diffraction grating fabricated in SUMMiT V{trademark}. Two types of grating elements (vertical and rotational) were designed and demonstrated. The vertical grating element utilized compound leveraged bending and the rotational grating element used vertical comb drive actuation. This work resulted in two technical advances and one patent application. Also a new optical configuration of the Polychromator was demonstrated. The new optical configuration improved the optical efficiency of the system without degrading any other aspect of the system. The new configuration also relaxes some constraint on the programmable diffraction grating.

  19. 77 FR 65713 - Certain Optoelectronic Devices for Fiber Optic Communications, Components Thereof, and Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-30

    ... COMMISSION Certain Optoelectronic Devices for Fiber Optic Communications, Components Thereof, and Products... the United States after importation of certain optoelectronic devices for fiber optic communications... importation of certain optoelectronic devices for fiber optic communications, components thereof, and...

  20. Noncontact surface thermometry for microsystems: LDRD final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Abel, Mark (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Beecham, Thomas (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Graham, Samuel (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Kearney, Sean Patrick; Serrano, Justin Raymond; Phinney, Leslie Mary

    2006-10-01

    We describe a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) effort to develop and apply laser-based thermometry diagnostics for obtaining spatially resolved temperature maps on working microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). The goal of the effort was to cultivate diagnostic approaches that could adequately resolve the extremely fine MEMS device features, required no modifications to MEMS device design, and which did not perturb the delicate operation of these extremely small devices. Two optical diagnostics were used in this study: microscale Raman spectroscopy and microscale thermoreflectance. Both methods use a low-energy, nonperturbing probe laser beam, whose arbitrary wavelength can be selected for a diffraction-limited focus that meets the need for micron-scale spatial resolution. Raman is exploited most frequently, as this technique provides a simple and unambiguous measure of the absolute device temperature for most any MEMS semiconductor or insulator material under steady state operation. Temperatures are obtained from the spectral position and width of readily isolated peaks in the measured Raman spectra with a maximum uncertainty near {+-}10 K and a spatial resolution of about 1 micron. Application of the Raman technique is demonstrated for V-shaped and flexure-style polycrystalline silicon electrothermal actuators, and for a GaN high-electron-mobility transistor. The potential of the Raman technique for simultaneous measurement of temperature and in-plane stress in silicon MEMS is also demonstrated and future Raman-variant diagnostics for ultra spatio-temporal resolution probing are discussed. Microscale thermoreflectance has been developed as a complement for the primary Raman diagnostic. Thermoreflectance exploits the small-but-measurable temperature dependence of surface optical reflectivity for diagnostic purposes. The temperature-dependent reflectance behavior of bulk silicon, SUMMiT-V polycrystalline silicon films and metal surfaces is

  1. Final report on LDRD project: Low-cost Pd-catalyzed metallization technology for rapid prototyping of electronic substrates and devices

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, K.S.; Morgan, W.P.; Zich, J.L.

    1998-02-01

    A low-cost, thermally-activated, palladium-catalyzed metallization process was developed for rapid prototyping of polymeric electronic substrates and devices. The process was successfully applied in producing adhesiveless copper/polyimide laminates with high peel strengths and thick copper coating; copper/polyimide laminates are widely used in fabricating interconnects such as printed wiring boards (PWBs) and flexible circuits. Also successfully metallized using this low-cost metallization process were: (1) scaled-down models of radar-and-communication antenna and waveguide; (2) scaled-down model of pulsed-power-accelerator electrode; (3) three-dimensional micro-porous, open-cell vitreous carbon foams. Moreover, additive patterned metallization was successfully achieved by selectively printing or plotting the catalyst ink only on areas where metallization is desired, and by uniform thermal activation. Additive patterned metallization eliminates the time-consuming, costly and environmentally-unfriendly etching process that is routinely carried out in conventional subtractive patterned metallization. A metallization process via ultraviolet (UV) irradiation activation was also demonstrated. In this process palladium-catalyst solution is first uniformly coated onto the substrate. A masking pattern is used to cover the areas where metallization is not wanted. UV irradiation is applied uniformly to activate the palladium catalyst and to cure the polymer carrier in areas that are not covered by the mask. Metal is then deposited by electroless plating only or by a combination of electroless and electrolytic plating. This UV-activation technique is particularly useful in additive fine-line patterned metallization. Lastly, computer models for electrolytic and electroless plating processes were developed to provide guidance in plating-process design.

  2. Photonic variable delay devices based on optical birefringence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, X. Steve (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Optical variable delay devices for providing variable true time delay to multiple optical beams simultaneously. A ladder-structured variable delay device comprises multiple basic building blocks stacked on top of each other resembling a ladder. Each basic building block has two polarization beamsplitters and a polarization rotator array arranged to form a trihedron; Controlling an array element of the polarization rotator array causes a beam passing through the array element either going up to a basic building block above it or reflect back towards a block below it. The beams going higher on the ladder experience longer optical path delay. An index-switched optical variable delay device comprises of many birefringent crystal segments connected with one another, with a polarization rotator array sandwiched between any two adjacent crystal segments. An array element in the polarization rotator array controls the polarization state of a beam passing through the element, causing the beam experience different refractive indices or path delays in the following crystal segment. By independently control each element in each polarization rotator array, variable optical path delays of each beam can be achieved. Finally, an index-switched variable delay device and a ladder-structured variable device are cascaded to form a new device which combines the advantages of the two individual devices. This programmable optic device has the properties of high packing density, low loss, easy fabrication, and virtually infinite bandwidth. The device is inherently two dimensional and has a packing density exceeding 25 lines/cm2. The delay resolution of the device is on the order of a femtosecond (one micron in space) and the total delay exceeds 10 nanosecond. In addition, the delay is reversible so that the same delay device can be used for both antenna transmitting and receiving.

  3. Optical distance measurement device and method thereof

    DOEpatents

    Bowers, Mark W.

    2003-05-27

    A system and method of efficiently obtaining distance measurements of a target. A modulated optical beam may be used to determine the distance to the target. A first beam splitter may be used to split the optical beam and a second beam splitter may be used to recombine a reference beam with a return ranging beam. An optical mixing detector may be used in a receiver to efficiently detect distance measurement information.

  4. Optical Distance Measurement Device And Method Thereof

    DOEpatents

    Bowers, Mark W.

    2004-06-15

    A system and method of efficiently obtaining distance measurements of a target by scanning the target. An optical beam is provided by a light source and modulated by a frequency source. The modulated optical beam is transmitted to an acousto-optical deflector capable of changing the angle of the optical beam in a predetermined manner to produce an output for scanning the target. In operation, reflected or diffused light from the target may be received by a detector and transmitted to a controller configured to calculate the distance to the target as well as the measurement uncertainty in calculating the distance to the target.

  5. Quantum reading of unitary optical devices

    SciTech Connect

    Dall'Arno, Michele; Bisio, Alessandro; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro

    2014-12-04

    We address the problem of quantum reading of optical memories, namely the retrieving of classical information stored in the optical properties of a media with minimum energy. We present optimal strategies for ambiguous and unambiguous quantum reading of unitary optical memories, namely when one's task is to minimize the probability of errors in the retrieved information and when perfect retrieving of information is achieved probabilistically, respectively. A comparison of the optimal strategy with coherent probes and homodyne detection shows that the former saves orders of magnitude of energy when achieving the same performances. Experimental proposals for quantum reading which are feasible with present quantum optical technology are reported.

  6. Device having two optical ports for switching applications

    DOEpatents

    Rosen, Ayre; Stabile, Paul J.

    1991-09-24

    A two-sided light-activatable semiconductor switch device having an optical port on each side thereof. The semiconductor device may be a p-i-n diode or of bulk intrinsic material. A two ported p-i-n diode, reverse-biased to "off" by a 1.3 kV dc power supply, conducted 192 A when activated by two 1 kW laser diode arrays, one for each optical port.

  7. Characterization of ultrafast devices using novel optical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Md Ershad

    Optical techniques have been extensively used to examine the high frequency performance of a number of devices including High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs), Heterojunction Bipolar Phototransistors (HPTs) and Low Temperature GaAs (LT-GaAs) Photoconductive Switches. To characterize devices, frequency and time domain techniques, namely optical heterodyning and electro-optic sampling, having measurement bandwidths in excess of 200 GHz, were employed. Optical mixing in three-terminal devices has been extended for the first time to submillimeter wave frequencies. Using a new generation of 50-nm gate pseudomorphic InP-based HEMTs, optically mixed signals were detected to 552 GHz with a signal-to-noise ratio of approximately 5 dB. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest frequency optical mixing obtained in three- terminal devices to date. A novel harmonic three-wave detection scheme was used for the detection of the optically generated signals. The technique involved downconversion of the signal in the device by the second harmonic of a gate-injected millimeter wave local oscillator. Measurements were also conducted up to 212 GHz using direct optical mixing and up to 382 GHz using a fundamental three-wave detection scheme. New interesting features in the bias dependence of the optically mixed signals have been reported. An exciting novel development from this work is the successful integration of near-field optics with optical heterodyning. The technique, called near-field optical heterodyning (NFOH), allows for extremely localized injection of high-frequency stimulus to any arbitrary point of an ultrafast device or circuit. Scanning the point of injection across the sample provides details of the high frequency operation of the device with high spatial resolution. For the implementation of the technique, fiber-optic probes with 100 nm apertures were fabricated. A feedback controlled positioning system was built for accurate placement and scanning of the

  8. Optical Element, Device, Method, and Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-14

    optical element is a phase-only element; and h) repeating steps ( c -f). 28. The method of claim 26, further comprising: c1) in step (c), setting...jl(l;, 11) to 0, wherein the optical element is an amplitude-only element; and h) repeating steps ( c -f). * * * * *

  9. Optical system designs based on bi-directional sensor devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossmann, Constanze; Gawronski, Ute; Perske, Franziska; Notni, Gunther; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2012-10-01

    Small and compact optical system designs are needed in nearly all application scenarios of optical projection and imaging systems, e.g. automotive, metrology, medical or multimedia. Most active optical systems are based on separated imaging (e.g. camera unit) and image generating units (e.g. projection unit). This fact limits the geometrical miniaturization of the system. We present compact optical system designs using the new technology of bi-directional sensor devices. These devices combine light emitting and light detecting elements on one single chip. The application of such innovative opto-electronic devices - so-called bi-directional OLED microdisplays (BiMiDs) - offer a huge potential for miniaturization with a simultaneous increase of performance due to a new integration step. For these new bi-directional sensor devices new optical design concepts for simultaneous and sequential emission and detection are necessary. Because the simultaneous emission and detection can disturb the functionality of the optical system. New concepts has to be applied. A first concept is an exemplary 3-D metrology system applying fringe projection. A second concept is a pico-projection system with an integrated camera function. For both concepts the system configurations and the optical design are discussed. Due to the application of the bi-directional sensor device ultra-compact systems are presented.

  10. Magneto-optical non-reciprocal devices in silicon photonics.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Yuya; Mizumoto, Tetsuya

    2014-02-01

    Silicon waveguide optical non-reciprocal devices based on the magneto-optical effect are reviewed. The non-reciprocal phase shift caused by the first-order magneto-optical effect is effective in realizing optical non-reciprocal devices in silicon waveguide platforms. In a silicon-on-insulator waveguide, the low refractive index of the buried oxide layer enhances the magneto-optical phase shift, which reduces the device footprints. A surface activated direct bonding technique was developed to integrate a magneto-optical garnet crystal on the silicon waveguides. A silicon waveguide optical isolator based on the magneto-optical phase shift was demonstrated with an optical isolation of 30 dB and insertion loss of 13 dB at a wavelength of 1548 nm. Furthermore, a four port optical circulator was demonstrated with maximum isolations of 15.3 and 9.3 dB in cross and bar ports, respectively, at a wavelength of 1531 nm.

  11. Magneto-optical non-reciprocal devices in silicon photonics

    PubMed Central

    Shoji, Yuya; Mizumoto, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    Silicon waveguide optical non-reciprocal devices based on the magneto-optical effect are reviewed. The non-reciprocal phase shift caused by the first-order magneto-optical effect is effective in realizing optical non-reciprocal devices in silicon waveguide platforms. In a silicon-on-insulator waveguide, the low refractive index of the buried oxide layer enhances the magneto-optical phase shift, which reduces the device footprints. A surface activated direct bonding technique was developed to integrate a magneto-optical garnet crystal on the silicon waveguides. A silicon waveguide optical isolator based on the magneto-optical phase shift was demonstrated with an optical isolation of 30 dB and insertion loss of 13 dB at a wavelength of 1548 nm. Furthermore, a four port optical circulator was demonstrated with maximum isolations of 15.3 and 9.3 dB in cross and bar ports, respectively, at a wavelength of 1531 nm. PMID:27877640

  12. Optical bistable device with one sinusoidal amplitude grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shenping; Orriols, G.

    1994-07-01

    A novel type of optical bistable device (OBD) based the Abble theory is proposed, in which the modulation is realized by moving one sinusoidal amplitude grating. When the parameters of this system are chosen properly this system can be a one-channel or two-channel optical bistable device. The mathematical models which describe the optically bistability are obtained. Numerical simulations on the optical bistabilities and the stability analysis on this system for two cases are given. The two-channel OBD may work as a 1 × 2 optical switch or a stable filter for wavelength division multiplexing, and may be applied in code-division multiple access networks and optical recovery circuit.

  13. Dynamic Optical Grating Device and Associated Method for Modulating Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); Choi, Sang H. (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Chu, Sang-Hyon (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A dynamic optical grating device and associated method for modulating light is provided that is capable of controlling the spectral properties and propagation of light without moving mechanical components by the use of a dynamic electric and/or magnetic field. By changing the electric field and/or magnetic field, the index of refraction, the extinction coefficient, the transmittivity, and the reflectivity fo the optical grating device may be controlled in order to control the spectral properties of the light reflected or transmitted by the device.

  14. Rays inserting method (RIM) to design dielectric optical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taskhiri, Mohammad Mahdi; Khalaj Amirhosseini, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    In this article, a novel approach, called Rays Inserted Method (RIM), is introduced to design dielectric optical devices. In this approach, some rays are inserted between two ends of desired device and then the refractive index of the points along the route of rays are obtained. The validity of the introduced approach is verified by designing three types of optical devices, i.e. power splitter, bend, and flat lens. The results are confirmed with numerical simulations by the means of FDTD scheme at the frequency of 100 GHz.

  15. Optical device with low electrical and thermal resistance bragg reflectors

    DOEpatents

    Lear, Kevin L.

    1996-01-01

    A compound-semiconductor optical device and method. The optical device is provided with one or more asymmetrically-graded heterojunctions between compound semiconductor layers for forming a distributed Bragg reflector mirror having an improved electrical and thermal resistance. Efficient light-emitting devices such as light-emitting diodes, resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes, and vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers may be formed according to the present invention, which may be applied to the formation of resonant-cavity photodetectors.

  16. Optical device with low electrical and thermal resistance Bragg reflectors

    DOEpatents

    Lear, K.L.

    1996-10-22

    A compound-semiconductor optical device and method are disclosed. The optical device is provided with one or more asymmetrically-graded heterojunctions between compound semiconductor layers for forming a distributed Bragg reflector mirror having an improved electrical and thermal resistance. Efficient light-emitting devices such as light-emitting diodes, resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes, and vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers may be formed according to the present invention, which may be applied to the formation of resonant-cavity photodetectors. 16 figs.

  17. A quantum optical firewall based on simple quantum devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amellal, H.; Meslouhi, A.; Hassouni, Y.; El Baz, M.

    2015-07-01

    In order to enhance the transmission security in quantum communications via coherent states, we propose a quantum optical firewall device to protect a quantum cryptosystem against eavesdropping through optical attack strategies. Similar to the classical model of the firewall, the proposed device gives legitimate users the possibility of filtering, controlling (input/output states) and making a decision (access or deny) concerning the traveling states. To prove the security and efficiency of the suggested optical firewall, we analyze its performances against the family of intercept and resend attacks, especially against one of the most prominent attack schemes known as "Faked State Attack."

  18. Fiber-based devices for DWDM optical communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Claire; Xu, Yuan; Liu, Yisi; Pan, Jing-Jong; Zhou, Fengqing; Dong, Liang; He, Henry

    2005-01-01

    Photonic devices with low insertion loss are important in dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) systems. Currently most of these devices, such as variable optical attenuators (VOA), switches, filters, and dispersion compensators, etc., involve bulk (or micro-optic) components that require conversions between fibers and free-space optical elements leading to high insertion loss. Recently, we have proposed, analyzed, and demonstrated several fiber based devices for DWDM optical communication systems. Here we present an in-line fiber VOA, a 2x2 switchable wavelength add/drop filter, and high performance dispersion compensators. The VOA is built with a side-polished fiber covered with a liquid crystal overlay. By varying the orientation of the liquid crystal molecules using an applied electric field, the loss of the device can be controlled. The 2x2 wavelength switch is designed by recording electrically switchable holographic gratings in a layer of holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (H-PDLC) sandwiched between two side-polished fibers. The dispersion compensators are based on high precision fiber Bragg gratings (FBG). A unique method for writing FBGs with arbitrary phase and amplitude distributions is demonstrated. All of these devices are analyzed theoretically and demonstrated experimentally. Both theoretical and experimental results will be presented and discussed. These devices are suitable for DWDM optical information transmission and network management.

  19. Variable optical attenuator made by using new electrochromic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergaz, Ricardo; Barrios, David; Sanchez-Pena, Jose M.; Vazquez, Carmen; Pozo-Gonzalo, Cristina; Mecerreyes, David; Pomposo, Jose

    2005-07-01

    Electrochromic (EC) materials are used mainly for domotic applications, such as transparency controlled windows or rear-view mirrors in cars. The device construction is a sandwich of electrochemical compounds, which change their optical properties when applying voltage. Although the changes that are used in the applications take place in the visible, there are also changes in the near infrared region. In the last years, some works have proposed their use in fiber optic applications, mainly as optical modulators or VOAs (Variable Optical Attenuator). EC devices have usually slow responses (several seconds) and low transmittance range, specially the organic ones. The slow response is the major drawback for their use as modulators. But in NIR transmittance ranges, there are promising results in materials like ruthenium or PEDOT (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)). In this work, we will study the possible use in VOAs of new EC devices developed with the minimum number of layers, by their response in telecommunications wavelengths. These devices are manufactured in such a way that the integration in fiber optic devices is an easy task. The minimum number of layers and the easy construction are improvements over the existing possibilities. PEDOT is the EC material on these devices, and different manufacturing ways are compared in order to detect the best possible candidate to use.

  20. Advances in nonlinear optical materials and devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, Robert L.

    1991-01-01

    The recent progress in the application of nonlinear techniques to extend the frequency of laser sources has come from the joint progress in laser sources and in nonlinear materials. A brief summary of the progress in diode pumped solid state lasers is followed by an overview of progress in nonlinear frequency extension by harmonic generation and parametric processes. Improved nonlinear materials including bulk crystals, quasiphasematched interactions, guided wave devices, and quantum well intersubband studies are discussed with the idea of identifying areas of future progress in nonlinear materials and devices.

  1. Space Qualification Issues in Acousto-optic and Electro-optic Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Taylor, Edward W.; Trivedi, Sudhir; Kutcher, Sue; Soos, Jolanta

    2007-01-01

    Satellite and space-based applications of photonic devices and systems require operational reliability in the harsh environment of space for extended periods of time. This in turn requires every component of the systems and their packaging to meet space qualifications. Acousto- and electro-optical devices form the major components of many current space based optical systems, which is the focus of this paper. The major space qualification issues are related to: mechanical stability, thermal effects and operation of the devices in the naturally occurring space radiation environment. This paper will discuss acousto- and electro-optic materials and devices with respect to their stability against mechanical vibrations, thermal cycling in operating and non-operating conditions and device responses to space ionizing and displacement radiation effects. Selection of suitable materials and packaging to meet space qualification criteria will also be discussed. Finally, a general roadmap for production and testing of acousto- and electro-optic devices will be discussed.

  2. Fabrication of micro-optical devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. W.; Marley, J.; Gal, George; Purdy, Don

    1993-01-01

    We have fabricated a variety of micro-optic components including Fresnel and non-Frensel lenses, off-axis and dispersive lenses with binary stepped contours, and analog contours. Process details for all lens designs fabricated are given including multistep photolithography for binary fabrication and grayscale mask photolithography for analog fabrication. Reactive ion etching and ion beam milling are described for the binary fabrication process, while ion beam milling was used for the analog fabrication process. Examples of micro-optic components fabricated in both Si and CdTe substrates are given.

  3. Optical sensing: recognition elements and devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauglitz, Guenter G.

    2012-09-01

    The requirements in chemical and biochemical sensing with respect to recognition elements, avoiding non-specific interactions, and high loading of the surface for detection of low concentrations as well as optimized detection systems are discussed. Among the many detection principles the optical techniques are classified. Methods using labeled compounds like Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence (TIRF) and direct optical methods like micro reflectometry or refractometry are discussed in comparison. Reflectometric Interference Spectroscopy (RIfS) is presented as a robust simple method for biosensing. As applications, trace analysis of endocrine disruptors in water, hormones in food, detection of viruses and bacteria in food and clinical diagnostics are discussed.

  4. Optical-Microwave Interactions in Semiconductor Devices.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    frequency response, Liquid phase epitaxial crystal growth, Optical waveguide, Photoconductivity, Traps. 1ABSTRACT (Contirniv an, reverse side If neceaa..3...of the sensitivity for a photoconductor has been 2 given by DiDomenico and Svelto. The change in photocurrent due to optical illumination is qq AT AI...at dc ( 0 tr where 0A is the number of photons /sec (uniform illumination is assumed). The sensitivity can be written as AI oAh = o S° ~ L~ (2) 0oA

  5. Femtosecond Optics: Advanced Devices and Ultrafast Phenomena

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-31

    periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN), which already represents a significant advance . Gain is given by G=0.25(1+ exp(gl)), where for 7 t2 PPLN, g...H. Sotobayashi, J.T. Gopinath, and E.P. Ippen, ൟ cm long Bi20 3-based EDFA for picosecond pulse amplification with 80 nm gain bandwidth," IEEE...will be minimized by keeping the data in the optical domain. Such all- optical networks require advanced photonic technologies for a variety of

  6. Optically controlled multiple switching operations of DNA biopolymer devices

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, Chao-You; Tu, Waan-Ting; Lin, Yi-Tzu; Fruk, Ljiljana; Hung, Yu-Chueh

    2015-12-21

    We present optically tunable operations of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) biopolymer devices, where a single high-resistance state, write-once read-many-times memory state, write-read-erase memory state, and single low-resistance state can be achieved by controlling UV irradiation time. The device is a simple sandwich structure with a spin-coated DNA biopolymer layer sandwiched by two electrodes. Upon irradiation, the electrical properties of the device are adjusted owing to a phototriggered synthesis of silver nanoparticles in DNA biopolymer, giving rise to multiple switching scenarios. This technique, distinct from the strategy of doping of pre-formed nanoparticles, enables a post-film fabrication process for achieving optically controlled memory device operations, which provides a more versatile platform to fabricate organic memory and optoelectronic devices.

  7. Fiber-Optics -- A Sensing Device.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-01

    perturbations in sound, displacement, temperature, pressure, magnetic fields, electric fields, rotation rate, strain, liquid level, and flow. The light...ReflectionllquId crystal ) hi Temperature Phololumutescence (phospher, semiconductor) intensy Spectrum Block body radiation M Polarization Birefringence...29]. The tranduction element consists of a thermochromic solution of a Cobalt salt that varies its optical absorption spectrum with temperature. A

  8. Electro-optic studies of novel organic materials and devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jianjun

    1997-11-01

    Specific single crystal organic materials have high potential for use in high speed optical signal processing and various other electro-optic applications. In this project some of the most important organic crystal materials were studied regarding their detailed electro- optic properties and potential device applications. In particular, the electro-optic properties of N-(4- Nitrophenyl)-L-Prolinol (NPP) and 4'-N,N- dimethylamino-4-methylstilbazolium tosylate (DAST) both of which have extremely large second order susceptibilites were studied. The orientation of the thin film crystal with respect to the substrate surface was determined using-X-ray diffraction. The principal axes of the single crystal thin film were determined by polarization transmission microscopy. The elements of the electro-optic coefficient tensor were measured by field induced birefringence measurements. Detailed measurements for NPP thin films with different orientations of the external electric field with respect to the charge transfer axis were carried out at a wavelength of 1064nm. The wavelength dependence of the electro-optic effect for DAST single crystal thin films was measured using a Ti:Sapphire laser. Several device geometries involving organic single crystal thin film materials were studied. A new method for the fabrication of channel waveguides for organic materials was initiated. Channel waveguides for NPP and ABP were obtained using this methods. Optical modulation due to the electro-optic effect based on the organic channel waveguide for NPP single crystal was demonstrated. The electro-optic modulation using NPP single crystals thin film in a Fabry-Perot cavity was measured. A device using a optical fiber half coupler and organic electro-optic thin film material was constructed, and it has potential applications in optical signal processing.

  9. Exploring Novel Crystals and Designs for Acousto-Optic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeiffer, Jonathan B.

    Acousto-optic devices are a versatile technology that are driven electronically to precisely and rapidly control the intensity, frequency, and propagation direction of a laser beam. Applications include acousto-optic scanners, filters, mode lockers, and modulators. Despite the popularity of acousto-optic devices, there currently is no UV transparent device that can satisfy the requirements of the atomic clock and quantum computing communities. In this thesis, I describe my experimental efforts for discovering a new UV transparent, acousto-optic crystal that can meet the experimental requirements. I also present my graphical representations for locating practical and efficient acousto-optic designs in a given medium. The first part of this thesis describes how to measure the elastic-stiffness and photoelastic coefficients of a given crystal. The elastic-stiffness coefficients are essential for designing acousto-optic devices because they determine the velocity, diffraction, and polarization of acoustic waves in a given medium. I used both resonant ultrasound spectroscopy and a modified version of Schaefer-Bergman diffraction to measure elastic coefficients. I discuss in detail the strengths, differences, and similarities of the two experiments. The photoelastic coefficients are necessary for determining the diffraction efficiency of a given acousto-optic geometry. Similar to the elastic coefficients, I employ a modified version of the Schaefer-Bergmann experiment to measure the photoelastic coefficients. I corroborate the measured results with the well established Dixon experiment. The second part of this thesis describes four different graphical representations that help locate practical and efficient acousto-optic designs. I describe in detail each algorithm and how to interpret the calculated results. Several examples are provided for commonly used acosuto-optic materials. The thesis concludes by describing the design and performance of an acousto-optic frequency

  10. Progress towards interaction-free all-optical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strekalov, Dmitry V.; Kowligy, Abijith S.; Huang, Yu-Ping; Kumar, Prem

    2014-06-01

    We present an all-optical control device in which coupling a weak control optical field into a high-Q lithium niobate whispering-gallery-mode microcavity decouples it from a signal field due to nonlinear optical interactions. This results in switching and modulation of the signal with low-power control pulses. In the quantum limit, the underlying nonlinear-optical process corresponds to the quantum Zeno blockade. Its "interaction-free" nature effectively alleviates loss and decoherence for the signal waves. This work therefore presents experimental progress towards acquiring large phase shifts with few photons or even at the single-photon level.

  11. Photonic materials, structures and devices for Reststrahlen optics.

    PubMed

    Feng, K; Streyer, W; Zhong, Y; Hoffman, A J; Wasserman, D

    2015-11-30

    We present a review of existing and potential next-generation far-infrared (20-60 μm) optical materials and devices. The far-infrared is currently one of the few remaining frontiers on the optical spectrum, a space underdeveloped and lacking in many of the optical and optoelectronic materials and devices taken for granted in other, more technologically mature wavelength ranges. The challenges associated with developing optical materials, structures, and devices at these wavelengths are in part a result of the strong phonon absorption in the Reststrahlen bands of III-V semiconductors that collectively span the far-infrared. More than just an underexplored spectral band, the far-IR may also be of potential importance for a range of sensing applications in astrochemistry, biology, and industrial and geological processes. Additionally, with a suitable far-IR optical infrastructure, it is conceivable that even more applications could emerge. In this review, we will present recent progress on far-infrared materials and phenomena such as phononic surface modes, engineered composite materials, and optoelectronic devices that have the potential to serve as the next generation of components in a far-infrared optical tool-kit.

  12. Optical devices featuring nonpolar textured semiconductor layers

    DOEpatents

    Moustakas, Theodore D; Moldawer, Adam; Bhattacharyya, Anirban; Abell, Joshua

    2013-11-26

    A semiconductor emitter, or precursor therefor, has a substrate and one or more textured semiconductor layers deposited onto the substrate in a nonpolar orientation. The textured layers enhance light extraction, and the use of nonpolar orientation greatly enhances internal quantum efficiency compared to conventional devices. Both the internal and external quantum efficiencies of emitters of the invention can be 70-80% or higher. The invention provides highly efficient light emitting diodes suitable for solid state lighting.

  13. Design, fabrication and analysis of integrated optical waveguide devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikorski, Yuri

    Throughout the present dissertation, the main effort has been to develop the set of design rules for optical integrated circuits (OIC). At the present time, when planar optical integrated circuits seem to be the leading technology, and industry is heading towards much higher levels of integration, such design rules become necessary. It is known that analysis of light propagation in rectangular waveguides can not be carried out exactly. Various approximations become necessary, and their validity is discussed in this text. Various methods are used in the text for calculating the same problems, and results are compared. A few new concepts have been suggested to avoid approximations used elsewhere. The second part of this dissertation is directed to the development of a new technique for the fabrication of optical integrated circuits inside optical glass. This technique is based on the use of ultrafast laser pulses to alter the properties of glasses. Using this method we demonstrated the possibility of changing the refractive index of various passive and active optical glasses as well as ablating the material on the surface in a controlled fashion. A number of optical waveguide devices (e.g. waveguides, directional couplers, diffraction gratings, fiber Bragg gratings, V-grooves in dual-clad optical fibers, optical waveguide amplifiers) were fabricated and tested. Testing included measurements of loss/throughput, near-field mode profiles, efficiency and thermal stability. All of the experimental setup and test results are reported in the dissertation. We also demonstrated the possibility of using this technique to fabricate future bio-optical devices that will incorporate an OIC and a microfluidic circuit on a single substrate. Our results are expected to serve as a guide for the design and fabrication of a new generation of integrated optical and bio-optical devices.

  14. Plasma channel optical-pumping device and method

    SciTech Connect

    Judd, O.P.

    1981-07-17

    A device and method are described for optically pumping a gaseous laser using blackbody radiation produced by a plasma channel which is formed from an electrical discharge between two electrodes spaced at opposite longitudinal ends of the laser. A preionization device which can comprise a laser or electron beam accelerator produces a preionization beam which is sufficient to cause an elctrical discharge between the electrodes to initiate the plasma channel along the preionization path. The optical pumping energy is supplied by a high voltage power supply rather than by the preionization beam. High output optical intensities are produced by the laser due to the high temperature black-body radiation produced by the plasma channel, in the same manner as an exploding wire type laser. However, unlike the exploding wire type laser, the disclosed invention can be operated in a repetitive manner by utilizing a repetitive pulsed preionization device.

  15. Performance capabilities of fiber optic components and photonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Asu R.

    2001-09-01

    This paper reveals performance capabilities of critical fiber optic components and photonic devices, which have potential applications in industrial, commercial and military systems and equipment. These devices are widely used in battlefield, space surveillance, medical diagnosis, crime fighting, and detection of terrorist activities. Performance capabilities of fiber optic components for possible applications in WDM and DWDM systems are summarized. Photonic devices and sensor for forward battlefield applications are identified with emphasis on performance and reliability. Performance parameters of Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers, Erbium doped waveguide amplifiers, and optical hybrid amplifiers comprising of EDFAs and Raman amplifiers are discussed withe emphasis on bandwidth, gain-flatness, data handling capability, channel capacity and cost-effectiveness.

  16. Pilot Project for Spaceborne Massive Optical Storage Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Y. J.

    1996-01-01

    A space bound storage device has many special requirements. In addition to large storage capacity, fas read/ write time, and high reliability, it also needs to have small volume, light weight, low power consumption, radiation hardening, ability to operate in extreme temperature ranges, etc. Holographic optical recording technology, which has been making major advancements in recent years, is an extremely promising candidate. The goal of this pilot project is to demonstrate a laboratory bench-top holographic optical recording storage system (HORSS) based on nonlinear polymer films 1 and/or other advanced photo-refractive materials. This system will be used as a research vehicle to study relevant optical properties of novel holographic optical materials, to explore massive optical storage technologies based on the photo-refractive effect and to evaluate the feasibility of developing a massive storage system, based on holographic optical recording technology, for a space bound experiment in the near future.

  17. Nanophotonic Devices in Silicon for Nonlinear Optics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-15

    Leuthold, W. Freude , J.-M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon Organic Hybrid Technology...2010. [24] L. Alloatti, D. Korn, D. Hillerkuss, T. Vallaitis, J. Li,R. Bonk, R. Palmer, T. Schellinger, C. Koos,W. Freude , J. Leuthold, A. Barklund, R...T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude , and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides

  18. Implantable optical-electrode device for stimulation of spinal motoneurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matveev, M. V.; Erofeev, A. I.; Zakharova, O. A.; Pyatyshev, E. N.; Kazakin, A. N.; Vlasova, O. L.

    2016-08-01

    Recent years, optogenetic method of scientific research has proved its effectiveness in the nerve cell stimulation tasks. In our article we demonstrate an implanted device for the spinal optogenetic motoneurons activation. This work is carried out in the Laboratory of Molecular Neurodegeneration of the Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, together with Nano and Microsystem Technology Laboratory. The work of the developed device is based on the principle of combining fiber optic light stimulation of genetically modified cells with the microelectrode multichannel recording of neurons biopotentials. The paper presents a part of the electrode implant manufacturing technique, combined with the optical waveguide of ThorLabs (USA).

  19. New materials technology for latching electro-optic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, Patrick J.; Mastrangelo, John C.; Chen, Shaw H.

    1999-04-01

    This paper presents the current status of a new class of liquid crystal material being developed for latching electrooptic applications. This new material has the unique property of being electrooptic and fully latching. That is, in one state, the material has the properties of a conventional liquid crystal, capable of being aligned with either an electric or magnetic field; in its other state, it is an optical quality solid that maintains the molecular alignment set while in the fluid state. Experiments have shown that current materials can be switched on the order of milliseconds, as is the case with conventional nematic liquid crystals. In the solid state, the electric field can be removed with no change to the previously set optical properties because the molecular alignment is frozen in place, which should last for an extended period of time. In addition, the material exhibits broad temperature stability in the solid state, enabling devices to be developed that operate from cryogenic temperatures to 80 degrees C without the use of a temperature controller. This new material is ideally suited for applications where the size and mechanical robustness of an electrooptic device is desired, along with the latching capability of optomechanical devices. This materials technology alone will currently not meet high-speed switch requirements. However, this technology can be integrated with other state-of-the-art high-speed materials to provide a high-speed latching device. Devices currently under investigation using this materials include optical switches, optical attenuators and tunable filters.

  20. FY2014 LBNL LDRD Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Darren

    2015-06-01

    Laboratory (Berkeley Lab or LBNL) is a multi-program national research facility operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy (DOE). As an integral element of DOE’s National Laboratory System, Berkeley Lab supports DOE’s missions in fundamental science, energy resources, and environmental quality. Berkeley Lab programs advance four distinct goals for DOE and the nation. The LDRD program supports Berkeley Lab’s mission in many ways. First, because LDRD funds can be allocated within a relatively short time frame, Berkeley Lab researchers can support the mission of the Department of Energy (DOE) and serve the needs of the nation by quickly responding to forefront scientific problems. Second, LDRD enables Berkeley Lab to attract and retain highly qualified scientists and to support their efforts to carry out worldleading research. In addition, the LDRD program also supports new projects that involve graduate students and postdoctoral fellows, thus contributing to the education mission of Berkeley Lab.

  1. Fabrication and Characterization of Nano-Optic Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-01

    FINAL 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS FABRICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NANO -OPTIC DEVICES 6. AUTHOR(S) PROFESSOR SCHERER 7. PERFORMING...has to be pumped to overcome lasing threshold. This compares to thousands of modes which have to be pumped in conventional semiconductor lasers in...lasers, advances in high speed lasers and detectors, low power micro -optical interconnects, and high efficiency LEDs for illumination and display

  2. Compressive Optical Imaging Systems - Theory, Devices and Implementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    Pitsianis, J. R Guo, A. Portnoy, and M. Fiddy, "Compressive optical montage photography ," in SPIE: Photonic Devices and Algorithms for Computing VII, vol...Susstrunk, "Virtual sensor design," in Sensors and Camera Systems for Scientific, Industrial, and Digital Photography Applications V, vol. 5301, pp. 408...pp. 10-12, 1996. (57] D. Schroeder, Astronomical Optics. Academic Press, 1987. [58] S. S. Chen, D. L. Donoho, and M. A. Saunders, "Atomic

  3. Visual fatigue induced by optical misalignment in binocular devices: application to night vision binocular devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilescu, Maria; Battista, Josephine; Ibbotson, Michael R.; Gibbs, Peter

    2015-05-01

    The additional and perhaps unnatural eye-movements required to fuse misaligned binocular images can lead to visual fatigue and decreased task performance. The eyes have some tolerance to optical misalignment. However, a survey of the scientific literature reveals a wide range of recommended tolerances but offers little supporting experimental evidence. Most experimental studies are based on small numbers of participants exposed to brief periods of optical misalignment. Therefore, these published tolerance limits might have limited relevance for long-duration exposure to misaligned binocular devices. Prolonged use of binocular devices may cause visual fatigue irrespective of binocular alignment especially for complex tasks such as night vision flying. This study attempts to identify measures most sensitive to misalignment in order to establish relevant tolerance limits for in-service binocular night vision devices. Firstly, we developed a rugged and deployable test bench that can measure binocular alignment with a reproducibility error of less than 1 arcmin. The bench was used to identify and investigate major factors affecting the stability of the optical misalignment over time. Our results indicated that the optical misalignment of a given device changed over time as a function of the in-service usage and thermal history of the device. Secondly, participants were exposed to experimentally controlled levels of optical misalignment typical of those measured on in-service binocular night vision devices. The visual fatigue of each participant was assessed via a set of oculomotor parameters. The oculomotor parameters showing high sensitivity to optical misalignment were compared for subjects exposed to extended periods of misalignment in a baseline reading task and a task using an actual night vision device.

  4. 2013 SRNL LDRD Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    McWhorter, S.

    2014-03-07

    This report demonstrates the execution of our LDRD program within the objectives and guidelines outlined by the Department of Energy (DOE) through the DOE Order 413.2b. The projects described within the report align purposefully with SRNL’s strategic vision and provide great value to the DOE. The diversity exhibited in the research and development projects underscores the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) mission and enhances that mission by developing the technical capabilities and human capital necessary to support future DOE-EM national needs. As a multiprogram national laboratory, SRNL is applying those capabilities to achieve tangible results for the nation in National Security, Environmental Stewardship, Clean Energy and Nuclear Materials Management.

  5. LDRD Report: Scheduling Irregular Algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Boman, Erik G.

    2014-10-01

    This LDRD project was a campus exec fellowship to fund (in part) Donald Nguyen’s PhD research at UT-Austin. His work has focused on parallel programming models, and scheduling irregular algorithms on shared-memory systems using the Galois framework. Galois provides a simple but powerful way for users and applications to automatically obtain good parallel performance using certain supported data containers. The naïve user can write serial code, while advanced users can optimize performance by advanced features, such as specifying the scheduling policy. Galois was used to parallelize two sparse matrix reordering schemes: RCM and Sloan. Such reordering is important in high-performance computing to obtain better data locality and thus reduce run times.

  6. Impact of optical antennas on active optoelectronic devices.

    PubMed

    Bonakdar, Alireza; Mohseni, Hooman

    2014-10-07

    Remarkable progress has been made in the fabrication and characterization of optical antennas that are integrated with optoelectronic devices. Herein, we describe the fundamental reasons for and experimental evidence of the dramatic improvements that can be achieved by enhancing the light-matter interaction via an optical antenna in both photon-emitting and -detecting devices. In addition, integration of optical antennas with optoelectronic devices can lead to the realization of highly compact multifunctional platforms for future integrated photonics, such as low-cost lab-on-chip systems. In this review paper, we further focus on the effect of optical antennas on the detectivity of infrared photodetectors. One particular finding is that the antenna can have a dual effect on the specific detectivity, while it can elevate light absorption efficiency of sub-wavelength detectors, it can potentially increase the noise of the detectors due to the enhanced spontaneous emission rate. In particular, we predict that the detectivity of interband photon detectors can be negatively affected by the presence of optical antennas across a wide wavelength region covering visible to long wavelength infrared bands. In contrast, the detectivity of intersubband detectors could be generally improved with a properly designed optical antenna.

  7. Fabrication of optically reflecting ohmic contacts for semiconductor devices

    DOEpatents

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    1995-01-01

    A method is provided to produce a low-resistivity ohmic contact having high optical reflectivity on one side of a semiconductor device. The contact is formed by coating the semiconductor substrate with a thin metal film on the back reflecting side and then optically processing the wafer by illuminating it with electromagnetic radiation of a predetermined wavelength and energy level through the front side of the wafer for a predetermined period of time. This method produces a thin epitaxial alloy layer between the semiconductor substrate and the metal layer when a crystalline substrate is used. The alloy layer provides both a low-resistivity ohmic contact and high optical reflectance.

  8. Fabrication of optically reflecting ohmic contacts for semiconductor devices

    DOEpatents

    Sopori, B.L.

    1995-07-04

    A method is provided to produce a low-resistivity ohmic contact having high optical reflectivity on one side of a semiconductor device. The contact is formed by coating the semiconductor substrate with a thin metal film on the back reflecting side and then optically processing the wafer by illuminating it with electromagnetic radiation of a predetermined wavelength and energy level through the front side of the wafer for a predetermined period of time. This method produces a thin epitaxial alloy layer between the semiconductor substrate and the metal layer when a crystalline substrate is used. The alloy layer provides both a low-resistivity ohmic contact and high optical reflectance. 5 figs.

  9. Optical device with conical input and output prism faces

    DOEpatents

    Brunsden, Barry S.

    1981-01-01

    A device for radially translating radiation in which a right circular cylinder is provided at each end thereof with conical prism faces. The faces are oppositely extending and the device may be severed in the middle and separated to allow access to the central part of the beam. Radiation entering the input end of the device is radially translated such that radiation entering the input end at the perimeter is concentrated toward the output central axis and radiation at the input central axis is dispersed toward the output perimeter. Devices are disclosed for compressing beam energy to enhance drilling techniques, for beam manipulation of optical spatial frequencies in the Fourier plane and for simplification of dark field and color contrast microscopy. Both refracting and reflecting devices are disclosed.

  10. Compensated vibrating optical fiber pressure measuring device

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, George E.; Goff, David R.

    1987-01-01

    A microbending optical fiber is attached under tension to a diaphragm to se a differential pressure applied across the diaphragm which it causes it to deflect. The fiber is attached to the diaphragm so that one portion of the fiber, attached to a central portion of the diaphragm, undergoes a change in tension; proportional to the differential pressure applied to the diaphragm while a second portion attached at the periphery of the diaphragm remains at a reference tension. Both portions of the fiber are caused to vibrate at their natural frequencies. Light transmitted through the fiber is attenuated by both portions of the tensioned sections of the fiber by an amount which increases with the curvature of fiber bending so that the light signal is modulated by both portions of the fiber at separate frequencies. The modulated light signal is transduced into a electrical signal. The separate modulation signals are detected to generate separate signals having frequencies corresponding to the reference and measuring vibrating sections of the continuous fiber, respectively. A signal proportional to the difference between these signals is generated which is indicative of the measured pressure differential across the diaphragm. The reference portion of the fiber is used to compensate the pressure signal for zero and span changes resulting from ambient temperature and humidity effects upon the fiber and the transducer fixture.

  11. Safety analysis of optically ignited explosive and pyrotechnic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Merson, J.A.; Salas, F.J.; Holswade, S.

    1994-05-01

    The future of optical ordnance depends on the acceptance, validation and verification of the stated safety enhancement claims of optical ordnance over existing electrical explosive devices (EED`s). Sandia has been pursuing the development of optical ordnance, with the primary motivation of this effort being the enhancement of explosive safety by specifically reducing the potential of premature detonation that can occur with low energy electrically ignited explosive devices. By using semiconductor laser diodes for igniting these devices, safety improvements can be made without being detrimental to current system concerns since the inputs required for these devices are similar to electrical systems. Laser Diode Ignition (LDI) of the energetic material provides the opportunity to remove the bridgewire and electrically conductive pins from the charge cavity, creating a Faraday cage and thus isolating the explosive or pyrotechnic materials from stray electrical ignition sources. Recent results from our continued study of safety enhancements are presented. The areas of investigation which are presented include: (1) unintended optical source analysis, specifically lightning insensitivity, (2) electromagnetic radiation (EMR) and electrostatic discharge (ESD) insensitivity analysis, and (3) powder safety.

  12. Device For Trapping Laser Pulses In An Optical Delay Line

    DOEpatents

    Yu, David U. L.; Bullock, Donald L.

    1997-12-23

    A device for maintaining a high-energy laser pulse within a recirculating optical delay line for a period time to optimize the interaction of the pulse with an electron beam pulse train comprising closely spaced electron micropulses. The delay line allows a single optical pulse to interact with many of the electron micropulses in a single electron beam macropulse in sequence and for the introduction of additional optical pulses to interact with the micropulses of additional electron beam macropulses. The device comprises a polarization-sensitive beam splitter for admitting an optical pulse to and ejecting it from the delay line according to its polarization state, a Pockels cell to control the polarization of the pulse within the delay line for the purpose of maintaining it within the delay line or ejecting it from the delay line, a pair of focusing mirrors positioned so that a collimated incoming optical pulse is focused by one of them to a focal point where the pulse interacts with the electron beam and then afterwards the pulse is recollimated by the second focusing mirror, and a timing device which synchronizes the introduction of the laser pulse into the optical delay line with the arrival of the electron macropulse at the delay line to ensure the interaction of the laser pulse with a prescribed number of electron micropulses in sequence. In a first embodiment of the invention, the principal optical elements are mounted with their axes collinear. In a second embodiment, all principal optical elements are mounted in the configuration of a ring.

  13. Enhanced photocoagulation with catheter-based diffusing optical device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hyun Wook; Kim, Jeehyun; Oh, Jungwhan

    2012-11-01

    A novel balloon catheter-based diffusing optical device was designed and evaluated to assist in treating excessive menstrual bleeding. A synthetic fused-silica fiber was micro-machined precisely to create scattering segments on a 25 mm long fiber tip for uniform light distribution. A visible wavelength (λ=532 nm) was used to specifically target the endometrium due to the high vascularity of the uterine wall. Optical simulation presented 30% wider distribution of photons along with approximately 40% higher irradiance induced by addition of a glass cap to the diffuser tip. Incorporation of the optical diffuser with a polyurethane balloon catheter considerably enhanced coagulation depth and area (i.e., 3.5 mm and 18.9 cm2 at 1 min irradiation) in tissue in vitro. The prototype device demonstrated the coagulation necrosis of 2.8±1.2 mm (n=18) and no thermal damage to myometrium in in vivo caprine models. A prototype 5 cm long balloon catheter-assisted optical diffuser was also evaluated with a cadaveric human uterus to confirm the coagulative response of the uterine tissue as well as to identify the further design improvement and clinical applicability. The proposed catheter-based diffusing optical device can be a feasible therapeutic tool to photocoagulate endometrial cell layers in an efficient and safe manner.

  14. Lithographically defined tapered waveguides for transformation optics device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Todd; Ermer, Kurt; Piazza, Alex; Schaefer, Dave; Smolyaninova, Vera; Smolyaninov, Igor

    2013-03-01

    Recent progress in metamaterials and transformation optics (TO) give rise to such fascinating devices as perfect lenses, invisibility cloaks, etc., which are typically achieved with metamaterials. Realization of these devices using electromagnetic metamaterials would require sophisticated nanofabrication techniques. Recently we have demonstrated that the same effect may be achieved by much simpler means. By tapering a waveguide, one can literally ``bend'' optical space and achieve the same result. Our approach leads to much simpler designs, which require conventional lithographic techniques and readily available dielectric materials. Here we report fabrication of low cost TO devices, such as analogues of metamaterial lenses and invisibility cloaks. Their broadband properties will be demonstrated and performance for light of different polarization will be discussed. This work is supported by NSF grants DMR-0348939 and DMR-110476.

  15. Nanopatterning by laser interference lithography: applications to optical devices.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jung-Hun; Park, Jung Ho; Kim, Seong-Il; Park, Bang Ju; Ma, Zhenqiang; Choi, Jinnil; Ju, Byeong-Kwon

    2014-02-01

    A systematic review, covering fabrication of nanoscale patterns by laser interference lithography (LIL) and their applications for optical devices is provided. LIL is a patterning method. It is a simple, quick process over a large area without using a mask. LIL is a powerful technique for the definition of large-area, nanometer-scale, periodically patterned structures. Patterns are recorded in a light-sensitive medium that responds nonlinearly to the intensity distribution associated with the interference of two or more coherent beams of light. The photoresist patterns produced with LIL are the platform for further fabrication of nanostructures and growth of functional materials used as the building blocks for devices. Demonstration of optical and photonic devices by LIL is reviewed such as directed nanophotonics and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) or large area membrane reflectors and anti-reflectors. Perspective on future directions for LIL and emerging applications in other fields are presented.

  16. Recent Advances in Photonic Devices for Optical Computing and the Role of Nonlinear Optics-Part II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdeldayem, Hossin; Frazier, Donald O.; Witherow, William K.; Banks, Curtis E.; Paley, Mark S.

    2007-01-01

    The twentieth century has been the era of semiconductor materials and electronic technology while this millennium is expected to be the age of photonic materials and all-optical technology. Optical technology has led to countless optical devices that have become indispensable in our daily lives in storage area networks, parallel processing, optical switches, all-optical data networks, holographic storage devices, and biometric devices at airports. This chapters intends to bring some awareness to the state-of-the-art of optical technologies, which have potential for optical computing and demonstrate the role of nonlinear optics in many of these components. Our intent, in this Chapter, is to present an overview of the current status of optical computing, and a brief evaluation of the recent advances and performance of the following key components necessary to build an optical computing system: all-optical logic gates, adders, optical processors, optical storage, holographic storage, optical interconnects, spatial light modulators and optical materials.

  17. Tunable Optical True-Time Delay Devices Would Exploit EIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulikov, Igor; DiDomenico, Leo; Lee, Hwang

    2004-01-01

    Tunable optical true-time delay devices that would exploit electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) have been proposed. Relative to prior true-time delay devices (for example, devices based on ferroelectric and ferromagnetic materials) and electronically controlled phase shifters, the proposed devices would offer much greater bandwidths. In a typical envisioned application, an optical pulse would be modulated with an ultra-wideband radio-frequency (RF) signal that would convey the information that one seeks to communicate, and it would be required to couple differently delayed replicas of the RF signal to the radiating elements of a phased-array antenna. One or more of the proposed devices would be used to impose the delays and/or generate the delayed replicas of the RF-modulated optical pulse. The beam radiated or received by the antenna would be steered by use of a microprocessor-based control system that would adjust operational parameters of the devices to tune the delays to the required values. EIT is a nonlinear quantum optical interference effect that enables the propagation of light through an initially opaque medium. A suitable medium must have, among other properties, three quantum states (see Figure 1): an excited state (state 3), an upper ground state (state 2), and a lower ground state (state 1). These three states must form a closed system that exhibits no decays to other states in the presence of either or both of two laser beams: (1) a probe beam having the wavelength corresponding to the photon energy equal to the energy difference between states 3 and 1; and (2) a coupling beam having the wavelength corresponding to the photon energy equal to the energy difference between states 3 and 2. The probe beam is the one that is pulsed and modulated with an RF signal.

  18. 1-D ELECTRO-OPTIC BEAM STEERING DEVICE.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Chih; Tsui, Chi Leung

    2011-06-05

    In this paper, we present the design and fabrication of a 1D beam steering device based on planar electro-optic thermal-plastic prisms and a collimator lens array. With the elimination of moving parts, the proposed device is able to overcome the mechanical limitations of present scanning devices, such as fatigue and low operating frequency, while maintaining a small system footprint (~0.5mm×0.5mm). From experimental data, our prototype device is able to achieve a maximum deflection angle of 5.6° for a single stage prism design and 29.2° for a cascaded three prisms stage design. The lens array shows a 4µm collimated beam diameter.

  19. 1-D ELECTRO-OPTIC BEAM STEERING DEVICE

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei-Chih; Tsui, Chi Leung

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present the design and fabrication of a 1D beam steering device based on planar electro-optic thermal-plastic prisms and a collimator lens array. With the elimination of moving parts, the proposed device is able to overcome the mechanical limitations of present scanning devices, such as fatigue and low operating frequency, while maintaining a small system footprint (~0.5mm×0.5mm). From experimental data, our prototype device is able to achieve a maximum deflection angle of 5.6° for a single stage prism design and 29.2° for a cascaded three prisms stage design. The lens array shows a 4µm collimated beam diameter. PMID:22199458

  20. High-efficiency high-energy Ka source for the critically-required maximum illumination of x-ray optics on Z using Z-petawatt-driven laser-breakout-afterburner accelerated ultrarelativistic electrons LDRD .

    SciTech Connect

    Sefkow, Adam B.; Bennett, Guy R.

    2010-09-01

    Under the auspices of the Science of Extreme Environments LDRD program, a <2 year theoretical- and computational-physics study was performed (LDRD Project 130805) by Guy R Bennett (formally in Center-01600) and Adam B. Sefkow (Center-01600): To investigate novel target designs by which a short-pulse, PW-class beam could create a brighter K{alpha} x-ray source than by simple, direct-laser-irradiation of a flat foil; Direct-Foil-Irradiation (DFI). The computational studies - which are still ongoing at this writing - were performed primarily on the RedStorm supercomputer at Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque site. The motivation for a higher efficiency K{alpha} emitter was very clear: as the backlighter flux for any x-ray imaging technique on the Z accelerator increases, the signal-to-noise and signal-to-background ratios improve. This ultimately allows the imaging system to reach its full quantitative potential as a diagnostic. Depending on the particular application/experiment this would imply, for example, that the system would have reached its full design spatial resolution and thus the capability to see features that might otherwise be indiscernible with a traditional DFI-like x-ray source. This LDRD began FY09 and ended FY10.

  1. Fiber optic device for sensing the presence of a gas

    DOEpatents

    Benson, D.K.; Bechinger, C.S.; Tracy, C.E.

    1998-01-13

    A fiber-optic device for sensing the presence of a gas in an environment is provided. The device comprises a light source for directing a light beam to a layer system having a first surface and a second surface opposite the first surface. The first surface is exposable to the light beam and the second surface is exposable to the environment. A first light portion encounters and reflects from the first surface at an angle of incidence free from optical wave guide resonance phenomenon and the second light portion encounters and reflects from the first surface at an angle of incidence enabling an optical wave guide resonance phenomenon. The layer system is selected to reversibly react with the gas to be detected. The reaction between the gas and the material changes the material`s optical properties and the wavelength at which the optical wave guide resonance occurs. Furthermore, a mechanism for measuring the intensity of the reflected first light portion relative to the reflected second light portion is provided with the ratio of the first and second light portions indicating the concentration of the gas presence in the environment. 5 figs.

  2. Fiber optic device for sensing the presence of a gas

    DOEpatents

    Benson, David K.; Bechinger, Clemens S.; Tracy, C. Edwin

    1998-01-01

    A fiber-optic device for sensing the presence of a gas in an environment is provided. The device comprises a light source for directing a light beam to a layer system having a first surface and a second surface opposite the first surface. The first surface is exposable to the light beam and the second surface is exposable to the environment. A first light portion encounters and reflects from the first surface at an angle of incidence free from optical wave guide resonance phenomenon and the second light portion encounters and reflects from the first surface at an angle of incidence enabling an optical wave guide resonance phenomenon. The layer system is selected to reversibly react with the gas to be detected. The reaction between the gas and the material changes the material's optical properties and the wavelength at which the optical wave guide resonance occurs. Furthermore, a mechanism for measuring the intensity of the reflected first light portion relative to the reflected second light portion is provided with the ratio of the first and second light portions indicating the concentration of the gas presence in the environment.

  3. Fiber-Optic Photoelastic Device Senses Pressure Of Hot Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redner, Alex S.; Wesson, L. N.

    1995-01-01

    Fiber-optic/photoelastic device measures gas pressures up to 600 psi at operating temperatures as high as 1,100 degrees C. Pressure on fused-silica sensing element gives rise to birefringence via photoelastic effect. Polarization of light changed by birefringence; change in polarization measured and used to infer pressure causing it. Device prototype of gas-pressure sensor for aircraft engine. Mounted in engine at or near desired measurement point, where it responds to both time-varying and steady components of pressure.

  4. Modeling of Optical Aberration Correction using a Liquid Crystal Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xinghua, Wang; Bin, Wang; McManamon, Paul F.; Pouch, John J.; Miranda, Felix A.

    2006-01-01

    Gruneisen (sup 1-3), has shown that small, light weight, liquid crystal based devices can correct for the optical distortion caused by an imperfect primary mirror in a telescope and has discussed the efficiency of this correction. In this paper we expand on that work and propose a semi-analytical approach for quantifying the efficiency of a liquid crystal based wavefront corrector for this application.

  5. Evaluation of embolic deflection device using optical particle tracking.

    PubMed

    Ionita, Ciprian N; Bednarek, Daniel R; Rudin, Stephen

    2013-03-29

    Trans-aortic valve replacement is a new endovascular procedure which has started to be used routinely in cardiac interventional suites. During such procedures a stent-like device containing new aortic valves is placed over the damaged ones, possibly causing calcifications to be dislodged and released in arteries leading to stroke. To prevent such events, new devices are being developed to provide distal protection to the brain supplying arteries. Currently there is a need to evaluate such device efficacy in a repeatable manner. We are proposing and investigating such a method based on particle optical tracking. We simulated such protective devices using two porous screens (150 and 200 μm pore size) which were placed in an arterial bifurcation phantom connected to a clinically relevant flow loop. A mask was acquired and gold embolic particles (100-300μm) were injected at a steady rate using a motorized injector. Optical images with 2 ms exposure were acquired at 30 fps. Images were subtracted, thresholded and filtered using a 5×5 median filter. ROI's were drawn over the main and bifurcating arteries and a particle counting algorithm was used to estimate particle flow rates in each artery for each run. The unprotected and the two protected cases were evaluated. Before filter placement, the particle flow rate was 60 and 40 %, respectively, of the main artery. After the filter placement, the particle flow rate in the protected branch was 4% and 8% of the particle flow rate in the main artery. We present a method to assess the efficacy of such devices using an optical particle tracking and counting technique.

  6. A simple approach for an optically transparent nanochannel device prototype.

    PubMed

    Liang, Fupeng; Ju, An; Qiao, Yi; Guo, Jing; Feng, Haiqing; Li, Junji; Lu, Na; Tu, Jing; Lu, Zuhong

    2016-03-21

    Compared with microfluidic devices, the fabrication of structure-controllable and designable nanochannel devices has been considered to have high costs and complex procedures, which require expensive equipment and high-quality raw materials. Exploring fast, simple and inexpensive approaches in nanochannel fabrication will be greatly helpful to speed up laboratory studies of nanofluidics. Here we developed a simple and inexpensive approach to fabricate a nanochannel device with a glass/epoxy resin/glass structure. The grooves were engraved using a UV laser on an aluminum sacrificial layer on the substrate glass, and epoxy resin was coated on the substrate and stuffed fully into the grooves. Another glass plate with holes for fluidic inlets and outlets was bonded on the top of the resin layer. The nanochannels were formed by etching thin sacrificial layers electrochemically. Meanwhile, the microstructures of the fluidic outlets and inlets could be fabricated simultaneously to the nanochannel formation. The total processing time for the simple nanochannel device took less than 10 hours. Optically transparent nanochannels with a depth of up to 20 nm were achieved. Nanofluidic behaviors in the nanochannels were observed under both optical and fluorescence microscopes.

  7. In plane optical sensor based on organic electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koetse, Marc; Rensing, Peter; van Heck, Gert; Sharpe, Ruben; Allard, Bart; Wieringa, Fokko; Kruijt, Peter; Meulendijks, Nicole; Jansen, Henk; Schoo, Herman

    2008-08-01

    Sensors based on organic electronic devices are emerging in a wide range of application areas. Here we present a sensor platform using organic light emitting diodes (OLED) and organic photodiodes (OPD) as active components. By means of lamination and interconnection technology the functional foils with OLED and OPD arrays form an in-plane optical sensor platform (IPOS). This platform can be extended with a wireless data and signal processing unit yielding a sensor node. The focus of our research is to engage the node in a healthcare application, in which a bandage is able to monitor the vital signs of a person, a so-called Smart Bandage. One of the principles that is described here is based on measuring the absorption modulation of blood volume induced by the pulse (photoplethysmography). The information from such a bandage could be used to monitor wound healing by measuring the perfusion in the skin. The OLED and OPD devices are manufactured on separate foils and glass substrates by means of printing and coating technologies. Furthermore, the modular approach allows for the application of the optical sensing unit in a variety of other fields including chemical sensing. This, ultimately enables the measurement of a large variety of physiological parameters using the same bandage and the same basic sensor architecture. Here we discuss the build-up of our device in general terms. Specific characteristics of the used OLEDs and OPDs are shown and finally we demonstrate the functionality by simultaneously recorded photoplethysmograms of our device and a clinical pulseoximeter.

  8. FY 2014 LDRD Annual Report Project Summaries

    SciTech Connect

    Tomchak, Dena

    2015-02-01

    The FY 2014 Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Annual Report is a compendium of the diverse research performed to develop and ensure the INL's technical capabilities can support future DOE missions and national research priorities. LDRD is essential to INL - it provides a means for the laboratory to pursue novel scientific and engineering research in areas that are deemed too basic or risky for programmatic investments. This research enahnces technical capabilities at the laboratory, providing scientific and engineering staff with opportunities for skill building and partnership development.

  9. Thermo-optic silica PLC devices for applications in high speed optical signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchetiere, Chantal; Callender, Claire L.; Jacob, Sarkis; Ledderhof, Christopher J.; Dumais, Patrick; Celo, Dritan; Chen, Lawrence R.; Samadi, Payman

    2011-08-01

    The optimization of a 2×2 silica-on-silicon Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) thermo-optic switch is presented. The device consists of 2 multimode interference (MMI) couplers as splitter and combiner with metal heater strips for phase control. The switching characteristics of the devices have been examined in detail as a function of several parameters. The electrical power consumption of the switch has been reduced by a factor of 2 by etching trenches alongside the waveguide heaters located on the arms of the MZI, and the polarization dependent loss has been controlled and reduced through adjustment of top cladding properties. The effect on the response time of the switch of these design changes has been investigated. Detailed characterization of the devices will be presented, and trade-offs in optimization discussed. Incorporation of these device elements into increasingly complex components for new applications in optical signal processing will be demonstrated.

  10. Optical and Acoustic Device Applications of Ferroelastic Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meeks, Steven Wayne

    This dissertation presents the discovery of a means of creating uniformly periodic domain gratings in a ferroelastic crystal of neodymium pentaphosphate (NPP). The uniform and non-uniform domain structures which can be created in NPP have the potential applications as tunable active gratings for lasers, tunable diffraction gratings, tunable Bragg reflection gratings, tunable acoustic filters, optical modulators, and optical domain wall memories. The interaction of optical and acoustic waves with ferroelastic domain walls in NPP is presented in detail. Acoustic amplitude reflection coefficients from a single domain wall in NPP are much larger than other ferroelastic-ferroelectrics such as gadolinium molybdate (GMO). Domain walls of NPP are used to make two demonstration acoustic devices: a tunable comb filter and a tunable delay line. The tuning process is accomplished by moving the position of the reflecting surface (the domain wall). A theory of the reflection of optical waves from NPP domain walls is discussed. The optical reflection is due to a change in the polarization of the wave, and not a change in the index, as the wave crosses the domain wall. Theoretical optical power reflection coefficients show good agreement with the experimentally measured values. The largest optical reflection coefficient of a single domain wall is at a critical angle and is 2.2% per domain wall. Techniques of injecting periodic and aperiodic domain walls into NPP are presented. The nucleation process of the uniformly periodic domain gratings in NPP is described in terms of a newly-discovered domain structure, namely the ferroelastic bubble. A ferroelastic bubble is the elastic analogue to the well-known magnetic bubble. The period of the uniformly periodic domain grating is tunable from 100 to 0.5 microns and the grating period may be tuned relatively rapidly. The Bragg efficiency of these tunable gratings is 77% for an uncoated crystal. Several demonstration devices which use

  11. Active mode-locked lasers and other photonic devices using electro-optic whispering gallery mode resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsko, Andrey B. (Inventor); Ilchenko, Vladimir (Inventor); Savchenkov, Anatoliy (Inventor); Maleki, Lutfollah (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Techniques and devices using whispering gallery mode (WGM) optical resonators, where the optical materials of the WGM resonators exhibit an electro-optical effect to perform optical modulation. Examples of actively mode-locked lasers and other devices are described.

  12. Nanomaterials for LightManagement in Electro-Optical Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Truong, Vo-Van; Singh, Jai; Tanemura, Sakae; Hu, Michael Z.

    2012-01-01

    In the past decade, nanostructured materials and nanoparticles have emerged as the necessary ingredients for electrooptical applications and enhancement of device performance, in particular by making use of the light management aspects of the nanomaterials. The application areas that are being transformed profoundly include smart coating devices (e.g., electrochromic, photochromic, and thermochromic devices), solar energy, and sensing. Despite the large volume of work in the past on smart coating devices, and in particular on electrochromic devices and thermochromic fenestrations, for optical transmission or reflection control, applications remain limited because of slow response time and nonuniformity in the case of large surfaces. Recent works in the field indicate that nanostructured electrochromic coatings would be an integral part of the solution to the above problem. One aspect that can thus be focused on would be the fabrication and characterization of the nanostructured smart coating materials and their compatibility with other layers in the overall smart coating device. In the area of solar photovoltaics, nanomaterials have been used in designing light-trapping schemes for inorganic as well as organic solar cells. One particular category of solar cells that has attracted much interest is the plasmonic solar cells in which metallic nanoparticles are incorporated, helping in enhancing their energy conversion efficiency. Nanostructured solar cells would eventually develop into a 'game changing' technology for making solar cells that are affordable and highly efficient, providing a sizeable alternative energy source for our ever-increasing energy needs. Sensors based on the optical properties of constituting nanostructures and nanoparticles also form a most interesting class of bio- and electrochemical sensing devices. The possibility of synthetizing nanoparticles and structures of specifically desired sizes and shapes has indeed opened a whole new range of

  13. Optical and electrical properties of bi-layers organic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trad, Hager; Rouis, Ahlem; Davenas, Jöel; Majdoub, Mustapha

    2014-10-01

    The influence of interfacial charges on the device characteristics of bi-layers structure LEDs with poly[5-methoxy-2-octyloxy-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MO-PPV) as active polymer layer is investigated. The concept to improve device performance is presented using: a diacetate cellulose (DAC) and a new synthetized 5-{2-(2-chloroethoxy)ethoxy}-2-{(E)-(2-pyridyl)azo}phenol (PDEG) components. The DAC and mixed (DAC+PDEG) layers were inserted between indium tin oxide (ITO) and MO-PPV polymer. The optical properties (UV-Vis) of MO-PPV, PDEG and mixed (DAC+PDEG) in solutions were studied and compared to those on thin films. Detailed current-voltage measurements of the bi-layers devices showed improvements of the threshold voltage (Vth) of the ITO/(DAC+PDEG)/MO-PPV/Al device attributed to the enhancement of carriers injection and transport resulted from the modified electrode structures. Conduction mechanisms of structure LEDs were matched with space-charge-limited current (SCLC) one. The impedance spectra for all devices can be discussed in terms of an equivalent circuit model designed as a parallel resistor Rp and capacitor Cp network in series with resistor Rs. The ITO/(DAC+PDEG)/MO-PPV/Al device showed the lowest impedance attributed to the removal of contaminants and to changes in the work function of ITO. The frequency-dependent electrical properties of the ITO/(DAC+PDEG)/MO-PPV/Al structure is analyzed by impedance spectroscopy as function of bias. We have extracted numerical values of the equivalent circuit model parameters by fitting experimental data. Their evolution with bias voltages has shown that the SCLC mechanism is characterized by an exponential trap distribution.

  14. Optical sensor array platform based on polymer electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koetse, Marc M.; Rensing, Peter A.; Sharpe, Ruben B. A.; van Heck, Gert T.; Allard, Bart A. M.; Meulendijks, Nicole N. M. M.; Kruijt, Peter G. M.; Tijdink, Marcel W. W. J.; De Zwart, René M.; Houben, René J.; Enting, Erik; van Veen, Sjaak J. J. F.; Schoo, Herman F. M.

    2007-10-01

    Monitoring of personal wellbeing and optimizing human performance are areas where sensors have only begun to be used. One of the reasons for this is the specific demands that these application areas put on the underlying technology and system properties. In many cases these sensors will be integrated in clothing, be worn on the skin, or may even be placed inside the body. This implies that flexibility and wearability of the systems is essential for their success. Devices based on polymer semiconductors allow for these demands since they can be fabricated with thin film technology. The use of thin film device technology allows for the fabrication of very thin sensors (e.g. integrated in food product packaging), flexible or bendable sensors in wearables, large area/distributed sensors, and intrinsically low-cost applications in disposable products. With thin film device technology a high level of integration can be achieved with parts that analyze signals, process and store data, and interact over a network. Integration of all these functions will inherently lead to better cost/performance ratios, especially if printing and other standard polymer technology such as high precision moulding is applied for the fabrication. In this paper we present an optical transmission sensor array based on polymer semiconductor devices made by thin film technology. The organic devices, light emitting diodes, photodiodes and selective medium chip, are integrated with classic electronic components. Together they form a versatile sensor platform that allows for the quantitative measurement of 100 channels and communicates wireless with a computer. The emphasis is given to the sensor principle, the design, fabrication technology and integration of the thin film devices.

  15. Electro-optical switching and memory display device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skotheim, T. A.; Ogrady, W. E.; Linkous, C. A.

    1983-12-01

    An electro-optical display device is described having a housing including one transparent wall and at least one other wall. Counter electrodes are positioned on the transparent wall and display electrodes are positioned on the other wall with both electrodes in electrically conductive relationship with an electrolyte. Circuits means are connected to the display and counter electrodes to apply different predetermined control potentials between them. The display electrodes are covered with a thin electrically conductive polymer film that is characterized according to the invention by having embedded in it pigment molecules as counter ions. The display device is operable to be switched to a plurality of different visual color states at an exceptionally rapid switching rate while each of the color states is characterized by possessing good color intensity and definition.

  16. Electro-optical switching and memory display device

    DOEpatents

    Skotheim, Terje A.; O'Grady, William E.; Linkous, Clovis A.

    1986-01-01

    An electro-optical display device having a housing with wall means including one transparent wall and at least one other wall. Counter electrodes are positioned on the transparent wall and display electrodes are positioned on the other wall with both electrodes in electrically conductive relationship with an electrolyte. Circuit means are connected to the display and counter electrodes to apply different predetermined control potentials between them. The display electrodes are covered with a thin electrically conductive polymer film that is characterized according to the invention by having embedded in it pigment molecules as counter ions. The display device is operable to be switched to a plurality of different visual color states at an exceptionally rapid switching rate while each of the color states is characterized by possessing good color intensity and definition.

  17. Electro-optical switching and memory display device

    DOEpatents

    Skotheim, T.A.; O'Grady, W.E.; Linkous, C.A.

    1983-12-29

    An electro-optical display device having a housing with wall means including one transparent wall and at least one other wall. Counter electrodes are positioned on the transparent wall and display electrodes are positioned on the other wall with both electrodes in electrically conductive relationship with an electrolyte. Circuits means are connected to the display and counter electrodes to apply different predetermined control potentials between them. The display electrodes are covered with a thin electrically conductive polymer film that is characterized according to the invention by having embedded in it pigment molecules as counter ions. The display device is operable to be switched to a plurality of different visual color states at an exceptionally rapid switching rate while each of the color states is characterized by possessing good color intensity and definition.

  18. Fracture Probability of MEMS Optical Devices for Space Flight Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fettig, Rainer K.; Kuhn, Jonathan L.; Moseley, S. Harvey; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Orloff, Jon

    1999-01-01

    A bending fracture test specimen design is presented for thin elements used in optical devices for space flight applications. The specimen design is insensitive to load position, avoids end effect complications, and can be used to measure strength of membranes less than 2 microns thick. The theoretical equations predicting stress at failure are presented, and a detailed finite element model is developed to validate the equations for this application. An experimental procedure using a focused ion beam machine is outlined, and results from preliminary tests of 1.9 microns thick single crystal silicon are presented. These tests are placed in the context of a methodology for the design and evaluation of mission critical devices comprised of large arrays of cells.

  19. Multimodal optical device for early childhood caries: a clinical prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liang; Ridge, Jeremy S.; Nelson, Leonard Y.; Berg, Joel H.; Seibel, Eric J.

    There is currently a need for a safe and effective way to detect and diagnose early childhood caries. We have developed a multimodal optical clinical prototype for testing in vivo. The device can be used to quickly image and screen for any signs of demineralized enamel by obtaining high-resolution and highcontrast surface images using a 405-nm laser as the illumination source, as well as obtaining autofluorescence and bacterial fluorescence images. Then, when a suspicious region is located, the device can perform dual laser fluorescence spectroscopy using 405-nm and 532-nm laser excitation which is used to compute an autofluorescence ratio. This ratio can be used to quantitatively diagnose enamel health. The device is tested on four in vivo test subjects as well as 17 extracted teeth with clinically diagnosed carious lesions. The device was able to provide detailed images which served to screen for suspected early caries. The autofluorescence ratios obtained from the extracted teeth were able to discriminate between healthy and unhealthy enamel. Therefore, the clinical prototype demonstrates feasibility in screening for and in quantitatively diagnosing healthy from demineralized enamel.

  20. Simple technique for integrating compact silicon devices within optical fibers.

    PubMed

    Micco, A; Ricciardi, A; Quero, G; Crescitelli, A; Bock, W J; Cusano, A

    2014-02-15

    In this work, we present a simple fabrication process enabling the integration of a subwavelength amorphous silicon layer inside optical fibers by means of the arc discharge technique. To assess our method, we have fabricated a compact in-line Fabry-Perot interferometer consisting of a thin (<1  μm) a-Si:H layer completely embedded within a standard single-mode optical fiber. The device exhibits low loss (1.3 dB) and high interference fringe visibility (~80%) both in reflection and transmission, due to the high refractive index contrast between silica and a-Si:H. A high linear temperature sensitivity up to 106  pm/°C is demonstrated in the range 120°C-400°C. The proposed interferometer is attractive for point monitoring applications as well as for ultrahigh-temperature sensing in harsh environments.

  1. Semiconductor optoelectronic devices for free-space optical communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, J.

    1983-01-01

    The properties of individual injection lasers are reviewed, and devices of greater complexity are described. These either include or are relevant to monolithic integration configurations of the lasers with their electronic driving circuitry, power combining methods of semiconductor lasers, and electronic methods of steering the radiation patterns of semiconductor lasers and laser arrays. The potential of AlGaAs laser technology for free-space optical communications systems is demonstrated. These solid-state components, which can generate and modulate light, combine the power of a number of sources and perform at least part of the beam pointing functions. Methods are proposed for overcoming the main drawback of semiconductor lasers, that is, their inability to emit the needed amount of optical power in a single-mode operation.

  2. Diffractive optical variable image devices generated by maskless interferometric lithography for optical security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabral, Alexandre; Rebordão, José M.

    2011-05-01

    In optical security (protection against forgery and counterfeit of products and documents) the problem is not exact reproduction but the production of something sufficiently similar to the original. Currently, Diffractive Optically Variable Image Devices (DOVID), that create dynamic chromatic effects which may be easily recognized but are difficult to reproduce, are often used to protect important products and documents. Well known examples of DOVID for security are 3D or 2D/3D holograms in identity documents and credit cards. Others are composed of shapes with different types of microstructures yielding by diffraction to chromatic dynamic effects. A maskless interferometric lithography technique to generate DOVIDs for optical security is presented and compared to traditional techniques. The approach can be considered as a self-masking focused holography on planes tilted with respect to the reference optical axes of the system, and is based on the Scheimpflug and Hinge rules. No physical masks are needed to ensure optimum exposure of the photosensitive film. The system built to demonstrate the technique relies on the digital mirrors device MOEMS technology from Texas Instruments' Digital Light Processing. The technique is linear on the number of specified colors and does not depend either on the area of the device or the number of pixels, factors that drive the complexity of dot-matrix based systems. The results confirmed the technique innovation and capabilities in the creation of diffractive optical elements for security against counterfeiting and forgery.

  3. Electrochromic material and electro-optical device using same

    DOEpatents

    Cogan, Stuart F.; Rauh, R. David

    1992-01-01

    An oxidatively coloring electrochromic layer of composition M.sub.y CrO.sub.2+x (0.33.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.2.0 and x.ltoreq.2) where M=Li, Na or K with improved transmittance modulation, improved thermal and environmental stability, and improved resistance to degradation in organic liquid and polymeric electrolytes. The M.sub.y CrO.sub.2+x provides complementary optical modulation to cathodically coloring materials in thin-film electrochromic glazings and electrochromic devices employing polymeric Li.sup.+ ion conductors.

  4. Electrochromic material and electro-optical device using same

    DOEpatents

    Cogan, S.F.; Rauh, R.D.

    1992-01-14

    An oxidatively coloring electrochromic layer of composition M[sub y]CrO[sub 2+x] (0.33[le]y[le]2.0 and x[le]2) where M=Li, Na or K with improved transmittance modulation, improved thermal and environmental stability, and improved resistance to degradation in organic liquid and polymeric electrolytes. The M[sub y]CrO[sub 2+x] provides complementary optical modulation to cathodically coloring materials in thin-film electrochromic glazings and electrochromic devices employing polymeric Li[sup +] ion conductors. 12 figs.

  5. Engineering aperiodic nanostructured surfaces for scattering-based optical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yuk Kwan Sylvanus

    Novel optical devices such as biosensors, color displays and authentication devices can be obtained from the distinctive light scattering properties of resonant nanoparticles and nanostructured arrays. These arrays can be optimized through the choice of material, particle morphology and array geometry. In this thesis, by engineering the multi-frequency colorimetric responses of deterministic aperiodic nanostructured surfaces (DANS) with various spectral Fourier properties, I designed, fabricated and characterized scattering-based devices for optical biosensing and structural coloration applications. In particular, using analytical and numerical optimization, colorimetric biosensors are designed and fabricated with conventional electron beam lithography, and characterized using dark-field scattering imaging as well as image autocorrelation analysis of scattered intensity in the visible spectral range. These sensors, which consist of aperiodic surfaces ranging from quasi-periodic to pseudo-random structures with flat Fourier spectra, sustain highly complex structural resonances that enable a novel optical sensing approach beyond the traditional Bragg scattering. To this end, I have experimentally demonstrated that DANS with engineered structural colors are capable of detecting nanoscale protein monolayers with significantly enhanced sensitivity over periodic structures. In addition, different aperiodic arrays of gold (Au) nanoparticles are integrated with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic structures by soft-lithographic micro-imprint techniques. Distinctive scattering spectral shifts and spatial modifications of structural color patterns in response to refractive index variations were simultaneously measured. The successful integration of DANS with microfluidics technology has introduced a novel opto-fluidic sensing platform for label-free and multiplexed lab-on-a-chip applications. Moreover, by studying the isotropic scattering properties of homogenized

  6. Digital Fluoroscopy with AN Optically Coupled Charge-Coupled Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hong

    1992-01-01

    This research was aimed at investigating the potential of developing an optically coupled charge-coupled device (CCD) imaging system for some digital fluoroscopic applications. The viability of this concept for fluoroscopic imaging was studied with respect to image intensifier-television (II -TV) techniques. The anticipated advantages of the optically coupled CCD, compared with II-TV, include higher contrast sensitivity, larger dynamic range, moderate spatial resolution and clinically acceptable dose. Following an investigation of some theoretical and practical issues concerning the optical coupling efficiency between the intensifying screen and the CCD imager, mathematical methods were developed to relate the signal, signal-to -noise ratio, and x-ray quantum efficiency of the optically coupled CCD imaging chain. The spatial resolution of the system was also analyzed. Using an ultra-sensitive CCD, as well as improved scintillating and optical coupling techniques, we built a laboratory system for experiments. We conducted measurements of the modulation transfer function (MTF), contrast sensitivity, contrast-detail detectability and detector contrast. The results suggest that the lesion detectability of our sub-optimal system was comparable to that of a screen-film technique under the same radiation dose, and was significantly better than II-TV fluoroscopy. Potential clinical applications of our system include mammography, pre-operational localization, pediatric chest radiography, and single tracer autoradiography. Images of selected phantoms, pathological specimens and small animals were acquired to demonstrate the radiologic quality attainable for such procedures. We conclude that developing an x-ray quantum limited, pseudo-real time, digital fluoroscopic imaging system (for some applications) without an II appears to be theoretically and technically feasible. The successful development of optically coupled CCD fluoroscopy has the potential for improving the

  7. Novel microfluidic devices for Raman spectroscopy and optical trapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottevaere, Heidi; Liu, Qing; de Coster, Diane; Van Erps, Jürgen; Vervaeke, Michael; Thienpont, Hugo

    2016-09-01

    Traditionally, Raman spectroscopy is done in a specialized lab, with considerable requirements in terms of equipment, time and manual sampling of substances of interest. We present the modeling, the design and the fabrication process of a microfluidic device incorporation Raman spectroscopy, from which one enables confocal Raman measurements on-chip. The latter is fabricated using ultra precision diamond tooling and is tested in a proof-of-concept setup, by for example measuring Raman spectra of urea solutions with various concentrations. If one wants to analyze single cells instead of a sample solution, precautions need to be taken. Since Raman scattering is a weak process, the molecular fingerprint of flowing particles would be hard to measure. One method is to stably position the cell under test in the detection area during acquisition of the Raman scattering such that the acquisition time can be increased. Positioning of cells can be done through optical trapping and leads to an enhanced signal-to-noise ratio and thus a more reliable cell identification. Like Raman spectroscopy, optical trapping can also be miniaturized. We present the modeling, design process and fabrication of a mass-manufacturable polymer microfluidic device for dual fiber optical trapping using two counterpropagating singlemode beams. We use a novel fabrication process that consists of a premilling step and ultraprecision diamond tooling for the manufacturing of the molds and double-sided hot embossing for replication, resulting in a robust microfluidic chip for optical trapping. In a proof-of-concept demonstration, we characterize the trapping capabilities of the hot embossed chip.

  8. Development of highly integrated magetically and electrostatically actuated micropumps : LDRD 64709 final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Sosnowchik, Brian D.; Galambos, Paul C.; Hendrix, Jason R.; Zwolinski, Andrew

    2003-12-01

    The pump and actuator systems designed and built in the SUMMiT{trademark} process, Sandia's surface micromachining polysilicon MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) fabrication technology, on the previous campus executive program LDRD (SAND2002-0704P) with FSU/FAMU (Florida State University/Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University) were characterized in this LDRD. These results demonstrated that the device would pump liquid against the flow resistance of a microfabricated channel, but the devices were determined to be underpowered for reliable pumping. As a result a new set of SUMMiT{trademark} pumps with actuators that generate greater torque will be designed and submitted for fabrication. In this document we will report details of dry actuator/pump assembly testing, wet actuator/pump testing, channel resistance characterization, and new pump/actuator design recommendations.

  9. Printed polymer photonic devices for optical interconnect systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subbaraman, Harish; Pan, Zeyu; Zhang, Cheng; Li, Qiaochu; Guo, L. J.; Chen, Ray T.

    2016-03-01

    Polymer photonic device fabrication usually relies on the utilization of clean-room processes, including photolithography, e-beam lithography, reactive ion etching (RIE) and lift-off methods etc, which are expensive and are limited to areas as large as a wafer. Utilizing a novel and a scalable printing process involving ink-jet printing and imprinting, we have fabricated polymer based photonic interconnect components, such as electro-optic polymer based modulators and ring resonator switches, and thermo-optic polymer switch based delay networks and demonstrated their operation. Specifically, a modulator operating at 15MHz and a 2-bit delay network providing up to 35.4ps are presented. In this paper, we also discuss the manufacturing challenges that need to be overcome in order to make roll-to-roll manufacturing practically viable. We discuss a few manufacturing challenges, such as inspection and quality control, registration, and web control, that need to be overcome in order to realize true implementation of roll-to-roll manufacturing of flexible polymer photonic systems. We have overcome these challenges, and currently utilizing our inhouse developed hardware and software tools, <10μm alignment accuracy at a 5m/min is demonstrated. Such a scalable roll-to-roll manufacturing scheme will enable the development of unique optoelectronic devices which can be used in a myriad of different applications, including communication, sensing, medicine, security, imaging, energy, lighting etc.

  10. Screening far red probes for use on optical biochip devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Njoh, Kerenza L.; Patterson, Laurence H.; Pors, Klaus; Zloh, Mire; Ameer-Beg, Simon; Summers, Huw; Matthews, Daniel; Errington, Rachel J.; Smith, Paul J.

    2006-02-01

    In situ spectral analysis can be used to understand the targeting and interaction of agents in cellular compartments. A range of novel red excitable fluorescent probes, related to the anthraquinone family of anti-cancer agents, were designed for their DNA affinic properties and their ability to enter and penetrate living cells. We report on the spectral features of these probes, both in solution and bound within intact cells, to identify unique fluorescent signatures that exploit their use in bioassays on optical biochip devices. The probes demonstrated red shifted emission spectra and increased 2 photon lifetime, with minimal fluorescent enhancement, upon binding to DNA. Spectral confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed complex emission profiles representing the bound (nuclear) and unbound (cytoplasmic) fractions of the DNA probes within live interphase, mitotic and apoptotic cells. Analysis of the emission peaks encoded the spectra to provide cell compartment recognition and profiles for cells in different cell states. Sampling the entire emission spectra of these probes for cell locating, even in the presence of unbound molecules, provides good signal-to-noise in biochip devices. Furthermore, by sampling the fluorescence output at specific spectral windows we can obtain high spatial information without imaging. The technological challenge is to integrate these fluorophores and appropriate detection capacity onto an optical biochip platform with microfluidic systems for cell handling.

  11. Self-organized optical device driven by motor proteins

    PubMed Central

    Aoyama, Susumu; Shimoike, Masahiko; Hiratsuka, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    Protein molecules produce diverse functions according to their combination and arrangement as is evident in a living cell. Therefore, they have a great potential for application in future devices. However, it is currently very difficult to construct systems in which a large number of different protein molecules work cooperatively. As an approach to this challenge, we arranged protein molecules in artificial microstructures and assembled an optical device inspired by a molecular system of a fish melanophore. We prepared arrays of cell-like microchambers, each of which contained a scaffold of microtubule seeds at the center. By polymerizing tubulin from the fixed microtubule seeds, we obtained radially arranged microtubules in the chambers. We subsequently prepared pigment granules associated with dynein motors and attached them to the radial microtubule arrays, which made a melanophore-like system. When ATP was added to the system, the color patterns of the chamber successfully changed, due to active transportation of pigments. Furthermore, as an application of the system, image formation on the array of the optical units was performed. This study demonstrates that a properly designed microstructure facilitates arrangement and self-organization of molecules and enables assembly of functional molecular systems. PMID:24065817

  12. Towards next generation time-domain diffuse optics devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla Mora, Alberto; Contini, Davide; Arridge, Simon R.; Martelli, Fabrizio; Tosi, Alberto; Boso, Gianluca; Farina, Andrea; Durduran, Turgut; Martinenghi, Edoardo; Torricelli, Alessandro; Pifferi, Antonio

    2015-03-01

    Diffuse Optics is growing in terms of applications ranging from e.g. oximetry, to mammography, molecular imaging, quality assessment of food and pharmaceuticals, wood optics, physics of random media. Time-domain (TD) approaches, although appealing in terms of quantitation and depth sensibility, are presently limited to large fiber-based systems, with limited number of source-detector pairs. We present a miniaturized TD source-detector probe embedding integrated laser sources and single-photon detectors. Some electronics are still external (e.g. power supply, pulse generators, timing electronics), yet full integration on-board using already proven technologies is feasible. The novel devices were successfully validated on heterogeneous phantoms showing performances comparable to large state-of-the-art TD rack-based systems. With an investigation based on simulations we provide numerical evidence that the possibility to stack many TD compact source-detector pairs in a dense, null source-detector distance arrangement could yield on the brain cortex about 1 decade higher contrast as compared to a continuous wave (CW) approach. Further, a 3-fold increase in the maximum depth (down to 6 cm) is estimated, opening accessibility to new organs such as the lung or the heart. Finally, these new technologies show the way towards compact and wearable TD probes with orders of magnitude reduction in size and cost, for a widespread use of TD devices in real life.

  13. All-optical switching of magnetoresistive devices using telecom-band femtosecond laser

    SciTech Connect

    He, Li; Chen, Jun-Yang; Wang, Jian-Ping E-mail: moli@umn.edu; Li, Mo E-mail: moli@umn.edu

    2015-09-07

    Ultrafast all-optical switching of the magnetization of various magnetic systems is an intriguing phenomenon that can have tremendous impact on information storage and processing. Here, we demonstrate all-optical switching of GdFeCo alloy films using a telecom-band femtosecond fiber laser. We further fabricate Hall cross devices and electrically readout all-optical switching by measuring anomalous Hall voltage changes. The use of a telecom laser and the demonstrated all-optical switching of magnetoresistive devices represent the first step toward integration of opto-magnetic devices with mainstream photonic devices to enable novel optical and spintronic functionalities.

  14. All-optical switching of magnetoresistive devices using telecom-band femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Li; Chen, Jun-Yang; Wang, Jian-Ping; Li, Mo

    2015-09-01

    Ultrafast all-optical switching of the magnetization of various magnetic systems is an intriguing phenomenon that can have tremendous impact on information storage and processing. Here, we demonstrate all-optical switching of GdFeCo alloy films using a telecom-band femtosecond fiber laser. We further fabricate Hall cross devices and electrically readout all-optical switching by measuring anomalous Hall voltage changes. The use of a telecom laser and the demonstrated all-optical switching of magnetoresistive devices represent the first step toward integration of opto-magnetic devices with mainstream photonic devices to enable novel optical and spintronic functionalities.

  15. Overview of Stellarator Divertor Studies: Final Report of LDRD Project 01-ERD-069

    SciTech Connect

    Fenstermacher, M E; Rognlien, T D; Koniges, A; Unmansky, M; Hill, D N

    2003-01-21

    A summary is given of the work carried out under the LDRD project 01-ERD-069 entitled Stellarator Divertor Studies. This project has contributed to the development of a three-dimensional edge-plasma modeling and divertor diagnostic design capabilities at LLNL. Results are demonstrated by sample calculations and diagnostic possibilities for the edge plasma of the proposed U.S. National Compact Stellarator Experiment device. Details of the work are contained in accompanying LLNL reports that have been accepted for publication.

  16. Micro-Fresnel Zone Plate Optical Devices Using Densely Accumulated Ray Points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sang H. (Inventor); Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Elliott, James R. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An embodiment generally relates to an optical device suitable for use with an optical medium for the storage and retrieval of data. The optical device includes an illumination means for providing a beam of optical radiation of wavelength .lamda. and an optical path that the beam of optical radiation follows. The optical device also includes a diffractive optical element defined by a plurality of annular sections. The plurality of annular sections having a first material alternately disposed with a plurality of annular sections comprising a second material. The diffractive optical element generates a plurality of focal points and densely accumulated ray points with phase contrast phenomena and the optical medium is positioned at a selected focal point or ray point of the diffractive optical element.

  17. Stretchable optical device with electrically tunable absorbance and fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanley, Cormac A.; Gun'ko, Yurii K.; Frediani, Gabriele; Carpi, Federico

    2014-01-01

    We report the first proof-of-principle demonstration of a quantum dot (QD) doped dielectric elastomer actuator as a new stretchable optical device with electrically tunable optical absorbance and fluorescence. A polyacrylate dielectric elastomer film with carbon grease electrodes was loaded with organic-phase CdSe/CdS luminescent QDs. This study moved from the working hypothesis that electrical actuation of the QD doped elastomer varies the distances among each QD and its neighbours in the structure, modifying the volume and/or surface density of QDs, and thus leading to variable interactions among them, therefore changing the optical spectral properties of the QDs in the elastomer matrix. Experiments revealed that applied voltages increased the UV-vis absorbance, and decreased the photoluminescence (fluorescence) intensity and lifetimes. The former effect proved the working hypothesis, while the latter was not expected. The drop in photoluminescence intensity was found to be caused by the high fringe electric field generated by the actuator. The paper presents characterizations and discusses results, highlighting potentials and challenges of such systems.

  18. Time-domain diffuse optics: towards next generation devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contini, Davide; Dalla Mora, Alberto; Arridge, Simon; Martelli, Fabrizio; Tosi, Alberto; Boso, Gianluca; Farina, Andrea; Durduran, Turgut; Martinenghi, Edoardo; Torricelli, Alessandro; Pifferi, Antonio

    2015-07-01

    Diffuse optics is a powerful tool for clinical applications ranging from oncology to neurology, but also for molecular imaging, and quality assessment of food, wood and pharmaceuticals. We show that ideally time-domain diffuse optics can give higher contrast and a higher penetration depth with respect to standard technology. In order to completely exploit the advantages of a time-domain system a distribution of sources and detectors with fast gating capabilities covering all the sample surface is needed. Here, we present the building block to build up such system. This basic component is made of a miniaturised source-detector pair embedded into the probe based on pulsed Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers (VCSEL) as sources and Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPAD) or Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM) as detectors. The possibility to miniaturized and dramatically increase the number of source detectors pairs open the way to an advancement of diffuse optics in terms of improvement of performances and exploration of new applications. Furthermore, availability of compact devices with reduction in size and cost can boost the application of this technique.

  19. Optically controlled microwave devices and circuits: Emerging applications in space communications systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, Kul B.; Simons, Rainee N.

    1987-01-01

    Optical control of microwave devices and circuits by an optical fiber has the potential to simplify signal distribution networks in high frequency communications systems. The optical response of two terminal and three terminal (GaAs MESFET, HEMT, PBT) microwave devices are compared and several schemes for controlling such devices by modulated optical signals examined. Monolithic integration of optical and microwave functions on a single semiconductor substrate is considered to provide low power, low loss, and reliable digital and analog optical links for signal distribution.

  20. Injection-locked composite lasers for mm-wave modulation : LDRD 117819 final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, Joel Robert; Vawter, Gregory Allen; Raring, James; Tauke-Pedretti, Anna; Alford, Charles Fred; Skogen, Erik J.; Chow, Weng Wah; Cajas, Florante G.; Overberg, Mark E.; Torres, David L.; Peake, Gregory Merwin

    2010-09-01

    This report summarizes a 3-year LDRD program at Sandia National Laboratories exploring mutual injection locking of composite-cavity lasers for enhanced modulation responses. The program focused on developing a fundamental understanding of the frequency enhancement previously demonstrated for optically injection locked lasers. This was then applied to the development of a theoretical description of strongly coupled laser microsystems. This understanding was validated experimentally with a novel 'photonic lab bench on a chip'.

  1. Universal bioprocessor LDRD final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Luongo, Kenneth N., 1960-; Reichmuth, David S.; Cummings, Eric B.; Krafcik, Karen L.; Davalos, Rafael V.; Sabounchi, Poorya; Simmons, Blake Alexander; Syed, Yusef; Ponce, Pierre; Salmi, Allen J.; VandeVreugde, James E.

    2006-11-01

    Microsystems pose unparalleled opportunity in the realm of real-time sample analysis for multiple applications, including Homeland Security monitoring devices, environmental monitoring, and biomedical diagnostics. The need for a universal means of processing, separating, and delivering a sample within these devices is a critical need if these systems are to receive widespread implementation in the industry and government sectors. Efficient particle separation and enrichment techniques are critical for a range of analytical functions including pathogen detection, sample preparation, high-throughput particle sorting, and biomedical diagnostics. Previously, using insulator-based dielectrophoresis (iDEP) in microfluidic glass devices, we demonstrated simultaneous particle separation and concentration. As an alternative to glass, we evaluate the performance of similar iDEP structures produced in polymer-based microdevices and their enhancement through dynamic surface coatings. There are numerous processing and operational advantages that motivate our transition to polymers such as the availability of numerous innate chemical compositions for tailoring performance, mechanical robustness, economy of scale, and ease of thermoforming and mass manufacturing. The polymer chips we have evaluated are fabricated through an injection molding process of the commercially available cyclic olefin copolymer Zeonor{reg_sign}. We demonstrate that the polymer devices achieve the same performance metrics as glass devices. Additionally, we show that the nonionic block copolymer surfactant Pluronic F127 has a strong interaction with the cyclic olefin copolymer at very low concentrations, positively impacting performance by decreasing the magnitude of the applied electric field necessary to achieve particle trapping. The presence of these dynamic surface coatings, therefore, lowers the power required to operate such devices and minimizes Joule heating. The results of this study demonstrate

  2. All-optical compact surface plasmonic two-mode interference device for optical logic gate operation.

    PubMed

    Gogoi, Nilima; Sahu, Partha Pratim

    2015-02-10

    In this paper, we have proposed an ultra-compact surface plasmonic two-mode interference (SPTMI) coupler having a silicon core, silver upper and lower cladding, and GaAsInP left and right cladding for basic logic gate operations. By modulating the refractive index of the GaAsInP cladding with incidence of optical pulse energy, we have shown coupling characteristics depending on additional phase change ΔΦ(E) between the excited surface plasmon polariton modes propagating through the silicon core. By using applied optical pulse dependent coupling behavior of the proposed SPTMI device, the operations of NOT, AND, and OR logic gates are shown. It is also seen that the coupling length of the proposed device is 32.3 times more compact than that of a multimode interference-directional coupler.

  3. LDRD Highlights at the National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Alayat, R. A.

    2016-10-10

    To meet the nation’s critical challenges, the Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories have always pushed the boundaries of science, technology, and engineering. The Atomic Energy Act of 1954 provided the basis for these laboratories to engage in the cutting edge of science and technology and respond to technological surprises, while retaining the best scientific and technological minds. To help re-energize this commitment, in 1991 the U.S. Congress authorized the national laboratories to devote a relatively small percentage of their budget to creative and innovative work that serves to maintain their vitality in disciplines relevant to DOE missions. Since then, this effort has been formally called the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program. LDRD has been an essential mechanism to enable the laboratories to address DOE’s current and future missions with leading-edge research proposed independently by laboratory technical staff, evaluated through expert peer-review committees, and funded by the individual laboratories consistent with the authorizing legislation and the DOE LDRD Order 413.2C.

  4. Non-linear optical crystal vibration sensing device

    DOEpatents

    Kalibjian, R.

    1994-08-09

    A non-linear optical crystal vibration sensing device including a photorefractive crystal and a laser is disclosed. The laser produces a coherent light beam which is split by a beam splitter into a first laser beam and a second laser beam. After passing through the crystal the first laser beam is counter-propagated back upon itself by a retro-mirror, creating a third laser beam. The laser beams are modulated, due to the mixing effect within the crystal by vibration of the crystal. In the third laser beam, modulation is stable and such modulation is converted by a photodetector into a usable electrical output, intensity modulated in accordance with vibration applied to the crystal. 3 figs.

  5. Non-linear optical crystal vibration sensing device

    DOEpatents

    Kalibjian, Ralph

    1994-01-11

    A non-linear optical crystal vibration sensing device (10) including a photorefractive crystal (26) and a laser (12). The laser (12 ) produces a coherent light beam (14) which is split by a beam splitter (18) into a first laser beam (20) and a second laser beam (22). After passing through the crystal (26) the first laser beam (20) is counter-propagated back upon itself by a retro-mirror (32), creating a third laser beam (30). The laser beams (20, 22, 30) are modulated, due to the mixing effect within the crystal (26) by vibration of the crystal (30). In the third laser beam (30), modulation is stable and such modulation is converted by a photodetector (34) into a usable electrical output, intensity modulated in accordance with vibration applied to the crystal (26).

  6. 78 FR 16296 - Certain Optoelectronic Devices for Fiber Optic Communications, Components Thereof, and Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Optoelectronic Devices for Fiber Optic Communications, Components Thereof, and Products... optic communications, components thereof, and products containing the same by reason of infringement...

  7. A new repeatable, optical writing and electrical erasing device based on photochromism and electrochromism of viologen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Li-ping; Wei, Jian; Wang, Yue-chuan; Ding, Guo-jing; Yang, Yu-lin

    2012-08-01

    New optical writing and electrical erasing devices have been successfully fabricated that exploit the photochromism and electrochromism of viologen. In a preliminary study, both the structures of viologen and device were investigated in detail by UV-vis spectra in order to confirm their effects on the optical writing and electrical erasing performances of corresponding devices. For sandwiched, single and complementary devices based on benzyl viologen (BV 2+), only optical writing can be performed, not electrical erasing operations, which indicated these devices cannot realize optical information rewriting. For single and complementary devices based on styrene-functional viologen (V BV 2+) and acrylic-functional viologen (ACV 2+), optical writing and electrical erasing operations can be reversibly performed and optical information rewriting realized. It is clear that single devices based on V BV2+ and ACV2+ possess better performance accompanied with contrast without significant degradation and bleaching times and without significant deterioration over 10 repeated writing/erasing cycles. Furthermore, we put forward possible mechanisms for sandwiched, single and complementary devices based on V BV2+ and ACV2+ for the optical writing and electrical erasing operations. This study provides a new strategy to design optical writing and electrical erasing devices to realize optical information rewriting.

  8. Detection of radio-frequency modulated optical signals by two and three terminal microwave devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, K. B.; Simons, R. N.; Wojtczuk, S.

    1987-01-01

    An interdigitated photoconductor (two terminal device) on GaAlAs/GaAs heterostructure was fabricated and tested by an electro-optical sampling technique. Further, the photoresponse of GaAlAs/GaAs HEMT (three terminal device) was obtained by illuminating the device with an optical signal modulated up to 8 GHz. Gain-bandwidth product, response time, and noise properties of photoconductor and HEMT devices were obtained. Monolithic integration of these photodetectors with GaAs microwave devices for optically controlled phased array antenna applications is discussed.

  9. Analysis on optical bistability parameters in photonic switching devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarafraz, Hossein; Sayeh, Mohammad R.

    2016-06-01

    An investigation has been done on the parameters of a hysteretic bistable optical Schmitt trigger device. From a design point of view, it is important to know the regions where this bistability occurs and is fully functional with respect to its subsystem parameters. Otherwise experimentally reaching such behavior will be very time-consuming and frustrating, especially with multiple devices employed in a single photonic circuit. A photonic Schmitt trigger consisting of two feedbacked inverting amplifiers, each characterized by -m (slope), A (y-intercept), and B (constant base) parameters is considered. This system is investigated dynamically with a varying input to find its stable and unstable states both mathematically and with simulation. In addition to a complete mathematical analysis of the system, we also describe how m, A, and B can be properly chosen in order to satisfy certain system conditions that result in bistability. More restrictions are also imposed to these absolute conditions by the system conditions as will be discussed. Finally, all results are verified in a more realistic photonic simulation.

  10. Active fiber optic technologies used as tamper-indicating devices

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, P.R.V.; Waddoups, I.G.

    1995-11-01

    The Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Safeguards and Seals Evaluation Program is evaluating new fiber optic active seal technologies for use at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The goal of the program is to investigate active seal technologies that can monitor secured containers storing special nuclear materials (SNM) within DOE vaults. Specifically investigated were active seal technologies that can be used as tamper-indicating devices to monitor secured containers within vaults while personnel remain outside the vault area. Such a system would allow minimal access into vaults while ensuring container content accountability. The purpose of this report is to discuss tamper-indicating devices that were evaluated for possible DOE use. While previous seal evaluations (Phase I and II) considered overall facility applications, this discussion focuses specifically on their use in vault storage situations. The report will highlight general background information, specifications and requirements, and test procedures. Also discussed are the systems available from four manufacturers: Interactive Technologies, Inc., Fiber SenSys, Inc., Inovonics, Inc., and Valve Security Systems.

  11. Digital micro-mirror devices in digital optical microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeyemi, Adekunle Adesanya

    In this thesis, studies on the applications of digital micro-mirror devices (DMD) to enhancement of digital optical microscope images are presented. This involves adaptation of the fast switching capability and high optical efficiency of DMD to control the spatial illumination of the specimen. The first study focuses on a method of using DMD to enhance the dynamic range of a digital optical microscope. Our adaptive feedback illumination control method generates a high dynamic range image through an algorithm that combines the DMD-to-camera pixel geometrical mapping and a feedback operation. The feedback process automatically generates an illumination pattern in an iterative fashion that spatially modulates the DMD array elements on a pixel-by-pixel level. Via experiment, we demonstrate a transmitted-light microscope system that uses precise DMD control of a DMD-based projector to enhance the dynamic range ideally by a factor of 573. Results are presented showing approximately 5 times the camera dynamic range, enabling visualization over a wide range of specimen characteristics. The second study presents a technique for programming the source of the spherical reference illumination in a digital in-line holographic microscope using DMD. The programmable point source is achieved by individually addressing the elements of a DMD to spatially control the illumination of the object located at some distance from the source of the spherical reference field. Translation of the ON-state DMD mirror element changes the spatial location of the point source and consequently generates a sequence of translated holograms of the object. The experimental results obtained through numerical reconstruction of translated holograms of Latex microspheres shows the possibility of expanding the field of view by about 263% and also extracting depth information between features in an object volume. The common challenges associated with the use of DMD in coherent and broadband illumination

  12. Final report on LDRD project :leaky-mode VCSELs for photonic logic circuits.

    SciTech Connect

    Hargett, Terry W.; Hadley, G. Ronald; Serkland, Darwin Keith; Blansett, Ethan L.; Geib, Kent Martin; Sullivan, Charles Thomas; Keeler, Gordon Arthur; Bauer, Thomas; Ongstand, Andrea; Medrano, Melissa R.; Peake, Gregory Merwin; Montano, Victoria A.

    2005-11-01

    This report describes the research accomplishments achieved under the LDRD Project ''Leaky-mode VCSELs for photonic logic circuits''. Leaky-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) offer new possibilities for integration of microcavity lasers to create optical microsystems. A leaky-mode VCSEL output-couples light laterally, in the plane of the semiconductor wafer, which allows the light to interact with adjacent lasers, modulators, and detectors on the same wafer. The fabrication of leaky-mode VCSELs based on effective index modification was proposed and demonstrated at Sandia in 1999 but was not adequately developed for use in applications. The aim of this LDRD has been to advance the design and fabrication of leaky-mode VCSELs to the point where initial applications can be attempted. In the first and second years of this LDRD we concentrated on overcoming previous difficulties in the epitaxial growth and fabrication of these advanced VCSELs. In the third year, we focused on applications of leaky-mode VCSELs, such as all-optical processing circuits based on gain quenching.

  13. Final report on LDRD project 52722 : radiation hardened optoelectronic components for space-based applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Hargett, Terry W.; Serkland, Darwin Keith; Blansett, Ethan L.; Geib, Kent Martin; Sullivan, Charles Thomas; Hawkins, Samuel D.; Wrobel, Theodore Frank; Keeler, Gordon Arthur; Klem, John Frederick; Medrano, Melissa R.; Peake, Gregory Merwin; Karpen, Gary D.; Montano, Victoria A.

    2003-12-01

    This report describes the research accomplishments achieved under the LDRD Project 'Radiation Hardened Optoelectronic Components for Space-Based Applications.' The aim of this LDRD has been to investigate the radiation hardness of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) and photodiodes by looking at both the effects of total dose and of single-event upsets on the electrical and optical characteristics of VCSELs and photodiodes. These investigations were intended to provide guidance for the eventual integration of radiation hardened VCSELs and photodiodes with rad-hard driver and receiver electronics from an external vendor for space applications. During this one-year project, we have fabricated GaAs-based VCSELs and photodiodes, investigated ionization-induced transient effects due to high-energy protons, and measured the degradation of performance from both high-energy protons and neutrons.

  14. Optoelectronic device simulation: Optical modeling for semiconductor optical amplifiers and solid state lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong-Xue (Michael)

    2006-07-01

    Recent advances in optoelectronic devices require sophisticated optical simulation and modeling. These tiny semiconductor device structures, such as semiconductor lasers and light emitting diodes (LED), not only need detailed electrical computation, such as band structure, carrier transportation, and electron-hole recombination under different external voltages, but also require comprehensive optical modeling, such as photon generation and propagation. Optical modeling also includes waveguide structure calculations, guided mode and leakage mode identification, as well far-field pattern prediction using optical ray tracing. In modeling semiconductor lasers, light emission and propagation can be treated using the single mode of wave optics, the so-called photon propagation equation coupled with carrier transport equations. These differential equations can be numerically solved using the Finite Difference Method (FDM). In the LED modeling, the main tools are based on optical ray tracing, and photons are treated as light emissions with random directions and polarizations. Optical waveguide theory is used to qualitatively analyze photon emissions inside a LED chip, and helps to design the LED device structure. One important area of semiconductor laser modeling is the optical simulation of the wavelength converter based on semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA). This wavelength converter is a critical device in optical communication, and it can copy information from one wavelength to anther through cross-gain modulation. Some numerical methods have been developed to model the wavelength conversion. In these methods, solutions are found by solving differential equations in the time domain using FDM. In all previous models, the waveguide internal loss is assumed uniform across the cavity of the SOA, or the gain coefficient is based on the polynomial approximation method, i.e., the gain coefficient is assumed proportional to the difference between the carrier and

  15. Design of 3D isotropic metamaterial device using smart transformation optics.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dongheok; Kim, Junhyun; Yoo, Do-Sik; Kim, Kyoungsik

    2015-08-24

    We report here a design method for a 3 dimensional (3D) isotropic transformation optical device using smart transformation optics. Inspired by solid mechanics, smart transformation optics regards a transformation optical medium as an elastic solid and deformations as coordinate transformations. Further developing from our previous work on 2D smart transformation optics, we introduce a method of 3D smart transformation optics to design 3D transformation optical devices by maintaining isotropic materials properties for all types of polarizations imposing free or nearly free boundary conditions. Due to the material isotropy, it is possible to fabricate such devices with structural metamaterials made purely of common dielectric materials. In conclusion, the practical importance of the method reported here lies in the fact that it enables us to fabricate, without difficulty, arbitrarily shaped 3D devices with existing 3D printing technology.

  16. Fabrication and performance of contamination free individual single-walled carbon nanotube optical devices.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuxiu; Cheng, Rong; Liu, Jianqiang; Li, Tie

    2014-06-01

    Contamination free individual single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) optical devices are fabricated using a hybrid method in the purpose of increase sensitivity as well as further understanding the sensing mechanism. The devices were tested in vacuum to avoid contamination. Three typical devices are discussed comparatively. Under infrared lamp illumination, photovoltaic and photoconductive properties are revealed in device A and B respectively, while device C shows no detectable signal. The photoresponse of device B reaches 108% at 78 K, much larger than that of horizontally aligned or network carbon nanotube devices, indicating priority of the individual nanotube device structure. Interestingly, the temperature characteristics of device A and B are just the opposite. The individual SWCNT devices hold promise in high performance and low cost optical sensors as well as nano-scale solar cells.

  17. Selective Processing Techniques for Electronics and Opto-Electronic Applications: Quantum-Well Devices and Integrated Optic Circuits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-10

    new technology is to have sufficient control of processing to *- describable by an appropriate elecromagnetic model . build useful devices. For example...3. W aveguide Modulators .................................. 7 B. Integrated Optical Device and Circuit Modeling ... ................... .. 10 C...following categories: A. Integrated Optical Devices and Technology B. Integrated Optical Device and Circuit Modeling C. Cryogenic Etching for Low

  18. Athermalization of resonant optical devices via thermo-mechanical feedback

    DOEpatents

    Rakich, Peter; Nielson, Gregory N.; Lentine, Anthony L.

    2016-01-19

    A passively athermal photonic system including a photonic circuit having a substrate and an optical cavity defined on the substrate, and passive temperature-responsive provisions for inducing strain in the optical cavity of the photonic circuit to compensate for a thermo-optic effect resulting from a temperature change in the optical cavity of the photonic circuit. Also disclosed is a method of passively compensating for a temperature dependent thermo-optic effect resulting on an optical cavity of a photonic circuit including the step of passively inducing strain in the optical cavity as a function of a temperature change of the optical cavity thereby producing an elasto-optic effect in the optical cavity to compensate for the thermo-optic effect resulting on an optical cavity due to the temperature change.

  19. Photoelectric Hybrid Optical Bistable Device Using Fibre Bragg Gratings with Two Feed Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Hong-An; Zhang, Xin-Ming; Zhu, Yong

    2004-05-01

    A photoelectric hybrid optical bistable device (OBD) is investigated by using fibre Bragg gratings as a light-intensity modulator. A new operation with two feed signals is proposed, and with this method the output characteristic of the OBD is remarkably improved. The potential application of such a device in optic stabilizer for fibre laser is also briefly discussed.

  20. Determining electro-optic coefficients for lithium tantalate using an electro-optic scanning device

    SciTech Connect

    Casson, J. L.; Gahagan, K. T.; Robinson, J. M.; Scrymgeour, D. A.; Jain, R.

    2001-01-01

    We demonstrate a ferroelectric optical device based on single crystal LiTaO{sub 3} that can scan a laser beam from the visible to the infrared. It utilizes the electro-optic effect in the ferroelectric that has potentially high intrinsic response times of GHz. There are many applications to such scanning devices in the infrared such as optical switching, spectrometry, microscopy, and sensing. Lithium tantalate has two ferroelectric polarization states that are antiparallel (180{sup o}) to each other. The domain states can be reversed by applying an electric field of {approx}21 kV/mm at room temperature. By reversing the domain structure in the crystal, we can create domains in the crystal of almost any desired shape. By creating prism-shaped domain, we can create a ferroelectric deflector or scanner by applying either static or sweeping voltages across the crystal. This scanner is capable of scanning wavelengths from 0.4-5 {micro}m. The scanning performance varied from a total deflection angle of 13.38{sup o} at 1558 nm to 16.18{sup o} at 632.8 nm. Since the amount of deflection of the incoming light is determined by the applied voltage, the electro-optic coefficient and other fixed quantities, by measuring the deflection angle as a function of wavelength, the dispersion of the electro-optic coefficient in lithium tantalate can be determined. In these experiments, the scanner was characterized from the visible (632.8 nm) to midinfrared (1558 nm). Both extraordinary and the ordinary polarizations of light were used, in order to determine the electro-optic coefficients, r{sup 33} and r{sup 31}. Except for the values at 632.8 nm, these values of the electro-optic coefficients have not been previously reported. For lithium tantalate, r{sup 33} at 632.8 nm is reported in the literature as 30.2 pm/V. We found that this decreases to 27.1 pm/V at 1558 nm. For the extraordinary polarization, r{sup 13} varied from 7.55 pm/V (632.8 nm) to 6.84 pm/V (1558 nm).

  1. Wave-plate structures, power selective optical filter devices, and optical systems using same

    SciTech Connect

    Koplow, Jeffrey P

    2012-07-03

    In an embodiment, an optical filter device includes an input polarizer for selectively transmitting an input signal. The device includes a wave-plate structure positioned to receive the input signal, which includes first and second substantially zero-order, zero-wave plates arranged in series with and oriented at an angle relative to each other. The first and second zero-wave plates are configured to alter a polarization state of the input signal passing in a manner that depends on the power of the input signal. Each zero-wave plate includes an entry and exit wave plate each having a fast axis, with the fast axes oriented substantially perpendicular to each other. Each entry wave plate is oriented relative to a transmission axis of the input polarizer at a respective angle. An output polarizer is positioned to receive a signal output from the wave-plate structure and selectively transmits the signal based on the polarization state.

  2. LDRD 149045 final report distinguishing documents.

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Scott A.

    2010-09-01

    This LDRD 149045 final report describes work that Sandians Scott A. Mitchell, Randall Laviolette, Shawn Martin, Warren Davis, Cindy Philips and Danny Dunlavy performed in 2010. Prof. Afra Zomorodian provided insight. This was a small late-start LDRD. Several other ongoing efforts were leveraged, including the Networks Grand Challenge LDRD, and the Computational Topology CSRF project, and the some of the leveraged work is described here. We proposed a sentence mining technique that exploited both the distribution and the order of parts-of-speech (POS) in sentences in English language documents. The ultimate goal was to be able to discover 'call-to-action' framing documents hidden within a corpus of mostly expository documents, even if the documents were all on the same topic and used the same vocabulary. Using POS was novel. We also took a novel approach to analyzing POS. We used the hypothesis that English follows a dynamical system and the POS are trajectories from one state to another. We analyzed the sequences of POS using support vector machines and the cycles of POS using computational homology. We discovered that the POS were a very weak signal and did not support our hypothesis well. Our original goal appeared to be unobtainable with our original approach. We turned our attention to study an aspect of a more traditional approach to distinguishing documents. Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) turns documents into bags-of-words then into mixture-model points. A distance function is used to cluster groups of points to discover relatedness between documents. We performed a geometric and algebraic analysis of the most popular distance functions and made some significant and surprising discoveries, described in a separate technical report.

  3. Guided-Wave TeO2 Acousto-Optic Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-12

    In this research program, Guided-wave TeO2 Acousto - Optic Devices, the properties of surface acoustic waves on tellurium dioxide single crystal...surfaces has been studied for its potential applications as acousto - optic signal processing devices. Personal computer based numerical method has been...interaction with laser beams. Use of the acousto - optic probe, the surface acoustic wave velocity and field distribution have been obtained and compared

  4. Electrical and Optical Characterization of Nanowire based Semiconductor Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayvazian, Talin

    This research project is focused on a new strategy for the creation of nanowire based semiconductor devices. The main goal is to understand and optimize the electrical and optical properties of two types of nanoscale devices; in first type lithographically patterned nanowire electrodeposition (LPNE) method has been utilized to fabricate nanowire field effect transistors (NWFET) and second type involved the development of light emitting semiconductor nanowire arrays (NWLED). Field effect transistors (NWFETs) have been prepared from arrays of polycrystalline cadmium selenide (pc-CdSe) nanowires using a back gate configuration. pc-CdSe nanowires were fabricated using the lithographically patterned nanowire electrode- position (LPNE) process on SiO2 /Si substrates. After electrodeposition, pc-CdSe nanowires were thermally annealed at 300 °C x 4 h either with or without exposure to CdCl 2 in methanol a grain growth promoter. The influence of CdCl2 treatment was to increase the mean grain diameter as determined by X-ray diffraction pattern and to convert the crystal structure from cubic to wurtzite. Transfer characteristics showed an increase of the field effect mobility (mu eff) by an order of magnitude and increase of the Ion/I off ratio by a factor of 3-4. Light emitting devices (NW-LED) based on lithographically patterned pc-CdSe nanowire arrays have been investigated. Electroluminescence (EL) spectra of CdSe nanowires under various biases exhibited broad emission spectra centered at 750 nm close to the band gap of CdSe (1.7eV). To enhance the intensity of the emitted light and the external quantum efficiency (EQE), the distance between the contacts were reduced from 5 mum to less than 1 mum which increased the efficiency by an order of magnitude. Also, increasing the annealing temperature of nanowires from 300 °C x4 h to 450 This research project is focused on a new strategy for the creation of nanowire based semiconductor devices. The main goal is to understand

  5. Integration of nanoporous zeolite with optical fiber devices for chemical sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Xinwei

    Label-free optical fiber chemical sensors have provoked significant research interest in recent years due to their unique advantages of small size, low cost, potential for distributed sensing, capability of in situ and remote operation, and tolerance to harsh environments. However, existing optical fiber chemical sensors lack the desired sensitivity and specificity for many applications such as chemical and biological analysis, industrial process control, environmental monitoring, and national security. The dissertation summarizes our research efforts and results in functional integration of nanoporous zeolites with optical fiber devices for development of label-free optical fiber chemical sensors with high sensitivity and selectivity. Fundamental research has been conducted in nano-materials, micro-devices and the material-device integrations. The material research has been focused on synthesis and characterization of nanoporous zeolites for optical chemical sensing. The research in devices has led to the successful design, fabrication and demonstration of a number of fiber sensor platforms including the turn-around-point long period fiber gratings (TAP-LPFG), the singlemode-multimode- singlemode (SMS) fiber interferometers, the long period fiber grating (LPFG) assisted Michelson interferometers, and nanostructured fiber optic surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) probes. Optical fiber chemical sensors have been successfully fabricated by growing zeolite thin films on the fiber devices, and evaluated for their sensitivity, detection limit and selectivity/specificity. The encouraging results reveal that integration of nanoporous zeolite with optical fiber devices presents a promising solution for development of high performance optical chemical sensors.

  6. Micro-Laser-Based Devices Allowing Optical Wavelength-Packing Densities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keys, Andrew S.; Jones, Darryl K.; Fork, Richard L.

    1998-01-01

    We examine theoretically and experimentally the space-time domain properties of high-speed electro-optically switched microlaser devices susceptible of construction at optical wavelength-packing densities. We address adjustable phase and group delays with wide dynamic range, coherent logic, temporal storage and reconfiguration of pulse arrays and applications to optical phased arrays.

  7. FY07 LDRD Final Report Precision, Split Beam, Chirped-Pulse, Seed Laser Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, J W; Messerly, M J; Phan, H H; Crane, J K; Beach, R J; Siders, C W; Barty, C J

    2009-11-12

    The goal of this LDRD ER was to develop a robust and reliable technology to seed high-energy laser systems with chirped pulses that can be amplified to kilo-Joule energies and recompressed to sub-picosecond pulse widths creating extremely high peak powers suitable for petawatt class physics experiments. This LDRD project focused on the development of optical fiber laser technologies compatible with the current long pulse National Ignition Facility (NIF) seed laser. New technologies developed under this project include, high stability mode-locked fiber lasers, fiber based techniques for reduction of compressed pulse pedestals and prepulses, new compact stretchers based on chirped fiber Bragg gratings (CFBGs), new techniques for manipulation of chirped pulses prior to amplification and new high-energy fiber amplifiers. This project was highly successful and met virtually all of its goals. The National Ignition Campaign has found the results of this work to be very helpful. The LDRD developed system is being employed in experiments to engineer the Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC) front end and the fully engineered version of the ARC Front End will employ much of the technology and techniques developed here.

  8. 2014 SRNL LDRD Annual Report, Rev. 0

    SciTech Connect

    Mcwhorter, S.

    2015-03-15

    Laboratory Directed Research and Development is a congressionally authorized program that provides the ‘innovation inspiration’ from which many of the Laboratory’s multi-discipline advancements are made in both science and engineering technology. The program is the backbone for insuring that scientific, technical and engineering capabilities can meet current and future needs. It is an important tool in reducing the probability of technological surprise by allowing laboratory technical staff room to innovate and keep abreast of scientific breakthroughs. Drawing from the synergism among the EM and NNSA missions, and work from other federal agencies ensures that LDRD is the key element in maintaining the vitality of SRNL’s technical programs. The LDRD program aims to position the Laboratory for new business in clean energy, national security, nuclear materials management and environmental stewardship by leveraging the unique capabilities of the Laboratory to yield foundational scientific research in core business areas, while aligning with SRS strategic initiatives and maintaining a vision for ultimate DOE applications.

  9. Optical polarizing neutron devices designed for pulsed neutron sources

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, M.; Kurahashi, K.; Endoh, Y.; Itoh, S.

    1997-09-01

    We have designed two polarizing neutron devices for pulsed cold neutrons. The devices have been tested at the pulsed neutron source at the Booster Synchrotron Utilization Facility of the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics. These two devices proved to have a practical use for experiments to investigate condensed matter physics using pulsed cold polarized neutrons.

  10. Femtosecond Laser Microfabrication of an Integrated Device for Optical Release and Sensing of Bioactive Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Ghezzi, Diego; Vazquez, Rebeca Martinez; Osellame, Roberto; Valtorta, Flavia; Pedrocchi, Alessandra; Valle, Giuseppe Della; Ramponi, Roberta; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Cerullo, Giulio

    2008-01-01

    Flash photolysis of caged compounds is one of the most powerful approaches to investigate the dynamic response of living cells. Monolithically integrated devices suitable for optical uncaging are in great demand since they greatly simplify the experiments and allow their automation. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of an integrated bio-photonic device for the optical release of caged compounds. Such a device is fabricated using femtosecond laser micromachining of a glass substrate. More in detail, femtosecond lasers are used both to cut the substrate in order to create a pit for cell growth and to inscribe optical waveguides for spatially selective uncaging of the compounds present in the culture medium. The operation of this monolithic bio-photonic device is tested using both free and caged fluorescent compounds to probe its capability of multipoint release and optical sensing. Application of this device to the study of neuronal network activity can be envisaged. PMID:27873888

  11. Development of an optical parallel logic device and a half-adder circuit for digital optical processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Athale, R. A.; Lee, S. H.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes the fabrication and operation of an optical parallel logic (OPAL) device which performs Boolean algebraic operations on binary images. Several logic operations on two input binary images were demonstrated using an 8 x 8 device with a CdS photoconductor and a twisted nematic liquid crystal. Two such OPAL devices can be interconnected to form a half-adder circuit which is one of the essential components of a CPU in a digital signal processor.

  12. Laser chemical etching of waveguides and quasi-optical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drouet D'Aubigny, Christian Yann Pierre

    2003-11-01

    The terahertz (THz) frequency domain, located at the frontier of radio and light, is the last unexplored region of the electromagnetic spectrum. As technology becomes available, THz systems are finding applications to fields ranging all the way from astronomical and atmospheric remote sensing to space telecommunications, medical imaging, and security. In Astronomy the THz and far infrared (IR) portion of the electromagnetic spectrum (λ = 300 to 10 μm) may hold the answers to countless questions regarding the origin and evolution of the Universe, galaxy, star and planet formation. Over the past decade, advances in telescope and detector technology have for the first time made this regime available to astronomers. Near THz frequencies, metallic hollow waveguide structures become so small, (typically much less than a millimeter), that conventional machining becomes extremely difficult, and in many cases, nearly impossible. Laser induced, micro-chemical etching is a promising new technology that can be used to fabricate three dimensional structures many millimeters across with micrometer accuracy. Laser micromachining of silicon possesses a significant edge over more conventional techniques. It does not require the use of masks and is not confined to crystal planes. A non-contact process, it eliminates tool wear and vibration problems associated with classical milling machines. At the University of Arizona we have constructed the first such laser micromachining system optimized for the fabrication of THz and far IR waveguide and quasi-optical components. The system can machine structures up to 50 mm in diameter, down to a few microns accuracy in a few minutes and with a remarkable surface finish. A variety of THz devices have been fabricated using this technique, their design, fabrication, assembly and theoretical performance is described in the chapters that follow.

  13. Limitations of Segmented Wavefront Control Devices in Emulating Optical Turbulence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    for Adaptive Optics in Vision Science”. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, 10(3):629–635, May/Jun 2004. 11. Fernandez , Enrique J...and Pablo Artal. “Membrane Deformable Mirror for Adap- tive Optics: Performance Limits in Visual Optics”. Optics Express, 11(9):1056– 1069, May 2003

  14. Recent progress on practical PLC devices for optical access systems and dense WDM systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takato, Norio

    1997-12-01

    Silica-based planar lightwave circuit (PLC) devices are starting to be introduced into commercial optical communication systems. PLC devices such as optical splitters, wavelength-insensitive coupler (WINC) arrays, and hybrid- integrated wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) transceivers are used to construct cost effective optical access systems. In trunk lines, on the other hand, arrayed-waveguide gratings (AWG) are employed for dense WDM systems to increase the transmission capacity. This paper reviews the current status and recent progress on these practical PLC devices.

  15. Analysis of spectral response of optical switching devices based on chalcogenide bistable fiber Bragg gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholtz, Lubomír.; Müllerová, Jarmila

    2015-01-01

    Fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) are novel and promising devices for all-optical switching, ADD/DROP multiplexers, AND gates, switches, all-optical memory elements. Optical switching based on optical Kerr effects induced with high pump laser light incident on the FBGs cause the change of spectral characteristics of grating depending on the incident power. In this paper numerical studies of the nonlinear FBGs are presented. Optical switching based on the optical bistability in nonlinear chalcogenide FBGs is investigated. The spectral response of nonlinear FBGs is discussed from theoretical viewpoint. The simulations are based on the nonlinear coupled mode theory.

  16. Optical Device, System, and Method of Generating High Angular Momentum Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy A. (Inventor); Matsko, Andrey B. (Inventor); Strekalov, Dmitry V. (Inventor); Grudinin, Ivan S. (Inventor); Maleki, Lute (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An optical device, optical system, and method of generating optical beams having high angular momenta are provided. The optical device includes a whispering gallery mode resonator defining a resonator radius and an elongated wavegWde having a length defined between a first end and a second end of the waveguide. The waveguide defines a waveguide radius which increases at least along a portion of the length of the waveguide in a direction from the first end to the second end. The waveguide radius at the first end of the waveguide is smaller than the resonator radius and the resonator is integrally formed with the first end of the waveguide.

  17. Advanced Organic Electro-Optic Materials for Integrated Device Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    Electro - optic chromophores (FTC and CLD) were synthesized in bulk (kilogram) quantities and were distributed to the participants of this program...to stabilize electro - optic activity for operation at elevated temperatures and photon flux levels. Over 100 variants of these chromophores were...1.5-2.0 improvement over FTC and CLD chromophores in terms of electro - optic activity at telecommunication wavelengths. They also have proven more

  18. A novel optic bistable device with very low threshold intensity using photorefractive films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sean X.; Sun, Yuankun; Trivedi, Sudhir B.; Li, Guifang

    1994-08-01

    Brimrose Corporation of America reports the successful completion of the SBIR Phase I research in low-threshold intensity optical bistable devices using photorefractive nonlinearity. A thin photorefractive film optical bistable device was proposed in the Phase I proposal. The feasibility of this device was theoretically investigated. The theoretical feasibility study formulates the materials requirements in such a kind of configuration for Phase II research. In addition, we have proposed and investigated another configuration of optical bistable devices that do not require advanced photorefractive materials, namely, the self-pumped phase conjugator. We have successfully demonstrated a low-threshold optical bistable operation in a KNSBN:CU crystal. To the best of our knowledge, the threshold of 650 mW/sq. cm is the lowest of its kind to be achieved so far.

  19. Computational Biology: A Strategic Initiative LDRD

    SciTech Connect

    Barksy, D; Colvin, M

    2002-02-07

    The goal of this Strategic Initiative LDRD project was to establish at LLNL a new core capability in computational biology, combining laboratory strengths in high performance computing, molecular biology, and computational chemistry and physics. As described in this report, this project has been very successful in achieving this goal. This success is demonstrated by the large number of referred publications, invited talks, and follow-on research grants that have resulted from this project. Additionally, this project has helped build connections to internal and external collaborators and funding agencies that will be critical to the long-term vitality of LLNL programs in computational biology. Most importantly, this project has helped establish on-going research groups in the Biology and Biotechnology Research Program, the Physics and Applied Technology Directorate, and the Computation Directorate. These groups include three laboratory staff members originally hired as post-doctoral researchers for this strategic initiative.

  20. Small space object imaging : LDRD final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, Mark R.; Valley, Michael T.; Kearney, Sean Patrick

    2009-10-01

    We report the results of an LDRD effort to investigate new technologies for the identification of small-sized (mm to cm) debris in low-earth orbit. This small-yet-energetic debris presents a threat to the integrity of space-assets worldwide and represents significant security challenge to the international community. We present a nonexhaustive review of recent US and Russian efforts to meet the challenges of debris identification and removal and then provide a detailed description of joint US-Russian plans for sensitive, laser-based imaging of small debris at distances of hundreds of kilometers and relative velocities of several kilometers per second. Plans for the upcoming experimental testing of these imaging schemes are presented and a preliminary path toward system integration is identified.

  1. Neurons to algorithms LDRD final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rothganger, Fredrick H.; Aimone, James Bradley; Warrender, Christina E.; Trumbo, Derek

    2013-09-01

    Over the last three years the Neurons to Algorithms (N2A) LDRD project teams has built infrastructure to discover computational structures in the brain. This consists of a modeling language, a tool that enables model development and simulation in that language, and initial connections with the Neuroinformatics community, a group working toward similar goals. The approach of N2A is to express large complex systems like the brain as populations of a discrete part types that have specific structural relationships with each other, along with internal and structural dynamics. Such an evolving mathematical system may be able to capture the essence of neural processing, and ultimately of thought itself. This final report is a cover for the actual products of the project: the N2A Language Specification, the N2A Application, and a journal paper summarizing our methods.

  2. LDRD Final Report: Global Optimization for Engineering Science Problems

    SciTech Connect

    HART,WILLIAM E.

    1999-12-01

    For a wide variety of scientific and engineering problems the desired solution corresponds to an optimal set of objective function parameters, where the objective function measures a solution's quality. The main goal of the LDRD ''Global Optimization for Engineering Science Problems'' was the development of new robust and efficient optimization algorithms that can be used to find globally optimal solutions to complex optimization problems. This SAND report summarizes the technical accomplishments of this LDRD, discusses lessons learned and describes open research issues.

  3. Optical properties of inorganic electroluminescent devices with nanostripe electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nonaka, Toshihiro; Yamamoto, Shin-ichi

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we report on the luminescence (emission) characteristics of a laminated dispersion-type inorganic electroluminescent (EL) device with a nanostripe electrode made of thin Al film, instead of a conventional indium-tin oxide (ITO) transparent electrode, on the emission side of the device. The transmittance of the Al nanostripe electrode, with 60-nm line-and-space widths, was 45%. We compared an inorganic EL device positioned between two thin films of Al and the inorganic EL device with the Al nanostripe electrode using electric field simulations and actual experiments. We were able to apply the same electric field intensity to the phosphor layer in the conventional structure and to the new structure. Therefore, with an Al nanostripe electrode on one side of the EL device, it is possible to fabricate an ITO-free display.

  4. Method and device for remotely monitoring an area using a low peak power optical pump

    DOEpatents

    Woodruff, Steven D.; Mcintyre, Dustin L.; Jain, Jinesh C.

    2014-07-22

    A method and device for remotely monitoring an area using a low peak power optical pump comprising one or more pumping sources, one or more lasers; and an optical response analyzer. Each pumping source creates a pumping energy. The lasers each comprise a high reflectivity mirror, a laser media, an output coupler, and an output lens. Each laser media is made of a material that emits a lasing power when exposed to pumping energy. Each laser media is optically connected to and positioned between a corresponding high reflectivity mirror and output coupler along a pumping axis. Each output coupler is optically connected to a corresponding output lens along the pumping axis. The high reflectivity mirror of each laser is optically connected to an optical pumping source from the one or more optical pumping sources via an optical connection comprising one or more first optical fibers.

  5. Ferroelectric Tungsten Bronze Bulk Crystals and Epitaxial Thin Films for Electro-Optic Device Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-01

    23 FERROELECTRIC TUNGSTEN BRONZE BULK CRYSTALS AND EPITAXIAL THIN FILMS FOR ELECTRO-OPTIC DEVICE APPLICATIONS 10 CO O Semi-Annual Technical... THIN FILMS FOR ELECTRO-OPTIC DEVICE APPLICATIONS s TV^C or REPORT * pcmoo COVCHCO Semi-Annual Tec1! Rpt #1 for period 09/30/82-03/31/83...months, considerable progress has been made in several areas, including single crystal and thin film growth and characteriza- tion. The new

  6. FY02 Engineering Technology Reports Volume 2: LDRD

    SciTech Connect

    Minichino, Camille

    2003-03-01

    This report summarizes the science and technology research and development efforts in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Engineering Directorate for FY2002, and exemplifies Engineering's 50-year history of developing the technologies needed to support the Laboratory's missions. Engineering has been a partner in every major program and project at the Laboratory throughout its existence and has prepared for this role with a skilled workforce and the technical resources developed through venues like the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program (LDRD). This accomplishment is well summarized by Engineering's mission: ''To make programs succeed today and to ensure the vitality of the Laboratory tomorrow.'' Engineering's investment in new technologies is carried out through two programs, the ''Tech Base'' program (Volume I) and the LDRD program (Volume II). This report summarizes the LDRD portion of Engineering's Technology Program. LDRD is the vehicle for researching and developing those technologies and competencies that are cutting edge, or that require a significant level of research, or contain some unknown that needs to be fully understood. Tech Base is used to apply those technologies, or adapt them to a Laboratory need. The term commonly used for Tech Base projects is ''reduction to practice.'' Therefore, the LDRD report covered here has a strong research emphasis. Areas that are presented all fall into those needed to accomplish our mission. For FY2002, Engineering's LDRD projects were focused on mesoscale target fabrication and characterization, development of engineering computational capability, material studies and modeling, remote sensing and communications, and microtechnology for national security applications.

  7. Design of optical cloaks and illusion devices along a circumferential direction in curvilinear coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tungyang; Yu, Shang-Ru

    2010-11-01

    We propose a cloaking and illusion device of circumferential topology based on the concept of transformation optics. The device is capable to cloak an object and/or simultaneously generate illusion images along a circumferential direction in curvilinear orthogonal coordinates. This feature allows us to construct multiple illusions in different ways, irrespective of the profile and direction of incident wave. Particularly when the device is served as a building brick of a larger device, one can generate a circumferential array of illusions in a periodic or any preferred pattern. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed illusion devices by carrying out full wave simulations based on finite element calculations.

  8. Optomechanical measurement of photon spin angular momentum and optical torque in integrated photonic devices.

    PubMed

    He, Li; Li, Huan; Li, Mo

    2016-09-01

    Photons carry linear momentum and spin angular momentum when circularly or elliptically polarized. During light-matter interaction, transfer of linear momentum leads to optical forces, whereas transfer of angular momentum induces optical torque. Optical forces including radiation pressure and gradient forces have long been used in optical tweezers and laser cooling. In nanophotonic devices, optical forces can be significantly enhanced, leading to unprecedented optomechanical effects in both classical and quantum regimes. In contrast, to date, the angular momentum of light and the optical torque effect have only been used in optical tweezers but remain unexplored in integrated photonics. We demonstrate the measurement of the spin angular momentum of photons propagating in a birefringent waveguide and the use of optical torque to actuate rotational motion of an optomechanical device. We show that the sign and magnitude of the optical torque are determined by the photon polarization states that are synthesized on the chip. Our study reveals the mechanical effect of photon's polarization degree of freedom and demonstrates its control in integrated photonic devices. Exploiting optical torque and optomechanical interaction with photon angular momentum can lead to torsional cavity optomechanics and optomechanical photon spin-orbit coupling, as well as applications such as optomechanical gyroscopes and torsional magnetometry.

  9. Optomechanical measurement of photon spin angular momentum and optical torque in integrated photonic devices

    PubMed Central

    He, Li; Li, Huan; Li, Mo

    2016-01-01

    Photons carry linear momentum and spin angular momentum when circularly or elliptically polarized. During light-matter interaction, transfer of linear momentum leads to optical forces, whereas transfer of angular momentum induces optical torque. Optical forces including radiation pressure and gradient forces have long been used in optical tweezers and laser cooling. In nanophotonic devices, optical forces can be significantly enhanced, leading to unprecedented optomechanical effects in both classical and quantum regimes. In contrast, to date, the angular momentum of light and the optical torque effect have only been used in optical tweezers but remain unexplored in integrated photonics. We demonstrate the measurement of the spin angular momentum of photons propagating in a birefringent waveguide and the use of optical torque to actuate rotational motion of an optomechanical device. We show that the sign and magnitude of the optical torque are determined by the photon polarization states that are synthesized on the chip. Our study reveals the mechanical effect of photon’s polarization degree of freedom and demonstrates its control in integrated photonic devices. Exploiting optical torque and optomechanical interaction with photon angular momentum can lead to torsional cavity optomechanics and optomechanical photon spin-orbit coupling, as well as applications such as optomechanical gyroscopes and torsional magnetometry. PMID:27626072

  10. Absorbance Based Light Emitting Diode Optical Sensors and Sensing Devices

    PubMed Central

    O'Toole, Martina; Diamond, Dermot

    2008-01-01

    The ever increasing demand for in situ monitoring of health, environment and security has created a need for reliable, miniaturised sensing devices. To achieve this, appropriate analytical devices are required that possess operating characteristics of reliability, low power consumption, low cost, autonomous operation capability and compatibility with wireless communications systems. The use of light emitting diodes (LEDs) as light sources is one strategy, which has been successfully applied in chemical sensing. This paper summarises the development and advancement of LED based chemical sensors and sensing devices in terms of their configuration and application, with the focus on transmittance and reflectance absorptiometric measurements. PMID:27879829

  11. Night vision device technology development

    SciTech Connect

    Funsten, H.; Nordholt, J.; Suszcynsky, D.

    1996-09-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project sought to develop microchannel plate (MCP) technologies for enhancement of night vision device (NVD) capabilities. First, segmented microchannel plates with independent gain control to minimize loss of low level light images in the presence of a bright light source (e.g., battlefield lasers, flares, and headlights) need to be developed. This enables, for example, enhanced vision capabilities during night operations in, for example, a city environment and continuous capability of aviators to see the horizon, nearground obstructions, and ground targets. Furthermore, curved microchannel plate technology to increase the field of view of NVDs while minimizing optical aberrations needs to be developed and applied. This development would significantly enhance peripheral vision capabilities of aviators and result in easier adaptation of the human eye to NVDs.

  12. Long-Term Optical Device Use by Young Adults with Low Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachofer, Cynthia Susan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the long-term use of optical devices by individuals who participated in a school-based comprehensive low vision program focusing on use of devices, both near and distance. Thirty-seven participants (five non-users), ages 18-28, completed phone interviews giving information on their personal…

  13. Recent Advances in Organic Photovoltaics: Device Structure and Optical Engineering Optimization on the Nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Luo, Guoping; Ren, Xingang; Zhang, Su; Wu, Hongbin; Choy, Wallace C H; He, Zhicai; Cao, Yong

    2016-03-23

    Organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices, which can directly convert absorbed sunlight to electricity, are stacked thin films of tens to hundreds of nanometers. They have emerged as a promising candidate for affordable, clean, and renewable energy. In the past few years, a rapid increase has been seen in the power conversion efficiency of OPV devices toward 10% and above, through comprehensive optimizations via novel photoactive donor and acceptor materials, control of thin-film morphology on the nanoscale, device structure developments, and interfacial and optical engineering. The intrinsic problems of short exciton diffusion length and low carrier mobility in organic semiconductors creates a challenge for OPV designs for achieving optically thick and electrically thin device structures to achieve sufficient light absorption and efficient electron/hole extraction. Recent advances in the field of OPV devices are reviewed, with a focus on the progress in device architecture and optical engineering approaches that lead to improved electrical and optical characteristics in OPV devices. Successful strategies are highlighted for light wave distribution, modulation, and absorption promotion inside the active layer of OPV devices by incorporating periodic nanopatterns/nanostructures or incorporating metallic nanomaterials and nanostructures.

  14. Shaping perfect optical vortex with amplitude modulated using a digital micro-mirror device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chonglei; Min, Changjun; Yuan, X.-C.

    2016-12-01

    We propose a technique to generate of perfect optical vortex (POV) via Fourier transformation of Bessel-Gauss (BG) beams through encoding of the amplitude of the optical field with binary amplitude digital micro-mirrors device (DMD). Furthermore, we confirm the correct phase patterns of the POV with the method of Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Our approach to generate the POV has the advantages that rapidly switch among the different modes, wide spectral regions and high energy tolerance. Since the POV possess propagation properties that not shape-invariant, we therefore suppose that our proposed approach will find potential applications in optical microscopy, optical fabrication, and optical communication.

  15. Oriented niobate ferroelectric thin films for electrical and optical devices

    DOEpatents

    Wessels, Bruce W.; Nystrom, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    Sr.sub.x Ba.sub.1-x Nb.sub.2 O.sub.6, where x is greater than 0.25 and less than 0.75, and KNbO.sub.3 ferroelectric thin films metalorganic chemical vapor deposited on amorphous or cyrstalline substrate surfaces to provide a crystal axis of the film exhibiting a high dielectric susceptibility, electro-optic coefficient, and/or nonlinear optic coefficient oriented preferentially in a direction relative to a crystalline or amorphous substrate surface. Such films can be used in electronic, electro-optic, and frequency doubling components.

  16. Introduction: feature issue on phantoms for the performance evaluation and validation of optical medical imaging devices.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jeeseong; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C; Nordstrom, Robert

    2012-06-01

    The editors introduce the Biomedical Optics Express feature issue on "Phantoms for the Performance Evaluation and Validation of Optical Medical Imaging Devices." This topic was the focus of a technical workshop that was held on November 7-8, 2011, in Washington, D.C. The feature issue includes 13 contributions from workshop attendees.

  17. Growth of bulk single crystals of organic materials for nonlinear optical devices - An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penn, Benjamin G.; Cardelino, Beatriz H.; Moore, Craig E.; Shields, Angela W.; Frazier, D. O.

    1991-01-01

    Highly perfect single crystals of nonlinear optical organic materials are required for use in optical devices. An overview of the bulk crystal growth of these materials by melt, vapor, and solution processes is presented. Additionally, methods that may be used to purify starting materials, detect impurities at low levels, screen materials for crystal growth, and process grown crystals are discussed.

  18. Passive device based on plastic optical fibers to determine the indices of refraction of liquids.

    PubMed

    Zubia, J; Garitaonaindía, G; Arrúe, J

    2000-02-20

    We have designed and measured a passive device based on plastic optical fibers (POF's) that one can use to determine the indices of refraction of liquids. A complementary software has also been designed to simulate the behavior of the device. We report on the theoretical model developed for the device, its implementation in a simulation software program, and the results of the simulation. A comparison of the experimental and calculated results is also shown and discussed.

  19. Lithographically-Scribed Planar Holographic Optical CDMA Devices and Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-15

    the model reasonably predicts the width and flatness. From the pertbrmance depicted in Figure 14 (a first prototype device), we can conclude that HBR...LightSmyth written software that simulates, via numerical diffractive scattering calculations, the actual behavior expected from fabricated devices. The HBR...between the channels). Second, there are ripples on the passband. The out-of-band crosstalk has been identified by modeling to result from a spatial

  20. Compressive Optical Imaging Systems -- Theory, Devices and Implementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-15

    1758, 2000. [10] D. J. Brady, M. Feldman, N. Pitsianis, J. P. Guo, A. Portnoy, and M. Fiddy, “Compressive optical montage photography ,” in SPIE...Constantini and S. Susstrunk, “Virtual sensor design,” in Sensors and Camera Systems for Scientific, Industrial, and Digital Photography Applications V, vol...Schroeder, Astronomical Optics. Academic Press, 1987. [58] S. S. Chen, D. L. Donoho, and M. A. Saunders, “Atomic decomposition by basis pursuit

  1. Research Studies on Advanced Optical Module/Head Designs for Optical Disk Recording Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, James J.; Seery, Bernard D.

    1993-01-01

    The Annual Report of the Optical Data Storage Center of the University of Arizona is presented. Summary reports on continuing projects are presented. Research areas include: magneto-optic media, optical heads, and signal processing.

  2. Study of 3D printing method for GRIN micro-optics devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, P. J.; Yeh, J. A.; Hsu, W. Y.; Cheng, Y. C.; Lee, W.; Wu, N. H.; Wu, C. Y.

    2016-03-01

    Conventional optical elements are based on either refractive or reflective optics theory to fulfill the design specifications via optics performance data. In refractive optical lenses, the refractive index of materials and radius of curvature of element surfaces determine the optical power and wavefront aberrations so that optical performance can be further optimized iteratively. Although gradient index (GRIN) phenomenon in optical materials is well studied for more than a half century, the optics theory in lens design via GRIN materials is still yet to be comprehensively investigated before realistic GRIN lenses are manufactured. In this paper, 3D printing method for manufacture of micro-optics devices with special features has been studied based on methods reported in the literatures. Due to the additive nature of the method, GRIN lenses in micro-optics devices seem to be readily achievable if a design methodology is available. First, derivation of ray-tracing formulae is introduced for all possible structures in GRIN lenses. Optics simulation program is employed for characterization of GRIN lenses with performance data given by aberration coefficients in Zernike polynomial. Finally, a proposed structure of 3D printing machine is described with conceptual illustration.

  3. Research studies on advanced optical module/head designs for optical devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, James J.

    1991-01-01

    A summary is presented of research in optical data storage materials and of research at the center. The first section contains summary reports under the general headings of: (1) Magnetooptic media: modeling, design, fabrication, characterization, and testing; (2) Optical heads: holographic optical elements; and (3) Optical heads: integrated optics. The second section consist of a proposal entitled, Signal Processing Techniques for Optical Data Storage. And section three presents various publications prepared by the center.

  4. Photonic materials and devices for optical information processing and computing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanguay, Armand R., Jr.

    1991-02-01

    The research program is focused on a critical evaluation of advanced photonic materials and device concepts for the implementation of optical information processing and computing systems. The effort ranges from a detailed investigation of the fundamental physical and technological limitations that impact the potential computational gain (e.g., increases in throughput, decreases in decision time subsequent to processing, or minimization of the energy expended during computation) of optical information processing and computing systems, through the invention and characterization of key enabling devices such as two dimensional spatial light modulators and volume holographic optical elements, to the development of advanced techniques for materials growth, deposition, and processing that have a critical impact on potential device performance. This multifaceted evaluation of novel materials, device, and system concepts has been directly responsible for the invention and characterization of a number of photonic devices and materials processing techniques that exhibit both high performance and capacity for practical manufacturing. The primary program thrusts can be organized into three principal categories: (1) fundamental and technological limitations of optical information processing and computing; (2) electrically and optically addressed spatial light modulators; and (3) volume holographic optical elements.

  5. Micropatterned photoalignment for wavefront controlled switchable optical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazar, Nikolaus

    Photoalignment is a well-established technique for surface alignment of the liquid crystal director. Previously, chrome masks were necessary for patterned photoalignment but were difficult to use, costly, and inflexible. To extend the capabilities of photoalignment we built an automated maskless multi-domain photoalignment device based on a DMD (digital multimirror device) projection system. The device is capable of creating arbitrary photoalignment patterns with micron-sized features. Pancharatnam-Berry phase (PB-phase) is a geometric phase that arises from cyclic change of polarization state. By varying the azimuthal anchoring angle in a hybrid-aligned liquid crystal cell we can control the spatial variation of the PB-phase shift. Using our automated photoalignment device to align the liquid crystal arbitrary wave front manipulations are possible. The PB-phase shift effect is maximized when the cell is tuned to have a half-wave retardation and disappears at full-wave retardation, so the cell can be switched on and off by applying a voltage. Two wavefront controlled devices developed using this technique will be discussed: A switchable liquid crystal phase shift mask for creating sub-diffraction sized photolithographic features, and a transparent diffractive display that utilizes a switchable liquid crystal diffraction grating.

  6. Numerical investigation of a multi-functional optical device based on graphene-silica metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huaiqing; Ren, Guobin; Gao, Yixiao; Zhu, Bofeng; Li, Haisu; Wu, Beilei; Jian, Shuisheng

    2016-06-01

    We propose a permittivity-tunable metamaterial channel, which is composed of alternative layers of graphene and silica. Optical waves can pass through the metamaterial channel only if its permittivity is tuned to zero. Taking advantage of the permittivity tunable property of the metamaterial, a multi-functional optical device, which can act as a wavelength demultiplexer, switch, and optical splitter without changing the geometric parameters has been proposed and numerically investigated by using the Finite Element Method. Owing to the permittivity tunable property of graphene, the working wavelength of the multi-functional device can be flexibly controlled by tuning the gate voltage applied on the metamaterial. This tunable ultracompact multi-functional optical device may find potential applications in highly integrated photonic circuits.

  7. Optical interconnection for a polymeric PLC device using simple positional alignment.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Jin Hwa; Kim, Po Jin; Cho, Cheon Soo; Lee, El-Hang; Kim, Chang-Seok; Jeong, Myung Yung

    2011-04-25

    This study proposes a simple cost-effective method of optical interconnection between a planar lightwave circuit (PLC) device chip and an optical fiber. It was conducted to minimize and overcome the coupling loss caused by lateral offset which is due to the process tolerance and the dimensional limitation existing between PLC device chips and fiber array blocks with groove structures. A PLC device chip and a fiber array block were simultaneously fabricated in a series of polymer replication processes using the original master. The dimensions (i.e., width and thickness) of the under-clad of the PLC device chip were identical to those of the fiber array block. The PLC device chip and optical fiber were aligned by simple positional control for the vertical direction of the PLC device chip under a particular condition. The insertion loss of the proposed 1 x 2 multimode optical splitter device interconnection was 4.0 dB at 850 nm and the coupling loss was below 0.1 dB compared with single-fiber based active alignment.

  8. Tunable optical limiting optofluidic device filled with graphene oxide dispersion in ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Chaolong; Dai, Bo; Hong, Ruijin; Tao, Chunxian; Wang, Qi; Wang, Xu; Zhang, Dawei; Zhuang, Songlin

    2015-01-01

    An optofluidic device with tunable optical limiting property is proposed and demonstrated. The optofluidic device is designed for adjusting the concentration of graphene oxide (GO) in the ethanol solution and fabricated by photolithography technique. By controlling the flow rate ratio of the injection, the concentration of GO can be precisely adjusted so that the optical nonlinearity can be changed. The nonlinear optical properties and dynamic excitation relaxation of the GO/ethanol solution are investigated by using Z-scan and pump-probe measurements in the femtosecond regime within the 1.5 μm telecom band. The GO/ethanol solution presents ultrafast recovery time. Besides, the optical limiting property is in proportion to the concentration of the solution. Thus, the threshold power and the saturated power of the optical limiting property can be simply and efficiently manipulated by controlling the flow rate ratio of the injection. Furthermore, the amplitude regeneration is demonstrated by employing the proposed optofluidic device. The signal quality of intensity-impaired femtosecond pulse is significantly improved. The optofluidic device is compact and has long interaction length of optical field and nonlinear material. Heat can be dissipated in the solution and nonlinear material is isolated from other optical components, efficiently avoiding thermal damage and mechanical damage. PMID:26477662

  9. Pixelized Device Control Actuators for Large Adaptive Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knowles, Gareth J.; Bird, Ross W.; Shea, Brian; Chen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    A fully integrated, compact, adaptive space optic mirror assembly has been developed, incorporating new advances in ultralight, high-performance composite mirrors. The composite mirrors use Q-switch matrix architecture-based pixelized control (PMN-PT) actuators, which achieve high-performance, large adaptive optic capability, while reducing the weight of present adaptive optic systems. The self-contained, fully assembled, 11x11x4-in. (approx.= 28x28x10-cm) unit integrates a very-high-performance 8-in. (approx.=20-cm) optic, and has 8-kHz true bandwidth. The assembled unit weighs less than 15 pounds (=6.8 kg), including all mechanical assemblies, power electronics, control electronics, drive electronics, face sheet, wiring, and cabling. It requires just three wires to be attached (power, ground, and signal) for full-function systems integration, and uses a steel-frame and epoxied electronics. The three main innovations are: 1. Ultralightweight composite optics: A new replication method for fabrication of very thin composite 20-cm-diameter laminate face sheets with good as-fabricated optical figure was developed. The approach is a new mandrel resin surface deposition onto previously fabricated thin composite laminates. 2. Matrix (regenerative) power topology: Waveform correction can be achieved across an entire face sheet at 6 kHz, even for large actuator counts. In practice, it was found to be better to develop a quadrant drive, that is, four quadrants of 169 actuators behind the face sheet. Each quadrant has a single, small, regenerative power supply driving all 169 actuators at 8 kHz in effective parallel. 3. Q-switch drive architecture: The Q-switch innovation is at the heart of the matrix architecture, and allows for a very fast current draw into a desired actuator element in 120 counts of a MHz clock without any actuator coupling.

  10. Deep ultraviolet laser micromachining of novel fibre optic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Dou, J.; Herman, P. R.; Fricke-Begemann, T.; Ihlemann, J.; Marowsky, G.

    2007-04-01

    A deep ultraviolet F2 laser, with output at 157-nm wavelength, has been adopted for micro-shaping the end facets of single and multi-mode silica optical fibres. The high energy 7.9-eV photons drive strong interactions in the wide-bandgap silica fibres to enable the fabrication of surface-relief microstructures with high spatial resolution and smooth surface morphology. Diffraction gratings, focusing lenses, and Mach-Zehnder interferometric structures have been micromachined onto the cleaved-fibre facets and optically characterized. F2-laser micromachining is shown to be a rapid and facile means for direct-writing of novel infibre photonic components.

  11. Electro-optical device for monitoring wire size

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcher, E. E.; Kelly, W. L., IV

    1973-01-01

    Device recognizes variations in wire size and is being used during computer memory-plane fabrication. Decrease in wire diameter, due to stretching, permits removal of wire from memory-plant mold. Monitoring provides means of detecting imperfect wire and permits fabrication of computer memory plane to be stopped prior to its insertion into mold.

  12. Optic Nerve Head Measurements With Optical Coherence Tomography: A Phantom-Based Study Reveals Differences Among Clinical Devices

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Anant; Baxi, Jigesh; Calhoun, William; Chen, Chieh-Li; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Schuman, Joel S.; Wollstein, Gadi; Hammer, Daniel X.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Optical coherence tomography (OCT) can monitor for glaucoma by measuring dimensions of the optic nerve head (ONH) cup and disc. Multiple clinical studies have shown that different OCT devices yield different estimates of retinal dimensions. We developed phantoms mimicking ONH morphology as a new way to compare ONH measurements from different clinical OCT devices. Methods Three phantoms were fabricated to model the ONH: One normal and two with glaucomatous anatomies. Phantoms were scanned with Stratus, RTVue, and Cirrus clinical devices, and with a laboratory OCT system as a reference. We analyzed device-reported ONH measurements of cup-to-disc ratio (CDR) and cup volume and compared them with offline measurements done manually and with a custom software algorithm, respectively. Results The mean absolute difference between clinical devices with device-reported measurements versus offline measurements was 0.082 vs. 0.013 for CDR and 0.044 mm3 vs. 0.019 mm3 for cup volume. Statistically significant differences between devices were present for 16 of 18 comparisons of device-reported measurements from the phantoms. Offline Cirrus measurements tended to be significantly different from those from Stratus and RTVue. Conclusions The interdevice differences in CDR and cup volume are primarily caused by the devices' proprietary ONH analysis algorithms. The three devices yield more similar ONH measurements when a consistent offline analysis technique is applied. Scan pattern on the ONH also may be a factor in the measurement differences. This phantom-based study has provided unique insights into characteristics of OCT measurements of the ONH. PMID:27409500

  13. Thermo-optic coefficient of polyisobutylene ultrathin films measured with integrated photonic devices.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hong Seok; Neiroukh, Dania; Hunt, Heather K; Armani, Andrea M

    2012-01-10

    The optical properties of polymeric materials, such as transmission loss and the thermo-optic coefficient, determine their utility in numerous applications, ranging from nanotechnology to the automotive and aerospace industries. However, because of the wide variation in the physical properties of polymers, many are unsuited for characterization using conventional techniques; consequently, their optical properties are unknown. One such polymer is polyisobutylene, which is viscous at room temperature and therefore is not compatible with conventional transmission loss and the thermo-optic coefficient characterization techniques because they rely on contact measurements. To overcome this, we have developed an integrated, microscale optical sensor that relies on an evanescent wave to study the material's optical behavior. Using this device, we successfully determined the refractive index, the transmission loss, and the thermo-optic coefficient of ultrathin films of polyisobutylene. The films are deposited on the sensor's silica surface using either spin coating or surface-initiated cationic polymerization, demonstrating the flexibility of this approach.

  14. Infrared Optical Properties of β-Spodumene Solid Solution Glass-Ceramic for Fiber-Optic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Akihiko; Yamamoto, Shigeru

    2006-09-01

    The IR optical properties of an opaque β-spodumene solid solution (s.s.) glass-ceramic for fiber-optic devices were studied in relation to its refractive indices in both crystalline and glass phases. We investigated the refractive indices of both phases on the basis of IR transmittance change due to the structural relaxation of the glass phase. The refractive indices of this β-spodumene s.s. glass-ceramic at a wavelength of 1550 nm in the crystalline and glass phases were first determined to be 1.530 and 1.495, respectively. It was found from the refractive index data that the optical scattering intensity of this glass-ceramic approximately follows the Rayleigh-Gans model. We also demonstrated that the inner diameter of an opaque glass-ceramic capillary used in optical fiber connectors can be optically measured with a sub-micrometer accuracy using an IR laser.

  15. Optical 1's and 2's complement devices using lithium-niobate-based waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Amrindra; Kumar, Santosh; Sharma, Sandeep

    2016-12-01

    Optical 1's and 2's complement devices are proposed with the help of lithium-niobate-based Mach-Zehnder interferometers. It has a powerful capability of switching an optical signal from one port to the other port with the help of an electrical control signal. The paper includes the optical conversion scheme using sets of optical switches. 2's complement is common in computer systems and is used in binary subtraction and logical manipulation. The operation of the circuits is studied theoretically and analyzed through numerical simulations. The truth table of these complement methods is verified with the beam propagation method and MATLAB® simulation results.

  16. Precision guided parachute LDRD final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gilkey, J.C.

    1996-07-01

    This report summarizes the results of the Precision Guided Parachute LDRD, a two year program at Sandia National Laboratories which developed a Global Positioning System (GPS) guided parachute capable of autonomous flight and landings. A detailed computer model of a gliding parachute was developed for software only simulations. A hardware in-the-loop simulator was developed and used for flight package system integration and design validation. Initial parachute drop tests were conducted at Sandia`s Coyote Canyon Cable Facility, followed by a series of airdrops using Ross Aircraft`s Twin Otter at the Burris Ranch Drop Zone. Final flights demonstrated in-flight wind estimation and the capability to fly a commanded heading. In the past, the cost and logistical complexity of an initial navigation system ruled out actively guiding a parachute. The advent of the low-cost, light-weight Global Positioning System (GPS) has eliminated this barrier. By using GPS position and velocity measurements, a guided parachute can autonomously steer itself to a targeted point on the ground through the use of control drums attached to the control lanyards of the parachute. By actively correcting for drop point errors and wind drift, the guidance accuracy of this system should be on the order of GPS position errors. This would be a significant improvement over unguided airdrops which may have errors of a mile or more.

  17. ICF Program: LDRD-ER Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Glenzer, S H

    2004-02-05

    In the 01-ERD-107 LDRD-ER project, we have performed novel Thomson scattering experiments at the Trident and Omega laser facilities and provided high quality spectral data. These results have led to the development of the first quantitative understanding of laser-plasma interactions for NIF plasmas. For this purpose an green/ultraviolet probe laser, built for Nova in 1998 [1] and successfully used to measure both temperature and plasma wave amplitudes [2], has been deployed on Omega. The Thomson scattering diagnostics has been used twofold: (1) it provided independent measurements of the plasma electron and ion temperature, the plasma flow velocity, or the electron distribution function; (2) it provided measurements of the primary plasma wave and their secondary non-linear decay wave products. These experiments at Omega provide definitive quantitative results on the nonlinear saturation of stimulated Raman scattering for green (2{omega}) beams. In addition, the experiments on the Trident laser have led to a quantitative understanding of the stimulated Brillouin scattering in low-Z plasmas. A nonlinear frequency detuning model has successfully explained all the experimental observable including the SBS reflectivity. This model has been implemented into the laser-plasma interaction code pF3D as a tool to design and optimize NIF target experiments with SBS and SRS losses included. The development of quantitative models for SBS and SRS for various regimes has now been adopted as part of the WBS1 project within the ICF program.

  18. Stereotaxic Device for Optical Imaging of Mice Hind Feet

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Richard; Hoffman, Timothy; Smith, Jason; Herron, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Imaging of in vivo model systems, especially mouse models, has revolutionized our understanding of normal and pathological developments. However, mice present several challenges for imaging. They are living and therefore breathing organisms with a fast heart rate (>500 beat/min), which necessitates the need for restraints and positioning controls that do not compromise their normal physiology. We present here a device that immobilizes the rear legs of a mouse while retaining the ability to position both the hind feet and legs for reproducible imaging deep below the skin's surface. The device is highly adjustable to accommodate mice, 5 weeks of age and older. The function of this device is demonstrated by imaging the vasculature ∼250 μm beneath the skin in the hind leg. Whereas the overall dimensions are for a motorized stage (Märzhäuser Wetzlar GmbH, Wetzlar, Germany), minor modifications would allow it to be customized for use with most commercially available stages that accept an insert. PMID:23997660

  19. Enhanced Nonlinear Optical Devices Using Artificial Slow-Light Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-19

    nature is our study of the limitations on the performance of slow light waveguides, both in the linear and nonlinear regimes. This work is based upon...interaction, and others (e.g. resonant-enhanced Mach-Zehnder interferometers, or REMZI) do not. We have also performed studies in the linear regime...optical filter configurations, primarily in terms of their linear response. One of the limitations of this approach is that designs cannot always be

  20. Integrated acoustooptic device modules for optical information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Chen S.

    1988-07-01

    The objectives of this program year are focused on design, fabrication, and testing of wideband guided wave AO Bragg diffraction from surface acoustic waves in Gallium arsenide optical waveguides and conception/realization of multichannel integrated acousto-optics and electrooptics Bragg modulator modules in TIPE microlenses-based lithium niobates and GaAs channel-planar composite waveguides with applications to signal processing and computing. Wideband GaAs waveguide AO Bragg cells that operate in the acoustic frequency range from 300 to 1200 MHz have been realized. This represents realization of GHz GaAs waveguide AO Bragg cells shows that monolithically integrated optic signal processors such as radiofrequency spectrum analyzers may be fabricated in a common GaAs chip. Multichannel single-mode electrooptic cutoff modulator arrays and Bragg diffraction modulator arrays have been successfully realized in GaAs. One of the vital and remaining components toward monolithic (total) integration in GaAs is the waveguide microlens and linear lens array. Fabrication of negative index-change planar waveguide microlenses in both LiNbO3 and GaAs using ion milling. The waveguide lenses that have been fabricated and tested include single lenses and lens arrays of analog Fresnel, chirp grating, and hybrid analog Fresnel chirp grating types. We have obtained near diffraction-limited spot sizes and good efficiencies in such preliminary components.

  1. Integration of waveguides for optical detection in microfabricated analytical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutter, Joerg P.; Mogensen, Klaus B.; Friis, Peter; Jorgensen, Anders M.; Petersen, Nickolaj J.; Telleman, Pieter; Huebner, Joerg

    2000-08-01

    Buried optical channel waveguides integrated with a fluidic channel network on a planar microdevice are presented. The waveguides were fabricated using silica-on-silicon technology with the goal to replace bulk optical elements and facilitate various optical detection techniques for miniaturized total analysis systems or lab-on-a-chip systems. Waveguide structures with core layers doped with germanium were employed for fluorescence measurements, while waveguides with nitrogen- only doped core layers were used for absorbance measurements. By the elimination of germanium oxygen deficiency centers transmission of light down to 210nm was possible, allowing absorance measurements in the mid and far UV region (210 to 280nm), which is the region where a large number of different molecules absorb light. Robust, alignment-free microdevices, which can easily be hooked up to a number of light sources and detectors were used for fluorescence measurements of two dyes, fluorescein and Bodipy, and absorbance measurements of a stres-reducing drug, propranolol. The lowest detected concentrations were 250pM for fluorescein, 100nM for Bodipy and 12(mu) M for propranolol.

  2. Stand-alone scattering optical device using holographic photopolymer (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jongchan; Lee, KyeoReh; Park, YongKeun

    2016-03-01

    When a light propagates through highly disordered medium, its optical parameters such as amplitude, phase and polarization states are completely scrambled because of multiple scattering events. Since the multiple scattering is a fundamental optical process that contains extremely high degrees of freedom, optical information of a transmitted light is totally mingled. Until recently, the presence of multiple scattering in an inhomogeneous medium is considered as a major obstacle when manipulating a light transmitting through the medium. However, a recent development of wavefront shaping techniques enable us to control the propagation of light through turbid media; a light transmitting through a turbid medium can be effectively controlled by modulating the spatial profile of the incident light using spatial light modulator. In this work, stand-alone scattering optical device is proposed; a holographic photopolymer film, which is much economic compared to the other digital spatial light modulators, is used to record and reconstruct permanent wavefront to generate optical field behind a scattering medium. By employing our method, arbitrary optical field can be generated since the scattering medium completely mixes all the optical parameters which allow us to access all the optical information only by modulating spatial phase profile of the impinging wavefront. The method is experimentally demonstrated in both the far-field and near-field regime where it shows promising fidelity and stability. The proposed stand-alone scattering optical device will opens up new avenues for exploiting the randomness inherent in disordered medium.

  3. 3D printing of tissue-simulating phantoms for calibration of biomedical optical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zuhua; Zhou, Ximing; Shen, Shuwei; Liu, Guangli; Yuan, Li; Meng, Yuquan; Lv, Xiang; Shao, Pengfei; Dong, Erbao; Xu, Ronald X.

    2016-10-01

    Clinical utility of many biomedical optical devices is limited by the lack of effective and traceable calibration methods. Optical phantoms that simulate biological tissues used for optical device calibration have been explored. However, these phantoms can hardly simulate both structural and optical properties of multi-layered biological tissue. To address this limitation, we develop a 3D printing production line that integrates spin coating, light-cured 3D printing and Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) for freeform fabrication of optical phantoms with mechanical and optical heterogeneities. With the gel wax Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and colorless light-curable ink as matrix materials, titanium dioxide (TiO2) powder as the scattering ingredient, graphite powder and black carbon as the absorption ingredient, a multilayer phantom with high-precision is fabricated. The absorption and scattering coefficients of each layer are measured by a double integrating sphere system. The results demonstrate that the system has the potential to fabricate reliable tissue-simulating phantoms to calibrate optical imaging devices.

  4. A new electro-optic waveguide architecture and the unprecedented devices it enables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Scott R.; Rommel, Scott D.; Farca, George; Anderson, Michael H.

    2008-04-01

    A new electro-optic waveguide platform, which provides unprecedented electro-optical phase delays (> 1mm), with very low loss (< 0.5 dB/cm) and rapid response time (sub millisecond), is presented. This technology, developed by Vescent Photonics, is based upon a unique liquid-crystal waveguide geometry, which exploits the tremendous electro-optic response of liquid crystals while circumventing historic limitations of liquid crystals. The exceedingly large optical phase delays accessible with this technology enable the design and construction of a new class of previously unrealizable photonic devices. Examples include: a 1-D non-mechanical, analog beamsteerer with an 80° field of regard, a chip-scale widely tunable laser, a chip-scale Fourier transform spectrometer (< 5 nm resolution demonstrated), widely tunable micro-ring resonators, tunable lenses, ultra-low power (< 5 microWatts) optical switches, true optical time delay (up to 10 ns), and many more. All of these devices may benefit from established manufacturing technologies and ultimately may be as inexpensive as a calculator display. Furthermore, this new integrated photonic architecture has applications in a wide array of commercial and defense markets including: remote sensing, micro-LADAR, OCT, laser illumination, phased array radar, optical communications, etc. Performance attributes of several example devices are presented.

  5. Novel fiber optic tip designs and devices for laser surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchens, Thomas Clifton

    Fiber optic delivery of laser energy has been used for years in various types of surgical procedures in the human body. Optical energy provides several benefits over electrical or mechanical surgery, including the ability to selectively target specific tissue types while preserving others. Specialty fiber optic tips have also been introduced to further customize delivery of laser energy to the tissue. Recent evolution in lasers and miniaturization has opened up opportunities for many novel surgical techniques. Currently, ophthalmic surgeons use relatively invasive mechanical tools to dissect retinal deposits which occur in proliferative diabetic retinopathy. By using the tight focusing properties of microspheres combined with the short optical penetration depth of the Erbium:YAG laser and mid-IR fiber delivery, a precise laser scalpel can be constructed as an alternative, less invasive and more precise approach to this surgery. Chains of microspheres may allow for a self limiting ablation depth of approximately 10 microm based on the defocusing of paraxial rays. The microsphere laser scalpel may also be integrated with other surgical instruments to reduce the total number of handpieces for the surgeon. In current clinical laser lithotripsy procedures, poor input coupling of the Holmium:YAG laser energy frequently damages and requires discarding of the optical fiber. However, recent stone ablation studies with the Thulium fiber laser have provided comparable results to the Ho:YAG laser. The improved spatial beam profile of the Thulium fiber laser can also be efficiently coupled into a fiber approximately one third the diameter and reduces the risk of damaging the fiber input. For this reason, the trunk optical fiber minus the distal fiber tip can be preserved between procedures. The distal fiber tip, which degrades during stone ablation, could be made detachable and disposable. A novel, low-profile, twist-locking, detachable distal fiber tip interface was designed

  6. Silicon nanophotonic integrated devices enabling multiplexed on-chip optical interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Daoxin; Wang, Jian; Chen, Sitao

    2015-05-01

    Advanced multiplexing technologies including wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM), polarization-division multiplexing (PDM), and mode-division multiplexing (MDM) have been utilized as a cost-effective solution to enhance the capacity of an optical-interconnect link. The on-chip (de)multiplexers, including WDM filters, PDM devices, and MDM devices, are the most important key components in a multi-channel multiplexed optical interconnect system. Hybrid (de)multiplexer to enable various multiplexing technologies simultaneously are becoming more and more important to achieve many channels. In this paper we give a review for our recent work on silicon photonic integrated devices for realizing multi-channel multiplexed on-chip optical interconnects.

  7. Idaho National Laboratory Annual Report FY 2013 LDRD Project Summaries

    SciTech Connect

    Dena Tomchak

    2014-03-01

    The FY 2013 LDRD Annual Report is a compendium of the diverse research performed to develop and ensure the INL’s technical capabilities support the current and future DOE missions and national research priorities. LDRD is essential to INL—it provides a means for the Laboratory to maintain scientific and technical vitality while funding highly innovative, high-risk science and technology research and development (R&D) projects. The program enhances technical capabilities at the Laboratory, providing scientific and engineering staff with opportunities to explore proof-of-principle ideas, advanced studies of innovative concepts, and preliminary technical analyses. Established by Congress in 1991, the LDRD Program proves its benefit each year through new programs, intellectual property, patents, copyrights, national and international awards, and publications.

  8. Optical logic and signal processing using a semiconductor laser diode-based optical bistability device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuancheng; Song, Qian; He, Shaowei

    1995-02-01

    Using an optical fibre-coupled semiconductor laser diode OBD with output feedback pumping operation in 5 modes (differential gain, bistability, zero-bias, inverted differential gain, and inverted bistability) has been realized respectively, and 5 elementary optical logic functions (AND, OR, NOT, NAND, and NOR) and some optical signal processing such as limiting, reshaping, and triggering have been implemented.

  9. High-speed optical processing using digital micromirror device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Lu, Thomas; Walker, Brian; Reyes, George

    2014-04-01

    We have designed optical processing architecture and algorithms utilizing the DMD as the input and filter Spatial Light Modulators (SLM). Detailed system analysis will be depicted. Experimental demonstration, for the first time, showing that a complex-valued spatial filtered can be successfully written on the DMDSLM using a Computer Generated Hologram (CGH) [1] encoding technique will also be provided. The high-resolution, high-bandwidth provided by the DMD and its potential low cost due to mass production will enable its vast defense and civil application.

  10. Reduction of surface roughness for optical quality microfluidic devices in PMMA and COC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogilvie, I. R. G.; Sieben, V. J.; Floquet, C. F. A.; Zmijan, R.; Mowlem, M. C.; Morgan, H.

    2010-06-01

    A rapid and low-cost technique is presented for the fabrication of optical quality microfluidic devices in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) or cyclic olefin copolymer (COC). When polymer microfluidic devices are manufactured by rapid prototyping techniques, such as micromilling, the surface roughness is typically in the region of hundreds of nanometres reducing the overall optical efficiency of many microfluidic-based systems. Here we demonstrate a novel solvent vapour treatment that is used to irreversibly bond microfluidic chips while simultaneously reducing the channel surface roughness, yielding optical grade (less than 15 nm surface roughness) channel walls. We characterize this vapour bonding method and optimize the process parameters to avoid channel collapse, while achieving reflow of polymer and uniformity of bonding. The reflow of polymer is the key to enabling a fabrication process that takes less than a day and produces optical quality surfaces with low-cost rapid prototyping tools.

  11. Design of illumination and projection optics for projectors with single digital micromirror devices.

    PubMed

    Chang, C M; Shieh, H P

    2000-07-01

    We present a new optical system design for a projector with a single digital micromirror device (Texas Instruments Digital Micromirror Device) that improves on previous designs in terms of optical efficiency, uniformity, and contrast while yielding a low-profile and compact system. A rod integrator is incorporated with a compact relay system to maximize light efficiency and to increase illumination uniformity. The uniformity achieved by the optimized optical system was calculated to be 94%. In addition, this unique light-separator design has dual output channels to increase the image contrast by steering the off-state light away from the projection lens. This projector design provides very efficient light utilization, and we discuss how the geometrical optical efficiency of the system can be boosted to approach the theoretical maximum.

  12. Accurate analysis of planar optical waveguide devices using higher-order FDTD scheme.

    PubMed

    Kong, Fanmin; Li, Kang; Liu, Xin

    2006-11-27

    A higher-order finite-difference time-domain (HO-FDTD) numerical method is proposed for the time-domain analysis of planar optical waveguide devices. The anisotropic perfectly matched layer (APML) absorbing boundary condition for the HO-FDTD scheme is implemented and the numerical dispersion of this scheme is studied. The numerical simulations for the parallel-slab directional coupler are presented and the computing results using this scheme are in highly accordance with analytical solutions. Compared with conventional FDTD method, this scheme can save considerable computational resource without sacrificing solution accuracy and especially could be applied in the accurate analysis of optical devices.

  13. Combined Raman spectroscopy and optical coherence tomography device for tissue characterization

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Chetan A.; Bosschaart, Nienke; Keller, Matthew D.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita

    2009-01-01

    We report a dual-modal device capable of sequential acquisition of Raman spectroscopy (RS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) along a common optical axis. The device enhances application of both RS and OCT by precisely guiding RS acquisition with OCT images while also compensating for the lack of molecular specificity in OCT with the biochemical specificity of RS. We characterize the system performance and demonstrate the capability to identify structurally ambiguous features within an OCT image with RS in a scattering phantom, guide acquisition of RS from a localized malignancy in ex vivo breast tissue, and perform in vivo tissue analysis of a scab. PMID:18483537

  14. Generating optical superimposed vortex beam with tunable orbital angular momentum using integrated devices

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Feng, Xue; Zhang, Dengke; Zhao, Peng; Li, Xiangdong; Cui, Kaiyu; Liu, Fang; Huang, Yidong

    2015-01-01

    An integrated device, which consists of a variable amplitude splitter and an orbital angular momentum (OAM) emitter, is proposed for the superposition of optical vortex beams. With fixed wavelength and power of incident beam, the OAM of the radiated optical superimposed vortex beam can be dynamically tuned. To verify the operating principle, the proposed device has been fabricated on the SOI substrate and experimentally measured. The experimental results confirm the tunability of superimposed vortex beams. Moreover, the ability of independently varying the OAM flux and the geometric distribution of intensity is illustrated and discussed with numerical simulation. We believe that this work would be promising in various applications. PMID:26190669

  15. Recent developments in optical detection technologies in lab-on-a-chip devices for biosensing applications.

    PubMed

    Pires, Nuno Miguel Matos; Dong, Tao; Hanke, Ulrik; Hoivik, Nils

    2014-08-21

    The field of microfluidics has yet to develop practical devices that provide real clinical value. One of the main reasons for this is the difficulty in realizing low-cost, sensitive, reproducible, and portable analyte detection microfluidic systems. Previous research has addressed two main approaches for the detection technologies in lab-on-a-chip devices: (a) study of the compatibility of conventional instrumentation with microfluidic structures, and (b) integration of innovative sensors contained within the microfluidic system. Despite the recent advances in electrochemical and mechanical based sensors, their drawbacks pose important challenges to their application in disposable microfluidic devices. Instead, optical detection remains an attractive solution for lab-on-a-chip devices, because of the ubiquity of the optical methods in the laboratory. Besides, robust and cost-effective devices for use in the field can be realized by integrating proper optical detection technologies on chips. This review examines the recent developments in detection technologies applied to microfluidic biosensors, especially addressing several optical methods, including fluorescence, chemiluminescence, absorbance and surface plasmon resonance.

  16. Recent Developments in Optical Detection Technologies in Lab-on-a-Chip Devices for Biosensing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Pires, Nuno Miguel Matos; Dong, Tao; Hanke, Ulrik; Hoivik, Nils

    2014-01-01

    The field of microfluidics has yet to develop practical devices that provide real clinical value. One of the main reasons for this is the difficulty in realizing low-cost, sensitive, reproducible, and portable analyte detection microfluidic systems. Previous research has addressed two main approaches for the detection technologies in lab-on-a-chip devices: (a) study of the compatibility of conventional instrumentation with microfluidic structures, and (b) integration of innovative sensors contained within the microfluidic system. Despite the recent advances in electrochemical and mechanical based sensors, their drawbacks pose important challenges to their application in disposable microfluidic devices. Instead, optical detection remains an attractive solution for lab-on-a-chip devices, because of the ubiquity of the optical methods in the laboratory. Besides, robust and cost-effective devices for use in the field can be realized by integrating proper optical detection technologies on chips. This review examines the recent developments in detection technologies applied to microfluidic biosensors, especially addressing several optical methods, including fluorescence, chemiluminescence, absorbance and surface plasmon resonance. PMID:25196161

  17. Information measurement system based on the device for evaluation of optical surface quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izotov, Pavel Y.

    2016-03-01

    The work describes steps taken in order to create the information-measurement system based on the device for evaluation of surface cleanliness and smoothness of optical substrates. The approach used leads to the improvement the stability and accuracy of measurements. Structural changes applied to both the software and hardware of the device which allowed retrieval of better quality images during the course of measurements are designated. Problems emerged during the implementation of the system and their solutions are described.

  18. Gas sensor technology at Sandia National Laboratories: Catalytic gate, Surface Acoustic Wave and Fiber Optic Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, R.C.; Moreno, D.J.; Jenkins, M.W.; Rodriguez, J.L.

    1993-10-01

    Sandia`s gas sensor program encompasses three separate electronic platforms: Acoustic Wave Devices, Fiber Optic Sensors and sensors based on silicon microelectronic devices. A review of most of these activities was presented recently in a article in Science under the title ``Chemical Microsensors.`` The focus of the program has been on understanding and developing the chemical sensor coatings that are necessary for using these electronic platforms as effective chemical sensors.

  19. Photonics and application of dipyrrinates in the optical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksenova, Iu; Bashkirtsev, D.; Prokopenko, A.; Kuznetsova, R.; Dudina, N.; Berezin, M.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper spectral-luminescent, lasing, photochemical, and sensory characteristics of a number of Zn(II) and B(III) coordination complexes with dipyrrinates with different structures are presented. We have discussed relations of the structure of investigated compounds and formed solvates with their optical characteristics. The results showed that alkyl substituted dipyrrinates derivatives have excellent luminescent characteristics and demonstrated effective lasing upon excitation of Nd:YAG-laser. They can be used as active media for liquid tunable lasers. Zinc and boron fluoride complexes of dipyrrinates with heavy atoms in structure don't have fluorescence but have long-lived emission due to increased nonradiative intersystem processes in the excited state by the mechanism of a heavy atom. For solid samples based on halogenated complexes was found dependency of the long-lived emission intensity of the oxygen concentration in gas flow. The presence of line segment indicates the possibility of the use of these complexes as a basis for creation of optical sensors for oxygen. Moreover, results of a study of halogen-substituted aza-complexes under irradiation are presented. Such complexes are promising for the creating media for generation of singlet oxygen (1O2), which is important for photodynamic therapy in medicine and photocatalytic reactions in the industry.

  20. Multiscale modeling and computation of optically manipulated nano devices

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, Gang; Liu, Di; Luo, Songting

    2016-07-01

    We present a multiscale modeling and computational scheme for optical-mechanical responses of nanostructures. The multi-physical nature of the problem is a result of the interaction between the electromagnetic (EM) field, the molecular motion, and the electronic excitation. To balance accuracy and complexity, we adopt the semi-classical approach that the EM field is described classically by the Maxwell equations, and the charged particles follow the Schrödinger equations quantum mechanically. To overcome the numerical challenge of solving the high dimensional multi-component many-body Schrödinger equations, we further simplify the model with the Ehrenfest molecular dynamics to determine the motion of the nuclei, and use the Time-Dependent Current Density Functional Theory (TD-CDFT) to calculate the excitation of the electrons. This leads to a system of coupled equations that computes the electromagnetic field, the nuclear positions, and the electronic current and charge densities simultaneously. In the regime of linear responses, the resonant frequencies initiating the out-of-equilibrium optical-mechanical responses can be formulated as an eigenvalue problem. A self-consistent multiscale method is designed to deal with the well separated space scales. The isomerization of azobenzene is presented as a numerical example.

  1. Spatial transformation-enabled electromagnetic devices: from radio frequencies to optical wavelengths

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zhi Hao; Turpin, Jeremy P.; Morgan, Kennith; Lu, Bingqian; Werner, Douglas H.

    2015-01-01

    Transformation optics provides scientists and engineers with a new powerful design paradigm to manipulate the flow of electromagnetic waves in a user-defined manner and with unprecedented flexibility, by controlling the spatial distribution of the electromagnetic properties of a medium. Using this approach, over the past decade, various previously undiscovered physical wave phenomena have been revealed and novel electromagnetic devices have been demonstrated throughout the electromagnetic spectrum. In this paper, we present versatile theoretical and experimental investigations on designing transformation optics-enabled devices for shaping electromagnetic wave radiation and guidance, at both radio frequencies and optical wavelengths. Different from conventional coordinate transformations, more advanced and versatile coordinate transformations are exploited here to benefit diverse applications, thereby providing expanded design flexibility, enhanced device performance, as well as reduced implementation complexity. These design examples demonstrate the comprehensive capability of transformation optics in controlling electromagnetic waves, while the associated novel devices will open up new paths towards future integrated electromagnetic component synthesis and design, from microwave to optical spectral regimes. PMID:26217054

  2. Spatial transformation-enabled electromagnetic devices: from radio frequencies to optical wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhi Hao; Turpin, Jeremy P; Morgan, Kennith; Lu, Bingqian; Werner, Douglas H

    2015-08-28

    Transformation optics provides scientists and engineers with a new powerful design paradigm to manipulate the flow of electromagnetic waves in a user-defined manner and with unprecedented flexibility, by controlling the spatial distribution of the electromagnetic properties of a medium. Using this approach, over the past decade, various previously undiscovered physical wave phenomena have been revealed and novel electromagnetic devices have been demonstrated throughout the electromagnetic spectrum. In this paper, we present versatile theoretical and experimental investigations on designing transformation optics-enabled devices for shaping electromagnetic wave radiation and guidance, at both radio frequencies and optical wavelengths. Different from conventional coordinate transformations, more advanced and versatile coordinate transformations are exploited here to benefit diverse applications, thereby providing expanded design flexibility, enhanced device performance, as well as reduced implementation complexity. These design examples demonstrate the comprehensive capability of transformation optics in controlling electromagnetic waves, while the associated novel devices will open up new paths towards future integrated electromagnetic component synthesis and design, from microwave to optical spectral regimes.

  3. Fabrication and Optical Recombination in III-Nitride Microstructures and Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-10-01

    Fabrication and optical investigations of III-nitride microstructures Our group has pioneered the fabrication of micro - and nano -size photonic... pumped individual III-nitride micro -size LEDs and micro -LED arrays and observed enhanced quantum efficiencies. The micro -size LEDs were fabricated...quality III-nitride QWs, heterostructures, microstructures, and micro -devices and to study their optical and optoeletronic properties. By optimizing

  4. Comparative measurements of the level of turbulence atmosphere by optical and acoustic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukin, V. P.; Botugina, N. N.; Gladkih, V. A.; Emaleev, O. N.; Konyaev, P. A.; Odintsov, S. L.; Torgaev, A. V.

    2014-11-01

    The complex measurements of level of atmospheric turbulence are conducted by the differential measurement device of turbulence (DMT), wave-front sensor (WFS), and also by ultrasonic weather-stations. Daytime measurements of structure parameters of refractive index of atmospheric turbulence carried out on horizontal optical paths on the Base Experimental Complex (BEC) of V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics SB RAS (IOA). A comparative analysis over of the got results is brought.

  5. Standard source for certification of optical-electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fastova, Natalia I.; Maraev, Anton A.; Ishanin, Gennady G.

    2016-04-01

    To reduce the error at the certification of optoelectronic devices, sources and detectors of the standard sources and its diaphragm must be thermally stabilized in order to create a uniform background. We developed an uncooled model blackbody TCID-100 with working temperature up to 100°C with a thermally stabilized transmitter and the diaphragm set. The developed model is a cylinder made of red copper with a conical cavity. Cone length was chosen empirically to provide uniform heating over the entire length of the blackbody cavity. With the developed model, we conducted cavity temperature measurement transmitter, which enabled to evaluate the advantages and drawbacks of the blackbody design. In this article we examined models of blackbodies, the most popular types of cavities and the calculation of the thermal emissivity for them. We have designed blackbody and measured the cavity temperature change over the time.

  6. Electra-optical device including a nitrogen containing electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Bates, J.B.; Dudney, N.J.; Gruzalski, G.R.; Luck, C.F.

    1995-10-03

    Described is a thin-film battery, especially a thin-film microbattery, and a method for making same having application as a backup or primary integrated power source for electronic devices. The battery includes a novel electrolyte which is electrochemically stable and does not react with the lithium anode and a novel vanadium oxide cathode. Configured as a microbattery, the battery can be fabricated directly onto a semiconductor chip, onto the semiconductor die or onto any portion of the chip carrier. The battery can be fabricated to any specified size or shape to meet the requirements of a particular application. The battery is fabricated of solid state materials and is capable of operation between {minus}15 C and 150 C.

  7. Electra-optical device including a nitrogen containing electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Bates, John B.; Dudney, Nancy J.; Gruzalski, Greg R.; Luck, Christopher F.

    1995-01-01

    Described is a thin-film battery, especially a thin-film microbattery, and a method for making same having application as a backup or primary integrated power source for electronic devices. The battery includes a novel electrolyte which is electrochemically stable and does not react with the lithium anode and a novel vanadium oxide cathode Configured as a microbattery, the battery can be fabricated directly onto a semiconductor chip, onto the semiconductor die or onto any portion of the chip carrier. The battery can be fabricated to any specified size or shape to meet the requirements of a particular application. The battery is fabricated of solid state materials and is capable of operation between -15.degree. C. and 150.degree. C.

  8. Optical joint correlation using the deformable mirror device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knopp, Jerome

    1989-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the Deformable Mirror Device (DMD) developed by Texas Instruments at Dallas for use in object identification was completed. The DMD was tested as a joint correlator. The DMD was used as a spatial light modulator on which the squared modulus of the Fourier transform of test object pairs was written. The squared modulus was phase encoded on the DMD after it had been thresholded and rewritten as a binary phase function. The thresholding was found to produce a sharp peak in the autocorrelation when the test objects were matched and no significant peak in the case of distinct objects. It was concluded that the use of the DMD as a joint correlator looks promising and further studies should be carried out.

  9. Optical fiber loops and helices: tools for integrated photonic device characterization and microfluidic trapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yundong; Zhang, Rui; Ti, Chaoyang; Liu, Yuxiang

    2016-09-01

    Tapered optical fibers can deliver guided light into and carry light out of micro/nanoscale systems with low loss and high spatial resolution, which makes them ideal tools in integrated photonics and microfluidics. Special geometries of tapered fibers are desired for probing monolithic devices in plane as well as optical manipulation of micro particles in fluids. However, for many specially shaped tapered fibers, it remains a challenge to fabricate them in a straightforward, controllable, and repeatable way. In this work, we fabricated and characterized two special geometries of tapered optical fibers, namely fiber loops and helices, that could be switched between one and the other. The fiber loops in this work are distinct from previous ones in terms of their superior mechanical stability and high optical quality factors in air, thanks to a post-annealing process. We experimentally measured an intrinsic optical quality factor of 32,500 and a finesse of 137 from a fiber loop. A fiber helix was used to characterize a monolithic cavity optomechanical device. Moreover, a microfluidic "roller coaster" was demonstrated, where microscale particles in water were optically trapped and transported by a fiber helix. Tapered fiber loops and helices can find various applications ranging from on-the-fly characterization of integrated photonic devices to particle manipulation and sorting in microfluidics.

  10. Ultra-compact silicon photonic devices reconfigured by an optically induced semiconductor-to-metal transition.

    PubMed

    Ryckman, Judson D; Hallman, Kent A; Marvel, Robert E; Haglund, Richard F; Weiss, Sharon M

    2013-05-06

    Vanadium dioxide (VO(2)) is a promising reconfigurable optical material and has long been a focus of condensed matter research owing to its distinctive semiconductor-to-metal phase transition (SMT), a feature that has stimulated recent development of thermally reconfigurable photonic, plasmonic, and metamaterial structures. Here, we integrate VO(2) onto silicon photonic devices and demonstrate all-optical switching and reconfiguration of ultra-compact broadband Si-VO(2) absorption modulators (L < 1 μm) and ring-resonators (R ~ λ(0)). Optically inducing the SMT in a small, ~0.275 μm(2), active area of polycrystalline VO(2) enables Si-VO(2) structures to achieve record values of absorption modulation, ~4 dB μm(-1), and intracavity phase modulation, ~π/5 rad μm(-1). This in turn yields large, tunable changes to resonant wavelength, |Δλ(SMT)| ~ 3 nm, approximately 60 times larger than Si-only control devices, and enables reconfigurable filtering and optical modulation in excess of 7 dB from modest Q-factor (~10(3)), high-bandwidth ring resonators (>100 GHz). All-optical integrated Si-VO(2) devices thus constitute platforms for reconfigurable photonics, bringing new opportunities to realize dynamic on-chip networks and ultrafast optical shutters and modulators.

  11. Topics in Optical Materials and Device Research - II. Volume I.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    O & K1 v~~ o I T (, d T o -) a ( ,28L) 00t f jv C’i 6 a. a a.( yo V-1 r I 41rc (cra𔃻A eI- TI Il(v \\J) T21f TV */ o ,)vL Tc& 2~ IP LO/ Y.& ( Cr ...Region" Electron Lett. 14, pp 345-347 (1978). 4. K. Aoyama and J. Minowa "Low-Loss Optical Demultiplexer for WDM Systems in the O .8-pm Wavelength...rsnlzoeplt 41 TRASPAENTPHASE~r SHIFTING ZONES 00r Fig. 2 Phase reversal Fresnel zone plate d zn is the refractive index. 42 Fig. 3 Blazed Fresnel

  12. Advanced Silicon Microring Resonator Devices for Optical Signal Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masilamani, Ashok Prabhu

    Chip level optical interconnects has gained momentum with recent demonstrations of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) based photonic modules such as lasers, modulators, wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) filters, etc. A fundamental building block that has enabled many of these silicon photonic modules is the compact, high Q factor microring resonator cavity. However, most of these demonstrations have WDM processing components based on simple add-drop filters that cannot realize the dense WDM systems required for the chip level interconnects. Dense WDM filters have stringent spectral shape requirements such as flat-top filter passband, steep band transition etc. Optical filters that can meet these specifications involve precise placement of the poles and zeros of the filter transfer function. Realization of such filters requires the use of multiple coupled microring resonators arranged in complex coupling topologies. In this thesis we have proposed and demonstrated new multiple coupled resonator topologies based on compact microring resonators in SOI material system. First we explored novel microring architectures which resulted in the proposal of two new coupled microring architectures, namely, the general 2D microring array topology and the general cascaded microring network topology. We also developed the synthesis procedures for these two microring architectures. The second part of this thesis focussed on the demonstration of the proposed architectures in the SOI material system. To accomplish this, a fabrication process for SOI was developed at the UofA Nanofab facility. Using this process, ultra-compact single microring filters with microring radii as small as 1mum were demonstrated. Higher order filter demonstration with multiple microrings necessitated post-fabrication microring resonance tuning. We developed additional fabrication steps to install micro heaters on top of the microrings to thermally tune its resonance. Subsequently, a thermally tuned fourth

  13. FY04 LDRD Final Report Stroke Sensor Development Using Microdot Sensor Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, J C; Wilson, T S; Alvis, R M; Paulson, C N; Setlur, U S; McBride, M T; Brown, S B; Bearinger, J P; Colston, B W

    2005-11-15

    major thrust area for the Medical Technology Program (M-division). Through MTP, LLNL has a sizable investment and recognizable expertise in stroke treatment research. The proposed microdot array sensor for stroke will complement this existing program in which mechanical devices are being designed for removing the thrombus. The following list of stroke projects and their relative status shows that MTP has a proven track record of taking ideas to industry: The goal of this LDRD funded project was to develop and demonstrate a minimally invasive optical fiber-based sensor for rapid and in-vivo measurements of multiple stroke biomarkers (e.g. pH and enzyme). The development of this sensor also required the development of a new fabrication technology for attaching indicator chemistries to optical fibers. A benefit of this work is to provide clinicians with a tool to assess vascular integrity of the region beyond the thrombus to determine whether or not it is safe to proceed with the removal of the clot. Such an assessment could extend the use of thrombolytic drug treatment to acute stroke victims outside the current rigid temporal limitation of 3 hours. Furthermore, this sensor would also provide a tool for use with emerging treatments involving the use of mechanical devices for removing the thrombus. The sensor effectively assesses the risk for reperfusion injury.

  14. Eat-by-light fiber-optic and micro-optic devices for food quality and safety assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignani, A. G.; Ciaccheri, L.; Cucci, C.; Mencaglia, A. A.; Cimato, A.; Attilio, C.; Thienpont, H.; Ottevaere, H.; Paolesse, R.; Mastroianni, M.; Monti, D.; Buonocore, G.; Del Nobile, A.; Mentana, A.; Grimaldi, M. F.; Dall'Asta, C.; Faccini, A.; Galaverna, G.; Dossena, A.

    2007-06-01

    A selection is presented of fiber-optic and micro-optic devices that have been designed and tested for guaranteeing the quality and safety of typical foods, such as extra virgin olive oil, beer, and milk. Scattered colorimetry is used to authenticate various types of extra virgin olive oil and beer, while a fiber-optic-based device for UV-VIS-NIR absorption spectroscopy is exploited in order to obtain the hyperspectral optical signature of olive oil. This is done not only for authentication purposes, but also so as to correlate the spectral data with the content of fatty acids, which are important nutritional factors. A micro-optic sensor for the detection of olive oil aroma that is capable of distinguishing different ageing levels of extra virgin olive oil is also presented. It shows effective potential for acting as a smart cap of bottled olive oil in order to achieve a non-destructive olfactory perception of oil ageing. Lastly, a compact portable fluorometer for the rapid monitoring of the carcinogenic M1 aflatoxin in milk, is experimented.

  15. Eat-by-light: fiber-optic and micro-optic devices for food safety and quality assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignani, A. G.; Ciaccheri, L.; Cucci, C.; Mencaglia, A. A.; Cimato, A.; Attilio, C.; Thienpont, H.; Ottevaere, H.; Paolesse, R.; Mastroianni, M.; Monti, D.; Buonocore, G.; Del Nobile, A.; Mentana, A.; Dall'Asta, C.; Faccini, A.; Galaverna, G.; Dossena, A.

    2007-07-01

    A selection of fiber-optic and micro-optic devices is presented designed and tested for monitoring the quality and safety of typical foods, namely the extra virgin olive oil, the beer, and the milk. Scattered colorimetry is used for the authentication of various types of extra virgin olive oil and beer, while a fiber-optic-based device for UV-VIS-NIR absorption spectroscopy is exploited in order to obtain the hyperspectral optical signature of olive oil. This is done not only for authentication purposes, but also so as to correlate the spectral data with the content of fatty acids that are important nutritional factors. A micro-optic sensor for the detection of olive oil aroma is presented. It is capable of distinguishing different ageing levels of extra virgin olive oil. It shows effective potential for acting as a smart cap of bottled olive oil in order to achieve a non-destructive olfactory perception of oil ageing. Lastly, a compact portable fluorometer is experimented for the rapid monitoring of the carcinogenic M1 aflatoxin in milk.

  16. Electrode with transparent series resistance for uniform switching of optical modulation devices

    DOEpatents

    Tench, D. Morgan; Cunningham, Michael A.; Kobrin, Paul H.

    2008-01-08

    Switching uniformity of an optical modulation device for controlling the propagation of electromagnetic radiation is improved by use of an electrode comprising an electrically resistive layer that is transparent to the radiation. The resistive layer is preferably an innerlayer of a wide-bandgap oxide sandwiched between layers of indium tin oxide or another transparent conductor, and may be of uniform thickness, or may be graded so as to provide further improvement in the switching uniformity. The electrode may be used with electrochromic and reversible electrochemical mirror (REM) smart window devices, as well as display devices based on various technologies.

  17. Practical coupling device based on a two-core optical fiber.

    PubMed

    Vallée, R; Drolet, D

    1994-08-20

    A practical coupling device that relies on a dual-core fiber in a loop configuration is presented. Its coupling properties are analyzed in terms of the optical path difference between the cores, which is controlled by the rotation of the fiber about its axis and by a small twist applied to it along the loop. The device actually acts as an anisotropic coupler, and the coupled power can be perfectly controlled from 0-100% by proper adjustment of the loop. A simple implementation of the device was used in the fabrication of a compact single-fiber Michelson interferometer.

  18. Polarization and intensity correlations in stochastic electromagnetic beams upon interaction with devices of polarization optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacks, H. C.; Korotkova, O.

    2011-05-01

    Based on the recently formulated unified theory of coherence and polarization of light, we explore the behavior of the intensity-intensity correlations and the auxiliary quantity called the degree of cross-polarization in stochastic electromagnetic beams upon their passage through the devices of polarization optics. In particular, the effects of deterministic devices (such as polarizers, absorbers, compensators, and rotators) as well as of random devices (such as spatial light modulators) on passing beams are investigated. Our results may find applications in polarimetric communications, imaging and sensing.

  19. A versatile smart transformation optics device with auxetic elasto-electromagnetic metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Dongheok; Urzhumov, Yaroslav; Lim, Donghwan; Kim, Kyoungsik; Smith, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Synergistic integration of electromagnetic (EM) and mechanical properties of metamaterials, a concept known as smart metamaterials, promises new applications across the spectrum, from flexible waveguides to shape-conforming cloaks. These applications became possible thanks to smart transformation optics (STO), a design methodology that utilizes coordinate transformations to control both EM wave propagation and mechanical deformation of the device. Here, we demonstrate several STO devices based on extremely auxetic (Poisson ratio −1) elasto-electromagnetic metamaterials, both of which exhibit enormous flexibility and sustain efficient operation upon a wide range of deformations. Spatial maps of microwave electric fields across these devices confirm our ability to deform carpet cloaks, bent waveguides, and potentially other quasi-conformal TO-based devices operating at 7 ~ 8 GHz. These devices are each fabricated from a single sheet of initially uniform (double-periodic) square-lattice metamaterial, which acquires the necessary distribution of effective permittivity entirely from the mechanical deformation of its boundary. By integrating transformation optics and continuum mechanics theory, we provide analytical derivations for the design of STO devices. Additionally, we clarify an important point relating to two-dimensional STO devices: the difference between plane stress and plane strain assumptions, which lead to elastic metamaterials with Poisson ratio −1 and −∞, respectively. PMID:24522287

  20. A versatile smart transformation optics device with auxetic elasto-electromagnetic metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dongheok; Urzhumov, Yaroslav; Lim, Donghwan; Kim, Kyoungsik; Smith, David R

    2014-02-13

    Synergistic integration of electromagnetic (EM) and mechanical properties of metamaterials, a concept known as smart metamaterials, promises new applications across the spectrum, from flexible waveguides to shape-conforming cloaks. These applications became possible thanks to smart transformation optics (STO), a design methodology that utilizes coordinate transformations to control both EM wave propagation and mechanical deformation of the device. Here, we demonstrate several STO devices based on extremely auxetic (Poisson ratio -1) elasto-electromagnetic metamaterials, both of which exhibit enormous flexibility and sustain efficient operation upon a wide range of deformations. Spatial maps of microwave electric fields across these devices confirm our ability to deform carpet cloaks, bent waveguides, and potentially other quasi-conformal TO-based devices operating at 7 ~ 8 GHz. These devices are each fabricated from a single sheet of initially uniform (double-periodic) square-lattice metamaterial, which acquires the necessary distribution of effective permittivity entirely from the mechanical deformation of its boundary. By integrating transformation optics and continuum mechanics theory, we provide analytical derivations for the design of STO devices. Additionally, we clarify an important point relating to two-dimensional STO devices: the difference between plane stress and plane strain assumptions, which lead to elastic metamaterials with Poisson ratio -1 and -∞, respectively.

  1. Analysis of Electro-Optic Materials Properties on Guided Wave Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-16

    AD-A262 787 APPLIED RESEARCH, INC, ANALYSIS OF ELECTRO - OPTIC MATERIALS PROPERTIES ON GUIDED WAVE DEVICES FINAL REPORT DTI 6700 ODYSSEY DR HUNTSVILLE...ALABAMA 35814-1220 s IMAR1893 APPROVED FOR PUKIC RE’.EASE DISTRIBUTION UNLIMlITED Applied Research Inc. ARI/92iR-048Z ANALYSIS OF ELECTRO - OPTIC MATERIALS...uNiT ATTN: Dr. 2aul Ashley-AMSMI-RD-~WS--CM ELEMENT NO 4 NO IAr SSiON No t1I TI TLE iciup SeawIfy 0Mft*G’I Analysis of Electro - optic Materials

  2. Directly laser-written integrated photonics devices including diffractive optical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jiyeon; Ramme, Mark; Richardson, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Femtosecond laser-written integrated devices involving Fresnel Zone Plates (FZPs) and waveguide arrays are demonstrated as built-in optical couplers. These structures were fabricated in borosilicate glass using a direct laser writing technique. The optical properties of these integrated photonic structures were investigated using CW lasers and high-resolution CCDs. For a single FZP coupled to a single waveguide, the overall coupling efficiency was 9%. A multiplexed optical coupler composed of three FZP layers was demonstrated to couple three waveguides simultaneously in a waveguide array. Structures of this type can be used as platforms for multichannel waveguide coupling elements or as microfluidic sensors that require higher light collecting efficiency.

  3. Optical matrix for clock distribution and synchronous operation in two-dimensional array devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, K. S.; Shu, C.

    1996-06-01

    A scheme to generate an optical matrix from a mode-locked Nd:YAG laser has been theoretically explored and experimentally demonstrated. The matrix consists of highly synchronized and sequentially delayed optical pulses suitable for use with two-dimensional array optoelectronic devices and clock distribution system. The output pulses have the same state of polarization and no timing jitter is produced among the elements. Encoded outputs have been generated from the matrix using a set of photomasks. This technique can be applied to high-speed optical parallel processing.

  4. Correction of magnetooptic device phase errors in optical correlators through filter design modifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downie, John D.; Reid, Max B.; Hine, Butler P.

    1991-01-01

    We address the problem of optical phase errors in an optical correlator introduced by the input and filter plane spatial light modulators. Specifically, we study a laboratory correlator with magnetooptic spatial light modulator (MOSLM) devices. We measure and characterize the phase errors, analyze their effects on the correlation process, and discuss a means of correction through a design modification of the binary phase-only optical filter function. The phase correction technique is found to produce correlation results close to those of an error-free correlator.

  5. Imaging photorefractive optical vibration measurement method and device

    DOEpatents

    Telschow, Kenneth L.; Deason, Vance A.; Hale, Thomas C.

    2000-01-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for characterizing a vibrating image of an object of interest. The method includes providing a sensing media having a detection resolution within a limited bandwidth and providing an object of interest having a vibrating medium. Two or more wavefronts are provided, with at least one of the wavefronts being modulated by interacting the one wavefront with the vibrating medium of the object of interest. The another wavefront is modulated such that the difference frequency between the one wavefront and the another wavefront is within a response range of the sensing media. The modulated one wavefront and another wavefront are combined in association with the sensing media to interfere and produce simultaneous vibration measurements that are distributed over the object so as to provide an image of the vibrating medium. The image has an output intensity that is substantially linear with small physical variations within the vibrating medium. Furthermore, the method includes detecting the image. In one implementation, the apparatus comprises a vibration spectrum analyzer having an emitter, a modulator, sensing media and a detector configured so as to realize such method. According to another implementation, the apparatus comprises a vibration imaging device.

  6. An Optical Pen Tracking System as Alternative Pointing Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeliger, Ingmar; Schwanecke, Ulrich; Barth, Peter

    A webcam together with a pen can replace a mouse as pointing device for many common user interaction tasks. We have implemented an image-processing component integrated in a tool that acts as mouse alternative. The image-processing component tracks the head of a pen based on shape and colour information retrieved in a quick, integrated initial pen-calibration phase using Hough transform triggered by a motion detection cycle. The tracked 2D position of the pen-head seen by the webcam is used to smoothly position the mouse cursor. Combined with auto-clicking we can replace mouse-based user interaction. The system tolerates changing lighting conditions, does not need time-consuming camera calibration and works with off-the-shelf webcams. First user experiences show that this technology can partially replace mouse interaction for Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI) patients as well as completely replace mouse interaction within dedicated environments such as presentation booths or simple games.

  7. The optical wing aligning device of the Langley Field tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norton, F H; Bacon, D L

    1921-01-01

    Described here is a convenient and accurate method of aligning the wing chord with the airflow. The device was developed to permit rapid and accurate alignment of airfoils and models with the airstream passing through the tunnel. It consists of three main parts: a projector, a reflector, and a target. The arrangement, which is shown in a figure, has proven satisfactory in operation. It is far better than the old method of sighting across a long batten, as the operator of a balance may see the target and correctly judge the accuracy of his alignment. Whereas the old method required two operators and several minutes time to align to within 1/10 degree, this method enables one operator to align a wing to within 1/100 of a degree in a few seconds. This method also has the advantage of being able to measure the angle of the wing while the tunnel is running. Thus, the true angle of incidence is shown.

  8. Research progress in the key device and technology for fiber optic sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Deming; Sun, Qizhen; Lu, Ping; Xia, Li; Sima, Chaotan

    2016-03-01

    The recent research progress in the key device and technology of the fiber optic sensor network (FOSN) is introduced in this paper. An architecture of the sensor optical passive network (SPON), by employing hybrid wavelength division multiplexing/time division multiplexing (WDM/TDM) techniques similar to the fiber communication passive optical network (PON), is proposed. The network topology scheme of a hybrid TDM/WDM/FDM (frequency division multiplexing) three-dimension fiber optic sensing system for achieving ultra-large capacity, long distance, and high resolution sensing performance is performed and analyzed. As the most important device of the FOSN, several kinds of light source are developed, including the wideband multi-wavelength fiber laser operating at C band, switchable and tunable 2 μm multi-wavelength fiber lasers, ultra-fast mode-locked fiber laser, as well as the optical wideband chaos source, which have very good application prospects in the FOSN. Meanwhile, intelligent management techniques for the FOSN including wideband spectrum demodulation of the sensing signals and real-time fault monitoring of fiber links are presented. Moreover, several typical applications of the FOSN are also discussed, such as the fiber optic gas sensing network, fiber optic acoustic sensing network, and strain/dynamic strain sensing network.

  9. Novel optical interconnect devices applying mask-transfer self-written method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishizawa, Nobuhiko; Matsuzawa, Yusuke; Tokiwa, Yu; Nakama, Kenichi; Mikami, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of optical interconnect technology is expected to solve problems of conventional electric wiring. One of the promising technologies realizing optical interconnect is the self-written waveguide (SWW) technology with lightcurable resin. We have developed a new technology of the "Mask-Transfer Self-Written (MTSW)" method. This new method enables fabrication of arrayed M x N optical channels at one shot of UV-light. Using this technology, several new optical interconnect devices and connection technologies have been proposed and investigated. In this paper, first, we introduce MTSW method briefly. Next, we show plug-in alignment approach using optical waveguide plugs (OWP) and a micro-hole array (MHA) which are made of the light-curable resin. Easy and high efficiency plug-in alignment between fibers and an optoelectronic-printed wiring board (OE-PWB), between a fiber and a VCSEL, so on will be feasible. Then, we propose a new three-dimensional (3D) branch waveguide. By controlling the irradiating angle through the photomask aperture, it will be possible to fabricate 2-branch and 4-branch waveguides with a certain branch angle. The 3D branch waveguide will be very promising in the future optical interconnects and coupler devices of the multicore optical fiber.

  10. MNOS stack for reliable, low optical loss, Cu based CMOS plasmonic devices.

    PubMed

    Emboras, Alexandros; Najar, Adel; Nambiar, Siddharth; Grosse, Philippe; Augendre, Emmanuel; Leroux, Charles; de Salvo, Barbara; de Lamaestre, Roch Espiau

    2012-06-18

    We study the electro optical properties of a Metal-Nitride-Oxide-Silicon (MNOS) stack for a use in CMOS compatible plasmonic active devices. We show that the insertion of an ultrathin stoichiometric Si(3)N(4) layer in a MOS stack lead to an increase in the electrical reliability of a copper gate MNOS capacitance from 50 to 95% thanks to a diffusion barrier effect, while preserving the low optical losses brought by the use of copper as the plasmon supporting metal. An experimental investigation is undertaken at a wafer scale using some CMOS standard processes of the LETI foundry. Optical transmission measurments conducted in a MNOS channel waveguide configuration coupled to standard silicon photonics circuitry confirms the very low optical losses (0.39 dB.μm(-1)), in good agreement with predictions using ellipsometric optical constants of Cu.

  11. Approaches to optical neuromodulation from rodents to non-human primates by integrated optoelectronic devices.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Ozden, Ilker; Diagne, Mohamed; Wagner, Fabien; Borton, David; Brush, Benjamin; Agha, Naubahar; Burwell, Rebecca; Sheinberg, David; Diester, Ilka; Deisseroth, Karl; Nurmikko, Arto

    2011-01-01

    Methods on rendering neurons in the central nervous system to be light responsive has led to a boom in using optical neuromodulation as a new approach for controlling brain states and understanding neural circuits. In addition to the developing versatility to "optogenetically" labeling of neural cells and their subtypes by microbiological methods, parallel efforts are under way to design and implement optoelectronic devices to achieve simultaneous optical neuromodulation and electrophysiological recording with high spatial and temporal resolution. Such new device-based technologies need to be developed for full exploitation of the promise of optogenetics. In this paper we present single- and multi-element optoelectronic devices developed in our laboratories. The single-unit element, namely the coaxial optrode, was utilized to characterize the neural responses in optogenetically modified rodent and primate models. Furthermore, the multi-element device, integrating the optrode with a 6×6 microelectrode array, was used to characterize the spatiotemporal spread of neural activity in response to single-site optical stimulation in freely moving rats. We suggest that the particular approaches we employed can lead to the emergence of methods where spatio-temporal optical modulation is integrated with real-time read out from neural populations.

  12. 78 FR 77166 - Certain Optoelectronic Devices for Fiber Optic Communications, Components Thereof, and Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Optoelectronic Devices for Fiber Optic Communications, Components Thereof, and Products Containing the Same; Notice of Request for Statements on the Public Interest AGENCY: U.S. International...

  13. Low-temperature PECVD optical waveguide and device development in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, John D.; Ladouceur, Francois J.; Durandet, Antoine; Boswell, Rod W.; Charles, Christine

    1996-09-01

    Existing optical fiber and fiber-device fabrication techniques have been complemented recently by the development of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) processes for the fabrication of buried channel waveguides and associated devices. These processes rely on new forms of plasma reactors and diagnostic systems, which allow in-situ control of optical parameters such as refractive index, and are also being complemented by the direct writing of waveguides into photosensitive PECVD materials. Both the plasma and direct-write processes allow the fabrication of optical devices which are not readily feasible in fiber technology. The low-temperature PECVD process reported here offers the potential to integrate photonic devices with semiconductor sources and detectors to realize a compact, hybrid photonic-optoelectronic chip, complete with fiber pig-tailing. Because of their compactness and potential low cost, these types of photonic chips are attractive components for future high-capacity optical telecommunications and other networks now being planned as part of the information superhighway.

  14. Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) Microgel-Based Optical Devices for Sensing and Biosensing

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Molla R.; Ahiabu, Andrews; Li, Xue; Serpe, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Responsive polymer-based materials have found numerous applications due to their ease of synthesis and the variety of stimuli that they can be made responsive to. In this review, we highlight the group's efforts utilizing thermoresponsive poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAm) microgel-based optical devices for various sensing and biosensing applications. PMID:24854361

  15. A guiding light: spectroscopy on digital microfluidic devices using in-plane optical fibre waveguides.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kihwan; Mudrik, Jared M; Wheeler, Aaron R

    2015-09-01

    We present a novel method for in-plane digital microfluidic spectroscopy. In this technique, a custom manifold (.stl file available online as ESM) aligns optical fibres with a digital microfluidic device, allowing optical measurements to be made in the plane of the device. Because of the greater width vs thickness of a droplet on-device, the in-plane alignment of this technique allows it to outperform the sensitivity of vertical absorbance measurements on digital microfluidic (DMF) devices by ∼14×. The new system also has greater calibration sensitivity for thymol blue measurements than the popular NanoDrop system by ∼2.5×. The improvements in absorbance sensitivity result from increased path length, as well as from additional effects likely caused by liquid lensing, in which the presence of a water droplet between optical fibres increases fibre-to-fibre transmission of light by ∼2× through refraction and internal reflection. For interrogation of dilute samples, stretching of droplets using digital microfluidic electrodes and adjustment of fibre-to-fibre gap width allows absorbance path length to be changed on-demand. We anticipate this new digital microfluidic optical fibre absorbance and fluorescence measurement system will be useful for a wide variety of analytical applications involving microvolume samples with digital microfluidics.

  16. Nanowires and nanoribbons as subwavelength optical waveguides and their use as components in photonic circuits and devices

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Peidong; Law, Matt; Sirbuly, Donald J.; Johnson, Justin C.; Saykally, Richard; Fan, Rong; Tao, Andrea

    2012-10-02

    Nanoribbons and nanowires having diameters less than the wavelength of light are used in the formation and operation of optical circuits and devices. Such nanostructures function as subwavelength optical waveguides which form a fundamental building block for optical integration. The extraordinary length, flexibility and strength of these structures enable their manipulation on surfaces, including the precise positioning and optical linking of nanoribbon/wire waveguides and other nanoribbon/wire elements to form optical networks and devices. In addition, such structures provide for waveguiding in liquids, enabling them to further be used in other applications such as optical probes and sensors.

  17. Note: Optical trigger device with sub-picosecond timing jitter and stability.

    PubMed

    Kodet, Jan; Prochazka, Ivan

    2012-03-01

    We are presenting the design, construction, and overall performance of the optical trigger device. This device generates an electrical signal synchronously to the detected ultra-short optical pulse. The device was designed for application in satellite laser ranging and laser time transfer experiments, time correlated photon counting and similar experiments, where picosecond timing resolution and detection delay stability are required. It consists of the ultrafast optical detector, signal discriminator, output pulse forming circuit, and output driver circuits. It was constructed as a single compact device to optimize their matching and maintain stability. The detector consists of an avalanche photodiode--both silicon and germanium types may be used to cover the wavelength range of 350-1550 nm. The analogue signal of this photodiode is sensed by the ultrafast comparator with 8 GHz bandwidth. The ps clock distribution circuit is used to generate the fast rise/fall time output pulses of pre-set length. The trigger device timing performance is excellent: the random component of the timing jitter is typically 880 fs, the temperature dependence of the detection delay was measured to be 370 fs/K. The systematic error contribution depends on the laser used and its stability. The sub-ps values have been obtained for various laser sources.

  18. Note: Optical trigger device with sub-picosecond timing jitter and stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodet, Jan; Prochazka, Ivan

    2012-03-01

    We are presenting the design, construction, and overall performance of the optical trigger device. This device generates an electrical signal synchronously to the detected ultra-short optical pulse. The device was designed for application in satellite laser ranging and laser time transfer experiments, time correlated photon counting and similar experiments, where picosecond timing resolution and detection delay stability are required. It consists of the ultrafast optical detector, signal discriminator, output pulse forming circuit, and output driver circuits. It was constructed as a single compact device to optimize their matching and maintain stability. The detector consists of an avalanche photodiode--both silicon and germanium types may be used to cover the wavelength range of 350-1550 nm. The analogue signal of this photodiode is sensed by the ultrafast comparator with 8 GHz bandwidth. The ps clock distribution circuit is used to generate the fast rise/fall time output pulses of pre-set length. The trigger device timing performance is excellent: the random component of the timing jitter is typically 880 fs, the temperature dependence of the detection delay was measured to be 370 fs/K. The systematic error contribution depends on the laser used and its stability. The sub-ps values have been obtained for various laser sources.

  19. Noise tolerance in wavelength-selective switching of optical differential quadrature-phase-shift-keying pulse train by collinear acousto-optic devices.

    PubMed

    Goto, Nobuo; Miyazaki, Yasumitsu

    2014-06-01

    Optical switching of high-bit-rate quadrature-phase-shift-keying (QPSK) pulse trains using collinear acousto-optic (AO) devices is theoretically discussed. Since the collinear AO devices have wavelength selectivity, the switched optical pulse trains suffer from distortion when the bandwidth of the pulse train is comparable to the pass bandwidth of the AO device. As the AO device, a sidelobe-suppressed device with a tapered surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) waveguide and a Butterworth-type filter device with a lossy SAW directional coupler are considered. Phase distortion of optical pulse trains at 40 to 100  Gsymbols/s in QPSK format is numerically analyzed. Bit-error-rate performance with additive Gaussian noise is also evaluated by the Monte Carlo method.

  20. Fault localization and analysis in semiconductor devices with optical-feedback infrared confocal microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Sarmiento, Raymund; Cemine, Vernon Julius; Tagaca, Imee Rose; Salvador, Arnel; Mar Blanca, Carlo; Saloma, Caesar

    2007-11-01

    We report on a cost-effective optical setup for characterizing light-emitting semiconductor devices with optical-feedback confocal infrared microscopy and optical beam-induced resistance change.We utilize the focused beam from an infrared laser diode to induce local thermal resistance changes across the surface of a biased integrated circuit (IC) sample. Variations in the multiple current paths are mapped by scanning the IC across the focused beam. The high-contrast current maps allow accurate differentiation of the functional and defective sites, or the isolation of the surface-emittingp-i-n devices in the IC. Optical beam-induced current (OBIC) is not generated since the incident beam energy is lower than the bandgap energy of the p-i-n device. Inhomogeneous current distributions in the IC become apparent without the strong OBIC background. They are located at a diffraction-limited resolution by referencing the current maps against the confocal reflectance image that is simultaneously acquired via optical-feedback detection. Our technique permits the accurate identification of metal and semiconductor sites as well as the classification of different metallic structures according to thickness, composition, or spatial inhomogeneity.

  1. Idaho National Laboratory LDRD Annual Report FY 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Dena Tomchak

    2013-03-01

    This report provides a glimpse into our diverse research and development portfolio, wwhich encompasses both advanced nuclear science and technology and underlying technologies. IN keeping with the mission, INL's LDRD program fosters technical capabilities necessary to support current and future DOE-Office of Nuclear Energy research and development needs.

  2. Tactical Deployment and Management of Autonomous Agents, LDRD Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, Glenn A.

    2007-11-16

    This is the final report for FY07 for this ongoing LDRD. The project involves deriving a behavioral framework, algorithms, and science underlying a complex-adaptive network of cooperating sensors that secures the computational infrastructure of a multi-enterprise cooperative organization.

  3. Optical devices combining an organic semiconductor crystal with a two-dimensional inorganic diffraction grating

    SciTech Connect

    Kitazawa, Takenori; Yamao, Takeshi Hotta, Shu

    2016-02-01

    We have fabricated optical devices using an organic semiconductor crystal as an emission layer in combination with a two-dimensional (2D) inorganic diffraction grating used as an optical cavity. We formed the inorganic diffraction grating by wet etching of aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) under a 2D cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) diffraction grating used as a mask. The COC diffraction grating was fabricated by nanoimprint lithography. The AZO diffraction grating was composed of convex prominences arranged in a triangular lattice. The organic crystal placed on the AZO diffraction grating indicated narrowed peaks in its emission spectrum under ultraviolet light excitation. These are detected parallel to the crystal plane. The peaks were shifted by rotating the optical devices around the normal to the crystal plane, which reflected the rotational symmetries of the triangular lattice through 60°.

  4. Optical diode action from axially asymmetric nonlinearity in an all-carbon solid-state device.

    PubMed

    Anand, Benoy; Podila, Ramakrishna; Lingam, Kiran; Krishnan, S R; Siva Sankara Sai, S; Philip, Reji; Rao, Apparao M

    2013-01-01

    Nanostructured carbons are posited to offer an alternative to silicon and lead to further miniaturization of photonic and electronic devices. Here, we report the experimental realization of the first all-carbon solid-state optical diode that is based on axially asymmetric nonlinear absorption in a thin saturable absorber (graphene) and a thin reverse saturable absorber (C60) arranged in tandem. This all-optical diode action is polarization independent and has no phase-matching constraints. The nonreciprocity factor of the device can be tuned by varying the number of graphene layers and the concentration or thickness of the C60 coating. This ultracompact graphene/C60 based optical diode is versatile with an inherently large bandwidth, chemical and thermal stability, and is poised for cost-effective large-scale integration with existing fabrication technologies.

  5. Backup Alignment Devices on Shuttle: Heads-Up Display or Crew Optical Alignment Sight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chavez, Melissa A.

    2011-01-01

    NASA s Space Shuttle was built to withstand multiple failures while still keeping the crew and vehicle safe. Although the design of the Space Shuttle had a great deal of redundancy built into each system, there were often additional ways to keep systems in the best configuration if a failure were to occur. One such method was to use select pieces of hardware in a way for which they were not primarily intended. The primary function of the Heads-Up Display (HUD) was to provide the crew with a display of flight critical information during the entry phase. The primary function of the Crew Optical Alignment Sight (COAS) was to provide the crew an optical alignment capability for rendezvous and docking phases. An alignment device was required to keep the Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) well aligned for a safe Entry; nominally this alignment device would be the two on-board Star Trackers. However, in the event of a Star Tracker failure, the HUD or COAS could also be used as a backup alignment device, but only if the device had been calibrated beforehand. Once the HUD or COAS was calibrated and verified then it was considered an adequate backup to the Star Trackers for entry IMU alignment. There were procedures in place and the astronauts were trained on how to accurately calibrate the HUD or COAS and how to use them as an alignment device. The calibration procedure for the HUD and COAS had been performed on many Shuttle missions. Many of the first calibrations performed were for data gathering purposes to determine which device was more accurate as a backup alignment device, HUD or COAS. Once this was determined, the following missions would frequently calibrate the HUD in order to be one step closer to having the device ready in case it was needed as a backup alignment device.

  6. The Electric and Optical Properties of Doped Small Molecular Organic Light-Emitting Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Cheon, Kwang-Ohk

    2003-01-01

    Organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) constitute a new and exciting emissive display technology. In general, the basic OLED structure consists of a stack of fluorescent organic layers sandwiched between a transparent conducting-anode and metallic cathode. When an appropriate bias is applied to the device, holes are injected from the anode and electrons from the cathode; some of the recombination events between the holes and electrons result in electroluminescence (EL). Until now, most of the efforts in developing OLEDs have focused on display applications, hence on devices within the visible range. However some organic devices have been developed for ultraviolet or infrared emission. Various aspects of the device physics of doped small molecular OLEDs were described and discussed. The doping layer thickness and concentration were varied systematically to study their effects on device performances, energy transfer, and turn-off dynamics. Low-energy-gap DCM2 guest molecules, in either α-NPD or DPVBi host layers, are optically efficient fluorophores but also generate deep carrier trap-sites. Since their traps reduce the carrier mobility, the current density decreases with increased doping concentration. At the same time, due to efficient energy transfer, the quantum efficiency of the devices is improved by light doping or thin doping thickness, in comparison with the undoped neat devices. However, heavy doping induces concentration quenching effects. Thus, the doping concentration and doping thickness may be optimized for best performance.

  7. A low-power all-optical bistable device based on a liquid crystal layer embedded in thin gold films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takase, Yuki; Tien Thanh, Pham; Fujimura, Ryushi; Kajikawa, Kotaro

    2014-04-01

    An all-optical bistable (AOB) resonator device composed of a 430-nm-thick liquid crystal (LC) layer embedded in two thin gold films (MLM) is reported in this paper. This device allows the use of the incident illumination at normal incidence, whereas the previous AOB devices based on twisted nematic (TN)-LC function only for illumination at oblique incidence. The fastest switching time was measured to be 1.8 ms, which is significantly faster than that of TN-LC. Because the MLM device operates free from electronic circuits, it is promising for two-dimensional optical data processing, random access optical memories, and spatial light modulators.

  8. Graphene-Boron Nitride Heterostructure Based Optoelectronic Devices for On-Chip Optical Interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yuanda

    Graphene has emerged as an appealing material for a variety of optoelectronic applications due to its unique electrical and optical characteristics. In this thesis, I will present recent advances in integrating graphene and graphene-boron nitride (BN) heterostructures with confined optical architectures, e.g. planar photonic crystal (PPC) nanocavities and silicon channel waveguides, to make this otherwise weakly absorbing material optically opaque. Based on these integrations, I will further demonstrate the resulting chip-integrated optoelectronic devices for optical interconnects. After transferring a layer of graphene onto PPC nanocavities, spectral selectivity at the resonance frequency and orders-of-magnitude enhancement of optical coupling with graphene have been observed in infrared spectrum. By applying electrostatic potential to graphene, electro-optic modulation of the cavity reflection is possible with contrast in excess of 10 dB. And furthermore, a novel and complex modulator device structure based on the cavity-coupled and BN-encapsulated dual-layer graphene capacitor is demonstrated to operate at a speed of 1.2 GHz. On the other hand, an enhanced broad-spectrum light-graphene interaction coupled with silicon channel waveguides is also demonstrated with ?0.1 dB/?m transmission attenuation due to graphene absorption. A waveguide-integrated graphene photodetector is fabricated and shown 0.1 A/W photoresponsivity and 20 GHz operation speed. An improved version of a similar photodetector using graphene-BN heterostructure exhibits 0.36 A/W photoresponsivity and 42 GHz response speed. The integration of graphene and graphene-BN heterostructures with nanophotonic architectures promises a new generation of compact, energy-efficient, high-speed optoelectronic device concepts for on-chip optical communications that are not yet feasible or very difficult to realize using traditional bulk semiconductors.

  9. Triggerable electro-optic amplitude modulator bias stabilizer for integrated optical devices

    DOEpatents

    Conder, A.D.; Haigh, R.E.; Hugenberg, K.F.

    1995-09-26

    An improved Mach-Zehnder integrated optical electro-optic modulator is achieved by application and incorporation of a DC bias box containing a laser synchronized trigger circuit, a DC ramp and hold circuit, a modulator transfer function negative peak detector circuit, and an adjustable delay circuit. The DC bias box ramps the DC bias along the transfer function curve to any desired phase or point of operation at which point the RF modulation takes place. 7 figs.

  10. Triggerable electro-optic amplitude modulator bias stabilizer for integrated optical devices

    DOEpatents

    Conder, Alan D.; Haigh, Ronald E.; Hugenberg, Keith F.

    1995-01-01

    An improved Mach-Zehnder integrated optical electro-optic modulator is achieved by application and incorporation of a DC bias box containing a laser synchronized trigger circuit, a DC ramp and hold circuit, a modulator transfer function negative peak detector circuit, and an adjustable delay circuit. The DC bias box ramps the DC bias along the transfer function curve to any desired phase or point of operation at which point the RF modulation takes place.

  11. Probe-pin device for optical neurotransmitter sensing in the brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Min Hyuck; Song, Kyo D.; Yoon, Hargsoon; Park, Yeonjoon; Choi, Sang H.; Lee, Dae-Sung; Shin, Kyu-Sik; Hwang, Hak-In; Lee, Uhn

    2015-04-01

    Development of an optical neurotransmitter sensing device using nano-plasmonic probes and a micro-spectrometer for real time monitoring of neural signals in the brain is underway. Clinical application of this device technology is to provide autonomous closed-loop feedback control to a deep brain stimulation (DBS) system and enhance the accuracy and efficacy of DBS treatment. By far, we have developed an implantable probe-pin device based on localized field enhancement of surface plasmonic resonance on a nanostructured sensing domain which can amplify neurochemical signals from evoked neural activity in the brain. In this paper, we will introduce the details of design and sensing performance of a proto-typed microspectrometer and nanostructured probing devices for real time measurement of neurotransmitter concentrations.

  12. Optical Device for Converting a Laser Beam into Two Co-aligned but Oppositely Directed Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Donald

    2013-01-01

    Optical systems consisting of a series of optical elements require alignment from the input end to the output end. The optical elements can be mirrors, lenses, sources, detectors, or other devices. Complex optical systems are often difficult to align from end-to-end because the alignment beam must be inserted at one end in order for the beam to traverse the entire optical path to the other end. The ends of the optical train may not be easily accessible to the alignment beam. Typically, when a series of optical elements is to be aligned, an alignment laser beam is inserted into the optical path with a pick-off mirror at one end of the series of elements. But it may be impossible to insert the beam at an end-point. It can be difficult to locate the pick-off mirror at the desired position because there is not enough space, there is no mounting surface, or the location is occupied by a source, detector, or other component. Alternatively, the laser beam might be inserted at an intermediate location (not at an end-point) and sent, first in one direction and then the other, to the opposite ends of the optical system for alignment. However, in this case, alignment must be performed in two directions and extra effort is required to co-align the two beams to make them parallel and coincident, i.e., to follow the same path as an end-to-end beam. An optical device has been developed that accepts a laser beam as input and produces two co-aligned, but counter-propagating beams. In contrast to a conventional alignment laser placed at one end of the optical path, this invention can be placed at a convenient position within the optical train and aligned to send its two beams simultaneously along precisely opposite paths that, taken together, trace out exactly the same path as the conventional alignment laser. This invention allows the user the freedom to choose locations within the optical train for placement of the alignment beam. It is also self-aligned by design and requires

  13. High-throughput optical imaging and spectroscopy of individual carbon nanotubes in devices.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kaihui; Hong, Xiaoping; Zhou, Qin; Jin, Chenhao; Li, Jinghua; Zhou, Weiwei; Liu, Jie; Wang, Enge; Zettl, Alex; Wang, Feng

    2013-12-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes are uniquely identified by a pair of chirality indices (n,m), which dictate the physical structures and electronic properties of each species. Carbon nanotube research is currently facing two outstanding challenges: achieving chirality-controlled growth and understanding chirality-dependent device physics. Addressing these challenges requires, respectively, high-throughput determination of the nanotube chirality distribution on growth substrates and in situ characterization of the nanotube electronic structure in operating devices. Direct optical imaging and spectroscopy techniques are well suited for both goals, but their implementation at the single nanotube level has remained a challenge due to the small nanotube signal and unavoidable environment background. Here, we report high-throughput real-time optical imaging and broadband in situ spectroscopy of individual carbon nanotubes on various substrates and in field-effect transistor devices using polarization-based microscopy combined with supercontinuum laser illumination. Our technique enables the complete chirality profiling of hundreds of individual carbon nanotubes, both semiconducting and metallic, on a growth substrate. In devices, we observe that high-order nanotube optical resonances are dramatically broadened by electrostatic doping, an unexpected behaviour that points to strong interband electron-electron scattering processes that could dominate ultrafast dynamics of excited states in carbon nanotubes.

  14. Optical transmission modules for multi-channel superconducting quantum interference device readouts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Mok; Kwon, Hyukchan; Yu, Kwon-kyu; Lee, Yong-Ho; Kim, Kiwoong

    2013-12-01

    We developed an optical transmission module consisting of 16-channel analog-to-digital converter (ADC), digital-noise filter, and one-line serial transmitter, which transferred Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) readout data to a computer by a single optical cable. A 16-channel ADC sent out SQUID readouts data with 32-bit serial data of 8-bit channel and 24-bit voltage data at a sample rate of 1.5 kSample/s. A digital-noise filter suppressed digital noises generated by digital clocks to obtain SQUID modulation as large as possible. One-line serial transmitter reformed 32-bit serial data to the modulated data that contained data and clock, and sent them through a single optical cable. When the optical transmission modules were applied to 152-channel SQUID magnetoencephalography system, this system maintained a field noise level of 3 fT/√Hz @ 100 Hz.

  15. Optical wafer metrology sensors for process-robust CD and overlay control in semiconductor device manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    den Boef, Arie J.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents three optical wafer metrology sensors that are used in lithography for robustly measuring the shape and position of wafers and device patterns on these wafers. The first two sensors are a level sensor and an alignment sensor that measure, respectively, a wafer height map and a wafer position before a new pattern is printed on the wafer. The third sensor is an optical scatterometer that measures critical dimension-variations and overlay after the resist has been exposed and developed. These sensors have different optical concepts but they share the same challenge that sub-nm precision is required at high throughput on a large variety of processed wafers and in the presence of unknown wafer processing variations. It is the purpose of this paper to explain these challenges in more detail and give an overview of the various solutions that have been introduced over the years to come to process-robust optical wafer metrology.

  16. Optical transmission modules for multi-channel superconducting quantum interference device readouts

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jin-Mok Kwon, Hyukchan; Yu, Kwon-kyu; Lee, Yong-Ho; Kim, Kiwoong

    2013-12-15

    We developed an optical transmission module consisting of 16-channel analog-to-digital converter (ADC), digital-noise filter, and one-line serial transmitter, which transferred Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) readout data to a computer by a single optical cable. A 16-channel ADC sent out SQUID readouts data with 32-bit serial data of 8-bit channel and 24-bit voltage data at a sample rate of 1.5 kSample/s. A digital-noise filter suppressed digital noises generated by digital clocks to obtain SQUID modulation as large as possible. One-line serial transmitter reformed 32-bit serial data to the modulated data that contained data and clock, and sent them through a single optical cable. When the optical transmission modules were applied to 152-channel SQUID magnetoencephalography system, this system maintained a field noise level of 3 fT/√Hz @ 100 Hz.

  17. Modal liquid crystal devices in optical tweezing: 3D control and oscillating potential wells.

    PubMed

    Hands, Philip J W; Tatarkova, Svetlana A; Kirby, Andrew K; Love, Gordon D

    2006-05-15

    We investigate the use of liquid crystal (LC) adaptive optics elements to provide full 3 dimensional particle control in an optical tweezer. These devices are suitable for single controllable traps, and so are less versatile than many of the competing technologies which can be used to control multiple particles. However, they have the advantages of simplicity and light efficiency. Furthermore, compared to binary holographic optical traps they have increased positional accuracy. The transmissive LC devices could be retro-fitted to an existing microscope system. An adaptive modal LC lens is used to vary the z-focal position over a range of up to 100 mum and an adaptive LC beam-steering device is used to deflect the beam (and trapped particle) in the x-y plane within an available radius of 10 mum. Furthermore, by modifying the polarisation of the incident light, these LC components also offer the opportunity for the creation of dual optical traps of controllable depth and separation.

  18. Planar lens integrated capillary action microfluidic immunoassay device for the optical detection of troponin I

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Mazher-Iqbal; Desmulliez, Marc P. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Optical based analysis in microfluidic and lab-on-a-chip systems are currently considered the gold standard methodology for the determination of end point reactions for various chemical and biological reaction processes. Typically, assays are performed using bulky ancillary apparatus such as microscopes and complex optical excitation and detection systems. Such instrumentation negates many of the advantages offered by device miniaturisation, particularly with respect to overall portability. In this article, we present a CO2 laser ablation technique for rapidly prototyping on-chip planar lenses, in conjunction with capillary action based autonomous microfluidics, to create a miniaturised and fully integrated optical biosensing platform. The presented self-aligned on-chip optical components offer an efficient means to direct excitation light within microfluidics and to directly couple light from a LED source. The device has been used in conjunction with a miniaturised and bespoke fluorescence detection platform to create a complete, palm sized system (≈60 × 80 × 60 mm) capable of performing fluoro-immunoassays. The system has been applied to the detection of cardiac Troponin I, one of the gold standard biomarkers for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction, achieving a lower detection limit of 0.08 ng/ml, which is at the threshold of clinically applicable concentrations. The portable nature of the complete system and the biomarker detection capabilities demonstrate the potential of the devised instrumentation for use as a medical diagnostics device at the point of care. PMID:24396546

  19. Modal liquid crystal devices in optical tweezing: 3D control and oscillating potential wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hands, Philip J. W.; Tatarkova, Svetlana A.; Kirby, Andrew K.; Love, Gordon D.

    2006-05-01

    We investigate the use of liquid crystal (LC) adaptive optics elements to provide full 3 dimensional particle control in an optical tweezer. These devices are suitable for single controllable traps, and so are less versatile than many of the competing technologies which can be used to control multiple particles. However, they have the advantages of simplicity and light efficiency. Furthermore, compared to binary holographic optical traps they have increased positional accuracy. The transmissive LC devices could be retro-fitted to an existing microscope system. An adaptive modal LC lens is used to vary the z-focal position over a range of up to 100 μm and an adaptive LC beam-steering device is used to deflect the beam (and trapped particle) in the x-y plane within an available radius of 10 μm. Furthermore, by modifying the polarisation of the incident light, these LC components also offer the opportunity for the creation of dual optical traps of controllable depth and separation.

  20. Planar lens integrated capillary action microfluidic immunoassay device for the optical detection of troponin I.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Mazher-Iqbal; Desmulliez, Marc P Y

    2013-01-01

    Optical based analysis in microfluidic and lab-on-a-chip systems are currently considered the gold standard methodology for the determination of end point reactions for various chemical and biological reaction processes. Typically, assays are performed using bulky ancillary apparatus such as microscopes and complex optical excitation and detection systems. Such instrumentation negates many of the advantages offered by device miniaturisation, particularly with respect to overall portability. In this article, we present a CO2 laser ablation technique for rapidly prototyping on-chip planar lenses, in conjunction with capillary action based autonomous microfluidics, to create a miniaturised and fully integrated optical biosensing platform. The presented self-aligned on-chip optical components offer an efficient means to direct excitation light within microfluidics and to directly couple light from a LED source. The device has been used in conjunction with a miniaturised and bespoke fluorescence detection platform to create a complete, palm sized system (≈60 × 80 × 60 mm) capable of performing fluoro-immunoassays. The system has been applied to the detection of cardiac Troponin I, one of the gold standard biomarkers for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction, achieving a lower detection limit of 0.08 ng/ml, which is at the threshold of clinically applicable concentrations. The portable nature of the complete system and the biomarker detection capabilities demonstrate the potential of the devised instrumentation for use as a medical diagnostics device at the point of care.

  1. Understanding local forces in electrophoretic ink systems: utilizing optical tweezers to explore electrophoretic display devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, David L.; Dickinson, Mark R.; Smith, N.; Gleeson, Helen F.

    2016-09-01

    Optical tweezers can be used as a valuable tool to characterize electrophoretic display (EPD) systems. EPDs are ubiquitous with e-readers and are becoming a commonplace technology where reflective, low-power displays are required; yet the physics of some features crucial to their operation remains poorly defined. We utilize optical tweezers as a tool to understand the motion of charged ink particles within the devices and show that the response of optically trapped electrophoretic particles can be used to characterize electric fields within these devices. This technique for mapping the force can be compared to simulations of the electric field in our devices, thus demonstrating that the electric field itself is the sole governor of the particle motion in an individual-particle regime. By studying the individual-particle response to the electric field, we can then begin to characterize particle motion in `real' systems with many particles. Combining optical tweezing with particle tracking techniques, we can investigate deviations in many particle systems from the single-particle case.

  2. Multichannel Integrated Acoustooptic Device Modules for Signal Processing, Computing and Optical Interconnect.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Phat Duc

    A variety of lithium niobate (LiNbO_3 )-based multichannel integrated optic (IO) device modules for applications in signal processing, computing, and optical interconnect have been realized. The key to the realization of these device modules is the titanium -indiffusion proton-exchange (TIPE) technique developed recently at our laboratory for fabrication of microlenses and microlens arrays. First, two ten-channel IO device modules have been constructed and tested. These two high -packing density devices modules represent the highest degree of integration and the largest number of components that have been accomplished thus far. The architecture common to both modules consists of a composite waveguide 1.0 x 2.0 cm^2 in size in which a channel -waveguide array, a planar waveguide, a linear microlens array, an electrooptic Bragg modulator array or an acoustooptic and electrooptic Bragg modulator array, and a large-aperture lens are integrated. These device modules have been used to perform matrix-matrix multiplications and digital correlations with encouraging results. In performing these computations, a convenient scheme that utilizes a linear ion-milled planar microlens array, devised specifically for these multichannel device modules, has been employed for simultaneous and efficient excitation of the entire channel-waveguide array. Secondly, a new type of strictly nonblocking IO switching network has been conceived and realized in LiNbO_3 . In this new optical switching network module two arrays of channel waveguides, a pair of large-aperture TIPE lenses, and a set of surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) transducers are configured such that the acoustooptic Bragg diffraction serves as a means to activate the connection between any input and any output channels. The working principle of this guided-wave acoustooptic switching network has been verified by using a 4 x 4 switching network module with encouraging performance such as a typical crosstalk level of -16 dB.

  3. Device applications and structural and optical properties of Indigo - A biodegradable, low-cost organic semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhengjun; Pisane, Kelly L.; Sierros, Konstantinos; Seehra, Mohindar S.; Korakakis, Dimitris

    2015-03-01

    Currently, memory devices based on organic materials are attracting great attention due to their simplicity in device structure, mechanical flexibility, potential for scalability, low-cost potential, low-power operation, and large capacity for data storage. In a recent paper from our group, Indigo-based nonvolatile organic write-once-read-many-times (WORM) memory device, consisting of a 100nm layer of indigo sandwiched between an indium tin oxide (ITO) cathode and an Al anode, has been reported. This device is found to be at its low resistance state (ON state) and can be switched to high resistance state (OFF state) by applying a positive bias with ON/OFF current ratio of the device being up to 1.02 × e6. A summary of these results along with the structural and optical properties of indigo powder will be reported. Analysis of x-ray diffraction shows a monoclinic structure with lattice parameters a(b)[c] = 0.924(0.577)[0.1222]nm and β =117° . Optical absorption shows a band edge at 1.70 eV with peak of absorption occurring at 1.90 eV. These results will be interpreted in terms of the HOMO-LUMO bands of Indigo.

  4. An in-fiber integrated optofluidic device based on an optical fiber with an inner core.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xinghua; Yuan, Tingting; Teng, Pingping; Kong, Depeng; Liu, Chunlan; Li, Entao; Zhao, Enming; Tong, Chengguo; Yuan, Libo

    2014-06-21

    A new kind of optofluidic in-fiber integrated device based on a specially designed hollow optical fiber with an inner core is designed. The inlets and outlets are built by etching the surface of the optical fiber without damaging the inner core. A reaction region between the end of the fiber and a solid point obtained after melting is constructed. By injecting samples into the fiber, the liquids can form steady microflows and react in the region. Simultaneously, the emission from the chemiluminescence reaction can be detected from the remote end of the optical fiber through evanescent field coupling. The concentration of ascorbic acid (AA or vitamin C, Vc) is determined by the emission intensity of the reaction of Vc, H2O2, luminol, and K3Fe(CN)6 in the optical fiber. A linear sensing range of 0.1-3.0 mmol L(-1) for Vc is obtained. The emission intensity can be determined within 2 s at a total flow rate of 150 μL min(-1). Significantly, this work presents information for the in-fiber integrated optofluidic devices without spatial optical coupling.

  5. Modeling fiber Bragg grating device networks in photomechanical polymer optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanska, Joseph T.; Kuzyk, Mark G.; Sullivan, Dennis M.

    2015-09-01

    We report on the modeling of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) networks in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) polymer fibers doped with azo dyes. Our target is the development of Photomechanical Optical Devices (PODs), comprised of two FBGs in series, separated by a Fabry-Perot cavity of photomechanical material. PODs exhibit photomechanical multi-stability, with the capacity to access multiple length states for a fixed input intensity when a mechanical shock is applied. Using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) numerical methods, we modeled the photomechanical response of both Fabry-Perot and Bragg-type PODs in a single polymer optical fiber. The polymer fiber was modeled as an instantaneous Kerr-type nonlinear χ(3) material. Our model correctly predicts the essential optical features of FBGs as well as the photomechanical multi-stability of nonlinear Fabry-Perot cavity-based PODs. Networks of PODs may provide a framework for smart shape-shifting materials and fast optical computation where the decision process is distributed over the entire network. In addition, a POD can act as memory, and its response can depend on input history. Our models inform and will accelerate targeted development of novel Bragg grating-based polymer fiber device networks for a variety of applications in optical computing and smart materials.

  6. Microprocessor-controlled optical stimulating device to improve the gait of patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Ferrarin, M; Brambilla, M; Garavello, L; Di Candia, A; Pedotti, A; Rabuffetti, M

    2004-05-01

    Different types of visual cue for subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD) produced an improvement in gait and helped some of them prevent or overcome freezing episodes. The paper describes a portable gait-enabling device (optical stimulating glasses (OSGs) that provides, in the peripheral field of view, different types of continuous optic flow (backward or forward) and intermittent stimuli synchronised with external events. The OSGs are a programmable, stand-alone, augmented reality system that can be interfaced with a PC for program set-up. It consists of a pair of non-corrective glasses, equipped with two matrixes of 70 micro light emitting diodes, one on each side, controlled by a microprocessor. Two foot-switches are used to synchronise optical stimulation with specific gait events. A pilot study was carried out on three PD patients and three controls, with different types of optic flow during walking along a fixed path. The continuous optic flow in the forward direction produced an increase in gait velocity in the PD patients (up to + 11% in average), whereas the controls had small variations. The stimulation synchronised with the swing phase, associated with an attentional strategy, produced a remarkable increase in stride length for all subjects. After prolonged testing, the device has shown good applicability and technical functionality, it is easily wearable and transportable, and it does not interfere with gait.

  7. Semiconductor device PN junction fabrication using optical processing of amorphous semiconductor material

    SciTech Connect

    Sopori, Bhushan; Rangappan, Anikara

    2014-11-25

    Systems and methods for semiconductor device PN junction fabrication are provided. In one embodiment, a method for fabricating an electrical device having a P-N junction comprises: depositing a layer of amorphous semiconductor material onto a crystalline semiconductor base, wherein the crystalline semiconductor base comprises a crystalline phase of a same semiconductor as the amorphous layer; and growing the layer of amorphous semiconductor material into a layer of crystalline semiconductor material that is epitaxially matched to the lattice structure of the crystalline semiconductor base by applying an optical energy that penetrates at least the amorphous semiconductor material.

  8. Simple spark erosion device based on optical disk or hard disk drive actuators.

    PubMed

    Kamer, O

    2011-12-01

    We present the design of a compact electric discharge device incorporating hard disk or optical disk drive actuators. It is simple enough to be assembled in the absence of a mechanical workshop. The electronic circuit allows the adjustment of current, voltage, and discharge power. The system has been tested with organic dielectric liquids and deionized water and spark conditions; dynamic properties and machining characteristics were investigated. This device can be used to shape materials or to produce powdered samples with low material loss and minimal liquid consumption.

  9. Characteristics of heat flow in optical fiber devices that use integrated thin-film heaters.

    PubMed

    Rogers, J A; Kuo, P; Ahuja, A; Eggleton, B J; Jackman, R J

    2000-10-01

    We describe the analysis of heat flow in a type of tunable optical fiber grating that uses thin-film resistive heaters microfabricated on the surface of the fiber. The high rate of heat loss from these microstructures and the relatively low thermal diffusivity of the glass yield unusual thermal properties. Approximate one-dimensional analytical calculations capture important aspects of the thermal characteristics of these systems. Comparison with experimental results that we obtained from devices with established designs validates certain features of the computations. This modeling also establishes the suitability of integrated thin-film heaters for several new types of tunable fiber grating devices.

  10. Graphene photonics for resonator-enhanced electro-optic devices and all-optical interactions

    DOEpatents

    Englund, Dirk R.; Gan, Xuetao

    2017-03-21

    Techniques for coupling light into graphene using a planar photonic crystal having a resonant cavity characterized by a mode volume and a quality factor and at least one graphene layer positioned in proximity to the planar photonic crystal to at least partially overlap with an evanescent field of the resonant cavity. At least one mode of the resonant cavity can couple into the graphene layer via evanescent coupling. The optical properties of the graphene layer can be controlled, and characteristics of the graphene-cavity system can be detected. Coupling light into graphene can include electro-optic modulation of light, photodetection, saturable absorption, bistability, and autocorrelation.

  11. Siloxane-based photonic structures and their application in optic and optoelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pudiš, Dušan; Šušlik, Łuboš; Jandura, Daniel; Goraus, Matej; Figurová, Mária; Martinček, Ivan; Gašo, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Polymer based photonics brings simple and cheap solutions often with interesting results. We present capabilities of some siloxanes focusing on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) with unique mechanical and optical properties. In combination of laser lithography technologies with siloxane embossing we fabricate different grating structures with one- and two-dimensional symmetry. Concept of PDMS based thin membranes with patterned surface as an effective diffraction element for modification of radiation pattern diagram of light emitting diodes is here shown. Also the PDMS was used as an alternative material for fabrication of complicated waveguide with implemented Bragg grating. For lab-on-chip applications, we patterned PDMS microstructures for microfluidic and micro-optic devices.

  12. Integrated device with diffractive polarization components for a magneto-optical disk head

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggans, Charles W.; Fujita, Teruo; Kostuk, Raymond K.

    1992-01-01

    The optical components in the detection train of a conventional magneto-optical (MO) disk head include a half-wave plate and a polarization beamsplitter. These polarization components are bulky and require specialized mounting hardware. In order to realize a more compact head, we propose that these elements be replaced by an integrated device composed of cascaded volume and surface-relief gratings. Herein, the proposed system is described in detail for the individual elements, theoretical and prototype element performance are compared, and the operational tolerances of these elements are discussed.

  13. RF/Microwave properties and applications of directly assembled nanotubes and nanowires: LDRD project 102662 final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, Theresa (The Pennyslvania State University, University Park, PA 16802); Vallett, Aaron (The Pennyslvania State University, University Park, PA 16802); Lee, Mark; Shaner, Eric Arthur; Jones, Frank E.; Talin, Albert Alec; Highstrete, Clark

    2006-11-01

    LDRD Project 102662 provided support to pursue experiments aimed at measuring the basic electrodynamic response and possible applications of carbon nanotubes and silicon nanowires at radiofrequency to microwave frequencies, approximately 0.01 to 50 GHz. Under this project, a method was developed to integrate these nanomaterials onto high-frequency compatible co-planar waveguides. The complex reflection and transmission coefficients of the nanomaterials was studied as a function of frequency. From these data, the high-frequency loss characteristics of the nanomaterials were deduced. These data are useful to predict frequency dependence and power dissipation characteristics in new rf/microwave devices incorporating new nanomaterials.

  14. Final LDRD report : development of advanced UV light emitters and biological agent detection strategies.

    SciTech Connect

    Figiel, Jeffrey James; Crawford, Mary Hagerott; Banas, Michael Anthony; Farrow, Darcie; Armstrong, Andrew M.; Serkland, Darwin Keith; Allerman, Andrew Alan; Schmitt, Randal L.

    2007-12-01

    We present the results of a three year LDRD project which has focused on the development of novel, compact, ultraviolet solid-state sources and fluorescence-based sensing platforms that apply such devices to the sensing of biological and nuclear materials. We describe our development of 270-280 nm AlGaN-based semiconductor UV LEDs with performance suitable for evaluation in biosensor platforms as well as our development efforts towards the realization of a 340 nm AlGaN-based laser diode technology. We further review our sensor development efforts, including evaluation of the efficacy of using modulated LED excitation and phase sensitive detection techniques for fluorescence detection of bio molecules and uranyl-containing compounds.

  15. Simultaneous topographical, electrical and optical microscopy of optoelectronic devices at the nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Naresh; Zoladek-Lemanczyk, Alina; Guilbert, Anne A Y; Su, Weitao; Tuladhar, Sachetan M; Kirchartz, Thomas; Schroeder, Bob C; McCulloch, Iain; Nelson, Jenny; Roy, Debdulal; Castro, Fernando A

    2017-02-23

    Novel optoelectronic devices rely on complex nanomaterial systems where the nanoscale morphology and local chemical composition are critical to performance. However, the lack of analytical techniques that can directly probe these structure-property relationships at the nanoscale presents a major obstacle to device development. In this work, we present a novel method for non-destructive, simultaneous mapping of the morphology, chemical composition and photoelectrical properties with <20 nm spatial resolution by combining plasmonic optical signal enhancement with electrical-mode scanning probe microscopy. We demonstrate that this combined approach offers subsurface sensitivity that can be exploited to provide molecular information with a nanoscale resolution in all three spatial dimensions. By applying the technique to an organic solar cell device, we show that the inferred surface and subsurface composition distribution correlates strongly with the local photocurrent generation and explains macroscopic device performance. For instance, the direct measurement of fullerene phase purity can distinguish between high purity aggregates that lead to poor performance and lower purity aggregates (fullerene intercalated with polymer) that result in strong photocurrent generation and collection. We show that the reliable determination of the structure-property relationship at the nanoscale can remove ambiguity from macroscopic device data and support the identification of the best routes for device optimisation. The multi-parameter measurement approach demonstrated herein is expected to play a significant role in guiding the rational design of nanomaterial-based optoelectronic devices, by opening a new realm of possibilities for advanced investigation via the combination of nanoscale optical spectroscopy with a whole range of scanning probe microscopy modes.

  16. Development of Surface Plasmons/Electro Optic Devices for Active Control of Optical Characteristics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    at 800nm, the actual data [ Palik ] is fitted using the set of parameters: ,( , )=(0.06, 6.73)pω ωγ ω . The incident magnetic field was assumed to be... Palik , "Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids", Academic Press, London-New York (1985). [11] R.W. Ziolkowski, "Pulsed and CW Gaussian beam

  17. Plasmon enhanced broadband optical absorption in ultrathin silicon nanobowl array for photoactive devices applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Rui-Nan; Peng, Kui-Qing Hu, Bo; Hu, Ya; Zhang, Fu-Qiang; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2015-07-06

    Both photonic and plasmonic nanostructures are key optical components of photoactive devices for light harvesting, enabling solar cells with significant thickness reduction, and light detectors capable of detecting photons with sub-band gap energies. In this work, we study the plasmon enhanced broadband light absorption and electrical properties of silicon nanobowl (SiNB) arrays. The SiNB-metal photonic-plasmonic nanostructure-based devices exhibited superior light-harvesting ability across a wide range of wavelengths up to the infrared regime well below the band edge of Si due to effective optical coupling between the SiNB array and incident sunlight, as well as electric field intensity enhancement around metal nanoparticles due to localized surface plasmon resonance. The photonic-plasmonic nanostructure is expected to result in infrared-light detectors and high-efficiency solar cells by extending light-harvesting to infrared frequencies.

  18. Plasmon enhanced broadband optical absorption in ultrathin silicon nanobowl array for photoactive devices applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Rui-Nan; Peng, Kui-Qing; Hu, Bo; Hu, Ya; Zhang, Fu-Qiang; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2015-07-01

    Both photonic and plasmonic nanostructures are key optical components of photoactive devices for light harvesting, enabling solar cells with significant thickness reduction, and light detectors capable of detecting photons with sub-band gap energies. In this work, we study the plasmon enhanced broadband light absorption and electrical properties of silicon nanobowl (SiNB) arrays. The SiNB-metal photonic-plasmonic nanostructure-based devices exhibited superior light-harvesting ability across a wide range of wavelengths up to the infrared regime well below the band edge of Si due to effective optical coupling between the SiNB array and incident sunlight, as well as electric field intensity enhancement around metal nanoparticles due to localized surface plasmon resonance. The photonic-plasmonic nanostructure is expected to result in infrared-light detectors and high-efficiency solar cells by extending light-harvesting to infrared frequencies.

  19. Optical zoom module based on two deformable mirrors for mobile device applications.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Hung; Liu, Yen-Liang; Su, Guo-Dung J

    2012-04-10

    In recent years, optical zoom functionality in mobile devices has been studied. Traditional zoom systems use motors to change separation of lenses to achieve the zoom function, but these systems result in long total length and high power consumption, which are not suitable for mobile devices. Adopting micromachined polymer deformable mirrors in zoom systems has the potential to reduce thickness and chromatic aberration. In this paper, we propose a 2× continuous optical zoom system with five-megapixel image sensors by using two deformable mirrors. In our design, the thickness of the zoom system is about 11 mm. The effective focal length ranges from 4.7 mm at a field angle of 52° to 9.4 mm. The f-number is 4.4 and 6.4 at the wide-angle and telephoto end, respectively.

  20. Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution Over a 404 km Optical Fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Hua-Lei; Chen, Teng-Yun; Yu, Zong-Wen; Liu, Hui; You, Li-Xing; Zhou, Yi-Heng; Chen, Si-Jing; Mao, Yingqiu; Huang, Ming-Qi; Zhang, Wei-Jun; Chen, Hao; Li, Ming Jun; Nolan, Daniel; Zhou, Fei; Jiang, Xiao; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Xiang-Bin; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2016-11-01

    Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDIQKD) with the decoy-state method negates security threats of both the imperfect single-photon source and detection losses. Lengthening the distance and improving the key rate of quantum key distribution (QKD) are vital issues in practical applications of QKD. Herein, we report the results of MDIQKD over 404 km of ultralow-loss optical fiber and 311 km of a standard optical fiber while employing an optimized four-intensity decoy-state method. This record-breaking implementation of the MDIQKD method not only provides a new distance record for both MDIQKD and all types of QKD systems but also, more significantly, achieves a distance that the traditional Bennett-Brassard 1984 QKD would not be able to achieve with the same detection devices even with ideal single-photon sources. This work represents a significant step toward proving and developing feasible long-distance QKD.

  1. LDRD final report on new homogeneous catalysts for direct olefin epoxidation (LDRD 52591).

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, Karen; Smythe, Nicole A.; Moore, Joshua T.; Stewart, Constantine A.; Kemp, Richard Alan; Miller, James Edward; Kornienko, Alexander (New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology); Denney, Melanie C. (University of Washington); Cetto, Kara L.

    2006-02-01

    This report summarizes our findings during the study of a novel homogeneous epoxidation catalyst system that uses molecular oxygen as the oxidant, a ''Holy Grail'' in catalysis. While olefins (alkenes) that do not contain allylic hydrogens can be epoxidized directly using heterogeneous catalysts, most olefins cannot, and so a general, atom-efficient route is desired. While most of the work performed on this LDRD has been on pincer complexes of late transition metals, we also scouted out metal/ligand combinations that were significantly different, and unfortunately, less successful. Most of the work reported here deals with phosphorus-ligated Pd hydrides [(PCP)Pd-H]. We have demonstrated that molecular oxygen gas can insert into the Pd-H bond, giving a structurally characterized Pd-OOH species. This species reacts with oxygen acceptors such as olefins to donate an oxygen atom, although in various levels of selectivity, and to generate a [(PCP)Pd-OH] molecule. We discovered that the active [(PCP)Pd-H] active catalyst can be regenerated by addition of either CO or hydrogen. The demonstration of each step of the catalytic cycle is quite significant. Extensions to the pincer-Pd chemistry by attaching a fluorinated tail to the pincer designed to be used in solvents with higher oxygen solubilities are also presented.

  2. Multifunctional Optical Thin Films Fabricated by the Photopolymerization of Uniaxially Oriented Lyotropic Liquid Crystal Monomers for Electro-Optical Devices

    PubMed Central

    Im, Pureun; Choi, Yu-Jin; Yoon, Won-Jin; Kang, Dong-Gue; Park, Minwook; Kim, Dae-Yoon; Lee, Cheul-Ro; Yang, Seungbin; Lee, Ji-Hoon; Jeong, Kwang-Un

    2016-01-01

    A multifunctional optical thin film (MOTF) is fabricated by coating the newly synthesized perylene-based reactive mesogen (PBRM) and stabilized by the subsequent photopolymerization. Based on the spectroscopic results combined with morphological observations, it is found that nematic liquid crystal (NLC) is aligned parallel to the molecular long axis of PBRM not only due to the long-range physical anchoring effect but also due to the short-range molecular physical interactions between alignment layer and NLC molecules. From the electro-optical properties of LC test cells fabricated with the PBRM MOTF, it is clearly demonstrated that the PBRM MOTF can work as the planar LC alignment layer as well as the in-cell coatable polarizer. The coatable PBRM MOTF from lyotropic chromonic reactive mesogens can pave a new way for the flexible optoelectronic devices. PMID:27812042

  3. Multifunctional Optical Thin Films Fabricated by the Photopolymerization of Uniaxially Oriented Lyotropic Liquid Crystal Monomers for Electro-Optical Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, Pureun; Choi, Yu-Jin; Yoon, Won-Jin; Kang, Dong-Gue; Park, Minwook; Kim, Dae-Yoon; Lee, Cheul-Ro; Yang, Seungbin; Lee, Ji-Hoon; Jeong, Kwang-Un

    2016-11-01

    A multifunctional optical thin film (MOTF) is fabricated by coating the newly synthesized perylene-based reactive mesogen (PBRM) and stabilized by the subsequent photopolymerization. Based on the spectroscopic results combined with morphological observations, it is found that nematic liquid crystal (NLC) is aligned parallel to the molecular long axis of PBRM not only due to the long-range physical anchoring effect but also due to the short-range molecular physical interactions between alignment layer and NLC molecules. From the electro-optical properties of LC test cells fabricated with the PBRM MOTF, it is clearly demonstrated that the PBRM MOTF can work as the planar LC alignment layer as well as the in-cell coatable polarizer. The coatable PBRM MOTF from lyotropic chromonic reactive mesogens can pave a new way for the flexible optoelectronic devices.

  4. Efficiency analysis of parallelized wavelet-based FDTD model for simulating high-index optical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Rong; Wang, Jin; Jiang, Xiyan; Lu, Yunqing; Xu, Ji

    2014-10-01

    The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, which solves time-dependent Maxwell's curl equations numerically, has been proved to be a highly efficient technique for numerous applications in electromagnetic. Despite the simplicity of the FDTD method, this technique suffers from serious limitations in case that substantial computer resource is required to solve electromagnetic problems with medium or large computational dimensions, for example in high-index optical devices. In our work, an efficient wavelet-based FDTD model has been implemented and extended in a parallel computation environment, to analyze high-index optical devices. This model is based on Daubechies compactly supported orthogonal wavelets and Deslauriers-Dubuc interpolating functions as biorthogonal wavelet bases, and thus is a very efficient algorithm to solve differential equations numerically. This wavelet-based FDTD model is a high-spatial-order FDTD indeed. Because of the highly linear numerical dispersion properties of this high-spatial-order FDTD, the required discretization can be coarser than that required in the standard FDTD method. In our work, this wavelet-based FDTD model achieved significant reduction in the number of cells, i.e. used memory. Also, as different segments of the optical device can be computed simultaneously, there was a significant gain in computation time. Substantially, we achieved speed-up factors higher than 30 in comparisons to using a single processor. Furthermore, the efficiency of the parallelized computation such as the influence of the discretization and the load sharing between different processors were analyzed. As a conclusion, this parallel-computing model is promising to analyze more complicated optical devices with large dimensions.

  5. Tradeoff between energy and error in the discrimination of quantum-optical devices

    SciTech Connect

    Bisio, Alessandro; Dall'Arno, Michele; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro

    2011-07-15

    We address the problem of energy-error tradeoff in the discrimination between two linear passive quantum optical devices with a single use. We provide an analytical derivation of the optimal strategy for beamsplitters and an iterative algorithm converging to the optimum in the general case. We then compare the optimal strategy with a simpler strategy using coherent input states and homodyne detection. It turns out that the former requires much less energy in order to achieve the same performances.

  6. Note: Automated optical focusing on encapsulated devices for scanning light stimulation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bitzer, L. A.; Benson, N. Schmechel, R.

    2014-08-15

    Recently, a scanning light stimulation system with an automated, adaptive focus correction during the measurement was introduced. Here, its application on encapsulated devices is discussed. This includes the changes an encapsulating optical medium introduces to the focusing process as well as to the subsequent light stimulation measurement. Further, the focusing method is modified to compensate for the influence of refraction and to maintain a minimum beam diameter on the sample surface.

  7. First-in-Human Clinical Trials of Imaging Devices: An Example from Optical Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs-Strauss, Summer L.; Rosenberg, Mireille; Clough, Barbara L.; Troyan, Susan L.; Frangioni, John V.

    2009-01-01

    Clinical translation of scientific discoveries is often the long-term goal of academic medical research. However, this goal is not always realized due to the complicated path between bench research and clinical use. In this review, we outline the fundamental steps required for first-in-human testing of a new imaging device, and use the FLARE™ (Fluorescence-Assisted Resection and Exploration) near-infrared fluorescence optical imaging platform as an example. PMID:19964033

  8. First-in-human clinical trials of imaging devices: an example from optical imaging.

    PubMed

    Gibbs-Strauss, Summer L; Rosenberg, Mireille; Clough, Barbara L; Troyan, Susan L; Frangioni, John V

    2009-01-01

    Clinical translation of scientific discoveries is often the long-term goal of academic medical research. However, this goal is not always realized due to the complicated path between bench research and clinical use. In this review, we outline the fundamental steps required for first-in-human testing of a new imaging device, and use the FLARE() (Fluorescence-Assisted Resection and Exploration) near-infrared fluorescence optical imaging platform as an example.

  9. Organic electroluminescent devices and method for improving energy efficiency and optical stability thereof

    DOEpatents

    Heller, Christian Maria

    2004-04-27

    An organic electroluminescent device ("OELD") has a controllable brightness, an improved energy efficiency, and stable optical output at low brightness. The OELD is activated with a series of voltage pulses, each of which has a maximum voltage value that corresponds to the maximum power efficiency when the OELD is activated. The frequency of the pulses, or the duty cycle, or both are chosen to provide the desired average brightness.

  10. Electro-optical detection probability of optical devices determined by bidirectional laser retro-reflection cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurenzis, Martin; Christnacher, Frank; Matwyschuk, Alexis; Schertzer, Stephane; Hengy, Sebastien

    2015-05-01

    A good measure for the probability to detect a sniper telescopic sight is the effective bi-directional laser retro-reflection cross section. This angular (bi-directional) property of an optical device can be measured and can be used for a fist estimation of its probability to be detected by an active imaging. In the present paper, the authors give examples for resolved and non-resolved sensing of a telescopic sight under mono-static and bi-static conditions. As a result of these measurements, the resolved sensing under mono-static conditions shows the highest signal response in a wide angular range.

  11. A Microthermal Device for Measuring the Spatial Power Spectrum of Atmospheric Optical Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Jonathan; McGraw, J.; Zimmer, P.; Williams, T.; Claver, C.; Krabbendam, V.; Wiecha, O.; Andrew, J.; Warner, M.

    2010-01-01

    The Measurement Astrophysics group at UNM designed and built a novel microthermal device for characterizing atmospheric optical turbulence at astronomical observatories. This instrument is based on a Wheatstone bridge circuit and uses fine tungsten filaments as resistance temperature detectors. The device makes differential temperature measurements which are directly related to the index of refraction structure constant, Cn2, which quantifies the strength of optical turbulence. The device is designed to work in two modes. In horizontal mode temperature differentials are measured between adjacent sensors. Measurements are combined to recover the differences over all pairwise sensor baselines. These measurements result in a spatial spectrum of turbulence. Measured turbulent spectra are then fit to standard turbulence models which yield estimates of the outer scale of turbulence and the slope of the power spectra. In vertical mode the device operates with pairs of microthermal sensors distributed vertically, each pair being separated horizontally by approximately one meter. Sensor pairs are suspended at multiple heights above the ground allowing measurement of atmospheric turbulence power as a function of altitude. This device was used to monitor optical turbulence during a site testing campaign at the future LSST site on Cerro Pachón. We present preliminary results from operation in both vertical and horizontal modes from October 2008 to December 2009. The microthermal array remains in operation on Cerro Pachón, and continues to produce valuable atmospheric measurements. Our results support the conclusion that Cerro Pachón is an excellent observatory site. The vertical turbulence profile decreases monotonically with height as expected, and the surface layer does not contribute a significant amount to the overall seeing measured at the site. This work was supported by Air Force Grant No. FA9451-04-2-0355. Instrumentation and travel support was provided in part by

  12. Security analysis on some experimental quantum key distribution systems with imperfect optical and electrical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Lin-Mei; Sun, Shi-Hai; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Li, Chun-Yan

    2014-10-01

    In general, quantum key distribution (QKD) has been proved unconditionally secure for perfect devices due to quantum uncertainty principle, quantum noncloning theorem and quantum nondividing principle which means that a quantum cannot be divided further. However, the practical optical and electrical devices used in the system are imperfect, which can be exploited by the eavesdropper to partially or totally spy the secret key between the legitimate parties. In this article, we first briefly review the recent work on quantum hacking on some experimental QKD systems with respect to imperfect devices carried out internationally, then we will present our recent hacking works in details, including passive faraday mirror attack, partially random phase attack, wavelength-selected photon-number-splitting attack, frequency shift attack, and single-photon-detector attack. Those quantum attack reminds people to improve the security existed in practical QKD systems due to imperfect devices by simply adding countermeasure or adopting a totally different protocol such as measurement-device independent protocol to avoid quantum hacking on the imperfection of measurement devices [Lo, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 2012, 108: 130503].

  13. Fabrication and integration of micro/nano-scale optical waveguides and photonic devices for application-specific planar optical integrated circuit board

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, El-Hang; Lee, S. G.; O, B. H.; Park, S. G.; Kim, K. H.

    2006-02-01

    We present a review of our work on the micro/nano-scale design, fabrication and integration of optical waveguide arrays and devices for what we call application-specific "optical printed circuit boards" (O-PCBs). Generic O-PCBs are composed of an optical layer carrying basic forms of optical wires and devices and an electrical layer carrying arrays of electrical wires and devices. Application-specific O-PCBs carry optical layers that are composed of varied forms of optical wires and devices tailored to perform specific functions. In this paper, we present two examples of application specific O-PCB: One is a module for inter-chip optical interconnection application and the other is an all optical wavelength splitting triplexer module that we investigated for subscriber telecommunication application. The inter-chip optical interconnection module is to replace copper wires between the central processing units (CPUs) and memory chips in the computer system. The triplexer module is composed of an array of cascaded directional couplers to split the wavelengths for fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) subscriber system application. All these O-PCBs consist of planar circuits and arrays of polymer waveguides and devices of various dimensions and characteristics to perform the functions of transporting, switching, routing and distributing optical signals on flat modular boards. We fabricate polymer waveguide by way of thermal or ultraviolet (UV) embossing (or imprinting) technique. Theoretical calculations provide design rules for the miniaturization of the waveguide devices and for the maximization of the integration densities of the waveguides and devices to be placed on the O-PCBs.

  14. Small Integrated Optical Head Device Using a Blue-Violet Laser Diode for Blu-ray Disc System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manoh, Kiyoshi; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Takashi; Takase, Motohiro; Yamauchi, Kiyoshi; Fujiwara, Satoshi; Ohno, Tsuyoshi; Nishi, Noriaki; Ozawa, Masafumi; Ikeda, Masao; Tojyo, Tsuyoshi; Taniguchi, Tadashi

    2003-02-01

    We report the first integrated optical head device using a blue-violet laser diode (LD), which is a key device for realizing a small and thin Blu-ray Disc drive. While integrating seven optical elements and semiconductor chips into one device by adopting a molded optical element with high transmittance to the blue-violet wavelength, both small aberration and the small device size of 11 mm× 6 mm× 4.1 mm have been realized. We have also improved heat dissipation efficiency from this device to the base unit by adopting a newly developed package. At this time, we have implemented a performance evaluation of this small head device and have confirmed its good read/write performance as well as its adequate tolerances required for the Blu-ray Disc system.

  15. Characterization of devices, circuits, and high-temperature superconductor transmission lines by electro-optic testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, John F.

    1991-01-01

    The development of a capability for testing transmission lines, devices, and circuits using the optically-based technique of electro-optics sampling was the goal of this project. Electro-optic network analysis of a high-speed device was demonstrated. The project involved research on all of the facets necessary in order to realize this result, including the discovery of the optimum electronic pulse source, development of an adequate test fixture, improvement of the electro-optic probe tip, and identification of a device which responded at high frequency but did not oscillate in the test fixture. In addition, during the process of investigating patterned high-critical-temperature superconductors, several non-contacting techniques for the determination of the transport properties of high T(sub c) films were developed and implemented. These are a transient, optical pump-probe, time-resolved reflectivity experiment, an impulsive-stimulated Raman scattering experiment, and a terahertz-beam coherent-spectroscopy experiment. The latter technique has enabled us to measure both the complex refractive index of an MgO substrate used for high-T(sub c) films and the complex conductivity of a YBa2Cu3O(7-x) sample. This information was acquired across an extremely wide frequency range: from the microwave to the submillimeter-wave regime. The experiments on the YBCO were conducted without patterning of, or contact to, the thin film. Thus, the need for the more difficult transmission-line experiments was eliminated. Progress in all of these areas was made and is documented in a number of papers. These papers may be found in the section listing the abstracts of the publications that were issued during the course of the research.

  16. Charge-coupled device/fiber optic taper array x-ray detector for protein crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Naday, I.; Ross, S.; Westbrook, E.M.; Zentai, G.

    1998-04-01

    A large area charge-coupled device (CCD) based fiber optic taper array detector (APS-1) is installed at the insertion-device beamline of the Structural Biology Center at the Argonne Advanced Photon Source x-ray synchrotron. The detector is used in protein crystallography diffraction experiments, where the objective is to measure the position and intensity of x-ray Bragg peaks in diffraction images. Large imaging area, very high spatial resolution, high x-ray sensitivity, good detective quantum efficiency, low noise, wide dynamic range, excellent stability and short readout time are all fundamental requirements in this application. The APS-1 detector converts the 2-D x-ray patterns to visible light images by a thin layer of x-ray sensitive phosphor. The phosphor coating is directly deposited on the large ends of nine fiber optic tapers arranged in a 3{times}3 array. Nine, thermoelectrically cooled 1024{times}1024pixel CCDs image the patterns, demagnified by the tapers. After geometrical and uniformity corrections, the nine areas give a continuous image of the detector face with virtually no gaps between the individual tapers. The 18 parallel analog signal-processing channels and analog-to-digital converters ensure short readout time and low readout noise. We discuss the design and measured performance of the detector. {copyright} {ital 1998 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.}{ital Key words:} charge-coupled device; fiber optic taper; x-ray diffraction; crystallography; imaging detector. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers}

  17. Optical memory device structure using vertical interference from digital thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Robert Chih-Jen

    2001-10-01

    The objective of this dissertation research was to create a high-density optical memory device. From an engineering point of view, to create a promising durable optical memory device with high density requires a simple, efficient, effective storage method. This need led to the concept of creating a three-dimensional memory by storage of many bits data in a single physical location. Unlike conventional multi-layer 3D structure, this was accomplished in a single layer structure using a dielectric thin film. The resulting digital thin-film (DTF) structure was investigated in order to prove and demonstrate that the vertical interference properties of micro-scale Fabry-Perot filters array can be used as the basis for optical data storage cells. Optical memory devices are conventionally fabricated by laser beam processing. In this work, a Ga+ focused ion beam was used to ``write'' data on a SiO2 film grown on Si as proof of concept and demonstration of this DTF structure. The use of FIB milling has the advantage of creating smaller data storage elements and higher data density since the ion beam can be focused into a much smaller spot size than that of lasers. The FIB-written data creates a sub-micron structure with multiple bit capacity per physical location and can be read by far-field optical detection methods. A bit density of 5 Gbit in 2 which is roughly double the current storage density of a DVD has been obtained. The extended lifetime of data stored on a robust material such as SiO2/Si produces a data storage option with excellent survival under harsh environment such as high temperature, radiation, etc.

  18. Inspection of commercial optical devices for data storage using a three Gaussian beam microscope interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Flores, J. Mauricio; Cywiak, Moises; Servin, Manuel; Juarez P, Lorenzo

    2008-09-20

    Recently, an interferometric profilometer based on the heterodyning of three Gaussian beams has been reported. This microscope interferometer, called a three Gaussian beam interferometer, has been used to profile high quality optical surfaces that exhibit constant reflectivity with high vertical resolution and lateral resolution near {lambda}. We report the use of this interferometer to measure the profiles of two commercially available optical surfaces for data storage, namely, the compact disk (CD-R) and the digital versatile disk (DVD-R). We include experimental results from a one-dimensional radial scan of these devices without data marks. The measurements are taken by placing the devices with the polycarbonate surface facing the probe beam of the interferometer. This microscope interferometer is unique when compared with other optical measuring instruments because it uses narrowband detection, filters out undesirable noisy signals, and because the amplitude of the output voltage signal is basically proportional to the local vertical height of the surface under test, thus detecting with high sensitivity. We show that the resulting profiles, measured with this interferometer across the polycarbonate layer, provide valuable information about the track profiles, making this interferometer a suitable tool for quality control of surface storage devices.

  19. Inspection of commercial optical devices for data storage using a three Gaussian beam microscope interferometer.

    PubMed

    Flores, J Mauricio; Cywiak, Moisés; Servín, Manuel; Juárez, Lorenzo

    2008-09-20

    Recently, an interferometric profilometer based on the heterodyning of three Gaussian beams has been reported. This microscope interferometer, called a three Gaussian beam interferometer, has been used to profile high quality optical surfaces that exhibit constant reflectivity with high vertical resolution and lateral resolution near lambda. We report the use of this interferometer to measure the profiles of two commercially available optical surfaces for data storage, namely, the compact disk (CD-R) and the digital versatile disk (DVD-R). We include experimental results from a one-dimensional radial scan of these devices without data marks. The measurements are taken by placing the devices with the polycarbonate surface facing the probe beam of the interferometer. This microscope interferometer is unique when compared with other optical measuring instruments because it uses narrowband detection, filters out undesirable noisy signals, and because the amplitude of the output voltage signal is basically proportional to the local vertical height of the surface under test, thus detecting with high sensitivity. We show that the resulting profiles, measured with this interferometer across the polycarbonate layer, provide valuable information about the track profiles, making this interferometer a suitable tool for quality control of surface storage devices.

  20. Superior electro-optic response in multiferroic bismuth ferrite nanoparticle doped nematic liquid crystal device

    PubMed Central

    Nayek, Prasenjit; Li, Guoqiang

    2015-01-01

    A superior electro-optic (E-O) response has been achieved when multiferroic bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3/BFO) nanoparticles (NPs) were doped in nematic liquid crystal (NLC) host E7 and the LC device was addressed in the large signal regime by an amplitude modulated square wave signal at the frequency of 100 Hz. The optimized concentration of BFO is 0.15 wt%, and the corresponding total optical response time (rise time + decay time) for a 5 μm-thick cell is 2.5 ms for ~7 Vrms. This might be exploited for the construction of adaptive lenses, modulators, displays, and other E-O devices. The possible reason behind the fast response time could be the visco-elastic constant and restoring force imparted by the locally ordered LCs induced by the multiferroic nanoparticles (MNPs). Polarized optical microscopic textural observation shows that the macroscopic dislocation-free excellent contrast have significant impact on improving the image quality and performance of the devices. PMID:26041701

  1. First International Conference on Organic Nonlinear Optics. Section B: Nonlinear Optics, Principles, Materials, Phenomena, and Devices.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    1461, 1466.4 and 1489 cm for the C=C- wavelength [nto] 1000 800 600 500 400 1.0- "-0.8 06- o, 064 C 0 0.4 o 0.2- PPVS Lutt 0- Z-N 10000 15000 20000...well as in biological systems (e.g., light harvesting antenna). In addition the nonlinear optical response (NLO) of coherent extended states has in

  2. Development of Device Quality Nonlinear Optical Materials and Definition of Mechanisms of Optical Nonlinearity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-01

    Polymer 2 Diels - Alder reaction I swith isocyanag Network 1 Network 2 No Electric Field E E "Owe’ \\ti > -’-- -- ’- randonly -oriented molecular dipoles...following paragraphs. Write-read-erase memories derived from organic chromophores exploit one of four types of conformation changesl: (1) trans-cis...benzophenone- type moieties, and (4) interconversion between Mwisted charge transfer conformations. We have shown that both the magnitude change in optical

  3. Novel fused-LEDs devices as optical sensors for colorimetric analysis.

    PubMed

    Lau, King Tong; Baldwin, Susan; Shepherd, Roderick L; Dietz, Paul H; Yerzunis, William S; Diamond, Dermot

    2004-05-10

    The development of a novel, low power optical sensing platform based on light emitting diodes (LEDs) is described. The sensor is constructed from a pair of LEDs fused together at an angle where one LED functions as the light source and the other LED is reverse biased to function as a light detector. Sensor function is based on the level of light received by the detector diode, which varies with the reflectance of the interface between the device and its environment, or the chemochromic membrane that covers the device. A simple microprocessor circuit is used to measure the time taken for the photon-induced current to discharge the detector LED from an initial 5V (logic 1) to 1.7V (logic zero). This sensing device has been successfully used for colour and colour-based pH measurements and offers extremely high sensitivity, enabling detection down to the sub micro molar level of dyes.

  4. Application of metal-doped organic layer both as exciton blocker and optical spacer for organic photovoltaic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, M. Y.; Lai, S. L.; Lau, K. M.; Lee, C. S.; Lee, S. T.

    2006-10-01

    An effective optical spacer based on doping of ytterbium (Yb) metal into bathophenanthroline (BPhen) has been developed for applications in organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices. Utilizing Yb:BPhen as an optical spacer in standard copper phthalocyanine/C60 photovoltaic devices, power efficiency can be increased by four times to 3.42%. Ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy measurements reveal that the good electron transport between C60 and Yb:BPhen is mainly related to the suitable energy level alignment at the interface. Combining with its high optical transparency and electrical conductivity, the Yb:BPhen film provides a useful means for maximizing the power conversion efficiency of OPV devices.

  5. Final report on LDRD project "proliferation-resistant fuel cycles"

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N W; Hassberger, J A

    1999-02-25

    This report provides a summary of LDRD work completed during 1997 and 1998 to develop the ideas and concepts that lead to the Secure, Transportable, Autonomous Reactor (STAR) program proposals to the DOE Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI). The STAR program consists of a team of three national laboratories (LLNL, ANL, and LANL), three universities, (UC Berkeley, TAMU, and MIT) and the Westinghouse Research Center. Based on the LLNL work and their own efforts on related work this team prepared and integrated a package of twelve proposals that will carry the LDRD work outlined here into the next phase of development. We are proposing to develop a new nuclear system that meets stringent requirements for a high degree of safety and proliferation resistance, and also deals directly with the related nuclear waste and spent fuel management issues.

  6. Optical devices and methods employing nanoparticles, microcavities, and semicontinuous metal films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Robert L. (Inventor); Shalaev, Vladimir M. (Inventor); Smith, Harold V. (Inventor); Sarychev, Andrey K. (Inventor); Ying, Z. Charles (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An optical sensing enhancing material (and corresponding method of making) comprising: a medium, the medium comprising a plurality of aggregated nanoparticles comprising fractals; and a microcavity, wherein the medium is located in a vicinity of the microcavity. Also an optical sensor and sensing method comprising: providing a doped medium, the medium comprising a plurality of aggregated nanoparticles comprising fractals, with the material; locating the doped medium in the vicinity of a microcavity; exciting the doped medium with a light source; and detecting light reflected from the doped medium. Also an optical sensing enhancing material comprising a medium, the medium comprising a semicontinuous metal film of randomly distributed metal particles and their clusters at approximately their percolation threshold. The medium preferably additionally comprises a microcavity/microresonator. Also devices and methods employing such material.

  7. Optical and morphological characteristics of organic thin films for optoelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Zhiyou; Sun, Fenglou

    2007-12-01

    Organic semiconductor thin films of tri-(8-hydroxyquinoline)-aluminum (Alq), 9,10-di-(2-naphthyl)-anthracene (ADN), and N,N'bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N,N'bis(phenyl)-benzidine (NPB) for optoelectronic devices were deposited onto glass substrates by vacuum sublimation technique. The surface morphology and roughness of the thin film were characterized by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM). Experimental results indicate that all thin films present similar granular topography but different surface roughness. In addition, the optical transmittance spectra of thin films were measured by a double beam spectrophotometer and their corresponding optical properties were investigated. The complex refractive index and the optical band gap of thin films were obtained, respectively. Meanwhile, the dispersion behavior of the refractive index was studied in terms of Wemple-DiDomenico single oscillator model, and the oscillator parameters were achieved.

  8. Computational chemistry modeling and design of photoswitchable alignment materials for optically addressable liquid crystal devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, K. L.; Sekera, E. R.; Xiao, K.

    2015-09-01

    Photoalignment technology based on optically switchable "command surfaces" has been receiving increasing interest for liquid crystal optics and photonics device applications. Azobenzene compounds in the form of low-molar-mass, watersoluble salts deposited either directly on the substrate surface or after dispersion in a polymer binder have been almost exclusively employed for these applications, and ongoing research in the area follows a largely empirical materials design and development approach. Recent computational chemistry advances now afford unprecedented opportunities to develop predictive capabilities that will lead to new photoswitchable alignment layer materials with low switching energies, enhanced bistability, write/erase fatigue resistance, and high laser-damage thresholds. In the work described here, computational methods based on the density functional theory and time-dependent density functional theory were employed to study the impact of molecular structure on optical switching properties in photoswitchable methacrylate and acrylamide polymers functionalized with azobenzene and spiropyran pendants.

  9. Linear charge coupled device detector array for imaging light propagating in an integrated thin-film optical waveguide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. L.; Boyd, J. T.

    1976-01-01

    Device design, fabrication, and operation of a linear charge coupled device (CCD) detector array integrated with a thin film optical waveguide and applications of this structure to integrated optical signal processing and fiber optical communications were discussed. A two phase, overlapping-gate CCD is connected in parallel by means of a series of gates to an array of photodiodes. The photodiode provides an electrode free surface region so that a highly efficient waveguide detector coupling technique can be implemented. A thermally-oxidized layer of SiO2 forms an effective substrate for the optical waveguide.

  10. Materials and devices for all-optical helicity-dependent switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salah El Hadri, Mohammed; Hehn, Michel; Malinowski, Grégory; Mangin, Stéphane

    2017-04-01

    Since the first observation of ultrafast demagnetization in Ni thin films by Beaurepaire et al 20 years ago, understanding the interaction between ultrashort laser pulses and magnetization has become a topic of huge interest. In 2007, an intriguing discovery related to ultrafast demagnetization was the observation of all-optical switching (AOS) of magnetization in ferrimagnetic GdFeCo alloy films using only femtosecond laser pulses. This review discusses the recent studies elucidating several key issues regarding the all-optical switching phenomenon. Although AOS had long been restricted to GdFeCo alloys, it turned out to be a more general phenomenon for a variety of ferrimagnetic as well as ferromagnetic materials. This discovery helped pave the way for the integration of all-optical writing in data storage industries. Nevertheless, theoretical models explaining the switching in GdFeCo alloy films do not appear to apply in the other materials, thus questioning the uniqueness of the microscopic origin of all-optical switching. By investigating the integration of all-optical switching in spintronic devices, two types of all-optical switching mechanism have been distinguished: a single-pulse heat-only switching in ferrimagnetic GdFeCo alloys, and a two regime helicity-dependent switching in both ferrimagnetic TbCo alloys and ferromagnetic Co/Pt multilayers. Another key issue discussed in this review is the necessary condition for the observation of all-optical switching. Many models have been proposed but are strongly challenged by the discovery of such switching in ferromagnets. A comprehensive investigation of the magnetic parameters governing all-optical switching demonstrate that its observation requires magnetic domains larger than the laser spot size during the cooling process; such a criterion is common for both ferri- and ferro-magnets. These investigations strongly improve our understanding and give intriguing insights into the rich physics of the ultrafast

  11. Electrochemical doping and the optical properties of light-emitting polymer materials and devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leger, Janelle Maureen

    The first three chapters of this dissertation serve as an introduction to the field of light-emitting polymers and polymer-based devices including materials, device construction, and measurement techniques. In chapter one I discuss the physical models necessary to understand semiconductivity in conjugated polymers. Chapter two reviews the device physics of several important applications. In chapter three I introduce the experimental techniques used in the following studies. Two well established light-emitting polymer devices include the polymer LED and the polymer LEC. The LEC uses electrochemical doping to achieve the charge injection necessary for light emission, while the LED injects charge directly from contact electrodes. I use a technique employing simulations of interference effects in multilayered device structures, matching experimental device spectra to simulation in order to gain insight into the location of light emission within the device. In chapter four I use this technique to explore the thickness dependence of PLEDs. In chapter five I combine simulations of interference effects in LECs with studies of planar geometry devices, thereby providing information about the fundamental operating mechanism of these devices. Several polymer-based applications include light-emitting electrochemical cells (LEC), electrochromic devices (ECD), and actuators, for which the operating mechanism depends heavily on electrochemical doping. Unfortunately, the doping of light-emitting polymers is not well understood. In chapter six I study the basic electrochemical doping reactions of one common light-emitting polymer, MEH-PPV. I explore factors affecting the fundamental doping reaction through cyclic voltammetry. Further, I investigate the optical properties of doped films in order to gain insight into the structural changes and changes in the energy band structure induced by doping. Finally, I explore some unique functionalities of MEH-PPV, specifically electrochromic

  12. Array-type miniature interferometer as the core optical microsystem of an optical coherence tomography device for tissue inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passilly, Nicolas; Perrin, Stéphane; Lullin, Justine; Albero, Jorge; Bargiel, Sylwester; Froehly, Luc; Gorecki, Christophe; Krauter, Johann; Osten, Wolfgang; Wang, Wei-Shan; Wiemer, Maik

    2016-04-01

    Some of the critical limitations for widespread use in medical applications of optical devices, such as confocal or optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems, are related to their cost and large size. Indeed, although quite efficient systems are available on the market, e.g. in dermatology, they equip only a few hospitals and hence, are far from being used as an early detection tool, for instance in screening of patients for early detection of cancers. In this framework, the VIAMOS project aims at proposing a concept of miniaturized, batch-fabricated and lower-cost, OCT system dedicated to non-invasive skin inspection. In order to image a large skin area, the system is based on a full-field approach. Moreover, since it relies on micro-fabricated devices whose fields of view are limited, 16 small interferometers are arranged in a dense array to perform multi-channel simultaneous imaging. Gaps between each channel are then filled by scanning of the system followed by stitching. This approach allows imaging a large area without the need of large optics. It also avoids the use of very fast and often expensive laser sources, since instead of a single point detector, almost 250 thousands pixels are used simultaneously. The architecture is then based on an array of Mirau interferometers which are interesting for their vertical arrangement compatible with vertical assembly at the wafer-level. Each array is consequently a local part of a stack of seven wafers. This stack includes a glass lens doublet, an out-of-plane actuated micro-mirror for phase shifting, a spacer and a planar beam-splitter. Consequently, different materials, such as silicon and glass, are bonded together and well-aligned thanks to lithographic-based fabrication processes.

  13. Image Reconstruction of a Charge Coupled Device Based Optical Tomographic Instrumentation System for Particle Sizing

    PubMed Central

    Idroas, Mariani; Rahim, Ruzairi Abdul; Green, Robert Garnet; Ibrahim, Muhammad Nasir; Rahiman, Mohd Hafiz Fazalul

    2010-01-01

    This research investigates the use of charge coupled device (abbreviated as CCD) linear image sensors in an optical tomographic instrumentation system used for sizing particles. The measurement system, consisting of four CCD linear image sensors are configured around an octagonal shaped flow pipe for a four projections system is explained. The four linear image sensors provide 2,048 pixel imaging with a pixel size of 14 micron × 14 micron, hence constituting a high-resolution system. Image reconstruction for a four-projection optical tomography system is also discussed, where a simple optical model is used to relate attenuation due to variations in optical density, [R], within the measurement section. Expressed in matrix form this represents the forward problem in tomography [S] [R] = [M]. In practice, measurements [M] are used to estimate the optical density distribution by solving the inverse problem [R] = [S]−1[M]. Direct inversion of the sensitivity matrix, [S], is not possible and two approximations are considered and compared—the transpose and the pseudo inverse sensitivity matrices. PMID:22163423

  14. Hybrid optical-thermal devices and materials for light manipulation and radiative cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boriskina, Svetlana V.; Tong, Jonathan K.; Hsu, Wei-Chun; Weinstein, Lee; Huang, Xiaopeng; Loomis, James; Xu, Yanfei; Chen, Gang

    2015-09-01

    We report on optical design and applications of hybrid meso-scale devices and materials that combine optical and thermal management functionalities owing to their tailored resonant interaction with light in visible and infrared frequency bands. We outline a general approach to designing such materials, and discuss two specific applications in detail. One example is a hybrid optical-thermal antenna with sub-wavelength light focusing, which simultaneously enables intensity enhancement at the operating wavelength in the visible and reduction of the operating temperature. The enhancement is achieved via light recycling in the form of whispering-gallery modes trapped in an optical microcavity, while cooling functionality is realized via a combination of reduced optical absorption and radiative cooling. The other example is a fabric that is opaque in the visible range yet highly transparent in the infrared, which allows the human body to efficiently shed energy in the form of thermal emission. Such fabrics can find numerous applications for personal thermal management and for buildings energy efficiency improvement.

  15. Silicon Photonics: All-Optical Devices for Linear and Nonlinear Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driscoll, Jeffrey B.

    Silicon photonics has grown rapidly since the first Si electro-optic switch was demonstrated in 1987, and the field has never grown more quickly than it has over the past decade, fueled by milestone achievements in semiconductor processing technologies for low loss waveguides, high-speed Si modulators, Si lasers, Si detectors, and an enormous toolbox of passive and active integrated devices. Silicon photonics is now on the verge of major commercialization breakthroughs, and optical communication links remain the force driving integrated and Si photonics towards the first commercial telecom and datacom transceivers; however other potential and future applications are becoming uncovered and refined as researchers reveal the benefits of manipulating photons on the nanoscale. This thesis documents an exploration into the unique guided-wave and nonlinear properties of deeply-scaled high-index-contrast sub-wavelength Si waveguides. It is found that the tight confinement inherent to single-mode channel waveguides on the silicon-on-insulator platform lead to a rich physics, which can be leveraged for new devices extending well beyond simple passive interconnects and electro-optic devices. The following chapters will concentrate, in detail, on a number of unique physical features of Si waveguides and extend these attributes towards new and interesting devices. Linear optical properties and nonlinear optical properties are investigated, both of which are strongly affected by tight optical confinement of the guided waveguide modes. As will be shown, tight optical confinement directly results in strongly vectoral modal components, where the electric and magnetic fields of the guided modes extend into all spatial dimensions, even along the axis of propagation. In fact, the longitudinal electric and magnetic field components can be just as strong as the transverse fields, directly affecting the modal group velocity and energy transport properties since the longitudinal fields

  16. Chemical and Biological Sensing with a Fiber Optic Surface Plasmon Resonance Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, Yanina

    Fiber biosensors have emerged as an alternative to other optical sensor platforms which utilize bulkier optical elements. Sensors manufactured using optical fiber offer considerable advantages over traditional platforms, such as simple manufacturing process, small size and possibility for in situ and remote measurements. The possibility to manufacture a compact sensor with very few optical elements and package it into a portable hand-held device makes it particularly useful in many biomedical applications. Such applications generate a growing demand for an improved understanding of how fiber sensors function as well as for sensor optimization techniques so later these devices can suit the needs of the applications they are developed for. Research presented in this thesis is focused on a development of a plasmonic fiber biosensor and its application towards biochemical sensing. The fiber sensor used in this study integrates plasmonics with tilted Bragg grating technology, creating a versatile sensing solution. Plasmonics alone is an established phenomenon that is widely employed in many sensing applications. The Bragg grating is also a well-researched optical component that has been extensively applied in telecommunication. By combining both plasmonics and Bragg gratings, it is possible to design a compact and very sensitive chemical sensor. The presented work focuses on the characterization and optimization of the fiber sensor so later it could be applied in biochemical sensing. It also explores several applications including real-time monitoring of polymer adsorption, detection of thrombin and cellular sensing. All applications are focused on studying processes that are very different in their nature and thus the various strengths of the developed sensing platform were leveraged to suit the requirements of these applications.

  17. Application of the device based on chirping of optical impulses for management of software-defined networks in dynamic mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradova, Irina L.; Khasansin, Vadim R.; Andrianova, Anna V.; Yantilina, Liliya Z.; Vinogradov, Sergey L.

    2016-03-01

    The analysis of the influence of the physical layer concepts in optical networks on the performance of the whole network. It is concluded that the relevance of the search for new means of transmitting information on a physical level. It is proposed to use an optical chirp overhead transmission between controllers SDN. This article is devoted to research of a creation opportunity of optical neural switchboards controlled in addition by submitted optical radiation. It is supposed, that the managing radiation changes a parameter of refraction of optical environment of the device, and with it and length of a wave of information radiation. For the control by last is used multibeam interferometer. The brief estimation of technical aspects of construction of the device is carried out. The principle of using the device to an extensive network. Simulation of network performance parameters.

  18. LDRD final report: photonic analog-to-digital converter (ADC) technology

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, M; Deri, B; Haigh, R; Lowry, M; Sargis, P; Stafford, R; Tong, T

    1999-02-18

    We report on an LDRD seed program of novel technology development (started by an FY98 Engineering Tech-base project) that will enable extremely high-fidelity analog-to-digital converters for a variety of national security missions. High speed (l0+ GS/s ), high precision (l0+ bits) ADC technology requires extremely short aperture times ({approx}1ps ) with very low jitter requirements (sub 10fs ). These fundamental requirements, along with other technological barriers, are difficult to realize with electronics: However, we outline here, a way to achieve these timing apertures using a novel multi-wavelength optoelectronic short-pulse optical source. Our approach uses an optoelectronic feedback scheme with high optical Q to produce an optical pulse train with ultra-low jitter ( sub 5fs) and high amplitude stability (<10{sup 10}). This approach requires low power and can be integrated into an optoelectronic integrated circuit to minimize the size. Under this seed program we have demonstrated that the optical feedback mechanism can be used to generate a high Q resonator. This has reduced the technical risk for further development, making it an attractive candidate for outside funding.

  19. Initial Results of Optical Vortex Laser Absorption Spectroscopy in the HYPER-I Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Shinji; Asai, Shoma; Aramaki, Mitsutoshi; Terasaka, Kenichiro; Ozawa, Naoya; Tanaka, Masayoshi; Morisaki, Tomohiro

    2015-11-01

    Optical vortex beams have a potential to make a new Doppler measurement, because not only parallel but perpendicular movement of atoms against the beam axis causes the Doppler shift of their resonant absorption frequency. As the first step of a proof-of-principle experiment, we have performed the optical vortex laser absorption spectroscopy for metastable argon neutrals in an ECR plasma produced in the HYPER-I device at the National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan. An external cavity diode laser (TOPTICA, DL100) of which center wavelength was 696.735 nm in vacuum was used for the light source. The Hermite-Gaussian (HG) beam was converted into the Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beam (optical vortex) by a computer-generated hologram displayed on the spatial light modulator (Hamamatsu, LCOS-SLM X10468-07). In order to make fast neutral flow across the LG beam, a high speed solenoid valve system was installed on the HYPER-I device. Initial results including the comparison of absorption spectra for HG and LG beams will be presented. This study was supported by NINS young scientists collaboration program for cross-disciplinary study, NIFS collaboration research program (NIFS13KOAP026), and JSPS KAKENHI grant number 15K05365.

  20. Integrated optical and electrical modeling of plasmon-enhanced thin film photovoltaics: A case-study on organic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rourke, Devin; Ahn, Sungmo; Nardes, Alexandre M.; van de Lagemaat, Jao; Kopidakis, Nikos; Park, Wounjhang

    2014-09-01

    The nanoscale light control for absorption enhancement of organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices inevitably produces strongly non-uniform optical fields. These non-uniformities due to the localized optical modes are a primary route toward absorption enhancement in OPV devices. Therefore, a rigorous modeling tool taking into account the spatial distribution of optical field and carrier generation is necessary. Presented here is a comprehensive numerical model to describe the coupled optical and electrical behavior of plasmon-enhanced polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. In this model, a position-dependent electron-hole pair generation rate that could become highly non-uniform due to photonic nanostructures is directly calculated from the optical simulations. By considering the absorption and plasmonic properties of nanophotonic gratings included in two different popular device architectures, and applying the Poisson, current continuity, and drift/diffusion equations, the model predicts quantum efficiency, short-circuit current density, and desired carrier mobility ratios for bulk heterojunction devices incorporating nanostructures for light management. In particular, the model predicts a significant degradation of device performance when the carrier species with lower mobility are generated far from the collecting electrode. Consequently, an inverted device architecture is preferred for materials with low hole mobility. This is especially true for devices that include plasmonic nanostructures. Additionally, due to the incorporation of a plasmonic nanostructure, we use simulations to theoretically predict absorption band broadening of a BHJ into energies below the band gap, resulting in a 4.8% increase in generated photocurrent.

  1. Integrated optical and electrical modeling of plasmon-enhanced thin film photovoltaics: A case-study on organic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Rourke, Devin; Ahn, Sungmo; Nardes, Alexandre M.; Lagemaat, Jao van de; Kopidakis, Nikos; Park, Wounjhang

    2014-09-21

    The nanoscale light control for absorption enhancement of organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices inevitably produces strongly non-uniform optical fields. These non-uniformities due to the localized optical modes are a primary route toward absorption enhancement in OPV devices. Therefore, a rigorous modeling tool taking into account the spatial distribution of optical field and carrier generation is necessary. Presented here is a comprehensive numerical model to describe the coupled optical and electrical behavior of plasmon-enhanced polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. In this model, a position-dependent electron-hole pair generation rate that could become highly non-uniform due to photonic nanostructures is directly calculated from the optical simulations. By considering the absorption and plasmonic properties of nanophotonic gratings included in two different popular device architectures, and applying the Poisson, current continuity, and drift/diffusion equations, the model predicts quantum efficiency, short-circuit current density, and desired carrier mobility ratios for bulk heterojunction devices incorporating nanostructures for light management. In particular, the model predicts a significant degradation of device performance when the carrier species with lower mobility are generated far from the collecting electrode. Consequently, an inverted device architecture is preferred for materials with low hole mobility. This is especially true for devices that include plasmonic nanostructures. Additionally, due to the incorporation of a plasmonic nanostructure, we use simulations to theoretically predict absorption band broadening of a BHJ into energies below the band gap, resulting in a 4.8% increase in generated photocurrent.

  2. All-optically reconfigurable and tunable fiber surface grating for in-fiber devices: a wideband tunable filter.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jianhui; Han, Yuqi; Huang, Hankai; Li, Haozi; Hsiao, Vincent K S; Liu, Weiping; Tang, Jieyuan; Lu, Huihui; Zhang, Jun; Luo, Yunhan; Zhong, Yongchun; Zang, Zhigang; Chen, Zhe

    2014-03-10

    A fiber surface grating (FSG) formed from a photosensitive liquid crystal hybrid (PLCH) film overlaid on a side-polished fiber (SPF) is studied and has been experimentally shown to be able to function as an all-optically reconfigurable and tunable fiber device. The device is all-optically configured to be a short period fiber surface grating (SPFSG) when a phase mask is used, and then reconfigured to be a long period FSG (LPFSG) when an amplitude mask is used. Experimental results show that both the short and long period FSGs can function as an optically tunable band-rejection filter and have different performances with different pump power and different configured period of the FSG. When configured as a SPFSG, the device can achieve a high extinction ratio (ER) of 21.5dB and a wideband tunability of 31nm are achieved. When configured as a LPFSG, the device can achieve an even higher ER of 23.4dB and a wider tunable bandwidth of 60nm. Besides these tunable performances of the device, its full width at half maximum (FWHM) can also be optically tuned. The reconfigurability and tunability of the fiber device open up possibilities for other all-optically programmable and tunable fiber devices.

  3. Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCLs) for standoff explosives detection : LDRD 138733 final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Theisen, Lisa Anne; Linker, Kevin Lane

    2009-09-01

    Continued acts of terrorism using explosive materials throughout the world have led to great interest in explosives detection technology, especially technologies that have a potential for remote or standoff detection. This LDRD was undertaken to investigate the benefit of the possible use of quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) in standoff explosives detection equipment. Standoff detection of explosives is currently one of the most difficult problems facing the explosives detection community. Increased domestic and troop security could be achieved through the remote detection of explosives. An effective remote or standoff explosives detection capability would save lives and prevent losses of mission-critical resources by increasing the distance between the explosives and the intended targets and/or security forces. Many sectors of the US government are urgently attempting to obtain useful equipment to deploy to our troops currently serving in hostile environments. This LDRD was undertaken to investigate the potential benefits of utilizing quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) in standoff detection systems. This report documents the potential opportunities that Sandia National Laboratories can contribute to the field of QCL development. The following is a list of areas where SNL can contribute: (1) Determine optimal wavelengths for standoff explosives detection utilizing QCLs; (2) Optimize the photon collection and detection efficiency of a detection system for optical spectroscopy; (3) Develop QCLs with broader wavelength tunability (current technology is a 10% change in wavelength) while maintaining high efficiency; (4) Perform system engineering in the design of a complete detection system and not just the laser head; and (5) Perform real-world testing with explosive materials with commercial prototype detection systems.

  4. Lab-on-fiber electrophoretic trace mixture separating and detecting an optofluidic device based on a microstructured optical fiber.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xinghua; Guo, Xiaohui; Li, Song; Kong, Depeng; Liu, Zhihai; Yang, Jun; Yuan, Libo

    2016-04-15

    We report an in-fiber integrated electrophoretic trace mixture separating and detecting an optofluidic optical fiber sensor based on a specially designed optical fiber. In this design, rapid in situ separation and simultaneous detection of mixed analytes can be realized under electro-osmotic flow in the microstructured optical fiber. To visually display the in-fiber separating and detecting process, two common fluorescent indicators are adopted as the optofluidic analytes in the optical fiber. Results show that a trace amount of the mixture (0.15 μL) can be completely separated within 3.5 min under a high voltage of 5 kV. Simultaneously, the distributed information of the separated analytes in the optical fiber can be clearly obtained by scanning along the optical fiber using a 355 nm laser. The emission from the analytes can be efficiently coupled into the inner core and guides to the remote end of the optical fiber. In addition, the thin cladding around the inner core in the optical fiber can prevent the fluorescent cross talk between the analytes in this design. Compared to previous optical fiber optofluidic devices, this device first realizes simultaneously separating treatment and the detection of the mixed samples in an optical fiber. Significantly, such an in-fiber integrated separating and detecting optofluidic device can find wide applications in various analysis fields involves mixed samples, such as biology, chemistry, and environment.

  5. Signal Normalization Reduces Image Appearance Disparity Among Multiple Optical Coherence Tomography Devices

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chieh-Li; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Wollstein, Gadi; Bilonick, Richard A.; Kagemann, Larry; Schuman, Joel S.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To assess the effect of the previously reported optical coherence tomography (OCT) signal normalization method on reducing the discrepancies in image appearance among spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT) devices. Methods Healthy eyes and eyes with various retinal pathologies were scanned at the macular region using similar volumetric scan patterns with at least two out of three SD-OCT devices at the same visit (Cirrus HD-OCT, Zeiss, Dublin, CA; RTVue, Optovue, Fremont, CA; and Spectralis, Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany). All the images were processed with the signal normalization. A set of images formed a questionnaire with 24 pairs of cross-sectional images from each eye with any combination of the three SD-OCT devices either both pre- or postsignal normalization. Observers were asked to evaluate the similarity of the two displayed images based on the image appearance. The effects on reducing the differences in image appearance before and after processing were analyzed. Results Twenty-nine researchers familiar with OCT images participated in the survey. Image similarity was significantly improved after signal normalization for all three combinations (P ≤ 0.009) as Cirrus and RTVue combination became the most similar pair, followed by Cirrus and Spectralis, and RTVue and Spectralis. Conclusions The signal normalization successfully minimized the disparities in the image appearance among multiple SD-OCT devices, allowing clinical interpretation and comparison of OCT images regardless of the device differences. Translational Relevance The signal normalization would enable direct OCT images comparisons without concerning about device differences and broaden OCT usage by enabling long-term follow-ups and data sharing. PMID:28275528

  6. NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP): Space Qualification Guidelines of Optoelectronic and Photonic Devices for Optical Communication Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Quiesup

    2001-01-01

    Key elements of space qualification of opto-electric and photonic optical devices were overviewed. Efforts were concentrated on the reliability concerns of the devices needed for potential applications in space environments. The ultimate goal for this effort is to gradually establish enough data to develop a space qualification plan of newly developed specific photonic parts using empirical and numerical models to assess the life-time and degradation of the devices for potential long term space missions.

  7. Development of a miniature multiple reference optical coherence tomography imaging device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, Paul M.; O'Riordan, Colm; Collins, Seán.; O'Brien, Peter; Wilson, Carol; Hogan, Josh; Leahy, Martin J.

    2016-03-01

    Multiple reference optical coherence tomography (MR-OCT) is a new technology ideally suited to low-cost, compact OCT imaging. This modality is an extension of time-domain OCT with the addition of a partial mirror in front of the reference mirror. This enables extended, simultaneous depth scanning with the relatively short sweep of a miniature voice coil motor on which the scanning mirror is mounted. Applications of this technology include biometric security, ophthalmology, personal health monitoring and non-destructive testing. This work details early-stage development of the first iteration of a miniature MR-OCT device. This device utilizes a fiber-coupled input from an off-board superluminescent diode (SLD). Typical dimensions of the module are 40 × 57 mm, but future designs are expected to be more compact. Off-the-shelf miniature optical components, voice coil motors and photodetectors are used, with the complexity of design depending on specific applications. The photonic module can be configured as either polarized or non-polarized and can include balanced detection. The photodetectors are directly connected to a printed circuit board under the module containing a transimpedance amplifier with complimentary outputs. The results shown in this work are from the non-polarized device. Assembly of the photonic modules requires extensive planning. In choosing the optical components, Zemax simulations are performed to model the beam characteristics. The physical layout is modeled using Solidworks and each component is placed and aligned via a well-designed alignment procedure involving an active-alignment pick-and-place assembly system.

  8. Homonymous Hemianopia: A Critical Analysis of Optical Devices, Compensatory Training, and NovaVision.

    PubMed

    Pelak, Victoria S; Dubin, Mark; Whitney, Edward

    2007-01-01

    Homonymous hemianopia (HH) results from damage to visual pathways posterior to the optic chiasm. Due to the significant functional impairment that can result, rehabilitative techniques and devices intended to improve visual function after HH have been explored and are reviewed here. Two basic treatment strategies include use of optical devices and compensatory training. A third strategy, purported to be based on the principles of neuronal plasticity of the visual cortex, is aimed at visual field recovery by computerized training. This strategy is trademarked as visual restoration therapy (VRT) by NovaVision (Boca Raton, FL), which began marketing its commercialized therapy program in 2003 for the treatment of visual loss related to stroke and traumatic brain injury. In regard to compensatory training and optical devices, a standardized methodology is lacking, and very few controlled studies exist in regard to efficacy. Outcome data regarding effectiveness of VRT are conflicting, as are the opinions of investigators who have studied and reviewed VRT. There is some evidence that expansion of visual fields by VRT may be the result of very small eye movements. Functional outcomes for each strategy reveal subjective, but limited evidence or no objective evidence of functional improvement; therefore, it is difficult to recommend a specific treatment based on evidence for most patients. The decision to treat and the type of treatment to pursue for patients with HH should be individualized and guided by the type of injury, associated deficits, available resources, and the level of functional impairment manifested by the HH. Consultation with a low-vision specialist (preferably a specialist endorsed by an ophthalmologist or neuro-ophthalmologist) for treatment guidance is recommended.

  9. All-optical devices realized by the post-growth processing of multiquantum-well structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LiKamWa, Patrick; Kan'an, Ayman M.; Dutta, Mitra; Pamulapati, Jagadeesh

    1997-01-01

    An inexpensive and reliable process for the area-selective disordering of MQW structures is reported. The method relies on the diffusion, by rapid thermal annealing, of surface vacancies into the quantum wells thereby intermixing the Ga and Al atoms between the wells and barriers. A silicon oxide cap that is formed by curing a spun-on solution of glass forming compound acts as porous layer that enhances the formation of surface vacancies by allowing out-diffusion of Ga and Al atoms. This technique has been applied to the fabrication of two integrated optical devices. One is the nonlinear zero-gap directional coupler with disordered input and output branching waveguides, and the other is the symmetric nonlinear integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer with one arm containing a non-intermixed MQW section. In both devices, the mechanism for the switching is the nonlinear refractive index that is caused by photo-generated carriers. Since this mechanism entails absorption of some of the pump beam, it is hence very important that the optical absorption be confined to the active sections only. Selective area disordering is shown to be very effective at defining regions of different bandgap energies. Hence it can be ensured that the energy of the pump laser beam is too low in comparison to the bandgap energy of the passive regions to be absorbed and the free carriers are only created in the non-intermixed active sections. The devices investigated using a pump-probe setup, exhibited strong all-optical switching behavior with a contrast ratio of better than 7:1. The controlled selective area intermixing of MQW structures will potentially play a significant role in the advancement of photonic integrated circuits.

  10. Development of FDTD simulation tool for designing micro-nanostructured based optical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Anil; Mizuno, Genki; Oduor, Patrick; Islam, Saif; Dutta, Achyut K.; Dhar, Nibir K.

    2016-05-01

    The use of Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) for computational work has revolutionized how complex electromagnetic problems are solved. Complex problems which required supercomputers in the past for analysis can now be tackled and solved using personal computers by channeling the computational work towards GPUs instead of the traditional computer Central Processing Unit (CPU). Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) analysis, which is a computationally expensive method of solving electromagnetic problems is highly parallel in nature and can be readily executed in a GPU. We have developed an algorithm for three dimensional FDTD analysis of optical devices with micro and nano-structures using Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA). The developed algorithm exploits the benefits of multiple cores of GPU chips and boosts the speed of simulation without sacrificing its accuracy. We achieved a 25-fold speed up of simulation using CUDA compared to MATLAB code in CPU.

  11. Fabrication of high-resolution gratings for polymeric optical waveguide devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Shinya; Sugihara, Okihiro; Kaino, Toshikuni; Okamoto, Naomichi

    2004-06-01

    High resolution gratings for the application of optical waveguide devices are fabricated using a series of photopolymers. The relief gratings were formed by the two-beam interference ablation technique using a third-harmonic generation of a Nd:YAG laser (355nm) onto polyimide and electrooptic polymer films. In polyimide films, the gratings with a period of 400nm and a depth of about 280nm were fabricated by the single-pulse irradiation. We tried to fabricate the gratings using a photoresist accompanied with wet development using an Ar+ laser (488nm). By wet development process, higher aspect and clearer periodical structure at a depth of 320nm and a period of nearly 500nm was realized. High diffraction efficiency of 55.4% was measured from the relief grating. We also replicated the grating to UV curable epoxy resin as an embossing master for the fabrication of waveguide devices.

  12. Fiber Optical Improvements for a Device Used in Laparoscopic Hysterectomy Surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández Garcia, Ricardo; Vázquez Mercado, Liliana; García-Torales, G.; Flores, Jorge L.; Barcena-Soto, Maximiliano; Casillas Santana, Norberto; Casillas Santana, Juan Manuel

    2006-09-01

    Hysterectomy removes uterus from patients suffering different pathologies. One of the most common techniques for performing it is the laparoscopically-assisted vaginal hysterectomy (LAVH). In the final stage of the procedure, surgeons face the need to unambiguously identify the vaginal cuff before uterus removal. The aim of this research is to adapt a local source of illumination to a polymer cup-like device adapted to a stainless steel shaft that surgeons nowadays use to manipulate the uterus in LAVH. Our proposal consists in implementing a set of optical fiber illuminators along the border of the cup-like device to illuminate the exact vaginal cupola, using an external light source. We present experimental results concerning temperature increases in quasi adiabatic conditions in cow meat under different light intensity illumination.

  13. Trends in porous silicon biomedical devices: tuning microstructure and performance trade-offs in optical biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLouise, Lisa A.; Miller, Ben L.

    2004-07-01

    High surface area mesoporous silicon microcavities are investigated for direct detect optical biosensor applications. Device quality is reported as a function of fabrication parameters. A dilute KOH etch process is utilized to modify the intrinsic 3D microstructure to enable enhanced pore infiltration of large biomolecules. Results suggest that the KOH etch mechanism is a two step process consisting of a fast step where high surface area nanostructures are rapidly removed. This is followed by a slower step where silicon is removed from the pore channel walls. The enzyme, Glutathione-S-Transferase (50kDa), is utilized to probe pore infiltration. Results from a solid phase immobilized enzyme assay support our conclusions on the impact the KOH etch step has on modifying the porous silicon microstructure. Preliminary findings point to trade-offs that exists between optimizing microstructure with microcavity operation mode and device sensitivity.

  14. Optical near-field effects for submicron patterning and plasmonic optical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battula, Arvind Reddy

    0.42lambda) by just varying the fluid in the hole array, thereby enabling the realization of ultracompact tunable superlens and paving the way for a new class of lens. An aggressive pursuit for decreasing the minimum feature size in high bandgap materials has lead to various challenges in nanofabrication. However, it is difficult to achieve critical dimensions at sub-wavelength scale using traditional optical lithography. A new technique to create submicron patterns on hard-to-machine materials like silicon carbide (SiC) and borosilicate glass with a laser beam is demonstrated. Here the principle of optical near-field enhancement between the spheres and substrate when irradiated by a laser beam has been used for obtaining the patterning.

  15. Optical Nanoscopy of High Tc Cuprate Nanoconstriction Devices Patterned by Helium Ion Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gozar, A.; Litombe, N. E.; Hoffman, Jennifer E.; Božović, I.

    2017-03-01

    Helium-ion beams (HIB) focused to sub-nanometer scales have emerged as powerful tools for high-resolution imaging as well as nano-scale lithography, ion milling or deposition. Quantifying irradiation effects is essential for reliable device fabrication but most of the depth profiling information is provided by computer simulations rather than experiment. Here, we use atomic force microscopy (AFM) combined with scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) to provide three-dimensional (3D) dielectric characterization of high-temperature superconductor devices fabricated by HIB. By imaging the infrared dielectric response we find that amorphization caused by the nominally 0.5 nm HIB extends throughout the entire 26.5 nm thickness of the cuprate film and by about 500 nm laterally. This unexpectedly widespread structural and electronic damage can be attributed to a Helium depth distribution substantially modified by internal device interfaces. Our study introduces AFM-SNOM as a quantitative nano-scale tomographic technique for non-invasive 3D characterization of irradiation damage in a wide variety of devices.

  16. Optical nanoscopy of high Tc cuprate nanoconstriction devices patterned by helium ion beams

    DOE PAGES

    Gozar, Adrian; Litombe, N. E.; Hoffman, Jennifer E.; ...

    2017-02-06

    Helium ion beams (HIB) focused to subnanometer scales have emerged as powerful tools for high-resolution imaging as well as nanoscale lithography, ion milling, or deposition. Quantifying irradiation effects is an essential step toward reliable device fabrication, but most of the depth profiling information is provided by computer simulations rather than the experiment. Here, we demonstrate the use of atomic force microscopy (AFM) combined with scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) to provide three-dimensional (3D) dielectric characterization of high-temperature superconductor devices fabricated by HIB. By imaging the infrared dielectric response obtained from light demodulation at multiple harmonics of the AFM tapping frequency,more » we find that amorphization caused by the nominally 0.5 nm HIB extends throughout the entire 26.5 nm thickness of the cuprate film and by ~500 nm laterally. This unexpectedly widespread damage in morphology and electronic structure can be attributed to a helium depth distribution substantially modified by the internal device interfaces. Lastly, our study introduces AFM-SNOM as a quantitative tomographic technique for noninvasive 3D characterization of irradiation damage in a wide variety of nanoscale devices.« less

  17. Improving the effectiveness of photovoltaic devices by light guiding optical foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leiner, C.; Wenzl, F. P.; Sommer, C.; Peharz, G.

    2016-09-01

    A photovoltaic device comprising of areas which are partly covered by solar cells and a light guiding film is investigated. In particular results on the feasibility of combined daylighting and photovoltaic energy generation are presented. Optical simulations have been conducted for a device-design optimized to redirect most of perpendicular impinging light rays onto photovoltaic areas. Two application cases are investigated for integrating the photovoltaic device into windows and/or glazings in middle (northern) latitudes. The first application case deals with an overhead glazing and the second deals with a window integrated in a roof tilted by 30° towards south. For the latter case encouraging results have been derived. In particular it is calculated that during summer time more than 70% of the direct sunlight is absorbed by photovoltaic areas and less than 10% is transmitted. Consequently, effective shading in summer against direct sunlight can be achieved and most of the shaded solar irradiation can be used for photovoltaic energy conversion. In contrast, in winter time about 40% of the direct sunlight is transmitted through the device and enables decent daylighting.

  18. Vertically integrated optics for ballistic electron emission luminescence: Device and microscopy characterizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Wei; Appelbaum, Ian; Russell, Kasey J.; Narayanamurti, Venkatesh; Schalek, Richard; Hanson, Micah P.; Gossard, Arthur C.

    2006-07-01

    By integrating a p-i-n photodiode photodetector directly into a ballistic electron emission luminescence (BEEL) heterostructure with GaAs quantum-well active region, we have obtained a photon detection efficiency of more than 10%. This is many orders of magnitude higher than conventional far-field detection scheme with the most sensitive single-photon counters, enabling BEEL microscopy in systems with no optical components. Detailed analysis shows found a parasitic bipolar injection in parallel with the desired optical coupling between the BEEL heterostructure and the integrated photodiode beyond a characteristic collector bias, which may be solved by improved device design or limiting the operating window of the collector bias. Preliminary BEEL microscopy images of a homogeneous GaAs quantum-well luminescent layer show lateral variations of photon emission correlated with the collector current injection level modulated by surface features or interface defects.

  19. Arrayed waveguide collimators for integrating free-space optics on polymeric waveguide devices.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jin-Soo; Lee, Chang-Hee; Shin, Sang-Yung; Huang, Guang-Hao; Chu, Woo-Sung; Oh, Min-Cheol; Noh, Young-Ouk; Lee, Hyung-Jong

    2014-10-06

    Array-type optical devices are important for wavelength-division multiplexing optical communication system to achieve small footprint, mass production, and reliability. For fabricating transmitter module in an array configuration, it is difficult to achieve a passive alignment of isolator, collimating lens, and laser diode. To facilitate array isolator integration, a waveguide collimator is proposed in this work by using a low-contrast, large-core polymer waveguide. The diffraction of a guided mode propagating through a free-space region is suppressed by enlarging the guided mode. The fiber coupling loss due to the enlarged mode was overcome by incorporating an adiabatic taper structure. The excess loss of waveguide collimator including the loss through a 400-μm free-propagation region was less than 1.0 dB.

  20. Optical and mechanical design of 10X zoom lens for low-vision devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yiyu; Hu, Chuan; Chen, Jiaojie; Feng, Haihua; Wang, Yuanyuan; Lu, Fan

    2012-10-01

    Video magnifiers as a low-vision devices require special zoom lens which has finite conjugate distance for shooting close object. Unlike the zoom lens using zoom cam developed previously, here the optical and mechanical design of zoom lens which is driven by stepping motor and has the potential to realize auto-focus and manual-focus is introduced. This mechanical compensated zoom lens which has a tube length of 81.8 mm and a front intercept distance of 310 mm comprises four groups which are objective, variator, relay and compensator. The optical system can realize continuous zoom from 9.6~186 mm and 10X zoom ratio with stable image quality. System performance is evaluated by using modulation transfer function (MTF), diffuse spot in diameter and tolerance sensitivity analysis. The mechanical structure designed to realize auto-focus and manual-focus function of the zoom lens is depicted in detail.

  1. Enhancement of broadband optical absorption in photovoltaic devices by band-edge effect of photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yoshinori; Kawamoto, Yosuke; Fujita, Masayuki; Noda, Susumu

    2013-08-26

    We numerically investigate broadband optical absorption enhancement in thin, 400-nm thick microcrystalline silicon (µc-Si) photovoltaic devices by photonic crystals (PCs). We realize absorption enhancement by coupling the light from the free space to the large area resonant modes at the photonic band-edge induced by the photonic crystals. We show that multiple photonic band-edge modes can be produced by higher order modes in the vertical direction of the Si photovoltaic layer, which can enhance the absorption on multiple wavelengths. Moreover, we reveal that the photonic superlattice structure can produce more photonic band-edge modes that lead to further optical absorption. The absorption average in wavelengths of 500-1000 nm weighted to the solar spectrum (AM 1.5) increases almost twice: from 33% without photonic crystal to 58% with a 4 × 4 period superlattice photonic crystal; our result outperforms the Lambertian textured structure.

  2. Impact of feature-size dependent etching on the optical properties of photonic crystal devices

    SciTech Connect

    Berrier, A.; Anand, S.; Ferrini, R.; Talneau, A.; Houdre, R.

    2008-05-01

    Feature size dependence in Ar/Cl{sub 2} chemically assisted ion beam etching of InP-based photonic crystals (PhCs) and its influence on the optical properties of PhC devices operating in the band gap are investigated. The analysis of the measured quality factors, the determined mirror reflectivities, and losses of one-dimensional Fabry-Perot cavities clearly demonstrates the importance of feature-size dependent etching. The optical properties show a dramatic improvement up to a hole depth of about 3.5 {mu}m that is primarily due to a significant reduction in extrinsic losses. However, beyond this hole depth, the improvement is at a lower rate, which suggests that extrinsic losses, although present, are not dominant.

  3. Analysis of spectral response of optical switching devices based on chalcogenide bistable fiber Bragg gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholtz, Łubomír.; Solanská, Michaela; Ladányi, Libor; Müllerová, Jarmila

    2016-12-01

    Although nonlinear fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) are well known devices more than three decades their using as all-optical switching elements is still investigated. Current research is focused on optimization their properties for their using in future all-optical networks. The main problem is minimizing of switching intensities needed for achieving the changes of transmission state. Switching intensities were over several years reduced from hundreds of GW/cm2 to tens of MW/cm2. Reduction of switching intensities can be achieved by selecting appropriate gratings and signal parameters or using suitable materials. This contribution is focused on nonlinear FBGs based on chalcogenide glasses which are very often used in various applications. Chalcogenide glasses thanks to their high nonlinear parameters are suitable candidates for reducing switching intensities of nonlinear FBGs.

  4. A new high efficiency InP acousto-optic device for IR wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soos, Jolanta I.; Rosemeier, Ronald G.; Rosenbaum, Joel

    1990-09-01

    InP acoustooptic Bragg cells which are IR-transparent in the 1-10 micron bandpass have a center frequency in the 200-600 MHz range, and a diffraction efficiency of 40-60 percent, on the basis of 1-W RF driving power. These devices are anticipated to be ideal in such applications as fiber-optic modulators, IR scanners, deflectors, and HF mode-lockers. In the course of fabrication, the photoelastic constant p44 has been defined; using other crystallographic configurations, such photoelastic constants as p11 and p12 are expected to emerge.

  5. Excitability in optically injected semiconductor lasers: Contrasting quantum- well- and quantum-dot-based devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelleher, B.; Bonatto, C.; Huyet, G.; Hegarty, S. P.

    2011-02-01

    Excitability is a generic prediction for an optically injected semiconductor laser. However, the details of the phenomenon differ depending on the type of device in question. For quantum-well lasers very complicated multipulse trajectories can be found, while for quantum-dot lasers the situation is much simpler. Experimental observations show the marked differences in the pulse shapes while theoretical considerations reveal the underlying mechanism responsible for the contrast, identifying the increased stability of quantum-dot lasers to perturbations as the root.

  6. Excitability in optically injected semiconductor lasers: contrasting quantum-well- and quantum-dot-based devices.

    PubMed

    Kelleher, B; Bonatto, C; Huyet, G; Hegarty, S P

    2011-02-01

    Excitability is a generic prediction for an optically injected semiconductor laser. However, the details of the phenomenon differ depending on the type of device in question. For quantum-well lasers very complicated multipulse trajectories can be found, while for quantum-dot lasers the situation is much simpler. Experimental observations show the marked differences in the pulse shapes while theoretical considerations reveal the underlying mechanism responsible for the contrast, identifying the increased stability of quantum-dot lasers to perturbations as the root.

  7. Fast optical sectioning obtained by structured illumination microscopy using a digital mirror device.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dongli; Jiang, Tao; Li, Anan; Hu, Bihe; Feng, Zhao; Gong, Hui; Zeng, Shaoqun; Luo, Qingming

    2013-06-01

    High-throughput optical imaging is critical to obtain large-scale neural connectivity information of brain in neuroscience. Using a digital mirror device and a scientific complementary metal-oxide semiconductor camera, we report a significant speed improvement of structured illumination microscopy (SIM), which produces a maximum SIM net frame rate of 133 Hz. We perform three-dimensional (3-D) imaging of mouse brain slices at diffraction-limited resolution and demonstrate the fast 3-D imaging capability to a large sample with an imaging rate of 6.9×10(7)  pixel/s of our system, an order of magnitude faster than previously reported.

  8. Fast optical sectioning obtained by structured illumination microscopy using a digital mirror device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Dongli; Jiang, Tao; Li, Anan; Hu, Bihe; Feng, Zhao; Gong, Hui; Zeng, Shaoqun; Luo, Qingming

    2013-06-01

    High-throughput optical imaging is critical to obtain large-scale neural connectivity information of brain in neuroscience. Using a digital mirror device and a scientific complementary metal-oxide semiconductor camera, we report a significant speed improvement of structured illumination microscopy (SIM), which produces a maximum SIM net frame rate of 133 Hz. We perform three-dimensional (3-D) imaging of mouse brain slices at diffraction-limited resolution and demonstrate the fast 3-D imaging capability to a large sample with an imaging rate of 6.9 pixel/s of our system, an order of magnitude faster than previously reported.

  9. A handheld wireless device for diffuse optical spectroscopic assessment of infantile hemangiomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fong, Christopher J.; Flexman, Molly; Hoi, Jennifer W.; Geller, Lauren; Garzon, Maria; Kim, Hyun K.; Hielscher, Andreas H.

    2013-03-01

    Infantile hemangiomas (IH) are common vascular growths that occur in 5-10% of neonates and have the potential to cause disfiguring and even life-threatening complications. With no objective tool to monitor IH, a handheld wireless device (HWD) that uses diffuse optical spectroscopy has been developed for use in assessment of IH by measurements in absolute oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration as well as scattering in tissue. Reconstructions of these variables can be computed using a multispectral evolution algorithm. We validated the new system by experimental studies using phantom experiments and a clinical study is under way to assess the utility of DOI for IH.

  10. Measurements of anterior segment parameters using three different non-contact optical devices in keratoconus patients

    PubMed Central

    Yazıcı, Ahmet Taylan; Pekel, Gökhan; Bozkurt, Ercüment; Yıldırım, Yusuf; Pekel, Evre; Demirok, Ahmet; Yılmaz, Ömer Faruk

    2013-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the measurements of anterior segment parameters using three different non-contact optical devices in keratoconus patients. METHODS A hundred and one eyes of 55 keratoconus patients were enrolled in this study. The mean age was 26.2±8.9 years. The inclusion criteria were keratoconus stage I to III according to the Amsler-Krumeich keratoconus classification. All the measurements were done by the same operator, under the mesopic light condition and repeated with three different optical methods; Visante, Orbscan and Pentacam. The evaluated anterior segment parameters were anterior chamber depth (ACD), central and thinnest corneal thickness (CCT and TCT) and pupil diameter (PD). RESULTS The mean CCT measured by Visante, Orbscan and Pentacam were as follows: 462.0±48.1µm, 463.9±60.9µm, 476.5±45.3µm, respectively (P=0.873). The mean ACD values were 3.34±0.33mm, 3.26±0.33mm, 3.49±0.40mm, respectively (P=0.118). The mean PD measurements were 5.11±1.14mm, 4.80±0.85mm, 3.80±1.38mm, respectively (P<0.001). The mean TCT measurements of Visante, Orbscan and Pentacam were 437.9±48.2µm, 447.6±60.6µm and 459.9±44.0µm, respectively (P=0.214). The Visante and Orbscan measured CCT similarly, while Pentacam measured CCT thicker than the other two. The Visante measured TCT thinner than the other two devices. In ACD measurements, Orbscan was the one giving the lowest values. PD was measured differently by the devices. CONCLUSION Although TCT, CCT and ACD measurements acquired by Visante, Orbscan and Pentacam in keratoconus patients are similar, PD measurements show large differences among the devices. PMID:23991390

  11. Magnetic optical sensor particles: a flexible analytical tool for microfluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Ungerböck, Birgit; Fellinger, Siegfried; Sulzer, Philipp; Abel, Tobias; Mayr, Torsten

    2014-05-21

    In this study we evaluate magnetic optical sensor particles (MOSePs) with incorporated sensing functionalities regarding their applicability in microfluidic devices. MOSePs can be separated from the surrounding solution to form in situ sensor spots within microfluidic channels, while read-out is accomplished outside the chip. These magnetic sensor spots exhibit benefits of sensor layers (high brightness and convenient usage) combined with the advantages of dispersed sensor particles (ease of integration). The accumulation characteristics of MOSePs with different diameters were investigated as well as the in situ sensor spot stability at varying flow rates. Magnetic sensor spots were stable at flow rates specific to microfluidic applications. Furthermore, MOSePs were optimized regarding fiber optic and imaging read-out systems, and different referencing schemes were critically discussed on the example of oxygen sensors. While the fiber optic sensing system delivered precise and accurate results for measurement in microfluidic channels, limitations due to analyte consumption were found for microscopic oxygen imaging. A compensation strategy is provided, which utilizes simple pre-conditioning by exposure to light. Finally, new application possibilities were addressed, being enabled by the use of MOSePs. They can be used for microscopic oxygen imaging in any chip with optically transparent covers, can serve as flexible sensor spots to monitor enzymatic activity or can be applied to form fixed sensor spots inside microfluidic structures, which would be inaccessible to integration of sensor layers.

  12. Fabrication and Characterization of Thin Film Ion Implanted Composite Materials for Integrated Nonlinear Optical Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarkisov, S.; Curley, M.; Williams, E. K.; Wilkosz, A.; Ila, D.; Poker, D. B.; Hensley, D. K.; Smith, C.; Banks, C.; Penn, B.; Clark, R.

    1998-01-01

    Ion implantation has been shown to produce a high density of metal colloids within the layer regions of glasses and crystalline materials. The high-precipitate volume fraction and small size of metal nanoclusters formed leads to values for the third-order susceptibility much greater than those for metal doped solids. This has stimulated interest in use of ion implantation to make nonlinear optical materials. On the other side, LiNbO3 has proved to be a good material for optical waveguides produced by MeV ion implantation. Light confinement in these waveguides is produced by refractive index step difference between the implanted region and the bulk material. Implantation of LiNbO3 with MeV metal ions can therefore result into nonlinear optical waveguide structures with great potential in a variety of device applications. We describe linear and nonlinear optical properties of a waveguide structure in LiNbO3-based composite material produced by silver ion implantation in connection with mechanisms of its formation.

  13. Low temperature hermetically sealed three-dimensional MEMS device for wireless optical communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Rahul

    Novel processes were developed that resulted in a self-packaged device during the system integration, along with a transparent lid for inspection or optical probing. A new process was developed for improving the verticality in Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) structures using Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE). A self-pattered, mask-less photolithography technique was developed to metallize these vertical structures while maintaining a transparent window, for packaging of various MEMS devices. The verticality and metallization coverage were evaluated by incorporating the MEMS structures into an optical Corner Cube Retroreflector (CCR). A low temperature, hermetic sealing technique was also developed using In-Au thermo-compression bonding at 160°C. Cross-shaped 550microm deep vertical mirrors, with sidewall angles of 90.08° were etched with this new DRIE technique. This is the best reported sidewall angle for such deep structures. The typical scalloped DRIE sidewall roughness was reduced to 40nm using wet polishing. A bonded Pyrex wafer was used as the handle wafer during DRIE; it eventually forms the package window after DRIE. The metallized, vertical mirrors were bonded to a MEMS device chip to assemble and package the CCR. The MEMS device chip consisted of an array of torsion mirrors. The mirrors were designed to modulate at 6Vp-p--20V p-p, with the resonant frequencies ranging from 25 KHz--50 KHz. The design and simulation results are presented. To test the hermetic seal, helium leak tests were performed on the packaged device. Leak rates of as low as 2.8x10-8atm cc/s air were detected, which is better than the MIL-STD-883G of 5x10-8 atm cc/s air for a package volume of 7.8x10-3 CC. A microprocessor and temperature/humidity sensor was then integrated with the CCR to assemble a passive optical digital data communicator. A flexible circuit design and a folded packaging scheme were utilized to minimize the overall form factor. Flat, flexible polymer

  14. From Idea to Innovation: The Role of LDRD Investments in Sandia's Recent Successful B61 Experiments.

    SciTech Connect

    Arrowsmith, Marie Danielle

    2015-11-01

    The Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program, authorized by U.S. Congress in 1991, enables Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories to devote a small portion of their research funding to high-risk and potentially high-payoff research. Because it is high-risk, LDRD-supported research may not lead to immediate mission impacts; however, many successes at DOE labs can be traced back to investments in LDRD. LDRD investments have a history of enabling significant payoffs for long-running DOE and NNSA missions and for providing anticipatory new technologies that ultimately become critical to future missions. Many of Sandia National Laboratories’ successes can be traced back to investments in LDRD. Capabilities from three LDRDs were critical to recent tests of the B61-12 gravity bomb—tests that would previously have only been performed experimentally.

  15. LDRD final report: Automated planning and programming of assembly of fully 3D mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, S.G.; Wilson, R.H.; Jones, R.E.; Calton, T.L.; Ames, A.L.

    1996-11-01

    This report describes the results of assembly planning research under the LDRD. The assembly planning problem is that of finding a sequence of assembly operations, starting from individual parts, that will result in complete assembly of a device specified as a CAD model. The automated assembly programming problem is that of automatically producing a robot program that will carry out a given assembly sequence. Given solutions to both of these problems, it is possible to automatically program a robot to assemble a mechanical device given as a CAD data file. This report describes the current state of our solutions to both of these problems, and a software system called Archimedes 2 we have constructed to automate these solutions. Because Archimedes 2 can input CAD data in several standard formats, we have been able to test it on a number of industrial assembly models more complex than any before attempted by automated assembly planning systems, some having over 100 parts. A complete path from a CAD model to an automatically generated robot program for assembling the device represented by the CAD model has also been demonstrated.

  16. Integrated optical devices based on sol – gel waveguides using the temperature dependence of the effective refractive index

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlov, S V; Trofimov, N S; Chekhlova, T K

    2014-07-31

    A possibility of designing optical waveguide devices based on sol – gel SiO{sub 2} – TiO{sub 2} films using the temperature dependence of the effective refractive index is shown. The dependences of the device characteristics on the parameters of the film and opticalsystem elements are analysed. The operation of a temperature recorder and a temperature limiter with a resolution of 0.6 K mm{sup -1} is demonstrated. The film and output-prism parameters are optimised. (fibreoptic and nonlinear-optic devices)

  17. Significant Lowering Optical Loss of Electrodes via using Conjugated Polyelectrolytes Interlayer for Organic Laser in Electrically Driven Device Configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Jianpeng; Niu, Qiaoli; Xu, Weidong; Hao, Lin; Yang, Lei; Chi, Lang; Fang, Yueting; Huang, Jinjin; Xia, Ruidong

    2016-05-01

    One of the challenges toward electrically driven organic lasers is the huge optical loss associated with the contact of electrodes and organic gain medium in device. We demonstrated a significant reduction of the optical loss by using our newly developed conjugated polyelectrolytes (CPE) PPFN+Br- as interlayer between gain medium and electrode. The optically pumped amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) was observed at very low threshold for PFO as optical gain medium and up to 37 nm thick CPE as interlayer in device configuration, c.f., a 5.7-fold ASE threshold reduction from pump energy 150 μJ/cm2 for ITO/PFO to 26.3 μJ/cm2 for ITO/PPFN+Br-/PFO. Furthermore, ASE narrowing displayed at pump energy up to 61.8 μJ/cm2 for device ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PFO/PPFN+Br-/Ag, while no ASE was observed for the reference devices without CPE interlayer at pump energy up to 240 μJ/cm2. The optically pumped lasing operation has also been achieved at threshold up to 45 μJ/cm2 for one-dimensional distributed feedback laser fabricated on ITO etched grating in devices with CPE interlayer, demonstrating a promising device configuration for addressing the challenge of electrically driven organic lasers.

  18. Significant Lowering Optical Loss of Electrodes via using Conjugated Polyelectrolytes Interlayer for Organic Laser in Electrically Driven Device Configuration

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Jianpeng; Niu, Qiaoli; Xu, Weidong; Hao, Lin; Yang, Lei; Chi, Lang; Fang, Yueting; Huang, Jinjin; Xia, Ruidong

    2016-01-01

    One of the challenges toward electrically driven organic lasers is the huge optical loss associated with the contact of electrodes and organic gain medium in device. We demonstrated a significant reduction of the optical loss by using our newly developed conjugated polyelectrolytes (CPE) PPFN+Br− as interlayer between gain medium and electrode. The optically pumped amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) was observed at very low threshold for PFO as optical gain medium and up to 37 nm thick CPE as interlayer in device configuration, c.f., a 5.7-fold ASE threshold reduction from pump energy 150 μJ/cm2 for ITO/PFO to 26.3 μJ/cm2 for ITO/PPFN+Br−/PFO. Furthermore, ASE narrowing displayed at pump energy up to 61.8 μJ/cm2 for device ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PFO/PPFN+Br−/Ag, while no ASE was observed for the reference devices without CPE interlayer at pump energy up to 240 μJ/cm2. The optically pumped lasing operation has also been achieved at threshold up to 45 μJ/cm2 for one-dimensional distributed feedback laser fabricated on ITO etched grating in devices with CPE interlayer, demonstrating a promising device configuration for addressing the challenge of electrically driven organic lasers. PMID:27165729

  19. Novel wearable-type biometric devices based on skin tissue optics with multispectral LED–photodiode matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Young Chang; Kim, Hae Na; Kang, Jae Hwan; Hong, Hyuck Ki; Choi, Yeon Shik; Jung, Suk Won; Kim, Sung Phil

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we examined the possibility of using a multispectral skin photomatrix (MSP) module as a novel biometric device. The MSP device measures optical patterns of the wrist skin tissue. Optical patterns consist of 2 × 8 photocurrent intensities of photodiode arrays, which are generated by optical transmission and diffuse reflection of photons from LED light sources with variable wavelengths into the wrist skin tissue. Optical patterns detected by the MSP device provide information on both the surface and subsurface characteristics of the human skin tissue. We found that in the 21 subjects we studied, they showed their unique characteristics, as determined using several wavelengths of light. The experimental results show that the best personal identification accuracy can be acquired using a combination of infrared light and yellow light. This novel biometric device, the MSP module, exhibited an excellent false acceptance rate (FAR) of 0.3% and a false rejection rate (FRR) of 0.0%, which are better than those of commercialized biometric devices such as a fingerprint biometric system. From these experimental results, we found that people exhibit unique optical patterns of their inner-wrist skin tissue and this uniqueness could be used for developing novel high-accuracy personal identification devices.

  20. Optical devices for proximity operations study and test report. [intensifying images for visual observation during space transportation system activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    Operational and physical requirements were investigated for a low-light-level viewing device to be used as a window-mounted optical sight for crew use in the pointing, navigating, stationkeeping, and docking of space vehicles to support space station operations and the assembly of large structures in space. A suitable prototype, obtained from a commercial vendor, was subjected to limited tests to determine the potential effectiveness of a proximity optical device in spacecraft operations. The constructional features of the device are discussed as well as concepts for its use. Tests results show that a proximity optical device is capable of performing low-light-level viewing services and will enhance manned spacecraft operations.

  1. Automated visual direction : LDRD 38623 final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    Mobile manipulator systems used by emergency response operators consist of an articulated robot arm, a remotely driven base, a collection of cameras, and a remote communications link. Typically the system is completely teleoperated, with the operator using live video feedback to monitor and assess the environment, plan task activities, and to conduct the operations via remote control input devices. The capabilities of these systems are limited, and operators rarely attempt sophisticated operations such as retrieving and utilizing tools, deploying sensors, or building up world models. This project has focused on methods to utilize this video information to enable monitored autonomous behaviors for the mobile manipulator system, with the goal of improving the overall effectiveness of the human/robot system. Work includes visual servoing, visual targeting, utilization of embedded video in 3-D models, and improved methods of camera utilization and calibration.

  2. A Wirelessly Powered and Controlled Device for Optical Neural Control of Freely-Behaving Animals

    PubMed Central

    Wentz, Christian T.; Bernstein, Jacob G.; Monahan, Patrick; Guerra, Alexander; Rodriguez, Alex; Boyden, Edward S.

    2011-01-01

    Optogenetics, the ability to use light to activate and silence specific neuron types within neural networks in vivo and in vitro, is revolutionizing neuroscientists’ capacity to understand how defined neural circuit elements contribute to normal and pathological brain functions. Typically awake behaving experiments are conducted by inserting an optical fiber into the brain, tethered to a remote laser, or by utilizing an implanted LED, tethered to a remote power source. A fully wireless system would enable chronic or longitudinal experiments where long duration tethering is impractical, and would also support high-throughput experimentation. However, the high power requirements of light sources (LEDs, lasers), especially in the context of the high-frequency pulse trains often desired in experiments, precludes battery-powered approaches from being widely applicable. We have developed a headborne device weighing 2 grams capable of wirelessly receiving power using a resonant RF power link and storing the energy in an adaptive supercapacitor circuit, which can algorithmically control one or more headborne LEDs via a microcontroller. The device can deliver approximately 2W of power to the LEDs in steady state, and 4.3W in bursts. We also present an optional radio transceiver module (1 gram) which, when added to the base headborne device, enables real-time updating of light delivery protocols; dozens of devices can be simultaneously controlled from one computer. We demonstrate use of the technology to wirelessly drive cortical control of movement in mice. These devices may serve as prototypes for clinical ultra-precise neural prosthetics that use light as the modality of biological control. PMID:21701058

  3. Analysis of an optical gate device for measuring aeolian sand movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etyemezian, V.; Nikolich, G.; Nickling, W.; King, J. S.; Gillies, J. A.

    2017-02-01

    Movement of sand in response to wind is the most important feature of aeolian sediment transport on Earth and other planets. Through sand blasting during saltation, large amounts of dust are ejected into the atmosphere and transported long distances, impacting climate and human health. Despite continuing improvements, currently available devices for field measurement of sand movement have limitations. An optical gate device (OGD) for detecting the movement, size, and possibly speed of individual sand grains during aeolian sediment transport was analyzed. The approach uses the highly time resolved signal from these sensors, which consist of a light emitter and a photosensitive sensor. A specific OGD that is manufactured by Optek (Carrollton, Texas, USA) was tested in a sediment transport wind tunnel alongside trap-style devices. The OGD device provided particle counts and total signal response that were well correlated with sand trap data (R2 between 0.66 and 0.88). Inter-comparison among eight identical units of the OGD showed excellent repeatability (R2 > 0.98 for 7 of 8 units). Subsequent tests revealed that the response of the phototransistor (light sensor) can be linear when operated within certain workable limits. Practical implications of this are that there is potential for extracting size distribution information. Limits imposed by noise levels in the signal and interferences from extraneous light sources were also identified. Despite the results presented being specific to the OGD model tested, much of the approach outlined is applicable to any OGD-type device (including Wenglor®) if the signal of the photo detector can be accessed directly.

  4. A wirelessly powered and controlled device for optical neural control of freely-behaving animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wentz, Christian T.; Bernstein, Jacob G.; Monahan, Patrick; Guerra, Alexander; Rodriguez, Alex; Boyden, Edward S.

    2011-08-01

    Optogenetics, the ability to use light to activate and silence specific neuron types within neural networks in vivo and in vitro, is revolutionizing neuroscientists' capacity to understand how defined neural circuit elements contribute to normal and pathological brain functions. Typically, awake behaving experiments are conducted by inserting an optical fiber into the brain, tethered to a remote laser, or by utilizing an implanted light-emitting diode (LED), tethered to a remote power source. A fully wireless system would enable chronic or longitudinal experiments where long duration tethering is impractical, and would also support high-throughput experimentation. However, the high power requirements of light sources (LEDs, lasers), especially in the context of the extended illumination periods often desired in experiments, precludes battery-powered approaches from being widely applicable. We have developed a headborne device weighing 2 g capable of wirelessly receiving power using a resonant RF power link and storing the energy in an adaptive supercapacitor circuit, which can algorithmically control one or more headborne LEDs via a microcontroller. The device can deliver approximately 2 W of power to the LEDs in steady state, and 4.3 W in bursts. We also present an optional radio transceiver module (1 g) which, when added to the base headborne device, enables real-time updating of light delivery protocols; dozens of devices can be controlled simultaneously from one computer. We demonstrate use of the technology to wirelessly drive cortical control of movement in mice. These devices may serve as prototypes for clinical ultra-precise neural prosthetics that use light as the modality of biological control.

  5. Optical correlation of images with signal-dependent noise using constrained-modulation filter devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downie, John D.

    1995-07-01

    Images with signal-dependent noise present challenges beyond those of images with additive white or colored signal-independent noise in terms of designing the optimal 4-f correlation filter that maximizes correlation-peak signal-to-noise ratio, or combinations of correlation-peak metrics. Determining the proper design becomes more difficult when the filter is to be implemented on a constrained-modulation spatial light modulator device. The design issues involved for updatable optical filters for images with signal-dependent film-grain noise and speckle noise are examined. It is shown that although design of the optimal linear filter in the Fourier domain is impossible for images with signal-dependent noise, proper nonlinear preprocessing of the images allows the application of previously developed design rules for optimal filters to be implemented on constrained-modulation devices. Thus the nonlinear preprocessing becomes necessary for correlation in optical systems with current spatial light modulator technology. These results are illustrated with computer simulations of images with signal-dependent noise correlated with binary-phase-only filters and ternary-phase-amplitude filters.

  6. Development of a first-generation miniature multiple reference optical coherence tomography imaging device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, Paul M.; Dsouza, Roshan; O'Riordan, Colm; Collins, Seán; O'Brien, Peter; Wilson, Carol; Hogan, Josh; Leahy, Martin J.

    2016-12-01

    Multiple reference optical coherence tomography (MR-OCT) is a technology ideally suited to low-cost, compact OCT imaging. This modality is an extension of time-domain OCT with the addition of a partial mirror in front of the reference mirror. This enables extended, simultaneous depth scanning with the relatively short scan range of a miniature voice coil motor on which the scanning mirror is mounted. This work details early stage development of the first iteration of a miniature MR-OCT device. This iteration utilizes a fiber-coupled input from an off-board superluminescent diode. The dimensions of the module are 40×57 mm. Off-the-shelf miniature optical components, voice coil motors, and photodetectors are used, with the complexity of design depending on the specific application. The photonic module can be configured as either polarized or nonpolarized and can include balanced detection. The results shown in this work are from the nonpolarized device. The system was characterized through measurement of the input spectrum, axial resolution, and signal-to-noise ratio. Typical B-scans of static and in vivo samples are shown, which illustrate the potential applications for such a technology.

  7. Optical vibration analysis of MEMS devices with pm-resolution in x, y, and z directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giesen, Moritz; Kowarsch, Robert; Ochs, Wanja; Winter, Marcus; Rembe, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Laser-Doppler vibrometry has become the state-of-the-art technique for broadband vibration analysis with picometer resolution in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). Displacement or velocity is detected only in direction of the measurement beam and, thus, three impinging laser beams are necessary to investigate all components of a threedimensional (3D) motion. This requirement is not problematic for 3D-vibration measurements on macroscopic objects with scattering surfaces but for reflective microstructures. A general problem of measuring 3D vibrations with three laser beams is optical crosstalk. This problem is especially critical for MEMS applications because the three beams have to be positioned closely to achieve high lateral resolution. In this paper, we prove that it is possible to impinge the small laser focus of a single laser beam with 3.3 μm diameter on a proper edge, corner or etch hole of a MEMS device to obtain real-time, 3D-vibration measurements with picometer amplitude resolution without optical crosstalk. We present the first measurements of the 3D-vibrations in MEMS devices. We prove that our method can meet the requirement of the MEMS community for fast, full-3D, broad-bandwidth, vibration measurements with picometer amplitude resolution and micrometer spatial resolution.

  8. Evaluation of low energy electron beam dose application by means of a portable optical device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitzig, Manuela; Winkler, Martin; Härtling, Thomas; Röder, Olaf; Opitz, Jörg

    2014-11-01

    We present our recent development concerning the evaluation of a low energy dose application to electron beam responding materials with a simple portable optical device. Electron beam irradiation is a promising option to sterilize sensitive and high performance products or surfaces at a low temperature and without moisture. Especially in the fields of the food industry and medicine, regulations regarding sterility are increasingly tightened. Because of this, a secure proof for electron-beam-assisted sterilization is required. However, no nondestructive and in situ method exists up until now. Our approach to provide a secure proof of sterilization is to place a suitable marker material based on rare-earth-doped phosphors inside or on the top of the packaging material of the respective product. Upon electron irradiation the marker material changes its luminescence properties as a function of the applied energy dose. We verified the energy dependence by means of time-resolved measurements of the luminescence decay of an upconversion phosphor with a portable optical device. In our experimental realization, short laser pulses in the near-infrared range are triggered by a microcontrol unit (MCU) and excite the marker material. The light emitted by the marker is collected in the range between 400 and 1100 nm via a silicon photodiode, processed by the MCU, and analyzed in a Labview program via a single-exponential fit. As a main result, we observe an increasing reduction of the luminescence lifetime with higher dose applications.

  9. Optical Correlation of Images With Signal-Dependent Noise Using Constrained-Modulation Filter Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downie, John D.

    1995-01-01

    Images with signal-dependent noise present challenges beyond those of images with additive white or colored signal-independent noise in terms of designing the optimal 4-f correlation filter that maximizes correlation-peak signal-to-noise ratio, or combinations of correlation-peak metrics. Determining the proper design becomes more difficult when the filter is to be implemented on a constrained-modulation spatial light modulator device. The design issues involved for updatable optical filters for images with signal-dependent film-grain noise and speckle noise are examined. It is shown that although design of the optimal linear filter in the Fourier domain is impossible for images with signal-dependent noise, proper nonlinear preprocessing of the images allows the application of previously developed design rules for optimal filters to be implemented on constrained-modulation devices. Thus the nonlinear preprocessing becomes necessary for correlation in optical systems with current spatial light modulator technology. These results are illustrated with computer simulations of images with signal-dependent noise correlated with binary-phase-only filters and ternary-phase-amplitude filters.

  10. LDRD final report : autotuning for scalable linear algebra.

    SciTech Connect

    Heroux, Michael Allen; Marker, Bryan

    2011-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress made as part of a one year lab-directed research and development (LDRD) project to fund the research efforts of Bryan Marker at the University of Texas at Austin. The goal of the project was to develop new techniques for automatically tuning the performance of dense linear algebra kernels. These kernels often represent the majority of computational time in an application. The primary outcome from this work is a demonstration of the value of model driven engineering as an approach to accurately predict and study performance trade-offs for dense linear algebra computations.

  11. LDRD project 151362 : low energy electron-photon transport.

    SciTech Connect

    Kensek, Ronald Patrick; Hjalmarson, Harold Paul; Magyar, Rudolph J.; Bondi, Robert James; Crawford, Martin James

    2013-09-01

    At sufficiently high energies, the wavelengths of electrons and photons are short enough to only interact with one atom at time, leading to the popular %E2%80%9Cindependent-atom approximation%E2%80%9D. We attempted to incorporate atomic structure in the generation of cross sections (which embody the modeled physics) to improve transport at lower energies. We document our successes and failures. This was a three-year LDRD project. The core team consisted of a radiation-transport expert, a solid-state physicist, and two DFT experts.

  12. A new generation of IC based beam steering devices for free-space optical communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedi, Vijit

    Free Space Optical (FSO) communication has tremendously advanced within the last decade to meet the ever increasing demand for higher communication bandwidth. Advancement in laser technology since its invention in the 1960's [1] attracted them to be the dominant source in FSO communication modules. The future of FSO systems lay in implementing semiconductor lasers due to their small size, power efficiency and mass fabrication abilities. In the near future, these systems are very likely to be used in space and ground based applications and revolutionary beam steering technologies will be required for distant communications in free-space. The highly directional characteristic inherent to a laser beam challenges and calls for new beam pointing and steering technologies for such type of communication. In this dissertation, research is done on a novel FSO communication device based on semiconductor lasers for high bandwidth communication. The "Fly eye transceiver" is an extremely wide steering bandwidth, completely non-mechanical FSO laser communication device primarily designed to replace traditional mechanical beam steering optical systems. This non-mechanical FSO device possesses a full spherical steering range and a very high tracking bandwidth. Inspired by the evolutionary model of a fly's eye, the full spherical steering range is assured by electronically controlled switching of its sub-eyes. Non mechanical technologies used in the past for beam steering such as acousto-optic Bragg cells, liquid crystal arrays or piezoelectric elements offer the wide steering bandwidth and fast response time, but are limited in their angular steering range. Mechanical gimbals offer a much greater steering range but face a much slower response time or steering bandwidth problem and often require intelligent adaptive controls with bulky driver amplifiers to feed their actuators. As a solution to feed both the fast and full spherical steering, the Fly-eye transceiver is studied as

  13. Advanced Silicon Photonic Device Architectures for Optical Communications: Proposals and Demonstrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacher, Wesley David

    Photonic integrated circuits implemented on silicon (Si) hold the potential for densely integrated electro-optic and passive devices manufactured by the high-volume fabrication and sophisticated assembly processes used for complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) electronics. However, high index contrast Si photonics has a number of functional limitations. In this thesis, several devices are proposed, designed, and experimentally demonstrated to overcome challenges in the areas of resonant modulation, waveguide loss, fiber-to-chip coupling, and polarization control. The devices were fabricated using foundry services at IBM and A*STAR Institute of Microelectronics (IME). First, we describe coupling modulated microrings, in which the coupler between a microring and the bus waveguide is modulated. The device circumvents the modulation bandwidth vs. resonator linewidth trade-off of conventional intracavity modulated microrings. We demonstrate a Si coupling modulated microring with a small-signal modulation response free of the parasitic resonator linewidth limitations at frequencies up to about 6x the linewidth. Comparisons of eye diagrams show that coupling modulation achieved data rates > 2x the rate attainable with intracavity modulation. Second, we demonstrate a silicon nitride (Si3N4)-on-Si photonic platform with independent Si3N4 and Si waveguides and taper transitions to couple light between the layers. The platform combines the excellent passive waveguide properties of Si3N4 and the compatibility of Si waveguides with electro-optic devices. Within the platform, we propose and demonstrate dual-level, Si3N 4-on-Si, fiber-to-chip grating couplers that simultaneously have wide bandwidths and high coupling efficiencies. Conventional Si and Si3N 4 grating couplers suffer from a trade-off between bandwidth and coupling efficiency. The dual-level grating coupler achieved a peak coupling efficiency of -1.3 dB and a 1-dB bandwidth of 80 nm, a record for the

  14. Modelling of Optical Guided Wave Devices in Lithium Niobate Using Test Structures for Process Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooten, Eddie Lynn

    This dissertation presents a study of the modelling of optical guided wave devices in LiNbO_3 with emphasis on experimental verification of the models. The goals are to identify the main sources of error in the modelling process, construct a model capable of achieving qualitative and quantitative accuracy, and develop a method of determining the correct set of input parameters to the model for a given fabrication process. The investigation is limited to mode interference type devices and the switching voltage is used as a basis for comparison. The finite element method is used for calculation of optical modes in waveguides with graded refractive index profiles. The integral equation method is used for calculation of the static electric field due to electrodes in a three layer anisotropic structure. It is proposed that the main source of error in the modelling process is not in the model itself, but in determining the correct input parameters to the model. The investigation of the input parameters focusses on a priori knowledge of the parameters and the sensitivity of the model to each parameter. The five parameters responsible for the largest errors in Ti:LiNbO_3 devices are identified as the Ti diffusion coefficients, the peak index change in the waveguides, the electrooptic coefficient, and the buffer layer dielectric constant. A method is presented for determining each of the selected parameters using a set of test devices fabricated on a single chip. The test set includes a planar waveguide, Mach-Zehnder modulators, and symmetrically perturbed directional couplers. Several sets of these devices have been fabricated using different fabrication conditions. The parameter values determined using this method compare favorably to those reported in the literature. The diffusion of Ti for x-cut crystals is found to be highly anisotropic, with the lateral diffusion length being about twice as large as the diffusion depth. The dependence of the diffusion lengths on

  15. A novel rheo-optical device for studying complex fluids in a double shear plate geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boitte, Jean-Baptiste; Vizcaïno, Claude; Benyahia, Lazhar; Herry, Jean-Marie; Michon, Camille; Hayert, Murielle

    2013-01-01

    A new rheo-optical shearing device was designed to investigate the structural evolution of complex material under shear flow. Seeking to keep the area under study constantly within the field of vision, it was conceived to produce shear flow by relying on the uniaxial translation of two parallel plates. The device features three modes of translation motion: step strain (0.02-320), constant shear rate (0.01-400 s-1), and oscillation (0.01-20 Hz) flow. Because the temperature is controlled by using a Peltier module coupled with a water cooling system, temperatures can range from 10 to 80 °C. The sample is loaded onto a user-friendly plate on which standard glasses can be attached with a depression vacuum pump. The principle innovation of the proposed rheo-optical shearing device lies in the fact that this suction system renders the microscopy glasses one with the plates, thereby ensuring their perfect planarity and parallelism. The gap width between the two plates can range from 0 to 5 mm. The device was designed to fit on any inverted confocal laser scanning microscope. In terms of controlled deformation, the conception and technical solutions achieve a high level of accuracy. Moreover, user-friendly software has been developed to control both shear flow parameters and temperature. The validation of specifications as well as the three modes of motion was carried out, first of all without a sample, and then by tracking fluorescent particles in a model system, in our case a micro-gel. Real values agreed well with those we targeted. In addition, an experiment with bread dough deformation under shear flow was initiated to gain some insight into the potential use of our device. These results show that the RheOptiCAD® promises to be a useful tool to better understand, from both a fundamental and an industrial point of view, the rheological behavior of the microstructure of complex fluids under controlled thermo-mechanical parameters in the case of food and non

  16. Tuning The Optical, Charge Injection, and Charge Transport Properties of Organic Electronic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalar, Peter

    Since the early 1900's, synthetic insulating polymers (plastics) have slowly taken over the role that traditional materials like wood or metal have had as basic components for construction, manufactured goods, and parts. Plastics allow for high throughput, low temperature processing, and control of bulk properties through molecular modifications. In the same way, pi-conjugated organic molecules are emerging as a possible substitute for inorganic materials due to their electronic properties. The semiconductive nature of pi-conjugated materials make them an attractive candidate to replace inorganic materials, primarily due to their promise for low cost and large-scale production of basic semiconducting devices such as light-emitting diodes, solar cells, and field-effect transistors. Before organic semiconductors can be realized as a commercial product, several hurdles must be cleared. The purpose of this dissertation is to address three distinct properties that dominate the functionality of devices harnessing these materials: (1) optical properties, (2) charge injection, and (3) charge transport. First, it is shown that the electron injection barrier in the emissive layer of polymer light-emitting diodes can be significantly reduced by processing of novel conjugated oligoelectrolytes or deoxyribonucleic acid atop the emissive layer. Next, the charge transport properties of several polymers could be modified by processing them from solvents containing small amounts of additives or by using regioregular and enantiopure chemical structures. It is then demonstrated that the optical and electronic properties of Lewis basic polymer structures can be readily modified by interactions with strongly electron-withdrawing Lewis acids. Through red-shifted absorption, photoluminescence, and electroluminescence, a single pi-conjugated backbone can be polychromatic. In addition, interaction with Lewis acids can remarkably p-dope the hole transport of the parent polymer, leading to a

  17. A Multi-Gradient Generator in a Single Microfluidic Device for Optical Microscopy and Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedrossian, Manuel; Nadeau, Jay; Lindensmith, Chris

    2016-11-01

    The goal of this work was to create a single microfluidic device capable of establishing multiple types of gradients in a quantifiable manner. Many microbial species are known to exhibit directed motility in the presence of stimuli. This phenomenon, known as taxis, can be used as a bio-signature and a means of identifying microorganisms. Directed microbial motility has been seen as a response to the presence of certain chemicals, light, heat, magnetic fields, and other stimuli. Microbial movement along the gradient vector, that cannot be explained by passive hydrodynamics or Brownian motion, can shed light on whether the sample contains living microbes or not. The ability to create multiple types of gradients in a single microfluidic device allows for high throughput testing of heterogeneous samples to detect taxis. There has been increased interest in the search for life within our solar system where liquid water is known to exist. Induced directional motility can serve as a viable method for detecting living organisms that actively respond to their environment. The device developed here includes a chemical, photonic, thermal, and magnetic gradient generator, while maintaining high optical quality in order to be used for microscopy as well as quantitative phase imaging This work was funded by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, who the authors wish to thank for their generosity.

  18. Fiber - Optic Devices as Temperature Sensors for Temperature Measurements in AC Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rablau, Corneliu; Lafrance, Joseph; Sala, Anca

    2007-10-01

    We report on the investigation of several fiber-optic devices as potential sensors for temperature measurements in AC magnetic fields. Common temperature sensors, such as thermocouples, thermistors or diodes, will create random and/or systematic errors when placed in a magnetic field. A DC magnetic field is susceptible to create a systematic offset to the measurement, while in an AC magnetic field of variable frequency random errors which cannot be corrected for can also be introduced. Fiber-Bragg-gratings and thin film filters have an inherent temperature dependence. Detrimental for their primary applications, the same dependence allows one to use such devices as temperature sensors. In an AC magnetic field, they present the advantage of being immune to electromagnetic interference. Moreover, for fiber-Bragg-gratings, the shape factor and small mass of the bare-fiber device make it convenient for temperature measurements on small samples. We studied several thin-film filters and fiber-Bragg-gratings and compared their temperature measurement capabilities in AC magnetic fields of 0 to 150 Gauss, 0 to 20 KHz to the results provided by off-the-shelf thermocouples and thermistor-based temperature measurement systems.

  19. Interventional Device Visualization with Toroidal Transceiver and Optically-Coupled Current Sensor for RF Safety Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Etezadi-Amoli, Maryam; Stang, Pascal; Kerr, Adam; Pauly, John; Scott, Greig

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The development of catheters and guidewires that are safe from radiofrequency (RF)-induced heating and clearly visible against background tissue is a major challenge in interventional MRI. An interventional imaging approach using a toroidal transmit-receive (transceive) coil is presented. This toroidal transceiver allows controlled, low levels of RF current to flow in the catheter/guidewire for visualization, and can be used with conductive interventional devices that have a localized low-impedance tip contact. Methods Toroidal transceivers were built, and phantom experiments were performed to quantify transmit power levels required for device visibility and to detect heating hazards. Imaging experiments in a pig cadaver tested the extendibility to higher field strength and non-phantom settings. A photonically-powered optically-coupled toroidal current sensor for monitoring induced RF currents was built, calibrated, and tested using an independent image-based current estimation method. Results Results indicate that high-SNR visualization is achievable using milliwatts of transmit power—power levels orders of magnitude lower than levels that induce measurable heating in phantom tests. Agreement between image-based current estimates and RF current sensor measurements validates sensor accuracy. Conclusion The toroidal transceiver, integrated with power and current sensing, could offer a promising platform for safe and effective interventional device visualization. PMID:24691876

  20. Direct metal transfer printing on flexible substrate for fabricating optics functional devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yingjie; Zhou, Xiaohong; Zhang, Feng; Shi, Zhenwu; Chen, Linsen; Peng, Changsi

    2015-11-01

    New functional materials and devices based on metal patterns can be widely used in many new and expanding industries,such as flat panel displays, alternative energy,sensors and so on. In this paper, we introduce a new transfer printing method for fabricating metal optics functional devices. This method can directly transfer a metal pattern from a polyethylene terephthalate (PET)supported UV or polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) pattern to another PET substrate. Purely taking advantage of the anaerobic UV curing adhesive (a-UV) on PET substrate, metal film can be easily peeled off from micro/nano-structured surface. As a result, metal film on the protrusion can be selectively transferred onto the target substrate, to make it the metal functional surface. But which on the bottom can not be transferred. This method provides low cost fabrication of metal thin film devices by avoiding high cost lithography process. Compared with conventional approach, this method can get more smooth rough edges and has wider tolerance range for the original master mold. Future developments and potential applications of this metal transfer method will be addressed.

  1. Optical zoom lens module using MEMS deformable mirrors for portable device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jia-Shiun; Su, Guo-Dung J.

    2012-10-01

    The thickness of the smart phones in today's market is usually below than 10 mm, and with the shrinking of the phone volume, the difficulty of its production of the camera lens has been increasing. Therefore, how to give the imaging device more functionality in the smaller space is one of the interesting research topics for today's mobile phone companies. In this paper, we proposed a thin optical zoom system which is combined of micro-electromechanical components and reflective optical architecture. By the adopting of the MEMS deformable mirrors, we can change their radius of curvature to reach the optical zoom in and zoom out. And because we used the all-reflective architecture, so this system has eliminated the considerable chromatic aberrations in the absence of lenses. In our system, the thickness of the zoom system is about 11 mm. The smallest EFL (effective focal length) is 4.61 mm at a diagonal field angle of 52° and f/# of 5.24. The longest EFL of the module is 9.22 mm at a diagonal field angle of 27.4 with f/# of 5.03.°

  2. Concentrating and spectrum splitting optical device in high efficiency CPV module with five bandgaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taudien, Jerker Y.; Kern, Ludwig A.

    2013-09-01

    There is a need for a high efficiency low cost solar energy conversion system. Currently, most concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) systems concentrate the solar spectrum onto triple junction cells to strive for high conversion efficiencies and low cost. Other approaches to high efficiency use spectrum splitting. Triple junction systems are limited in efficiency and spectrum splitting systems are usually too costly for mass production. The objective is to design a spectrum splitting solar concentrator, using reverse ray tracing methods, to overcome the efficiency and cost limitations of current systems by using a single low cost optical device to concentrate and split the solar spectrum onto a large number of target photovoltaic (PV) cells. Dispersive properties of standard optical materials, such as glass or plastic, are utilized to achieve the desired spectral separation. Reverse ray tracing is used to simultaneously optimize the shape of the top and bottom interfaces of the solar concentrator to achieve the desired split spectrum at the target PV cells. Additional strategies to increase system efficiency and minimize optical losses, including draft surface shading and corner rounding losses, are explored. A CPV module, including the spectrum splitting solar concentrator and five PV cells of different bandgaps, is proposed. This spectrum splitting CPV system has a calculated aggregate cell conversion efficiency that exceeds 45%, has the potential to be mass produced, and meets the need for a high efficiency low cost solar energy conversion system.

  3. Low-temperature optical processing of semiconductor devices using photon effects

    SciTech Connect

    Sopori, B.L.; Cudzinovic, M.; Symko, M.

    1995-08-01

    In an RTA process the primary purpose of the optical energy incident on the semiconductor sample is to increase its temperature rapidly. The activation of reactions involved in processes such as the formation of junctions, metal contacts, deposition of oxides or nitrides, takes place purely by the temperature effects. We describe the observation of a number of new photonic effects that take place within the bulk and at the interfaces of a semiconductor when a semiconductor device is illuminated with a spectrally broad-band light. Such effects include changes in the diffusion properties of impurities in the semiconductor, increased diffusivity of impurities across interfaces, and generation of electric fields that can alter physical and chemical properties of the interface. These phenomena lead to certain unique effects in an RTA process that do not occur during conventional furnace annealing under the same temperature conditions. Of particular interest are observations of low-temperature alloying of Si-Al interfaces, enhanced activation of phosphorus in Si during drive-in, low-temperature oxidation of Si, and gettering of impurities at low-temperatures under optical illumination. These optically induced effects, in general, diminish with an increase in the temperature, thus allowing thermally activated reaction rates to dominate at higher temperatures.

  4. Review—hexagonal boron nitride epilayers: Growth, optical properties and device applications

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, H. X.; Lin, Jing Yu

    2016-09-07

    This paper provides a brief overview on recent advances made in authors’ laboratory in epitaxial growth and optical studies of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) epilayers and heterostructures. Photoluminescence spectroscopy has been employed to probe the optical properties of h-BN. It was observed that the near band edge emission of h-BN is unusually high and is more than two orders of magnitude higher than that of high quality AlN epilayers. It was shown that the unique quasi-2D nature induced by the layered structure of h-BN results in high optical absorption and emission. The impurity related and near band-edge transitions in h-BN epilayers were probed for materials synthesized under varying ammonia flow rates. Our results have identified that the most dominant impurities and deep level defects in h-BN epilayers are related to nitrogen vacancies. By growing h-BN under high ammonia flow rates, nitrogen vacancy related defects can be eliminated and epilayers exhibiting pure free exciton emission have been obtained. Deep UV and thermal neutron detectors based on h-BN epilayers were shown to possess unique features. Lastly, it is our belief that h-BN will lead to many potential applications from deep UV emitters and detectors, radiation detectors, to novel 2D photonic and electronic devices.

  5. Review—hexagonal boron nitride epilayers: Growth, optical properties and device applications

    DOE PAGES

    Jiang, H. X.; Lin, Jing Yu

    2016-09-07

    This paper provides a brief overview on recent advances made in authors’ laboratory in epitaxial growth and optical studies of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) epilayers and heterostructures. Photoluminescence spectroscopy has been employed to probe the optical properties of h-BN. It was observed that the near band edge emission of h-BN is unusually high and is more than two orders of magnitude higher than that of high quality AlN epilayers. It was shown that the unique quasi-2D nature induced by the layered structure of h-BN results in high optical absorption and emission. The impurity related and near band-edge transitions in h-BNmore » epilayers were probed for materials synthesized under varying ammonia flow rates. Our results have identified that the most dominant impurities and deep level defects in h-BN epilayers are related to nitrogen vacancies. By growing h-BN under high ammonia flow rates, nitrogen vacancy related defects can be eliminated and epilayers exhibiting pure free exciton emission have been obtained. Deep UV and thermal neutron detectors based on h-BN epilayers were shown to possess unique features. Lastly, it is our belief that h-BN will lead to many potential applications from deep UV emitters and detectors, radiation detectors, to novel 2D photonic and electronic devices.« less

  6. Effects of Plasma Processes on the Characteristics of Optical Device Structures Based on GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Akio; Ishikawa, Fumitaro; Kondow, Masahiko

    2012-05-01

    We investigate the effects of inductively coupled O2 plasma ashing, capacitively coupled C3F8 plasma etching, and capacitively coupled C3F8/O2 plasma etching on the optical and electrical characteristics of GaAs-related optical device structures. The O2 plasma ashing produces non radiative recombination centers close to the sample surface. The sample with a cap AlGaAs layer prevents the degradation of photoluminescence (PL) intensity, probably inhibiting the penetration of damaging ions into the buried quantum well. The C3F8 plasma etching also degrades the PL intensity; however, under moderate conditions, the effect of non radiative surface recombination can be suppressed by the formation of a surface oxide layer. On the other hand, the formation of oxide increases the specific contact resistance (ρc) of the electrode. The etching with C3F8/O2 mixed plasma also deteriorates the optical characteristics presumably owing to the synthesized impact of the constituent gases, while it has limited effect on ρc.

  7. Optically reconfigurable metasurfaces and photonic devices based on phase change materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qian; Rogers, Edward T. F.; Gholipour, Behrad; Wang, Chih-Ming; Yuan, Guanghui; Teng, Jinghua; Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2016-01-01

    Photonic components with adjustable parameters, such as variable-focal-length lenses or spectral filters, which can change functionality upon optical stimulation, could offer numerous useful applications. Tuning of such components is conventionally achieved by either micro- or nanomechanical actuation of their constituent parts, by stretching or by heating. Here, we report a novel approach for making reconfigurable optical components that are created with light in a non-volatile and reversible fashion. Such components are written, erased and rewritten as two-dimensional binary or greyscale patterns into a nanoscale film of phase-change material by inducing a refractive-index-changing phase transition with tailored trains of femtosecond pulses. We combine germanium-antimony-tellurium-based films with a diffraction-limited resolution optical writing process to demonstrate a variety of devices: visible-range reconfigurable bichromatic and multi-focus Fresnel zone plates, a super-oscillatory lens with subwavelength focus, a greyscale hologram, and a dielectric metamaterial with on-demand reflection and transmission resonances.

  8. Next-generation photonic true time delay devices as enabled by a new electro-optic architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Scott R.; Johnson, Seth T.; Rommel, Scott D.; Anderson, Michael H.

    2013-05-01

    We present new photonic-true-time-delay (PTTD) devices, which are a key component for phased array antenna (PAA) and phased array radar (PAR) systems. These new devices, which are highly manufacturable, provide the previously unattainable combination of large time delay tunability and low insertion loss, in a form factor that enables integration of many channels in a compact package with very modest power consumption. The low size, weight, and power are especially advantageous for satellite deployment. These devices are enabled by: i) "Optical Path Reflectors" or OPRs that compresses a >20 foot change in optical path length, i.e., a >20 nsec tuning of delay, into a very compact package (only centimeters), and ii) electro-optic angle actuators that can be used to voltage tune or voltage select the optical time delay. We have designed and built OPRs that demonstrated: large time delay tunability (<30 nsecs), high RF bandwidth (>40 GHz and likely much higher), high resolution (<200 psec), and low and constant insertion loss (< 1 dB and varying by < 0.5 dB). We also completed a full design and manufacturing run of improved EO angle actuators that met the PTTD scanner requirements. Finally, a complete optical model of these integrated devices will be presented, specifically; the design for a multi-channel (400 channels) PTTD device will be discussed. The applicability and/or risks for space deployment will be discussed.

  9. Final report on LDRD project 105967 : exploring the increase in GaAs photodiode responsivity with increased neutron fluence.

    SciTech Connect

    Blansett, Ethan L.; Geib, Kent Martin; Cich, Michael Joseph; Wrobel, Theodore Frank; Peake, Gregory Merwin; Fleming, Robert M.; Serkland, Darwin Keith; Wrobel, Diana L.

    2008-01-01

    A previous LDRD studying radiation hardened optoelectronic components for space-based applications led to the result that increased neutron irradiation from a fast-burst reactor caused increased responsivity in GaAs photodiodes up to a total fluence of 4.4 x 10{sup 13} neutrons/cm{sup 2} (1 MeV Eq., Si). The silicon photodiodes experienced significant degradation. Scientific literature shows that neutrons can both cause defects as well as potentially remove defects in an annealing-like process in GaAs. Though there has been some modeling that suggests how fabrication and radiation-induced defects can migrate to surfaces and interfaces in GaAs and lead to an ordering effect, it is important to consider how these processes affect the performance of devices, such as the basic GaAs p-i-n photodiode. In this LDRD, we manufactured GaAs photodiodes at the MESA facility, irradiated them with electrons and neutrons at the White Sands Missile Range Linac and Fast Burst Reactor, and performed measurements to show the effect of irradiation on dark current, responsivity and high-speed bandwidth.

  10. LDRD report: Smoke effects on electrical equipment

    SciTech Connect

    TANAKA,TINA J.; BAYNES JR.,EDWARD E.; NOWLEN,STEVEN P.; BROCKMANN,JOHN E.; GRITZO,LOUIS A.; SHADDIX,CHRISTOPHER R.

    2000-03-01

    Smoke is known to cause electrical equipment failure, but the likelihood of immediate failure during a fire is unknown. Traditional failure assessment techniques measure the density of ionic contaminants deposited on surfaces to determine the need for cleaning or replacement of electronic equipment exposed to smoke. Such techniques focus on long-term effects, such as corrosion, but do not address the immediate effects of the fire. This document reports the results of tests on the immediate effects of smoke on electronic equipment. Various circuits and components were exposed to smoke from different fields in a static smoke exposure chamber and were monitored throughout the exposure. Electrically, the loss of insulation resistance was the most important change caused by smoke. For direct current circuits, soot collected on high-voltage surfaces sometimes formed semi-conductive soot bridges that shorted the circuit. For high voltage alternating current circuits, the smoke also tended to increase the likelihood of arcing, but did not accumulate on the surfaces. Static random access memory chips failed for high levels of smoke, but hard disk drives did not. High humidity increased the conductive properties of the smoke. The conductivity does not increase linearly with smoke density as first proposed; however, it does increase with quantity. The data can be used to give a rough estimate of the amount of smoke that will cause failures in CMOS memory chips, dc and ac circuits. Comparisons of this data to other fire tests can be made through the optical and mass density measurements of the smoke.

  11. FY06 LDRD Final Report: Broadband Radiation and Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, N; Fasenfest, B; White, D; Stowell, M; Sharpe, R; Jandhyala, V; Champagne, N; Rockway, J D; Pingenot, J

    2007-03-08

    This is the final report for LDRD 01-ERD-005. The Principle Investigator was Robert Sharpe. Collaborators included Niel Madsen, Benjamin Fasenfest, John D. Rockway, of the Defense Sciences Engineering Division (DSED), Vikram Jandhyala and James Pingenot from the University of Washington, and Mark Stowell of the Center for Applications Development and Software Engineering (CADSE). It should be noted that Benjamin Fasenfest and Mark Stowell were partially supported under other funding. The purpose of this LDRD effort was to enhance LLNL's computational electromagnetics capability in the area of broadband radiation and scattering. For radiation and scattering problems our transient EM codes are limited by the approximate Radiation Boundary Conditions (RBC's) used to model the radiation into an infinite space. Improved RBC's were researched, developed, and incorporated into the existing EMSolve finite-element code to provide a 10-100x improvement in the accuracy of the boundary conditions. Section I provides an introduction to the project and the project goals. Section II provides a summary of the project's research and accomplishments as presented in the attached papers.

  12. Final Report for the Virtual Reliability Realization System LDRD

    SciTech Connect

    DELLIN, THEODORE A.; HENDERSON, CHRISTOPHER L.; O'TOOLE, EDWARD J.

    2000-12-01

    Current approaches to reliability are not adequate to keep pace with the need for faster, better and cheaper products and systems. This is especially true in high consequence of failure applications. The original proposal for the LDRD was to look at this challenge and see if there was a new paradigm that could make reliability predictions, along with a quantitative estimate of the risk in that prediction, in a way that was faster, better and cheaper. Such an approach would be based on the underlying science models that are the backbone of reliability predictions. The new paradigm would be implemented in two software tools: the Virtual Reliability Realization System (VRRS) and the Reliability Expert System (REX). The three-year LDRD was funded at a reduced level for the first year ($120K vs. $250K) and not renewed. Because of the reduced funding, we concentrated on the initial development of the expertise system. We developed an interactive semiconductor calculation tool needed for reliability analyses. We also were able to generate a basic functional system using Microsoft Siteserver Commerce Edition and Microsoft Sequel Server. The base system has the capability to store Office documents from multiple authors, and has the ability to track and charge for usage. The full outline of the knowledge model has been incorporated as well as examples of various types of content.

  13. Nanoporous Silica Templated HeteroEpitaxy: Final LDRD Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Burckel, David Bruce; Koleske, Daniel; Rowen, Adam M.; Williams, John Dalton; Fan, Hongyou; Arrington, Christian Lew

    2006-11-01

    This one-year out-of-the-box LDRD was focused on exploring the use of porous growth masks as a method for defect reduction during heteroepitaxial crystal growth. Initially our goal was to investigate porous silica as a growth mask, however, we expanded the scope of the research to include several other porous growth masks on various size scales, including mesoporous carbon, and the UV curable epoxy, SU-8. Use of SU-8 as a growth mask represents a new direction, unique in the extensive literature of patterned epitaxial growth, and presents the possibility of providing a single step growth mask. Additional research included investigation of pore viability via electrochemical deposition into high aspect ratio photoresist patterns and pilot work on using SU-8 as a DUV negative resist, another significant potential result. While the late start nature of this project pushed some of the initial research goals out of the time table, significant progress was made. 3 Acknowledgements This work was performed in part at the Nanoscience @ UNM facility, a member of the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network, which is supported by the National Science Foundation (Grant ECS 03-35765). Sandia is multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United Stated Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. This work was supported under the Sandia LDRD program (Project 99405). 4

  14. A new generation of previously unrealizable photonic devices as enabled by a unique electro-optic waveguide architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Scott R.; Rommel, Scott D.; Farca, George; Anderson, Michael H.

    2008-08-01

    A new electro-optic waveguide platform, which provides unprecedented electro-optical phase delays (> 1mm), with very low loss (< 0.5 dB/cm) and rapid response time (sub millisecond), is presented. This technology, developed by Vescent Photonics, is based upon a unique liquid-crystal waveguide geometry, which exploits the tremendous electro-optic response of liquid crystals while circumventing historic limitations of liquid crystals. The exceedingly large optical phase delays accessible with this technology enable the design and construction of a new class of previously unrealizable photonic devices. Examples include: a 1-D non-mechanical, analog beamsteerer with an 80° field of regard, a chip-scale widely tunable laser, a chip-scale Fourier transform spectrometer (< 5 nm resolution demonstrated), widely tunable micro-ring resonators, tunable lenses, ultra-low power (< 5 microWatts) optical switches, true optical time delay (up to 10 ns), and many more. All of these devices may benefit from established manufacturing technologies and ultimately may be as inexpensive as a calculator display. Furthermore, this new integrated photonic architecture has applications in a wide array of commercial and defense markets including: remote sensing, micro-LADAR, OCT, laser illumination, phased array radar, optical communications, etc. Performance attributes of several example devices are presented.

  15. Millimeter- and submillimeter-wave nanoscience : LDRD project 122359 final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Mark

    2008-09-01

    LDRD Project 122359 was a nine-month, late-start effort that pursued initial experiments studying the fundamental electrodynamic response properties of various nanomaterials from millimeter-wave (above roughly 30 GHz) up to submillimeter-wave (above roughly 0.1 THz) frequencies. The nine months of this project's duration produced two main empirical findings. First, Fourier transform reflectance spectroscopy on SrTiO{sub 3} nanocrystals from 0.2 to 10 THz frequency showed signatures of two optical phonons that correspond to known optical modes in bulk crystal SrTiO{sub 3}. However, quantitative differences between the nanoparticle and bulk spectra suggest that one or both of these phonons may shift frequency and weaken in nanoparticles relative to bulk crystal. Second, heavily doped n-type GaAs nanowires were synthesized for the purpose of creating high frequency diodes to study non-linear frequency conversion properties of compound semiconductor nanowires. It was found that incorporation of a heavy concentration of dopants interferes with the growth of these nanowires. While DC measurements showed reasonable diode-like current-voltage properties, the current state-of-the-art material properties of these nanowires are still unsuitable for millimeter-wave testing and applications.

  16. Electrically switchable polymer liquid crystal and polymer birefringent flake in fluid host systems and optical devices utilizing same

    DOEpatents

    Marshall, Kenneth L.; Kosc, Tanya Z.; Jacobs, Stephen D.; Faris, Sadeg M.; Li, Le

    2003-12-16

    Flakes or platelets of polymer liquid crystals (PLC) or other birefringent polymers (BP) suspended in a fluid host medium constitute a system that can function as the active element in an electrically switchable optical device when the suspension is either contained between a pair of rigid substrates bearing transparent conductive coatings or dispersed as microcapsules within the body of a flexible host polymer. Optical properties of these flake materials include large effective optical path length, different polarization states and high angular sensitivity in their selective reflection or birefringence. The flakes or platelets of these devices need only a 3-20.degree. rotation about the normal to the cell surface to achieve switching characteristics obtainable with prior devices using particle rotation or translation.

  17. Evanescent field-based optical fiber sensing device for measuring the refractive index of liquids in microfluidic channels.

    PubMed

    Polynkin, PaveL; Polynkin, Alexander; Peyghambarian, N; Mansuripur, Masud

    2005-06-01

    We report a simple optical sensing device capable of measuring the refractive index of liquids propagating in microfluidic channels. The sensor is based on a single-mode optical fiber that is tapered to submicrometer dimensions and immersed in a transparent curable soft polymer. A channel for liquid analyte is created in the immediate vicinity of the taper waist. Light propagating through the tapered section of the fiber extends into the channel, making the optical loss in the system sensitive to the refractive-index difference between the polymer and the liquid. The fabrication process and testing of the prototype sensing devices are described. The sensor can operate both as a highly responsive on-off device and in the continuous measurement mode, with an estimated accuracy of refractive-index measurement of approximately 5 x 10(-4).

  18. Optoelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperling, Leslie H.; Murphy, Clarence J.; Rosen, Warren A.; Jain, Himanshu

    1990-07-01

    This invention relates to acrylic polymers and more specifically to polyacrylamides and polyacrylates such as poly(2-((N-2-methyl-5-nitrophenylamino) ethyl acrylate)) and poly((N-2-methyl-4-nitrophenyl)acrylamide). These acrylic polymers are particularly useful as nonlinear optical components in various electrical devices for processing optical signals including interferometors, optical switches, optical amplifiers, generators, computational devices and the like.

  19. LDRD 2014 Annual Report: Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Hatton, Diane

    2015-03-01

    Each year, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is required to provide a program description and overview of its Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program (LDRD) to the Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with DOE Order 413.2B dated April 19, 2006. This report provides a detailed look at the scientific and technical activities for each of the LDRD projects funded by BNL in FY 2014, as required. In FY 2014, the BNL LDRD Program funded 40 projects, 8 of which were new starts, at a total cost of $9.6M.

  20. Selected Examples of LDRD Projects Supporting Test Ban Treaty Verification and Nonproliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, K.; Al-Ayat, R.; Walter, W. R.

    2015-02-23

    The Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program at the DOE National Laboratories was established to ensure the scientific and technical vitality of these institutions and to enhance the their ability to respond to evolving missions and anticipate national needs. LDRD allows the Laboratory directors to invest a percentage of their total annual budget in cutting-edge research and development projects within their mission areas. We highlight a selected set of LDRD-funded projects, in chronological order, that have helped provide capabilities, people and infrastructure that contributed greatly to our ability to respond to technical challenges in support of test ban treaty verification and nonproliferation.