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Sample records for optical fso communication

  1. Hybrid optical CDMA-FSO communications network under spatially correlated gamma-gamma scintillation.

    PubMed

    Jurado-Navas, Antonio; Raddo, Thiago R; Garrido-Balsells, José María; Borges, Ben-Hur V; Olmos, Juan José Vegas; Monroy, Idelfonso Tafur

    2016-07-25

    In this paper, we propose a new hybrid network solution based on asynchronous optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA) and free-space optical (FSO) technologies for last-mile access networks, where fiber deployment is impractical. The architecture of the proposed hybrid OCDMA-FSO network is thoroughly described. The users access the network in a fully asynchronous manner by means of assigned fast frequency hopping (FFH)-based codes. In the FSO receiver, an equal gain-combining technique is employed along with intensity modulation and direct detection. New analytical formalisms for evaluating the average bit error rate (ABER) performance are also proposed. These formalisms, based on the spatially correlated gamma-gamma statistical model, are derived considering three distinct scenarios, namely, uncorrelated, totally correlated, and partially correlated channels. Numerical results show that users can successfully achieve error-free ABER levels for the three scenarios considered as long as forward error correction (FEC) algorithms are employed. Therefore, OCDMA-FSO networks can be a prospective alternative to deliver high-speed communication services to access networks with deficient fiber infrastructure.

  2. Two-way wireless-over-fibre and FSO-over-fibre communication systems with an optical carrier transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xu-Hong; Lu, Hai-Han; Donati, Silvano; Li, Chung-Yi; Wang, Yun-Chieh; Jheng, Yu-Bo; Chang, Jen-Chieh

    2018-07-01

    Two-way wireless-over-fiber and free-space optical (FSO)-over-fiber communication systems, with an optical carrier transmission for a hybrid 10 Gbps baseband data stream, are proposed and practically demonstrated. 10 Gbps/50 GHz and 10 Gbps/100 GHz millimeter-wave data signal transmissions are also proposed and practically demonstrated. An optical carrier with a 10 Gbps baseband data stream is delivered via a 50 km single-mode fiber transportation to effectively lower dispersion-induced limitation due to fiber links and distortion produced by beating among multiple optical sidebands. To our understanding, this experiment is foremost in employing an optical carrier transmission approach to a two-way wireless-over-fiber and FSO-over-fiber communication system to suppress fiber dispersion and distortion effectively. Bit error rate performs well for downlink and uplink deliveries via a 50 km single-mode fiber transportation with a 100 m FSO link/5 m RF wireless delivery. The offered two-way wireless-over-fiber and FSO-over-fiber communication system with an optical carrier transmission is a promising option. It should be interesting for signifying the progress in the integration of long-haul fiber-based trunks and short-range RF/optical wireless link-based branches.

  3. Simulating the performance of adaptive optics techniques on FSO communications through the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Noelia; Rodríguez Ramos, Luis Fernando; Sodnik, Zoran

    2017-08-01

    The Optical Ground Station (OGS), installed in the Teide Observatory since 1995, was built as part of ESA efforts in the research field of satellite optical communications to test laser telecommunication terminals on board of satellites in Low Earth Orbit and Geostationary Orbit. As far as one side of the link is settled on the Earth, the laser beam (either on the uplink or on the downlink) has to bear with the atmospheric turbulence. Within the framework of designing an Adaptive Optics system to improve the performance of the Free-Space Optical Communications at the OGS, turbulence conditions regarding uplink and downlink have been simulated within the OOMAO (Object-Oriented Matlab Adaptive Optics) Toolbox as well as the possible utilization of a Laser Guide Star to measure the wavefront in this context. Simulations have been carried out by reducing available atmospheric profiles regarding both night-time and day-time measurements and by having into account possible seasonal changes. An AO proposal to reduce atmospheric aberrations and, therefore, ameliorate FSO links performance is presented and analysed in this paper

  4. Development of Operational Free-Space-Optical (FSO) Laser Communication Systems Final Report CRADA No. TC02093.0

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggiero, A.; Orgren, A.

    This project was a collaborative effort between Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (formerly The Regents of the University of California)/Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and LGS Innovations, LLC (formerly Lucent Technologies, Inc.), to develop long-range and mobile operational free-space optical (FSO) laser communication systems for specialized government applications. LLNL and LGS Innovations formerly Lucent Bell Laboratories Government Communications Systems performed this work for a United States Government (USG) Intelligence Work for Others (I-WFO) customer, also referred to as "Government Customer", or "Customer" and "Government Sponsor." The CRADA was a critical and required part of the LLNL technology transfer plan formore » the customer.« less

  5. Design of the optical system for FSO access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaojing; Yuan, Xiuhua; Huang, Dexiu

    2002-08-01

    Free space optics (FSO) is attractive for the 'last mile' communication in recent years for many combining advantages of fiber communication and other wireless technologies. FSO can provide high data rate with low power consumption, high immunity to interference, convenient deployment and flexibility. Optical system is an important section in the FSO transceiver terminal. In this paper the design of optical system based on a single Galileo telescope for both transmit and receive is proposed, and a polarization beam splitter is adopted to apart the receiving light from transmitting light. The configuration can avoid interference from the retroreflecting light of the ocular effectively. Some factors that affect the performance of the optical system are analyzed, such as the geometrical spreading loss and the loss increment according to pointing error and telescope maladjustment. Power budget shows that the system can satisfy the need of access for 1km in the light fog, and 2km in the thin fog.

  6. Adaptive and reliably acknowledged FSO communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitz, Michael P.; Halford, Thomas R.; Kose, Cenk; Cromwell, Jonathan; Gordon, Steven

    2015-05-01

    Atmospheric turbulence causes the receive signal intensity on free space optical (FSO) communication links to vary over time. Scintillation fades can stymie connectivity for milliseconds at a time. To approach the information-theoretic limits of communication in such time-varying channels, it necessary to either code across extremely long blocks of data - thereby inducing unacceptable delays - or to vary the code rate according to the instantaneous channel conditions. We describe the design, laboratory testing, and over-the-air testing of an FSO modem that employs a protocol with adaptive coded modulation (ACM) and hybrid automatic repeat request. For links with fixed throughput, this protocol provides a 10dB reduction in the required received signal-to-noise ratio (SNR); for links with fixed range, this protocol provides the greater than a 3x increase in throughput. Independent U.S. Government tests demonstrate that our protocol effectively adapts the code rate to match the instantaneous channel conditions. The modem is able to provide throughputs in excess of 850 Mbps on links with ranges greater than 15 kilometers.

  7. RF/optical shared aperture for high availability wideband communication RF/FSO links

    DOEpatents

    Ruggiero, Anthony J; Pao, Hsueh-yuan; Sargis, Paul

    2014-04-29

    An RF/Optical shared aperture is capable of transmitting and receiving optical signals and RF signals simultaneously. This technology enables compact wide bandwidth communications systems with 100% availability in clear air turbulence, rain and fog. The functions of an optical telescope and an RF reflector antenna are combined into a single compact package by installing an RF feed at either of the focal points of a modified Gregorian telescope.

  8. RF/optical shared aperture for high availability wideband communication RF/FSO links

    DOEpatents

    Ruggiero, Anthony J; Pao, Hsueh-yuan; Sargis, Paul

    2015-03-24

    An RF/Optical shared aperture is capable of transmitting and receiving optical signals and RF signals simultaneously. This technology enables compact wide bandwidth communications systems with 100% availability in clear air turbulence, rain and fog. The functions of an optical telescope and an RF reflector antenna are combined into a single compact package by installing an RF feed at either of the focal points of a modified Gregorian telescope.

  9. Multi-Element Free-Space Optical (FSO) Modules for Mobile-Opportunistic Networking

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-14

    will enable us to improve our existing FSO prototype modules to low power consuming, miniature devices with high data transfer rates. Particularly, we... wireless spectrum bands in both military and civilian settings. Recent research has shown that free- space-optical (FSO), a.k.a. optical wireless ...communications is a promising complementary approach to address the exploding mobile wireless traffic demand. The major impediment for using FSO in a

  10. Investigation of CSRZ code in FSO communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhike; Chang, Mingchao; Zhu, Ninghua; Liu, Yu

    2018-02-01

    A cost-effective carrier-suppressed return-to-zero (CSRZ) code generation scheme is proposed by employing a directly modulated laser (DML) module operated at 1.5 μm wavelength. Furthermore, the performance of CSRZ code signal in free-space optical (FSO) link transmission is studied by simulation. It is found from the results that the atmospheric turbulence can deteriorate the transmission performance. However, due to have lower average transmit power and higher spectrum efficient, CSRZ code signal can obtain better amplitude suppression ratio compared to the Non-return-to-zero (NRZ) code.

  11. Availability of free-space optics (FSO) and hybrid FSO/RF systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Isaac I.; Korevaar, Eric J.

    2001-11-01

    Free Space Optics (FSO) has become a viable, high-bandwidth wireless alternative to fiber optic cabling. The primary advantages of FSO over fiber are its rapid deployment time and significant cost savings. The disadvantage of FSO over fiber is that laser power attenuation through the atmosphere is variable and difficult to predict, since it is weather airports, the link availability as a function of distance can be predicted for any FSO system. These availability curves provide a good indication of the reasonable link distances for FSO systems in a particular geographical area. FSO link distances can vary greatly from desert areas like Las Vegas to heavy-fog cities like St. Johns NF. Another factor in determining FSO distance limitations is the link availability expectation of the application. For enterprise applications, link availability requirements are generally greater than 99%. This allows for longer FSO link ranges, based on the availability curves. The enterprise market is where the majority of FSO systems have been deployed. The carriers and ISPs are another potential large user of FSO systems, especially for last-mile metro access applications. If FSO systems are to be used in telecommunication applications, they will need to meet much higher availability requirements. Carrier-class availability is generally considered to be 99.999% (5 nines). An analysis of link budgets and visibility-limiting weather conditions indicates that to meet carrier-class availability, FSO links should normally be less than 140m (there are cities like Phoenix and Las Vegas where this 99.999% distance limitation increases significantly). This calculation is based on a 53 dB link budget. This concept is extended to the best possible FSO system, which would have a 10 W transmitter and a photocounting detector with a sensitivity of 1 nW. This FSO system would have a 100 dB link margin, which would only increase the 99.999% link distance to 286 m. A more practical solution to

  12. An Analytical Approach for Performance Enhancement of FSO Communication System Using Array of Receivers in Adverse Weather Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagpal, Shaina; Gupta, Amit

    2017-08-01

    Free Space Optics (FSO) link exploits the tremendous network capacity and is capable of offering wireless communications similar to communications through optical fibres. However, FSO link is extremely weather dependent and the major effect on FSO links is due to adverse weather conditions like fog and snow. In this paper, an FSO link is designed using an array of receivers. The disparity of the link for very high attenuation conditions due to fog and snow is analysed using aperture averaging technique. Further effect of aperture averaging technique is investigated by comparing the systems using aperture averaging technique with systems not using aperture averaging technique. The performance of proposed model of FSO link has been evaluated in terms of Q factor, bit error rate (BER) and eye diagram.

  13. Enhancing performance of next generation FSO communication systems using soft computing-based predictions.

    PubMed

    Kazaura, Kamugisha; Omae, Kazunori; Suzuki, Toshiji; Matsumoto, Mitsuji; Mutafungwa, Edward; Korhonen, Timo O; Murakami, Tadaaki; Takahashi, Koichi; Matsumoto, Hideki; Wakamori, Kazuhiko; Arimoto, Yoshinori

    2006-06-12

    The deterioration and deformation of a free-space optical beam wave-front as it propagates through the atmosphere can reduce the link availability and may introduce burst errors thus degrading the performance of the system. We investigate the suitability of utilizing soft-computing (SC) based tools for improving performance of free-space optical (FSO) communications systems. The SC based tools are used for the prediction of key parameters of a FSO communications system. Measured data collected from an experimental FSO communication system is used as training and testing data for a proposed multi-layer neural network predictor (MNNP) used to predict future parameter values. The predicted parameters are essential for reducing transmission errors by improving the antenna's accuracy of tracking data beams. This is particularly essential for periods considered to be of strong atmospheric turbulence. The parameter values predicted using the proposed tool show acceptable conformity with original measurements.

  14. Performance Investigation of FSO-OFDM Communication Systems under the Heavy Rain Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashidi, Florence; He, Jing; Chen, Lin

    2017-12-01

    The challenge in the free-space optical (FSO) communication is the propagation of optical signal through different atmospheric conditions such as rain, snow and fog. In this paper, an orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing technique (OFDM) is proposed in the FSO communication system. Meanwhile, considering the rain attenuation models based on Marshal & Palmer and Carbonneau models, the performance of FSO communication system based on the OFDM is evaluated under the heavy-rain condition in Changsha, China. The simulation results show that, under a heavy-rainfall condition of 106.18 mm/h, with an attenuation factor of 7 dB/km based on the Marshal & Palmer model, the bit rate of 2.5 and 4.0 Gbps data can be transmitted over the FSO channels of 1.6 and 1.3 km, respectively, and the bit error rate of less than 1E - 4 can be achieved. In addition, the effect on rain attenuation over the FSO communication system based on the Marshal & Palmer model is less than that of the Carbonneau model.

  15. Free Space Optical Communication for Tactical Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    communications. Military communications further require secure connections for data transfer . The Free Space Optical (FSO) communication system, with its...communications. Military communications further require secure connections for data transfer . The Free Space Optical (FSO) communication system...13. Percentage of Frame Loss at Location 1A .................................... 34 Figure 14. Received Power at Location 1A

  16. Mitigating the Effects of Fog Attenuation in FSO Communication Link Using Multiple Transceivers and EDFA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Mehtab

    2017-05-01

    Free Space Optics (FSO) technique is an advanced form of the wireless communication system capable of transmitting data at higher transmission rates with higher channel bandwidth and over longer link distances. One of the major challenges faced by FSO technology is the distortion of received signal due to atmospheric effects which degrade the performance of the communication link by increasing the bit error rate (BER). By implementing Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) in the FSO link, the degradation of the information signal due to atmospheric effects can be minimized. Also, by deploying spatial diversity technique in the FSO link, where multiple copies of the information signal are transmitted to increase the redundancy of the system, the system performance can be enhanced. In this paper, the performance of an FSO communication link has been analyzed under fog weather condition using a different number of Tx/Rx pairs and EDFA amplifier using OPTISYSTEM simulation software. Performance has been analyzed on the basis of Q Factor, SNR, BER, and total power of the received signal. Results show a significant improvement in the system performance by deploying multiple transceiver techniques.

  17. Testing FSO WDM communication system in simulation software optiwave OptiSystem in different atmospheric environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderka, Ales; Hajek, Lukas; Bednarek, Lukas; Latal, Jan; Vitasek, Jan; Hejduk, Stanislav; Vasinek, Vladimir

    2016-09-01

    In this article the author's team deals with using Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) for Free Space Optical (FSO) Communications. In FSO communication occurs due to the influence of atmospheric effect (attenuation, and fluctuation of the received power signal, influence turbulence) and the WDM channel suffers from interchannel crosstalk. There is considered only the one direction. The behavior FSO link was tested for one or eight channels. Here we will be dealing with modulation schemes OOK (On-Off keying), QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation) and Subcarrier Intensity Modulation (SIM) based on a BPSK (Binary Phase Shift Keying). Simulation software OptiSystem 14 was used for tasting. For simulation some parameters were set according to real FSO link such as the datarate 1.25 Gbps, link range 1.4 km. Simulated FSO link used wavelength of 1550 nm with 0.8 nm spacing. There is obtained the influence of crosstalk and modulation format for the BER, depending on the amount of turbulence in the propagation medium.

  18. Hybrid Radio Frequency/Free-Space Optics (RF/FSO) Wireless Sensor Network: Security Concerns and Protective Measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Koushik; Sharma, Hemant; Sengupta, Anasuya

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are ad hoc wireless networks that are written off as spread out structure and ad hoc deployment. Sensor networks have all the rudimentary features of ad hoc networks but to altered points—for instance, considerably lesser movement and far more energy necessities. Commonly used technology for communication is radio frequency (RF) communications. Free-space optics (FSO) is relatively new technology which has the prospective to deliver remarkable increases in network lifetime of WSN. Hybrid RF/FSO communications has been suggested to decrease power consumption by a single sensor node. It is observed that security plays a very important role for either RF WSN or hybrid RF/FSO WSN as those are vulnerable to numerous threats. In this paper, various possible attacks in RF/FSO WSN are discussed and aimed to propose some way out from those attacks.

  19. UV solar-blind FSO sub-sea video communications: link budget study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnon, Shlomi; Kedar, Debbie

    2008-10-01

    Sub-sea monitoring of floating oil production platforms is a crucial issue in the interests of security, efficient functioning and pollution prevention. Sensors and sensor networks are essential tools for implementing the monitoring operations and low-error data communication from the sensors and within the network is a critical element in these systems. Free space optics (FSO) has gained recognition in numerous applications as a high bandwidth, energy efficient communication medium and has recently been considered as a viable alternative to acoustic communications for underwater applications when high data rates are required over short transmission ranges. Video recording is a powerful method for gathering extensive data in time and space that requires broadband communication facilities, such as could be provided by FSO. However, the immense variability of background illumination in shallow waters, inducing shot noise at the receiver, presents a challenge for sub-sea FSO. This has stimulated us to investigate the potential of underwater FSO in the UV solarblind spectral range. The potential of UV solarblind optical wireless links for sub-sea FSO is investigated in this paper and compared with performance at 520nm. In clear ocean data rates of 100bps can be transmitted over distances of above 120m using 520nm radiation, but this range is reduced to around 10m in harbour waters for these data rates and to 50m in clear ocean when the data rate is increased to 100Mbps. It is anticipated that ranges of 10m can also be obtained with UV solarblind wavelengths, although experimental corroboration is not yet available.

  20. A review on channel models in free space optical communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anbarasi, K.; Hemanth, C.; Sangeetha, R. G.

    2017-12-01

    Free Space Optical communication (FSO) is a wireless communication technology which uses light to transmit the data in free space. FSO has advantages like unlicensed spectrum and higher bandwidth. In this paper FSO system merits and demerits, challenges in FSO, and various channel models are discussed. To mitigate the turbulence in FSO the mitigation techniques like relaying, diversity schemes and adopting different modulation techniques used in different channels are discussed and its performance comparison is given.

  1. Experimental FSO network availability estimation using interactive fog condition monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turán, Ján.; Ovseník, Łuboš

    2016-12-01

    Free Space Optics (FSO) is a license free Line of Sight (LOS) telecommunication technology which offers full duplex connectivity. FSO uses infrared beams of light to provide optical broadband connection and it can be installed literally in a few hours. Data rates go through from several hundreds of Mb/s to several Gb/s and range is from several 100 m up to several km. FSO link advantages: Easy connection establishment, License free communication, No excavation are needed, Highly secure and safe, Allows through window connectivity and single customer service and Compliments fiber by accelerating the first and last mile. FSO link disadvantages: Transmission media is air, Weather and climate dependence, Attenuation due to rain, snow and fog, Scattering of laser beam, Absorption of laser beam, Building motion and Air pollution. In this paper FSO availability evaluation is based on long term measured data from Fog sensor developed and installed at TUKE experimental FSO network in TUKE campus, Košice, Slovakia. Our FSO experimental network has three links with different physical distances between each FSO heads. Weather conditions have a tremendous impact on FSO operation in terms of FSO availability. FSO link availability is the percentage of time over a year that the FSO link will be operational. It is necessary to evaluate the climate and weather at the actual geographical location where FSO link is going to be mounted. It is important to determine the impact of a light scattering, absorption, turbulence and receiving optical power at the particular FSO link. Visibility has one of the most critical influences on the quality of an FSO optical transmission channel. FSO link availability is usually estimated using visibility information collected from nearby airport weather stations. Raw data from fog sensor (Fog Density, Relative Humidity, Temperature measured at each ms) are collected and processed by FSO Simulator software package developed at our Department. Based

  2. 10Gbps 2D MGC OCDMA Code over FSO Communication System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Professor Urmila Bhanja, Associate, Dr.; Khuntia, Arpita; Alamasety Swati, (Student

    2017-08-01

    Currently, wide bandwidth signal dissemination along with low latency is a leading requisite in various applications. Free space optical wireless communication has introduced as a realistic technology for bridging the gap in present high data transmission fiber connectivity and as a provisional backbone for rapidly deployable wireless communication infrastructure. The manuscript highlights on the implementation of 10Gbps SAC-OCDMA FSO communications using modified two dimensional Golomb code (2D MGC) that possesses better auto correlation, minimum cross correlation and high cardinality. A comparison based on pseudo orthogonal (PSO) matrix code and modified two dimensional Golomb code (2D MGC) is developed in the proposed SAC OCDMA-FSO communication module taking different parameters into account. The simulative outcome signifies that the communication radius is bounded by the multiple access interference (MAI). In this work, a comparison is made in terms of bit error rate (BER), and quality factor (Q) based on modified two dimensional Golomb code (2D MGC) and PSO matrix code. It is observed that the 2D MGC yields better results compared to the PSO matrix code. The simulation results are validated using optisystem version 14.

  3. Channel capacity of OAM based FSO communication systems with partially coherent Bessel-Gaussian beams in anisotropic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Juan; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Kecheng; Ma, Junxian

    2018-07-01

    Based on the Rytov approximation theory, the transmission model of an orbital angular momentum (OAM)-carrying partially coherent Bessel-Gaussian (BG) beams propagating in weak anisotropic turbulence is established. The corresponding analytical expression of channel capacity is presented. Influences of anisotropic turbulence parameters and beam parameters on channel capacity of OAM-based free-space optical (FSO) communication systems are discussed in detail. The results indicate channel capacity increases with increasing of almost all of the parameters except for transmission distance. Raising the values of some parameters such as wavelength, propagation altitude and non-Kolmogorov power spectrum index, would markedly improve the channel capacity. In addition, we evaluate the channel capacity of Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beams and partially coherent BG beams in anisotropic turbulence. It indicates that partially coherent BG beams are better light sources candidates for mitigating the influences of anisotropic turbulence on channel capacity of OAM-based FSO communication systems.

  4. Joint atmospheric turbulence detection and adaptive demodulation technique using the CNN for the OAM-FSO communication.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin; Zhang, Min; Wang, Danshi; Wu, Shaojun; Zhan, Yueying

    2018-04-16

    A novel joint atmospheric turbulence (AT) detection and adaptive demodulation technique based on convolutional neural network (CNN) are proposed for the OAM-based free-space optical (FSO) communication. The AT detecting accuracy (ATDA) and the adaptive demodulating accuracy (ADA) of the 4-OAM, 8-OAM, 16-OAM FSO communication systems over computer-simulated 1000-m turbulent channels with 4, 6, 10 kinds of classic ATs are investigated, respectively. Compared to previous approaches using the self-organizing mapping (SOM), deep neural network (DNN) and other CNNs, the proposed CNN achieves the highest ATDA and ADA due to the advanced multi-layer representation learning without feature extractors designed carefully by numerous experts. For the AT detection, the ATDA of CNN is near 95.2% for 6 kinds of typical ATs, in cases of both weak and strong ATs. For the adaptive demodulation of optical vortices (OV) carrying OAM modes, the ADA of CNN is about 99.8% for the 8-OAM system over the computer-simulated 1000-m free-space strong turbulent link. In addition, the effects of image resolution, iteration number, activation functions and the structure of the CNN are also studied comprehensively. The proposed technique has the potential to be embedded in charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras deployed at the receiver to improve the reliability and flexibility for the OAM-FSO communication.

  5. Atmospheric free-space coherent optical communications with adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Chueh; Zhang, Chengyu; Yang, Zikai

    2017-02-01

    Free-space coherent optical communications have a potential application to offer last mile bottleneck solution in future local area networks (LAN) because of their information carrier, information security and license-free status. Coherent optical communication systems using orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) digital modulation are successfully demonstrated in a long-haul tens Giga bits via optical fiber, but they are not yet available in free space due to atmospheric turbulence-induced channel fading. Adaptive optics is recognized as a promising technology to mitigate the effects of atmospheric turbulence in free-space optics. In this paper, a free-space coherent optical communication system using an OFDM digital modulation scheme and adaptive optics (FSO OFDM AO) is proposed, a Gamma-Gamma distribution statistical channel fading model for the FSO OFDM AO system is examined, and FSO OFDM AO system performance is evaluated in terms of bit error rate (BER) versus various propagation distances.

  6. Secure free-space optical communication system based on data fragmentation multipath transmission technology.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qingchao; Liu, Dachang; Chen, Yinfang; Wang, Yuehui; Tan, Jun; Chen, Wei; Liu, Jianguo; Zhu, Ninghua

    2018-05-14

    A secure free-space optical (S-FSO) communication system based on data fragmentation multipath transmission (DFMT) scheme is proposed and demonstrated for enhancing the security of FSO communications. By fragmenting the transmitted data and simultaneously distributing data fragments into different atmospheric channels, the S-FSO communication system can protect confidential messages from being eavesdropped effectively. A field experiment of S-FSO communication between two buildings has been successfully undertaken, and the experiment results demonstrate the feasibility of the scheme. The transmission distance is 50m and the maximum throughput is 1 Gb/s. We also established a theoretical model to analysis the security performance of the S-FSO communication system. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first application of DFMT scheme in FSO communication system.

  7. Mobile free-space optical communications: a feasibility study of various battlefield scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Alan; Al-Akkoumi, Mouhammad K.; Sluss, James J., Jr.

    2012-06-01

    Free Space Optics (FSO) technology was originally envisioned to be a viable solution for the provision of high bandwidth optical connectivity in the last mile of today's telecommunications infrastructure. Due to atmospheric limitations inherent to FSO technology, FSO is now widely envisioned as a solution for the provision of high bandwidth, temporary mobile communications links. The need for FSO communications links will increase as mobility is introduced to this technology. In this paper, a theoretical solution for adding mobility to FSO communication links is introduced. Three-dimensional power estimation studies are presented to represent mobile FSO transmission under various weather conditions. Three wavelengths, 0.85, 1.55 and 10 um, are tested and compared to illustrate the pros and cons of each source wavelength used for transmission, depending on prevalent weather conditions and atmospheric turbulence conditions. A simulation analysis of the transmission properties of the source wavelengths used in the study is shown.

  8. Local multipoint distribution system (LDMS) versus free-space optical (FSO) networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willebrand, Heinz A.; Clark, Gerald R.; Willson, Bryan; Andreu von Euw, Christian G.; Roy, Joe; Mayhew, Laurel M.

    2001-11-01

    This paper compares two emerging broadband access methodologies, Free Space Optics (FSO) and Local Multipoint Distribution System (LMDS) and the atmospheric propagation characteristics of each when exposed to a dynamically changing channel. The comparison focuses on bandwidth, availability, and distance requirements for the new broadband market and how LMDS and FSO can be used to meet these requirements. Possible network topologies and their associated costs are examined. This comparison takes into account the total cost of deployment, including equipment costs, installation fees, access fees, and spectrum licensing fees. LMDS and FSO are compared on speed of deployment, scalability, aggregate bandwidth, and bandwidth per customer. Present and projected capabilities of each technology are considered for their suitability in different locations in the network, from the Wide Area Network (WAN), to the Metropolitan Area Network (MAN), all the way to Last Mile Access. There is a discussion on the relative performance of LMDS and FSO, focusing on the different factors that can affect link availability. Since network design is a large factor in assuring overall reliability, the flexibility of each technology with regard to network design is compared. LMDS and FSO are both line of sight, space-propagated technologies, and as such, they are both susceptible to path impediments and atmospheric attenuation, dispersion, scattering, and absorption. LMDS and FSO are affected very differently by different meteorological phenomena. Problematic atmospheric conditions are, specifically scintillation, rainfall, and fog, are examined. In addition to a discussion of these conditions, various techniques for minimizing atmospheric and environmental effects are investigated. The paper concludes with a summary of findings and recommendations for a number of broadband wireless applications.

  9. Potentials of RF/FSO Communication in UAS Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griethe, Wolfgang; Heine, Frank

    2013-08-01

    Free Space Optical Communications (FSOC) has gained particular attention during the past few years and is progressing continuously. With the successful in-orbit verification of a Laser Communication Terminal (LCT), the coherent homodyne BPSK scheme advanced to a standard for Free-Space Optical Communication (FSOC) which now prevails more and more. The LCT is presently operated on satellites in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). In the near future, the LCT will be operated in Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO) onboard the ALPHASAT-TDP and the European Data Relay System (EDRS). In other words, the LCT has reached a point of maturity to realize its practical application. With existence of such space assets the time has come for other utilization beyond that of optical Inter-Satellite Links (ISL). Aeronautical applications, as for instance High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) or Medium Altitude Long Endurance (MALE) Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) have to be addressed. This is caused due to an extremely high demand for bandwidth. Driving factors and advantages of FSOC in HALE/MALE UAS missions are highlighted. Numerous practice-related issues are described concerning the space segment, the aeronautical segment as well as the ground segment. The advantages for UAS missions are described resulting from the utilization of FSOC exclusively for wideband transmission of sensor data while vehicle Command & Control (C2) can be maintained, as before, via RF communication. Moreover, the paper discusses FSOC as an enabler for the integration of air and space-based wideband Intelligence, Surveillance & Reconnaissance (ISR) systems into existent military command and control networks. From the given information it can be concluded that FSOC contributes to the future increase of air-and space power.

  10. Free Space Optical Communication Utilizing Mid-Infrared Interband Cascade Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soibel, A.; Wright, M.; Farr, W.; Keo, S.; Hill, C.; Yang, R. Q.; Liu, H. C.

    2010-01-01

    A Free Space Optical (FSO) link utilizing mid-IR Interband Cascade lasers has been demonstrated in the 3-5 micron atmospheric transmission window with data rates up to 70 Mb/s and bit-error-rate (BER) less than 10 (exp -8). The performance of the mid-IR FSO link has been compared with the performance of a near-IR link under various fog conditions using an indoor communication testbed. These experiments demonstrated the lower attenuation and scintillation advantages of a mid-IR FSO link through fog than a 1550 nm FSO link.

  11. Impact of nonzero boresight pointing error on ergodic capacity of MIMO FSO communication systems.

    PubMed

    Boluda-Ruiz, Rubén; García-Zambrana, Antonio; Castillo-Vázquez, Beatriz; Castillo-Vázquez, Carmen

    2016-02-22

    A thorough investigation of the impact of nonzero boresight pointing errors on the ergodic capacity of multiple-input/multiple-output (MIMO) free-space optical (FSO) systems with equal gain combining (EGC) reception under different turbulence models, which are modeled as statistically independent, but not necessarily identically distributed (i.n.i.d.) is addressed in this paper. Novel closed-form asymptotic expressions at high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for the ergodic capacity of MIMO FSO systems are derived when different geometric arrangements of the receive apertures at the receiver are considered in order to reduce the effect of nonzero inherent boresight displacement, which is inevitably present when more than one receive aperture is considered. As a result, the asymptotic ergodic capacity of MIMO FSO systems is evaluated over log-normal (LN), gamma-gamma (GG) and exponentiated Weibull (EW) atmospheric turbulence in order to study different turbulence conditions, different sizes of receive apertures as well as different aperture averaging conditions. It is concluded that the use of single-input/multiple-output (SIMO) and MIMO techniques can significantly increase the ergodic capacity respect to the direct path link when the inherent boresight displacement takes small values, i.e. when the spacing among receive apertures is not too big. The effect of nonzero additional boresight errors, which is due to the thermal expansion of the building, is evaluated in multiple-input/single-output (MISO) and single-input/single-output (SISO) FSO systems. Simulation results are further included to confirm the analytical results.

  12. FSO and quality of service software prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchet, O.; Marquis, T.; Chabane, M.; Alnaboulsi, M.; Sizun, H.

    2005-08-01

    Free-space optical (FSO) communication links constitute an alternative option to radio relay links and to optical cables facing growth needs in high-speed telecommunications (abundance of unregulated bandwidth, rapid installation, availability of low-cost optical components offering a high data rate, etc). Their operationalisation requires a good knowledge of the atmospheric effects which can negatively affect role propagation and the availability of the link, and thus to the quality of service (QoS). Better control of these phenomena will allow for the evaluation of system performance and thus assist with improving reliability. The aim of this paper is to compare the behavior of a FSO link located in south of France (Toulouse: with the following parameters: around 270 meters (0.2 mile) long, 34 Mbps data rate, 850 nm wavelength and PDH frame) with airport meteorological data. The second aim of the paper is to assess in-house FSO quality of service prediction software, through comparing simulations with the optical link data and the weather data. The analysis uses in-house software FSO quality of service prediction software ("FSO Prediction") developed by France Telecom Research & Development, which integrates news fog fading equations (compare to Kim & al.) and includes multiple effects (geometrical attenuation, atmospheric fading, rain, snow, scintillation and refraction attenuation due to atmospheric turbulence, optical mispointing attenuation). The FSO link field trial, intended to enable the demonstration and evaluation of these different effects, is described; and preliminary results of the field trial, from December 2004 to May 2005, are then presented.

  13. Performance of FSO Links using CSRZ, RZ, and NRZ and Effects of Atmospheric Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeem, Lubna; Saadullah Qazi, M.; Hassam, Ammar

    2018-04-01

    Free space optical (FSO) communication is a wireless communication technology in which data is transferred from one point to another through highly directed beam of light. The main factors that limit the FSO link availability is the local weather conditions. It guarantees the potential of high bandwidth capacity over unlicensed optical wavelengths. The transmission medium of FSO is atmosphere and is significantly affected by the various weather conditions such as rain, fog, snow, wind, etc. In this paper, the modulation techniques under consideration are RZ, NRZ and CSRZ. Analysis is carried out regarding Q-factor with respect to varying distance, bit rates and input laser power.

  14. Free Space Optics Communication for Mobile Military Platforms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    Federal Communications Commission FDA Food and Drug Administration FOV Field-of-View FSO Free Space Optics FWHM Full Width at Half Maximum Gbps...Physique et de Métrologie des Oscillateurs (LPMO) du CNRS UPR3203, associé à l’Université de Franche -Comté, 15 March 2002 [Schenk 2000] H. Schenk

  15. Analysis of CPolSK-based FSO system working in space-to-ground channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yuwei; Sato, Takuro

    2018-03-01

    In this article, the transmission performance of a circle polarization shift keying (CPolSK)-based free space optical (FSO) system working in space-to-ground channel is analyzed. Formulas describing the optical polarization distortion caused by the atmospheric turbulence and the communication qualities in terms of signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR), bit-error-ratio (BER) and outage probability of the proposed system are derived. Based on the Stokes parameters data measured by a Japanese optical communication satellite, we evaluate the space-to-ground FSO link and simulate the system performance under a varying regime of turbulence strength. The proposed system provides a more efficient way to compensate scintillation effects in a comparison with the on-off-keying (OOK)-based FSO system. These results are useful to the designing and evaluating of a deep space FSO communication system.

  16. Optical wireless communications: Theory and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminikashani, Mohammadreza

    This dissertation focuses on optical communications having recently attracted sig- nificant attentions as a promising complementary technique for radio frequency (RF) in both short- and long-range communications. These systems offer signifi- cant technical and operational advantages such as higher capacity, virtually unlim- ited reuse, unregulated spectrum and robustness to electromagnetic interference. Optical wireless communication (OWC) can be used both indoors and outdoors. Part of the dissertation contains novel results on terrestrial free-space optical (FSO) communications. FSO communication is a line-of sight technique that uses lasers for high rate wireless communication over distances up to several kilometers. In comparison to RF counterparts, a FSO link has a very high optical bandwidth available, allowing aggregate data rates on the order of Tera bits per second (1 Tera bits per second is 1000 Giga bites per second). However, FSO suffers limitations. The major limitation of the terrestrial FSO communication systems is the atmo- spheric turbulence, which produces fluctuations in the irradiance of the transmitted optical beam, as a result of random variations in the refractive index through the link. The existence of atmospheric-induced turbulence degrades the performance of FSO links particularly with a transmission distance longer than 1 kilometer. The identification of a tractable probability density function (pdf) to describe at- mospheric turbulence under all irradiance fluctuation regimes is crucial in order to study the reliability of a terrestrial FSO system. This dissertation addresses this daunting problem and proposes a novel statistical model that accurately de- scribes turbulence-induced fading under all irradiance conditions and unifies most of the proposed statistical models derived until now in the literature. The proposed model is important for the research community working on FSO communications because it allows them to fully capitalize

  17. FSO tracking and auto-alignment transceiver system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cap, Gabriel A.; Refai, Hakki H.; Sluss, James J., Jr.

    2008-10-01

    Free-space optics (FSO) technology utilizes a modulated light beam to transmit information through the atmosphere. Due to reduced size and cost, and higher data rates, FSO can be more effective than wireless communication. Although atmospheric conditions can affect FSO communication, a line-of-sight connection between FSO transceivers is a necessary condition to maintain continuous exchange of data, voice, and video information. To date, the primary concentration of mobile FSO research and development has been toward accurate alignment between two transceivers. This study introduces a fully automatic, advanced alignment system that will maintain a line of sight connection for any FSO transceiver system. A complete transceiver system includes a position-sensing detector (PSD) to receive the signal, a laser to transmit the signal, a gimbal to move the transceiver to maintain alignment, and a computer to coordinate the necessary movements during motion. The FSO system was tested for mobility by employing one gimbal as a mobile unit and establishing another as a base station. Tests were performed to establish that alignment between two transceivers could be maintained during a given period of experiments and to determine the maximum speeds tolerated by the system. Implementation of the transceiver system can be realized in many ways, including vehicle-to-base station communication or vehicle-to-vehicle communication. This study is especially promising in that it suggests such a system is able to provide high-speed data in many applications where current wireless technology may not be effective. This phenomenon, coupled with the ability to maintain an autonomously realigned connection, opens the possibility of endless applications for both military and civilian use.

  18. Improved Performance Analysis of Free Space Optics Communication Link under Rain Conditions using EDFA Pre-amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Mehtab

    2018-04-01

    Free Space Optics (FSO) also known as Optical Wireless Communication (OWC) is a communication technology in which free space/air is used as the propagation medium and optical signals are used as the information carriers. One of the most crucial factors which degrade the performance of FSO link is the signal attenuation due to different atmospheric weather conditions such as haze, rain, storm, and fog. In this paper, an improved performance analysis of a 2.5 Gbps FSO link under rain conditions has been reported using Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) as a pre-amplifier. The results show that the maximum link distance for an FSO link under rain weather conditions with acceptable performance levels (Q ˜6 and BER ≤ 10-9 in the absence of EDFA pre-amplifier is 1,250 m which increases to 1,675 m with the use of EDFA pre-amplifier.

  19. Wave-optics simulation of the double-pass beam propagation in modulating retro-reflector FSO systems using a corner cube reflector.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guowei; You, Shengzui; Bi, Meihua; Fan, Bing; Lu, Yang; Zhou, Xuefang; Li, Jing; Geng, Hujun; Wang, Tianshu

    2017-09-10

    Free-space optical (FSO) communication utilizing a modulating retro-reflector (MRR) is an innovative way to convey information between the traditional optical transceiver and the semi-passive MRR unit that reflects optical signals. The reflected signals experience turbulence-induced fading in the double-pass channel, which is very different from that in the traditional single-pass FSO channel. In this paper, we consider the corner cube reflector (CCR) as the retro-reflective device in the MRR. A general geometrical model of the CCR is established based on the ray tracing method to describe the ray trajectory inside the CCR. This ray tracing model could treat the general case that the optical beam is obliquely incident on the hypotenuse surface of the CCR with the dihedral angle error and surface nonflatness. Then, we integrate this general CCR model into the wave-optics (WO) simulation to construct the double-pass beam propagation simulation. This double-pass simulation contains the forward propagation from the transceiver to the MRR through the atmosphere, the retro-reflection of the CCR, and the backward propagation from the MRR to the transceiver, which can be realized by a single-pass WO simulation, the ray tracing CCR model, and another single-pass WO simulation, respectively. To verify the proposed CCR model and double-pass WO simulation, the effective reflection area, the incremental phase, and the reflected beam spot on the transceiver plane of the CCR are analyzed, and the numerical results are in agreement with the previously published results. Finally, we use the double-pass WO simulation to investigate the double-pass channel in the MRR FSO systems. The histograms of the turbulence-induced fading in the forward and backward channels are obtained from the simulation data and are fitted by gamma-gamma (ΓΓ) distributions. As the two opposite channels are highly correlated, we model the double-pass channel fading by the product of two correlated

  20. Modeling and Performance Analysis of 10 Gbps Inter-satellite Optical Wireless Communication Link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Mehtab

    2017-12-01

    Free-space optical (FSO) communication has the advantages of two of the most predominant data transmission technologies - optical fiber communication and wireless communication. Most of the technical aspects of FSO are similar to that of optical fiber communication, with major difference in the information signal propagation medium which is free space in case of FSO rather than silica glass in optical fiber communication. One of the most important applications of FSO is inter-satellite optical wireless communication (IsOWC) links which will be deployed in the future in space. The IsOWC links have many advantages over the previously existing microwave satellite communication technologies such as higher bandwidth, lower power consumption, low cost of implementation, light size, and weight. In this paper, modeling and performance analysis of a 10-Gbps inter-satellite communication link with two satellites separated at a distance of 1,200 km has been done using OPTISYSTEM simulation software. Performance has been analyzed on the basis of quality factor, signal to noise ratio (SNR), and total power of the received signal.

  1. Fiber-FSO/wireless convergent systems based on dual-polarization and one optical sideband transmission schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xu-Hong; Lu, Hai-Han; Li, Chung-Yi; Wang, Yun-Chieh; Chang, Jen-Chieh; Jheng, Yu-Bo; Tsai, Wen-Shing

    2018-06-01

    A bidirectional fiber-free-space optical (FSO)/wireless convergent system that uses dual-polarization and one optical sideband transmission schemes for hybrid vestigial sideband (VSB)–four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM4)/millimeter-wave signal transmission is proposed and demonstrated. Using a dual-polarization scheme, one optical sideband that is modulated by a 56 Gb s‑1 VSB–PAM4 signal (x-polarization) and another optical sideband that is modulated by a 10 Gbps data stream (y-polarization) are separated and polarized orthogonally. One optical sideband modulated by a 10 Gbps data stream (y-polarization) is delivered to efficaciously suppress the dispersion-induced limitation due to a span of 40 km single-mode fiber (SMF) and the distortion due to the beating among multiple sidebands. The proposed bidirectional fiber-FSO/wireless convergent system is a prominent one for providing broadband integrated services, such as the Internet, telecommunication, and 5G mobile networks.

  2. MEMS-based beam-steerable free-space optical communication link for reconfigurable wireless data center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Peng; Kavehrad, Mohsen; Lou, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Flexible wireless datacenter networks based on free space optical communication (FSO) links are being considered as promising solutions to meet the future datacenter demands of high throughput, robustness to dynamic traffic patterns, cabling complexity and energy efficiency. Robust and precise steerable FSO links over dynamic traffic play a key role in the reconfigurable optical wireless datacenter inter-rack network. In this work, we propose and demonstrate a reconfigurable 10Gbps FSO system incorporated with smart beam acquisition and tracking mechanism based on gimballess two-axis MEMS micro-mirror and retro-reflective film marked aperture. The fast MEMS-based beam acquisition switches laser beam of FSO terminal from one rack to the next for reconfigurable networks, and the precise beam tracking makes FSO device auto-correct the misalignment in real-time. We evaluate the optical power loss and bit error rate performance of steerable FSO links at various directions. Experimental results suggest that the MEMS based beam steerable FSO links hold considerable promise for the future reconfigurable wireless datacenter networks.

  3. Sidelobe-modulated optical vortices for free-space communication.

    PubMed

    Jia, P; Yang, Y; Min, C J; Fang, H; Yuan, X-C

    2013-02-15

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a new method for free-space optical (FSO) communication, where the transmitter encodes data into a composite computer-generated hologram and the receiver decodes through a retrieved array of sidelobe-modulated optical vortices (SMOVs). By employing the SMOV generation and detection technique, the usual stringent alignment and phase-matching requirement of the detection of optical vortices is released. In transmitting a gray-scale picture with 180×180 pixels, a bit error rate as low as 3.01×10(-3) has been achieved. Due to the orbital angular momentum multiplexing and spatial paralleling, this FSO communication method possesses the ability to greatly increase the capacity of data transmission.

  4. Average capacity optimization in free-space optical communication system over atmospheric turbulence channels with pointing errors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Yao, Yong; Sun, Yun Xu; Xiao, Jun Jun; Zhao, Xin Hui

    2010-10-01

    A model is proposed to study the average capacity optimization in free-space optical (FSO) channels, accounting for effects of atmospheric turbulence and pointing errors. For a given transmitter laser power, it is shown that both transmitter beam divergence angle and beam waist can be tuned to maximize the average capacity. Meanwhile, their optimum values strongly depend on the jitter and operation wavelength. These results can be helpful for designing FSO communication systems.

  5. Channel characterization and empirical model for ergodic capacity of free-space optical communication link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alimi, Isiaka; Shahpari, Ali; Ribeiro, Vítor; Sousa, Artur; Monteiro, Paulo; Teixeira, António

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we present experimental results on channel characterization of single input single output (SISO) free-space optical (FSO) communication link that is based on channel measurements. The histograms of the FSO channel samples and the log-normal distribution fittings are presented along with the measured scintillation index. Furthermore, we extend our studies to diversity schemes and propose a closed-form expression for determining ergodic channel capacity of multiple input multiple output (MIMO) FSO communication systems over atmospheric turbulence fading channels. The proposed empirical model is based on SISO FSO channel characterization. Also, the scintillation effects on the system performance are analyzed and results for different turbulence conditions are presented. Moreover, we observed that the histograms of the FSO channel samples that we collected from a 1548.51 nm link have good fits with log-normal distributions and the proposed model for MIMO FSO channel capacity is in conformity with the simulation results in terms of normalized mean-square error (NMSE).

  6. On the performance of dual-hop mixed RF/FSO wireless communication system in urban area over aggregated exponentiated Weibull fading channels with pointing errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yue; Wang, Ping; Liu, Xiaoxia; Cao, Tian

    2018-03-01

    The performance of decode-and-forward dual-hop mixed radio frequency / free-space optical system in urban area is studied. The RF link is modeled by the Nakagami-m distribution and the FSO link is described by the composite exponentiated Weibull (EW) fading channels with nonzero boresight pointing errors (NBPE). For comparison, the ABER results without pointing errors (PE) and those with zero boresight pointing errors (ZBPE) are also provided. The closed-form expression for the average bit error rate (ABER) in RF link is derived with the help of hypergeometric function, and that in FSO link is obtained by Meijer's G and generalized Gauss-Laguerre quadrature functions. Then, the end-to-end ABERs with binary phase shift keying modulation are achieved on the basis of the computed ABER results of RF and FSO links. The end-to-end ABER performance is further analyzed with different Nakagami-m parameters, turbulence strengths, receiver aperture sizes and boresight displacements. The result shows that with ZBPE and NBPE considered, FSO link suffers a severe ABER degradation and becomes the dominant limitation of the mixed RF/FSO system in urban area. However, aperture averaging can bring significant ABER improvement of this system. Monte Carlo simulation is provided to confirm the validity of the analytical ABER expressions.

  7. Effect of Pointing Error on the BER Performance of an Optical CDMA FSO Link with SIK Receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazrul Islam, A. K. M.; Majumder, S. P.

    2017-12-01

    An analytical approach is presented for an optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) system over free space optical (FSO) channel considering the effect of pointing error between the transmitter and the receiver. Analysis is carried out with an optical sequence inverse keying (SIK) correlator receiver with intensity modulation and direct detection (IM/DD) to find the bit error rate (BER) with pointing error. The results are evaluated numerically in terms of signal-to-noise plus multi-access interference (MAI) ratio, BER and power penalty due to pointing error. It is noticed that the OCDMA FSO system is highly affected by pointing error with significant power penalty at a BER of 10-6 and 10-9. For example, penalty at BER 10-9 is found to be 9 dB corresponding to normalized pointing error of 1.4 for 16 users with processing gain of 256 and is reduced to 6.9 dB when the processing gain is increased to 1,024.

  8. Differential phase-shift keying and channel equalization in free space optical communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dai; Hao, Shiqi; Zhao, Qingsong; Wan, Xiongfeng; Xu, Chenlu

    2018-01-01

    We present the performance benefits of differential phase-shift keying (DPSK) modulation in eliminating influence from atmospheric turbulence, especially for coherent free space optical (FSO) communication with a high communication rate. Analytic expression of detected signal is derived, based on which, homodyne detection efficiency is calculated to indicate the performance of wavefront compensation. Considered laser pulses always suffer from atmospheric scattering effect by clouds, intersymbol interference (ISI) in high-speed FSO communication link is analyzed. Correspondingly, the channel equalization method of a binormalized modified constant modulus algorithm based on set-membership filtering (SM-BNMCMA) is proposed to solve the ISI problem. Finally, through the comparison with existing channel equalization methods, its performance benefits of both ISI elimination and convergence speed are verified. The research findings have theoretical significance in a high-speed FSO communication system.

  9. 12.5 Gb/s multi-channel broadcasting transmission for free-space optical communication based on the optical frequency comb module.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jun; Zhao, Zeping; Wang, Yuehui; Zhang, Zhike; Liu, Jianguo; Zhu, Ninghua

    2018-01-22

    A wide-spectrum, ultra-stable optical frequency comb (OFC) module with 100 GHz frequency intervals based on a quantum dot mode locked (QDML) laser is fabricated by our lab, and a scheme with 12.5 Gb/s multi-channel broadcasting transmission for free-space optical (FSO) communication is proposed based on the OFC module. The output power of the OFC is very stable, with the specially designed circuit and the flatness of the frequency comb over the span of 6 nm, which can be limited to 1.5 dB. Four channel wavelengths are chosen to demonstrate one-to-many channels for FSO communication, like optical wireless broadcast. The outdoor experiment is established to test the bit error rate (BER) and eye diagrams with 12.5 Gb/s on-off keying (OOK). The indoor experiment is used to test the highest traffic rate, which is up to 21 Gb/s for one-hop FSO communication. To the best of our knowledge, this scheme is the first to propose the realization of one-to-many broadcasting transmission for FSO communication based on the OFC module. The advantages of integration, miniaturization, channelization, low power consumption, and unlimited bandwidth of one-to-many broadcasting communication scheme, shows promising results on constructing the future space-air-ground-ocean (SAGO) FSO communication networks.

  10. Free space optical ultra-wideband communications over atmospheric turbulence channels.

    PubMed

    Davaslioğlu, Kemal; Cağiral, Erman; Koca, Mutlu

    2010-08-02

    A hybrid impulse radio ultra-wideband (IR-UWB) communication system in which UWB pulses are transmitted over long distances through free space optical (FSO) links is proposed. FSO channels are characterized by random fluctuations in the received light intensity mainly due to the atmospheric turbulence. For this reason, theoretical detection error probability analysis is presented for the proposed system for a time-hopping pulse-position modulated (TH-PPM) UWB signal model under weak, moderate and strong turbulence conditions. For the optical system output distributed over radio frequency UWB channels, composite error analysis is also presented. The theoretical derivations are verified via simulation results, which indicate a computationally and spectrally efficient UWB-over-FSO system.

  11. Performance analysis of fiber-based free-space optical communications with coherent detection spatial diversity.

    PubMed

    Li, Kangning; Ma, Jing; Tan, Liying; Yu, Siyuan; Zhai, Chao

    2016-06-10

    The performances of fiber-based free-space optical (FSO) communications over gamma-gamma distributed turbulence are studied for multiple aperture receiver systems. The equal gain combining (EGC) technique is considered as a practical scheme to mitigate the atmospheric turbulence. Bit error rate (BER) performances for binary-phase-shift-keying-modulated coherent detection fiber-based free-space optical communications are derived and analyzed for EGC diversity receptions through an approximation method. To show the net diversity gain of a multiple aperture receiver system, BER performances of EGC are compared with a single monolithic aperture receiver system with the same total aperture area (same average total incident optical power on the aperture surface) for fiber-based free-space optical communications. The analytical results are verified by Monte Carlo simulations. System performances are also compared for EGC diversity coherent FSO communications with or without considering fiber-coupling efficiencies.

  12. Performance analysis of MISO multi-hop FSO links over log-normal channels with fog and beam divergence attenuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abaza, Mohamed; Mesleh, Raed; Mansour, Ali; Aggoune, el-Hadi

    2015-01-01

    The performance analysis of a multi-hop decode and forward relaying free-space optical (FSO) communication system is presented in this paper. The considered FSO system uses intensity modulation and direct detection as means of transmission and reception. Atmospheric turbulence impacts are modeled as a log-normal channel, and different weather attenuation effects and geometric losses are taken into account. It is shown that multi-hop is an efficient technique to mitigate such effects in FSO communication systems. A comparison with direct link and multiple-input single-output (MISO) systems considering correlation effects at the transmitter is provided. Results show that MISO multi-hop FSO systems are superior than their counterparts over links exhibiting high attenuation. Monte Carlo simulation results are provided to validate the bit error rate (BER) analyses and conclusions.

  13. Application of spinal code for performance improvement in free-space optical communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiki, Naoya; Okamoto, Eiji; Takenaka, Hideki; Toyoshima, Morio

    2017-09-01

    In recent years, the demand for high-capacity communication has grown, and fiber-optic transmission is being used in wired communications to meet this demand. Similarly, free-space optics (FSO), which is an optical wireless communication technology that uses laser light, has attracted much attention and has been considered as a suitable alternative to satisfy this demand in wireless communications. Free-space optical communication uses a hundred THz frequency band and allows for high-speed and radio-regulation free transmission, which may provide a solution for the current shortage of radio frequency bands.

  14. Orbital-angular-momentum-multiplexed free-space optical communication link using transmitter lenses.

    PubMed

    Li, Long; Xie, Guodong; Ren, Yongxiong; Ahmed, Nisar; Huang, Hao; Zhao, Zhe; Liao, Peicheng; Lavery, Martin P J; Yan, Yan; Bao, ChangJing; Wang, Zhe; Willner, Asher J; Ashrafi, Nima; Ashrafi, Solyman; Tur, Moshe; Willner, Alan E

    2016-03-10

    In this paper, we explore the potential benefits and limitations of using transmitter lenses in an orbital-angular-momentum (OAM)-multiplexed free-space optical (FSO) communication link. Both simulation and experimental results indicate that within certain transmission distances, using lenses at the transmitter to focus OAM beams could reduce power loss in OAM-based FSO links and that this improvement might be more significant for higher-order OAM beams. Moreover, the use of transmitter lenses could enhance system tolerance to angular error between transmitter and receiver, but they might degrade tolerance to lateral displacement.

  15. 850-nm hybrid fiber/free-space optical communications using orbital angular momentum modes.

    PubMed

    Jurado-Navas, Antonio; Tatarczak, Anna; Lu, Xiaofeng; Olmos, Juan José Vegas; Garrido-Balsells, José María; Monroy, Idelfonso Tafur

    2015-12-28

    Light beams can carry orbital angular momentum (OAM) associated to the helicity of their phasefronts. These OAM modes can be employed to encode information onto a laser beam for transmitting not only in a fiber link but also in a free-space optical (FSO) one. Regarding this latter scenario, FSO communications are considered as an alternative and promising mean complementing the traditional optical communications in many applications where the use of fiber cable is not justified. This next generation FSO communication systems have attracted much interest recently, and the inclusion of beams carrying OAM modes can be seen as an efficient solution to increase the capacity and the security in the link. In this paper, we discuss an experimental demonstration of a proposal for next generation FSO communication system where a light beam carrying different OAM modes and affected by ℳ turbulence is coupled to the multimode fiber link. In addition, we report a better and more robust behavior of higher order OAM modes when the intermodal dispersion is dominant in the fiber after exceeding its maximum range of operation.

  16. Fast QC-LDPC code for free space optical communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin; Zhang, Qi; Udeh, Chinonso Paschal; Wu, Rangzhong

    2017-02-01

    Free Space Optical (FSO) Communication systems use the atmosphere as a propagation medium. Hence the atmospheric turbulence effects lead to multiplicative noise related with signal intensity. In order to suppress the signal fading induced by multiplicative noise, we propose a fast Quasi-Cyclic (QC) Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) code for FSO Communication systems. As a linear block code based on sparse matrix, the performances of QC-LDPC is extremely near to the Shannon limit. Currently, the studies on LDPC code in FSO Communications is mainly focused on Gauss-channel and Rayleigh-channel, respectively. In this study, the LDPC code design over atmospheric turbulence channel which is nether Gauss-channel nor Rayleigh-channel is closer to the practical situation. Based on the characteristics of atmospheric channel, which is modeled as logarithmic-normal distribution and K-distribution, we designed a special QC-LDPC code, and deduced the log-likelihood ratio (LLR). An irregular QC-LDPC code for fast coding, of which the rates are variable, is proposed in this paper. The proposed code achieves excellent performance of LDPC codes and can present the characteristics of high efficiency in low rate, stable in high rate and less number of iteration. The result of belief propagation (BP) decoding shows that the bit error rate (BER) obviously reduced as the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) increased. Therefore, the LDPC channel coding technology can effectively improve the performance of FSO. At the same time, the BER, after decoding reduces with the increase of SNR arbitrarily, and not having error limitation platform phenomenon with error rate slowing down.

  17. Simultaneous data communication and position sensing with an impact ionization engineered avalanche photodiode array for free space optical communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, Mike S.; Mahon, Rita; Rabinovich, William S.; Murphy, James L.; Dexter, James L.; Clark, William R.; Waters, William D.; Vaccaro, Kenneth; Krejca, Brian D.

    2017-02-01

    Photodetectors in free space optical communication systems perform two functions: reception of data communication signals and position sensing for pointing, tracking, and stabilization. Traditionally, the optical receive path in an FSO system is split into separate paths for data detection and position sensing. The need for separate paths is a consequence of conflicting performance criteria between position sensitive detectors (PSD) and data detectors. Combining the functionality of both detector types requires that the combinational sensor not only have the bandwidth to support high data rate communication but the active area and spatial discrimination to accommodate position sensing. In this paper we present a large area, concentric five element impact ionization engineered avalanche photodiode array rated for bandwidths beyond 1GHz with a measured carrier ionization ratio of less than 0.1 at moderate APD gains. The integration of this array as a combinational sensor in an FSO system is discussed along with the development of a pointing and stabilization algorithm.

  18. Coupling efficiency of laser beam to multimode fiber for free space optical communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arisa, Suguru; Takayama, Yoshihisa; Endo, Hiroyuki; Shimizu, Ryosuke; Fujiwara, Mikio; Sasaki, Masahide

    2017-11-01

    Recently, the free space optical (FSO) communications have been widely studied as an alternative for large capacity communications and its possible implementation in satellite and terrestrial laser links. In satellite communications, clouds can strongly attenuate the laser signal that would lead to high bit-error rates or temporal unavailability of the link. To overcome the cloud coverage effects, often site diversity technique is implemented. When using multiple ground stations though, simplified optical system is required to allow the usage of more flexible approaches. In terrestrial laser communications, several methods for optical system simplification by using a multimode fiber (MMF) have been proposed.

  19. Retro-detective control structures for free-space optical communication links.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xian; Barg, Jason E; Holzman, Jonathan F

    2009-12-21

    A corner-cube-based retro-detection photocell is introduced. The structure consists of three independent and mutually perpendicular photodiodes (PDs), whose differential photocurrents can be used to probe the alignment state of incident beams. These differential photocurrents are used in an actively-controlled triangulation procedure to optimize the communication channel alignment in a free-space optical (FSO) system. The active downlink and passive uplink communication capabilities of this system are demonstrated.

  20. A new generation of IC based beam steering devices for free-space optical communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedi, Vijit

    Free Space Optical (FSO) communication has tremendously advanced within the last decade to meet the ever increasing demand for higher communication bandwidth. Advancement in laser technology since its invention in the 1960's [1] attracted them to be the dominant source in FSO communication modules. The future of FSO systems lay in implementing semiconductor lasers due to their small size, power efficiency and mass fabrication abilities. In the near future, these systems are very likely to be used in space and ground based applications and revolutionary beam steering technologies will be required for distant communications in free-space. The highly directional characteristic inherent to a laser beam challenges and calls for new beam pointing and steering technologies for such type of communication. In this dissertation, research is done on a novel FSO communication device based on semiconductor lasers for high bandwidth communication. The "Fly eye transceiver" is an extremely wide steering bandwidth, completely non-mechanical FSO laser communication device primarily designed to replace traditional mechanical beam steering optical systems. This non-mechanical FSO device possesses a full spherical steering range and a very high tracking bandwidth. Inspired by the evolutionary model of a fly's eye, the full spherical steering range is assured by electronically controlled switching of its sub-eyes. Non mechanical technologies used in the past for beam steering such as acousto-optic Bragg cells, liquid crystal arrays or piezoelectric elements offer the wide steering bandwidth and fast response time, but are limited in their angular steering range. Mechanical gimbals offer a much greater steering range but face a much slower response time or steering bandwidth problem and often require intelligent adaptive controls with bulky driver amplifiers to feed their actuators. As a solution to feed both the fast and full spherical steering, the Fly-eye transceiver is studied as

  1. Slant-path coherent free space optical communications over the maritime and terrestrial atmospheres with the use of adaptive optics for beam wavefront correction.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Gao, Wenbo; Cvijetic, Milorad

    2017-01-10

    As a continuation of our previous work [Appl. Opt.54, 1453 (2015)APOPAI0003-693510.1364/AO.54.001453] in which we have studied the performance of coherent free space optical (FSO) communication systems operating over a horizontal path, in this paper we study the coherent FSO system operating over a general slant path. We evaluated system bit-error-rate (BER) in the case when the quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) modulation format is applied and when an adaptive optics (AO) system is employed to mitigate the air turbulence effects for both maritime and terrestrial air transmission scenarios. We adopted a multiple-layer scheme to efficiently model the FSO slant-path links. The atmospheric channel fading was characterized by the wavefront phase distortions and the log-amplitude fluctuations. We derived analytical expressions to characterize log-amplitude fluctuations of air turbulence by asserting the aperture averaging within the frame of the multiple-layer model. The obtained results showed that use of AO enabled improvement of system performance for both uplinks and downlinks, and also revealed that it is more beneficial for the FSO downlinks. Also, AO employment brought larger enhancements in BER performance for the maritime slant-path FSO links than for the terrestrial ones, with an additional striking increase in performance when the AO correction is combined with the aperture averaging.

  2. Fading testbed for free-space optical communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Amita; Giggenbach, Dirk; Mustafa, Ahmad; Pacheco-Labrador, Jorge; Ramirez, Julio; Rein, Fabian

    2016-10-01

    Free-space optical (FSO) communication is a very attractive technology offering very high throughput without spectral regulation constraints, yet allowing small antennas (telescopes) and tap-proof communication. However, the transmitted signal has to travel through the atmosphere where it gets influenced by atmospheric turbulence, causing scintillation of the received signal. In addition, climatic effects like fogs, clouds and rain also affect the signal significantly. Moreover, FSO being a line of sight communication requires precise pointing and tracking of the telescopes, which otherwise also causes fading. To achieve error-free transmission, various mitigation techniques like aperture averaging, adaptive optics, transmitter diversity, sophisticated coding and modulation schemes are being investigated and implemented. Evaluating the performance of such systems under controlled conditions is very difficult in field trials since the atmospheric situation constantly changes, and the target scenario (e.g. on aircraft or satellites) is not easily accessible for test purposes. Therefore, with the motivation to be able to test and verify a system under laboratory conditions, DLR has developed a fading testbed that can emulate most realistic channel conditions. The main principle of the fading testbed is to control the input current of a variable optical attenuator such that it attenuates the incoming signal according to the loaded power vector. The sampling frequency and mean power of the vector can be optionally changed according to requirements. This paper provides a brief introduction to software and hardware development of the fading testbed and measurement results showing its accuracy and application scenarios.

  3. Impact of Various Parameters on the Performance of Inter-aircraft Optical Wireless Communication Link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Mehtab

    2017-12-01

    Optical wireless communication (OWC) systems also known as Free space optics (FSO) are capable of providing high channel bandwidth, high data transmission rates, low power consumption, and high security. OWC links are being considered in different applications such as inter-satellite links, terrestrial links, and inter-aircraft communication links. This paper investigates the impact of different system parameters such as transmission power level, operating wavelength, transmitter pointing error angle, bit transmission rate, atmospheric attenuation, antenna aperture diameter, geometric losses, the responsivity of the photodetector, and link range on the performance of inter-aircraft optical wireless communication link.

  4. Fade-resistant forward error correction method for free-space optical communications systems

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Gary W.; Dowla, Farid U.; Ruggiero, Anthony J.

    2007-10-02

    Free-space optical (FSO) laser communication systems offer exceptionally wide-bandwidth, secure connections between platforms that cannot other wise be connected via physical means such as optical fiber or cable. However, FSO links are subject to strong channel fading due to atmospheric turbulence and beam pointing errors, limiting practical performance and reliability. We have developed a fade-tolerant architecture based on forward error correcting codes (FECs) combined with delayed, redundant, sub-channels. This redundancy is made feasible though dense wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) and/or high-order M-ary modulation. Experiments and simulations show that error-free communications is feasible even when faced with fades that are tens of milliseconds long. We describe plans for practical implementation of a complete system operating at 2.5 Gbps.

  5. Controlling abruptly autofocusing vortex beams to mitigate crosstalk and vortex splitting in free-space optical communication.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xu; Guo, Lixin; Cheng, Mingjian; Li, Jiangting

    2018-05-14

    Orbital angular momentum (OAM) mode crosstalk induced by atmospheric turbulence is a challenging phenomenon commonly occurring in OAM-based free-space optical (FSO) communication. Recent advances have facilitated new practicable methods using abruptly autofocusing light beams for weakening the turbulence effect on the FSO link. In this work, we show that a circular phase-locked Airy vortex beam array (AVBA) with sufficient elements has the inherent ability to form an abruptly autofocusing light beam carrying OAM, and its focusing properties can be controlled on demand by adjusting the topological charge values and locations of these vortices embedded in the array elements. The performance of a tailored Airy vortex beam array (TAVBA) through atmospheric turbulence is numerically studied. In a comparison with the ring Airy vortex beam (RAVB), the results indicate that TAVBA can be a superior light source for effectively reducing the intermodal crosstalk and vortex splitting, thus leading to improvement in the FSO system performance.

  6. Experimental investigation of optimum beam size for FSO uplink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushal, Hemani; Kaddoum, Georges; Jain, Virander Kumar; Kar, Subrat

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, the effect of transmitter beam size on the performance of free space optical (FSO) communication has been determined experimentally. Irradiance profile for varying turbulence strength is obtained using optical turbulence generating (OTG) chamber inside laboratory environment. Based on the results, an optimum beam size is investigated using the semi-analytical method. Moreover, the combined effects of atmospheric scintillation and beam wander induced pointing errors are considered in order to determine the optimum beam size that minimizes the bit error rate (BER) of the system for a fixed transmitter power and link length. The results show that the optimum beam size for FSO uplink depends upon Fried parameter and outer scale of the turbulence. Further, it is observed that the optimum beam size increases with the increase in zenith angle but has negligible effect with the increase in fade threshold level at low turbulence levels and has a marginal effect at high turbulence levels. Finally, the obtained outcome is useful for FSO system design and BER performance analysis.

  7. Modified artificial fish school algorithm for free space optical communication with sensor-less adaptive optics system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jingtai; Zhao, Xiaohui; Li, Zhaokun; Liu, Wei; Gu, Haijun

    2017-11-01

    The performance of free space optical (FSO) communication system is limited by atmospheric turbulent extremely. Adaptive optics (AO) is the significant method to overcome the atmosphere disturbance. Especially, for the strong scintillation effect, the sensor-less AO system plays a major role for compensation. In this paper, a modified artificial fish school (MAFS) algorithm is proposed to compensate the aberrations in the sensor-less AO system. Both the static and dynamic aberrations compensations are analyzed and the performance of FSO communication before and after aberrations compensations is compared. In addition, MAFS algorithm is compared with artificial fish school (AFS) algorithm, stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) algorithm and simulated annealing (SA) algorithm. It is shown that the MAFS algorithm has a higher convergence speed than SPGD algorithm and SA algorithm, and reaches the better convergence value than AFS algorithm, SPGD algorithm and SA algorithm. The sensor-less AO system with MAFS algorithm effectively increases the coupling efficiency at the receiving terminal with fewer numbers of iterations. In conclusion, the MAFS algorithm has great significance for sensor-less AO system to compensate atmospheric turbulence in FSO communication system.

  8. Performance Analysis of an Inter-Relay Co-operation in FSO Communication System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanna, Himanshu; Aggarwal, Mona; Ahuja, Swaran

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we analyze the outage and error performance of a one-way inter-relay assisted free space optical link. The assumption of the absence of direct link between the source and destination node is being made for the analysis, and the feasibility of such system configuration is studied. We consider the influence of path loss, atmospheric turbulence and pointing error impairments, and investigate the effect of these parameters on the system performance. The turbulence-induced fading is modeled by independent but not necessarily identically distributed gamma-gamma fading statistics. The closed-form expressions for outage probability and probability of error are derived and illustrated by numerical plots. It is concluded that the absence of line of sight path between source and destination nodes does not lead to significant performance degradation. Moreover, for the system model under consideration, interconnected relaying provides better error performance than the non-interconnected relaying and dual-hop serial relaying techniques.

  9. Posters: Optical Space Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerutti-Maori, Guy

    2018-04-01

    This file includes abstracts for presentations given in the poster session on "Optical Space Communications" as part of the International Conference on Space Optics—ICSO 1991, held in Toulouse, France.

  10. Coherent free space optics communications over the maritime atmosphere with use of adaptive optics for beam wavefront correction.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Cvijetic, Milorad

    2015-02-20

    We evaluate the performance of the coherent free space optics (FSO) employing quadrature array phase-shift keying (QPSK) modulation over the maritime atmosphere with atmospheric turbulence compensated by use of adaptive optics (AO). We have established a comprehensive FSO channel model for maritime conditions and also made a comprehensive comparison of performance between the maritime and terrestrial atmospheric links. The FSO links are modeled based on the intensity attenuation resulting from scattering and absorption effects, the log-amplitude fluctuations, and the phase distortions induced by turbulence. The obtained results show that the FSO system performance measured by the bit-error-rate (BER) can be significantly improved when the optimization of the AO system is achieved. Also, we find that the higher BER is observed in the maritime FSO channel with atmospheric turbulence, as compared to the terrestrial FSO systems if they experience the same turbulence strength.

  11. Aberration corrections for free-space optical communications in atmosphere turbulence using orbital angular momentum states.

    PubMed

    Zhao, S M; Leach, J; Gong, L Y; Ding, J; Zheng, B Y

    2012-01-02

    The effect of atmosphere turbulence on light's spatial structure compromises the information capacity of photons carrying the Orbital Angular Momentum (OAM) in free-space optical (FSO) communications. In this paper, we study two aberration correction methods to mitigate this effect. The first one is the Shack-Hartmann wavefront correction method, which is based on the Zernike polynomials, and the second is a phase correction method specific to OAM states. Our numerical results show that the phase correction method for OAM states outperforms the Shark-Hartmann wavefront correction method, although both methods improve significantly purity of a single OAM state and the channel capacities of FSO communication link. At the same time, our experimental results show that the values of participation functions go down at the phase correction method for OAM states, i.e., the correction method ameliorates effectively the bad effect of atmosphere turbulence.

  12. Performance of multi-hop parallel free-space optical communication over gamma-gamma fading channel with pointing errors.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhengguang; Liu, Hongzhan; Ma, Xiaoping; Lu, Wei

    2016-11-10

    Multi-hop parallel relaying is considered in a free-space optical (FSO) communication system deploying binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) modulation under the combined effects of a gamma-gamma (GG) distribution and misalignment fading. Based on the best path selection criterion, the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of this cooperative random variable is derived. Then the performance of this optical mesh network is analyzed in detail. A Monte Carlo simulation is also conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the results for the average bit error rate (ABER) and outage probability. The numerical result proves that it needs a smaller average transmitted optical power to achieve the same ABER and outage probability when using the multi-hop parallel network in FSO links. Furthermore, the system use of more number of hops and cooperative paths can improve the quality of the communication.

  13. Drone swarm with free-space optical communication to detect and make deep decisions about physical problems for area surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazher, Wamidh Jalil; Ibrahim, Hadeel T.; Ucan, Osman N.; Bayat, Oguz

    2018-03-01

    This paper aims to design a drone swarm network by employing free-space optical (FSO) communication for detecting and deep decision making of topological problems (e.g., oil pipeline leak), where deep decision making requires the highest image resolution. Drones have been widely used for monitoring and detecting problems in industrial applications during which the drone sends images from the on-air camera video stream using radio frequency (RF) signals. To obtain higher-resolution images, higher bandwidth (BW) is required. The current study proposed the use of the FSO communication system to facilitate higher BW for higher image resolution. Moreover, the number of drones required to survey a large physical area exceeded the capabilities of RF technologies. Our configuration of the drones is V-shaped swarm with one leading drone called mother drone (DM). The optical decode-and-forward (DF) technique is used to send the optical payloads of all drones in V-shaped swarm to the single ground station through DM. Furthermore, it is found that the transmitted optical power (Pt) is required for each drone based on the threshold outage probability of FSO link failure among the onboard optical-DF drones. The bit error rate of optical payload is calculated based on optical-DF onboard processing. Finally, the number of drones required for different image resolutions based on the size of the considered topological area is optimized.

  14. A geometrical optics approach for modeling aperture averaging in free space optical communication applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuksel, Heba; Davis, Christopher C.

    2006-09-01

    Intensity fluctuations at the receiver in free space optical (FSO) communication links lead to a received power variance that depends on the size of the receiver aperture. Increasing the size of the receiver aperture reduces the power variance. This effect of the receiver size on power variance is called aperture averaging. If there were no aperture size limitation at the receiver, then there would be no turbulence-induced scintillation. In practice, there is always a tradeoff between aperture size, transceiver weight, and potential transceiver agility for pointing, acquisition and tracking (PAT) of FSO communication links. We have developed a geometrical simulation model to predict the aperture averaging factor. This model is used to simulate the aperture averaging effect at given range by using a large number of rays, Gaussian as well as uniformly distributed, propagating through simulated turbulence into a circular receiver of varying aperture size. Turbulence is simulated by filling the propagation path with spherical bubbles of varying sizes and refractive index discontinuities statistically distributed according to various models. For each statistical representation of the atmosphere, the three-dimensional trajectory of each ray is analyzed using geometrical optics. These Monte Carlo techniques have proved capable of assessing the aperture averaging effect, in particular, the quantitative expected reduction in intensity fluctuations with increasing aperture diameter. In addition, beam wander results have demonstrated the range-cubed dependence of mean-squared beam wander. An effective turbulence parameter can also be determined by correlating beam wander behavior with the path length.

  15. Roadmap of optical communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrell, Erik; Karlsson, Magnus; Chraplyvy, A. R.; Richardson, David J.; Krummrich, Peter M.; Winzer, Peter; Roberts, Kim; Fischer, Johannes Karl; Savory, Seb J.; Eggleton, Benjamin J.; Secondini, Marco; Kschischang, Frank R.; Lord, Andrew; Prat, Josep; Tomkos, Ioannis; Bowers, John E.; Srinivasan, Sudha; Brandt-Pearce, Maïté; Gisin, Nicolas

    2016-06-01

    Lightwave communications is a necessity for the information age. Optical links provide enormous bandwidth, and the optical fiber is the only medium that can meet the modern society's needs for transporting massive amounts of data over long distances. Applications range from global high-capacity networks, which constitute the backbone of the internet, to the massively parallel interconnects that provide data connectivity inside datacenters and supercomputers. Optical communications is a diverse and rapidly changing field, where experts in photonics, communications, electronics, and signal processing work side by side to meet the ever-increasing demands for higher capacity, lower cost, and lower energy consumption, while adapting the system design to novel services and technologies. Due to the interdisciplinary nature of this rich research field, Journal of Optics has invited 16 researchers, each a world-leading expert in their respective subfields, to contribute a section to this invited review article, summarizing their views on state-of-the-art and future developments in optical communications.

  16. Extended model of restricted beam for FSO links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poliak, Juraj; Wilfert, Otakar

    2012-10-01

    Modern wireless optical communication systems in many aspects overcome wire or radio communications. Their advantages are license-free operation and broad bandwidth that they offer. The medium in free-space optical (FSO) links is the atmosphere. Operation of outdoor FSO links struggles with many atmospheric phenomena that deteriorate phase and amplitude of the transmitted optical beam. This beam originates in the transmitter and is affected by its individual parts, especially by the lens socket and the transmitter aperture, where attenuation and diffraction effects take place. Both of these phenomena unfavourable influence the beam and cause degradation of link availability, or its total malfunction. Therefore, both of these phenomena should be modelled and simulated, so that one can judge the link function prior to the realization of the system. Not only the link availability and reliability are concerned, but also economic aspects. In addition, the transmitted beam is not, generally speaking, circularly symmetrical, what makes the link simulation more difficult. In a comprehensive model, it is necessary to take into account the ellipticity of the beam that is restricted by circularly symmetrical aperture where then the attenuation and diffraction occur. General model is too computationally extensive; therefore simplification of the calculations by means of analytical and numerical approaches will be discussed. Presented model is not only simulated using computer, but also experimentally proven. One can then deduce the ability of the model to describe the reality and to estimate how far can one go with approximations, i.e. limitations of the model are discussed.

  17. Optical Communications Transmitter

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-11-10

    S65-42598 (10 Nov. 1965) --- Douglas S. Idlly, Electromagnetic Systems Branch, Instrumentation and Electronic Systems Division, illustrates an Optical Communications Transmitter (LASER) during a briefing at the news center of the Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston, Texas. Photo credit: NASA

  18. Optical Communications Channel Combiner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quirk, Kevin J.; Quirk, Kevin J.; Nguyen, Danh H.; Nguyen, Huy

    2012-01-01

    NASA has identified deep-space optical communications links as an integral part of a unified space communication network in order to provide data rates in excess of 100 Mb/s. The distances and limited power inherent in a deep-space optical downlink necessitate the use of photon-counting detectors and a power-efficient modulation such as pulse position modulation (PPM). For the output of each photodetector, whether from a separate telescope or a portion of the detection area, a communication receiver estimates a log-likelihood ratio for each PPM slot. To realize the full effective aperture of these receivers, their outputs must be combined prior to information decoding. A channel combiner was developed to synchronize the log-likelihood ratio (LLR) sequences of multiple receivers, and then combines these into a single LLR sequence for information decoding. The channel combiner synchronizes the LLR sequences of up to three receivers and then combines these into a single LLR sequence for output. The channel combiner has three channel inputs, each of which takes as input a sequence of four-bit LLRs for each PPM slot in a codeword via a XAUI 10 Gb/s quad optical fiber interface. The cross-correlation between the channels LLR time series are calculated and used to synchronize the sequences prior to combining. The output of the channel combiner is a sequence of four-bit LLRs for each PPM slot in a codeword via a XAUI 10 Gb/s quad optical fiber interface. The unit is controlled through a 1 Gb/s Ethernet UDP/IP interface. A deep-space optical communication link has not yet been demonstrated. This ground-station channel combiner was developed to demonstrate this capability and is unique in its ability to process such a signal.

  19. Performance evaluation of FSO system using wavelength and time diversity over malaga turbulence channel with pointing errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaji, K. A.; Prabu, K.

    2018-03-01

    There is an immense demand for high bandwidth and high data rate systems, which is fulfilled by wireless optical communication or free space optics (FSO). Hence FSO gained a pivotal role in research which has a added advantage of both cost-effective and licence free huge bandwidth. Unfortunately the optical signal in free space suffers from irradiance and phase fluctuations due to atmospheric turbulence and pointing errors which deteriorates the signal and degrades the performance of communication system over longer distance which is undesirable. In this paper, we have considered polarization shift keying (POLSK) system applied with wavelength and time diversity technique over Malaga(M)distribution to mitigate turbulence induced fading. We derived closed form mathematical expressions for estimating the systems outage probability and average bit error rate (BER). Ultimately from the results we can infer that wavelength and time diversity schemes enhances these systems performance.

  20. Optical Wireless Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnon, Shlomi; Britz, David M.; Boucouvalas, Anthony C.; Kavehrad, Mohsen

    2005-01-01

    Call for Papers

    Optical Wireless Communications

    Submission Deadline: 1 February 2005

    Guest Editors:

    1. Performance Analysis of Hybrid WDM-FSO System under Various Weather Conditions

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Robinson, S.; Jasmine, S.

      2016-09-01

      Free Space Optical (FSO) communication is being realized as an effective solution for future accessing networks, offering light passed through air. The performance of FSO system can be primarily degraded by various atmospheric attenuations such as rain, fog, haze and snow. At present, hybridization of Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) with Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplexing (CWDM) becomes necessary to scale the speed and high bandwidth of the services. In this paper, primarily the attenuation values for different weather conditions are calculated. Then the hybrid WDM-FSO system is proposed, designed and the network parameters such as Bit Error Rate (BER), Quality factor (Q factor) and receiver sensitivity are analyzed with respect to link distance for various weather conditions. For investigation, four CWDM (1,510 nm, 1,530 nm, 1,570 nm and 1,570 nm) channel and eight DWDM channels (1,537.4 nm, 1,538.2 nm, 1,539 nm, 1,539.8 nm, 1,540.6 nm, 1,541.4 nm, 1,542.2 nm and 1,543 nm) are considered whose corresponding channel spacing is 20 nm and 0.8 nm, respectively. In addition, the Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) is inserted at the receiver end in order to enhance the link distance. The proposed hybrid WDM-FSO system is designed to handle the quality of transmission for 12 users, each at a data rate of 2.5 Gbps along an FSO link distance of about 960 km.

    2. Modelling of 10 Gbps Free Space Optics Communication Link Using Array of Receivers in Moderate and Harsh Weather Conditions

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Gupta, Amit; Shaina, Nagpal

      2017-08-01

      Intersymbol interference and attenuation of signal are two major parameters affecting the quality of transmission in Free Space Optical (FSO) Communication link. In this paper, the impact of these parameters on FSO communication link is analysed for delivering high-quality data transmission. The performance of the link is investigated under the influence of amplifier in the link. The performance parameters of the link like minimum bit error rate, received signal power and Quality factor are examined by employing erbium-doped fibre amplifier in the link. The effects of amplifier are visualized with the amount of received power. Further, the link is simulated for moderate weather conditions at various attenuation levels on transmitted signal. Finally, the designed link is analysed in adverse weather conditions by using high-power laser source for optimum performance.

    3. Robust optical wireless links over turbulent media using diversity solutions

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Moradi, Hassan

      Free-space optic (FSO) technology, i.e., optical wireless communication (OWC), is widely recognized as superior to radio frequency (RF) in many aspects. Visible and invisible optical wireless links solve first/last mile connectivity problems and provide secure, jam-free communication. FSO is license-free and delivers high-speed data rates in the order of Gigabits. Its advantages have fostered significant research efforts aimed at utilizing optical wireless communication, e.g. visible light communication (VLC), for high-speed, secure, indoor communication under the IEEE 802.15.7 standard. However, conventional optical wireless links demand precise optical alignment and suffer from atmospheric turbulence. When compared with RF, they suffer a low degree of reliability and lack robustness. Pointing errors cause optical transceiver misalignment, adversely affecting system reliability. Furthermore, atmospheric turbulence causes irradiance fluctuations and beam broadening of transmitted light. Innovative solutions to overcome limitations on the exploitation of high-speed optical wireless links are greatly needed. Spatial diversity is known to improve RF wireless communication systems. Similar diversity approaches can be adapted for FSO systems to improve its reliability and robustness; however, careful diversity design is needed since FSO apertures typically remain unbalanced as a result of FSO system sensitivity to misalignment. Conventional diversity combining schemes require persistent aperture monitoring and repetitive switching, thus increasing FSO implementation complexities. Furthermore, current RF diversity combining schemes may not be optimized to address the issue of unbalanced FSO receiving apertures. This dissertation investigates two efficient diversity combining schemes for multi-receiving FSO systems: switched diversity combining and generalized selection combining. Both can be exploited to reduce complexity and improve combining efficiency. Unlike maximum

    4. Both channel coding and wavefront correction on the turbulence mitigation of optical communications using orbital angular momentum multiplexing

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Zhao, Shengmei; Wang, Le; Zou, Li; Gong, Longyan; Cheng, Weiwen; Zheng, Baoyu; Chen, Hanwu

      2016-10-01

      A free-space optical (FSO) communication link with multiplexed orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes has been demonstrated to largely enhance the system capacity without a corresponding increase in spectral bandwidth, but the performance of the link is unavoidably degraded by atmospheric turbulence (AT). In this paper, we propose a turbulence mitigation scheme to improve AT tolerance of the OAM-multiplexed FSO communication link using both channel coding and wavefront correction. In the scheme, we utilize a wavefront correction method to mitigate the phase distortion first, and then we use a channel code to further correct the errors in each OAM mode. The improvement of AT tolerance is discussed over the performance of the link with or without channel coding/wavefront correction. The results show that the bit error rate performance has been improved greatly. The detrimental effect of AT on the OAM-multiplexed FSO communication link could be removed by the proposed scheme even in the relatively strong turbulence regime, such as Cn2 = 3.6 ×10-14m - 2 / 3.

    5. Free-space optical communications using orbital-angular-momentum multiplexing combined with MIMO-based spatial multiplexing.

      PubMed

      Ren, Yongxiong; Wang, Zhe; Xie, Guodong; Li, Long; Cao, Yinwen; Liu, Cong; Liao, Peicheng; Yan, Yan; Ahmed, Nisar; Zhao, Zhe; Willner, Asher; Ashrafi, Nima; Ashrafi, Solyman; Linquist, Roger D; Bock, Robert; Tur, Moshe; Molisch, Andreas F; Willner, Alan E

      2015-09-15

      We explore the potential of combining the advantages of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO)-based spatial multiplexing with those of orbital angular momentum (OAM) multiplexing to increase the capacity of free-space optical (FSO) communications. We experimentally demonstrate an 80 Gbit/s FSO system with a 2×2 aperture architecture, in which each transmitter aperture contains two multiplexed data-carrying OAM modes. Inter-channel crosstalk effects are minimized by the OAM beams' inherent orthogonality and by the use of 4×4 MIMO signal processing. Our experimental results show that the bit-error rates can reach below the forward error correction limit of 3.8×10(-3) and the power penalties are less than 3.6 dB for all channels after MIMO processing. This indicates that OAM and MIMO-based spatial multiplexing could be simultaneously utilized, thereby providing the potential to enhance system performance.

    6. Free space optical communications system performance under atmospheric scattering and turbulence for 850 and 1550  nm operation.

      PubMed

      El-Wakeel, Amr S; Mohammed, Nazmi A; Aly, Moustafa H

      2016-09-10

      In this work, a free space optical communication (FSO) link is proposed and utilized to explore and evaluate the FSO link performance under the joint occurrence of the atmospheric scattering and turbulence phenomena for 850 and 1550 nm operation. Diffraction and nondiffraction-limited systems are presented and evaluated for both wavelengths' operation, considering far-field conditions under different link distances. Bit error rate, pointing error angles, beam divergence angles, and link distance are the main performance indicators that are used to evaluate and compare the link performance under different system configurations and atmospheric phenomena combinations. A detailed study is performed to provide the merits of this work. For both far-field diffraction-limited and nondiffraction-limited systems, it is concluded that 1550 nm system operation is better than 850 nm for the whole presented joint occurrences of atmospheric scattering and turbulence.

    7. Review of optical wireless communications for data centers

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Arnon, Shlomi

      2017-10-01

      A data center (DC) is a facility either physical or virtual, for running applications, searching, storage, management and dissemination of information known as cloud computing, which consume a huge amount of energy. A DC includes thousands of servers, communication and storage equipment and a support system including an air conditioning system, security, monitoring equipment and electricity regulator units. Data center operators face the challenges of meeting exponentially increasing demands for network bandwidth without unreasonable increases in operation and infrastructure cost. In order to meet the requirements of moderate increase in operation and infrastructure cost technology, a revolution is required. One way to overcome the shortcomings of traditional static (wired) data center architectures is use of a hybrid network based on fiber and optical wireless communication (OWC) or free space optics (FSO). The OWC link could be deployed on top of the existing cable/fiber network layer, so that live migration could be done easily and dynamically. In that case the network topology is flexible and adapts quickly to changes in traffic, heat distribution, power consumption and characteristics of the applications. In addition, OWC could provide an easy way to maintain and scale up data centers. As a result total cost of ownership could be reduced and the return on investment could be increased. In this talk we will review the main OWC technologies applicable for data centers, indicate how energy could be saved using OWC multichannel communication and discuss the issue of OWC pointing accuracy for data center scenario.

    8. International standards for optical wireless communications: state-of-the-art and future directions

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Marciniak, Marian

      2017-10-01

      As the number of active OWC installations is growing fast, the standards for compatibility of co-existing neighbouring systems are being developed. The paper addresses the Laser Safety (IEC standards), ITU-T Study Group 15 standards (G.640 Co-location longitudinally compatible interfaces for free space optical systems), ITU-Radiocommunication Sector standards (P.1817-1 Propagation data required for the design of terrestrial free-space optical links), and the IEEE Work in Progress - standardization activity on Visible Light Communications. International standards of FSO communications have been reviewed and discussed. ITU, IEC, and IEEE International standards for Free-Space Optical links have been reviewed. The system reliability and availability as well as security issues will be addressed as well in the talk.

    9. Optical Design of an Optical Communications Terminal

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Biswas, Abhijit; Page, Norman; Hemmati, Hamid

      2005-01-01

      An optical communications terminal (OCT) is being developed to enable transmission of data at a rate as high as 2.5 Gb/s, from an aircraft or spacecraft to a ground station. In addition to transmitting high data rates, OCT will also be capable of bidirectional communications.

    10. Indoor communications networks realized through hybrid free-space optical and Wi-Fi links

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Liverman, Spencer; Wang, Qiwei; Chu, Yu-Chung; Borah, Anindita; Wang, Songtao; Natarajan, Arun; Nguyen, Thinh; Wang, Alan X.

      2018-01-01

      Recently, free-space optical (FSO) networks have been investigated as a potential replacement for traditional WiFi networks due to their large bandwidth potentials. However, FSO networks often suffer from a lack of mobility. We present a hybrid free-space optical and radio frequency (RF) system that we have named WiFO, which seamlessly integrates free-space optical links with pre-existing WiFi networks. The free-space optical link in this system utilizes infrared LEDs operating at a wavelength of 850nm and is capable of transmitting 50Mbps over a three-meter distance. In this hybrid system, optical transmitters are embedded periodically throughout the ceiling of a workspace. Each transmitter directs an optical signal downward in a diffuse light cone, establishing a line of sight optical link. Line of sight communications links have an intrinsic physical layer of security due to the fact that a user must be directly in the path of transmission to access the link; however, this feature also poses a challenge for mobility. In our system, if the free-space optical link is interrupted, a control algorithm redirects traffic over a pre-existing WiFi link ensuring uninterrupted transmissions. After data packets are received, acknowledgments are sent back to a central access point via a WiFi link. As the demand for wireless bandwidth continues to increase exponentially, utilizing the unregulated bandwidth contained within optical spectrum will become necessary. Our fully functional hybrid free-space optical and WiFi prototype system takes full advantage of the untapped bandwidth potential in the optical spectrum, while also maintaining the mobility inherent in WiFi networks.

    11. Wavefront reconstruction method based on wavelet fractal interpolation for coherent free space optical communication

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Zhang, Dai; Hao, Shiqi; Zhao, Qingsong; Zhao, Qi; Wang, Lei; Wan, Xiongfeng

      2018-03-01

      Existing wavefront reconstruction methods are usually low in resolution, restricted by structure characteristics of the Shack Hartmann wavefront sensor (SH WFS) and the deformable mirror (DM) in the adaptive optics (AO) system, thus, resulting in weak homodyne detection efficiency for free space optical (FSO) communication. In order to solve this problem, we firstly validate the feasibility of liquid crystal spatial light modulator (LC SLM) using in an AO system. Then, wavefront reconstruction method based on wavelet fractal interpolation is proposed after self-similarity analysis of wavefront distortion caused by atmospheric turbulence. Fast wavelet decomposition is operated to multiresolution analyze the wavefront phase spectrum, during which soft threshold denoising is carried out. The resolution of estimated wavefront phase is then improved by fractal interpolation. Finally, fast wavelet reconstruction is taken to recover wavefront phase. Simulation results reflect the superiority of our method in homodyne detection. Compared with minimum variance estimation (MVE) method based on interpolation techniques, the proposed method could obtain superior homodyne detection efficiency with lower operation complexity. Our research findings have theoretical significance in the design of coherent FSO communication system.

    12. Multi-diversity combining and selection for relay-assisted mixed RF/FSO system

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Chen, Li; Wang, Weidong

      2017-12-01

      We propose and analyze multi-diversity combining and selection to enhance the performance of relay-assisted mixed radio frequency/free-space optics (RF/FSO) system. We focus on a practical scenario for cellular network where a single-antenna source is communicating to a multi-apertures destination through a relay equipped with multiple receive antennas and multiple transmit apertures. The RF single input multiple output (SIMO) links employ either maximal-ratio combining (MRC) or receive antenna selection (RAS), and the FSO multiple input multiple output (MIMO) links adopt either repetition coding (RC) or transmit laser selection (TLS). The performance is evaluated via an outage probability analysis over Rayleigh fading RF links and Gamma-Gamma atmospheric turbulence FSO links with pointing errors where channel state information (CSI) assisted amplify-and-forward (AF) scheme is considered. Asymptotic closed-form expressions at high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) are also derived. Coding gain and diversity order for different combining and selection schemes are further discussed. Numerical results are provided to verify and illustrate the analytical results.

    13. Optical communication for space missions

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Firtmaurice, M.

      1991-01-01

      Activities performed at NASA/GSFC (Goddard Space Flight Center) related to direct detection optical communications for space applications are discussed. The following subject areas are covered: (1) requirements for optical communication systems (data rates and channel quality; spatial acquisition; fine tracking and pointing; and transmit point-ahead correction); (2) component testing and development (laser diodes performance characterization and life testing; and laser diode power combining); (3) system development and simulations (The GSFC pointing, acquisition and tracking system; hardware description; preliminary performance analysis; and high data rate transmitter/receiver systems); and (4) proposed flight demonstration of optical communications.

    14. Evaluation of FSO System Availability in Haze Condition

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Anis, A. A.; Rashidi, C. B. M.; Aljunid, S. A.; Rahman, A. K.

      2018-03-01

      In this paper, we proposed the evaluation of FSO system availability in haze condition. The atmospheric attenuation by weather conditions in the atmosphere as the most challenging problem of FSO system as the system performance is severely degraded and causing the signal optic to be transmitted poorly. The effects of haze condition on the performance of FSO system is stressed out and focused in this paper. From the evaluation of the analysis, designs of FSO system are proposed to obtain a system with improved link performance in haze conditions. The scattering coefficient and the atmospheric attenuation are determined using Beer’s Lambert equation. From the research, the link performance of the system is greatly improved using Design 2 with minimum BER of 10-127127 and maximu m Q Factor of 23.98. The FSO system using Design 2 has better performance compared to Design 1 in haze condition as the optical signals could penetrate the dense haze better without losing much optical power during the transmission to the scattering.

    15. Optical satellite communications in Europe

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Sodnik, Zoran; Lutz, Hanspeter; Furch, Bernhard; Meyer, Rolf

      2010-02-01

      This paper describes optical satellite communication activities based on technology developments, which started in Europe more than 30 years ago and led in 2001 to the world-first optical inter-satellite communication link experiment (SILEX). SILEX proved that optical communication technologies can be reliably mastered in space and in 2006 the Japanese Space Agency (JAXA) joined the optical inter-satellite experiment from their own satellite. Since 2008 the German Space Agency (DLR) is operating an inter-satellite link between the NFIRE and TerraSAR-X satellites based on a second generation of laser communication technology, which will be used for the new European Data Relay Satellite (EDRS) system to be deployed in 2013.

    16. Average spectral efficiency analysis of FSO links over turbulence channel with adaptive transmissions and aperture averaging

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Aarthi, G.; Ramachandra Reddy, G.

      2018-03-01

      In our paper, the impact of adaptive transmission schemes: (i) optimal rate adaptation (ORA) and (ii) channel inversion with fixed rate (CIFR) on the average spectral efficiency (ASE) are explored for free-space optical (FSO) communications with On-Off Keying (OOK), Polarization shift keying (POLSK), and Coherent optical wireless communication (Coherent OWC) systems under different turbulence regimes. Further to enhance the ASE we have incorporated aperture averaging effects along with the above adaptive schemes. The results indicate that ORA adaptation scheme has the advantage of improving the ASE performance compared with CIFR under moderate and strong turbulence regime. The coherent OWC system with ORA excels the other modulation schemes and could achieve ASE performance of 49.8 bits/s/Hz at the average transmitted optical power of 6 dBm under strong turbulence. By adding aperture averaging effect we could achieve an ASE of 50.5 bits/s/Hz under the same conditions. This makes ORA with Coherent OWC modulation as a favorable candidate for improving the ASE of the FSO communication system.

    17. The architecture of blind equalizer for MIMO free space optical communication system

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Li, Hongwei; Huang, Yongmei

      2016-10-01

      The free space optical (FSO) communication system has attracted many researchers from different countries, owning to its advantages such as high security, high speed and anti-interference. Among all kinds of the channels of the FSO communication system, the atmosphere channel is very difficult to deal with for two typical disadvantages at least. The one is the scintillation of the optical carrier intensity caused by the atmosphere turbulence and the other is the multipath effect by the optical scattering. A lot of studies have shown that the MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) technology can overcome the scintillation of the optical carrier through the atmosphere effectively. So the background of this paper is a MIMO system which includes multiple optical transmitting antennas and multiple optical receiving antennas. A number of particles such as hazes, water droplets and aerosols exit in the atmosphere widely. When optical carrier meets these particles, the scattering phenomenon is inevitable, which leads to the multipath effect. As a result, a optical pulse transmitted by the optical transmitter becomes wider, to some extent, when it gets to the optical receiver due to the multipath effect. If the information transmission rate is quite low, there is less relationship between the multipath effect and the bit error rate (BER) of the communication system. Once the information transmission rate increases to a high level, the multipath effect will produce the problem called inter symbol inference (ISI) seriously and the bit error rate will increase severely. In order to take the advantage of the FSO communication system, the inter symbol inference problem must be solved. So it is necessary to use the channel equalization technology. This paper aims at deciding a equalizer and designing suitable equalization algorithm for a MIMO free space optical communication system to overcome the serious problem of bit error rate. The reliability and the efficiency of

    18. Performance Analysis of Amplify-and-Forward Relaying FSO/SC-QAM Systems over Weak Turbulence Channels and Pointing Error Impairments

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Trung, Ha Duyen

      2017-12-01

      In this paper, the end-to-end performance of free-space optical (FSO) communication system combining with Amplify-and-Forward (AF)-assisted or fixed-gain relaying technology using subcarrier quadrature amplitude modulation (SC-QAM) over weak atmospheric turbulence channels modeled by log-normal distribution with pointing error impairments is studied. More specifically, unlike previous studies on AF relaying FSO communication systems without pointing error effects; the pointing error effect is studied by taking into account the influence of beamwidth, aperture size and jitter variance. In addition, a combination of these models to analyze the combined effect of atmospheric turbulence and pointing error to AF relaying FSO/SC-QAM systems is used. Finally, an analytical expression is derived to evaluate the average symbol error rate (ASER) performance of such systems. The numerical results show that the impact of pointing error on the performance of AF relaying FSO/SC-QAM systems and how we use proper values of aperture size and beamwidth to improve the performance of such systems. Some analytical results are confirmed by Monte-Carlo simulations.

    19. Next-generation optical wireless communications for data centers

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Arnon, Shlomi

      2015-01-01

      Data centers collect and process information with a capacity that has been increasing from year to year at an almost exponential pace. Traditional fiber/cable data center network interconnections suffer from bandwidth overload, as well as flexibility and scalability issues. Therefore, a technology-shift from the fiber and cable to wireless has already been initiated in order to meet the required data-rate, flexibility and scalability demands for next-generation data center network interconnects. In addition, the shift to wireless reduces the volume allocated to the cabling/fiber and increases the cooling efficiency. Optical wireless communication (OWC), or free space optics (FSO), is one of the most effective wireless technologies that could be used in future data centers and could provide ultra-high capacity, very high cyber security and minimum latency, due to the low index of refraction of air in comparison to fiber technologies. In this paper we review the main concepts and configurations for next generation OWC for data centers. Two families of technologies are reviewed: the first technology regards interconnects between rack units in the same rack and the second technology regards the data center network that connects the server top of rack (TOR) to the switch. A comparison between different network technologies is presented.

    20. Optical communications for transport aircraft

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Stengel, Robert

      1994-01-01

      Optical communications for transport aircraft are discussed. The problem involves: increasing demand for radio-frequency bands from an enlarging pool of users (aircraft, ground and sea vehicles, fleet operators, traffic control centers, and commercial radio and television); desirability of providing high-bandwidth dedicated communications to and from every aircraft in the National Airspace System; need to support communications, navigation, and surveillance for a growing number of aircraft; and improved meteorological observations by use of probe aircraft. The solution involves: optical signal transmission support very high data rates; optical transmission of signals between aircraft, orbiting satellites, and ground stations, where unobstructed line-of-sight is available; conventional radio transmissions of signals between aircraft and ground stations, where optical line-of-sight is unavailable; and radio priority given to aircraft in weather.

    1. Transceiver optics for interplanetary communications

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Roberts, W. T.; Farr, W. H.; Rider, B.; Sampath, D.

      2017-11-01

      In-situ interplanetary science missions constantly push the spacecraft communications systems to support successively higher downlink rates. However, the highly restrictive mass and power constraints placed on interplanetary spacecraft significantly limit the desired bandwidth increases in going forward with current radio frequency (RF) technology. To overcome these limitations, we have evaluated the ability of free-space optical communications systems to make substantial gains in downlink bandwidth, while holding to the mass and power limits allocated to current state-of-the-art Ka-band communications systems. A primary component of such an optical communications system is the optical assembly, comprised of the optical support structure, optical elements, baffles and outer enclosure. We wish to estimate the total mass that such an optical assembly might require, and assess what form it might take. Finally, to ground this generalized study, we should produce a conceptual design, and use that to verify its ability to achieve the required downlink gain, estimate it's specific optical and opto-mechanical requirements, and evaluate the feasibility of producing the assembly.

    2. Ergodic channel capacity of spatial correlated multiple-input multiple-output free space optical links using multipulse pulse-position modulation

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Wang, Huiqin; Wang, Xue; Cao, Minghua

      2017-02-01

      The spatial correlation extensively exists in the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) free space optical (FSO) communication systems due to the channel fading and the antenna space limitation. Wilkinson's method was utilized to investigate the impact of spatial correlation on the MIMO FSO communication system employing multipulse pulse-position modulation. Simulation results show that the existence of spatial correlation reduces the ergodic channel capacity, and the reception diversity is more competent to resist this kind of performance degradation.

    3. Novel space-time trellis codes for free-space optical communications using transmit laser selection.

      PubMed

      García-Zambrana, Antonio; Boluda-Ruiz, Rubén; Castillo-Vázquez, Carmen; Castillo-Vázquez, Beatriz

      2015-09-21

      In this paper, the deployment of novel space-time trellis codes (STTCs) with transmit laser selection (TLS) for free-space optical (FSO) communication systems using intensity modulation and direct detection (IM/DD) over atmospheric turbulence and misalignment fading channels is presented. Combining TLS and STTC with rate 1 bit/(s · Hz), a new code design criterion based on the use of the largest order statistics is here proposed for multiple-input/single-output (MISO) FSO systems in order to improve the diversity order gain by properly chosing the transmit lasers out of the available L lasers. Based on a pairwise error probability (PEP) analysis, closed-form asymptotic bit error-rate (BER) expressions in the range from low to high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) are derived when the irradiance of the transmitted optical beam is susceptible to moderate-to-strong turbulence conditions, following a gamma-gamma (GG) distribution, and pointing error effects, following a misalignment fading model where the effect of beam width, detector size and jitter variance is considered. Obtained results show diversity orders of 2L and 3L when simple two-state and four-state STTCs are considered, respectively. Simulation results are further demonstrated to confirm the analytical results.

    4. Improved artificial bee colony algorithm for wavefront sensor-less system in free space optical communication

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Niu, Chaojun; Han, Xiang'e.

      2015-10-01

      Adaptive optics (AO) technology is an effective way to alleviate the effect of turbulence on free space optical communication (FSO). A new adaptive compensation method can be used without a wave-front sensor. Artificial bee colony algorithm (ABC) is a population-based heuristic evolutionary algorithm inspired by the intelligent foraging behaviour of the honeybee swarm with the advantage of simple, good convergence rate, robust and less parameter setting. In this paper, we simulate the application of the improved ABC to correct the distorted wavefront and proved its effectiveness. Then we simulate the application of ABC algorithm, differential evolution (DE) algorithm and stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) algorithm to the FSO system and analyze the wavefront correction capabilities by comparison of the coupling efficiency, the error rate and the intensity fluctuation in different turbulence before and after the correction. The results show that the ABC algorithm has much faster correction speed than DE algorithm and better correct ability for strong turbulence than SPGD algorithm. Intensity fluctuation can be effectively reduced in strong turbulence, but not so effective in week turbulence.

    5. Performance analysis of dual-hop optical wireless communication systems over k-distribution turbulence channel with pointing error

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Mishra, Neha; Sriram Kumar, D.; Jha, Pranav Kumar

      2017-06-01

      In this paper, we investigate the performance of the dual-hop free space optical (FSO) communication systems under the effect of strong atmospheric turbulence together with misalignment effects (pointing error). We consider a relay assisted link using decode and forward (DF) relaying protocol between source and destination with the assumption that Channel State Information is available at both transmitting and receiving terminals. The atmospheric turbulence channels are modeled by k-distribution with pointing error impairment. The exact closed form expression is derived for outage probability and bit error rate and illustrated through numerical plots. Further BER results are compared for the different modulation schemes.

    6. Experimental demonstration of bidirectional up to 40 Gbit/s QPSK coherent free-space optical communication link over ∼1 km

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Feng, Xianglian; Wu, Zhihang; Wang, Tianshu; Zhang, Peng; Li, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Huilin; Su, Yuwei; He, Hongwei; Wang, Xiaoyan; Gao, Shiming

      2018-03-01

      Advanced multi-level modulation formats have shown their great potential in high-speed and high-spectral-efficiency optical communications. Using quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) modulation format for free-space optical (FSO) communication, a bidirectional high-speed FSO transmission link with the bit rates of up to 40 Gbit/s over ∼1 km, between two buildings in the campus of Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun, China, is experimentally demonstrated cooperating by capture and tracking systems. The eye-diagrams and constellation diagrams of the transmitted QPSK signals are clearly observed. By comparing the bit error rate (BER) curves before and after transmission, one can find that the receiving powers are both less than -16.5 dBm for the forward and backward transmissions of the bidirectional 20, 30, and 40 Gbit/s FSO links, and their power penalties due to the phase fluctuation of the atmospheric channel are both less than 2.6 dB, at the BER of 3.8 ×10-3.

    7. BP artificial neural network based wave front correction for sensor-less free space optics communication

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Li, Zhaokun; Zhao, Xiaohui

      2017-02-01

      The sensor-less adaptive optics (AO) is one of the most promising methods to compensate strong wave front disturbance in free space optics communication (FSO). The back propagation (BP) artificial neural network is applied for the sensor-less AO system to design a distortion correction scheme in this study. This method only needs one or a few online measurements to correct the wave front distortion compared with other model-based approaches, by which the real-time capacity of the system is enhanced and the Strehl Ratio (SR) is largely improved. Necessary comparisons in numerical simulation with other model-based and model-free correction methods proposed in Refs. [6,8,9,10] are given to show the validity and advantage of the proposed method.

    8. Miniature Optical Communications Transceiver (MOCT)

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Conklin, John W.; Hunter, Roger C.; Baker, Christopher

      2017-01-01

      This project will advance the technology readiness of the Miniature Optical Communications Transceiver (MOCT) from TRL 3 to TRL 4. MOCT consists of a novel software-defined pulse modulator (SDPM),integrated laser system, and avalanche photodetection system, and is designed for optical communications between small spacecraft, including CubeSats, using a pulse position modulation (PPM) scheme. PPM encodes data in the timing of optical pulses with respect to a set of timing windows known as slots. The MOCT design focuses on power-efficiency making it particularly interesting for small satellites. We have demonstrated in the laboratory that this technology can generate shorter than 1 nanosecond-wide 1550 nanometer (nm) optical pulses with better than 50 picosecond (ps) timing accuracy. The timing resolution of this system is roughly a factor of four better than previously flown systems, meaning that it can transmit more bits of data with each optical pulse. Because this technology can both generate and time stamp the arrival of short optical pulses with 50 ps precision, it simultaneously provides power efficient communications and relative ranging between small spacecraft at the centimeter (cm) level.

    9. Underwater optical wireless communication network

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Arnon, Shlomi

      2010-01-01

      The growing need for underwater observation and subsea monitoring systems has stimulated considerable interest in advancing the enabling technologies of underwater wireless communication and underwater sensor networks. This communication technology is expected to play an important role in investigating climate change, in monitoring biological, biogeochemical, evolutionary, and ecological changes in the sea, ocean, and lake environments, and in helping to control and maintain oil production facilities and harbors using unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs), submarines, ships, buoys, and divers. However, the present technology of underwater acoustic communication cannot provide the high data rate required to investigate and monitor these environments and facilities. Optical wireless communication has been proposed as the best alternative to meet this challenge. Models are presented for three kinds of optical wireless communication links: (a) a line-of-sight link, (b) a modulating retroreflector link, and (c) a reflective link, all of which can provide the required data rate. We analyze the link performance based on these models. From the analysis, it is clear that as the water absorption increases, the communication performance decreases dramatically for the three link types. However, by using the scattered light it was possible to mitigate this decrease in some cases. It is concluded from the analysis that a high-data-rate underwater optical wireless network is a feasible solution for emerging applications such as UUV-to-UUV links and networks of sensors, and extended ranges in these applications could be achieved by applying a multi-hop concept.

    10. Deep space optical communications experiment

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Kinman, P.; Katz, J.; Gagliardi, R.

      1983-01-01

      An optical communications experiment between a deep space vehicle and an earth terminal is under consideration for later in this decade. The experimental link would be incoherent (direct detection) and would employ two-way cooperative pointing. The deep space optical transceiver would ride piggyback on a spacecraft with an independent scientific objective. Thus, this optical transceiver is being designed for minimum spacecraft impact - specifically, low mass and low power. The choices of laser transmitter, coding/modulation scheme, and pointing mechanization are discussed. A representative telemetry link budget is presented.

    11. Optical Communications from Planetary Distances

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Davarian, F.; Farr, W.; Hemmati, H.; Piazzolla, S.

      2008-01-01

      Future planetary campaigns, including human missions, will require data rates difficult to realize by microwave links. Optical channels not only provide an abundance of bandwidth, they also allow for significant size, weight, and power reduction. Moreover, optical-based tracking may enhance spacecraft navigation with respect to microwave-based tracking. With all its advantages, optical communications from deep space is not without its challenges. Due to the extreme distance between the two ends of the link, specialized technologies are needed to enable communications in the deep space environment. Although some of the relevant technologies have been developed in the last decade, they remain to be validated in an appropriate domain. The required assets include efficient pulsed laser sources, modulators, transmitters, receivers, detectors, channel encoders, precise beam pointing technologies for the flight transceiver and large apertures for the ground receiver. Clearly, space qualification is required for the systems that are installed on a deep space probe. Another challenge is atmospheric effects on the optical beam. Typical candidate locations on the ground have a cloud-free line of sight only on the order of 60-70% of the time. Furthermore, atmospheric losses and background light can be problematic even during cloud-free periods. Lastly, operational methodologies are needed for efficient and cost effective management of optical links. For more than a decade, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has invested in relevant technologies and procedures to enable deep space optical communications capable of providing robust links with rates in the order of 1 Gb/s from Mars distance. A recent publication indicates that potential exists for 30-dB improvement in performance through technology development with respect to the state-of-the-art in the early years of this decade. The goal is to fulfill the deep space community needs from about 2020 to the

    12. Optical communication in free space

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Plotkin, H. H.; Mcavoy, N.; Fitzmaurice, M. W.

      1974-01-01

      Two classes of laser communication systems for handling very high data rates across inter-satellite distances are considered that provide for high antenna gains, wide modulation bandwidths, and optical receiver sensitivities. System design considerations are based upon the carbon dioxide laser modulation to accommodate digital or analog information, and the neodymium doped YAG laser pulse for digital modulation.

    13. Detectors for optical communications: A review

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Katz, J.

      1983-01-01

      Detectors for optical communications in the visible and near infrared regions of the spectrum are reviewed. The three generic types of detectors described are: photomultipliers, photodiodes and avalanche photodiodes. Most of the information is applicable to other optical communications systems.

    14. Adaptive Optics Communications Performance Analysis

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Srinivasan, M.; Vilnrotter, V.; Troy, M.; Wilson, K.

      2004-01-01

      The performance improvement obtained through the use of adaptive optics for deep-space communications in the presence of atmospheric turbulence is analyzed. Using simulated focal-plane signal-intensity distributions, uncoded pulse-position modulation (PPM) bit-error probabilities are calculated assuming the use of an adaptive focal-plane detector array as well as an adaptively sized single detector. It is demonstrated that current practical adaptive optics systems can yield performance gains over an uncompensated system ranging from approximately 1 dB to 6 dB depending upon the PPM order and background radiation level.

    15. Optical wireless communications for micromachines

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      O'Brien, Dominic C.; Yuan, Wei Wen; Liu, Jing Jing; Faulkner, Grahame E.; Elston, Steve J.; Collins, Steve; Parry-Jones, Lesley A.

      2006-08-01

      A key challenge for wireless sensor networks is minimizing the energy required for network nodes to communicate with each other, and this becomes acute for self-powered devices such as 'smart dust'. Optical communications is a potentially attractive solution for such devices. The University of Oxford is currently involved in a project to build optical wireless links to smart dust. Retro-reflectors combined with liquid crystal modulators can be integrated with the micro-machine to create a low power transceiver. When illuminated from a base station a modulated beam is returned, transmitting data. Data from the base station can be transmitted using modulation of the illuminating beam and a receiver at the micro-machine. In this paper we outline the energy consumption and link budget considerations in the design of such micro-machines, and report preliminary experimental results.

    16. LDPC-coded orbital angular momentum (OAM) modulation for free-space optical communication.

      PubMed

      Djordjevic, Ivan B; Arabaci, Murat

      2010-11-22

      An orbital angular momentum (OAM) based LDPC-coded modulation scheme suitable for use in FSO communication is proposed. We demonstrate that the proposed scheme can operate under strong atmospheric turbulence regime and enable 100 Gb/s optical transmission while employing 10 Gb/s components. Both binary and nonbinary LDPC-coded OAM modulations are studied. In addition to providing better BER performance, the nonbinary LDPC-coded modulation reduces overall decoder complexity and latency. The nonbinary LDPC-coded OAM modulation provides a net coding gain of 9.3 dB at the BER of 10(-8). The maximum-ratio combining scheme outperforms the corresponding equal-gain combining scheme by almost 2.5 dB.

    17. Wideband fiber optic communications link

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Bray, J. R.

      1984-12-01

      This thesis examined the feasibility of upgrading a nine port fiber optic bundle telecommunications system to a single strand fiber optic system. Usable pieces of equipment were identified and new Light Emitting Diodes (LED), Photodetectors and single strand SMA styled fiber optic connectors were ordered. Background research was conducted in the area of fiber optic power launching, fiber losses, connector losses and efficiencies. A new modulation/demodulation circuit was designed and constructed using parts from unused equipment. A new front panel was constructed to house the components, switches and connectors. A 2-m piece of optical fiber was terminated with the new connectors and tested for connector loss, numeric aperture and attenuation. The new LED was characterized by its emission radiation pattern and the entire system was tested for functional operation, frequency response and bandwidth of operation. An operations manual was prepared to ensure proper use in the future. The result was a two piece, single strand, fiber optic communications systems fully TTL compatible, capable of transmitting digital signals from 80 Kbit/sec to 20 Mbit/sec. The system was tested in a half duplex mode using both baseband and carrier modulated signals.

    18. Multi-aperture all-fiber active coherent beam combining for free-space optical communication receivers.

      PubMed

      Yang, Yan; Geng, Chao; Li, Feng; Huang, Guan; Li, Xinyang

      2017-10-30

      Multi-aperture receiver with optical combining architecture is an effective approach to overcome the turbulent atmosphere effect on the performance of the free-space optical (FSO) communications, in which how to combine the multiple laser beams received by the sub-apertures efficiently is one of the key technologies. In this paper, we focus on the combining module based on fiber couplers, and propose the all-fiber coherent beam combining (CBC) with two architectures by using active phase locking. To validate the feasibility of the proposed combining module, corresponding experiments and simulations on the CBC of four laser beams are carried out. The experimental results show that the phase differences among the input beams can be compensated and the combining efficiency can be stably promoted by active phase locking in CBC with both of the two architectures. The simulation results show that the combining efficiency fluctuates when turbulent atmosphere is considered, and the effectiveness of the combining module decreases as the turbulence increases. We believe that the combining module proposed in this paper has great potential, and the results can provide significant advices for researchers when building such a multi-aperture receiver with optical combining architecture for FSO commutation systems.

    19. Received optical power calculations for optical communications link performance analysis

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Marshall, W. K.; Burk, B. D.

      1986-01-01

      The factors affecting optical communication link performance differ substantially from those at microwave frequencies, due to the drastically differing technologies, modulation formats, and effects of quantum noise in optical communications. In addition detailed design control table calculations for optical systems are less well developed than corresponding microwave system techniques, reflecting the relatively less mature state of development of optical communications. Described below are detailed calculations of received optical signal and background power in optical communication systems, with emphasis on analytic models for accurately predicting transmitter and receiver system losses.

    20. Demonstration of L-band DP-QPSK transmission over FSO and fiber channels employing InAs/InP quantum-dash laser source

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Shemis, M. A.; Khan, M. T. A.; Alkhazraji, E.; Ragheb, A. M.; Esmail, M. A.; Fathallah, H.; Qureshi, K. K.; Alshebeili, S.; Khan, M. Z. M.

      2018-03-01

      The next generation of optical access communication networks that support 100 Gbps and beyond, require advances in modulation schemes, spectrum utilization, new transmission bands, and efficient devices, particularly laser diodes. In this paper, we investigated the viability of new-class of InAs/InP Quantum-dash laser diode (Qdash-LD) exhibiting multiple longitudinal light modes in the L-band to carry high-speed data rate for access network applications. We exploited external and self injection-locking techniques on Qdash-LD to generate large number of stable and tunable locked modes, and compared them. To stem the capability of each locked mode as a potential subcarrier, data transmission is carried out over two mediums; single mode fiber (SMF) and free space optics (FSO) to emulate real deployment scenarios of optical networks. The results showed that with external-injection locking (EIL), an error-free transmission of 100 Gbps dual polarization quadrature phase shift keying (DP-QPSK) signal is demonstrated over 10 km SMF and 4 m indoor FSO channels, with capability of reaching up to 128 Gbps, demonstrated under back-to-back (BTB) configuration. On the other hand, using self-injection locking (SIL) scheme, a successful data transmission of 64 Gbps and 128 Gbps DP-QPSK signal over 20 km SMF and 10 m indoor FSO links, respectively, is achieved.

    1. The development of the room temperature LWIR HgCdTe detectors for free space optics communication systems

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Martyniuk, Piotr; Gawron, Waldemar; Mikołajczyk, Janusz

      2017-10-01

      There are many room temperature applications to include free space optics (FSO) communication system combining quantum cascade lasers sources where HgCdTe long-wave (8-12 micrometer) infrared radiation (LWIR) detector reaching ultrafast response time < 1 ns and nearly background limited infrared photodetection (BLIP) condition are implemented. Both nearly BLIP detectivity and ultra-response time stay in contradiction in detector's optimization process. That issue could be circumvented by implementation of the hyperhemispherical GaAs immersion lens into structure to increase optical to electrical area ratio giving flexibility in terms of response time optimization. The optimization approach depends on voltage condition. The generation - recombination (GR) mechanism within active layer was found to be important for forward and weak reverse conditions while photogenerated carrier transport is significant for higher reverse bias. Except of applied voltage, the drift time strongly depends on thickness of the absorption region. Reducing the thickness of the active region, the short drift times could be reached, but that solution significantly reduces quantum efficiency and lowers detectivity. Taking that into consideration a special multilayer heterostructure designs are developed. The p-type absorber is promising due to both high ambipolar mobility and low thermal GR driven by the Auger 7 mechanism. Theoretical simulations indicate that depending on bias condition and T = 300 K the multilayer barrier LWIR HgCdTe structure could reach response time below < 100 ps while biased and <= 1 ns while unbiased. Immersed detectivity reaches > 109 cmHz1/2/W. Since commercially available FSO could operate separately in SWIR, MWIR and LWIR range - the dual band detectors should be implemented into FSO. This paper shows theoretical performance of the dual band back-to-back MWIR and LWIR HgCdTe detector operating at 300 K pointing out the MWIR active layer influence on LWIR operating

    2. High bandwidth underwater optical communication.

      PubMed

      Hanson, Frank; Radic, Stojan

      2008-01-10

      We report error-free underwater optical transmission measurements at 1 Gbit/s (10(9) bits/s) over a 2 m path in a laboratory water pipe with up to 36 dB of extinction. The source at 532 nm was derived from a 1064 nm continuous-wave laser diode that was intensity modulated, amplified, and frequency doubled in periodically poled lithium niobate. Measurements were made over a range of extinction by the addition of a Mg(OH)(2) and Al(OH)(3) suspension to the water path, and we were not able to observe any evidence of temporal pulse broadening. Results of Monte Carlo simulations over ocean water paths of several tens of meters indicate that optical communication data rates >1 Gbit/s can be supported and are compatible with high-capacity data transfer applications that require no physical contact.

    3. Advanced optical fiber communication systems

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Kazovsky, Leonid G.

      1994-03-01

      Our research is focused on three major aspects of advanced optical fiber communication systems: dynamic wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) networks, fiber nonlinearities, and high dynamic range coherent analog optical links. In the area of WDM networks, we have designed and implemented two high-speed interface boards and measured their throughput and latency. Furthermore, we designed and constructed an experimental PSK/ASK transceiver that simultaneously transmits packet-switched ASK data and circuit-switched PSK data on the same optical carrier. In the area of fiber nonlinearities, we investigated the theoretical impact of modulation frequency on cross-phase modulation (XPM) in dispersive fibers. In the area of high dynamic range coherent analog optical links, we developed theoretical expressions for the RF power transfer ratio (or RF power gain) and the noise figure (NF) of angle-modulated links. We then compared the RF power gains and noise figures of these links to that of an intensity modulated direct detection (DD) link.

    4. Studies of pointing, acquisition, and tracking of agile optical wireless transceivers for free-space optical communication networks

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Ho, Tzung-Hsien; Trisno, Sugianto; Smolyaninov, Igor I.; Milner, Stuart D.; Davis, Christopher C.

      2004-02-01

      Free space, dynamic, optical wireless communications will require topology control for optimization of network performance. Such networks may need to be configured for bi- or multiple-connectedness, reliability and quality-of-service. Topology control involves the introduction of new links and/or nodes into the network to achieve such performance objectives through autonomous reconfiguration as well as precise pointing, acquisition, tracking, and steering of laser beams. Reconfiguration may be required because of link degradation resulting from obscuration or node loss. As a result, the optical transceivers may need to be re-directed to new or existing nodes within the network and tracked on moving nodes. The redirection of transceivers may require operation over a whole sphere, so that small-angle beam steering techniques cannot be applied. In this context, we are studying the performance of optical wireless links using lightweight, bi-static transceivers mounted on high-performance stepping motor driven stages. These motors provide an angular resolution of 0.00072 degree at up to 80,000 steps per second. This paper focuses on the performance characteristics of these agile transceivers for pointing, acquisition, and tracking (PAT), including the influence of acceleration/deceleration time, motor angular speed, and angular re-adjustment, on latency and packet loss in small free space optical (FSO) wireless test networks.

    5. High bandwidth electro-optic technology for intersatellite optical communications

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Krainak, Michael A.

      1992-01-01

      The research and development of electronic and electro-optic components for geosynchronous and low earth orbiting satellite optical high bandwidth communications at the NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center is reviewed. Intersatellite optical communications retains a strong reliance on microwave circuit technology in several areas - the microwave to optical interface, the laser transmitter modulation driver and the optical receiver. A microwave to optical interface is described requiring high bandwidth electronic downconverters and demodulators. Electrical bandwidth and current drive requirements for the laser modulation driver for three laser alternatives are discussed. Bandwidth and noise requirements are presented for optical receiver architectures.

    6. Analysis of InP-based QCLs designed for application in optical transmitter of free-space optics

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Pierscinski, Kamil; Mikołajczyk, Janusz; Szabra, Dariusz; Pierścińska, Dorota; Gutowski, Piotr; Bielecki, Zbigniew; Bugajski, Maciej

      2017-10-01

      In this paper, the study of AlInAs/InGaAs/InP Quantum Cascade Lasers application in Free Space Optical data link is performed. Implementation of such FSO link operated in long-wavelength infrared (LWIR: 8-12 μm) will be unique for construction of so-called RF/FSO hybrid communication system. The range of longer wavelengths provides better data transfer performance in the case of severe weather conditions, especially, fog, low haze or air turbulence. In the frame of this work, series of QCLs for application in FSO system were examined. They are characterized by different geometries and constructions towards best performance in optical link systems operated in the wavelength range of 8-12 μm. The preliminary test of QCLs included electrical measurements of pulsed light-current-voltage characteristics and time-resolved spectra. The obtained results made it possible to determine operation point for FSO. Their modulation performances were tested using the laboratory laser drivers. Based on measurements, both power and time parameters of QCLs pulses were investigated. These results defined critical values for FSO system. The second part of the analysis concerned the spatial parameters of QCLs radiation. Knowledge of spatial characteristics of emission is vital for FSO optics construction. To characterize spatial properties of beams, far-field patterns of emission were registered. Finally, the obtained results made it possible to optimize the optical transmitter construction and further performance of FSO laboratory model. This research was supported by The Polish National Centre for Research and Development grant DOB-BIO8/01/01/2016.

    7. All-optical two-way relaying free-space optical communications for HAP-based broadband backhaul networks

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Vu, Minh Q.; Nguyen, Nga T. T.; Pham, Hien T. T.; Dang, Ngoc T.

      2018-03-01

      High-altitude platforms (HAPs) are flexible, non-pollutant and cost-effective infrastructures compared to satellite or old terrestrial systems. They are being researched and developed widely in Europe, USA, Japan, Korea, and so on. However, the current limited data rates and the overload of radio frequency (RF) spectrum are problems which the developers for HAPs are confronting because most of them use RF links to communicate with the ground stations (GSs) or each other. In this paper, we propose an all-optical two-way half-duplex relaying free-space optical (FSO) communication for HAP-based backhaul networks, which connect the base transceiver station (BTS) to the core network (CN) via a single HAP. Our proposed backhaul solution can be deployed quickly and flexibly for disaster relief and for serving users in both urban environments and remote areas. The key subsystem of HAP is an optical regenerate-and-forward (ORF) equipped with an optical hard-limiter (OHL) and an optical XOR gate to perform all-optical processing and help mitigate the background noise. In addition, two-way half-duplex relaying can be provided thanks to the use of network coding scheme. The closed-form expression for the bit error rate (BER) of our proposed system under the effect of path loss, atmospheric turbulence, and noise induced by the background light is formulated. The numerical results are demonstrated to prove the feasibility of our proposed system with the verification by using Monte-Carlo (M-C) simulations.

    8. Integrating free-space optical communication links with existing WiFi (WiFO) network

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Liverman, S.; Wang, Q.; Chu, Y.; Duong, T.; Nguyen-Huu, D.; Wang, S.; Nguyen, T.; Wang, A. X.

      2016-02-01

      Recently, free-space optical (FSO) systems have generated great interest due to their large bandwidth potential and a line-of-sight physical layer of protection. In this paper, we propose WiFO, a novel hybrid system, FSO downlink and WiFi uplink, which will integrate currently available WiFi infrastructure with inexpensive infrared light emitting diodes. This system takes full advantage of the mobility inherent in WiFi networks while increasing the downlink bandwidth available to each end user. We report the results of our preliminary investigation that show the capabilities of our prototype design in terms of bandwidth, bit error rates, delays and transmission distances.

    9. Capacity of MIMO free space optical communications using multiple partially coherent beams propagation through non-Kolmogorov strong turbulence.

      PubMed

      Deng, Peng; Kavehrad, Mohsen; Liu, Zhiwen; Zhou, Zhou; Yuan, Xiuhua

      2013-07-01

      We study the average capacity performance for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) free-space optical (FSO) communication systems using multiple partially coherent beams propagating through non-Kolmogorov strong turbulence, assuming equal gain combining diversity configuration and the sum of multiple gamma-gamma random variables for multiple independent partially coherent beams. The closed-form expressions of scintillation and average capacity are derived and then used to analyze the dependence on the number of independent diversity branches, power law α, refractive-index structure parameter, propagation distance and spatial coherence length of source beams. Obtained results show that, the average capacity increases more significantly with the increase in the rank of MIMO channel matrix compared with the diversity order. The effect of the diversity order on the average capacity is independent of the power law, turbulence strength parameter and spatial coherence length, whereas these effects on average capacity are gradually mitigated as the diversity order increases. The average capacity increases and saturates with the decreasing spatial coherence length, at rates depending on the diversity order, power law and turbulence strength. There exist optimal values of the spatial coherence length and diversity configuration for maximizing the average capacity of MIMO FSO links over a variety of atmospheric turbulence conditions.

    10. Airborne Visible Laser Optical Communications Program (AVLOC)

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Ward, J. H.

      1975-01-01

      The design, development, and operation of airborne and ground-based laser communications and laser radar hardware is described in support of the Airborne Visible Laser Optical Communication program. The major emphasis is placed on the development of a highly flexible test bed for the evaluation of laser communications systems techniques and components in an operational environment.

    11. Fiber Optic Communications Technology. A Status Report.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Hull, Joseph A.

      Fiber optic communications (communications over very pure glass transmission channels of diameter comparable to a human hair) is an emerging technology which promises most improvements in communications capacity at reasonable cost. The fiber transmission system offers many desirable characteristics representing improvements over conventional…

    12. SER Analysis of MPPM-Coded MIMO-FSO System over Uncorrelated and Correlated Gamma-Gamma Atmospheric Turbulence Channels

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Khallaf, Haitham S.; Garrido-Balsells, José M.; Shalaby, Hossam M. H.; Sampei, Seiichi

      2015-12-01

      The performance of multiple-input multiple-output free space optical (MIMO-FSO) communication systems, that adopt multipulse pulse position modulation (MPPM) techniques, is analyzed. Both exact and approximate symbol-error rates (SERs) are derived for both cases of uncorrelated and correlated channels. The effects of background noise, receiver shot-noise, and atmospheric turbulence are taken into consideration in our analysis. The random fluctuations of the received optical irradiance, produced by the atmospheric turbulence, is modeled by the widely used gamma-gamma statistical distribution. Uncorrelated MIMO channels are modeled by the α-μ distribution. A closed-form expression for the probability density function of the optical received irradiance is derived for the case of correlated MIMO channels. Using our analytical expressions, the degradation of the system performance with the increment of the correlation coefficients between MIMO channels is corroborated.

    13. Optical Filter Assembly for Interplanetary Optical Communications

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Chen, Yijiang; Hemmati, Hamid

      2013-01-01

      Ground-based, narrow-band, high throughput optical filters are required for optical links from deep space. We report on the development of a tunable filter assembly that operates at telecommunication window of 1550 nanometers. Low insertion loss of 0.5 decibels and bandwidth of 90 picometers over a 2000 nanometers operational range of detectors has been achieved.

    14. Optical smart card using semipassive communication.

      PubMed

      Glaser, I; Green, Shlomo; Dimkov, Ilan

      2006-03-15

      An optical secure short-range communication system is presented. The mobile unit (optical smart card) of this system utilizes a retroreflector with an optical modulator, using light from the stationary unit; this mobile unit has very low power consumption and can be as small as a credit card. Such optical smart cards offer better security than RF-based solutions, yet do not require physical contact. Results from a feasibility study model are included.

    15. Optical smart card using semipassive communication

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Glaser, I.; Green, Shlomo; Dimkov, Ilan

      2006-03-01

      An optical secure short-range communication system is presented. The mobile unit (optical smart card) of this system utilizes a retroreflector with an optical modulator, using light from the stationary unit; this mobile unit has very low power consumption and can be as small as a credit card. Such optical smart cards offer better security than RF-based solutions, yet do not require physical contact. Results from a feasibility study model are included.

    16. Debunking the recurring myth of a magic wavelength for free-space optics

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Korevaar, Eric J.; Kim, Isaac I.; McArthur, Bruce

      2002-12-01

      Free-Space Optics (FSO) is a proven, reliable technology for last mile telecommunications applications, used worldwide for both enterprise network building-to-building connections and for wireless access to more traditional land line communications networks. In most mid-latitude coastal cities, link availability at distances above a few hundred meters is primarily affected by fog and low clouds. At longer distances, heavy rain and snow can also affect the link. The most mature technology used in FSO equipment relies on low cost semiconductor lasers or LED"s operating in the near infrared at wavelengths of 785 nm or 850 nm. In the past few years, systems operating at 1550 nm have also been developed. At first the vendors of these systems claimed that the 1550 nm wavelength had better propagation characteristics in severe weather than the 785 nm wavelength. With further analysis and research, those claims were withdrawn. Now there are claims that even longer wavelengths near 10 microns will solve the FSO link availability issues associated with severe weather. Hype about such magic wavelengths for FSO is both a disservice to the investors who will lose the money they are investing based on exaggerated claims, and to the rest of the FSO industry which should be creating realistic expectations for the capability of its equipment. In the weather conditions which normally cause the highest attenuation for FSO systems, namely coastal fog and low clouds, 10 microns offers no propagation advantage over shorter wavelengths.

    17. A Geosynchronous Orbit Optical Communications Relay Architecture

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Edwards, Bernard L.; Israel, David J.

      2014-01-01

      NASA is planning to fly a Next Generation Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) next decade. While the requirements and architecture for that satellite are unknown at this time, NASA is investing in communications technologies that could be deployed on the satellite to provide new communications services. One of those new technologies is optical communications. The Laser Communications Relay Demonstration (LCRD) project, scheduled for launch in December 2017 as a hosted payload on a commercial communications satellite, is a critical pathfinder towards NASA providing optical communications services on the Next Generation TDRS. While it is obvious that a small to medium sized optical communications terminal could be flown on a GEO satellite to provide support to Near Earth missions, it is also possible to deploy a large terminal on the satellite to support Deep Space missions. Onboard data processing and Delay Tolerant Networking (DTN) are two additional technologies that could be used to optimize optical communications link services and enable additional mission and network operations. This paper provides a possible architecture for the optical communications augmentation of a Next Generation TDRS and touches on the critical technology work currently being done at NASA. It will also describe the impact of clouds on such an architecture and possible mitigation techniques.

    18. Full-duplex optical communication system

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Shay, Thomas M. (Inventor); Hazzard, David A. (Inventor); Horan, Stephen (Inventor); Payne, Jason A. (Inventor)

      2004-01-01

      A method of full-duplex electromagnetic communication wherein a pair of data modulation formats are selected for the forward and return data links respectively such that the forward data electro-magnetic beam serves as a carrier for the return data. A method of encoding optical information is used wherein right-hand and left-hand circular polarizations are assigned to optical information to represent binary states. An application for an earth to low earth orbit optical communications system is presented which implements the full-duplex communication and circular polarization keying modulation format.

    19. The wavefront compensation of free space optics utilizing micro corner-cube-reflector arrays

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      You, Shengzui; Yang, Guowei; Li, Changying; Bi, Meihua; Fan, Bing

      2018-01-01

      The wavefront compensation effect of micro corner-cube-reflector arrays (MCCRAs) in modulating retroreflector (MRR) free-space optical (FSO) link is investigated theoretically and experimentally. Triangular aperture of MCCRAs has been optically characterized and studied in an indoor atmospheric turbulence channel. The use of the MCCRAs instead of a single corner-cube reflector (CCR) as the reflective device is found to improve dramatically the quality of the reflected beam spot. We draw a conclusion that the MCCRAs can in principle yield a powerful wavefront compensation in MRR FSO communication links.

    20. An experimental performance evaluation of the hybrid FSO/RF

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Touati, Abir; Touati, Farid; Abdaoui, Abderrazak; Khandakar, Amith; Hussain, Syed Jawad; Bouallegue, Ammar

      2017-02-01

      This paper is a first attempt to study the effects of atmospheric turbulences on hybrid free space optics/ radio frequency (FSO/RF) transmission system in Doha, Qatar. The state of Qatar is characterized by a Mediterranean climate with hot and dry summers with modest cloud coverage highly affected by airborne dust. Due to its sensitivity to atmospheric turbulences, throughout this study, we try to demonstrate the working capabilities of FSO technology as well as to promote an understanding of this technology amongst the countries of the gulf cooperation council (GCC). Moreover, we studied the behavior of RF link during the same period. In order to analyze the transport media, two transmitting subsystems are employed and installed at Qatar University (QU) at two different buildings separated by a distance of 600 m. Each system is composed of a FSO and RF terminal. We have ported an Embedded Linux kernel on Micro-blaze processor build in Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). Then, we have designed a network sniffer application that can run on the FPGA board. The measurements from the network sniffer applications were carried out during summer season from June up to September 2015. The relation between the measurements and the atmospheric factors, taken from a weather station installed at QU, were also found.

    1. Resonant tunneling diode oscillators for optical communications

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Watson, Scott; Zhang, Weikang; Wang, Jue; Al-Khalidi, Abdullah; Cantu, Horacio; Figueiredo, Jose; Wasige, Edward; Kelly, Anthony E.

      2017-08-01

      The ability to use resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) as both transmitters and receivers is an emerging topic, especially with regards to wireless communications. Successful data transmission has been achieved using electronic RTDs with carrier frequencies exceeding 0.3 THz. Specific optical-based RTDs, which act as photodetectors, have been developed by adjusting the device structure to include a light absorption layer and small optical windows on top of the device to allow direct optical access. This also allows the optical signal to directly modulate the RTD oscillation. Both types of RTD oscillators will allow for seamless integration of high frequency radio and optical fiber networks.

    2. Experimental Investigation of Acousto-Optic Communications

      DTIC Science & Technology

      2003-09-01

      acousto - optic sensor shows promise as a means for detecting acoustic data projected towards the water surface from a submerged platform. The laser...simulation studies were conducted to demonstrate acousto - optic sensor feasibility for obtaining robust recordings of acoustic communication signals across

    3. Four-Mode Squeezing For Optical Communications

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Schumaker, Bonny L.

      1989-01-01

      Experiments demonstrated potential of four-mode squeezing for increasing immunity to noise in fiber-optical communication systems and interferometric devices. Four-mode squeezing reduces quantum noise more than ordinary squeezing and provides partial immunity to non-quantum-mechanical phase noise arising in such media as optical fibers.

    4. Atmospheric propagation issues relevant to optical communications

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Churnside, James H.; Shaik, Kamran

      1989-01-01

      Atmospheric propagation issues relevant to space-to-ground optical communications for near-earth applications are studied. Propagation effects, current optical communication activities, potential applications, and communication techniques are surveyed. It is concluded that a direct-detection space-to-ground link using redundant receiver sites and temporal encoding is likely to be employed to transmit earth-sensing satellite data to the ground some time in the future. Low-level, long-term studies of link availability, fading statistics, and turbulence climatology are recommended to support this type of application.

    5. Laser-based satellite communication systems stabilized by non-mechanical electro-optic scanners

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Ziemkiewicz, Michael; Davis, Scott R.; Rommel, Scott D.; Gann, Derek; Luey, Benjamin; Gamble, Joseph D.; Anderson, Mike

      2016-05-01

      Laser communications systems provide numerous advantages for establishing satellite-to-ground data links. As a carrier for information, lasers are characterized by high bandwidth and directionality, allowing for fast and secure transfer of data. These systems are also highly resistant to RF influences since they operate in the infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, far from radio bands. In this paper we will discuss an entirely non-mechanical electro-optic (EO) laser beam steering technology, with no moving parts, which we have used to form robust 400 Mbps optical data connections through air. This technology will enable low cost, compact, and rugged free space optical (FSO) communication modules for small satellite applications. The EO beam-steerer at the heart of this system is used to maintain beam pointing as the satellite orbits. It is characterized by extremely low values for size, weight and power consumption (SWaP) - approximately 300 cm3, 300 g, and 5 W respectively, which represents a marked improvement compared to heavy, and power-consuming gimbal mechanisms. It is capable of steering a 500 mW, 1 mm short wave infrared (SWIR) beam over a field of view (FOV) of up to 50° x 15°, a range which can be increased by adding polarization gratings, which provide a coarse adjust stage at the EO beam scanner output. We have integrated this device into a communication system and demonstrated the capability to lock on and transmit a high quality data stream by modulation of SWIR power.

    6. Power efficient optical communications for space applications

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Lesh, J. R.

      1982-01-01

      Optical communications technology promises substantial size, weight and power consumption savings for space to space high data rate communications over presently used microwave technology. These benefits are further increased by making the most efficient use of the available optical signal energy. This presentation will describe the progress to date on a project to design, build and demonstrate in the laboratory an optical communication system capable of conveying 2.5 bits of information per effective received photon. Such high power efficiencies will reduce the need for photon collection at the receiver and will greatly reduce the requirements for optical pointing accuracy, both at the transmitter as well as the receiver. A longer range program to demonstrate even higher photon efficiencies will also be described.

    7. Optical Communication: Its History and Recent Progress

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Agrawal, Govind P.

      This chapter begins with a brief history of optical communication before describing the main components of a modern optical communication system. Specific attention is paid to the development of low-loss optical fibers as they played an essential role after 1975. The evolution of fiber-optic communication systems is described through its six generations over a 40-year time period ranging from 1975 to 2015. The adoption of wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) during the 1990s to meet the demand fueled by the advent of the Internet is discussed together with the bursting of the telecom bubble in 2000. Recent advances brought by digital coherent technology and space-division multiplexing are also described briefly.

    8. Fiber Optic Communication System For Medical Images

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Arenson, Ronald L.; Morton, Dan E.; London, Jack W.

      1982-01-01

      This paper discusses a fiber optic communication system linking ultrasound devices, Computerized tomography scanners, Nuclear Medicine computer system, and a digital fluoro-graphic system to a central radiology research computer. These centrally archived images are available for near instantaneous recall at various display consoles. When a suitable laser optical disk is available for mass storage, more extensive image archiving will be added to the network including digitized images of standard radiographs for comparison purposes and for remote display in such areas as the intensive care units, the operating room, and selected outpatient departments. This fiber optic system allows for a transfer of high resolution images in less than a second over distances exceeding 2,000 feet. The advantages of using fiber optic cables instead of typical parallel or serial communication techniques will be described. The switching methodology and communication protocols will also be discussed.

    9. Study of optimum methods of optical communication

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Harger, R. O.

      1972-01-01

      Optimum methods of optical communication accounting for the effects of the turbulent atmosphere and quantum mechanics, both by the semi-classical method and the full-fledged quantum theoretical model are described. A concerted effort to apply the techniques of communication theory to the novel problems of optical communication by a careful study of realistic models and their statistical descriptions, the finding of appropriate optimum structures and the calculation of their performance and, insofar as possible, comparing them to conventional and other suboptimal systems are discussed. In this unified way the bounds on performance and the structure of optimum communication systems for transmission of information, imaging, tracking, and estimation can be determined for optical channels.

    10. Advanced Optical Fiber Communications Systems

      DTIC Science & Technology

      1994-08-31

      phase locking . The PZT port has a tuning coefficient of 3.4 MHz/V. The time constants of the optical phase - locked loop ( OPLL ) filter’s pole and zero are... with the PSK receiver optical phase -I-ocked loop ( OPLL ). As we increased nz in our experiments, the larger signal fluctuations made it increasingly... lasers , since a phase - locked loop is 114 I not required for the DPSK receiver (unlike

    11. 22 CFR 501.5 - Mid-level FSO Candidate Program (Class 3, 2, or 1).

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

      2010-04-01

      ... Broadcasting Board of Governors, must be knowledgeable in the social, political and cultural history of the U.S... work, supervisory or managerial positions in communications media, program director for a museum or... individual's suitability and capacity for effective service as a Foreign Service Officer. (2) FSO Candidates...

    12. Technology Development for High Efficiency Optical Communications

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Farr, William H.

      2012-01-01

      Deep space optical communications is a significantly more challenging operational domain than near Earth space optical communications, primarily due to effects resulting from the vastly increased range between transmitter and receiver. The NASA Game Changing Development Program Deep Space Optical Communications Project is developing four key technologies for the implementation of a high efficiency telecommunications system that will enable greater than 10X the data rate of a state-of-the-art deep space RF system (Ka-band) for similar transceiver mass and power burden on the spacecraft. These technologies are a low mass spacecraft disturbance isolation assembly, a flight qualified photon counting detector array, a high efficiency flight laser amplifier and a high efficiency photon counting detector array for the ground-based receiver.

    13. Maximizing the security of chaotic optical communications.

      PubMed

      Hou, T T; Yi, L L; Yang, X L; Ke, J X; Hu, Y; Yang, Q; Zhou, P; Hu, W S

      2016-10-03

      The practical application of chaotic optical communications has been limited by two aspects: the difficulty in concealing the time delay - a critical security parameter in feedback chaotic systems, and the difficulty of significantly enlarging the key space without complicating the implementation. Here we propose an architecture to break the above limits. By introducing a frequency-dependent group delay module with frequency tuning resolution of 1 MHz into the chaotic feedback loop, we demonstrate excellent time delay concealment effect, and an additional huge key space of 1048 can be achieved at the same time. The effectiveness is proved by both numerical simulation and experiment. Besides, the proposed scheme is compatible with the existing commercial optical communication systems, thus pave the way for high-speed secure optical communications.

    14. Fiber-Coupled Wide Field of View Optical Receiver for High Speed Space Communication

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Suddath, Shannon N.

      Research groups at NASA Glenn Research Center are interested in improving data rates on the International Space Station (ISS) using a free-space optical (FSO) link. However, known flexure of the ISS structure is expected to cause misalignment of the FSO link. Passive-control designs for mitigating misalignment are under investigation, including using a fiber-bundle for improved field of view. The designs must overcome the obstacle of coupling directly to fiber, rather than a photodetector, as NASA will maintain the use of small form-factor pluggable optical transceivers (SFPs) in the ISS network. In this thesis, a bundle-based receiver capable of coupling directly to fiber is designed, simulated, and tested in lab. Two 3-lens systems were evaluated for power performance in the lab, one with a 20 mm focal length aspheric lens and the other with a 50 mm focal length aspheric lens. The maximum output power achieved was 8 muW.

    15. Polarization division multiplexing for optical data communications

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Ivanovich, Darko; Powell, Samuel B.; Gruev, Viktor; Chamberlain, Roger D.

      2018-02-01

      Multiple parallel channels are ubiquitous in optical communications, with spatial division multiplexing (separate physical paths) and wavelength division multiplexing (separate optical wavelengths) being the most common forms. Here, we investigate the viability of polarization division multiplexing, the separation of distinct parallel optical communication channels through the polarization properties of light. Two or more linearly polarized optical signals (at different polarization angles) are transmitted through a common medium, filtered using aluminum nanowire optical filters fabricated on-chip, and received using individual silicon photodetectors (one per channel). The entire receiver (including optics) is compatible with standard CMOS fabrication processes. The filter model is based upon an input optical signal formed as the sum of the Stokes vectors for each individual channel, transformed by the Mueller matrix that models the filter proper, resulting in an output optical signal that impinges on each photodiode. The results show that two- and three-channel systems can operate with a fixed-threshold comparator in the receiver circuit, but four-channel systems (and larger) will require channel coding of some form. For example, in the four-channel system, 10 of 16 distinct bit patterns are separable by the receiver. The model supports investigation of the range of variability tolerable in the fabrication of the on-chip polarization filters.

    16. Atmospheric Propagation Effects Relevant to Optical Communications

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Shaik, K. S.

      1988-01-01

      A number of atmospheric phenomena affect the propagation of light. This article reviews the effects of clear-air turbulence as well as atmospheric turbidity on optical communications. Among the phenomena considered are astronomical and random refraction, scintillation, beam broadening, spatial coherence, angle of arrival, aperture averaging, absorption and scattering, and the effect of opaque clouds. An extensive reference list is also provided for further study, Useful information on the atmospheric propagation of light in resolution to optical deep-space communications to an earth-based receiving station is available, however, further data must be generated before such a link can be designed with committed performance.

    17. Atmospheric propagation effects relevant to optical communications

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Shaik, K. S.

      1988-01-01

      A number of atmospheric phenomena affect the propagation of light. The effects of clear air turbulence are reviewed as well as atmospheric turbidity on optical communications. Among the phenomena considered are astronomical and random refraction, scintillation, beam broadening, spatial coherence, angle of arrival, aperture averaging, absorption and scattering, and the effect of opaque clouds. An extensive reference list is also provided for further study. Useful information on the atmospheric propagation of light in relation to optical deep space communications to an earth based receiving station is available, however, further data must be generated before such a link can be designed with committed performance.

    18. Advanced Optical Fiber Communication Systems.

      DTIC Science & Technology

      1993-02-28

      feedback (DFB) laser and a fiber Fabry - Perot (FFP) interferometer for optical frequency discrimination. After the photodetector and amplification, a...filter, an envelope detector, and an integrator; these three components function in tandem as a phase demodulator . We have analyzed the nonlinearities...down-converter and FSK demodulator extract the desired video signals. The measured carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR) at the photodiode must be approximately

    19. Positioning and tracking control system analysis for mobile free space optical network

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Li, Yushan; Refai, Hazem; Sluss, , James J., Jr.; Verma, Pramode; LoPresti, Peter

      2005-08-01

      Free Space Optical (FSO) communication has evolved to be applied to the mobile network, because it can provide up to 2.5Gbps or higher data rate wireless communication. One of the key challenges with FSO systems is to maintain the Line of Sight (LOS) between transmitter and receiver. In this paper, the feasibility and performance of applying the FSO technology to the mobile network is explored, and the design plan of the attitude positioning and tracking control system of the FSO transceiver is investigated. First, the system architecture is introduced, the requirements for the control system are analyzed, the involved reference frames and frame transformation are presented. Second, the control system bandwidth is used to evaluate the system performance in controlling a positioning system consisting of a gimbal and a steering mirror, some definitions to describe the positioning accuracy and tracking capacity are given. The attitude control of a FSO transceiver is split into 2 similar channels: pitch and yaw. Using an equivalent linear control system model, the simulations are carried out, with and without the presence of uncertainties that includes GPS data errors and sensor measurement errors. Finally, based on the simulation results in the pitch channel, the quantitative evaluation on the performance of the control system is given, including positioning accuracy, tracking capability and uncertainty tolerance.

    20. Free-space optical channel simulator for weak-turbulence conditions.

      PubMed

      Bykhovsky, Dima

      2015-11-01

      Free-space optical (FSO) communication may be severely influenced by the inevitable turbulence effect that results in channel gain fluctuations and fading. The objective of this paper is to provide a simple and effective simulator of the weak-turbulence FSO channel that emulates the influence of the temporal covariance effect. Specifically, the proposed model is based on lognormal distributed samples with a corresponding correlation time. The simulator is based on the solution of the first-order stochastic differential equation (SDE). The results of the provided SDE analysis reveal its efficacy for turbulent channel modeling.

    1. An underwater optical wireless communication network

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Arnon, Shlomi

      2009-08-01

      The growing need for underwater observation and sub-sea monitoring systems has stimulated considerable interest in advancing the enabling technologies of underwater wireless communication and underwater sensor networks. This communication technology is expected to play an important role in investigating climate change, in monitoring biological, bio-geochemical, evolutionary and ecological changes in the sea, ocean and lake environments and in helping to control and maintain oil production facilities and harbors using unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs), submarines, ships, buoys, and divers. However, the present technology of underwater acoustic communication cannot provide the high data rate required to investigate and monitor these environments and facilities. Optical wireless communication has been proposed as the best alternative to meet this challenge. We present models of three kinds of optical wireless communication links a) a line-of-sight link, b) a modulating retro-reflector link and c) a reflective link, all of which can provide the required data rate. We analyze the link performance based on these models. From the analysis, it is clear that as the water absorption increases, the communication performance decreases dramatically for the three link types. However, by using the scattered lighted it was possible to mitigate this decrease in some cases. We conclude from the analysis that a high data rate underwater optical wireless network is a feasible solution for emerging applications such as UUV to UUV links and networks of sensors, and extended ranges in these applications could be achieved by applying a multi-hop concept.

    2. Interference-Assisted Techniques for Transmission and Multiple Access in Optical Communications

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Guan, Xun

      Optical communications can be in wired or wireless form. Fiber optics communication (FOC) connects transmitters and receivers with optical fiber. Benefiting from its high bandwidth, low cost per volume and stability, it gains a significant market share in long-haul networks, access networks and data centers. Meanwhile, optical wireless communication (OWC) is also emerging as a crucial player in the communication market. In OWC, free-space optical communication (FSO) and visible light communication (VLC) are being studied and commercially deployed extensively. Interference is a common phenomenon in multi-user communication systems. In both FOC and OWC, interference has long been treated as a detrimental effect. However, it could also be beneficial to system applications. The effort of harnessing interference has spurred numerous innovations. Interesting examples are physical-layer network coding (PNC) and non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA). The first part of this thesis in on the topic of PNC. PNC was firstly proposed in wireless communication to improve the throughput of a two-way relay network (TWRN). As a variation of network coding (NC), PNC turns the common channel interference (CCI) as a natural network coding operation. In this thesis, PNC is introduced into optical communication. Three schemes are proposed in different scenarios. Firstly, PNC is applied to a coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (CO-OFDM) system so as to improve the throughput of the multicast network. The optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) penalty is quite low. Secondly, we investigate the application of PNC in an OFDM passive optical network (OFDM-PON) supporting heterogeneous services. It is found that only minor receiver power penalties are observed to realize PNC-based virtual private networks (VPN), both in the wired service part and the wireless service part in an OFDM-PON with heterogeneous services. Thirdly, we innovate relay-based visible light

    3. Heterodyne efficiency of a coherent free-space optical communication model through atmospheric turbulence.

      PubMed

      Ren, Yongxiong; Dang, Anhong; Liu, Ling; Guo, Hong

      2012-10-20

      The heterodyne efficiency of a coherent free-space optical (FSO) communication model under the effects of atmospheric turbulence and misalignment is studied in this paper. To be more general, both the transmitted beam and local oscillator beam are assumed to be partially coherent based on the Gaussian Schell model (GSM). By using the derived analytical form of the cross-spectral function of a GSM beam propagating through atmospheric turbulence, a closed-form expression of heterodyne efficiency is derived, assuming that the propagation directions for the transmitted and local oscillator beams are slightly different. Then the impacts of atmospheric turbulence, configuration of the two beams (namely, beam radius and spatial coherence width), detector radius, and misalignment angle over heterodyne efficiency are examined. Numerical results suggest that the beam radius of the two overlapping beams can be optimized to achieve a maximum heterodyne efficiency according to the turbulence conditions and the detector radius. It is also found that atmospheric turbulence conditions will significantly degrade the efficiency of heterodyne detection, and compared to fully coherent beams, partially coherent beams are less sensitive to the changes in turbulence conditions and more robust against misalignment at the receiver.

    4. Optical data communication: fundamentals and future directions

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      DeCusatis, Casimer M.

      1998-12-01

      An overview of optical data communications is provided, beginning with a brief history and discussion of the unique requirements that distinguish this subfield from related areas such as telecommunications. Each of the major datacom standards is then discussed, including the physical layer specification, distances and data rates, fiber and connector types, data frame structures, and network considerations. These standards can be categorized by their prevailing applications, either storage [Enterprise System Connection, Fiber Channel Connection, and Fiber Channel], coupling (Fiber Channel), or networking [Fiber Distributed Data Interface, Gigabit Ethernet, and asynchronous transfer mode/synchronous optical network]. We also present some emerging technologies and their applications, including parallel optical interconnects, plastic optical fiber, wavelength multiplexing, and free- space optical links. We conclude with some cost/performance trade-offs and predictions of future bandwidth trends.

    5. Education kits for fiber optics, optoelectronics, and optical communications

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Hájek, Martin; Švrček, Miroslav

      2007-04-01

      Our company MIKROKOM, s.r.o. is engaged for many years in development of education equipment and kits for fiber optics, optoelectronics and optical communications. We would like to inform competitors of conference about results of this long-time development. Requirements on education kits and equipment in a modern and dynamic area as is optical communications and fiber optics are quite difficult. The education kits should to clearly introduce students to given issue - the most important physical principles and technical approaches, but it should to introduce also to new and modern technologies, which are quickly changing and developing. On the other hand should be these tools and kits reasonable for the schools. In our paper we would like to describe possible ways of development of this education kits and equipment and present our results of long-time work, which covers very wide range. On the one hand we developed equipment and kits for clear demonstration of physical effects using plastic optical fibers POF, next we prepare kits with a glass fibers, which are the most used fibers in practice and after as much as the kits, which covers broad range of passive and active elements of the optical networks and systems and which makes possible to create complex optical transmission connection. This kind of systems with using corresponding tools and equipment introduce the students to properties, manipulation, measurement and usage of optical fibers, traces and many active and passive components. Furthermore, with using different sorts of optical sources, photodetectors, fiber optics couplers etc., students can get acquainted with all optoelectronics transmission system, which uses different sorts of signals. Special part will be devoted also to effort mentioned before - to implement modern technologies such as e.g. Wavelength Division Multiplex (WDM) into the education kits. Our presentation will inform auditors about development of mentioned education kits and

    6. Space Optical Communications Using Laser Beam Amplification

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Agrawal, Govind

      2015-01-01

      The Space Optical Communications Using Laser Beam Amplification (SOCLBA) project will provide a capability to amplify a laser beam that is received in a modulating retro-reflector (MRR) located in a satellite in low Earth orbit. It will also improve the pointing procedure between Earth and spacecraft terminals. The technology uses laser arrays to strengthen the reflected laser beam from the spacecraft. The results of first year's work (2014) show amplification factors of 60 times the power of the signal beam. MMRs are mirrors that reflect light beams back to the source. In space optical communications, a high-powered laser interrogator beam is directed from the ground to a satellite. Within the satellite, the beam is redirected back to ground using the MMR. In the MMR, the beam passes through modulators, which encode a data signal onto the returning beam. MMRs can be used in small spacecraft for optical communications. The SOCLBA project is significant to NASA and small spacecraft due to its application to CubeSats for optical data transmission to ground stations, as well as possible application to spacecraft for optical data transmission.

    7. Compact Deep-Space Optical Communications Transceiver

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Roberts, W. Thomas; Charles, Jeffrey R.

      2009-01-01

      Deep space optical communication transceivers must be very efficient receivers and transmitters of optical communication signals. For deep space missions, communication systems require high performance well beyond the scope of mere power efficiency, demanding maximum performance in relation to the precious and limited mass, volume, and power allocated. This paper describes the opto-mechanical design of a compact, efficient, functional brassboard deep space transceiver that is capable of achieving megabyte-per-second rates at Mars ranges. The special features embodied to enhance the system operability and functionality, and to reduce the mass and volume of the system are detailed. System tests and performance characteristics are described in detail. Finally, lessons learned in the implementation of the brassboard design and suggestions for improvements appropriate for a flight prototype are covered.

    8. Two-dimensional beam steering using a thermo-optic silicon photonic optical phased array

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Rabinovich, William S.; Goetz, Peter G.; Pruessner, Marcel W.; Mahon, Rita; Ferraro, Mike S.; Park, Doe; Fleet, Erin; DePrenger, Michael J.

      2016-11-01

      Many components for free-space optical (FSO) communication systems have shrunken in size over the last decade. However, the steering systems have remained large and power hungry. Nonmechanical beam steering offers a path to reducing the size of these systems. Optical phased arrays can allow integrated beam steering elements. One of the most important aspects of an optical phased array technology is its scalability to a large number of elements. Silicon photonics can potentially offer this scalability using CMOS foundry techniques. A phased array that can steer in two dimensions using the thermo-optic effect is demonstrated. No wavelength tuning of the input laser is needed and the design allows a simple control system with only two inputs. A benchtop FSO link with the phased array in both transmit and receive mode is demonstrated.

    9. Free space optical communications: coming of age

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Stotts, Larry B.; Stadler, Brian; Lee, Gary

      2008-04-01

      Information superiority, where for the military or business, is the decisive advantage of the 21st Century. While business enjoys the information advantage of robust, high-bandwidth fiber optic connectivity that heavily leverages installed commercial infrastructure and service providers, mobile military forces need the wireless equivalent to leverage that advantage. In other words, an ability to deploy anywhere on the globe and maintain a robust, reliable communications and connectivity infrastructure, equivalent to that enjoyed by a CONUS commercial user, will provide US forces with information superiority. Assured high-data-rate connectivity to the tactical user is the biggest gap in developing and truly exploiting the potential of the information superiority weapon. Though information superiority is much discussed and its potential is well understood, a robust communications network available to the lowest military echelons is not yet an integral part of the force structure, although high data rate RF communications relays, e.g., Tactical Common Data Link, and low data SATCOM, e.g, Ku Spread Spectrum, are deployed and used by the military. This may change with recent advances in laser communications technologies created by the fiber optic communications revolution. This paper will provide a high level overview of the various laser communications programs conducted over the last 30 plus years, and proposed efforts to get these systems finally deployed.

    10. Atmospheric turbulence effects on the performance of a free space optical link employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing.

      PubMed

      Ren, Yongxiong; Huang, Hao; Xie, Guodong; Ahmed, Nisar; Yan, Yan; Erkmen, Baris I; Chandrasekaran, Nivedita; Lavery, Martin P J; Steinhoff, Nicholas K; Tur, Moshe; Dolinar, Samuel; Neifeld, Mark; Padgett, Miles J; Boyd, Robert W; Shapiro, Jeffrey H; Willner, Alan E

      2013-10-15

      We experimentally investigate the performance of an orbital angular momentum (OAM) multiplexed free space optical (FSO) communication link through emulated atmospheric turbulence. The turbulence effects on the crosstalk and system power penalty of the FSO link are characterized. The experimental results show that the power of the transmitted OAM mode will tend to spread uniformly onto the neighboring mode in medium-to-strong turbulence, resulting in severe crosstalk at the receiver. The power penalty is found to exceed 10 dB in a weak-to-medium turbulence condition due to the turbulence-induced crosstalk and power fluctuation of the received signal.

    11. Characterization of dual-polarization LTE radio over a free-space optical turbulence channel.

      PubMed

      Bohata, J; Zvanovec, S; Korinek, T; Mansour Abadi, M; Ghassemlooy, Z

      2015-08-10

      A dual polarization (DP) radio over a free-space optical (FSO) communication link using a long-term evolution (LTE) radio signal is proposed and analyzed under different turbulence channel conditions. Radio signal transmission over the DP FSO channel is experimentally verified by means of error vector magnitude (EVM) statistics. We demonstrate that such a system, employing a 64 quadrature amplitude modulation at the frequency bands of 800 MHz and 2.6 GHz, evinces reliability with <8% of EVM in a turbulent channel. Based on the results, we show that transmitting the LTE signal over the FSO channel is a potential solution for last-mile access or backbone networks, when using multiple-input multiple-output based DP signals.

    12. Radio Science from an Optical Communications Signal

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Moision, Bruce; Asmar, Sami; Oudrhiri, Kamal

      2013-01-01

      NASA is currently developing the capability to deploy deep space optical communications links. This creates the opportunity to utilize the optical link to obtain range, doppler, and signal intensity estimates. These may, in turn, be used to complement or extend the capabilities of current radio science. In this paper we illustrate the achievable precision in estimating range, doppler, and received signal intensity of an non-coherent optical link (the current state-of-the-art for a deep-space link). We provide a joint estimation algorithm with performance close to the bound. We draw comparisons to estimates based on a coherent radio frequency signal, illustrating that large gains in either precision or observation time are possible with an optical link.

    13. Fine pointing control for free-space optical communication

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Portillo, A. A.; Ortiz, G. G.; Racho, C.

      2000-01-01

      Free-Space Optical Communications requires precise, stable laser pointing to maintain operating conditions. This paper also describes the software and hardware implementation of Fine Pointing Control based on the Optical Communications Demonstrator architecture.

    14. Enhancing optical communication with deep neural networks

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Lohani, Sanjaya; Knutson, Erin; Tkach, Sam; Huver, Sean; Glasser, Ryan; Tulane University Collaboration; Deep Science AI Collaboration

      The spatial profile of optical modes may be altered such that they contain nonzero orbital angular momentum (OAM). Laguerre-Gauss (LG) states of light have a helical wavefront and well-defined OAM, and have recently been shown to allow for larger information transfer rates in optical communications as compared to using only Gaussian modes. A primary difficulty, however, is the accurate classification of different OAM optical states, which contain different values of OAM, in the detection stage. The difficulty in this differentiation increases as larger degrees of OAM are used. Here we show the performance of deep neural networks in the simultaneous classification of numerically generated, noisy, Laguerre-Gauss states with OAM value up to 100 can reach near 100% accuracy. This method relies only on the intensity profile of the detected OAM states, avoiding bulky and difficult-to-implement methods that are required to measure the phase profile of the modes in the receiver of the communication platform. This allows for a simplification in the network design and an increase in performance when using states with large degrees of OAM. We anticipate that this approach will allow for significant advances in the development of optical communication technologies. We acknowledge funding from the Louisiana State Board of Regents and Northrop Grumman - NG NEXT.

    15. Optical wireless communication in data centers

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Arnon, Shlomi

      2018-01-01

      In the last decade data centers have become a crucial element in modern human society. However, to keep pace with internet data rate growth, new technologies supporting data center should develop. Integration of optical wireless communication (OWC) in data centers is one of the proposed technologies as augmented technology to the fiber network. One implementation of the OWC technology is deployment of optical wireless transceiver on top of the existing cable/fiber network as extension to the top of rack (TOR) switch; in this way, a dynamic and flexible network is created. Optical wireless communication could reduce energy consumption, increase the data rate, reduce the communication latency, increase flexibility and scalability, and reduce maintenance time and cost, in comparison to extra fiber network deployment. In this paper we review up to date literature in the field, propose an implementation scheme of OWC network, discuss ways to reduce energy consumption by parallel link communication and report preliminary measurement result of university data center environment.

    16. Daytime adaptive optics for deep space optical communications

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Wilson, Keith; Troy, M.; Srinivasan, M.; Platt, B.; Vilnrotter, V.; Wright, M.; Garkanian, V.; Hemmati, H.

      2003-01-01

      The deep space optical communications subsystem offers a higher bandwidth communications link in smaller size, lower mass, and lower power consumption subsystem than does RF. To demonstrate the benefit of this technology to deep space communications NASA plans to launch an optical telecommunications package on the 2009 Mars Telecommunications orbiter spacecraft. Current performance goals are 30-Mbps from opposition, and 1-Mbps near conjunction (-3 degrees Sun-Earth-Probe angle). Yet, near conjunction the background noise from the day sky will degrade the performance of the optical link. Spectral and spatial filtering and higher modulation formats can mitigate the effects of background sky. Narrowband spectral filters can result in loss of link margin, and higher modulation formats require higher transmitted peak powers. In contrast, spatial filtering at the receiver has the potential of being lossless while providing the required sky background rejection. Adaptive optics techniques can correct wave front aberrations caused by atmospheric turbulence and enable near-diffraction-limited performance of the receiving telescope. Such performance facilitates spatial filtering, and allows the receiver field-of-view and hence the noise from the sky background to be reduced.

    17. Discovery deep space optical communications (DSOC) transceiver

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Roberts, W. Thomas

      2017-02-01

      NASA's 22 cm diameter Deep Space Optical Communications (DSOC) Transceiver is designed to provide a bidirectional optical link between a spacecraft in the inner solar system and an Earth-based optical ground station. This design, optimized for operation across a wide range of illumination conditions, is focused on minimizing blinding from stray light, and providing reliable, accurate attitude information to point its narrow communication beam accurately to the future location of the ground terminal. Though our transceiver will transmit in the 1550 nm waveband and receive in the 1064 nm waveband, the system design relies heavily on reflective optical elements, extending flexibility to be modified for use at different wavebands. The design makes use of common path propagation among transmit, receive and pointing verification optical channels to maintain precise alignment among its components, and to naturally correct for element misalignment resulting from launch or thermal element perturbations. This paper presents the results of trade studies showing the evolution of the design, unique operational characteristics of the design, elements that help to maintain minimal stray light contamination, and preliminary results from development and initial testing of a functional aluminum test model.

    18. QoSLight: a new quality of service FSO software

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Chabane, Mourad; Alnaboulsi, Maher; Sizun, Herve; Bouchet, Olivier

      2003-08-01

      The atmospheric optical links (FSO) in visible and infrared wavelengths constitute an interesting alternative to creation of new transmission channels for the cordless phone, data-processing networks and high definition television. One finds a choice of varied manufacturers and they propose products whose performances are characterized by a raised rate of transmission, from 2 Mbps to 10 Gbps. But the announced ranges are very important, from 100 to 10,000 meters, in spite of the fact that many manufacturers try to indicate the possible ranges according to time, these indications completely miss standardization and are hardly exploitable because, generally, it is very difficult to know the percentage of time during which a value is reached or exceeded. Availability and reliability of a FSO link depend on used systems but also on climatic and atmospheric parameters such as rain, snow or fog. Library search underlined the lack of reliable data to be able to lay down, in a precise way, the statistical availability of such links, like one usually does for the radio transmission. Before to implement an effective FSO links, we need to know their availability and their reliability. It is the purpose of our study. Its finality is a software which integrate (1) Results of a library search (geometrical attenuation, aerosols, scintillation, environment light, etc), (2) English and French integrated surface weather data, hour per hour, over several years (1995-1999). The result is the presentation of this software, "QoSLight" (Quality of Service Light), making it possible to predict; starting from the data of equipment (power, wavelength, receiver sensibility), geographical situation of a site in France or England (geographical coordinates, altitude, height/ground) and climatic and atmospheric parameter (relative humidity, ground rugosity, albedo, solar radiation, etc) the availability of a FSO link for the following period (year, the most unfavourable month, 8am to 8pm period

    19. Affordable underwater wireless optical communication using LEDs

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Pilipenko, Vladimir; Arnon, Shlomi

      2013-09-01

      In recent years the need for high data rate underwater wireless communication (WC) has increased. Nowadays, the conventional technology for underwater communication is acoustic. However, the maximum data rate that acoustic technology can provide is a few kilobits per second. On the other hand, emerging applications such as underwater imaging, networks of sensors and swarms of underwater vehicles require much faster data rates. As a result, underwater optical WC, which can provide much higher data rates, has been proposed as an alternative means of communication. In addition to high data rates, affordable communication systems become an important feature in the development requirements. The outcome of these requirements is a new system design based on off-the-shelf components such as blue and green light emitting diodes (LEDs). This is due to the fact that LEDs offer solutions characterized by low cost, high efficiency, reliability and compactness. However, there are some challenges to be met when incorporating LEDs as part of the optical transmitter, such as low modulation rates and non linearity. In this paper, we review the main challenges facing the incorporation of LEDs as an integral part of underwater WC systems and propose some techniques to mitigate the LED limitations in order to achieve high data rate communication

    20. Map synchronization in optical communication systems

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Gagliardi, R. M.; Mohanty, N.

      1973-01-01

      The time synchronization problem in an optical communication system is approached as a problem of estimating the arrival time (delay variable) of a known transmitted field. Maximum aposteriori (MAP) estimation procedures are used to generate optimal estimators, with emphasis placed on their interpretation as a practical system device, Estimation variances are used to aid in the design of the transmitter signals for best synchronization. Extension is made to systems that perform separate acquisition and tracking operations during synchronization. The closely allied problem of maintaining timing during pulse position modulation is also considered. The results have obvious application to optical radar and ranging systems, as well as the time synchronization problem.

    1. Scalable Optical-Fiber Communication Networks

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Chow, Edward T.; Peterson, John C.

      1993-01-01

      Scalable arbitrary fiber extension network (SAFEnet) is conceptual fiber-optic communication network passing digital signals among variety of computers and input/output devices at rates from 200 Mb/s to more than 100 Gb/s. Intended for use with very-high-speed computers and other data-processing and communication systems in which message-passing delays must be kept short. Inherent flexibility makes it possible to match performance of network to computers by optimizing configuration of interconnections. In addition, interconnections made redundant to provide tolerance to faults.

    2. Ultrafast all-optical technologies for bidirectional optical wireless communications.

      PubMed

      Jin, Xian; Hristovski, Blago A; Collier, Christopher M; Geoffroy-Gagnon, Simon; Born, Brandon; Holzman, Jonathan F

      2015-04-01

      In this Letter, a spherical retro-modulator architecture is introduced for operation as a bidirectional transceiver in passive optical wireless communication links. The architecture uses spherical retroreflection to enable retroreflection with broad directionality (2π steradians), and it uses all-optical beam interaction to enable modulation on ultrafast timescales (120 fs duration). The spherical retro-modulator is investigated from a theoretical standpoint and is fabricated for testing with three glasses, N-BK7, N-LASF9, and S-LAH79. It is found that the S-LAH79 structure provides the optimal refraction and nonlinearity for the desired retroreflection and modulation capabilities.

    3. Airborne Visible Laser Optical Communications (AVLOC) experiment

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1974-01-01

      A series of optical communication experiments between a high altitude aircraft at 18.3 km (60,000 ft) and a ground station were conducted by NASA from summer 1972 through winter 1973. The basic system was an optical tracker and transmitter located in each terminal. The aircraft transceiver consisted of a 5-mW HeNe laser transmitter with a 30-megabit modulator. The ground station beacon was an argon laser operating at 488 nm. A separate pulsed laser radar was used for initial acquisition. The objective of the experiment was to obtain engineering data on the precision tracking and communication system performance at both terminals. Atmospheric effects on the system performance was also an experiment objective. The system description, engineering analysis, testing, and flight results are discussed.

    4. Optical communication noise rejection using corelated photons

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Jackson, D.; Hockney, G. M.; Dowling, J. P.

      2002-01-01

      This paper describes a completely new way to perform noise rejection using photons correlated through quantum entanglement to improve an optical communications link in the presence of uncorrelated noise. In particular, a detailed analysis is made of the case where a classical link would be saturated by an intense background, such as when a satellite is in front of the sun, and identifies where the quantum correlating system has superior performance.

    5. Atmospheric Visibility Monitoring for planetary optical communications

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Cowles, Kelly

      1991-01-01

      The Atmospheric Visibility Monitoring project endeavors to improve current atmospheric models and generate visibility statistics relevant to prospective earth-satellite optical communications systems. Three autonomous observatories are being used to measure atmospheric conditions on the basis of observed starlight; these data will yield clear-sky and transmission statistics for three sites with high clear-sky probabilities. Ground-based data will be compared with satellite imagery to determine the correlation between satellite data and ground-based observations.

    6. Space-Based Optical Communications with CubeSats

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Ebert, Monica L.; Nguyen, Anh Ngoc; Frost, Chad

      2017-01-01

      Optical communication systems use lasers to encode and transmit data with higher speed and density than traditional radio frequency (RF)-based communications. Smaller antennas, lower power requirements, and increased spectrum availability enable optical communications to be integrated into CubeSats more easily than radios, enabling afford-able communications solutions for future NASA missions.

    7. Hemispherical optical dome for underwater communication

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Shiri, Ron S.; Lunde, Emily L.; Coronado, Patrick L.; Quijada, Manuel A.

      2017-08-01

      For many years, acoustic systems have been used as the primary method for underwater communication; however, the data transfer rate of such systems is low because sound propagates slowly through water. A higher throughput can be achieved using visible light to transmit data underwater. The first issue with this approach is that there is generally a large loss of the light signal due to scattering and absorption in water, even though there is an optimal wavelength for transmission in the blue or green wavelengths of the visible spectrum. The second issue is that a simple communication system, consisting only of a highly directional source/transmitter and small optical detector/receiver, has a very narrow field of view. The goal of this project is to improve an optical, underwater communication system by increasing the effective field of view of the receiving optics. To this end, we make two changes to the simple system: (1) An optical dome was added near the receiver. An array of lenses is placed radially on the surface of the dome, reminiscent of the compound eye of an insect. The lenses make the source and detector planes conjugate, and each lens adds a new region of the source plane to the instrument's total field of view. (2) The receiver was expanded to include multiple photodiodes. With these two changes, the receiver has much more tolerance to misalignments (in position and angle) of the transmitter. Two versions of the optical dome (with 6" and 8" diameters) were designed using PTC's Creo CAD software and modeled using Synopsys' CODE V optical design software. A series of these transparent hemispherical domes, with both design diameters, were manufactured using a 5-axis mill. The prototype was then retrofitted with lenses and compared with the computer-generated model to demonstrate the effectiveness of this solution. This work shows that the dome design improves the optical field of view of the underwater communication system considerably. Furthermore, with

    8. Optimizing performance of hybrid FSO/RF networks in realistic dynamic scenarios

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Llorca, Jaime; Desai, Aniket; Baskaran, Eswaran; Milner, Stuart; Davis, Christopher

      2005-08-01

      Hybrid Free Space Optical (FSO) and Radio Frequency (RF) networks promise highly available wireless broadband connectivity and quality of service (QoS), particularly suitable for emerging network applications involving extremely high data rate transmissions such as high quality video-on-demand and real-time surveillance. FSO links are prone to atmospheric obscuration (fog, clouds, snow, etc) and are difficult to align over long distances due the use of narrow laser beams and the effect of atmospheric turbulence. These problems can be mitigated by using adjunct directional RF links, which provide backup connectivity. In this paper, methodologies for modeling and simulation of hybrid FSO/RF networks are described. Individual link propagation models are derived using scattering theory, as well as experimental measurements. MATLAB is used to generate realistic atmospheric obscuration scenarios, including moving cloud layers at different altitudes. These scenarios are then imported into a network simulator (OPNET) to emulate mobile hybrid FSO/RF networks. This framework allows accurate analysis of the effects of node mobility, atmospheric obscuration and traffic demands on network performance, and precise evaluation of topology reconfiguration algorithms as they react to dynamic changes in the network. Results show how topology reconfiguration algorithms, together with enhancements to TCP/IP protocols which reduce the network response time, enable the network to rapidly detect and act upon link state changes in highly dynamic environments, ensuring optimized network performance and availability.

    9. Crosstalk mitigation using pilot assisted least square algorithm in OFDM-carrying orbital angular momentum multiplexed free-space-optical communication links.

      PubMed

      Sun, Tengfen; Liu, Minwen; Li, Yingchun; Wang, Min

      2017-10-16

      In this paper, we experimentally investigate the performance of crosstalk mitigation for 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (16QAM-OFDM) signals carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) multiplexed free-space-optical communication (FSO) links using the pilot assisted Least Square (LS) algorithm. At the demodulating spatial light modulators (SLMs), we launch the distorted phase holograms which have the information of atmospheric turbulence obeying the modified Hill spectrum. And crosstalk can be introduced by these holograms with the experimental verification. The pilot assisted LS algorithm can efficiently improve the quality of system performance, the points of constellations get closer to the reference points and around two orders of magnitude improvement of bit-error rate (BER) is obtained.

    10. Research and Development in Optical Communications

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Wilson, Keith

      2004-01-01

      A report in the form of lecture slides summarizes the optical-communications program of NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and describes the JPL Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) and its role in the program. The purpose of the program is to develop equipment and techniques for laser communication between (1) ground stations and (2) spacecraft (both near Earth and in deep space) and aircraft. The OCTL is an astronomical- style telescope facility that includes a 1-m-diameter, 75.8-m-focal length telescope in an elevation/azimuth mount, plus optical and electronic subsystems for tracking spacecraft and aircraft, receiving laser signals from such moving targets, and transmitting high-power laser signals to such targets. Near-term research at the OCTL is expected to focus on mitigating the effects of atmospheric scintillation on uplinks and on beacon-assisted tracking of ground stations by stations in deep space. Near-term experiments are expected to be performed with retroreflector-equipped aircraft and Earth-orbiting spacecraft techniques to test mathematical models of propagation of laser beams, multiple-beam strategies to mitigate uplink scintillation, and pointing and tracking accuracy of the telescope.

    11. Relay-aided free-space optical communications using α - μ distribution over atmospheric turbulence channels with misalignment errors

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Upadhya, Abhijeet; Dwivedi, Vivek K.; Singh, G.

      2018-06-01

      In this paper, we have analyzed the performance of dual hop radio frequency (RF)/free-space optical (FSO) fixed gain relay environment confined by atmospheric turbulence induced fading channel over FSO link and modeled using α - μ distribution. The RF hop of the amplify-and-forward scheme undergoes the Rayleigh fading and the proposed system model also considers the pointing error effect on the FSO link. A novel and accurate mathematical expression of the probability density function for a FSO link experiencing α - μ distributed atmospheric turbulence in the presence of pointing error is derived. Further, we have presented analytical expressions of outage probability and bit error rate in terms of Meijer-G function. In addition to this, a useful and mathematically tractable closed-form expression for the end-to-end ergodic capacity of the dual hop scheme in terms of bivariate Fox's H function is derived. The atmospheric turbulence, misalignment errors and various binary modulation schemes for intensity modulation on optical wireless link are considered to yield the results. Finally, we have analyzed each of the three performance metrics for high SNR in order to represent them in terms of elementary functions and the achieved analytical results are supported by computer-based simulations.

    12. NASA's current activities in free space optical communications

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Edwards, Bernard L.

      2017-11-01

      NASA and other space agencies around the world are currently developing free space optical communication systems for both space-to-ground links and space-to-space links. This paper provides an overview of NASA's current activities in free space optical communications with a focus on Near Earth applications. Activities to be discussed include the Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration, the Laser Communications Relay Demonstration, and the commercialization of the underlying technology. The paper will also briefly discuss ongoing efforts and studies for Deep Space optical communications. Finally the paper will discuss the development of international optical communication standards within the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems.

    13. Channel modelling for free-space optical inter-HAP links using adaptive ARQ transmission

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Parthasarathy, S.; Giggenbach, D.; Kirstädter, A.

      2014-10-01

      Free-space optical (FSO) communication systems have seen significant developments in recent years due to growing need for very high data rates and tap-proof communication. The operation of an FSO link is suited to diverse variety of applications such as satellites, High Altitude Platforms (HAPs), Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), aircrafts, ground stations and other areas involving both civil and military situations. FSO communication systems face challenges due to different effects of the atmospheric channel. FSO channel primarily suffers from scintillation effects due to Index of Refraction Turbulence (IRT). In addition, acquisition and pointing becomes more difficult because of the high directivity of the transmitted beam: Miss-pointing of the transmitted beam and tracking errors at the receiver generate additional fading of the optical signal. High Altitude Platforms (HAPs) are quasi-stationary vehicles operating in the stratosphere. The slowly varying but precisely determined time-of-flight of the Inter-HAP channel adds to its characteristics. To propose a suitable ARQ scheme, proper theoretical understanding of the optical atmospheric propagation and modeling of a specific scenario FSO channel is required. In this paper, a bi-directional symmetrical Inter-HAP link has been selected and modeled. The Inter-HAP channel model is then investigated via simulations in terms of optical scintillation induced by IRT and in presence of pointing error. The performance characteristic of the model is then quantified in terms of fading statistics from which the Packet Error Probability (PEP) is calculated. Based on the PEP characteristics, we propose suitable ARQ schemes.

    14. Hemispherical Optical Dome for Underwater Communication

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Shiri, Ron S.; Lunde, Emily L.; Coronado, Patrick L.; Quijada, Manuel A.

      2017-01-01

      For many years, acoustic systems have been used as the primary method for underwater communication; however, the data transfer rate of such systems is low because sound propagates slowly through the water. A higher throughput can be achieved using visible light to transmit data underwater. The first issue with using this approach is that there is generally a large loss of the light signal due to scattering and absorption in water even though there is an optimal wavelength for transmission in the blue or green wavelengths of the visible spectrum. The second issue is that a simple system consisting only of a highly directional source transmitter and small optical detector receiver has a very narrow field of view. The goal of this project is to improve an optical, underwater communication system by increasing the effective field of view of the receiving optics. To this end, we make two changes to the simple system: (1) An optical dome was added near the receiver. An array of lenses is placed radially on the surface of the dome, reminiscent of the compound eye of an insect. The lenses make the source and detector planes conjugate, and each lens adds a new region of the source plane to the instrument's total field of view. (2) The receiver was expanded to include multiple photodiodes. With these two changes, the receiver has much more tolerance to misalignments (in position and angle) of the transmitter.Two versions of the optical dome (with 6 and 8 diameters) were designed using the CREO CAD software and modeled using the CODE V optical design software. A series of these transparent hemispherical domes, with both design diameters, were manufactured using a 5-axis mill. The prototype was then retrofitted with lenses and compared with the computer-generated model to demonstrate the effectiveness of this solution. This work shows the dome design improves the optical field of view of the underwater communication system considerably. Furthermore, with the experimental test

    15. Hemispherical Optical Dome for Underwater Communication

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Shiri, Ron S.; Lunde, Emily L.; Coronado, Patrick L.; Quijada, Manuel A.

      2017-01-01

      For many years, acoustic systems have been used as the primary method for underwater communication; however, the data transfer rate of such systems is low because sound propagates slowly through the water. A higher throughput can be achieved using visible light to transmit data underwater. The first issue with using this approach is that there is generally a large loss of the light signal due to scattering and absorption in water even though there is an optimal wavelength for transmission in the blue or green wavelengths of the visible spectrum. The second issue is that a simple system consisting only of a highly directional source/transmitter and small optical detector/receiver has a very narrow field of view. The goal of this project is to improve an optical, underwater communication system by increasing the effective field of view of the receiving optics. To this end, we make two changes to the simple system: (1) An optical dome was added near the receiver. An array of lenses is placed radially on the surface of the dome, reminiscent of the compound eye of an insect. The lenses make the source and detector planes conjugate, and each lens adds a new region of the source plane to the instrument's total field of view. (2) The receiver was expanded to include multiple photodiodes. With these two changes, the receiver has much more tolerance to misalignments (in position and angle) of the transmitter.Two versions of the optical dome (with 6 and 8 diameters) were designed using the CREO CAD software and modeled using the CODE V optical design software. A series of these transparent hemispherical domes, with both design diameters, were manufactured using a 5-axis mill. The prototype was then retrofitted with lenses and compared with the computer-generated model to demonstrate the effectiveness of this solution. This work shows the dome design improves the optical field of view of the underwater communication system considerably. Furthermore, with the experimental test

    16. Spherical transceivers for ultrafast optical wireless communications

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Jin, Xian; Hristovski, Blago A.; Collier, Christopher M.; Geoffroy-Gagnon, Simon; Born, Brandon; Holzman, Jonathan F.

      2016-02-01

      Optical wireless communications (OWC) offers the potential for high-speed and mobile operation in indoor networks. Such OWC systems often employ a fixed transmitter grid and mobile transceivers, with the mobile transceivers carrying out bi-directional communication via active downlinks (ideally with high-speed signal detection) and passive uplinks (ideally with broad angular retroreflection and high-speed modulation). It can be challenging to integrate all of these bidirectional communication capabilities within the mobile transceivers, however, as there is a simultaneous desire for compact packaging. With this in mind, the work presented here introduces a new form of transceiver for bi-directional OWC systems. The transceiver incorporates radial photoconductive switches (for high-speed signal detection) and a spherical retro-modulator (for broad angular retroreflection and high-speed all-optical modulation). All-optical retromodulation are investigated by way of theoretical models and experimental testing, for spherical retro-modulators comprised of three glasses, N-BK7, N-LASF9, and S-LAH79, having differing levels of refraction and nonlinearity. It is found that the spherical retro-modulator comprised of S-LAH79, with a refractive index of n ≍ 2 and a Kerr nonlinear index of n2 ≍ (1.8 ± 0.1) × 10-15 cm2/W, yields both broad angular retroreflection (over a solid angle of 2π steradians) and ultrafast modulation (over a duration of 120 fs). Such transceivers can become important elements for all-optical implementations in future bi-directional OWC systems.

    17. Retro-modulators and fast beam steering for free-space optical communications

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Chan, Trevor Keith

      Free-space optical (FSO) communications is a means of secure, high bandwidth communication through the use of a modulated laser beam in free-space as the information medium. The chaotic nature of the atmosphere and the motion of the communication nodes make laser alignment a crucial concern. The employment of retro-reflecting modulators makes the bidirectional quality of a communication link into a one sided alignment problem. While there are existing retro-reflecting modulators, their trade-offs create a lack of abilities (such as aperture size, angular range, high modulation speeds, economic viability) which do not fulfill the requirements for certain applications. Also, the beam must be directed towards the intended receiver. Form mobile or scintillated communication links, beam direction must be adaptable in real time. Once again, this area suffers from trade-offs where beamsteering speed is often limited. Research used to mitigate the trade-offs and adapt the devices into viable options for a wider range of applications is explored in this dissertation. Two forms of retro-modulators were explored; a MEMS deformable mirror retro-modulator and a solid silicon retro-modulator that modulated the light by frustrated total internal reflection (FTIR). The MEMS version offered a high speed, scalable, wavelength/angle insensitive retro-modulator which can be massed produced at low cost, while the solid retro-modulator offered a large field of view with low cost as well. Both modulator's design, simulated performances, fabrication and experimental characterization are described in this dissertation. An ultra-fast beamscanner was also designed using 2-dimensional dispersion. By using wavelength switching for directional control, a beamscanner was developed that could switch light faster than pre-existing beamscanners while the beams characteristics (most importantly its aperture) could be freely adjusted by the independent optics. This beamscanner was preceded by our

    18. A 400 Gbps/100 m free-space optical link

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Lin, Chun-Yu; Lu, Hai-Han; Ho, Chun-Ming; Cheng, Ming-Te; Huang, Sheng-Jhe; Wang, Yun-Chieh; Chi, Jing-Kai

      2017-02-01

      A 400 Gbps/100 m free-space optical (FSO) link with dense-wavelength-division-multiplexing (DWDM)/space-division-multiplexing (SDM) techniques and a doublet lens scheme is proposed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that a link adopting DWDM and SDM techniques and a doublet lens scheme has demonstrated a 400 Gbps/100 m FSO link. The experimental results show that the free-space transmission rate is significantly enhanced by the DWDM and SDM techniques, and the free-space transmission distance is greatly increased by the doublet lens scheme. A 16-channel FSO link with a total transmission rate of 400 Gbps (25 Gbps/λ  ×  16 λ  =  400 Gbps) over a 100 m free-space link is successfully demonstrated. Such a 400 Gbps/100 m DWDM/SDM FSO link provides the advantages of optical wireless communications for high transmission rates and long transmission distances, which is very useful for high-speed and long-haul light-based WiFi (LiFi) applications.

    19. Optical communications beyond orbital angular momentum

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Rosales-Guzmán, Carmelo; Trichili, Abderrahmen; Dudley, Angela; Ndagano, Bienvenu; Ben Salem, Amine; Zghal, Mourad; Forbes, Andrew

      2016-09-01

      Current optical communication technologies are predicted to face a bandwidth capacity limit in the near future. The nature of the limitation is fundamental rather than technological and is set by nonlinearities in optical fibers. One solution, suggested over 30 years ago, comprises the use of spatial modes of light as information carriers. Along this direction, light beams endowed with orbital angular momentum (OAM) have been demonstrated as potential information carriers in both, free space and fibres. However, recent studies suggest that purely OAM modes does not increase the bandwidth of optical communication systems. In fact, in all work to date, only the azimuthal component of transverse spatial modes has been used. Crucially, all transverse spatial modes require two degrees of freedom to be described; in the context of Laguerre-Gaussian (LGp`) beams these are azimuthal (l) and radial (p), the former responsible for OAM. Here, we demonstrate a technique where both degrees of freedom of LG modes are used as information carrier over free space. We transfer images encoded using 100 spatial modes in three wavelengths as our basis, and employ a spatial demultiplexing scheme that detects all 100 modes simultaneously. Our scheme is a hybrid of MIMO and SMM, and serves as a proof-of-principle demonstration. The cross-talk between the modes is small and independent of whether OAM modes are used or not.

    20. Integrated communications and optical navigation system

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Mueller, J.; Pajer, G.; Paluszek, M.

      2013-12-01

      The Integrated Communications and Optical Navigation System (ICONS) is a flexible navigation system for spacecraft that does not require global positioning system (GPS) measurements. The navigation solution is computed using an Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) that can accept any combination of range, range-rate, planet chord width, landmark, and angle measurements using any celestial object. Both absolute and relative orbit determination is supported. The UKF employs a full nonlinear dynamical model of the orbit including gravity models and disturbance models. The ICONS package also includes attitude determination algorithms using the UKF algorithm with the Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). The IMU is used as the dynamical base for the attitude determination algorithms. This makes the sensor a more capable plug-in replacement for a star tracker, thus reducing the integration and test cost of adding this sensor to a spacecraft. Recent additions include an integrated optical communications system which adds communications, and integrated range and range rate measurement and timing. The paper includes test results from trajectories based on the NASA New Horizons spacecraft.

    1. Fiber optical parametric amplifiers in optical communication systems

      PubMed Central

      Marhic (†), Michel E; Andrekson, Peter A; Petropoulos, Periklis; Radic, Stojan; Peucheret, Christophe; Jazayerifar, Mahmoud

      2015-01-01

      The prospects for using fiber optical parametric amplifiers (OPAs) in optical communication systems are reviewed. Phase-insensitive amplifiers (PIAs) and phase-sensitive amplifiers (PSAs) are considered. Low-penalty amplification at/or near 1 Tb/s has been achieved, for both wavelength- and time-division multiplexed formats. High-quality mid-span spectral inversion has been demonstrated at 0.64 Tb/s, avoiding electronic dispersion compensation. All-optical amplitude regeneration of amplitude-modulated signals has been performed, while PSAs have been used to demonstrate phase regeneration of phase-modulated signals. A PSA with 1.1-dB noise figure has been demonstrated, and preliminary wavelength-division multiplexing experiments have been performed with PSAs. 512 Gb/s have been transmitted over 6,000 km by periodic phase conjugation. Simulations indicate that PIAs could reach data rate x reach products in excess of 14,000 Tb/s × km in realistic wavelength-division multiplexed long-haul networks. Technical challenges remaining to be addressed in order for fiber OPAs to become useful for long-haul communication networks are discussed. PMID:25866588

    2. Atmospheric turbulence compensation in orbital angular momentum communications: Advances and perspectives

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Li, Shuhui; Chen, Shi; Gao, Chunqing; Willner, Alan E.; Wang, Jian

      2018-02-01

      Orbital angular momentum (OAM)-carrying beams have recently generated considerable interest due to their potential use in communication systems to increase transmission capacity and spectral efficiency. For OAM-based free-space optical (FSO) links, a critical challenge is the atmospheric turbulence that will distort the helical wavefronts of OAM beams leading to the decrease of received power, introducing crosstalk between multiple channels, and impairing link performance. In this paper, we review recent advances in turbulence effects compensation techniques for OAM-based FSO communication links. First, basic concepts of atmospheric turbulence and theoretical model are introduced. Second, atmospheric turbulence effects on OAM beams are theoretically and experimentally investigated and discussed. Then, several typical turbulence compensation approaches, including both adaptive optics-based (optical domain) and signal processing-based (electrical domain) techniques, are presented. Finally, key challenges and perspectives of compensation of turbulence-distorted OAM links are discussed.

    3. Optical ground station site diversity for Deep Space Optical Communications the Mars Telecom Orbiter optical link

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Wilson, K.; Parvin, B.; Fugate, R.; Kervin, P.; Zingales, S.

      2003-01-01

      Future NASA deep space missions will fly advanced high resolution imaging instruments that will require high bandwidth links to return the huge data volumes generated by these instruments. Optical communications is a key technology for returning these large data volumes from deep space probes. Yet to cost effectively realize the high bandwidth potential of the optical link will require deployment of ground receivers in diverse locations to provide high link availability. A recent analysis of GOES weather satellite data showed that a network of ground stations located in Hawaii and the Southwest continental US can provide an average of 90% availability for the deep space optical link. JPL and AFRL are exploring the use of large telescopes in Hawaii, California, and Albuquerque to support the Mars Telesat laser communications demonstration. Designed to demonstrate multi-Mbps communications from Mars, the mission will investigate key operational strategies of future deep space optical communications network.

    4. Acquisition and tracking for underwater optical communications

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Williams, Andrew J.; Laycock, Leslie L.; Griffith, Michael S.; McCarthy, Andrew G.; Rowe, Duncan P.

      2017-10-01

      There is a growing requirement to transfer large volumes of data between underwater platforms. As seawater is transmissive in the visible band, underwater optical communications is an active area of interest since it offers the potential for power efficient, covert and high bandwidth datalinks at short to medium ranges. Short range systems have been successfully demonstrated using sources with low directionality. To realise higher data rates and/or longer ranges, the use of more efficient directional beams is required; by necessity, these must be sufficiently aligned to achieve the required link margin. For mobile platforms, the acquisition and tracking of each node is therefore critical in order to establish and maintain an optical datalink. This paper describes work undertaken to demonstrate acquisition and tracking in a 3D underwater environment. A range of optical sources, beam steering technologies, and tracking sensors have been assessed for suitability. A novel scanning strategy exploiting variable beam divergence was developed to provide robust acquisition whilst minimising acquisition time. A prototype system was assembled and demonstrated in a large water tank. This utilised custom quadrant detectors based on Silicon PhotoMultiplier (SiPM) arrays for fine tracking, and a Wide Field of View (WFoV) sCMOS camera for link acquisition. Fluidic lenses provided dynamic control of beam divergence, and AC modulation/filtering enabled background rejection. The system successfully demonstrated robust optical acquisition and tracking between two nodes with only nanowatt received optical powers. The acquisition time was shown to be dependent on the initial conditions and the transmitted optical power.

    5. Fundamentals of Free-Space Optical Communications

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Dolinar, Sam; Moision, Bruce; Erkmen, Baris

      2012-01-01

      Free-space optical communication systems potentially gain many dBs over RF systems. There is no upper limit on the theoretically achievable photon efficiency when the system is quantum-noise-limited: a) Intensity modulations plus photon counting can achieve arbitrarily high photon efficiency, but with sub-optimal spectral efficiency. b) Quantum-ideal number states can achieve the ultimate capacity in the limit of perfect transmissivity. Appropriate error correction codes are needed to communicate reliably near the capacity limits. Poisson-modeled noises, detector losses, and atmospheric effects must all be accounted for: a) Theoretical models are used to analyze performance degradations. b) Mitigation strategies derived from this analysis are applied to minimize these degradations.

    6. Free-space optical channel characterization and experimental validation in a coastal environment.

      PubMed

      Alheadary, Wael G; Park, Ki-Hong; Alfaraj, Nasir; Guo, Yujian; Stegenburgs, Edgars; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

      2018-03-19

      Over the years, free-space optical (FSO) communication has attracted considerable research interest owing to its high transmission rates via the unbounded and unlicensed bandwidths. Nevertheless, various weather conditions lead to significant deterioration of the FSO link capabilities. In this context, we report on the modelling of the channel attenuation coefficient (β) for a coastal environment and related ambient, considering the effect of coastal air temperature (T), relative humidity (RH) and dew point (TD) by employing a mobile FSO communication system capable of achieving a transmission rate of 1 Gbps at an outdoor distance of 70 m for optical beam wavelengths of 1310 nm and 1550 nm. For further validation of the proposed models, an indoor measurement over a 1.5 m distance utilizing 1310 nm, 1550 nm, and 1064 nm lasers was also performed. The first model provides a general link between T and β, while the second model provides a relation between β, RH as well as TD. By validating our attenuation coefficient model with actual outdoor and indoor experiments, we obtained a scaling parameter x and decaying parameter c values of 19.94, 40.02, 45.82 and 0.03015, 0.04096, 0.0428 for wavelengths of 1550, 1310, 1064 nm, respectively. The proposed models are well validated over the large variation of temperature and humidity over the FSO link in a coastal region and emulated indoor environment.

    7. Advanced Sensors Boost Optical Communication, Imaging

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      2009-01-01

      Brooklyn, New York-based Amplification Technologies Inc. (ATI), employed Phase I and II SBIR funding from NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory to forward the company's solid-state photomultiplier technology. Under the SBIR, ATI developed a small, energy-efficient, extremely high-gain sensor capable of detecting light down to single photons in the near infrared wavelength range. The company has commercialized this technology in the form of its NIRDAPD photomultiplier, ideal for use in free space optical communications, lidar and ladar, night vision goggles, and other light sensing applications.

    8. A Coarse Pointing Assembly for Optical Communication

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Szekely, G.; Blum, D.; Humphries, M.; Koller, A.; Mussett, D.; Schuler, S.; Vogt, P.

      2010-01-01

      In the framework of a contract with the European Space Agency, RUAG Space are developing a Coarse Pointing Assembly for an Optical Communication Terminal with the goal to enable high-bandwidth data exchange between GEO and/or LEO satellites as well as to earth-bound ground stations. This paper describes some development and testing aspects of such a high precision opto-mechanical device, with emphasis on the influence of requirements on the final design, the usage of a Bearing Active Preload System, some of the lessons learned on the BAPS implementation, the selection of a flex print design as rotary harness and some aspects of functional and environmental testing.

    9. Light Emitting Diodes for Fiber Optic Communications.

      DTIC Science & Technology

      1981-03-31

      asC.3~~ in.(c)- above and do- (1) pcait by volu.3 of dicst.iLle =zto.- Pazo 10 .61Edd, tcxcopt colvonts used cha-l bo: * ( a ) Methyl. alcohbl I7or 04...AD £101 480 LASER DIODE LABS INC NEW BRUNSWICK NJ / 1 / L I GT EMITTING DIODES FOR FIBER OPTIC COWMICATIONS.Cul AR, at A GENNARO DAARO-76-C-813 NA 1...PRArrcmA. P . 1"UNISPE-D TO DDC CONTAINE A II&~-’llryBE v., R OF :AO , MflG DO 9W CORADCOM U S ARMY COMMUNICATIONS RESEARCH 9 DEVELOPMENT COMMAND

    10. Free-space laser communication system with rapid acquisition based on astronomical telescopes.

      PubMed

      Wang, Jianmin; Lv, Junyi; Zhao, Guang; Wang, Gang

      2015-08-10

      The general structure of a free-space optical (FSO) communication system based on astronomical telescopes is proposed. The light path for astronomical observation and for communication can be easily switched. A separate camera is used as a star sensor to determine the pointing direction of the optical terminal's antenna. The new system exhibits rapid acquisition and is widely applicable in various astronomical telescope systems and wavelengths. We present a detailed analysis of the acquisition time, which can be decreased by one order of magnitude compared with traditional optical communication systems. Furthermore, we verify software algorithms and tracking accuracy.

    11. Fiber-based free-space optical coherent receiver with vibration compensation mechanism.

      PubMed

      Zhang, Ruochi; Wang, Jianmin; Zhao, Guang; Lv, Junyi

      2013-07-29

      We propose a novel fiber-based free-space optical (FSO) coherent receiver for inter-satellite communication. The receiver takes advantage of established fiber-optic components and utilizes the fine-pointing subsystem installed in FSO terminals to minimize the influence of satellite platform vibrations. The received beam is coupled to a single-mode fiber, and the coupling efficiency of the system is investigated both analytically and experimentally. A receiving sensitivity of -38 dBm is obtained at the forward error correction limit with a transmission rate of 22.4 Gbit/s. The proposed receiver is shown to be a promising component for inter-satellite optical communication.

    12. Identical synchronization of chaotic secure communication systems with channel induced coherence resonance

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Sepantaie, Marc M.; Namazi, Nader M.; Sepantaie, Amir M.

      2016-05-01

      This paper is devoted to addressing the synchronization, and detection of random binary data exposed to inherent channel variations existing in Free Space Optical (FSO) communication systems. This task is achieved by utilizing the identical synchronization methodology of Lorenz chaotic communication system, and its synergetic interaction in adversities imposed by the FSO channel. Moreover, the Lorenz system has been analyzed, and revealed to induce Stochastic Resonance (SR) once exposed to Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN). In particular, the resiliency of the Lorenz chaotic system, in light of channel adversities, has been attributed to the success of the proposed communication system. Furthermore, this paper advocates the use of Haar wavelet transform for enhanced detection capability of the proposed chaotic communication system, which utilizes Chaotic Parameter Modulation (CPM) technique for means of transmission.

    13. Research and Development on Ultra-Lightweight Low-Loss Optical Fiber Communication Cable.

      DTIC Science & Technology

      FIBER OPTICS TRANSMISSION LINES, LIGHTWEIGHT), GLASS , FIBERS , ORGANIC COATINGS, POLYURETHANE RESINS, SOLUTIONS(GENERAL), POWDERS, ELECTROSTATICS...EXTRUSION, RUGGEDIZED EQUIPMENT, BROADBAND, OPTICAL COMMUNICATIONS, TACTICAL COMMUNICATIONS, FIBER OPTICS, LOSSES.

    14. Quantum Limits of Space-to-Ground Optical Communications

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Hemmati, H.; Dolinar, S.

      2012-01-01

      Quantum limiting factors contributed by the transmitter, the optical channel, and the receiver of a space-to-ground optical communications link are described. Approaches to move toward the ultimate quantum limit are discussed.

    15. Free-Space Optical Communications Program at JPL

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Hemmati, H.

      1999-01-01

      Conceptual design of a multi-functional optical instrument is underway for the X2000-Second Delivery Program. The transceiver will perform both free-space optical-communication and science imaging by sharing a common 10-cm aperture telescope.

    16. Status of Free-Space Optical Communications at JPL

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Hemmati, H.

      2000-01-01

      Optical communications is a rapidly developing technology applicable to future NASA and commercial space missions that desire a communications terminal that provides a higher data rate with lower mass and power.

    17. The status of optical communications at NASA/JPL

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Hemmati, H.

      2001-01-01

      Future NASA and commercial space missions will require communications terminals to provide higher data rate with lower mass and power. Optical communications is a rapidly developing technology in response to this demand.

    18. Nonlinear filter based decision feedback equalizer for optical communication systems.

      PubMed

      Han, Xiaoqi; Cheng, Chi-Hao

      2014-04-07

      Nonlinear impairments in optical communication system have become a major concern of optical engineers. In this paper, we demonstrate that utilizing a nonlinear filter based Decision Feedback Equalizer (DFE) with error detection capability can deliver a better performance compared with the conventional linear filter based DFE. The proposed algorithms are tested in simulation using a coherent 100 Gb/sec 16-QAM optical communication system in a legacy optical network setting.

    19. VCSELs for optical communication at Fuji Xerox

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Kondo, Takashi; Hayakawa, Junichiro; Jogan, Naoki; Murakami, Akemi; Sakurai, Jun; Gu, Xiaodong; Koyama, Fumio

      2017-02-01

      We introduce the characteristics of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) for use in optical communications. In the field of optical interconnections and networks, 850 nm VCSELs are key optical transmitters due to their high-speed modulation and low power consumption. One promising candidate for achieving high-speed modulations exceeding 50 Gbps is the transverse-coupled-cavity (TCC) VCSEL. In this talk, we demonstrate the characteristics of 850 nm transverse-coupled-cavity VCSELs, which helped us achieve a high 3dB modulation bandwidth (30 GHz) at 0 °C and realize eye-opening at the large-signal modulation rate of 48 Gbps. The VCSEL's epilayer structure was grown by MOCVD. The active region consists of three strained InGaAs QWs surrounded by AlGaAs barriers. The n-type and p-type DBRs are composed of AlGaAs/AlGaAs, respectively. A line-shaped H+ ion was implanted at the center of the bowtie-shaped post, dividing it into two cavities. The threshold current of the TCC VCSEL with an oxide aperture of 3.6 μm is 0.33 mA. Only the left-side cavity is pumped, while the right cavity is unpumped. The effect of modulation bandwidth enhancement was observed over a wide temperature range of 120K thanks to an optical feedback in the coupled cavities. These results show the possibility of achieving high-speed VCSELs without any temperature or bias control. We also demonstrate an ultra-compact photodetector-integrated VCSEL with two laterally-coupled cavities. An output power and a photocurrent exhibit similar tendencies under a wide range of temperature changes. This device could be also used for monitoring output power without a conventional photodetector mounted separately.

    20. Commercialization and Standardization Progress Towards an Optical Communications Earth Relay

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Edwards, Bernard L.; Israel, David J.

      2015-01-01

      NASA is planning to launch the next generation of a space based Earth relay in 2025 to join the current Space Network, consisting of Tracking and Data Relay Satellites in space and the corresponding infrastructure on Earth. While the requirements and architecture for that relay satellite are unknown at this time, NASA is investing in communications technologies that could be deployed to provide new communications services. One of those new technologies is optical communications. The Laser Communications Relay Demonstration (LCRD) project, scheduled for launch in 2018 as a hosted payload on a commercial communications satellite, is a critical pathfinder towards NASA providing optical communications services on the next generation space based relay. This paper will describe NASA efforts in the on-going commercialization of optical communications and the development of inter-operability standards. Both are seen as critical to making optical communications a reality on future NASA science and exploration missions. Commercialization is important because NASA would like to eventually be able to simply purchase an entire optical communications terminal from a commercial provider. Inter-operability standards are needed to ensure that optical communications terminals developed by one vendor are compatible with the terminals of another. International standards in optical communications would also allow the space missions of one nation to use the infrastructure of another.

    1. Ground-to-Ground Optical Communications Demonstration

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Biswas, A.; Lee, S.

      2000-01-01

      A bidirectional horizontal-path optical link was demonstrated between Strawberry Peak (SP), Lake Arrowhead, California, and the JPL Table Mountain Facility (TMF), Wrightwood, California, during June and November of 1998. The 0.6-m telescope at TMF was used to broadcast a 4-beam 780-nm beacon to SP. The JPL-patented Optical Communications Demonstrator (OCD) at SP received the beacon, performed ne tracking to compensate for the atmosphere-induced beacon motion and retransmitted a 844-nm communications laser beam modulated at 40 to 500 Mb/s back to TMF. Characteristics of the horizontal-path atmospheric channel as well as performance of the optical communications link were evaluated. The normalized variance of the irradiance fluctuations or scintillation index delta2/I at either end was determined. At TMF where a single 844-nm beam was received by a 0.6-m aperture, the measured delta2/I covered a wide range from 0.07 to 1.08. A single 780-nm beam delta2/I measured at SP using a 0.09-m aperture yielded values ranging from 0.66 to 1.03, while a combination of four beams reduced the scintillation index due to incoherent averaging to 0.22 to 0.40. This reduction reduced the dynamic range of the fluctuations from 17 to 21 dB to 13 to 14 dB as compared with the OCD tracking sensor dynamic range of 10 dB. Predictions of these values also were made based on existing theories and are compared. Generally speaking, the theoretical bounds were reasonable. Discussions on the probability density function (PDF) of the intensity fluctuations are presented and compared with the measurements made. The lognormal PDF was found to agree for the weak scintillation regime as expected. The present measurements support evidence presented by earlier measurements made using the same horizontal path, which suggests that the aperture averaging effect is better than theoretically predicted.

    2. General scale-dependent anisotropic turbulence and its impact on free space optical communication system performance.

      PubMed

      Toselli, Italo; Korotkova, Olga

      2015-06-01

      We generalize a recently introduced model for nonclassic turbulent spatial power spectrum involving anisotropy along two mutually orthogonal axes transverse to the direction of beam propagation by including two scale-dependent weighting factors for these directions. Such a turbulent model may be pertinent to atmospheric fluctuations in the refractive index in stratified regions well above the boundary layer and employed for air-air communication channels. When restricting ourselves to an unpolarized, coherent Gaussian beam and a weak turbulence regime, we examine the effects of such a turbulence type on the OOK FSO link performance by including the results on scintillation flux, probability of fade, SNR, and BERs.

    3. Performance of mixed RF/FSO systems in exponentiated Weibull distributed channels

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Zhao, Jing; Zhao, Shang-Hong; Zhao, Wei-Hu; Liu, Yun; Li, Xuan

      2017-12-01

      This paper presented the performances of asymmetric mixed radio frequency (RF)/free-space optical (FSO) system with the amplify-and-forward relaying scheme. The RF channel undergoes Nakagami- m channel, and the Exponentiated Weibull distribution is adopted for the FSO component. The mathematical formulas for cumulative distribution function (CDF), probability density function (PDF) and moment generating function (MGF) of equivalent signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) are achieved. According to the end-to-end statistical characteristics, the new analytical expressions of outage probability are obtained. Under various modulation techniques, we derive the average bit-error-rate (BER) based on the Meijer's G function. The evaluation and simulation are provided for the system performance, and the aperture average effect is discussed as well.

    4. Ultra-lightweight optics for laser communications

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Vukobratovich, Daniel

      1990-07-01

      Recent applications of the very light Al/SiC metal-matrix composite SXA in the construction of telescopes for use as receiver antennas in optical intersatellite communication systems are reviewed and illustrated with drawings and diagrams. Data on the mechanical properties (specific stiffness, fundamental frequency, dynamic response, and fracture toughness) and the thermal expansion, distortion, and diffusivity of SXA are compared with those for Al 6016-T6, Be I-70A, SiC, and Zerodur in tables, and the advantages of SXA structural foams of density 250-500 kg/cu m are indicated. The criteria evaluated for optimization of the mirror shape and the overall telescope design are discussed, and four prototype Cassegrain telescopes (with Meinel or Dall truss structures) are described in detail.

    5. Wide band fiber-optic communications

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Bates, Harry E.

      1993-01-01

      A number of optical communication lines are now in use at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for the transmission of voice, computer data and video signals. At the present time most of these channels utilize a single carrier wavelength centered near 1300 nm. As a result of previous work the bandwidth capacity of a number of these channels is being increased by transmitting another signal in the 1550 nm region on the same fiber. This is accomplished by means of wavelength division multiplexing (WDM). It is therefore important to understand the bandwidth properties of the installed fiber plant. This work developed new procedures for measuring the bandwidth of fibers in both the 1300nm and 1550nm region. In addition, a preliminary study of fiber links terminating in the Engineering Development Laboratory was completed.

    6. Mitigating Photon Jitter in Optical PPM Communication

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Moision, Bruce

      2008-01-01

      A theoretical analysis of photon-arrival jitter in an optical pulse-position-modulation (PPM) communication channel has been performed, and now constitutes the basis of a methodology for designing receivers to compensate so that errors attributable to photon-arrival jitter would be minimized or nearly minimized. Photon-arrival jitter is an uncertainty in the estimated time of arrival of a photon relative to the boundaries of a PPM time slot. Photon-arrival jitter is attributable to two main causes: (1) receiver synchronization error [error in the receiver operation of partitioning time into PPM slots] and (2) random delay between the time of arrival of a photon at a detector and the generation, by the detector circuitry, of a pulse in response to the photon. For channels with sufficiently long time slots, photon-arrival jitter is negligible. However, as durations of PPM time slots are reduced in efforts to increase throughputs of optical PPM communication channels, photon-arrival jitter becomes a significant source of error, leading to significant degradation of performance if not taken into account in design. For the purpose of the analysis, a receiver was assumed to operate in a photon- starved regime, in which photon counts follow a Poisson distribution. The analysis included derivation of exact equations for symbol likelihoods in the presence of photon-arrival jitter. These equations describe what is well known in the art as a matched filter for a channel containing Gaussian noise. These equations would yield an optimum receiver if they could be implemented in practice. Because the exact equations may be too complex to implement in practice, approximations that would yield suboptimal receivers were also derived.

    7. 33 CFR 105.205 - Facility Security Officer (FSO).

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

      2011-07-01

      ... maintain a TWIC. (b) Qualifications. (1) The FSO must have general knowledge, through training or... of conducting audits, inspections, control, and monitoring techniques. (2) In addition to knowledge and training required in paragraph (b)(1) of this section, the FSO must have knowledge of and receive...

    8. Channel correlation of free space optical communication systems with receiver diversity in non-Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Ma, Jing; Fu, Yulong; Tan, Liying; Yu, Siyuan; Xie, Xiaolong

      2018-05-01

      Spatial diversity as an effective technique to mitigate the turbulence fading has been widely utilized in free space optical (FSO) communication systems. The received signals, however, will suffer from channel correlation due to insufficient spacing between component antennas. In this paper, the new expressions of the channel correlation coefficient and specifically its components (the large- and small-scale channel correlation coefficients) for a plane wave with aperture effects are derived for horizontal link in moderate-to-strong turbulence, using a non-Kolmogorov spectrum that has a generalized power law in the range of 3-4 instead of the fixed classical Kolmogorov power law of 11/3. And then the influence of power law variations on the channel correlation coefficient and its components are analysed. The numerical results indicated that various value of the power law lead to varying effects on the channel correlation coefficient and its components. This work will help with the further investigation on the fading correlation in spatial diversity systems.

    9. Adaptive Detector Arrays for Optical Communications Receivers

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Vilnrotter, V.; Srinivasan, M.

      2000-01-01

      The structure of an optimal adaptive array receiver for ground-based optical communications is described and its performance investigated. Kolmogorov phase screen simulations are used to model the sample functions of the focal-plane signal distribution due to turbulence and to generate realistic spatial distributions of the received optical field. This novel array detector concept reduces interference from background radiation by effectively assigning higher confidence levels at each instant of time to those detector elements that contain significant signal energy and suppressing those that do not. A simpler suboptimum structure that replaces the continuous weighting function of the optimal receiver by a hard decision on the selection of the signal detector elements also is described and evaluated. Approximations and bounds to the error probability are derived and compared with the exact calculations and receiver simulation results. It is shown that, for photon-counting receivers observing Poisson-distributed signals, performance improvements of approximately 5 dB can be obtained over conventional single-detector photon-counting receivers, when operating in high background environments.

    10. Creating Feedback Channels With Optical Communications For Information Operations (IO)

      DTIC Science & Technology

      2016-06-01

      amphibious operations. Optical communications technologies, direct marketing principles , and current IO shortfalls are explored to determine whether...technology. First, these concepts are applied to show covert amphibious operations. Optical communications technologies, direct marketing principles , and...power, as per Appendix A. A major portion of the marketing campaign comes in the form of advertising. The correlating principles of advertising in

    11. Large aperture segmented optics for space-to-ground communications.

      PubMed

      Lucy, R F

      1968-08-01

      A large aperture, moderate quality segmented optical array for use in noncoherent space-to-ground laser communications is determined as a function of resolution, diameter, focal length, and number of segments in the array. Secondary optics and construction tolerances are also discussed. Performance predictions show a typical receiver to be capable of megahertz communications at Mars distances during daylight operation.

    12. Hybrid RF / Optical Communication Terminal with Spherical Primary Optics for Optical Reception

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Charles, Jeffrey R.; Hoppe, Daniel H.; Sehic, Asim

      2011-01-01

      Future deep space communications are likely to employ not only the existing RF uplink and downlink, but also a high capacity optical downlink. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is currently investigating the benefits of a ground based hybrid RF and deep space optical terminal based on limited modification of existing 34 meter antenna designs. The ideal design would include as large an optical aperture as technically practical and cost effective, cause minimal impact to RF performance, and remain cost effective even when compared to a separate optical terminal of comparable size. Numerous trades and architectures have been considered, including shared RF and optical apertures having aspheric optics and means to separate RF and optical signals, plus, partitioned apertures in which various zones of the primary are dedicated to optical reception. A design based on the latter is emphasized in this paper, employing spherical primary optics and a new version of a "clamshell" corrector that is optimized to fit within the limited space between the antenna sub-reflector and the existing apex structure that supports the subreflector. The mechanical design of the hybrid accommodates multiple spherical primary mirror panels in the central 11 meters of the antenna, and integrates the clamshell corrector and optical receiver modules with antenna hardware using existing attach points to the maximum extent practical. When an optical collection area is implemented on a new antenna, it is possible to design the antenna structure to accommodate the additional weight of optical mirrors providing an equivalent aperture of several meters diameter. The focus of our near term effort is to use optics with the 34 meter DSS-13 antenna at Goldstone to demonstrate spatial optical acquisition and tracking capability using an optical system that is temporarily integrated into the antenna.

    13. Integrated Radio and Optical Communication (iROC)

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Raible, Daniel; Romanofsky, Robert; Pease, Gary; Kacpura, Thomas

      2016-01-01

      This is an overview of the Integrated Radio and Optical Communication (iROC) Project for Space Communication and Navigation Industry Days. The Goal is to develop and demonstrate new, high payoff space technologies that will promote mission utilization of optical communications, thereby expanding the capabilities of NASA's exploration, science, and discovery missions. This is an overview that combines the paramount features of select deep space RF and optical communications elements into an integrated system, scalable from deep space to near earth. It will realize Ka-band RF and 1550 nanometer optical capability. The approach is to prototype and demonstrate performance of key components to increase to TRL-5, leading to integrated hybrid communications system demonstration to increase to TRL-5, leading to integrated hybrid communications system demonstration.

    14. Monolithically integrated quantum dot optical modulator with Semiconductor optical amplifier for short-range optical communications

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Akahane, Kouichi; Umezawa, Toshimasa; Kawanishi, Tetsuya

      2015-04-01

      A monolithically integrated quantum dot (QD) optical gain modulator (OGM) with a QD semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) was successfully developed. Broadband QD optical gain material was used to achieve Gbps-order high-speed optical data transmission, and an optical gain change as high as approximately 6-7 dB was obtained with a low OGM voltage of 2.0 V. Loss of optical power due to insertion of the device was also effectively compensated for by the SOA section. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the QD-OGM/SOA device helped achieve 6.0-Gbps error-free optical data transmission over a 2.0-km-long photonic crystal fiber. We also successfully demonstrated generation of Gbps-order, high-speed, and error-free optical signals in the >5.5-THz broadband optical frequency bandwidth larger than the C-band. These results suggest that the developed monolithically integrated QD-OGM/SOA device will be an advantageous and compact means of increasing the usable optical frequency channels for short-reach communications.

    15. Space Station-based deep-space optical communication experiments

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Chen, Chien-Chung; Schwartz, Jon A.

      1988-01-01

      A series of three experiments proposed for advanced optical deep-space communications is described. These proposed experiments would be carried out aboard the Space Station to test and evaluate the capability of optical instruments to conduct data communication and spacecraft navigation for deep-space missions. Techniques for effective data communication, precision spacecraft ranging, and accurate angular measurements will be developed and evaluated in a spaceborne environment.

    16. A Study of Synchronization Techniques for Optical Communication Systems

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Gagliardi, R. M.

      1975-01-01

      The study of synchronization techniques and related topics in the design of high data rate, deep space, optical communication systems was reported. Data cover: (1) effects of timing errors in narrow pulsed digital optical systems, (2) accuracy of microwave timing systems operating in low powered optical systems, (3) development of improved tracking systems for the optical channel and determination of their tracking performance, (4) development of usable photodetector mathematical models for application to analysis and performance design in communication receivers, and (5) study application of multi-level block encoding to optical transmission of digital data.

    17. Training program developed for senior undergraduates majoring in optical communication

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Cui, Sheng; Zhang, Xinliang; Ke, Changjian

      2017-08-01

      Based on the well-known simulation software VPI TransmissionMaker, a comprehensive training program for senior undergraduates majoring in optical communication and optical network technology was developed by the author after detailed study of the teaching difficult and key points in the discipline. Aiming at solving practical scientific and engineering problems, the program helped our students to develop the ability of acquiring and applying knowledge by designing optical devices, optical signal processing algorithms and optical fiber communication systems. Furthermore, innovation is inspired by introducing competition mechanism among project teams. The program was validated through four years of use and achieved good results.

    18. Systems and methods for free space optical communication

      DOEpatents

      Harper, Warren W [Benton City, WA; Aker, Pamela M [Richland, WA; Pratt, Richard M [Richland, WA

      2011-05-10

      Free space optical communication methods and systems, according to various aspects are described. The methods and systems are characterized by transmission of data through free space with a digitized optical signal acquired using wavelength modulation, and by discrimination between bit states in the digitized optical signal using a spectroscopic absorption feature of a chemical substance.

    19. All-optical virtual private network and ONUs communication in optical OFDM-based PON system.

      PubMed

      Zhang, Chongfu; Huang, Jian; Chen, Chen; Qiu, Kun

      2011-11-21

      We propose and demonstrate a novel scheme, which enables all-optical virtual private network (VPN) and all-optical optical network units (ONUs) inter-communications in optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing-based passive optical network (OFDM-PON) system using the subcarrier bands allocation for the first time (to our knowledge). We consider the intra-VPN and inter-VPN communications which correspond to two different cases: VPN communication among ONUs in one group and in different groups. The proposed scheme can provide the enhanced security and a more flexible configuration for VPN users compared to the VPN in WDM-PON or TDM-PON systems. The all-optical VPN and inter-ONU communications at 10-Gbit/s with 16 quadrature amplitude modulation (16 QAM) for the proposed optical OFDM-PON system are demonstrated. These results verify that the proposed scheme is feasible. © 2011 Optical Society of America

    20. Optical communication with semiconductor laser diodes

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Davidson, F.

      1988-01-01

      Slot timing recovery in a direct detection optical PPM communication system can be achieved by processing the photodetector waveform with a nonlinear device whose output forms the input to a phase lock group. The choice of a simple transition detector as the nonlinearity is shown to give satisfactory synchronization performance. The rms phase error of the recovered slot clock and the effect of slot timing jitter on the bit error probability were directly measured. The experimental system consisted of an AlGaAs laser diode (lambda = 834 nm) and a silicon avalanche photodiode (APD) photodetector and used Q=4 PPM signaling operated at a source data rate of 25 megabits/second. The mathematical model developed to characterize system performance is shown to be in good agreement with actual performance measurements. The use of the recovered slot clock in the receiver resulted in no degradation in receiver sensitivity compared to a system with perfect slot timing. The system achieved a bit error probability of 10 to the minus 6 power at received signal energies corresponding to an average of less than 60 detected photons per information bit.

    1. Beaconless Pointing for Deep-Space Optical Communication

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Swank, Aaron J.; Aretskin-Hariton, Eliot; Le, Dzu K.; Sands, Obed S.; Wroblewski, Adam

      2016-01-01

      Free space optical communication is of interest to NASA as a complement to existing radio frequency communication methods. The potential for an increase in science data return capability over current radio-frequency communications is the primary objective. Deep space optical communication requires laser beam pointing accuracy on the order of a few microradians. The laser beam pointing approach discussed here operates without the aid of a terrestrial uplink beacon. Precision pointing is obtained from an on-board star tracker in combination with inertial rate sensors and an outgoing beam reference vector. The beaconless optical pointing system presented in this work is the current approach for the Integrated Radio and Optical Communication (iROC) project.

    2. Deep-Space Optical Communications: Visions, Trends, and Prospects

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Cesarone, R. J.; Abraham, D. S.; Shambayati, S.; Rush, J.

      2011-01-01

      Current key initiatives in deep-space optical communications are treated in terms of historical context, contemporary trends, and prospects for the future. An architectural perspective focusing on high-level drivers, systems, and related operations concepts is provided. Detailed subsystem and component topics are not addressed. A brief overview of past ideas and architectural concepts sets the stage for current developments. Current requirements that might drive a transition from radio frequencies to optical communications are examined. These drivers include mission demand for data rates and/or data volumes; spectrum to accommodate such data rates; and desired power, mass, and cost benefits. As is typical, benefits come with associated challenges. For optical communications, these include atmospheric effects, link availability, pointing, and background light. The paper describes how NASA's Space Communication and Navigation Office will respond to the drivers, achieve the benefits, and mitigate the challenges, as documented in its Optical Communications Roadmap. Some nontraditional architectures and operations concepts are advanced in an effort to realize benefits and mitigate challenges as quickly as possible. Radio frequency communications is considered as both a competitor to and a partner with optical communications. The paper concludes with some suggestions for two affordable first steps that can yet evolve into capable architectures that will fulfill the vision inherent in optical communications.

    3. Laser-Based Acousto-Optic Uplink Communications Technique

      DTIC Science & Technology

      2003-08-18

      An apparatus for enabling acousto - optic communication comprising an in-water platform comprising means for emitting an acoustic signal to an acousto ...portion of the first interrogation beam and a second laser beam formed from the reflection of the first interrogation beam off of the acousto - optic interaction... optic interaction zone, an in-air platform comprising the ability for transmitting a first optical interrogation beam, the ability for receiving a

    4. A note on deep space optical communication link parameters

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Dolinar, S. J.; Yuen, J. H.

      1982-01-01

      Topical communication in the context of a deep space communication link. Communication link analysis at the optical frequencies differs significantly from that at microwave frequencies such as the traditional S and X-bands used in deep space applications, due to the different technology of transmitter, antenna, modulators, and receivers. In addition, the important role of quantum noise in limiting system performance is quite different than that of thermal noise. The optical link design is put in a design control table format similar to a microwave telecom link design. Key considerations unique to the optical link are discussed.

    5. Free Space Optics Communication for Navy Surface Ship Platforms

      DTIC Science & Technology

      2004-03-01

      known FSO system was demonstrated by Alexander Graham Bell in 1880, called “ photophone ,” which never became a commercial reality. The first...sounds into telephone signals and transmitted them on a beam of light for a distance of 600 feet. Bell called this invention the “ photophone ”, which

    6. OPALS: A COTS-based Tech Demo of Optical Communications

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Oaida, Bogdan

      2012-01-01

      I. Objective: Deliver video from ISS to optical ground terminal via an optical communications link. a) JPL Phaeton/Early Career Hire (ECH) training project. b) Implemented as Class-D payload. c) Downlink at approx.30Mb/s. II. Flight System a) Optical Head Beacon Acquisition Camera. Downlink Transmitter. 2-axis Gimbal. b) Sealed Container Laser Avionics Power distribution Digital I/O board III. Implementation: a) Ground Station - Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory at Table Mountain Facility b) Flight System mounted to ISS FRAM as standard I/F. Attached externally on Express Logistics Carrier.

    7. Algorithm for Cosmic Noise Suppression in Free Space Optical Communications

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Yuvaraj, George; Himani Sharma, Goyal, Dr.

      2017-08-01

      This article describes an algorithm to reduce cosmic noise in free space optical communication system. This method is intended to increase communication system’s performance and to increase the sustainability of the communication system by means of image processing technique. Apart from these, methods employed in testing the model are also presented for the communication system that uses either terrestrial or extraterrestrial medium to propagate message using optics or visible light without considering environmental impact that is turbulence, atmospheric absorption, beam dispersion and light intensity on its performance.

    8. Novel approximation of misalignment fading modeled by Beckmann distribution on free-space optical links.

      PubMed

      Boluda-Ruiz, Rubén; García-Zambrana, Antonio; Castillo-Vázquez, Carmen; Castillo-Vázquez, Beatriz

      2016-10-03

      A novel accurate and useful approximation of the well-known Beckmann distribution is presented here, which is used to model generalized pointing errors in the context of free-space optical (FSO) communication systems. We derive an approximate closed-form probability density function (PDF) for the composite gamma-gamma (GG) atmospheric turbulence with the pointing error model using the proposed approximation of the Beckmann distribution, which is valid for most practical terrestrial FSO links. This approximation takes into account the effect of the beam width, different jitters for the elevation and the horizontal displacement and the simultaneous effect of nonzero boresight errors for each axis at the receiver plane. Additionally, the proposed approximation allows us to delimit two different FSO scenarios. The first of them is when atmospheric turbulence is the dominant effect in relation to generalized pointing errors, and the second one when generalized pointing error is the dominant effect in relation to atmospheric turbulence. The second FSO scenario has not been studied in-depth by the research community. Moreover, the accuracy of the method is measured both visually and quantitatively using curve-fitting metrics. Simulation results are further included to confirm the analytical results.

    9. Trans-Interface Optical Communication (TIOC)

      DTIC Science & Technology

      2008-01-01

      communication interface 4. Bitmap stream creation 5. Display thread 6. DMD activeX control 7. DMD communication 8. System timing/control 9...o DMD activeX control o DMD communication o System timing/control o Graphical user interface (GUI) • All components are available for

    10. Performance Analysis and Electronics Packaging of the Optical Communications Demonstrator

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Jeganathan, M.; Monacos, S.

      1998-01-01

      The Optical Communications Demonstrator (OCD), under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), is a laboratory-based lasercomm terminal designed to validate several key technologies, primarily precision beam pointing, high bandwidth tracking, and beacon acquisition.

    11. Networked Operations of Hybrid Radio Optical Communications Satellites

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Hylton, Alan; Raible, Daniel

      2014-01-01

      In order to address the increasing communications needs of modern equipment in space, and to address the increasing number of objects in space, NASA is demonstrating the potential capability of optical communications for both deep space and near-Earth applications. The Integrated Radio Optical Communications (iROC) is a hybrid communications system that capitalizes on the best of both the optical and RF domains while using each technology to compensate for the other's shortcomings. Specifically, the data rates of the optical links can be higher than their RF counterparts, whereas the RF links have greater link availability. The focus of this paper is twofold: to consider the operations of one or more iROC nodes from a networking point of view, and to suggest specific areas of research to further the field. We consider the utility of Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN) and the Virtual Mission Operation Center (VMOC) model.

    12. Real-time dual-polarization transmission based on hybrid optical wireless communications

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Sousa, Artur N.; Alimi, Isiaka A.; Ferreira, Ricardo M.; Shahpari, Ali; Lima, Mário; Monteiro, Paulo P.; Teixeira, António L.

      2018-01-01

      We present experimental work on a gigabit-capable and long-reach hybrid coherent UWDM-PON plus FSO system for supporting different applications over the same fiber infrastructure in the mobile backhaul (MBH) networks. Also, for the first time, we demonstrate a reconfigurable real-time DSP transmission/reception of DP-QPSK signals over standard single-mode fiber (SSMF) and FSO links. The receiver presented is based on a commercial field-programmable gate array (FPGA). The considered communication links are based on 20 UDWDM channels with 625 Mbaud and 2.5 GHz channel spacing. We are able to demonstrate the lowest sampling rate required for digital coherent PON by employing four 1.25 Gsa/s ADCs using an electrical front-end receiver that offers only 1 GHz analog bandwidth. We achieved this by implementing a phase and polarization diversity coherent receiver combined with the DP-QPSK modulation formats. The system performance is estimated in terms of receiver sensitivity. The results show the viability of coherent PON and flexible dual-polarization supported by software-defined transceivers for the MBH.

    13. Exotic Optical Beam Classes for Free-Space Communication

      DTIC Science & Technology

      2016-03-24

      such DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution approved for public release. superoscillations have been shown to be connected with the spacing of zeros in a wave...AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0131 Exotic optical beam classes for free- space communication Greg Gbur UNIVERSITY OF NOTH CAROLINA AT CHARLOTTE Final Report...12-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Exotic optical beam classes for free- space communication 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-13-1-0009 5c

    14. Error rate performance of atmospheric laser communication based on bubble model

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Xu, Ke; Wang, Jin; Li, Yan

      2009-08-01

      Free-Space Optics (FSO) can provide an effective line-of-sight and wireless communication with high bandwidth over a short distance. As a promising field of wireless communication, FSO is being accepted as an alternative of the more expensive fiber-optic based solutions. Despite the advantages of FSO, atmospheric turbulence has a significant impact on laser beam propagating through the channel in the atmosphere over a long distance. Turbulent eddies of various size and refractive index result in intensity scintillation and phase wander, which can severely impair the quality of FSO communication system. In this paper, a new geometrical model is used to assess the effects of turbulence on laser beam in its propagation path. The atmosphere is modeled along the transmission path filled with spatial-distributed spherical bubbles. The size and refractive index discontinuity of each bubble is K-distributed. This Monte Carlo technique allows us to estimate the fluctuation of intensity and phase shifts along the path. A pair of uncollimated rays arrives at the receiver through different path, and an optical path difference is produced. This difference causes a delay between the two rays. At the receiver, as the two rays are superposed, the delay ultimately affects the judgement of the bits. In the simulation, we assume that when the delay exceeds half of the bit width, bit error is possible. On the contrary, when the delay is less than the bit width, the bit error will not happen. Based on this assumption, we calculate the BER under different conditions, and results are further analyzed.

    15. Selective excitation of LG 00, LG 01, and LG 02 modes by a solid core PCF based mode selector in MDM-Ro-FSO transmission systems

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Chaudhary, Sushank; Amphawan, Angela

      2018-07-01

      Radio over free space (Ro-FSO) provides an ambitious platform for seamless integration of radio networks to optical networks. Three independent channels, each carrying 2.5 Gbps–5 GHz data, are successfully transmitted over a free space link of 2.5 km by using mode division multiplexing (MDM) of three modes LG 00, LG 01, and LG 02 modes in conjunction with solid core photonic crystal fibers (SC-PCFs). Moreover, SC-PCFs are used as a mode selector in the proposed MDM-Ro-FSO system. The results are reported in terms of bit error rate, mode spectrum, and spatial profiles. The performance of the proposed Ro-FSO system is also evaluated under the influence of atmospheric turbulence in the form of different levels of fog, namely, light fog, thin fog, and heavy fog.

    16. Fiber-Optic Terahertz Data-Communication Networks

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Chua, Peter L.; Lambert, James L.; Morookian, John M.; Bergman, Larry A.

      1994-01-01

      Network protocols implemented in optical domain. Fiber-optic data-communication networks utilize fully available bandwidth of single-mode optical fibers. Two key features of method: use of subpicosecond laser pulses as carrier signals and spectral phase modulation of pulses for optical implementation of code-division multiple access as multiplexing network protocol. Local-area network designed according to concept offers full crossbar functionality, security of data in transit through network, and capacity about 100 times that of typical fiber-optic local-area network in current use.

    17. NASA's Optical Communications Program for 2015 and Beyond

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Cornwell, Donald M.

      2015-01-01

      NASA's Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) program at NASA headquarters is pursuing a vibrant and wide-ranging optical communications program for further planetary and near-Earth missions following the spectacular success of NASA's Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration (LLCD) from the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft orbiting the moon in 2013. This invited paper will discuss NASA's new laser communication missions, key scenarios and details, and the plans to infuse this new technology into NASA's existing communications networks.

    18. Performance analysis of OOK-based FSO systems in Gamma-Gamma turbulence with imprecise channel models

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Feng, Jianfeng; Zhao, Xiaohui

      2017-11-01

      For an FSO communication system with imprecise channel model, we investigate its system performance based on outage probability, average BEP and ergodic capacity. The exact FSO links are modeled as Gamma-Gamma fading channel in consideration of both atmospheric turbulence and pointing errors, and the imprecise channel model is treated as the superposition of exact channel gain and a Gaussian random variable. After we derive the PDF, CDF and nth moment of the imprecise channel gain, and based on these statistics the expressions for the outage probability, the average BEP and the ergodic capacity in terms of the Meijer's G functions are obtained. Both numerical and analytical results are presented. The simulation results show that the communication performance deteriorates in the imprecise channel model, and approaches to the exact performance curves as the channel model becomes accurate.

    19. A Fibre-Optic Communications Network for Teaching Clinical Medicine.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Williams, Robin

      1985-01-01

      Describes an interactive television system based on fiber-optic communications technology which is used to facilitate participation by University of London medical students in lecture/tutorials by teachers in different hospital locations. Highlights include advantages of fiber-optics, cable manufacture and installation, opto-electronic interface,…

    20. Two mode optical fiber in space optics communication

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Hampl, Martin

      2017-11-01

      In our contribution we propose to use of a two-mode optical fiber as a primary source in a transmitting optical head instead of the laser diode. The distribution of the optical intensity and the complex degree of the coherence on the output aperture of the lens that is irradiated by a step-index weakly guiding optical fiber is investigated. In our treatment we take into account weakly guided modes with polarization corrections to the propagation constant and unified theory of second order coherence and polarization of electromagnetic beams.

    1. Interactive educational technologies as a method of communicative competency development of optical and fiber optic communication systems specialists

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Matveeva, Tatiana U.; Osadchiy, Igor S.; Husnutdinova, Marina N.

      2017-04-01

      The article examines the process of formation of communicative competencies of optic and fiber optic communication systems specialists; the role of communicative competencies is examined in the structure of professionally important skills, together with the contents of professional activity. The stages of empirical research into formation of communicative competencies have been presented, and the values of statistical reliability of data have been provided. The model of formation of communicative competency using interactive technology has been developed based on the research done, and main stages of model implementation and motives of formation of communicative competency have been highlighted. A scheme of "Communicative competence as a base of future success" training session has been suggested as one of the basic interactive technologies. Main components of education that are used during the stages of the training cycle have been examined. The statistical data on the effectiveness of use of interactive educational technologies has been presented; it allowed development of communicative competency of specialists in the field of optical and fiber optic communication system.

    2. Quantum issues in optical communication. [noise reduction in signal reception

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Kennedy, R. S.

      1973-01-01

      Various approaches to the problem of controlling quantum noise, the dominant noise in an optical communications system, are discussed. It is shown that, no matter which way the problem is approached, there always remain uncertainties. These uncertainties exist because, to date, only very few communication problems have been solved in their full quantum form.

    3. Site survey for optimum location of Optical Communication Experimental Facility

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1968-01-01

      Site survey was made to determine the optimum location for an Optical Communication Experimental Facility /OCEF/ and to recommend several sites, graded according to preference. A site was desired which could perform two-way laser communication with a spacecraft and laser tracking with a minimum of interruption by weather effects.

    4. Design of stabilized platforms for deep space optical communications (DSOC)

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Jacka, N.; Walter, R.; Laughlin, D.; McNally, J.

      2017-02-01

      Numerous Deep Space Optical Communications (DSOC) demonstrations are planned by NASA to provide the basis for future implementation of optical communications links in planetary science missions and eventually manned missions to Mars. There is a need for a simple, robust precision optical stabilization concept for long-range free space optical communications applications suitable for optical apertures and masses larger than the current state of the art. We developed a stabilization concept by exploiting the ultra-low noise and wide bandwidth of ATA-proprietary Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) angular rate sensors and building on prior practices of flexure-based isolation. We detail a stabilization approach tailored for deep space optical communications, and present an innovative prototype design and test results. Our prototype system provides sub-micro radian stabilization for a deep space optical link such as NASA's integrated Radio frequency and Optical Communications (iROC) and NASA's DSOC programs. Initial test results and simulations suggest that >40 dB broadband jitter rejection is possible without placing unrealistic expectations on the control loop bandwidth and flexure isolation frequency. This approach offers a simple, robust method for platform stabilization without requiring a gravity offload apparatus for ground testing or launch locks to survive a typical launch environment. This paper reviews alternative stabilization concepts, their advantages and disadvantages, as well as, their applicability to various optical communications applications. We present results from testing that subjected the prototype system to realistic spacecraft base motion and confirmed predicted sub-micro radian stabilization performance with a realistic 20-cm aperture.

    5. Polarization tracking system for free-space optical communication, including quantum communication

      SciTech Connect

      Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth; Newell, Raymond Thorson; Peterson, Charles Glen

      Quantum communication transmitters include beacon lasers that transmit a beacon optical signal in a predetermined state of polarization such as one of the states of polarization of a quantum communication basis. Changes in the beacon polarization are detected at a receiver, and a retarder is adjusted so that the states of polarization in a received quantum communication optical signal are matched to basis polarizations. The beacon and QC signals can be at different wavelengths so that the beacon does not interfere with detection and decoding of the QC optical signal.

    6. Power losses in diffuse ultraviolet optical communications channels.

      PubMed

      Raptis, Nikos; Pikasis, Evangelos; Syvridis, Dimitris

      2016-09-15

      One of the most critical parameters in free-space optical communications systems operating in a non-line-of-sight regime are the optical losses. In this Letter, we numerically calculate these losses taking into account the scattering effects using the Monte Carlo simulation technique. The obtained results are compared with experimentally obtained data at 265 nm (solar-blind UV regime). A large set of measurements at distances up to 20 m, for different elevation angles of the transmitter (UV-LEDs) and receiver (photomultiplier tube) and for different atmospheric conditions has been taken for the characterization of the optical communications channel in terms of its loss properties.

    7. Crossbar Switches For Optical Data-Communication Networks

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Monacos, Steve P.

      1994-01-01

      Optoelectronic and electro-optical crossbar switches called "permutation engines" (PE's) developed to route packets of data through fiber-optic communication networks. Basic network concept described in "High-Speed Optical Wide-Area Data-Communication Network" (NPO-18983). Nonblocking operation achieved by decentralized switching and control scheme. Each packet routed up or down in each column of this 5-input/5-output permutation engine. Routing algorithm ensures each packet arrives at its designated output port without blocking any other packet that does not contend for same output port.

    8. Near Sun Free-Space Optical Communications from Space

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Biswas, Abhijit; Khatri, F.; Boroson, D.

      2006-01-01

      Free-space optical communications offers expanded data return capacity, from probes distributed throughout the solar system and beyond. Space-borne and Earth-based optical transceivers used for communicating optically, will periodically encounter near Sun pointing. This will result in an increase in the scattered background light flux, often contributing to degraded link performance. The varying duration of near Sun pointing link operations relative to the location of space-probes, is discussed in this paper. The impact of near Sun pointing on link performance for a direct detection photon-counting communications system is analyzed for both ground- and space-based Earth receivers. Finally, impact of near Sun pointing on spaceborne optical transceivers is discussed.

    9. Concepts for fast acquisition in optical communications systems

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Wilkerson, Brandon L.; Giggenbach, Dirk; Epple, Bernhard

      2006-09-01

      As free-space laser communications systems proliferate due to improved technology and transmission techniques, optical communication networks comprised of ground stations, aircraft, high altitude platforms, and satellites become an attainable goal. An important consideration for optical networks is the ability of optical communication terminals (OCT) to quickly locate one another and align their laser beams to initiate the acquisition sequence. This paper investigates promising low-cost technologies and novel approaches that will facilitate the targeting and acquisition tasks between counter terminals. Specifically, two critical technology areas are investigated: position determination (which includes location and attitude determination) and inter-terminal communications. A feasibility study identified multiple-antenna global navigation satellite system (GNSS) systems and GNSS-aided inertial systems as possible position determination solutions. Personal satellite communication systems (e.g. Iridium or Inmarsat), third generation cellular technology (IMT-2000/UMTS), and a relatively new air traffic surveillance technology called Autonomous Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) were identified as possible inter-terminal communication solutions. A GNSS-aided inertial system and an ADS-B system were integrated into an OCT to demonstrate their utility in a typical optical communication scenario. Testing showed that these technologies have high potential in future OCTs, although improvements can be made to both to increase tracking accuracy.

    10. Digital optical processing of optical communications: towards an Optical Turing Machine

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Touch, Joe; Cao, Yinwen; Ziyadi, Morteza; Almaiman, Ahmed; Mohajerin-Ariaei, Amirhossein; Willner, Alan E.

      2017-01-01

      Optical computing is needed to support Tb/s in-network processing in a way that unifies communication and computation using a single data representation that supports in-transit network packet processing, security, and big data filtering. Support for optical computation of this sort requires leveraging the native properties of optical wave mixing to enable computation and switching for programmability. As a consequence, data must be encoded digitally as phase (M-PSK), semantics-preserving regeneration is the key to high-order computation, and data processing at Tb/s rates requires mixing. Experiments have demonstrated viable approaches to phase squeezing and power restoration. This work led our team to develop the first serial, optical Internet hop-count decrement, and to design and simulate optical circuits for calculating the Internet checksum and multiplexing Internet packets. The current exploration focuses on limited-lookback computational models to reduce the need for permanent storage and hybrid nanophotonic circuits that combine phase-aligned comb sources, non-linear mixing, and switching on the same substrate to avoid the macroscopic effects that hamper benchtop prototypes.

    11. Optical deep space communication via relay satellite

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Gagliardi, R. M.; Vilnrotter, V. A.; Dolinar, S. J., Jr.

      1981-01-01

      The possible use of an optical for high rate data transmission from a deep space vehicle to an Earth-orbiting relay satellite while RF links are envisioned for the relay to Earth link was studied. A preliminary link analysis is presented for initial sizing of optical components and power levels, in terms of achievable data rates and feasible range distances. Modulation formats are restricted to pulsed laser operation, involving bot coded and uncoded schemes. The advantage of an optical link over present RF deep space link capabilities is shown. The problems of acquisition, pointing and tracking with narrow optical beams are presented and discussed. Mathematical models of beam trackers are derived, aiding in the design of such systems for minimizing beam pointing errors. The expected orbital geometry between spacecraft and relay satellite, and its impact on beam pointing dynamics are discussed.

    12. Hybrid electronic/optical synchronized chaos communication system.

      PubMed

      Toomey, J P; Kane, D M; Davidović, A; Huntington, E H

      2009-04-27

      A hybrid electronic/optical system for synchronizing a chaotic receiver to a chaotic transmitter has been demonstrated. The chaotic signal is generated electronically and injected, in addition to a constant bias current, to a semiconductor laser to produce an optical carrier for transmission. The optical chaotic carrier is photodetected to regenerate an electronic signal for synchronization in a matched electronic receiver The system has been successfully used for the transmission and recovery of a chaos masked message that is added to the chaotic optical carrier. Past demonstrations of synchronized chaos based, secure communication systems have used either an electronic chaotic carrier or an optical chaotic carrier (such as the chaotic output of various nonlinear laser systems). This is the first electronic/optical hybrid system to be demonstrated. We call this generation of a chaotic optical carrier by electronic injection.

    13. Monolithically integrated active optical devices. [with application in optical communication

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Ballantyne, J.; Wagner, D. K.; Kushner, B.; Wojtzcuk, S.

      1981-01-01

      Considerations relevant to the monolithic integration of optical detectors, lasers, and modulators with high speed amplifiers are discussed. Some design considerations for representative subsystems in the GaAs-AlGaAs and GaInAs-InP materials systems are described. Results of a detailed numerical design of an electro-optical birefringent filter for monolithic integration with a laser diode is described, and early experimental results on monolithic integration of broadband MESFET amplifiers with photoconductive detectors are reported.

    14. Development of the Free-space Optical Communications Analysis Software (FOCAS)

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Jeganathan, M.; Mecherle, G.; Lesh, J.

      1998-01-01

      The Free-space Optical Communications Analysis Software (FOCAS) was developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to provide mission planners, systems engineers and communications engineers with an easy to use tool to analyze optical communications link.

    15. Optical Communications Study for the Next Generation Space Telescope

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Ceniceros, Juan M.

      2000-01-01

      The Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST), part of NASA's Origins program, is a follow on to the Hubble Space Telescope expected to provide timely new science along with answering fundamental questions. NGST is a large diameter, infrared optimized telescope with imaging and spectrographic detectors which will be used to help study the origin of galaxies. Due to the large data NGST will collect, Goddard Space Flight Center has considered the use of optical communications for data downlink. The Optical Communications Group at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory has performed a study on optical communications systems for NGST. The objective of the study was to evaluate the benefits gained through the use of optical communication technologies. Studies were performed for each of four proposed NGST orbits. The orbits considered were an elliptical orbit about the semi stable second Lagrangian point, a 1 by 3 AU elliptic orbit around the sun, a 1 AU drift orbit, and a 1 AU drift orbit at a 15 degree incline to the ecliptic plane. An appropriate optical communications system was determined for each orbit. Systems were evaluated in terms of mass, power consumption, size, and cost for each of the four proposed orbits.

    16. All Optical Solution for Free Space Optics Point to Point Links

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Hirayama, Daigo

      Optical network systems are quickly replacing electrical network systems. Optical systems provide better bandwidth, faster data rates, better security to networks, and are less susceptible to noise. Free Space Optics (systems) still rely on numerous electrical systems such as the modulation and demodulation systems to convert optical signals to electrical signals for the transmitting laser. As the concept of the entirely optical network becomes more realizable, the electrical components of the FSO system will become a hindrance to communications. The focus of this thesis is to eliminate the electrical devices for the FSO point to point links by replacing them with optical devices. The concept is similar to an extended beam connector. However, where an extended beam connector deals with a gap of a few millimeters, my focus looks at distances from 100 meters to one kilometer. The aim is to achieve a detectable signal of 1nW at a distance of 500 meters at a wavelength of 1500-1600nm. This leads to application in building to building links and mobile networks. The research examines the design of the system in terms of generating the wave, the properties of the fiber feeding the wave, and the power necessary to achieve a usable distance. The simulation is executed in Code V by Synopsys, which is an industry standard to analyze optical systems. A usable device with a range of around 500m was achieved with an input power of 1mW. The approximations of the phase function resulted in some aberrations to the profile of the beam, but were not very detrimental to the function of the device. The removal of electrical devices from a FSO point to point link decreased the power used to establish the link and decreased the cost.

    17. Advanced Secure Optical Image Processing for Communications

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Al Falou, Ayman

      2018-04-01

      New image processing tools and data-processing network systems have considerably increased the volume of transmitted information such as 2D and 3D images with high resolution. Thus, more complex networks and long processing times become necessary, and high image quality and transmission speeds are requested for an increasing number of applications. To satisfy these two requests, several either numerical or optical solutions were offered separately. This book explores both alternatives and describes research works that are converging towards optical/numerical hybrid solutions for high volume signal and image processing and transmission. Without being limited to hybrid approaches, the latter are particularly investigated in this book in the purpose of combining the advantages of both techniques. Additionally, pure numerical or optical solutions are also considered since they emphasize the advantages of one of the two approaches separately.

    18. Optical rangefinding applications using communications modulation technique

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Caplan, William D.; Morcom, Christopher John

      2010-10-01

      A novel range detection technique combines optical pulse modulation patterns with signal cross-correlation to produce an accurate range estimate from low power signals. The cross-correlation peak is analyzed by a post-processing algorithm such that the phase delay is proportional to the range to target. This technique produces a stable range estimate from noisy signals. The advantage is higher accuracy obtained with relatively low optical power transmitted. The technique is useful for low cost, low power and low mass sensors suitable for tactical use. The signal coding technique allows applications including IFF and battlefield identification systems.

    19. Performance analysis for mixed FSO/RF Nakagami-m and Exponentiated Weibull dual-hop airborne systems

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Jing, Zhao; Shang-hong, Zhao; Wei-hu, Zhao; Ke-fan, Chen

      2017-06-01

      In this paper, the performances of mixed free-space optical (FSO)/radio frequency (RF) systems are presented based on the decode-and-forward relaying. The Exponentiated Weibull fading channel with pointing error effect is adopted for the atmospheric fluctuation of FSO channel and the RF link undergoes the Nakagami-m fading. We derived the analytical expression for cumulative distribution function (CDF) of equivalent signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The novel mathematical presentations of outage probability and average bit-error-rate (BER) are developed based on the Meijer's G function. The analytical results show an accurately match to the Monte-Carlo simulation results. The outage and BER performance for the mixed system by decode-and-forward relay are investigated considering atmospheric turbulence and pointing error condition. The effect of aperture averaging is evaluated in all atmospheric turbulence conditions as well.

    20. Active optical cable for intrasatellite communications

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Blasco, J.; Cano, D.; Navasquillo, O.; Esteban, M. A.

      2017-11-01

      DAS Photonics and Airbus Defence and Space (Spain) have been working for more than six years in the concept of an Active Optical Cable (AOC) for copper cable substitution. The main advantages that AOC offers are significant mass and size saving, better flexibility and routing of the cable and immunity to EMI.

    1. Apparatus for Teaching Physics: Optical Fiber Communications.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Throckmorton, Carl; Dey, Joe

      1988-01-01

      Describes a demonstration of the transmission of data signals from one microcomputer to another using an optical fiber line. Discusses the set-up method and demonstration steps for sending program and graphics. Provides a block diagram of the system and two circuit diagrams. (YP)

    2. Hybrid Ground Station Technology for RF and Optical Communication Links

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Davarian, Faramaz; Hoppe, D.; Charles, J.; Vilnrotter, V.; Sehic, A.; Hanson, T.; Gam, E.

      2012-01-01

      To support future enhancements of NASA's deep space and planetary communications and tracking services, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is developing a hybrid ground station that will be capable of simultaneously supporting RF and optical communications. The main reason for adding optical links to the existing RF links is to significantly increase the capacity of deep space communications in support of future solar system exploration. It is envisioned that a mission employing an optical link will also use an RF link for telemetry and emergency purposes, hence the need for a hybrid ground station. A hybrid station may also reduce operations cost by requiring fewer staff than would be required to operate two stations. A number of approaches and techniques have been examined. The most promising ones have been prototyped for field examination and validation.

    3. Per-Pixel, Dual-Counter Scheme for Optical Communications

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Farr, William H.; Bimbaum, Kevin M.; Quirk, Kevin J.; Sburlan, Suzana; Sahasrabudhe, Adit

      2013-01-01

      Free space optical communications links from deep space are projected to fulfill future NASA communication requirements for 2020 and beyond. Accurate laser-beam pointing is required to achieve high data rates at low power levels.This innovation is a per-pixel processing scheme using a pair of three-state digital counters to implement acquisition and tracking of a dim laser beacon transmitted from Earth for pointing control of an interplanetary optical communications system using a focal plane array of single sensitive detectors. It shows how to implement dim beacon acquisition and tracking for an interplanetary optical transceiver with a method that is suitable for both achieving theoretical performance, as well as supporting additional functions of high data rate forward links and precision spacecraft ranging.

    4. An underwater optical wireless communication system based on LED source

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Rao, Jionghui; Wei, Wei; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Xiaohui

      2011-11-01

      Compared with other communication methods, optical wireless communication (OWC) holds the merits of higher transmitting rate and sufficient secrecy. So it is an efficacious communicating measure for data transmitting between underwater carriers. However, due to the water attenuation and the transmitter & the receiver (TX/RX) collimation, this application is restrained in underwater mobile carriers. A prototype for underwater OWC was developed, in which a high-powered green LED array was used as the light source which partly raveled the TX/RX collimation out. A small pumped-multiple-tube (PMT) was used as the detector to increase the communicating range, and FPGA chips were employed to code and decode the communicating data. The data rate of the prototype approached to 4 Mb/s at 8.4m and 1 Mb/s at 22m where voice and Morse communications were achieved in a scope of 30 degree TX/RX angle.

    5. Research on Retro-reflecting Modulation in Space Optical Communication System

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Zhu, Yifeng; Wang, Guannan

      2018-01-01

      Retro-reflecting modulation space optical communication is a new type of free space optical communication technology. Unlike traditional free space optical communication system, it applys asymmetric optical systems to reduce the size, weight and power consumption of the system and can effectively solve the limits of traditional free space optical communication system application, so it can achieve the information transmission. This paper introduces the composition and working principle of retro-reflecting modulation optical communication system, analyzes the link budget of this system, reviews the types of optical system and optical modulator, summarizes this technology future research direction and application prospects.

    6. Research progress of free space coherent optical communication

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Tan, Zhenkun; Ke, Xizheng

      2018-02-01

      This paper mainly introduces the research progress of free space coherent optical communication in Xi'an University of Technology. In recent years, the research on the outer modulation technology of the laser, free-space-to-fiber coupling technique, the design of transmitting and receiving optical antenna, adaptive optical technology with or without wave-front sensor, automatic polarization control technology, frequency stabilization technology, heterodyne detection technology and high speed signal processing technology. Based on the above related research, the digital signal modulation, transmission, detection and data recovery are realized by the heterodyne detection technology in the free space optical communication system, and finally the function of smooth viewing high-definition video is realized.

    7. High-speed photodetectors in optical communication system

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Zhao, Zeping; Liu, Jianguo; Liu, Yu; Zhu, Ninghua

      2017-12-01

      This paper presents a review and discussion for high-speed photodetectors and their applications on optical communications and microwave photonics. A detailed and comprehensive demonstration of high-speed photodetectors from development history, research hotspots to packaging technologies is provided to the best of our knowledge. A few typical applications based on photodetectors are also illustrated, such as free-space optical communications, radio over fiber and millimeter terahertz signal generation systems. Project supported by the Preeminence Youth Fund of China (No. 61625504).

    8. Coherent Optical Communications: Historical Perspectives and Future Directions

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Kikuchi, Kazuro

      Coherent optical fiber communications were studied extensively in the 1980s mainly because high sensitivity of coherent receivers could elongate the unrepeated transmission distance; however, their research and development have been interrupted for nearly 20 years behind the rapid progress in high-capacity wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) systems using erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs). In 2005, the demonstration of digital carrier phase estimation in coherent receivers has stimulated a widespread interest in coherent optical communications again. This is due to the fact that the digital coherent receiver enables us to employ a variety of spectrally efficient modulation formats such as M-ary phase-shift keying (PSK) and quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) without relying upon a rather complicated optical phase-locked loop. In addition, since the phase information is preserved after detection, we can realize electrical post-processing functions such as compensation for chromatic dispersion and polarization-mode dispersion in the digital domain. These advantages of the born-again coherent receiver have enormous potential for innovating existing optical communication systems. In this chapter, after reviewing the 20-year history of coherent optical communication systems, we describe the principle of operation of coherent detection, the concept of the digital coherent receiver, and its performance evaluation. Finally, challenges for the future are summarized.

    9. Method and apparatus for optical communication by frequency modulation

      DOEpatents

      Priatko, Gordon J.

      1988-01-01

      Laser optical communication according to this invention is carried out by producing multi-frequency laser beams having different frequencies, splitting one or more of these constituent beams into reference and signal beams, encoding information on the signal beams by frequency modulation and detecting the encoded information by heterodyne techniques. Much more information can be transmitted over optical paths according to the present invention than with the use of only one path as done previously.

    10. An Optical Receiver Post Processing System for the Integrated Radio and Optical Communications Software Defined Radio Test Bed

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Nappier, Jennifer M.; Tokars, Roger P.; Wroblewski, Adam C.

      2016-01-01

      The Integrated Radio and Optical Communications (iROC) project at the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) Glenn Research Center is investigating the feasibility of a hybrid radio frequency (RF) and optical communication system for future deep space missions. As a part of this investigation, a test bed for a radio frequency (RF) and optical software defined radio (SDR) has been built. Receivers and modems for the NASA deep space optical waveform are not commercially available so a custom ground optical receiver system has been built. This paper documents the ground optical receiver, which is used in order to test the RF and optical SDR in a free space optical communications link.

    11. An Optical Receiver Post-Processing System for the Integrated Radio and Optical Communications Software Defined Radio Test Bed

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Nappier, Jennifer M.; Tokars, Roger P.; Wroblewski, Adam C.

      2016-01-01

      The Integrated Radio and Optical Communications (iROC) project at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Glenn Research Center is investigating the feasibility of a hybrid radio frequency (RF) and optical communication system for future deep space missions. As a part of this investigation, a test bed for a radio frequency (RF) and optical software defined radio (SDR) has been built. Receivers and modems for the NASA deep space optical waveform are not commercially available so a custom ground optical receiver system has been built. This paper documents the ground optical receiver, which is used in order to test the RF and optical SDR in a free space optical communications link.

    12. Silicon optical modulators for optical digital and analog communications (Conference Presentation)

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Yang, Lin; Ding, Jianfeng; Zhang, Lei; Shao, Sizu

      2017-02-01

      Silicon photonics is considered as a promising technology to overcome the difficulties of the existing digital and analog optical communication systems, such as low integration, high cost, and high power consumption. Silicon optical modulator, as a component to transfer data from electronic domain to optical one, has attracted extensive attentions in the past decade. In this paper, we review the statuses of the silicon optical modulators for digital and analog optical communications and introduce our efforts on these topics. We analyze the relationship between the performance and the structural parameters of the silicon optical modulator and present how to optimize its performance including electro-optical bandwidth, modulation efficiency, optical bandwidth and insertion loss. The fabricated silicon optical modulator has an electro-optical bandwidth of 30 GHz. Its extinction ratios are 14.0 dB, 11.2 dB and 9.0 dB at the speeds of 40 Gbps, 50 Gbps and 64 Gbps for OOK modulation. The high extinction ratio of the silicon optical modulator at the high speed makes it very appropriate for the application of optical coherent modulation, such as QPSK and 16-QAM. The fabricated silicon optical modulator also can be utilized for analog optical communication. With respect to a noise floor of -165 dBc, the dynamic ranges for the second-order harmonic and the third-order intermodulation distortion are 90.8 dB and 110.5 dB respectively. By adopting a differential driving structure, the dynamic range for the second-order harmonic can be further improved to 100.0 dB while the third-order intermodulation distortion remains the same level.

    13. Low-cost Large Aperture Telescopes for Optical Communications

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Hemmati, Hamid

      2006-01-01

      Low-cost, large-aperture optical receivers are required to form an affordable optical ground receiver network for laser communications. Among the ground receiver station's multiple subsystems, here, we only discuss the ongoing research activities aimed at reducing the cost of the large-size optics on the receiver. Experimental results of two different approaches for fabricating low-cost mirrors of wavefront quality on the order of 100-200X the diffraction limit are described. Laboratory-level effort are underway to improve the surface figure to better than 20X the diffraction limit.

    14. High-Capacity Free-Space Optical Communications Between a Ground Transmitter and a Ground Receiver via a UAV Using Multiplexing of Multiple Orbital-Angular-Momentum Beams.

      PubMed

      Li, Long; Zhang, Runzhou; Zhao, Zhe; Xie, Guodong; Liao, Peicheng; Pang, Kai; Song, Haoqian; Liu, Cong; Ren, Yongxiong; Labroille, Guillaume; Jian, Pu; Starodubov, Dmitry; Lynn, Brittany; Bock, Robert; Tur, Moshe; Willner, Alan E

      2017-12-12

      We explore the use of orbital-angular-momentum (OAM)-multiplexing to increase the capacity of free-space data transmission to moving platforms, with an added potential benefit of decreasing the probability of data intercept. Specifically, we experimentally demonstrate and characterize the performance of an OAM-multiplexed, free-space optical (FSO) communications link between a ground transmitter and a ground receiver via a moving unmanned-aerial-vehicle (UAV). We achieve a total capacity of 80 Gbit/s up to 100-m-roundtrip link by multiplexing 2 OAM beams, each carrying a 40-Gbit/s quadrature-phase-shift-keying (QPSK) signal. Moreover, we investigate for static, hovering, and moving conditions the effects of channel impairments, including: misalignments, propeller-induced airflows, power loss, intermodal crosstalk, and system bit error rate (BER). We find the following: (a) when the UAV hovers in the air, the power on the desired mode fluctuates by 2.1 dB, while the crosstalk to the other mode is -19 dB below the power on the desired mode; and (b) when the UAV moves in the air, the power fluctuation on the desired mode increases to 4.3 dB and the crosstalk to the other mode increases to -10 dB. Furthermore, the channel crosstalk decreases with an increase in OAM mode spacing.

    15. Acemind new indoor full duplex optical wireless communication prototype

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Bouchet, Olivier; Perrufel, Micheline; Topsu, Suat; Guan, Hongyu

      2016-09-01

      For over a century and Mr. Guglielmo Marconi invention, systems using radio waves have controlled over wireless telecommunication solutions; from Amplitude Modulation (AM) radio products to satellite communications for instance. But beyond an increasingly negative opinion face to radio waves and radio spectrum availability more and more reduced; there is an unprecedented opportunity with LED installation in displays and lighting to provide optical wireless communication solutions. As a result, technologically mature solutions are already commercially available for services such as Location Based Services (LBS), broadcast diffusion or Intelligent Transport Services (ITS). Pending finalization of the standard review process IEEE 802.15.7 r1, our paper presents the results of the European collaborative project named "ACEMIND". It offers an indoor bilateral optical wireless communication prototype having the following characteristics: use of the existing electrical infrastructure, through judicious combination with Light Fidelity (LiFi), Power Line Communication (PLC) and Ethernet to reduce the implementation cost. We propose a bilateral optical wireless communication even when the light is switched off by using Visible Light Communication (VLC) and Infra-Red Communication (IRC) combined to a remote optical switch. Dimensionally optimized LiFi module is presented in order to offer the possibility for integration inside a laptop. Finally, there is operational mechanism implementation such as OFDM/DMT to increase throughput. After the introduction, we will present the results of a market study from Orange Labs customers about their opinion on LiFi components. Then we will detail the LiFi prototype, from the physical layer aspect to MAC layer before concluding on commercial development prospects.

    16. Average BER of subcarrier intensity modulated free space optical systems over the exponentiated Weibull fading channels.

      PubMed

      Wang, Ping; Zhang, Lu; Guo, Lixin; Huang, Feng; Shang, Tao; Wang, Ranran; Yang, Yintang

      2014-08-25

      The average bit error rate (BER) for binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) modulation in free-space optical (FSO) links over turbulence atmosphere modeled by the exponentiated Weibull (EW) distribution is investigated in detail. The effects of aperture averaging on the average BERs for BPSK modulation under weak-to-strong turbulence conditions are studied. The average BERs of EW distribution are compared with Lognormal (LN) and Gamma-Gamma (GG) distributions in weak and strong turbulence atmosphere, respectively. The outage probability is also obtained for different turbulence strengths and receiver aperture sizes. The analytical results deduced by the generalized Gauss-Laguerre quadrature rule are verified by the Monte Carlo simulation. This work is helpful for the design of receivers for FSO communication systems.

    17. Breakthrough Science Enabled by Smallsat Optical Communication

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Gorjian, V.

      2017-12-01

      The recent NRC panel on "Achieving Science with Cubesats" found that "CubeSats have already proven themselves to be an important scientific tool. CubeSats can produce high-value science, as demonstrated by peer-reviewed publications that address decadal survey science goals." While some science is purely related to the size of the collecting aperture, there are plentiful examples of new and exciting experiments that can be achieved using the relatively inexpensive Cubesat platforms. We will present various potential science applications that can benefit from higher bandwidth communication. For example, on or near Earth orbit, Cubesats could provide hyperspectral imaging, gravity field mapping, atmospheric probing, and terrain mapping. These can be achieved either as large constellations of Cubesats or a few Cubesats that provide multi-point observations. Away from the Earth (up to 1AU) astrophysical variability studies, detections of solar particles between the Earth and Venus, mapping near earth objects, and high-speed videos of the Sun will also be enabled by high bandwidth communications.

    18. Liquid crystal materials and tunable devices for optical communications

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Du, Fang

      In this dissertation, liquid crystal materials and devices are investigated in meeting the challenges for photonics and communications applications. The first part deals with polymer-stabilized liquid crystal (PSLC) materials and devices. Three polymer-stabilized liquid crystal systems are developed for optical communications. The second part reports the experimental investigation of a novel liquid-crystal-infiltrated photonic crystal fiber (PCF) and explores its applications in fiber-optic communications. The curing temperature is found to have significant effects on the PSLC performance. The electro-optic properties of nematic polymer network liquid crystal (PNLC) at different curing temperatures are investigated experimentally. At high curing temperature, a high contrast, low drive voltage, and small hysteresis PNLC is obtained as a result of the formed large LC microdomains. With the help of curing temperature effect, it is able to develop PNLC based optical devices with highly desirable performances for optical communications. Such high performance is generally considered difficult to realize for a PNLC. In fact, the poor performance of PNLC, especially at long wavelengths, has hindered it from practical applications for optical communications for a long time. Therefore, the optimal curing temperature effect discovered in this thesis would enable PSLCs for practical industrial applications. Further more, high birefringence LCs play an important role for near infrared photonic devices. The isothiocyanato tolane liquid crystals exhibit a high birefringence and low viscosity. The high birefringence LC dramatically improves the PSLC contrast ratio while keeping a low drive voltage and fast response time. A free-space optical device by PNLC is experimentally demonstrated and its properties characterized. Most LC devices are polarization sensitive. To overcome this drawback, we have investigated the polymer-stabilized cholesteric LC (PSCLC). Combining the curing

    19. An Update on the CCSDS Optical Communications Working Group

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Edwards, Bernard L.; Schulz, Klaus-Juergen; Hamkins, Jonathan; Robinson, Bryan; Alliss, Randall; Daddato, Robert; Schmidt, Christopher; Giggebach, Dirk; Braatz, Lena

      2017-01-01

      International space agencies around the world are currently developing optical communication systems for Near Earth and Deep Space applications for both robotic and human rated spacecraft. These applications include both links between spacecraft and links between spacecraft and ground. The Interagency Operation Advisory Group (IOAG) has stated that there is a strong business case for international cross support of spacecraft optical links. It further concluded that in order to enable cross support the links must be standardized. This paper will overview the history and structure of the space communications international standards body, the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS), that will develop the standards and provide an update on the proceedings of the Optical Communications Working Group within CCSDS. This paper will also describe the set of optical communications standards being developed and outline some of the issues that must be addressed in the next few years. The paper will address in particular the ongoing work on application scenarios for deep space to ground called High Photon Efficiency, for LEO to ground called Low Complexity, for inter-satellite and near Earth to ground called High Data Rate, as well as associated atmospheric measurement techniques and link operations concepts.

    20. Kansas Communication and Instruction System through Fiber-Optic Transmission.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Kansas State Dept. of Education, Topeka.

      Schools and communities will restructure as they move into the next decade. The success of this restructuring will be dependent upon access to and sharing of quality teaching and information through an expanded communication system. One of the major two-way interactive technologies is the fiber-optic cable: a delivery system that will provide…

    1. Channel simulation for direct detection optical communication systems

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Tycz, M.; Fitzmaurice, M. W.

      1974-01-01

      A technique is described for simulating the random modulation imposed by atmospheric scintillation and transmitter pointing jitter on a direct detection optical communication system. The system is capable of providing signal fading statistics which obey log normal, beta, Rayleigh, Ricean or chi-squared density functions. Experimental tests of the performance of the Channel Simulator are presented.

    2. Channel simulation for direct-detection optical communication systems

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Tycz, M.; Fitzmaurice, M. W.

      1974-01-01

      A technique is described for simulating the random modulation imposed by atmospheric scintillation and transmitter pointing jitter on a direct-detection optical communication system. The system is capable of providing signal fading statistics which obey log-normal, beta, Rayleigh, Ricean, or chi-square density functions. Experimental tests of the performance of the channel simulator are presented.

    3. Optical data communication for Earth observation satellite systems

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Fischer, J.; Loecherbach, E.

      1991-10-01

      The current development status of optical communication engineering in comparison to the conventional microwave systems and the different configurations of the optical data communication for Earth observation satellite systems are described. An outlook to future optical communication satellite systems is given. During the last decade Earth observation became more and more important for the extension of the knowledge about our planet and the human influence on nature. Today pictures taken by satellites are used, for example, to discover mineral resources or to predict harvest, crops, climate, and environment variations and their influence on the population. A new and up to date application for Earth observation satellites can be the verification of disarmament arrangements and the control of crises areas. To solve these tasks a system of Earth observing satellites with sensors tailored to the envisaged mission is necessary. Besides these low Earth orbiting satellites, a global Earth observation system consists of at least two data relay satellites. The communication between the satellites will be established via Inter-Satellite Links (ISL) and Inter-Orbit Links (IOL). On these links, bitrates up to 1 Gbit/s must be taken into account. Due to the increasing scarcity of suitable frequencies, higher carrier frequencies must probably be considered, and possible interference with terrestrial radio relay systems are two main problems for a realization in microwave technique. One important step to tackle these problems is the use of optical frequencies for IOL's and ISL's.

    4. Design of low SWaP optical terminals for free space optical communications

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Shubert, P.; Cline, A.; McNally, J.; Pierson, R.

      2017-02-01

      Along with advantages in higher data rates, spectrum contention, and security, free space optical communications can provide size, weight, and power (SWaP) advantages over radio frequency (RF) systems. SWaP is always an issue in space systems and can be critical in applying free space optical communications to small satellite platforms. The system design of small space-based free space optical terminals with Gbps data rates is addressed. System architectures and requirements are defined to ensure the terminals are capable of acquisition, establishment and maintenance of a free space optical communications link. Design trades, identification of blocking technologies, and performance analyses are used to evaluate the practical limitations to terminal SWaP. Small terminal design concepts are developed to establish their practicality and feasibility. Techniques, such as modulation formats and capacity approaching encoding, are considered to mitigate the disadvantages brought by SWaP limitations, and performance as a function of SWaP is evaluated.

    5. A COTS RF Optical Software Defined Radio for the Integrated Radio and Optical Communications Test Bed

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Nappier, Jennifer M.; Zeleznikar, Daniel J.; Wroblewski, Adam C.; Tokars, Roger P.; Schoenholz, Bryan L.; Lantz, Nicholas C.

      2016-01-01

      The Integrated Radio and Optical Communications (iROC) project at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is investigating the merits of a hybrid radio frequency (RF) and optical communication system for deep space missions. In an effort to demonstrate the feasibility and advantages of a hybrid RFOptical software defined radio (SDR), a laboratory prototype was assembled from primarily commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware components. This COTS platform has been used to demonstrate simultaneous transmission of the radio and optical communications waveforms through to the physical layer (telescope and antenna). This paper details the hardware and software used in the platform and various measures of its performance. A laboratory optical receiver platform has also been assembled in order to demonstrate hybrid free space links in combination with the transmitter.

    6. The aero optics effect on near space laser communication optical system

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Hu, Yuan; Fu, Yuegang; Jiang, Huilin

      2013-08-01

      With the developing of the space laser communication link, the performance index including higher transfer speed, extending transfer distance, and environmental adaptability, all ask the system accuracy and indexes improving. Special the developing near space platform, its environmental is extremes, the near space drone and other airplane flight speed is very quickly from the subsonic to supersonic. The aero optics effect caused by high speed will generate a thin turbulent air layer. It affects the performance of laser communication optical system by laser light vibration, deviation and so on, further more affects the performance of laser communication system working performance, even can't communication. Therefore, for achieving optical system indexes, we need do more research in optical system near space aero optics environmental adaptability. In this paper, near space link environmental characteristic are researched. And on the base of the aero optics theory, computer simulating method is applied to analyze the relationship among the altitude, the flight speed and the image dispersion. The result shows that, the aero optics effect cannot be ignored when the terminal is in low altitude or is moving with supersonic speed. The effect must be taken into considered from overall design. The result will provide the basis of research design.

    7. Optical communication beyond orbital angular momentum

      PubMed Central

      Trichili, Abderrahmen; Rosales-Guzmán, Carmelo; Dudley, Angela; Ndagano, Bienvenu; Ben Salem, Amine; Zghal, Mourad; Forbes, Andrew

      2016-01-01

      Mode division multiplexing (MDM) is mooted as a technology to address future bandwidth issues, and has been successfully demonstrated in free space using spatial modes with orbital angular momentum (OAM). To further increase the data transmission rate, more degrees of freedom are required to form a densely packed mode space. Here we move beyond OAM and demonstrate multiplexing and demultiplexing using both the radial and azimuthal degrees of freedom. We achieve this with a holographic approach that allows over 100 modes to be encoded on a single hologram, across a wide wavelength range, in a wavelength independent manner. Our results offer a new tool that will prove useful in realizing higher bit rates for next generation optical networks. PMID:27283799

    8. Space Optical Communications Using Laser Beams

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Goorjian, Peter M. (Inventor)

      2017-01-01

      A system for communicating between an object in space and a ground station, between objects in space, or between ground stations, includes a telecentric lens. Photodetectors positioned upon a focal plane of the telecentric lens detect an inbound light beam, received from a source, that has passed through the telecentric lens to the focal plane. Lasers positioned upon the focal plane transmit light beams from the focal plane through the telecentric lens to an area that includes the source of the inbound light beam. A processor detect signals from individual photodetectors corresponding to light detected, and selectively signals individual lasers that are close to those photodetectors, resulting in a returning beam that arrives close to the source, and which carries encoded data.

    9. Design Reference Missions for Deep-Space Optical Communication

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Breidenthal, J.; Abraham, D.

      2016-05-01

      We examined the potential, but uncertain, NASA mission portfolio out to a time horizon of 20 years, to identify mission concepts that potentially could benefit from optical communication, considering their communications needs, the environments in which they would operate, and their notional size, weight, and power constraints. A set of 12 design reference missions was selected to represent the full range of potential missions. These design reference missions span the space of potential customer requirements, and encompass the wide range of applications that an optical ground segment might eventually be called upon to serve. The design reference missions encompass a range of orbit types, terminal sizes, and positions in the solar system that reveal the chief system performance variables of an optical ground segment, and may be used to enable assessments of the ability of alternative systems to meet various types of customer needs.

    10. Performance analysis and material dependence of micro holographic optical elements as couplers for fiber optic communication

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Ambadiyil, Sajan; Prasannan, G.; Sathyan, Jithesh; Ajith Kumar, P. T.

      2005-01-01

      Holographic Optical Elements (HOEs) are gaining much importance and finding newer and better applications in areas of optical fiber communication and optical information processing systems. In contrast to conventional HOEs, optical communication and information systems require smaller and efficient elements of desired characteristics and transfer functions. Such Micro Holographic Optical Elements (MHOEs) can either be an HOE, recorded with two narrow beams of laser light or a segment cut from a larger HOE (SHOEs), and recorded in the conventional manner. In this study, micro holographic couplers, having specific focusing and diffraction characteristics were recorded in different holographic recording media such as silver halide and dichromated gelatin. Wavelength response of the elements was tested at 633 nm and 442 nm. Variation in diffraction efficiency/coupling factor, and insertion loss of the elements were studied. The paper reports in detail about the above results and related design considerations.

    11. Invited Article: Visualisation of extreme value events in optical communications

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Derevyanko, Stanislav; Redyuk, Alexey; Vergeles, Sergey; Turitsyn, Sergei

      2018-06-01

      Fluctuations of a temporal signal propagating along long-haul transoceanic scale fiber links can be visualised in the spatio-temporal domain drawing visual analogy with ocean waves. Substantial overlapping of information symbols or use of multi-frequency signals leads to strong statistical deviations of local peak power from an average signal power level. We consider long-haul optical communication systems from this unusual angle, treating them as physical systems with a huge number of random statistical events, including extreme value fluctuations that potentially might affect the quality of data transmission. We apply the well-established concepts of adaptive wavefront shaping used in imaging through turbid medium to detect the detrimental phase modulated sequences in optical communications that can cause extreme power outages (rare optical waves of ultra-high amplitude) during propagation down the ultra-long fiber line. We illustrate the concept by a theoretical analysis of rare events of high-intensity fluctuations—optical freak waves, taking as an example an increasingly popular optical frequency division multiplexing data format where the problem of high peak to average power ratio is the most acute. We also show how such short living extreme value spikes in the optical data streams are affected by nonlinearity and demonstrate the negative impact of such events on the system performance.

    12. Applications of plastic optical fiber in communication

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Tayahi, Moncef Ben

      In this thesis, we report the results of our theoretical and experimental studies of large core polymer fibers. This relatively low loss and high bandwidth plastic optical fiber (POF) potentially have important applications in LAN. We measured the power penalty due to modal noise. We also developed a model to calculate the signal to noise ratio (SNR) and the bit error rate (BER) floor just by knowing the coupling coefficient in the mode selective loss being considered. The calculated bandwidth using the WKB approximation was found to be 0.44 GHz per 100 m, which is much lower than the measured bandwidth of 3 GHz per 100 m. This discrepancy was explained by the presence of strong mode coupling in POFs. We studied distortions products in CATV systems. Composite second order (CSO) and composite triple beat (CTB) for different channels were measured using a spectrum analyzer and adjustable band pass filter. Since the CSO and the CTB did not meet the CATV standard, a predistortion circuit was used to minimize CSO and CTB products produced by the laser. The predistortion circuit provides a signal comprising multiple subcarrier signals substantially equal in magnitude and opposite in phase to those associated with the nonlinear transfer function of the laser being deployed. The RF signal is split into a primary branch that has a time delayed portion (80% of the RF signal), the secondary branch (10% of the RF signal) is where the second order products are generated with a 180 °phase shift from the fundamental, and the last remaining 10% of the RF signal is where the third order distortion products are generated with a 180 °phase shift from the fundamental. The output signal is taken as the summation of three signals processed by the branch circuits and coupled to the directly to the laser to be linearized. Finally, using cyclic transparent optical polymer (CYTOP), a perfluorinated graded index fiber, different transmission characteristics were investigated. CYTOP fiber

    13. Performance analysis of EM-based blind detection for ON-OFF keying modulation over atmospheric optical channels

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Dabiri, Mohammad Taghi; Sadough, Seyed Mohammad Sajad

      2018-04-01

      In the free-space optical (FSO) links, atmospheric turbulence lead to scintillation in the received signal. Due to its ease of implementation, intensity modulation with direct detection (IM/DD) based on ON-OFF keying (OOK) is a popular signaling scheme in these systems. Over turbulence channel, to detect OOK symbols in a blind way, i.e., without sending pilot symbols, an expectation-maximization (EM)-based detection method was recently proposed in the literature related to free-space optical (FSO) communication. However, the performance of EM-based detection methods severely depends on the length of the observation interval (Ls). To choose the optimum values of Ls at target bit error rates (BER)s of FSO communications which are commonly lower than 10-9, Monte-Carlo simulations would be very cumbersome and require a very long processing time. To facilitate performance evaluation, in this letter we derive the analytic expressions for BER and outage probability. Numerical results validate the accuracy of our derived analytic expressions. Our results may serve to evaluate the optimum value for Ls without resorting to time-consuming Monte-Carlo simulations.

    14. All-optical retro-modulation for free-space optical communication.

      PubMed

      Born, Brandon; Hristovski, Ilija R; Geoffroy-Gagnon, Simon; Holzman, Jonathan F

      2018-02-19

      This work presents device and system architectures for free-space optical and optical wireless communication at high data rates over multidirectional links. This is particularly important for all-optical networks, with high data rates, low latencies, and network protocol transparency, and for asymmetrical networks, with multidirectional links from one transceiver to multiple distributed transceivers. These two goals can be met by implementing a passive uplink via all-optical retro-modulation (AORM), which harnesses the optical power from an active downlink to form a passive uplink through retroreflection. The retroreflected optical power is modulated all-optically to ideally achieve terabit-per-second data rates. The proposed AORM architecture, for passive uplinks, uses high-refractive-index S-LAH79 hemispheres to realize effective retroreflection and an interior semiconductor thin film of CuO nanocrystals to realize ultrafast all-optical modulation on a timescale of approximately 770 fs. The AORM architecture is fabricated and tested, and ultimately shown to be capable of enabling multidirectional free-space optical communication with terabit-per-second aggregate data rates.

    15. Experimental multiplexing of quantum key distribution with classical optical communication

      SciTech Connect

      Wang, Liu-Jun; Chen, Luo-Kan; Ju, Lei

      2015-02-23

      We demonstrate the realization of quantum key distribution (QKD) when combined with classical optical communication, and synchronous signals within a single optical fiber. In the experiment, the classical communication sources use Fabry-Pérot (FP) lasers, which are implemented extensively in optical access networks. To perform QKD, multistage band-stop filtering techniques are developed, and a wavelength-division multiplexing scheme is designed for the multi-longitudinal-mode FP lasers. We have managed to maintain sufficient isolation among the quantum channel, the synchronous channel and the classical channels to guarantee good QKD performance. Finally, the quantum bit error rate remains below a level of 2% across themore » entire practical application range. The proposed multiplexing scheme can ensure low classical light loss, and enables QKD over fiber lengths of up to 45 km simultaneously when the fibers are populated with bidirectional FP laser communications. Our demonstration paves the way for application of QKD to current optical access networks, where FP lasers are widely used by the end users.« less

    16. All-optical OFDM network coding scheme for all-optical virtual private communication in PON

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Li, Lijun; Gu, Rentao; Ji, Yuefeng; Bai, Lin; Huang, Zhitong

      2014-03-01

      A novel optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) network coding scheme is proposed over passive optical network (PON) system. The proposed scheme for all-optical virtual private network (VPN) does not only improve transmission efficiency, but also realize full-duplex communication mode in a single fiber. Compared with the traditional all-optical VPN architectures, the all-optical OFDM network coding scheme can support higher speed, more flexible bandwidth allocation, and higher spectrum efficiency. In order to reduce the difficulty of alignment for encoding operation between inter-communication traffic, the width of OFDM subcarrier pulse is stretched in our proposed scheme. The feasibility of all-optical OFDM network coding scheme for VPN is verified, and the relevant simulation results show that the full-duplex inter-communication traffic stream can be transmitted successfully. Furthermore, the tolerance of misalignment existing in inter-ONUs traffic is investigated and analyzed for all-optical encoding operation, and the difficulty of pulse alignment is proved to be lower.

    17. New trends in laser satellite communications: design and limitations

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Císar, J.; Wilfert, O.; Fanjul-Vélez, F.; Ortega-Quijano, N.; Arce-Diego, J. L.

      2008-11-01

      Optical communications offer a capable alternative to radio frequency (RF) communications for applications where high data-rate is required. This technology is particularly promising and challenging in the field of future inter-satellite communications. The term laser satellite communications (LSC) stands for optical links between satellites and/or high altitude platforms (HAPs). However, optical links between an earth station and a satellite or HAPs can be also involved. This work gives an overview of nowadays laser satellite communications. Particularly, it is focused on the factors causing degradation of the optical beam in the atmosphere. If an optical link passes through the atmosphere, it suffers from various influences such as attenuation due to absorption and scattering, intensity fluctuations due to atmospheric turbulence and background radiation. Furthermore, platform vibrations cause mispointing and following tracking losses. Suitable devices and used pointing and tracking system for laser satellite communications are discussed. At the end, various scenarios of the optical links and calculations of their power link budgets and limitations are designed. Implemented software is used for calculation of optical links. This work proves that the Free Space Optics (FSO) systems on mobile platforms, like satellites and HAPs are a promising solution for future communication networks.

    18. LDPC-PPM Coding Scheme for Optical Communication

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Barsoum, Maged; Moision, Bruce; Divsalar, Dariush; Fitz, Michael

      2009-01-01

      In a proposed coding-and-modulation/demodulation-and-decoding scheme for a free-space optical communication system, an error-correcting code of the low-density parity-check (LDPC) type would be concatenated with a modulation code that consists of a mapping of bits to pulse-position-modulation (PPM) symbols. Hence, the scheme is denoted LDPC-PPM. This scheme could be considered a competitor of a related prior scheme in which an outer convolutional error-correcting code is concatenated with an interleaving operation, a bit-accumulation operation, and a PPM inner code. Both the prior and present schemes can be characterized as serially concatenated pulse-position modulation (SCPPM) coding schemes. Figure 1 represents a free-space optical communication system based on either the present LDPC-PPM scheme or the prior SCPPM scheme. At the transmitting terminal, the original data (u) are processed by an encoder into blocks of bits (a), and the encoded data are mapped to PPM of an optical signal (c). For the purpose of design and analysis, the optical channel in which the PPM signal propagates is modeled as a Poisson point process. At the receiving terminal, the arriving optical signal (y) is demodulated to obtain an estimate (a^) of the coded data, which is then processed by a decoder to obtain an estimate (u^) of the original data.

    19. Experimental results of 5-Gbps free-space coherent optical communications with adaptive optics

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Chen, Mo; Liu, Chao; Rui, Daoman; Xian, Hao

      2018-07-01

      In a free-space optical communication system with fiber optical components, the received signal beam must be coupled into a single-mode fiber (SMF) before being amplified and detected. The impacts analysis of tracking errors and wavefront distortion on SMF coupling show that under the condition of relatively strong turbulence, only the tracking errors compensation is not enough, and turbulence wavefront aberration is required to be corrected. Based on our previous study and design of SMF coupling system with a 137-element continuous surface deformable mirror AO unit, we perform an experiment of a 5-Gbps Free-space Coherent Optical Communication (FSCOC) system, in which the eye pattern and Bit-error Rate (BER) are displayed. The comparative results are shown that the influence of the atmospheric is fatal in FSCOC systems. The BER of coherent communication is under 10-6 with AO compensation, which drops significantly compared with the BER without AO correction.

    20. Turbulence-induced channel crosstalk in an orbital angular momentum-multiplexed free-space optical link

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Anguita, Jaime A.; Neifeld, Mark A.; Vasic, Bane V.

      2008-05-01

      A multichannel free-space optical (FSO) communication system based on orbital angular momentum (OAM)-carrying beams is studied. We numerically analyze the effects of atmospheric turbulence on the system and find that turbulence induces attenuation and crosstalk among channels. Based on a model in which the constituent channels are binary symmetric and crosstalk is a Gaussian noise source, we find optimal sets of OAM states at each turbulence condition studied and determine the aggregate capacity of the multichannel system at those conditions. OAM-multiplexed FSO systems that operate in the weak turbulence regime are found to offer good performance. We verify that the aggregate capacity decreases as the turbulence increases. A per-channel bit-error rate evaluation is presented to show the uneven effects of crosstalk on the constituent channels.

    1. Video semaphore decoding for free-space optical communication

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Last, Matthew; Fisher, Brian; Ezekwe, Chinwuba; Hubert, Sean M.; Patel, Sheetal; Hollar, Seth; Leibowitz, Brian S.; Pister, Kristofer S. J.

      2001-04-01

      Using teal-time image processing we have demonstrated a low bit-rate free-space optical communication system at a range of more than 20km with an average optical transmission power of less than 2mW. The transmitter is an autonomous one cubic inch microprocessor-controlled sensor node with a laser diode output. The receiver is a standard CCD camera with a 1-inch aperture lens, and both hardware and software implementations of the video semaphore decoding algorithm. With this system sensor data can be reliably transmitted 21 km form San Francisco to Berkeley.

    2. Laser Beam Steering/shaping for Free Space Optical Communication

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Wang, Xinghua; Wang, Bin; Bos, Philip J.; Anderson, James E.; Pouch, John; Miranda, Felix; McManamon, Paul F.

      2004-01-01

      The 2-D Optical Phased Array (OPA) antenna based on a Liquid Crystal On Silicon (LCoS) device can be considered for use in free space optical communication as an active beam controlling device. Several examples of the functionality of the device include: beam steering in the horizontal and elevation direction; high resolution wavefront compensation in a large telescope; and beam shaping with the computer generated kinoform. Various issues related to the diffraction efficiency, steering range, steering accuracy as well as the magnitude of wavefront compensation are discussed.

    3. Optical intersatellite links - Application to commercial satellite communications

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Paul, D.; Faris, F.; Garlow, R.; Inukai, T.; Pontano, B.; Razdan, R.; Ganz, Aura; Caudill, L.

      1992-01-01

      Application of optical intersatellite links for commercial satellite communications services is addressed in this paper. The feasibility of commercialization centers around basic issues such as the need and derived benefits, implementation complexity and overall cost. In this paper, commercialization of optical ISLs is assessed in terms of the services provided, systems requirements and feasibility of appropriate technology. Both long- and short-range ISLs for GEO-GEO, GEO-LEO and LEO applications are considered. Impact of systems requirements on the payload design and use of advanced technology in reducing its mass, power, and volume requirements are discussed.

    4. Negative Avalanche Feedback Detectors for Photon-Counting Optical Communications

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Farr, William H.

      2009-01-01

      Negative Avalanche Feedback photon counting detectors with near-infrared spectral sensitivity offer an alternative to conventional Geiger mode avalanche photodiode or phototube detectors for free space communications links at 1 and 1.55 microns. These devices demonstrate linear mode photon counting without requiring any external reset circuitry and may even be operated at room temperature. We have now characterized the detection efficiency, dark count rate, after-pulsing, and single photon jitter for three variants of this new detector class, as well as operated these uniquely simple to use devices in actual photon starved free space optical communications links.

    5. Architectural Options for a Future Deep Space Optical Communications Network

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Edwards, B. L.; Benjamin, T.; Scozzafava, J.; Khatri, F.; Sharma, J.; Parvin, B.; Liebrecht, P. E.; Fitzgerald, R. J.

      2004-01-01

      This paper provides an overview of different options at Earth to provide Deep Space optical communication services. It is based mainly on work done for the Mars Laser Communications Demonstration (MLCD) Project, a joint project between NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology (JPL), and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory (MIT/LL). It also reports preliminary conclusions from the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System Continuation Study at GSFC. A lasercom flight terminal will be flown on the Mars Telecommunications Orbiter (MTO) to be launched by NASA in 2009, and will be the first high rate deep space demonstration of this revolutionary technology.

    6. Development of the Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory: A Laser Communications Relay Demonstration Ground Station

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Wilson, K. E.; Antsos, D.; Roberts, L. C. Jr.,; Piazzolla, S.; Clare, L. P.; Croonquist, A. P.

      2012-01-01

      The Laser Communications Relay Demonstration (LCRD) project will demonstrate high bandwidth space to ground bi-directional optical communications links between a geosynchronous satellite and two LCRD optical ground stations located in the southwestern United States. The project plans to operate for two years with a possible extension to five. Objectives of the demonstration include the development of operational strategies to prototype optical link and relay services for the next generation tracking and data relay satellites. Key technologies to be demonstrated include adaptive optics to correct for clear air turbulence-induced wave front aberrations on the downlink, and advanced networking concepts for assured and automated data delivery. Expanded link availability will be demonstrated by supporting operations at small sun-Earth-probe angles. Planned optical modulation formats support future concepts of near-Earth satellite user services to a maximum of 1.244 Gb/s differential phase shift keying modulation and pulse position modulations formats for deep space links at data rates up to 311 Mb/s. Atmospheric monitoring instruments that will characterize the optical channel during the link include a sun photometer to measure atmospheric transmittance, a solar scintillometer, and a cloud camera to measure the line of sight cloud cover. This paper describes the planned development of the JPL optical ground station.

    7. An Array of Optical Receivers for Deep-Space Communications

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Vilnrotter, Chi-Wung; Srinivasan, Meera; Andrews, Kenneth

      2007-01-01

      An array of small optical receivers is proposed as an alternative to a single large optical receiver for high-data-rate communications in NASA s Deep Space Network (DSN). Because the telescope for a single receiver capable of satisfying DSN requirements must be greater than 10 m in diameter, the design, building, and testing of the telescope would be very difficult and expensive. The proposed array would utilize commercially available telescopes of 1-m or smaller diameter and, therefore, could be developed and verified with considerably less difficulty and expense. The essential difference between a single-aperture optical-communications receiver and an optical-array receiver is that a single-aperture receiver focuses all of the light energy it collects onto the surface of an optical detector, whereas an array receiver focuses portions of the total collected energy onto separate detectors, optically detects each fractional energy component, then combines the electrical signal from the array of detector outputs to form the observable, or "decision statistic," used to decode the transmitted data. A conceptual block diagram identifying the key components of the optical-array receiver suitable for deep-space telemetry reception is shown in the figure. The most conspicuous feature of the receiver is the large number of small- to medium-size telescopes, with individual apertures and number of telescopes selected to make up the desired total collecting area. This array of telescopes is envisioned to be fully computer- controlled via the user interface and prediction-driven to achieve rough pointing and tracking of the desired spacecraft. Fine-pointing and tracking functions then take over to keep each telescope pointed toward the source, despite imperfect pointing predictions, telescope-drive errors, and vibration caused by wind.

    8. Secure communication in fiber optic systems via transmission of broad-band optical noise.

      PubMed

      Buskila, O; Eyal, A; Shtaif, M

      2008-03-03

      We propose a new scheme for data encryption in the physical layer. Our scheme is based on the distribution of a broadband optical noise-like signal between Alice and Bob. The broadband signal is used for the establishment of a secret key that can be used for the secure transmission of information by using the one-time-pad method. We characterize the proposed scheme and study its applicability to the existing fiber-optics communications infrastructure.

    9. Free-space coherent optical communication receivers implemented with photorefractive optical beam combiners

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Davidson, Frederic M.

      1992-01-01

      Performance measurements are reported concerning a coherent optical communication receiver that contained an iron doped indium phosphide photorefractive beam combiner, rather than a conventional optical beam splitter. The system obtained a bit error probability of 10(exp -6) at received signal powers corresponding to less than 100 detected photons per bit. The system used phase modulated Nd:YAG laser light at a wavelength of 1.06 microns.

    10. Numerical modelling of multimode fibre-optic communication lines

      SciTech Connect

      Sidelnikov, O S; Fedoruk, M P; Sygletos, S

      The results of numerical modelling of nonlinear propagation of an optical signal in multimode fibres with a small differential group delay are presented. It is found that the dependence of the error vector magnitude (EVM) on the differential group delay can be reduced by increasing the number of ADC samples per symbol in the numerical implementation of the differential group delay compensation algorithm in the receiver. The possibility of using multimode fibres with a small differential group delay for data transmission in modern digital communication systems is demonstrated. It is shown that with increasing number of modes the strong couplingmore » regime provides a lower EVM level than the weak coupling one. (fibre-optic communication lines)« less

    11. Orion Optical Navigation for Loss of Communication Lunar Return Contingencies

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Getchius, Joel; Hanak, Chad; Kubitschek, Daniel G.

      2010-01-01

      The Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) will replace the Space Shuttle and serve as the next-generation spaceship to carry humans back to the Moon for the first time since the Apollo program. For nominal lunar mission operations, the Mission Control Navigation team will utilize radiometric measurements to determine the position and velocity of Orion and uplink state information to support Lunar return. However, in the loss of communications contingency return scenario, Orion must safely return the crew to the Earth's surface. The navigation design solution for this loss of communications scenario is optical navigation consisting of lunar landmark tracking in low lunar orbit and star- horizon angular measurements coupled with apparent planetary diameter for Earth return trajectories. This paper describes the optical measurement errors and the navigation filter that will process those measurements to support navigation for safe crew return.

    12. Optical communication system performance with tracking error induced signal fading.

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Tycz, M.; Fitzmaurice, M. W.; Premo, D. A.

      1973-01-01

      System performance is determined for an optical communication system using noncoherent detection in the presence of tracking error induced signal fading assuming (1) binary on-off modulation (OOK) with both fixed and adaptive threshold receivers, and (2) binary polarization modulation (BPM). BPM is shown to maintain its inherent 2- to 3-dB advantage over OOK when adaptive thresholding is used, and to have a substantially greater advantage when the OOK system is restricted to a fixed decision threshold.

    13. An entropy maximization problem related to optical communication

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Mceliece, R. J.; Rodemich, E. R.; Swanson, L.

      1986-01-01

      In relation to a problem in optical communication, the paper considers the general problem of maximizing the entropy of a stationary radom process that is subject to an average transition cost constraint. By using a recent result of Justesen and Hoholdt, an exact solution to the problem is presented and a class of finite state encoders that give a good approximation to the exact solution is suggested.

    14. Free Space Optical Communication in the Military Environment

      DTIC Science & Technology

      2014-09-01

      Communications Commission FDA Food and Drug Administration FMV Full Motion Video FOB Forward Operating Base FOENEX Free-Space Optical Experimental Network...from radio and voice to chat message and email. Data-rich multimedia content, such as high-definition pictures, video chat, video files, and...introduction of full-motion video (FMV) via numerous different Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) systems, such as targeting pods on

    15. High-power diode lasers for optical communications applications

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Carlin, D. B.; Goldstein, B.; Channin, D. J.

      1985-01-01

      High-power, single-mode, double-heterojunction AlGaAs diode lasers are being developed to meet source requirements for both fiber optic local area network and free space communications systems. An individual device, based on the channeled-substrate-planar (CSP) structure, has yielded single spatial and longitudinal mode outputs of up to 90 mW CW, and has maintained a single spatial mode to 150 mW CW. Phase-locked arrays of closely spaced index-guided lasers have been designed and fabricated with the aim of multiplying the outputs of the individual devices to even higher power levels in a stable, single-lobe, anastigmatic beam. The optical modes of the lasers in such arrays can couple together in such a way that they appear to be emanating from a single source, and can therefore be efficiently coupled into optical communications systems. This paper will review the state of high-power laser technology and discuss the communication system implications of these devices.

    16. Robust free-space optical communication for indoor information environment

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Nakada, Toyohisa; Itoh, Hideo; Kunifuji, Susumu; Nakashima, Hideyuki

      2003-10-01

      The purpose of our study is to establish a robust communication, while keeping security and privacy, between a handheld communicator and the surrounding information environment. From the viewpoint of low power consumption, we have been developing a reflectivity modulating communication module composed of a liquid crystal light modulator and a corner-reflecting mirror sheet. We installed a corner-reflecting sheet instead of light scattering sheet in a handheld videogame machine with a display screen with a reflection-type liquid crystal. Infrared (IR) LED illuminator attached next to the IR camera of a base station illuminates all the room, and the terminal send their data to the base station by switching ON and OFF of the reflected IR beam. Intensity of reflected light differs with the position and the direction of the terminal, and sometimes the intensity of OFF signal at a certain condition is brighter than that of ON signal at another condition. To improve the communication quality, use of machine learning technique is a possibility of the solution. In this paper, we compare various machine learning techniques for the purpose of free space optical communication, and propose a new algorithm that improves the robustness of the data link. Evaluation using an actual free-space communication system is also described.

    17. Synchronization using pulsed edge tracking in optical PPM communication system

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Gagliardi, R.

      1972-01-01

      A pulse position modulated (PPM) optical communication system using narrow pulses of light for data transmission requires accurate time synchronization between transmitter and receiver. The presence of signal energy in the form of optical pulses suggests the use of a pulse edge tracking method of maintaining the necessary timing. The edge tracking operation in a binary PPM system is examined, taking into account the quantum nature of the optical transmissions. Consideration is given first to pure synchronization using a periodic pulsed intensity, then extended to the case where position modulation is present and auxiliary bit decisioning is needed to aid the tracking operation. Performance analysis is made in terms of timing error and its associated statistics. Timing error variances are shown as a function of system signal to noise ratio.

    18. Optical signal processing techniques and applications of optical phase modulation in high-speed communication systems

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Deng, Ning

      In recent years, optical phase modulation has attracted much research attention in the field of fiber optic communications. Compared with the traditional optical intensity-modulated signal, one of the main merits of the optical phase-modulated signal is the better transmission performance. For optical phase modulation, in spite of the comprehensive study of its transmission performance, only a little research has been carried out in terms of its functions, applications and signal processing for future optical networks. These issues are systematically investigated in this thesis. The research findings suggest that optical phase modulation and its signal processing can greatly facilitate flexible network functions and high bandwidth which can be enjoyed by end users. In the thesis, the most important physical-layer technology, signal processing and multiplexing, are investigated with optical phase-modulated signals. Novel and advantageous signal processing and multiplexing approaches are proposed and studied. Experimental investigations are also reported and discussed in the thesis. Optical time-division multiplexing and demultiplexing. With the ever-increasing demand on communication bandwidth, optical time division multiplexing (OTDM) is an effective approach to upgrade the capacity of each wavelength channel in current optical systems. OTDM multiplexing can be simply realized, however, the demultiplexing requires relatively complicated signal processing and stringent timing control, and thus hinders its practicability. To tackle this problem, in this thesis a new OTDM scheme with hybrid DPSK and OOK signals is proposed. Experimental investigation shows this scheme can greatly enhance the demultiplexing timing misalignment and improve the demultiplexing performance, and thus make OTDM more practical and cost effective. All-optical signal processing. In current and future optical communication systems and networks, the data rate per wavelength has been approaching

    19. Rejuvenating direct modulation and direct detection for modern optical communications

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Che, Di; Li, An; Chen, Xi; Hu, Qian; Shieh, William

      2018-02-01

      High-speed transoceanic optical fiber transmission using direct modulation (DM) and direct detection (DD) was one of the most stirring breakthroughs for telecommunication in 1990s, which drove the internet as a global phenomenon. However, the later evolution of optical coherent communications in 2000s gradually took over the long-haul applications, due to its superior optical spectral efficiency. Nowadays, DM-DD systems are dominant mainly in cost- and power-sensitive short-reach applications, because of its natural characteristics-the simplicity. This paper reviews the recent advances of DM-DD transceivers from both hardware and signal processing perspectives. It introduces a variety of modified DM and/or DD systems for 3 application scenarios: very-short-reach interconnect with little fiber channel impact; single or a few spans of fiber transmission up to several hundred km; and distance beyond the 2nd scenario. Besides the DM-DD and multi-dimension DM-DD with polarization diversity, this paper focuses on how to rejuvenate traditional DM and DD technologies in order to bridge the transmission application gap between DM-DD and coherent transceivers, using technologies such as dispersion compensation, signal field recovery from the intensity-only DD receiver, and complex direct modulation with coherent detection. More than 30 years since the birth, DM and DD still hold indispensable roles in modern optical communications.

    20. Low-Cost Large Aperture Telescopes for Optical Communications

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Hemmati, Hamid

      2006-01-01

      Low-cost, 0.5-1 meter ground apertures are required for near-Earth laser communications. Low-cost ground apertures with equivalent diameters greater than 10 meters are desired for deep-space communications. This presentation focuses on identifying schemes to lower the cost of constructing networks of large apertures while continuing to meet the requirements for laser communications. The primary emphasis here is on the primary mirror. A slumped glass spherical mirror, along with passive secondary mirror corrector and active adaptive optic corrector show promise as a low-cost alternative to large diameter monolithic apertures. To verify the technical performance and cost estimate, development of a 1.5-meter telescope equipped with gimbal and dome is underway.

    1. Advancing Unmanned Aircraft Sensor Collection and Communication Capabilities with Optical Communications

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Lukaczyk, T.

      2015-12-01

      Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) are now being used for monitoring climate change over both land and seas. Their uses include monitoring of cloud conditions and atmospheric composition of chemicals and aerosols due to pollution, dust storms, fires, volcanic activity and air-sea fluxes. Additional studies of carbon flux are important for various ecosystem studies of both marine and terrestrial environments specifically, and can be related to climate change dynamics. Many measurements are becoming more complex as additional sensors become small enough to operate on more widely available small UAS. These include interferometric radars as well as scanning and fan-beam lidar systems which produce data streams even greater than those of high resolution video. These can be used to precisely map surfaces of the earth, ocean or ice features that are important for a variety of earth system studies. As these additional sensor capabilities are added to UAS the ability to transmit data back to ground or ship monitoring sites is limited by traditional wireless communication protocols. We describe results of tests of optical communication systems that provide significantly greater communication bandwidths for UAS, and discuss both the bandwidth and effective range of these systems, as well as their power and weight requirements both for systems on UAS, as well as those of ground-based receiver stations. We justify our additional use of Delay and Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN) communication protocols with optical communication methods to ensure security and continuity of command and control operations. Finally, we discuss the implications for receiving, geo-referencing, archiving and displaying data streams from sensors communicated via optical communication to better enable real-time anomaly detection and adaptive sampling capabilities using multiple UAS or other unmanned or manned systems.

    2. Optical Communications in Support of Science from the Moon, Mars, and Beyond

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Edwards, Bernard L.

      2005-01-01

      Optical communications can provide high speed communications throughout the solar system. Enable new science missions and human exploration. The technology suitable for near-earth optical communications, including communications to and from the Moon, is different than for deep space optical. NASA could leverage DoD investments for near-earth applications, including the moon. NASA will have to develop its own technology for deep space. The Mars laser communication demonstration is a pathfinder. NASA,s science mission directorate, under the leadership of Dr. Barry Geldzahler, is developing a roadmap for the development of deep space optical communications.

    3. Laser guide stars for optical free-space communications

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Mata-Calvo, Ramon; Bonaccini Calia, Domenico; Barrios, Ricardo; Centrone, Mauro; Giggenbach, Dirk; Lombardi, Gianluca; Becker, Peter; Zayer, Igor

      2017-02-01

      The German Aerospace Center (DLR) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) performed a measurement campaign together in April and July 2016 at Teide-Observatory (Tenerife), with the support of the European Space Agency (ESA), to investigate the use of laser guide stars (LGS) in ground to space optical communications. Atmospheric turbulence causes strong signal fluctuations in the uplink, due to scintillation and beam wander. In space communications, the use of the downlink channel as reference for pointing and for pre-distortion adaptive optics is limited by the size of the isokinetic and isoplanatic angle in relation to the required point-ahead angle. Pointing and phase errors due to the decorrelation between downward and upward beam due to the point-ahead angle may have a severe impact on the required transmit power and the stability of the communications link. LGSs provide a self-tailored reference to any optical ground-to-space link, independently of turbulence conditions and required point-ahead angle. In photon-starved links, typically in deep-space scenarios, LGSs allow dedicating all downlink received signal to communications purposes, increasing the available link margin. The scope of the joint DLR-ESO measurement campaign was, first, to measure the absolute value of the beam wander (uplink-tilt) using a LGS, taking a natural star as a reference, and, second, to characterize the decrease of correlation between uplink-tilt and downlink-tilt with respect to the angular separation between both sources. This paper describes the experiments performed during the measurement campaigns, providing an overview of the measured data and the first outcomes of the data post-processing.

    4. Study on the heterodyning scattering of retroreflective free-space optical communication with optical heterodyning.

      PubMed

      Jia, Honghui; Yin, Hongwei; Zhang, Hailiang; Wang, Xiaofeng; Chang, Shengli; Yang, Juncai

      2013-11-01

      Retroreflective free-space optical communication is important because of advantages such as small volume, low weight, and low power consumption. Link failure caused by bad weather conditions will occur because of the attenuated retroreflective signal and the increased scattering of the transmitted light. The scattering effect can be reduced because the physical properties (including polarization, wavefront, and phase) of the scattering signal are different from those of the retroreflective signal. The physical properties of the scattering signal are obtained using a polarization-sensitive Monte Carlo model, and the heterodyning scattering signal is obtained using heterodyning theory. Results show that, with optical heterodyning, the scattering effect is efficiently reduced, and advantages such as better adaptability to bad weather conditions, longer communication range, more compact transceiver design, larger covering area of the optical receiver, and easier target acquisition for the retromodulator than before can also be obtained.

    5. Optical wireless communication using positive real-valued orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing and optical beamforming

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Kim, Sung-Man; Kwon, Ki-Keun

      2017-07-01

      The relatively unsatisfactory performance of optical wireless communication (OWC) with respect to WiFi and millimeter-wave communications has formed a key issue preventing its commercialization. We experimentally demonstrate an OWC technology using a combination of positive real-valued orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) and optical beamforming (OB). Due to the intensity-modulation and direct-detection aspects of OWC systems, a positive real-valued OFDM signal can be suitably utilized to maximize the OWC data rate. Further, the OB technique, which can focus laser light on a desired target, can be utilized to increase the OWC data rate and transmission distance. Our experimental results show that the received optical signal power and electrical signal increase by up to 42 and 25 dB, respectively. Further, the data rate increases by a factor of 200 with OB over the conventional approach.

    6. Scintillation analysis of pseudo-Bessel-Gaussian Schell-mode beams propagating through atmospheric turbulence with wave optics simulation

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Zheng, Guo; Wang, Jue; Wang, Lin; Zhou, Muchun; Chen, Yanru; Song, Minmin

      2018-03-01

      The scintillation index of pseudo-Bessel-Gaussian Schell-mode (PBGSM) beams propagating through atmospheric turbulence is analyzed with the help of wave optics simulation due to the analytic difficulties. It is found that in the strong fluctuation regime, the PBGSM beams are more resistant to the turbulence with the appropriate parameters β and δ . However, the case is contrary in the weak fluctuation regime. Our simulation results indicate that the PBGSM beams may be applied to free-space optical (FSO) communication systems only when the turbulence is strong or the propagation distance is long.

    7. Design issues for semi-passive optical communication devices

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Glaser, I.

      2007-09-01

      Optical smart cards are devices containing a retro-reflector, light modulator, and some computing and data storage capabilities to affect semi-passive communication. They do not produce light; instead they modulate and send back light received from a stationary unit. These devices can replace contact-based smart cards as well as RF based ones for applications ranging from identification to transmitting and validating data. Since their transmission is essentially focused on the receiving unit, they are harder to eavesdrop than RF devices, yet need no physical contact or alignment. In this paper we explore optical design issues of these devices and estimate their optical behavior. Specifically, we analyze how these compact devices can be optimized for selected application profiles. Some of the key parameters addressed are effective light efficiency (how much modulated signal can be received by the stationary unit given the amount of light it transmits), range of tilt angles (angle between device surface normal to the line connecting the optical smart card with the stationary unit) through which the device would be effective, and power requirements of the semi-passive unit. In addition, issues concerning compact packaging of this device are discussed. Finally, results of the analysis are employed to produce a comparison of achievable capabilities of these optical smart cards, as opposed to alternative devices, and discuss potential applications were they can be best utilized.

    8. Atmospheric turbulence mitigation in an OAM-based MIMO free-space optical link using spatial diversity combined with MIMO equalization.

      PubMed

      Ren, Yongxiong; Wang, Zhe; Xie, Guodong; Li, Long; Willner, Asher J; Cao, Yinwen; Zhao, Zhe; Yan, Yan; Ahmed, Nisar; Ashrafi, Nima; Ashrafi, Solyman; Bock, Robert; Tur, Moshe; Willner, Alan E

      2016-06-01

      We explore the mitigation of atmospheric turbulence effects for orbital angular momentum (OAM)-based free-space optical (FSO) communications with multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) architecture. Such a system employs multiple spatially separated aperture elements at the transmitter/receiver, and each transmitter aperture contains multiplexed data-carrying OAM beams. We propose to use spatial diversity combined with MIMO equalization to mitigate both weak and strong turbulence distortions. In a 2×2 FSO link with each transmitter aperture containing two multiplexed OAM modes of ℓ=+1 and ℓ=+3, we experimentally show that at least two OAM data channels could be recovered under both weak and strong turbulence distortions using selection diversity assisted with MIMO equalization.

    9. Microresonator-based solitons for massively parallel coherent optical communications

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Marin-Palomo, Pablo; Kemal, Juned N.; Karpov, Maxim; Kordts, Arne; Pfeifle, Joerg; Pfeiffer, Martin H. P.; Trocha, Philipp; Wolf, Stefan; Brasch, Victor; Anderson, Miles H.; Rosenberger, Ralf; Vijayan, Kovendhan; Freude, Wolfgang; Kippenberg, Tobias J.; Koos, Christian

      2017-06-01

      Solitons are waveforms that preserve their shape while propagating, as a result of a balance of dispersion and nonlinearity. Soliton-based data transmission schemes were investigated in the 1980s and showed promise as a way of overcoming the limitations imposed by dispersion of optical fibres. However, these approaches were later abandoned in favour of wavelength-division multiplexing schemes, which are easier to implement and offer improved scalability to higher data rates. Here we show that solitons could make a comeback in optical communications, not as a competitor but as a key element of massively parallel wavelength-division multiplexing. Instead of encoding data on the soliton pulse train itself, we use continuous-wave tones of the associated frequency comb as carriers for communication. Dissipative Kerr solitons (DKSs) (solitons that rely on a double balance of parametric gain and cavity loss, as well as dispersion and nonlinearity) are generated as continuously circulating pulses in an integrated silicon nitride microresonator via four-photon interactions mediated by the Kerr nonlinearity, leading to low-noise, spectrally smooth, broadband optical frequency combs. We use two interleaved DKS frequency combs to transmit a data stream of more than 50 terabits per second on 179 individual optical carriers that span the entire telecommunication C and L bands (centred around infrared telecommunication wavelengths of 1.55 micrometres). We also demonstrate coherent detection of a wavelength-division multiplexing data stream by using a pair of DKS frequency combs—one as a multi-wavelength light source at the transmitter and the other as the corresponding local oscillator at the receiver. This approach exploits the scalability of microresonator-based DKS frequency comb sources for massively parallel optical communications at both the transmitter and the receiver. Our results demonstrate the potential of these sources to replace the arrays of continuous-wave lasers

    10. An ATP System for Deep-Space Optical Communication

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Lee, Shinhak; Irtuzm Gerardi; Alexander, James

      2008-01-01

      An acquisition, tracking, and pointing (ATP) system is proposed for aiming an optical-communications downlink laser beam from deep space. In providing for a direction reference, the concept exploits the mature technology of star trackers to eliminate the need for a costly and potentially hazardous laser beacon. The system would include one optical and two inertial sensors, each contributing primarily to a different portion of the frequency spectrum of the pointing signal: a star tracker (<10 Hz), a gyroscope (<50 Hz), and a precise fluid-rotor inertial angular-displacement sensor (sometimes called, simply, "angle sensor") for the frequency range >50 Hz. The outputs of these sensors would be combined in an iterative averaging process to obtain high-bandwidth, high-accuracy pointing knowledge. The accuracy of pointing knowledge obtainable by use of the system was estimated on the basis of an 8-cm-diameter telescope and known parameters of commercially available star trackers and inertial sensors: The single-axis pointing-knowledge error was found to be characterized by a standard deviation of 150 nanoradians - below the maximum value (between 200 and 300 nanoradians) likely to be tolerable in deep-space optical communications.

    11. Optical-communication systems for deep-space applications

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Vilnrotter, V. A.; Gagliardi, R. M.

      1980-01-01

      The feasibility of using optical communication systems for data telemetry from deep space vehicles to Earth based receivers is evaluated. Performance analysis shows that practical, photon counting optical systems can transmit data reliably at 30 to 40 dB high rates than existing RF systems, or can be used to extend the communication range by 15 to 20 dB. The advantages of pulse-position modulation (PPM) formats are discussed, and photon counting receiver structures designed for PPM decoding are described. The effects of background interference and weather on receiver performance are evaluated. Some consideration is given to tracking and beam pointing operations, since system performance ultimately depends on the accuracy to which these operations can be carried out. An example of a tracking and pointing system utilizing an optical uplink beacon is presented, and it is shown that microradian beam pointing is within the capabilities of state-of-the-art technology. Recommendations for future theoretical studies and component development programs are presented.

    12. Monolithically integrated quantum dot optical modulator with semiconductor optical amplifier for thousand and original band optical communication

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Akahane, Kouichi; Umezawa, Toshimasa; Matsumoto, Atsushi; Kawanishi, Tetsuya

      2016-04-01

      A monolithically integrated quantum dot (QD) optical gain modulator (OGM) with a QD semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) was successfully developed with T-band (1.0 µm waveband) and O-band (1.3 µm waveband) QD optical gain materials for Gbps-order, high-speed optical data generation. The insertion loss due to coupling between the device and the optical fiber was effectively compensated for by the SOA section. It was also confirmed that the monolithic QD-OGM/SOA device enabled >4.8 Gbps optical data generation with a clear eye opening in the T-band. Furthermore, we successfully demonstrated error-free 4.8 Gbps optical data transmissions in each of the six wavelength channels over a 10-km-long photonic crystal fiber using the monolithic QD-OGM/SOA device in multiple O-band wavelength channels, which were generated by the single QD gain chip. These results suggest that the monolithic QD-OGM/SOA device will be advantageous in ultra-broadband optical frequency systems that utilize the T+O-band for short- and medium-range optical communications.

    13. Design and Implementation of Secure and Reliable Communication using Optical Wireless Communication

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Saadi, Muhammad; Bajpai, Ambar; Zhao, Yan; Sangwongngam, Paramin; Wuttisittikulkij, Lunchakorn

      2014-11-01

      Wireless networking intensify the tractability in the home and office environment to connect the internet without wires but at the cost of risks associated with stealing the data or threat of loading malicious code with the intention of harming the network. In this paper, we proposed a novel method of establishing a secure and reliable communication link using optical wireless communication (OWC). For security, spatial diversity based transmission using two optical transmitters is used and the reliability in the link is achieved by a newly proposed method for the construction of structured parity check matrix for binary Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes. Experimental results show that a successful secure and reliable link between the transmitter and the receiver can be achieved by using the proposed novel technique.

    14. Study of strong turbulence effects for optical wireless links

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Yuksel, Heba; Meric, Hasim; Kunter, Fulya

      2012-10-01

      Strong turbulence measurements that are taken using real time optical wireless experimental setups are valuable when studying the effects of turbulence regimes on a propagating optical beam. In any kind of FSO system, for us to know the strength of the turbulence thus the refractive index structure constant, is beneficial for having an optimum bandwidth of communication. Even if the FSO Link is placed very well-high-above the ground just to have weak enough turbulence effects, there can be severe atmospheric conditions that can change the turbulence regime. Having a successful theory that will cover all regimes will give us the chance of directly processing the image in existing or using an additional hardware thus deciding on the optimum bandwidth of the communication line at firsthand. For this purpose, Strong Turbulence data has been collected using an outdoor optical wireless setup placed about 85 centimeters above the ground with an acceptable declination and a path length of about 250 meters inducing strong turbulence to the propagating beam. Variations of turbulence strength estimation methods as well as frame image analysis techniques are then been applied to the experimental data in order to study the effects of different parameters on the result. Such strong turbulence data is compared with existing weak and intermediate turbulence data. Aperture Averaging Factor for different turbulence regimes is also investigated.

    15. InP on SOI devices for optical communication and optical network on chip

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Fedeli, J.-M.; Ben Bakir, B.; Olivier, N.; Grosse, Ph.; Grenouillet, L.; Augendre, E.; Phillippe, P.; Gilbert, K.; Bordel, D.; Harduin, J.

      2011-01-01

      For about ten years, we have been developing InP on Si devices under different projects focusing first on μlasers then on semicompact lasers. For aiming the integration on a CMOS circuit and for thermal issue, we relied on SiO2 direct bonding of InP unpatterned materials. After the chemical removal of the InP substrate, the heterostructures lie on top of silicon waveguides of an SOI wafer with a separation of about 100nm. Different lasers or photodetectors have been achieved for off-chip optical communication and for intra-chip optical communication within an optical network. For high performance computing with high speed communication between cores, we developed InP microdisk lasers that are coupled to silicon waveguide and produced 100μW of optical power and that can be directly modulated up to 5G at different wavelengths. The optical network is based on wavelength selective circuits with ring resonators. InGaAs photodetectors are evanescently coupled to the silicon waveguide with an efficiency of 0.8A/W. The fabrication has been demonstrated at 200mm wafer scale in a microelectronics clean room for CMOS compatibility. For off-chip communication, silicon on InP evanescent laser have been realized with an innovative design where the cavity is defined in silicon and the gain localized in the QW of bonded InP hererostructure. The investigated devices operate at continuous wave regime with room temperature threshold current below 100 mA, the side mode suppression ratio is as high as 20dB, and the fibercoupled output power is {7mW. Direct modulation can be achieved with already 6G operation.

    16. Fast-steering solutions for cubesat-scale optical communications

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Kingsbury, R. W.; Nguyen, T.; Riesing, K.; Cahoy, K.

      2017-11-01

      We describe the design of a compact free-space optical communications module for use on a nanosatellite and present results from a detailed trade study to select an optical fine steering mechanism compatible with our stringent size, weight and power (SWaP) constraints. This mechanism is an integral component of the compact free-space optical communications system that is under development at the MIT Space Systems Laboratory [1]. The overall goal of this project is to develop a laser communications (lasercom) payload that fits within the SWaP constraints of a typical ``3U'' CubeSat. The SWaP constraints for the entire lasercom payload are 5 cm × 10 cm × 10 cm, 600 g and 10W. Although other efforts are underway to qualify MEMS deformable mirrors for use in CubeSats [2], there has been very little work towards qualifying tip-tilt MEMS mirrors [3]. Sec. II provides additional information on how the fast steering mechanism is used in our lasercom system. Performance requirements and desirable traits of the mechanism are given. In Sec. III we describe the various types of compact tip-tilt mirrors that are commercially available as well as the justification for selecting a MEMS-based device for our application. Sec. IV presents an analysis of the device's transfer function characteristics and ways of predicting this behavior that are suitable for use in the control processor. This analysis is based upon manufacturer-provided test data which was collected at standard room conditions. In the final section, we describe on-going work to build a testbed that will be used to measure device performance in a thermal chamber.

    17. Bidirectional fiber-IVLLC and fiber-wireless convergence system with two orthogonally polarized optical sidebands.

      PubMed

      Lu, Hai-Han; Wu, Hsiao-Wen; Li, Chung-Yi; Ho, Chun-Ming; Yang, Zih-Yi; Cheng, Ming-Te; Lu, Chang-Kai

      2017-05-01

      A bidirectional fiber-invisible laser light communication (IVLLC) and fiber-wireless convergence system with two orthogonally polarized optical sidebands for hybrid cable television (CATV)/millimeter-wave (MMW)/baseband (BB) signal transmission is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Two optical sidebands generated by a 60-GHz MMW signal are orthogonally polarized and separated into different polarizations. These orthogonally polarized optical sidebands are delivered over a 40-km single-mode fiber (SMF) transport to effectually reduce the fiber dispersion induced by a 40-km SMF transmission and the distortion caused by the parallel polarized optical sidebands. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first to adopt two orthogonally polarized optical sidebands in a bidirectional fiber-IVLLC and fiber-wireless convergence system to reduce fiber dispersion and distortion effectually. Good carrier-to-noise ratio, composite second order, composite triple beat, and bit error rate (BER) are achieved for downlink transmission at a 40-km SMF operation and a 100-m free-space optical (FSO) link/3-m RF wireless transmission. For up-link transmission, good BER performance is acquired over a 40-km SMF transport and a 100-m FSO link. The approach presented in this work signifies the advancements in the convergence of SMF-based backbone and optical/RF wireless-based feeder.

    18. LEO to ground optical communications from a small satellite platform

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Rose, T. S.; Janson, S. W.; LaLumondiere, S.; Werner, N.; Hinkley, D. H.; Rowen, D. W.; Fields, R. A.; Welle, R. P.

      2015-03-01

      A pair of 2.2 kg CubeSats using COTS hardware is being developed for a proof-of-principle optical communications demo from a 450-600 km LEO orbit to ground. The 10x10x15 cm platform incorporates a 25% wall-plug efficient 10-W Yb fiber transmitter emitting at 1.06 μm. Since there are no gimbals on board, the entire spacecraft is body-steered toward the ground station. The pointing accuracy of the LEO craft, which governs the data rate capability, is expected to be ~ 0.1-0.2 deg. Two optical ground stations, located at the Mt. Wilson observatory, have receiver apertures of 30 and 80 cm. Launch of the CubeSat pair is anticipated to be mid to late 2015.

    19. Optical, analog and digital domain architectural considerations for visual communications

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Metz, W. A.

      2008-01-01

      The end of the performance entitlement historically achieved by classic scaling of CMOS devices is within sight, driven ultimately by fundamental limits. Performance entitlements predicted by classic CMOS scaling have progressively failed to be realized in recent process generations due to excessive leakage, increasing interconnect delays and scaling of gate dielectrics. Prior to reaching fundamental limits, trends in technology, architecture and economics will pressure the industry to adopt new paradigms. A likely response is to repartition system functions away from digital implementations and into new architectures. Future architectures for visual communications will require extending the implementation into the optical and analog processing domains. The fundamental properties of these domains will in turn give rise to new architectural concepts. The limits of CMOS scaling and impact on architectures will be briefly reviewed. Alternative approaches in the optical, electronic and analog domains will then be examined for advantages, architectural impact and drawbacks.

    20. Optical phase locked loop for transparent inter-satellite communications.

      PubMed

      Herzog, F; Kudielka, K; Erni, D; Bächtold, W

      2005-05-16

      A novel type of optical phase locked loop (OPLL), optimized for homodyne inter-satellite communication, is presented. The loop employs a conventional 180? 3 dB optical hybrid and an AC-coupled balanced front end. No residual carrier transmission is required for phase locking. The loop accepts analog as well as digital data and various modulation formats. The only requirement to the transmitted user signal is a constant envelope. Phase error extraction occurs through applying a small sinusoidal local oscillator (LO) phase disturbance, while measuring its impact on the power of the baseband output signal. First experimental results indicate a receiver sensitivity of 36 photons/bit (-55.7 dBm) for a BER of 10 ;-9, when transmitting a PRBS-31 signal at a data rate of 400 Mbit/s. The system setup employs diode-pumped Nd:YAG lasers at a wavelength of 1.06 mum.

    1. Optical phase locked loop for transparent inter-satellite communications

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Herzog, F.; Kudielka, K.; Erni, D.; Bächtold, W.

      2005-05-01

      A novel type of optical phase locked loop (OPLL), optimized for homodyne inter-satellite communication, is presented. The loop employs a conventional 180◦ 3 dB optical hybrid and an AC-coupled balanced front end. No residual carrier transmission is required for phase locking. The loop accepts analog as well as digital data and various modulation formats. The only requirement to the transmitted user signal is a constant envelope. Phase error extraction occurs through applying a small sinusoidal local oscillator (LO) phase disturbance, while measuring its impact on the power of the baseband output signal. First experimental results indicate a receiver sensitivity of 36 photons/bit (-55.7 dBm) for a BER of 10 ^-9, when transmitting a PRBS-31 signal at a data rate of 400 Mbit/s. The system setup employs diode-pumped Nd:YAG lasers at a wavelength of 1.06 μm.

    2. Semiconductor optoelectronic devices for free-space optical communications

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Katz, J.

      1983-01-01

      The properties of individual injection lasers are reviewed, and devices of greater complexity are described. These either include or are relevant to monolithic integration configurations of the lasers with their electronic driving circuitry, power combining methods of semiconductor lasers, and electronic methods of steering the radiation patterns of semiconductor lasers and laser arrays. The potential of AlGaAs laser technology for free-space optical communications systems is demonstrated. These solid-state components, which can generate and modulate light, combine the power of a number of sources and perform at least part of the beam pointing functions. Methods are proposed for overcoming the main drawback of semiconductor lasers, that is, their inability to emit the needed amount of optical power in a single-mode operation.

    3. Laser diode combining for free space optical communication

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Mecherle, G. Stephen

      1986-01-01

      The maximization of photon delivery to a distant collector in free space optical communications systems calls for a laser diode-combining technique employing wavelength and/or polarization as the bases of its operation. Design considerations for such a combiner encompass high throughput efficiency, diffraction-limited angular divergence, and reasonable volume constraints. Combiners are presently found to require a generalized Strehl ratio concept which includes relative source misalignment; diffraction grating combiners may have a limited number of laser sources which can meet spectral requirements. Methods for the incorporation of a combiner into a communication system are compared. Power combining is concluded to be the best tradeoff of performance and complexity for all systems, except those that are severely limited by either background radiation or component bandwidth.

    4. Some Protocols For Optical-Fiber Digital Communications

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Yeh, Cavour; Gerla, Mario

      1989-01-01

      One works best in heavy traffic, another, in light traffic. Three protocols proposed for digital communications among stations connected by passive taps to pair of uni-directional optical-fiber buses. Mediate round-robin, bounded-delay access to buses by all stations and particularly suited to fast transmission. Partly because transmission medium passive (no relay stations) and partly because protocols distribute control of network among all stations with provision for addition and deletion of stations (no control stations), communication network able to resist and recover from failures. Implicit token propagates in one direction on one bus and in opposite direction on other bus, minimizing interval of silence between end of one round and beginning of next.

    5. Airborne Optical Communications Demonstrator Design And Preflight Test Results

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Biswas, Abhijit; Page, N.; Neal, J.; Zhu, D.; Wright, M.; Ovtiz, G.; Farr, W. H.; Hernnzati, H.

      2005-01-01

      A second generation optical communications demonstrator (OCD-2) intended for airborne applications like air-to-ground and air-to-air optical links is under development at JPL. This development provides the capability for unidirectional high data rate (2.5-Gbps) transmission at 1550-nm, with the ability to receive an 810-nm beacon to aid acquisition pointing and tracking. The transmitted beam width is nominally 200-(micro)rad. A 3x3 degree coarse field-of-view (FOV) acquisition sensor with a much smaller 3-mrad FOV tracking sensor is incorporated. The OCD-2 optical head will be integrated to a high performance gimbal turret assembly capable of providing pointing stability of 5- microradians from an airborne platform. Other parts of OCD-2 include a cable harness, connecting the optical head in the gimbal turret assembly to a rugged electronics box. The electronics box will house: command and control processors, laser transmitter, data-generation-electronics, power conversion/distribution hardware and state-of-health monitors. The entire assembly will be integrated and laboratory tested prior to a planned flight demonstrations.

    6. A comparative study of optical concentrators for visible light communications

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Mulyawan, Rahmat; Gomez, Ariel; Chun, Hyunchae; Rajbhandari, Sujan; Manousiadis, Pavlos P.; Vithanage, Dimali A.; Faulkner, Grahame; Turnbull, Graham A.; Samuel, Ifor D. W.; Collins, Stephen; O'Brien, Dominic

      2017-01-01

      Given the imminent radio frequency spectrum crunch, Visible Light Communication (VLC) is being proposed as an alternative wireless technology allowing for scalable connectivity to potentially millions of mobile and Internet-of- Things (IoT) devices. A VLC system uses a photo-detector (PD) receiver that converts the optically modulated light from a light source into a modulated electrical signal. The corresponding receiver electrical bandwidth is typically inversely proportional to the PD active area. Consequently, to construct a high-speed VLC link, the PD active area is often substantially reduced and an optical concentrator is used to enhance the receiver collection area. However, to achieve high concentrating factor, the link field-of-view (FOV) needs to be narrow due to the étendue conservation in linear passive optical systems. This paper studies a Fluorescent Concentrator (FC) that breaks this étendue conservation. The FC is not only based on reflective and refractive principles but also makes use of fluorescence process. A comparison between the FC and conventional optical concentrators, namely Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) is also investigated. The trade-off between received signal strength and incoming link angle is demonstrated over 60° coverage. Experimental results show that performance degradation as the link angle increases using FC-based receivers is significantly lower than for conventional CPC.

    7. Optical antenna for a visible light communications receiver

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Valencia-Estrada, Juan Camilo; García-Márquez, Jorge; Topsu, Suat; Chassagne, Luc

      2018-01-01

      Visible Light Communications (VLC) receivers adapted to be used in high transmission rates will eventually use either, high aperture lenses or non-linear optical elements capable of converting light arriving to the receiver into an electric signal. The high aperture lens case, reveals a challenge from an optical designers point-of-view. As a matter of fact, the lens must collect a wide aperture intensity flux using a limited aperture as its use is intended to portable devices. This last also limits both, lens thickness and its focal length. Here, we show a first design to be adapted to a VLC receiver that take these constraints into account. This paper describes a method to design catadioptric and monolithic lenses to be used as an optical collector of light entering from a near point light source as a spherical fan L with a wide acceptance angle α° and high efficiency. These lenses can be mass produced and therefore one can find many practical applications in VLC equipped devices. We show a first design for a near light source without magnification, and second one with a detector's magnification in a meridional section. We utilize rigorous geometric optics, vector analysis and ordinary differential equations.

    8. Word and frame synchronization with verification for PPM optical communications

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Marshall, William K.

      1986-01-01

      A method for obtaining word and frame synchronization in pulse position modulated optical communication systems is described. The method uses a short sync sequence inserted at the beginning of each data frame and a verification procedure to distinguish between inserted and randomly occurring sequences at the receiver. This results in an easy to implement sync system which provides reliable synchronization even at high symbol error rates. Results are given for the application of this approach to a highly energy efficient 256-ary PPM test system.

    9. Planets as background noise sources in free space optical communications

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Katz, J.

      1986-01-01

      Background noise generated by planets is the dominant noise source in most deep space direct detection optical communications systems. Earlier approximate analyses of this problem are based on simplified blackbody calculations and can yield results that may be inaccurate by up to an order of magnitude. Various other factors that need to be taken into consideration, such as the phase angle and the actual spectral dependence of the planet albedo, in order to obtain a more accurate estimate of the noise magnitude are examined.

    10. 5.6 Gbps optical intersatellite communication link

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Smutny, Berry; Kaempfner, Hartmut; Muehlnikel, Gerd; Sterr, Uwe; Wandernoth, Bernhard; Heine, Frank; Hildebrand, Ulrich; Dallmann, Daniel; Reinhardt, Martin; Freier, Axel; Lange, Robert; Boehmer, Knut; Feldhaus, Thomas; Mueller, Juergen; Weichert, Andreas; Greulich, Peter; Seel, Stefan; Meyer, Rolf; Czichy, Reinhard

      2009-02-01

      A 5.6 Gbps optical communication link has been verified in-orbit. The intersatellite link uses homodyne BPSK (binary phase shift keying) and allows to transmit data with a duplex data rate of 5.6 Gbps and a bit error rate better than 10-9 between two LEO satellites, NFIRE (U.S.) and TerraSAR-X, Germany). We report on the terminal design and the link performance during the measurement campaign. As an outlook we report on the flight units adapted to LEO-to-GEO intersatellite links that TESAT currently builds and on plans to study GEO-to-ground links.

    11. Emerging Communication Technologies (ECT) Phase 3 Final Report

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Bastin, Gary L.; Harris, William G.; Bates, Lakesha D.; Nelson, Richard A.

      2004-01-01

      The Emerging Communication Technology (ECT) project investigated three First Mile communication technologies in support of NASA s Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (2nd Gen RLV), Orbital Space Plane, Advanced Range Technology Working Group (ARTWG) and the Advanced Spaceport Technology Working Group (ASTWG). These First Mile technologies have the purpose of interconnecting mobile users with existing Range Communication infrastructures. ECT was a continuation of the Range Information System Management (RISM) task started in 2002. RISM identified the three advance communication technologies investigated under ECT. These were Wireless Ethernet (Wi-Fi), Free Space Optics (FSO), and Ultra Wideband (UWB). Due to the report s size, it has been broken into three volumes: 1) Main Report 2) Appendices 3) UWB.

    12. Emerging Communication Technologies (ECT) Phase 2 Report. Volume 2; Appendices

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Bastin, Gary L.; Harris, William G.; Chiodini, Robert; Nelson, Richard A.; Huang, PoTien; Kruhm, David A.

      2003-01-01

      The Emerging Communication Technology (ECT) project investigated three First Mile communication technologies in support of NASA s Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (2nd Gen RLV), Orbital Space Plane, Advanced Range Technology Working Group (ARTWG) and the Advanced Spaceport Technology Working Group (ASTWG). These First Mile technologies have the purpose of interconnecting mobile users with existing Range Communication infrastructures. ECT was a continuation of the Range Information System Management (RISM) task started in 2002. RISM identified the three advance communication technologies investigated under ECT. These were Wireless Ethernet (Wi-Fi), Free Space Optics (FSO), and Ultra Wideband (UWB). Due to the report s size, it has been broken into three volumes: 1) Main Report 2) Appendices 3) UWB

    13. Laser Communications and Fiber Optics Lab Manual. High-Technology Training Module.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Biddick, Robert

      This laboratory training manual on laser communications and fiber optics may be used in a general technology-communications course for ninth graders. Upon completion of this exercise, students achieve the following goals: match concepts with laser communication system parts; explain advantages of fiber optic cable over conventional copper wire;…

    14. Study of the OCDMA Transmission Characteristics in FSO-FTTH at Various Distances, Outdoor

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Aldouri, Muthana Y.; Aljunid, S. A.; Fadhil, Hilal A.

      2013-06-01

      It is important to apply the field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), and Optical Switch technology as an encoder and decoder for Spectral Amplitude Coding Optical Code Division Multiple Access (SAC-OCDMA) Free Space Optic Fiber to the Home (FSO-FTTH) transmitter and receiver system design. The encoder and decoder module will be using FPGA as a code generator, optical switch using as encode and decode of optical source. This module was tested by using the Modified Double Weight (MDW) code, which is selected as an excellent candidate because it had shown superior performance were by the total noise is reduced. It is also easy to construct and can reduce the number of filters required at a receiver by a newly proposed detection scheme known as AND Subtraction technique. MDW code is presented here to support Fiber-To-The-Home (FTTH) access network in Point-To-Multi-Point (P2MP) application. The conversion used a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) wavelength converter. The performances are characterized through BER and bit rate (BR), also, the received power at a variety of bit rates.

    15. High-volume optical vortex multiplexing and de-multiplexing for free-space optical communication.

      PubMed

      Wang, Zhongxi; Zhang, N; Yuan, X-C

      2011-01-17

      We report an approach to the increase of signal channels in free-space optical communication based on composed optical vortices (OVs). In the encoding process, conventional algorithm employed for the generation of collinearly superimposed OVs is combined with a genetic algorithm to achieve high-volume OV multiplexing. At the receiver end, a novel Dammann vortex grating is used to analyze the multihelix beams with a large number of OVs. We experimentally demonstrate a digitized system which is capable of transmitting and receiving 16 OV channels simultaneously. This system is expected to be compatible with a high-speed OV multiplexing technique, with potentials to extremely high-volume information density in OV communication.

    16. Pointing Reference Scheme for Free-Space Optical Communications Systems

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Wright, Malcolm; Ortiz, Gerardo; Jeganathan, Muthu

      2006-01-01

      A scheme is proposed for referencing the propagation direction of the transmit laser signal in pointing a free-space optical communications terminal. This recently developed scheme enables the use of low-cost, commercial silicon-based sensors for tracking the direction of the transmit laser, regardless of the transmit wavelength. Compared with previous methods, the scheme offers some advantages of less mechanical and optical complexity and avoids expensive and exotic sensor technologies. In free-space optical communications, the transmit beam must be accurately pointed toward the receiver in order to maintain the communication link. The current approaches to achieve this function call for part of the transmit beam to be split off and projected onto an optical sensor used to infer the pointed direction. This requires that the optical sensor be sensitive to the wavelength of the transmit laser. If a different transmit wavelength is desired, for example to obtain a source capable of higher data rates, this can become quite impractical because of the unavailability or inefficiency of sensors at these wavelengths. The innovation proposed here decouples this requirement by allowing any transmit wavelength to be used with any sensor. We have applied this idea to a particular system that transmits at the standard telecommunication wavelength of 1,550 nm and uses a silicon-based sensor, sensitive from 0.5 to 1.0 micrometers, to determine the pointing direction. The scheme shown in the figure involves integrating a low-power 980-nm reference or boresight laser beam coupled to the 1,550-nm transmit beam via a wavelength-division-multiplexed fiber coupler. Both of these signals propagate through the optical fiber where they achieve an extremely high level of co-alignment before they are launched into the telescope. The telescope uses a dichroic beam splitter to reflect the 980- nm beam onto the silicon image sensor (a quad detector, charge-coupled device, or active

    17. Molecular inspired models for prediction and control of directional FSO/RF wireless networks

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Llorca, Jaime; Milner, Stuart D.; Davis, Christopher C.

      2010-08-01

      Directional wireless networks using FSO and RF transmissions provide wireless backbone support for mobile communications in dynamic environments. The heterogeneous and dynamic nature of such networks challenges their robustness and requires self-organization mechanisms to assure end-to-end broadband connectivity. We developed a framework based on the definition of a potential energy function to characterize robustness in communication networks and the study of first and second order variations of the potential energy to provide prediction and control strategies for network performance optimization. In this paper, we present non-convex molecular potentials such as the Morse Potential, used to describe the potential energy of bonds within molecules, for the characterization of communication links in the presence of physical constraints such as the power available at the network nodes. The inclusion of the Morse Potential translates into adaptive control strategies where forces on network nodes drive the release, retention or reconfiguration of communication links for network performance optimization. Simulation results show the effectiveness of our self-organized control mechanism, where the physical topology reorganizes to maximize the number of source to destination communicating pairs. Molecular Normal Mode Analysis (NMA) techniques for assessing network performance degradation in dynamic networks are also presented. Preliminary results show correlation between peaks in the eigenvalues of the Hessian of the network potential and network degradation.

    18. Free-space optical communication through a forest canopy.

      PubMed

      Edwards, Clinton L; Davis, Christopher C

      2006-01-01

      We model the effects of the leaves of mature broadleaf (deciduous) trees on air-to-ground free-space optical communication systems operating through the leaf canopy. The concept of leaf area index (LAI) is reviewed and related to a probabilistic model of foliage consisting of obscuring leaves randomly distributed throughout a treetop layer. Individual leaves are opaque. The expected fractional unobscured area statistic is derived as well as the variance around the expected value. Monte Carlo simulation results confirm the predictions of this probabilistic model. To verify the predictions of the statistical model experimentally, a passive optical technique has been used to make measurements of observed sky illumination in a mature broadleaf environment. The results of the measurements, as a function of zenith angle, provide strong evidence for the applicability of the model, and a single parameter fit to the data reinforces a natural connection to LAI. Specific simulations of signal-to-noise ratio degradation as a function of zenith angle in a specific ground-to-unmanned aerial vehicle communication situation have demonstrated the effect of obscuration on performance.

    19. Optical wireless communications to OC-768 and beyond

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Medved, David B.; Davidovich, Leonid

      2001-10-01

      Laser and LED-based wireless communication systems are currently providing license-free interconnection for broadband voice, data and video transport. These systems allow for the immediate, reliable and low-cost extension of copper and fiber-based networks to any end user, providing efficient First Mile bypass access to high data rate backbone networks at speeds ranging from T-1 voice to full throughput ATM at 155 Mbps and up to Gigabit Ethernet. These wireless optical beams constitute a Virtual Fiber in the air, providing the capabilities of fiber in situations where wired connectivity is unavailable, impractical, expensive or slow-to-implement, while achieving a combination of low cost, speed and reliability that cannot be matched by microwave, mm wave, spread spectrum or other competing (actually complementary) wireless technologies. The carrier frequency of the optical beam is about 10,000 times higher than the highest frequencies used by the millimeter wave technology. By means of Wavelength Division Multiplexing more than 1000 independent data channels can be projected into the air on a single beam thus providing a potential bandwidth ten million times that of any RF solution. The twin barriers of physics and regulatory bureaucracy to this essentially infinite wireless bandwidth are thus eliminated by this Virtual Fiber. As user density and individual bandwidth needs escalate, the optical wireless will be the preferred medium of choice in both network and cellular interconnection. A mesh topology which integrates our optical wireless systems with the latest Optical Access switches and routing equipment will be described using case study examples from Japan to South America. As the Bandwidth Blowout continues to push the limits of electronics and especially in the case of DWDM (Dense Wavelength Division Multiples), the conventional optical wireless solutions are no longer feasible. Instead of using f.o. transceivers to convert photons to electrons and thence

    20. Method and apparatus for use of III-nitride wide bandgap semiconductors in optical communications

      DOEpatents

      Hui, Rongqing [Lenexa, KS; Jiang, Hong-Xing [Manhattan, KS; Lin, Jing-Yu [Manhattan, KS

      2008-03-18

      The present disclosure relates to the use of III-nitride wide bandgap semiconductor materials for optical communications. In one embodiment, an optical device includes an optical waveguide device fabricated using a III-nitride semiconductor material. The III-nitride semiconductor material provides for an electrically controllable refractive index. The optical waveguide device provides for high speed optical communications in an infrared wavelength region. In one embodiment, an optical amplifier is provided using optical coatings at the facet ends of a waveguide formed of erbium-doped III-nitride semiconductor materials.

    1. Thin film technologies for optoelectronic components in fiber optic communication

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Perinati, Agostino

      1998-02-01

      'The Asian Routes Towards the Global Information Society' and 'Towards a Strategic Planning for the Global Information Society' will be the forum themes of 'Asia Telecom 97' and 'Telecom Interactice 97' events respectively, to be held by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) in order to further telecommunication development around the world. International telecommunications network affects our life by keeping us in touch, bringing us world news and underpinning the global economy. Global tele-economy, global information infrastructure, global information society terms are more and more used to indicate the evolution towards an information- driven world where the access to information, communication and technologies is essential to the economic and social development in every country. Telecommunication industry can strongly contribute to this evolution together with broadcasting and computer industry, and fiber optic communications are expected to continue to grow up and share a relevant part of the total telecom market. In 1995 telecom market shown a 3.8 percent worldwide investment growth reaching a 545 billion value. According to 'Kessler Marketing Intelligence (KMI) Corp.' analysis of fiberoptics and multimedia market the amount of cabled fiber installed in U.S. will be around 11 million fiber-km in 1997 and 15 million fiber-km are predicted in the year 2000. Between 1995 and 1998 the undersea industry is estimated to deal with 13.9 billion as additional undersea cable systems investment in the global telecom network. In China beside satellite telecom stations and digital microwave systems 22 fiber optic backbones have been realized and another 23 systems are expected to be built in the Ninth Five-Year National Plan (1996 to approximately 2000) with a total length of nearly 30,000 sheat-km. The study, Fiber and Fiberoptic Cable Markets in China, recently released by KMI Corp. shows that fiber optic cable installation by MPT and other network operators

    2. Joint digital signal processing for superchannel coherent optical communication systems.

      PubMed

      Liu, Cheng; Pan, Jie; Detwiler, Thomas; Stark, Andrew; Hsueh, Yu-Ting; Chang, Gee-Kung; Ralph, Stephen E

      2013-04-08

      Ultra-high-speed optical communication systems which can support ≥ 1Tb/s per channel transmission will soon be required to meet the increasing capacity demand. However, 1Tb/s over a single carrier requires either or both a high-level modulation format (i.e. 1024QAM) and a high baud rate. Alternatively, grouping a number of tightly spaced "sub-carriers" to form a terabit superchannel increases channel capacity while minimizing the need for high-level modulation formats and high baud rate, which may allow existing formats, baud rate and components to be exploited. In ideal Nyquist-WDM superchannel systems, optical subcarriers with rectangular spectra are tightly packed at a channel spacing equal to the baud rate, thus achieving the Nyquist bandwidth limit. However, in practical Nyquist-WDM systems, precise electrical or optical control of channel spectra is required to avoid strong inter-channel interference (ICI). Here, we propose and demonstrate a new "super receiver" architecture for practical Nyquist-WDM systems, which jointly detects and demodulates multiple channels simultaneously and mitigates the penalties associated with the limitations of generating ideal Nyquist-WDM spectra. Our receiver-side solution relaxes the filter requirements imposed on the transmitter. Two joint DSP algorithms are developed for linear ICI cancellation and joint carrier-phase recovery. Improved system performance is observed with both experimental and simulation data. Performance analysis under different system configurations is conducted to demonstrate the feasibility and robustness of the proposed joint DSP algorithms.

    3. Transmitters and receivers in free space optical communications for Deep Space links

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Beebe, J.

      2003-01-01

      Two of the many research areas integral making a Mars-Earth optical communication link a reality are optical antenna design and laser transmitter design. This paper addresses areas of both of these by exploring a mode-matched design for a cavity-dumped communications laser, and by reporting on the initial stages of the analysis of an existing 100 inch telescope for use as an optical communications receiver.

    4. Electro-optical design for efficient visual communication

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Huck, Friedrich O.; Fales, Carl L.; Jobson, Daniel J.; Rahman, Zia-ur

      1995-03-01

      Visual communication, in the form of telephotography and television, for example, can be regarded as efficient only if the amount of information that it conveys about the scene to the observer approaches the maximum possible and the associated cost approaches the minimum possible. Elsewhere we have addressed the problem of assessing the end-to-end performance of visual communication systems in terms of their efficiency in this sense by integrating the critical limiting factors that constrain image gathering into classical communication theory. We use this approach to assess the electro-optical design of image-gathering devices as a function of the f number and apodization of the objective lens and the aperture size and sampling geometry of the photodetection mechanism. Results show that an image-gathering device that is designed to optimize information capacity performs similarly to the human eye. For both, the performance approaches the maximum possible, in terms of the efficiency with which the acquired information can be transmitted as decorrelated data, and the fidelity, sharpness, and clarity with which fine detail can be restored.

    5. Electro-optical design for efficient visual communication

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Huck, Friedrich O.; Fales, Carl L.; Jobson, Daniel J.; Rahman, Zia-ur

      1994-06-01

      Visual communication can be regarded as efficient only if the amount of information that it conveys from the scene to the observer approaches the maximum possible and the associated cost approaches the minimum possible. To deal with this problem, Fales and Huck have integrated the critical limiting factors that constrain image gathering into classical concepts of communication theory. This paper uses this approach to assess the electro-optical design of the image gathering device. Design variables include the f-number and apodization of the objective lens, the aperture size and sampling geometry of the photodetection mechanism, and lateral inhibition and nonlinear radiance-to-signal conversion akin to the retinal processing in the human eye. It is an agreeable consequence of this approach that the image gathering device that is designed along the guidelines developed from communication theory behaves very much like the human eye. The performance approaches the maximum possible in terms of the information content of the acquired data, and thereby, the fidelity, sharpness and clarity with which fine detail can be restored, the efficiency with which the visual information can be transmitted in the form of decorrelated data, and the robustness of these two attributes to the temporal and spatial variations in scene illumination.

    6. Electro-Optical Design for Efficient Visual Communication

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Huck, Friedrich O.; Fales, Carl L.; Jobson, Daniel J.; Rahman, Zia-Ur

      1995-01-01

      Visual communication, in the form of telephotography and television, for example, can be regarded as efficient only if the amount of information that it conveys about the scene to the observer approaches the maximum possible and the associated cost approaches the minimum possible. Elsewhere we have addressed the problem of assessing the end to end performance of visual communication systems in terms of their efficiency in this sense by integrating the critical limiting factors that constrain image gathering into classical communications theory. We use this approach to assess the electro-optical design of image gathering devices as a function of the f number and apodization of the objective lens and the aperture size and sampling geometry of the phot-detection mechanism. Results show that an image gathering device that is designed to optimize information capacity performs similarly to the human eye. For both, the performance approaches the maximum possible, in terms of the efficiency with which the acquired information can be transmitted as decorrelated data, and the fidelity, sharpness, and clearity with which fine detail can be restored.

    7. Trained neurons-based motion detection in optical camera communications

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Teli, Shivani; Cahyadi, Willy Anugrah; Chung, Yeon Ho

      2018-04-01

      A concept of trained neurons-based motion detection (TNMD) in optical camera communications (OCC) is proposed. The proposed TNMD is based on neurons present in a neural network that perform repetitive analysis in order to provide efficient and reliable motion detection in OCC. This efficient motion detection can be considered another functionality of OCC in addition to two traditional functionalities of illumination and communication. To verify the proposed TNMD, the experiments were conducted in an indoor static downlink OCC, where a mobile phone front camera is employed as the receiver and an 8 × 8 red, green, and blue (RGB) light-emitting diode array as the transmitter. The motion is detected by observing the user's finger movement in the form of centroid through the OCC link via a camera. Unlike conventional trained neurons approaches, the proposed TNMD is trained not with motion itself but with centroid data samples, thus providing more accurate detection and far less complex detection algorithm. The experiment results demonstrate that the TNMD can detect all considered motions accurately with acceptable bit error rate (BER) performances at a transmission distance of up to 175 cm. In addition, while the TNMD is performed, a maximum data rate of 3.759 kbps over the OCC link is obtained. The OCC with the proposed TNMD combined can be considered an efficient indoor OCC system that provides illumination, communication, and motion detection in a convenient smart home environment.

    8. InGaAs Multiple Quantum Well Modulating Retro-reflector for Free Space Optical Communications

      DTIC Science & Technology

      2002-01-01

      PIN optical modulators grown on GaAs substrates by molecular beam epitaxy ,J. Vac Sci. B 18, 1609-16 13 (2000). Peter G. Goetz, W. S. Rabinovich...reflector is then interrogated by a cw laser beam from a conventional optical communications system and returns a modulated signal beam to the...optical communication systems. By mounting an electro-optic shutter in front of the corner- cube, the retro-reflected beam can be turned on or off (or at

    9. Reliability issues of free-space communications systems and networks

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Willebrand, Heinz A.

      2003-04-01

      Free space optics (FSO) is a high-speed point-to-point connectivity solution traditionally used in the enterprise campus networking market for building-to-building LAN connectivity. However, more recently some wire line and wireless carriers started to deploy FSO systems in their networks. The requirements on FSO system reliability, meaing both system availability and component reliability, are far more stringent in the carrier market when compared to the requirements in the enterprise market segment. This paper tries to outline some of the aspects that are important to ensure carrier class system reliability.

    10. Performance analysis of decode-and-forward dual-hop optical spatial modulation with diversity combiner over atmospheric turbulence

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Odeyemi, Kehinde O.; Owolawi, Pius A.; Srivastava, Viranjay M.

      2017-11-01

      Dual-hops transmission is a growing interest technique that can be used to mitigate against atmospheric turbulence along the Free Space Optical (FSO) communication links. This paper analyzes the performance of Decode-and-Forward (DF) dual-hops FSO systems in-conjunction with spatial modulation and diversity combiners over a Gamma-Gamma atmospheric turbulence channel using heterodyne detection. Maximum Ratio Combiner (MRC), Equal Gain Combiner (EGC) and Selection Combiner (SC) are considered at the relay and destination as mitigation tools to improve the system error performance. Power series expansion of modified Bessel function is used to derive the closed form expression for the end-to-end Average Pairwise Error Probability (APEP) expressions for each of the combiners under study and a tight upper bound on the Average Bit Error Rate (ABER) per hop is given. Thus, the overall end-to-end ABER for the dual-hops FSO system is then evaluated. The numerical results depicted that dual-hops transmission systems outperformed the direct link systems. Moreover, the impact of having the same and different combiners at the relay and destination are also presented. The results also confirm that the combination of dual hops transmission with spatial modulation and diversity combiner significantly improves the systems error rate with the MRC combiner offering an optimal performance with respect to variation in atmospheric turbulence, change in links average received SNR and link range of the system.

    11. Results of Kirari optical communication demonstration experiments with NICT optical ground station (KODEN) aiming for future classical and quantum communications in space

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Toyoshima, Morio; Takenaka, Hideki; Shoji, Yozo; Takayama, Yoshihisa; Koyama, Yoshisada; Kunimori, Hiroo

      2012-05-01

      Bi-directional ground-to-satellite laser communication experiments were successfully performed between the optical ground station developed by the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), located in Koganei City in suburban Tokyo, and a low earth orbit (LEO) satellite, the "Kirari" Optical Inter-orbit Communications Engineering Test Satellite (OICETS). The experiments were conducted in cooperation with the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), and called the Kirari Optical communication Demonstration Experiments with the NICT optical ground station (or KODEN). The ground-to-OICETS laser communication experiment was the first in-orbit demonstration involving the LEO satellite. The laser communication experiment was conducted since March 2006. The polarization characteristics of an artificial laser source in space, such as Stokes parameters, and the degree of polarization were measured through space-to-ground atmospheric transmission paths, which results contribute to the link estimation for quantum key distribution via space and provide the potential for enhancements in quantum cryptography on a global scale in the future. The Phase-5 experiment, international laser communications experiments were also successfully conducted with four optical ground stations located in the United States, Spain, Germany, and Japan from April 2009 to September 2009. The purpose of the Phase-5 experiment was to establish OICETS-to-ground laser communication links from the different optical ground stations and the statistical analyses such as the normalized power, scintillation index, probability density function, auto-covariance function, and power spectral density were performed. Thus the applicability of the satellite laser communications was demonstrated, aiming not only for geostationary earth orbit-LEO links but also for ground-to-LEO optical links. This paper presents the results of the KODEN experiments and mainly introduces the common

    12. Experimental demonstration of MIMO-OFDM underwater wireless optical communication

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Song, Yuhang; Lu, Weichao; Sun, Bin; Hong, Yang; Qu, Fengzhong; Han, Jun; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Jing

      2017-11-01

      In this paper, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a multiple-input multiple-output orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) system, with a gross bit rate of 33.691 Mb/s over a 2-m water channel using low-cost blue light-emitting-diodes (LEDs) and 10-MHz PIN photodiodes. The system is capable of realizing robust data transmission within a relatively large reception area, leading to relaxed alignment requirement for UWOC. In addition, we have compared the system performance of repetition coding OFDM (RC-OFDM), Alamouti-OFDM and multiple-input single-output OFDM (MISO-OFDM) in turbid water. Results show that the Alamouti-OFDM UWOC is more resistant to delay than the RC-OFDM-based system.

    13. Possible existence of optical communication channels in the brain

      PubMed Central

      Kumar, Sourabh; Boone, Kristine; Tuszyński, Jack; Barclay, Paul; Simon, Christoph

      2016-01-01

      Given that many fundamental questions in neuroscience are still open, it seems pertinent to explore whether the brain might use other physical modalities than the ones that have been discovered so far. In particular it is well established that neurons can emit photons, which prompts the question whether these biophotons could serve as signals between neurons, in addition to the well-known electro-chemical signals. For such communication to be targeted, the photons would need to travel in waveguides. Here we show, based on detailed theoretical modeling, that myelinated axons could serve as photonic waveguides, taking into account realistic optical imperfections. We propose experiments, both in vivo and in vitro, to test our hypothesis. We discuss the implications of our results, including the question whether photons could mediate long-range quantum entanglement in the brain. PMID:27819310

    14. Possible existence of optical communication channels in the brain

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Kumar, Sourabh; Boone, Kristine; Tuszyński, Jack; Barclay, Paul; Simon, Christoph

      2016-11-01

      Given that many fundamental questions in neuroscience are still open, it seems pertinent to explore whether the brain might use other physical modalities than the ones that have been discovered so far. In particular it is well established that neurons can emit photons, which prompts the question whether these biophotons could serve as signals between neurons, in addition to the well-known electro-chemical signals. For such communication to be targeted, the photons would need to travel in waveguides. Here we show, based on detailed theoretical modeling, that myelinated axons could serve as photonic waveguides, taking into account realistic optical imperfections. We propose experiments, both in vivo and in vitro, to test our hypothesis. We discuss the implications of our results, including the question whether photons could mediate long-range quantum entanglement in the brain.

    15. Fraunhofer filters to reduce solar background for optical communications

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Kerr, E. L.

      1986-01-01

      A wavelength that lies within a spectral interval of reduced solar emission (a Fraunhofer line) can carry optical communications with reduced interference from direct or reflected background sunlight. Suitable Fraunhofer lines are located within the tuning range of good candidate lasers. The laser should be tunable dynamically to track Doppler shifts in the sunlight incident on any solar system body that may appear in the background as viewed by the receiver. A Fraunhofer filter used with a direct-detection receiver should be tuned to match the Doppler shifts of the source and background. The required tuning calculated here for various situations is also required if, instead, one uses a heterodyne receiver with limited post-detection bandwidth.

    16. Possible existence of optical communication channels in the brain.

      PubMed

      Kumar, Sourabh; Boone, Kristine; Tuszyński, Jack; Barclay, Paul; Simon, Christoph

      2016-11-07

      Given that many fundamental questions in neuroscience are still open, it seems pertinent to explore whether the brain might use other physical modalities than the ones that have been discovered so far. In particular it is well established that neurons can emit photons, which prompts the question whether these biophotons could serve as signals between neurons, in addition to the well-known electro-chemical signals. For such communication to be targeted, the photons would need to travel in waveguides. Here we show, based on detailed theoretical modeling, that myelinated axons could serve as photonic waveguides, taking into account realistic optical imperfections. We propose experiments, both in vivo and in vitro, to test our hypothesis. We discuss the implications of our results, including the question whether photons could mediate long-range quantum entanglement in the brain.

    17. Analysis of a spatial tracking subsystem for optical communications

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Win, Moe Z.; Chen, CHIEN-C.

      1992-01-01

      Spatial tracking plays a very critical role in designing optical communication systems because of the small angular beamwidth associated with the optical signal. One possible solution for spatial tracking is to use a nutating mirror which dithers the incoming beam at a rate much higher than the mechanical disturbances. A power detector then senses the change in detected power as the signal is reflected off the nutating mirror. This signal is then correlated with the nutator driver signals to obtain estimates of the azimuth and elevation tracking signals to control the fast scanning mirrors. A theoretical analysis is performed for a spatial tracking system using a nutator disturbed by shot noise and mechanical vibrations. Contributions of shot noise and mechanical vibrations to the total tracking error variance are derived. Given the vibration spectrum and the expected signal power, there exists an optimal amplitude for the nutation which optimizes the receiver performance. The expected performance of a nutator based system is estimated based on the choice of nutation amplitude.

    18. Comparison of direct and heterodyne detection optical intersatellite communication links

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Chen, C. C.; Gardner, C. S.

      1987-01-01

      The performance of direct and heterodyne detection optical intersatellite communication links are evaluated and compared. It is shown that the performance of optical links is very sensitive to the pointing and tracking errors at the transmitter and receiver. In the presence of random pointing and tracking errors, optimal antenna gains exist that will minimize the required transmitter power. In addition to limiting the antenna gains, random pointing and tracking errors also impose a power penalty in the link budget. This power penalty is between 1.6 to 3 dB for a direct detection QPPM link, and 3 to 5 dB for a heterodyne QFSK system. For the heterodyne systems, the carrier phase noise presents another major factor of performance degradation that must be considered. In contrast, the loss due to synchronization error is small. The link budgets for direct and heterodyne detection systems are evaluated. It is shown that, for systems with large pointing and tracking errors, the link budget is dominated by the spatial tracking error, and the direct detection system shows a superior performance because it is less sensitive to the spatial tracking error. On the other hand, for systems with small pointing and tracking jitters, the antenna gains are in general limited by the launch cost, and suboptimal antenna gains are often used in practice. In which case, the heterodyne system has a slightly higher power margin because of higher receiver sensitivity.

    19. Biomimetric sentinel reef structures for optical sensing and communications

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Fries, David; Hutcheson, Tim; Josef, Noam; Millie, David; Tate, Connor

      2017-05-01

      Traditional artificial reef structures are designed with uniform cellular architectures and topologies and do not mimic natural reef forms. Strings and ropes are a proven, common fisheries and mariculture construction element throughout the world and using them as artificial reef scaffolding can enable a diversity of ocean sensing, communications systems including the goal of sentinel reefs. The architecture and packaging of electronics is key to enabling such structures and systems. The distributed sensor reef concept leads toward a demonstrable science-engineering-informed framework for 3D smart habitat designs critical to stock fish development and coastal monitoring and protection. These `nature-inspired' reef infrastructures, can enable novel instrumented `reef observatories' capable of collecting real-time ecosystem data. Embedding lighting and electronic elements into artificial reef systems are the first systems conceptualized. This approach of bringing spatial light to the underwater world for optical sensing, communication and even a new breed of underwater robotic vehicle is an interdisciplinary research activity which integrates principles of electronic packaging, and ocean technology with art/design.

    20. Information trade-offs for optical quantum communication.

      PubMed

      Wilde, Mark M; Hayden, Patrick; Guha, Saikat

      2012-04-06

      Recent work has precisely characterized the achievable trade-offs between three key information processing tasks-classical communication (generation or consumption), quantum communication (generation or consumption), and shared entanglement (distribution or consumption), measured in bits, qubits, and ebits per channel use, respectively. Slices and corner points of this three-dimensional region reduce to well-known protocols for quantum channels. A trade-off coding technique can attain any point in the region and can outperform time sharing between the best-known protocols for accomplishing each information processing task by itself. Previously, the benefits of trade-off coding that had been found were too small to be of practical value (viz., for the dephasing and the universal cloning machine channels). In this Letter, we demonstrate that the associated performance gains are in fact remarkably high for several physically relevant bosonic channels that model free-space or fiber-optic links, thermal-noise channels, and amplifiers. We show that significant performance gains from trade-off coding also apply when trading photon-number resources between transmitting public and private classical information simultaneously over secret-key-assisted bosonic channels. © 2012 American Physical Society

    1. High bandwidth specialty optical fibers for data communications

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Li, Jie; Sun, Xiaoguang

      2008-11-01

      Perhaps the most common specialty optical fiber is HCS hard polymer clad silica fiber. It was invented almost 30 years ago for transmitting laser light to initiate explosives in mining industry and later adapted to be used in a variety of new applications, such as data communications. The most typical HCS fiber typically consists of a 200 μm pure silica glass core, a thin coating of low refractive index hard polymer as the cladding, and an ETFE buffer. This design enables the "crimp-and-cleave" technique of terminating and connectorizing fibers quickly and reliably. Its greater glass diameter also renders greater robustness allowing the fiber to endure greater forces during installation. Due to its larger core size and high numerical aperture (NA), the fiber can be used with a plastic connector and low cost LED transmitter that can greatly reduce the system cost. It can also be used at higher temperature and humidity conditions than standard optical fibers coated with telecommunications grade acrylate material. As applications evolve and require greater bandwidth and/or performance over a greater distance, the challenge now is to develop specialty optical fibers with significantly greater bandwidth-length product while maintaining all other characteristics critical to their ease of use and performance. As a response to the demand, two new fiber types have been designed and developed as higher bandwidth versions of the original HCS fiber. In this paper, we will discuss some of the main design requirements for the fibers, describe in detail the two designs, and present the results of fiber performance.

    2. BER analysis of SS-WDM based FSO system for Vellore weather conditions

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Prabu, K.; Charanya, S.; Jain, Mehul; Guha, Debapriya

      2017-11-01

      Spectrum Slicing Wavelength Division Multiplexing (SS-WDM) has been advanced to boost the long distance communication in FSO channel which assists immense bit rate due to its high capacity and efficiency. It is a substitute to WDM systems having multiple coherent lasers with different wavelengths which is expensive. This paper is subjected to investigate the characteristics and quality of communication links of data rate 1.56 GB/s and wavelength of 1550 nm. The SS-WDM technique has been inspected for 4, 8 and 16 channels to increase the performance of communication under various weather conditions. The proposed model is susceptible to system degradation due to turbulences where wind velocity, refractive index and height of buildings have been majorly focused. A case study has been experimented on how the height of buildings around VIT, Vellore campus interfere the transmission of light in free space. Based on the above study, the results shows that the benefits of spectrum slicing wavelength division multiplexing (SS-WDM) have been worked up on for the climatic conditions which enhance performance of system. Moreover, the graphs plotted against bit error rate (BER), attenuation and distance makes the analysis better which highlights the characteristic features of SS-WDM.

    3. Experimental implementation of fiber optic bundle array wide FOV free space optical communications receiver.

      PubMed

      Brown, Andrea M; Hahn, Daniel V; Brown, David M; Rolander, Nathan W; Bair, Chun-Huei; Sluz, Joseph E

      2012-06-20

      A gimbal-free wide field-of-regard (FOR) optical receiver has been built in a laboratory setting for proof-of-concept testing. Multiple datasets are presented that examine the overall FOR of the system and the receiver's ability to track and collect a signal from a moving source. The design is not intended to compete with traditional free space optical communication systems, but rather offer an alternative design that minimizes the number and complexity of mechanical components required at the surface of a small mobile platform. The receiver is composed of a micro-lens array and hexagonal bundles of large core optical fibers that route the optical signal to remote detectors and electronics. Each fiber in the bundle collects power from a distinct solid angle of space and a piezo-electric transducer is used to translate the micro-lens array and optimize coupling into a given fiber core in the bundle. The micro-lens to fiber bundle design is scalable, modular, and can be replicated in an array to increase aperture size.

    4. 33 CFR 106.240 - Communications.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

      2011-07-01

      ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Communications. 106.240 Section... Requirements § 106.240 Communications. (a) The Facility Security Officer (FSO) must have a means to effectively notify OCS facility personnel of changes in security conditions at the OCS facility. (b) Communication...

    5. 33 CFR 106.240 - Communications.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

      2012-07-01

      ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Communications. 106.240 Section... Requirements § 106.240 Communications. (a) The Facility Security Officer (FSO) must have a means to effectively notify OCS facility personnel of changes in security conditions at the OCS facility. (b) Communication...

    6. 33 CFR 106.240 - Communications.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

      2014-07-01

      ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Communications. 106.240 Section... Requirements § 106.240 Communications. (a) The Facility Security Officer (FSO) must have a means to effectively notify OCS facility personnel of changes in security conditions at the OCS facility. (b) Communication...

    7. 33 CFR 106.240 - Communications.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

      2010-07-01

      ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Communications. 106.240 Section... Requirements § 106.240 Communications. (a) The Facility Security Officer (FSO) must have a means to effectively notify OCS facility personnel of changes in security conditions at the OCS facility. (b) Communication...

    8. A COTS RF/Optical Software Defined Radio for the Integrated Radio and Optical Communications Test Bed

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Nappier, Jennifer M.; Zeleznikar, Daniel J.; Wroblewski, Adam C.; Tokars, Roger P.; Schoenholz, Bryan L.; Lantz, Nicholas C.

      2017-01-01

      The Integrated Radio and Optical Communications (iROC) project at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is investigating the merits of a hybrid radio frequency (RF) and optical communication system for deep space missions. In an effort to demonstrate the feasibility and advantages of a hybrid RF/Optical software defined radio (SDR), a laboratory prototype was assembled from primarily commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware components. This COTS platform has been used to demonstrate simultaneous transmission of the radio and optical communications waveforms through to the physical layer (telescope and antenna). This paper details the hardware and software used in the platform and various measures of its performance. A laboratory optical receiver platform has also been assembled in order to demonstrate hybrid free space links in combination with the transmitter.

    9. Brief state-of-the-art review on optical communications for the NASA ISES workshop

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Hendricks, Herbert D.

      1990-01-01

      The current state of the art of optical communications is briefly reviewed. This review covers NASA programs, DOD and other government agency programs, commercial aerospace programs, and foreign programs. Included is a brief summary of a recent NASA workshop on optical communications. The basic conclusions from all the program reviews is that optical communications is a technology ready to be accepted but needed to be demonstrated. Probably the most advanced and sophisticated optical communications system is the Laser Intersatellite Transmission Experiment (LITE) system developed for flight on the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS). Optical communications technology is available for the applications of data communications at data rates in the under 300 MBits/sec for nearly all applications under 2 times GEO distances. Applications for low-earth orbiter (LEO) to ground will allow data rates in the multi-GBits/sec range. Higher data rates are limited by currently available laser power. Phased array lasers offer technology which should eliminate this problem. The major problem of cloud coverage can probably be eliminated by look ahead pointing, multiple ground stations, and knowledge of weather conditions to control the pointing. Most certainly, optical communications offer a new spectral region to relieve the RF bands and very high data communications rates that will be required in less than 10 years to solve the communications problems on Earth.

    10. Research of the self-healing technologies in the optical communication network of distribution automation

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Wang, Hao; Zhong, Guoxin

      2018-03-01

      Optical communication network is the mainstream technique of the communication networks for distribution automation, and self-healing technologies can improve the in reliability of the optical communication networks significantly. This paper discussed the technical characteristics and application scenarios of several network self-healing technologies in the access layer, the backbone layer and the core layer of the optical communication networks for distribution automation. On the base of the contrastive analysis, this paper gives an application suggestion of these self-healing technologies.

    11. Model of Atmospheric Links on Optical Communications from High Altitude

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Subich, Christopher

      2004-01-01

      Optical communication links have the potential to solve many of the problems of current radio and microwave links to satellites and high-altitude aircraft. The higher frequency involved in optical systems allows for significantly greater signal bandwidth, and thus information transfer rate, in excess of 10 Gbps, and the highly directional nature of laser-based signals eliminates the need for frequency-division multiplexing seen in radio and microwave links today. The atmosphere, however, distorts an optical signal differently than a microwave signal. While the ionosphere is one of the most significant sources of noise and distortion in a microwave or radio signal, the lower atmosphere affects an optical signal more significantly. Refractive index fluctuations, primarily caused by changes in atmospheric temperature and density, distort the incoming signal in both deterministic and nondeterministic ways. Additionally, suspended particles, such as those in haze or rain, further corrupt the transmitted signal. To model many of the atmospheric effects on the propagating beam, we use simulations based on the beam-propagation method. This method, developed both for simulation of signals in waveguides and propagation in atmospheric turbulence, separates the propagation into a diffraction and refraction problem. The diffraction step is an exact solution, within the limits of numerical precision, to the problem of propagation in free space, and the refraction step models the refractive index variances over a segment of the propagation path. By applying refraction for a segment of the propagation path, then diffracting over that same segment, this method forms a good approximation to true propagation through the atmospheric medium. Iterating over small segments of the total propagation path gives a good approximation to the problem of propagation over the entire path. Parameters in this model, such as initial beam profile and atmospheric constants, are easily modified in a

    12. High frequency optical communications; Proceedings of the Meeting, Cambridge, MA, Sept. 23, 24, 1986

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Ramer, O. Glenn; Sierak, Paul

      Topics discussed in this volume include systems and applications, detectors, sources, and coherent communications. Papers are presented on RF fiber optic links for avionics applications, fiber optics and optoelectronics for radar and electronic warfare applications, symmetric coplanar electrodes for high-speed Ti:LiNbO3 devices, and surface wave electrooptic modulator. Attention is given to X-band RF fiber-optic links, fiber-optic links for microwave signal transmission, GaAs monolithic receiver and laser driver for GHz transmission rates, and monolithically integrable high-speed photodetectors. Additional papers are on irregular and chaotic behavior of semiconductor lasers under modulation, high-frequency laser package for microwave optical communications, receiver modeling for coherent light wave communications, and polarization sensors and controllers for coherent optical communication systems.

    13. Emerging Communication Technologies (ECT) Phase 2 Report. Volume 3; Ultra Wideband (UWB) Technology

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Bastin, Gary L.; Harris, William G.; Chiodini, Robert; Nelson, Richard A.; Huang, PoTien; Kruhm, David A.

      2003-01-01

      The Emerging Communication Technology (ECT) project investigated three First Mile communication technologies in support of NASA s Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (2nd Gen RLV), Orbital Space Plane, Advanced Range Technology Working Group (ARTWG) and the Advanced Spaceport Technology Working Group (ASTWG). These First Mile technologies have the purpose of interconnecting mobile users with existing Range Communication infrastructures. ECT was a continuation of the Range Information System Management (RISM) task started in 2002. RISM identified the three advance communication technologies investigated under ECT. These were Wireless Ethernet (Wi-Fi), Free Space Optics (FSO), and Ultra Wideband (UWB). Due to the report s size, it has been broken into three volumes: 1) Main Report 2) Appendices 3) UWB

    14. Emerging Communication Technologies (ECT) Phase 2 Report. Volume 1; Main Report

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Bastin, Gary L.; Harris, William G.; Chiodini, Robert; Nelson, Richard A.; Huang, PoTien; Kruhm, David A.

      2003-01-01

      The Emerging Communication Technology (ECT) project investigated three First Mile communication technologies in support of NASA s Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (2nd Gen RLV), Orbital Space Plane, Advanced Range Technology Working Group (ARTWG) and the Advanced Spaceport Technology Working Group (ASTWG). These First Mile technologies have the purpose of interconnecting mobile users with existing Range Communication infrastructures. ECT was a continuation of the Range Information System Management (RISM) task started in 2002. RISM identified the three advance communication technologies investigated under ECT. These were Wireless Ethernet (Wi-Fi), Free Space Optics (FSO), and Ultra Wideband (UWB). Due to the report s size, it has been broken into three volumes: 1) Main Report 2) Appendices 3) UWB.

    15. A cost-performance model for ground-based optical communications receiving telescopes

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Lesh, J. R.; Robinson, D. L.

      1986-01-01

      An analytical cost-performance model for a ground-based optical communications receiving telescope is presented. The model considers costs of existing telescopes as a function of diameter and field of view. This, coupled with communication performance as a function of receiver diameter and field of view, yields the appropriate telescope cost versus communication performance curve.

    16. Analysis of large optical ground stations for deep-space optical communications

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Garcia-Talavera, M. Reyes; Rivera, C.; Murga, G.; Montilla, I.; Alonso, A.

      2017-11-01

      Inter-satellite and ground to satellite optical communications have been successfully demonstrated over more than a decade with several experiments, the most recent being NASA's lunar mission Lunar Atmospheric Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE). The technology is in a mature stage that allows to consider optical communications as a high-capacity solution for future deep-space communications [1][2], where there is an increasing demand on downlink data rate to improve science return. To serve these deep-space missions, suitable optical ground stations (OGS) have to be developed providing large collecting areas. The design of such OGSs must face both technical and cost constraints in order to achieve an optimum implementation. To that end, different approaches have already been proposed and analyzed, namely, a large telescope based on a segmented primary mirror, telescope arrays, and even the combination of RF and optical receivers in modified versions of existing Deep-Space Network (DSN) antennas [3][4][5]. Array architectures have been proposed to relax some requirements, acting as one of the key drivers of the present study. The advantages offered by the array approach are attained at the expense of adding subsystems. Critical issues identified for each implementation include their inherent efficiency and losses, as well as its performance under high-background conditions, and the acquisition, pointing, tracking, and synchronization capabilities. It is worth noticing that, due to the photon-counting nature of detection, the system performance is not solely given by the signal-to-noise ratio parameter. To start with the analysis, first the main implications of the deep space scenarios are summarized, since they are the driving requirements to establish the technical specifications for the large OGS. Next, both the main characteristics of the OGS and the potential configuration approaches are presented, getting deeper in key subsystems with strong impact in the

    17. AlGaAs phased array laser for optical communications

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Carlson, N. W.

      1989-01-01

      Phased locked arrays of multiple AlGaAs diode laser emitters were investigated both in edge emitting and surface emitting configurations. CSP edge emitter structures, coupled by either evanescent waves or Y-guides, could not achieve the required powers (greater than or similar to 500 mW) while maintaining a diffraction limited, single lobed output beam. Indeed, although the diffraction limit was achieved in this type of device, it was at low powers and in the double lobed radiation pattern characteristic of out-of-phase coupling. Grating surface emitting (GSE) arrays were, therefore, investigated with more promising results. The incorporation of second order gratings in distribute Bragg reflector (DBR) structures allows surface emission, and can be configured to allow injection locking and lateral coupling to populate 2-D arrays that should be able to reach power levels commensurate with the needs of high performance, free space optical communications levels. Also, a new amplitude modulation scheme was developed for GSE array operation.

    18. Quantum Limits of Space-to-Ground Optical Communications

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Hemmati, H.; Dolinar, S.

      2012-01-01

      For a pure loss channel, the ultimate capacity can be achieved with classical coherent states (i.e., ideal laser light): (1) Capacity-achieving receiver (measurement) is yet to be determined. (2) Heterodyne detection approaches the ultimate capacity at high mean photon numbers. (3) Photon-counting approaches the ultimate capacity at low mean photon numbers. A number of current technology limits drive the achievable performance of free-space communication links. Approaching fundamental limits in the bandwidth-limited regime: (1) Heterodyne detection with high-order coherent-state modulation approaches ultimate limits. SOA improvements to laser phase noise, adaptive optics systems for atmospheric transmission would help. (2) High-order intensity modulation and photon-counting can approach heterodyne detection within approximately a factor of 2. This may have advantages over coherent detection in the presence of turbulence. Approaching fundamental limits in the photon-limited regime (1) Low-duty cycle binary coherent-state modulation (OOK, PPM) approaches ultimate limits. SOA improvements to laser extinction ratio, receiver dark noise, jitter, and blocking would help. (2) In some link geometries (near field links) number-state transmission could improve over coherent-state transmission

    19. Task one report: Optical system study. [characteristics of laser equipment for space communication systems

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1973-01-01

      An optical system which can be incorporated in a present day or near future space-borne laser communications system is described. Techniques of implementing these systems are presented and their design problems and use are discussed. Optical system weight is estimated as a function of aperture diameter for a typical present day or near future laser communication system. The optical communications system considered is a two-way, high data rate optical communications link from a spacecraft to a spacecraft or from a spacecraft to a ground station. Each station has a laser transmitter and receiver and a pointing and tracking system. Thus each station can track the laser transmitter of the other. Optical beamwidths are considered to be as small as an arc-second with the beam pointed to a fraction of this beamwidth.

    20. Development of a Handheld Line Information Reader and Generator for Efficient Management of Optical Communication Lines

      PubMed Central

      Lee, Jaeyul; Kwon, Hyungwoo; Song, Jaewon; Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Jeehyun

      2017-01-01

      A handheld line information reader and a line information generator were developed for the efficient management of optical communication lines. The line information reader consists of a photo diode, trans-impedance amplifier, voltage amplifier, microcontroller unit, display panel, and communication modules. The line information generator consists of a laser diode, laser driving circuits, microcontroller unit, and communication modules. The line information reader can detect the optical radiation field of the test line by bending the optical fiber. To enhance the sensitivity of the line information reader, an additional lens was used with a focal length of 4.51 mm. Moreover, the simulation results obtained through BeamPROP® software from Synopsys, Inc. demonstrated a stronger optical radiation field of the fiber due to a longer transmission wavelength and larger bending angle of the fiber. Therefore, the developed devices can be considered as useful tools for the efficient management of optical communication lines. PMID:28837058

    1. Research on target information optics communications transmission characteristic and performance in multi-screens testing system

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Li, Hanshan

      2016-04-01

      To enhance the stability and reliability of multi-screens testing system, this paper studies multi-screens target optical information transmission link properties and performance in long-distance, sets up the discrete multi-tone modulation transmission model based on geometric model of laser multi-screens testing system and visible light information communication principle; analyzes the electro-optic and photoelectric conversion function of sender and receiver in target optical information communication system; researches target information transmission performance and transfer function of the generalized visible-light communication channel; found optical information communication transmission link light intensity space distribution model and distribution function; derives the SNR model of information transmission communication system. Through the calculation and experiment analysis, the results show that the transmission error rate increases with the increment of transmission rate in a certain channel modulation depth; when selecting the appropriate transmission rate, the bit error rate reach 0.01.

    2. Scheduling algorithm for data relay satellite optical communication based on artificial intelligent optimization

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Zhao, Wei-hu; Zhao, Jing; Zhao, Shang-hong; Li, Yong-jun; Wang, Xiang; Dong, Yi; Dong, Chen

      2013-08-01

      Optical satellite communication with the advantages of broadband, large capacity and low power consuming broke the bottleneck of the traditional microwave satellite communication. The formation of the Space-based Information System with the technology of high performance optical inter-satellite communication and the realization of global seamless coverage and mobile terminal accessing are the necessary trend of the development of optical satellite communication. Considering the resources, missions and restraints of Data Relay Satellite Optical Communication System, a model of optical communication resources scheduling is established and a scheduling algorithm based on artificial intelligent optimization is put forwarded. According to the multi-relay-satellite, multi-user-satellite, multi-optical-antenna and multi-mission with several priority weights, the resources are scheduled reasonable by the operation: "Ascertain Current Mission Scheduling Time" and "Refresh Latter Mission Time-Window". The priority weight is considered as the parameter of the fitness function and the scheduling project is optimized by the Genetic Algorithm. The simulation scenarios including 3 relay satellites with 6 optical antennas, 12 user satellites and 30 missions, the simulation result reveals that the algorithm obtain satisfactory results in both efficiency and performance and resources scheduling model and the optimization algorithm are suitable in multi-relay-satellite, multi-user-satellite, and multi-optical-antenna recourses scheduling problem.

    3. Analysis of compound parabolic concentrators and aperture averaging to mitigate fading on free-space optical links

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Wasiczko, Linda M.; Smolyaninov, Igor I.; Davis, Christopher C.

      2004-01-01

      Free space optics (FSO) is one solution to the bandwidth bottleneck resulting from increased demand for broadband access. It is well known that atmospheric turbulence distorts the wavefront of a laser beam propagating through the atmosphere. This research investigates methods of reducing the effects of intensity scintillation and beam wander on the performance of free space optical communication systems, by characterizing system enhancement using either aperture averaging techniques or nonimaging optics. Compound Parabolic Concentrators, nonimaging optics made famous by Winston and Welford, are inexpensive elements that may be easily integrated into intensity modulation-direct detection receivers to reduce fading caused by beam wander and spot breakup in the focal plane. Aperture averaging provides a methodology to show the improvement of a given receiver aperture diameter in averaging out the optical scintillations over the received wavefront.

    4. Secure communications of CAP-4 and OOK signals over MMF based on electro-optic chaos.

      PubMed

      Ai, Jianzhou; Wang, Lulu; Wang, Jian

      2017-09-15

      Chaos-based secure communication can provide a high level of privacy in data transmission. Here, we experimentally demonstrate secure signal transmission over two kinds of multimode fiber (MMF) based on electro-optic intensity chaos. High-quality synchronization is achieved in an electro-optic feedback configuration. Both 5  Gbit/s carrier-less amplitude/phase (CAP-4) modulation and 10  Gbit/s on-off key (OOK) signals are recovered efficiently in electro-optic chaos-based communication systems. Degradations of chaos synchronization and communication system due to mismatch of various hardware keys are also discussed.

    5. Multiscale free-space optical interconnects for intrachip global communication: motivation, analysis, and experimental validation.

      PubMed

      McFadden, Michael J; Iqbal, Muzammil; Dillon, Thomas; Nair, Rohit; Gu, Tian; Prather, Dennis W; Haney, Michael W

      2006-09-01

      The use of optical interconnects for communication between points on a microchip is motivated by system-level interconnect modeling showing the saturation of metal wire capacity at the global layer. Free-space optical solutions are analyzed for intrachip communication at the global layer. A multiscale solution comprising microlenses, etched compound slope microprisms, and a curved mirror is shown to outperform a single-scale alternative. Microprisms are designed and fabricated and inserted into an optical setup apparatus to experimentally validate the concept. The multiscale free-space system is shown to have the potential to provide the bandwidth density and configuration flexibility required for global communication in future generations of microchips.

    6. Multi-wavelength time-coincident optical communications system and methods thereof

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Lekki, John (Inventor); Nguyen, Quang-Viet (Inventor)

      2009-01-01

      An optical communications transmitter includes a oscillator source, producing a clock signal, a data source, producing a data signal, a modulating circuit for modulating the clock signal using the data signal to produce modulating signals, optical drivers, receiving the modulating signals and producing optical driving signals based on the modulating signals and optical emitters, producing small numbers of photons based on the optical driving signals. The small numbers of photons are time-correlated between at least two separate optical transmission wavelengths and quantum states and the small number of photons can be detected by a receiver to reform the data signal.

    7. a Computer Simulation Study of Coherent Optical Fibre Communication Systems

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Urey, Zafer

      Available from UMI in association with The British Library. A computer simulation study of coherent optical fibre communication systems is presented in this thesis. The Wiener process is proposed as the simulation model of laser phase noise and verified to be a good one. This model is included in the simulation experiments along with the other noise sources (i.e shot noise, thermal noise and laser intensity noise) and the models that represent the various waveform processing blocks in a system such as filtering, demodulation, etc. A novel mixed-semianalytical simulation procedure is designed and successfully applied for the estimation of bit error rates as low as 10^{-10 }. In this technique the noise processes and the ISI effects at the decision time are characterized from simulation experiments but the calculation of the probability of error is obtained by numerically integrating the noise statistics over the error region using analytical expressions. Simulation of only 4096 bits is found to give estimates of BER's corresponding to received optical power within 1 dB of the theoretical calculations using this approach. This number is very small when compared with the pure simulation techniques. Hence, the technique is proved to be very efficient in terms of the computation time and the memory requirements. A command driven simulation software which runs on a DEC VAX computer under the UNIX operating system is written by the author and a series of simulation experiments are carried out using this software. In particular, the effects of IF filtering on the performance of PSK heterodyne receivers with synchronous demodulation are examined when both the phase noise and the shot noise are included in the simulations. The BER curves of this receiver are estimated for the first time for various cases of IF filtering using the mixed-semianalytical approach. At a power penalty of 1 dB the IF linewidth requirement of this receiver with the matched filter is estimated to be

    8. Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) Support of Space to Ground Link Demonstrations

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Biswas, Abhijit; Kovalik, Joseph M.; Wright, Malcolm W.; Roberts, William T.

      2014-01-01

      The NASA/JPL Optical Communication Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) was built for dedicated research and development toward supporting free-space laser communications from space. Recently, the OCTL telescope was used to support the Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration (LLCD) from the Lunar Atmospheric Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft and is planned for use with the upcoming Optical Payload for Lasercomm Science (OPALS) demonstration from the International Space Station (ISS). The use of OCTL to support these demonstrations is discussed in this report. The discussion will feed forward to ongoing and future space-to-ground laser communications as it advances toward becoming an operational capability.

    9. Laser communication experiments between Sota and Meo optical ground station

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Artaud, G.,; Issler, J.-L.; Védrenne, N.; Robert, C.; Petit, C.; Samain, E.; Phung, D.-H.; Maurice, N.; Toyoshima, M.; Kolev, D.

      2017-09-01

      Optical transmissions between earth and space have been identified as key technologies for future high data rate transmissions between satellites and ground. CNES is investigating the use of optics both for High data rate direct to Earth transfer from observation satellites in LEO, and for future telecommunications applications using optics for the high capacity Gateway link.

    10. Performance analysis of an adaptive optics system for free-space optics communication through atmospheric turbulence.

      PubMed

      Wang, Yukun; Xu, Huanyu; Li, Dayu; Wang, Rui; Jin, Chengbin; Yin, Xianghui; Gao, Shijie; Mu, Quanquan; Xuan, Li; Cao, Zhaoliang

      2018-01-18

      The performance of free-space optics communication (FSOC) is greatly degraded by atmospheric turbulence. Adaptive optics (AO) is an effective method for attenuating the influence. In this paper, the influence of the spatial and temporal characteristics of turbulence on the performance of AO in a FSOC system is investigated. Based on the Greenwood frequency (GF) and the ratio of receiver aperture diameter to atmospheric coherent length (D/r 0 ), the relationship between FSOC performance (CE) and AO parameters (corrected Zernike modes number and bandwidth) is derived for the first time. Then, simulations and experiments are conducted to analyze the influence of AO parameters on FSOC performance under different GF and D/r 0 . The simulation and experimental results show that, for common turbulence conditions, the number of corrected Zernike modes can be fixed at 35 and the bandwidth of the AO system should be larger than the GF. Measurements of the bit error rate (BER) for moderate turbulence conditions (D/r 0  = 10, f G  = 60 Hz) show that when the bandwidth is two times that of GF, the average BER is decreased by two orders of magnitude compared with f G /f 3dB  = 1. These results and conclusions can provide important guidance in the design of an AO system for FSOC.

    11. The effect of jitter on the performance of space coherent optical communication system with Costas loop

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Li, Xin; Hong, Yifeng; Wang, Jinfang; Liu, Yang; Sun, Xun; Li, Mi

      2018-01-01

      Numerous communication techniques and optical devices successfully applied in space optical communication system indicates a good portability of it. With this good portability, typical coherent demodulation technique of Costas loop can be easily adopted in space optical communication system. As one of the components of pointing error, the effect of jitter plays an important role in the communication quality of such system. Here, we obtain the probability density functions (PDF) of different jitter degrees and explain their essential effect on the bit error rate (BER) space optical communication system. Also, under the effect of jitter, we research the bit error rate of space coherent optical communication system using Costas loop with different system parameters of transmission power, divergence angle, receiving diameter, avalanche photodiode (APD) gain, and phase deviation caused by Costas loop. Through a numerical simulation of this kind of communication system, we demonstrate the relationship between the BER and these system parameters, and some corresponding methods of system optimization are presented to enhance the communication quality.

    12. On Applications of Disruption Tolerant Networking to Optical Networking in Space

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Hylton, Alan Guy; Raible, Daniel E.; Juergens, Jeffrey; Iannicca, Dennis

      2012-01-01

      The integration of optical communication links into space networks via Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN) is a largely unexplored area of research. Building on successful foundational work accomplished at JPL, we discuss a multi-hop multi-path network featuring optical links. The experimental test bed is constructed at the NASA Glenn Research Center featuring multiple Ethernet-to-fiber converters coupled with free space optical (FSO) communication channels. The test bed architecture models communication paths from deployed Mars assets to the deep space network (DSN) and finally to the mission operations center (MOC). Reliable versus unreliable communication methods are investigated and discussed; including reliable transport protocols, custody transfer, and fragmentation. Potential commercial applications may include an optical communications infrastructure deployment to support developing nations and remote areas, which are unburdened with supporting an existing heritage means of telecommunications. Narrow laser beam widths and control of polarization states offer inherent physical layer security benefits with optical communications over RF solutions. This paper explores whether or not DTN is appropriate for space-based optical networks, optimal payload sizes, reliability, and a discussion on security.

    13. Technology, Data Bases and System Analysis for Space-to-Ground Optical Communications

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Lesh, James

      1995-01-01

      Optical communications is becoming an ever-increasingly important option for designers of space-to- ground communications links, whether it be for government or commercial applications. In this paper the technology being developed by NASA for use in space-to-ground optical communications is presented. Next, a program which is collecting a long term data base of atmospheric visibility statistics for optical propagation through the atmosphere will be described. Finally, a methodology for utilizing the statistics of the atmospheric data base in the analysis of space-to-ground links will be presented. This methodology takes into account the effects of station availability, is useful when comparing optical communications with microwave systems, and provides a rationale establishing the recommended link margin.

    14. Advanced training of specialists in area of fiber-optic communication lines maintenance

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Andreev, Vladimir A.; Voronkov, Andrey A.; Bukashkin, Sergey A.; Buzova, Maria A.

      2017-04-01

      The paper considers the concept of fiber-optic communication lines (FOCL) maintenance. Performance criterion of FOCL technical maintenance was proposed. For the first time the algorithm for evaluation of the FOCL maintenance efficiency at telecommunication specialists training was applied.

    15. Compact optical duplicate system for satellite-ground laser communications: application of averaging effects

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Nakayama, Tomoko; Takayama, Yoshihisa; Fujikawa, Chiemi; Watanabe, Eriko; Kodate, Kashiko

      2014-09-01

      In recent years, there has been considerable interest in satellite-ground laser communication due to an increase in the quantity of data exchanged between satellites and the ground. However, improving the quality of this data communication is necessary as laser communication is vulnerable to air fluctuation. We first verify the spatial and temporal averaging effects using light beam intensity images acquired from middle-range transmission experiments between two ground positions and the superposition of these images using simulations. Based on these results, we propose a compact and lightweight optical duplicate system as a multi-beam generation device with which it is easy to apply the spatial averaging effect. Although an optical duplicate system is already used for optical correlation operations, we present optimum design solutions, design a compact optical duplicate system for satellite-ground laser communications, and demonstrate the efficacy of this system using simulations.

    16. Infrared cloud imaging in support of Earth-space optical communication.

      PubMed

      Nugent, Paul W; Shaw, Joseph A; Piazzolla, Sabino

      2009-05-11

      The increasing need for high data return from near-Earth and deep-space missions is driving a demand for the establishment of Earth-space optical communication links. These links will require a nearly obstruction-free path to the communication platform, so there is a need to measure spatial and temporal statistics of clouds at potential ground-station sites. A technique is described that uses a ground-based thermal infrared imager to provide continuous day-night cloud detection and classification according to the cloud optical depth and potential communication channel attenuation. The benefit of retrieving cloud optical depth and corresponding attenuation is illustrated through measurements that identify cloudy times when optical communication may still be possible through thin clouds.

    17. 78 FR 16296 - Certain Optoelectronic Devices for Fiber Optic Communications, Components Thereof, and Products...

      Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

      2013-03-14

      ... Technologies'') to amend the complaint and notice of investigation (``NOI''). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... Fiber Optic Communications, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same; Commission Determination Not To Review an Initial Determination Granting Complainants Avago Technologies General IP (Singapore...

    18. SIMO optical wireless links with nonzero boresight pointing errors over M modeled turbulence channels

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Varotsos, G. K.; Nistazakis, H. E.; Petkovic, M. I.; Djordjevic, G. T.; Tombras, G. S.

      2017-11-01

      Over the last years terrestrial free-space optical (FSO) communication systems have demonstrated an increasing scientific and commercial interest in response to the growing demands for ultra high bandwidth, cost-effective and secure wireless data transmissions. However, due the signal propagation through the atmosphere, the performance of such links depends strongly on the atmospheric conditions such as weather phenomena and turbulence effect. Additionally, their operation is affected significantly by the pointing errors effect which is caused by the misalignment of the optical beam between the transmitter and the receiver. In order to address this significant performance degradation, several statistical models have been proposed, while particular attention has been also given to diversity methods. Here, the turbulence-induced fading of the received optical signal irradiance is studied through the M (alaga) distribution, which is an accurate model suitable for weak to strong turbulence conditions and unifies most of the well-known, previously emerged models. Thus, taking into account the atmospheric turbulence conditions along with the pointing errors effect with nonzero boresight and the modulation technique that is used, we derive mathematical expressions for the estimation of the average bit error rate performance for SIMO FSO links. Finally, proper numerical results are given to verify our derived expressions and Monte Carlo simulations are also provided to further validate the accuracy of the analysis proposed and the obtained mathematical expressions.

    19. Free space optics: a viable last-mile alternative

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Willebrand, Heinz A.; Clark, Gerald R.

      2001-10-01

      This paper explores Free Space Optics (FSO) as an access technology in the last mile of metropolitan area networks (MANs). These networks are based in part on fiber-optic telecommunications infrastructure, including network architectures of Synchronous Optical Network (commonly referred to as SONET), the North American standard for synchronous data transmission; and Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (commonly referred to as SDH), the international standard and equivalent of SONET. Several converging forces have moved FSO beyond a niche technology for use only in local area networks (LANs) as a bridge connecting two facilities. FSO now allows service providers to cost effectively provide optical bandwidth for access networks and accelerate the extension of metro optical networks bridging what has been termed by industry experts as the optical dead zone. The optical dead zone refers to both the slowdown in capital investment in the short-term future and the actual connectivity gap that exists today between core metro optical networks and the access optical networks. Service providers have built extensive core and minimal metro networks but have not yet provided optical bandwidth to the access market largely due to the non-compelling economics to bridge the dead zone with fiber. Historically, such infrastructure build-out slowdowns have been blamed on a combination of economics, time-to-market constraints and limited technology options. However, new technology developments and market acceptance of FSO give service providers a new cost-effective alternative to provide high-bandwidth services with optical bandwidth in the access networks. Merrill Lynch predicts FSO will grow into a $2 billion market by 2005. The drivers for this market are a mere 5%- 6% penetration of fiber to business buildings; cost effective solution versus RF or fiber; and significant capacity which can only be matched by a physical fiber link, Merrill Lynch reports. This paper will describe FSO

    20. Statistical simulation of information transfer through non-line-of-sight atmospheric optical communication channels

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Tarasenkov, M. V.; Belov, V. V.; Poznakharev, E. S.

      2017-11-01

      Impulse response of non-line-of-sight atmospheric communication channels at wavelengths of 0.3, 0.5, and 0.9 μm are compared for the case in which the optical axes of the receiver and laser radiation lie in the plane perpendicular to the Earth's surface. The most efficient communication channel depending on the base distance is determined. For a wavelength of 0.5 μm and a concrete variant of the transceiving part of the communication system, the limiting communication range and the limiting repetition frequency of pulses that can be transmitted through the communication channel are estimated.

    1. Fiber-Optic Communication Links Suitable for On-Board Use in Modern Aircraft

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Nguyen, Hung; Ngo, Duc; Alam, Mohammad F.; Atiquzzaman, Mohammed; Sluse, James; Slaveski, Filip

      2004-01-01

      The role of the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies program undertaken at the NASA Glenn Research Centers has been focused mainly on the improvement of air transportation safety, with particular emphasis on air transportation communication systems in on-board aircraft. The conventional solutions for digital optical communications systems specifically designed for local/metro area networks are, unfortunately, not capable of transporting the microwave and millimeter RF signals used in avionics systems. Optical networks capable of transporting RF signals are substantially different from the standard digital optical communications systems. The objective of this paper is to identify a number of different communication link architectures for RF/fiber optic transmission using a single backbone fiber for carrying VHF and UHF RF signals in the aircraft. To support these architectures, two approaches derived from both hybrid RF-optical and all-optical processing methodologies are discussed with single and multiple antennas for explicitly transporting VHF and UHF signals, while the relative merits and demerits of each architecture are also addressed. Furthermore, the experimental results of wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) link architecture from our test-bed platform, configured for aircraft environment to support simultaneous transmission of multiple RF signals over a single optical fiber, exhibit no appreciable signal degradation at wavelengths of both 1330 and 1550 nm, respectively. Our measurements of signal to noise ratio carried out for the transmission of FM and AM analog modulated signals at these wavelengths indicate that WDM is a fiber optic technology which is potentially suitable for avionics applications.

    2. Development of a 1-m Class Telescope at TMF to Support Optical Communications Demonstrations

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Wilson, K. E.; Sandusky, J.

      1998-01-01

      With the impetus towards high data rate communications in inter-satellite and space-to-ground links, the small size, low-mass, and low-power consumption of optical communications is seen as a viable alternative to radio frequency links.

    3. Advanced Optical Technologies in NASA's Space Communication Program: Status, Challenges, and Future Plans

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Pouch, John

      2004-01-01

      A goal of the NASA Space Communications Project is to enable broad coverage for high-data-rate delivery to the users by means of ground, air, and space-based assets. The NASA Enterprise need will be reviewed. A number of optical space communications technologies being developed by NASA will be described, and the prospective applications will be discussed.

    4. LEO-to-ground optical communications using SOTA (Small Optical TrAnsponder) - Payload verification results and experiments on space quantum communications

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Carrasco-Casado, Alberto; Takenaka, Hideki; Kolev, Dimitar; Munemasa, Yasushi; Kunimori, Hiroo; Suzuki, Kenji; Fuse, Tetsuharu; Kubo-Oka, Toshihiro; Akioka, Maki; Koyama, Yoshisada; Toyoshima, Morio

      2017-10-01

      Free-space optical communications have held the promise of revolutionizing space communications for a long time. The benefits of increasing the bitrate while reducing the volume, mass and energy of the space terminals have attracted the attention of many researchers for a long time. In the last few years, more and more technology demonstrations have been taking place with participants from both the public and the private sector. The National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) in Japan has a long experience in this field. SOTA (Small Optical TrAnsponder) was the last NICT space lasercom mission, designed to demonstrate the potential of this technology applied to microsatellites. Since the beginning of SOTA mission in 2014, NICT regularly established communication using the Optical Ground Stations (OGS) located in the Headquarters at Koganei (Tokyo) to receive the SOTA signals, with over one hundred successful links. All the goals of the SOTA mission were fulfilled, including up to 10-Mbit/s downlinks using two different wavelengths and apertures, coarse and fine tracking of the OGS beacon, space-to-ground transmission of the on-board-camera images, experiments with different error correcting codes, interoperability with other international OGS, and experiments on quantum communications. The SOTA mission ended on November 2016, more than doubling the designed lifetime of 1-year. In this paper, the SOTA characteristics and basic operation are explained, along with the most relevant technological demonstrations.

    5. Nonlinear Detection, Estimation, and Control for Free-Space Optical Communication

      DTIC Science & Technology

      2008-08-17

      original message. The promising features of this communication scheme such as high-bandwidth, power efficiency, and security, render it a viable means...bandwidth, power efficiency, and security, render it a viable means for high data rate point-to-point communication. In this dissertation, we adopt a...Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering In free-space optical communication, the intensity of a laser beam is modulated by a message, the beam

    6. Free-space optical communications in support of future manned space flight

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Stephens, Elaine M.

      1990-01-01

      Four areas of research in optical communications in support of future manned space missions being carried out at Johnson Space Center are discussed. These are the Space Station Freedom proximity operations, direct LEO-to-ground communications, IR voice communications inside manned spacecraft, and deep space and lunar satellite operations. The background, requirements, and scenario for each of these areas of research are briefly described.

    7. Clock recovery for high-speed optical communication

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Pedrotti, Kenneth D.

      1996-01-01

      This paper reviews recent results for clock recovery circuits operating at speeds in excess of 1 Gbit/sec or realized as multichannel arrays. The emphasis is on synchronous optical network (SONET) type systems, their requirements, and the effect of the clock recovery circuits on system performance. Clock recovery approaches include filter based, phase-locked-loops, and all-optical methods.

    8. Clock recovery for high-speed optical communication

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Pedrotti, Ken

      1996-01-01

      This paper reviews recent results for clock recovery circuits operating at speeds in excess of 1 Gbit/sec or realized as multichannel arrays. The emphasis is on Synchronous Optical NETwork (SONET) type systems, their requirements, and the effect of the clock recovery circuits on system performance. Clock recovery approaches include filter based, phase-lockcd-loops, and all-optical methods.

    9. Modeling of Adaptive Optics-Based Free-Space Communications Systems

      SciTech Connect

      Wilks, S C; Morris, J R; Brase, J M

      2002-08-06

      We introduce a wave-optics based simulation code written for air-optic laser communications links, that includes a detailed model of an adaptive optics compensation system. We present the results obtained by this model, where the phase of a communications laser beam is corrected, after it propagates through a turbulent atmosphere. The phase of the received laser beam is measured using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, and the correction method utilizes a MEMS mirror. Strehl improvement and amount of power coupled to the receiving fiber for both 1 km horizontal and 28 km slant paths are presented.

    10. Feasibility of infrared Earth tracking for deep-space optical communications.

      PubMed

      Chen, Yijiang; Hemmati, Hamid; Ortiz, Gerry G

      2012-01-01

      Infrared (IR) Earth thermal tracking is a viable option for optical communications to distant planet and outer-planetary missions. However, blurring due to finite receiver aperture size distorts IR Earth images in the presence of Earth's nonuniform thermal emission and limits its applicability. We demonstrate a deconvolution algorithm that can overcome this limitation and reduce the error from blurring to a negligible level. The algorithm is applied successfully to Earth thermal images taken by the Mars Odyssey spacecraft. With the solution to this critical issue, IR Earth tracking is established as a viable means for distant planet and outer-planetary optical communications. © 2012 Optical Society of America

    11. Underwater optical communications using orbital angular momentum-based spatial division multiplexing

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Willner, Alan E.; Zhao, Zhe; Ren, Yongxiong; Li, Long; Xie, Guodong; Song, Haoqian; Liu, Cong; Zhang, Runzhou; Bao, Changjing; Pang, Kai

      2018-02-01

      In this paper, we review high-capacity underwater optical communications using orbital angular momentum (OAM)-based spatial division multiplexing. We discuss methods to generate and detect blue-green optical data-carrying OAM beams as well as various underwater effects, including attenuation, scattering, current, and thermal gradients on OAM beams. Attention is also given to the system performance of high-capacity underwater optical communication links using OAM-based space division multiplexing. The paper closes with a discussion of a digital signal processing (DSP) algorithm to mitigate the inter-mode crosstalk caused by thermal gradients.

    12. Concurrent System Engineering and Risk Reduction for Dual-Band (RF/optical) Spacecraft Communications

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Fielhauer, Karl, B.; Boone, Bradley, G.; Raible, Daniel, E.

      2012-01-01

      This paper describes a system engineering approach to examining the potential for combining elements of a deep-space RF and optical communications payload, for the purpose of reducing the size, weight and power burden on the spacecraft and the mission. Figures of merit and analytical methodologies are discussed to conduct trade studies, and several potential technology integration strategies are presented. Finally, the NASA Integrated Radio and Optical Communications (iROC) project is described, which directly addresses the combined RF and optical approach.

    13. System concepts and design examples for optical communication with planetary spacecraft

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Lesh, James R.

      Systems concepts for optical communication with future deep-space (planetary) spacecraft are described. These include not only the optical transceiver package aboard the distant spacecraft, but the earth-vicinity optical-communications receiving station as well. Both ground-based, and earth-orbiting receivers are considered. Design examples for a number of proposed or potential deep-space missions are then presented. These include an orbital mission to Saturn, a Lander and Rover mission to Mars, and an astronomical mission to a distance of 1000 astronomical units.

    14. Laser Communications Relay Demonstration (LCRD) Update and the Path Towards Optical Relay Operations

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Israel, David J.; Edwards, Bernard L.; Staren, John W.

      2017-01-01

      This paper provides a concept for an evolution of NASA's optical communications near Earth relay architecture. NASA's Laser Communications Relay Demonstration (LCRD), a joint project between NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory - California Institute of Technology (JPL), and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory (MIT LL). LCRD will provide a minimum of two years of high data rate optical communications service experiments in geosynchronous orbit (GEO), following launch in 2019. This paper will provide an update of the LCRD mission status and planned capabilities and experiments, followed by a discussion of the path from LCRD to operational network capabilities.

    15. Laser Communications Relay Demonstration (LCRD) Update and the Path Towards Optical Relay Operations

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Israel, David J.; Edwards, Bernard L.; Staren, John W.

      2017-01-01

      This Presentation provides a concept for an evolution of NASAs optical communications near Earth relay architecture. NASA's Laser Communications Relay Demonstration (LCRD), a joint project between NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory - California Institute of Technology (JPL), and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory (MIT LL). LCRD will provide a minimum of two years of high data rate optical communications service experiments in geosynchronous orbit (GEO), following launch in 2019. This paper will provide an update of the LCRD mission status and planned capabilities and experiments, followed by a discussion of the path from LCRD to operational network capabilities.

    16. A Plan for the Development and Demonstration of Optical Communications for Deep Space

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Lesh, J. R.; Deutsch, L. J.; Weber, W. J.

      1990-01-01

      In this article, an overall plan for the development and demonstration of optical communications for deep-space applications is presented. The current state of the technology for optical communications is presented. Then, the development and demonstration plan is presented in two parts: the overall major systems activities, followed by the generic technology developments that will enable them. The plan covers the path from laboratory subsystems demonstrations out to a full-scale flight experiment system for the proposed Mars Communications Relay Orbiter mission.

    17. All-optical clock recovery, photonic balancing, and saturated asymmetric filtering for fiber optic communication systems

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Parsons, Earl Ryan

      In this dissertation I investigated a multi-channel and multi-bit rate all-optical clock recovery device. This device, a birefringent Fabry-Perot resonator, had previously been demonstrated to simultaneously recover the clock signal from 10 wavelength channels operating at 10 Gb/s and one channel at 40 Gb/s. Similar to clock signals recovered from a conventional Fabry-Perot resonator, the clock signal from the birefringent resonator suffers from a bit pattern effect. I investigated this bit pattern effect for birefringent resonators numerically and experimentally and found that the bit pattern effect is less prominent than for clock signals from a conventional Fabry-Perot resonator. I also demonstrated photonic balancing which is an all-optical alternative to electrical balanced detection for phase shift keyed signals. An RZ-DPSK data signal was demodulated using a delay interferometer. The two logically opposite outputs from the delay interferometer then counter-propagated in a saturated SOA. This process created a differential signal which used all the signal power present in two consecutive symbols. I showed that this scheme could provide an optical alternative to electrical balanced detection by reducing the required OSNR by 3 dB. I also show how this method can provide amplitude regeneration to a signal after modulation format conversion. In this case an RZ-DPSK signal was converted to an amplitude modulation signal by the delay interferometer. The resulting amplitude modulated signal is degraded by both the amplitude noise and the phase noise of the original signal. The two logically opposite outputs from the delay interferometer again counter-propagated in a saturated SOA. Through limiting amplification and noise modulation this scheme provided amplitude regeneration and improved the Q-factor of the demodulated signal by 3.5 dB. Finally I investigated how SPM provided by the SOA can provide a method to reduce the in-band noise of a communication signal. The

    18. Progress in Design and Construction of the Optical Communications Laser Laboratory

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Wilson, K. E.; Britcliffe, M.; Golshan, N.

      1999-01-01

      The deployment of advanced hyperspectral imaging and other Earth sensing instruments on board Earth observing satellites is driving the demand for high-data-rate communications. Optical communications meet the required data rates with small, low mass, and low-power communications packages. JPL, as NASA's lead center in optical communications, plans to construct a 1-m Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) at its Table Mountain Facility (TMF) complex in the San Gabriel Mountains of Southern California. The design of the building has been completed, and the construction contractor has been selected. Ground breaking is expected to start at the beginning of the 1999 TMF construction season. A request for proposal (RFP) has been issued for the procurement of the telescope system. Prior to letting the RFP we conducted a request for information with industry for the telescope system. Several vendors responded favorably and provided information on key elements of the proposed design. These inputs were considered in developing the final requirements in the RFP. Keywords: Free space optical communications, lasercom, telescopes, ground stations, adaptive optics, astrometry, Table Mountain Facility

    19. Scrambled coherent superposition for enhanced optical fiber communication in the nonlinear transmission regime.

      PubMed

      Liu, Xiang; Chandrasekhar, S; Winzer, P J; Chraplyvy, A R; Tkach, R W; Zhu, B; Taunay, T F; Fishteyn, M; DiGiovanni, D J

      2012-08-13

      Coherent superposition of light waves has long been used in various fields of science, and recent advances in digital coherent detection and space-division multiplexing have enabled the coherent superposition of information-carrying optical signals to achieve better communication fidelity on amplified-spontaneous-noise limited communication links. However, fiber nonlinearity introduces highly correlated distortions on identical signals and diminishes the benefit of coherent superposition in nonlinear transmission regime. Here we experimentally demonstrate that through coordinated scrambling of signal constellations at the transmitter, together with appropriate unscrambling at the receiver, the full benefit of coherent superposition is retained in the nonlinear transmission regime of a space-diversity fiber link based on an innovatively engineered multi-core fiber. This scrambled coherent superposition may provide the flexibility of trading communication capacity for performance in future optical fiber networks, and may open new possibilities in high-performance and secure optical communications.

    20. Theoretical evaluation of scattering effect on retroreflective free-space optical communication.

      PubMed

      Yin, Hongwei; Lan, Tianpeng; Zhang, Hailiang; Jia, Honghui; Chang, Shengli; Yang, Juncai

      2012-12-01

      Retroreflective free-space optical (RFSO) communication is a new concept of optical communication; it consists of an optical transceiver and a retromodulator and has advantages such as light weight, small volume, and low power consumption. The power captured by the receiver consists of two parts: retroreflective and scattering. The retroreflective characteristics are obtained using an analytical formula, the scattering characteristics using a Monte Carlo model. Results show that the scattering power plays an important role in a RFSO communication link, especially when the communication range is long or the meteorological range is short. Some rules are also obtained for the sake of system design, which include increasing the range from the transmitter and the receiver properly, increasing the area of the retromodulator, limiting the field of view of the receiver, and limiting the beam divergence of the transmitter.

    1. Electrically optical phase controlling for millimeter wave orbital angular momentum multi-modulation communication

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Wu, Haotian; Tang, Jin; Yu, Zhenliang; Yi, Jun; Chen, Shuqing; Xiao, Jiangnan; Zhao, Chujun; Li, Ying; Chen, Lin; Wen, Shuangchun

      2017-06-01

      Orbital angular momentum (OAM), an emerging and fascinating degree of freedom, has highlighted an innovation in communication and optical manipulation field. The beams with different OAM state, which manifest as the phase front ;twisting; of electromagnetic waves, are mutually orthogonal, which is exactly what a new freedom applied to practical communication eagers for. Herein, we proposed a novel millimeter-wave OAM modulation technique by electrically optical phase controlling. By modulating OAM and phase of optical-millimeter-wave synchronously, the multi-modulation: quadrature orbital angular momentum modulation (QOM) communication system at W band is structured and simulated, allowing a 50 Gbit/s signal transmitting with bit-error rates less than 10-4. Our work might suggest that OAM could be compounded to more complex multi-modulation signal, and revealed a new insight into OAM based high capacity wireless and radio-over-fiber communication.

    2. Performance verification of adaptive optics for satellite-to-ground coherent optical communications at large zenith angle.

      PubMed

      Chen, Mo; Liu, Chao; Rui, Daoman; Xian, Hao

      2018-02-19

      Although there is an urgent demand, it is still a tremendous challenge to use the coherent optical communication technology to the satellite-to-ground data transmission system especially at large zenith angle due to the influence of atmospheric turbulence. Adaptive optics (AO) is a considerable scheme to solve the problem. In this paper, we integrate the adaptive optics (AO) to the coherent laser communications and the performances of mixing efficiency as well as bit-error-rate (BER) at different zenith angles are studied. The analytical results show that the increasing of zenith angle can severely decrease the performances of the coherent detection, and increase the BER to higher than 10 -3 , which is unacceptable. The simulative results of coherent detection with AO compensation indicate that the larger mixing efficiency and lower BER can be performed by the coherent receiver with a high-mode AO compensation. The experiment of correcting the atmospheric turbulence wavefront distortion using a 249-element AO system at large zenith angles is carried out. The result demonstrates that the AO system has a significant improvement on satellite-to-ground coherent optical communication system at large zenith angle. It also indicates that the 249-element AO system can only meet the needs of coherent communication systems at zenith angle smaller than 65̊ for the 1.8m telescope under weak and moderate turbulence.

    3. Beam width and transmitter power adaptive to tracking system performance for free-space optical communication.

      PubMed

      Arnon, S; Rotman, S; Kopeika, N S

      1997-08-20

      The basic free-space optical communication system includes at least two satellites. To communicate between them, the transmitter satellite must track the beacon of the receiver satellite and point the information optical beam in its direction. Optical tracking and pointing systems for free space suffer during tracking from high-amplitude vibration because of background radiation from interstellar objects such as the Sun, Moon, Earth, and stars in the tracking field of view or the mechanical impact from satellite internal and external sources. The vibrations of beam pointing increase the bit error rate and jam communication between the two satellites. One way to overcome this problem is to increase the satellite receiver beacon power. However, this solution requires increased power consumption and weight, both of which are disadvantageous in satellite development. Considering these facts, we derive a mathematical model of a communication system that adapts optimally the transmitter beam width and the transmitted power to the tracking system performance. Based on this model, we investigate the performance of a communication system with discrete element optical phased array transmitter telescope gain. An example for a practical communication system between a Low Earth Orbit Satellite and a Geostationary Earth Orbit Satellite is presented. From the results of this research it can be seen that a four-element adaptive transmitter telescope is sufficient to compensate for vibration amplitude doubling. The benefits of the proposed model are less required transmitter power and improved communication system performance.

    4. Single Fiber Star Couplers. [optical waveguides for spacecraft communication

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Asawa, C. K.

      1979-01-01

      An ion exchange process was developed and used in the fabrication of state-of-the-art planar star couplers for distribution of optical radiation between optical fibers. An 8 x 8 planar transmission star coupler was packaged for evaluation purposes with sixteen fiber connectors and sixteen pigtails. Likewise a transmission star coupler and an eight-port reflection star coupler with eight-fiber ribbons rigidly attached to these couplers, and a planar coupler with silicon guides and a parallel channel guide with pigtails were also fabricated. Optical measurements of the transmission star couplers are included with a description of the manufacturing process.

    5. Semiconductor devices for optical communications in 1 micron band of wavelength. [gallium indium arsenide phosphide lasers and diodes

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Suematsu, Y.; Iga, K.

      1980-01-01

      Crystal growth and the characteristics of semiconductor lasers and diodes for the long wavelength band used in optical communications are examined. It is concluded that to utilize the advantages of this band, it is necessary to have a large scale multiple wavelength communication, along with optical cumulative circuits and optical exchangers.

    6. Ultra-sonic motor for the actuators of space optical communications terminal

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Araki, T.; Kobayashi, Y.; Kawashima, N.; Maniwa, K.; Obara, S.; Zakoji, T.; Kubota, A.

      2017-02-01

      The main advantages of space optical communication technologies compared with RF communications are 1) Wide bandwidth that enables a much higher data rate and 2) Smaller antenna and hardware due to the ultra-short wavelength characteristics. The cost and weight of each spacecraft has been decreasing year by year. Space optical communication technologies, that are being established, have been required to reduce cost and weight recently. The general rotational actuators of spacecraft are magnetic motors. However, it is difficult to reduce it's weight and cost dramatically since magnetic motors include iron core and metal coil. In addition, we do not have the flexibility of magnetic motor's shape. JAXA is interested in optical data relay including LEO-GEO optical communication. In this application, space optical communication equipment must equip rotational actuators as a coarse pointing mechanism. Therefore, the authors have focused on ultra-sonic motors (USM) for the equipment of space optical communication so that we will achieve lower cost, lower weight and a more-flexible-shape of actuators than magnetic motors. In this presentation, the authors propose applications of USM as actuators of space optical communications. USM has been widely used in our life and industry. Usage in industry includes vacuum environments of the semiconductor manufacturing process. So, the authors estimated the usage of USM can be applied to actuators of spacecraft. At first, the authors discuss the advantages and disadvantages of USM compared to traditional magnetic motors. Then, driving performance of USM under vacuum, high and low-temperature conditions are shown. At last, results of life estimation test of USM are discussed.

    7. Pilot-aided feedforward data recovery in optical coherent communications

      SciTech Connect

      Qi, Bing

      2017-09-19

      A method and a system for pilot-aided feedforward data recovery are provided. The method and system include a receiver including a strong local oscillator operating in a free running mode independent of a signal light source. The phase relation between the signal light source and the local oscillator source is determined based on quadrature measurements on pilot pulses from the signal light source. Using the above phase relation, information encoded in an incoming signal can be recovered, optionally for use in communication with classical coherent communication protocols and quantum communication protocols.

    8. Initial Characterization of Optical Communications with Disruption-Tolerant Network Protocols

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Schoolcraft, Joshua; Wilson, Keith

      2011-01-01

      Disruption-tolerant networks (DTNs) are groups of network assets connected with a suite of communication protocol technologies designed to mitigate the effects of link delay and disruption. Application of DTN protocols to diverse groups of network resources in multiple sub-networks results in an overlay network-of-networks with autonomous data routing capability. In space environments where delay or disruption is expected, performance of this type of architecture (such as an interplanetary internet) can increase with the inclusion of new communications mediums and techniques. Space-based optical communication links are therefore an excellent building block of space DTN architectures. When compared to traditional radio frequency (RF) communications, optical systems can provide extremely power-efficient and high bandwidth links bridging sub-networks. Because optical links are more susceptible to link disruption and experience the same light-speed delays as RF, optical-enabled DTN architectures can lessen potential drawbacks and maintain the benefits of autonomous optical communications over deep space distances. These environment-driven expectations - link delay and interruption, along with asymmetric data rates - are the purpose of the proof-of-concept experiment outlined herein. In recognizing the potential of these two technologies, we report an initial experiment and characterization of the performance of a DTN-enabled space optical link. The experiment design employs a point-to-point free-space optical link configured to have asymmetric bandwidth. This link connects two networked systems running a DTN protocol implementation designed and written at JPL for use on spacecraft, and further configured for higher bandwidth performance. Comparing baseline data transmission metrics with and without periodic optical link interruptions, the experiment confirmed the DTN protocols' ability to handle real-world unexpected link outages while maintaining capability of

    9. Homodyne BPSK-based optical inter-satellite communication links

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Lange, Robert; Smutny, Berry

      2007-02-01

      Summer 2007, Tesat will verify laser communication terminals based on homodyne BPSK (binary phase shift keying) in-orbit. A 5.625 Gbps LEO-LEO laser communication link, established between the German satellite TerraSAR-X and the US satellite NFIRE, shall demonstrate the performance and advantages of laser communication. End of 2006, a further program has been kicked-off to demonstrate the performance of ~2 Gbps LEO-GEO laser communication links. The link is part of a data relais from the German LEO satellite TanDEM-X via a Geo satellite to ground. The LEO-to-GEO laser commmunication link can be extended to further ~2 Gpbs GEO-GEO, and GEO-to-ground links.

    10. The optical communication link outage probability in satellite formation flying

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Arnon, Shlomi; Gill, Eberhard

      2014-02-01

      In recent years, several space systems consisting of multiple satellites flying in close formation have been proposed for various purposes such as interferometric synthetic aperture radar measurement (TerraSAR-X and the TanDEM-X), detecting extra-solar earth-like planets (Terrestrial Planet Finder-TPF and Darwin), and demonstrating distributed space systems (DARPA F6 project). Another important purpose, which is the concern of this paper, is for improving radio frequency communication to mobile terrestrial and maritime subscribers. In this case, radio frequency signals from several satellites coherently combine such that the received/transmit signal strength is increased proportionally with the number of satellites in the formation. This increase in signal strength allows to enhance the communication data rate and/or to reduce energy consumption and the antenna size of terrestrial mobile users' equipment. However, a coherent combination of signals without aligning the phases of the individual communication signals interrupts the communication and outage link between the satellites and the user. The accuracy of the phase estimation is a function of the inter-satellite laser ranging system performance. This paper derives an outage probability model of a coherent combination communication system as a function of the pointing vibration and jitter statistics of an inter-satellite laser ranging system tool. The coherent combination probability model, which could be used to improve the communication to mobile subscribers in air, sea and ground is the main importance of this work.

    11. Design of an optical PPM communication link in the presence of component tolerances

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Chen, C.-C.

      1988-01-01

      A systematic approach is described for estimating the performance of an optical direct detection pulse position modulation (PPM) communication link in the presence of parameter tolerances. This approach was incorporated into the JPL optical link analysis program to provide a useful tool for optical link design. Given a set of system parameters and their tolerance specifications, the program will calculate the nominal performance margin and its standard deviation. Through use of these values, the optical link can be designed to perform adequately even under adverse operating conditions.

    12. Performance analysis of an OAM multiplexing-based MIMO FSO system over atmospheric turbulence using space-time coding with channel estimation.

      PubMed

      Zhang, Yan; Wang, Ping; Guo, Lixin; Wang, Wei; Tian, Hongxin

      2017-08-21

      The average bit error rate (ABER) performance of an orbital angular momentum (OAM) multiplexing-based free-space optical (FSO) system with multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) architecture has been investigated over atmospheric turbulence considering channel estimation and space-time coding. The impact of different types of space-time coding, modulation orders, turbulence strengths, receive antenna numbers on the transmission performance of this OAM-FSO system is also taken into account. On the basis of the proposed system model, the analytical expressions of the received signals carried by the k-th OAM mode of the n-th receive antenna for the vertical bell labs layered space-time (V-Blast) and space-time block codes (STBC) are derived, respectively. With the help of channel estimator carrying out with least square (LS) algorithm, the zero-forcing criterion with ordered successive interference cancellation criterion (ZF-OSIC) equalizer of V-Blast scheme and Alamouti decoder of STBC scheme are adopted to mitigate the performance degradation induced by the atmospheric turbulence. The results show that the ABERs obtained by channel estimation have excellent agreement with those of turbulence phase screen simulations. The ABERs of this OAM multiplexing-based MIMO system deteriorate with the increase of turbulence strengths. And both V-Blast and STBC schemes can significantly improve the system performance by mitigating the distortions of atmospheric turbulence as well as additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN). In addition, the ABER performances of both space-time coding schemes can be further enhanced by increasing the number of receive antennas for the diversity gain and STBC outperforms V-Blast in this system for data recovery. This work is beneficial to the OAM FSO system design.

    13. Quick acquisition and recognition method for the beacon in deep space optical communications.

      PubMed

      Wang, Qiang; Liu, Yuefei; Ma, Jing; Tan, Liying; Yu, Siyuan; Li, Changjiang

      2016-12-01

      In deep space optical communications, it is very difficult to acquire the beacon given the long communication distance. Acquisition efficiency is essential for establishing and holding the optical communication link. Here we proposed a quick acquisition and recognition method for the beacon in deep optical communications based on the characteristics of the deep optical link. To identify the beacon from the background light efficiently, we utilized the maximum similarity between the collecting image and the reference image for accurate recognition and acquisition of the beacon in the area of uncertainty. First, the collecting image and the reference image were processed by Fourier-Mellin. Second, image sampling and image matching were applied for the accurate positioning of the beacon. Finally, the field programmable gate array (FPGA)-based system was used to verify and realize this method. The experimental results showed that the acquisition time for the beacon was as fast as 8.1s. Future application of this method in the system design of deep optical communication will be beneficial.

    14. Preface to the special issue on ;Optical Communications Exploiting the Space Domain;

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Wang, Jian; Yu, Siyuan; Li, Guifang

      2018-02-01

      The demand for high capacity optical communications will continue to be driven by the exponential growth of global internet traffic. Optical communications are about the exploitation of different physical dimensions of light waves, including complex amplitude, frequency (or wavelength), time, polarization, etc. Conventional techniques such as wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM), time-division multiplexing (TDM) and polarization-division multiplexing (PDM) have almost reached their scalability limits. Space domain is the only known physical dimension left and space-division multiplexing (SDM) seems the only option to further scale the transmission capacity and spectral efficiency of optical communications. In recent years, few-mode fiber (FMF), multi-mode fiber (MMF), multi-core fiber (MCF) and few-mode multi-core fiber (FM-MCF) have been widely explored as promising candidates for fiber-based SDM. The challenges for SDM include efficient (de)multiplexer, amplifiers, and multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) digital signal processing (DSP) techniques. Photonic integration will also be a key technology to SDM. Meanwhile, free-space and underwater optical communications have also exploited the space domain to increase the transmission capacity and spectral efficiency. The challenges include long-distance transmission limited by propagation loss, divergence, scattering and turbulence. Very recently, helically phased light beams carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) have also seen potential applications both in free-space, underwater and fiber-based optical communications. Actually, different mode bases such as linearly polarized (LP) modes and OAM modes can be employed for SDM. Additionally, SDM could be used in chip-scale photonic interconnects and data center optical interconnects. Quantum processing exploiting the space domain is of great interest. The information capacity limit and physical layer security in SDM optical communications systems are important

    15. Active disturbance rejection controller of fine tracking system for free space optical communication

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Cui, Ning; Liu, Yang; Chen, Xinglin; Wang, Yan

      2013-08-01

      Free space optical communication is one of the best approaches in future communications. Laser beam's acquisition, pointing and tracking are crucial technologies of free space optical communication. Fine tracking system is important component of APT (acquisition, pointing and tracking) system. It cooperates with the coarse pointing system in executing the APT mission. Satellite platform vibration and disturbance, which reduce received optical power, increase bit error rate and affect seriously the natural performance of laser communication. For the characteristic of satellite platform, an active disturbance rejection controller was designed to reduce the vibration and disturbance. There are three major contributions in the paper. Firstly, the effects of vibration on the inter satellite optical communications were analyzed, and the reasons and characters of vibration of the satellite platform were summarized. The amplitude-frequency response of a filter was designed according to the power spectral density of platform vibration of SILEX (Semiconductor Inter-satellite Laser Experiment), and then the signals of platform vibration were generated by filtering white Gaussian noise using the filter. Secondly, the fast steering mirror is a key component of the fine tracking system for optical communication. The mechanical design and model analysis was made to the tip/tilt mirror driven by the piezoelectric actuator and transmitted by the flexure hinge. The transfer function of the fast steering mirror, camera, D/A data acquisition card was established, and the theory model of transfer function of this system was further obtained. Finally, an active disturbance rejection control method is developed, multiple parallel extended state observers were designed for estimation of unknown dynamics and external disturbance, and the estimated states were used for nonlinear feedback control and compensation to improve system performance. The simulation results show that the designed

    16. Multi-carrier transmission for hybrid radio frequency with optical wireless communications

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Wang, Gang; Chen, Genshe; Shen, Dan; Pham, Khanh; Blasch, Erik; Nguyen, Tien M.

      2015-05-01

      Radio frequency (RF) wireless communication is reaching its capacity to support large data rate transmissions due to hardware constraints (e.g., silicon processes), software strategies (e.g., information theory), and consumer desire for timely large file exchanges (e.g., big data and mobile cloud computing). A high transmission rate performance must keep pace with the generated huge volumes of data for real-time processing. Integrated RF and optical wireless communications (RF/OWC) could be the next generation transmission technology to satisfy both the increased data rate exchange and the communications constraints. However, with the promising benefits of RF/OWC, challenges remain to fully develop hybrid RF with wireless optical communications such as uniform waveform design for information transmission and detection. In this paper, an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmission scheme, which widely employed in RF communications, is developed for optical communications. The traditional high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) in OFDM is reduced to improve system performance. The proposed multi-carrier waveform is evaluated with a frequency-selective fading channel. The results demonstrate that bit error rate (BER) performance of our proposed optical OFDM transmission technique outperforms the traditional OWC on-off keying (OOK) transmission scheme.

    17. Optics Communications: Special issue on Polymer Photonics and Its Applications

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Zhang, Ziyang; Pitwon, Richard C. A.; Feng, Jing

      2016-03-01

      In the last decade polymer photonics has witnessed a tremendous boost in research efforts and practical applications. Polymer materials can be engineered to exhibit unique optical and electrical properties. Extremely transparent and reliable passive optical polymers have been made commercially available and paved the ground for the development of various waveguide components. Advancement in the research activities regarding the synthesis of active polymers has enabled devices such as ultra-fast electro-optic modulators, efficient white light emitting diodes, broadband solar cells, flexible displays, and so on. The fabrication technology is not only fast and cost-effective, but also provides flexibility and broad compatibility with other semiconductor processing technologies. Reports show that polymers have been integrated in photonic platforms such as silicon-on-insulator (SOI), III-V semiconductors, and silica PLCs, and vice versa, photonic components made from a multitude of materials have been integrated, in a heterogeneous/hybrid manner, in polymer photonic platforms.

    18. Spectral and spatial characterization of perfluorinated graded-index polymer optical fibers for the distribution of optical wireless communication cells.

      PubMed

      Hajjar, Hani Al; Montero, David S; Lallana, Pedro C; Vázquez, Carmen; Fracasso, Bruno

      2015-02-10

      In this paper, the characterization of a perfluorinated graded-index polymer optical fiber (PF-GIPOF) for a high-bitrate indoor optical wireless system is reported. PF-GIPOF is used here to interconnect different optical wireless access points that distribute optical free-space high-bitrate wireless communication cells. The PF-GIPOF channel is first studied in terms of transmission attenuation and frequency response and, in a second step, the spatial power profile distribution at the fiber output is analyzed. Both characterizations are performed under varying restricted mode launch conditions, enabling us to assess the transmission channel performance subject to potential connectorization errors within an environment where the end users may intervene by themselves on the home network infrastructure.

    19. Results from the DOLCE (Deep Space Optical Link Communications Experiment) project

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Baister, Guy; Kudielka, Klaus; Dreischer, Thomas; Tüchler, Michael

      2009-02-01

      Oerlikon Space AG has since 1995 been developing the OPTEL family of optical communications terminals. The optical terminals within the OPTEL family have been designed so as to be able to position Oerlikon Space for future opportunities open to this technology. These opportunities range from commercial optical satellite crosslinks between geostationary (GEO) satellites, deep space optical links between planetary probes and the Earth, as well as optical links between airborne platforms (either between the airborne platforms or between a platform and GEO satellite). The OPTEL terminal for deep space applications has been designed as an integrated RF-optical terminal for telemetry links between the science probe and Earth. The integrated architecture provides increased TM link capacities through the use of an optical link, while spacecraft navigation and telecommand are ensured by the classical RF link. The optical TM link employs pulsed laser communications operating at 1058nm to transmit data using PPM modulation to achieve a robust link to atmospheric degradation at the optical ground station. For deep space links from Lagrange (L1 / L2) data rates of 10 - 20 Mbps can be achieved for the same spacecraft budgets (mass and power) as an RF high gain antenna. Results of an inter-island test campaign to demonstrate the performance of the pulsed laser communications subsystem employing 32-PPM for links through the atmosphere over a distance of 142 km are presented. The transmitter of the communications subsystem is a master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) employing a 1 W (average power) amplifier and the receiver a Si APD with a measured sensitivity of -70.9 dBm for 32-PPM modulation format at a user data rate of 10 Mbps and a bit error rate (BER) of 10-6.

    20. Next-Generation NASA Earth-Orbiting Relay Satellites: Fusing Optical and Microwave Communications

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Israel, David J.; Shaw, Harry

      2018-01-01

      NASA is currently considering architectures and concepts for the generation of relay satellites that will replace the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) constellation, which has been flying since 1983. TDRS-M, the last of the second TDRS generation, launched in August 2017, extending the life of the TDRS constellation beyond 2030. However, opportunities exist to re-engineer the concepts of geosynchronous Earth relay satellites. The needs of the relay satellite customers have changed dramatically over the last 34 years since the first TDRS launch. There is a demand for greater bandwidth as the availability of the traditional RF spectrum for space communications diminishes and the demand for ground station access grows. The next generation of NASA relay satellites will provide for operations that have factored in these new constraints. In this paper, we describe a heterogeneous constellation of geosynchronous relay satellites employing optical and RF communications. The new constellation will enable new optical communications services formed by user-to-space relay, space relay-to-space relay and space relay-to-ground links. It will build upon the experience from the Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration from 2013 and the Laser Communications Relay Demonstration to be launched in 2019.Simultaneous to establishment of the optical communications space segment, spacecraft in the TDRS constellation will be replaced with RF relay satellites with targeted subsets of the TDRS capabilities. This disaggregation of the TDRS service model will allow for flexibility in replenishing the needs of legacy users as well as addition of new capabilities for future users. It will also permit the U.S. government access to launch capabilities such as rideshare and to hosted payloads that were not previously available.In this paper, we also explore how the next generation of Earth relay satellites provides a significant boost in the opportunities for commercial providers to the

    1. Next-Generation NASA Earth-Orbiting Relay Satellites: Fusing Microwave and Optical Communications

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Israel, David J.

      2018-01-01

      NASA is currently considering architectures and concepts for the generation of relay satellites that will replace the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) constellation, which has been flying since 1983. TDRS-M, the last of the second TDRS generation, launched in August 2017, extending the life of the TDRS constellation beyond 2030. However, opportunities exist to re-engineer the concepts of geosynchronous Earth relay satellites. The needs of the relay satellite customers have changed dramatically over the last 34 years since the first TDRS launch. There is a demand for greater bandwidth as the availability of the traditional RF spectrum for space communications diminishes and the demand for ground station access grows. The next generation of NASA relay satellites will provide for operations that have factored in these new constraints. In this paper, we describe a heterogeneous constellation of geosynchronous relay satellites employing optical and RF communications. The new constellation will enable new optical communications services formed by user-to-space relay, space relay-to-space relay and space relay-to-ground links. It will build upon the experience from the Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration from 2013 and the Laser Communications Relay Demonstration to be launched in 2019.Simultaneous to establishment of the optical communications space segment, spacecraft in the TDRS constellation will be replaced with RF relay satellites with targeted subsets of the TDRS capabilities. This disaggregation of the TDRS service model will allow for flexibility in replenishing the needs of legacy users as well as addition of new capabilities for future users. It will also permit the U.S. government access to launch capabilities such as rideshare and to hosted payloads that were not previously available. In this paper, we also explore how the next generation of Earth relay satellites provides a significant boost in the opportunities for commercial providers to the

    2. Study of optimum methods of optical communication. [accounting for the effects of the turbulent atmosphere and quantum mechanics

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Harger, R. O.

      1974-01-01

      Abstracts are reported relating to the techniques used in the research concerning optical transmission of information. Communication through the turbulent atmosphere, quantum mechanics, and quantum communication theory are discussed along with the results.

    3. Adaptive optics compensation of orbital angular momentum beams with a modified Gerchberg-Saxton-based phase retrieval algorithm

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Chang, Huan; Yin, Xiao-li; Cui, Xiao-zhou; Zhang, Zhi-chao; Ma, Jian-xin; Wu, Guo-hua; Zhang, Li-jia; Xin, Xiang-jun

      2017-12-01

      Practical orbital angular momentum (OAM)-based free-space optical (FSO) communications commonly experience serious performance degradation and crosstalk due to atmospheric turbulence. In this paper, we propose a wave-front sensorless adaptive optics (WSAO) system with a modified Gerchberg-Saxton (GS)-based phase retrieval algorithm to correct distorted OAM beams. We use the spatial phase perturbation (SPP) GS algorithm with a distorted probe Gaussian beam as the only input. The principle and parameter selections of the algorithm are analyzed, and the performance of the algorithm is discussed. The simulation results show that the proposed adaptive optics (AO) system can significantly compensate for distorted OAM beams in single-channel or multiplexed OAM systems, which provides new insights into adaptive correction systems using OAM beams.

    4. Opto-mechanical design and gravity-deformation analysis on optical telescope in laser communication system

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Fu, Sen; Du, Jindan; Song, Yiwei; Gao, Tianyu; Zhang, Daqing; Wang, Yongzhi

      2017-11-01

      In space laser communication, optical antennas are one of the main components and the precision of optical antennas is very high. In this paper, it is based on the R-C telescope and it is carried out that the design and simulation of optical lens and supporting truss, according to the parameters of the systems. And a finite element method (FEM) was used to analyze the deformation of the optical lens. Finally, the Zernike polynomial was introduced to fit the primary mirror with a diameter of 250mm. The objective of this study is to determine whether the wave-front aberration of the primary mirror can meet the imaging quality. The results show that the deterioration of the imaging quality caused by the gravity deformation of primary and secondary mirrors. At the same time, the optical deviation of optical antenna increase with the diameter of the pupil.

    5. Atmospheric propagation characteristics of highest importance to commercial free space optics

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Korevaar, Eric J.; Kim, Isaac I.; McArthur, Bruce

      2003-04-01

      There is a certain amount of disconnect between the perception and reality of Free Space Optics (FSO), both in the marketplace and in the technical community. In the marketplace, the requirement for FSO technology has not grown to even a fraction of the levels predicted a few years ago. In the technical community, proposed solutions for the limitations of FSO continue to miss the mark. The main commercial limitation for FSO is that light does not propagate very far in dense fog, which occurs a non-negligible amount of the time. There is no known solution for this problem (other than using microwave or other modality backup systems), and therefore FSO equipment has to be priced very competitively to sell in a marketplace dominated by copper wire, fiber optic cabling and increasingly lower cost and higher bandwidth wireless microwave equipment. Expensive technologies such as adaptive optics, which could potentially increase equipment range in clear weather, do not justify the added cost when expected bad weather conditions are taken into account. In this paper we present a simple equation to fit average data for probability of exceeding different atmospheric attenuation values. This average attenuation equation is then used to compare the expected availability performance as a function of link distance for representative FSO systems of different cost.

    6. Results from the Galileo Laser Uplink: A JPL Demonstration of Deep-Space Optical Communications

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Wilson, K. E.; Lesh, J. R.

      1993-01-01

      The successful completion of the Galileo Optical Experiment (GOPEX), represented the accomplishment of a significant milestone in JPL's optical communication plan. The experiment demonstrated the first transmission of a narrow laser beam to a deep-space vehicle. Laser pulses were beamed to the Galileo spacecraft by Earth-based transmitters at the Table Mountain Facility (TMF), California, and Starfire Optical Range (SOR), New Mexico. The experiment took place over an eight-day period (December 9 through December 16, 1992) as Galileo receded from Earth on its way to Jupiter, and covered ranges from 1 to 6 million kilometers (15 times the Earth-Moon distance), the laser uplink from TMF covered the longest known range for laser beam transmission and detection. This demonstration is the latest in a series of accomplishments by JPL in the development of deep-space optical communications technology.

    7. Design of oil pipeline leak detection and communication system based on optical fiber technology

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Tu, Yaqing; Chen, Huabo

      1999-08-01

      The integrity of oil pipeline is always a major concern of operators. Pipeline leak not only leads to loss of oil, but pollutes environment. A new pipeline leak detection and communication system based on optical fiber technology to ensure the pipeline reliability is presented. Combined direct leak detection method with an indirect one, the system will greatly reduce the rate of false alarm. According, to the practical features of oil pipeline,the pipeline communication system is designed employing the state-of-the-art optic fiber communication technology. The system has such feature as high location accuracy of leak detection, good real-time characteristic, etc. which overcomes the disadvantages of traditional leak detection methods and communication system effectively.

    8. Optimized optical wireless channel for indoor and intra-vehicle communications: power distribution and SNR analysis

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Shaaban, Rana; Faruque, Saleh

      2018-01-01

      Light emitting diodes - LEDs are modernizing the indoor illumination and replacing current incandescent and fluorescent lamps rapidly. LEDs have multiple advantages such as extremely high energy efficient, longer lifespan, and lower heat generation. Due to the ability to switch to different light intensity at a very fast rate, LED has given rise to a unique communication technology (visible light communication - VLC) used for high speed data transmission. By studying various kinds of commonly used VLC channel analysis: diffuse and line of sight channels, we presented a simply improved indoor and intra-vehicle visible light communication transmission model. Employing optical wireless communications within the vehicle, not only enhance user mobility, but also alleviate radio frequency interference, and increase efficiency by lowering the complexity of copper cabling. Moreover, a solution to eliminate ambient noise caused by environmental conditions is examined by using optical differential receiver. The simulation results show the improved received power distribution and signal to noise ratio - SNR.

    9. Self-reverse-biased solar panel optical receiver for simultaneous visible light communication and energy harvesting.

      PubMed

      Shin, Won-Ho; Yang, Se-Hoon; Kwon, Do-Hoon; Han, Sang-Kook

      2016-10-31

      We propose a self-reverse-biased solar panel optical receiver for energy harvesting and visible light communication. Since the solar panel converts an optical component into an electrical component, it provides both energy harvesting and communication. The signal component can be separated from the direct current component, and these components are used for communication and energy harvesting. We employed a self-reverse-biased receiver circuit to improve the communication and energy harvesting performance. The reverse bias on the solar panel improves the responsivity and response time. The proposed system achieved 17.05 mbps discrete multitone transmission with a bit error rate of 1.1 x 10-3 and enhanced solar energy conversion efficiency.

    10. Reduced electrical bandwidth receivers for direct detection 4-ary PPM optical communication intersatellite links

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Davidson, Frederic M.; Sun, Xiaoli

      1993-01-01

      One of the major sources of noise in a direct detection optical communication receiver is the shot noise due to the quantum nature of the photodetector. The shot noise is signal dependent and is neither Gaussian nor wide sense stationary. When a photomultiplier tube (PMT) or an avalanche photodiode (APD) is used, there is also a multiplicative excess noise due to the randomness of the internal photodetector gain. Generally speaking, the radio frequency (RF) communication theory cannot be applied to direct detection optical communication systems because noise in RF communication systems is usually additive and Gaussian. A receiver structure which is mathematically optimal for signal dependent shot noise is derived. Several suboptimal receiver structures are discussed and compared with the optimal receiver. The objective is to find a receiver structure which is easy to implement and gives close to optimal performance.

    11. Fiber optical sensing on-board communication satellites

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Hurni, A.; Lemke, N. M. K.; Roner, M.; Obermaier, J.; Putzer, P.; Kuhenuri Chami, N.

      2017-11-01

      Striving constantly to reduce mass, AIT effort and overall cost of the classical point-to-point wired temperature sensor harness on-board telecommunication satellites, OHB System (formerly Kayser-Threde) has introduced the Hybrid Sensor Bus (HSB) system. As a future spacecraft platform element, HSB relies on electrical remote sensor units as well as fiber-optical sensors, both of which can serially be connected in a bus architecture. HSB is a modular measurement system with many applications, also thanks to the opportunities posed by the digital I²C bus. The emphasis, however, is on the introduction of fiber optics and especially fiber-Bragg grating (FBG) temperature sensors as disruptive innovation for the company's satellite platforms. The light weight FBG sensors are directly inscribed in mechanically robust and radiation tolerant fibers, reducing the need for optical fiber connectors and splices to a minimum. Wherever an FBG sensor shall be used, the fiber is glued together with a corresponding temperature transducer to the satellites structure or to a subsystem. The transducer is necessary to provide decoupling of mechanical stress, but simultaneously ensure a high thermal conductivity. HSB has been developed in the frame of an ESA-ARTES program with European and German co-funding and will be verified as flight demonstrator on-board the German Heinrich Hertz satellite (H2Sat). In this paper the Engineering Model development of HSB is presented and a Fiber-optical Sensor Multiplexer for a more flexible sensor bus architecture is introduced. The HSB system aims at telecommunication satellite platforms with an operational life time beyond 15 years in geostationary orbit. It claims a high compatibility in terms of performance and interfaces with existing platforms while it was designed with future applications with increased radiation exposure already in mind. In its basic configuration HSB consists of four modules which are the Power Supply Unit, the HSB

    12. Overview of the Preliminary Design of the Optical Communication Demonstration and High-Rate Link Facility

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Sandusky, John V.; Jeganathan, M.; Ortiz, G.; Biswas, A.; Lee, S.; Parker, G.; Liu, B.; Johnson, D.; DePew, J.; Lesh, J. R.

      2000-01-01

      Tlis paper presents an overview of the preliminary design of both the flight and ground systems of the Optical Communication Demonstration and High-Rate Link Facility which will demonstrate optical communication from the International Space Station to ground after its deployment in October 2002. The overview of the preliminary design of the Flight System proceeds by contrasting it with the design of the laboratory-model unit, emphasizing key changes and the rationale behind the design choices. After presenting the preliminary design of the Ground System, the timetable for the construction and deployment of the flight and ground systems is outlined.

    13. Demonstration of a High-Efficiency Free-Space Optical Communications Link

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Birnbaum, Kevin; Farr, William; Gin, Jonathan; Moision, Bruce; Quirk, Kevin; Wright, Malcolm

      2009-01-01

      In this paper we discuss recent progress on the implementation of a hardware free-space optical communications test-bed. The test-bed implements an end-to-end communications system comprising a data encoder, modulator, laser-transmitter, telescope, detector, receiver and error-correction-code decoder. Implementation of each of the component systems is discussed, with an emphasis on 'real-world' system performance degradation and limitations. We have demonstrated real-time data rates of 44 Mbps and photon efficiencies of approximately 1.8 bits/photon over a 100m free-space optical link.

    14. Optics and communication technology major of physics undergraduate degree at King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Buranasiri, Prathan

      2014-09-01

      A physics undergraduate degree major in optics and communication technology has been offered at King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang (KMITL), Bangkok, Thailand. There are nine required three credit hour courses including two laboratory courses plus a number of selections in optics and communication based technology courses. For independent thinking and industrial working skills, nine credit hours of research project, practical training or overseas studies are included for selection in the final semester. Students are encouraged to participate in international conferences and professional organizations. Recently the program, with support from SPIE and OSA, has organized its first international conference on photonic solutions 2013 (ICPS 2013).

    15. Design of a stabilized, compact gimbal for space-based free space optical communications (FSOC)

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Cline, A.; Shubert, P.; McNally, J.; Jacka, N.; Pierson, R.

      2017-02-01

      Data transmits via optical communications through fibers at 10's of Terabits per second. Given the recent rapid explosion for bandwidth and competing demand for radio frequency (RF) spectrum allocations among differing interests, the need for space-based free space optical communications (FSOC) systems is ever increasing. FSOC systems offer advantages of higher data rates, smaller size and weight, narrower beam divergence, and lower power than RF systems. Lightweight, small form factor, and high performance two-axis gimbals are of strong interest for satellite FSOC applications. Small gimbal and optical terminal designs are important for widespread implementation of optical communications systems; in particular, for satellite-to-satellite crosslinks where the advantages of more secure communications links (Lower Probability of Intercept (LPI)/Lower Probability of Detect (LPD)) are very important. We developed design concepts for a small gimbal focusing on the use of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) subsystems to establish their feasible implementation against the pointing stabilization, size, weight and power (SWaP), and performance challenges. The design drivers for the gimbal were weight, the elevation and azimuth field of regards, the form factor envelope (1U CubeSats), 100 μrad pointing accuracy, and 10 degrees per second slew capability. Innovations required in this development included a continuous fiber passed through an Azimuth Fiber Wrap and Elevation Fiber Wrap, overcoming typical mechanical and stress related limitations encountered with fiber optic cable wraps. In this presentation, we describe the configuration trades and design of such a gimbal.

    16. Micromachined modulator arrays for use in free-space optical communication systems

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Lewis, Keith L.; Ridley, Kevin D.; McNie, Mark E.; Smith, Gilbert W.; Scott, Andrew M.

      2004-12-01

      A summary is presented of some of the design criteria relevant to the realisation of silicon micromachined modulator arrays for use in free-space optical communication systems. Theoretical performance levels achievable are compared with values measured on experimental devices produced using a modified Multi-User MEMS Process (MUMPS). Devices capable of realising modulation rates in excess of 300 kHz are described and their optical characteristics compared with published data on devices based on multiple quantum well technology.

    17. High-Speed Optical Wide-Area Data-Communication Network

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Monacos, Steve P.

      1994-01-01

      Proposed fiber-optic wide-area network (WAN) for digital communication balances input and output flows of data with its internal capacity by routing traffic via dynamically interconnected routing planes. Data transmitted optically through network by wavelength-division multiplexing in synchronous or asynchronous packets. WAN implemented with currently available technology. Network is multiple-ring cyclic shuffle exchange network ensuring traffic reaches its destination with minimum number of hops.

    18. Optical Fiber Connection Navigation System Using Visible Light Communication in Central Office with Economic Evaluation

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Waki, Masaki; Uruno, Shigenori; Ohashi, Hiroyuki; Manabe, Tetsuya; Azuma, Yuji

      We propose an optical fiber connection navigation system that uses visible light communication for an integrated distribution module in a central office. The system realizes an accurate database, requires less skilled work to operate and eliminates human error. This system can achieve a working time reduction of up to 88.0% compared with the conventional work without human error for the connection/removal of optical fiber cords, and is economical as regards installation and operation.

    19. Obstacle evasion in free-space optical communications utilizing Airy beams.

      PubMed

      Zhu, Guoxuan; Wen, Yuanhui; Wu, Xiong; Chen, Yujie; Liu, Jie; Yu, Siyuan

      2018-03-15

      A high speed free-space optical communication system capable of self-bending signal transmission around line-of-sight obstacles is proposed and demonstrated. Airy beams are generated and controlled to achieve different propagating trajectories, and the signal transmission characteristics of these beams around the obstacle are investigated. Our results confirm that, by optimizing their ballistic trajectories, Airy beams are able to bypass obstacles with more signal energy and thus improve the communication performance compared with normal Gaussian beams.

    20. Obstacle evasion in free-space optical communications utilizing Airy beams

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Zhu, Guoxuan; Wen, Yuanhui; Wu, Xiong; Chen, Yujie; Liu, Jie; Yu, Siyuan

      2018-03-01

      A high speed free-space optical communication system capable of self-bending signal transmission around line-of-sight obstacles is proposed and demonstrated. Airy beams are generated and controlled to achieve different propagating trajectories, and the signal transmission characteristics of these beams around the obstacle are investigated. Our results confirm that, by optimising their ballistic trajectories, Airy beams are able to bypass obstacles with more signal energy and thus improve the communication performance compared with normal Gaussian beams.