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Sample records for optimizcija ganbu airenes

  1. Gene-Metabolite Networks of Volatile Metabolism in Airen and Tempranillo Grape Cultivars Revealed a Distinct Mechanism of Aroma Bouquet Production

    PubMed Central

    Rambla, José L.; Trapero-Mozos, Almudena; Diretto, Gianfranco; Rubio-Moraga, Angela; Granell, Antonio; Gómez-Gómez, Lourdes; Ahrazem, Oussama

    2016-01-01

    Volatile compounds are the major determinants of aroma and flavor in both grapes and wine. In this study, we investigated the emission of volatile and non-volatile compounds during berry maturation in two grape varieties (Airén and Tempranillo) throughout 2010 and 2011. HS-SPME coupled to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry was applied for the identification and relative quantitation of these compounds. Principal component analysis was performed to search for variability between the two cultivars and evolution during 10 developmental stages. Results showed that there are distinct differences in volatile compounds between cultivars throughout fruit development. Early stages were characterized in both cultivars by higher levels of some apocarotenoids such as β-cyclocitral or β-ionone, terpenoids (E)-linalool oxide and (Z)-linalool oxide and several furans, while the final stages were characterized by the highest amounts of ethanol, benzenoid phenylacetaldehyde and 2-phenylethanol, branched-amino acid-derived 3-methylbutanol and 2-methylbutanol, and a large number of lipid derivatives. Additionally, we measured the levels of the different classes of volatile precursors by using liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry. In both varieties, higher levels of carotenoid compounds were detected in the earlier stages, zeaxanthin and α-carotene were only detected in Airén while neoxanthin was found only in Tempranillo; more variable trends were observed in the case of the other volatile precursors. Furthermore, we monitored the expression of homolog genes of a set of transcripts potentially involved in the biosynthesis of these metabolites, such as some glycosyl hydrolases family 1, lipoxygenases, alcohol dehydrogenases hydroperoxide lyases, O-methyltransferases and carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases during the defined developmental stages. Finally, based on Pearson correlation analyses, we explored the metabolite-metabolite fluctuations within VOCs/precursors during the berry development; as well as tentatively linking the formation of some metabolites detected to the expression of some of these genes. Our data showed that the two varieties displayed a very different pattern of relationships regarding the precursor/volatile metabolite-metabolite fluctuations, being the lipid and the carotenoid metabolism the most distinctive between the two varieties. Correlation analysis showed a higher degree of overall correlation in precursor/volatile metabolite-metabolite levels in Airén, confirming the enriched aroma bouquet characteristic of the white varieties. PMID:27833635

  2. Gene-Metabolite Networks of Volatile Metabolism in Airen and Tempranillo Grape Cultivars Revealed a Distinct Mechanism of Aroma Bouquet Production.

    PubMed

    Rambla, José L; Trapero-Mozos, Almudena; Diretto, Gianfranco; Rubio-Moraga, Angela; Granell, Antonio; Gómez-Gómez, Lourdes; Ahrazem, Oussama

    2016-01-01

    Volatile compounds are the major determinants of aroma and flavor in both grapes and wine. In this study, we investigated the emission of volatile and non-volatile compounds during berry maturation in two grape varieties (Airén and Tempranillo) throughout 2010 and 2011. HS-SPME coupled to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry was applied for the identification and relative quantitation of these compounds. Principal component analysis was performed to search for variability between the two cultivars and evolution during 10 developmental stages. Results showed that there are distinct differences in volatile compounds between cultivars throughout fruit development. Early stages were characterized in both cultivars by higher levels of some apocarotenoids such as β-cyclocitral or β-ionone, terpenoids (E)-linalool oxide and (Z)-linalool oxide and several furans, while the final stages were characterized by the highest amounts of ethanol, benzenoid phenylacetaldehyde and 2-phenylethanol, branched-amino acid-derived 3-methylbutanol and 2-methylbutanol, and a large number of lipid derivatives. Additionally, we measured the levels of the different classes of volatile precursors by using liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry. In both varieties, higher levels of carotenoid compounds were detected in the earlier stages, zeaxanthin and α-carotene were only detected in Airén while neoxanthin was found only in Tempranillo; more variable trends were observed in the case of the other volatile precursors. Furthermore, we monitored the expression of homolog genes of a set of transcripts potentially involved in the biosynthesis of these metabolites, such as some glycosyl hydrolases family 1, lipoxygenases, alcohol dehydrogenases hydroperoxide lyases, O-methyltransferases and carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases during the defined developmental stages. Finally, based on Pearson correlation analyses, we explored the metabolite-metabolite fluctuations within VOCs/precursors during the berry development; as well as tentatively linking the formation of some metabolites detected to the expression of some of these genes. Our data showed that the two varieties displayed a very different pattern of relationships regarding the precursor/volatile metabolite-metabolite fluctuations, being the lipid and the carotenoid metabolism the most distinctive between the two varieties. Correlation analysis showed a higher degree of overall correlation in precursor/volatile metabolite-metabolite levels in Airén, confirming the enriched aroma bouquet characteristic of the white varieties.

  3. The Islamic State We Knew: Insights Before the Resurgence and Their Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    already proved valuable. It helped save Erbil, the capital of the Kurdistan Region of Iraq, in August 2014. It enabled military gains by the peshmerga...the armed forces of the Kurdistan Region.110 And an air-enabled raid in Syria on May 16, 2015, resulted in the death of a senior financial officer...Foreign Affairs, Vol. 93, No. 6, November/December 2014). 121 Janine Di Giovanni, “The March on Mosul and the Future of Kurdistan ,” Newsweek

  4. Incidence of dementia among atomic-bomb survivors--Radiation Effects Research Foundation Adult Health Study.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Michiko; Kasagi, Fumiyoshi; Mimori, Yasuyo; Miyachi, Takafumi; Ohshita, Tomohiko; Sasaki, Hideo

    2009-06-15

    Radiotherapy has been reported to cause neuropsychological dysfunction. Here we examined whether exposure to atomic bomb radiation affected the incidence of dementia among 2286 atomic bomb survivors and controls - all members of the Adult Health Study cohort. Study subjects were non-demented and aged >or=60 years at baseline examination and had been exposed in 1945 at >or=13 years of age to a relatively low dose (AIREN for vascular disease. To estimate the effect of radiation on the dementia incidence rate, we applied Poisson regression analysis. Incidence per 1000 person-years was 16.3 in the <5 mGy group, 17.0 in the 5-499 mGy group, and 15.2 in the >or=500 mGy group. Alzheimer disease was the predominant type of dementia in each dose category. After adjustment for potential risk factors, radiation exposure did not affect the incidence rate of either all dementia or any of its subtypes. No case of dementia had a history of therapeutic cranial irradiation. Although we found no relationship between radiation exposure and the development of dementia among atomic bomb survivors exposed at >or=13 years old in this longitudinal study, effects on increased risk of early death among atomic bomb survivors will be considered.

  5. Improved functional status by comprehensive physical and psychosocial approach through right insula activation in poststroke vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Naofumi; Meguro, Kenichi; Ishikawa, Hiroyasu; Yamaguchi, Satoshi

    2013-10-01

    The aim is to investigate the effect of a comprehensive physical and psychosocial approach on functional outcome and cerebral glucose metabolism in poststroke vascular dementia (PSVaD). Ten PSVaD patients participated in the study. They were diagnosed according to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and Association Internationale pour la Recherché et l'Enseignement en Neurosciences (NINDS-AIREN) criteria and needed physical assistance in sit-to-stand transfer activities. Six were enrolled in a comprehensive program consisted of an individualized task-specific exercise regimen of transfer training and a psychosocial intervention program. The other 4 patients participated in the control group. The programs were undertaken over a period of 2 months. Outcomes were the scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Functional Independence Measure (FIM), and on cerebral glucose metabolism determined by (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography performed before and at the end of the program. The score on the transfer mobility subscale of the FIM increased at the end of the program in all patients who received the comprehensive program. Regional glucose metabolism was increased in the right insular cortex at the end of the combined program. Control patients showed no change in FIM score or regional cerebral metabolism. A combined approach may be associated with an increase in glucose metabolism of the right insula cortex in PSVaD patients.

  6. Posatirelin for the treatment of degenerative and vascular dementia: results of explanatory and pragmatic efficacy analyses.

    PubMed

    Gasbarrini, G; Stefanini, G; Addolorato, G; Foschi, F; Ricci, C; Bertolotti, P; Voltolini, G; Bonavita, E; Bertoncelli, R; Renzi, G; Bianchini, G; Bonaiuto, S; Giannandrea, E; Cavassini, G; Mazzini, V; Chioma, V; Marzara, G; D'Addetta, G; Totaro, G; Dalmonte, E; Tassini, D; Giungi, F; De Nitto, C; Di Fazio, G; Tessitore, A; Guadagnino, M; Tessitore, E; Spina, P; Luppi, M; Bignamini, A; Peracino, L; Fiorentino, M; Beun-Garbe, D; Poli, A; Ambrosoli, L; Girardello, R

    1998-01-01

    In order to confirm the efficacy and safety of posatirelin (L-pyro-2-aminoadipyl-L-leucyl-L-prolinamide), a synthetic peptide having cholinergic, catecholaminergic and neurotrophic activities, a multicentre, double-blind, controlled study versus placebo was planned in elderly patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia, according to National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke/Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association (NINCDS-ADRDA) and National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke/Association Internationale pour la Recherche et l'Enseignement en Neurosciences (NINDS-AIREN) criteria, respectively. The trial consisted of a 2-week run-in phase with placebo administered once a day orally, followed by a double-blind period of 3 months, with posatirelin or placebo administered once a day intramuscularly. Efficacy was assessed using the Gottfries-Bråne-Steen (GBS) Rating Scale (primary variable) and the Rey Memory Test (secondary variable). Laboratory tests, vital signs and adverse events were monitored. A total of 360 patients were randomized, the intent-to-treat sample (ITT) being made up of 357 patients and the per protocol sample (PP) of 260 patients. Both pragmatic and explanatory analyses showed significant differences between treatment groups in the GBS Rating Scale and the Rey Memory Test, with no difference in the two types of dementia. No difference between treatments was observed in safety variables, the incidence of adverse events in the posatirelin group being 7.3%. The study confirms previous results showing that treatment with posatirelin can improve cognitive and functional abilities of patients suffering from degenerative or vascular dementia.

  7. Neuropsychological assessment and cerebral vascular disease: the new standards.

    PubMed

    Godefroy, O; Leclercq, C; Bugnicourt, J-M; Roussel, M; Moroni, C; Quaglino, V; Beaunieux, H; Taillia, H; Nédélec-Ciceri, C; Bonnin, C; Thomas-Anterion, C; Varvat, J; Aboulafia-Brakha, T; Assal, F

    2013-10-01

    Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) includes vascular dementia (VaD), vascular mild cognitive impairment (VaMCI) and mixed dementia. In clinical practice, VCI concerns patients referred for clinical stroke or cognitive complaint. To improve the characterization of VCI and to refine its diagnostic criteria, an international group has elaborated a new standardized evaluation battery of clinical, cognitive, behavioral and neuroradiological data which now constitutes the reference battery. The adaption of the battery for French-speaking subjects is reported as well as preliminary results of the on-going validation study of the GRECOG-VASC group [Clinical Trial NCT01339195]. The diagnostic accuracy of various screening tests is reviewed and showed an overall sub-optimal sensitivity (<0.8). Thus, the general recommendation is to perform systematically a comprehensive assessment in stroke patients at risk of VCI. Furthermore,the use of a structured interview has been shown to increase the detection of dementia. In addition to the well known NINDS-AIREN criteria of VaD, criteria of VCI have been recently proposed which are based on the demonstration of a cognitive disorder by neuropsychological testing and either history of clinical stroke or presence of vascular lesion by neuroimaging suggestive of a link between cognitive impairment and vascular disease. A memory deficit is no longer required for the diagnosis of VaD as it is based on the cognitive decline concerning two or more domains that affect activities of daily living. Both VaMCI and VaD are classified as probable or possible. These new criteria have yet to be validated. Considerable uncertainties remain regarding the determinant of VCI, and especially the lesion amount inducing VCI and VaD. The interaction between lesion amount and its location is currently re-examined using recent techniques for the analysis of MRI data. The high frequency of associated Alzheimer pathology is now assessable in vivo using amyloid