Science.gov

Sample records for optimal stimulus eliciting

  1. Optimal stimulus intensity and reliability of air stimulation technique for elicitation of laryngo-upper esophageal sphincter contractile reflex.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Osamu; Easterling, Caryn; Rittmann, Tanya; Hofmann, Candy; Shaker, Reza

    2005-03-01

    To determine the optimal air stimulus intensity and duration for elicitation of the laryngo-upper esophageal sphincter (UES) contractile reflex, we studied 37 healthy volunteers 20 to 81 years of age. A sleeve device monitored the UES pressure. For laryngeal stimulation, we used an air stimulator unit (Pentax AP-4000) that incorporated a nasolaryngeal endoscope. The arytenoids and interarytenoid areas were stimulated at least three times by three different stimuli: 6-mm Hg air pulse with 50-ms duration, 10-mm Hg air pulse with 50-ms duration, and 6-mm Hg air pulse with 2-second duration. Of 1,165 air stimulations, 1,041 resulted in mucosal deflections. Of these, 451 resulted in an abrupt increase in UES pressure. The response/deflection ratio for 6-mm Hg stimulation with 2-second duration was significantly higher than those for air pulses with 50-ms duration (p < .001). We conclude that although the laryngo-UES contractile reflex can be elicited by an air pulse with 50-ms duration, this ultrashort stimulation is not reliable. Using longer-duration pulses (at least 2 seconds) improves the reliability of elicitation of the laryngo-UES contractile reflex.

  2. Optimal stimulus shapes for neuronal excitation.

    PubMed

    Forger, Daniel B; Paydarfar, David; Clay, John R

    2011-07-01

    An important problem in neuronal computation is to discern how features of stimuli control the timing of action potentials. One aspect of this problem is to determine how an action potential, or spike, can be elicited with the least energy cost, e.g., a minimal amount of applied current. Here we show in the Hodgkin & Huxley model of the action potential and in experiments on squid giant axons that: 1) spike generation in a neuron can be highly discriminatory for stimulus shape and 2) the optimal stimulus shape is dependent upon inputs to the neuron. We show how polarity and time course of post-synaptic currents determine which of these optimal stimulus shapes best excites the neuron. These results are obtained mathematically using the calculus of variations and experimentally using a stochastic search methodology. Our findings reveal a surprising complexity of computation at the single cell level that may be relevant for understanding optimization of signaling in neurons and neuronal networks.

  3. Optimizing Stimulus Repetition Rate for Recording Ocular Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potential Elicited by Air-Conduction Tone Bursts of 500 Hz.

    PubMed

    Singh, Niraj Kumar; Kadisonga, Peter; Ashitha, Palliyath

    2014-03-06

    Amidst several publications reporting the effects of stimulus-related parameters on ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP), the effect of the repetition rate on oVEMP responses has largely gone unexplored. Studies have used a repetition rate of ~5.1 Hz mainly due to a presumption that oVEMP, like cervical VEMP, should produce best responses for ~5 Hz, although there is paucity of experimental evidence to support this hypothesis. 52 healthy individuals in the age range of 17-35 years underwent air-conduction oVEMP elicited by 500 Hz tone-bursts using seven different repetition rates (3.1, 5.1, 10.1, 15.1, 20.1, 25.1 and 30.1 Hz). The results revealed a tendency for prolongation of latencies and reduction in amplitude with increasing repetition rate. However, significantly longer latencies were observed only for 20.1 Hz and larger amplitudes for 3.1 and 5.1 Hz (P<0.05). There was no significant difference between the rates of 3.1 Hz and 5.1 Hz. However 3.1 Hz produced poorer signal-to-noise ratio and required considerably longer time and thereby had lesser efficiency than 5.1 Hz (P<0.05). This would also result in higher fatigue and irritation levels considering the physical act of maintaining a supero-medial gaze. Thus the use of 5.1 Hz is recommended for clinical recording of oVEMP.

  4. Optimal Stimulus Shapes for Neuronal Excitation

    PubMed Central

    Forger, Daniel B.; Paydarfar, David; Clay, John R.

    2011-01-01

    An important problem in neuronal computation is to discern how features of stimuli control the timing of action potentials. One aspect of this problem is to determine how an action potential, or spike, can be elicited with the least energy cost, e.g., a minimal amount of applied current. Here we show in the Hodgkin & Huxley model of the action potential and in experiments on squid giant axons that: 1) spike generation in a neuron can be highly discriminatory for stimulus shape and 2) the optimal stimulus shape is dependent upon inputs to the neuron. We show how polarity and time course of post-synaptic currents determine which of these optimal stimulus shapes best excites the neuron. These results are obtained mathematically using the calculus of variations and experimentally using a stochastic search methodology. Our findings reveal a surprising complexity of computation at the single cell level that may be relevant for understanding optimization of signaling in neurons and neuronal networks. PMID:21760759

  5. Performance breakdown in optimal stimulus decoding.

    PubMed

    Lubomir Kostal; Lansky, Petr; Pilarski, Stevan

    2015-06-01

    One of the primary goals of neuroscience is to understand how neurons encode and process information about their environment. The problem is often approached indirectly by examining the degree to which the neuronal response reflects the stimulus feature of interest. In this context, the methods of signal estimation and detection theory provide the theoretical limits on the decoding accuracy with which the stimulus can be identified. The Cramér-Rao lower bound on the decoding precision is widely used, since it can be evaluated easily once the mathematical model of the stimulus-response relationship is determined. However, little is known about the behavior of different decoding schemes with respect to the bound if the neuronal population size is limited. We show that under broad conditions the optimal decoding displays a threshold-like shift in performance in dependence on the population size. The onset of the threshold determines a critical range where a small increment in size, signal-to-noise ratio or observation time yields a dramatic gain in the decoding precision. We demonstrate the existence of such threshold regions in early auditory and olfactory information coding. We discuss the origin of the threshold effect and its impact on the design of effective coding approaches in terms of relevant population size.

  6. Performance breakdown in optimal stimulus decoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostal, Lubomir; Lansky, Petr; Pilarski, Stevan

    2015-06-01

    Objective. One of the primary goals of neuroscience is to understand how neurons encode and process information about their environment. The problem is often approached indirectly by examining the degree to which the neuronal response reflects the stimulus feature of interest. Approach. In this context, the methods of signal estimation and detection theory provide the theoretical limits on the decoding accuracy with which the stimulus can be identified. The Cramér-Rao lower bound on the decoding precision is widely used, since it can be evaluated easily once the mathematical model of the stimulus-response relationship is determined. However, little is known about the behavior of different decoding schemes with respect to the bound if the neuronal population size is limited. Main results. We show that under broad conditions the optimal decoding displays a threshold-like shift in performance in dependence on the population size. The onset of the threshold determines a critical range where a small increment in size, signal-to-noise ratio or observation time yields a dramatic gain in the decoding precision. Significance. We demonstrate the existence of such threshold regions in early auditory and olfactory information coding. We discuss the origin of the threshold effect and its impact on the design of effective coding approaches in terms of relevant population size.

  7. Optimal neuronal tuning for finite stimulus spaces.

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, W. Michael; Backer, Alejandro

    2004-09-01

    The efficiency of neuronal encoding in sensory and motor systems has been proposed as a first principle governing response properties within the central nervous system. We present a continuation of a theoretical study presented by Zhang and Sejnowski, where the influence of neuronal tuning properties on encoding accuracy is analyzed using information theory. When a finite stimulus space is considered, we show that the encoding accuracy improves with narrow tuning for one- and two-dimensional stimuli. For three dimensions and higher, there is an optimal tuning width.

  8. Cysteine-protease activity elicited by Ca2+ stimulus in Plasmodium.

    PubMed

    Farias, Shirley L; Gazarini, Marcos L; Melo, Robson L; Hirata, Izaura Y; Juliano, Maria A; Juliano, Luiz; Garcia, Célia R S

    2005-05-01

    Bloodstage malaria parasites require proteolytic activity for key processes as invasion, hemoglobin degradation and merozoite escape from red blood cells (RBCs). We investigated by confocal microscopy the presence of cysteine-protease activity elicited by calcium stimulus in Plasmodium chabaudi and Plasmodium falciparum in free trophozoites or for the later parasite within RBC using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) peptides. Peptide probes access, to either free or intraerythrocytic parasites, was also tested by selecting a range of fluorescent peptides (653-3146 Da molecular mass) labeled with Abz or FITC. In the present work we show that Ca2+ stimulus elicited by treatment with either melatonin, thapsigargin, ionomicin or nigericin, promotes an increase of substrate hydrolysis, which was blocked by the specific cysteine-protease inhibitor E-64 and the intracellular Ca2+ chelator, BAPTA. When parasites were treated with cytoplasmic Ca2+ releasing compounds, a cysteine-protease was labeled in the parasite cytoplasm by the fluorescent specific irreversible inhibitor, Ethyl-Eps-Leu-Tyr-Cap-Lys(Abz)-NH2, where Ethyl-Eps is Ethyl-(2S,3S)-oxirane-2,3-dicarboxylate. In summary, we demonstrate that P. chabaudi and P. falciparum have a cytoplasmic dependent cysteine-protease activity elicited by Ca2+.

  9. Stimulus-Elicited Connectivity Influences Resting-State Connectivity Years Later in Human Development: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Gabard-Durnam, Laurel Joy; Gee, Dylan Grace; Goff, Bonnie; Flannery, Jessica; Telzer, Eva; Humphreys, Kathryn Leigh; Lumian, Daniel Stephen; Fareri, Dominic Stephen; Caldera, Christina; Tottenham, Nim

    2016-04-27

    Although the functional architecture of the brain is indexed by resting-state connectivity networks, little is currently known about the mechanisms through which these networks assemble into stable mature patterns. The current study posits and tests the long-term phasic molding hypothesis that resting-state networks are gradually shaped by recurring stimulus-elicited connectivity across development by examining how both stimulus-elicited and resting-state functional connections of the human brain emerge over development at the systems level. Using a sequential design following 4- to 18-year-olds over a 2 year period, we examined the predictive associations between stimulus-elicited and resting-state connectivity in amygdala-cortical circuitry as an exemplar case (given this network's protracted development across these ages). Age-related changes in amygdala functional connectivity converged on the same regions of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and inferior frontal gyrus when elicited by emotional stimuli and when measured at rest. Consistent with the long-term phasic molding hypothesis, prospective analyses for both connections showed that the magnitude of an individual's stimulus-elicited connectivity unidirectionally predicted resting-state functional connectivity 2 years later. For the amygdala-mPFC connection, only stimulus-elicited connectivity during childhood and the transition to adolescence shaped future resting-state connectivity, consistent with a sensitive period ending with adolescence for the amygdala-mPFC circuit. Together, these findings suggest that resting-state functional architecture may arise from phasic patterns of functional connectivity elicited by environmental stimuli over the course of development on the order of years. A fundamental issue in understanding the ontogeny of brain function is how resting-state (intrinsic) functional networks emerge and relate to stimulus-elicited functional connectivity. Here, we posit and test the long

  10. Stimulus-Elicited Connectivity Influences Resting-State Connectivity Years Later in Human Development: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Gee, Dylan Grace; Goff, Bonnie; Flannery, Jessica; Telzer, Eva; Humphreys, Kathryn Leigh; Lumian, Daniel Stephen; Fareri, Dominic Stephen; Caldera, Christina; Tottenham, Nim

    2016-01-01

    Although the functional architecture of the brain is indexed by resting-state connectivity networks, little is currently known about the mechanisms through which these networks assemble into stable mature patterns. The current study posits and tests the long-term phasic molding hypothesis that resting-state networks are gradually shaped by recurring stimulus-elicited connectivity across development by examining how both stimulus-elicited and resting-state functional connections of the human brain emerge over development at the systems level. Using a sequential design following 4- to 18-year-olds over a 2 year period, we examined the predictive associations between stimulus-elicited and resting-state connectivity in amygdala-cortical circuitry as an exemplar case (given this network's protracted development across these ages). Age-related changes in amygdala functional connectivity converged on the same regions of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and inferior frontal gyrus when elicited by emotional stimuli and when measured at rest. Consistent with the long-term phasic molding hypothesis, prospective analyses for both connections showed that the magnitude of an individual's stimulus-elicited connectivity unidirectionally predicted resting-state functional connectivity 2 years later. For the amygdala-mPFC connection, only stimulus-elicited connectivity during childhood and the transition to adolescence shaped future resting-state connectivity, consistent with a sensitive period ending with adolescence for the amygdala-mPFC circuit. Together, these findings suggest that resting-state functional architecture may arise from phasic patterns of functional connectivity elicited by environmental stimuli over the course of development on the order of years. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT A fundamental issue in understanding the ontogeny of brain function is how resting-state (intrinsic) functional networks emerge and relate to stimulus-elicited functional connectivity. Here, we

  11. Optimal stimulus encoders for natural tasks

    PubMed Central

    Geisler, Wilson S.; Najemnik, Jiri; Ing, Almon D.

    2010-01-01

    Determining the features of natural stimuli that are most useful for specific natural tasks is critical for understanding perceptual systems. A new approach is described that involves finding the optimal encoder for the natural task of interest, given a relatively small population of noisy “neurons” between the encoder and decoder. The optimal encoder, which necessarily specifies the most useful features, is found by maximizing accuracy in the natural task, where the decoder is the Bayesian ideal observer operating on the population responses. The approach is illustrated for a patch identification task, where the goal is to identify patches of natural image, and for a foreground identification task, where the goal is to identify which side of a natural surface boundary belongs to the foreground object. The optimal features (receptive fields) are intuitive and perform well in the two tasks. The approach also provides insight into general principles of neural encoding and decoding. PMID:20055550

  12. Neural basis of stimulus-angle-dependent motor control of wind-elicited walking behavior in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

    PubMed

    Oe, Momoko; Ogawa, Hiroto

    2013-01-01

    Crickets exhibit oriented walking behavior in response to air-current stimuli. Because crickets move in the opposite direction from the stimulus source, this behavior is considered to represent 'escape behavior' from an approaching predator. However, details of the stimulus-angle-dependent control of locomotion during the immediate phase, and the neural basis underlying the directional motor control of this behavior remain unclear. In this study, we used a spherical-treadmill system to measure locomotory parameters including trajectory, turn angle and velocity during the immediate phase of responses to air-puff stimuli applied from various angles. Both walking direction and turn angle were correlated with stimulus angle, but their relationships followed different rules. A shorter stimulus also induced directionally-controlled walking, but reduced the yaw rotation in stimulus-angle-dependent turning. These results suggest that neural control of the turn angle requires different sensory information than that required for oriented walking. Hemi-severance of the ventral nerve cords containing descending axons from the cephalic to the prothoracic ganglion abolished stimulus-angle-dependent control, indicating that this control required descending signals from the brain. Furthermore, we selectively ablated identified ascending giant interneurons (GIs) in vivo to examine their functional roles in wind-elicited walking. Ablation of GI8-1 diminished control of the turn angle and decreased walking distance in the initial response. Meanwhile, GI9-1b ablation had no discernible effect on stimulus-angle-dependent control or walking distance, but delayed the reaction time. These results suggest that the ascending signals conveyed by GI8-1 are required for turn-angle control and maintenance of walking behavior, and that GI9-1b is responsible for rapid initiation of walking. It is possible that individual types of GIs separately supply the sensory signals required to control wind-elicited

  13. Neural Basis of Stimulus-Angle-Dependent Motor Control of Wind-Elicited Walking Behavior in the Cricket Gryllus bimaculatus

    PubMed Central

    Oe, Momoko; Ogawa, Hiroto

    2013-01-01

    Crickets exhibit oriented walking behavior in response to air-current stimuli. Because crickets move in the opposite direction from the stimulus source, this behavior is considered to represent ‘escape behavior’ from an approaching predator. However, details of the stimulus-angle-dependent control of locomotion during the immediate phase, and the neural basis underlying the directional motor control of this behavior remain unclear. In this study, we used a spherical-treadmill system to measure locomotory parameters including trajectory, turn angle and velocity during the immediate phase of responses to air-puff stimuli applied from various angles. Both walking direction and turn angle were correlated with stimulus angle, but their relationships followed different rules. A shorter stimulus also induced directionally-controlled walking, but reduced the yaw rotation in stimulus-angle-dependent turning. These results suggest that neural control of the turn angle requires different sensory information than that required for oriented walking. Hemi-severance of the ventral nerve cords containing descending axons from the cephalic to the prothoracic ganglion abolished stimulus-angle-dependent control, indicating that this control required descending signals from the brain. Furthermore, we selectively ablated identified ascending giant interneurons (GIs) in vivo to examine their functional roles in wind-elicited walking. Ablation of GI8-1 diminished control of the turn angle and decreased walking distance in the initial response. Meanwhile, GI9-1b ablation had no discernible effect on stimulus-angle-dependent control or walking distance, but delayed the reaction time. These results suggest that the ascending signals conveyed by GI8-1 are required for turn-angle control and maintenance of walking behavior, and that GI9-1b is responsible for rapid initiation of walking. It is possible that individual types of GIs separately supply the sensory signals required to control

  14. A broadband acoustic stimulus is more likely than a pure tone to elicit a startle reflex and prepared movements.

    PubMed

    Carlsen, Anthony N

    2015-08-01

    A loud acoustic stimulus that elicits a startle reflex has long been used to study the neurophysiology of cortical and subcortical neural circuits. More recent investigations have shown that startle can act as an early trigger for prepared actions, suggesting a brainstem role in the preparation and initiation of actions. However, in order to attribute any startle-triggered voluntary responses to activation in subcortical structures it is necessary to measure a startle-related activity in these structures. The current study investigated the most effective stimulus for eliciting a detectible startle reflex. While more intense stimuli are more likely to elicit a startle reflex, the current study examined whether broadband noise is more likely than a pure tone to produce a startle at various intensities above 100 dB. Participants performed a button release reaction time task in response to either a 1 kHz tone or a broadband noise pulse with intensities ranging from 82 to 124 dB. Reaction time and EMG from the wrist extensors and the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) were measured. Results showed that startle-related SCM EMG was elicited more frequently by broadband noise compared to pure tones. The higher proportion of startle reflexes observed in SCM was associated with a higher incidence of the voluntary task being triggered early. A higher incidence of startle following broadband noise is attributed to the activation of a larger proportion of the basilar membrane; thus, a lower intensity broadband noise stimulus may be used to elicit startle reflex at a similar rate as a higher intensity pure tone. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  15. A broadband acoustic stimulus is more likely than a pure tone to elicit a startle reflex and prepared movements

    PubMed Central

    Carlsen, Anthony N

    2015-01-01

    A loud acoustic stimulus that elicits a startle reflex has long been used to study the neurophysiology of cortical and subcortical neural circuits. More recent investigations have shown that startle can act as an early trigger for prepared actions, suggesting a brainstem role in the preparation and initiation of actions. However, in order to attribute any startle-triggered voluntary responses to activation in subcortical structures it is necessary to measure a startle-related activity in these structures. The current study investigated the most effective stimulus for eliciting a detectible startle reflex. While more intense stimuli are more likely to elicit a startle reflex, the current study examined whether broadband noise is more likely than a pure tone to produce a startle at various intensities above 100 dB. Participants performed a button release reaction time task in response to either a 1 kHz tone or a broadband noise pulse with intensities ranging from 82 to 124 dB. Reaction time and EMG from the wrist extensors and the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) were measured. Results showed that startle-related SCM EMG was elicited more frequently by broadband noise compared to pure tones. The higher proportion of startle reflexes observed in SCM was associated with a higher incidence of the voluntary task being triggered early. A higher incidence of startle following broadband noise is attributed to the activation of a larger proportion of the basilar membrane; thus, a lower intensity broadband noise stimulus may be used to elicit startle reflex at a similar rate as a higher intensity pure tone. PMID:26311832

  16. Brief Exposure to Sensory Cues Elicits Stimulus-Nonspecific General Sensitization in an Insect

    PubMed Central

    Colson, Violaine; Party, Virginie; Renou, Michel; Anderson, Peter; Gadenne, Christophe; Marion-Poll, Frédéric; Anton, Sylvia

    2012-01-01

    The effect of repeated exposure to sensory stimuli, with or without reward is well known to induce stimulus-specific modifications of behaviour, described as different forms of learning. In recent studies we showed that a brief single pre-exposure to the female-produced sex pheromone or even a predator sound can increase the behavioural and central nervous responses to this pheromone in males of the noctuid moth Spodoptera littoralis. To investigate if this increase in sensitivity might be restricted to the pheromone system or is a form of general sensitization, we studied here if a brief pre-exposure to stimuli of different modalities can reciprocally change behavioural and physiological responses to olfactory and gustatory stimuli. Olfactory and gustatory pre-exposure and subsequent behavioural tests were carried out to reveal possible intra- and cross-modal effects. Attraction to pheromone, monitored with a locomotion compensator, increased after exposure to olfactory and gustatory stimuli. Behavioural responses to sucrose, investigated using the proboscis extension reflex, increased equally after pre-exposure to olfactory and gustatory cues. Pheromone-specific neurons in the brain and antennal gustatory neurons did, however, not change their sensitivity after sucrose exposure. The observed intra- and reciprocal cross-modal effects of pre-exposure may represent a new form of stimulus-nonspecific general sensitization originating from modifications at higher sensory processing levels. PMID:22457821

  17. Changes in respiratory quotient elicited in rats by a conditioned stimulus predicting food.

    PubMed

    McGregor, I S; Lee, A M

    1998-01-01

    The present study examined whether changes in energy expenditure and energy substrate utilization occur in rats exposed to a conditioned stimulus that signals food. In a differential conditioning procedure, rats were given conditioning sessions where one of two cues (either a flashing light or buzzer) predicted a carbohydrate-rich meal (CS+) while the other cue predicted no food (CS-). In two subsequent test sessions, indirect calorimetry was used to measure respiratory quotient, energy expenditure, and locomotor activity before, during, and after a 15-min CS+ or CS- presentation. The CS+ was found to significantly increase respiratory quotient, indicating a shift in the energy substrate being utilized toward carbohydrate. The CS+ also increased energy expenditure and locomotor activity, but these effects were more variable across rats. It is concluded that respiratory quotient may rise in anticipation of a carbohydrate-rich meal. Possible mechanisms underlying this effect are discussed.

  18. Improving balance function using vestibular stochastic resonance: optimizing stimulus characteristics.

    PubMed

    Mulavara, Ajitkumar P; Fiedler, Matthew J; Kofman, Igor S; Wood, Scott J; Serrador, Jorge M; Peters, Brian; Cohen, Helen S; Reschke, Millard F; Bloomberg, Jacob J

    2011-04-01

    Stochastic resonance (SR) is a phenomenon whereby the response of a non-linear system to a weak periodic input signal is optimized by the presence of a particular non-zero level of noise. Stochastic resonance using imperceptible stochastic vestibular electrical stimulation, when applied to normal young and elderly subjects, has been shown to significantly improve ocular stabilization reflexes in response to whole-body tilt; improved balance performance during postural disturbances and optimize covariance between the weak input periodic signals introduced via venous blood pressure receptors and the heart rate responses. In our study, 15 subjects stood on a compliant surface with their eyes closed. They were given low-amplitude binaural bipolar stochastic electrical stimulation of the vestibular organs in two frequency ranges of 1-2 and 0-30 Hz over the amplitude range of 0 to ±700 μA. Subjects were instructed to maintain an upright stance during 43-s trials, which consisted of baseline (zero amplitude) and stimulation (non-zero amplitude) periods. Measures of stability of the head and trunk using inertial motion unit sensors attached to these segments and the whole body using a force plate were measured and quantified in the mediolateral plane. Using a multivariate optimization criterion, our results show that the low levels of vestibular stimulation given to the vestibular organs improved balance performance in normal healthy subjects in the range of 5-26% consistent with the stochastic resonance phenomenon. In our study, 8 of 15 and 10 of 15 subjects were responsive for the 1-2- and 0-30-Hz stimulus signals, respectively. The improvement in balance performance did not differ significantly between the stimulations in the two frequency ranges. The amplitude of optimal stimulus for improving balance performance was predominantly in the range of ±100 to ±400 μA. A device based on SR stimulation of the vestibular system might be useful as either a training

  19. When unintended movements "leak" out: a startling acoustic stimulus can elicit a prepared response during motor imagery and action observation.

    PubMed

    Maslovat, Dana; Chua, Romeo; Hodges, Nicola J

    2013-04-01

    Covert forms of practice, such as observation and imagery, have been shown to involve neurophysiological activation of the motor system, and a functional equivalence between covert and overt processes involved in action execution has been proposed (Jeannerod, 2001). We used a startling acoustic stimulus (SAS), which has been shown to trigger prepared movements involuntarily at short latencies via an increase in cortical activation, to probe the similarity of these processes and elicit movement responses in imagery and observation trials. Startle trials were interspersed with control trials while participants (n=16) performed or imagined a right hand key lift or observed a model perform the key lift. During physical movement trials, intended movements were triggered by the SAS at a short latency (RT=78 ms) in comparison to control trials (RT=110 ms). During imagery and observation, unimanual partial movements (assessed by force change and muscle activation) were elicited by the SAS, providing novel behavioural evidence for a functional similarity between covert and overt movement preparation processes. Examination of the magnitude of the reflexive startle response (an index of motor preparation) during imagery and observation also revealed similarities to physical movement trials. We conclude that covert and overt movements involve similarities in motor preparation and neural pathways, and propose that movements do not normally occur during imagery and observation due to low level neural activation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Self-Paced Walking within a Diverse Topographical Environment Elicits an Appropriate Training Stimulus for Cardiac Rehabilitation Patients

    PubMed Central

    Faulkner, James; Gerhard, Johannes; Stoner, Lee; Lambrick, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the effect of a self-paced walking intervention within a topographically varied outdoor environment on physiological and perceptual markers in cardiac rehabilitation (CR) patients. Methods. Sixteen phase II CR patients completed twelve self-paced one-mile walking sessions over a four-week period within a community-based CR programme. Walking velocity, heart rate (HR), and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were reported at eight stages throughout the self-paced walks. Results. The study showed a significant increase in walking velocity from week 1 (~4.5 km/h) to week 4 (~5.1 km/h) of the self-paced walking programme (P < .05). A significantly higher HR was also observed in week 4 (111 ± 13 b·min−1; ~69% of maximal HR) compared to week 1 (106 ± 14 b·min−1; ~65% of maximal HR, P < .001). There were no changes in the average RPE across the course of the 4-week self-paced walking programme (P > .05). Conclusion. A self-paced walking programme may elicit an appropriate training stimulus for CR patients when exercising within a diverse topographical environment. Participants completed a one-mile walk within a shorter period of time and at a higher physiological intensity than that elicited at the onset of the programme, despite no observed changes in participants' subjective perception of exertion. PMID:22848835

  1. Maximal and explosive strength training elicit distinct neuromuscular adaptations, specific to the training stimulus.

    PubMed

    Tillin, Neale A; Folland, Jonathan P

    2014-02-01

    To compare the effects of short-term maximal (MST) vs. explosive (EST) strength training on maximal and explosive force production, and assess the neural adaptations underpinning any training-specific functional changes. Male participants completed either MST (n = 9) or EST (n = 10) for 4 weeks. In training participants were instructed to: contract as fast and hard as possible for ~1 s (EST); or contract progressively up to 75% maximal voluntary force (MVF) and hold for 3 s (MST). Pre- and post-training measurements included recording MVF during maximal voluntary contractions and explosive force at 50-ms intervals from force onset during explosive contractions. Neuromuscular activation was assessed by recording EMG RMS amplitude, normalised to a maximal M-wave and averaged across the three superficial heads of the quadriceps, at MVF and between 0-50, 0-100 and 0-150 ms during the explosive contractions. Improvements in MVF were significantly greater (P < 0.001) following MST (+21 ± 12%) than EST (+11 ± 7%), which appeared due to a twofold greater increase in EMG at MVF following MST. In contrast, early phase explosive force (at 100 ms) increased following EST (+16 ± 14%), but not MST, resulting in a time × group interaction effect (P = 0.03), which appeared due to a greater increase in EMG during the early phase (first 50 ms) of explosive contractions following EST (P = 0.052). These results provide evidence for distinct neuromuscular adaptations after MST vs. EST that are specific to the training stimulus, and demonstrate the independent adaptability of maximal and explosive strength.

  2. Bioprocess optimization of furanocoumarin elicitation by medium renewal and re-elicitation: a perfusion-based approach.

    PubMed

    Diwan, Renuka; Malpathak, Nutan

    2011-03-01

    Effect of various abiotic (methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid) and biotic (yeast extract, Aspergillus niger) elicitors on furanocoumarin production and in situ product removal was studied using shoot cultures of Ruta graveolens L. Elicitation by yeast extract (1% w/v) on day 15 was most effective. It led to 7.8-fold higher furanocoumarin production that was attained 24 h after elicitation and 43% of the product was released into the medium. Changes in the relative concentration of furanocoumarins produced depend on the elicitor used. Molar ratio of bergapten increased to 93% in response to yeast extract. With the perspective of developing a commercially feasible process, an approach for preserving viability of biomass and its reuse needs to be developed. For this, medium renewal strategy was investigated. Removal of the spent medium 48 h after elicitation allowed in situ product removal and proved effective in revival of cultures, allowing reuse of biomass. A week after medium renewal, the revived biomass was re-elicited and a second furanocoumarin production peak was obtained. A perfusion-based bioprocess optimization approach, employing elicitation coupled with medium renewal with subsequent re-elicitation, as a new strategy for improved furanocoumarin production, has been suggested.

  3. Optimal stimulus scheduling for active estimation of evoked brain networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafashan, MohammadMehdi; Ching, ShiNung

    2015-12-01

    Objective. We consider the problem of optimal probing to learn connections in an evoked dynamic network. Such a network, in which each edge measures an input-output relationship between sites in sensor/actuator-space, is relevant to emerging applications in neural mapping and neural connectivity estimation. Approach. We show that the problem of scheduling nodes to a probe (i.e., stimulate) amounts to a problem of optimal sensor scheduling. Main results. By formulating the evoked network in state-space, we show that the solution to the greedy probing strategy has a convenient form and, under certain conditions, is optimal over a finite horizon. We adopt an expectation maximization technique to update the state-space parameters in an online fashion and demonstrate the efficacy of the overall approach in a series of detailed numerical examples. Significance. The proposed method provides a principled means to actively probe time-varying connections in neuronal networks. The overall method can be implemented in real time and is particularly well-suited to applications in stimulation-based cortical mapping in which the underlying network dynamics are changing over time.

  4. Optimization of Stimulus Characteristics for Vestibular Stochastic Resonance to Improve Balance Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Fiedler, Matthew; Kofman, Igor; Acock, Keena; DeDios, Yiri E.; Heap, Erin; Peters, Brian; Wood, Scott; Serrador, Jorge; Cohen, Helen; Reschke, Millard; Bloomberg, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Stochastic resonance (SR) is a mechanism by which noise can assist and enhance the response of neural systems to relevant sensory signals. Recent studies have shown that applying imperceptible stochastic noise electrical stimulation to the vestibular system significantly improved balance and ocular motor responses. The goal of this study was to optimize the amplitude of the stochastic vestibular signals for balance performance during standing on an unstable surface. Subjects performed a standardized balance task of standing on a block of 10-cm-thick medium-density foam with their eyes closed. Balance performance was measured using a force plate under the foam block and using inertial motion sensors placed on the torso and head segments. Stochastic electrical stimulation was applied to the vestibular system through electrodes placed over the mastoid process. Subjects were tested at seven amplitudes in the 0.01-30Hz frequency range. The root mean square of the signal increased by 30 microamperes for each +/-100 microampere increment in the current range of 0 - +/-700 microampere. Six balance parameters were calculated to characterize the performance of subjects during the baseline and the stimulus periods for all seven amplitudes. Optimal stimulus amplitude was determined as the one at which the ratio of parameters from the stimulus period to the baseline period for any amplitude range was less than that for the no stimulus condition on a minimum of four of six parameters. Results from this study showed that balance performance at the optimal stimulus amplitude showed significant improvement with the application of the vestibular SR stimulation. The amplitude of optimal stimulus for improving balance performance in normal subjects was in the range of +/-100 - +/-300 microamps.

  5. Online Stimulus Optimization Rapidly Reveals Multidimensional Selectivity in Auditory Cortical Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Hancock, Kenneth E.; Sen, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    Neurons in sensory brain regions shape our perception of the surrounding environment through two parallel operations: decomposition and integration. For example, auditory neurons decompose sounds by separately encoding their frequency, temporal modulation, intensity, and spatial location. Neurons also integrate across these various features to support a unified perceptual gestalt of an auditory object. At higher levels of a sensory pathway, neurons may select for a restricted region of feature space defined by the intersection of multiple, independent stimulus dimensions. To further characterize how auditory cortical neurons decompose and integrate multiple facets of an isolated sound, we developed an automated procedure that manipulated five fundamental acoustic properties in real time based on single-unit feedback in awake mice. Within several minutes, the online approach converged on regions of the multidimensional stimulus manifold that reliably drove neurons at significantly higher rates than predefined stimuli. Optimized stimuli were cross-validated against pure tone receptive fields and spectrotemporal receptive field estimates in the inferior colliculus and primary auditory cortex. We observed, from midbrain to cortex, increases in both level invariance and frequency selectivity, which may underlie equivalent sparseness of responses in the two areas. We found that onset and steady-state spike rates increased proportionately as the stimulus was tailored to the multidimensional receptive field. By separately evaluating the amount of leverage each sound feature exerted on the overall firing rate, these findings reveal interdependencies between stimulus features as well as hierarchical shifts in selectivity and invariance that may go unnoticed with traditional approaches. PMID:24990917

  6. Online stimulus optimization rapidly reveals multidimensional selectivity in auditory cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Anna R; Hancock, Kenneth E; Sen, Kamal; Polley, Daniel B

    2014-07-02

    Neurons in sensory brain regions shape our perception of the surrounding environment through two parallel operations: decomposition and integration. For example, auditory neurons decompose sounds by separately encoding their frequency, temporal modulation, intensity, and spatial location. Neurons also integrate across these various features to support a unified perceptual gestalt of an auditory object. At higher levels of a sensory pathway, neurons may select for a restricted region of feature space defined by the intersection of multiple, independent stimulus dimensions. To further characterize how auditory cortical neurons decompose and integrate multiple facets of an isolated sound, we developed an automated procedure that manipulated five fundamental acoustic properties in real time based on single-unit feedback in awake mice. Within several minutes, the online approach converged on regions of the multidimensional stimulus manifold that reliably drove neurons at significantly higher rates than predefined stimuli. Optimized stimuli were cross-validated against pure tone receptive fields and spectrotemporal receptive field estimates in the inferior colliculus and primary auditory cortex. We observed, from midbrain to cortex, increases in both level invariance and frequency selectivity, which may underlie equivalent sparseness of responses in the two areas. We found that onset and steady-state spike rates increased proportionately as the stimulus was tailored to the multidimensional receptive field. By separately evaluating the amount of leverage each sound feature exerted on the overall firing rate, these findings reveal interdependencies between stimulus features as well as hierarchical shifts in selectivity and invariance that may go unnoticed with traditional approaches.

  7. Anxiogenic CO2 stimulus elicits exacerbated hot flash-like responses in a rat menopause model and hot flashes in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Federici, Lauren M; Roth, Sarah Dorsey; Krier, Connie; Fitz, Stephanie D; Skaar, Todd; Shekhar, Anantha; Carpenter, Janet S; Johnson, Philip L

    2016-11-01

    As longitudinal studies determined that anxiety is a strong risk factor for hot flashes, we hypothesized that an anxiogenic stimulus that signals air hunger (hypercapnic, normoxic gas) would trigger an exacerbated hot flash-associated increase in tail skin temperature (TST) in a rat ovariectomy (OVEX) model of surgical menopause and hot flashes in symptomatic postmenopausal women. We also assessed TST responses in OVEX serotonin transporter (SERT) rats that models a common polymorphism that is associated with increased climacteric symptoms in postmenopausal women and increases in anxiety traits. OVEX and sham-OVEX rats (initial experiment) and wildtype and SERT OVEX rats (subsequent experiment) were exposed to a 5-minute infusion of 20% carbon dioxide (CO2) normoxic gas while measuring TST. Postmenopausal women were given brief 20% and 35% CO2 challenges, and hot flashes were self-reported and objectively verified. Compared to controls, OVEX rats had exacerbated increases in TST, and SERT OVEX rats had prolonged TST increases following CO2. Most women reported mild/moderate hot flashes after CO2 challenges, and the hot flash severity to CO2 was positively correlated with daily hot flash frequency. The studies demonstrate that this anxiogenic stimulus is capable of inducing cutaneous vasomotor responses in OVEX rats, and eliciting hot flashes in postmenopausal women. In rats, the severity of the response was mediated by loss of ovarian function and increased anxiety traits (SERT), and, in women, by daily hot flash frequency. These findings may provide insights into anxiety-related triggers and genetic risk factors for hot flashes in thermoneutral environments.

  8. Eliciting naturalistic cortical responses with a sensory prosthesis via optimized microstimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, John S.; Brockmeier, Austin J.; McNiel, David B.; von Kraus, Lee M.; Príncipe, José C.; Francis, Joseph T.

    2016-10-01

    Objective. Lost sensations, such as touch, could one day be restored by electrical stimulation along the sensory neural pathways. Such stimulation, when informed by electronic sensors, could provide naturalistic cutaneous and proprioceptive feedback to the user. Perceptually, microstimulation of somatosensory brain regions produces localized, modality-specific sensations, and several spatiotemporal parameters have been studied for their discernibility. However, systematic methods for encoding a wide array of naturally occurring stimuli into biomimetic percepts via multi-channel microstimulation are lacking. More specifically, generating spatiotemporal patterns for explicitly evoking naturalistic neural activation has not yet been explored. Approach. We address this problem by first modeling the dynamical input-output relationship between multichannel microstimulation and downstream neural responses, and then optimizing the input pattern to reproduce naturally occurring touch responses as closely as possible. Main results. Here we show that such optimization produces responses in the S1 cortex of the anesthetized rat that are highly similar to natural, tactile-stimulus-evoked counterparts. Furthermore, information on both pressure and location of the touch stimulus was found to be highly preserved. Significance. Our results suggest that the currently presented stimulus optimization approach holds great promise for restoring naturalistic levels of sensation.

  9. Optimal stimulus current waveshape for a Hodgkin-Huxley model neuron.

    PubMed

    Tahayori, Bahman; Dokos, Socrates

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, rectangular Lilly-type current pulses have been employed to electrically stimulate a neuron. In this paper, we utilize a least squares optimisation approach to assess the optimality of rectangular pulses in the context of electrical current stimulation. To this end, an appropriate cost function to minimise the total charge delivered to a neuron while keeping the waveshape sufficiently smooth, is developed and applied to a Hodgkin-Huxley ionic model of the neural action potential. Cubic spline parameters were utilized to find the optimal stimulation profile for a fixed peak current. Simulation results demonstrate that the optimal stimulation profile for a specified single neuron is a non-rectangular pulse whose shape depends upon the maximum allowable current as well as the stimulus duration.

  10. Extracellular voltage threshold settings can be tuned for optimal encoding of movement and stimulus parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oby, Emily R.; Perel, Sagi; Sadtler, Patrick T.; Ruff, Douglas A.; Mischel, Jessica L.; Montez, David F.; Cohen, Marlene R.; Batista, Aaron P.; Chase, Steven M.

    2016-06-01

    Objective. A traditional goal of neural recording with extracellular electrodes is to isolate action potential waveforms of an individual neuron. Recently, in brain-computer interfaces (BCIs), it has been recognized that threshold crossing events of the voltage waveform also convey rich information. To date, the threshold for detecting threshold crossings has been selected to preserve single-neuron isolation. However, the optimal threshold for single-neuron identification is not necessarily the optimal threshold for information extraction. Here we introduce a procedure to determine the best threshold for extracting information from extracellular recordings. We apply this procedure in two distinct contexts: the encoding of kinematic parameters from neural activity in primary motor cortex (M1), and visual stimulus parameters from neural activity in primary visual cortex (V1). Approach. We record extracellularly from multi-electrode arrays implanted in M1 or V1 in monkeys. Then, we systematically sweep the voltage detection threshold and quantify the information conveyed by the corresponding threshold crossings. Main Results. The optimal threshold depends on the desired information. In M1, velocity is optimally encoded at higher thresholds than speed; in both cases the optimal thresholds are lower than are typically used in BCI applications. In V1, information about the orientation of a visual stimulus is optimally encoded at higher thresholds than is visual contrast. A conceptual model explains these results as a consequence of cortical topography. Significance. How neural signals are processed impacts the information that can be extracted from them. Both the type and quality of information contained in threshold crossings depend on the threshold setting. There is more information available in these signals than is typically extracted. Adjusting the detection threshold to the parameter of interest in a BCI context should improve our ability to decode motor intent

  11. Determine Optimal Stimulus Amplitude for Using Vestibular Stochastic Stimulation to Improve Balance Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goel, R.; Kofman, I.; DeDios, Y. E.; Jeevarajan, J.; Stepanyan, V.; Nair, M.; Congdon, S.; Fregia, M.; Cohen, H.; Bloomberg, J.J.; Mulavara, A.P.

    2015-01-01

    Sensorimotor changes such as postural and gait instabilities can affect the functional performance of astronauts when they transition across different gravity environments. We are developing a method, based on stochastic resonance (SR), to enhance information transfer by applying non-zero levels of external noise on the vestibular system (vestibular stochastic resonance, VSR). Our previous work has shown the advantageous effects of VSR in a balance task of standing on an unstable surface [1]. This technique to improve detection of vestibular signals uses a stimulus delivery system that provides imperceptibly low levels of white noise-based binaural bipolar electrical stimulation of the vestibular system. The goal of this project is to determine optimal levels of stimulation for SR applications by using a defined vestibular threshold of motion detection. A series of experiments were carried out to determine a robust paradigm to identify a vestibular threshold that can then be used to recommend optimal stimulation levels for sensorimotor adaptability (SA) training applications customized to each crewmember. The amplitude of stimulation to be used in the VSR application has varied across studies in the literature such as 60% of nociceptive stimulus thresholds [2]. We compared subjects' perceptual threshold with that obtained from two measures of body sway. Each test session was 463s long and consisted of several 15s long sinusoidal stimuli, at different current amplitudes (0-2 mA), interspersed with 20-20.5s periods of no stimulation. Subjects sat on a chair with their eyes closed and had to report their perception of motion through a joystick. A force plate underneath the chair recorded medio-lateral shear forces and roll moments. Comparison of threshold of motion detection obtained from joystick data versus body sway suggests that perceptual thresholds were significantly lower. In the balance task, subjects stood on an unstable surface and had to maintain balance

  12. Optimal Stimulus Amplitude for Vestibular Stochastic Stimulation to Improve Sensorimotor Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goel, R.; Kofman, I.; DeDios, Y. E.; Jeevarajan, J.; Stepanyan, V.; Nair, M.; Congdon, S.; Fregia, M.; Cohen, H.; Bloomberg, J. J.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Sensorimotor changes such as postural and gait instabilities can affect the functional performance of astronauts when they transition across different gravity environments. We are developing a method, based on stochastic resonance (SR), to enhance information transfer by applying non-zero levels of external noise on the vestibular system (vestibular stochastic resonance, VSR). Our previous work has shown the advantageous effects of VSR in a balance task of standing on an unstable surface. This technique to improve detection of vestibular signals uses a stimulus delivery system that is wearable or portable and provides imperceptibly low levels of white noise-based binaural bipolar electrical stimulation of the vestibular system. The goal of this project is to determine optimal levels of stimulation for SR applications by using a defined vestibular threshold of motion detection. A series of experiments were carried out to determine a robust paradigm to identify a vestibular threshold that can then be used to recommend optimal stimulation levels for SR training applications customized to each crewmember. Customizing stimulus intensity can maximize treatment effects. The amplitude of stimulation to be used in the VSR application has varied across studies in the literature such as 60% of nociceptive stimulus thresholds. We compared subjects' perceptual threshold with that obtained from two measures of body sway. Each test session was 463s long and consisted of several 15s sinusoidal stimuli, at different current amplitudes (0-2 mA), interspersed with 20-20.5s periods of no stimulation. Subjects sat on a chair with their eyes closed and had to report their perception of motion through a joystick. A force plate underneath the chair recorded medio-lateral shear forces and roll moments. First we determined the percent time during stimulation periods for which perception of motion (activity above a pre-defined threshold) was reported using the joystick, and body sway (two

  13. Optimal design of stimulus experiments for robust discrimination of biochemical reaction networks

    PubMed Central

    Flassig, R. J.; Sundmacher, K.

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: Biochemical reaction networks in the form of coupled ordinary differential equations (ODEs) provide a powerful modeling tool for understanding the dynamics of biochemical processes. During the early phase of modeling, scientists have to deal with a large pool of competing nonlinear models. At this point, discrimination experiments can be designed and conducted to obtain optimal data for selecting the most plausible model. Since biological ODE models have widely distributed parameters due to, e.g. biologic variability or experimental variations, model responses become distributed. Therefore, a robust optimal experimental design (OED) for model discrimination can be used to discriminate models based on their response probability distribution functions (PDFs). Results: In this work, we present an optimal control-based methodology for designing optimal stimulus experiments aimed at robust model discrimination. For estimating the time-varying model response PDF, which results from the nonlinear propagation of the parameter PDF under the ODE dynamics, we suggest using the sigma-point approach. Using the model overlap (expected likelihood) as a robust discrimination criterion to measure dissimilarities between expected model response PDFs, we benchmark the proposed nonlinear design approach against linearization with respect to prediction accuracy and design quality for two nonlinear biological reaction networks. As shown, the sigma-point outperforms the linearization approach in the case of widely distributed parameter sets and/or existing multiple steady states. Since the sigma-point approach scales linearly with the number of model parameter, it can be applied to large systems for robust experimental planning. Availability: An implementation of the method in MATLAB/AMPL is available at http://www.uni-magdeburg.de/ivt/svt/person/rf/roed.html. Contact: flassig@mpi-magdeburg.mpg.de Supplementary information: Supplementary data are are available at

  14. Optimizing the stimulus presentation paradigm design for the P300-based brain-computer interface using performance prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainsah, B. O.; Reeves, G.; Collins, L. M.; Throckmorton, C. S.

    2017-08-01

    Objective. The role of a brain-computer interface (BCI) is to discern a user’s intended message or action by extracting and decoding relevant information from brain signals. Stimulus-driven BCIs, such as the P300 speller, rely on detecting event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to a user attending to relevant or target stimulus events. However, this process is error-prone because the ERPs are embedded in noisy electroencephalography (EEG) data, representing a fundamental problem in communication of the uncertainty in the information that is received during noisy transmission. A BCI can be modeled as a noisy communication system and an information-theoretic approach can be exploited to design a stimulus presentation paradigm to maximize the information content that is presented to the user. However, previous methods that focused on designing error-correcting codes failed to provide significant performance improvements due to underestimating the effects of psycho-physiological factors on the P300 ERP elicitation process and a limited ability to predict online performance with their proposed methods. Maximizing the information rate favors the selection of stimulus presentation patterns with increased target presentation frequency, which exacerbates refractory effects and negatively impacts performance within the context of an oddball paradigm. An information-theoretic approach that seeks to understand the fundamental trade-off between information rate and reliability is desirable. Approach. We developed a performance-based paradigm (PBP) by tuning specific parameters of the stimulus presentation paradigm to maximize performance while minimizing refractory effects. We used a probabilistic-based performance prediction method as an evaluation criterion to select a final configuration of the PBP. Main results. With our PBP, we demonstrate statistically significant improvements in online performance, both in accuracy and spelling rate, compared to the conventional

  15. Optimizing the stimulus presentation paradigm design for the P300-based brain-computer interface using performance prediction.

    PubMed

    Mainsah, B O; Reeves, G; Collins, L M; Throckmorton, C S

    2017-05-26

    The role of a brain-computer interface (BCI) is to discern a user's intended message or action by extracting and decoding relevant information from brain signals. Stimulus-driven BCIs, such as the P300 speller, rely on detecting event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to a user attending to relevant or target stimulus events. However, this process is error-prone because the ERPs are embedded in noisy electroencephalography (EEG) data, representing a fundamental problem in communication of the uncertainty in the information that is received during noisy transmission. A BCI can be modeled as a noisy communication system and an information-theoretic approach can be exploited to design a stimulus presentation paradigm to maximize the information content that is presented to the user. However, previous methods that focused on designing error-correcting codes failed to provide significant performance improvements due to underestimating the effects of psycho-physiological factors on the P300 ERP elicitation process and a limited ability to predict online performance with their proposed methods. Maximizing the information rate favors the selection of stimulus presentation patterns with increased target presentation frequency, which exacerbates refractory effects and negatively impacts performance within the context of an oddball paradigm. An information-theoretic approach that seeks to understand the fundamental trade-off between information rate and reliability is desirable. We developed a performance-based paradigm (PBP) by tuning specific parameters of the stimulus presentation paradigm to maximize performance while minimizing refractory effects. We used a probabilistic-based performance prediction method as an evaluation criterion to select a final configuration of the PBP. With our PBP, we demonstrate statistically significant improvements in online performance, both in accuracy and spelling rate, compared to the conventional row-column paradigm. By accounting for

  16. Vestibular Stochastic Resonance as a Method to Improve Balance Function: Optimization of Stimulus Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Fiedler, Matthew; Kofman, Igor; Peters, Brian; Wood, Scott; Serrador, Jorge; Cohen, Helen; Reschke, Millard; Bloomberg, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Stochastic resonance (SR) is a mechanism by which noise can assist and enhance the response of neural systems to relevant sensory signals. Application of imperceptible SR noise coupled with sensory input through the proprioceptive, visual, or vestibular sensory systems has been shown to improve motor function. Specifically, studies have shown that that vestibular electrical stimulation by imperceptible stochastic noise, when applied to normal young and elderly subjects, significantly improved their ocular stabilization reflexes in response to whole-body tilt as well as balance performance during postural disturbances. The goal of this study was to optimize the characteristics of the stochastic vestibular signals for balance performance during standing on an unstable surface. Subjects performed a standardized balance task of standing on a block of 10 cm thick medium density foam with their eyes closed for a total of 40 seconds. Stochastic electrical stimulation was applied to the vestibular system through electrodes placed over the mastoid process behind the ears during the last 20 seconds of the test period. A custom built constant current stimulator with subject isolation delivered the stimulus. Stimulation signals were generated with frequencies in the bandwidth of 1-2 Hz and 0.01-30 Hz. Amplitude of the signals were varied in the range of 0- +/-700 micro amperes with the RMS of the signal increased by 30 micro amperes for each 100 micro amperes increase in the current range. Balance performance was measured using a force plate under the foam block and inertial motion sensors placed on the torso and head segments. Preliminary results indicate that balance performance is improved in the range of 10-25% compared to no stimulation conditions. Subjects improved their performance consistently across the blocks of stimulation. Further the signal amplitude at which the performance was maximized was different in the two frequency ranges. Optimization of the frequency and

  17. Vestibular Stochastic Resonance as a Method to Improve Balance Function: Optimization of Stimulus Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Fiedler, Matthew; Kofman, Igor; Peters, Brian; Wood, Scott; Serrador, Jorge; Cohen, Helen; Reschke, Millard; Bloomberg, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Stochastic resonance (SR) is a mechanism by which noise can assist and enhance the response of neural systems to relevant sensory signals. Application of imperceptible SR noise coupled with sensory input through the proprioceptive, visual, or vestibular sensory systems has been shown to improve motor function. Specifically, studies have shown that that vestibular electrical stimulation by imperceptible stochastic noise, when applied to normal young and elderly subjects, significantly improved their ocular stabilization reflexes in response to whole-body tilt as well as balance performance during postural disturbances. The goal of this study was to optimize the characteristics of the stochastic vestibular signals for balance performance during standing on an unstable surface. Subjects performed a standardized balance task of standing on a block of 10 cm thick medium density foam with their eyes closed for a total of 40 seconds. Stochastic electrical stimulation was applied to the vestibular system through electrodes placed over the mastoid process behind the ears during the last 20 seconds of the test period. A custom built constant current stimulator with subject isolation delivered the stimulus. Stimulation signals were generated with frequencies in the bandwidth of 1-2 Hz and 0.01-30 Hz. Amplitude of the signals were varied in the range of 0- +/-700 micro amperes with the RMS of the signal increased by 30 micro amperes for each 100 micro amperes increase in the current range. Balance performance was measured using a force plate under the foam block and inertial motion sensors placed on the torso and head segments. Preliminary results indicate that balance performance is improved in the range of 10-25% compared to no stimulation conditions. Subjects improved their performance consistently across the blocks of stimulation. Further the signal amplitude at which the performance was maximized was different in the two frequency ranges. Optimization of the frequency and

  18. Optimization of Electrical Stimulus Pulse Parameter for Low-Power Operation of Retinal Prosthetic Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furumiya, Tetsuo; Yamamoto, Shinya; Kagawa, Keiichiro; Tokuda, Takashi; Nunoshita, Masahiro; Ohta, Jun

    2006-05-01

    In this paper, we describe the investigation of an electrical stimulus pulse parameter for use in a low-power retinal prosthesis. To obtain efficient stimulus pulse parameters, in vitro electrical stimulus experiments with a detached frog retina were performed using a fabricated pulse-frequency modulation (PFM) image sensor as a retinal prosthesis. The evaluated electrical stimulus pulse parameters were pulse duration, pulse amplitude, and the number of pulses. From the experiments, the firing rate of the retinal ganglion cells (retinal ganglion cells; RGCs) was observed to depend on the injection charge in single-pulse stimulation and the injection charge of the first pulse in pulse-train stimulation. In addition, pulse-train stimulation was found to have a RGC firing rate lower than that of single-pulse stimulation at the same injection charge. From power consumption measurements and an in vitro experiment, it was verified that the stimulus pulse of a short-pulse duration is suitable for use in a low-power retinal prosthesis.

  19. Optimizing elicitation and seed priming to enrich broccoli and radish sprouts in glucosinolates.

    PubMed

    Baenas, Nieves; Villaño, Debora; García-Viguera, Cristina; Moreno, Diego A

    2016-08-01

    Elicitation is a cheaper and socially acceptable tool for improving plant food functionality. Our objective was to optimize the treatment doses of the elicitors: methyl jasmonate (MeJA), jasmonic acid (JA) and DL-methionine (MET), in order to find a successful and feasible treatment to produce broccoli and radish sprouts with enhanced levels of health-promoting glucosinolates. Also a priming of seeds as a novel strategy to trigger the glucosinolates content was carried out with water (control), MeJA (250μM), JA (250μM) and MET (10mM) before the elicitor exogenous treatment. The results showed that almost all treatments could enhance effectively the total glucosinolates content in the sprouts, achieving the most significant increases from 34% to 100% of increase in broccoli and from 45% to 118% of increase in radish sprouts after MeJA priming and treatments. Consequently, our work demonstrates the feasibility of using elicitors, such as plant stress hormones, by priming and exogenously, as a way of increase the phytochemical profile of these sprouts to enhance their consumption in the diet. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Relation between conditioned stimulus-elicit responses and unconditioned response diminution in long-interval human heart-rate classical conditioning.

    PubMed

    Marcos, J L; Redondo, J

    2001-05-01

    Previous research on electrodermal conditioning suggests that the conditioned diminution of the unconditioned response (UR) has an associative basis. The aim of this experiment was to test whether this phenomenon also occurs in heart rate (HR) classical conditioning. For this purpose, a differential classical conditioning was performed. The conditioned stimuli (CSs) were geometrical shapes (the CS+ was a square and the CS- was a triangle) displayed on a computer screen and a burst of white noise was used as unconditioned stimulus (US). For analysis of the conditioned response (CR) components, an interval between CS+ and US of 8 seconds was used. After the acquisition phase, participants were tested using trials with the US preceded either by a CS+, a CS-, or a neutral stimulus (a circle). The results showed conditioned diminution of the UR and suggest that the second heart rate deceleration component (D2) is responsible for the occurrence of this phenomenon.

  1. Towards an Optimization of Stimulus Parameters for Brain-Computer Interfaces Based on Steady State Visual Evoked Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Radzikowska, Zofia; Milanowski, Piotr; Kuś, Rafał; Suffczyński, Piotr; Michalska, Magdalena; Łabęcki, Maciej; Zwoliński, Piotr; Durka, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Efforts to construct an effective brain-computer interface (BCI) system based on Steady State Visual Evoked Potentials (SSVEP) commonly focus on sophisticated mathematical methods for data analysis. The role of different stimulus features in evoking strong SSVEP is less often considered and the knowledge on the optimal stimulus properties is still fragmentary. The goal of this study was to provide insight into the influence of stimulus characteristics on the magnitude of SSVEP response. Five stimuli parameters were tested: size, distance, colour, shape, and presence of a fixation point in the middle of each flickering field. The stimuli were presented on four squares on LCD screen, with each square highlighted by LEDs flickering with different frequencies. Brighter colours and larger dimensions of flickering fields resulted in a significantly stronger SSVEP response. The distance between stimulation fields and the presence or absence of the fixation point had no significant effect on the response. Contrary to a popular belief, these results suggest that absence of the fixation point does not reduce the magnitude of SSVEP response. However, some parameters of the stimuli such as colour and the size of the flickering field play an important role in evoking SSVEP response, which indicates that stimuli rendering is an important factor in building effective SSVEP based BCI systems. PMID:25398134

  2. Robust Spectro-Temporal Reverse Correlation for the Auditory System: Optimizing Stimulus Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    linear encoding in the zebra finch auditory forebrain. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts, 24:402. Valois, R. D. and Valois, K. D. (1990). Spatial Vision...pects to be able to more effectively characterize those acoustic patterns that afferent neurons are most responsive to. The resulting description of...the stimuli have a more specific structure than that of GWN, they are more effective in eliciting responses, and they have yielded striking results

  3. Production of ready-to-eat lentil sprouts with improved antioxidant capacity: optimization of elicitation conditions with hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Świeca, Michał

    2015-08-01

    This study evaluates the optimal conditions for elicitation with H2O2 for improving the antioxidant capacity of lentil sprouts. Generally, except for 3-day-old sprouts, elicitation increased phenolic content (in respect to the control). The highest phenolic content was determined for 2-day-old sprouts treated with 15 mM H2O2 (0.71 mg/gf.m.). All the studied modifications increased the antioxidant potential of sprouts. The highest elevation (3.2-fold) was found for 5-day-old sprouts (single 15 mM H2O2 treatment). A significant increase was also found on the 2nd and 4th days (2.13- and 2.14-fold, respectively). Elicitation induced tyrosine and phenylalanine ammonia-lyases activities. H2O2 treatments induced the activity of catalase - especially for 2-day-old sprouts treated with 150 mM H2O2 (597 U/gf.m.). Elicitation with H2O2 is a useful tool for designing some features of sprouts. Phenolic content and antioxidant capacity are strongly affected by concentration of the elicitor, and time and intervals of its application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mechanisms of optimal defense patterns in Nicotiana attenuata: flowering attenuates herbivory-elicited ethylene and jasmonate signaling.

    PubMed

    Diezel, Celia; Allmann, Silke; Baldwin, Ian T

    2011-12-01

    To defend themselves against herbivore attack, plants produce secondary metabolites, which are variously inducible and constitutively deployed, presumably to optimize their fitness benefits in light of their fitness costs. Three phytohormones, jasmonates (JA) and their active forms, the JA-isoleucine (JA-Ile) and ethylene (ET), are known to play central roles in the elicitation of induced defenses, but little is known about how this mediation changes over ontogeny. The Optimal Defense Theory (ODT) predicts changes in the costs and benefits of the different types of defenses and has been usefully extrapolated to their modes of deployment. Here we studied whether the herbivore-induced accumulation of JA, JA-Ile and ET changed over ontogeny in Nicotiana attenuata, a native tobacco in which inducible defenses are particularly well studied. Herbivore-elicited ET production changed dramatically during six developmental stages, from rosette through flowering, decreasing with the elongation of the first corollas during flower development. This decrease was largely recovered within a day after flower removal by decapitation. A similar pattern was found for the herbivore-induced accumulation of JA and JA-Ile. These results are consistent with ODT predictions and suggest that the last steps in floral development control the inducibility of at least three plant hormones, optimizing defense-growth tradeoffs.

  5. A stimulus-dependent spike threshold is an optimal neural coder.

    PubMed

    Jones, Douglas L; Johnson, Erik C; Ratnam, Rama

    2015-01-01

    A neural code based on sequences of spikes can consume a significant portion of the brain's energy budget. Thus, energy considerations would dictate that spiking activity be kept as low as possible. However, a high spike-rate improves the coding and representation of signals in spike trains, particularly in sensory systems. These are competing demands, and selective pressure has presumably worked to optimize coding by apportioning a minimum number of spikes so as to maximize coding fidelity. The mechanisms by which a neuron generates spikes while maintaining a fidelity criterion are not known. Here, we show that a signal-dependent neural threshold, similar to a dynamic or adapting threshold, optimizes the trade-off between spike generation (encoding) and fidelity (decoding). The threshold mimics a post-synaptic membrane (a low-pass filter) and serves as an internal decoder. Further, it sets the average firing rate (the energy constraint). The decoding process provides an internal copy of the coding error to the spike-generator which emits a spike when the error equals or exceeds a spike threshold. When optimized, the trade-off leads to a deterministic spike firing-rule that generates optimally timed spikes so as to maximize fidelity. The optimal coder is derived in closed-form in the limit of high spike-rates, when the signal can be approximated as a piece-wise constant signal. The predicted spike-times are close to those obtained experimentally in the primary electrosensory afferent neurons of weakly electric fish (Apteronotus leptorhynchus) and pyramidal neurons from the somatosensory cortex of the rat. We suggest that KCNQ/Kv7 channels (underlying the M-current) are good candidates for the decoder. They are widely coupled to metabolic processes and do not inactivate. We conclude that the neural threshold is optimized to generate an energy-efficient and high-fidelity neural code.

  6. A stimulus-dependent spike threshold is an optimal neural coder

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Douglas L.; Johnson, Erik C.; Ratnam, Rama

    2015-01-01

    A neural code based on sequences of spikes can consume a significant portion of the brain's energy budget. Thus, energy considerations would dictate that spiking activity be kept as low as possible. However, a high spike-rate improves the coding and representation of signals in spike trains, particularly in sensory systems. These are competing demands, and selective pressure has presumably worked to optimize coding by apportioning a minimum number of spikes so as to maximize coding fidelity. The mechanisms by which a neuron generates spikes while maintaining a fidelity criterion are not known. Here, we show that a signal-dependent neural threshold, similar to a dynamic or adapting threshold, optimizes the trade-off between spike generation (encoding) and fidelity (decoding). The threshold mimics a post-synaptic membrane (a low-pass filter) and serves as an internal decoder. Further, it sets the average firing rate (the energy constraint). The decoding process provides an internal copy of the coding error to the spike-generator which emits a spike when the error equals or exceeds a spike threshold. When optimized, the trade-off leads to a deterministic spike firing-rule that generates optimally timed spikes so as to maximize fidelity. The optimal coder is derived in closed-form in the limit of high spike-rates, when the signal can be approximated as a piece-wise constant signal. The predicted spike-times are close to those obtained experimentally in the primary electrosensory afferent neurons of weakly electric fish (Apteronotus leptorhynchus) and pyramidal neurons from the somatosensory cortex of the rat. We suggest that KCNQ/Kv7 channels (underlying the M-current) are good candidates for the decoder. They are widely coupled to metabolic processes and do not inactivate. We conclude that the neural threshold is optimized to generate an energy-efficient and high-fidelity neural code. PMID:26082710

  7. Estimation of an Optimal Stimulus Amplitude for Using Vestibular Stochastic Stimulation to Improve Balance Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goel, R.; Kofman, I.; DeDios, Y. E.; Jeevarajan, J.; Stepanyan, V.; Nair, M.; Congdon, S.; Fregia, M.; Peters, B.; Cohen, H.; hide

    2015-01-01

    Sensorimotor changes such as postural and gait instabilities can affect the functional performance of astronauts when they transition across different gravity environments. We are developing a method, based on stochastic resonance (SR), to enhance information transfer by applying non-zero levels of external noise on the vestibular system (vestibular stochastic resonance, VSR). The goal of this project was to determine optimal levels of stimulation for SR applications by using a defined vestibular threshold of motion detection.

  8. [The optimization of the process of instrumental learning with a low intensity of the conditioned stimulus].

    PubMed

    Saltykov, A B; Toloknov, A V; Khitrov, N K

    1993-07-01

    The influence of the intensity of conditional stimulation on the speed of instrumental teaching of rats at different probabilities of casual fulfillment of the reaction under development (VSPR) was investigated. The VSPR value significantly affects the number of positive and negative confirmations in the early period of teaching and, finally, the informational individuum-environment interaction. Therefore, with the existing choice of VSPR values the dependence of the speed of teaching upon different unfavourable factors lessens, which may be used for optimization of the process of instrumental teaching at a low intensity of the conditional signal.

  9. An Active RBSE Framework to Generate Optimal Stimulus Sequences in a BCI for Spelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghadamfalahi, Mohammad; Akcakaya, Murat; Nezamfar, Hooman; Sourati, Jamshid; Erdogmus, Deniz

    2017-10-01

    A class of brain computer interfaces (BCIs) employs noninvasive recordings of electroencephalography (EEG) signals to enable users with severe speech and motor impairments to interact with their environment and social network. For example, EEG based BCIs for typing popularly utilize event related potentials (ERPs) for inference. Presentation paradigm design in current ERP-based letter by letter typing BCIs typically query the user with an arbitrary subset characters. However, the typing accuracy and also typing speed can potentially be enhanced with more informed subset selection and flash assignment. In this manuscript, we introduce the active recursive Bayesian state estimation (active-RBSE) framework for inference and sequence optimization. Prior to presentation in each iteration, rather than showing a subset of randomly selected characters, the developed framework optimally selects a subset based on a query function. Selected queries are made adaptively specialized for users during each intent detection. Through a simulation-based study, we assess the effect of active-RBSE on the performance of a language-model assisted typing BCI in terms of typing speed and accuracy. To provide a baseline for comparison, we also utilize standard presentation paradigms namely, row and column matrix presentation paradigm and also random rapid serial visual presentation paradigms. The results show that utilization of active-RBSE can enhance the online performance of the system, both in terms of typing accuracy and speed.

  10. Eliciting Naturalistic Cortical Responses with a Sensory Prosthesis via Optimized Microstimulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-12

    in colour only in the online journal) 1. Introduction Loss of somatosensation could one day be treated by direct electrical stimulation of the central...error and correlation as metrics amenable to highly efficient convex optimization. This study concentrates on characterizing the neural responses to both...spiking signal. For LFP, distance measures such as the traditional mean-squared error and cross- correlation can be used, whereas distances between spike

  11. Sub-Optimal Choice in Pigeons Does Not Depend on Avoidance of the Stimulus Associated with the Absence of Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stagner, Jessica P.; Laude, Jennifer R.; Zentall, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    When pigeons are given a choice between two alternatives, one leading to a stimulus 20% of the time that always signals reinforcement (S+) or another stimulus 80% of the time that signals no reinforcement (S-), and the other alternative leading to one of two stimuli each signaling reinforcement 50% of the time, they show a strong preference for…

  12. Sub-Optimal Choice in Pigeons Does Not Depend on Avoidance of the Stimulus Associated with the Absence of Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stagner, Jessica P.; Laude, Jennifer R.; Zentall, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    When pigeons are given a choice between two alternatives, one leading to a stimulus 20% of the time that always signals reinforcement (S+) or another stimulus 80% of the time that signals no reinforcement (S-), and the other alternative leading to one of two stimuli each signaling reinforcement 50% of the time, they show a strong preference for…

  13. Optimization of the Culture Medium Composition to Improve the Production of Hyoscyamine in Elicited Datura stramonium L. Hairy Roots Using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM)

    PubMed Central

    Ryad, Amdoun; Lakhdar, Khelifi; Majda, Khelifi-Slaoui; Samia, Amroune; Mark, Asch; Corinne, Assaf-Ducrocq; Eric, Gontier

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally, optimization in biological analyses has been carried out by monitoring the influence of one factor at a time; this technique is called one-variable-at-a-time. The disadvantage of this technique is that it does not include any interactive effects among the variables studied and requires a large number of experiments. Therefore, in recent years, the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) has become the most popular optimization method. It is an effective mathematical and statistical technique which has been widely used in optimization studies with minimal experimental trials where interactive factors may be involved. This present study follows on from our previous work, where RSM was used to optimize the B5 medium composition in [NO3−], [Ca2+] and sucrose to attain the best production of hyoscyamine (HS) from the hairy roots (HRs) of Datura stramonium elicited by Jasmonic Acid (JA). The present paper focuses on the use of the RSM in biological studies, such as plant material, to establish a predictive model with the planning of experiments, analysis of the model, diagnostics and adjustment for the accuracy of the model. With the RSM, only 20 experiments were necessary to determine optimal concentrations. The model could be employed to carry out interpolations and predict the response to elicitation. Applying this model, the optimization of the HS level was 212.7% for the elicited HRs of Datura stramonium, cultured in B5-OP medium (optimized), in comparison with elicited HRs cultured in B5 medium (control). The optimal concentrations, under experimental conditions, were determined to be: 79.1 mM [NO3−], 11.4 mM [Ca2+] and 42.9 mg/L of sucrose. PMID:21151467

  14. Optimization of the culture medium composition to improve the production of hyoscyamine in elicited Datura stramonium L. hairy roots using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM).

    PubMed

    Ryad, Amdoun; Lakhdar, Khelifi; Majda, Khelifi-Slaoui; Samia, Amroune; Mark, Asch; Corinne, Assaf-Ducrocq; Eric, Gontier

    2010-11-18

    Traditionally, optimization in biological analyses has been carried out by monitoring the influence of one factor at a time; this technique is called one-variable-at-a-time. The disadvantage of this technique is that it does not include any interactive effects among the variables studied and requires a large number of experiments. Therefore, in recent years, the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) has become the most popular optimization method. It is an effective mathematical and statistical technique which has been widely used in optimization studies with minimal experimental trials where interactive factors may be involved. This present study follows on from our previous work, where RSM was used to optimize the B5 medium composition in [NO(3-)], [Ca(2+)] and sucrose to attain the best production of hyoscyamine (HS) from the hairy roots (HRs) of Datura stramonium elicited by Jasmonic Acid (JA). The present paper focuses on the use of the RSM in biological studies, such as plant material, to establish a predictive model with the planning of experiments, analysis of the model, diagnostics and adjustment for the accuracy of the model. With the RSM, only 20 experiments were necessary to determine optimal concentrations. The model could be employed to carry out interpolations and predict the response to elicitation. Applying this model, the optimization of the HS level was 212.7% for the elicited HRs of Datura stramonium, cultured in B5-OP medium (optimized), in comparison with elicited HRs cultured in B5 medium (control). The optimal concentrations, under experimental conditions, were determined to be: 79.1 mM [NO(3-)], 11.4 mM [Ca(2+)] and 42.9 mg/L of sucrose.

  15. Stimulus Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Stimulus funds unquestionably have helped many schools keep going through tough times, but for many institutions, the tough times aren't going away anytime soon. That is why, a little more than a year after Congress passed the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act and began allocating billions of dollars in aid across the nation, the so-called…

  16. Optimized stimulus presentation patterns for an event-related potential EEG-based brain-computer interface.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jing; Allison, Brendan Z; Sellers, Eric W; Brunner, Clemens; Horki, Petar; Wang, Xingyu; Neuper, Christa

    2011-02-01

    P300 brain-computer interface (BCI) systems typically use a row/column (RC) approach. This article presents a P300 BCI based on a 12 x 7 matrix and new paradigmatic approaches to flashing characters designed to decrease the number of flashes needed to identify a target character. Using an RC presentation, a 12 x 7 matrix requires 19 flashes to present all items twice (12 columns and seven rows) per trial. A 12 x 7 matrix contains 84 elements (characters). To identify a target character in 12 x 7 matrix using the RC pattern, 19 flashes (sub-trials) are necessary. In each flash, the selected characters (one column or one row in the RC pattern) are flashing. We present four new paradigms and compare the performance to the RC paradigm. These paradigms present quasi-random groups of characters using 9, 12, 14 and 16 flashes per trial to identify a target character. The 12-, 14- and 16-flash patterns were optimized so that the same character never flashed twice in succession. We assessed the practical bit rate and classification accuracy of the 9-, 12-, 14-, 16- and RC (19-flash) pattern conditions in an online experiment and with offline simulations. The results indicate that 16-flash pattern is better than other patterns and performance of an online P300 BCI can be significantly improved by selecting the best presentation paradigm for each subject.

  17. Partially supervised P300 speller adaptation for eventual stimulus timing optimization: target confidence is superior to error-related potential score as an uncertain label

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeyl, Timothy; Yin, Erwei; Keightley, Michelle; Chau, Tom

    2016-04-01

    Objective. Error-related potentials (ErrPs) have the potential to guide classifier adaptation in BCI spellers, for addressing non-stationary performance as well as for online optimization of system parameters, by providing imperfect or partial labels. However, the usefulness of ErrP-based labels for BCI adaptation has not been established in comparison to other partially supervised methods. Our objective is to make this comparison by retraining a two-step P300 speller on a subset of confident online trials using naïve labels taken from speller output, where confidence is determined either by (i) ErrP scores, (ii) posterior target scores derived from the P300 potential, or (iii) a hybrid of these scores. We further wish to evaluate the ability of partially supervised adaptation and retraining methods to adjust to a new stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA), a necessary step towards online SOA optimization. Approach. Eleven consenting able-bodied adults attended three online spelling sessions on separate days with feedback in which SOAs were set at 160 ms (sessions 1 and 2) and 80 ms (session 3). A post hoc offline analysis and a simulated online analysis were performed on sessions two and three to compare multiple adaptation methods. Area under the curve (AUC) and symbols spelled per minute (SPM) were the primary outcome measures. Main results. Retraining using supervised labels confirmed improvements of 0.9 percentage points (session 2, p < 0.01) and 1.9 percentage points (session 3, p < 0.05) in AUC using same-day training data over using data from a previous day, which supports classifier adaptation in general. Significance. Using posterior target score alone as a confidence measure resulted in the highest SPM of the partially supervised methods, indicating that ErrPs are not necessary to boost the performance of partially supervised adaptive classification. Partial supervision significantly improved SPM at a novel SOA, showing promise for eventual online SOA

  18. Stimulus Predifferentiation and Modification of Children's Racial Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Phyllis A.

    1973-01-01

    The most significant finding is that stimulus-predifferentiation training elicited lower prejudice scores for children on two indices of ethnic attitudes than did a no-label control condition. (Author)

  19. The Syk–NFAT–IL-2 Pathway in Dendritic Cells Is Required for Optimal Sterile Immunity Elicited by Alum Adjuvants

    PubMed Central

    Khameneh, Hanif Javanmard; Ho, Adrian W. S.; Spreafico, Roberto; Derks, Heidi; Quek, Hazel Q. Y.

    2017-01-01

    Despite a long history and extensive usage of insoluble aluminum salts (alum) as vaccine adjuvants, the molecular mechanisms underpinning Ag-specific immunity upon vaccination remain unclear. Dendritic cells (DCs) are crucial initiators of immune responses, but little is known about the molecular pathways used by DCs to sense alum and, in turn, activate T and B cells. In this article, we show that alum adjuvanticity requires IL-2 specifically released by DCs, even when T cell secretion of IL-2 is intact. We demonstrate that alum, as well as other sterile particulates, such as uric acid crystals, induces DCs to produce IL-2 following initiation of actin-mediated phagocytosis that leads to Src and Syk kinase activation, Ca2+ mobilization, and calcineurin-dependent activation of NFAT, the master transcription factor regulating IL-2 expression. Using chimeric mice, we show that DC-derived IL-2 is required for maximal Ag-specific proliferation of CD4+ T cells and optimal humoral responses following alum-adjuvanted immunization. These data identify DC-derived IL-2 as a key mediator of alum adjuvanticity in vivo and the Src–Syk pathway as a potential leverage point in the rational design of novel adjuvants. PMID:27895176

  20. Discriminative Learning of Receptive Fields from Responses to Non-Gaussian Stimulus Ensembles

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Arne F.; Diepenbrock, Jan-Philipp; Happel, Max F. K.; Ohl, Frank W.; Anemüller, Jörn

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of sensory neurons' processing characteristics requires simultaneous measurement of presented stimuli and concurrent spike responses. The functional transformation from high-dimensional stimulus space to the binary space of spike and non-spike responses is commonly described with linear-nonlinear models, whose linear filter component describes the neuron's receptive field. From a machine learning perspective, this corresponds to the binary classification problem of discriminating spike-eliciting from non-spike-eliciting stimulus examples. The classification-based receptive field (CbRF) estimation method proposed here adapts a linear large-margin classifier to optimally predict experimental stimulus-response data and subsequently interprets learned classifier weights as the neuron's receptive field filter. Computational learning theory provides a theoretical framework for learning from data and guarantees optimality in the sense that the risk of erroneously assigning a spike-eliciting stimulus example to the non-spike class (and vice versa) is minimized. Efficacy of the CbRF method is validated with simulations and for auditory spectro-temporal receptive field (STRF) estimation from experimental recordings in the auditory midbrain of Mongolian gerbils. Acoustic stimulation is performed with frequency-modulated tone complexes that mimic properties of natural stimuli, specifically non-Gaussian amplitude distribution and higher-order correlations. Results demonstrate that the proposed approach successfully identifies correct underlying STRFs, even in cases where second-order methods based on the spike-triggered average (STA) do not. Applied to small data samples, the method is shown to converge on smaller amounts of experimental recordings and with lower estimation variance than the generalized linear model and recent information theoretic methods. Thus, CbRF estimation may prove useful for investigation of neuronal processes in response to natural stimuli and

  1. Discriminative Stimulus Effects of Psychostimulants.

    PubMed

    Berquist, Michael D; Fantegrossi, William E

    2017-03-25

    Numerous drugs elicit locomotor stimulant effects at appropriate doses; however, we typically reserve the term psychostimulant to refer to drugs with affinity for monoamine reuptake transporters. This chapter comprises select experiments that have characterized the discriminative stimulus effects of psychostimulants using drug discrimination procedures. The substitution profiles of psychostimulants in laboratory rodents are generally consistent with those observed in human and nonhuman primate drug discrimination experiments. Notably, two major classes of psychostimulants can be distinguished as those that function as passive monoamine reuptake inhibitors (such as cocaine) and those that function as substrates for monoamine transporters and stimulate monoamine release (such as the amphetamines). Nevertheless, the discriminative stimulus effects of both classes of psychostimulant are quite similar, and drugs from different classes will substitute for one another. Most importantly, for both the cocaine-like and amphetamine-like psychostimulants, dopaminergic mechanisms most saliently determine discriminative stimulus effects, but these effects can be modulated by alterations in noradrenergic and serotonergic neurotransmission as well. Thusly, the drug discrimination assay is useful for characterizing the interoceptive effects of psychostimulants and determining the mechanisms that contribute to their subjective effects in humans.

  2. Stimulus concordance and risk-assessment in hermit crabs (Coenobita clypeatus): implications for attention.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Kelsea M; Blumstein, Daniel T; Blaisdell, Aaron P; Stahlman, W David

    2012-09-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that the topography of defensive reactions depends on factors that are extraneous to the stimulus that elicits the defensive response. For example, hermit crabs will withdraw more slowly to the approach of a simulated visual predator (i.e., the eliciting stimulus) when in the presence of a coincident acoustic stimulus. Multiple properties related to the magnitude (e.g., duration, amplitude) of the acoustic stimulus have been found to modulate the crabs' withdrawal response (Chan et al., 2010b). We demonstrate that the proximity in spatial location between a threatening visual stimulus and a potentially distracting extraneous auditory stimulus is an important determinant of anti-predator behavior in hermit crabs. We suggest that a distal relationship between the eliciting stimulus and an unrelated signal may produce greater distraction. This marks the first reported experimental evidence of this relationship in an invertebrate species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Multiple faces elicit augmented neural activity

    PubMed Central

    Puce, Aina; McNeely, Marie E.; Berrebi, Michael E.; Thompson, James C.; Hardee, Jillian; Brefczynski-Lewis, Julie

    2013-01-01

    How do our brains respond when we are being watched by a group of people?Despite the large volume of literature devoted to face processing, this question has received very little attention. Here we measured the effects on the face-sensitive N170 and other ERPs to viewing displays of one, two and three faces in two experiments. In Experiment 1, overall image brightness and contrast were adjusted to be constant, whereas in Experiment 2 local contrast and brightness of individual faces were not manipulated. A robust positive-negative-positive (P100-N170-P250) ERP complex and an additional late positive ERP, the P400, were elicited to all stimulus types. As the number of faces in the display increased, N170 amplitude increased for both stimulus sets, and latency increased in Experiment 2. P100 latency and P250 amplitude were affected by changes in overall brightness and contrast, but not by the number of faces in the display per se. In Experiment 1 when overall brightness and contrast were adjusted to be constant, later ERP (P250 and P400) latencies showed differences as a function of hemisphere. Hence, our data indicate that N170 increases its magnitude when multiple faces are seen, apparently impervious to basic low-level stimulus features including stimulus size. Outstanding questions remain regarding category-sensitive neural activity that is elicited to viewing multiple items of stimulus categories other than faces. PMID:23785327

  4. Stimulus Reporting Advances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2009-01-01

    Faced with their first reporting deadlines for economic-stimulus aid to education, school districts are toiling over how every stimulus penny has been spent so far and how many jobs have been saved--numbers that will be scrutinized not just by the public, but by government auditors as well. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, passed by…

  5. Stimulus Reporting Advances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2009-01-01

    Faced with their first reporting deadlines for economic-stimulus aid to education, school districts are toiling over how every stimulus penny has been spent so far and how many jobs have been saved--numbers that will be scrutinized not just by the public, but by government auditors as well. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, passed by…

  6. Stimulus-parity synaesthesia versus stimulus-dichotomy synaesthesia: Odd, even or something else?

    PubMed

    White, Rebekah C; Plassart, Anna

    2015-01-01

    In stimulus-parity synaesthesia, a range of stimuli-for example, letters, numbers, weekdays, months, and colours (the inducers)-elicit an automatic feeling of oddness or evenness (the concurrent). This phenomenon was first described by Théodore Flournoy in 1893, and has only recently been "rediscovered." Here, we describe an individual who experiences a comparable phenomenon, but uses the labels negative and positive rather than odd and even. Stimulus-parity synaesthesia may be broader than first supposed, and it is important that assessments are sensitive to this breadth.

  7. The Extent of Active Processing of a Long-Duration Stimulus Modulates the Scalp-Recorded Sustained Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Kenneth; Herzig, Alyssa; Jashmidi, Parastoo

    2009-01-01

    A long-duration stimulus will elicit a negative sustained potential (SP) that is maximum in amplitude over fronto-central areas of the scalp. This study examines how the duration of active attentional processing of the stimulus might also elicit a nonsensory contingent negative variation (CNV) that overlaps and summates to the SP. Subjects were…

  8. Asymmetrical Stimulus Generalization following Differential Fear Conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Sun Jung; Allen, Timothy A.; Jones, Lauren K.; Boguszewski, Pawel; Brown, Thomas H.

    2008-01-01

    Rodent ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are ethologically critical social signals. Rats emit 22 kHz USVs and 50 kHz USVs, respectively, in conjunction with negative and positive affective states. Little is known about what controls emotional reactivity to these social signals. Using male Sprague-Dawley rats, we examined unconditional and conditional freezing behavior in response to the following auditory stimuli: three 22 kHz USVs, a discontinuous tone whose frequency and on-off pattern matched one of the USVs, a continuous tone with the same or lower frequencies, a 4 kHz discontinuous tone with an on-off pattern matched to one of the USVs, and a 50 kHz USV. There were no differences among these stimuli in terms of the unconditional elicitation of freezing behavior. Thus, the stimuli were equally neutral before conditioning. During differential fear conditioning, one of these stimuli (the CS+) always co-terminated with a footshock unconditional stimulus (US) and another stimulus (the CS−) was explicitly unpaired with the US. There were no significant differences among these cues in CS+-elicited freezing behavior. Thus, the stimuli were equally salient or effective as cues in supporting fear conditioning. When the CS+ was a 22 kHz USV or a similar stimulus, rats discriminated based on the principal frequency and/or the temporal pattern of the stimulus. However, when these same stimuli served as the CS−, discrimination failed due to generalization from the CS+. Thus, the stimuli differed markedly in the specificity of conditioning. This strikingly asymmetrical stimulus generalization is a novel bias in discrimination. PMID:18434217

  9. Asymmetrical stimulus generalization following differential fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    Bang, Sun Jung; Allen, Timothy A; Jones, Lauren K; Boguszewski, Pawel; Brown, Thomas H

    2008-07-01

    Rodent ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are ethologically critical social signals. Rats emit 22kHz USVs and 50kHz USVs, respectively, in conjunction with negative and positive affective states. Little is known about what controls emotional reactivity to these social signals. Using male Sprague-Dawley rats, we examined unconditional and conditional freezing behavior in response to the following auditory stimuli: three 22kHz USVs, a discontinuous tone whose frequency and on-off pattern matched one of the USVs, a continuous tone with the same or lower frequencies, a 4kHz discontinuous tone with an on-off pattern matched to one of the USVs, and a 50kHz USV. There were no differences among these stimuli in terms of the unconditional elicitation of freezing behavior. Thus, the stimuli were equally neutral before conditioning. During differential fear conditioning, one of these stimuli (the CS(+)) always co-terminated with a footshock unconditional stimulus (US) and another stimulus (the CS(-)) was explicitly unpaired with the US. There were no significant differences among these cues in CS(+)-elicited freezing behavior. Thus, the stimuli were equally salient or effective as cues in supporting fear conditioning. When the CS(+) was a 22kHz USV or a similar stimulus, rats discriminated based on the principal frequency and/or the temporal pattern of the stimulus. However, when these same stimuli served as the CS(-), discrimination failed due to generalization from the CS(+). Thus, the stimuli differed markedly in the specificity of conditioning. This strikingly asymmetrical stimulus generalization is a novel bias in discrimination.

  10. Stimulus Responsive Nanoparticles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, Darran Robert (Inventor); Huebsch, Wade W. (Inventor); Sierros, Konstantinos A. (Inventor); Shafran, Matthew S. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Disclosed are various embodiments of methods and systems related to stimulus responsive nanoparticles. In one embodiment includes a stimulus responsive nanoparticle system, the system includes a first electrode, a second electrode, and a plurality of elongated electro-responsive nanoparticles dispersed between the first and second electrodes, the plurality of electro-responsive nanorods configured to respond to an electric field established between the first and second electrodes.

  11. Stimulus responsive nanoparticles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, Darren Robert (Inventor); Huebsch, Wade W. (Inventor); Sierros, Konstantinos A. (Inventor); Shafran, Matthew S. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Disclosed are various embodiments of methods and systems related to stimulus responsive nanoparticles. In one embodiment includes a stimulus responsive nanoparticle system, the system includes a first electrode, a second electrode, and a plurality of elongated electro-responsive nanoparticles dispersed between the first and second electrodes, the plurality of electro-responsive nanorods configured to respond to an electric field established between the first and second electrodes.

  12. The Stimulus test stand

    SciTech Connect

    Christofek, L.; Rapidis, P.; Reinhard, A.; /Fermilab

    2005-06-01

    The Stimulus Test Stand was originally constructed and assembled for testing the SVX2 ASIC readout and then upgraded for SVX3 ASIC prototyping and testing. We have modified this system for SVX4 ASIC [1] prototype testing. We described the individual components below. Additional details for other hardware for SVX4 testing can be found in reference [2]. We provide a description of the Stimulus Test Stand used for prototype testing of the SVX4 chip.

  13. Stimulus Responsive Nanoparticles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, Darran Robert (Inventor); Huebsch, Wade W. (Inventor); Sierros, Konstantinos A. (Inventor); Shafran, Matthew S. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Disclosed are various embodiments of methods and systems related to stimulus responsive nanoparticles. In one embodiment including a stimulus responsive nanoparticle system, the system includes a first electrode, a second electrode, and a plurality of elongated electro-responsive nanoparticles dispersed between the first and second electrodes, the plurality of electro-responsive nanorods configured to respond to an electric field established between the first and second electrodes.

  14. Ionic Mechanism Underlying Optimal Stimuli for Neuronal Excitation: Role of Na+ Channel Inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Clay, John R.; Forger, Daniel B.; Paydarfar, David

    2012-01-01

    The ionic mechanism underlying optimal stimulus shapes that induce a neuron to fire an action potential, or spike, is relevant to understanding optimal information transmission and therapeutic stimulation in the nervous system. Here we analyze for the first time the ionic basis for stimulus optimality in the Hodgkin and Huxley model and for eliciting a spike in squid giant axons, the preparation for which the model was devised. The experimentally determined stimulus is a smoothly varying biphasic current waveform having a relatively long and shallow hyperpolarizing phase followed by a depolarizing phase of briefer duration. The hyperpolarizing phase removes a small degree of the resting level of Na+ channel inactivation. This result together with the subsequent depolarizing phase provides a signal that is energetically more efficient for eliciting spikes than rectangular current pulses. Sodium channel inactivation is the only variable that is changed during the stimulus waveform, other than the membrane potential, V. The activation variables for Na+ and K+ channels are unchanged throughout the stimulus. This result demonstrates how an optimal stimulus waveform relates to ionic dynamics and may have implications for energy efficiency of neural excitation in many systems including the mammalian brain. PMID:23049913

  15. Ionic mechanism underlying optimal stimuli for neuronal excitation: role of Na+ channel inactivation.

    PubMed

    Clay, John R; Forger, Daniel B; Paydarfar, David

    2012-01-01

    The ionic mechanism underlying optimal stimulus shapes that induce a neuron to fire an action potential, or spike, is relevant to understanding optimal information transmission and therapeutic stimulation in the nervous system. Here we analyze for the first time the ionic basis for stimulus optimality in the Hodgkin and Huxley model and for eliciting a spike in squid giant axons, the preparation for which the model was devised. The experimentally determined stimulus is a smoothly varying biphasic current waveform having a relatively long and shallow hyperpolarizing phase followed by a depolarizing phase of briefer duration. The hyperpolarizing phase removes a small degree of the resting level of Na(+) channel inactivation. This result together with the subsequent depolarizing phase provides a signal that is energetically more efficient for eliciting spikes than rectangular current pulses. Sodium channel inactivation is the only variable that is changed during the stimulus waveform, other than the membrane potential, V. The activation variables for Na(+) and K(+) channels are unchanged throughout the stimulus. This result demonstrates how an optimal stimulus waveform relates to ionic dynamics and may have implications for energy efficiency of neural excitation in many systems including the mammalian brain.

  16. Patients’ values and preferences of the expected efficacy of hip arthroscopy for osteoarthritis: a protocol for a multinational structured interview-based study combined with a randomised survey on the optimal amount of information to elicit preferences

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuqing; Tikkinen, Kari A O; Agoritsas, Thomas; Ayeni, Olufemi R; Alexander, Paul; Imam, Maha; Yoo, Daniel; Tsalatsanis, Athanasios; Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Thabane, Lehana; Schünemann, Holger; Guyatt, Gordon H

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Symptomatic hip osteoarthritis (OA) is a disabling condition with up to a 25% cumulative lifetime risk. Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is effective in relieving patients’ symptoms and improving function. It is, however, associated with substantial risk of complications, pain and major functional limitation before patients can return to full function. In contrast, hip arthroscopy (HA) is less invasive and can postpone THA. However, there is no evidence regarding the delay in the need for THA that patients would find acceptable to undergoing HA. Knowing patients’ values and preferences (VP) on this expected delay is critical when making recommendations regarding the advisability of HA. Furthermore, little is known on the optimal amount of information regarding interventions and outcomes needed to present in order to optimally elicit patients’ VP. Methods and analysis We will perform a multinational, structured interview-based survey of preference in delay time for THA among patients with non-advanced OA who failed to respond to conservative therapy. We will combine these interviews with a randomised trial addressing the optimal amount of information regarding the interventions and outcomes required to elicit preferences. Eligible patients will be randomly assigned (1 : 1) to either a short or a long format of health scenarios of THA and HA. We will determine each patient's VP using a trade-off and anticipated regret exercises. Our primary outcomes for the combined surveys will be: (1) the minimal delay time in the need for THA surgery that patients would find acceptable to undertaking HA, (2) patients’ satisfaction with the amount of information provided in the health scenarios used to elicit their VPs. Ethics and dissemination The protocol has been approved by the Hamilton Integrated Research Ethics Board (HIREB13-506). We will disseminate our study findings through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations, and make them

  17. Ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials elicited with vibration applied to the teeth.

    PubMed

    Parker-George, Jennifer C; Bell, Steven L; Griffin, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether the method for eliciting vibration-induced oVEMPs could be improved by applying vibration directly to the teeth, and how vibration-induced oVEMP responses depend on the duration of the applied vibration. In 10 participants, a hand-held shaker was used to present 100-Hz vibration tone pips to the teeth via a customised bite-bar or to other parts of the head. oVEMP potentials were recorded in response to vibration in three orthogonal directions and five stimulus durations (10-180 ms). The oVEMP responses were analysed in terms of the peak latency onset, peak-to-peak amplitude, and the quality of the trace. Vibration applied to the teeth via the bite-bar produced oVEMPs that were more consistent, of higher quality and of greater amplitude than those evoked by vibration applied to the head. Longer duration stimuli produced longer duration oVEMP responses. One cycle duration stimuli produced responses that were smaller in amplitude and lower quality than the longer stimulus durations. Application of vibration via the teeth using a bite-bar is an effective means of producing oVEMPs. A 1-cycle stimulus is not optimal to evoke an oVEMP because it produces less robust responses than those of longer stimulus duration. A positive relationship between the duration of the stimulus and the response is consistent with the notion that the vibration-induced oVEMP is an oscillatory response to the motion of the head, rather than being a simple reflex response that occurs when the stimulus exceeds a threshold level of stimulation. Applying acceleration to the teeth through a bite-bar elicits clearer oVEMP responses than direct application to other parts of the head and has potential to improve clinical measurements. A 100-Hz 1-cycle stimulus produces less robust oVEMP responses than longer 100-Hz stimuli. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ludic Elicitation: Using Games for Knowledge Elicitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge elicitation from human beings is important for many fields, such as decision support systems, risk communication, and customer preference studying. Traditional approaches include observations, questionnaires, structured and semi-structured interviews, and group discussions. Many publications have been studying different techniques for a…

  19. Ludic Elicitation: Using Games for Knowledge Elicitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge elicitation from human beings is important for many fields, such as decision support systems, risk communication, and customer preference studying. Traditional approaches include observations, questionnaires, structured and semi-structured interviews, and group discussions. Many publications have been studying different techniques for a…

  20. Stimulus control: Part II

    PubMed Central

    Dinsmoor, James A.

    1995-01-01

    The second part of my tutorial stresses the systematic importance of two parameters of discrimination training: (a) the magnitude of the physical difference between the positive and the negative stimulus (disparity) and (b) the magnitude of the difference between the positive stimulus, in particular, and the background stimulation (salience). It then examines the role these variables play in such complex phenomena as blocking and overshadowing, progressive discrimination training, and the transfer of control by fading. It concludes by considering concept formation and imitation, which are important forms of application, and recent work on equivalence relations. PMID:22478222

  1. Unnoticed regularity violation elicits change-related brain activity.

    PubMed

    Czigler, István; Pató, Lívia

    2009-03-01

    Event-related brain electric activity (ERP) was investigated to unnoticed visual changes. The orientation of grid elements (vertical or horizontal) changed after the presentation of 10-15 identical stimuli. The grid patterns were task irrelevant, and were presented in the background of a shape discrimination task. During the first half of the session, participants were unaware of the stimulus change. However, in comparison to the ERPs to the fifth identical stimuli, stimulus change elicited posterior negativities in the 270-375 ms range (visual mismatch negativity, vMMN). With participants instructed on the stimulus change, negativities emerged with earlier onset and with wider distribution. When stimulus change was preceded by only two identical stimuli, there were no such ERP effects. As the results show, a longer sequence of identical unattended stimuli may establish the memory representation of stimulus regularity, and violation of regularity is indicated by posterior negative ERP components (vMMN).

  2. Alteration of neural action potential patterns by axonal stimulation: the importance of stimulus location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crago, Patrick E.; Makowski, Nathaniel S.

    2014-10-01

    Objective. Stimulation of peripheral nerves is often superimposed on ongoing motor and sensory activity in the same axons, without a quantitative model of the net action potential train at the axon endpoint. Approach. We develop a model of action potential patterns elicited by superimposing constant frequency axonal stimulation on the action potentials arriving from a physiologically activated neural source. The model includes interactions due to collision block, resetting of the neural impulse generator, and the refractory period of the axon at the point of stimulation. Main results. Both the mean endpoint firing rate and the probability distribution of the action potential firing periods depend strongly on the relative firing rates of the two sources and the intersite conduction time between them. When the stimulus rate exceeds the neural rate, neural action potentials do not reach the endpoint and the rate of endpoint action potentials is the same as the stimulus rate, regardless of the intersite conduction time. However, when the stimulus rate is less than the neural rate, and the intersite conduction time is short, the two rates partially sum. Increases in stimulus rate produce non-monotonic increases in endpoint rate and continuously increasing block of neurally generated action potentials. Rate summation is reduced and more neural action potentials are blocked as the intersite conduction time increases. At long intersite conduction times, the endpoint rate simplifies to being the maximum of either the neural or the stimulus rate. Significance. This study highlights the potential of increasing the endpoint action potential rate and preserving neural information transmission by low rate stimulation with short intersite conduction times. Intersite conduction times can be decreased with proximal stimulation sites for muscles and distal stimulation sites for sensory endings. The model provides a basis for optimizing experiments and designing neuroprosthetic

  3. Alteration of neural action potential patterns by axonal stimulation: the importance of stimulus location.

    PubMed

    Crago, Patrick E; Makowski, Nathaniel S

    2014-10-01

    Stimulation of peripheral nerves is often superimposed on ongoing motor and sensory activity in the same axons, without a quantitative model of the net action potential train at the axon endpoint. We develop a model of action potential patterns elicited by superimposing constant frequency axonal stimulation on the action potentials arriving from a physiologically activated neural source. The model includes interactions due to collision block, resetting of the neural impulse generator, and the refractory period of the axon at the point of stimulation. Both the mean endpoint firing rate and the probability distribution of the action potential firing periods depend strongly on the relative firing rates of the two sources and the intersite conduction time between them. When the stimulus rate exceeds the neural rate, neural action potentials do not reach the endpoint and the rate of endpoint action potentials is the same as the stimulus rate, regardless of the intersite conduction time. However, when the stimulus rate is less than the neural rate, and the intersite conduction time is short, the two rates partially sum. Increases in stimulus rate produce non-monotonic increases in endpoint rate and continuously increasing block of neurally generated action potentials. Rate summation is reduced and more neural action potentials are blocked as the intersite conduction time increases. At long intersite conduction times, the endpoint rate simplifies to being the maximum of either the neural or the stimulus rate. This study highlights the potential of increasing the endpoint action potential rate and preserving neural information transmission by low rate stimulation with short intersite conduction times. Intersite conduction times can be decreased with proximal stimulation sites for muscles and distal stimulation sites for sensory endings. The model provides a basis for optimizing experiments and designing neuroprosthetic interventions involving motor or sensory stimulation.

  4. Alteration of neural action potential patterns by axonal stimulation: the importance of stimulus location

    PubMed Central

    Crago, Patrick E; Makowski, Nathan S

    2014-01-01

    Objective Stimulation of peripheral nerves is often superimposed on ongoing motor and sensory activity in the same axons, without a quantitative model of the net action potential train at the axon endpoint. Approach We develop a model of action potential patterns elicited by superimposing constant frequency axonal stimulation on the action potentials arriving from a physiologically activated neural source. The model includes interactions due to collision block, resetting of the neural impulse generator, and the refractory period of the axon at the point of stimulation. Main Results Both the mean endpoint firing rate and the probability distribution of the action potential firing periods depend strongly on the relative firing rates of the two sources and the intersite conduction time between them. When the stimulus rate exceeds the neural rate, neural action potentials do not reach the endpoint and the rate of endpoint action potentials is the same as the stimulus rate, regardless of the intersite conduction time. However, when the stimulus rate is less than the neural rate, and the intersite conduction time is short, the two rates partially sum. Increases in stimulus rate produce non-monotonic increases in endpoint rate and continuously increasing block of neurally generated action potentials. Rate summation is reduced and more neural action potentials are blocked as the intersite conduction time increases.. At long intersite conduction times, the endpoint rate simplifies to being the maximum of either the neural or the stimulus rate. Significance This study highlights the potential of increasing the endpoint action potential rate and preserving neural information transmission by low rate stimulation with short intersite conduction times. Intersite conduction times can be decreased with proximal stimulation sites for muscles and distal stimulation sites for sensory endings. The model provides a basis for optimizing experiments and designing neuroprosthetic

  5. Interests and Stimulus Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kish, George B.; Donnenwerth, Gregory V.

    1969-01-01

    Examines relationships between Sensation-Seeking Scale (SSS) and vocational interests measured by the Kuder and Strong Vocational Interest Blank, among alcoholics and undergraduates. Results support construct validity of the SSS and provide further evidence of modes of expression of stimulus-seeking needs in personality. (Author/CJ)

  6. Reflections on Stimulus Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidman, Murray

    2008-01-01

    The topic of stimulus control is too broad and complex to be traceable here. It would probably take a two-semester course to cover just the highlights of that field's evolution. The more restricted topic of equivalence relations has itself become so broad that even an introductory summary requires more time than we have available. An examination…

  7. Adaptation to second order stimulus features by electrosensory neurons causes ambiguity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhubo D.; Chacron, Maurice J.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the coding strategies used to process sensory input remains a central problem in neuroscience. Growing evidence suggests that sensory systems process natural stimuli efficiently by ensuring a close match between neural tuning and stimulus statistics through adaptation. However, adaptation causes ambiguity as the same response can be elicited by different stimuli. The mechanisms by which the brain resolves ambiguity remain poorly understood. Here we investigated adaptation in electrosensory pyramidal neurons within different parallel maps in the weakly electric fish Apteronotus leptorhynchus. In response to step increases in stimulus variance, we found that pyramidal neurons within the lateral segment (LS) displayed strong scale invariant adaptation whereas those within the centromedial segment (CMS) instead displayed weaker degrees of scale invariant adaptation. Signal detection analysis revealed that strong adaptation in LS neurons significantly reduced stimulus discriminability. In contrast, weaker adaptation displayed by CMS neurons led to significantly lesser impairment of discriminability. Thus, while LS neurons display adaptation that is matched to natural scene statistics, thereby optimizing information transmission, CMS neurons instead display weaker adaptation and would instead provide information about the context in which these statistics occur. We propose that such a scheme is necessary for decoding by higher brain structures. PMID:27349635

  8. Adaptation to second order stimulus features by electrosensory neurons causes ambiguity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhubo D; Chacron, Maurice J

    2016-06-28

    Understanding the coding strategies used to process sensory input remains a central problem in neuroscience. Growing evidence suggests that sensory systems process natural stimuli efficiently by ensuring a close match between neural tuning and stimulus statistics through adaptation. However, adaptation causes ambiguity as the same response can be elicited by different stimuli. The mechanisms by which the brain resolves ambiguity remain poorly understood. Here we investigated adaptation in electrosensory pyramidal neurons within different parallel maps in the weakly electric fish Apteronotus leptorhynchus. In response to step increases in stimulus variance, we found that pyramidal neurons within the lateral segment (LS) displayed strong scale invariant adaptation whereas those within the centromedial segment (CMS) instead displayed weaker degrees of scale invariant adaptation. Signal detection analysis revealed that strong adaptation in LS neurons significantly reduced stimulus discriminability. In contrast, weaker adaptation displayed by CMS neurons led to significantly lesser impairment of discriminability. Thus, while LS neurons display adaptation that is matched to natural scene statistics, thereby optimizing information transmission, CMS neurons instead display weaker adaptation and would instead provide information about the context in which these statistics occur. We propose that such a scheme is necessary for decoding by higher brain structures.

  9. Optimization and reliability of multiple postlabeling delay pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling during rest and stimulus-induced functional task activation

    PubMed Central

    Mezue, Melvin; Segerdahl, Andrew R; Okell, Thomas W; Chappell, Michael A; Kelly, Michael E; Tracey, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) sequences that incorporate multiple postlabeling delay (PLD) times allow estimation of when arterial blood signal arrives within a region of interest. Sequences that account for such variability may improve the reliability of ASL and therefore make the technique well suited for future clinical and experimental investigations of cerebral perfusion. This study assessed the within- and between-session reproducibility of an optimized pseudo-continuous ASL (pCASL) functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) sequence that incorporates multiple postlabeling delays (multi-PLD pCASL). Healthy subjects underwent four identical scans separated by 30 minutes, 1 week, and 1 month using multi-PLD pCASL to image absolute perfusion (cerebral blood flow (CBF) and arterial arrival time (AAT)) during both rest and a visual-cued motor task. We show good test-retest reliability, with strong consistency across subjects and sessions during rest (inter-session within-subject coefficient of variation: gray matter (GM) CBF=6.44% GM AAT=2.20%). We also report high sensitivity and reproducibility during the functional task, where we show robust task-related decreases in AAT corresponding with regions of increased CBF. Importantly, these results give insight into optimal PLD selection for future investigations using single-PLD ASL to image different brain regions, and highlight the necessity of multi-PLD ASL when imaging perfusion in the whole brain. PMID:25269517

  10. Stimulus Variables and Interpersonal Attraction: The Stimulus Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffitt, William

    In interpersonal attraction, studies and judgment research evaluation of a stimulus is often a function of the context within which the stimulus appears. The first experiment was designed to examine "contrast effects" (shifts in the rated value of a stimulus away from the contextual values) when all attitudinal information was received from two…

  11. Stimulus Recognition and Associative Coding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runquist, Willard N.; Evans, Annabel

    1972-01-01

    Purpose of this experiment was to investigate the relationship between stimulus recognition and various learning conditions which were designed to affect both stimulus encoding and associative learning in a paired-associate task. (Authors)

  12. Both mutated and unmutated memory B cells accumulate mutations in the course of the secondary response and develop a new antibody repertoire optimally adapted to the secondary stimulus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    High-affinity memory B cells are preferentially selected during secondary responses and rapidly differentiate into antibody-producing cells. However, it remains unknown whether only high-affinity, mutated memory B cells simply expand to dominate the secondary response or if in fact memory B cells with a diverse VH repertoire, including those with no mutations, accumulate somatic mutations to create a new repertoire through the process of affinity maturation. In this report, we took a new approach to address this question by analyzing the VH gene repertoire of IgG1+ memory B cells before and after antigen re-exposure in a host unable to generate IgG+ B cells. We show here that both mutated and unmutated IgG1+ memory B cells respond to secondary challenge and expand while accumulating somatic mutations in their VH genes in a stepwise manner. Both types of memory cells subsequently established a VH gene repertoire dominated by two major clonotypes, which are distinct from the original repertoire before antigen re-exposure. In addition, heavily mutated memory B cells were excluded from the secondary repertoire. Thus, both mutated and unmutated IgG1+ memory cells equally contribute to establish a new antibody repertoire through a dynamic process of mutation and selection, becoming optimally adapted to the recall challenge. PMID:24021876

  13. Using independent component analysis to remove artifacts in visual cortex responses elicited by electrical stimulation of the optic nerve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yiliang; Cao, Pengjia; Sun, Jingjing; Wang, Jing; Li, Liming; Ren, Qiushi; Chen, Yao; Chai, Xinyu

    2012-04-01

    In visual prosthesis research, electrically evoked potentials (EEPs) can be elicited by one or more biphasic current pulses delivered to the optic nerve (ON) through penetrating electrodes. Multi-channel EEPs recorded from the visual cortex usually contain large stimulus artifacts caused by instantaneous electrotonic current spread through the brain tissue. These stimulus artifacts contaminate the EEP waveform and often make subsequent analysis of the underlying neural responses difficult. This is particularly serious when investigating EEPs in response to electrical stimulation with long duration and multi-pulses. We applied independent component analysis (ICA) to remove these electrical stimulation-induced artifacts during the development of a visual prosthesis. Multi-channel signals were recorded from visual cortices of five rabbits in response to ON electrical stimulation with various stimulus parameters. ON action potentials were then blocked by lidocaine in order to acquire cortical potentials only including stimulus artifacts. Correlation analysis of reconstructed artifacts by ICA and artifacts recorded after blocking the ON indicates successful removal of artifacts from electrical stimulation by the ICA method. This technique has potential applications in studies designed to optimize the electrical stimulation parameters used by visual prostheses.

  14. Eliciting Sound Memories.

    PubMed

    Harris, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Sensory experiences are often considered triggers of memory, most famously a little French cake dipped in lime blossom tea. Sense memory can also be evoked in public history research through techniques of elicitation. In this article I reflect on different social science methods for eliciting sound memories such as the use of sonic prompts, emplaced interviewing, and sound walks. I include examples from my research on medical listening. The article considers the relevance of this work for the conduct of oral histories, arguing that such methods "break the frame," allowing room for collaborative research connections and insights into the otherwise unarticulatable.

  15. Understanding smell--the olfactory stimulus problem.

    PubMed

    Auffarth, Benjamin

    2013-09-01

    The main problem with sensory processing is the difficulty in relating sensory input to physiological responses and perception. This is especially problematic at higher levels of processing, where complex cues elicit highly specific responses. In olfaction, this relationship is particularly obfuscated by the difficulty of characterizing stimulus statistics and perception. The core questions in olfaction are hence the so-called stimulus problem, which refers to the understanding of the stimulus, and the structure-activity and structure-odor relationships, which refer to the molecular basis of smell. It is widely accepted that the recognition of odorants by receptors is governed by the detection of physico-chemical properties and that the physical space is highly complex. Not surprisingly, ideas differ about how odor stimuli should be classified and about the very nature of information that the brain extracts from odors. Even though there are many measures for smell, there is none that accurately describes all aspects of it. Here, we summarize recent developments in the understanding of olfaction. We argue that an approach to olfactory function where information processing is emphasized could contribute to a high degree to our understanding of smell as a perceptual phenomenon emerging from neural computations. Further, we argue that combined analysis of the stimulus, biology, physiology, and behavior and perception can provide new insights into olfactory function. We hope that the reader can use this review as a competent guide and overview of research activities in olfactory physiology, psychophysics, computation, and psychology. We propose avenues for research, particularly in the systematic characterization of receptive fields and of perception. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Lateral geniculate body evoked potentials elicited by visual and electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Chang Wook; Kim, Pan Sang; Shin, Sun Ae; Yang, Ji Yeon; Yang, Yun Sik

    2014-08-01

    Blind individuals who have photoreceptor loss are known to perceive phosphenes with electrical stimulation of their remaining retinal ganglion cells. We proposed that implantable lateral geniculate body (LGB) stimulus electrode arrays could be used to generate phosphene vision. We attempted to refine the basic reference of the electrical evoked potentials (EEPs) elicited by microelectrical stimulations of the optic nerve, optic tract and LGB of a domestic pig, and then compared it to visual evoked potentials (VEPs) elicited by short-flash stimuli. For visual function measurement, VEPs in response to short-flash stimuli on the left eye of the domestic pig were assessed over the visual cortex at position Oz with the reference electrode at Fz. After anesthesia, linearly configured platinum wire electrodes were inserted into the optic nerve, optic track and LGB. To determine the optimal stimulus current, EEPs were recorded repeatedly with controlling the pulse and power. The threshold of current and charge density to elicit EEPs at 0.3 ms pulse duration was about ±10 µA. Our experimental results showed that visual cortex activity can be effectively evoked by stimulation of the optic nerve, optic tract and LGB using penetrating electrodes. The latency of P1 was more shortened as the electrical stimulation was closer to LGB. The EEPs of two-channel in the visual cortex demonstrated a similar pattern with stimulation of different spots of the stimulating electrodes. We found that the LGB-stimulated EEP pattern was very similar to the simultaneously generated VEP on the control side, although implicit time deferred. EEPs and VEPs derived from visual-system stimulation were compared. The LGB-stimulated EEP wave demonstrated a similar pattern to the VEP waveform except implicit time, indicating prosthetic-based electrical stimulation of the LGB could be utilized for the blind to perceive vision of phosphenes.

  17. Sublingual administration of a helper-dependent adenoviral vector expressing the codon-optimized soluble fusion glycoprotein of human respiratory syncytial virus elicits protective immunity in mice.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yuan-hui; Jiao, Yue-Ying; He, Jin-sheng; Giang, Gui-Yuan; Zhang, Wei; Yan, Yi-Fei; Ma, Yao; Hua, Ying; Zhang, Ying; Peng, Xiang-Lei; Shi, Chang-Xin; Hong, Tao

    2014-05-01

    Sublingual (s.l.) immunization has been described as a convenient and safe way to induce mucosal immune responses in the respiratory and genital tracts. We constructed a helper-dependent adenoviral (HDAd) vector expressing a condon-optimized soluble fusion glycoprotein (sFsyn) of respiratory syncytial virus (HDAd-sFsyn) and explored the potential of s.l. immunization with HDAd-sFsyn to stimulate immune responses in the respiratory mucosa. The RSV specific systemic and mucosal immune responses were generated in BALB/c mice, and the serum IgG with neutralizing activity was significantly elevated after homologous boost with s.l. application of HDAd-sFsyn. Humoral immune responses could be measured even 14weeks after a single immunization. Upon challenge, s.l. immunization with HDAd-sFsyn displayed an effective protection against RSV infection. These findings suggest that s.l. administration of HDAd-sFsyn acts as an effective and safe mucosal vaccine against RSV infection, and may be a useful tool in the prevention of RSV infection.

  18. Discrimination learning during the first year: stimulus and positional cues.

    PubMed

    Colombo, J; Mitchell, D W; Coldren, J T; Atwater, J D

    1990-01-01

    In four studies, 3-, 6-, and 9-month-old human infants were tested in a discrimination learning task in which visual fixation to a particular stimulus or lateral position was reinforced with an auditory stimulus. In Experiment 1, all age groups exhibited acquisition, extinction, and reinstatement of fixation to the reinforced target or position. Experiment 2 revealed that 3-month-olds retained the positional discrimination but not the stimulus discrimination after a 5-min delay between acquisition and extinction; older infants retained both types of discriminations. In Experiments 3 and 4 we investigated a possible developmental shift in the dominance of positional versus stimulus cues by training infants on displays in which stimulus and position were confounded and then by dissociating the cues on test trials. Results from both experiments indicated positional cue dominance for young infants and stimulus cue dominance for older infants. The findings are discussed in terms of differences in the attentional demands elicited by proprioceptive versus exteroceptive cues.

  19. Alterations to multisensory and unisensory integration by stimulus competition

    PubMed Central

    Rowland, Benjamin A.; Stanford, Terrence R.; Stein, Barry E.

    2011-01-01

    In environments containing sensory events at competing locations, selecting a target for orienting requires prioritization of stimulus values. Although the superior colliculus (SC) is causally linked to the stimulus selection process, the manner in which SC multisensory integration operates in a competitive stimulus environment is unknown. Here we examined how the activity of visual-auditory SC neurons is affected by placement of a competing target in the opposite hemifield, a stimulus configuration that would, in principle, promote interhemispheric competition for access to downstream motor circuitry. Competitive interactions between the targets were evident in how they altered unisensory and multisensory responses of individual neurons. Responses elicited by a cross-modal stimulus (multisensory responses) proved to be substantially more resistant to competitor-induced depression than were unisensory responses (evoked by the component modality-specific stimuli). Similarly, when a cross-modal stimulus served as the competitor, it exerted considerably more depression than did its individual component stimuli, in some cases producing more depression than predicted by their linear sum. These findings suggest that multisensory integration can help resolve competition among multiple targets by enhancing orientation to the location of cross-modal events while simultaneously suppressing orientation to events at alternate locations. PMID:21957224

  20. Neural Correlates of Stimulus Reportability

    PubMed Central

    Hulme, Oliver J.; Friston, Karl F.; Zeki, Semir

    2012-01-01

    Most experiments on the “neural correlates of consciousness” employ stimulus reportability as an operational definition of what is consciously perceived. The interpretation of such experiments therefore depends critically on understanding the neural basis of stimulus reportability. Using a high volume of fMRI data, we investigated the neural correlates of stimulus reportability using a partial report object detection paradigm. Subjects were presented with a random array of circularly arranged disc-stimuli and were cued, after variable delays (following stimulus offset), to report the presence or absence of a disc at the cued location, using variable motor actions. By uncoupling stimulus processing, decision, and motor response, we were able to use signal detection theory to deconstruct the neural basis of stimulus reportability. We show that retinotopically specific responses in the early visual cortex correlate with stimulus processing but not decision or report; a network of parietal/temporal regions correlates with decisions but not stimulus presence, whereas classical motor regions correlate with report. These findings provide a basic framework for understanding the neural basis of stimulus reportability without the theoretical burden of presupposing a relationship between reportability and consciousness. PMID:18823251

  1. Stimulus effects on local preference: stimulus-response contingencies, stimulus-food pairing, and stimulus-food correlation.

    PubMed

    Davison, Michael; Baum, William M

    2010-01-01

    Four pigeons were trained in a procedure in which concurrent-schedule food ratios changed unpredictably across seven unsignaled components after 10 food deliveries. Additional green-key stimulus presentations also occurred on the two alternatives, sometimes in the same ratio as the component food ratio, and sometimes in the inverse ratio. In eight experimental conditions, we varied the contingencies surrounding these additional stimuli: In two conditions, stimulus onset and offset were noncontingent; in another two, stimulus onset was noncontingent, and offset was response contingent. In four conditions, both stimulus onset and offset were contingent, and in two of these conditions the stimulus was simultaneously paired with food delivery. Sensitivity to component food ratios was significantly higher when stimulus onset was response contingent compared to when it was noncontingent. Choice changes following food delivery were similar in all eight conditions. Choice changes following stimuli were smaller than those following food, and directionally were completely determined by the food-ratio:stimulus-ratio correlation, not by the stimulus contingency nor by whether the stimulus was paired with food or not. These results support the idea that conditional reinforcers may best be viewed as signals for next-food location rather than as stimuli that have acquired hedonic value, at least when the signals are differential with respect to future conditions.

  2. Issues in Requirements Elicitation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    systems approach: characterized by Checkland’s Soft Systems Methodology (SSM), which is discussed briefly in Appendix A.6; emphasizes the subjectivity of...methodology for requirements elicitation. A.6 Notes on SSM Both the definition of methodology and the philosophy behind soft systems methodology (SSM...1986. [Checkland 89a] Checkland, Peter. Soft Systems Methodology . Rational Analysis for a Problematic World. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 71-100

  3. Stimulus Equivalence, Generalization, and Contextual Stimulus Control in Verbal Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigurdardottir, Zuilma Gabriela; Mackay, Harry A.; Green, Gina

    2012-01-01

    Stimulus generalization and contextual control affect the development of equivalence classes. Experiment 1 demonstrated primary stimulus generalization from the members of trained equivalence classes. Adults were taught to match six spoken Icelandic nouns and corresponding printed words and pictures to one another in computerized three-choice…

  4. Stimulus Equivalence, Generalization, and Contextual Stimulus Control in Verbal Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigurdardottir, Zuilma Gabriela; Mackay, Harry A.; Green, Gina

    2012-01-01

    Stimulus generalization and contextual control affect the development of equivalence classes. Experiment 1 demonstrated primary stimulus generalization from the members of trained equivalence classes. Adults were taught to match six spoken Icelandic nouns and corresponding printed words and pictures to one another in computerized three-choice…

  5. Correlations among stimuli affect stimulus matching and stimulus liking.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Dióghenes; Tonneau, François

    2016-09-01

    Human subjects were exposed to AB, AC stimulus pairs and then to matching-to-sample tests of stimulus equivalence (B-A, C-A, B-C, C-B) or to a task in which stimulus compounds (BA, CA, BC, CB) were rated for attractiveness. Matching-to-sample tests revealed emergent B-A, C-A, B-C, and C-B choices, replicating previous results in the literature. The mean proportion of correct, emergent choices increased as a function of exposure to the AB, AC pairs. On the rating task, the liking scores of all stimulus compounds also increased as a function of exposure to the AB, AC pairs. After limited exposure to these pairs, however, the liking scores of the BC and CB compounds were negative. These findings are discussed in relation to perceptual and associative perspectives on the behavioral effects of stimulus correlations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Biologically inspired robots elicit a robust fear response in zebrafish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladu, Fabrizio; Bartolini, Tiziana; Panitz, Sarah G.; Butail, Sachit; Macrı, Simone; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the behavioral response of zebrafish to three fear-evoking stimuli. In a binary choice test, zebrafish are exposed to a live allopatric predator, a biologically-inspired robot, and a computer-animated image of the live predator. A target tracking algorithm is developed to score zebrafish behavior. Unlike computer-animated images, the robotic and live predator elicit a robust avoidance response. Importantly, the robotic stimulus elicits more consistent inter-individual responses than the live predator. Results from this effort are expected to aid in hypothesis-driven studies on zebrafish fear response, by offering a valuable approach to maximize data-throughput and minimize animal subjects.

  7. Modulation of stimulus contrast on the human pupil orienting response.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chin-An; Munoz, Douglas P

    2014-09-01

    The sudden appearance of a novel stimulus initiates a series of responses to orient the body for appropriate actions, including not only shifts of gaze and attention, but also transient pupil dilation. Modulation of pupil dynamics by stimulus properties is less understood, although its effects on other components of orienting have been extensively explored. Microstimulation of the superior colliculus evoked transient pupil dilation, and the initial component of pupil dilation evoked by microstimulation was similar to that elicited by the presentation of salient sensory stimuli, suggesting a coordinated role of the superior colliculus on this behavior, although evidence in humans is yet to be established. To examine pupil orienting responses in humans, we presented visual stimuli while participants fixated on a central visual spot. Transient pupil dilation in humans was elicited after presentation of a visual stimulus in the periphery. The evoked pupil responses were modulated systematically by stimulus contrast, with faster and larger pupil responses triggered by higher contrast stimuli. The pupil response onset latencies for high contrast stimuli were similar to those produced by the light reflex and significantly faster than the darkness reflex, suggesting that the initial component of pupil dilation is probably mediated by inhibition of the parasympathetic pathway. The contrast modulation was pronounced under different levels of baseline pupil size. Together, our results demonstrate visual contrast modulation on the orienting pupil response in humans.

  8. Stimulus control and associative learning.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, B A

    1984-01-01

    Interest in operant research on stimulus control has declined at the same time that much interest has burgeoned in nonoperant areas. Several examples of this shift toward traditional learning theory are considered, all of which have sponsored theoretical approaches that attempt to characterize the underlying associative units. These theoretical approaches are defended on the grounds that they have generated a deeper understanding of a variety of often puzzling phenomena. My projection is that future research will be determined even more strongly by theories about the structure of associations. Particular issues for which such discussion will have major impact include (1) whether conditional stimulus control is qualitatively different than simpler forms of stimulus control, (2) whether stimulus control is organized hierarchically, and (3) the origin of categories of stimulus equivalence. PMID:6520579

  9. Suprachoroidal electrical stimulation: effects of stimulus pulse parameters on visual cortical responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Sam E.; Shivdasani, Mohit N.; Williams, Chris E.; Morley, John W.; Shepherd, Robert K.; Rathbone, Graeme D.; Fallon, James B.

    2013-10-01

    Objective. Neural responses to biphasic constant current pulses depend on stimulus pulse parameters such as polarity, duration, amplitude and interphase gap. The objective of this study was to systematically evaluate and optimize stimulus pulse parameters for a suprachoroidal retinal prosthesis. Approach. Normally sighted cats were acutely implanted with platinum electrode arrays in the suprachoroidal space. Monopolar stimulation comprised of monophasic and biphasic constant current pulses with varying polarity, pulse duration and interphase gap. Multiunit responses to electrical stimulation were recorded in the visual cortex. Main results. Anodal stimulation elicited cortical responses with shorter latencies and required lower charge per phase than cathodal stimulation. Clinically relevant retinal stimulation required relatively larger charge per phase compared with other neural prostheses. Increasing the interphase gap of biphasic pulses reduced the threshold of activation; however, the benefits of using an interphase gap need to be considered in light of the pulse duration and polarity used and other stimulation constraints. Based on our results, anodal first biphasic pulses between 300-1200 µs are recommended for suprachoroidal retinal stimulation. Significance. These results provide insights into the efficacy of different pulse parameters for suprachoroidal retinal stimulation and have implications for the design of safe and clinically relevant stimulators for retinal prostheses.

  10. Suprachoroidal electrical stimulation: effects of stimulus pulse parameters on visual cortical responses.

    PubMed

    John, Sam E; Shivdasani, Mohit N; Williams, Chris E; Morley, John W; Shepherd, Robert K; Rathbone, Graeme D; Fallon, James B

    2013-10-01

    Neural responses to biphasic constant current pulses depend on stimulus pulse parameters such as polarity, duration, amplitude and interphase gap. The objective of this study was to systematically evaluate and optimize stimulus pulse parameters for a suprachoroidal retinal prosthesis. Normally sighted cats were acutely implanted with platinum electrode arrays in the suprachoroidal space. Monopolar stimulation comprised of monophasic and biphasic constant current pulses with varying polarity, pulse duration and interphase gap. Multiunit responses to electrical stimulation were recorded in the visual cortex. Anodal stimulation elicited cortical responses with shorter latencies and required lower charge per phase than cathodal stimulation. Clinically relevant retinal stimulation required relatively larger charge per phase compared with other neural prostheses. Increasing the interphase gap of biphasic pulses reduced the threshold of activation; however, the benefits of using an interphase gap need to be considered in light of the pulse duration and polarity used and other stimulation constraints. Based on our results, anodal first biphasic pulses between 300-1200 µs are recommended for suprachoroidal retinal stimulation. These results provide insights into the efficacy of different pulse parameters for suprachoroidal retinal stimulation and have implications for the design of safe and clinically relevant stimulators for retinal prostheses.

  11. Reinforcing concomitants of electrically elicited vocalizations.

    PubMed

    Jürgens, U

    1976-09-24

    In 38 squirrel monkeys 251 vocalization-producing electrode positions were tested for their positive and negative reinforcing properties. Two groups of vocalization-producing brain areas could be distinguished: One group in which the electrically elicited vocalization was independent of the accompanying reinforcement effect, and a second group in which vocalization and reinforcement effect were correlated. The first group included the anterior cingulate gyrus, the adjacent supplementary motor area, gyrus rectus, ventromedial edge of the capsula interna, caudal periaqueductal gray and adjacent parabrachial region. The second group consited of the caudatum, septum, substantia innominata, amygdala, inferior thalamic peduncle, stria terminalis, midline thalamus, ventral and periventricular hypothalamus, substantia nigra, rostral periaqueductal gray, dorsolateral midbrain tegmentum and lateral medulla. It is hypothesized that the first group contains predominantly or exclusively "primary" vocalization substrates; the second group is thought to be composed mainly of structures whose stimulation yields vocalization secondarily due to stimulus induced motivational changes.

  12. Temporal characteristics of gustatory responses in rat parabrachial neurons vary by stimulus and chemosensitive neuron type.

    PubMed

    Geran, Laura; Travers, Susan

    2013-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that temporal features of spike trains can increase the amount of information available for gustatory processing. However, the nature of these temporal characteristics and their relationship to different taste qualities and neuron types are not well-defined. The present study analyzed the time course of taste responses from parabrachial (PBN) neurons elicited by multiple applications of "sweet" (sucrose), "salty" (NaCl), "sour" (citric acid), and "bitter" (quinine and cycloheximide) stimuli in an acute preparation. Time course varied significantly by taste stimulus and best-stimulus classification. Across neurons, the ensemble code for the three electrolytes was similar initially but quinine diverged from NaCl and acid during the second 500 ms of stimulation and all four qualities became distinct just after 1s. This temporal evolution was reflected in significantly broader tuning during the initial response. Metric space analyses of quality discrimination by individual neurons showed that increases in information (H) afforded by temporal factors was usually explained by differences in rate envelope, which had a greater impact during the initial 2s (22.5% increase in H) compared to the later response (9.5%). Moreover, timing had a differential impact according to cell type, with between-quality discrimination in neurons activated maximally by NaCl or citric acid most affected. Timing was also found to dramatically improve within-quality discrimination (80% increase in H) in neurons that responded optimally to bitter stimuli (B-best). Spikes from B-best neurons were also more likely to occur in bursts. These findings suggest that among PBN taste neurons, time-dependent increases in mutual information can arise from stimulus- and neuron-specific differences in response envelope during the initial dynamic period. A stable rate code predominates in later epochs.

  13. Effect of white noise "masking" on vestibular evoked potentials recorded using different stimulus modalities.

    PubMed

    Freeman, S; Plotnik, M; Elidan, J; Rosen, L J; Sohmer, H

    1999-01-01

    Short latency vestibular evoked potentials (VsEPs) to linear acceleration impulses (L-VsEPs) are initiated in the otolith organs (saccule and utricle). Some of the saccule afferents have been reported to respond not only to linear acceleration, but also to high intensity acoustic stimuli. If so, the L-VsEP recorded from the saccule (elicited with the stimulus orientated relative to the head so as to optimally activate the saccule, i.e. stimulus in the vertical plane, Z-VsEP) should be reduced during high intensity broad band noise (BBN) "masking". Conversely, the utricular afferents have been reported to be less auditory-sensitive. Therefore, an L-VsEP which is mainly utricular in origin (stimulus in the horizontal plane, X-VsEP) should be less affected by this noise "masking". This was investigated in rats by recording X-VsEPs and Z-VsEPs and angular VsEPs (A-VsEPs), originating in the lateral semi-circular canals, before, during and after exposure to short duration, high intensity (113 dB SPL) BBN. This intensity completely masked auditory nerve evoked responses. The Z-VsEP did appear to be slightly more affected by the noise "masking" than the X-VsEP, implying the presence of more auditory-sensitive elements in the saccule. The A-VsEP was also affected by the BBN. The overall effect was relatively small (on average, 10-25% depression of the first wave of the different VsEPs). The responses showed recovery 5 min later.

  14. Discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine in humans.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Kenneth A

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral discrimination procedures clearly demonstrate that nicotine elicits interoceptive stimulus effects in humans that are malleable by various pharmacological manipulations as well as by some behavioral manipulations. The parameters of nicotine discrimination and both chronic and acute factors that may alter discrimination behavior are addressed in this chapter, which emphasizes research by the author involving nicotine delivered by nasal spray. Human discrimination of nicotine is centrally mediated, as the central and peripheral nicotine antagonist mecamylamine blocks discrimination but the peripheral antagonist trimethaphan does not. The threshold dose for discrimination of nicotine via spray appears to be very low in smokers as well as nonsmokers. Because smoked tobacco delivers nicotine more rapidly than spray, the threshold dose of nicotine via smoking is probably even lower. In terms of individual differences, smokers may become tolerant to the discriminative stimulus effects of higher nicotine doses but not of low doses. Men may be more sensitive than women to nicotine's discriminative stimulus effects, consistent with other research suggesting that nicotine is more reinforcing in men than in women. Other potential individual differences in nicotine discrimination have not been clearly tested, but may include genetics, obesity, and dependence on other drugs. Acute environmental factors that alter nicotine discrimination include the specific training and testing conditions, pointing to the need for careful control over such conditions during research. Other factors, such as concurrent acute use of alcohol or caffeine, do not appear to alter nicotine discrimination, suggesting that changes in nicotine discrimination are not likely explanations for the association of smoking behavior with use of those drugs. Concurrent physical activity also does not appear to alter nicotine discrimination, indicating that results from studies of discrimination in

  15. Stimulus Structure, Discrimination, and Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runquist, Willard N.

    1975-01-01

    The general purpose of this experiment was to determine whether differences in stimulus discrimination, as determined by the MIR (missing-item recognition) test, are correlated with interference in recall, as demanded by the discriminative coding hypothesis. (Author/RK)

  16. Square or Sine: Finding a Waveform with High Success Rate of Eliciting SSVEP

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Fei; Chen, Yixin; Choong, Aik Min; Gustafson, Scott; Reichley, Christopher; Lawhead, Pamela; Waddell, Dwight

    2011-01-01

    Steady state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) is the brain's natural electrical potential response for visual stimuli at specific frequencies. Using a visual stimulus flashing at some given frequency will entrain the SSVEP at the same frequency, thereby allowing determination of the subject's visual focus. The faster an SSVEP is identified, the higher information transmission rate the system achieves. Thus, an effective stimulus, defined as one with high success rate of eliciting SSVEP and high signal-noise ratio, is desired. Also, researchers observed that harmonic frequencies often appear in the SSVEP at a reduced magnitude. Are the harmonics in the SSVEP elicited by the fundamental stimulating frequency or by the artifacts of the stimuli? In this paper, we compare the SSVEP responses of three periodic stimuli: square wave (with different duty cycles), triangle wave, and sine wave to find an effective stimulus. We also demonstrate the connection between the strength of the harmonics in SSVEP and the type of stimulus. PMID:21941529

  17. Equilibrium-based movement endpoints elicited from primary motor cortex using repetitive microstimulation.

    PubMed

    Van Acker, Gustaf M; Amundsen, Sommer L; Messamore, William G; Zhang, Hongyu Y; Luchies, Carl W; Cheney, Paul D

    2014-11-19

    High-frequency, long-duration intracortical microstimulation (HFLD-ICMS) is increasingly being used to deduce how the brain encodes coordinated muscle activity and movement. However, the full movement repertoire that can be elicited from the forelimb representation of primary motor cortex (M1) using this method has not been systematically determined. Our goal was to acquire a comprehensive M1 forelimb representational map of movement endpoints elicited with HFLD-ICMS, using stimulus parameters optimal for evoking stable forelimb spatial endpoints. The data reveal a 3D forelimb movement endpoint workspace that is represented in a patchwork fashion on the 2D M1 cortical surface. Although cortical maps of movement endpoints appear quite disorderly with respect to movement space, we show that the endpoint locations in the workspace evoked with HFLD-ICMS of two adjacent cortical points are closer together than would be expected if the organization were random. Although there were few obvious consistencies in the endpoint maps across the two monkeys tested, one notable exception was endpoints bringing the hand to the mouth, which was located at the boundary between the hand and face representation. Endpoints at the extremes of the monkey's workspace and locations above the head were largely absent. Our movement endpoints are best explained as resulting from coactivation of agonist and antagonist muscles driving the joints toward equilibrium positions determined by the length-tension relationships of the muscles. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3415722-13$15.00/0.

  18. Equilibrium-Based Movement Endpoints Elicited from Primary Motor Cortex Using Repetitive Microstimulation

    PubMed Central

    Van Acker, Gustaf M.; Amundsen, Sommer L.; Messamore, William G.; Zhang, Hongyu Y.; Luchies, Carl W.

    2014-01-01

    High-frequency, long-duration intracortical microstimulation (HFLD-ICMS) is increasingly being used to deduce how the brain encodes coordinated muscle activity and movement. However, the full movement repertoire that can be elicited from the forelimb representation of primary motor cortex (M1) using this method has not been systematically determined. Our goal was to acquire a comprehensive M1 forelimb representational map of movement endpoints elicited with HFLD-ICMS, using stimulus parameters optimal for evoking stable forelimb spatial endpoints. The data reveal a 3D forelimb movement endpoint workspace that is represented in a patchwork fashion on the 2D M1 cortical surface. Although cortical maps of movement endpoints appear quite disorderly with respect to movement space, we show that the endpoint locations in the workspace evoked with HFLD-ICMS of two adjacent cortical points are closer together than would be expected if the organization were random. Although there were few obvious consistencies in the endpoint maps across the two monkeys tested, one notable exception was endpoints bringing the hand to the mouth, which was located at the boundary between the hand and face representation. Endpoints at the extremes of the monkey's workspace and locations above the head were largely absent. Our movement endpoints are best explained as resulting from coactivation of agonist and antagonist muscles driving the joints toward equilibrium positions determined by the length–tension relationships of the muscles. PMID:25411500

  19. Simultaneous Measurement of Noise-Activated Middle-Ear Muscle Reflex and Stimulus Frequency Otoacoustic Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Keefe, Douglas H.

    2006-01-01

    Otoacoustic emissions serve as a noninvasive probe of the medial olivocochlear (MOC) reflex. Stimulus frequency otoacoustic emissions (SFOAEs) elicited by a low-level probe tone may be the optimal type of emission for studying MOC effects because at low levels, the probe itself does not elicit the MOC reflex [Guinan et al. (2003) J. Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol. 4:521]. Based on anatomical considerations, the MOC reflex activated by ipsilateral acoustic stimulation (mediated by the crossed olivocochlear bundle) is predicted to be stronger than the reflex to contralateral stimulation. Broadband noise is an effective activator of the MOC reflex; however, it is also an effective activator of the middle-ear muscle (MEM) reflex, which can make results difficult to interpret. The MEM reflex may be activated at lower levels than measured clinically, and most previous human studies have not explicitly included measurements to rule out MEM reflex contamination. The current study addressed these issues using a higher-frequency SFOAE probe tone to test for cochlear changes mediated by the MOC reflex, while simultaneously monitoring the MEM reflex using a low-frequency probe tone. Broadband notched noise was presented ipsilaterally at various levels to elicit probe-tone shifts. Measurements are reported for 15 normal-hearing subjects. With the higher-frequency probe near 1.5 kHz, only 20% of subjects showed shifts consistent with an MOC reflex in the absence of an MEM-induced shift. With the higher-frequency probe near 3.5 kHz, up to 40% of subjects showed shifts in the absence of an MEM-induced shift. However, these responses had longer time courses than expected for MOC-induced shifts, and may have been dominated by other cochlear processes, rather than MOC reflex. These results suggest caution in the interpretation of effects observed using ipsilaterally presented acoustic activators intended to excite the MOC reflex. PMID:16568366

  20. Simultaneous measurement of noise-activated middle-ear muscle reflex and stimulus frequency otoacoustic emissions.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Shawn S; Keefe, Douglas H

    2006-06-01

    Otoacoustic emissions serve as a noninvasive probe of the medial olivocochlear (MOC) reflex. Stimulus frequency otoacoustic emissions (SFOAEs) elicited by a low-level probe tone may be the optimal type of emission for studying MOC effects because at low levels, the probe itself does not elicit the MOC reflex [Guinan et al. (2003) J. Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol. 4:521]. Based on anatomical considerations, the MOC reflex activated by ipsilateral acoustic stimulation (mediated by the crossed olivocochlear bundle) is predicted to be stronger than the reflex to contralateral stimulation. Broadband noise is an effective activator of the MOC reflex; however, it is also an effective activator of the middle-ear muscle (MEM) reflex, which can make results difficult to interpret. The MEM reflex may be activated at lower levels than measured clinically, and most previous human studies have not explicitly included measurements to rule out MEM reflex contamination. The current study addressed these issues using a higher-frequency SFOAE probe tone to test for cochlear changes mediated by the MOC reflex, while simultaneously monitoring the MEM reflex using a low-frequency probe tone. Broadband notched noise was presented ipsilaterally at various levels to elicit probe-tone shifts. Measurements are reported for 15 normal-hearing subjects. With the higher-frequency probe near 1.5 kHz, only 20% of subjects showed shifts consistent with an MOC reflex in the absence of an MEM-induced shift. With the higher-frequency probe near 3.5 kHz, up to 40% of subjects showed shifts in the absence of an MEM-induced shift. However, these responses had longer time courses than expected for MOC-induced shifts, and may have been dominated by other cochlear processes, rather than MOC reflex. These results suggest caution in the interpretation of effects observed using ipsilaterally presented acoustic activators intended to excite the MOC reflex.

  1. Stimulus Equivalence, Generalization, and Contextual Stimulus Control in Verbal Classes

    PubMed Central

    Sigurðardóttir, Zuilma Gabriela; Mackay, Harry A; Green, Gina

    2012-01-01

    Stimulus generalization and contextual control affect the development of equivalence classes. Experiment 1 demonstrated primary stimulus generalization from the members of trained equivalence classes. Adults were taught to match six spoken Icelandic nouns and corresponding printed words and pictures to one another in computerized three-choice matching-to-sample tasks. Tests confirmed that six equivalence classes had formed. Without further training, plural forms of the stimuli were presented in tests for all matching performances. All participants demonstrated virtually errorless performances. In Experiment 2, classifications of the nouns used in Experiment 1 were brought under contextual control. Three nouns were feminine and three were masculine. The match-to-sample training taught participants to select a comparison of the same number as the sample (i.e., singular or plural) in the presence of contextual stimulus A regardless of noun gender. Concurrently, in the presence of contextual stimulus B, participants were taught to select a comparison of the same gender as the sample (i.e., feminine or masculine), regardless of number. Generalization was assessed using a card-sorting test. All participants eventually sorted the cards correctly into gender and number stimulus classes. When printed words used in training were replaced by their picture equivalents, participants demonstrated almost errorless performances. PMID:22754102

  2. Nociceptive-Evoked Potentials Are Sensitive to Behaviorally Relevant Stimulus Displacements in Egocentric Coordinates

    PubMed Central

    Di Stefano, G.; Stubbs, M. T.; Djeugam, B.; Liang, M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Feature selection has been extensively studied in the context of goal-directed behavior, where it is heavily driven by top-down factors. A more primitive version of this function is the detection of bottom-up changes in stimulus features in the environment. Indeed, the nervous system is tuned to detect fast-rising, intense stimuli that are likely to reflect threats, such as nociceptive somatosensory stimuli. These stimuli elicit large brain potentials maximal at the scalp vertex. When elicited by nociceptive laser stimuli, these responses are labeled laser-evoked potentials (LEPs). Although it has been shown that changes in stimulus modality and increases in stimulus intensity evoke large LEPs, it has yet to be determined whether stimulus displacements affect the amplitude of the main LEP waves (N1, N2, and P2). Here, in three experiments, we identified a set of rules that the human nervous system obeys to identify changes in the spatial location of a nociceptive stimulus. We showed that the N2 wave is sensitive to: (1) large displacements between consecutive stimuli in egocentric, but not somatotopic coordinates; and (2) displacements that entail a behaviorally relevant change in the stimulus location. These findings indicate that nociceptive-evoked vertex potentials are sensitive to behaviorally relevant changes in the location of a nociceptive stimulus with respect to the body, and that the hand is a particularly behaviorally important site. PMID:27419217

  3. Web-based tool for expert elicitation of the variogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truong, Phuong N.; Heuvelink, Gerard B. M.; Gosling, John Paul

    2013-02-01

    The variogram is the keystone of geostatistics. Estimation of the variogram is deficient and difficult when there are no or too few observations available due to budget constraints or physical and temporal obstacles. In such cases, expert knowledge can be an important source of information. Expert knowledge can also fulfil the increasing demand for an a priori variogram in Bayesian geostatistics and spatial sampling optimization. Formal expert elicitation provides a sound scientific basis to reliably and consistently extract knowledge from experts. In this study, we aimed at applying existing statistical expert elicitation techniques to extract the variogram of a regionalized variable that is assumed to have either a multivariate normal or lognormal spatial probability distribution from expert knowledge. To achieve this, we developed an elicitation protocol and implemented it as a web-based tool to facilitate the elicitation of beliefs from multiple experts. Our protocol has two main rounds: elicitation of the marginal probability distribution and elicitation of the variogram. The web-based tool has three main components: a web interface for expert elicitation and feedback; a component for statistical computation and mathematical pooling of multiple experts' knowledge; and a database management component. Results from a test case study show that the protocol is adequate and that the online elicitation tool functions satisfactorily. The web-based tool is free to use and supports scientists to conveniently elicit the variogram of spatial random variables from experts. The source code is available from the journal FTP site under the GNU General Public License.

  4. Carving Executive Control at Its Joints: Working Memory Capacity Predicts Stimulus-Stimulus, but Not Stimulus-Response, Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Matt E.; Kane, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Three experiments examined the relation between working memory capacity (WMC) and 2 different forms of cognitive conflict: stimulus-stimulus (S-S) and stimulus-response (S-R) interference. Our goal was to test whether WMC's relation to conflict-task performance is mediated by stimulus-identification processes (captured by S-S conflict),…

  5. Carving Executive Control at Its Joints: Working Memory Capacity Predicts Stimulus-Stimulus, but Not Stimulus-Response, Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Matt E.; Kane, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Three experiments examined the relation between working memory capacity (WMC) and 2 different forms of cognitive conflict: stimulus-stimulus (S-S) and stimulus-response (S-R) interference. Our goal was to test whether WMC's relation to conflict-task performance is mediated by stimulus-identification processes (captured by S-S conflict),…

  6. Stimulus-specific contrast effects during operant discrimination learning1

    PubMed Central

    Malone, John C.

    1975-01-01

    In two experiments, pigeons' responding was equally reinforced in the presence of four line-orientation stimuli. Responding was then reinforced when only two of the four orientation stimuli were present; the remaining two orientations appeared during extinction. Response rates were often highest in the stimulus adjacent to the orientations presented during extinction and often lowest in that orientation adjacent to the orientations presented with reinforcement. These effects were stronger and more persistent when the stimuli were separated by a smaller angle, rendering the discrimination more difficult. These and other data suggest that discrimination training may not be accurately explained in terms of the simple effects of reinforcement and nonreinforcement associated with isolated stimuli, nor by accounts that depend upon stimulus generalization. Recent accounts of contrast that depend upon “emotionality” produced by nonreinforced responding or upon reinforcement-elicited responses are also difficult to apply to these data. PMID:16811879

  7. Sequential Modulations of Interference Evoked by Processing Task-Irrelevant Stimulus Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendt, Mike; Kluwe, Rainer H.; Peters, Alexandra

    2006-01-01

    Compatibility level repetition benefits in interference paradigms have been taken to reflect enhanced processing selectivity in response to cognitive conflict elicited by a task-irrelevant stimulus feature. The authors demonstrate such sequential effects in the Simon task which (a) occur independent of previous behavioral conflict effects and (b)…

  8. Cortical activity elicited by isolated vowels and diphthongs.

    PubMed

    Mäkelä, A M; Alku, P; May, P J C; Mäkinen, V; Tiitinen, H

    2004-11-30

    Cortical activity underlying speech perception has been studied mostly by using isolated vowels with constant formant frequencies. Speech, however, is characterized by formant transitions whereby formant frequencies change as a function of time. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate cortical activity elicited by isolated vowels and diphthongs containing formant transitions. Ten subjects were presented with two isolated vowels /a/ and /u/ and diphthongs /au/ and /ua/. Stimulus duration was 200 ms, and the diphthongs started and ended with a 50-ms constant-formant period and included a 100-ms linear transition period. Apart from studying the auditory N100m response, we examined subsequent brain activity in a 500-ms poststimulus time window, as the transitions were expected to elicit activity also in later stages of cognitive processing. All the stimuli elicited prominent N100m responses. Thereafter, both the isolated vowels and diphthongs elicited sustained brain activity lasting up to 500 ms. The present observations indicate that identification of the speech sounds as well as changes in their identity are reflected in the auditory N100m. Notably, the stimuli appeared to elicit left-hemispheric activity resembling the N400, typically obtained by using more complicated speech stimuli such as words and sentences.

  9. Auditory modulation of wind-elicited walking behavior in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

    PubMed

    Fukutomi, Matasaburo; Someya, Makoto; Ogawa, Hiroto

    2015-12-01

    Animals flexibly change their locomotion triggered by an identical stimulus depending on the environmental context and behavioral state. This indicates that additional sensory inputs in different modality from the stimulus triggering the escape response affect the neuronal circuit governing that behavior. However, how the spatio-temporal relationships between these two stimuli effect a behavioral change remains unknown. We studied this question, using crickets, which respond to a short air-puff by oriented walking activity mediated by the cercal sensory system. In addition, an acoustic stimulus, such as conspecific 'song' received by the tympanal organ, elicits a distinct oriented locomotion termed phonotaxis. In this study, we examined the cross-modal effects on wind-elicited walking when an acoustic stimulus was preceded by an air-puff and tested whether the auditory modulation depends on the coincidence of the direction of both stimuli. A preceding 10 kHz pure tone biased the wind-elicited walking in a backward direction and elevated a threshold of the wind-elicited response, whereas other movement parameters, including turn angle, reaction time, walking speed and distance were unaffected. The auditory modulations, however, did not depend on the coincidence of the stimulus directions. A preceding sound consistently altered the wind-elicited walking direction and response probability throughout the experimental sessions, meaning that the auditory modulation did not result from previous experience or associative learning. These results suggest that the cricket nervous system is able to integrate auditory and air-puff stimuli, and modulate the wind-elicited escape behavior depending on the acoustic context.

  10. A P300 event-related potential brain-computer interface (BCI): the effects of matrix size and inter stimulus interval on performance.

    PubMed

    Sellers, Eric W; Krusienski, Dean J; McFarland, Dennis J; Vaughan, Theresa M; Wolpaw, Jonathan R

    2006-10-01

    We describe a study designed to assess properties of a P300 brain-computer interface (BCI). The BCI presents the user with a matrix containing letters and numbers. The user attends to a character to be communicated and the rows and columns of the matrix briefly intensify. Each time the attended character is intensified it serves as a rare event in an oddball sequence and it elicits a P300 response. The BCI works by detecting which character elicited a P300 response. We manipulated the size of the character matrix (either 3 x 3 or 6 x 6) and the duration of the inter stimulus interval (ISI) between intensifications (either 175 or 350 ms). Online accuracy was highest for the 3 x 3 matrix 175-ms ISI condition, while bit rate was highest for the 6 x 6 matrix 175-ms ISI condition. Average accuracy in the best condition for each subject was 88%. P300 amplitude was significantly greater for the attended stimulus and for the 6 x 6 matrix. This work demonstrates that matrix size and ISI are important variables to consider when optimizing a BCI system for individual users and that a P300-BCI can be used for effective communication.

  11. Defining the Stimulus - A Memoir

    PubMed Central

    Terrace, Herbert

    2010-01-01

    The eminent psychophysicist, S. S. Stevens, once remarked that, “the basic problem of psychology was the definition of the stimulus” (Stevens, 1951, p. 46). By expanding the traditional definition of the stimulus, the study of animal learning has metamorphosed into animal cognition. The main impetus for that change was the recognition that it is often necessary to postulate a representation between the traditional S and R of learning theory. Representations allow a subject to re-present a stimulus it learned previously that is currently absent. Thus, in delayed-matching-to-sample, one has to assume that a subject responds to a representation of the sample during test if it responds correctly. Other examples, to name but a few, include concept formation, spatial memory, serial memory, learning a numerical rule, imitation and metacognition. Whereas a representation used to be regarded as a mentalistic phenomenon that was unworthy of scientific inquiry, it can now be operationally defined. To accommodate representations, the traditional discriminative stimulus has to be expanded to allow for the role of representations. The resulting composite can account for a significantly larger portion of the variance of performance measures than the exteroceptive stimulus could by itself. PMID:19969047

  12. Acquired Equivalence Changes Stimulus Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeter, M.; Shohamy, D.; Myers, C. E.

    2009-01-01

    Acquired equivalence is a paradigm in which generalization is increased between two superficially dissimilar stimuli (or antecedents) that have previously been associated with similar outcomes (or consequents). Several possible mechanisms have been proposed, including changes in stimulus representations, either in the form of added associations or…

  13. Stimulus Effects on Local Preference: Stimulus-Response Contingencies, Stimulus-Food Pairing, and Stimulus-Food Correlation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Michael; Baum, William M.

    2010-01-01

    Four pigeons were trained in a procedure in which concurrent-schedule food ratios changed unpredictably across seven unsignaled components after 10 food deliveries. Additional green-key stimulus presentations also occurred on the two alternatives, sometimes in the same ratio as the component food ratio, and sometimes in the inverse ratio. In eight…

  14. "Turning back the clock" on serial-stimulus sign tracking.

    PubMed Central

    Allan, R W; Matthews, T J

    1991-01-01

    Two experiments examined the effects of a negative (setback) response contingency on key pecking engendered by a changing light-intensity stimulus clock (ramp stimulus) signaling fixed-time 30-s food deliveries. The response contingency specified that responses would immediately decrease the light-intensity value, and, because food was delivered only after the highest intensity value was presented, would delay food delivery by 1 s for each response. The first experiment examined the acquisition and maintenance of responding for a group trained with the contingency in effect and for a group trained on a response-independent schedule with the ramp stimulus prior to introduction of the contingency. The first group acquired low rates of key pecking, and, after considerable exposure to the contingency, those rates were reduced to low levels. The rates of responding for the second group were reduced very rapidly (within four to five trials) after introduction of the setback contingency. For both groups, rates of responding increased for all but 1 bird when the contingency was removed. A second experiment compared the separate effects of each part of the response contingency. One group was exposed only to the stimulus setback (stimulus only), and a second group was exposed only to the delay of the reinforcer (delay only). The stimulus-only group's rates of responding were immediately reduced to moderate levels, but for most of the birds, these rates recovered quickly when the contingency was removed. The delay-only groups's rates decreased after several trials, to very low levels, and recovery of responding took several sessions once the contingency was removed. The results suggest that (a) sign-tracking behavior elicited by an added clock stimulus may be reduced rapidly and persistently when a setback contingency is imposed, and (b) the success of the contingency is due both to response-dependent stimulus change and response-dependent alterations in the frequency of food

  15. Production Deficiencies in Elicited Language but Not in the Spontaneous Verbalizations of Hyperactive Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zentall, Sydney S.

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-two hyperactive children were more spontaneously talkative than controls during transitions and nonverbal tasks (nonelicited conditions), but less talkative when asked to tell stories (elicited conditions). Findings suggest that minimal stimulus input precipitate excessive verbal activity from hyperactive children, while stories requiring…

  16. Genuine eye contact elicits self-referential processing.

    PubMed

    Hietanen, Jonne O; Hietanen, Jari K

    2017-03-16

    The effect of eye contact on self-awareness was investigated with implicit measures based on the use of first-person singular pronouns in sentences. The measures were proposed to tap into self-referential processing, that is, information processing associated with self-awareness. In addition, participants filled in a questionnaire measuring explicit self-awareness. In Experiment 1, the stimulus was a video clip showing another person and, in Experiment 2, the stimulus was a live person. In both experiments, participants were divided into two groups and presented with the stimulus person either making eye contact or gazing downward, depending on the group assignment. During the task, the gaze stimulus was presented before each trial of the pronoun-selection task. Eye contact was found to increase the use of first-person pronouns, but only when participants were facing a real person, not when they were looking at a video of a person. No difference in self-reported self-awareness was found between the two gaze direction groups in either experiment. The results indicate that eye contact elicits self-referential processing, but the effect may be stronger, or possibly limited to, live interaction.

  17. Benefits of Stimulus Exposure: Developmental Learning Independent of Task Performance

    PubMed Central

    Green, David B.; Ohlemacher, Jocelyn; Rosen, Merri J.

    2016-01-01

    Perceptual learning (training-induced performance improvement) can be elicited by task-irrelevant stimulus exposure in humans. In contrast, task-irrelevant stimulus exposure in animals typically disrupts perception in juveniles while causing little to no effect in adults. This may be due to the extent of exposure, which is brief in humans while chronic in animals. Here we assessed the effects of short bouts of passive stimulus exposure on learning during development in gerbils, compared with non-passive stimulus exposure (i.e., during testing). We used prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response, a method that can be applied at any age, to measure gap detection thresholds across four age groups, spanning development. First, we showed that both gap detection thresholds and gap detection learning across sessions displayed a long developmental trajectory, improving throughout the juvenile period. Additionally, we demonstrated larger within- and across-animal performance variability in younger animals. These results are generally consistent with results in humans, where there are extended developmental trajectories for both the perception of temporally-varying signals, and the effects of perceptual training, as well as increased variability and poorer performance consistency in children. We then chose an age (mid-juveniles) that displayed clear learning over sessions in order to assess effects of brief passive stimulus exposure on this learning. We compared learning in mid-juveniles exposed to either gap detection testing (gaps paired with startles) or equivalent gap exposure without testing (gaps alone) for three sessions. Learning was equivalent in both these groups and better than both naïve age-matched animals and controls receiving no gap exposure but only startle testing. Thus, short bouts of exposure to gaps independent of task performance is sufficient to induce learning at this age, and is as effective as gap detection testing. PMID:27378837

  18. What monitor can replace the cathode-ray tube for visual stimulation to elicit multifocal electroretinograms?

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Celso Soiti; Shinoda, Kei; Matsumoto, Harue; Seki, Keisuke; Nagasaka, Eiichiro; Iwata, Takeshi; Mizota, Atsushi

    2014-08-05

    To compare a conventional cathode-ray tube (CRT) screen to organic light-emitting diode (OLED) and liquid crystal display (LCD) screens as visual stimulators to elicit multifocal electroretinograms (mfERGs), mfERGs were recorded from seven eyes of seven healthy volunteers (21 ± 2 years). The mfERGs elicited by a conventional CRT screen (S710, Compaq Computer Co.) were compared to those elicited by a studio-grade master OLED monitor (PVM-1741, Sony, Japan) and a conventional LCD (S1721, Flexscan, Eizo Nanao Corp., Japan). The luminance changes of each monitor were measured with a photodiode. CRT, OLED, and LCD screens with a frame frequency of 60 Hz were studied. A hexagonal stimulus array with 61 stimulus elements was created on each monitor. The serial white stimuli of the OLED screen at 60 Hz did not fuse, and that of the LCD screens fused. The amplitudes of P1 and P2 of the first-order kernels of the mfERGs were not significantly different from those elicited by the CRT and OLED screens, and the P1 amplitude of the first-order kernel elicited by the LCD stimuli was significantly smaller than that elicited by the CRT in all the groups of the averaged hexagonal elements. The implicit times were approximately 10 ms longer in almost all components elicited by the LCD screen compared to those elicited by the CRT screen. The mfERGs elicited by monitors other than the CRT should be carefully interpreted, especially those elicited by LCD screens. The OLED had good performance, and we conclude that it can replace the CRT as a stimulator for mfERGs; however, a collection of normative data is recommended. © 2014 ARVO.

  19. Amygdala central nucleus lesions attenuate acoustic startle stimulus-evoked heart rate changes in rats.

    PubMed

    Young, B J; Leaton, R N

    1996-04-01

    Amygdala central nucleus (CNA) lesions were used to test the hypothesis that stimulus-evoked heart rate changes can reflect the development of fear during acoustic startle testing. A 120-dB white noise startle stimulus produced freezing as well as phasic heart rate accelerations and decelerations, and an abrupt decrease in tonic heart rate, in sham-operated rats. These responses were all significantly reduced in CNA-lesioned rats. In contrast, an 87-dB stimulus elicited only significant phasic decelerations that were similarly attenuated by the CNA lesions. In a follow-up experiment, the CNA lesions also attenuated phasic cardiac decelerations evoked by a conditioned stimulus-like, 85-dB pure tone. The results support the contention (B. J. Young & R.N. Leaton, 1994) that heart rate changes can reflect fear conditioned during acoustic startle testing and, in addition, suggest that the amygdala mediates responses to nonsignal acoustic stimuli.

  20. Conditioned craving cues elicit an automatic approach tendency.

    PubMed

    Van Gucht, Dinska; Vansteenwegen, Debora; Van den Bergh, Omer; Beckers, Tom

    2008-10-01

    In two experiments, we used a Pavlovian differential conditioning procedure to induce craving for chocolate. As a result of repeated pairing with chocolate intake, initially neutral cues came to elicit an automatic approach tendency in a speeded stimulus-response compatibility reaction time task. This automatic approach tendency, moreover, seemed to be sensitive to manipulations of extinction and renewal in the Pavlovian conditioning procedure. These findings corroborate and extend previous reports of automatic approach tendencies elicited by substance-relevant cues in addiction, while controlling for alternative accounts for such observations. Moreover, our data lend support to and extend learning models of cue-induced craving and addiction. Finally, we argue that the procedure we present here provides an ecologically valid behavioural tool that allows studying processes involved in cue-induced craving, addiction and relapse without relying on verbal report.

  1. Economic Stimulus: Issues and Policies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-16

    that “fiscal action could be helpful in principle , as fiscal and monetary stimulus together may provide broader support for the economy than monetary...have sought to contain damages spilling over from housing and financial markets to the broader economy , including monetary policy, which is the...including leaving the government holding large amounts of mortgage debt. With the worsening performance of the economy , congressional leaders and

  2. Stimulus factors in motion perception and spatial orientation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Post, R. B.; Johnson, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    The Malcolm horizon utilizes a large projected light stimulus Peripheral Vision Horizon Device (PVHD) as an attitude indicator in order to achieve a more compelling sense of roll than is obtained with smaller devices. The basic principle is that the larger stimulus is more similar to visibility of a real horizon during roll, and does not require fixation and attention to the degree that smaller displays do. Successful implementation of such a device requires adjustment of the parameters of the visual stimulus so that its effects on motion perception and spatial orientation are optimized. With this purpose in mind, the effects of relevant image variables on the perception of object motion, self motion and spatial orientation are reviewed.

  3. Transcutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation: influence of electrode positioning and stimulus amplitude settings on muscle response.

    PubMed

    Gobbo, M; Gaffurini, P; Bissolotti, L; Esposito, F; Orizio, C

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of two different transcutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation procedures on evoked muscle torque and local tissue oxygenation. In the first one (MP mode), the cathode was facing the muscle main motor point and stimulus amplitude was set to the level eliciting the maximal myoelectrical activation according to the amplitude of the evoked electromyogram (EMG); in the second one (RC mode), the electrodes were positioned following common reference charts for electrode placement while stimulus amplitude was set according to subject tolerance. Tibialis Anterior (TA) and Vastus Lateralis (VL) muscles of 10 subjects (28.4 ± 8.2 years) were tested in specific dynamometers to measure the evoked isometric torque. The EMG and near-infrared spectroscopy probes were placed on muscle belly to detect the electrical activity and local metabolic modifications of the stimulated muscle, respectively. The stimulation protocol consisted of a gradually increasing frequency ramp from 2 to 50 Hz in 7.5 s. Compared to RC mode, in MP mode the contractile parameters (peak twitch, tetanic torque, area under the torque build-up) and the metabolic solicitation (oxygen consumption and hyperemia due to metabolites accumulation) resulted significantly higher for both TA and VL muscles. MP mode resulted also to be more comfortable for the subjects. Based on the assumption that proper mechanical and metabolic stimuli are necessary to induce muscle strengthening, our results witness the importance of an optimized, i.e., comfortable and effective, stimulation to promote the aforementioned muscle adaptive modifications.

  4. Tickling expectations: neural processing in anticipation of a sensory stimulus.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, K; Petrovic, P; Skare, S; Petersson, K M; Ingvar, M

    2000-07-01

    Predictions of the near future can optimize the accuracy and speed of sensory processing as well as of behavioral responses. Previous experience and contextual cues are essential elements in the generation of a subjective prediction. Using a blocked fMRI paradigm, we investigated the pattern of neural activation in anticipation of a sensory stimulus and during the processing of the somatosensory stimulus itself. Tickling was chosen as the somatosensory stimulus rather than simple touch in order to increase the probability to get a high degree of anticipation. The location and nature of the stimulus were well defined to the subject. The state of anticipation was initiated by attributing an uncertainty regarding the time of stimulus onset. The network of activation and deactivation during anticipation of the expected stimulus was similar to that engaged during the actual sensory stimulation. The areas that were activated during both states included the contralateral primary sensory cortex, bilateral areas in the inferior parietal lobules, the putative area SII, the right anterior cingulate cortex and areas in the right prefrontal cortex. Similarly, common decreases were observed in areas of sensorimotor cortex located outside the area representing the target of stimulus, i.e., areas that process information which is irrelevant to the attended process. The overlapping pattern of change, during the somatosensory stimulation and the anticipation, furthers the idea that predictions are subserved by a neuronal network similar to that which subserves the processing of actual sensory input. Moreover, this study indicates that activation of primary somatosensory cortex can be obtained without intra-modal sensory input. These findings suggest that anticipation may invoke a tonic top-down regulation of neural activity.

  5. NEURAL RESPONSES ELICITED BY ELECTRICAL STIMULATION OF THE RETINA

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shih-Jen; Mahadevappa, Manjunatha; Roizenblatt, Roberto; Weiland, James; Humayun, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Purpose To study electrically elicited responses (EERs) that are produced by epiretinal stimulation of normal and degenerated retina. Methods Three biological models of retinal degeneration are compared: normal and rd1 mouse, normal and RCD1 dog, and human with retinitis pigmentosa. In mouse, epiretinal stimulation was accomplished by means of a wire inserted in the vitreous cavity, and single-unit activity was recorded in visual cortex. In dog and human, an implantable retinal stimulator was used to stimulate the retina, and evoked potentials were recorded from the cortical surface (dog) or scalp (human). Results Analysis of EERs revealed distinct early (less than 10 ms) and late (greater than 50 ms) responses. Synaptic blockers abolished the late response but not the early response. For eliciting the early response in normal and rd mice, a square pulse stimulus was more efficient than the sine wave or pulse train. In normal and degenerate canine retina, electrically elicited responses also exhibited early and late phases. EERs in a retinal prosthesis test subject (with retinitis pigmentosa) showed latency similar to the canine, but no evidence of an early response, possibly due to the lack of sensitivity in scalp (human) vs cortical surface (canine) electrode placement. Conclusion EERs could be elicited from both normal and degenerated retina. Mouse, dog, and human EERs showed common characteristics. PMID:17471346

  6. Interactions across Multiple Stimulus Dimensions in Primary Auditory Cortex.

    PubMed

    Sloas, David C; Zhuo, Ran; Xue, Hongbo; Chambers, Anna R; Kolaczyk, Eric; Polley, Daniel B; Sen, Kamal

    2016-01-01

    Although sensory cortex is thought to be important for the perception of complex objects, its specific role in representing complex stimuli remains unknown. Complex objects are rich in information along multiple stimulus dimensions. The position of cortex in the sensory hierarchy suggests that cortical neurons may integrate across these dimensions to form a more gestalt representation of auditory objects. Yet, studies of cortical neurons typically explore single or few dimensions due to the difficulty of determining optimal stimuli in a high dimensional stimulus space. Evolutionary algorithms (EAs) provide a potentially powerful approach for exploring multidimensional stimulus spaces based on real-time spike feedback, but two important issues arise in their application. First, it is unclear whether it is necessary to characterize cortical responses to multidimensional stimuli or whether it suffices to characterize cortical responses to a single dimension at a time. Second, quantitative methods for analyzing complex multidimensional data from an EA are lacking. Here, we apply a statistical method for nonlinear regression, the generalized additive model (GAM), to address these issues. The GAM quantitatively describes the dependence between neural response and all stimulus dimensions. We find that auditory cortical neurons in mice are sensitive to interactions across dimensions. These interactions are diverse across the population, indicating significant integration across stimulus dimensions in auditory cortex. This result strongly motivates using multidimensional stimuli in auditory cortex. Together, the EA and the GAM provide a novel quantitative paradigm for investigating neural coding of complex multidimensional stimuli in auditory and other sensory cortices.

  7. Stimulus Statistics Change Sounds from Near-Indiscriminable to Hyperdiscriminable

    PubMed Central

    Stilp, Christian E.

    2016-01-01

    Objects and events in the sensory environment are generally predictable, making most of the energy impinging upon sensory transducers redundant. Given this fact, efficient sensory systems should detect, extract, and exploit predictability in order to optimize sensitivity to less predictable inputs that are, by definition, more informative. Not only are perceptual systems sensitive to changes in physical stimulus properties, but growing evidence reveals sensitivity both to relative predictability of stimuli and to co-occurrence of stimulus attributes within stimuli. Recent results revealed that auditory perception rapidly reorganizes to efficiently capture covariance among stimulus attributes. Acoustic properties per se were perceptually abandoned, and sounds were instead processed relative to patterns of co-occurrence. Here, we show that listeners’ ability to distinguish sounds from one another is driven primarily by the extent to which they are consistent or inconsistent with patterns of covariation among stimulus attributes and, to a lesser extent, whether they are heard frequently or infrequently. When sounds were heard frequently and deviated minimally from the prevailing pattern of covariance among attributes, they were poorly discriminated from one another. In stark contrast, when sounds were heard rarely and markedly violated the pattern of covariance, they became hyperdiscriminable with discrimination performance beyond apparent limits of the auditory system. Plausible cortical candidates underlying these dramatic changes in perceptual organization are discussed. These findings support efficient coding of stimulus statistical structure as a model for both perceptual and neural organization. PMID:27508391

  8. Interactions across Multiple Stimulus Dimensions in Primary Auditory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Zhuo, Ran; Xue, Hongbo; Chambers, Anna R.; Kolaczyk, Eric; Polley, Daniel B.

    2016-01-01

    Although sensory cortex is thought to be important for the perception of complex objects, its specific role in representing complex stimuli remains unknown. Complex objects are rich in information along multiple stimulus dimensions. The position of cortex in the sensory hierarchy suggests that cortical neurons may integrate across these dimensions to form a more gestalt representation of auditory objects. Yet, studies of cortical neurons typically explore single or few dimensions due to the difficulty of determining optimal stimuli in a high dimensional stimulus space. Evolutionary algorithms (EAs) provide a potentially powerful approach for exploring multidimensional stimulus spaces based on real-time spike feedback, but two important issues arise in their application. First, it is unclear whether it is necessary to characterize cortical responses to multidimensional stimuli or whether it suffices to characterize cortical responses to a single dimension at a time. Second, quantitative methods for analyzing complex multidimensional data from an EA are lacking. Here, we apply a statistical method for nonlinear regression, the generalized additive model (GAM), to address these issues. The GAM quantitatively describes the dependence between neural response and all stimulus dimensions. We find that auditory cortical neurons in mice are sensitive to interactions across dimensions. These interactions are diverse across the population, indicating significant integration across stimulus dimensions in auditory cortex. This result strongly motivates using multidimensional stimuli in auditory cortex. Together, the EA and the GAM provide a novel quantitative paradigm for investigating neural coding of complex multidimensional stimuli in auditory and other sensory cortices. PMID:27622211

  9. Extinction of goal tracking also eliminates the conditioned reinforcing effects of an appetitive conditioned stimulus.

    PubMed

    Kearns, David N; Tunstall, Brendan J; Marks, Katherine R; Weiss, Stanley J

    2012-02-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the effects of extinction are response-specific. The present study investigated whether an extinction treatment that eliminated goal tracking elicited by an appetitive conditioned stimulus (CS) would also eliminate the conditioned reinforcing effects of that CS. Rats were first trained on a goal-tracking procedure in which an auditory CS was paired with a food unconditioned stimulus. Animals learned to approach the location where the food was delivered. In a subsequent phase, rats in one group received extinction training that eliminated the goal-tracking elicited by the CS. Rats in the other group did not experience extinction of the food-paired CS. Then, both groups received a test for conditioned reinforcement in which leverpresses resulted in the brief presentation of the stimulus previously paired with food. This stimulus did not act as a conditioned reinforcer in the group that had been subjected to extinction training, but did serve as a conditioned reinforcer in the group that did not experience extinction. These results indicate that the effects of extinction generalize from the approach-eliciting to the conditioned reinforcing effects of an appetitive CS.

  10. General strategy for understanding intracellular molecular interaction cascades that elicit stimulus-invoked biological processes

    PubMed Central

    OKAYAMA, Hiroto

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in biology have been driven by chemical analyses of the substances that form living organisms. Such analyses are extremely powerful as way of learning about the static properties of molecular species, but relatively powerless for understanding their dynamic behaviors even though this dynamism is essential for organisms to perform various biological processes that perpetuate their lives. Thus, attempts to identify individual species and molecular interaction cascades that drive specific responses to external stimuli or environmental changes often fail. Here I propose a general strategy to address this problem. The strategy comprises two key elements: functional manipulation of a given protein molecule coupled with close monitoring of its biological effect, and construction of a knowledge base tailored for conjecture-driven experimentation. The original idea for this strategy co-evolved with and greatly helped a series of studies we recently performed to discover critical signal cascades and cellular components that regulate the cell cycle transition from G1 to S phase. PMID:27725475

  11. TRANSFER OF AVERSIVE RESPONDENT ELICITATION IN ACCORDANCE WITH EQUIVALENCE RELATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Valverde, Miguel RodrÍguez; Luciano, Carmen; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigates the transfer of aversively conditioned respondent elicitation through equivalence classes, using skin conductance as the measure of conditioning. The first experiment is an attempt to replicate Experiment 1 in Dougher, Augustson, Markham, Greenway, and Wulfert (1994), with different temporal parameters in the aversive conditioning procedure employed. Match-to-sample procedures were used to teach 17 participants two 4-member equivalence classes. Then, one member of one class was paired with electric shock and one member of the other class was presented without shock. The remaining stimuli from each class were presented in transfer tests. Unlike the findings in the original study, transfer of conditioning was not achieved. In Experiment 2, similar procedures were used with 30 participants, although several modifications were introduced (formation of five-member classes, direct conditioning with several elements of each class, random sequences of stimulus presentation in transfer tests, reversal in aversive conditioning contingencies). More than 80% of participants who had shown differential conditioning also showed the transfer of function effect. Moreover, this effect was replicated within subjects for 3 participants. This is the first demonstration of the transfer of aversive respondent elicitation through stimulus equivalence classes with the presentation of transfer test trials in random order. The latter prevents the possibility that transfer effects are an artefact of transfer test presentation order. PMID:20119523

  12. Elicitation of the Acoustic Change Complex to Long-Duration Speech Stimuli in Four-Month-Old Infants

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ke Heng; Small, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    The acoustic change complex (ACC) is an auditory-evoked potential elicited to changes within an ongoing stimulus that indicates discrimination at the level of the auditory cortex. Only a few studies to date have attempted to record ACCs in young infants. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the elicitation of ACCs to long-duration speech stimuli in English-learning 4-month-old infants. ACCs were elicited to consonant contrasts made up of two concatenated speech tokens. The stimuli included native dental-dental /dada/ and dental-labial /daba/ contrasts and a nonnative Hindi dental-retroflex /daDa/ contrast. Each consonant-vowel speech token was 410 ms in duration. Slow cortical responses were recorded to the onset of the stimulus and to the acoustic change from /da/ to either /ba/ or /Da/ within the stimulus with significantly prolonged latencies compared with adults. ACCs were reliably elicited for all stimulus conditions with more robust morphology compared with our previous findings using stimuli that were shorter in duration. The P1 amplitudes elicited to the acoustic change in /daba/ and /daDa/ were significantly larger compared to /dada/ supporting that the brain discriminated between the speech tokens. These findings provide further evidence for the use of ACCs as an index of discrimination ability. PMID:26798343

  13. Elicitation of the Acoustic Change Complex to Long-Duration Speech Stimuli in Four-Month-Old Infants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ke Heng; Small, Susan A

    2015-01-01

    The acoustic change complex (ACC) is an auditory-evoked potential elicited to changes within an ongoing stimulus that indicates discrimination at the level of the auditory cortex. Only a few studies to date have attempted to record ACCs in young infants. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the elicitation of ACCs to long-duration speech stimuli in English-learning 4-month-old infants. ACCs were elicited to consonant contrasts made up of two concatenated speech tokens. The stimuli included native dental-dental /dada/ and dental-labial /daba/ contrasts and a nonnative Hindi dental-retroflex /daDa/ contrast. Each consonant-vowel speech token was 410 ms in duration. Slow cortical responses were recorded to the onset of the stimulus and to the acoustic change from /da/ to either /ba/ or /Da/ within the stimulus with significantly prolonged latencies compared with adults. ACCs were reliably elicited for all stimulus conditions with more robust morphology compared with our previous findings using stimuli that were shorter in duration. The P1 amplitudes elicited to the acoustic change in /daba/ and /daDa/ were significantly larger compared to /dada/ supporting that the brain discriminated between the speech tokens. These findings provide further evidence for the use of ACCs as an index of discrimination ability.

  14. Better than the real thing: eliciting fear with moving and static computer-generated stimuli.

    PubMed

    Courtney, Christopher G; Dawson, Michael E; Schell, Anne M; Iyer, Arvind; Parsons, Thomas D

    2010-11-01

    As the popularity of virtual reality as an exposure therapy increases, it is important to validate the use of computer-generated stimuli in comparison to standardized images of "real" phobic objects, such as those of the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). The present study examined physiological and subjective measures of negative affect when viewing static IAPS images, static computer-generated images and moving videos of computer-generated images of feared stimuli and other negative stimuli which were not specifically feared. For example, a picture of a spider would be a "feared" stimulus for a spider fearful participant, whereas a picture of a snake would be categorized as a "negative" stimulus for that participant. Eighteen participants scoring high (high fear (HF) cohort) on questionnaires assessing specific fears of spiders or snakes and 20 participants scoring low (low fear (LF) cohort) on the questionnaires viewed the stimuli. The computer-generated videos elicited greater physiological (skin conductance and startle eyeblink potentiation) and self-report arousal responses than the IAPS images and the computer-generated static images. Computer-generated stills and IAPS images did not differ in eliciting emotional responses. Additionally, HF participants showed greater heart rate acceleration and larger skin conductance responses to their feared stimulus than to the negative stimulus, especially when viewing computer-generated moving videos. The results demonstrate the importance of motion in eliciting fear and the usefulness of computer-generated stimuli in the study of emotion. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Stimulus conflict triggers behavioral avoidance.

    PubMed

    Dignath, David; Eder, Andreas B

    2015-12-01

    According to a recent extension of the conflict-monitoring theory, conflict between two competing response tendencies is registered as an aversive event and triggers a motivation to avoid the source of conflict. In the present study, we tested this assumption. Over five experiments, we examined whether conflict is associated with an avoidance motivation and whether stimulus conflict or response conflict triggers an avoidance tendency. Participants first performed a color Stroop task. In a subsequent motivation test, participants responded to Stroop stimuli with approach- and avoidance-related lever movements. These results showed that Stroop-conflict stimuli increased the frequency of avoidance responses in a free-choice motivation test, and also increased the speed of avoidance relative to approach responses in a forced-choice test. High and low proportions of response conflict in the Stroop task had no effect on avoidance in the motivation test. Avoidance of conflict was, however, obtained even with new conflict stimuli that had not been presented before in a Stroop task, and when the Stroop task was replaced with an unrelated filler task. Taken together, these results suggest that stimulus conflict is sufficient to trigger avoidance.

  16. Optimism

    PubMed Central

    Carver, Charles S.; Scheier, Michael F.; Segerstrom, Suzanne C.

    2010-01-01

    Optimism is an individual difference variable that reflects the extent to which people hold generalized favorable expectancies for their future. Higher levels of optimism have been related prospectively to better subjective well-being in times of adversity or difficulty (i.e., controlling for previous well-being). Consistent with such findings, optimism has been linked to higher levels of engagement coping and lower levels of avoidance, or disengagement, coping. There is evidence that optimism is associated with taking proactive steps to protect one's health, whereas pessimism is associated with health-damaging behaviors. Consistent with such findings, optimism is also related to indicators of better physical health. The energetic, task-focused approach that optimists take to goals also relates to benefits in the socioeconomic world. Some evidence suggests that optimism relates to more persistence in educational efforts and to higher later income. Optimists also appear to fare better than pessimists in relationships. Although there are instances in which optimism fails to convey an advantage, and instances in which it may convey a disadvantage, those instances are relatively rare. In sum, the behavioral patterns of optimists appear to provide models of living for others to learn from. PMID:20170998

  17. The adequate stimulus for avian short latency vestibular responses to linear translation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. A.; Jones, S. M.; Colbert, S.

    1998-01-01

    Transient linear acceleration stimuli have been shown to elicit eighth nerve vestibular compound action potentials in birds and mammals. The present study was undertaken to better define the nature of the adequate stimulus for neurons generating the response in the chicken (Gallus domesticus). In particular, the study evaluated the question of whether the neurons studied are most sensitive to the maximum level of linear acceleration achieved or to the rate of change in acceleration (da/dt, or jerk). To do this, vestibular response thresholds were measured as a function of stimulus onset slope. Traditional computer signal averaging was used to record responses to pulsed linear acceleration stimuli. Stimulus onset slope was systematically varied. Acceleration thresholds decreased with increasing stimulus onset slope (decreasing stimulus rise time). When stimuli were expressed in units of jerk (g/ms), thresholds were virtually constant for all stimulus rise times. Moreover, stimuli having identical jerk magnitudes but widely varying peak acceleration levels produced virtually identical responses. Vestibular response thresholds, latencies and amplitudes appear to be determined strictly by stimulus jerk magnitudes. Stimulus attributes such as peak acceleration or rise time alone do not provide sufficient information to predict response parameter quantities. Indeed, the major response parameters were shown to be virtually independent of peak acceleration levels or rise time when these stimulus features were isolated and considered separately. It is concluded that the neurons generating short latency vestibular evoked potentials do so as "jerk encoders" in the chicken. Primary afferents classified as "irregular", and which traditionally fall into the broad category of "dynamic" or "phasic" neurons, would seem to be the most likely candidates for the neural generators of short latency vestibular compound action potentials.

  18. The adequate stimulus for avian short latency vestibular responses to linear translation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. A.; Jones, S. M.; Colbert, S.

    1998-01-01

    Transient linear acceleration stimuli have been shown to elicit eighth nerve vestibular compound action potentials in birds and mammals. The present study was undertaken to better define the nature of the adequate stimulus for neurons generating the response in the chicken (Gallus domesticus). In particular, the study evaluated the question of whether the neurons studied are most sensitive to the maximum level of linear acceleration achieved or to the rate of change in acceleration (da/dt, or jerk). To do this, vestibular response thresholds were measured as a function of stimulus onset slope. Traditional computer signal averaging was used to record responses to pulsed linear acceleration stimuli. Stimulus onset slope was systematically varied. Acceleration thresholds decreased with increasing stimulus onset slope (decreasing stimulus rise time). When stimuli were expressed in units of jerk (g/ms), thresholds were virtually constant for all stimulus rise times. Moreover, stimuli having identical jerk magnitudes but widely varying peak acceleration levels produced virtually identical responses. Vestibular response thresholds, latencies and amplitudes appear to be determined strictly by stimulus jerk magnitudes. Stimulus attributes such as peak acceleration or rise time alone do not provide sufficient information to predict response parameter quantities. Indeed, the major response parameters were shown to be virtually independent of peak acceleration levels or rise time when these stimulus features were isolated and considered separately. It is concluded that the neurons generating short latency vestibular evoked potentials do so as "jerk encoders" in the chicken. Primary afferents classified as "irregular", and which traditionally fall into the broad category of "dynamic" or "phasic" neurons, would seem to be the most likely candidates for the neural generators of short latency vestibular compound action potentials.

  19. Comparison of physiological responses to affect eliciting pictures and music.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongwan; Wedell, Douglas H

    2016-03-01

    Recent investigations of the neural correlates of affect elicited from different modalities have found both modality-general and modality-specific representations (Chikazoe et al., 2014). The implications for how physiological responses to affect differ across stimulus modalities have not been fully investigated. This study examined similarities and differences between physiological signatures of affect derived from two different modes of presentation: visual pictures and auditory music sampled from an affective space defined by valence and arousal. Electromyography recordings for the zygomaticus major (EMGZ) and corrugator supercilii (EMGC) were measured along with heart rate and skin conductance level (SCL). Multidimensional scaling was used to visualize relationships from physiological and behavioral responses, and the observed relationships were statistically evaluated using multivariate and univariate analyses. Results for physiological measures demonstrated that valence was represented in the same general way across modalities, primarily reflected in EMGC responses. Arousal, however, was represented in a modality-specific manner, with SCL and EMGZ sensitive to music-based arousal but not picture-based arousal. Stimulus modality itself was predicted from EMGC. Thus, physiological responses to valence were similar across modalities but physiological responses to arousal differed across modalities. These results support the utility of testing for affective markers across modalities within the same experimental setting to reveal how physiological responses are linked to either affect, stimulus modality or both.

  20. Previously seen and expected stimuli elicit surprise in the context of visual search.

    PubMed

    Retell, James D; Becker, Stefanie I; Remington, Roger W

    2016-04-01

    In the context of visual search, surprise is the phenomenon by which a previously unseen and unexpected stimulus exogenously attracts spatial attention. Capture by such a stimulus occurs, by definition, independent of task goals and is thought to be dependent on the extent to which the stimulus deviates from expectations. However, the relative contributions of prior-exposure and explicit knowledge of an unexpected event to the surprise response have not yet been systematically investigated. Here observers searched for a specific color while ignoring irrelevant cues of different colors presented prior to the target display. After a brief familiarization period, we presented an irrelevant motion cue to elicit surprise. Across conditions we varied prior exposure to the motion stimulus - seen versus unseen - and top-down expectations of occurrence - expected versus unexpected - to assess the extent to which each of these factors contributes to surprise. We found no attenuation of the surprise response when observers were pre-exposed to the motion cue and or had explicit knowledge of its occurrence. Our results show that it is neither sufficient nor necessary that a stimulus be new and unannounced to elicit surprise and suggest that the expectations that determine the surprise response are highly context specific.

  1. Towards an optimal paradigm for simultaneously recording cortical and brainstem auditory evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Bidelman, Gavin M

    2015-02-15

    Simultaneous recording of brainstem and cortical event-related brain potentials (ERPs) may offer a valuable tool for understanding the early neural transcription of behaviorally relevant sounds and the hierarchy of signal processing operating at multiple levels of the auditory system. To date, dual recordings have been challenged by technological and physiological limitations including different optimal parameters necessary to elicit each class of ERP (e.g., differential adaptation/habitation effects and number of trials to obtain adequate response signal-to-noise ratio). We investigated a new stimulus paradigm for concurrent recording of the auditory brainstem frequency-following response (FFR) and cortical ERPs. The paradigm is "optimal" in that it uses a clustered stimulus presentation and variable interstimulus interval (ISI) to (i) achieve the most ideal acquisition parameters for eliciting subcortical and cortical responses, (ii) obtain an adequate number of trials to detect each class of response, and (iii) minimize neural adaptation/habituation effects. Comparison between clustered and traditional (fixed, slow ISI) stimulus paradigms revealed minimal change in amplitude or latencies of either the brainstem FFR or cortical ERP. The clustered paradigm offered over a 3× increase in recording efficiency compared to conventional (fixed ISI presentation) and thus, a more rapid protocol for obtaining dual brainstem-cortical recordings in individual listeners. We infer that faster recording of subcortical and cortical potentials might allow more complete and sensitive testing of neurophysiological function and aid in the differential assessment of auditory function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. SWITCHING NEURONAL STATE: OPTIMAL STIMULI REVEALED USING A STOCHASTICALLYSEEDED GRADIENT ALGORITHM

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Joshua; Paydarfar, David

    2014-01-01

    Inducing a switch in neuronal state using energy optimal stimuli is relevant to a variety of problems in neuroscience. Analytical techniques from optimal control theory can identify such stimuli; however, solutions to the optimization problem using indirect variational approaches can be elusive in models that describe neuronal behavior. Here we develop and apply a direct gradient-based optimization algorithm to find stimulus waveforms that elicit a change in neuronal state while minimizing energy usage. We analyze standard models of neuronal behavior, the Hodgkin-Huxley and FitzHugh-Nagumo models, to show that the gradient-based algorithm: 1) enables automated exploration of a wide solution space, using stochastically generated initial waveforms that converge to multiple locally optimal solutions; and 2) finds optimal stimulus waveforms that achieve a physiological outcome condition, without a priori knowledge of the optimal terminal condition of all state variables. Analysis of biological systems using stochastically-seeded gradient methods can reveal salient dynamical mechanisms underlying the optimal control of system behavior. The gradient algorithm may also have practical applications in future work, for example, finding energy optimal waveforms for therapeutic neural stimulation that minimizes power usage and diminishes off-target effects and damage to neighboring tissue. PMID:25145955

  3. Poverty of the stimulus revisited.

    PubMed

    Berwick, Robert C; Pietroski, Paul; Yankama, Beracah; Chomsky, Noam

    2011-01-01

    A central goal of modern generative grammar has been to discover invariant properties of human languages that reflect "the innate schematism of mind that is applied to the data of experience" and that "might reasonably be attributed to the organism itself as its contribution to the task of the acquisition of knowledge" (Chomsky, 1971). Candidates for such invariances include the structure dependence of grammatical rules, and in particular, certain constraints on question formation. Various "poverty of stimulus" (POS) arguments suggest that these invariances reflect an innate human endowment, as opposed to common experience: Such experience warrants selection of the grammars acquired only if humans assume, a priori, that selectable grammars respect substantive constraints. Recently, several researchers have tried to rebut these POS arguments. In response, we illustrate why POS arguments remain an important source of support for appeal to a priori structure-dependent constraints on the grammars that humans naturally acquire. Copyright © 2011 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  4. Does stimulus appearance affect learning?

    PubMed

    Pothos, Emmanuel M; Chater, Nick; Ziori, Eleni

    2006-01-01

    We examined the learning process with 3 sets of stimuli that have identical symbolic structure but differ in appearance (meaningless letter strings, arrangements of geometric shapes, and sequences of cities). One hypothesis is that the learning process aims to encode symbolic regularity in the same way, largely regardless of appearance. Another is that different types of stimuli bias the learning process to operate in different ways. Using the experimental paradigm of artificial grammar learning, we provided a preliminary test of these hypotheses. In Experiments 1 and 2 we measured performance in terms of grammaticality and found no difference across the 3 sets of stimuli. In Experiment 3 we analyzed performance in terms of both grammaticality and chunk strength. Again we found no differences in performance. Our tentative conclusion is that the learning process aims to encode symbolic regularity independent of stimulus appearance.

  5. Cognition- and memory-related ERD/ERS responses in the auditory stimulus modality.

    PubMed

    Krause, Christina M

    2006-01-01

    In the year 1994, Krause et al. published an initial report of acoustically elicited electroencephalogram (EEG) event-related desynchronization (ERD)/ event-related synchronization (ERS) responses. Later, Krause et al. reported of distinct ERD/ERS responses during an auditory memory task: the encoding of acoustic material elicited alpha-frequency ERS whereas retrieval or recognition of the same stimulus material evoked alpha ERD. The research group of Krause and co-workers has published several reports on acoustically evoked ERD/ERS responses utilizing various cognitive tasks and diverse stimuli. Recently, also clinical studies have been initiated. This chapter reviews, summarizes, and discusses the findings on cognition- and memory-related ERD/ERS responses specifically in the auditory stimulus modality.

  6. Information about the model's unconditioned stimulus and response in vicarious classical conditioning.

    PubMed

    Hygge, S

    1976-06-01

    Four groups with 16 observers each participated in a differential, vicarious conditioning experiment with skin conductance responses as the dependent variable. The information available to the observer about the model's unconditioned stimulus and response was varied in a 2 X 2 factorial design. Results clearly showed that information about the model's unconditioned stimulus (a high or low dB level) was not necessary for vicarious instigation, but that information about the unconditioned response (a high or low emotional aversiveness) was necessary. Data for conditioning of responses showed almost identical patterns to those for vicarious instigation. To explain the results, a distinction between factors necessary for the development and elicitation of vicariously instigated responses was introduced, and the effectiveness of information about the model's response on the elicitation of vicariously instigated responses was considered in terms of an expansion of Bandura's social learning theory.

  7. Speech evoked cortical potentials: effects of age and stimulus presentation rate.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Kelly L; Billings, Curtis; Rohila, Neeru

    2004-03-01

    We examined the effects of stimulus complexity and stimulus presentation rate in ten younger and ten older normal-hearing adults. A 1 kHz tone burst as well as a speech syllable were used to elicit the N1 -P2 complex. Three different interstimulus intervals (ISI) were used (510, 910, and 1510 msec). When stimuli were presented at the medium presentation rate (910 msec ISI), N1 and P2 latencies were prolonged for older listeners in response to the speech stimulus but not the tone stimulus. These age effects were absent when stimuli were presented at a slower rate (1510 msec ISI). Results from this study suggest that rapidly occurring stimulus onsets, either within a stimulus or between stimuli, result in prolonged N1 and P2 responses in older adults. This is especially true when processing complex stimuli such as speech. One potential explanation for this age effect might be age-related refractory differences in younger and older auditory systems. Refractory issues might in turn affect synchronized neural activity underlying the perception of critical time-varying speech cues and may partially explain some of the difficulties older people experience understanding speech.

  8. Independent effects of attentional gain control and competitive interactions on visual stimulus processing.

    PubMed

    Keitel, Christian; Andersen, Søren K; Quigley, Cliodhna; Müller, Matthias M

    2013-04-01

    Attention filters behaviorally relevant stimuli from the constant stream of sensory information comprising our environment. Research into underlying neural mechanisms in humans suggests that visual attention biases mutual suppression between stimuli resulting from competition for limited processing resources. As a consequence, processing of an attended stimulus is facilitated. This account makes 2 assumptions: 1) An attended stimulus is released from mutual suppression with competing stimuli and 2) an attended stimulus experiences greater gain in the presence of competing stimuli than when it is presented alone. Here, we tested these assumptions by recording frequency-tagged potentials elicited in early visual cortex that index stimulus-specific processing. We contrasted the processing of a given stimulus when its location was attended or unattended and in the presence or the absence of a nearby competing stimulus. At variance with previous findings, competition similarly suppressed processing of attended and unattended stimuli. Moreover, the magnitude of attentional gain was comparable in the presence or the absence of competing stimuli. We conclude that visuospatial selective attention does not directly modulate mutual suppression between stimuli but instead acts as a signal gain, which biases processing toward attended stimuli independent of competition.

  9. Opinion Elicitation in Second Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Vliet, Marijn; Neviarouskaya, Alena; Prendinger, Helmut

    The paper describes a novel method for opinion elicitation, which is based on the popular 3D online world of “Second Life”. Here people, as avatars, are put into a somewhat realistic context related to the topic for which opinions are sought. We hypothesize that this kind of concrete, interactive context supports the evocation of opinions better than non-context methods, e.g. only showing related images. To confirm our hypothesis, we conducted a small pilot study, which compares the influence of static and interactive context methods on the opinions expressed by subjects. The opinion elicitation scenario in Second Life is supported by the automatic retrieval of opinions from the web. The results of a study indicate that subjects show more reasoned opinions in the interactive condition. A demo illustrating the content of this paper is available.

  10. Conditioned cues for smoking elicit preparatory responses in healthy smokers

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Markus H.; Weyers, Peter; Mucha, Ronald F.; Stippekohl, Bastian; Stark, Rudolf

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Smoking cues are theorized to be conditioned stimuli (CSs) formed by repeated pairing with drug. Smoking paraphernalia can elicit subjective and physiological responses in smokers, indicative of positive affect and motivation to consume. Although these responses are probably the result of conditioning, direct evidence from human conditioning studies with physiological measures of motivational valence is rare. Objective The present study investigated the motivational properties of experimentally conditioned cues for smoking. Methods Thirty-nine smokers completed a differential conditioning protocol. Abstract pictures were used as CSs and single puffs on a cigarette as unconditioned stimulus (US). Skin conductance responses and facial electromyography of the zygomatic, corrugator, and orbicularis oris muscles were measured during conditioning. Results The conditioned cue for smoking (CS+) elicited stronger skin conductance responses and more activity of the zygomatic and orbicularis oris muscles than the CS−. Conclusions These results support the notion that through pairing with smoking, neutral stimuli acquire the ability to elicit preparatory physiological responses, which are assumed to play an important role in the maintenance of addiction and relapse in the natural environment. PMID:20953588

  11. Requirements Elicitation Using Paper Prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayan, Jaya; Raju, G.

    Requirements engineering is both the hardest and critical part of software development since errors at this beginning stage propagate through the development process and are the hardest to repair later. This paper proposes an improved approach for requirements elicitation using paper prototype. The paper progresses through an assessment of the new approach using student projects developed for various organizations. The scope of implementation of paper prototype and its advantages are unveiled.

  12. Stimulus-evoked outer segment changes in rod photoreceptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiaohui; Thapa, Damber; Wang, Benquan; Lu, Yiming; Gai, Shaoyan; Yao, Xincheng

    2016-06-01

    Rod-dominated transient retinal phototropism (TRP) has been recently observed in freshly isolated mouse and frog retinas. Comparative confocal microscopy and optical coherence tomography revealed that the TRP was predominantly elicited from the rod outer segment (OS). However, the biophysical mechanism of rod OS dynamics is still unknown. Mouse and frog retinal slices, which displayed a cross-section of retinal photoreceptors and other functional layers, were used to test the effect of light stimulation on rod OSs. Time-lapse microscopy revealed stimulus-evoked conformational changes of rod OSs. In the center of the stimulated region, the length of the rod OS shrunk, while in the peripheral region, the rod OS swung toward the center region. Our experimental observation and theoretical analysis suggest that the TRP may reflect unbalanced rod disc-shape changes due to localized visible light stimulation.

  13. Brainstem auditory evoked responses in man. 1: Effect of stimulus rise-fall time and duration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecox, K.; Squires, N.; Galambos, R.

    1975-01-01

    Short latency (under 10 msec) responses elicited by bursts of white noise were recorded from the scalps of human subjects. Response alterations produced by changes in the noise burst duration (on-time), inter-burst interval (off-time), and onset and offset shapes were analyzed. The latency of the most prominent response component, wave V, was markedly delayed with increases in stimulus rise time but was unaffected by changes in fall time. Increases in stimulus duration, and therefore in loudness, resulted in a systematic increase in latency. This was probably due to response recovery processes, since the effect was eliminated with increases in stimulus off-time. The amplitude of wave V was insensitive to changes in signal rise and fall times, while increasing signal on-time produced smaller amplitude responses only for sufficiently short off-times. It was concluded that wave V of the human auditory brainstem evoked response is solely an onset response.

  14. Effect of stimulus intensity level on auditory middle latency response brain maps in human adults.

    PubMed

    Tucker, D A; Dietrich, S; McPherson, D L; Salamat, M T

    2001-05-01

    Auditory middle latency response (AMLR) brain maps were obtained in 11 young adults with normal hearing. AMLR waveforms were elicited with monaural clicks presented at three stimulus intensity levels (50, 70, and 90 dB nHL). Recordings were made for right and left ear stimulus presentations. All recordings were obtained in an eyes open/awake status for each subject. Peak-to-peak amplitudes and absolute latencies of the AMLR Pa and Pb waveforms were measured at the Cz electrode site. Pa and Pb waveforms were present 100 percent of the time in response to the 90 dB nHL presentation. The prevalence of Pa and Pb to the 70 dB nHL presentation varied from 86 to 95 percent. The prevalence of Pa and Pb to the 50 dB nHL stimulus never reached 100 percent, ranging in prevalence from 77 to 68 percent. No significant ear effect was seen for amplitude or latency measures of Pa or Pb. AMLR brain maps of the voltage field distributions of Pa and Pb waveforms showed different topographic features. Scalp topography of the Pa waveform was altered by a reduction in stimulus intensity level. At 90 dB nHL, the Pa brain map showed a large positivity midline over the frontal and central scalp areas. At lower stimulus intensity levels, frontal positivity was reduced, and scalp negativity over occipital regions was increased. Pb scalp topography was also altered by a reduction in stimulus intensity level. Varying the stimulus intensity significantly altered Pa and Pb distributions of amplitude and latency measures. Pa and Pb distributions were skewed regardless of stimulus intensity.

  15. Investigation of Stimulus-Response Compatibility Using a Startling Acoustic Stimulus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslovat, Dana; Carlsen, Anthony N.; Franks, Ian M.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the processes underlying stimulus-response compatibility by using a lateralized auditory stimulus in a simple and choice reaction time (RT) paradigm. Participants were asked to make either a left or right key lift in response to either a control (80dB) or startling (124dB) stimulus presented to either the left ear, right ear, or…

  16. Investigation of Stimulus-Response Compatibility Using a Startling Acoustic Stimulus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslovat, Dana; Carlsen, Anthony N.; Franks, Ian M.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the processes underlying stimulus-response compatibility by using a lateralized auditory stimulus in a simple and choice reaction time (RT) paradigm. Participants were asked to make either a left or right key lift in response to either a control (80dB) or startling (124dB) stimulus presented to either the left ear, right ear, or…

  17. Optimization of retinotopy constrained source estimation constrained by prior

    PubMed Central

    Hagler, Donald J.

    2015-01-01

    Studying how the timing and amplitude of visual evoked responses (VERs) vary between visual areas is important for understanding visual processing but is complicated by difficulties in reliably estimating VERs in individual visual areas using non-invasive brain measurements. Retinotopy constrained source estimation (RCSE) addresses this challenge by using multiple, retinotopically-mapped stimulus locations to simultaneously constrain estimates of VERs in visual areas V1, V2, and V3, taking advantage of the spatial precision of fMRI retinotopy and the temporal resolution of magnetoencephalography (MEG) or electroencephalography (EEG). Nonlinear optimization of dipole locations, guided by a group-constrained RCSE solution as a prior, improved the robustness of RCSE. This approach facilitated the analysis of differences in timing and amplitude of VERs between V1, V2, and V3, elicited by stimuli with varying luminance contrast in a sample of eight adult humans. The V1 peak response was 37% larger than that of V2 and 74% larger than that of V3, and also ~10–20 msec earlier. Normalized contrast response functions were nearly identical for the three areas. Results without dipole optimization, or with other nonlinear methods not constrained by prior estimates were similar but suffered from greater between-subject variability. The increased reliability of estimates offered by this approach may be particularly valuable when using a smaller number of stimulus locations, enabling a greater variety of stimulus and task manipulations. PMID:23868690

  18. Why Additional Presentations Help Identify a Stimulus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guest, Duncan; Kent, Christopher; Adelman, James S.

    2010-01-01

    Nosofsky (1983) reported that additional stimulus presentations within a trial increase discriminability in absolute identification, suggesting that each presentation creates an independent stimulus representation, but it remains unclear whether exposure duration or the formation of independent representations improves discrimination in such…

  19. Stimulus Intensity and the Perception of Duration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, William J.; Stewart, Neil; Wearden, John H.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the widely reported finding that the subjective duration of a stimulus is positively related to its magnitude. In Experiments 1 and 2 we show that, for both auditory and visual stimuli, the effect of stimulus magnitude on the perception of duration depends upon the background: Against a high intensity background, weak stimuli…

  20. Stimulus Probability Effects in Absolute Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of…

  1. Stimulus Intensity and the Perception of Duration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, William J.; Stewart, Neil; Wearden, John H.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the widely reported finding that the subjective duration of a stimulus is positively related to its magnitude. In Experiments 1 and 2 we show that, for both auditory and visual stimuli, the effect of stimulus magnitude on the perception of duration depends upon the background: Against a high intensity background, weak stimuli…

  2. Why Additional Presentations Help Identify a Stimulus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guest, Duncan; Kent, Christopher; Adelman, James S.

    2010-01-01

    Nosofsky (1983) reported that additional stimulus presentations within a trial increase discriminability in absolute identification, suggesting that each presentation creates an independent stimulus representation, but it remains unclear whether exposure duration or the formation of independent representations improves discrimination in such…

  3. Stimulus Probability Effects in Absolute Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of…

  4. Stimulus Overselectivity: Empirical Basis and Diagnostic Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cipani, Ennio

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the empirical basis for the phenomena known as stimulus overselectivity. Stimulus overselectivity involves responding on the basis of a restricted range of elements or features that are discriminative for reinforcement. The manner in which such a response pattern impedes the skill acquisition in children is identified. A…

  5. Evaluation of Electrical Stimulus Current Applied to Retina Cells for Retinal Prosthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motonami, Keita; Watanabe, Taiichiro; Deguchi, Jun; Fukushima, Takafumi; Tomita, Hiroshi; Sugano, Eriko; Sato, Manami; Kurino, Hiroyuki; Tamai, Makoto; Koyanagi, Mitsumasa

    2006-04-01

    We have proposed a novel multilayer stacked retinal prosthesis chip based on three-dimensional integration technology. Implantable stimulus electrode arrays in polyimide flexible cables were fabricated for the electrical stimulation of the retina. To evaluate optimal retinal stimulus current, electrically evoked potential (EEP) was recorded in animal experiments using Japanese white rabbits. The EEP waveform was compared with visually evoked potential (VEP) waveform. The amplitude of the recorded EEP increased with stimulus current. The EEP waveform shows a similar behavior to the VEP waveform, indicating that the electrical stimulation of the retina can be exploited for the blind to perceive incident light to the retina.

  6. Stimulus appraisal modulates cardiac reactivity to briefly presented mutilation pictures.

    PubMed

    Mocaiber, Izabela; Perakakis, Pandelis; Pereira, Mirtes Garcia; Pinheiro, Walter Machado; Volchan, Eliane; de Oliveira, Letícia; Vila, Jaime

    2011-09-01

    Emotional reactions to threatening situations can be either advantageous for human adaptation or unfavorable for physical and mental health if sustained over prolonged periods of time. These contrasting effects mostly depend on the individual's capacity for emotion regulation. It has been shown, for example, that changing appraisal can alter the course of emotional processing. In the present study, the influence of stimulus appraisal over cardiac reactivity to briefly presented (200ms) mutilation pictures was tested in the context of an affective classification task. Heart rate and reaction time of twenty-four undergraduate students were monitored during the presentation of pictures (neutral or mutilated bodies) in successive blocks. In one condition (real), participants were told that the pictures depicted real events. In the other condition (fictitious), they were told that the pictures were taken from movie scenes. As expected, the results showed a more pronounced bradycardia to mutilation pictures, in comparison to neural pictures, in the real context. In the fictitious context, a significant attenuation of the emotional modulation (defensive bradycardia) was observed. However, this attenuation seemed to be transient because it was only observed in the first presentation block of the fictitious context. Reaction time to classify mutilation pictures, compared to neutral pictures, was slower in both contexts, reflecting the privileged processing of emotionally laden material. The present findings show that even briefly presented mutilation pictures elicit a differential cardiac reactivity and modulate behavioral performance. Importantly, changing stimulus appraisal attenuates the emotional modulation of cardiac reactivity (defensive bradycardia).

  7. Stimulus rate and subcortical auditory processing of speech.

    PubMed

    Krizman, Jennifer L; Skoe, Erika; Kraus, Nina

    2010-01-01

    Many sounds in the environment, including speech, are temporally dynamic. The auditory brainstem is exquisitely sensitive to temporal features of the incoming acoustic stream, and by varying the speed of presentation of these auditory signals it is possible to investigate the precision with which temporal cues are represented at a subcortical level. Therefore, to determine the effects of stimulation rate on the auditory brainstem response (ABR), we recorded evoked responses to both a click and a consonant-vowel speech syllable (/da/) presented at three rates (15.4, 10.9 and 6.9 Hz). We hypothesized that stimulus rate affects the onset to speech-evoked responses to a greater extent than click-evoked responses and that subcomponents of the speech- ABR are distinctively affected. While the click response was invariant with changes in stimulus rate, timing of the onset response to /da/ varied systematically, increasing in peak latency as presentation rate increased. Contrasts between the click- and speech-evoked onset responses likely reflect acoustic differences, where the speech stimulus onset is more gradual, has more delineated spectral information, and is more susceptible to backward masking by the subsequent formant transition. The frequency-following response (FFR) was also rate dependent, with response magnitude of the higher frequencies (>400 Hz), but not the frequencies corresponding to the fundamental frequency, diminishing with increasing rate. The selective impact of rate on high-frequency components of the FFR implicates the involvement of distinct underlying neural mechanisms for high- versus low-frequency components of the response. Furthermore, the different rate sensitivities of the speech-evoked onset response and subcomponents of the FFR support the involvement of different neural streams for these two responses. Taken together, these differential effects of rate on the ABR components likely reflect distinct aspects of auditory function such that

  8. Stimulus Rate and Subcortical Auditory Processing of Speech

    PubMed Central

    Krizman, Jennifer; Skoe, Erika; Kraus, Nina

    2010-01-01

    Many sounds in the environment, including speech, are temporally dynamic. The auditory brainstem is exquisitely sensitive to temporal features of the incoming acoustic stream, and by varying the speed of presentation of these auditory signals it is possible to investigate the precision with which temporal cues are represented at a subcortical level. Therefore, to determine the effects of stimulation rate on the auditory brainstem response (ABR), we recorded evoked responses to both a click and a consonant-vowel speech syllable (/da/) presented at three rates (15.4, 10.9 and 6.9 Hz). We hypothesized that stimulus rate affects the onset to speech-evoked responses to a greater extent than click-evoked responses and that subcomponents of the speech-ABR are distinctively affected. While the click response was invariant with changes in stimulus rate, timing of the onset response to /da/ varied systematically, increasing in peak latency as presentation rate increased. Contrasts between the click- and speech-evoked onset responses likely reflect acoustic differences, where the speech stimulus onset is more gradual, has more delineated spectral information, and is more susceptible to backward masking by the subsequent formant transition. The frequency-following response (FFR) was also rate dependent, with response magnitude of the higher frequencies (>400 Hz), but not the frequencies corresponding to the fundamental frequency, diminishing with increasing rate. The selective impact of rate on high-frequency components of the FFR implicates the involvement of distinct underlying neural mechanisms for high- versus low-frequency components of the response. Furthermore, the different rate sensitivities of the speech-evoked onset response and subcomponents of the FFR support the involvement of different neural streams for these two responses. Taken together, these differential effects of rate on the ABR components likely reflect distinct aspects of auditory function such that

  9. Source recognition by stimulus content in the MTL.

    PubMed

    Park, Heekyeong; Abellanoza, Cheryl; Schaeffer, James; Gandy, Kellen

    2014-03-17

    Source memory is considered to be the cornerstone of episodic memory that enables us to discriminate similar but different events. In the present fMRI study, we investigated whether neural correlates of source retrieval differed by stimulus content in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) when the item and context had been integrated as a perceptually unitized entity. Participants were presented with a list of items either in verbal or pictorial form overlaid on a colored square and instructed to integrate both the item and context into a single image. At test, participants judged the study status of test items and the color in which studied items were presented. Source recognition invariant of stimulus content elicited retrieval activity in both the left anterior hippocampus extending to the perirhinal cortex and the right posterior hippocampus. Word-selective source recognition was related to activity in the left perirhinal cortex, whereas picture-selective source recognition was identified in the left posterior hippocampus. Neural activity sensitive to novelty detection common to both words and pictures was found in the left anterior and right posterior hippocampus. Novelty detection selective to words was associated with the left perirhinal cortex, while activity sensitive to new pictures was identified in the bilateral hippocampus and adjacent MTL cortices, including the parahippocampal, entorhinal, and perirhinal cortices. These findings provide further support for the integral role of the hippocampus both in source recognition and in detection of new stimuli across stimulus content. Additionally, novelty effects in the MTL reveal the integral role of the MTL cortex as the interface for processing new information. Collectively, the present findings demonstrate the importance of the MTL for both previously experienced and novel events.

  10. Phosphene-guided transcranial magnetic stimulation of occipital but not parietal cortex suppresses stimulus visibility.

    PubMed

    Tapia, Evelina; Mazzi, Chiara; Savazzi, Silvia; Beck, Diane M

    2014-06-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) applied over the occipital lobe approximately 100 ms after the onset of a stimulus decreases its visibility if it appears in the location of the phosphene. Because phosphenes can also be elicited by stimulation of the parietal regions, we asked if the same procedure that is used to reduce visibility of stimuli with occipital TMS will lead to decreased stimulus visibility when TMS is applied to parietal regions. TMS was randomly applied at 0-130 ms after the onset of the stimulus in steps of 10 ms in occipital and parietal regions. Participants responded to the orientation of the line stimulus and rated its visibility. We replicate previous reports of phosphenes from both occipital and parietal TMS. As previously reported, we also observed visual suppression around the classical 100 ms window both in the objective line orientation and subjective visibility responses with occipital TMS. Parietal stimulation, on the other hand, did not consistently reduce stimulus visibility in any time window.

  11. Effect of stimulus context and repeated aversive visual stimulation on the cardiac correlate of attention.

    PubMed

    Lefave, M K; Neufeld, R W

    1977-02-01

    The experiment investigated cardiac deceleration responses to repeated presentations of an aversive visual stimulus (a slide of a mutilated homicide victim) as a function of interspersing presentations of different types of other provocative visual stimuli amidst the aversive stimulus. 30 male volunteers were divided into three groups of 10 subjects each. One group viewed the aversive stimulus randomly interspersed with presentations of female nudes (positive context); a second group viewed the aversive stimulus amidst presentations of slides of skin-disease patients (negative context); and the third group viewed the aversive slide surrounded by presentations of other male undergraduates (neutral context). After repeatedly viewing the single homocide-victim slide, subjects viewed five different homicide scenes without contextual slides. These identical procedures were repeated during a second experimental session. A significant context-by-sessions interaction (p less than .05) reflected a decrement in cardiac deceleration over sessions for the positive context and an increase in deceleration from the first to the second session for the negative context. The neutral context did not affect cardiac deceleration over sessions. The series of different homicide scenes elicited greater cardiac deceleration than repeated exposures to the same slide. These results were discussed in terms of the possible role of stimulus context in affecting attention and vigilant-avoidant coping orientations.

  12. Pain predictability reverses valence ratings of a relief-associated stimulus

    PubMed Central

    Andreatta, Marta; Mühlberger, Andreas; Glotzbach-Schoon, Evelyn; Pauli, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Relief from pain is positively valenced and entails reward-like properties. Notably, stimuli that became associated with pain relief elicit reward-like implicit responses too, but are explicitly evaluated by humans as aversive. Since the unpredictability of pain makes pain more aversive, this study examined the hypotheses that the predictability of pain also modulates the valence of relief-associated stimuli. In two studies, we presented one conditioned stimulus (FORWARDCS+) before a painful unconditioned stimulus (US), another stimulus (BACKWARDCS+) after the painful US, and a third stimulus (CS−) was never associated with the US. In Study 1, FORWARDCS+ predicted half of the USs while the other half was delivered unwarned and followed by BACKWARDCS+. In Study 2, all USs were predicted by FORWARDCS+ and followed by BACKWARDCS+. In Study 1 both FORWARDCS+ and BACKWARDCS+ were rated as negatively valenced and high arousing after conditioning, while BACKWARDCS+ in Study 2 acquired positive valence and low arousal. Startle amplitude was significantly attenuated to BACKWARDCS+ compared to FORWARDCS+ in Study 2, but did not differ among CSs in Study 1. In summary, predictability of aversive events reverses the explicit valence of a relief-associated stimulus. PMID:24068989

  13. Stimulus independence, social cognition and consciousness.

    PubMed

    Smallwood, Jonathan

    2011-06-01

    Abstract A consensus emerging from neuroscience is that certain brain regions show activity correlated with stimulus independent (e.g. private) conscious thought and yet are also implicated in public social processes. The fact that systems supporting social processing also exhibit activity with no obvious perceptual referent, can be seen as support for the framework suggested by Graziano and Kerber (this volume) once it is recognized that the property of stimulus independence is also an important feature of consciousness. Understanding the social basis behind private stimulus independent thought, therefore, may provide an important assessment of the validity of the Graziano and Kerber hypothesis.

  14. Cycloheximide: No Ordinary Bitter Stimulus

    PubMed Central

    Hettinger, Thomas P.; Formaker, Bradley K.; Frank, Marion E.

    2007-01-01

    Cycloheximide (CyX), a toxic antibiotic with a unique chemical structure generated by the actinomycete, Streptomyces griseus, has emerged as a primary focus of studies on mammalian bitter taste. Rats and mice avoid it at concentrations well below the thresholds for most bitter stimuli and T2R G-protein-coupled receptors specific for CyX with appropriate sensitivity are identified for those species. Like mouse and rat, golden hamsters, Mesocricetus auratus, also detected and rejected micromolar levels of CyX, although 1 mM CyX failed to activate the hamster chorda tympani nerve. Hamsters showed an initial tolerance for 500 μM CyX, but after that, avoidance of CyX dramatically increased, plasticity not reported for rat or mouse. As the hamster lineage branches well before division of the mouse-rat lineage in evolutionary time, differences between hamster and mouse-rat reactions to CyX are not surprising. Furthermore, unlike hamster LiCl-induced learned aversions, the induced CyX aversion neither specifically nor robustly generalized to other non-ionic bitter stimuli; and unlike adverse reactions to other chemosensory stimuli, aversions to CyX were not mollified by adding a sweetener. Thus, CyX is unlike other bitter stimuli. The gene for the high-affinity CyX receptor is a member of a cluster of 5 orthologous T2R genes that are likely rodent specific; this “CyX clade” is found in the mouse, rat and probably hamster, but not in the human or rabbit genome. The rodent CyX-T2R interaction may be one of multiple lineage-specific stimulus-receptor interactions reflecting a response to a particular environmental toxin. The combination of T2R multiplicity, species divergence and gene duplication results in diverse ligands for multiple species-specific T2R receptors, which confounds definition of ‘bitter’ stimuli across species. PMID:17400304

  15. Continuous- and Discrete-Time Stimulus Sequences for High Stimulus Rate Paradigm in Evoked Potential Studies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Huang, Jiang-hua; Lin, Lin

    2013-01-01

    To obtain reliable transient auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) from EEGs recorded using high stimulus rate (HSR) paradigm, it is critical to design the stimulus sequences of appropriate frequency properties. Traditionally, the individual stimulus events in a stimulus sequence occur only at discrete time points dependent on the sampling frequency of the recording system and the duration of stimulus sequence. This dependency likely causes the implementation of suboptimal stimulus sequences, sacrificing the reliability of resulting AEPs. In this paper, we explicate the use of continuous-time stimulus sequence for HSR paradigm, which is independent of the discrete electroencephalogram (EEG) recording system. We employ simulation studies to examine the applicability of the continuous-time stimulus sequences and the impacts of sampling frequency on AEPs in traditional studies using discrete-time design. Results from these studies show that the continuous-time sequences can offer better frequency properties and improve the reliability of recovered AEPs. Furthermore, we find that the errors in the recovered AEPs depend critically on the sampling frequencies of experimental systems, and their relationship can be fitted using a reciprocal function. As such, our study contributes to the literature by demonstrating the applicability and advantages of continuous-time stimulus sequences for HSR paradigm and by revealing the relationship between the reliability of AEPs and sampling frequencies of the experimental systems when discrete-time stimulus sequences are used in traditional manner for the HSR paradigm. PMID:23606900

  16. Continuous- and discrete-time stimulus sequences for high stimulus rate paradigm in evoked potential studies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Huang, Jiang-hua; Lin, Lin; Zhan, Chang'an A

    2013-01-01

    To obtain reliable transient auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) from EEGs recorded using high stimulus rate (HSR) paradigm, it is critical to design the stimulus sequences of appropriate frequency properties. Traditionally, the individual stimulus events in a stimulus sequence occur only at discrete time points dependent on the sampling frequency of the recording system and the duration of stimulus sequence. This dependency likely causes the implementation of suboptimal stimulus sequences, sacrificing the reliability of resulting AEPs. In this paper, we explicate the use of continuous-time stimulus sequence for HSR paradigm, which is independent of the discrete electroencephalogram (EEG) recording system. We employ simulation studies to examine the applicability of the continuous-time stimulus sequences and the impacts of sampling frequency on AEPs in traditional studies using discrete-time design. Results from these studies show that the continuous-time sequences can offer better frequency properties and improve the reliability of recovered AEPs. Furthermore, we find that the errors in the recovered AEPs depend critically on the sampling frequencies of experimental systems, and their relationship can be fitted using a reciprocal function. As such, our study contributes to the literature by demonstrating the applicability and advantages of continuous-time stimulus sequences for HSR paradigm and by revealing the relationship between the reliability of AEPs and sampling frequencies of the experimental systems when discrete-time stimulus sequences are used in traditional manner for the HSR paradigm.

  17. Stimulus Generalization in Autistic and Normal Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fein, Deborah; And Others

    1979-01-01

    A comparative assessment of eight normal and eight psychotic children in a stimulus generalization paradigm using simple and complex figures. Six of the subjects fulfilled the criteria for infantile autism. (CM)

  18. Accommodation stimulus and response determinations with autorefractors.

    PubMed

    Atchison, David A; Varnas, Saulius R

    2017-01-01

    To develop equations for accommodation stimulus and accommodation response with autorefractors when the accommodation stimulus is produced by combinations of object distances and lenses placed in front of eyes, and to give worked examples using these equations. Simple ray tracing was used to determine stimulus and response equations, taking into account the reference positions for targets, for refraction, and for autorefractor readings. Several examples applying equations are provided. Features of these examples include evaluating approximate calculations that have been used previously, demonstrating which equations should be used in different circumstances, how to substitute numbers into equations, how to deal with discrepancies between subjective and objective refraction, and how to deal with astigmatism. Problems associated with measuring accommodation response by placing lenses in front of the eye are discussed. Accurate equations for accommodation stimulus and accommodation response for a range of accommodation stimuli in different setups have been developed. © 2016 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2016 The College of Optometrists.

  19. Comparing different stimulus configurations for population receptive field mapping in human fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Ivan; de Haas, Benjamin; Clark, Chris A.; Rees, Geraint; Schwarzkopf, D. Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Population receptive field (pRF) mapping is a widely used approach to measuring aggregate human visual receptive field properties by recording non-invasive signals using functional MRI. Despite growing interest, no study to date has systematically investigated the effects of different stimulus configurations on pRF estimates from human visual cortex. Here we compared the effects of three different stimulus configurations on a model-based approach to pRF estimation: size-invariant bars and eccentricity-scaled bars defined in Cartesian coordinates and traveling along the cardinal axes, and a novel simultaneous “wedge and ring” stimulus defined in polar coordinates, systematically covering polar and eccentricity axes. We found that the presence or absence of eccentricity scaling had a significant effect on goodness of fit and pRF size estimates. Further, variability in pRF size estimates was directly influenced by stimulus configuration, particularly for higher visual areas including V5/MT+. Finally, we compared eccentricity estimation between phase-encoded and model-based pRF approaches. We observed a tendency for more peripheral eccentricity estimates using phase-encoded methods, independent of stimulus size. We conclude that both eccentricity scaling and polar rather than Cartesian stimulus configuration are important considerations for optimal experimental design in pRF mapping. While all stimulus configurations produce adequate estimates, simultaneous wedge and ring stimulation produced higher fit reliability, with a significant advantage in reduced acquisition time. PMID:25750620

  20. Emotion Elicitation: A Comparison of Pictures and Films

    PubMed Central

    Uhrig, Meike K.; Trautmann, Nadine; Baumgärtner, Ulf; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Henrich, Florian; Hiller, Wolfgang; Marschall, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Pictures and film clips are widely used and accepted stimuli to elicit emotions. Based on theoretical arguments it is often assumed that the emotional effects of films exceed those of pictures, but to date this assumption has not been investigated directly. The aim of the present study was to compare pictures and films in terms of their capacity to induce emotions verified by means of explicit measures. Stimuli were (a) single pictures presented for 6 s, (b) a set of three consecutive pictures with emotionally congruent contents presented for 2 s each, (c) short film clips with a duration of 6 s. A total of 144 participants rated their emotion and arousal states following stimulus presentation. Repeated-measures ANOVAs revealed that the film clips and 3-picture version were as effective as the classical 1-picture method to elicit positive emotions, however, modulation toward positive valence was little. Modulation toward negative valence was more effective in general. Film clips were less effective than pictorial stimuli in producing the corresponding emotion states (all p < 0.001) and were less arousing (all p ≤ 0.02). Possible reasons for these unexpected results are discussed. PMID:26925007

  1. Emotion Elicitation: A Comparison of Pictures and Films.

    PubMed

    Uhrig, Meike K; Trautmann, Nadine; Baumgärtner, Ulf; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Henrich, Florian; Hiller, Wolfgang; Marschall, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Pictures and film clips are widely used and accepted stimuli to elicit emotions. Based on theoretical arguments it is often assumed that the emotional effects of films exceed those of pictures, but to date this assumption has not been investigated directly. The aim of the present study was to compare pictures and films in terms of their capacity to induce emotions verified by means of explicit measures. Stimuli were (a) single pictures presented for 6 s, (b) a set of three consecutive pictures with emotionally congruent contents presented for 2 s each, (c) short film clips with a duration of 6 s. A total of 144 participants rated their emotion and arousal states following stimulus presentation. Repeated-measures ANOVAs revealed that the film clips and 3-picture version were as effective as the classical 1-picture method to elicit positive emotions, however, modulation toward positive valence was little. Modulation toward negative valence was more effective in general. Film clips were less effective than pictorial stimuli in producing the corresponding emotion states (all p < 0.001) and were less arousing (all p ≤ 0.02). Possible reasons for these unexpected results are discussed.

  2. Occlusion for stimulus deprivation amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Antonio-Santos, Aileen; Vedula, Satyanarayana S; Hatt, Sarah R; Powell, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Background Stimulus deprivation amblyopia (SDA) develops due to an obstruction to the passage of light secondary to a condition such as cataract. The obstruction prevents formation of a clear image on the retina. SDA can be resistant to treatment, leading to poor visual prognosis. SDA probably constitutes less than 3% of all amblyopia cases, although precise estimates of prevalence are unknown. In developed countries, most patients present under the age of one year; in less developed parts of the world patients are likely to be older at the time of presentation. The mainstay of treatment is removal of the cataract and then occlusion of the better-seeing eye, but regimens vary, can be difficult to execute, and traditionally are believed to lead to disappointing results. Objectives Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of occlusion therapy for SDA in an attempt to establish realistic treatment outcomes. Where data were available, we also planned to examine evidence of any dose response effect and to assess the effect of the duration, severity, and causative factor on the size and direction of the treatment effect. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 9), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to October 2013), EMBASE (January 1980 to October 2013), the Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to October 2013), PubMed (January 1946 to October 2013), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 28 October 2013. Selection criteria We planned

  3. Single stimulus learning in zebrafish larvae

    PubMed Central

    O’Neale, Ashley; Ellis, Joseph; Creton, Robbert; Colwill, Ruth M.

    2014-01-01

    Learning about a moving visual stimulus was examined in zebrafish larvae using an automated imaging system and a t1-t2 design. In three experiments, zebrafish larvae were exposed to one of two inputs at t1 (either a gray bouncing disk or an identical but stationary disk) followed by a common test at t2 (the gray bouncing disk). Using 7 days post-fertilization (dpf) larvae and 12 stimulus exposures, Experiment 1 established that these different treatments produced differential responding to the moving disk during testing. Larvae familiar with the moving test stimulus were significantly less likely to be still in its presence than larvae that had been exposed to the identical but stationary stimulus. Experiment 2 confirmed this result in 7 dpf larvae and extended the finding to 5 and 6 dpf larvae. Experiment 3 found differential responding to the moving test stimulus with 4 or 8 stimulus exposures but not with just one exposure in 7 dpf larvae. These results provide evidence for learning in very young zebrafish larvae. The merits and challenges of the t1-t2 framework to study learning are discussed. PMID:24012906

  4. Observing Behavior and Atypically Restricted Stimulus Control

    PubMed Central

    Dube, William V; Dickson, Chata A; Balsamo, Lyn M; O'Donnell, Kristin Lombard; Tomanari, Gerson Y; Farren, Kevin M; Wheeler, Emily E; McIlvane, William J

    2010-01-01

    Restricted stimulus control refers to discrimination learning with atypical limitations in the range of controlling stimuli or stimulus features. In the study reported here, 4 normally capable individuals and 10 individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) performed two-sample delayed matching to sample. Sample-stimulus observing was recorded with an eye-tracking apparatus. High accuracy scores indicated stimulus control by both sample stimuli for the 4 nondisabled participants and 4 participants with ID, and eye tracking data showed reliable observing of all stimuli. Intermediate accuracy scores indicated restricted stimulus control for the remaining 6 participants. Their eye-tracking data showed that errors were related to failures to observe sample stimuli and relatively brief observing durations. Five of these participants were then given interventions designed to improve observing behavior. For 4 participants, the interventions resulted initially in elimination of observing failures, increased observing durations, and increased accuracy. For 2 of these participants, contingencies sufficient to maintain adequate observing were not always sufficient to maintain high accuracy; subsequent procedure modifications restored it, however. For the 5th participant, initial improvements in observing were not accompanied by improved accuracy, an apparent instance of observing without attending; accuracy improved only after an additional intervention that imposed contingencies on observing behavior. Thus, interventions that control observing behavior seem necessary but may not always be sufficient for the remediation of restricted stimulus control. PMID:21541173

  5. A monocular contribution to stimulus rivalry.

    PubMed

    Brascamp, Jan; Sohn, Hansem; Lee, Sang-Hun; Blake, Randolph

    2013-05-21

    When corresponding areas of the two eyes view dissimilar images, stable perception gives way to visual competition wherein perceptual awareness alternates between those images. Moreover, a given image can remain visually dominant for several seconds at a time even when the competing images are swapped between the eyes multiple times each second. This perceptual stability across eye swaps has led to the widespread belief that this unique form of visual competition, dubbed stimulus rivalry, is governed by eye-independent neural processes at a purely binocular stage of cortical processing. We tested this idea by investigating the influence of stimulus rivalry on the buildup of the threshold elevation aftereffect, a form of contrast adaptation thought to transpire at early cortical stages that include eye-specific neural activity. Weaker threshold elevation aftereffects were observed when the adapting image was engaged in stimulus rivalry than when it was not, indicating diminished buildup of adaptation during stimulus-rivalry suppression. We then confirmed that this reduction occurred, in part, at eye-specific neural stages by showing that suppression of an image at a given moment specifically diminished adaptation associated with the eye viewing the image at that moment. Considered together, these results imply that eye-specific neural events at early cortical processing stages contribute to stimulus rivalry. We have developed a computational model of stimulus rivalry that successfully implements this idea.

  6. A monocular contribution to stimulus rivalry

    PubMed Central

    Brascamp, Jan; Sohn, Hansem; Lee, Sang-Hun; Blake, Randolph

    2013-01-01

    When corresponding areas of the two eyes view dissimilar images, stable perception gives way to visual competition wherein perceptual awareness alternates between those images. Moreover, a given image can remain visually dominant for several seconds at a time even when the competing images are swapped between the eyes multiple times each second. This perceptual stability across eye swaps has led to the widespread belief that this unique form of visual competition, dubbed stimulus rivalry, is governed by eye-independent neural processes at a purely binocular stage of cortical processing. We tested this idea by investigating the influence of stimulus rivalry on the buildup of the threshold elevation aftereffect, a form of contrast adaptation thought to transpire at early cortical stages that include eye-specific neural activity. Weaker threshold elevation aftereffects were observed when the adapting image was engaged in stimulus rivalry than when it was not, indicating diminished buildup of adaptation during stimulus-rivalry suppression. We then confirmed that this reduction occurred, in part, at eye-specific neural stages by showing that suppression of an image at a given moment specifically diminished adaptation associated with the eye viewing the image at that moment. Considered together, these results imply that eye-specific neural events at early cortical processing stages contribute to stimulus rivalry. We have developed a computational model of stimulus rivalry that successfully implements this idea. PMID:23610414

  7. Tactile localization depends on stimulus intensity.

    PubMed

    Steenbergen, Peter; Buitenweg, Jan R; Trojan, Jörg; Veltink, Peter H

    2014-02-01

    Few experimental data are available about the influence of stimulus intensity on localization of cutaneous stimuli. The localization behavior of an individual as function of the veridical stimulus sites can be represented in the form of a perceptual map. It is unknown how the intensity of cutaneous stimuli influences these perceptual maps. We investigated the effect of stimulus intensity on trial-to-trial localization variability and on perceptual maps. We applied non-painful electrocutaneous stimuli of three different intensities through seven surface electrodes on the lower arm of healthy participants. They localized the stimuli on a tablet monitor mounted directly above their arm, on which a photograph of this arm was presented. The length of the arm over which the stimuli were localized was contracted when compared to the real electrode positions. This length increased toward veridical with increasing stimulus intensity. The trial-to-trial variance of the localizations dropped significantly with increasing intensity. Furthermore, localization biases of individual stimulus positions were shown to decrease with increasing stimulus intensity. We conclude that tactile stimuli are localized closer to veridical with increasing intensity in two respects: the localizations become more consistent and more accurate.

  8. Voice Pitch Elicited Frequency Following Response in Chinese Elderlies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuo; Hu, Jiong; Dong, Ruijuan; Liu, Dongxin; Chen, Jing; Musacchia, Gabriella; Liu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Perceptual and electrophysiological studies have found reduced speech discrimination in quiet and noisy environment, delayed neural timing, decreased neural synchrony, and decreased temporal processing ability in elderlies, even those with normal hearing. However, recent studies have also demonstrated that language experience and auditory training enhance the temporal dynamics of sound encoding in the auditory brainstem response (ABR). The purpose of this study was to explore the pitch processing ability at the brainstem level in an aging population that has a tonal language background. Method: Mandarin speaking younger (n = 12) and older (n = 12) adults were recruited for this study. All participants had normal audiometric test results and normal suprathreshold click-evoked ABR. To record frequency following responses (FFRs) elicited by Mandarin lexical tones, two Mandarin Chinese syllables with different fundamental frequency pitch contours (Flat Tone and Falling Tone) were presented at 70 dB SPL. Fundamental frequencies (f0) of both the stimulus and the responses were extracted and compared to individual brainstem responses. Two indices were used to examine different aspects of pitch processing ability at the brainstem level: Pitch Strength and Pitch Correlation. Results: Lexical tone elicited FFR were overall weaker in the older adult group compared to their younger adult counterpart. Measured by Pitch Strength and Pitch Correlation, statistically significant group differences were only found when the tone with a falling f0 (Falling Tone) were used as the stimulus. Conclusion: Results of this study demonstrated that in a tonal language speaking population, pitch processing ability at the brainstem level of older adults are not as strong and robust as their younger counterparts. Findings of this study are consistent with previous reports on brainstem responses of older adults whose native language is English. On the other hand, lexical tone elicited

  9. The basis of superstitious behavior: chance contingency, stimulus substitution, or appetitive behavior?

    PubMed Central

    Timberlake, W; Lucas, G A

    1985-01-01

    This research examined three explanations for the "superstitious" behavior of pigeons under frequent fixed-time delivery of food: accidental response-reward contingency, stimulus substitution, and elicited species-typical appetitive behavior. The behavior observed in these studies consisted of occasional postfood locomotion away from the food hopper, and a predominant pattern of activity directed toward the hopper wall (wall-directed behavior), including approaching, stepping side to side, scratching with the feet, bumping with the breast, pendulum movements of the extended neck, and head bobbing, though not pecking. The consistency of these behavior patterns argued against explanation by accidental response contingencies, and the complexity of behavior was incompatible with the classic stimulus-substitution account. These studies also showed that: (1) response contingencies and prior stimulus experience can modify wall-directed behavior, but within definable limits; (2) pecking sometimes can be obtained in birds of specific strains, and by providing extended training; (3) placing the hopper in the floor at the center of a large chamber replaces wall-directed behavior with circling in a manner that resembles ground foraging for food. We conclude that superstitious behavior under periodic delivery of food probably develops from components of species-typical patterns of appetitive behavior related to feeding. These patterns are elicited by a combination of frequent food presentations and the supporting stimuli present in the environment. PMID:4086972

  10. The basis of superstitious behavior: chance contingency, stimulus substitution, or appetitive behavior?

    PubMed

    Timberlake, W; Lucas, G A

    1985-11-01

    This research examined three explanations for the "superstitious" behavior of pigeons under frequent fixed-time delivery of food: accidental response-reward contingency, stimulus substitution, and elicited species-typical appetitive behavior. The behavior observed in these studies consisted of occasional postfood locomotion away from the food hopper, and a predominant pattern of activity directed toward the hopper wall (wall-directed behavior), including approaching, stepping side to side, scratching with the feet, bumping with the breast, pendulum movements of the extended neck, and head bobbing, though not pecking. The consistency of these behavior patterns argued against explanation by accidental response contingencies, and the complexity of behavior was incompatible with the classic stimulus-substitution account. These studies also showed that: (1) response contingencies and prior stimulus experience can modify wall-directed behavior, but within definable limits; (2) pecking sometimes can be obtained in birds of specific strains, and by providing extended training; (3) placing the hopper in the floor at the center of a large chamber replaces wall-directed behavior with circling in a manner that resembles ground foraging for food. We conclude that superstitious behavior under periodic delivery of food probably develops from components of species-typical patterns of appetitive behavior related to feeding. These patterns are elicited by a combination of frequent food presentations and the supporting stimuli present in the environment.

  11. Stimulus content and the neural correlates of source memory

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Audrey; Henson, Richard N.; Graham, Kim S.

    2011-01-01

    It has been suggested that several regions of the brain, including subregions of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and the posterior parietal cortex, contribute to source memory success in a material-general manner, with most models highlighting the importance of memory process rather than material type. For the MTL in particular, however, increasing evidence suggests that MTL subregions may be specialized for processing different materials, raising the possibility that source memory-related activity may be material-sensitive. Previous fMRI studies have not directly compared source memory activity for different categories of stimuli, and it remains unclear whether source memory effects, in the MTL or elsewhere, are influenced by material. To investigate this issue, young participants were scanned during study while they made semantic judgments about words, pictures of objects and scenes, and during test when they retrieved the context (source) in which these items were studied. Several regions, including the hippocampi, medial and lateral parietal cortex, exhibited source memory effects common to words, objects and scenes, at both study and test. Material-dependent source memory effects were also identified in the left posterior inferior frontal and left perirhinal cortex for words and objects, respectively, at study but not test. These results offer direct support for the hypothesis that the MTL and posterior parietal cortex make material-general contributions to recollection. These results also point to a dissociation between encoding and retrieval with regard to the influence of material on the neural correlates of source memory accuracy, supporting the idea that a relatively small proportion of the activity elicited by a stimulus during encoding is incorporated into an episodic memory representation of the stimulus. PMID:21145314

  12. Heroin discriminative stimulus effects of methadone, LAAM and other isomers of acetylmethadol in rats.

    PubMed

    Newman, Jennifer L; Vann, Robert E; May, Everette L; Beardsley, Patrick M

    2002-10-01

    LAAM (alpha- l-acetylmethadol) is a derivative of the synthetic mu-opiate agonist methadone and is one of the four isomers of acetylmethadol. Methadone and LAAM have similar pharmacological properties and both are approved medications for the treatment of heroin dependency disorders. Few studies have reported on the pharmacology of acetylmethadol's other isomers and most of these have focused on their potential analgesic activity. The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the discriminative stimulus effects of LAAM, the other isomers of acetylmethadol, and methadone in rats trained to discriminate heroin from water, and to compare the duration of the discriminative stimulus effects of heroin, methadone, and LAAM. Long-Evans rats were trained to discriminate 0.3 mg/kg heroin from water under a fixed ratio 10 (FR10) schedule of food reinforcement. Dose-response functions for heroin, methadone, LAAM, three other isomers of acetylmethadol: alpha- d-acetylmethadol, beta- d-acetylmethadol, beta- l-acetylmethadol, and its precursor, beta- l-methadol were examined. Additionally, the time course effects for heroin, methadone, and LAAM were examined. LAAM and methadone dose-dependently occasioned heroin-like discriminative stimulus effects. Two of acetylmethadol's isomers, alpha- d-acetylmethadol and beta- d-acetylmethadol, were more potent than LAAM in producing heroin-like effects. The beta- l-methadol precursor and beta- l-acetylmethadol did not fully substitute for heroin's discriminative stimulus. LAAM elicited heroin-like discriminative stimulus effects for at least 6 h and generated partial generalization up to 36 h following administration. Methadone, LAAM, beta- d-acetylmethadol and alpha- d-acetylmethadol, but not beta- l-acetylmethadol and beta- l-methadol evoke heroin-like discriminative stimulus effects.

  13. Stimulus-free thoughts induce differential activation in the human default network.

    PubMed

    Preminger, Son; Harmelech, Tal; Malach, Rafael

    2011-01-15

    Despite extensive research of the Default network, a set of regions which tend to reduce their activity relative to rest in response to stimulus-driven tasks, its function is still debated. Specifically, it is still not clear to what extent the activation profile of this network is driven by processes related to external stimulation (inhibitory or anticipatory), or is driven by specific thought contents. To address this question, we examined the ability of thoughts, generated in the absence of external stimulation, to modulate default network activation. In a set of experiments, several types of long lasting stimulus-free thoughts were elicited by brief (<1s) auditory cues. Sustained (40s) brain activations, far outlasting the cue, were demonstrated during these stimulus-free conditions. Importantly, brain activity in the default network showed a striking modulation associated with stimulus-free thought content. More specifically, a preferential activation was observed in essentially the entire default network during volitional-prospection thoughts when compared to the other stimulus-free thought conditions. Furthermore, several regions of the default network showed long-lasting above rest activations during the volitional-prospection condition. Our results demonstrate that default network activation can be modulated in the absence of external stimuli, thus pointing to the importance of thought-content in default-network specialization. Furthermore, together with previous research, these results support the notion that intrinsically oriented processing is a core specialization of the default network. Finally, our stimulus-free experimental paradigm introduces a new method for studying default network functionality.

  14. Sample Stimulus Control Shaping and Restricted Stimulus Control in Capuchin Monkeys: A Methodological Note

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brino, Ana Leda F., Barros, Romariz S., Galvao, Ol; Garotti, M.; Da Cruz, Ilara R. N.; Santos, Jose R.; Dube, William V.; McIlvane, William J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports use of sample stimulus control shaping procedures to teach arbitrary matching-to-sample to 2 capuchin monkeys ("Cebus apella"). The procedures started with identity matching-to-sample. During shaping, stimulus features of the sample were altered gradually, rendering samples and comparisons increasingly physically dissimilar. The…

  15. Emergent Stimulus Relations Depend on Stimulus Correlation and Not on Reinforcement Contingencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minster, Sara Tepaeru; Elliffe, Douglas; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D.

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to investigate whether novel stimulus relations would emerge from stimulus correlations when those relations explicitly conflicted with reinforced relations. In a symbolic matching-to-sample task using kanji characters as stimuli, we arranged class-specific incorrect comparison stimuli in each of three classes. After presenting either Ax…

  16. Emergent Stimulus Relations Depend on Stimulus Correlation and Not on Reinforcement Contingencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minster, Sara Tepaeru; Elliffe, Douglas; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D.

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to investigate whether novel stimulus relations would emerge from stimulus correlations when those relations explicitly conflicted with reinforced relations. In a symbolic matching-to-sample task using kanji characters as stimuli, we arranged class-specific incorrect comparison stimuli in each of three classes. After presenting either Ax…

  17. Analyzing Stimulus-Stimulus Pairing Effects on Preferences for Speech Sounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petursdottir, Anna Ingeborg; Carp, Charlotte L.; Matthies, Derek W.; Esch, Barbara E.

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated effects of stimulus-stimulus pairing (SSP) on children's vocalizations, but numerous treatment failures have also been reported. The present study attempted to isolate procedural variables related to failures of SSP to condition speech sounds as reinforcers. Three boys diagnosed with autism-spectrum disorders…

  18. Enhanced scratching elicited by a pruritogen and an algogen in a mouse model of contact hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Fu, Kai; Qu, Lintao; Shimada, Steven G; Nie, Hong; LaMotte, Robert H

    2014-09-05

    Chemical pruritogens and algogens evoke primarily itch and pain, respectively, when administered to the skin of healthy human subjects. However, the dominant sensory quality elicited by an algesic chemical stimulus may change in patients with chronic itch where bradykinin, elicits itch in addition to pain. Here we tested whether normally pruritic and algesic chemicals evoked abnormal itch- or pain-like behaviors in the mouse after the development of contact hypersensitivity (CHS), an animal model of allergic contact dermatitis. Mice previously sensitized to a hapten (squaric acid dibutylester) applied to the abdomen, exhibited spontaneous itch-like scratching and pain-like wiping directed to the site on the cheek of the CHS elicited by a subsequent challenge with the same hapten. In comparison with responses of control mice, CHS mice exhibited a significant increase in the scratching evoked by bovine adrenal medulla 8-22, a peptide that elicits a histamine-independent itch, but did not alter the scratching to histamine. Bradykinin, an algogen that elicited only wiping in control mice, additionally evoked significant scratching in CHS mice. Thus, within an area of CHS, histamine-independent itch is enhanced and chemically evoked pain is accompanied by itch.

  19. Stimulus-responsive metal-organic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Nagarkar, Sanjog S; Desai, Aamod V; Ghosh, Sujit K

    2014-09-01

    Materials that can recognize the changes in their local environment and respond by altering their inherent physical and/or chemical properties are strong candidates for future "smart" technology materials. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have attracted a great deal of attention in recent years owing to their designable architecture, host-guest chemistry, and softness as porous materials. Despite this fact, studies on the tuning of the properties of MOFs by external stimuli are still rare. This review highlights the recent developments in the field of stimulus-responsive MOFs or so-called smart MOFs. In particular, the various stimuli used and the utility of stimulus-responsive smart MOFs for various applications such as gas storage and separation, sensing, clean energy, catalysis, molecular motors, and biomedical applications are highlighted by using representative examples. Future directions in the developments of stimulus-responsive smart MOFs and their applications are proposed from a personal perspective.

  20. Impact of stimulus uncanniness on speeded response.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kohske; Fukuda, Haruaki; Samejima, Kazuyuki; Watanabe, Katsumi; Ueda, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    In the uncanny valley phenomenon, the causes of the feeling of uncanniness as well as the impact of the uncanniness on behavioral performances still remain open. The present study investigated the behavioral effects of stimulus uncanniness, particularly with respect to speeded response. Pictures of fish were used as visual stimuli. Participants engaged in direction discrimination, spatial cueing, and dot-probe tasks. The results showed that pictures rated as strongly uncanny delayed speeded response in the discrimination of the direction of the fish. In the cueing experiment, where a fish served as a task-irrelevant and unpredictable cue for a peripheral target, we again observed that the detection of a target was slowed when the cue was an uncanny fish. Conversely, the dot-probe task suggested that uncanny fish, unlike threatening stimulus, did not capture visual spatial attention. These results suggested that stimulus uncanniness resulted in the delayed response, and importantly this modulation was not mediated by the feelings of threat.

  1. To See or Not to See: Pre-stimulus Alpha Phase Predicts Visual Awareness

    PubMed Central

    Mathewson, Kyle E.; Gratton, Gabriele; Fabiani, Monica; Beck, Diane M.; Ro, Tony

    2009-01-01

    We often fail to see something that at other times is readily detectable. Because the visual stimulus itself is unchanged, this variability in conscious awareness is likely related to changes in the brain. Here we show that the phase of EEG alpha rhythm measured over posterior brain regions can reliably predict both subsequent visual detection and stimulus-elicited cortical activation levels in a metacontrast masking paradigm. When a visual target presentation coincides with the trough of an alpha wave, cortical activation is suppressed as early as 100 ms after stimulus onset, and observers are less likely to detect the target. Thus, during one alpha cycle lasting 100 ms, the human brain goes through a rapid oscillation in excitability, which directly influences the probability that an environmental stimulus will reach conscious awareness. Moreover, ERPs to the appearance of a fixation cross before the target predict its detection, further suggesting that cortical excitability level may mediate target detection. A novel theory of cortical inhibition is proposed in which increased alpha power represents a “pulsed inhibition” of cortical activity that affects visual awareness. PMID:19261866

  2. Finding the missing stimulus mismatch negativity (MMN): Emitted MMN to violations of an auditory gestalt

    PubMed Central

    Salisbury, Dean F

    2011-01-01

    Deviations from repetitive auditory stimuli evoke a mismatch negativity (MMN). Counter-intuitively, omissions of repetitive stimuli do not. Violations of patterns reflecting complex rules also evoke MMN. To detect a MMN to missing stimuli, we developed an auditory gestalt task using one stimulus. Groups of 6 pips (50 msec duration, 330 msec stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA), 400 trials), were presented with an inter-trial interval (ITI) of 750 msec while subjects (n=16) watched a silent video. Occasional deviant groups had missing 4th or 6th tones (50 trials each). Missing stimuli evoked a MMN (p<.05). The missing 4th (−0.8 uV, p <.01) and the missing 6th stimuli (−1.1 uV, p <.05) were more negative than standard 6th stimuli (0.3 uV). MMN can be elicited by a missing stimulus at long SOAs by violation of a gestalt grouping rule. Homogenous stimulus streams appear to differ in the relative weighting of omissions than strongly patterned streams. PMID:22221004

  3. Directional asymmetry of nystagmus elicitation in humans during step and sinusoidal modes of lateral linear acceleration.

    PubMed

    Katayama, N; Mori, S

    2001-09-01

    We investigated nystagmus elicitation in 50 normal subjects who were exposed interaurally to linear acceleration with step (rectangular) and sinusoidal modes of oscillation using a linear accelerator. Relatively strong G-loads of 0.3-0.5 G at a 10 m stroke were applied to subjects who looked at a memorized target in darkness, with the head and trunk tightly restrained in the upright sitting position. Horizontal and vertical eye movements were recorded by electrooculography (EOG). Various levels of G-directional preponderance (DP), including completely one-sided, were observed similarly in either stimulus mode, strongly suggesting that directional asymmetry in nystagmus elicitation may be a functional characteristic in the otolith-ocular response, in contrast to the canal-ocular response. The effects of G-load increase were less congruent between the two stimulus modes. In the step-mode oscillation, the desaccaded slow eye position which corresponds to the vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) was saw-toothed in shape as was the stimulus velocity curve, but the baseline often drifted slowly and DP-dependently in the direction opposite to the fast phase of nystagmus. When the slow phase velocity (SPV), a slope of the saw-tooth, was adjusted mathematically for such slow drift, it revealed that the adjusted SPVs were almost symmetrical between rightward and leftward G-directions. These results suggest that DP generation is separate from VOR generation which is primarily symmetrical.

  4. Fear potentiated startle at short intervals following conditioned stimulus onset during delay but not trace conditioning.

    PubMed

    Asli, Ole; Kulvedrøsten, Silje; Solbakken, Line E; Flaten, Magne Arve

    2009-07-01

    The latency of conditioned fear after delay and trace conditioning was investigated. Some argue that delay conditioning is not dependent on awareness. In contrast, trace conditioning, where there is a gap between the conditioned stimulus (CS) and the unconditioned stimulus (US), is assumed to be dependent on awareness. In the present study, a tone CS signaled a noise US presented 1000 ms after CS onset in the delay conditioning group. In the trace conditioning group, a 200-ms tone CS was followed by an 800-ms gap prior to US presentation. Fear-potentiated startle should be seen at shorter intervals after delay conditioning compared to trace conditioning. Analyses showed increased startle at 30, 50, 100, and 150 ms after CS onset following delay conditioning compared to trace conditioning. This implies that fear-relevant stimuli elicit physiological reactions before extended processing of the stimuli occur, following delay, but not trace conditioning.

  5. Contributions to drug abuse research of Steven R. Goldberg's behavioral analysis of stimulus-stimulus contingencies.

    PubMed

    Katz, Jonathan L

    2016-05-01

    By the mid-1960s, the concept that drugs can function as reinforcing stimuli through response-reinforcer contingencies had created a paradigm shift in drug abuse science. Steve Goldberg's first several publications focused instead on stimulus-stimulus contingencies (respondent conditioning) in examining Abraham Wikler's two-factor hypothesis of relapse involving conditioned withdrawal and reinforcing effects of drugs. Goldberg provided a compelling demonstration that histories of contingencies among stimuli could produce lasting withdrawal reactions in primates formerly dependent on opioids. Other studies conducted by Goldberg extended the analysis of effects of stimulus-stimulus contingencies on behavior maintained by opioid reinforcing effects and showed that withdrawal-inducing antagonist administration can produce conditioned increases in self-administration. Subsequent studies of the effects of stimuli associated with cocaine injection under second-order schedules showed that the maintenance of behavior with drug injections was in most important aspects similar to the maintenance of behavior with more conventional reinforcers when the behavior-disrupting pharmacological effects of the drugs were minimized. Studies on second-order schedules demonstrated a wide array of conditions under which behavior could be maintained by drug injection and further influenced by stimulus-stimulus contingencies. These schedules present opportunities to produce in the laboratory complex situations involving response- and stimulus-stimulus contingencies, which go beyond simplistic pairings of stimuli and more closely approximate those found with human drug abusers. A focus on the response- and stimulus-stimulus contingencies, and resulting quantifiable changes in objective and quantifiable behavioral endpoints exemplified by the studies by Steve Goldberg, remains the most promising way forward for studying problems of drug dependence.

  6. Vertical displacement threshold sensitivity along the horizontal meridian as a function of stimulus rate, duration, and length

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.; Kiefel, Steven M.

    1988-01-01

    Four independent variables of visual perception during binocular viewing were studied. In 24 observers, the vertical displacement threshold (DT) sensitivity along the horizontal meridian was determined as a function of the rate, duration, and length of the stimulus. It was found that the DT increases with an increased angular separation of the stimulus image from the fovea (i.e., the stimulus must move farther in order to be correctly discriminated as having moved). In addition, it was found that the sensitivity to the stimulus displacement increases with increasing of the stimulus length, duration, and/or angular rate. These findings are related to the design optimization of dynamic attitude displays and symbology for aircraft.

  7. Carving Executive Control At Its Joints: Working Memory Capacity Predicts Stimulus-Stimulus, But Not Stimulus-Response, Conflict

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Matt E.; Kane, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Three experiments examined the relation between working memory capacity (WMC) and two different forms of cognitive conflict: stimulus-stimulus (S-S) and stimulus-response (SR) interference. Our goal was to test whether WMC’s relation to conflict-task performance is mediated by stimulus-identification processes (captured by S-S conflict), response-selection processes (captured by S-R conflict), or both. In Experiment 1, subjects completed a single task presenting both S-S and S-R conflict trials, plus trials that combined the two conflict types. We limited ostensible goal-maintenance contributions to performance by requiring the same goal for all trial types and by presenting frequent conflict trials that reinforced the goal. WMC predicted resolution of S-S conflict as expected: Higher-WMC subjects showed reduced response time interference. Although WMC also predicted S-R interference, here, higher-WMC subjects showed increased error interference. Experiment 2A replicated these results in a version of the conflict task without combined S-S/S-R trials. Experiment 2B increased the proportion of congruent (non-conflict) trials to promote reliance on goal-maintenance processes. Here, higher-WMC subjects resolved both S-S and S-R conflict more successfully than did lower-WMC subjects. The results were consistent with Kane and Engle’s (2003) two-factor theory of cognitive control, according to which WMC predicts executive-task performance through goal-maintenance and conflict-resolution processes. However, the present results add specificity to the account by suggesting that higher-WMC subjects better resolve cognitive conflict because they more efficiently select relevant stimulus features against irrelevant, distracting ones. PMID:26120774

  8. Carving executive control at its joints: Working memory capacity predicts stimulus-stimulus, but not stimulus-response, conflict.

    PubMed

    Meier, Matt E; Kane, Michael J

    2015-11-01

    Three experiments examined the relation between working memory capacity (WMC) and 2 different forms of cognitive conflict: stimulus-stimulus (S-S) and stimulus-response (S-R) interference. Our goal was to test whether WMC's relation to conflict-task performance is mediated by stimulus-identification processes (captured by S-S conflict), response-selection processes (captured by S-R conflict), or both. In Experiment 1, subjects completed a single task presenting both S-S and S-R conflict trials, plus trials that combined the 2 conflict types. We limited ostensible goal-maintenance contributions to performance by requiring the same goal for all trial types and by presenting frequent conflict trials that reinforced the goal. WMC predicted resolution of S-S conflict as expected: Higher WMC subjects showed reduced response time interference. Although WMC also predicted S-R interference, here, higher WMC subjects showed increased error interference. Experiment 2A replicated these results in a version of the conflict task without combined S-S/S-R trials. Experiment 2B increased the proportion of congruent (nonconflict) trials to promote reliance on goal-maintenance processes. Here, higher WMC subjects resolved both S-S and S-R conflict more successfully than did lower WMC subjects. The results were consistent with Kane and Engle's (2003) 2-factor theory of cognitive control, according to which WMC predicts executive-task performance through goal-maintenance and conflict-resolution processes. However, the present results add specificity to the account by suggesting that higher WMC subjects better resolve cognitive conflict because they more efficiently select relevant stimulus features against irrelevant, distracting ones. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Rhizobacterial exopolysaccharides elicit induced resistance on cucumber.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyungseok; Kloepper, Joseph W; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2008-06-01

    The role of exopolysaccharides (EPSs) from a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium, Burkholderia gladioli IN26, on elicitation of induced systemic resistance was investigated. A purified EPS induced expression of PR- 1a::GUS on tobacco and elicited induced resistance against Colletotrichum orbiculare on cucumber. The maximum level of disease protection was noted when seeds were soaked in 200 ppm of the EPS. Our results indicate that EPS from specific rhizobacteria can elicit induced resistance and suggest that bacterial EPS might be a useful elicitor of resistance under field conditions.

  10. The Poverty of the Mayan Stimulus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pye, Clifton

    2012-01-01

    Poverty of the stimulus (POS) arguments have instigated considerable debate in the recent linguistics literature. This article uses the comparative method to challenge the logic of POS arguments. Rather than question the premises of POS arguments, the article demonstrates how POS arguments for individual languages lead to a "reductio ad absurdum"…

  11. Verbal Stimulus Control and the Intraverbal Relation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundberg, Mark L.

    2016-01-01

    The importance of the intraverbal relation is missed in most theories of language. Skinner (1957) attributes this to traditional semantic theories of meaning that focus on the nonverbal referents of words and neglect verbal stimuli as separate sources of control for linguistic behavior. An analysis of verbal stimulus control is presented, along…

  12. Stimulus control of cocaine self-administration.

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Stanley J; Kearns, David N; Cohn, Scott I; Schindler, Charles W; Panlilio, Leigh V

    2003-01-01

    Environmental stimuli that set the occasion wherein drugs are acquired can "trigger" drug-related behavior. Investigating the stimulus control of drug self-administration in laboratory animals should help us better understand this aspect of human drug abuse. Stimulus control of cocaine self-administration was generated here for the first time using multiple and chained schedules with short, frequently-alternating components--like those typically used to study food-maintained responding. The procedures and results are presented along with case histories to illustrate the strategies used to produce this stimulus control. All these multicomponent schedules contained variable-interval (VI) components as well as differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior (DRO) or extinction components. Schedule parameters and unit dose were adjusted for each rat to produce stable, moderate rates in VI components, with minimal postreinforcement (infusion) pausing, and response cessation in extinction and DRO components. Whole-body drug levels on terminal baselines calculated retrospectively revealed that all rats maintained fairly stable drug levels (mean, 2.3 to 3.4 mg/kg) and molar rates of intake (approximately 6.0 mg/kg/hr). Within this range, no relation between local VI response rates and drug level was found. The stimulus control revealed in cumulative records was indistinguishable from that achieved with food under these schedules, suggesting that common mechanisms may underlie the control of cocaine- and food-maintained behavior. PMID:12696744

  13. Stimulus Offers Funding Support for Ed. Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ash, Katie

    2009-01-01

    Some two months after enactment of the federal economic-stimulus package, school facilities directors are still trying to piece together how much money will be available under the measure for school construction projects, what it can be used for, and when it can be accessed. Before President Barack Obama signed the $787 billion American Recovery…

  14. Stimulus polarity and conditioning in planaria.

    PubMed

    BARNES, C D; KATZUNG, B G

    1963-08-23

    Orientation in the monopolar pulse field used as the unconditioned stimulus was found to influence formation of a conditioned response to light in planarians. Planarians trained while oriented with the head toward the cathode reached maximal response rates rapidly, while those trained while oriented toward the anode showed no evidence of conditioned response formation.

  15. The Poverty of the Mayan Stimulus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pye, Clifton

    2012-01-01

    Poverty of the stimulus (POS) arguments have instigated considerable debate in the recent linguistics literature. This article uses the comparative method to challenge the logic of POS arguments. Rather than question the premises of POS arguments, the article demonstrates how POS arguments for individual languages lead to a "reductio ad absurdum"…

  16. Bigrams and the Richness of the Stimulus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kam, Xuan-Nga Cao; Stoyneshka, Iglika; Tornyova, Lidiya; Fodor, Janet D.; Sakas, William G.

    2008-01-01

    Recent challenges to Chomsky's "poverty of the stimulus" thesis for language acquisition suggest that children's primary data may carry "indirect evidence" about linguistic constructions despite containing no instances of them. Indirect evidence is claimed to suffice for grammar acquisition, without need for innate knowledge. This article reports…

  17. Stimulus Equivalence: Testing Sidman's (2000) Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minster, Sara Tepaeru; Jones, Max; Elliffe, Douglas; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D.

    2006-01-01

    Sidman's (2000) theory regarding the origin of equivalence relations predicts that a reinforcing stimulus common to distinct equivalence classes must drop out of the equivalence relations. This prediction was tested in the present study by arranging class-specific reinforcers, R1 and R2, following correct responding on the prerequisite conditional…

  18. States Hurt as Stimulus Loses Steam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean; Hollingsworth, Heather

    2011-01-01

    States are finally arriving at the "funding cliff"--the point where about $100 billion in federal economic-stimulus aid for education runs out. The loss seems certain to compound severe budget woes and could mean thousands of school layoffs and the elimination of popular programs and services in districts across the country. The bulk of…

  19. States Anxious to Get Details about Stimulus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, David J.

    2009-01-01

    As Congress began debate last week over the size and scope of more than $120 billion in proposed emergency education aid, state leaders were anxiously awaiting the details so they could make specific plans to spend the economic-stimulus money. Governors, state legislators, and state schools chiefs have yet to learn what rules Congress will attach…

  20. Stimulus Picture Identification in Articulation Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Patricia A.; Whitehead, Robert L.

    1977-01-01

    Compared with 20 normal speaking and 20 articulation defective Ss (7 and 8 years old) was the percent of correct initial identification of stimulus pictures on the Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation with the percent correct identification on the Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale. (Author/IM)

  1. States Anxious to Get Details about Stimulus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, David J.

    2009-01-01

    As Congress began debate last week over the size and scope of more than $120 billion in proposed emergency education aid, state leaders were anxiously awaiting the details so they could make specific plans to spend the economic-stimulus money. Governors, state legislators, and state schools chiefs have yet to learn what rules Congress will attach…

  2. Facilities Bonds Prove Hot Item under Stimulus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Alyson

    2009-01-01

    Construction bonding authority--a technical, and often obscure, source of capital funding for school districts--has emerged as a hot ticket for those looking to finance school facilities work under the federal government's economic-stimulus program. School districts left out of the loop for direct funding are lining up for some of at least $24…

  3. Electrophysiological Correlates of Stimulus Equivalence Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haimson, Barry; Wilkinson, Krista M.; Rosenquist, Celia; Ouimet, Carolyn; McIlvane, William J.

    2009-01-01

    Research reported here concerns neural processes relating to stimulus equivalence class formation. In Experiment 1, two types of word pairs were presented successively to normally capable adults. In one type, the words had related usage in English (e.g., uncle, aunt). In the other, the two words were not typically related in their usage (e.g.,…

  4. Bigrams and the Richness of the Stimulus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kam, Xuan-Nga Cao; Stoyneshka, Iglika; Tornyova, Lidiya; Fodor, Janet D.; Sakas, William G.

    2008-01-01

    Recent challenges to Chomsky's "poverty of the stimulus" thesis for language acquisition suggest that children's primary data may carry "indirect evidence" about linguistic constructions despite containing no instances of them. Indirect evidence is claimed to suffice for grammar acquisition, without need for innate knowledge. This article reports…

  5. States Hurt as Stimulus Loses Steam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean; Hollingsworth, Heather

    2011-01-01

    States are finally arriving at the "funding cliff"--the point where about $100 billion in federal economic-stimulus aid for education runs out. The loss seems certain to compound severe budget woes and could mean thousands of school layoffs and the elimination of popular programs and services in districts across the country. The bulk of…

  6. Stimulus Over-Selectivity in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Evelyn; Reed, Phil

    2005-01-01

    The present study explored whether a similar phenomenon to stimulus over-selectivity occurred in rats, in the hope of establishing a non-human model for the autism. Rats were serially presented with two-15 seconds, two-element compound stimuli prior to the delivery of food, in an appetitive classical conditioning procedure. Each compound stimulus…

  7. Disentangling the nature of the nicotine stimulus.

    PubMed

    Bevins, Rick A; Barrett, Scott T; Polewan, Robert J; Pittenger, Steven T; Swalve, Natashia; Charntikov, Sergios

    2012-05-01

    Learning involving interoceptive stimuli likely plays an important role in many diseases and psychopathologies. Within this area, there has been extensive research investigating the interoceptive stimulus effects of abused drugs. In this pursuit, behavioral pharmacologists have taken advantage of what is known about learning processes and adapted the techniques to investigate the behavioral and receptor mechanisms of drug stimuli. Of particular interest is the nicotine stimulus and the use of the two-lever operant drug discrimination task and the Pavlovian drug discriminated goal-tracking task. There is strong concordance between the two methods when using "standard" testing protocols that minimize learning on test days. For example, ABT-418, nornicotine, and varenicline all fully evoked nicotine-appropriate responding. Notably, research from our laboratory with the discriminated goal-tracking task has used an alternative testing protocol. This protocol assesses stimulus substitution based on how well extinction learning using a non-nicotine ligand transfers back to the nicotine stimulus. These findings challenge conclusions based on more "standard" testing procedures (e.g., ABT-418 is not nicotine-like). As a starting point, we propose Thurstone scaling as a quantitative method for more precisely comparing transfer of extinction across doses, experiments, and investigators. We close with a discussion of future research directions and potential implications of the research for understanding interoceptive stimuli. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Verbal Stimulus Control and the Intraverbal Relation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundberg, Mark L.

    2016-01-01

    The importance of the intraverbal relation is missed in most theories of language. Skinner (1957) attributes this to traditional semantic theories of meaning that focus on the nonverbal referents of words and neglect verbal stimuli as separate sources of control for linguistic behavior. An analysis of verbal stimulus control is presented, along…

  9. Control-display alignment determines the prevalent compatibility effect in two-dimensional stimulus-response tasks.

    PubMed

    Lee, Samuel; Miles, James D; Vu, Kim-Phuong L

    2016-04-01

    Responses are faster and more accurate when they are spatially compatible with a stimulus than when they are incompatible (the stimulus-response compatibility (SRC) effect). In studies using two-dimensional (2-D) stimulus and response sets in which stimuli and responses have both vertical (top-bottom) and horizontal (right-left) spatial relations, SRC effects are generally larger along the horizontal dimension, an effect called right-left prevalence. Several accounts have been posited to explain this asymmetry, including frames of reference to the body and spatio-anatomical constraints. We propose a new account of the right-left prevalence effect in which prevalence effects are largely determined by the spatial alignment between elements on the stimulus display and response locations on the control panel--the control-display alignment (CDA). For example, when responses are aligned below a display, 2-D stimulus and response sets share a common vertical midline that emphasizes a right-left distinction. When responses are to the right or left of the display, the shared midline is horizontal, emphasizing the top-bottom distinction and should instead lead to top-bottom prevalence effects. Participants completed two-choice, 2-D SRC tasks in four control-display configurations with a response panel centered above, below, left, and right of a projected display. As hypothesized, right-left prevalence was elicited using vertical CDA and top-bottom prevalence was elicited using horizontal CDA. The findings demonstrate that CDA largely determines prevalence effects and should be taken into account when using multidimensional stimulus and response sets.

  10. Can an auditory multi-feature optimal paradigm be used for the study of processes associated with attention capture in passive listeners?

    PubMed

    Tavakoli, Paniz; Campbell, Kenneth

    2016-10-01

    A rarely occurring and highly relevant auditory stimulus occurring outside of the current focus of attention can cause a switching of attention. Such attention capture is often studied in oddball paradigms consisting of a frequently occurring "standard" stimulus which is changed at odd times to form a "deviant". The deviant may result in the capturing of attention. An auditory ERP, the P3a, is often associated with this process. To collect a sufficient amount of data is however very time-consuming. A more multi-feature "optimal" paradigm has been proposed but it is not known if it is appropriate for the study of attention capture. An optimal paradigm was run in which 6 different rare deviants (p=.08) were separated by a standard stimulus (p=.50) and compared to results when 4 oddball paradigms were also run. A large P3a was elicited by some of the deviants in the optimal paradigm but not by others. However, very similar results were observed when separate oddball paradigms were run. The present study indicates that the optimal paradigm provides a very time-saving method to study attention capture and the P3a. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. 8-OH-DPAT suppresses vomiting in the cat elicited by motion, cisplatin or xylazine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucot, James B.; Crampton, George H.

    1989-01-01

    Vomiting was suppressed in cats pretreated with 8-OH-DPAT and then challenged with an emetic stimulus; motion, xylazine or cisplatin. The antiemetic effect is likely due to stimulation of postsynaptic serotonin-1A receptors. The most parsimonious explanation is that it acts at a convergent structure, presumably at or near the vomiting center. If so, 8-OH-DPAT may block emesis elicited by virtually any other stimulus. A supplementary experiment revealed that lorazepam suppressed motion sickness at a dose that produced ataxia, but did not suppress xylazine-induced emesis. These results do not support the possibility that the antiemetic effects of 8-OH-DPAT were the result of anxiolytic activity.

  12. 8-OH-DPAT suppresses vomiting in the cat elicited by motion, cisplatin or xylazine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucot, James B.; Crampton, George H.

    1989-01-01

    Vomiting was suppressed in cats pretreated with 8-OH-DPAT and then challenged with an emetic stimulus; motion, xylazine or cisplatin. The antiemetic effect is likely due to stimulation of postsynaptic serotonin-1A receptors. The most parsimonious explanation is that it acts at a convergent structure, presumably at or near the vomiting center. If so, 8-OH-DPAT may block emesis elicited by virtually any other stimulus. A supplementary experiment revealed that lorazepam suppressed motion sickness at a dose that produced ataxia, but did not suppress xylazine-induced emesis. These results do not support the possibility that the antiemetic effects of 8-OH-DPAT were the result of anxiolytic activity.

  13. A Knowledge Elicitation Study of Military Planning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    66027-0347 Ba. NAME OF FUNDING/SPONSORING 8b. OFFICE SYMBOL 9. PROCUREMENT INSTRUMENT IDENTIFICATION NUMBER ORPANIZATION U.S. Army Research (If...Method (CDM) has been developed as a knowledge elicitation tool for probing proficient decision making. This report describes the use of CDM during...knowledge elicitation can be used in Army Command and Control (Ce) exercises as a means of understanding decision-making dynamics. Such a tool could

  14. Visual Evoked Cortical Potential (VECP) Elicited by Sinusoidal Gratings Controlled by Pseudo-Random Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Carolina S.; Souza, Givago S.; Gomes, Bruno D.; Silveira, Luiz Carlos L.

    2013-01-01

    The contributions of contrast detection mechanisms to the visual cortical evoked potential (VECP) have been investigated studying the contrast-response and spatial frequency-response functions. Previously, the use of m-sequences for stimulus control has been almost restricted to multifocal electrophysiology stimulation and, in some aspects, it substantially differs from conventional VECPs. Single stimulation with spatial contrast temporally controlled by m-sequences has not been extensively tested or compared to multifocal techniques. Our purpose was to evaluate the influence of spatial frequency and contrast of sinusoidal gratings on the VECP elicited by pseudo-random stimulation. Nine normal subjects were stimulated by achromatic sinusoidal gratings driven by pseudo random binary m-sequence at seven spatial frequencies (0.4–10 cpd) and three stimulus sizes (4°, 8°, and 16° of visual angle). At 8° subtence, six contrast levels were used (3.12–99%). The first order kernel (K1) did not provide a consistent measurable signal across spatial frequencies and contrasts that were tested–signal was very small or absent–while the second order kernel first (K2.1) and second (K2.2) slices exhibited reliable responses for the stimulus range. The main differences between results obtained with the K2.1 and K2.2 were in the contrast gain as measured in the amplitude versus contrast and amplitude versus spatial frequency functions. The results indicated that K2.1 was dominated by M-pathway, but for some stimulus condition some P-pathway contribution could be found, while the second slice reflected the P-pathway contribution. The present work extended previous findings of the visual pathways contribution to VECP elicited by pseudorandom stimulation for a wider range of spatial frequencies. PMID:23940546

  15. Understanding complex behavior: The transformation of stimulus functions

    PubMed Central

    Dymond, Simon; Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne

    2000-01-01

    The transformation of stimulus functions is said to occur when the functions of one stimulus alter or transform the functions of another stimulus in accordance with the derived relation between the two, without additional training. This effect has been demonstrated with a number of derived stimulus relations, behavioral functions, experimental preparations, and subject populations. The present paper reviews much of the existing research on the transformation of stimulus functions and outlines a number of important methodological and conceptual issues that warrant further attention. We conclude by advocating the adoption of the generic terminology of relational frame theory to describe both the derived transformation of stimulus functions and relational responding more generally. PMID:22478349

  16. Effect of Conditioned Stimulus Exposure during Slow Wave Sleep on Fear Memory Extinction in Humans

    PubMed Central

    He, Jia; Sun, Hong-Qiang; Li, Su-Xia; Zhang, Wei-Hua; Shi, Jie; Ai, Si-Zhi; Li, Yun; Li, Xiao-Jun; Tang, Xiang-Dong; Lu, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Repeated exposure to a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS) in the absence of a noxious unconditioned stimulus (US) elicits fear memory extinction. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of mild tone exposure (CS) during slow wave sleep (SWS) on fear memory extinction in humans. Design: The healthy volunteers underwent an auditory fear conditioning paradigm on the experimental night, during which tones served as the CS, and a mild shock served as the US. They were then randomly assigned to four groups. Three groups were exposed to the CS for 3 or 10 min or an irrelevant tone (control stimulus, CtrS) for 10 min during SWS. The fourth group served as controls and was not subjected to any interventions. All of the subjects completed a memory test 4 h after SWS-rich stage to evaluate the effect on fear extinction. Moreover, we conducted similar experiments using an independent group of subjects during the daytime to test whether the memory extinction effect was specific to the sleep condition. Participants: Ninety-six healthy volunteers (44 males) aged 18–28 y. Measurements and Results: Participants exhibited undisturbed sleep during 2 consecutive nights, as assessed by sleep variables (all P > 0.05) from polysomnographic recordings and power spectral analysis. Participants who were re-exposed to the 10 min CS either during SWS and wakefulness exhibited attenuated fear responses (wake-10 min CS, P < 0.05; SWS-10 min CS, P < 0.01). Conclusions: Conditioned stimulus re-exposure during slow wave sleep promoted fear memory extinction without altering sleep profiles. Citation: He J, Sun HQ, Li SX, Zhang WH, Shi J, Ai SZ, Li Y, Li XJ, Tang XD, Lu L. Effect of conditioned stimulus exposure during slow wave sleep on fear memory extinction in humans. SLEEP 2015;38(3):423–431. PMID:25348121

  17. Pragmatics and elicited imitation: children's performance on discursively related and discursively unrelated sentences.

    PubMed

    Haynes, W O; Haynes, M D

    1979-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the elicited imitation performance of preschool children when the stimulus sentences were meaningfully related to each other in a story as compared to when the sentences were arranged in a random order. Experiment 1 used a repeated-measures design and found a practice effect demonstrating less errors during the second trial regardless of experimental condition. Experiment 2 implemented a group design with one group imitating the related (story) sentences and the other imitating the randomly arranged sentences. The results showed no significant difference in the mean number of errors occurring in the "story" versus the "random" condition. The implications of the practice effect found in Experiment 1 are discussed and the error pattern during the second trial is evaluated. The efficacy of using discursively related as opposed to unrelated sentences in elicited imitation tasks is discussed from a pragmatic point of view.

  18. The early facilitatory effect of a peripheral spatially noninformative prime stimulus depends on target stimulus features.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, E L; Squella, S A; Ribeiro-do-Valle, L E

    2001-06-01

    We investigated the dependency of the early facilitatory effect of a prime stimulus (S1) on the physical characteristics of the target stimulus (S2). A go-no go reaction time paradigm was used. The S1 was a gray ring and the S2s were a white vertical line, a white horizontal line, a white cross and a white small ring, all inside a white ring with the same dimensions as the S1. S1 onset-S2 onset asynchrony was 100 ms. The stimuli appeared randomly in any one of the quadrants of a monitor screen. The S2 could occur at the same position as the S1 or at a different one. We observed a strong facilitatory effect when the vertical line or the horizontal line was the go stimulus and no effect when the cross was the go stimulus. These results show that the features of the target stimulus can be decisive for the appearance of the facilitatory effect of a peripheral spatially noninformative prime stimulus.

  19. Emergent stimulus relations depend on stimulus correlation and not on reinforcement contingencies.

    PubMed

    Minster, Sara Tepaeru; Elliffe, Douglas; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D

    2011-05-01

    We aimed to investigate whether novel stimulus relations would emerge from stimulus correlations when those relations explicitly conflicted with reinforced relations. In a symbolic matching-to-sample task using kanji characters as stimuli, we arranged class-specific incorrect comparison stimuli in each of three classes. After presenting either Ax or Cx stimuli as samples, choices of Bx were reinforced and choices of Gx or Hx were not. Tests for symmetry, and combined symmetry and transitivity, showed the emergence of three 3-member (AxBxCx) stimulus classes in 5 of 5 human participants. Subsequent tests for all possible emergent relations between Ax, Bx, Cx and the class-specific incorrect comparisons Gx and Hx showed that these relations emerged for 4 of 5 the participants after extended overtraining of the baseline relations. These emergent relations must have been based on stimulus-stimulus correlations, and were not properties of the trained discriminated operants, because they required control by relations explicitly extinguished during training. This result supports theoretical accounts of emergent relations that emphasize stimulus correlation over operant contingencies.

  20. Electrophysiological Correlates of Stimulus Equivalence Processes

    PubMed Central

    Haimson, Barry; Wilkinson, Krista M; Rosenquist, Celia; Ouimet, Carolyn; McIlvane, William J

    2009-01-01

    Research reported here concerns neural processes relating to stimulus equivalence class formation. In Experiment 1, two types of word pairs were presented successively to normally capable adults. In one type, the words had related usage in English (e.g., uncle, aunt). In the other, the two words were not typically related in their usage (e.g., wrist, corn). For pairs of both types, event-related cortical potentials were recorded during and immediately after the presentation of the second word. The obtained waveforms differentiated these two types of pairs. For the unrelated pairs, the waveforms were significantly more negative about 400 ms after the second word was presented, thus replicating the “N400” phenomenon of the cognitive neuroscience literature. In addition, there was a strong positive-tending wave form difference post-stimulus presentation (peaked at about 500 ms) that also differentiated the unrelated from related stimulus pairs. In Experiment 2, the procedures were extended to study arbitrary stimulus–stimulus relations established via matching-to-sample training. Participants were experimentally naïve adults. Sample stimuli (Set A) were trigrams, and comparison stimuli (Sets B, C, D, E, and F) were nonrepresentative forms. Behavioral tests evaluated potentially emergent equivalence relations (i.e., BD, DF, CE, etc.). All participants exhibited classes consistent with the arbitrary matching training. They were also exposed also to an event-related potential procedure like that used in Experiment 1. Some received the ERP procedure before equivalence tests and some after. Only those participants who received ERP procedures after equivalence tests exhibited robust N400 differentiation initially. The positivity observed in Experiment 1 was absent for all participants. These results support speculations that equivalence tests may provide contextual support for the formation of equivalence classes including those that emerge gradually during testing

  1. Hierarchical stimulus processing by dogs (Canis familiaris).

    PubMed

    Pitteri, Elisa; Mongillo, Paolo; Carnier, Paolo; Marinelli, Lieta

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the visual processing of global and local levels of hierarchical stimuli in domestic dogs. Fourteen dogs were trained to recognise a compound stimulus in a simultaneous conditioned discrimination procedure and were then tested for their local/global preference in a discrimination test. As a group, dogs showed a non-significant trend for global precedence, although large inter-individual variability was observed. Choices in the test were not affected by either dogs' sex or the type of stimulus used for training. However, the less time a dog took to complete the discrimination training phase, the higher the probability that it chose the global level of test stimulus. Moreover, dogs that showed a clear preference for the global level in the test were significantly less likely to show positional responses during discrimination training. These differences in the speed of acquisition and response patterns may reflect individual differences in the cognitive requirements during discrimination training. The individual variability in global/local precedence suggests that experience in using visual information may be more important than predisposition in determining global/local processing in dogs.

  2. STIMULUS AND TRANSDUCER EFFECTS ON THRESHOLD

    PubMed Central

    Flamme, Gregory A.; Geda, Kyle; McGregor, Kara; Wyllys, Krista; Deiters, Kristy K.; Murphy, William J.; Stephenson, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study examined differences in thresholds obtained under Sennheiser HDA200 circumaural earphones using pure tone, equivalent rectangular noise bands, and 1/3 octave noise bands relative to thresholds obtained using Telephonics TDH-39P supra-aural earphones. Design Thresholds were obtained via each transducer and stimulus condition six times within a 10-day period. Study Sample Forty-nine adults were selected from a prior study to represent low, moderate, and high threshold reliability. Results The results suggested that (1) only small adjustments were needed to reach equivalent TDH-39P thresholds, (2) pure-tone thresholds obtained with HDA200 circumaural earphones had reliability equal to or better than those obtained using TDH-39P earphones, (3) the reliability of noise-band thresholds improved with broader stimulus bandwidth and was either equal to or better than pure-tone thresholds, and (4) frequency-specificity declined with stimulus bandwidths greater than one Equivalent Rectangular Band, which could complicate early detection of hearing changes that occur within a narrow frequency range. Conclusions These data suggest that circumaural earphones such as the HDA200 headphones provide better reliability for audiometric testing as compared to the TDH-39P earphones. These data support the use of noise bands, preferably ERB noises, as stimuli for audiometric monitoring. PMID:25549164

  3. Stimulus and transducer effects on threshold.

    PubMed

    Flamme, Gregory A; Geda, Kyle; McGregor, Kara D; Wyllys, Krista; Deiters, Kristy K; Murphy, William J; Stephenson, Mark R

    2015-02-01

    This study examined differences in thresholds obtained under Sennheiser HDA200 circumaural earphones using pure tone, equivalent rectangular noise bands, and 1/3 octave noise bands relative to thresholds obtained using Telephonics TDH-39P supra-aural earphones. Thresholds were obtained via each transducer and stimulus condition six times within a 10-day period. Forty-nine adults were selected from a prior study to represent low, moderate, and high threshold reliability. The results suggested that (1) only small adjustments were needed to reach equivalent TDH-39P thresholds, (2) pure-tone thresholds obtained with HDA200 circumaural earphones had reliability equal to or better than those obtained using TDH-39P earphones, (3) the reliability of noise-band thresholds improved with broader stimulus bandwidth and was either equal to or better than pure-tone thresholds, and (4) frequency-specificity declined with stimulus bandwidths greater than one equivalent rectangular band, which could complicate early detection of hearing changes that occur within a narrow frequency range. These data suggest that circumaural earphones such as the HDA200 headphones provide better reliability for audiometric testing as compared to the TDH-39P earphones. These data support the use of noise bands, preferably ERB noises, as stimuli for audiometric monitoring.

  4. Impact of stimulus uncanniness on speeded response

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Kohske; Fukuda, Haruaki; Samejima, Kazuyuki; Watanabe, Katsumi; Ueda, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    In the uncanny valley phenomenon, the causes of the feeling of uncanniness as well as the impact of the uncanniness on behavioral performances still remain open. The present study investigated the behavioral effects of stimulus uncanniness, particularly with respect to speeded response. Pictures of fish were used as visual stimuli. Participants engaged in direction discrimination, spatial cueing, and dot-probe tasks. The results showed that pictures rated as strongly uncanny delayed speeded response in the discrimination of the direction of the fish. In the cueing experiment, where a fish served as a task-irrelevant and unpredictable cue for a peripheral target, we again observed that the detection of a target was slowed when the cue was an uncanny fish. Conversely, the dot-probe task suggested that uncanny fish, unlike threatening stimulus, did not capture visual spatial attention. These results suggested that stimulus uncanniness resulted in the delayed response, and importantly this modulation was not mediated by the feelings of threat. PMID:26052297

  5. Effect of Dynamic Temperature Stimulus to Plantar Surface of the Foot in the Standing Position

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Ryo; Kajimoto, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    We have previously found that a vertical force or tactile sensation occurs when the temperature of a participant’s skin changes rapidly. In this illusion, upward motion, pressure, or force sensation is elicited when stimulus temperature rises rapidly, whereas in the opposite case, downward motion or pulling sensation is elicited. In this paper, we applied this phenomenon to the sole (plantar surface of the foot) to present the sensation of ground slope. To investigate this, we conducted an experiment that measured the correlation between stimulation temperature and front–back direction position of the center of gravity. Participants stood on a thermal stimulator on Nintendo Wii Balance Board, and they remained standing during 30-s dynamic temperature stimulus. In result of analysis, it was suggested that dynamic thermal change in sole might influence standing position, and the effect pattern was anomalous in case of the participants who reported a swaying sensation without a haptic sensation. This behavior might be applied to the diagnosis of the presence of thermoesthesia of the patients who might have disease with absence of thermoesthesia. PMID:27917380

  6. Tracing the time course of emotion perception: the impact of stimulus physics and semantics on gesture processing.

    PubMed

    Flaisch, Tobias; Schupp, Harald T

    2013-10-01

    Numerous event-related brain potential (ERP) studies reveal the differential processing of emotional and neutral stimuli. Yet, it is an ongoing debate to what extent the ERP components found in previous research are sensitive to physical stimulus characteristics or emotional meaning. This study manipulated emotional meaning and stimulus orientation to disentangle the impact of stimulus physics and semantics on emotional stimulus processing. Negative communicative hand gestures of Insult were contrasted with neutral control gestures of Allusion to manipulate emotional meaning. An elementary physical manipulation of visual processing was implemented by presenting these stimuli vertically and horizontally. The results showed dissociable effects of stimulus meaning and orientation on the sequence of ERP components. Effects of orientation were pronounced in the P1 and N170 time frames and attenuated during later stages. Emotional meaning affected the P1, evincing a distinct topography to orientation effects. Although the N170 was not modulated by emotional meaning, the early posterior negativity and late positive potential components replicated previous findings with larger potentials elicited by the Insult gestures. These data suggest that the brain processes different attributes of an emotional picture in parallel and that a coarse semantic appreciation may already occur during relatively early stages of emotion perception.

  7. Stimulus control in a two-choice discrimination procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galloway, W. D.

    1973-01-01

    Experimental investigation upon pigeons of the relation between performance during discriminative training and subsequently obtained stimulus control test results. The results obtained support the proposition that bias generated by training dependencies is a major determiner of stimulus control.

  8. Stereoscopy Amplifies Emotions Elicited by Facial Expressions

    PubMed Central

    Kätsyri, Jari; Häkkinen, Jukka

    2015-01-01

    Mediated facial expressions do not elicit emotions as strongly as real-life facial expressions, possibly due to the low fidelity of pictorial presentations in typical mediation technologies. In the present study, we investigated the extent to which stereoscopy amplifies emotions elicited by images of neutral, angry, and happy facial expressions. The emotional self-reports of positive and negative valence (which were evaluated separately) and arousal of 40 participants were recorded. The magnitude of perceived depth in the stereoscopic images was manipulated by varying the camera base at 15, 40, 65, 90, and 115 mm. The analyses controlled for participants’ gender, gender match, emotional empathy, and trait alexithymia. The results indicated that stereoscopy significantly amplified the negative valence and arousal elicited by angry expressions at the most natural (65 mm) camera base, whereas stereoscopy amplified the positive valence elicited by happy expressions in both the narrowed and most natural (15–65 mm) base conditions. Overall, the results indicate that stereoscopy amplifies the emotions elicited by mediated emotional facial expressions when the depth geometry is close to natural. The findings highlight the sensitivity of the visual system to depth and its effect on emotions. PMID:27551358

  9. Stereoscopy Amplifies Emotions Elicited by Facial Expressions.

    PubMed

    Hakala, Jussi; Kätsyri, Jari; Häkkinen, Jukka

    2015-12-01

    Mediated facial expressions do not elicit emotions as strongly as real-life facial expressions, possibly due to the low fidelity of pictorial presentations in typical mediation technologies. In the present study, we investigated the extent to which stereoscopy amplifies emotions elicited by images of neutral, angry, and happy facial expressions. The emotional self-reports of positive and negative valence (which were evaluated separately) and arousal of 40 participants were recorded. The magnitude of perceived depth in the stereoscopic images was manipulated by varying the camera base at 15, 40, 65, 90, and 115 mm. The analyses controlled for participants' gender, gender match, emotional empathy, and trait alexithymia. The results indicated that stereoscopy significantly amplified the negative valence and arousal elicited by angry expressions at the most natural (65 mm) camera base, whereas stereoscopy amplified the positive valence elicited by happy expressions in both the narrowed and most natural (15-65 mm) base conditions. Overall, the results indicate that stereoscopy amplifies the emotions elicited by mediated emotional facial expressions when the depth geometry is close to natural. The findings highlight the sensitivity of the visual system to depth and its effect on emotions.

  10. Dynamic Integration of Reward and Stimulus Information in Perceptual Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Juan; Tortell, Rebecca; McClelland, James L.

    2011-01-01

    In perceptual decision-making, ideal decision-makers should bias their choices toward alternatives associated with larger rewards, and the extent of the bias should decrease as stimulus sensitivity increases. When responses must be made at different times after stimulus onset, stimulus sensitivity grows with time from zero to a final asymptotic level. Are decision makers able to produce responses that are more biased if they are made soon after stimulus onset, but less biased if they are made after more evidence has been accumulated? If so, how close to optimal can they come in doing this, and how might their performance be achieved mechanistically? We report an experiment in which the payoff for each alternative is indicated before stimulus onset. Processing time is controlled by a “go” cue occurring at different times post stimulus onset, requiring a response within msec. Reward bias does start high when processing time is short and decreases as sensitivity increases, leveling off at a non-zero value. However, the degree of bias is sub-optimal for shorter processing times. We present a mechanistic account of participants' performance within the framework of the leaky competing accumulator model [1], in which accumulators for each alternative accumulate noisy information subject to leakage and mutual inhibition. The leveling off of accuracy is attributed to mutual inhibition between the accumulators, allowing the accumulator that gathers the most evidence early in a trial to suppress the alternative. Three ways reward might affect decision making in this framework are considered. One of the three, in which reward affects the starting point of the evidence accumulation process, is consistent with the qualitative pattern of the observed reward bias effect, while the other two are not. Incorporating this assumption into the leaky competing accumulator model, we are able to provide close quantitative fits to individual participant data. PMID:21390225

  11. Arrow-Elicited Cueing Effects at Short Intervals: Rapid Attentional Orienting or Cue-Target Stimulus Conflict?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jessica J.; Woldorff, Marty G.

    2012-01-01

    The observation of cueing effects (faster responses for cued than uncued targets) rapidly following centrally-presented arrows has led to the suggestion that arrows trigger rapid automatic shifts of spatial attention. However, these effects have primarily been observed during easy target-detection tasks when both cue and target remain on the…

  12. Effects of novelty on event-related potentials: aging and stimulus replacement.

    PubMed

    Pató, Lívia; Czigler, István

    2011-01-01

    Irrelevant unexpected stimuli elicit various types of inhibitory processes modulated by ongoing activity. An index of the inhibitory processes, namely the N2b and P3a event-related potentials (ERP), shows marked age-related differences. In this experiment, we attempted to separate the effects of inhibitory and working memory processes in older and younger participants on cognitive processes, and we investigated the effect of irrelevant events at different stages of task-related cognitive processes. In a successive letter-matching task, either the first or the second member of letter pairs were infrequently replaced by a novel stimulus in 2 age groups while ERPs were recorded. Novel stimuli had different effects on ERP in the 2 age groups. In the group of young participants, novel stimuli replacing the first member of the letter pair elicited a long-lasting anterior negative ERP component. In the older group, such stimuli elicited the N2b-P3a complex. In the case of novelties replacing the second member of the pair, the N2b-P3a complex emerged in both groups. Task-relevant letters in both groups elicited the P3b (late positive component). P3b had more a diffuse scalp distribution in the older group. In the different stages of the letter-matching task, ERPs elicited by novel stimuli differed only qualitatively in the older group, whereas in the younger group we obtained differences in the characteristics of the ERPs. The long-lasting anterior negativity in the younger group is considered a correlate of inhibitory activity towards the subsequent events initiated by the central executive system. This process is compromised in the older age group. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Rational elicitation of cold-sensitive phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Baliga, Chetana; Majhi, Sandipan; Mondal, Kajari; Bhattacharjee, Antara; Varadarajan, Raghavan

    2016-01-01

    Cold-sensitive phenotypes have helped us understand macromolecular assembly and biological phenomena, yet few attempts have been made to understand the basis of cold sensitivity or to elicit it by design. We report a method for rational design of cold-sensitive phenotypes. The method involves generation of partial loss-of-function mutants, at either buried or functional sites, coupled with selective overexpression strategies. The only essential input is amino acid sequence, although available structural information can be used as well. The method has been used to elicit cold-sensitive mutants of a variety of proteins, both monomeric and dimeric, and in multiple organisms, namely Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Drosophila melanogaster. This simple, yet effective technique of inducing cold sensitivity eliminates the need for complex mutations and provides a plausible molecular mechanism for eliciting cold-sensitive phenotypes. PMID:27091994

  14. Films for eliciting emotional states in children.

    PubMed

    von Leupoldt, Andreas; Rohde, Jenny; Beregova, Anna; Thordsen-Sörensen, Imke; zur Nieden, Janine; Dahme, Bernhard

    2007-08-01

    Standardized sets of films have been shown to be effective for eliciting emotional states in adults, but no comparable validated stimuli are available for children. We therefore examined the effects of three pre-selected film clips each of 3-min duration in eliciting a pleasant, neutral and unpleasant emotional state in 297 children aged between 6 and 12 years. After the films were presented on a video projector, affective ratings were obtained with the Self-Assessment-Manikin on the emotional dimensions of valence and arousal. Increasing pleasure ratings were observed from the unpleasant to the neutral to the pleasant film. Associated arousal ratings were stronger for the unpleasant and pleasant films compared to the neutral film. Overall, results showed successful elicitation of targeted emotional states only marginally influenced by age, gender or prior experience with the films. The use of these films is therefore suggested for future studies on emotions in children.

  15. Measuring Joint Stimulus Control by Complex Graph/Description Correspondences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Lanny; Spear, Jack

    2012-01-01

    Joint stimulus control occurs when responding is determined by the correspondence of elements of a complex sample and a complex comparison stimulus. In academic settings, joint stimulus control of behavior would be evidenced by the selection of an accurate description of a complex graph in which each element of a graph corresponded to particular…

  16. Measuring Joint Stimulus Control by Complex Graph/Description Correspondences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Lanny; Spear, Jack

    2012-01-01

    Joint stimulus control occurs when responding is determined by the correspondence of elements of a complex sample and a complex comparison stimulus. In academic settings, joint stimulus control of behavior would be evidenced by the selection of an accurate description of a complex graph in which each element of a graph corresponded to particular…

  17. Predicting Attraction to the Novel Stimulus Person: Affect and Concern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Kathryn

    1982-01-01

    Predicted interpersonal attraction to the novel stimulus by assessing the affective properties of stimulus descriptions. One group responded to characterizations on scales of concern. In another group, positive feelings and high concern about the stimulus led to greatest attraction. Results illustrate the benefits of prediction of the liking…

  18. Beyond maximum speed--a novel two-stimulus paradigm for brain-computer interfaces based on event-related potentials (P300-BCI).

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Tobias; Kübler, Andrea

    2014-10-01

    The speed of brain-computer interfaces (BCI), based on event-related potentials (ERP), is inherently limited by the commonly used one-stimulus paradigm. In this paper, we introduce a novel paradigm that can increase the spelling speed by a factor of 2, thereby extending the one-stimulus paradigm to a two-stimulus paradigm. Two different stimuli (a face and a symbol) are presented at the same time, superimposed on different characters and ERPs are classified using a multi-class classifier. Here, we present the proof-of-principle that is achieved with healthy participants. Eight participants were confronted with the novel two-stimulus paradigm and, for comparison, with two one-stimulus paradigms that used either one of the stimuli. Classification accuracies (percentage of correctly predicted letters) and elicited ERPs from the three paradigms were compared in a comprehensive offline analysis. The accuracies slightly decreased with the novel system compared to the established one-stimulus face paradigm. However, the use of two stimuli allowed for spelling at twice the maximum speed of the one-stimulus paradigms, and participants still achieved an average accuracy of 81.25%. This study introduced an alternative way of increasing the spelling speed in ERP-BCIs and illustrated that ERP-BCIs may not yet have reached their speed limit. Future research is needed in order to improve the reliability of the novel approach, as some participants displayed reduced accuracies. Furthermore, a comparison to the most recent BCI systems with individually adjusted, rapid stimulus timing is needed to draw conclusions about the practical relevance of the proposed paradigm. We introduced a novel two-stimulus paradigm that might be of high value for users who have reached the speed limit with the current one-stimulus ERP-BCI systems.

  19. Beyond maximum speed—a novel two-stimulus paradigm for brain-computer interfaces based on event-related potentials (P300-BCI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, Tobias; Kübler, Andrea

    2014-10-01

    Objective. The speed of brain-computer interfaces (BCI), based on event-related potentials (ERP), is inherently limited by the commonly used one-stimulus paradigm. In this paper, we introduce a novel paradigm that can increase the spelling speed by a factor of 2, thereby extending the one-stimulus paradigm to a two-stimulus paradigm. Two different stimuli (a face and a symbol) are presented at the same time, superimposed on different characters and ERPs are classified using a multi-class classifier. Here, we present the proof-of-principle that is achieved with healthy participants. Approach. Eight participants were confronted with the novel two-stimulus paradigm and, for comparison, with two one-stimulus paradigms that used either one of the stimuli. Classification accuracies (percentage of correctly predicted letters) and elicited ERPs from the three paradigms were compared in a comprehensive offline analysis. Main results. The accuracies slightly decreased with the novel system compared to the established one-stimulus face paradigm. However, the use of two stimuli allowed for spelling at twice the maximum speed of the one-stimulus paradigms, and participants still achieved an average accuracy of 81.25%. This study introduced an alternative way of increasing the spelling speed in ERP-BCIs and illustrated that ERP-BCIs may not yet have reached their speed limit. Future research is needed in order to improve the reliability of the novel approach, as some participants displayed reduced accuracies. Furthermore, a comparison to the most recent BCI systems with individually adjusted, rapid stimulus timing is needed to draw conclusions about the practical relevance of the proposed paradigm. Significance. We introduced a novel two-stimulus paradigm that might be of high value for users who have reached the speed limit with the current one-stimulus ERP-BCI systems.

  20. Changes in compensatory eye movements associated with simulated stimulus conditions of spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harm, Deborah L.; Zografos, Linda M.; Skinner, Noel C.; Parker, Donald E.

    1993-01-01

    Compensatory vertical eye movement gain (CVEMG) was recorded during pitch oscillation in darkness before, during, and immediately after exposures to the stimulus rearrangement produced by the Preflight Adaptation Trainer (PAT) Tilt-Translation Device (TTD). The TTD is designed to elicit adaptive responses that are similar to those observed in microgravity-adapted astronauts. The data from Experiment 1 yielded a statistically significant CVEMG decrease following 15 min of exposure to a stimulus rearrangement condition where the phase angle between subject pitch tilt and visual scene translation was 270 deg; statistically significant gain decreases were not observed following exposures either to a condition where the phase angle between subject pitch and scene translation was 90 deg or to a no-stimulus-rearrangement condition. Experiment 2 replicated the 270-deg-phase condition from Experiment 1 and extended the exposure duration from 30 to 45 min. Statistically significant additional changes in CVEMG associated with the increased exposure duration were not observed. The adaptation time constant estimated fram the combined data from Experiments 1 and 2 was 29 min.

  1. Visual-somatosensory integration in aging: does stimulus location really matter?

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Jeannette R; Wang, Cuiling; Dumas, Kristina; Holtzer, Roee

    2014-05-01

    Individuals are constantly bombarded by sensory stimuli across multiple modalities that must be integrated efficiently. Multisensory integration (MSI) is said to be governed by stimulus properties including space, time, and magnitude. While there is a paucity of research detailing MSI in aging, we have demonstrated that older adults reveal the greatest reaction time (RT) benefit when presented with simultaneous visual-somatosensory (VS) stimuli. To our knowledge, the differential RT benefit of visual and somatosensory stimuli presented within and across spatial hemifields has not been investigated in aging. Eighteen older adults (Mean = 74 years; 11 female), who were determined to be non-demented and without medical or psychiatric conditions that may affect their performance, participated in this study. Participants received eight randomly presented stimulus conditions (four unisensory and four multisensory) and were instructed to make speeded foot-pedal responses as soon as they detected any stimulation, regardless of stimulus type and location of unisensory inputs. Results from a linear mixed effect model, adjusted for speed of processing and other covariates, revealed that RTs to all multisensory pairings were significantly faster than those elicited to averaged constituent unisensory conditions (p < 0.01). Similarly, race model violation did not differ based on unisensory spatial location (p = 0.41). In summary, older adults demonstrate significant VS multisensory RT effects to stimuli both within and across spatial hemifields.

  2. Changes in Compensatory Eye Movements Associated with Simulated Stimulus Conditions of Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harm, Deborah L.; Zografos, Linda M.; Skinner, Noel C.; Parker, Donald E.

    1993-01-01

    Compensatory vertical eye movement gain (CVEMG) was recorded during pitch oscillation in darkness before, during and immediately after exposures to the stimulus rearrangement produced by the Preflight Adaptation Trainer (PAT) Tilt-Translation Device (TTD). The TTD is designed to elicit adaptive responses that are similar to those observed in microgravity-adapted astronauts. The data from Experiment 1 yielded a statistically significant CVEMG decrease following 15 minutes of exposure to a stimulus rearrangement condition where the phase angle between subject pitch tilt and visual scene translation was 270 degrees; statistically significant gain decreases were not observed following exposures either to a condition where the phase angle between subject pitch and scene translation was 90 degrees or to a no-stimulus-rearrangement condition. Experiment 2 replicated the 270 degree phase condition from Experiment 1 and extended the exposure duration from 30 to 45 minutes. Statistically significant additional changes in CVEMG associated with the increased exposure duration were not observed. The adaptation time constant estimated from the combined data from Experiments 1 and 2 was 29 minutes.

  3. [Event related potentials and emotional pictures:effect of stimulus presentation time].

    PubMed

    Naumann, E; Becker, G; Maier, S; Diedrich, O; Bartussek, D

    1997-01-01

    The perception of the emotional content of a stimulus is a preattentive automatic process which causes an emotional reaction. As the ongoing stream of behavior might be disturbed by the emotional reaction, a controlled process is initialited at the same time, which normally leads to an inhibition of the emotional response. By means of event related potentials it should be possible to observe these controlled processes. In a first study using photographs from the International Affective Picture System, Diedrich et al. (1997) reported enhanded P300 amplitudes for emotional stimuli, even when the task distracted from the emotional content of the stimuli. This was interpreted as an index of the additional, controlled information processing elicited by the emotional content of the stimuli. Additionally, Diedrich et al. observed a frontel slow positivity, which might indicate the inhibition of the emotional response. However, this frontal slow wave might also be explained by the stimulus presentation time, which lasted 500 ms. This study is a conceptual replication of the experiment of Diedrich et al. Stimulus presentation time of neutral and emotional slides was varied in three steps (250 ms, 500 ms and 2000 ms). Subjects either performed a structural or an emotion-focused task on the stimuli. The results for the P300 component were exactly replicated. However, the variation of slow frontal positivity differed from that in the first study. Differences in the intensity of the emotional stimuli are discussed as a reason für this result.

  4. Visual-somatosensory integration in aging: Does stimulus location really matter?

    PubMed Central

    MAHONEY, JEANNETTE R.; WANG, CUILING; DUMAS, KRISTINA; HOLTZER, ROEE

    2014-01-01

    Individuals are constantly bombarded by sensory stimuli across multiple modalities that must be integrated efficiently. Multisensory integration (MSI) is said to be governed by stimulus properties including space, time, and magnitude. While there is a paucity of research detailing MSI in aging, we have demonstrated that older adults reveal the greatest reaction time (RT) benefi t when presented with simultaneous visual-somatosensory (VS) stimuli. To our knowledge, the differential RT benefit of visual and somatosensory stimuli presented within and across spatial hemifields has not been investigated in aging. Eighteen older adults (Mean = 74 years; 11 female), who were determined to be non-demented and without medical or psychiatric conditions that may affect their performance, participated in this study. Participants received eight randomly presented stimulus conditions (four unisensory and four multisensory) and were instructed to make speeded foot-pedal responses as soon as they detected any stimulation, regardless of stimulus type and location of unisensory inputs. Results from a linear mixed effect model, adjusted for speed of processing and other covariates, revealed that RTs to all multisensory pairings were significantly faster than those elicited to averaged constituent unisensory conditions (p < 0.01). Similarly, race model violation did not differ based on unisensory spatial location (p = 0.41). In summary, older adults demonstrate significant VS multisensory RT effects to stimuli both within and across spatial hemifields. PMID:24698637

  5. Finding the missing stimulus mismatch negativity (MMN): emitted MMN to violations of an auditory gestalt.

    PubMed

    Salisbury, Dean F

    2012-04-01

    Deviations from repetitive auditory stimuli evoke a mismatch negativity (MMN). Counterintuitively, omissions of repetitive stimuli do not. Violations of patterns reflecting complex rules also evoke MMN. To detect a MMN to missing stimuli, we developed an auditory gestalt task using one stimulus. Groups of six pips (50 ms duration, 330 ms stimulus onset asynchrony [SOA], 400 trials), were presented with an intertrial interval (ITI) of 750 ms while subjects (n=16) watched a silent video. Occasional deviant groups had missing 4th or 6th tones (50 trials each). Missing stimuli evoked a MMN (p<.05). The missing 4th (-0.8 µV, p<.01) and the missing 6th stimuli (-1.1 µV, p<.05) were more negative than standard 6th stimuli (0.3 µV). MMN can be elicited by a missing stimulus at long SOAs by violation of a gestalt grouping rule. Patterned stimuli appear more sensitive to omissions and ITI than homogenous streams. Copyright © 2012 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  6. The auditory P3 from passive and active three-stimulus oddball paradigm.

    PubMed

    Wronka, Eligiusz; Kaiser, Jan; Coenen, Anton M L

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was the comparison of basic characteristics of the P3 subcomponents elicited in passive and active versions of the auditory oddball paradigm. A 3-stimulus oddball paradigm was employed in which subjects were presented with random sequence of tones while they performed a discrimination task in visual modality with no response to the tone (passive task) or responded to an infrequently occurring target stimulus inserted into sequence of frequent standard and rare non-target stimuli (active task). Results show that the magnitude of the frontal P3 response is determined by the relative perceptual distinctiveness among stimuli. The amplitude of frontal component is larger for the stimuli more deviated from the standard in both passive and active tasks. In all cases however, a maximum over central or fronto-central scalp regions was demonstrated. Moreover, amplitude of this component was influenced by the strength of attentional focus--a significantly larger response was obtained in the active session than in its passive counterpart. The apparent parietal P3 responses were obtained only in the active condition. The amplitude of this component is larger for the target than the non-target across all electrode sites, but both demonstrated a parietal maxima. This findings suggest that generation of early frontal P3 could be related to alerting activity of frontal cortex irrespective of stimulus context, while generation of later parietal P3 is related to temporo-parietal network activated when neuronal model of perceived stimulation and attentional trace are comparing.

  7. Stimulus requirements for face perception: an analysis based on "totem poles".

    PubMed

    Paras, Carrie L; Webster, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    The stimulus requirements for perceiving a face are not well defined but are presumably simple, for vivid faces can often by seen in random or natural images such as cloud or rock formations. To characterize these requirements, we measured where observers reported the impression of faces in images defined by symmetric 1/f noise. This allowed us to examine the prominence and properties of different features and their necessary configurations. In these stimuli many faces can be perceived along the vertical midline, and appear stacked at multiple scales, reminiscent of "totem poles." In addition to symmetry, the faces in noise are invariably upright and thus reveal the inversion effects that are thought to be a defining property of configural face processing. To a large extent, seeing a face required seeing eyes, and these were largely restricted to dark regions in the images. Other features were more subordinate and showed relatively little bias in polarity. Moreover, the prominence of eyes depended primarily on their luminance contrast and showed little influence of chromatic contrast. Notably, most faces were rated as clearly defined with highly distinctive attributes, suggesting that once an image area is coded as a face it is perceptually completed consistent with this interpretation. This suggests that the requisite trigger features are sufficient to holistically "capture" the surrounding noise structure to form the facial representation. Yet despite these well articulated percepts, we show in further experiments that while a pair of dark spots added to noise images appears face-like, these impressions fail to elicit other signatures of face processing, and in particular, fail to elicit an N170 or fixation patterns typical for images of actual faces. These results suggest that very simple stimulus configurations are sufficient to invoke many aspects of holistic and configural face perception while nevertheless failing to fully engage the neural machinery of face

  8. Sample stimulus control shaping and restricted stimulus control in capuchin monkeys: a methodological note.

    PubMed

    Brino, Ana Leda F; Barros, Romariz S; Galvão, Olavo F; Garotti, M; da Cruz, Ilara R N; Santos, José R; Dube, William V; McIlvane, William J

    2011-05-01

    This paper reports use of sample stimulus control shaping procedures to teach arbitrary matching-to-sample to 2 capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). The procedures started with identity matching-to-sample. During shaping, stimulus features of the sample were altered gradually, rendering samples and comparisons increasingly physically dissimilar. The objective was to transform identity matching into arbitrary matching (i.e., matching not based on common physical features of the sample and comparison stimuli). Experiment 1 used a two-comparison procedure. The shaping procedure was ultimately effective, but occasional high error rates at certain program steps inspired a follow-up study. Experiment 2 used the same basic approach, but with a three-comparison matching task. During shaping, the monkey performed accurately until the final steps of the program. Subsequent experimentation tested the hypothesis that the decrease in accuracy was due to restricted stimulus control by sample stimulus features that had not yet been changed in the shaping program. Results were consistent with this hypothesis, thus suggesting a new approach that may transform the sample stimulus control shaping procedure from a sometimes useful laboratory tool to a more general approach to teaching the first instance of arbitrary matching performances to participants who show protracted difficulties in learning such performances.

  9. Sample Stimulus Control Shaping and Restricted Stimulus Control in Capuchin Monkeys: A Methodological Note

    PubMed Central

    Brino, Ana Leda F; Barros, Romariz S; Galvão, Olavo F; Garotti, M; da Cruz, Ilara R. N; Santos, José R; Dube, William V; McIlvane, William J

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports use of sample stimulus control shaping procedures to teach arbitrary matching-to-sample to 2 capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). The procedures started with identity matching-to-sample. During shaping, stimulus features of the sample were altered gradually, rendering samples and comparisons increasingly physically dissimilar. The objective was to transform identity matching into arbitrary matching (i.e., matching not based on common physical features of the sample and comparison stimuli). Experiment 1 used a two-comparison procedure. The shaping procedure was ultimately effective, but occasional high error rates at certain program steps inspired a follow-up study. Experiment 2 used the same basic approach, but with a three-comparison matching task. During shaping, the monkey performed accurately until the final steps of the program. Subsequent experimentation tested the hypothesis that the decrease in accuracy was due to restricted stimulus control by sample stimulus features that had not yet been changed in the shaping program. Results were consistent with this hypothesis, thus suggesting a new approach that may transform the sample stimulus control shaping procedure from a sometimes useful laboratory tool to a more general approach to teaching the first instance of arbitrary matching performances to participants who show protracted difficulties in learning such performances. PMID:21547073

  10. Failure to observe untested derived stimulus relations in extinction: implications for understanding stimulus-equivalence formation.

    PubMed

    Doughty, Adam H; Leake, Lesley W; Stoudemire, M Lee

    2014-11-01

    Wilson and Hayes (1996) and Doughty, Kastner, and Bismark (2011) observed resurgence of past equivalence relations when newer equivalence relations were punished or extinguished, respectively. Their findings support the notion that deriving stimulus relations is a form of operant behavior. Although there is consensus regarding the operant nature of deriving untrained stimulus relations, the necessary and sufficient conditions that establish these relations remain unclear. For example, in the aforementioned work, the resurgent equivalence relations were tested earlier in each study. The present research investigated whether this resurgence of equivalence relations requires their initial testing. In Experiment 1, college students received arbitrary matching-to-sample training in Phase 1. After these baseline discriminations were established, equivalence testing was omitted. In Phase 2, four 4-member equivalence classes were established that were inconsistent with the Phase-1 training. These Phase-2 relations then were extinguished to test whether the equivalence relations consistent with Phase-1 training would occur. Unlike in earlier research, these untested relations did not occur reliably. This finding was replicated in Experiment 2, and additional tests of stimulus relatedness did not reveal any evidence of derived stimulus relations consistent with the Phase-1 training. The present research extends other findings suggesting that the equivalence-testing context helps establish these stimulus classes. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  11. Emergent Stimulus Relations Depend on Stimulus Correlation and Not on Reinforcement Contingencies

    PubMed Central

    Minster, Sara Tepaeru; Elliffe, Douglas; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to investigate whether novel stimulus relations would emerge from stimulus correlations when those relations explicitly conflicted with reinforced relations. In a symbolic matching-to-sample task using kanji characters as stimuli, we arranged class-specific incorrect comparison stimuli in each of three classes. After presenting either Ax or Cx stimuli as samples, choices of Bx were reinforced and choices of Gx or Hx were not. Tests for symmetry, and combined symmetry and transitivity, showed the emergence of three 3-member (AxBxCx) stimulus classes in 5 of 5 human participants. Subsequent tests for all possible emergent relations between Ax, Bx, Cx and the class-specific incorrect comparisons Gx and Hx showed that these relations emerged for 4 of 5 the participants after extended overtraining of the baseline relations. These emergent relations must have been based on stimulus–stimulus correlations, and were not properties of the trained discriminated operants, because they required control by relations explicitly extinguished during training. This result supports theoretical accounts of emergent relations that emphasize stimulus correlation over operant contingencies. PMID:21547070

  12. Restricted Stimulus Control in Stimulus Control Shaping with a Capuchin Monkey

    PubMed Central

    Brino, Ana Leda F.; Galvão, Olavo F.; Barros, Romariz S.; Goulart, Paulo R. K.; McIlvane, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Teaching the first instances of arbitrary matching to sample to nonhumans can prove difficult and time consuming. Stimulus control relations may develop that differ from those intended by the experimenter – even when stimulus control shaping procedures are used. This paper reports efforts to identify sources of shaping program failure with a capuchin monkey. Procedures began with a baseline of identity matching. During subsequent shaping trials, compound comparison stimuli had two components – one identical to and another different from the sample. The identical component was eliminated gradually by removing portions across trials (i.e., subtracting stimulus elements). The monkey performed accurately throughout shaping. At a late stage in the program, probe tests were conducted: (1) arbitrary matching trials that had all elements of the identical comparison removed and (2) other trials that included residual elements. During the test, the monkey performed at low levels on the former trials and higher levels on the latter. These results suggested that higher accuracy was due merely to continued control by the residual elements: the target arbitrary matching relations had not been learned. Thus, it appears that procedures that gradually transform identity matching baselines into arbitrary matching can fail by inadvertently shaping restricted control by residual elements. Subsequent probes at the end of the shaping series showed a successful transfer of stimulus control from identity to arbitrary matching after further programming steps apparently overcame the restricted stimulus control. PMID:24817994

  13. Stimulus Processing in Vestibular Hair Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-03

    Preliminary results reveal that in some cells, the currents elicited by voltage steps are qualitatively similar to those previously described in frog ...rather than in the artificial perilymph used for the frog saccules. In some experiments individual hair cells were stimulated by moving their hair bundles...postsynaptic potentials alone. (2) Whole-cell current recording from isolated vestibular hair cells Hair cells were isolated from frog saccules and from rat

  14. Comparison of aortic and carotid baroreflex stimulus-response characteristics in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. A.; Querry, R. G.; Fadel, P. J.; Weiss, M. W.; Olivencia-Yurvati, A.; Shi, X.; Raven, P. B.

    2001-01-01

    In order to characterize the stimulus-response relationships of the arterial, aortic, and carotid baroreflexes in mediating cardiac chronotropic function, we measured heart rate (HR) responses elicited by acute changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and carotid sinus pressure (CSP) in 11 healthy individuals. Arterial (aortic + carotid) baroreflex control of HR was quantified using ramped changes in MAP induced by bolus injection of phenylephrine (PE) and sodium nitroprusside (SN). To assess aortic-cardiac responses, neck pressure (NP) and suction (NS) were applied during PE and SN administration, respectively, to counter alterations in CSP thereby isolating the aortic baroreflex. Graded levels of NP and NS were delivered to the carotid sinus using a customized neck collar device to assess the carotid-cardiac baroreflex, independent of drug infusion. The operating characteristics of each reflex were determined from the logistic function of the elicited HR response to the induced change in MAP. The arterial pressures at which the threshold was located on the stimulus-response curves determined for the arterial, aortic and carotid baroreflexes were not significantly different (72+/-4, 67+/-3, and 72+/-4 mm Hg, respectively, P > 0.05). Similarly, the MAP at which the saturation of the reflex responses were elicited did not differ among the baroreflex arcs examined (98+/-3, 99+/-2, and 102+/-3 mm Hg, respectively). These data suggest that the baroreceptor populations studied operate over the same range of arterial pressures. This finding indicates each baroreflex functions as both an important anti-hypotensive and anti-hypertensive mechanism. In addition, this investigation describes a model of aortic baroreflex function in normal healthy humans, which may prove useful in identifying the origin of baroreflex dysfunction in disease- and training-induced conditions.

  15. Comparison of aortic and carotid baroreflex stimulus-response characteristics in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. A.; Querry, R. G.; Fadel, P. J.; Weiss, M. W.; Olivencia-Yurvati, A.; Shi, X.; Raven, P. B.

    2001-01-01

    In order to characterize the stimulus-response relationships of the arterial, aortic, and carotid baroreflexes in mediating cardiac chronotropic function, we measured heart rate (HR) responses elicited by acute changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and carotid sinus pressure (CSP) in 11 healthy individuals. Arterial (aortic + carotid) baroreflex control of HR was quantified using ramped changes in MAP induced by bolus injection of phenylephrine (PE) and sodium nitroprusside (SN). To assess aortic-cardiac responses, neck pressure (NP) and suction (NS) were applied during PE and SN administration, respectively, to counter alterations in CSP thereby isolating the aortic baroreflex. Graded levels of NP and NS were delivered to the carotid sinus using a customized neck collar device to assess the carotid-cardiac baroreflex, independent of drug infusion. The operating characteristics of each reflex were determined from the logistic function of the elicited HR response to the induced change in MAP. The arterial pressures at which the threshold was located on the stimulus-response curves determined for the arterial, aortic and carotid baroreflexes were not significantly different (72+/-4, 67+/-3, and 72+/-4 mm Hg, respectively, P > 0.05). Similarly, the MAP at which the saturation of the reflex responses were elicited did not differ among the baroreflex arcs examined (98+/-3, 99+/-2, and 102+/-3 mm Hg, respectively). These data suggest that the baroreceptor populations studied operate over the same range of arterial pressures. This finding indicates each baroreflex functions as both an important anti-hypotensive and anti-hypertensive mechanism. In addition, this investigation describes a model of aortic baroreflex function in normal healthy humans, which may prove useful in identifying the origin of baroreflex dysfunction in disease- and training-induced conditions.

  16. Evidence for enhanced multisensory facilitation with stimulus relevance: an electrophysiological investigation.

    PubMed

    Barutchu, Ayla; Freestone, Dean R; Innes-Brown, Hamish; Crewther, David P; Crewther, Sheila G

    2013-01-01

    Currently debate exists relating to the interplay between multisensory processes and bottom-up and top-down influences. However, few studies have looked at neural responses to newly paired audiovisual stimuli that differ in their prescribed relevance. For such newly associated audiovisual stimuli, optimal facilitation of motor actions was observed only when both components of the audiovisual stimuli were targets. Relevant auditory stimuli were found to significantly increase the amplitudes of the event-related potentials at the occipital pole during the first 100 ms post-stimulus onset, though this early integration was not predictive of multisensory facilitation. Activity related to multisensory behavioral facilitation was observed approximately 166 ms post-stimulus, at left central and occipital sites. Furthermore, optimal multisensory facilitation was found to be associated with a latency shift of induced oscillations in the beta range (14-30 Hz) at right hemisphere parietal scalp regions. These findings demonstrate the importance of stimulus relevance to multisensory processing by providing the first evidence that the neural processes underlying multisensory integration are modulated by the relevance of the stimuli being combined. We also provide evidence that such facilitation may be mediated by changes in neural synchronization in occipital and centro-parietal neural populations at early and late stages of neural processing that coincided with stimulus selection, and the preparation and initiation of motor action.

  17. Evidence for Enhanced Multisensory Facilitation with Stimulus Relevance: An Electrophysiological Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Barutchu, Ayla; Freestone, Dean R.; Innes-Brown, Hamish; Crewther, David P.; Crewther, Sheila G.

    2013-01-01

    Currently debate exists relating to the interplay between multisensory processes and bottom-up and top-down influences. However, few studies have looked at neural responses to newly paired audiovisual stimuli that differ in their prescribed relevance. For such newly associated audiovisual stimuli, optimal facilitation of motor actions was observed only when both components of the audiovisual stimuli were targets. Relevant auditory stimuli were found to significantly increase the amplitudes of the event-related potentials at the occipital pole during the first 100 ms post-stimulus onset, though this early integration was not predictive of multisensory facilitation. Activity related to multisensory behavioral facilitation was observed approximately 166 ms post-stimulus, at left central and occipital sites. Furthermore, optimal multisensory facilitation was found to be associated with a latency shift of induced oscillations in the beta range (14–30 Hz) at right hemisphere parietal scalp regions. These findings demonstrate the importance of stimulus relevance to multisensory processing by providing the first evidence that the neural processes underlying multisensory integration are modulated by the relevance of the stimuli being combined. We also provide evidence that such facilitation may be mediated by changes in neural synchronization in occipital and centro-parietal neural populations at early and late stages of neural processing that coincided with stimulus selection, and the preparation and initiation of motor action. PMID:23372652

  18. Stimulus Specificity of Brain-Computer Interfaces Based on Code Modulation Visual Evoked Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Qingguo; Feng, Siwei; Lu, Zongwu

    2016-01-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) based on code modulated visual evoked potentials (c-VEP) is among the fastest BCIs that have ever been reported, but it has not yet been given a thorough study. In this study, a pseudorandom binary M sequence and its time lag sequences are utilized for modulation of different stimuli and template matching is adopted as the method for target recognition. Five experiments were devised to investigate the effect of stimulus specificity on target recognition and we made an effort to find the optimal stimulus parameters for size, color and proximity of the stimuli, length of modulation sequence and its lag between two adjacent stimuli. By changing the values of these parameters and measuring classification accuracy of the c-VEP BCI, an optimal value of each parameter can be attained. Experimental results of ten subjects showed that stimulus size of visual angle 3.8°, white, spatial proximity of visual angle 4.8° center to center apart, modulation sequence of length 63 bits and the lag of 4 bits between adjacent stimuli yield individually superior performance. These findings provide a basis for determining stimulus presentation of a high-performance c-VEP based BCI system. PMID:27243454

  19. Using Stimulus-Stimulus Pairing and Direct Reinforcement to Teach Vocal Verbal Behavior to Young Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Regina A.; Klatt, Kevin P.

    2008-01-01

    In this study the effect of a stimulus-stimulus pairing procedure was used as part of a clinical investigation to increase vocalizations for two young children diagnosed with autism. This procedure involved pairing a vocal sound with a preferred stimulus (e.g., toy) to condition automatic reinforcement. In addition, this study assessed the effects…

  20. The influence of the response-stimulus interval on implicit and explicit learning of stimulus sequence.

    PubMed

    Miyawaki, Kaori

    2006-07-01

    Three experiments investigated the influence of the response-stimulus interval (RSI) on implicit and explicit learning of stimulus sequences. Participants responded to numerals presented in predetermined positions with alternating long and short RSIs. Half of the participants were instructed explicitly to learn the position sequence. In the transfer phase of Experiments 1 and 2, changing RSI patterns reduced the expression of incidental and intentional learning of position sequence. In Experiment 3 the position sequence was transformed, except that sub-sequences demarcated by long RSIs remained unchanged; this greatly reduced the expression of intentional learning, and slightly reduced that of incidental learning. These results indicate that in implicit learning, stimulus sequences are learned under the constraints of RSIs, whereas in explicit learning, learning independent of RSIs, as well as learning constrained by RSIs, occurs.

  1. Stimulus specificity of a steady-state visual-evoked potential-based brain-computer interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Kian B.; Bradley, Andrew P.; Cunnington, Ross

    2012-06-01

    The mechanisms of neural excitation and inhibition when given a visual stimulus are well studied. It has been established that changing stimulus specificity such as luminance contrast or spatial frequency can alter the neuronal activity and thus modulate the visual-evoked response. In this paper, we study the effect that stimulus specificity has on the classification performance of a steady-state visual-evoked potential-based brain-computer interface (SSVEP-BCI). For example, we investigate how closely two visual stimuli can be placed before they compete for neural representation in the cortex and thus influence BCI classification accuracy. We characterize stimulus specificity using the four stimulus parameters commonly encountered in SSVEP-BCI design: temporal frequency, spatial size, number of simultaneously displayed stimuli and their spatial proximity. By varying these quantities and measuring the SSVEP-BCI classification accuracy, we are able to determine the parameters that provide optimal performance. Our results show that superior SSVEP-BCI accuracy is attained when stimuli are placed spatially more than 5° apart, with size that subtends at least 2° of visual angle, when using a tagging frequency of between high alpha and beta band. These findings may assist in deciding the stimulus parameters for optimal SSVEP-BCI design.

  2. Stimulus specificity of a steady-state visual-evoked potential-based brain-computer interface.

    PubMed

    Ng, Kian B; Bradley, Andrew P; Cunnington, Ross

    2012-06-01

    The mechanisms of neural excitation and inhibition when given a visual stimulus are well studied. It has been established that changing stimulus specificity such as luminance contrast or spatial frequency can alter the neuronal activity and thus modulate the visual-evoked response. In this paper, we study the effect that stimulus specificity has on the classification performance of a steady-state visual-evoked potential-based brain-computer interface (SSVEP-BCI). For example, we investigate how closely two visual stimuli can be placed before they compete for neural representation in the cortex and thus influence BCI classification accuracy. We characterize stimulus specificity using the four stimulus parameters commonly encountered in SSVEP-BCI design: temporal frequency, spatial size, number of simultaneously displayed stimuli and their spatial proximity. By varying these quantities and measuring the SSVEP-BCI classification accuracy, we are able to determine the parameters that provide optimal performance. Our results show that superior SSVEP-BCI accuracy is attained when stimuli are placed spatially more than 5° apart, with size that subtends at least 2° of visual angle, when using a tagging frequency of between high alpha and beta band. These findings may assist in deciding the stimulus parameters for optimal SSVEP-BCI design.

  3. Stimulus devaluation induced by stopping action

    PubMed Central

    Wessel, Jan R.; O’Doherty, John P.; Berkebile, Michael M.; Linderman, David; Aron, Adam R.

    2014-01-01

    Impulsive behavior in humans partly relates to inappropriate overvaluation of reward-associated stimuli. Hence, it is desirable to develop methods of behavioral modification that can reduce stimulus value. Here, we tested whether one kind of behavioral modification – the rapid stopping of actions in the face of reward-associated stimuli – could lead to subsequent devaluation of those stimuli. We developed a novel paradigm with three consecutive phases: implicit reward learning, a stop-signal task, and an auction procedure. In the learning phase, we associated abstract shapes with different levels of reward. In the stop-signal phase, we paired half those shapes with occasional stop-signals, requiring the rapid stopping of an initiated motor response, while the other half of shapes was not paired with stop signals. In the auction phase, we assessed the subjective value of each shape via willingness-to-pay. In two experiments, we found that participants bid less for shapes that were paired with stop-signals compared to shapes that were not. This suggests that the requirement to try to rapidly stop a response decrements stimulus value. Two follow-on control experiments suggested that the result was specifically due to stopping action rather than aversiveness, effort, conflict, or salience associated with stop signals. This study makes a theoretical link between research on inhibitory control and value. It also provides a novel behavioral paradigm with carefully operationalized learning, treatment, and valuation phases. This framework lends itself to both behavioral modification procedures in clinical disorders, and research on the neural underpinnings of stimulus devaluation. PMID:25313953

  4. Stimulus devaluation induced by stopping action.

    PubMed

    Wessel, Jan R; O'Doherty, John P; Berkebile, Michael M; Linderman, David; Aron, Adam R

    2014-12-01

    Impulsive behavior in humans partly relates to inappropriate overvaluation of reward-associated stimuli. Hence, it is desirable to develop methods of behavioral modification that can reduce stimulus value. Here, we tested whether one kind of behavioral modification--the rapid stopping of actions in the face of reward-associated stimuli--could lead to subsequent devaluation of those stimuli. We developed a novel paradigm with three consecutive phases: implicit reward learning, a stop-signal task, and an auction procedure. In the learning phase, we associated abstract shapes with different levels of reward. In the stop-signal phase, we paired half those shapes with occasional stop-signals, requiring the rapid stopping of an initiated motor response, while the other half of shapes was not paired with stop signals. In the auction phase, we assessed the subjective value of each shape via willingness-to-pay. In 2 experiments, we found that participants bid less for shapes that were paired with stop-signals compared to shapes that were not. This suggests that the requirement to try to rapidly stop a response decrements stimulus value. Two follow-on control experiments suggested that the result was specifically due to stopping action rather than aversiveness, effort, conflict, or salience associated with stop signals. This study makes a theoretical link between research on inhibitory control and value. It also provides a novel behavioral paradigm with carefully operationalized learning, treatment, and valuation phases. This framework lends itself to both behavioral modification procedures in clinical disorders and research on the neural underpinnings of stimulus devaluation. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Event-related potentials elicited by social commerce and electronic-commerce reviews.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yan; Yao, Zhong; Cong, Fengyu; Zhang, Linlin

    2015-12-01

    There is an increasing interest regarding the use of electroencephalography (EEG) in social commerce and electronic commerce (e-commerce) research. There are several reviews in the field of social commerce or e-commerce; these have great potential value and mining them is fundamental and significant. To our knowledge, EEG is rarely applied to study these. In this study, we examined the neural correlates of social commerce reviews (SCRs) and e-commerce reviews (ECRs) by using them as stimuli to evoke event-related potentials. All SCRs were from friends through a social media platform, whereas ECRs were from strangers through an e-commerce platform. The experimental design was similar to that of a priming paradigm, and included 40 pairs of stimuli consisting of product information (prime stimulus) and reviews (target stimulus). The results showed that the P300 component was successfully evoked by SCR and ECR stimuli. Moreover, the P300 components elicited by SCRs had higher amplitudes than those elicited by ECRs. These findings indicate that participants paid more attention to SCRs than to ECRs. In addition, the associations between neural responses and reviews in social commerce have the potential to assist companies in studying consumer behaviors, thus permitting them to enhance their social commerce strategies.

  6. Changes in room acoustics elicit a Mismatch Negativity in the absence of overall interaural intensity differences.

    PubMed

    Frey, Johannes Daniel; Wendt, Mike; Löw, Andreas; Möller, Stephan; Zölzer, Udo; Jacobsen, Thomas

    2017-02-15

    Changes in room acoustics provide important clues about the environment of sound source-perceiver systems, for example, by indicating changes in the reflecting characteristics of surrounding objects. To study the detection of auditory irregularities brought about by a change in room acoustics, a passive oddball protocol with participants watching a movie was applied in this study. Acoustic stimuli were presented via headphones. Standards and deviants were created by modelling rooms of different sizes, keeping the values of the basic acoustic dimensions (e.g., frequency, duration, sound pressure, and sound source location) as constant as possible. In the first experiment, each standard and deviant stimulus consisted of sequences of three short sounds derived from sinusoidal tones, resulting in three onsets during each stimulus. Deviant stimuli elicited a Mismatch Negativity (MMN) as well as two additional negative deflections corresponding to the three onset peaks. In the second experiment, only one sound was used; the stimuli were otherwise identical to the ones used in the first experiment. Again, an MMN was observed, followed by an additional negative deflection. These results provide further support for the hypothesis of automatic detection of unattended changes in room acoustics, extending previous work by demonstrating the elicitation of an MMN by changes in room acoustics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Amphetamine Elicits Opposing Actions on Readily Releasable and Reserve Pools for Dopamine

    PubMed Central

    Covey, Dan P.; Juliano, Steven A.; Garris, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Amphetamine, a highly addictive drug with therapeutic efficacy, exerts paradoxical effects on the fundamental communication modes employed by dopamine neurons in modulating behavior. While amphetamine elevates tonic dopamine signaling by depleting vesicular stores and driving non-exocytotic release through reverse transport, this psychostimulant also activates phasic dopamine signaling by up-regulating vesicular dopamine release. We hypothesized that these seemingly incongruent effects arise from amphetamine depleting the reserve pool and enhancing the readily releasable pool. This novel hypothesis was tested using in vivo voltammetry and stimulus trains of varying duration to access different vesicular stores. We show that amphetamine actions are stimulus dependent in the dorsal striatum. Specifically, amphetamine up-regulated vesicular dopamine release elicited by a short-duration train, which interrogates the readily releasable pool, but depleted release elicited by a long-duration train, which interrogates the reserve pool. These opposing actions of vesicular dopamine release were associated with concurrent increases in tonic and phasic dopamine responses. A link between vesicular depletion and tonic signaling was supported by results obtained for amphetamine in the ventral striatum and cocaine in both striatal sub-regions, which demonstrated augmented vesicular release and phasic signals only. We submit that amphetamine differentially targeting dopamine stores reconciles the paradoxical activation of tonic and phasic dopamine signaling. Overall, these results further highlight the unique and region-distinct cellular mechanisms of amphetamine and may have important implications for its addictive and therapeutic properties. PMID:23671560

  8. Perceived control increases the reward positivity and stimulus preceding negativity.

    PubMed

    Mühlberger, Christina; Angus, Douglas Jozef; Jonas, Eva; Harmon-Jones, Cindy; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

    2017-02-01

    The reward positivity (RewP) and the stimulus preceding negativity (SPN), two ERPs associated with reward delivery and reward anticipation, are modulated by motivational intensity. Motivational intensity is the effort organisms would make to exert behaviors, and it varies with the difficulty of exerting that behavior. If a task is perceived as impossible, which means that one does not have control over own outcomes, motivational intensity is low. In the current study, we tested the prediction that perceiving control over one's outcomes increases both the RewP to feedback and the SPN prior to feedback compared to perceiving no control. We also examined whether P300 and LPP amplitudes to reward and nonreward images were similarly modulated. Twenty-five female participants completed a gambling task in which correct choices were followed by pictures of attractive men and incorrect choices were followed by pictures of rocks. To manipulate perceived control, participants were told that, in one block of trials, they could learn a mouse-click rule in order to see only pictures of men (high perceived control condition), while in the other block, the pictures would appear randomly (low perceived control condition). However, in both conditions, feedback appeared randomly. Although the RewP was elicited in both blocks, the RewP and SPN were higher in the high perceived control condition (i.e., when participants thought that they could influence their outcomes). Perceived control did not modulate the P300 and LPP to pictures. The results suggest that approach motivation and its intensity modulate the processing of performance feedback. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  9. Economic Stimulus Proposals for 2008: An Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    provide broader support for the economy than monetary policy actions alone.” Quoted in Ben Bernanke , “The Economic Outlook,” testimony before the House...limit for mortgages from $417,000 up to $729,750 in high-cost areas. The need for fiscal stimulus depends, by definition, on the state of the economy ...While the economy is not officially in a recession at present, there are signs that economic activity may be slowing. Some economists are predicting

  10. Teaching braille line tracking using stimulus fading.

    PubMed

    Scheithauer, Mindy C; Tiger, Jeffrey H

    2014-01-01

    Line tracking is a prerequisite skill for braille literacy that involves moving one's finger horizontally across a line of braille text and identifying when a line ends so the reader may reset his or her finger on the subsequent line. Current procedures for teaching line tracking are incomplete, because they focus on tracking lines with only small gaps between characters. The current study extended previous line-tracking instruction using stimulus fading to teach tracking across larger gaps. After instruction, all participants showed improvement in line tracking, and 2 of 3 participants met mastery criteria for tracking across extended spaces.

  11. Teaching Stimulus-Stimulus Relations to Minimally Verbal Individuals: Reflections on Technology and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    McIlvane, W. J.; Gerard, C. J.; Kledaras, J. B.; Mackay, H. A.; Lionello-DeNolf, K. M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses recent methodological approaches and investigations that are aimed at developing reliable behavioral technology for teaching stimulus-stimulus relations to individuals who are minimally verbal and show protracted difficulty in acquiring such relations. The paper has both empirical and theoretical content. The empirical component presents recent data concerning the possibility of generating rapid relational learning in individuals who do not initially show it. The theoretical component (1) considers decades of methodological investigations with this population and (2) suggests a testable hypothesis concerning some individuals exhibit unusual difficulties in learning. Given this background, we suggest a way forward to better understand and perhaps resolve these learning challenges. PMID:28490976

  12. Effects of stimulus and recording parameters on the air conduction ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential.

    PubMed

    Murnane, Owen D; Akin, Faith W; Kelly, Kip J; Byrd, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) have been recorded from the sternocleidomastoid muscle (cervical VEMP or cVEMP) and more recently from the eye muscles (ocular VEMP or oVEMP) in response to air conduction and bone conduction stimuli. Both cVEMPs and oVEMPs are mediated by the otoliths and thereby provide diagnostic information that is complementary to videonystagmography and rotational chair tests. In contrast to the air conduction cVEMP, which originates from the saccule/inferior vestibular nerve, recent evidence suggests the possibility that the air conduction oVEMP may be mediated by the utricle/superior vestibular nerve. The oVEMP, therefore, may provide complementary diagnostic information relative to the cVEMP. There are relatively few studies, however, that have quantified the effects of stimulus and recording parameters on the air conduction oVEMP, and there is a paucity of normative data. To evaluate the effects of several stimulus and recording parameters on the air conduction oVEMP and to establish normative data for clinical use. A prospective repeated measures design was utilized. Forty-seven young adults with no history of neurologic disease, hearing loss, middle ear pathology, open or closed head injury, cervical injury, or audiovestibular disorder participated in the study. The effects of stimulus frequency, stimulus level, gaze elevation, and recording electrode location on the amplitude and latency of the oVEMP for monaural air conduction stimuli were assessed using repeated measures analyses of variance in an initial group of 17 participants. The optimal stimulus and recording parameters obtained in the initial group were used subsequently to obtain oVEMPs from 30 additional participants. The effects of stimulus frequency, stimulus level, gaze elevation, and electrode location on the response prevalence, amplitude, and latency of the oVEMP for monaural air conduction stimuli were significant. The maximum N1-P1 amplitude and response

  13. Realistic Real World Contexts: Model Eliciting Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doruk, Bekir Kürsat

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have proposed a variety of methods to make a connection between real life and mathematics so that it can be learned in a practical way and enable people to utilise mathematics in their daily lives. Model-eliciting activities (MEAs) were developed to fulfil this need and are very capable of serving this purpose. The reason MEAs are so…

  14. Video Elicitation of the Semiotic Self.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockall, Nancy

    2001-01-01

    Illustrates the power of video recording to elicit the thinking of teachers as they reflect on their teaching practices. Draws on the work of Wiley (1994), which identified the internal conversation as a critical feature of the semiotic self. (Author/VWL)

  15. Eliciting User Requirements Using Appreciative Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Carol Kernitzki

    2010-01-01

    Many software development projects fail because they do not meet the needs of users, are over-budget, and abandoned. To address this problem, the user requirements elicitation process was modified based on principles of Appreciative Inquiry. Appreciative Inquiry, commonly used in organizational development, aims to build organizations, processes,…

  16. Methods of Eliciting Information from Experts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    Itzhak Perlman) or a concertmeister in an orchestra, or simply one of its violinists . Differences in amount of expertise may supply different...would lead to becoming a world class violinist . Underlying Assumptions In attempting to elicit information from experts, one makes a number of

  17. Eliciting User Requirements Using Appreciative Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Carol Kernitzki

    2010-01-01

    Many software development projects fail because they do not meet the needs of users, are over-budget, and abandoned. To address this problem, the user requirements elicitation process was modified based on principles of Appreciative Inquiry. Appreciative Inquiry, commonly used in organizational development, aims to build organizations, processes,…

  18. Realistic Real World Contexts: Model Eliciting Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doruk, Bekir Kürsat

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have proposed a variety of methods to make a connection between real life and mathematics so that it can be learned in a practical way and enable people to utilise mathematics in their daily lives. Model-eliciting activities (MEAs) were developed to fulfil this need and are very capable of serving this purpose. The reason MEAs are so…

  19. Stimulus control topography coherence theory: Foundations and extensions

    PubMed Central

    McIlvane, William J.; Dube, William V.

    2003-01-01

    Stimulus control topography refers to qualitative differences among members of a functional stimulus class. Stimulus control topography coherence refers to the degree of concordance between the stimulus properties specified as relevant by the individual arranging a reinforcement contingency (behavior analyst, experimenter, teacher, etc.) and the stimulus properties that come to control the behavior of the organism (experimental subject, student, etc.) that experiences those contingencies. This paper summarizes the rationale for analyses of discrimination learning outcomes in terms of stimulus control topography coherence and briefly reviews some of the foundational studies that led to this perspective. We also suggest directions for future research, including pursuit of conceptual and methodological challenges to a complete stimulus control topography coherence analysis of processes involved in discriminated and generalized operants. ImagesFigure 3Figure 5 PMID:22478402

  20. Stimulus control topography coherence theory: foundations and extensions.

    PubMed

    McIlvane, William J; Dube, William V

    2003-01-01

    Stimulus control topography refers to qualitative differences among members of a functional stimulus class. Stimulus control topography coherence refers to the degree of concordance between the stimulus properties specified as relevant by the individual arranging a reinforcement contingency (behavior analyst, experimenter, teacher, etc.) and the stimulus properties that come to control the behavior of the organism (experimental subject, student, etc.) that experiences those contingencies. This paper summarizes the rationale for analyses of discrimination learning outcomes in terms of stimulus control topography coherence and briefly reviews some of the foundational studies that led to this perspective. We also suggest directions for future research, including pursuit of conceptual and methodological challenges to a complete stimulus control topography coherence analysis of processes involved in discriminated and generalized operants.

  1. Phagostimulants for the Asian citrus psyllid also elicit volatile release from citrus leaves

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chemical cues that elicit orientation by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), are of great interest because it is the primary vector of the causal pathogen of citrus greening disease. We identified an optimal blend ratio of formic and acetic acids that stimulate...

  2. The effect on human salivary flow rate of the temperature of a gustatory stimulus.

    PubMed

    Dawes, C; O'Connor, A M; Aspen, J M

    2000-11-01

    In the first study, whole saliva was collected from ten adults during stimulation with sour, carbonated, sweet and water stimuli in the form of 5-ml of ice at about -10 degrees C or of liquids at 0, 8, 20 or 37 degrees C. Parotid saliva was also collected in response to ice or infusion into the mouth of the liquids at different temperatures. Another group of ten adults also collected whole saliva in response to water at 20 degrees C, with or without the presence in the mouth of an acrylic cube of dimensions similar to those of the ice. In a second study, 20 adults collected whole saliva in response to stimulation with 5 ml of water and of an astringent stimulus at 0, 8, 37 and 70 degrees C. In the first study, flow rates fell in the order sour, carbonated, sweet and water and flow rates in response to stimuli in the form of ice were very significantly higher than in response to the corresponding liquids at the four different temperatures. With the sour stimulus, liquids at 0 and 8 degrees C elicited higher flow rates than liquids at 20 or 37 degrees C. Although the presence in the mouth of the acrylic block increased the flow rate of whole saliva, the increase was only about 30% of that achieved with ice. In the second study, the astringent stimulus was a more effective salivary stimulus than water; flow rates were significantly higher in response to liquids at 0 and 8 degrees C than at the higher temperatures and flow rates in response to liquids at 37 degrees C were significantly lower than with the other temperatures. In summary, stimuli in the form of ice were the most effective and liquids at 37 degrees C were least effective in stimulating salivary flow.

  3. Effect of conditioned stimulus exposure during slow wave sleep on fear memory extinction in humans.

    PubMed

    He, Jia; Sun, Hong-Qiang; Li, Su-Xia; Zhang, Wei-Hua; Shi, Jie; Ai, Si-Zhi; Li, Yun; Li, Xiao-Jun; Tang, Xiang-Dong; Lu, Lin

    2015-03-01

    Repeated exposure to a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS) in the absence of a noxious unconditioned stimulus (US) elicits fear memory extinction. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of mild tone exposure (CS) during slow wave sleep (SWS) on fear memory extinction in humans. The healthy volunteers underwent an auditory fear conditioning paradigm on the experimental night, during which tones served as the CS, and a mild shock served as the US. They were then randomly assigned to four groups. Three groups were exposed to the CS for 3 or 10 min or an irrelevant tone (control stimulus, CtrS) for 10 min during SWS. The fourth group served as controls and was not subjected to any interventions. All of the subjects completed a memory test 4 h after SWS-rich stage to evaluate the effect on fear extinction. Moreover, we conducted similar experiments using an independent group of subjects during the daytime to test whether the memory extinction effect was specific to the sleep condition. Ninety-six healthy volunteers (44 males) aged 18-28 y. Participants exhibited undisturbed sleep during 2 consecutive nights, as assessed by sleep variables (all P > 0.05) from polysomnographic recordings and power spectral analysis. Participants who were re-exposed to the 10 min CS either during SWS and wakefulness exhibited attenuated fear responses (wake-10 min CS, P < 0.05; SWS-10 min CS, P < 0.01). Conditioned stimulus re-exposure during SWS promoted fear memory extinction without altering sleep profiles. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  4. Stimulus-category competition, inhibition, and affective devaluation: a novel account of the uncanny valley.

    PubMed

    Ferrey, Anne E; Burleigh, Tyler J; Fenske, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    Stimuli that resemble humans, but are not perfectly human-like, are disliked compared to distinctly human and non-human stimuli. Accounts of this "Uncanny Valley" effect often focus on how changes in human resemblance can evoke different emotional responses. We present an alternate account based on the novel hypothesis that the Uncanny Valley is not directly related to 'human-likeness' per se, but instead reflects a more general form of stimulus devaluation that occurs when inhibition is triggered to resolve conflict between competing stimulus-related representations. We consider existing support for this inhibitory-devaluation hypothesis and further assess its feasibility through tests of two corresponding predictions that arise from the link between conflict-resolving inhibition and aversive response: (1) that the pronounced disliking of Uncanny-type stimuli will occur for any image that strongly activates multiple competing stimulus representations, even in the absence of any human-likeness, and (2) that the negative peak of an 'Uncanny Valley' should occur at the point of greatest stimulus-related conflict and not (in the presence of human-likeness) always closer to the 'human' end of a perceptual continuum. We measured affective responses to a set of line drawings representing non-human animal-animal morphs, in which each continuum midpoint was a bistable image (Experiment 1), as well as to sets of human-robot and human-animal computer-generated morphs (Experiment 2). Affective trends depicting classic Uncanny Valley functions occurred for all continua, including the non-human stimuli. Images at continua midpoints elicited significantly more negative affect than images at endpoints, even when the continua included a human endpoint. This illustrates the feasibility of the inhibitory-devaluation hypothesis and the need for further research into the possibility that the strong dislike of Uncanny-type stimuli reflects the negative affective consequences of

  5. Stimulus-category competition, inhibition, and affective devaluation: a novel account of the uncanny valley

    PubMed Central

    Ferrey, Anne E.; Burleigh, Tyler J.; Fenske, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Stimuli that resemble humans, but are not perfectly human-like, are disliked compared to distinctly human and non-human stimuli. Accounts of this “Uncanny Valley” effect often focus on how changes in human resemblance can evoke different emotional responses. We present an alternate account based on the novel hypothesis that the Uncanny Valley is not directly related to ‘human-likeness’ per se, but instead reflects a more general form of stimulus devaluation that occurs when inhibition is triggered to resolve conflict between competing stimulus-related representations. We consider existing support for this inhibitory-devaluation hypothesis and further assess its feasibility through tests of two corresponding predictions that arise from the link between conflict-resolving inhibition and aversive response: (1) that the pronounced disliking of Uncanny-type stimuli will occur for any image that strongly activates multiple competing stimulus representations, even in the absence of any human-likeness, and (2) that the negative peak of an ‘Uncanny Valley’ should occur at the point of greatest stimulus-related conflict and not (in the presence of human-likeness) always closer to the ‘human’ end of a perceptual continuum. We measured affective responses to a set of line drawings representing non-human animal–animal morphs, in which each continuum midpoint was a bistable image (Experiment 1), as well as to sets of human-robot and human-animal computer-generated morphs (Experiment 2). Affective trends depicting classic Uncanny Valley functions occurred for all continua, including the non-human stimuli. Images at continua midpoints elicited significantly more negative affect than images at endpoints, even when the continua included a human endpoint. This illustrates the feasibility of the inhibitory-devaluation hypothesis and the need for further research into the possibility that the strong dislike of Uncanny-type stimuli reflects the negative affective

  6. Stimulus effects on concurrent performance in transition

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Elenice S.; Blackman, Derek E.; Todorov, João Claudio

    1992-01-01

    Six experimentally naive pigeons were exposed to concurrent variable-interval variable-interval schedules in a three-key procedure in which food reinforcement followed pecks on the side keys and pecks on the center key served as changeover responses. In Phase 1, 3 birds were exposed to 20 combinations of five variable-interval values, with each variable-interval value consistently associated with a different color on the side keys. Another 3 pigeons were exposed to the same 20 conditions, but with a more standard procedure that used a nondifferential discriminative stimulus on the two side keys throughout all conditions. In Phase 2, the differential and nondifferential stimulus conditions were reversed for each pigeon. Each condition lasted for one 5-hr session and one subsequent 1-hr session. In the last 14 conditions of each phase, the presence of differential discriminative stimuli decreased the time necessary for differential responding to develop and increased the sensitivity of behavior to reinforcement distribution in the 1st hr of training; during the last hours of training in each condition, however, the effects of the differential discriminative stimuli could not be distinguished from the effects of reinforcement distribution per se. These results show the importance of studying transitions in behavior as well as final performance. They may also be relevant to discrepancies in the results of previous experiments that have used nonhuman and human subjects. PMID:16812669

  7. Hospital Clowning as Play Stimulus in Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Anes, Laura; Obi, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    A serious illness, a chronic medical condition or a hospital bed should not deny any child her/his basic right to play, a right essential for children’s development and general wellbeing. In fact, it is in these frightening and anxious moments that play and the stimulus that it provides can help the most. This article will focus on the impacts and benefits of professional hospital clowning for the wellbeing and recovery process of ill and hospitalized children. Our experience has shown that through interactive play and humor, “clowndoctors” can create an enabling and supportive environment that facilitates children’s adaptation to the hospital setting and improves their acceptance of medical procedures and staff. While moving from bedside to bedside, RED NOSES clowndoctors encourage children’s active participation and support their natural instinct to play, fully including them in the interaction, if the children wish to do so. Therefore, clowndoctor performances offer ill children much needed stimulus, self-confidence and courage, elements fundamental to reducing their vulnerability. In this piece, a special emphasis will be put on the various approaches used by RED NOSES clowndoctors to bond and reach out to children suffering from different medical conditions. PMID:27417485

  8. Bigrams and the richness of the stimulus.

    PubMed

    Kam, Xuân-Nga Cao; Stoyneshka, Iglika; Tornyova, Lidiya; Fodor, Janet D; Sakas, William G

    2008-06-01

    Recent challenges to Chomsky's poverty of the stimulus thesis for language acquisition suggest that children's primary data may carry "indirect evidence" about linguistic constructions despite containing no instances of them. Indirect evidence is claimed to suffice for grammar acquisition, without need for innate knowledge. This article reports experiments based on those of Reali and Christiansen (2005), who demonstrated that a simple bigram language model can induce the correct form of auxiliary inversion in certain complex questions. This article investigates the nature of the indirect evidence that supports this learning, and assesses how reliably it is available. Results confirm the original finding for one specific sentence type but show that the model's success is highly circumscribed. It performs poorly on inversion in related constructions in English and Dutch. Because other, more powerful statistical models have so far been shown to succeed only on the same limited subset of cases as the bigram model, it remains to be seen whether stimulus richness can be substantiated more generally.

  9. Stimulus induced bursts in severe postanoxic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Tjepkema-Cloostermans, Marleen C; Wijers, Elisabeth T; van Putten, Michel J A M

    2016-11-01

    To report on a distinct effect of auditory and sensory stimuli on the EEG in comatose patients with severe postanoxic encephalopathy. In two comatose patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) with severe postanoxic encephalopathy and burst-suppression EEG, we studied the effect of external stimuli (sound and touch) on the occurrence of bursts. In patient A bursts could be induced by either auditory or sensory stimuli. In patient B bursts could only be induced by touching different facial regions (forehead, nose and chin). When stimuli were presented with relatively long intervals, bursts persistently followed the stimuli, while stimuli with short intervals (<1s) did not induce bursts. In both patients bursts were not accompanied by myoclonia. Both patients deceased. Bursts in patients with a severe postanoxic encephalopathy can be induced by external stimuli, resulting in stimulus-dependent burst-suppression. Stimulus induced bursts should not be interpreted as prognostic favourable EEG reactivity. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Multisensory temporal integration: Task and stimulus dependencies

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Ryan A.; Wallace, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    The ability of human sensory systems to integrate information across the different modalities provides a wide range of behavioral and perceptual benefits. This integration process is dependent upon the temporal relationship of the different sensory signals, with stimuli occurring close together in time typically resulting in the largest behavior changes. The range of temporal intervals over which such benefits are seen is typically referred to as the temporal binding window (TBW). Given the importance of temporal factors in multisensory integration under both normal and atypical circumstances such as autism and dyslexia, the TBW has been measured with a variety of experimental protocols that differ according to criterion, task, and stimulus type, making comparisons across experiments difficult. In the current study we attempt to elucidate the role that these various factors play in the measurement of this important construct. The results show a strong effect of stimulus type, with the TBW assessed with speech stimuli being both larger and more symmetrical than that seen using simple and complex non-speech stimuli. These effects are robust across task and statistical criteria, and are highly consistent within individuals, suggesting substantial overlap in the neural and cognitive operations that govern multisensory temporal processes. PMID:23604624

  11. Nonlinear adaptive filtering of stimulus artifact.

    PubMed

    Grieve, R; Parker, P A; Hudgins, B; Englehart, K

    2000-03-01

    Noninvasive measurements of somatosensory evoked potentials have both clinical and research applications. The electrical artifact which results from the stimulus is an interference which can distort the evoked signal, and introduce errors in response onset timing estimation. Given that this interference is synchronous with the evoked signal, it cannot be reduced by the conventional technique of ensemble averaging. The technique of adaptive noise cancelling has potential in this regard however, and has been used effectively in other similar problems. An adaptive noise cancelling filter which uses a neural network as the adaptive element is investigated in this application. The filter is implemented and performance determined in the cancelling of artifact for in vivo measurements on the median nerve. A technique of segmented neural network training is proposed in which the network is trained on that segment of the record time window which does not contain the evoked signal. The neural network is found to generalize well from this training to include the segment of the window containing the evoked signal. Both quantitative and qualitative measures show that significant stimulus artifact reduction is achieved.

  12. Quantification of a contact stimulus by diapers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomata, Takuya; Okuyama, Takeshi; Teraoka, Hiromi; Murakami, Yasuo; Miyazawa, Kiyoshi; Tanaka, Mami

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a development of a sensor system for measurement of a contact stimulus which diapers give to infants. A polyvinyliden fluoride (PVDF) film and a strain gauge are used as the sensor receptors. The PVDF is a kind of piezoelectric material. The sensor consists of a surface contact layer, a PVDF film, a strain gauge and an aluminum plate. First, in order to investigate the sensor performance, the sensor was located on a silicone plate and the upper part of the sensor was rubbed with an acrylic artificial finger. The finger enabled the measurement to carry out at a constant speed and force. Next, the sensor was attached on an infant dummy and the sensor outputs were measured under conditions with and without diapers. By comparison of the output under two different conditions, it was confirmed that there is a clearly difference between the two conditions. It was found that the developed sensor system has the possibility to quantify a contact stimulus which diapers give infants.

  13. Quantification of a contact stimulus by diapers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomata, Takuya; Okuyama, Takeshi; Teraoka, Hiromi; Murakami, Yasuo; Miyazawa, Kiyoshi; Tanaka, Mami

    2009-12-01

    This paper describes a development of a sensor system for measurement of a contact stimulus which diapers give to infants. A polyvinyliden fluoride (PVDF) film and a strain gauge are used as the sensor receptors. The PVDF is a kind of piezoelectric material. The sensor consists of a surface contact layer, a PVDF film, a strain gauge and an aluminum plate. First, in order to investigate the sensor performance, the sensor was located on a silicone plate and the upper part of the sensor was rubbed with an acrylic artificial finger. The finger enabled the measurement to carry out at a constant speed and force. Next, the sensor was attached on an infant dummy and the sensor outputs were measured under conditions with and without diapers. By comparison of the output under two different conditions, it was confirmed that there is a clearly difference between the two conditions. It was found that the developed sensor system has the possibility to quantify a contact stimulus which diapers give infants.

  14. Reducing stimulus overselectivity in autistic children.

    PubMed

    Schreibman, L; Koegel, R L; Craig, M S

    1977-12-01

    It has been repeatedly reported that when presented with a discrimination task involving multiple cues, autistic children, as compared to normal children, tend to respond on the basis of only a restricted portion of the component cues. This phenomenon has been called "stimulus overselectivity" and has been implicated as a possible basis for some of the pronounced behavioral deficits charactertistic of autism. Examination of the results of several previous studies suggests that the overselectivity effect might be reduced with repeated exposure to testing. However, since the previous studies were not designed to test this hypothesis, no conclusions were drawn regarding variables influencing the reduction of the overselectivity phenomenon. The present investigation was therefore conducted to determine if stimulus overselectivity in autistic children is changed as a function of repeated exposure to testing. Nineteen autistic children were trained on a discrimination task with a cue complex composed of two visual cues. After the children reached criterion on the task, they were exposed to a testing phase with probe trials where the cue components were presented singly. The results indicated that 16 of the children initially showed overselectivity and 3 responded to both cues. Of the 16 children who showed overselectivity, 13 decreased their level of overselectivity with continued testing. These results are discussed in relation to variables in the testing procedure itself and to the literature on selective attention.

  15. Multisensory temporal integration: task and stimulus dependencies.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Ryan A; Wallace, Mark T

    2013-06-01

    The ability of human sensory systems to integrate information across the different modalities provides a wide range of behavioral and perceptual benefits. This integration process is dependent upon the temporal relationship of the different sensory signals, with stimuli occurring close together in time typically resulting in the largest behavior changes. The range of temporal intervals over which such benefits are seen is typically referred to as the temporal binding window (TBW). Given the importance of temporal factors in multisensory integration under both normal and atypical circumstances such as autism and dyslexia, the TBW has been measured with a variety of experimental protocols that differ according to criterion, task, and stimulus type, making comparisons across experiments difficult. In the current study, we attempt to elucidate the role that these various factors play in the measurement of this important construct. The results show a strong effect of stimulus type, with the TBW assessed with speech stimuli being both larger and more symmetrical than that seen using simple and complex non-speech stimuli. These effects are robust across task and statistical criteria and are highly consistent within individuals, suggesting substantial overlap in the neural and cognitive operations that govern multisensory temporal processes.

  16. Control effects of stimulus paradigms on characteristic firings of parkinsonism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Honghui; Wang, Qingyun; Chen, Guanrong

    2014-09-01

    Experimental studies have shown that neuron population located in the basal ganglia of parkinsonian primates can exhibit characteristic firings with certain firing rates differing from normal brain activities. Motivated by recent experimental findings, we investigate the effects of various stimulation paradigms on the firing rates of parkinsonism based on the proposed dynamical models. Our results show that the closed-loop deep brain stimulation is superior in ameliorating the firing behaviors of the parkinsonism, and other control strategies have similar effects according to the observation of electrophysiological experiments. In addition, in conformity to physiological experiments, we found that there exists optimal delay of input in the closed-loop GPtrain|M1 paradigm, where more normal behaviors can be obtained. More interestingly, we observed that W-shaped curves of the firing rates always appear as stimulus delay varies. We furthermore verify the robustness of the obtained results by studying three pallidal discharge rates of the parkinsonism based on the conductance-based model, as well as the integrate-and-fire-or-burst model. Finally, we show that short-term plasticity can improve the firing rates and optimize the control effects on parkinsonism. Our conclusions may give more theoretical insight into Parkinson's disease studies.

  17. Rat tail flick reflex: magnitude measurement of stimulus-response function, suppression by morphine and habituation.

    PubMed

    Carstens, E; Wilson, C

    1993-08-01

    1. To quantitatively investigate a nocifensive behavioral response, we developed a method to measure the magnitude of the rat's tail flick reflex and its modulation. A radial array of force transducers measured forces of tail flicks (in rostral, horizontal, and vertical planes) elicited by graded noxious radiant thermal stimulation of the conscious rat's tail, from which the overall movement vector was calculated. 2. The rostrally directed component of tail flicks was always larger than dorsal or horizontal components; the latter was usually in a preferred (left or right) direction regardless of which side of the tail was heated. Tail flick force vectors increased from 40 to 46-52 degrees C and then leveled off. Stimulus-response functions were reproducible within and across rats and were fitted by second-order polynomial functions, whose correlation coefficients were similar when the left or right side of the tail was stimulated in separate sessions (r2 = 0.408 and 0.451, respectively). The inverse latency of tail flicks also increased with temperature in a manner fitted by a second-order polynomial (r2 = 0.707, 0.553 for left and right side, respectively). 3. Systemic administration of morphine (1 or 2 mg/kg ip) usually suppressed tail flicks in an all-or-none manner; i.e., flicks at all stimulus temperatures were either totally abolished (n = 7) or unaffected (n = 5) after morphine. In three rats, 1 mg/kg morphine suppressed tail flick magnitude subtotally, reducing the slope of the linear portion of the stimulus-response function. Morphine effects were reversed by the opiate antagonist naloxone. 4. Tail flick magnitude decreased over repeated trials of 44 degrees C heat stimuli delivered to one tail site, recovered after a 15-min rest period, and decremented more quickly with subsequent stimulus repetition. The decrement was less at long (2 or 4 min) than at short (1 min) interstimulus intervals, and high (50 degrees C) than at low (44 degrees C) stimulus

  18. Stimulus point distribution in deep or superficial peroneal nerve for treatment of ankle spasticity.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Shinji; Tanabe, Shigeo; Sugawara, Kenichi; Muraoka, Yoshihiro; Itoh, Norihide; Kanada, Yoshikiyo

    2013-01-01

     To develop effective electrical stimulation treatment to reduce spasticity, we examined the optimal stimulus point of the common peroneal nerve.  The locations of selective stimulus points for the deep peroneal nerve or superficial peroneal nerve fiber were examined in 25 healthy subjects in both legs (50 legs) using the ratio of the tibialis anterior (TA) to the peroneus longus (PL) M-wave amplitude (TA/PL ratio). In addition, we measured reciprocal Ia inhibition in ten healthy subjects. The amount of inhibition was determined from short-latency suppression of the soleus (Sol) H-reflex by conditioning stimuli to the deep or superficial peroneal nerve. The paired t-test was used for statistical analysis.  The mean TA/PL ratio during deep peroneal nerve stimulation was significantly different from superficial peroneal nerve stimulation (p < 0.001). The mean stimulus point for the deep peroneal nerve was located 7 ± 5 mm distal and 3 ± 6 mm anterior from the distal edges of the head of fibula and was markedly different from the stimulus point for the superficial peroneal nerve (20 ± 7 mm distal and 12 ± 8 mm posterior). During deep peroneal nerve stimulation, the mean conditioned H-reflex was depressed to 83.8 ± 10.7% of the unconditioned value of the H-reflex. In contrast, during superficial peroneal nerve stimulation, the mean conditioned H-reflex increased to 105.3 ± 5.2%. These values were significantly different (p < 0.001).  In the present study, we revealed a stimulus area of the deep peroneal nerve. Also, we observed the inhibitory effects of stimulation upon the deep peroneal nerve at individual stimulus point. Our results appear to indicate that localized stimulation of the deep peroneal nerve is more useful for the reduction of ankle spasticity. © 2012 International Neuromodulation Society.

  19. Matching-to-Sample and Stimulus-Pairing-Observation Procedures in Stimulus Equivalence: The Effects of Number of Trials and Stimulus Arrangement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinloch, Jennifer May; McEwan, James Stewart Anderson; Foster, T. Mary

    2013-01-01

    Studies comparing the effectiveness of the stimulus-pairing-observation and matching-to-sample procedures in facilitating equivalence relations have reported conflicting findings. This study compared the effectiveness of these procedures and examined the effect of stimulus arrangement and the number of training trials completed prior to each…

  20. Matching-to-Sample and Stimulus-Pairing-Observation Procedures in Stimulus Equivalence: The Effects of Number of Trials and Stimulus Arrangement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinloch, Jennifer May; McEwan, James Stewart Anderson; Foster, T. Mary

    2013-01-01

    Studies comparing the effectiveness of the stimulus-pairing-observation and matching-to-sample procedures in facilitating equivalence relations have reported conflicting findings. This study compared the effectiveness of these procedures and examined the effect of stimulus arrangement and the number of training trials completed prior to each…

  1. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Potentials of Nigella sativa L. Suspension Cultures under Elicitation

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhry, Hera; Fatima, Nida; Ahmad, Iffat Zareen

    2015-01-01

    Nigella sativa L. (family Ranunculaceae) is an annual herb of immense medicinal properties because of its major active components (i.e., thymoquinone (TQ), thymohydroquinone (THQ), and thymol (THY)). Plant tissue culture techniques like elicitation, Agrobacterium mediated transformation, hairy root culture, and so on, are applied for substantial metabolite production. This study enumerates the antibacterial and antioxidant potentials of N. sativa epicotyl suspension cultures under biotic and abiotic elicitation along with concentration optimization of the elicitors for enhanced TQ and THY production. Cultures under different concentrations of pectin and manganese chloride (MnCl2) elicitation (i.e., 5 mg/L, 10 mg/L, and 15 mg/L) showed that the control, MnCl2 10 mg/L, and pectin 15 mg/L suspension extracts greatly inhibited the growth of E. coli, S. typhimurium, and S. aureus (MIC against E. coli, i.e., 2.35 ± 0.8, 2.4 ± 0.2, and 2.46 ± 0.5, resp.). Elicitation decreased SOD enzyme activity whereas CAT enzyme activity increased remarkably under MnCl2 elicitation. MnCl2 10 mg/L and pectin 15 mg/L elicitation enhanced the DPPH radical inhibition ability, but ferric scavenging activity was comparable to the control. TQ and THY were quantified by LC-MS/MS in the cultures with high bioactive properties revealing maximum content under MnCl2 10 mg/L elicitation. Therefore, MnCl2 elicitation can be undertaken on large scale for sustainable metabolite production. PMID:26347883

  2. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Potentials of Nigella sativa L. Suspension Cultures under Elicitation.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Hera; Fatima, Nida; Ahmad, Iffat Zareen

    2015-01-01

    Nigella sativa L. (family Ranunculaceae) is an annual herb of immense medicinal properties because of its major active components (i.e., thymoquinone (TQ), thymohydroquinone (THQ), and thymol (THY)). Plant tissue culture techniques like elicitation, Agrobacterium mediated transformation, hairy root culture, and so on, are applied for substantial metabolite production. This study enumerates the antibacterial and antioxidant potentials of N. sativa epicotyl suspension cultures under biotic and abiotic elicitation along with concentration optimization of the elicitors for enhanced TQ and THY production. Cultures under different concentrations of pectin and manganese chloride (MnCl2) elicitation (i.e., 5 mg/L, 10 mg/L, and 15 mg/L) showed that the control, MnCl2 10 mg/L, and pectin 15 mg/L suspension extracts greatly inhibited the growth of E. coli, S. typhimurium, and S. aureus (MIC against E. coli, i.e., 2.35 ± 0.8, 2.4 ± 0.2, and 2.46 ± 0.5, resp.). Elicitation decreased SOD enzyme activity whereas CAT enzyme activity increased remarkably under MnCl2 elicitation. MnCl2 10 mg/L and pectin 15 mg/L elicitation enhanced the DPPH radical inhibition ability, but ferric scavenging activity was comparable to the control. TQ and THY were quantified by LC-MS/MS in the cultures with high bioactive properties revealing maximum content under MnCl2 10 mg/L elicitation. Therefore, MnCl2 elicitation can be undertaken on large scale for sustainable metabolite production.

  3. Thermogenesis elicited by skin cooling in anaesthetized rats: lack of contribution of the cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Osaka, Toshimasa

    2004-03-01

    Non-noxious cooling stimuli were delivered to the shaved back of urethane-chloralose-anaesthetized, artificially ventilated rats using a plastic bag containing water at 24-40 degrees C. Cooling of the skin by 2-6 degrees C increased the rate of whole body oxygen consumption (.V(O(2)) and triggered electromyographic (EMG) activity recorded from the neck or femoral muscles. The cooling-induced (.V(O(2)) responses did not depend on core (colonic) temperature and followed skin temperature in a graded manner. Pretreatment with the beta-blocker propranolol (10 mg kg(-1), i.v.) greatly attenuated the (.V(O(2)) response but did not affect the EMG response. On the other hand, pretreatment with the muscle relaxant pancuronium bromide (2 mg kg(-1), i.v.) affected the (.V(O(2)) response very slightly but completely abolished the EMG activity. Accordingly, the cooling stimulus activated mainly non-shivering thermogenesis. Next, the contribution of the cerebral cortex to the cooling-induced thermogenesis was examined. Power spectral analysis of the electroencephalogram (EEG) showed that the cooling stimulus largely inhibited delta (0.5-3 Hz) waves, enhanced theta (3-8 Hz) waves, and slightly increased frequencies higher than 8 Hz. Pinching the hindpaw elicited changes in EEG similar to those elicited by skin cooling but did not increase the (.V(O(2)). Therefore, there was no relationship between changes in the EEG and the magnitude of thermogenesis. Finally, skin cooling increased the (.V(O(2)) of decorticated rats but did not increase that of decerebrated rats. The results suggest that the subcortical forebrain structure, but not cortical activation, is indispensable for non-shivering thermogenesis elicited by cooling stimulation of the skin.

  4. Thermogenesis elicited by skin cooling in anaesthetized rats: lack of contribution of the cerebral cortex

    PubMed Central

    Osaka, Toshimasa

    2004-01-01

    Non-noxious cooling stimuli were delivered to the shaved back of urethane-chloralose-anaesthetized, artificially ventilated rats using a plastic bag containing water at 24–40°C. Cooling of the skin by 2–6°C increased the rate of whole body oxygen consumption (V̇O2) and triggered electromyographic (EMG) activity recorded from the neck or femoral muscles. The cooling-induced V̇O2 responses did not depend on core (colonic) temperature and followed skin temperature in a graded manner. Pretreatment with the β-blocker propranolol (10 mg kg−1, i.v.) greatly attenuated the V̇O2 response but did not affect the EMG response. On the other hand, pretreatment with the muscle relaxant pancuronium bromide (2 mg kg−1, i.v.) affected the V̇O2 response very slightly but completely abolished the EMG activity. Accordingly, the cooling stimulus activated mainly non-shivering thermogenesis. Next, the contribution of the cerebral cortex to the cooling-induced thermogenesis was examined. Power spectral analysis of the electroencephalogram (EEG) showed that the cooling stimulus largely inhibited delta (0.5–3 Hz) waves, enhanced theta (3–8 Hz) waves, and slightly increased frequencies higher than 8 Hz. Pinching the hindpaw elicited changes in EEG similar to those elicited by skin cooling but did not increase the V̇O2. Therefore, there was no relationship between changes in the EEG and the magnitude of thermogenesis. Finally, skin cooling increased the V̇O2 of decorticated rats but did not increase that of decerebrated rats. The results suggest that the subcortical forebrain structure, but not cortical activation, is indispensable for non-shivering thermogenesis elicited by cooling stimulation of the skin. PMID:14578483

  5. Orexin/hypocretin signaling at the orexin 1 receptor regulates cue-elicited cocaine-seeking.

    PubMed

    Smith, Rachel J; See, Ronald E; Aston-Jones, Gary

    2009-08-01

    The orexin/hypocretin system has recently been implicated in reward-processing and addiction. We examined the involvement of the orexin system in cue-induced reinstatement of extinguished cocaine-seeking by administering the orexin 1 receptor antagonist SB-334867 (SB) or the orexin 2 receptor antagonist 4-pyridylmethyl (S)-tert-leucyl 6,7-dimethoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (4PT) prior to reinstatement testing. Male Sprague Dawley rats self-administered cocaine in 2-h sessions for 10 days, followed by extinction training. Reinstatement of cocaine-seeking was elicited by presentation of tone + light cues previously paired with cocaine infusions. SB (10, 20 and 30 mg/kg) dose-dependently decreased cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking without significantly affecting responding during late extinction. 4PT (10 and 30 mg/kg) did not significantly alter cue-induced reinstatement. In separate experiments, the highest doses of SB and 4PT had no significant effect on established cocaine self-administration, and 4PT reduced spontaneous activity in a locomotor test to a greater extent than SB. Finally, SB (30 mg/kg) had no effect on the acquisition of cocaine-paired cues during a Pavlovian cocaine-stimulus conditioning session in the operant chamber. Pretreatment with SB prior to the Pavlovian acquisition session had no effect on subsequent cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking elicited by those cues. However, pretreatment with SB prior to a second reinstatement session in the same animals significantly attenuated the expression of cue-induced reinstatement. These results show that orexin transmission at the orexin 1 receptor, but not the orexin 2 receptor, is necessary for the reinstatement of cocaine-seeking elicited by drug-paired cues and that orexin signaling is not critical for cocaine reinforcement or cocaine-stimulus conditioning.

  6. Learning from Expert Elicitation in Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, M. G.

    2009-12-01

    Since the early 1990's the author has been involved in the design and execution of six detailed expert elicitations that, among other things, have obtained subjective judgments from experts that reflect their best judgment in the form of subjective probability density functions, about the value of key climate variables, climate impacts and a technology for mitigation (Morgan and Keith, 1995; Morgan Pitelka and Shevliakova, 2001; Morgan, Adams and Keith, 2006; Zickfeld et al, 2007; Curtright, Morgan and Keith, 2008; Zickfeld, Morgan Keith and Frame, in review). This paper builds on that experience to draw insights about the design and use of expert elicitation in the assessment and analysis of climate change and its impacts. Several trends in responses will be noted. Methodological pitfalls will be discussed. Comparisons will be drawn with the consensus-based methods employed by IPCC, which appear to have produced tighter uncertainty bounds than individual elicitation. The paper will close with thoughts on the possible use of expert elicitation in future IPCC assessments. Support for this work is from the Climate Decision Making Center through a cooperative agreement between the National Science Foundation (SES-0345798) and Carnegie Mellon University. References: M. Granger Morgan and David Keith, "Subjective Judgments by Climate Experts," Environmental Science & Technology, 29(10), 468A-476A, October 1995. M. Granger Morgan, Louis F. Pitelka and Elena Shevliakova, "Elicitation of Expert Judgments of Climate Change Impacts on Forest Ecosystems," Climatic Change, 49, 279-307, 2001. M. Granger Morgan, Peter Adams, and David W. Keith, "Elicitation of Expert Judgments of Aerosol Forcing," Climatic Change, 75, 195-214, 2006. Kirsten Zickfeld, Anders Levermann, Till Kuhlbrodt. Stefan Rahmstorf, M. Granger Morgan and David Keith, "Expert Judgements on the Response on the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation to Climate Change," Climatic Change, 82, 235-265, 2007

  7. Optimal entrainment of heterogeneous noisy neurons.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Dan; Holt, Abbey B; Netoff, Theoden I; Moehlis, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    We develop a methodology to design a stimulus optimized to entrain nonlinear, noisy limit cycle oscillators with uncertain properties. Conditions are derived which guarantee that the stimulus will entrain the oscillators despite these uncertainties. Using these conditions, we develop an energy optimal control strategy to design an efficient entraining stimulus and apply it to numerical models of noisy phase oscillators and to in vitro hippocampal neurons. In both instances, the optimal stimuli outperform other similar but suboptimal entraining stimuli. Because this control strategy explicitly accounts for both noise and inherent uncertainty of model parameters, it could have experimental relevance to neural circuits where robust spike timing plays an important role.

  8. Decoding Subjective Intensity of Nociceptive Pain from Pre-stimulus and Post-stimulus Brain Activities

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Yiheng; Tan, Ao; Bai, Yanru; Hung, Yeung Sam; Zhang, Zhiguo

    2016-01-01

    Pain is a highly subjective experience. Self-report is the gold standard for pain assessment in clinical practice, but it may not be available or reliable in some populations. Neuroimaging data, such as electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), have the potential to be used to provide physiology-based and quantitative nociceptive pain assessment tools that complements self-report. However, existing neuroimaging-based nociceptive pain assessments only rely on the information in pain-evoked brain activities, but neglect the fact that the perceived intensity of pain is also encoded by ongoing brain activities prior to painful stimulation. Here, we proposed to use machine learning algorithms to decode pain intensity from both pre-stimulus ongoing and post-stimulus evoked brain activities. Neural features that were correlated with intensity of laser-evoked nociceptive pain were extracted from high-dimensional pre- and post-stimulus EEG and fMRI activities using partial least-squares regression (PLSR). Further, we used support vector machine (SVM) to predict the intensity of pain from pain-related time-frequency EEG patterns and BOLD-fMRI patterns. Results showed that combining predictive information in pre- and post-stimulus brain activities can achieve significantly better performance in classifying high-pain and low-pain and in predicting the rating of perceived pain than only using post-stimulus brain activities. Therefore, the proposed pain prediction method holds great potential in basic research and clinical applications. PMID:27148029

  9. Eliciting nicotine craving with virtual smoking cues.

    PubMed

    Gamito, Pedro; Oliveira, Jorge; Baptista, André; Morais, Diogo; Lopes, Paulo; Rosa, Pedro; Santos, Nuno; Brito, Rodrigo

    2014-08-01

    Craving is a strong desire to consume that emerges in every case of substance addiction. Previous studies have shown that eliciting craving with an exposure cues protocol can be a useful option for the treatment of nicotine dependence. Thus, the main goal of this study was to develop a virtual platform in order to induce craving in smokers. Fifty-five undergraduate students were randomly assigned to two different virtual environments: high arousal contextual cues and low arousal contextual cues scenarios (17 smokers with low nicotine dependency were excluded). An eye-tracker system was used to evaluate attention toward these cues. Eye fixation on smoking-related cues differed between smokers and nonsmokers, indicating that smokers focused more often on smoking-related cues than nonsmokers. Self-reports of craving are in agreement with these results and suggest a significant increase in craving after exposure to smoking cues. In sum, these data support the use of virtual environments for eliciting craving.

  10. Eliciting steady-state visual evoked potentials by means of stereoscopic displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calore, Enrico; Gadia, Davide; Marini, Daniele

    2014-03-01

    Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) provide users communication and control capabilities by analyzing their brain activity. A technique to implement BCIs, used recently also in Virtual Reality (VR) environments, is based on the Steady State Visual Evoked Potentials (SSVEPs) detection. Exploiting the SSVEP response, BCIs could be implemented showing targets flickering at different frequencies and detecting which is gazed by the observer analyzing her/his electroencephalographic (EEG) signals. In this work, we evaluate the use of stereoscopic displays for the presentation of SSVEP eliciting stimuli, comparing their effectiveness between monoscopic and stereoscopic stimuli. Moreover we propose a novel method to elicit SSVEP responses exploiting the stereoscopic displays capability of presenting dichoptic stimuli. We have created an experimental scene to present flickering stimuli on an active stereoscopic display, obtaining reliable control of the targets' frequency independently for the two stereo views. Using an EEG acquisition device, we analyzed the SSVEP responses from a group of subjects. From the preliminary results, we got evidence that stereoscopic displays represent valid devices for the presentation of SSVEP stimuli. Moreover, the use of different flickering frequencies for the two views of a single stimulus proved to elicit non-linear interactions between the stimulation frequencies, clearly visible in the EEG signal. This suggests interesting applications for SSVEP-based BCIs in VR environments able to overcome some limitations imposed by the refresh frequency of standard displays, but also the use of commodity stereoscopic displays to implement binocular rivalry experiments.

  11. Elicitation of secondary metabolism in actinomycetes.

    PubMed

    Abdelmohsen, Usama Ramadan; Grkovic, Tanja; Balasubramanian, Srikkanth; Kamel, Mohamed Salah; Quinn, Ronald J; Hentschel, Ute

    2015-11-01

    Genomic sequence data have revealed the presence of a large fraction of putatively silent biosynthetic gene clusters in the genomes of actinomycetes that encode for secondary metabolites, which are not detected under standard fermentation conditions. This review focuses on the effects of biological (co-cultivation), chemical, as well as molecular elicitation on secondary metabolism in actinomycetes. Our review covers the literature until June 2014 and exemplifies the diversity of natural products that have been recovered by such approaches from the phylum Actinobacteria.

  12. Voltage transients elicited by brief chilling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickard, B. G.

    1984-01-01

    Chilling auxin-depleted, etiolated stems of Pisum sativum L. to 4 degrees C for 60 s enhanced the production of previously described voltage transients 20-fold. It is postulated that plasmalemmal permeability to Ca2+ is increased at low temperature, permitting influx of the ion from the apoplast to the cytosol and thereby promoting production of transients. Heating to 40 degrees C or 45 degrees C elicits no increase in transients, and heating to 50 degrees C leads to loss of turgor.

  13. Transfers of stimulus function during roulette wagering.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Mark R; Enoch, Mary Rachel; Belisle, Jordan

    2017-10-01

    Twenty-five recreational gamblers were initially asked to place bets on either red or black positions on a roulette board in a simulated casino setting. Each participant was then exposed to a stimulus pairing observing procedure which attempted to develop equivalence classes between one color (black or red) and traditionally positive words (e.g., love, happy, sex) and another color (black or red) and traditionally negative words (e.g., death, cancer, taxes), in the absence of consequence manipulations. Twenty-one of the twenty-five participants demonstrated greater response allocation to the color position on the roulette board that participated in a relational network with the positive words. Variations in sequencing of experimental conditions had no impact on poststimulus-pairing wagers, but did impact tests for equivalence accuracy. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  14. Novelty, stimulus control, and operant variability

    PubMed Central

    Shahan, Timothy A.; Chase, Philip N.

    2002-01-01

    Although behavior analysis has been criticized for failure to account for response novelty, many common behavior-analytic concepts and processes (e.g., selectionism, the operant, reinforcement, and stimulus control) assume variability both in the environment and in behavior. The importance of the relation between variability and novelty, particularly for verbal behavior, is discussed, and concepts used to account for novel behavior are examined. Experimental findings also are reviewed that suggest that variability in behavior can come under discriminative control, and these findings are applied to describe novel instances of behavior that may arise during problem solving. We conclude that variations provided and selected by the terms of the three-term contingency are powerful means for understanding novel behavior. PMID:22478385

  15. Hippocampal culture stimulus with 4-megahertz ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muratore, Robert; LaManna, Justine K.; Lamprecht, Michael R.; Morrison, Barclay, III

    2012-10-01

    Among current modalities, ultrasound uniquely offers both millisecond and millimeter accuracy in noninvasively stimulating brain tissue. In addition, by sweeping the ultrasound beam within the refractory period of the neuronal tissue, ultrasonic neuromodulation can be adapted to target extended or multiply connected regions with quasi-simultaneity. Towards the development of this safe brain stimulus technique, the response of rat hippocampal cultures to ultrasound was investigated. Hippocampal slices, 0.4-mm thick, were obtained from 8-day old Sprague Dawley rats and cultured for 6 days. The in vitro cultures were exposed to multiple 100-ms 4.04-MHz ultrasound pulses from a 42-mm diameter, 90-mm spherical cap transducer. Peak pressure ranged from 0 through about 77 kPa. Responses in the form of electrical potentials from a sixty channel electrode array were digitized and recorded. The DG and CA1 regions of the hippocampus exhibited similar ultrasonically-evoked field potentials.

  16. Essays on probability elicitation scoring rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firmino, Paulo Renato A.; dos Santos Neto, Ademir B.

    2012-10-01

    In probability elicitation exercises it has been usual to considerer scoring rules (SRs) to measure the performance of experts when inferring about a given unknown, Θ, for which the true value, θ*, is (or will shortly be) known to the experimenter. Mathematically, SRs quantify the discrepancy between f(θ) (the distribution reflecting the expert's uncertainty about Θ) and d(θ), a zero-one indicator function of the observation θ*. Thus, a remarkable characteristic of SRs is to contrast expert's beliefs with the observation θ*. The present work aims at extending SRs concepts and formulas for the cases where Θ is aleatory, highlighting advantages of goodness-of-fit and entropy-like measures. Conceptually, it is argued that besides of evaluating the personal performance of the expert, SRs may also play a role when comparing the elicitation processes adopted to obtain f(θ). Mathematically, it is proposed to replace d(θ) by g(θ), the distribution that model the randomness of Θ, and do also considerer goodness-of-fit and entropylike metrics, leading to SRs that measure the adherence of f(θ) to g(θ). The implications of this alternative perspective are discussed and illustrated by means of case studies based on the simulation of controlled experiments. The usefulness of the proposed approach for evaluating the performance of experts and elicitation processes is investigated.

  17. Eliciting principles of hazard identification from experts.

    PubMed

    Jelovsek, F R; Mattison, D R; Young, J F

    1990-11-01

    National experts in the field of developmental toxicology were interviewed in order to elicit the principles, or rules-of-thumb, they use in determining if a compound or agent is likely to be a developmental hazard during pregnancy. Several levels of individual and cumulative consensus activity were carried out that resulted in consensus in 71 rules and partial consensus in an additional 24 rules of 145 rules initially elicited. Rules could be divided generically into those affecting the expert's confidence in a piece of scientific evidence and those determining the weight of importance of that evidence in deciding about hazard identification. Topically, the rules also divided into those about the general nature or characteristics of a compound, animal studies testing for an effect of the compound, and human reports about the presence of absence of developmental effects associated with the compound. Several conclusions about the methodology include the following: 1) expert systems must be based on the knowledge of more than one expert; 2) considerable human effort is expended in evaluating the certainty of scientific evidence before combining the evidence for problem solving; 3) how experts use evidence of different degrees of uncertainty in their decisions is a major area that is yet to be determined and that may greatly affect subsequent efforts in artificial intelligence; and 4) knowledge elicitation by interview has limitations but is a workable methodology for medical decision making.

  18. Interventions for Stimulus Deprivation Amblyopia [Review

    PubMed Central

    Antonio-Santos, Aileen; Powell, Christine; Vedula, Satyanarayana S

    2014-01-01

    Background Stimulus deprivation amblyopia (SDA) develops due to an obstruction to the clear passage of light, preventing clear formation of an image on the retina for example, cataract, ptosis (droopy eyelid). It is particularly severe and can be resistant to treatment and the visual prognosis is often poor. Stimulus deprivation amblyopia is rare and precise estimates of prevalence difficult to come by; it probably constitutes less than 3% of all cases of amblyopia. In developed countries most patients present under the age of one; in less developed parts of the world presentation is likely to be significantly later than this. The mainstay of treatment is patching of the better-seeing eye but regimes vary, treatment is difficult to execute and results are often disappointing. Objectives The objectives of this review were to evaluate the effectiveness of occlusion treatment for SDA, determine the optimum treatment regime and factors that may affect outcome. Search strategy We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials - CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) on The Cochrane Library (2006, Issue 1), MEDLINE (1996 to April 2006), EMBASE (1980 to April 2006) and LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences) (to November 2004). There were no date or language restrictions. Selection criteria We aimed to include randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials of subjects with unilateral SDA defined as worse than 0.2 LogMAR or equivalent. There were no restrictions with respect to age, gender, ethnicity, co-morbidities, medication use, and the number of participants. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed study abstracts identified by the electronic searches. Main results No trials were identified that met the inclusion criteria. Authors' conclusions It is not possible to conclude how effective treatment for SDA is or which treatment regime produces the best results

  19. Characteristics of Late Negative ERG Responses Elicited By Sawtooth Flicker

    PubMed Central

    Gowrisankaran, Sowjanya; Genead, Mohamed A.; Anastasakis, Anastasios; Alexander, Kenneth R.

    2012-01-01

    Background This study aimed to determine whether the properties of the late negative responses (LNRs) of the electroretinogram (ERG) elicited by sawtooth flicker are consistent with the characteristics of the photopic negative response generated by a light pulse (PhNRpulse). Methods ERG recordings were obtained from 10 visually normal individuals and from 6 patients with optic atrophy (OA) in response to 8-Hz rapid-on and rapid-off sawtooth flicker and to brief (4 ms) light pulses. All stimuli were either long-wavelength (R), middle-wavelength (G), or a combination of equal luminances of long and middle-wavelengths (Y) presented on a short-wavelength, rod-saturating adapting field. Amplitudes of LNRs were obtained in response to rapid-on (LNRon) and rapid-off (LNRoff) sawtooth flicker, and were also derived from the sum of the ERG waveforms to the two sawtooth phases (LNRadd). Results For the control subjects, PhNRpulse amplitude varied with stimulus wavelength, being largest in response to a long-wavelength pulse, as expected. However, the amplitudes of LNRon, LNRoff, and LNRadd were not significantly different for R, Y, and G sawtooth flicker. Despite the absence of a chromatic effect, LNRoff and LNRadd amplitudes were significantly smaller in the OA patients than in the controls, similar to the results for the PhNRpulse, implying an inner retinal origin for the LNRoff and LNRadd. However, LNRon amplitudes did not differ significantly between the OA patients and controls, although there was a significant correlation between the LNRon and PhNRpulse for R stimuli. Conclusion We conclude that LNRoff and LNRadd but not LNRon can be useful measures to assess the integrity of the inner retina that can complement the PhNRpulse. PMID:23054159

  20. Attention modulation of stimulus rivalry under swapping paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Doualot, Audrey; Simard, Mathieu; Saint-Amour, Dave

    2014-01-01

    Stimulus rivalry refers to the sustained periods of perceptual dominance that occur when different visual stimuli are swapped at a regular rate between eyes. This phenomenon is thought to involve mainly eye-independent mechanisms. Although several studies have reported that attention can increase image predominance in conventional binocular rivalry, it is unknown whether attention can specifically modulate stimulus rivalry. We addressed this question and manipulated the spatial characteristic of the stimuli to assess whether such an attention modulation could depend on visual processing hierarchy. The results showed that selective attention of stimulus rivalry significantly increased the predominance of the attended stimulus, regardless of the stimulus' spatial characteristics. No effect was observed on the swapping percept. The findings are discussed in the context of recent models attempting to characterize stimulus rivalry between eye-dependent and eye-independent levels. PMID:25469220

  1. Sustained Hypoxia Elicits Competing Spinal Mechanisms of Phrenic Motor Facilitation

    PubMed Central

    Devinney, Michael J.; Nichols, Nicole L.

    2016-01-01

    Acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) induces phrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF), a form of spinal motor plasticity. Competing mechanisms give rise to phrenic motor facilitation (pMF; a general term including pLTF) depending on the severity of hypoxia within episodes. In contrast, moderate acute sustained hypoxia (mASH) does not elicit pMF. By varying the severity of ASH and targeting competing mechanisms of pMF, we sought to illustrate why moderate AIH (mAIH) elicits pMF but mASH does not. Although mAIH elicits serotonin-dependent pLTF, mASH does not; thus, mAIH-induced pLTF is pattern sensitive. In contrast, severe AIH (sAIH) elicits pLTF through adenosine-dependent mechanisms, likely from greater extracellular adenosine accumulation. Because serotonin- and adenosine-dependent pMF interact via cross talk inhibition, we hypothesized that pMF is obscured because the competing mechanisms of pMF are balanced and offsetting during mASH. Here, we demonstrate the following: (1) blocking spinal A2A receptors with MSX-3 reveals mASH-induced pMF; and (2) sASH elicits A2A-dependent pMF. In anesthetized rats pretreated with intrathecal A2A receptor antagonist injections before mASH (PaO2 = 40–54 mmHg) or sASH (PaO2 = 25–36 mmHg), (1) mASH induced a serotonin-dependent pMF and (2) sASH induced an adenosine-dependent pMF, which was enhanced by spinal serotonin receptor inhibition. Thus, competing adenosine- and serotonin-dependent mechanisms contribute differentially to pMF depending on the pattern/severity of hypoxia. Understanding interactions between these mechanisms has clinical relevance as we develop therapies to treat severe neuromuscular disorders that compromise somatic motor behaviors, including breathing. Moreover, these results demonstrate how competing mechanisms of plasticity can give rise to pattern sensitivity in pLTF. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Intermittent hypoxia elicits pattern-sensitive spinal plasticity and improves motor function after spinal injury or

  2. Programmable auditory stimulus generator and electro-acoustic transducers--measurements of sound pressure in an artificial ear and human ear canal.

    PubMed

    Maurer, K; Schröder, K; Schäfer, E

    1984-07-01

    The measurement of sound pressure wave forms of different headphones resulted in considerable differences in an artificial ear and in the external auditory canal in man. This concerns, in particular, the pattern of stimuli used to elicit the auditory nerve and brain-stem auditory evoked potentials. By varying the electrical input to the headphones by means of a programmable stimulus generator, it can be shown that the sound pressure wave form can be influenced considerably.

  3. Efficacy of a new charge-balanced biphasic electrical stimulus in the isolated sciatic nerve and the hippocampal slice.

    PubMed

    Cappaert, Natalie L M; Ramekers, Dyan; Martens, Hubert C F; Wadman, Wytse J

    2013-02-01

    Most deep brain stimulators apply rectangular monophasic voltage pulses. By modifying the stimulus shape, it is possible to optimize stimulus efficacy and find the best compromise between clinical effect, minimal side effects and power consumption of the stimulus generator. In this study, we compared the efficacy of three types of charge-balanced biphasic pulses (CBBPs, nominal duration 100 μs) in isolated sciatic nerves and in in vitro hippocampal brain slices of the rat. Using these two models, we tested the efficacy of several stimulus shapes exclusively on axons (in the sciatic nerve) and compared the effect with that of stimuli in the more complex neuronal network of the hippocampal slice by considering the stimulus-response relation. We showed that (i) adding an interphase gap (IPG, range 100-500 μs) to the CBBP enhances stimulus efficacy in the rat sciatic nerve and (ii) that this type of stimuli (CBBP with IPG) is also more effective in hippocampal slices. This benefit was similar for both models of voltage and current stimulation. In our two models, asymmetric CBBPs were less beneficial. Therefore, CBBPs with IPG appear to be well suited for application to DBS, since they enhance efficacy, extend battery life and potentially reduce harmful side effects.

  4. Vertical displacement threshold sensitivity along the horizontal meridian as a function of stimulus rate, duration, and length.

    PubMed

    Haines, R F; Kiefel, S M

    1988-04-01

    Vertical displacement thresholds (DT) were quantified in 24 observers at the fovea and each of 8 retinal positions out to 80 degrees along the horizontal meridian during binocular viewing. Stimulus length was increased with eccentricity angle in accordance with the cortical magnification factor (21); a 1 degree arc long stimulus served as a control at each position. Three movement durations (from 0.25 to 4 s) and three angular rates (from 0.04 to 0.42 degrees arc.s-1) were also quantified at each position to determine whether peripheral DT is mediated predominantly by an image displacement- or rate-sensitive mechanism. It was found that 1) DT is mediated predominantly by a constant rate-sensitive mechanism at each position when stimulus length is increased in proportion to the cortical magnification factor; 2) mean percent correct displacement judgments decrease significantly into the periphery for both stimulus lengths, however, increasing stimulus length yields significantly higher accuracy; and 3) at 10 and 30 degrees eccentricity, increasing rate and duration significantly improve displacement judgment accuracy, but beyond 40 degrees only lengthening the stimulus improves accuracy. The findings are related to the design optimization of dynamic attitude displays and symbology for aircraft.

  5. Parallel and orthogonal stimulus in ultradiluted neural networks.

    PubMed

    Sobral, G A; Vieira, V M; Lyra, M L; da Silva, C R

    2006-10-01

    Extending a model due to Derrida, Gardner, and Zippelius, we have studied the recognition ability of an extreme and asymmetrically diluted version of the Hopfield model for associative memory by including the effect of a stimulus in the dynamics of the system. We obtain exact results for the dynamic evolution of the average network superposition. The stimulus field was considered as proportional to the overlapping of the state of the system with a particular stimulated pattern. Two situations were analyzed, namely, the external stimulus acting on the initialization pattern (parallel stimulus) and the external stimulus acting on a pattern orthogonal to the initialization one (orthogonal stimulus). In both cases, we obtained the complete phase diagram in the parameter space composed of the stimulus field, thermal noise, and network capacity. Our results show that the system improves its recognition ability for parallel stimulus. For orthogonal stimulus two recognition phases emerge with the system locking at the initialization or stimulated pattern. We confront our analytical results with numerical simulations for the noiseless case T = 0.

  6. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Cortical Representations during and after Stimulus Presentation

    PubMed Central

    van de Nieuwenhuijzen, Marieke E.; van den Borne, Eva W. P.; Jensen, Ole; van Gerven, Marcel A. J.

    2016-01-01

    Visual perception is a spatiotemporally complex process. In this study, we investigated cortical dynamics during and after stimulus presentation. We observed that visual category information related to the difference between faces and objects became apparent in the occipital lobe after 63 ms. Within the next 110 ms, activation spread out to include the temporal lobe before returning to residing mainly in the occipital lobe again. After stimulus offset, a peak in information was observed, comparable to the peak after stimulus onset. Moreover, similar processes, albeit not identical, seemed to underlie both peaks. Information about the categorical identity of the stimulus remained present until 677 ms after stimulus offset, during which period the stimulus had to be retained in working memory. Activation patterns initially resembled those observed during stimulus presentation. After about 200 ms, however, this representation changed and class-specific activity became more equally distributed over the four lobes. These results show that, although there are common processes underlying stimulus representation both during and after stimulus presentation, these representations change depending on the specific stage of perception and maintenance. PMID:27242453

  7. Parallel and orthogonal stimulus in ultradiluted neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobral, G. A., Jr.; Vieira, V. M.; Lyra, M. L.; da Silva, C. R.

    2006-10-01

    Extending a model due to Derrida, Gardner, and Zippelius, we have studied the recognition ability of an extreme and asymmetrically diluted version of the Hopfield model for associative memory by including the effect of a stimulus in the dynamics of the system. We obtain exact results for the dynamic evolution of the average network superposition. The stimulus field was considered as proportional to the overlapping of the state of the system with a particular stimulated pattern. Two situations were analyzed, namely, the external stimulus acting on the initialization pattern (parallel stimulus) and the external stimulus acting on a pattern orthogonal to the initialization one (orthogonal stimulus). In both cases, we obtained the complete phase diagram in the parameter space composed of the stimulus field, thermal noise, and network capacity. Our results show that the system improves its recognition ability for parallel stimulus. For orthogonal stimulus two recognition phases emerge with the system locking at the initialization or stimulated pattern. We confront our analytical results with numerical simulations for the noiseless case T=0 .

  8. Stimulus Dependency of Object-Evoked Responses in Human Visual Cortex: An Inverse Problem for Category Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Graewe, Britta; De Weerd, Peter; Farivar, Reza; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have linked the processing of different object categories to specific event-related potentials (ERPs) such as the face-specific N170. Despite reports showing that object-related ERPs are influenced by visual stimulus features, there is consensus that these components primarily reflect categorical aspects of the stimuli. Here, we re-investigated this idea by systematically measuring the effects of visual feature manipulations on ERP responses elicited by both structure-from-motion (SFM)-defined and luminance-defined object stimuli. SFM objects elicited a novel component at 200–250 ms (N250) over parietal and posterior temporal sites. We found, however, that the N250 amplitude was unaffected by restructuring SFM stimuli into meaningless objects based on identical visual cues. This suggests that this N250 peak was not uniquely linked to categorical aspects of the objects, but is strongly determined by visual stimulus features. We provide strong support for this hypothesis by parametrically manipulating the depth range of both SFM- and luminance-defined object stimuli and showing that the N250 evoked by SFM stimuli as well as the well-known N170 to static faces were sensitive to this manipulation. Importantly, this effect could not be attributed to compromised object categorization in low depth stimuli, confirming a strong impact of visual stimulus features on object-related ERP signals. As ERP components linked with visual categorical object perception are likely determined by multiple stimulus features, this creates an interesting inverse problem when deriving specific perceptual processes from variations in ERP components. PMID:22363479

  9. The phase of pre-stimulus alpha oscillations influences the visual perception of stimulus timing.

    PubMed

    Milton, Alex; Pleydell-Pearce, Christopher W

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the influence of pre-stimulus alpha phase and attention on whether two visual stimuli occurring closely in time were perceived as simultaneous or asynchronous. The results demonstrated that certain phases of alpha in the period immediately preceding stimulus onset were associated with a higher proportion of stimuli judged to be asynchronous. Furthermore, this effect was shown to occur independently of both visuo-spatial attention and alpha amplitude. The findings are compatible with proposals that alpha phase reflects cyclic shifts in neuronal excitability. Importantly, however, the results further suggest that fluctuations in neuronal excitability can create a periodicity in neuronal transfer that can have functional consequences that are decoupled from changes in alpha amplitude. This study therefore provides evidence that perceptual processes fluctuate periodically although it remains uncertain whether this implies the discrete temporal framing of perception.

  10. Colour categories are reflected in sensory stages of colour perception when stimulus issues are resolved

    PubMed Central

    He, Xun; Franklin, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Debate exists about the time course of the effect of colour categories on visual processing. We investigated the effect of colour categories for two groups who differed in whether they categorised a blue-green boundary colour as the same- or different-category to a reliably-named blue colour and a reliably-named green colour. Colour differences were equated in just-noticeable differences to be equally discriminable. We analysed event-related potentials for these colours elicited on a passive visual oddball task and investigated the time course of categorical effects on colour processing. Support for category effects was found 100 ms after stimulus onset, and over frontal sites around 250 ms, suggesting that colour naming affects both early sensory and later stages of chromatic processing. PMID:28542426

  11. Colour categories are reflected in sensory stages of colour perception when stimulus issues are resolved.

    PubMed

    Forder, Lewis; He, Xun; Franklin, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Debate exists about the time course of the effect of colour categories on visual processing. We investigated the effect of colour categories for two groups who differed in whether they categorised a blue-green boundary colour as the same- or different-category to a reliably-named blue colour and a reliably-named green colour. Colour differences were equated in just-noticeable differences to be equally discriminable. We analysed event-related potentials for these colours elicited on a passive visual oddball task and investigated the time course of categorical effects on colour processing. Support for category effects was found 100 ms after stimulus onset, and over frontal sites around 250 ms, suggesting that colour naming affects both early sensory and later stages of chromatic processing.

  12. Minding the PS, queues, and PXQs: Uniformity of semantic processing across multiple stimulus types

    PubMed Central

    Laszlo, Sarah; Federmeier, Kara D.

    2009-01-01

    An assumption in the reading literature is that access to semantics is gated by stimulus properties such as orthographic regularity or familiarity. In the electrophysiological domain, this assumption has led to a debate about the features necessary to initiate semantic processing as indexed by theN400 event-related potential (ERP) component. To examine this, we recorded ERPs to sentences with endings that were familiar and legal (words), familiar and illegal (acronyms), or unfamiliar and illegal (consonant or vowel strings). N400 congruency effects (reduced negativity to expected relative to unexpected endings) were observed for words and acronyms; these were identical in size, timing, and scalp distribution. Notably, clear N400 potentials were also elicited by unfamiliar, illegal strings, suggesting that, at least in a verbal context, semantic access may be attempted for any letter string, regardless of familiarity or regularity. PMID:18221447

  13. Stimulus-induced rhythmic, periodic, or ictal discharges (SIRPIDs): an intriguing EEG phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Mariana Ribeiro Marcondes da; Andrade, Joaquina; Garzon, Eliana

    2013-12-01

    SIRPIDs, an acronym for stimulus-induced rhythmic, periodic, or ictal discharges, were first named in 2004. This is a pattern observed in continuous electroencephalogram (CEEG) consistently elicited by stimulation in comatose patients. The pathophysiology of SIRPIDs probably involves dysregulation of subcortico-cortical projections, particularly thalamocortical circuit, in a markedly abnormal brain with hyperexci-table cortex. This may explain some studies found an association of prolonged periodic epileptiform discharges (PEDs) activity and a higher incidence of concurrent electrographic seizures and SIRPIDs. An association of SIRPIDs and poor prognosis has already been described. However, it is not yet possible to assert whether these discharges can cause neuronal injury or if they are simply a marker of severe brain injury. Objective of this paper is to review clinical relevance and pathophysiology of SIRPIDs, as well as its role as a brain response in the critically ill patient.

  14. Brainstem auditory evoked responses in man. 1: Effect of stimulus rise-fall time and duration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecox, K.; Squires, N.; Galambos, R.

    1975-01-01

    Short latency (under 10 msec) evoked responses elicited by bursts of white noise were recorded from the scalp of human subjects. Response alterations produced by changes in the noise burst duration (on-time) inter-burst interval (off-time), and onset and offset shapes are reported and evaluated. The latency of the most prominent response component, wave V, was markedly delayed with increases in stimulus rise-time but was unaffected by changes in fall-time. The amplitude of wave V was insensitive to changes in signal rise-and-fall times, while increasing signal on-time produced smaller amplitude responses only for sufficiently short off-times. It is concluded that wave V of the human auditory brainstem evoked response is solely an onset response.

  15. The relative effectiveness of different stimulus waveforms in evoking VEMPs: significance of stimulus energy and frequency.

    PubMed

    Rosengren, Sally M; Govender, Sendhil; Colebatch, James G

    2009-01-01

    We compared the effectiveness of a series of different sound stimulus waveforms in evoking VEMPs in normal volunteers. The waveforms were clicks (0.1-0.8 ms), biphasic clicks (0.8 ms) and sine waves (1250 Hz, 0.8 ms and 500 Hz, 2 ms) with different peak intensity and duration but similar root mean square area. VEMP amplitudes varied widely (corrected values 0.35 to 1.06), but when the amplitudes were plotted against the physical energy content and A-weighted intensity (L(Aeq): a measure of acoustic energy) of the waveforms, the relationship was found to be highly linear. However, when the stimuli were matched for their A-weighted energy, a 500 Hz 2 ms sine wave was the most effective waveform, suggesting that frequency tuning in the vestibular system is also an important factor. VEMP amplitude is thus determined by three stimulus-related factors: physical energy, transmission through the middle ear and vestibular frequency tuning. Use of a 500 Hz stimulus will maximise the prevalence and amplitude of the VEMP for a given sound exposure level.

  16. Craving, cue reactivity, and stimulus control among early-stage young smokers: effects of smoking intensity and gender.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Matthew J; Saladin, Michael E; Larowe, Steven D; McClure, Erin A; Simonian, Susan; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P; Gray, Kevin M

    2014-02-01

    Smoking initiation usually begins in adolescence, but how and for whom nicotine dependence emerges during this period is unclear. The cue-reactivity paradigm is well suited to examine one marker of dependence: craving-related stimulus control, i.e., the ability of environmental cues to elicit craving to smoke. This study examined the effects of both level of smoking involvement (daily vs. occasional smoking) and gender on reactivity to both smoking and alcohol cues. Young (age range 16-20; 42% female) daily (n = 55) and occasional (n = 52) smokers were exposed to each of three counterbalanced cues: (a) in vivo smoking (e.g., sight, smell, lighting of cigarette), (b) alcohol (e.g., opening, pouring, and smell of preferred beverage), and (c) neutral cue. Daily smokers exhibited higher levels of tonic (i.e., noncue-elicited) craving than did occasional smokers. Both groups showed significant increases in craving in response to cues (i.e., cue-elicited craving), with little evidence that cue-elicited craving differed between groups. Females were more cue reactive to both the alcohol and smoking cues than males, particularly for the positively reinforced aspects of smoking (i.e., hedonic craving). There were no gender × group interaction effects in response to either the alcohol or the smoking cue. Findings show the presence of cue-elicited craving even among occasional smokers and are consistent with literature demonstrating heightened sensitivity to environmental cues among females. Cue-elicited craving may be one mechanism that contributes to the maintenance of smoking behavior and perhaps to the development of nicotine dependence within early stage smokers.

  17. Craving, Cue Reactivity, and Stimulus Control Among Early-Stage Young Smokers: Effects of Smoking Intensity and Gender

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Smoking initiation usually begins in adolescence, but how and for whom nicotine dependence emerges during this period is unclear. The cue-reactivity paradigm is well suited to examine one marker of dependence: craving-related stimulus control, i.e., the ability of environmental cues to elicit craving to smoke. This study examined the effects of both level of smoking involvement (daily vs. occasional smoking) and gender on reactivity to both smoking and alcohol cues. Methods: Young (age range 16–20; 42% female) daily (n = 55) and occasional (n = 52) smokers were exposed to each of three counterbalanced cues: (a) in vivo smoking (e.g., sight, smell, lighting of cigarette), (b) alcohol (e.g., opening, pouring, and smell of preferred beverage), and (c) neutral cue. Results: Daily smokers exhibited higher levels of tonic (i.e., noncue-elicited) craving than did occasional smokers. Both groups showed significant increases in craving in response to cues (i.e., cue-elicited craving), with little evidence that cue-elicited craving differed between groups. Females were more cue reactive to both the alcohol and smoking cues than males, particularly for the positively reinforced aspects of smoking (i.e., hedonic craving). There were no gender × group interaction effects in response to either the alcohol or the smoking cue. Conclusions: Findings show the presence of cue-elicited craving even among occasional smokers and are consistent with literature demonstrating heightened sensitivity to environmental cues among females. Cue-elicited craving may be one mechanism that contributes to the maintenance of smoking behavior and perhaps to the development of nicotine dependence within early stage smokers. PMID:24042699

  18. Unsaturated Zone Flow Model Expert Elicitation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Coppersmith, K. J.

    1997-05-30

    This report presents results of the Unsaturated Zone Flow Model Expert Elicitation (UZFMEE) project at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This project was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Geomatrix Consultants, Inc. (Geomatrix), for TRW Environmental Safety Systems, Inc. The objective of this project was to identify and assess the uncertainties associated with certain key components of the unsaturated zone flow system at Yucca Mountain. This assessment reviewed the data inputs, modeling approaches, and results of the unsaturated zone flow model (termed the ''UZ site-scale model'') being developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and the US Geological Survey (USGS). In addition to data input and modeling issues, the assessment focused on percolation flux (volumetric flow rate per unit cross-sectional area) at the potential repository horizon. An understanding of unsaturated zone processes is critical to evaluating the performance of the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. A major goal of the project was to capture the uncertainties involved in assessing the unsaturated flow processes, including uncertainty in both the models used to represent physical controls on unsaturated zone flow and the parameter values used in the models. To ensure that the analysis included a wide range of perspectives, multiple individual judgments were elicited from members of an expert panel. The panel members, who were experts from within and outside the Yucca Mountain project, represented a range of experience and expertise. A deliberate process was followed in facilitating interactions among the experts, in training them to express their uncertainties, and in eliciting their interpretations. The resulting assessments and probability distributions, therefore, provide a reasonable aggregate representation of the knowledge and uncertainties about key issues regarding the unsaturated zone at the Yucca Mountain site.

  19. Antagonist-Elicited Cannabis Withdrawal in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Gorelick, David A.; Goodwin, Robert S.; Schwilke, Eugene; Schwope, David M.; Darwin, William D.; Kelly, Deanna L.; McMahon, Robert P.; Liu, Fang; Ortemann-Renon, Catherine; Bonnet, Denis; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    Cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists have potential therapeutic benefits, but antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal has not been reported in humans. Ten male daily cannabis smokers received 8 days of increasingly frequent 20-mg oral Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) dosages (40–120 mg/d) around-the-clock to standardize cannabis dependence while residing on a closed research unit. On the ninth day, double-blind placebo or 20- (suggested therapeutic dose) or 40-mg oral rimonabant, a CB1-cannabinoid receptor antagonist, was administered. Cannabis withdrawal signs and symptoms were assessed before and for 23.5 hours after rimonabant. Rimonabant, THC, and 11-hydroxy-THC plasma concentrations were quantified by mass spectrometry. The first 6 subjects received 20-mg rimonabant (1 placebo); the remaining 4 subjects received 40-mg rimonabant (1 placebo). Fourteen subjects enrolled; 10 completed before premature termination because of withdrawal of rimonabant from clinical development. Three of 5 subjects in the 20-mg group, 1 of 3 in the 40-mg group, and none of 2 in the placebo group met the prespecified withdrawal criterion of 150% increase or higher in at least 3 visual analog scales for cannabis withdrawal symptoms within 3 hours of rimonabant dosing. There were no significant associations between visual analog scale, heart rate, or blood pressure changes and peak rimonabant plasma concentration, area-under-the-rimonabant-concentration-by-time curve (0–8 hours), or peak rimonabant/THC or rimonabant/(THC + 11-hydroxy-THC) plasma concentration ratios. In summary, prespecified criteria for antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal were not observed at the 20- or 40-mg rimonabant doses. These data do not preclude antagonist-elicited withdrawal at higher rimonabant doses. PMID:21869692

  20. Antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal in humans.

    PubMed

    Gorelick, David A; Goodwin, Robert S; Schwilke, Eugene; Schwope, David M; Darwin, William D; Kelly, Deanna L; McMahon, Robert P; Liu, Fang; Ortemann-Renon, Catherine; Bonnet, Denis; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2011-10-01

    Cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists have potential therapeutic benefits, but antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal has not been reported in humans. Ten male daily cannabis smokers received 8 days of increasingly frequent 20-mg oral Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) dosages (40-120 mg/d) around-the-clock to standardize cannabis dependence while residing on a closed research unit. On the ninth day, double-blind placebo or 20- (suggested therapeutic dose) or 40-mg oral rimonabant, a CB1-cannabinoid receptor antagonist, was administered. Cannabis withdrawal signs and symptoms were assessed before and for 23.5 hours after rimonabant. Rimonabant, THC, and 11-hydroxy-THC plasma concentrations were quantified by mass spectrometry. The first 6 subjects received 20-mg rimonabant (1 placebo); the remaining 4 subjects received 40-mg rimonabant (1 placebo). Fourteen subjects enrolled; 10 completed before premature termination because of withdrawal of rimonabant from clinical development. Three of 5 subjects in the 20-mg group, 1 of 3 in the 40-mg group, and none of 2 in the placebo group met the prespecified withdrawal criterion of 150% increase or higher in at least 3 visual analog scales for cannabis withdrawal symptoms within 3 hours of rimonabant dosing. There were no significant associations between visual analog scale, heart rate, or blood pressure changes and peak rimonabant plasma concentration, area-under-the-rimonabant-concentration-by-time curve (0-8 hours), or peak rimonabant/THC or rimonabant/(THC + 11-hydroxy-THC) plasma concentration ratios. In summary, prespecified criteria for antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal were not observed at the 20- or 40-mg rimonabant doses. These data do not preclude antagonist-elicited withdrawal at higher rimonabant doses.

  1. Eliciting promises from children reduces cheating.

    PubMed

    Heyman, Gail D; Fu, Genyue; Lin, Jianyan; Qian, Miao K; Lee, Kang

    2015-11-01

    Widespread cheating can undermine rules that are necessary for maintaining social order. Preventing cheating can be a challenge, especially with regard to children, who as a result of their limited executive function skills may have particular difficulty with resisting temptation to cheat. We examined one approach designed to help children resist this temptation: eliciting a verbal commitment to not cheat. We tested 4- to 7-year-olds (total N = 330) and found that starting at 5 years of age, a verbal commitment to not cheat led to a substantial reduction in cheating. The results suggest that verbal commitments can be used to help children overcome temptations and comply with rules.

  2. Stimulus bill implementation: expanding meaningful use of health IT.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Rob

    2009-08-25

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act authorizes an estimated $38 billion in incentives and supports for health information technology (IT) from 2009 to 2019. After years of sluggish HIT adoption, this crisis-driven investment of public funds creates a unique opportunity for rapid diffusion of a technology that is widely expected to improve care, save money, and facilitate transformation of the troubled U.S. health system. Achieving maximal effect from the stimulus funds is nevertheless a difficult challenge. The Recovery Act strengthens the federal government's leadership role in promoting HIT. But successful adoption and utilization across the health system will also require development of a supportive infrastructure and broad-based efforts by providers, vendors, state-based agencies, and other health system stakeholders. Optimal use of IT for health care may require extensive reengineering of medical practice and of existing systems of payment. The future course of HIT adoption will also be subject to the effects of any health care reform legislation and of technological innovation in the fast-changing world of electronic communications

  3. The physical basis of gravity stimulus nullification by clinostat rotation.

    PubMed

    Dedolph, R R; Dipert, M H

    1971-06-01

    The question of how rotation on a horizontal axis clinostat removes plants from the influence of the gravitational stimulus is answered. It is shown that appropriate horizontal axis clinostat rotation restricts the fall of intracellular particles to a quasi-circular path such that the position of the particle remains virtually stationary within cells. The displacement of the path of fall, due to centrifugal force, is then considered, and a method of determining the optimal rotation rate is developed from physical principles. This method selects the rotation rate which minimizes the volume of cytoplasm through which particles pass under the joint influence of centrifugal and gravitational forces. With the recognition that single axis clinostats are ineffective with large plants or for long experiments, a new type of clinostat is proposed on which intracellular conditions can be rendered virtually identical to those of plants in satellite free fall regardless of plant size or duration of experiment.It is shown that most low gravity biological responses can be studied using clinostats with only occasional satellite free fall experiments for verification. It is further inferred that most of these responses can be effectively and economically studied by computer simulation.

  4. Effective Stimulus Parameters for Directed Locomotion in Madagascar Hissing Cockroach Biobot

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Jonathan C.; Shingiro, Aristide; Bowen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Swarms of insects instrumented with wireless electronic backpacks have previously been proposed for potential use in search and rescue operations. Before deploying such biobot swarms, an effective long-term neural-electric stimulus interface must be established, and the locomotion response to various stimuli quantified. To this end, we studied a variety of pulse types (mono- vs. bipolar; voltage- vs. current-controlled) and shapes (amplitude, frequency, duration) to parameters that are most effective for evoking locomotion along a desired path in the Madagascar hissing cockroach (G. portentosa) in response to antennal and cercal stimulation. We identified bipolar, 2 V, 50 Hz, 0.5 s voltage controlled pulses as being optimal for evoking forward motion and turns in the expected contraversive direction without habituation in ≈50% of test subjects, a substantial increase over ≈10% success rates previously reported. Larger amplitudes for voltage (1–4 V) and current (50–150 μA) pulses generally evoked larger forward walking (15.6–25.6 cm; 3.9–5.6 cm/s) but smaller concomitant turning responses (149 to 80.0 deg; 62.8 to 41.2 deg/s). Thus, the radius of curvature of the initial turn-then-run locomotor response (≈10–25 cm) could be controlled in a graded manner by varying the stimulus amplitude. These findings could be used to help optimize stimulus protocols for swarms of cockroach biobots navigating unknown terrain. PMID:26308337

  5. Effective Stimulus Parameters for Directed Locomotion in Madagascar Hissing Cockroach Biobot.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Jonathan C; Herrera, María; Bustamante, Mauricio; Shingiro, Aristide; Bowen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Swarms of insects instrumented with wireless electronic backpacks have previously been proposed for potential use in search and rescue operations. Before deploying such biobot swarms, an effective long-term neural-electric stimulus interface must be established, and the locomotion response to various stimuli quantified. To this end, we studied a variety of pulse types (mono- vs. bipolar; voltage- vs. current-controlled) and shapes (amplitude, frequency, duration) to parameters that are most effective for evoking locomotion along a desired path in the Madagascar hissing cockroach (G. portentosa) in response to antennal and cercal stimulation. We identified bipolar, 2 V, 50 Hz, 0.5 s voltage controlled pulses as being optimal for evoking forward motion and turns in the expected contraversive direction without habituation in ≈50% of test subjects, a substantial increase over ≈10% success rates previously reported. Larger amplitudes for voltage (1-4 V) and current (50-150 μA) pulses generally evoked larger forward walking (15.6-25.6 cm; 3.9-5.6 cm/s) but smaller concomitant turning responses (149 to 80.0 deg; 62.8 to 41.2 deg/s). Thus, the radius of curvature of the initial turn-then-run locomotor response (≈10-25 cm) could be controlled in a graded manner by varying the stimulus amplitude. These findings could be used to help optimize stimulus protocols for swarms of cockroach biobots navigating unknown terrain.

  6. Stimulus length uncertainty with dichotic digit recognition.

    PubMed

    Strouse, A; Wilson, R H

    1999-04-01

    Dichotic digit listening was made more difficult by interleaving one-, two-, three-, and four-pair digits within a test list in which the subjects did not know a priori the number of digit pairs presented on a given trial, thereby introducing listener uncertainty. Twenty right-handed (mean age = 26.8 years) and 20 left-handed adults (mean age = 24.0) with normal hearing and 40 right-handed adults in the 60- to 75-years age range (mean age = 67.2) with mild-to-moderate sensorineural hearing loss were evaluated. Compared to traditional paradigms, the uncertainty of stimulus length (one, two, three, or four pairs) reduced overall recognition performance on stimuli presented to both ears of all groups, but the reduction was more pronounced for the left ear than for the right ear. The recognition performance of the right-handed subjects was more homogeneous than the performance of the left-handed subjects. In comparison to the young subjects, the 60- to 75-year-old group had substantially reduced recognition performance.

  7. The interoceptive Pavlovian stimulus effects of caffeine.

    PubMed

    Murray, Jennifer E; Li, Chia; Palmatier, Matthew I; Bevins, Rick A

    2007-04-01

    The present research sought to test whether caffeine functioned as a Pavlovian cue in two ways--as a positive drug feature or as a conditional stimulus (CS). As a positive feature (Experiment 1), brief light presentations were followed by sucrose only on sessions in which caffeine (10 mg/kg) was administered. On intermixed saline sessions, light presentations were not followed by sucrose. The light came to control robust goal tracking (i.e., conditioned responding) only in caffeine sessions. Thus, caffeine disambiguates when the light was paired with sucrose. Decreasing the dose of caffeine decreased the conditioned responding evoked by the light (ED(50)=4.16 mg/kg). Neither nicotine nor amphetamine substituted for the caffeine feature. As a CS, caffeine (10 or 30 mg/kg, Experiments 2a and 2b, respectively) signaled intermittent access to sucrose--no light presentations. No sucrose or lights were presented on intermixed saline sessions. The caffeine CS, regardless of training dose, acquired the ability to evoke only a weak goal-tracking CR. The nature of this dissociation between caffeine as a drug feature and a CS is discussed within the context of past research finding a similar dissociation with amphetamine and chlordiazepoxide, but not with nicotine.

  8. Regulatory Fit Effects on Stimulus Identification

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Brian D.; Maddox, W. Todd; Markmana, Arthur B.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the effects of a fit between a person's global regulatory focus and the local task reward structure on perceptual processing and judgment. On each trial, participants were presented with one of two briefly presented stimuli and were asked to identify it. Participants were placed in a promotion focus (a situationally induced sensitivity to gains) or a prevention focus (a situationally induced sensitivity to losses) and were asked to maximize gains or minimize losses. An asymmetric payoff ratio biased the overall reward toward one identification response over the other. Two experiments tested the role of regulatory fit when internal familiarity and perceptual sensitivity was low or high. When familiarity and sensitivity were low, participants in a regulatory fit (promotion focus with gains or a prevention focus with losses) showed greater perceptual sensitivity, but no response bias differences relative to participants in a regulatory mismatch. When familiarity and sensitivity were high, participants in a regulatory fit showed a response bias toward the high payoff stimulus, but no differences in perceptual sensitivity. Speculation on the neurobiological basis of this effect, as well as implications of this work for clinical disorders, such as depression, is offered. PMID:21264696

  9. Stimulus type affects Wada memory performance.

    PubMed

    Testa, S Marc; Ward, Julianna; Crone, Nathan E; Brandt, Jason

    2008-10-01

    The effects of amytal injection side, seizure focus laterality, and stimulus type (real and line-drawn objects, printed words, and faces) on recognition memory were studied during the Wada procedure. To-be-remembered stimuli were presented during cerebral anesthesia to 35 patients with left temporal lobe epilepsy (LTLE) and 28 patients with right temporal lobe epilepsy (RTLE), all with left hemisphere language dominance. In both groups, recognition of real and line-drawn objects was best after anesthetization of the lesional hemisphere. Recognition of faces was poor after either injection in patients with RTLE, but only after right injection in patients with LTLE. Conversely, recognition of words by patients with LTLE was impaired equally after either injection, but more so after left than right injection in patients with RTLE. The findings suggest that (1) real and line-drawn objects are "dually encoded" and memory accuracy depends on seizure focus laterality, and (2) accuracy in recognition of words and faces is related to seizure focus laterality, but may also depend on the language dominance of the hemisphere being assessed.

  10. Transformations of mathematical and stimulus functions.

    PubMed

    Ninness, Chris; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Rumph, Robin; McCuller, Glen; Ford, Angela M; Payne, Robert; Ninness, Sharon K; Smith, Ronald J; Ward, Todd A; Elliott, Marc P

    2006-01-01

    Following a pretest, 8 participants who were unfamiliar with algebraic and trigonometric functions received a brief presentation on the rectangular coordinate system. Next, they participated in a computer-interactive matching-to-sample procedure that trained formula-to-formula and formula-to-graph relations. Then, they were exposed to 40 novel formula-to-graph tests and 10 novel graph-to-formula tests. Seven of the 8 participants showed substantial improvement in identifying formula-to-graph relations; however, in the test of novel graph-to-formula relations, participants tended to select equations in their factored form. Next, we manipulated contextual cues in the form of rules regarding mathematical preferences. First, we informed participants that standard forms of equations were preferred over factored forms. In a subsequent test of 10 additional novel graph-to-formula relations, participants shifted their selections to favor equations in their standard form. This preference reversed during 10 more tests when financial reward was made contingent on correct identification of formulas in factored form. Formula preferences and transformation of novel mathematical and stimulus functions are discussed.

  11. Transformation of Stimulus Correlations by the Retina

    PubMed Central

    Tkačik, Gašper; Homann, Jan; Yee, Heather K.; Palmer, Stephanie E.; Nelson, Philip C.; Balasubramanian, Vijay

    2013-01-01

    Redundancies and correlations in the responses of sensory neurons may seem to waste neural resources, but they can also carry cues about structured stimuli and may help the brain to correct for response errors. To investigate the effect of stimulus structure on redundancy in retina, we measured simultaneous responses from populations of retinal ganglion cells presented with natural and artificial stimuli that varied greatly in correlation structure; these stimuli and recordings are publicly available online. Responding to spatio-temporally structured stimuli such as natural movies, pairs of ganglion cells were modestly more correlated than in response to white noise checkerboards, but they were much less correlated than predicted by a non-adapting functional model of retinal response. Meanwhile, responding to stimuli with purely spatial correlations, pairs of ganglion cells showed increased correlations consistent with a static, non-adapting receptive field and nonlinearity. We found that in response to spatio-temporally correlated stimuli, ganglion cells had faster temporal kernels and tended to have stronger surrounds. These properties of individual cells, along with gain changes that opposed changes in effective contrast at the ganglion cell input, largely explained the pattern of pairwise correlations across stimuli where receptive field measurements were possible. PMID:24339756

  12. Transformations of Mathematical and Stimulus Functions

    PubMed Central

    Ninness, Chris; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Rumph, Robin; McCuller, Glen; Ford, Angela M; Payne, Robert; Ninness, Sharon K; Smith, Ronald J; Ward, Todd A; Elliott, Marc P

    2006-01-01

    Following a pretest, 8 participants who were unfamiliar with algebraic and trigonometric functions received a brief presentation on the rectangular coordinate system. Next, they participated in a computer-interactive matching-to-sample procedure that trained formula-to-formula and formula-to-graph relations. Then, they were exposed to 40 novel formula-to-graph tests and 10 novel graph-to-formula tests. Seven of the 8 participants showed substantial improvement in identifying formula-to-graph relations; however, in the test of novel graph-to-formula relations, participants tended to select equations in their factored form. Next, we manipulated contextual cues in the form of rules regarding mathematical preferences. First, we informed participants that standard forms of equations were preferred over factored forms. In a subsequent test of 10 additional novel graph-to-formula relations, participants shifted their selections to favor equations in their standard form. This preference reversed during 10 more tests when financial reward was made contingent on correct identification of formulas in factored form. Formula preferences and transformation of novel mathematical and stimulus functions are discussed. PMID:17020211

  13. Exercise as an anabolic stimulus for bone.

    PubMed

    Turner, Charles H; Robling, Alexander G

    2004-01-01

    Mechanical loading provides an anabolic stimulus for bone. More importantly, the mechanosensing apparatus in bone directs osteogenesis to where it is most needed for improving bone strength. The biological processes involved in bone mechanotransduction are poorly understood and further investigation of the molecular mechanisms might uncover drug targets for osteoporosis. Several pathways are emerging from current research, including membrane ion channels, ATP signaling, and second messengers such as prostaglandins and nitric oxide. Some key molecular targets include the L-type calcium channel (alpha 1C isoform), a gadolinium-sensitive stretch-activated channel, P2Y(2) and P2X(7) purinergic receptors, EP(2) and EP(4) prostanoid receptors, and the parathyroid hormone receptor. One characteristic of the mechanosensing apparatus that has only recently been studied is the important role of desensitization. Experimental protocols that insert "rest" periods to reduce the effects of desensitization can double anabolic responses to mechanical loading. A drug therapy that suppresses desensitization pathways may provide an effective means to build bone strength.

  14. Emotion stimulus processing in narcolepsy with cataplexy.

    PubMed

    Susta, Marek; Nemcova, Veronika; Bizik, Gustav; Sonka, Karel

    2017-02-01

    Reported brain abnormalities in anatomy and function in patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy led to a project based on qualitative electroencephalography examination and analysis in an attempt to find a narcolepsy with cataplexy-specific brain-derived pattern, or a sequence of brain locations involved in processing humorous stimuli. Laughter is the trigger of cataplexy in these patients, and the difference between patients and healthy controls during the laughter should therefore be notable. Twenty-six adult patients (14 male, 12 female) suffering from narcolepsy with cataplexy and 10 healthy controls (five male, five female) were examined. The experiment was performed using a 256-channel electroencephalogram and then processed using specialized software built according to the scientific research team's specifications. The software utilizes electroencephalographic data recorded during elevated emotional states in participants to calculate the sequence of brain areas involved in emotion processing using non-linear and linear algorithms. Results show significant differences in activation (pre-laughter) patterns between the patients with narcolepsy and healthy controls, as well as significant similarities within the patients and the controls. Specifically, gyrus orbitalis, rectus and occipitalis inferior are active in healthy controls, while gyrus paracentralis, cingularis and cuneus are activated solely in the patients in response to humorous audio stimulus. There are qualitative electroencephalographic-based patterns clearly discriminating between patients with narcolepsy and healthy controls during laughter processing. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  15. The interoceptive Pavlovian stimulus effects of caffeine

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Jennifer E.; Li, Chia; Palmatier, Matthew I.

    2007-01-01

    The present research sought to test whether caffeine functioned as a Pavlovian cue in two ways—as a positive drug feature or as a conditional stimulus (CS). As a positive feature (Experiment 1), brief light presentations were followed by sucrose only on sessions in which caffeine (10 mg/kg) was administered. On intermixed saline sessions, light presentations were not followed by sucrose. The light came to control robust goal-tracking (i.e., conditioned responding) only in caffeine sessions. Thus, caffeine disambiguates when the light was paired with sucrose. Decreasing the dose of caffeine decreased the conditioned responding evoked by the light (ED50=4.16 mg/kg). Neither nicotine nor amphetamine substituted for the caffeine feature. As a CS, caffeine (10 or 30 mg/kg, Experiments 2a and 2b, respectively) signaled intermittent access to sucrose—no light presentations. No sucrose or lights were presented on intermixed saline sessions. The caffeine CS, regardless of training dose, acquired the ability to evoke only a weak goal-tracking CR. The nature of this dissociation between caffeine as a drug feature versus a CS is discussed within the context of past research finding a similar dissociation with amphetamine and chlordiazepoxide, but not with nicotine. PMID:17477964

  16. Asynchronous stimulus presentation in visual extinction: a psychophysical study.

    PubMed

    Geeraerts, Sarah; Lafosse, Christophe; Vandenbussche, Erik; Verfaillie, Karl

    2010-09-01

    Patients showing visual extinction as a consequence of a unilateral brain lesion can correctly detect a single stimulus in either hemifield but fail to detect the contralesional stimulus (or at least process the stimulus less efficiently) when it is presented simultaneously with an ipsilesional stimulus. In an attempt to uncover the nature of the underlying deficit, some studies have manipulated the temporal characteristics of stimulus presentation. Contra- and ipsilesional stimuli with different stimulus onset asynchronies are typically used. In the present study, visual extinction was investigated in a group of left neglect patients (N=10) using a psychophysical paradigm with different stimulus onset asynchronies of target and distractor stimuli presented in different hemifields. Contrast thresholds for a target grating were determined with the target either in isolation or in the presence of an irrelevant distractor grating. When target and distractor gratings were presented simultaneously, neglect patients showed a significant extinction effect, i.e., a significant interference from the right hemifield distractor with left hemifield contrast sensitivity. When the right hemifield distractor preceded the left hemifield target stimulus by 250 ms, two different patterns of results were observed in the neglect patients. Five patients showed a significant improvement compared to the simultaneous presentation condition, five other patients showed a significant increase of the extinction effect. The results suggest that different underlying mechanisms, maybe due to different lesion locations, can cause extinction in neglect patients.

  17. Stimulus Variability and Perceptual Learning of Nonnative Vowel Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosseau-Lapre, Francoise; Rvachew, Susan; Clayards, Meghan; Dickson, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    English-speakers' learning of a French vowel contrast (/schwa/-/slashed o/) was examined under six different stimulus conditions in which contrastive and noncontrastive stimulus dimensions were varied orthogonally to each other. The distribution of contrastive cues was varied across training conditions to create single prototype, variable far…

  18. Motormouth: Mere Exposure Depends on Stimulus-Specific Motor Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topolinski, Sascha; Strack, Fritz

    2009-01-01

    The authors apply an embodied account to mere exposure, arguing that through the repeated exposure of a particular stimulus, motor responses specifically associated to that stimulus are repeatedly simulated, thus trained, and become increasingly fluent. This increased fluency drives preferences for repeated stimuli. This hypothesis was tested by…

  19. Deprivation in American Affluence: The Theory of Stimulus Addiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machell, David F.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses theory of stimulus addiction, a process of human accommodation to stimuli which fosters dependency and may foster addiction. Suggests that a society of affluence may be prone to addictiveness because the more continuous the stimuli the person experiences, the more tolerance is created, and with tolerance comes stimulus deprivation.…

  20. Motormouth: Mere Exposure Depends on Stimulus-Specific Motor Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topolinski, Sascha; Strack, Fritz

    2009-01-01

    The authors apply an embodied account to mere exposure, arguing that through the repeated exposure of a particular stimulus, motor responses specifically associated to that stimulus are repeatedly simulated, thus trained, and become increasingly fluent. This increased fluency drives preferences for repeated stimuli. This hypothesis was tested by…

  1. A Computer Tutorial on the Principles of Stimulus Generalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Robert B.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a computer tutorial that teaches the fundamentals of stimulus generalization in operant learning. Concepts covered include reinforcement, discrimination learning, stimulus continua, generalization, generalization gradients, and peak shift. The tutorial also reviews applications in human and animal situations. The content is appropriate…

  2. Stimulus Variability and Perceptual Learning of Nonnative Vowel Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosseau-Lapre, Francoise; Rvachew, Susan; Clayards, Meghan; Dickson, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    English-speakers' learning of a French vowel contrast (/schwa/-/slashed o/) was examined under six different stimulus conditions in which contrastive and noncontrastive stimulus dimensions were varied orthogonally to each other. The distribution of contrastive cues was varied across training conditions to create single prototype, variable far…

  3. Mechanics of Coriolis stimulus and inducing factors of motion sickness.

    PubMed

    Isu, N; Shimizu, T; Sugata, K

    2001-12-01

    To specify inducing factors of motion sickness comprised in Coriolis stimulus, or cross-coupled rotation, the sensation of rotation derived from the semicircular canal system during and after Coriolis stimulus under a variety of stimulus conditions, was estimated by an approach from mechanics with giving minimal hypotheses and simplifications on the semicircular canal system and the sensory nervous system. By solving an equation of motion of the endolymph during Coriolis stimulus, rotating angle of the endolymph was obtained, and the sensation of rotation derived from each semicircular canal was estimated. Then the sensation derived from the whole semicircular canal system was particularly considered in two cases of a single Coriolis stimulus and cyclic Coriolis stimuli. The magnitude and the direction of sensation of rotation were shown to depend on an angular velocity of body rotation and a rotating angle of head movement (amplitude of head oscillation when cyclic Coriolis stimuli) irrespective of initial angle (center angle) of the head relative to the vertical axis. The present mechanical analysis of Coriolis stimulus led a suggestion that the severity of nausea evoked by Coriolis stimulus is proportional to the effective value of the sensation of rotation caused by the Coriolis stimulus.

  4. Evaluation of Stimulus Preference Assessment Methods with General Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schanding, G. Thomas, Jr.; Tingstrom, Daniel H.; Sterling-Turner, Heather E.

    2009-01-01

    The current exploratory study examined the ability of three stimulus preference assessments to identify effective reinforcers for general education students. Four students from Grades K through 5 and their teachers participated. A student nomination, teacher nomination, and ongoing (daily) stimulus preference assessment were evaluated. The results…

  5. Modulation of motor cortex excitability by peripheral magnetic stimulation of different stimulus sites and frequencies.

    PubMed

    Sato, A; Liu, X; Torii, T; Iwahashi, M; Iramina, K; Sato, A; Liu, X; Torii, T; Iwahashi, M; Iramina, K; Iwahashi, M; Liu, X; Sato, A; Iramina, K; Torii, T

    2016-08-01

    Peripheral stimulation is known to influence the state of cortical excitability. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether peripheral magnetic stimulation has similar effects on cortical excitability to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). A magnetic stimulator with a flat figure-of-eight coil was used for both TMS, and peripheral magnetic stimulation applied to the bilateral forearms. TMS was performed on the left primary motor cortex to evaluate influence of the peripheral magnetic stimulation, and motor evoked potential (MEP) was measured from the right first dorsal interosseous. Peripheral magnetic stimulation was performed at a stimulus frequency of 1 Hz or 10 Hz, to the stimulus sites on the right and left supination of the forearm. The effects of peripheral magnetic stimulation were evaluated by comparing the mean MEP amplitude elicited by TMS before and after peripheral magnetic stimulation. We found that cortical excitability varied according to the stimulation site and frequency of the peripheral magnetic stimulation. The inhibition of cortical excitability was observed following 1 Hz peripheral magnetic stimulation over the right forearm (p<;0.001). In contrast, increased cortical excitability was observed using 1 Hz peripheral magnetic stimulation over the left forearm and 10 Hz stimulation over either the right or left forearms. We suggest that peripheral magnetic stimulation has a similar effect to TMS, and can induce both facilitation and inhibition of cortical excitability.

  6. Stimulus-specific adaptation in a recurrent network model of primary auditory cortex

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA) occurs when neurons decrease their responses to frequently-presented (standard) stimuli but not, or not as much, to other, rare (deviant) stimuli. SSA is present in all mammalian species in which it has been tested as well as in birds. SSA confers short-term memory to neuronal responses, and may lie upstream of the generation of mismatch negativity (MMN), an important human event-related potential. Previously published models of SSA mostly rely on synaptic depression of the feedforward, thalamocortical input. Here we study SSA in a recurrent neural network model of primary auditory cortex. When the recurrent, intracortical synapses display synaptic depression, the network generates population spikes (PSs). SSA occurs in this network when deviants elicit a PS but standards do not, and we demarcate the regions in parameter space that allow SSA. While SSA based on PSs does not require feedforward depression, we identify feedforward depression as a mechanism for expanding the range of parameters that support SSA. We provide predictions for experiments that could help differentiate between SSA due to synaptic depression of feedforward connections and SSA due to synaptic depression of recurrent connections. Similar to experimental data, the magnitude of SSA in the model depends on the frequency difference between deviant and standard, probability of the deviant, inter-stimulus interval and input amplitude. In contrast to models based on feedforward depression, our model shows true deviance sensitivity as found in experiments. PMID:28288158

  7. A Computational Study of Stimulus Driven Epileptic Seizure Abatement

    PubMed Central

    Goodfellow, Marc; Dauwels, Justin; Moeller, Friederike; Stephani, Ulrich; Baier, Gerold

    2014-01-01

    Active brain stimulation to abate epileptic seizures has shown mixed success. In spike-wave (SW) seizures, where the seizure and background state were proposed to coexist, single-pulse stimulations have been suggested to be able to terminate the seizure prematurely. However, several factors can impact success in such a bistable setting. The factors contributing to this have not been fully investigated on a theoretical and mechanistic basis. Our aim is to elucidate mechanisms that influence the success of single-pulse stimulation in noise-induced SW seizures. In this work, we study a neural population model of SW seizures that allows the reconstruction of the basin of attraction of the background activity as a four dimensional geometric object. For the deterministic (noise-free) case, we show how the success of response to stimuli depends on the amplitude and phase of the SW cycle, in addition to the direction of the stimulus in state space. In the case of spontaneous noise-induced seizures, the basin becomes probabilistic introducing some degree of uncertainty to the stimulation outcome while maintaining qualitative features of the noise-free case. Additionally, due to the different time scales involved in SW generation, there is substantial variation between SW cycles, implying that there may not be a fixed set of optimal stimulation parameters for SW seizures. In contrast, the model suggests an adaptive approach to find optimal stimulation parameters patient-specifically, based on real-time estimation of the position in state space. We discuss how the modelling work can be exploited to rationally design a successful stimulation protocol for the abatement of SW seizures using real-time SW detection. PMID:25531883

  8. Stimulus Size Dependence of Information Transfer from Retina to Thalamus

    PubMed Central

    Uglesich, Robert; Casti, Alex; Hayot, Fernand; Kaplan, Ehud

    2009-01-01

    Relay cells in the mammalian lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) are driven primarily by single retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). However, an LGN cell responds typically to less than half of the spikes it receives from the RGC that drives it, and without retinal drive the LGN is silent (Kaplan and Shapley, 1984). Recent studies, which used stimuli restricted to the receptive field (RF) center, show that despite the great loss of spikes, more than half of the information carried by the RGC discharge is typically preserved in the LGN discharge (Sincich et al., 2009), suggesting that the retinal spikes that are deleted by the LGN carry less information than those that are transmitted to the cortex. To determine how LGN relay neurons decide which retinal spikes to respond to, we recorded extracellularly from the cat LGN relay cell spikes together with the slow synaptic (‘S’) potentials that signal the firing of retinal spikes. We investigated the influence of the inhibitory surround of the LGN RF by stimulating the eyes with spots of various sizes, the largest of which covered the center and surround of the LGN relay cell's RF. We found that for stimuli that activated mostly the RF center, each LGN spike delivered more information than the retinal spike, but this difference was reduced as stimulus size increased to cover the RF surround. To evaluate the optimality of the LGN editing of retinal spikes, we created artificial spike trains from the retinal ones by various deletion schemes. We found that single LGN cells transmitted less information than an optimal detector could. PMID:19838326

  9. Cortical pitch response components index stimulus onset/offset and dynamic features of pitch contours

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Ananthanarayan; Gandour, Jackson T.; Ananthakrishnan, Saradha; Vijayaraghavan, Venkatakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Voice pitch is an important information-bearing component of language that is subject to experience dependent plasticity at both early cortical and subcortical stages of processing. We’ve already demonstrated that pitch onset component (Na) of the cortical pitch response (CPR) is sensitive to flat pitch and its salience. In regards to dynamic pitch, we do not yet know whether the multiple pitch-related transient components of the CPR reflect specific temporal attributes of such stimuli. Here we examine the sensitivity of the multiple transient components of CPR to changes in pitch acceleration associated with the Mandarin high rising lexical tone. CPR responses from Chinese listeners were elicited by three citation forms varying in pitch acceleration and duration. Results showed that the pitch onset component (Na) was invariant to changes in acceleration. In contrast, Na-Pb and Pb-Nb showed a systematic increase in the interpeak latency and decrease in amplitude with increase in pitch acceleration that followed the time course of pitch change across the three stimuli. A strong correlation with pitch acceleration was observed for these two components only – a putative index of pitch-relevant neural activity associated with the more rapidly-changing portions of the pitch contour. Pc-Nc marks unambiguously the stimulus offset. We therefore propose that in the early stages of cortical sensory processing, a series of neural markers flag different temporal attributes of a dynamic pitch contour: onset of temporal regularity (Na); changes in temporal regularity between onset and offset (Na-Pb, Pb-Nb); and offset of temporal regularity (Pc-Nc). At the temporal electrode sites, the stimulus with the most gradual change in pitch acceleration evoked a rightward asymmetry. Yet within the left hemisphere, stimuli with more gradual change were indistinguishable. These findings highlight the emergence of early hemispheric preferences and their functional roles as related to

  10. Dynamic dendritic compartmentalization underlies stimulus-specific adaptation in an insect neuron.

    PubMed

    Prešern, Janez; Triblehorn, Jeffrey D; Schul, Johannes

    2015-06-01

    In many neural systems, repeated stimulation leads to stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA), with responses to repeated signals being reduced while responses to novel stimuli remain unaffected. The underlying mechanisms of SSA remain mostly hypothetical. One hypothesis is that dendritic processes generate SSA. Evidence for such a mechanism was recently described in an insect auditory interneuron (TN-1 in Neoconocephalus triops). Afferents, tuned to different frequencies, connect with different parts of the TN-1 dendrite. The specific adaptation of these inputs relies on calcium and sodium accumulation within the dendrite, with calcium having a transient and sodium a tonic effect. Using imaging techniques, we tested here whether the accumulation of these ions remained limited to the stimulated parts of the dendrite. Stimulation with a fast pulse rate, which results in strong adaptation, elicited a transient dendritic calcium signal. In contrast, the sodium signal was tonic, remaining high during the fast pulse rate stimulus. These time courses followed the predictions from the previous pharmacological experiments. The peak positions of the calcium and sodium signals differed with the carrier frequency of the stimulus; at 15 kHz, peak locations were significantly more rostral than at 40 kHz. This matched the predictions made from neuroanatomical data. Our findings confirm that excitatory postsynaptic potentials rather than spiking cause the increase of dendritic calcium and sodium concentrations and that these increases remain limited to the stimulated parts of the dendrite. This supports the hypothesis of "dynamic dendritic compartmentalization" underlying SSA in this auditory interneuron. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Contribution of Inhibition to Stimulus Selectivity in Primary Auditory Cortex of Awake Primates

    PubMed Central

    Sadagopan, Srivatsun

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the high selectivity of neurons in primary auditory cortex (A1) and a highly sparse representation of sounds by the population of A1 neurons in awake animals. However, the underlying receptive field structures that confer high selectivity on A1 neurons are poorly understood. The sharp tuning of A1 neurons' excitatory receptive fields (RFs) provides a partial explanation of the above properties. However, it remains unclear how inhibitory components of RFs contribute to the selectivity of A1 neurons observed in awake animals. To examine the role of the inhibition in sharpening stimulus selectivity, we have quantitatively analyzed stimulus-induced suppressive effects over populations of single neurons in frequency, amplitude, and time in A1 of awake marmosets. In addition to the well documented short-latency side-band suppression elicited by masking tones around the best frequency (BF) of a neuron, we uncovered long-latency suppressions caused by single-tone stimulation. Such long-latency suppressions also included monotonically increasing suppression with sound level both on-BF and off-BF, and persistent suppression lasting up to 100 ms after stimulus offset in a substantial proportion of A1 neurons. The extent of the suppression depended on the shape of a neuron's frequency-response area (“O” or “V” shaped). These findings suggest that the excitatory RF of A1 neurons is cocooned by wide-ranging inhibition that contributes to the high selectivity in A1 neurons' responses to complex stimuli. Population sparseness of the tone-responsive A1 neuron population may also be a consequence of this pervasive inhibition. PMID:20505098

  12. Electrophysiological manifestations of stimulus evaluation, response inhibition and motor processing in Tourette syndrome patients

    PubMed Central

    Thibault, Genevieve; O’Connor, Kieron P.; Stip, Emmanuel; Lavoie, Marc E.

    2013-01-01

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder with childhood onset presenting with multiple fluctuating motor tics and one or more phonic tics. A significant proportion of people suffering from GTS are still symptomatic in adulthood and present other emotional and cognitive difficulties, along with motor problems that often accompany these comorbid conditions. The nature of these difficulties is still poorly understood and multiple comorbidities are often inadequately controlled. The current study investigates both stimulus evaluation and motor processing in GTS while controlling for comorbidity. Fifteen adults with GTS and 20 control participants were matched on gender, laterality and intelligence. The P300 component, the no-go anteriorization (NGA) as well as the stimulus and response-locked lateralized-readiness potentials (S-LRP, R-LRP) were elicited during a stimulus–response compatibility (SRC) paradigm. The standard version of the Stroop Color–Word Test (SCWT) was also administered. Reaction times showed that participants with GTS processed both the SRC and the SCWT more rapidly than the control group, while producing a delayed P300 peak latency. The GTS group also showed faster S-LRP onset in response to the incompatible and faster processing of interference in the SCWT. There was also a tendency toward a greater frontal shift of the NGA in the GTS group. The P300 latency showed that with GTS patients, stimulus evaluation occurs later whereas the overlapping pre-motor response selection processes occur faster. Our findings are congruent with a probable cortical motor over-activation hypothesis of GTS involving faster motor program selection in processing conflicting SR configuration. PMID:19395047

  13. Isolated sleep paralysis elicited by sleep interruption.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, T; Miyasita, A; Sasaki, Y; Inugami, M; Fukuda, K

    1992-06-01

    We elicited isolated sleep paralysis (ISP) from normal subjects by a nocturnal sleep interruption schedule. On four experimental nights, 16 subjects had their sleep interrupted for 60 minutes by forced awakening at the time when 40 minutes of nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep had elapsed from the termination of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in the first or third sleep cycle. This schedule produced a sleep onset REM period (SOREMP) after the interruption at a high rate of 71.9%. We succeeded in eliciting six episodes of ISP in the sleep interruptions performed (9.4%). All episodes of ISP except one occurred from SOREMP, indicating a close correlation between ISP and SOREMP. We recorded verbal reports about ISP experiences and recorded the polysomnogram (PSG) during ISP. All of the subjects with ISP experienced inability to move and were simultaneously aware of lying in the laboratory. All but one reported auditory/visual hallucinations and unpleasant emotions. PSG recordings during ISP were characterized by a REM/W stage dissociated state, i.e. abundant alpha electroencephalographs and persistence of muscle atonia shown by the tonic electromyogram. Judging from the PSG recordings, ISP differs from other dissociated states such as lucid dreaming, nocturnal panic attacks and REM sleep behavior disorders. We compare some of the sleep variables between ISP and non-ISP nights. We also discuss the similarities and differences between ISP and sleep paralysis in narcolepsy.

  14. The effects of compound stimulus extinction and inhibition of noradrenaline reuptake on the renewal of alcohol seeking

    PubMed Central

    Furlong, T M; Pan, M J; Corbit, L H

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol-related stimuli can trigger relapse of alcohol-seeking behaviors even after extended periods of abstinence. Extinction of such stimuli can reduce their impact on relapse; however, the expression of extinction can be disrupted when testing occurs outside the context where extinction learning took place, an effect termed renewal. Behavioral and pharmacological methods have recently been shown to augment extinction learning; yet, it is not known whether the improved expression of extinction following these treatments remains context-dependent. Here we examined whether two methods, compound–stimulus extinction and treatment with the noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine, would reduce the vulnerability of extinction to a change in context. Following alcohol self-administration, responding was extinguished in a distinct context. After initial extinction, further extinction was given to a target stimulus presented in compound with another alcohol-predictive stimulus intended to augment prediction error (Experiment 1) or after a systemic injection of atomoxetine (1.0 mg kg−1; Experiment 2). A stimulus extinguished as part of a compound elicited less responding than a stimulus receiving equal extinction alone regardless of whether animals were tested in the training or extinction context; however, reliable renewal was not observed in this paradigm. Importantly, atomoxetine enhanced extinction relative to controls even in the presence of a reliable renewal effect. Thus, extinction of alcohol-seeking behavior can be improved by extinguishing multiple alcohol-predictive stimuli or enhancing noradrenaline neurotransmission during extinction training. Importantly, both methods improve extinction even when the context is changed between extinction training and test, and thus could be utilized to enhance the outcome of extinction-based treatments for alcohol-use disorders. PMID:26327688

  15. The effects of compound stimulus extinction and inhibition of noradrenaline reuptake on the renewal of alcohol seeking.

    PubMed

    Furlong, T M; Pan, M J; Corbit, L H

    2015-09-01

    Alcohol-related stimuli can trigger relapse of alcohol-seeking behaviors even after extended periods of abstinence. Extinction of such stimuli can reduce their impact on relapse; however, the expression of extinction can be disrupted when testing occurs outside the context where extinction learning took place, an effect termed renewal. Behavioral and pharmacological methods have recently been shown to augment extinction learning; yet, it is not known whether the improved expression of extinction following these treatments remains context-dependent. Here we examined whether two methods, compound-stimulus extinction and treatment with the noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine, would reduce the vulnerability of extinction to a change in context. Following alcohol self-administration, responding was extinguished in a distinct context. After initial extinction, further extinction was given to a target stimulus presented in compound with another alcohol-predictive stimulus intended to augment prediction error (Experiment 1) or after a systemic injection of atomoxetine (1.0 mg kg(-1); Experiment 2). A stimulus extinguished as part of a compound elicited less responding than a stimulus receiving equal extinction alone regardless of whether animals were tested in the training or extinction context; however, reliable renewal was not observed in this paradigm. Importantly, atomoxetine enhanced extinction relative to controls even in the presence of a reliable renewal effect. Thus, extinction of alcohol-seeking behavior can be improved by extinguishing multiple alcohol-predictive stimuli or enhancing noradrenaline neurotransmission during extinction training. Importantly, both methods improve extinction even when the context is changed between extinction training and test, and thus could be utilized to enhance the outcome of extinction-based treatments for alcohol-use disorders.

  16. Stimulus Control and Compounding with Ambient Odor as a Discriminative Stimulus on a Free-Operant Baseline

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, Scott I; Weiss, Stanley J

    2007-01-01

    Previous experiments have demonstrated that the simultaneous presentation of independently established discriminative stimuli can control rates of operant responding substantially higher than the rates occasioned by the individual stimuli. This “additive summation” phenomenon has been shown with a variety of different reinforcers (e.g., food, water, shock avoidance, cocaine, and heroin). Discriminative stimuli previously used in such studies have been limited to the visual and auditory sensory modalities. The present experiment sought to (1) establish stimulus control on a free-operant baseline with an ambient olfactory discriminative stimulus, (2) compare olfactory control to that produced with an auditory discriminative stimulus, and (3) determine whether compounding independently established olfactory and auditory discriminative stimuli produces additive summation. Rats lever pressed for food on a variable-interval schedule in the presence of either a tone or an odor, with comparable control developed to each stimulus. In the absence of these stimuli responding was not reinforced. During stimulus compounding tests, the tone-plus-odor compound occasioned more than double the responses occasioned by either the tone or odor presented individually. Thus, the current study (1) established stimulus control with an ambient olfactory discriminative stimulus in a traditional free-operant setting and (2) extended the generality of stimulus-compounding effects by demonstrating additive summation when olfactory and auditory discriminative stimuli were presented simultaneously. PMID:17465315

  17. A transformation of respondently conditioned stimulus function in accordance with arbitrarily applicable relations.

    PubMed Central

    Roche, B; Barnes, D

    1997-01-01

    Adult male subjects saw a sexual film clip paired with a nonsense syllable (C1). Similarly, an emotionally neutral film clip was paired with a second nonsense syllable (C3). Responses to the nonsense syllables were recorded as skin resistance responses. Subjects were also trained in a series of related conditional discriminations, using the C1 and C3 stimuli, from which the following equivalence relations were predicted; A1-B1-C1, A2-B2-C2, and A3-B3-C3. Some subjects were given matching-to-sample (equivalence) tests after the conditional discrimination training (Experiment 1), whereas others were not (Experiment 2). Subjects were tested for a transformation of eliciting functions by presenting the A1 and A3 stimuli, which were related through equivalence to C1 and C3, respectively. Five of the 6 subjects who showed significantly greater conditioned responses to C1 than to C3, also showed significantly greater skin resistance responses to A1 than to A3. Two additional subjects demonstrated a transformation of an eliciting stimulus function in accordance with five-member equivalence relations (Experiment 3), and another 5 subjects demonstrated similar effects in accordance with the relations of sameness and opposition (Experiment 4). PMID:9163935

  18. Tendon reflexes elicited using a computer controlled linear motor tendon hammer.

    PubMed

    Archambeault, Mark; de Bruin, Hubert; McComas, Alan; Fu, Winnie

    2006-01-01

    We present a novel instrumentation system for studying tendon and spinal reflexes using a commercial linear servo-motor as a precisely controlled tendon hammer. The system uses a LabVIEW-based program to both control electrical or mechanical stimuli and record and measure the resulting M and H waves. The hammer can deliver tendon taps with selected velocities, durations, frequencies and excursions. Preliminary results for both soleus and flexor carpi radialis muscles show that impact velocity is an important variable in eliciting tendon reflexes. As expected, the tendon reflex amplitude was also found to be dependent on excursion depth, but not as significantly as hammer velocity. Other stimulus paradigms are also presently being investigated.

  19. Continuously varying skin potentials elicited by sinusoidally varying electric shock potentials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Senders, J. W.; Senders, V. L.; Tursky, B.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation was carried out to determine whether a form of quasi-linear systems analysis can be applied to electrodormal responses to yield new insights into the nature of the response mechanisms and their interrelationships. The response investigated was the electrodermal response (galvanic skin potential, GSP) as elicited by an electric shock stimulus applied to the skin. The response subsequent to this stimulation was examined and its characteristics measured. A series of experimental runs on three Ss was accomplished, using sinusoidal modulation envelopes of frequencies. Results showed that it was possible to drive the GSP and to achieve relatively high coherence between the driving frequency and the response itself. The analysis was limited to Fourier analysis of the response in order to determine the relative energies at the driving frequency and at successive harmonics of that driving frequency, and correlational analysis in order to determine the degree of linear relationship between the driving frequency and the driven response.

  20. Basic Taste Stimuli Elicit Unique Responses in Facial Skin Blood Flow

    PubMed Central

    Kashima, Hideaki; Hayashi, Naoyuki

    2011-01-01

    Facial expression changes characteristically with the emotions induced by basic tastes in humans. We tested the hypothesis that the five basic tastes also elicit unique responses in facial skin blood flow. Facial skin blood flow was measured using laser speckle flowgraphy in 16 healthy subjects before and during the application of basic taste stimuli in the oral cavity for 20 s. The skin blood flow in the eyelid increased in response to sweet and umami taste stimuli, while that in the nose decreased in response to a bitter stimulus. There was a significant correlation between the subjective hedonic scores accompanying these taste stimuli and the above changes in skin blood flow. These results demonstrate that sweet, umami, and bitter tastes induce unique changes in facial skin blood flow that reflect subjective hedonic scores. PMID:22145032

  1. Distinct ensembles of medial prefrontal cortex neurons are activated by threatening stimuli that elicit excitation vs. inhibition of movement

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Hugh T.

    2015-01-01

    Neural circuits controlling defensive behavior were investigated by recording single units in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and dorsolateral periaqueductal gray (dlPAG) while rats expressed conditioned fear responses to an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS; 20-s train of white noise pips) previously paired with an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US; 2-s train of periorbital shocks). The CS elicited conditioned movement inhibition (CMI; characterized by decreased movement speed and freezing) when rats had not recently encountered the US, whereas the CS elicited conditioned movement excitation (CME; characterized by increased movement speed and flight behavior) after recent US encounters. Many mPFC neurons were “strategy-selective” cells that changed their firing rates only when the CS elicited CME (15/71) or CMI (13/71) responses, whereas few mPFC cells (4/71) responded nonselectively to the CS during either response. By contrast, many dlPAG neurons (20/74) responded nonselectively to the CS, but most (40/74) were excited by the CS selectively during CME trials (and none during CMI trials). CME-selective neurons in dlPAG responded phasically after CS pips that elicited CME responses, whereas CME-selective neurons in mPFC showed tonically elevated activity before and after pips that evoked CME responses. These findings suggest that, at the time when the CS occurs, tonic firing rates of CME- and CMI-selective mPFC neurons may bias the rat's choice of whether to express CME vs. CMI responses, perhaps via projections to downstream structures (such as amygdala and PAG) that influence how sensory stimuli are mapped onto motor circuits that drive the expression of competing behaviors. PMID:25972588

  2. Gender and Stimulus Control of Smoking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Frandsen, Mai; Dunbar, Michael S.; Shiffman, Saul

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Gender differences in smoking behavior have been proposed to account for poorer outcomes among women attempting to quit. Specifically, it has been suggested that women’s smoking behavior is less motivated by nicotine-seeking and more driven by environmental cues. To date, however, few real-world studies have examined the hypothesis that women’s smoking is under greater stimulus control. Methods: One hundred and ninety four daily smokers (men = 107; women = 87) completed 3 weeks of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) monitoring that provided data on real-world smoking behavior by reporting on situational contexts shown by previous research to influence smoking behavior (including social setting, cigarette availability, alcohol consumption, and mood). Results: Analyses of particular cues found few gender differences; however, men’s smoking increased to a greater extent compared with women’s when they were with others who were smoking. Idiographic analyses that allow individual subjects to have different directions of linkage to situational cues also were conducted to assess how predictable subjects’ smoking was from a range of contextual characteristics. Compared with women, men’s smoking was significantly more closely tied to food/alcohol consumption and tended to be more closely tied to social context. No other gender differences were found. Conclusions: EMA analyses suggest that men and women are similarly influenced by cues, including mood. Where there were gender differences, it was men rather than women whose smoking behavior was more influenced by cues. The data contradict the hypothesis that women’s smoking is more influenced by cues. PMID:25762752

  3. Distortion-product otoacoustic emission measured with continuously varying stimulus level

    PubMed Central

    Neely, Stephen T.; Johnson, Tiffany A.; Gorga, Michael P.

    2006-01-01

    Distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) are measured by stimulating the ear with two simultaneous tones. A novel method for measuring DPOAEs has been developed in which the tone levels vary continuously instead of in discrete steps. Varying the tone levels continuously may offer advantages for characterizing DPOAE level as a function of stimulus level. For equivalent primary-levels, DPOAE levels measured with the continuous-level method were the same as levels obtained with the discrete-level method, thus validating the new method. Continuous-level measurements were used to determine the optimal L1 for each L2 in individual subjects (N = 20) at f2=1, 2, 4, and 8 kHz by using a Lissajous-path that covered a wide range of stimulus levels. The optimal L1 (defined the L1 that resulted in the largest DPOAE for each L2) varied across subjects and across frequency. The optimal difference between L1 and L2 decreased with increasing L2 at all frequencies, and increased with frequency when L2 was low. When the optimal L1 was determined individually for each ear, the DPOAE levels were larger and less variable than those obtained using the equation for L1 suggested by Kummer et al. PMID:15807014

  4. Inseparability of Go and Stop in Inhibitory Control: Go Stimulus Discriminability Affects Stopping Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ning; Yu, Angela J.

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitory control, the ability to stop or modify preplanned actions under changing task conditions, is an important component of cognitive functions. Two lines of models of inhibitory control have previously been proposed for human response in the classical stop-signal task, in which subjects must inhibit a default go response upon presentation of an infrequent stop signal: (1) the race model, which posits two independent go and stop processes that race to determine the behavioral outcome, go or stop; and (2) an optimal decision-making model, which posits that observers decides whether and when to go based on continually (Bayesian) updated information about both the go and stop stimuli. In this work, we probe the relationship between go and stop processing by explicitly manipulating the discrimination difficulty of the go stimulus. While the race model assumes the go and stop processes are independent, and therefore go stimulus discriminability should not affect the stop stimulus processing, we simulate the optimal model to show that it predicts harder go discrimination should result in longer go reaction time (RT), lower stop error rate, as well as faster stop-signal RT. We then present novel behavioral data that validate these model predictions. The results thus favor a fundamentally inseparable account of go and stop processing, in a manner consistent with the optimal model, and contradicting the independence assumption of the race model. More broadly, our findings contribute to the growing evidence that the computations underlying inhibitory control are systematically modulated by cognitive influences in a Bayes-optimal manner, thus opening new avenues for interpreting neural responses underlying inhibitory control. PMID:27047324

  5. Inseparability of Go and Stop in Inhibitory Control: Go Stimulus Discriminability Affects Stopping Behavior.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ning; Yu, Angela J

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitory control, the ability to stop or modify preplanned actions under changing task conditions, is an important component of cognitive functions. Two lines of models of inhibitory control have previously been proposed for human response in the classical stop-signal task, in which subjects must inhibit a default go response upon presentation of an infrequent stop signal: (1) the race model, which posits two independent go and stop processes that race to determine the behavioral outcome, go or stop; and (2) an optimal decision-making model, which posits that observers decides whether and when to go based on continually (Bayesian) updated information about both the go and stop stimuli. In this work, we probe the relationship between go and stop processing by explicitly manipulating the discrimination difficulty of the go stimulus. While the race model assumes the go and stop processes are independent, and therefore go stimulus discriminability should not affect the stop stimulus processing, we simulate the optimal model to show that it predicts harder go discrimination should result in longer go reaction time (RT), lower stop error rate, as well as faster stop-signal RT. We then present novel behavioral data that validate these model predictions. The results thus favor a fundamentally inseparable account of go and stop processing, in a manner consistent with the optimal model, and contradicting the independence assumption of the race model. More broadly, our findings contribute to the growing evidence that the computations underlying inhibitory control are systematically modulated by cognitive influences in a Bayes-optimal manner, thus opening new avenues for interpreting neural responses underlying inhibitory control.

  6. Live predators, robots, and computer-animated images elicit differential avoidance responses in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Ladu, Fabrizio; Bartolini, Tiziana; Panitz, Sarah G; Chiarotti, Flavia; Butail, Sachit; Macrì, Simone; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2015-06-01

    Emotional disturbances constitute a major health issue affecting a considerable portion of the population in western countries. In this context, animal models offer a relevant tool to address the underlying biological determinants and to screen novel therapeutic strategies. While rodents have traditionally constituted the species of choice, zebrafish are now becoming a viable alternative. As zebrafish gain momentum in biomedical sciences, considerable efforts are being devoted to developing high-throughput behavioral tests. Here, we present a comparative study of zebrafish behavioral response to fear-evoking stimuli offered via three alternative methodologies. Specifically, in a binary-choice test, we exposed zebrafish to an allopatric predator Astronotus ocellatus, presented in the form of a live subject, a robotic replica, and a computer-animated image. The robot's design and operation were inspired by the morphology and tail-beat motion of its live counterpart, thereby offering a consistent three-dimensional stimulus to focal fish. The computer-animated image was also designed after the live subject to replicate its appearance. We observed that differently from computer-animated images, both the live predator and its robotic replica elicited robust avoidance response in zebrafish. In addition, in response to the robot, zebrafish exhibited increased thrashing behavior, which is considered a valid indicator of fear. Finally, inter-individual response to a robotic stimulus is more consistent than that shown in response to live stimuli and animated images, thereby increasing experimental statistical power. Our study supports the view that robotic stimuli can constitute a promising experimental tool to elicit targeted behavioral responses in zebrafish.

  7. First permanent human implant of the Stimulus Router System, a novel neuroprosthesis: preliminary testing of a polarity reversing stimulation technique.

    PubMed

    Gan, Liu Shi; Ravid, Einat N; Kowalczewski, Jan; Gauthier, Michel; Olson, Jaret; Morhart, Michael; Prochazka, Arthur

    2011-01-01

    Neuroprostheses (NPs) are electrical stimulators that help to restore sensory or motor functions lost as a result of neural damage. The Stimulus Router System (SRS) is a new type of NP developed in our laboratory. The system uses fully implanted, passive leads to "capture" and "route" some of the current flowing between pairs of surface electrodes to the vicinity of the target nerves, hence eliminating the need for an implanted stimulator. In June 2008, 3 SRS leads were implanted in a tetraplegic man for restoration of grasp and release. To reduce the size of the external wristlet and thereby optimize usability, we recently implemented a polarity reversing stimulation technique that allowed us to eliminate a reference electrode. Selective activation of three target muscles was achieved by switching the polarities of the stimulus current delivered between pairs of surface electrodes located over the pick-up terminals of the implanted leads and reducing the amplitude of the secondary phases of the stimulus pulses.

  8. A comparison of N,N-dimethyltryptamine, harmaline, and selected congeners in rats trained with LSD as a discriminative stimulus.

    PubMed

    Helsley, S; Fiorella, D; Rabin, R A; Winter, J C

    1998-05-01

    1. A series of N-substituted tryptamines was compared with a series of beta-carbolines in rats trained to discriminate LSD (0.1 mg/kg) from saline. 2. Intermediate levels of substitution were elicited by MDMT (76.4%), DMT (77.9%), and DET (48.7%). 6-F-DET produced 41.3% LSD-appropriate responding at a dose of 6.0 mg/kg but only 4 of 8 subjects completed the test session thus precluding statistical analysis. Bufotenine (25.8%) also failed to substitute. Although none of the tryptamines substituted completely for LSD, the pattern of substitution is consonant with what is known of their activity in humans. MDMT, DMT, and DET are well established in the literature as hallucinogens but the same cannot be said for 6-F-DET and bufotenine. 3. Of the beta-carbolines tested, none substituted for LSD completely and only harmane elicited intermediate substitution (49.5%). No significant generalization of the LSD stimulus to 6-methoxyharmalan, harmaline, or THBC was observed. Thus, in contrast to the tryptamines, scant ability to substitute for LSD was observed in the beta-carbolines tested. 4. Taken together, the present data indicate that the representative tryptamines employed in the present study exhibit greater similarity to the LSD stimulus than do representative beta-carbolines. The receptor interactions responsible for these differences remain to be determined.

  9. Resurgence: Response competition, stimulus control, and reinforcer control.

    PubMed

    Podlesnik, Christopher A; Kelley, Michael E

    2014-09-01

    Resurgence is the relapse of a previously reinforced and then extinguished target response when extinguishing a more recently reinforced alternative response. We designed the present study to assess the contribution of stimulus-control and reinforcer-control processes in determining resurgence. In a modified resurgence procedure, we removed the alternative discriminative stimulus signaling alternative reinforcement when extinguishing the alternative response. This produced more abrupt resurgence of target responding than in a typical resurgence procedure maintaining the alternative discriminative stimulus when extinguishing the alternative response. The overall amount of resurgence did not differ. Importantly, a "renewal" control added and removed the alternative stimulus during extinction, identically as in the modified resurgence procedure. However, alternative responding was never reinforced, which produced no relapse of target responding. Therefore, the more abrupt resurgence with the modified procedure than with the typical procedure suggests removing the alternative stimulus reduced the competition between alternative and target responding. These findings revealed the importance of adding and removing alternative reinforcement in producing resurgence (reinforcer control) but little influence of simply adding and removing the alternative stimulus (stimulus control). These data suggest that clinicians should consider the long-term availability of the alternative response option when developing differential-reinforcement interventions.

  10. Dendrites Enable a Robust Mechanism for Neuronal Stimulus Selectivity.

    PubMed

    Cazé, Romain D; Jarvis, Sarah; Foust, Amanda J; Schultz, Simon R

    2017-09-01

    Hearing, vision, touch: underlying all of these senses is stimulus selectivity, a robust information processing operation in which cortical neurons respond more to some stimuli than to others. Previous models assume that these neurons receive the highest weighted input from an ensemble encoding the preferred stimulus, but dendrites enable other possibilities. Nonlinear dendritic processing can produce stimulus selectivity based on the spatial distribution of synapses, even if the total preferred stimulus weight does not exceed that of nonpreferred stimuli. Using a multi-subunit nonlinear model, we demonstrate that stimulus selectivity can arise from the spatial distribution of synapses. We propose this as a general mechanism for information processing by neurons possessing dendritic trees. Moreover, we show that this implementation of stimulus selectivity increases the neuron's robustness to synaptic and dendritic failure. Importantly, our model can maintain stimulus selectivity for a larger range of loss of synapses or dendrites than an equivalent linear model. We then use a layer 2/3 biophysical neuron model to show that our implementation is consistent with two recent experimental observations: (1) one can observe a mixture of selectivities in dendrites that can differ from the somatic selectivity, and (2) hyperpolarization can broaden somatic tuning without affecting dendritic tuning. Our model predicts that an initially nonselective neuron can become selective when depolarized. In addition to motivating new experiments, the model's increased robustness to synapses and dendrites loss provides a starting point for fault-resistant neuromorphic chip development.

  11. Why the "stimulus-error" did not go away.

    PubMed

    Chirimuuta, M

    2016-04-01

    Psychologists in the early years of the discipline were much concerned with the stimulus-error. Roughly, this is the problem encountered in introspective experiments when subjects are liable to frame their perceptual reports in terms of what they know of the stimulus, instead of just drawing on their perceptual experiences as they are supposedly felt. "Introspectionist" psychologist E. B. Titchener and his student E. G. Boring both argued in the early 20th century that the stimulus-error is a serious methodological pit-fall. While many of the theoretical suppositions motivating Titchener and Boring have been unfashionable since the rise of behaviourism, the stimulus-error brings our attention to one matter of perennial importance to psychophysics and the psychology of perception. This is the fact that subjects are liable to give different kinds of perceptual reports in response to the same stimulus. I discuss attempts to control for variable reports in recent experimental work on colour and lightness constancy, and the disputes that have arisen over which kinds of reports are legitimate. Some contemporary psychologists do warn us against a stimulus-error, even though they do not use this terminology. I argue that concern over the stimulus-error is diagnostic of psychologists' deep theoretical commitments, such as their conception of sensation, or their demarcation of perception from cognition. I conclude by discussing the relevance of this debate to current philosophy of perception.

  12. Assessing pragmatic skills in elicited production.

    PubMed

    de Villiers, Peter

    2004-02-01

    In developing a test of pragmatic skills for children ages 4 to 9 years, we focused on a number of functional language skills that are important for children's success in early schooling and for the development of fluent reading and writing. They included (1) wh-question asking, (2) communicative role taking, (3) linking events in a cohesive narrative, and (4) articulating the mental states of the characters in a story. All of the proposed items provide specific referential support and pragmatic motivation for the forms and content to be produced by the child. The pictured materials and elicitation prompts constrain the range of appropriate utterances, so the children's productions are more easily scored than an open-ended spontaneous speech sample. All tasks described show a clear developmental trend, a clear separation between the performance of typically developing and language-impaired children, and no performance differences between African American English- and Mainstream American English-speaking children.

  13. Bayesian markets to elicit private information

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Financial markets reveal what investors think about the future, and prediction markets are used to forecast election results. Could markets also encourage people to reveal private information, such as subjective judgments (e.g., “Are you satisfied with your life?”) or unverifiable facts? This paper shows how to design such markets, called Bayesian markets. People trade an asset whose value represents the proportion of affirmative answers to a question. Their trading position then reveals their own answer to the question. The results of this paper are based on a Bayesian setup in which people use their private information (their “type”) as a signal. Hence, beliefs about others’ types are correlated with one’s own type. Bayesian markets transform this correlation into a mechanism that rewards truth telling. These markets avoid two complications of alternative methods: they need no knowledge of prior information and no elicitation of metabeliefs regarding others’ signals. PMID:28696293

  14. Cellular requirements for cutaneous sensitivity elicitation.

    PubMed

    Aoki, I

    1985-01-01

    The role of glass-adherent cells in cutaneous sensitivity (CS) elicitation has been analyzed in this study. CS responses have been revealed to be mediated by at least two distinct subsets of genetically restricted T cells: I-restricted 'DTH-like' T cells and K/D-restricted 'CTL-like' T cells. Both T-cell responses require I-A-positive glass-adherent cell populations, which lack T-cell markers, to manifest their activities. The role of the adherent cells is different in the 'DTH-like' responses and the 'CTL-like' responses. The disparities between the present results and previous contentions are discussed in this paper.

  15. Recording evoked potentials during deep brain stimulation: development and validation of instrumentation to suppress the stimulus artefact

    PubMed Central

    Kent, A R; Grill, W M

    2012-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective treatment for movement disorders, but the selection of stimulus parameters is a clinical burden and often yields sub-optimal outcomes for patients. Measurement of electrically evoked compound action potentials (ECAPs) during DBS could offer insight into the type and spatial extent of neural element activation and provide a potential feedback signal for the rational selection of stimulus parameters and closed-loop DBS. However, recording ECAPs presents a significant technical challenge due to the large stimulus artefact, which can saturate recording amplifiers and distort short latency ECAP signals. We developed DBS-ECAP recording instrumentation combining commercial amplifiers and circuit elements in a serial configuration to reduce the stimulus artefact and enable high fidelity recording. We used an electrical circuit equivalent model of the instrumentation to understand better the sources of the stimulus artefact and the mechanisms of artefact reduction by the circuit elements. In vitro testing validated the capability of the instrumentation to suppress the stimulus artefact and increase gain by a factor of 1,000 to 5,000 compared to a conventional biopotential amplifier. The distortion of mock ECAP (mECAP) signals was measured across stimulation parameters, and the instrumentation enabled high fidelity recording of mECAPs with latencies of only 0.5 ms for DBS pulse widths of 50 to 100 μs/phase. Subsequently, the instrumentation was used to record in vivo ECAPs, without contamination by the stimulus artefact, during thalamic DBS in an anesthetized cat. The characteristics of the physiological ECAP were dependent on stimulation parameters. The novel instrumentation enables high fidelity ECAP recording and advances the potential use of the ECAP as a feedback signal for the tuning of DBS parameters. PMID:22510375

  16. Tolerance to morphine analgesia: evidence for stimulus intensity as a key factor and complete reversal by a glycine site-specific NMDA antagonist.

    PubMed

    Adam, Frédéric; Bonnet, Francis; Le Bars, Daniel

    2006-08-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are widely involved in opioid tolerance. However, it is less clear whether NMDA receptor antagonists reverse already-established tolerance and whether the intensity of the nociceptive stimulus influences morphine tolerance. Three days after implantation of morphine or control pellets the effects of i.v. morphine and pre-administration of saline or (+)-HA966 (a glycine site-specific NMDA receptor antagonist), were studied on the C-fibre reflex elicited by a wide range of stimulus intensities. Morphine both increased the threshold and decreased the slope of the recruitment curve in the "non-tolerant" group of animals. In the "morphine-tolerant" group, the threshold did not change but the gain of the stimulus-response curve decreased. The expression of tolerance to morphine depended on the intensity of the stimulus, being maximal when threshold stimulus intensities were used but considerably less with supra-threshold stimulation. As expected, a single treatment with (+)-HA966, potentiated morphine antinociception in "non-tolerant" rats. However, in "morphine-tolerant" rats (+)-HA966 reversed established morphine tolerance and increased the antinociceptive effects of morphine. These results suggest that (+)-HA966 interfered with expression of morphine tolerance, and offered an encouraging therapeutic approach for pain management in opioid abusers.

  17. A Comparison of Stimulus-Stimulus Pairing, Standard Echoic Training, and Control Procedures on the Vocal Behavior of Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stock, Richard A.; Schulze, Kimberly A.; Mirenda, Pat

    2008-01-01

    An alternating treatments design was employed to compare the effect of stimulus-stimulus pairing, standard echoic training, and a control condition on the vocal behavior of 3 preschoolers with autism. Data were recorded during pre- and postsession observations. During the stimulus-stimulus pairing condition, the experimenter's vocal model was…

  18. Finding the missing-stimulus mismatch negativity (MMN) in early psychosis: altered MMN to violations of an auditory gestalt.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Erica D; Ells, Emma M L; Campbell, Debra J; Abriel, Shelagh C; Tibbo, Philip G; Salisbury, Dean F; Fisher, Derek J

    2015-08-01

    The mismatch negativity (MMN) is an EEG-derived event-related potential (ERP) elicited by any violation of a predicted auditory 'rule', regardless of whether one is attending to the stimuli, and is thought to reflect updating of the stimulus context. Chronic schizophrenia patients exhibit robust MMN deficits, while MMN reduction in first-episode and early phase psychosis is significantly less consistent. Traditional two-tone "oddball" MMN measures of sensory information processing may be considered too simple for use in early phase psychosis in which pathology has not progressed fully, and a paradigm that probes higher order processes may be more appropriate for elucidating auditory change detection deficits. This study investigated whether MMN deficits could be detected in early phase psychosis (EP) patients using an abstract 'missing stimulus' pattern paradigm (Salisbury, 2012). The stimuli were 400 groups of six tones (1000Hz, 50ms duration, 330ms stimulus onset asynchrony), which was presented with an inter-trial interval of 750ms. Occasionally a group contained a deviant, meaning that it was missing either the 4th or 6th tone (50 trials each). EEG recordings of 13 EP patients (≤5year duration of illness) and 15 healthy controls (HC) were collected. Patients and controls did not significantly differ on age or years of education. Analyses of MMN amplitudes elicited by missing stimuli revealed amplitude reductions in EP patients, suggesting that these deficits are present very early in the progression of the illness. While there were no correlations between MMN measures and measures such as duration of illness, medication dosage or age, MMN amplitude reductions were correlated with positive symptomatology (i.e. auditory hallucinations). These findings suggest that MMNs elicited by the 'missing stimulus' paradigm are impaired in psychosis patients early in the progression of illness and that previously reported MMN-indexed deficits related to auditory

  19. Short and long latency jaw-opening reflex responses elicited by mechanical stimulation in man.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Y; Stohler, C S; Shimada, K; Ash, M M

    1985-01-01

    Jaw-opening reflex responses elicited by tapping the chin during maximum clenching in incisal edge-to-edge contact position were studied in 10 healthy subjects. Stimuli were also delivered during weak clenching on a rubber stamp, separating the incisors by approx. 10 mm and protruding the mandible to the edge-to-edge incisor relationship. All four central incisors were stimulated simultaneously. With weak stimuli, there was a short-latency (9.5 ms) digastric response which may have had a disynaptic pathway. Taps of moderate strength produced long-latency (20 ms) responses, and sometimes a short-latency (9.5 ms) component as well. Strong (non-painful) taps produced an even longer-latency digastric response, 30 ms or more following the stimulus with less synchronization than earlier responses. Jaw-jerk reflexes occurred 8.5 ms following the tap, independently of the magnitude of the stimulus. Local anaesthesia of the upper and lower incisors abolished the digastric muscle response. Thus large periodontal afferents may be responsible for the early digastric reflex activity and smaller fibres for later effects. Temporal summation of the reflex response probably occurred when all incisors were stimulated simultaneously.

  20. Modulation of cutaneous flexor responses induced in man by vibration-elicited proprioceptive or exteroceptive inputs.

    PubMed

    Martin, B J; Roll, J P; Hugon, M

    1990-10-01

    The effects of muscle tendon or skin vibration on the early and late components of polyphasic cutaneous responses elicited in the flexor carpi radialis by electrical stimulation of the radial nerve at the wrist were studied in the human, with all muscles at rest. Both early and late flexor responses were enhanced by flexor vibration and depressed by extensor vibration; facilitation was accompanied by a reduction of latency. Furthermore, when an "antagonist vibration response" was present, inhibition of the flexor reflexes was replaced by a facilitation. Palm skin vibration depressed both components of the flexor reflex, while dorsal or "back-hand" skin vibration induced either a facilitation or an inhibition. In addition, back-hand vibration modified the location of the sensations evoked by electrical stimulation of the nerve. In all cases, vibratory stimulus attenuated the perceived intensity of the electrical stimulus. These observations indicate that proprioceptive or exteroceptive information can modulate the gain of the cutaneous reflex loops in a flexible way, under supraspinal control. These data also suggest a possible impairment of the protective withdrawal reflex under vibratory environmental conditions at rest and eventually in active muscles.

  1. Anthropogenic Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields Elicit Neuropathic Pain in an Amputation Model

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Erick; Romero-Ortega, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Anecdotal and clinical reports have suggested that radio-frequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMFs) may serve as a trigger for neuropathic pain. However, these reports have been widely disregarded, as the epidemiological effects of electromagnetic fields have not been systematically proven, and are highly controversial. Here, we demonstrate that anthropogenic RF EMFs elicit post-neurotomy pain in a tibial neuroma transposition model. Behavioral assays indicate a persistent and significant pain response to RF EMFs when compared to SHAM surgery groups. Laser thermometry revealed a transient skin temperature increase during stimulation. Furthermore, immunofluorescence revealed an increased expression of temperature sensitive cation channels (TRPV4) in the neuroma bulb, suggesting that RF EMF-induced pain may be due to cytokine-mediated channel dysregulation and hypersensitization, leading to thermal allodynia. Additional behavioral assays were performed using an infrared heating lamp in place of the RF stimulus. While thermally-induced pain responses were observed, the response frequency and progression did not recapitulate the RF EMF effects. In vitro calcium imaging experiments demonstrated that our RF EMF stimulus is sufficient to directly contribute to the depolarization of dissociated sensory neurons. Furthermore, the perfusion of inflammatory cytokine TNF-α resulted in a significantly higher percentage of active sensory neurons during RF EMF stimulation. These results substantiate patient reports of RF EMF-pain, in the case of peripheral nerve injury, while confirming the public and scientific consensus that anthropogenic RF EMFs engender no adverse sensory effects in the general population. PMID:26760033

  2. Anthropogenic Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields Elicit Neuropathic Pain in an Amputation Model.

    PubMed

    Black, Bryan; Granja-Vazquez, Rafael; Johnston, Benjamin R; Jones, Erick; Romero-Ortega, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Anecdotal and clinical reports have suggested that radio-frequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMFs) may serve as a trigger for neuropathic pain. However, these reports have been widely disregarded, as the epidemiological effects of electromagnetic fields have not been systematically proven, and are highly controversial. Here, we demonstrate that anthropogenic RF EMFs elicit post-neurotomy pain in a tibial neuroma transposition model. Behavioral assays indicate a persistent and significant pain response to RF EMFs when compared to SHAM surgery groups. Laser thermometry revealed a transient skin temperature increase during stimulation. Furthermore, immunofluorescence revealed an increased expression of temperature sensitive cation channels (TRPV4) in the neuroma bulb, suggesting that RF EMF-induced pain may be due to cytokine-mediated channel dysregulation and hypersensitization, leading to thermal allodynia. Additional behavioral assays were performed using an infrared heating lamp in place of the RF stimulus. While thermally-induced pain responses were observed, the response frequency and progression did not recapitulate the RF EMF effects. In vitro calcium imaging experiments demonstrated that our RF EMF stimulus is sufficient to directly contribute to the depolarization of dissociated sensory neurons. Furthermore, the perfusion of inflammatory cytokine TNF-α resulted in a significantly higher percentage of active sensory neurons during RF EMF stimulation. These results substantiate patient reports of RF EMF-pain, in the case of peripheral nerve injury, while confirming the public and scientific consensus that anthropogenic RF EMFs engender no adverse sensory effects in the general population.

  3. Pollen Elicits Proboscis Extension but Does not Reinforce PER Learning in Honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Nicholls, Elizabeth; Hempel de Ibarra, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    The function of pollen as a reward for foraging bees is little understood, though there is evidence to suggest that it can reinforce associations with visual and olfactory floral cues. Foraging bees do not feed on pollen, thus one could argue that it cannot serve as an appetitive reinforcer in the same way as sucrose. However, ingestion is not a critical parameter for sucrose reinforcement, since olfactory proboscis extension (PER) learning can be conditioned through antennal stimulation only. During pollen collection, the antennae and mouthparts come into contact with pollen, thus it is possible that pollen reinforces associative learning through similar gustatory pathways as sucrose. Here pollen was presented as the unconditioned stimulus (US), either in its natural state or in a 30% pollen-water solution, and was found to elicit proboscis extension following antennal stimulation. Control groups were exposed to either sucrose or a clean sponge as the US, or an unpaired presentation of the conditioned stimulus (CS) and pollen US. Despite steady levels of responding to the US, bees did not learn to associate a neutral odour with the delivery of a pollen reward, thus whilst pollen has a proboscis extension releasing function, it does not reinforce olfactory PER learning. PMID:26462523

  4. Reflex receptive fields for human withdrawal reflexes elicited by non-painful and painful electrical stimulation of the foot sole.

    PubMed

    Andersen, O K; Sonnenborg, F A; Arendt-Nielsen, L

    2001-04-01

    Human withdrawal reflex receptive fields (RRFs) were assessed for 4 different electrical stimulus intensities, ranging from below the pain threshold (PTh) to up to two times the PTh intensity (0.8x, 1.2x, 1.6x, and 2.0xPTh). Thirteen subjects participated, and the reflexes were recorded in a sitting position. The stimuli were delivered in random order to 12 positions distributed over the foot sole. Tibialis anterior (TA), gastrocnemius medialis (GM), vastus lateralis (VL), and biceps femoris (BF) reflexes were recorded. Further, knee and ankle joint angle changes were recorded. The strongest reflexes were seen in the TA compared with the other 3 muscles. Dorsi-flexion dominated distal to the talocrural joint corresponding to the TA receptive field area. An expansion of the RRF for the TA and GM was seen when increasing the stimulus intensity from 0.8xPTh to 1.2xPTh and from 1.2xPTh to 1.6xPTh, indicating a gradually increasing reflex threshold towards the border, where TA contraction is inappropriate in a withdrawal reaction. For the BF and VL, the borders of the RRF areas were not detected. By integrating the reflex size within the RRF (i.e. the reflex volume), gradually increasing reflexes for increasing stimulus intensity were seen in all 4 muscles tested, most clearly in the TA and GM. The subjective pain intensity correlated to the reflex volume for the TA, GM, and BF. In conclusion, the highest reflex sensitivity was seen in the centre of the RRF, while the stimulus intensity needed for eliciting a reflex increased towards the receptive field border. Within the RRF, stronger reflexes were evoked for increasing stimulus intensity. The limit in the size of the receptive field size for the TA and GM supports a modular withdrawal reflex organisation.

  5. Volatile Anesthetic Effects on Midbrain-elicited Locomotion Suggest that the Locomotor Network in the Ventral Spinal Cord Is the Primary Site for Immobility

    PubMed Central

    Jinks, Steven L.; Bravo, Milo; Hayes, Shawn G.

    2009-01-01

    Background Volatile anesthetics produce immobility primarily by action in the spinal cord; however, anesthetic effects among different neuronal classes located in different spinal regions, and how they relate to immobility, are not understood. Methods In decerebrated rats, effects of isoflurane and halothane on movement elicited by electrical microstimulation of the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) were assessed in relation to minimum alveolar concentration (MAC). Anesthetic effects on step frequency and isometric limb force were measured. The authors also examined effects of MLR stimulation on responses of nociceptive dorsal horn neurons and limb force responses to tail clamp. Results Mean isoflurane requirements to block MLR-elicited stepping were slightly but significantly greater than MAC by 10%. Mean halothane requirements to block MLR-elicited stepping were greater than those for isoflurane and exceeded MAC by 20%. From 0.4 to 1.3 MAC (but not 0.0 to 0.4 MAC), there was a dose-dependent reduction in the frequency and force of hind limb movements elicited by MLR stimulation during both anesthetics. MLR stimulation inhibited noxious stimulus evoked responses of dorsal horn neurons by approximately 80%. Aptly, MLR stimulation produced analgesia that outlasted the midbrain stimulus by at least 15 s, as indicated by an 81% reduction in hind limb force elicited noxious tail clamp. Conclusions Because electrical stimulation of the MLR elicits movement independent of dorsal horn activation, the results suggest that the immobilizing properties of isoflurane and halothane are largely independent of action in the dorsal horn. The results suggest that volatile anesthetics produce immobility mainly by action on ventral spinal locomotor networks. PMID:18497602

  6. ERP correlates of priming in language and stimulus equivalence: evidence of similar N400 effects in absence of semantic content.

    PubMed

    Tabullo, Angel; Yorio, Alberto; Zanutto, Silvano; Wainselboim, Alejandro

    2015-05-01

    Semantic priming has been widely observed at both behavioral and electrophysiological levels as reductions in response times and N400 magnitudes respectively. However, the possibility that stimulus relations derived from associative learning elicit N400 priming effects comparable to those found in language has not been properly addressed yet. Equivalence relations emerge after establishing a set of arbitrary and intra-experimentally defined relations through associative learning, thus allowing the study of derived stimulus relations in the absence of semantic content. The present study aimed to compare ERP correlates of priming in semantically related words and pseudowords related through equivalence. We found similar behavioral and N400 effects when comparing unrelated vs related prime-target pairs in language and stimulus equivalence tasks, suggesting that priming engages at least partially overlapping neural mechanisms in both contexts. In addition, we found a posteriorly distributed late positivity in the semantic priming task only, which may be reflecting language-specific processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Experimental Designs and the 'Emotion Stimulus Critique': Hidden Problems and Potential Solutions in the Study of Emotion.

    PubMed

    Pascual-Leone, Antonio; Herpertz, Sabine C; Kramer, Ueli

    2016-01-01

    Emotional experience is increasingly being measured using experimental tasks, but the stimuli used are often only proxies for the emotion being studied. Stimuli are intended to evoke a distinct emotional experience, but certain designs fail to adequately control for the actual experience in question. In this methodological paper, we review designs used in clinical psychology aimed at measuring emotion and develop the argument of the 'emotion stimulus critique'. Designs of neuroimaging studies on emotion in this context are given preference. We argue that studies often concentrate on standardization of the stimulus material (i.e. words, images, and movies) for eliciting an emotional experience, whereas standardization of the actual participant's experience is seldom performed. Our proposal discusses the use of standardized stimuli in experimental designs and contrasts this with the necessity of controlling for a participant's unique emotional response. We highlight the importance of each participant's 'inner metric', i.e. the individual's experiential anchor, which needs to be taken into account when examining the emotional correlates of psychiatric disorders or psychotherapeutic change. Implications of the emotion stimulus critique for research are discussed within the context of psychology, particularly clinical psychology and psychotherapy. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. High Frequency Electric Stimulation of Retinal Neurons Elicits Physiological Signaling Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Fried, Shelley I.; Cai, Changsi; Ren, Qiushi

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of retinal prosthetics will depend on their ability to elicit patterns of neural activity that can be recognized by the visual cortex. While conventional short-duration pulses activate retinal neurons effectively, many nearby neurons are thought to respond similarly to a given pulse train – a situation that is non-physiological. Use of pulse trains delivered at rates > 1000 pulses per second (PPS) in cochlear prosthetics help to avoid phase-locked responses but have not been evaluated in the retina; here, we explored the response to trains of 2000 PPS. We found that ganglion cells respond robustly to these stimuli but that the properties of the response were highly sensitive to stimulus amplitude. At low amplitudes the response patterns were burst-like while at higher amplitudes elicited spikes had intervals that were more uniform. Because burst responses were insensitive to synaptic blockers, our results suggest that they arise from direct activation. This was surprising because previous studies indicated that burst responses arise only through indirect activation. Thus, our results suggest multiple mechanisms of burst creation may exist. Further, histograms of interspike intervals revealed that the response properties were different in different types of ganglion cells. While further testing is needed, the ability to create different patterns of activity in different types of ganglion cells raises the possibility that more natural spike patterns can be created. PMID:22254500

  9. Resurgence of derived stimulus relations: replication and extensions.

    PubMed

    Doughty, Adam H; Kastner, Rebecca M; Bismark, Bryan D

    2011-01-01

    Resurgence typically refers to the recovery of a previously reinforced response when a more recently reinforced response is extinguished. Under conditions of punishment, Wilson and Hayes (1996) observed the recovery of derived stimulus relations that never had been correlated with differential consequences. The present study systematically replicated the findings of Wilson and Hayes by observing the recovery of derived stimulus relations under extinction conditions and with an additional equivalence class. College students received arbitrary-matching-to-sample training in Phase 1 that resulted in four 4-member stimulus-equivalence classes. These derived relations were not correlated with differential consequences. In Phase 2, with the same stimuli, the students received training that resulted in four different 4-member stimulus-equivalence classes. After the emergence and reinforcement of the latter derived relations, their extinction generated the recurrence of the derived relations from Phase 1. The implications of these findings for conceptualizing resurgence are discussed.

  10. Probability effects on stimulus evaluation and response processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehring, W. J.; Gratton, G.; Coles, M. G.; Donchin, E.

    1992-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of probability information on response preparation and stimulus evaluation. Eight subjects responded with one hand to the target letter H and with the other to the target letter S. The target letter was surrounded by noise letters that were either the same as or different from the target letter. In 2 conditions, the targets were preceded by a warning stimulus unrelated to the target letter. In 2 other conditions, a warning letter predicted that the same letter or the opposite letter would appear as the imperative stimulus with .80 probability. Correct reaction times were faster and error rates were lower when imperative stimuli confirmed the predictions of the warning stimulus. Probability information affected (a) the preparation of motor responses during the foreperiod, (b) the development of expectancies for a particular target letter, and (c) a process sensitive to the identities of letter stimuli but not to their locations.

  11. Probability effects on stimulus evaluation and response processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehring, W. J.; Gratton, G.; Coles, M. G.; Donchin, E.

    1992-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of probability information on response preparation and stimulus evaluation. Eight subjects responded with one hand to the target letter H and with the other to the target letter S. The target letter was surrounded by noise letters that were either the same as or different from the target letter. In 2 conditions, the targets were preceded by a warning stimulus unrelated to the target letter. In 2 other conditions, a warning letter predicted that the same letter or the opposite letter would appear as the imperative stimulus with .80 probability. Correct reaction times were faster and error rates were lower when imperative stimuli confirmed the predictions of the warning stimulus. Probability information affected (a) the preparation of motor responses during the foreperiod, (b) the development of expectancies for a particular target letter, and (c) a process sensitive to the identities of letter stimuli but not to their locations.

  12. The Stimulus Movement Effect: Allocation of Attention or Artifact?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, David A.

    1993-01-01

    In previous reports, including one by the author, learning has been shown to benefit by having discriminanda move rather than remain stationary. This stimulus movement effect might be attributed to several theoretical mechanisms, including attention, topological memory, and exposure duration. The series of experiments reported in this article was designed to Contrast these potential explanatory factors. Ten rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were tested on a variety of computerized tasks in which the stimuli remained stationary, flashed, or moved at systematically varied speeds. Performance was significantly best when the sample stimulus moved quickly and was poorest when the stimulus remained stationary. Further analysis of these data and other previously published data revealed that the distribution of the stimulus movement effect across trials supported an attention allocation interpretation.

  13. Decoding stimulus features in primate somatosensory cortex during perceptual categorization

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Manuel; Zainos, Antonio; Romo, Ranulfo

    2015-01-01

    Neurons of the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) respond as functions of frequency or amplitude of a vibrotactile stimulus. However, whether S1 neurons encode both frequency and amplitude of the vibrotactile stimulus or whether each sensory feature is encoded by separate populations of S1 neurons is not known, To further address these questions, we recorded S1 neurons while trained monkeys categorized only one sensory feature of the vibrotactile stimulus: frequency, amplitude, or duration. The results suggest a hierarchical encoding scheme in S1: from neurons that encode all sensory features of the vibrotactile stimulus to neurons that encode only one sensory feature. We hypothesize that the dynamic representation of each sensory feature in S1 might serve for further downstream processing that leads to the monkey’s psychophysical behavior observed in these tasks. PMID:25825711

  14. The Stimulus Movement Effect: Allocation of Attention or Artifact?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, David A.

    1993-01-01

    In previous reports, including one by the author, learning has been shown to benefit by having discriminanda move rather than remain stationary. This stimulus movement effect might be attributed to several theoretical mechanisms, including attention, topological memory, and exposure duration. The series of experiments reported in this article was designed to Contrast these potential explanatory factors. Ten rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were tested on a variety of computerized tasks in which the stimuli remained stationary, flashed, or moved at systematically varied speeds. Performance was significantly best when the sample stimulus moved quickly and was poorest when the stimulus remained stationary. Further analysis of these data and other previously published data revealed that the distribution of the stimulus movement effect across trials supported an attention allocation interpretation.

  15. Dependence of the negative BOLD response on somatosensory stimulus intensity.

    PubMed

    Klingner, Carsten M; Hasler, Caroline; Brodoehl, Stefan; Witte, Otto W

    2010-10-15

    The primary somatosensory cortex (SI) has been shown to encode the intensity of a stimulus applied to the contralateral side of the body. Recent studies have demonstrated that ipsilateral SI is also involved in the processing of somatosensory information. In this study, we investigated the dependence of the negative BOLD response in ipsilateral SI on the intensity of somatosensory stimulation. Functional MRI was performed in 12 healthy subjects during electrical median nerve stimulation at four different intensities. A monotonic relationship between stimulus intensity and the strength of the negative BOLD response in ipsilateral SI was found. Additionally, a psychophysiological experiment revealed tight coupling between the stimulus intensity applied to one hand and increased perceptual threshold of the other hand. These findings indicate a stimulus intensity-dependent inhibition of ipsilateral SI.

  16. Signalization and stimulus-substitution in Pavlov's theory of conditioning.

    PubMed

    García-Hoz, Víctor

    2003-11-01

    The concept of conditioning as signalization proposed by Ivan P. Pavlov (1927, 1928) is studied in relation to the theory of stimulus-substitution, which is also attributed to him. In the so-called theory of stimulus-substitution a distinction must be made between an empirical principle of substitution and an actual theory of substitution, which can adopt different forms. The Pavlovian theory of substitution--which conceives substitution as a substitution of the unconditioned stimulus (US) by the conditioned stimulus (CS) in the activation of the representation of the former--can be understood as an explanation or model of signalization. Signalization and substitution are answers to different questions, and the level of analysis to which signalization corresponds, is that which concerns the nature of conditioning as an operation of the animal in the environment.

  17. The transfer of avoidance evoking functions through stimulus equivalence classes.

    PubMed

    Augustson, E M; Dougher, M J

    1997-09-01

    Recent research in the area of stimulus equivalence suggests that transfer of function via members of stimulus equivalence classes may have relevance to human emotional responding and the development and generalization of certain psychological disorders. This study investigated the transfer of avoidance evoking functions through equivalence classes. Eight subjects were trained in the necessary relations for two-four member stimulus equivalence classes to emerge. Next, using an on-baseline classical conditioning procedure, one member of one class was paired with shock while one member of the other class was presented without shock. Then, while subjects engaged a key-press task, a differential, signalled avoidance task was introduced wherein shock was avoided if a response occurred to the stimulus previously associated with shock. The remaining stimuli from both classes were then presented. The behavior of all eight subjects showed the differential transfer of the avoidance evoking function. The clinical and theoretical implications of the results are discussed.

  18. The shaping of social perception by stimulus and knowledge cues to human animacy.

    PubMed

    Cross, Emily S; Ramsey, Richard; Liepelt, Roman; Prinz, Wolfgang; de C Hamilton, Antonia F

    2016-01-19

    Although robots are becoming an ever-growing presence in society, we do not hold the same expectations for robots as we do for humans, nor do we treat them the same. As such, the ability to recognize cues to human animacy is fundamental for guiding social interactions. We review literature that demonstrates cortical networks associated with person perception, action observation and mentalizing are sensitive to human animacy information. In addition, we show that most prior research has explored stimulus properties of artificial agents (humanness of appearance or motion), with less investigation into knowledge cues (whether an agent is believed to have human or artificial origins). Therefore, currently little is known about the relationship between stimulus and knowledge cues to human animacy in terms of cognitive and brain mechanisms. Using fMRI, an elaborate belief manipulation, and human and robot avatars, we found that knowledge cues to human animacy modulate engagement of person perception and mentalizing networks, while stimulus cues to human animacy had less impact on social brain networks. These findings demonstrate that self-other similarities are not only grounded in physical features but are also shaped by prior knowledge. More broadly, as artificial agents fulfil increasingly social roles, a challenge for roboticists will be to manage the impact of pre-conceived beliefs while optimizing human-like design.

  19. The shaping of social perception by stimulus and knowledge cues to human animacy

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Richard; Liepelt, Roman; Prinz, Wolfgang; Hamilton, Antonia F. de C.

    2016-01-01

    Although robots are becoming an ever-growing presence in society, we do not hold the same expectations for robots as we do for humans, nor do we treat them the same. As such, the ability to recognize cues to human animacy is fundamental for guiding social interactions. We review literature that demonstrates cortical networks associated with person perception, action observation and mentalizing are sensitive to human animacy information. In addition, we show that most prior research has explored stimulus properties of artificial agents (humanness of appearance or motion), with less investigation into knowledge cues (whether an agent is believed to have human or artificial origins). Therefore, currently little is known about the relationship between stimulus and knowledge cues to human animacy in terms of cognitive and brain mechanisms. Using fMRI, an elaborate belief manipulation, and human and robot avatars, we found that knowledge cues to human animacy modulate engagement of person perception and mentalizing networks, while stimulus cues to human animacy had less impact on social brain networks. These findings demonstrate that self–other similarities are not only grounded in physical features but are also shaped by prior knowledge. More broadly, as artificial agents fulfil increasingly social roles, a challenge for roboticists will be to manage the impact of pre-conceived beliefs while optimizing human-like design. PMID:26644594

  20. Stimulus information contaminates summation tests of independent neural representations of features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimozaki, Steven S.; Eckstein, Miguel P.; Abbey, Craig K.

    2002-01-01

    Many models of visual processing assume that visual information is analyzed into separable and independent neural codes, or features. A common psychophysical test of independent features is known as a summation study, which measures performance in a detection, discrimination, or visual search task as the number of proposed features increases. Improvement in human performance with increasing number of available features is typically attributed to the summation, or combination, of information across independent neural coding of the features. In many instances, however, increasing the number of available features also increases the stimulus information in the task, as assessed by an optimal observer that does not include the independent neural codes. In a visual search task with spatial frequency and orientation as the component features, a particular set of stimuli were chosen so that all searches had equivalent stimulus information, regardless of the number of features. In this case, human performance did not improve with increasing number of features, implying that the improvement observed with additional features may be due to stimulus information and not the combination across independent features.

  1. Roll aftereffects: influence of tilt and inter-stimulus interval.

    PubMed

    Crane, Benjamin T

    2012-11-01

    A theme in sensory perception is that exposure to a stimulus causes perception of subsequent stimuli to be shifted in the opposite direction. Such phenomenon is known as aftereffect and has been extensively described in the visual system as well as recently described for the vestibular system during translation. It is known from aviation studies that after a maneuver in roll, pilots can experience a false perception of roll in the opposite direction. The magnitude and duration of this effect as well as the potential influence of the gravity vector have not previously been defined. In the current paper this roll aftereffect (RAE) is examined in response to whole-body roll about an earth-horizontal axis in eight healthy human subjects. The peak velocity of a 0.5-s-duration roll was varied based on previous responses to find the point where subjects perceived no motion. Without a preceding stimulus, the starting position (upright, 9° left, or 9° right) did not influence roll perception. The RAE was measured in a completely dark room using an adapting (first interval) stimulus consisting of 9° of roll over 1.5 s (peak velocity, 12°/s), delivered 0.5, 3, or 6 s prior to test (second interval) stimulus. A significant RAE was seen in all subjects. Half a second after the adapting stimulus, a test stimulus had to be on average 1.5 ± 0.4°/s in the opposite direction to be perceived as stationary. When the subject remained upright after the adapting stimulus, the RAE diminished with time, although it remained significantly larger at 3 and 6 s when the subject remained tilted after the adapting stimulus. These data demonstrate that roll perception can be influenced by small preceding stimuli and tilt causes a persistence of the RAE.

  2. Overselective stimulus control in residential school students with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Chata A; Wang, Sharon S; Lombard, Kristin M; Dube, William V

    2006-01-01

    Overselective stimulus control was assessed in 29 students at residential schools for individuals with developmental disabilities. Overselectivity testing included three different delayed identity matching-to-sample tasks. Sample stimuli for the Form/Color Test were nine possible combinations of three colors and three forms. On each trial, the S+ stimulus was identical to the sample, one S- was the same color as the sample but a different form, and the other S- was the same form but a different color. Sample stimuli for the Two-Sample Test were two alphanumeric characters. The S+ stimulus was identical to one of the sample stimuli, and two S- stimuli were characters different from both samples. Sample stimuli for the Faces Test were six digital images of adult faces. On each trial, the S+ stimulus was identical to the sample, one S- stimulus was a non-matching face to which one sample feature had been added (e.g., an identical hat or scarf), and the other S- stimulus was an unaltered non-matching face. All participants were also tested with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test III (PPVT) and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS). Results indicated overselective stimulus control on at least one test for 18 of the 29 participants. Overselectivity (a) was distributed across a range of PPVT mental age equivalent scores from <1.75 to 8.83; (b) was more likely in individuals with higher ADOS scores; (c) was most likely on the Two-Sample Test; and (d) was found in five individuals on more than one of the tests. Thus, overselective stimulus control may occur across a range of characteristics typical for students who attend residential special-education programs.

  3. Roll Aftereffects: Influence of tilt and inter-stimulus interval

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Benjamin T.

    2012-01-01

    A theme in sensory perception it that exposure to a stimulus causes perception of subsequent stimuli to be shifted in the opposite direction. Such phenomenon are known as aftereffects and have been extensively described in the visual system as well as recently described for the vestibular system during translation. It is known from aviation studies that after a maneuver in roll pilots can experience a false perception of roll in the opposite direction. The magnitude and duration of this effect as well as the potential influence of the gravity vector have not previously been defined. In the current paper this roll aftereffect (RAE) is examined in response to whole body roll about an earth-horizontal axis in eight healthy human subjects. The peak velocity of a 0.5 s duration roll was varied based on previous responses to find the point where subjects perceived no motion. Without an preceding stimulus the starting position (upright, 9° left, or 9° right) did not influence roll perception. The RAE was measured in a completely dark room using an adapting (firstinterval) stimulus consisting of 9° of roll over 1.5 s (peak velocity 12°/s), delivered 0.5, 3, or 6s prior to test (second-interval) stimulus. A significant RAE was seen in all subjects. Half a second after the adapting stimulus a test stimulus had to be on average 1.5 ± 0.4°/s in the opposite direction to be perceived as stationary. When the subject remained upright after the adapting stimulus the RAE diminished with time, although it remained significantly larger at 3s and 6s when the subject remained tilted after the adapting stimulus. These data demonstrate that roll perception can be influenced by small preceding stimuli and tilt causes a persistence of the RAE. PMID:22945611

  4. The Impact of Stimulus Presentation and Size on Preference.

    PubMed

    Moore, James W; Radley, Keith C; Dart, Evan H; Whipple, Heather M; Ness, Emily J; Murphy, Ashley N; Furlow, Chris; Wimberly, Joy K; Smith, Ashley

    2017-06-01

    The impact of stimulus size and presentation on choice during a preference assessment was investigated using a modified multiple-stimulus without replacement (MSWO) technique. Stimuli were either presented with a uniform magnitude, as determined by mass, or in a manner consistent with caregiver report of reinforcer consumption. While both assessment procedures identified the same top three preferred items in three out of five cases, greater variability in the preference rank of less preferred items was observed between assessments.

  5. Multiple Color Stimulus Induced Steady State Visual Evoked Potentials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    MULTIPLE COLOR STIMULUS INDUCED STEADY STATE VISUAL EVOKED POTENTIALS M. Cheng, X. Gao, S. Gao, D. Xu Institute of Biomedical Engineering...characteristics of high SNR and effectiveness in short-term identification of evoked responses. In most of the SSVEP experiments, single high...frequency stimuli are used. To characterize the complex rhythms in SSVEP, a new multiple color stimulus pattern is proposed in this paper. FFT and

  6. Neural Mechanisms for the Benefits of Stimulus-Driven Attention.

    PubMed

    Wills, Katelyn M; Liu, Jingtai; Hakun, Jonathan; Zhu, David C; Hazeltine, Eliot; Ravizza, Susan M

    2016-10-05

    Stimulus-driven attention can improve working memory (WM) when drawn to behaviorally relevant information, but the neural mechanisms underlying this effect are unclear. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test competing hypotheses regarding the nature of the benefits of stimulus-driven attention to WM: that stimulus-driven attention benefits WM directly via salience detection, that stimulus-driven attention benefits WM incidentally via cognitive control mechanisms recruited to reduce interference from salient features, or that both mechanisms are co-involved in enhancing WM for salient information. To test these hypotheses, we observed activation in brain regions associated with cognitive control and salience detection. We found 2 cognitive control regions that were associated with enhanced memory for salient stimuli: a region in the right superior parietal lobule and a region in the right inferior frontal junction. No regions associated with salience detection were found to show this effect. These fMRI results support the hypothesis that benefits to WM from stimulus-driven attention occur primarily as a result of cognitive control and top-down factors rather than pure bottom-up aspects of stimulus-driven attention. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Delayed and current stimulus control in successive discriminations

    PubMed Central

    White, K. Geoffrey

    1990-01-01

    In a successive discrimination in which successively alternating red and green hues signaled component variable-interval schedules, sensitivity of the ratio of responses in the two components to variation in the component reinforcer ratio decreased systematically during the course of the component. This decrease in stimulus control or discrimination over the course of the component was shown to be the result of delayed control of responding during the component by the stimulus transition between components. When the red–green stimulus transition was altered by interpolating a white stimulus at the end of each 60-s component, discrimination at the beginning of the component (measured by the power-function exponent for sensitivity to reinforcement) was reduced. Conditions with the white stimulus inserted in other quarters of the component indicated that the current discriminative stimulus exerts control over responding throughout the component, whereas during about the first half of the component, response differentials are influenced by the transition between discriminative stimuli. PMID:16812614

  8. Brain response to empathy-eliciting scenarios involving pain in incarcerated psychopaths

    PubMed Central

    Decety, Jean; Skelly, Laurie R.; Kiehl, Kent A.

    2013-01-01

    Context A marked lack of empathy is a hallmark characteristic of individuals with psychopathy. However, neural response associated to empathic processing has not yet been directly examined in psychopathy especially in response to the perception of other people in pain and distress. Objective To identify potential differences in patterns of neural activity in incarcerated psychopaths and incarcerated controls during the perception of empathy-eliciting stimuli depicting other people in pain. Design In a case-control study, brain activation patterns elicited by dynamic stimuli depicting individuals being harmed and facial expression of pain were compared between incarcerated psychopaths and incarcerated controls. Setting Participants were scanned in on the grounds of a correctional facility using the Mind Research Network's mobile 1.5 T MRI system. Participants Eighty incarcerated males were classified according to scores on the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) as high (n = 27; PCL-R =30), intermediate (n = 28; PCL-R between 21–29), or low (n = 25; PCL-R ≤20) on psychopathy. Main Outcome Measure Neuro-hemodynamic response to empathy-eliciting dynamic scenarios revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging. Results Psychopaths exhibited significantly less activation in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, lateral orbitofrontal cortex, and periaqueductal gray relative to controls, but showed greater activation in the insula. Conclusion In response to pain cues expressed by others, psychopaths exhibit deficits in vmPFC and OFC regardless of stimulus type, but display selective impairment in processing facial cues of distress in regions associated with cognitive mentalizing. PMID:23615636

  9. Event-Related Potentials Elicited by Pre-Attentive Emotional Changes in Temporal Context

    PubMed Central

    Fujimura, Tomomi; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    The ability to detect emotional change in the environment is essential for adaptive behavior. The current study investigated whether event-related potentials (ERPs) can reflect emotional change in a visual sequence. To assess pre-attentive processing, we examined visual mismatch negativity (vMMN): the negative potentials elicited by a deviant (infrequent) stimulus embedded in a sequence of standard (frequent) stimuli. Participants in two experiments pre-attentively viewed visual sequences of Japanese kanji with different emotional connotations while ERPs were recorded. The visual sequence in Experiment 1 consisted of neutral standards and two types of emotional deviants with a strong and weak intensity. Although the results indicated that strongly emotional deviants elicited more occipital negativity than neutral standards, it was unclear whether these negativities were derived from emotional deviation in the sequence or from the emotional significance of the deviants themselves. In Experiment 2, the two identical emotional deviants were presented against different emotional standards. One type of deviants was emotionally incongruent with the standard and the other type of deviants was emotionally congruent with the standard. The results indicated that occipital negativities elicited by deviants resulted from perceptual changes in a visual sequence at a latency of 100–200 ms and from emotional changes at latencies of 200–260 ms. Contrary to the results of the ERP experiment, reaction times to deviants showed no effect of emotional context; negative stimuli were consistently detected more rapidly than were positive stimuli. Taken together, the results suggest that brain signals can reflect emotional change in a temporal context. PMID:23671693

  10. Expert Elicitation of Population-Level Effects of Disturbance.

    PubMed

    Fleishman, Erica; Burgman, Mark; Runge, Michael C; Schick, Robert S; Kraus, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Expert elicitation is a rigorous method for synthesizing expert knowledge to inform decision making and is reliable and practical when field data are limited. We evaluated the feasibility of applying expert elicitation to estimate population-level effects of disturbance on marine mammals. Diverse experts estimated parameters related to mortality and sublethal injury of North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis). We are now eliciting expert knowledge on the movement of right whales among geographic regions to parameterize a spatial model of health. Expert elicitation complements methods such as simulation models or extrapolations from other species, sometimes with greater accuracy and less uncertainty.

  11. Expert elicitation of population-level effects of disturbance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleishman, Erica; Burgman, Mark; Runge, Michael C.; Schick, Robert S; Krauss, Scott; Popper, Arthur N.; Hawkins, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Expert elicitation is a rigorous method for synthesizing expert knowledge to inform decision making and is reliable and practical when field data are limited. We evaluated the feasibility of applying expert elicitation to estimate population-level effects of disturbance on marine mammals. Diverse experts estimated parameters related to mortality and sublethal injury of North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis). We are now eliciting expert knowledge on the movement of right whales among geographic regions to parameterize a spatial model of health. Expert elicitation complements methods such as simulation models or extrapolations from other species, sometimes with greater accuracy and less uncertainty.

  12. Influence of stimulus parameters on amplitude-modulated stimulus frequency otoacoustic emissionsa

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Tiffany A.; Beshaler, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the influence of suppressor frequency (fs) and level (Ls) on stimulus-frequency otoacoustic emissions (SFOAEs) recorded using the amplitude-modulated (AM) suppressor technique described by Neely et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 118, 2124-2127 (2005a)]. Data were collected in normal-hearing subjects, with data collection occurring in two phases. In phase 1, SFOAEs were recorded with probe frequency (fp) = 1, 2, and 4 kHz and probe levels (Lp) ranging from 0 to 60 dB sound pressure level (SPL). At each fp, Ls ranged from Ls = Lp to Ls = Lp + 30 dB. Additionally, nine relationships between fs and fp were evaluated, ranging from fs/fp = 0.80 to fs/fp = 1.16. Results indicated that for low suppressor levels, suppressors higher in frequency than fp (fs > fp) resulted in higher AM-SFOAE levels than suppressors lower in frequency than fp (fs < fp). At higher suppressor levels, suppressors both higher and lower in frequency than fp produced similar AM-SFOAE levels, and, in many cases, low-frequency suppressors produced the largest response. Recommendations for stimulus parameters that maximize AM-SFOAE level were derived from these data. In phase 2, AM-SFOAEs were recorded using these parameters for fp = 0.7-8 kHz and Lp = 20-60 dB SPL. Robust AM-SFOAE responses were recorded in this group of subjects using the parameters developed in phase 1. PMID:23927112

  13. Basic emotions elicited by odors and pictures.

    PubMed

    Croy, Ilona; Olgun, Selda; Joraschky, Peter

    2011-12-01

    The sense of olfaction is often reported to have a special relationship with emotional processing. Memories triggered by olfactory cues often have a very emotional load. On the other hand, basic negative or positive emotional states should be sufficient to cover the most significant functions of the olfactory system including ingestion, hazard avoidance, and social communication. Thus, we investigated whether different basic emotions can be evoked in healthy people through the sense of olfaction. We asked 119 participants which odor evokes one of the six basic emotions (happiness, disgust, anger, anxiety, sadness, and surprise); another 97 participants were asked about pictures evoking those emotions. The results showed that almost every participant could name an olfactory elicitor for happiness or disgust. Olfactory elicitors of anxiety were reported less frequently, but they were still reported by three-quarters of the participants. However, for sadness and anger only about half of the participants reported an olfactory elicitor, whereas significantly more named a visual cue. Olfactory emotion elicitors were mainly related to the classes of culture, plants, and food, and visual emotion elicitors were largely related to humans. This data supports the hypothesis that in the vast majority of people, few differentiated emotions can be elicited through the olfactory channel. These emotions are happiness, disgust, and anxiety. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Eliciting and using expert knowledge in metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hagan, Anthony

    2014-08-01

    The expression of uncertainty has hitherto been seen as an add-on—first an estimate is obtained and then uncertainty in that estimate is evaluated. We argue that quantification of uncertainty should be an intrinsic part of measurement and that the measurement result should be a probability distribution for the measurand. Full quantification of uncertainties in measurement, recognizing and quantifying all sources of uncertainty, is rarely simple. Many potential sources of uncertainty can effectively only be quantified by the application of expert judgement. Scepticism about the validity or reliability of expert judgement has meant that these sources of uncertainty have often been overlooked, ignored or treated in a qualitative, narrative way. But the consequence of this is that reported expressions of uncertainty regularly understate the true degree of uncertainty in measurements. This article first discusses the concept of quantifying uncertainty in measurement, and then considers some of the areas where expert judgement is needed in order to quantify fully the uncertainties in measurement. The remainder of the article is devoted to describing methodology for eliciting expert knowledge.

  15. Acting green elicits a literal warm glow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taufik, Danny; Bolderdijk, Jan Willem; Steg, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Environmental policies are often based on the assumption that people only act environmentally friendly if some extrinsic reward is implicated, usually money. We argue that people might also be motivated by intrinsic rewards: doing the right thing (such as acting environmentally friendly) elicits psychological rewards in the form of positive feelings, a phenomenon known as warm glow. Given the fact that people's psychological state may affect their thermal state, we expected that this warm glow could express itself quite literally: people who act environmentally friendly may perceive the temperature to be higher. In two studies, we found that people who learned they acted environmentally friendly perceived a higher temperature than people who learned they acted environmentally unfriendly. The underlying psychological mechanism pertains to the self-concept: learning you acted environmentally friendly signals to yourself that you are a good person. Together, our studies show that acting environmentally friendly can be psychologically rewarding, suggesting that appealing to intrinsic rewards can be an alternative way to encourage pro-environmental actions.

  16. Multiplexed Population Coding of Stimulus Properties by Leech Mechanosensory Cells.

    PubMed

    Pirschel, Friederice; Kretzberg, Jutta

    2016-03-30

    Sensory coding has long been discussed in terms of a dichotomy between spike timing and rate coding. However, recent studies found that in primate mechanoperception and other sensory systems, spike rates and timing of cell populations complement each other. They simultaneously carry information about different stimulus properties in a multiplexed way. Here, we present evidence for multiplexed encoding of tactile skin stimulation in the tiny population of leech mechanoreceptors, consisting of only 10 cells of two types with overlapping receptive fields. Each mechanoreceptor neuron of the leech varies spike count and response latency to both touch intensity and location, leading to ambiguous responses to different stimuli. Nevertheless, three different stimulus estimation techniques consistently reveal that the neuronal population allows reliable decoding of both stimulus properties. For the two mechanoreceptor types, the transient responses of T (touch) cells and the sustained responses of P (pressure) cells, the relative timing of the first spikes of two mechanoreceptors encodes stimulus location, whereas summed spike counts represent touch intensity. Differences between the cell types become evident in responses to combined stimulus properties. The best estimation performance for stimulus location is obtained from the relative first spike timing of the faster and temporally more precise T cells. Simultaneously, the sustained responses of P cells indicate touch intensity by summed spike counts and stimulus duration by the duration of spike responses. The striking similarities of these results with previous findings on primate mechanosensory afferents suggest multiplexed population coding as a general principle of somatosensation. Multiplexing, the simultaneous encoding of different stimulus properties by distinct neuronal response features, has recently been suggested as a mechanism used in several sensory systems, including primate somatosensation. While a

  17. Neuronal correlates of the visually elicited escape response of the crab Chasmagnathus upon seasonal variations, stimuli changes and perceptual alterations.

    PubMed

    Sztarker, Julieta; Tomsic, Daniel

    2008-06-01

    When confronted with predators, animals are forced to take crucial decisions such as the timing and manner of escape. In the case of the crab Chasmagnathus, cumulative evidence suggests that the escape response to a visual danger stimulus (VDS) can be accounted for by the response of a group of lobula giant (LG) neurons. To further investigate this hypothesis, we examined the relationship between behavioral and neuronal activities within a variety of experimental conditions that affected the level of escape. The intensity of the escape response to VDS was influenced by seasonal variations, changes in stimulus features, and whether the crab perceived stimuli monocularly or binocularly. These experimental conditions consistently affected the response of LG neurons in a way that closely matched the effects observed at the behavioral level. In other words, the intensity of the stimulus-elicited spike activity of LG neurons faithfully reflected the intensity of the escape response. These results support the idea that the LG neurons from the lobula of crabs are deeply involved in the decision for escaping from VDS.

  18. Discriminative stimulus characteristics of BMY 14802 in the pigeon.

    PubMed

    Vanecek, S A; Essman, W D; Taylor, D P; Woods, J H

    1998-01-01

    Pigeons were trained to discriminate intramuscular injections of 5.6 mg/kg BMY 14802, a drug that has relatively high affinity for sigma binding sites, from saline in a two-key operant procedure. Many compounds that displace sigma binding failed to produce BMY 14802-like discriminative stimulus effects; these included (+)-SKF 10,047, (+)3-PPP, DTG and MR 2035; the typical antipsychotic haloperidol; the putative antipsychotics tiospirone, cinuperone and rimcazole; and the uncompetitive NMDA antagonist phencyclidine. In addition, MR 2035 and tiosperone failed to antagonize the discriminative stimulus effects of BMY 14802. The selective D2 antagonist eticlopride and the norepinephrine uptake blocker and antidepressant desmethylimipramine also failed to evoke substantial BMY 14802-appropriate responding. In contrast to sigma ligands and other reference compounds, the 5-HT1A agonists buspirone, 8-OH-DPAT and spiroxatrine dose-dependently produced BMY 14802-like discriminative stimulus effects. The limited-efficacy 5-hydroxytryptamine (HT)1A agonist NAN 190 did not produce BMY 14802-like discriminative effects; however, it did competitively antagonize the stimulus effects of BMY 14802 and the BMY 14802-like stimulus effects of (+/-)-8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin. Other serotonergic compounds failed to produce substantial BMY 14802-appropriate responding; such as 5-HT1 agonist I-5-HTP; 5-HT1A/1B agonist RU24969; 5-HT1B/1C agonist m-CPP; 5-HT1C/2 agonist quipazine; 5-HT1C/2 antagonists, metergoline and the atypical antipsychotic clozapine; and 5-HT3 antagonist ondansetron. Also, metergoline, ondansetron and pirenpirone failed to antagonize the stimulus effects of BMY 14802. These results indicate that the discriminative stimulus effects of BMY 14802 are serotonergically mediated primarily by 5-HT1A receptors rather than by sigma sites.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF AN INSTRUMENT FOR ELICITING AND EVALUATING VOCATIONAL IMAGERY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MATHEWSON, ROBERT H.; ORTON, JOHN W.

    THIS STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO (1) PRODUCE AN INSTRUMENT FOR ELICITING VOCATIONAL IMAGERY FOR USE IN THE EDUCATIONAL-VOCATIONAL ORIENTATION AND COUNSELING OF HIGH SCHOOL YOUTH, AND (2) DEVELOP A SCALE FOR EVALUATING THE MATURITY OF THE VOCATIONAL IMAGERY ELICITED BY THE INSTRUMENT. A PREVIOUSLY DESIGNED INSTRUMENT "WHAT I THINK OF MYSELF"…

  20. Eliciting Spontaneous Speech in Bilingual Students: Methods & Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornejo, Ricardo J.; And Others

    Intended to provide practical information pertaining to methods and techniques for speech elicitation and production, the monograph offers specific methods and techniques to elicit spontaneous speech in bilingual students. Chapter 1, "Traditional Methodologies for Language Production and Recording," presents an overview of studies using…

  1. Elicited Emotions and Cognitive Functioning in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, Rivka; Klein, Pnina S.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the effects of eliciting positive and negative emotions on various cognitive functions of four- to five-year-old preschool children were examined. Emotions were elicited through presentations of "happy" and "sad" video clips, before the children performed the cognitive tasks. Behavioural (facial expressions) and…

  2. Pedagogical use of ELICIT for Leadership Training: Survey and Recommendations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    classroom training as part of leadership development programs. ELICIT is particularly helpful in teaching the strengths and weakness of various...organizational structures (edge organization vs. traditional command and control hierarchy.) This paper reviews some of the pedagogical uses of the classroom ...training to date, and provides recommendations for the use of ELICIT in various classroom settings. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF

  3. Freeze or Flee? Negative Stimuli Elicit Selective Responding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Zachary; Verges, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    Humans preferentially attend to negative stimuli. A consequence of this automatic vigilance for negative valence is that negative words elicit slower responses than neutral or positive words on a host of cognitive tasks. Some researchers have speculated that negative stimuli elicit a general suppression of motor activity, akin to the freezing…

  4. Examining of Model Eliciting Activities Developed by Mathematics Student Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dede, Ayse Tekin; Hidiroglu, Çaglar Naci; Güzel, Esra Bukova

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the model eliciting activities developed by the mathematics student teachers in the context of the principles of the model eliciting activities. The participants of the study conducted as a case study design were twenty one mathematics student teachers working on seven groups. The data collection tools were…

  5. Freeze or Flee? Negative Stimuli Elicit Selective Responding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Zachary; Verges, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    Humans preferentially attend to negative stimuli. A consequence of this automatic vigilance for negative valence is that negative words elicit slower responses than neutral or positive words on a host of cognitive tasks. Some researchers have speculated that negative stimuli elicit a general suppression of motor activity, akin to the freezing…

  6. Science Teachers' Elicitation Practices: Insights for Formative Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ateh, Comfort M.

    2015-01-01

    In evaluating teachers' instructional decisions during instruction, it is clear that the nature of their elicitation is crucial for student learning. When instructional decisions are informed by information about students' conceptual understanding, significant learning is possible. This article examined the elicitation practices of two high school…

  7. Introducing Forum Theatre to Elicit and Advocate Children's Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Nick

    2013-01-01

    Eliciting and advocating the voice of the child remains at the heart of international political agenda and also remains a central role for educational psychologists (EPs). Previous research indicates that EPs tend to use language-based methods for eliciting and advocating views of children. However, these approaches are often limited. Taking a…

  8. Transcranial magnetic stimulation with a half-sine wave pulse elicits direction-specific effects in human motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Jung, Nikolai H; Delvendahl, Igor; Pechmann, Astrid; Gleich, Bernhard; Gattinger, Norbert; Siebner, Hartwig R; Mall, Volker

    2012-11-05

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) commonly uses so-called monophasic pulses where the initial rapidly changing current flow is followed by a critically dampened return current. It has been shown that a monophasic TMS pulse preferentially excites different cortical circuits in the human motor hand area (M1-HAND), if the induced tissue current has a posterior-to-anterior (PA) or anterior-to-posterior (AP) direction. Here we tested whether similar direction-specific effects could be elicited in M1-HAND using TMS pulses with a half-sine wave configuration. In 10 young participants, we applied half-sine pulses to the right M1-HAND which elicited PA or AP currents with respect to the orientation of the central sulcus.Measurements of the motor evoked potential (MEP) revealed that PA half-sine stimulation resulted in lower resting motor threshold (RMT) than AP stimulation. When stimulus intensity (SI) was gradually increased as percentage of maximal stimulator output, the stimulus-response curve (SRC) of MEP amplitude showed a leftward shift for PA as opposed to AP half-sine stimulation. Further, MEP latencies were approximately 1 ms shorter for PA relative to AP half-sine stimulation across the entire SI range tested. When adjusting SI to the respective RMT of PA and AP stimulation, the direction-specific differences in MEP latencies persisted, while the gain function of MEP amplitudes was comparable for PA and AP stimulation. Using half-sine pulse configuration, single-pulse TMS elicits consistent direction-specific effects in M1-HAND that are similar to TMS with monophasic pulses. The longer MEP latency for AP half-sine stimulation suggests that PA and AP half-sine stimulation preferentially activates different sets of cortical neurons that are involved in the generation of different corticospinal descending volleys.

  9. Goal-directed and transfer-cue-elicited drug-seeking are dissociated by pharmacotherapy: evidence for independent additive controllers.

    PubMed

    Hogarth, Lee

    2012-07-01

    According to contemporary learning theory, drug-seeking behavior reflects the summation of 2 dissociable controllers. Whereas goal-directed drug-seeking is determined by the expected current incentive value of the drug, stimulus-elicited drug-seeking is determined by the expected probability of the drug independently of its current incentive value, and these 2 controllers contribute additively to observed drug-seeking. One applied prediction of this model is that smoking cessation pharmacotherapies selectively attenuate tonic but not cue-elicited craving because they downgrade the expected incentive value of the drug but leave expected probability intact. To test this, the current study examined whether nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) nasal spray would modify goal-directed tobacco choice in a human outcome devaluation procedure, but leave cue-elicited tobacco choice in a Pavlovian to instrumental transfer (PIT) procedure intact. Smokers (N= 96) first underwent concurrent choice training in which 2 responses earned tobacco or chocolate points, respectively. Participants then ingested either NRT nasal spray (1 mg) or chocolate (147 g) to devalue 1 outcome. Concurrent choice was then tested again in extinction to measure goal-directed control of choice, and in a PIT test to measure the extent to which tobacco and chocolate stimuli enhanced choice of the same outcome. It was found that NRT modified tobacco choice in the extinction test but not the extent to which the tobacco stimulus enhanced choice of the tobacco outcome in the PIT test. This dissociation suggests that the propensity to engage in drug-seeking is determined independently by the expected value and probability of the drug, and that pharmacotherapy has partial efficacy because it selectively effects expected drug value.

  10. Vowel formant discrimination II: Effects of stimulus uncertainty, consonantal context, and training.

    PubMed

    Kewley-Port, D

    2001-10-01

    This study is one in a series that has examined factors contributing to vowel perception in everyday listening. Four experimental variables have been manipulated to examine systematical differences between optimal laboratory testing conditions and those characterizing everyday listening. These include length of phonetic context, level of stimulus uncertainty, linguistic meaning, and amount of subject training. The present study investigated the effects of stimulus uncertainty from minimal to high uncertainty in two phonetic contexts, /V/ or /bVd/, when listeners had either little or extensive training. Thresholds for discriminating a small change in a formant for synthetic female vowels /I,E,ae,a,inverted v,o/ were obtained using adaptive tracking procedures. Experiment I optimized extensive training for five listeners by beginning under minimal uncertainty (only one formant tested per block) and then increasing uncertainty from 8-to-16-to-22 formants per block. Effects of higher uncertainty were less than expected; performance only decreased by about 30%. Thresholds for CVCs were 25% poorer than for isolated vowels. A previous study using similar stimuli [Kewley-Port and Zheng. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 106, 2945-2958 (1999)] determined that the ability to discriminate formants was degraded by longer phonetic context. A comparison of those results with the present ones indicates that longer phonetic context degrades formant frequency discrimination more than higher levels of stimulus uncertainty. In experiment 2, performance in the 22-formant condition was tracked over 1 h for 37 typical listeners without formal laboratory training. Performance for typical listeners was initially about 230% worse than for trained listeners. Individual listeners' performance ranged widely with some listeners occasionally achieving performance similar to that of the trained listeners in just one hour.

  11. Stimulus Dependent Dynamic Reorganization of the Human Face Processing Network.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Gideon; Sporns, Olaf; Avidan, Galia

    2016-09-12

    Using the "face inversion effect", a hallmark of face perception, we examined network mechanisms supporting face representation by tracking functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) stimulus-dependent dynamic functional connectivity within and between brain networks associated with the processing of upright and inverted faces. We developed a novel approach adapting the general linear model (GLM) framework classically used for univariate fMRI analysis to capture stimulus-dependent fMRI dynamic connectivity of the face network. We show that under the face inversion manipulation, the face and non-face networks have complementary roles that are evident in their stimulus-dependent dynamic connectivity patterns as assessed by network decomposition into components or communities. Moreover, we show that connectivity patterns are associated with the behavioral face inversion effect. Thus, we establish "a network-level signature" of the face inversion effect and demonstrate how a simple physical transformation of the face stimulus induces a dramatic functional reorganization across related brain networks. Finally, we suggest that the dynamic GLM network analysis approach, developed here for the face network, provides a general framework for modeling the dynamics of blocked stimulus-dependent connectivity experimental designs and hence can be applied to a host of neuroimaging studies.

  12. Flexible categorization of relative stimulus strength by the optic tectum

    PubMed Central

    Mysore, Shreesh P.; Knudsen, Eric I.

    2011-01-01

    Categorization is the process by which the brain segregates continuously variable stimuli into discrete groups. We report that patterns of neural population activity in the owl optic tectum (OT) categorize stimuli based on their relative strengths into “strongest” versus “other”. The category boundary shifts adaptively to track changes in the absolute strength of the strongest stimulus. This population-wide categorization is mediated by the responses of a small subset of neurons. Our data constitute the first direct demonstration of an explicit categorization of stimuli by a neural network based on relative stimulus strength or salience. The finding of categorization by the population code relaxes constraints on the properties of downstream decoders that might read out the location of the strongest stimulus. These results indicate that the ensemble neural code in the OT could mediate bottom-up stimulus selection for gaze and attention, a form of stimulus categorization in which the category boundary often shifts within hundreds of milliseconds. PMID:21613487

  13. Stimulus representation in SOP: I. Theoretical rationalization and some implications.

    PubMed

    Brandon, Susan E.; Vogel, Edgar H.; Wagner, Allan R.

    2003-04-28

    THE SOP MODEL [INFORMATION PROCESSING IN ANIMALS: Memory Mechanisms, Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, 1981, p. 5] is described in terms of its assumed stimulus representation, network characteristics, and rules for learning and performance. It is shown how several Pavlovian conditioning phenomena can be accounted on the basis of the model's presumed stimulus representation. Challenges to the SOP model prompted the adoption of a componential stimulus representation in: AESOP [Contemporary Learning Theories: Pavlovian Conditioning and the Status of Traditional Learning Theory, Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, 1989, p. 149], this was a dual representation of the unconditioned stimulus (US), and C-SOP [Contemporary Learning: Theory and Application, Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ, 2001, p. 23], this was a multi-component representation of the conditioned stimulus (CS). The assumption of a componential CS representation, where large numbers of elements can be separately learned about, necessitated a modification of the learning rule. The modified, "constrained" rule was found useful to explain timing characteristics of Pavlovian conditioned responses, as well as data offered by Rescorla [J. Exp. Psychol. Anim. Behav. Process. 26 (2000) 428; Q. J. Exp. Psychol. 54B (2001) 53; J. Exp. Psychol. Anim. Behav. Process. 28 (2002) 163] showing that stimuli trained in compound do not share the same quantitative fate.

  14. Conditioned reinforcement as a function of duration of stimulus

    PubMed Central

    Dinsmoor, James A.; Mulvaney, Dallas E.; Jwaideh, Alice R.

    1981-01-01

    Pigeons were provided with three keys. Pecking the center key produced grain on a schedule that alternated at unpredictable times between a variable-interval component and extinction. On concurrent variable-interval schedules, pecking either side key produced a stimulus associated with the variable-interval component on the center key provided that said schedule was currently in effect. The independent variable was the length of time this stimulus remained on the keys. Pecking one side key produced the stimulus for 27 seconds, whereas the duration produced by pecking the other key varied for successive blocks of sessions. For the first four birds, the values tested were 3, 9, 27, and 81 seconds. For the second group, numbering three birds, the values tested were 1, 3, 9, and 27 seconds. The dependent variable was the proportion of total side key pecks that occurred on the variable key. For all birds, the function was positive in slope and negative in acceleration. This finding supports a formulation that ascribes the maintenance of observing responses in a normal setting to the fact that the subject exposes itself to the positive discriminative stimulus for a longer mean duration than it does to the negative stimulus. PMID:16812230

  15. Stimulus sensitive gel with radioisotope and methods of making

    DOEpatents

    Weller, Richard E.; Lind, Michael A.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Gutowska, Anna; Campbell, Allison A.

    2005-03-22

    The present invention is a thermally reversible stimulus-sensitive gel or gelling copolymer radioisotope carrier that is a linear random copolymer of an [meth-]acrylamide derivative and a hydrophilic comonomer, wherein the linear random copolymer is in the form of a plurality of linear chains having a plurality of molecular weights greater than or equal to a minimum gelling molecular weight cutoff. Addition of a biodegradable backbone and/or a therapeutic agent imparts further utility. The method of the present invention for making a thermally reversible stimulus-sensitive gelling copolymer radionuclcide carrier has the steps of: (a) mixing a stimulus-sensitive reversible gelling copolymer with an aqueous solvent as a stimulus-sensitive reversible gelling solution; and (b) mixing a radioisotope with said stimulus-sensitive reversible gelling solution as said radioisotope carrier. The gel is enhanced by either combining it with a biodegradable backbone and/or a therapeutic agent in a gelling solution made by mixing the copolymer with an aqueous solvent.

  16. Stimulus sensitive gel with radioisotope and methods of making

    DOEpatents

    Weller, Richard E [Selah, WA; Lind, Michael A [Kent, WA; Fisher, Darrell R [Richland, WA; Gutowska, Anna [Richland, WA; Campbell, Allison A [Kennewick, WA

    2001-10-02

    The present invention is a thermally reversible stimulus-sensitive gel or gelling copolymer radioisotope carrier that is a linear random copolymer of an [meth]acrylamide derivative and a hydrophilic comonomer, wherein the linear random copolymer is in the form of a plurality of linear chains having a plurality of molecular weights greater than or equal to a minimum gelling molecular weight cutoff. Addition of a biodegradable backbone and/or a therapeutic agent imparts further utility. The method of the present invention for making a thermally reversible stimulus-sensitive gelling copolymer radionuclcide carrier has the steps of: (a) mixing a stimulus-sensitive reversible gelling copolymer with an aqueous solvent as a stimulus-sensitive reversible gelling solution; and (b) mixing a radioisotope with said stimulus-sensitive reversible gelling solution as said radioisotope carrier. The gel is enhanced by either combining it with a biodegradable backbone and/or a therapeutic agent in a gelling solution made by mixing the copolymer with an aqueous solvent.

  17. fMRI repetition suppression: neuronal adaptation or stimulus expectation?

    PubMed

    Larsson, Jonas; Smith, Andrew T

    2012-03-01

    Measurements of repetition suppression with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI adaptation) have been used widely to probe neuronal population response properties in human cerebral cortex. fMRI adaptation techniques assume that fMRI repetition suppression reflects neuronal adaptation, an assumption that has been challenged on the basis of evidence that repetition-related response changes may reflect unrelated factors, such as attention and stimulus expectation. Specifically, Summerfield et al. (Summerfield C, Trittschuh EH, Monti JM, Mesulam MM, Egner T. 2008. Neural repetition suppression reflects fulfilled perceptual expectations. Nat Neurosci. 11:1004-1006) reported that the relative frequency of stimulus repetitions and non-repetitions influenced the magnitude of repetition suppression in the fusiform face area, suggesting that stimulus expectation accounted for most of the effect of repetition. We confirm that stimulus expectation can significantly influence fMRI repetition suppression throughout visual cortex and show that it occurs with long as well as short adaptation durations. However, the effect was attention dependent: When attention was diverted away from the stimuli, the effects of stimulus expectation completely disappeared. Nonetheless, robust and significant repetition suppression was still evident. These results suggest that fMRI repetition suppression reflects a combination of neuronal adaptation and attention-dependent expectation effects that can be experimentally dissociated. This implies that with an appropriate experimental design, fMRI adaptation can provide valid measures of neuronal adaptation and hence response specificity.

  18. The forgetting of stimulus attributes in latent inhibition.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Mitchell M; Riccio, David C

    2009-01-08

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that the forgetting of stimulus attributes is a common occurrence; that is, organisms forget the specific characteristics of training stimuli over long retention intervals, while retaining general information of the training stimuli themselves. However, most studies have examined this effect after a learning episode, and there have been virtually no accounts to test whether the forgetting of attributes occurs for stimuli presented prior to training. Therefore, this experiment was designed to test that possibility, and it examined whether the forgetting of stimulus attributes occurred prior to training for the flavor stimulus in a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) procedure. Specifically, a latent inhibition (LI) procedure was used to measure the extent of forgetting for a pre-exposed flavor over short and long retention intervals. The results indicate that rats forgot the specific characteristics of the flavor stimulus (CS) while retaining memory for pre-exposure sessions over a long retention interval. That is, subjects pre-exposed and conditioned with different concentrations of sucrose showed no LI effect with a 1-day delay between pre-exposure and training, but demonstrated a generalized LI with an 8-day delay between pre-exposure and conditioning. This experiment provides further evidence for the robustness of the forgetting of stimulus attributes, and demonstrates that this specific type of forgetting also occurs prior to the learning of a CTA task.

  19. Phenotypic assessment of THC discriminative stimulus properties in fatty acid amide hydrolase knockout and wildtype mice.

    PubMed

    Walentiny, D Matthew; Vann, Robert E; Wiley, Jenny L

    2015-06-01

    A number of studies have examined the ability of the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide to elicit Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-like subjective effects, as modeled through the THC discrimination paradigm. In the present study, we compared transgenic mice lacking fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the enzyme primarily responsible for anandamide catabolism, to wildtype counterparts in a THC discrimination procedure. THC (5.6 mg/kg) served as a discriminative stimulus in both genotypes, with similar THC dose-response curves between groups. Anandamide fully substituted for THC in FAAH knockout, but not wildtype, mice. Conversely, the metabolically stable anandamide analog O-1812 fully substituted in both groups, but was more potent in knockouts. The CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant dose-dependently attenuated THC generalization in both groups and anandamide substitution in FAAH knockouts. Pharmacological inhibition of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), the primary catabolic enzyme for the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), with JZL184 resulted in full substitution for THC in FAAH knockout mice and nearly full substitution in wildtypes. Quantification of brain endocannabinoid levels revealed expected elevations in anandamide in FAAH knockout mice compared to wildtypes and equipotent dose-dependent elevations in 2-AG following JZL184 administration. Dual inhibition of FAAH and MAGL with JZL195 resulted in roughly equipotent increases in THC-appropriate responding in both groups. While the notable similarity in THC's discriminative stimulus effects across genotype suggests that the increased baseline brain anandamide levels (as seen in FAAH knockout mice) do not alter THC's subjective effects, FAAH knockout mice are more sensitive to the THC-like effects of pharmacologically induced increases in anandamide and MAGL inhibition (e.g., JZL184).

  20. Stimulus-evoked high frequency oscillations are present in neuronal networks on microelectrode arrays

    PubMed Central

    Hales, Chadwick M.; Zeller-Townson, Riley; Newman, Jonathan P.; Shoemaker, James T.; Killian, Nathan J.; Potter, Steve M.

    2012-01-01

    Pathological high frequency oscillations (250–600 Hz) are present in the brains of epileptic animals and humans. The etiology of these oscillations and how they contribute to the diseased state remains unclear. This work identifies the presence of microstimulation-evoked high frequency oscillations (250–400 Hz) in dissociated neuronal networks cultured on microelectrode arrays (MEAs). Oscillations are more apparent with higher stimulus voltages. As with in vivo studies, activity is isolated to a single electrode, however, the MEA provides improved spatial resolution with no spread of the oscillation to adjacent electrodes 200 μm away. Oscillations develop across four weeks in vitro. Oscillations still occur in the presence of tetrodotoxin and synaptic blockers, and they cause no apparent disruption in the ability of oscillation-presenting electrodes to elicit directly evoked action potentials (dAPs) or promote the spread of synaptic activity throughout the culture. Chelating calcium with ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA) causes a temporal prolongation of the oscillation. Finally, carbenoxolone significantly reduces or eliminates the high frequency oscillations. Gap junctions may play a significant role in maintaining the oscillation given the inhibitory effect of carbenoxolone, the propagating effect of reduced calcium conditions and the isolated nature of the activity as demonstrated in previous studies. This is the first demonstration of stimulus-evoked high frequency oscillations in dissociated cultures. Unlike current models that rely on complex in vivo recording conditions, this work presents a simple controllable model in neuronal cultures on MEAs to further investigate how the oscillations occur at the molecular level and how they may contribute to the pathophysiology of disease. PMID:22615686