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Sample records for optimizcija ganbu airenes

  1. NINDS AIREN neuroimaging criteria do not distinguish stroke patients with and without dementia.

    PubMed

    Ballard, C G; Burton, E J; Barber, R; Stephens, S; Kenny, R A; Kalaria, R N; O'Brien, J T

    2004-09-28

    To determine the utility of the neuroimaging component within the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) Association Internationale pour la Recherche et l'Enseignement en Neurosciences (AIREN) criteria for vascular dementia for distinguishing between patients with and without dementia in the context of cerebrovascular disease. One hundred twenty-five poststroke patients age > or =75 (27 with and 98 without poststroke dementia) from representative hospital-based stroke registers in the North East of England were evaluated using a 1.5 T MR scanner. The proportion of patients with and without poststroke dementia meeting the imaging component of the NINDS AIREN criteria was determined, and hippocampal atrophy (measured using the Schelten scale) was compared between the two groups. There were no significant differences between the patients with and without poststroke dementia on any criteria of the imaging parameters within the NINDS AIREN criteria. In addition, there were no significant differences in the number or size of cortical or subcortical infarcts between the two groups, with 13 patients without dementia having cortical infarcts >50 mm. Patients with dementia had greater hippocampal atrophy (right: Mann-Whitney U test, Z = 2.5, p = 0.01; left: Mann-Whitney U test, Z = 2.5, p = 0.01). The neuroimaging component of the NINDS AIREN criteria does not distinguish between older patients with and without poststroke dementia.

  2. Gene-Metabolite Networks of Volatile Metabolism in Airen and Tempranillo Grape Cultivars Revealed a Distinct Mechanism of Aroma Bouquet Production.

    PubMed

    Rambla, José L; Trapero-Mozos, Almudena; Diretto, Gianfranco; Rubio-Moraga, Angela; Granell, Antonio; Gómez-Gómez, Lourdes; Ahrazem, Oussama

    2016-01-01

    Volatile compounds are the major determinants of aroma and flavor in both grapes and wine. In this study, we investigated the emission of volatile and non-volatile compounds during berry maturation in two grape varieties (Airén and Tempranillo) throughout 2010 and 2011. HS-SPME coupled to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry was applied for the identification and relative quantitation of these compounds. Principal component analysis was performed to search for variability between the two cultivars and evolution during 10 developmental stages. Results showed that there are distinct differences in volatile compounds between cultivars throughout fruit development. Early stages were characterized in both cultivars by higher levels of some apocarotenoids such as β-cyclocitral or β-ionone, terpenoids (E)-linalool oxide and (Z)-linalool oxide and several furans, while the final stages were characterized by the highest amounts of ethanol, benzenoid phenylacetaldehyde and 2-phenylethanol, branched-amino acid-derived 3-methylbutanol and 2-methylbutanol, and a large number of lipid derivatives. Additionally, we measured the levels of the different classes of volatile precursors by using liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry. In both varieties, higher levels of carotenoid compounds were detected in the earlier stages, zeaxanthin and α-carotene were only detected in Airén while neoxanthin was found only in Tempranillo; more variable trends were observed in the case of the other volatile precursors. Furthermore, we monitored the expression of homolog genes of a set of transcripts potentially involved in the biosynthesis of these metabolites, such as some glycosyl hydrolases family 1, lipoxygenases, alcohol dehydrogenases hydroperoxide lyases, O-methyltransferases and carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases during the defined developmental stages. Finally, based on Pearson correlation analyses, we explored the metabolite-metabolite fluctuations within VOCs/precursors during the berry development; as well as tentatively linking the formation of some metabolites detected to the expression of some of these genes. Our data showed that the two varieties displayed a very different pattern of relationships regarding the precursor/volatile metabolite-metabolite fluctuations, being the lipid and the carotenoid metabolism the most distinctive between the two varieties. Correlation analysis showed a higher degree of overall correlation in precursor/volatile metabolite-metabolite levels in Airén, confirming the enriched aroma bouquet characteristic of the white varieties.

  3. Gene-Metabolite Networks of Volatile Metabolism in Airen and Tempranillo Grape Cultivars Revealed a Distinct Mechanism of Aroma Bouquet Production

    PubMed Central

    Rambla, José L.; Trapero-Mozos, Almudena; Diretto, Gianfranco; Rubio-Moraga, Angela; Granell, Antonio; Gómez-Gómez, Lourdes; Ahrazem, Oussama

    2016-01-01

    Volatile compounds are the major determinants of aroma and flavor in both grapes and wine. In this study, we investigated the emission of volatile and non-volatile compounds during berry maturation in two grape varieties (Airén and Tempranillo) throughout 2010 and 2011. HS-SPME coupled to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry was applied for the identification and relative quantitation of these compounds. Principal component analysis was performed to search for variability between the two cultivars and evolution during 10 developmental stages. Results showed that there are distinct differences in volatile compounds between cultivars throughout fruit development. Early stages were characterized in both cultivars by higher levels of some apocarotenoids such as β-cyclocitral or β-ionone, terpenoids (E)-linalool oxide and (Z)-linalool oxide and several furans, while the final stages were characterized by the highest amounts of ethanol, benzenoid phenylacetaldehyde and 2-phenylethanol, branched-amino acid-derived 3-methylbutanol and 2-methylbutanol, and a large number of lipid derivatives. Additionally, we measured the levels of the different classes of volatile precursors by using liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry. In both varieties, higher levels of carotenoid compounds were detected in the earlier stages, zeaxanthin and α-carotene were only detected in Airén while neoxanthin was found only in Tempranillo; more variable trends were observed in the case of the other volatile precursors. Furthermore, we monitored the expression of homolog genes of a set of transcripts potentially involved in the biosynthesis of these metabolites, such as some glycosyl hydrolases family 1, lipoxygenases, alcohol dehydrogenases hydroperoxide lyases, O-methyltransferases and carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases during the defined developmental stages. Finally, based on Pearson correlation analyses, we explored the metabolite-metabolite fluctuations within VOCs/precursors during the berry development; as well as tentatively linking the formation of some metabolites detected to the expression of some of these genes. Our data showed that the two varieties displayed a very different pattern of relationships regarding the precursor/volatile metabolite-metabolite fluctuations, being the lipid and the carotenoid metabolism the most distinctive between the two varieties. Correlation analysis showed a higher degree of overall correlation in precursor/volatile metabolite-metabolite levels in Airén, confirming the enriched aroma bouquet characteristic of the white varieties. PMID:27833635

  4. Alzheimer's disease and brain infarcts in the elderly. Agreement with neuropathology.

    PubMed

    Zekry, Dina; Duyckaerts, Charles; Belmin, Joël; Geoffre, Caroline; Moulias, Robert; Hauw, Jean-Jacques

    2002-11-01

    Clarifying the etiology of dementia is one of the most difficult diagnostic challenges, especially in the elderly. We examined the accuracy of clinical criteria to distinguish Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia associated with infarcts of the brain, either isolated (vascular dementia) or associated with degenerative lesions (mixed dementia). We carried out a prospective clinico-neuropathological study in a selected series of hospitalized patients. We evaluated the clinical aspects of 33 patients aged over 75 years by use of the criteria and scores of DSMIII, NINCDS-ADRDA, Loeb and Gandolfo, ADDTC and NINDS-AIREN and the Hachinski Ischemic Score. The neuropathological diagnosis was considered to be the gold standard. When comparing clinical criteria and neuropathology, the agreement was moderate for Hachinski's score (0.50) and Loeb's score (0.43) and substantial for the ADDTC (0.63) and the NINDS-AIREN (0.67). When mixed dementias were excluded, the agreement between all clinical criteria and scores and the pathological diagnosis rose to 0.88. Hachinski's score was the most sensitive (0.89) and the NINDS-AIREN the most specific (0.86) for the diagnosis of vascular dementia. In conclusion, all sets of clinical criteria distinguished pure AD from vascular dementia with a high accuracy whereas mixed dementia was clinically under-recognized. The NINDS-AIREN criteria were the most discriminating for the accurate identification of patients with mixed dementia.

  5. Improved functional status by comprehensive physical and psychosocial approach through right insula activation in poststroke vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Naofumi; Meguro, Kenichi; Ishikawa, Hiroyasu; Yamaguchi, Satoshi

    2013-10-01

    The aim is to investigate the effect of a comprehensive physical and psychosocial approach on functional outcome and cerebral glucose metabolism in poststroke vascular dementia (PSVaD). Ten PSVaD patients participated in the study. They were diagnosed according to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and Association Internationale pour la Recherché et l'Enseignement en Neurosciences (NINDS-AIREN) criteria and needed physical assistance in sit-to-stand transfer activities. Six were enrolled in a comprehensive program consisted of an individualized task-specific exercise regimen of transfer training and a psychosocial intervention program. The other 4 patients participated in the control group. The programs were undertaken over a period of 2 months. Outcomes were the scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Functional Independence Measure (FIM), and on cerebral glucose metabolism determined by (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography performed before and at the end of the program. The score on the transfer mobility subscale of the FIM increased at the end of the program in all patients who received the comprehensive program. Regional glucose metabolism was increased in the right insular cortex at the end of the combined program. Control patients showed no change in FIM score or regional cerebral metabolism. A combined approach may be associated with an increase in glucose metabolism of the right insula cortex in PSVaD patients.

  6. Incidence of dementia among atomic-bomb survivors--Radiation Effects Research Foundation Adult Health Study.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Michiko; Kasagi, Fumiyoshi; Mimori, Yasuyo; Miyachi, Takafumi; Ohshita, Tomohiko; Sasaki, Hideo

    2009-06-15

    Radiotherapy has been reported to cause neuropsychological dysfunction. Here we examined whether exposure to atomic bomb radiation affected the incidence of dementia among 2286 atomic bomb survivors and controls - all members of the Adult Health Study cohort. Study subjects were non-demented and aged >or=60 years at baseline examination and had been exposed in 1945 at >or=13 years of age to a relatively low dose (AIREN for vascular disease. To estimate the effect of radiation on the dementia incidence rate, we applied Poisson regression analysis. Incidence per 1000 person-years was 16.3 in the <5 mGy group, 17.0 in the 5-499 mGy group, and 15.2 in the >or=500 mGy group. Alzheimer disease was the predominant type of dementia in each dose category. After adjustment for potential risk factors, radiation exposure did not affect the incidence rate of either all dementia or any of its subtypes. No case of dementia had a history of therapeutic cranial irradiation. Although we found no relationship between radiation exposure and the development of dementia among atomic bomb survivors exposed at >or=13 years old in this longitudinal study, effects on increased risk of early death among atomic bomb survivors will be considered.

  7. [Dementia in patients of Hospital das Clínicas da UNICAMP].

    PubMed

    Silva, David W; Damasceno, Benito P

    2002-12-01

    To report the relative frequencies of the causes of dementia in patients seen at UNICAMP Hospital. From 1989 to 1998, 261 dementia patients were admitted (89.7% studied retrospectively, and 10.3%, prospectively); mean age 63.5 years (+/-13.2), and education 3.6 years +/- 3.9; 25% illiterate). Diagnosis of dementia and its subtypes was based on DSM-IV criteria, CAMDEX, NINCDS-ADRDA, NINDS AIREN/ADDTC, Lund-Manchester, besides tap-test, including laboratory and neuroimaging examinations. Sixty five patients (24.9%) had vascular dementia, 62 ( 23.7%) Alzheimer's, 29 (11.1%) depressive pseudodementia, 28 (10.9%) normal pressure hydrocephalus, 14(5.4%) mixed, 12 (4.6%) post-traumatic, 9 (3.4%) frontotemporal and 38 (14.5%) had diverse or unknown causes. Dementia was minimal or mild in 123 (47.1%), moderate in 95 (36.4%), and severe in 43 (16.5%). Frequency of vascular dementia was 24.9%, Alzheimer's 23.7%, and normal pressure hydrocephalus 10.7%, in disagreement with that found in the neurological literature (20-30%, 50%, and 1-4%, respectively), probably because we are dealing with cases admitted to a tertiary university hospital. Epidemiological studies are needed to disclose the true proportion of these dementia syndromes in the population.

  8. pH-induced kinetic co-operativity of a thylakoid-bound polyphenol oxidase.

    PubMed Central

    Valero, E; García-Carmona, F

    1992-01-01

    A study of the catecholase activity of a latent plant polyphenol oxidase, extracted and purified from the chloroplast membranes of grapes (Vitis vinifera cv. Airen), revealed for the first time a lag phase above pH 5.0, whereas a steady-state rate was reached immediately when pH values were lower, thus suggesting the hysteretic nature of the enzyme. During steady state, the enzyme showed negative co-operativity concomitant with the presence of the lag period, and followed classical Michaelis-Menten kinetics under more acid pH conditions. Statistical analysis of these data showed a minimal value for the extreme Hill coefficient of 0.54 at pH 6.0. This kinetic behaviour of polyphenol oxidase has been interpreted in terms of the pH-induced 'slow' transition mechanism reported by Ricard, Noat & Nari [(1984) Eur. J. Biochem. 145, 311-317] in which the conformational change does not affect the active site of the enzyme. Images Fig. 4. PMID:1530593

  9. Color perception differentiates Alzheimer's Disease (AD) from Vascular Dementia (VaD) patients.

    PubMed

    Arnaoutoglou, N A; Arnaoutoglou, M; Nemtsas, P; Costa, V; Baloyannis, S J; Ebmeier, K P

    2017-08-01

    Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and Vascular Dementia (VaD) are the most common causes of dementia in older people. Both diseases appear to have similar clinical symptoms, such as deficits in attention and executive function, but specific cognitive domains are affected. Current cohort studies have shown a close relationship between αβ deposits and age-related macular degeneration (Johnson et al., 2002; Ratnayaka et al., 2015). Additionally, a close link between the thinning of the retinal nerve fiber (RNFL) and AD patients has been described, while it has been proposed that AD patients suffer from a non-specific type of color blindness (Pache et al., 2003). Our study included 103 individuals divided into three groups: A healthy control group (n = 35), AD (n = 32) according to DSM-IV-TR, NINCDS-ADRDA criteria, and VaD (n = 36) based on ΝΙΝDS-AIREN, as well as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) results. The severity of patient's cognitive impairment, was measured with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and was classified according to the Reisberg global deterioration scale (GDS). Visual perception was examined using the Ishihara plates: "Ishihara Color Vision Test - 38 Plate." The three groups were not statistically different for demographic data (age, gender, and education). The Ishihara color blindness test has a sensitivity of 80.6% and a specificity of 87.5% to discriminate AD and VaD patients when an optimal (32.5) cut-off value of performance is used. Ishihara Color Vision Test - 38 Plate is a promising potential method as an easy and not time-consuming screening test for the differential diagnosis of dementia between AD and VaD.

  10. Posatirelin for the treatment of degenerative and vascular dementia: results of explanatory and pragmatic efficacy analyses.

    PubMed

    Gasbarrini, G; Stefanini, G; Addolorato, G; Foschi, F; Ricci, C; Bertolotti, P; Voltolini, G; Bonavita, E; Bertoncelli, R; Renzi, G; Bianchini, G; Bonaiuto, S; Giannandrea, E; Cavassini, G; Mazzini, V; Chioma, V; Marzara, G; D'Addetta, G; Totaro, G; Dalmonte, E; Tassini, D; Giungi, F; De Nitto, C; Di Fazio, G; Tessitore, A; Guadagnino, M; Tessitore, E; Spina, P; Luppi, M; Bignamini, A; Peracino, L; Fiorentino, M; Beun-Garbe, D; Poli, A; Ambrosoli, L; Girardello, R

    1998-01-01

    In order to confirm the efficacy and safety of posatirelin (L-pyro-2-aminoadipyl-L-leucyl-L-prolinamide), a synthetic peptide having cholinergic, catecholaminergic and neurotrophic activities, a multicentre, double-blind, controlled study versus placebo was planned in elderly patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia, according to National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke/Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association (NINCDS-ADRDA) and National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke/Association Internationale pour la Recherche et l'Enseignement en Neurosciences (NINDS-AIREN) criteria, respectively. The trial consisted of a 2-week run-in phase with placebo administered once a day orally, followed by a double-blind period of 3 months, with posatirelin or placebo administered once a day intramuscularly. Efficacy was assessed using the Gottfries-Bråne-Steen (GBS) Rating Scale (primary variable) and the Rey Memory Test (secondary variable). Laboratory tests, vital signs and adverse events were monitored. A total of 360 patients were randomized, the intent-to-treat sample (ITT) being made up of 357 patients and the per protocol sample (PP) of 260 patients. Both pragmatic and explanatory analyses showed significant differences between treatment groups in the GBS Rating Scale and the Rey Memory Test, with no difference in the two types of dementia. No difference between treatments was observed in safety variables, the incidence of adverse events in the posatirelin group being 7.3%. The study confirms previous results showing that treatment with posatirelin can improve cognitive and functional abilities of patients suffering from degenerative or vascular dementia.

  11. [National neuroepidemiological study in Colombia (EPINEURO)].

    PubMed

    Pradilla A, Gustavo; Vesga A, Boris E; León-Sarmiento, Fidias E

    2003-08-01

    To determine the prevalence of eight neurological problems-migraine, cerebrovascular disease, Parkinson's disease, peripheral neuropathy, disorders of neurological development, epilepsy, dementia, and sequelae of head trauma-in Colombia as a part of the National Neuroepidemiological Study (EPINEURO). A cross-sectional survey was carried out in two phases between September 1995 and August 1996. In the first phase persons who might be suffering from a neurological disease were identified, and in the second phase a specific diagnosis was made. A sample of 8 910 people were examined, distributed in proportion to the population in each of the five geographical areas of Colombia (central, southwest, northwest, eastern, and Caribbean coast). The evaluation was done using a modified version of the neuroepidemiology protocol of the World Health Organization, along with a simplified physical examination. With the patients with possible dementia a neuropsychological examination designed for this study was used in order to thoroughly examine the cognitive aspects analyzed in the initial mental screening. The scales of Hachinski, Yesavage, and Blessed and the diagnostic criteria of the NINCDS-ADRDA were used for Alzheimer's disease; the NINDS-AIREN criteria for dementia of vascular origin; and the DSM-IV criteria for all types of dementia. A survey was conducted in order to determine if there were sequelae of head trauma. Persons 12 years old or older were evaluated by an adult neurologist and those under 12 years old by a pediatric neurologist. The prevalences of neurological disorders were calculated by age and sex, for each region and also for the entire country, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The prevalence per 1 000 population for the disorders investigated was: migraine, 71.2 (95% CI: 65.5 to 76.8); disorders of neurological development, 46.1 (95% CI: 35.5 to 58.9); cerebrovascular disease, 19.9 (95% CI: 14.3 to 27.4); dementia, 13.1 (95% CI: 8.5 to 19.3); epilepsy

  12. Neuropsychological assessment and cerebral vascular disease: the new standards.

    PubMed

    Godefroy, O; Leclercq, C; Bugnicourt, J-M; Roussel, M; Moroni, C; Quaglino, V; Beaunieux, H; Taillia, H; Nédélec-Ciceri, C; Bonnin, C; Thomas-Anterion, C; Varvat, J; Aboulafia-Brakha, T; Assal, F

    2013-10-01

    Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) includes vascular dementia (VaD), vascular mild cognitive impairment (VaMCI) and mixed dementia. In clinical practice, VCI concerns patients referred for clinical stroke or cognitive complaint. To improve the characterization of VCI and to refine its diagnostic criteria, an international group has elaborated a new standardized evaluation battery of clinical, cognitive, behavioral and neuroradiological data which now constitutes the reference battery. The adaption of the battery for French-speaking subjects is reported as well as preliminary results of the on-going validation study of the GRECOG-VASC group [Clinical Trial NCT01339195]. The diagnostic accuracy of various screening tests is reviewed and showed an overall sub-optimal sensitivity (<0.8). Thus, the general recommendation is to perform systematically a comprehensive assessment in stroke patients at risk of VCI. Furthermore,the use of a structured interview has been shown to increase the detection of dementia. In addition to the well known NINDS-AIREN criteria of VaD, criteria of VCI have been recently proposed which are based on the demonstration of a cognitive disorder by neuropsychological testing and either history of clinical stroke or presence of vascular lesion by neuroimaging suggestive of a link between cognitive impairment and vascular disease. A memory deficit is no longer required for the diagnosis of VaD as it is based on the cognitive decline concerning two or more domains that affect activities of daily living. Both VaMCI and VaD are classified as probable or possible. These new criteria have yet to be validated. Considerable uncertainties remain regarding the determinant of VCI, and especially the lesion amount inducing VCI and VaD. The interaction between lesion amount and its location is currently re-examined using recent techniques for the analysis of MRI data. The high frequency of associated Alzheimer pathology is now assessable in vivo using amyloid