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Sample records for optimizcija ganbu airenes

  1. Assessing vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Forette, F; Rigaud, A S; Morin, M; Gisselbrecht, M; Bert, P

    1995-10-01

    Vascular dementia is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly after Alzheimer's disease. Many forms of vascular dementia have been described: multi-infarct dementia, lacunar dementia, Binswanger's subcortical encephalopathy, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, white matter lesions associated with dementias, single infarct dementia, dementia linked to hypoperfusion and haemorrhagic dementia. The difficulty of diagnosing vascular dementia must not be underestimated and an international consensus is needed for epidemiological studies. The NINCDS-AIREN group has recently published diagnostic criteria. The State of California Alzheimer's Disease Diagnostic and Treatment Centers also proposed some which differ from the NINCDS-AIREN criteria in considering only ischaemic vascular dementia and not other mechanisms such as haemorrhagic or hypoxic lesions. Most studies stress hypertension as the most powerful risk factor for all forms of vascular dementia. The incidence rate ranges from 7 per 1000 person-years in normal volunteers to 16 per 1000 person-years in hypertensive patients. No therapeutic attempt has influenced the course of the disease once the dementing condition is established. The only effective approach is preventive treatment. The objective of the SYST-EUR Vascular Dementia project is to confirm that the treatment of isolated systolic hypertension is able to reduce its incidence.

  2. pH-induced kinetic co-operativity of a thylakoid-bound polyphenol oxidase.

    PubMed Central

    Valero, E; García-Carmona, F

    1992-01-01

    A study of the catecholase activity of a latent plant polyphenol oxidase, extracted and purified from the chloroplast membranes of grapes (Vitis vinifera cv. Airen), revealed for the first time a lag phase above pH 5.0, whereas a steady-state rate was reached immediately when pH values were lower, thus suggesting the hysteretic nature of the enzyme. During steady state, the enzyme showed negative co-operativity concomitant with the presence of the lag period, and followed classical Michaelis-Menten kinetics under more acid pH conditions. Statistical analysis of these data showed a minimal value for the extreme Hill coefficient of 0.54 at pH 6.0. This kinetic behaviour of polyphenol oxidase has been interpreted in terms of the pH-induced 'slow' transition mechanism reported by Ricard, Noat & Nari [(1984) Eur. J. Biochem. 145, 311-317] in which the conformational change does not affect the active site of the enzyme. Images Fig. 4. PMID:1530593

  3. Incidence of dementia among atomic-bomb survivors--Radiation Effects Research Foundation Adult Health Study.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Michiko; Kasagi, Fumiyoshi; Mimori, Yasuyo; Miyachi, Takafumi; Ohshita, Tomohiko; Sasaki, Hideo

    2009-06-15

    Radiotherapy has been reported to cause neuropsychological dysfunction. Here we examined whether exposure to atomic bomb radiation affected the incidence of dementia among 2286 atomic bomb survivors and controls - all members of the Adult Health Study cohort. Study subjects were non-demented and aged >or=60 years at baseline examination and had been exposed in 1945 at >or=13 years of age to a relatively low dose (AIREN for vascular disease. To estimate the effect of radiation on the dementia incidence rate, we applied Poisson regression analysis. Incidence per 1000 person-years was 16.3 in the <5 mGy group, 17.0 in the 5-499 mGy group, and 15.2 in the >or=500 mGy group. Alzheimer disease was the predominant type of dementia in each dose category. After adjustment for potential risk factors, radiation exposure did not affect the incidence rate of either all dementia or any of its subtypes. No case of dementia had a history of therapeutic cranial irradiation. Although we found no relationship between radiation exposure and the development of dementia among atomic bomb survivors exposed at >or=13 years old in this longitudinal study, effects on increased risk of early death among atomic bomb survivors will be considered.

  4. Regulatory aspects of vascular dementia in the United States.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Armando; Mani, Ranjit; Katz, Russell

    2003-01-01

    There is significant interest in the development of new drugs to treat vascular dementia. However, before US approval of new drugs for this entity is possible, certain issues with regulatory implications need to be addressed. Is vascular dementia a distinct clinical syndrome with valid diagnostic criteria? Can this entity be distinguished from Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other causes of dementia? What design features are important for clinical trials in this disorder? The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) convened a special meeting of the Peripheral and Central Nervous System Advisory Committee in an attempt to answer these questions. The conclusions from this meeting indicate that vascular dementia (VaD) is a pathologically heterogeneous disorder but appears to be reasonably distinguishable from AD dementia. The NINDS-AIREN diagnostic criteria are suitable as entry criteria for vascular dementia trials. Trials should be similar in duration to AD dementia trials and should employ a dual outcome strategy (cognitive + global/functional measures). For drugs that are believed to have a disease-modifying effect, clinical trials should study specific vascular dementia subtypes and would need to employ substantially different designs from those used currently. The term "vascular dementia" may not be entirely appropriate to describe this population. PMID:16191257

  5. Impaired attention function based on the Montréal Cognitive Assessment in vascular dementia patients with frontal hypoperfusion: The Osaki-Tajiri project.

    PubMed

    Akanuma, Kyoko; Meguro, Kenichi; Kato, Yuriko; Takahashi, Yumi; Nakamura, Kei; Yamaguchi, Satoshi

    2016-06-01

    We previously reported that the Montréal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) was effective in the evaluation of cerebrovascular diseases. We also demonstrated that the test was effective for screening for very mild vascular dementia (VaD) in the community. Herein, we examined the effectiveness of MoCA in the assessment of patients with VaD in an outpatient clinic. Forty-four patients with VaD (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke-Association Internationale pour la Recherche et l'Enseignement en Neurosciences [NINDS-AIREN] criteria) and 58 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke-Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association [NINCDS-ADRDA] criteria) were compared with 67 non-demented control subjects. All were outpatients at the Tajiri Memory Clinic, Osaki-Tajiri, northern Japan. All underwent 1.5 Tesla MRI and ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) examinations. The SPECT images were used to classify the VaD patients into two subgroups, those with frontal hypoperfusion (F-VaD) and those without frontal hypoperfusion. The frontal hypoperfusion pattern was defined as the "P2" pattern of the Sliverman classification, with or without focal hypometabolism in other areas, based on the agreement of three neurologists who were blinded to the results of the neuropsychological examinations. Total scores and attention subscores on the MoCA were lower in the F-VaD group compared with other groups. Our results suggest that the MoCA attention subscale can detect VaD participants, particularly those with frontal hypoperfusion. PMID:26778514

  6. Persistence of the effects of Cerebrolysin on cognition and qEEG slowing in vascular dementia patients: results of a 3-month extension study.

    PubMed

    Muresanu, Dafin F; Alvarez, X Anton; Moessler, Herbert; Novak, Philipp H; Stan, Adina; Buzoianu, Anca; Bajenaru, Ovidiu; Popescu, Bogdan O

    2010-12-15

    The maintenance of the effects of Cerebrolysin, a peptidergic compound with neurotrophic activity, on cognitive performance and qEEG activity was investigated through a 12-week, open-label extension of a 4-week, randomised, placebo-controlled pilot study. Thirty-three out of 41 patients with mild-to-moderate severe probable vascular dementia (VaD) according to NINDS-AIREN participating in the double-blind phase of the study were also assessed at the follow-up visit at week 16. Patients received i.v. infusions of Cerebrolysin (10 or 30 mL) or placebo (saline) 5 days/week for 4 weeks. Neuropsychological evaluations and qEEG recordings were done at baseline, week 4 and week 16. The mean change in score from baseline in the ADAS-cog+ and the slow-to-fast qEEG power ratio (PR), used as an index of qEEG slowing, were the two primary endpoints. Correlations between changes in cognition and qEEG induced by the treatment were also assessed. At the week 16 follow-up visit, Cerebrolysin improved (p<0.05) cognitive performance at the 10-mL and 30-mL doses and reduced qEEG slowing significantly (p<0.05) at the 30-mL dose with respect to the placebo. In addition, a significant (p<0.05) positive correlation between the change from the baseline qEEG PR and ADAS-cog+ variables was observed at week 16. These results indicate a persistence of the beneficial effects of Cerebrolysin on cognition and qEEG activity in VaD patients for at least 12 weeks after treatment cessation, and they suggest the potential utility of qEEG parameters as biomarkers for VaD clinical trials.

  7. Incidence of dementia among atomic-bomb survivors--Radiation Effects Research Foundation Adult Health Study.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Michiko; Kasagi, Fumiyoshi; Mimori, Yasuyo; Miyachi, Takafumi; Ohshita, Tomohiko; Sasaki, Hideo

    2009-06-15

    Radiotherapy has been reported to cause neuropsychological dysfunction. Here we examined whether exposure to atomic bomb radiation affected the incidence of dementia among 2286 atomic bomb survivors and controls - all members of the Adult Health Study cohort. Study subjects were non-demented and aged >or=60 years at baseline examination and had been exposed in 1945 at >or=13 years of age to a relatively low dose (AIREN for vascular disease. To estimate the effect of radiation on the dementia incidence rate, we applied Poisson regression analysis. Incidence per 1000 person-years was 16.3 in the <5 mGy group, 17.0 in the 5-499 mGy group, and 15.2 in the >or=500 mGy group. Alzheimer disease was the predominant type of dementia in each dose category. After adjustment for potential risk factors, radiation exposure did not affect the incidence rate of either all dementia or any of its subtypes. No case of dementia had a history of therapeutic cranial irradiation. Although we found no relationship between radiation exposure and the development of dementia among atomic bomb survivors exposed at >or=13 years old in this longitudinal study, effects on increased risk of early death among atomic bomb survivors will be considered. PMID:19327783

  8. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, dementia, and cerebrovascular pathology in elders receiving home services

    PubMed Central

    Buell, J S.; Dawson-Hughes, B; Scott, T M.; Weiner, D E.; Dallal, G E.; Qui, W Q.; Bergethon, P; Rosenberg, I H.; Folstein, M F.; Patz, S; Bhadelia, R A.; Tucker, K L.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Vitamin D deficiency has potential adverse effects on neurocognitive health and subcortical function. However, no studies have examined the association between vitamin D status, dementia, and cranial MRI indicators of cerebrovascular disease (CVD). Methods: Cross-sectional investigation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], dementia, and MRI measures of CVD in elders receiving home care (aged 65–99 years) from 2003 to 2007. Results: Among 318 participants, the mean age was 73.5 ± 8.1 years, 231 (72.6%) were women, and 109 (34.3%) were black. 25(OH)D concentrations were deficient (<10 ng/mL) in 14.5% and insufficient (10–20 ng/mL) in 44.3% of participants. There were 76 participants (23.9%) with dementia, 41 of which were classified as probable AD. Mean 25(OH)D concentrations were lower in subjects with dementia (16.8 vs 20.0 ng/mL, p < 0.01). There was a higher prevalence of dementia among participants with 25(OH)D insufficiency (≤20 ng/mL) (30.5% vs 14.5%, p < 0.01). 25(OH)D deficiency was associated with increased white matter hyperintensity volume (4.9 vs 2.9 mL, p < 0.01), grade (3.0 vs 2.2, p = 0.04), and prevalence of large vessel infarcts (10.1% vs 6.9%, p < 0.01). After adjustment for age, race, sex, body mass index, and education, 25(OH)D insufficiency (≤20 ng/mL) was associated with more than twice the odds of all-cause dementia (odds ratio [OR] = 2.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2–4.2), Alzheimer disease (OR = 2.5, 95% CI 1.1–6.1), and stroke (with and without dementia symptoms) (OR = 2.0, 95% CI 1.0–4.0). Conclusions: Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency was associated with all-cause dementia, Alzheimer disease, stroke (with and without dementia symptoms), and MRI indicators of cerebrovascular disease. These findings suggest a potential vasculoprotective role of vitamin D. GLOSSARY 25(OH)D = 25-hydroxyvitamin D; AIREN = Association Internationale pour la Recherché et l'Enseignement en Neurosciences; BMI = body mass index; CI