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Sample records for optimized background rejection

  1. Analysis techniques for background rejection at the Majorana Demonstrator

    SciTech Connect

    Cuestra, Clara; Rielage, Keith Robert; Elliott, Steven Ray; Xu, Wenqin; Goett, John Jerome III

    2015-06-11

    The MAJORANA Collaboration is constructing the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, an ultra-low background, 40-kg modular HPGe detector array to search for neutrinoless double beta decay in 76Ge. In view of the next generation of tonne-scale Ge-based 0νββ-decay searches that will probe the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region, a major goal of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 count/tonne/year in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. The background rejection techniques to be applied to the data include cuts based on data reduction, pulse shape analysis, event coincidences, and time correlations. The Point Contact design of the DEMONSTRATOR's germanium detectors allows for significant reduction of gamma background.

  2. Analysis techniques for background rejection at the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Cuesta, C.; Buuck, M.; Detwiler, J. A.; Gruszko, J.; Guinn, I. S.; Leon, J.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Abgrall, N.; Bradley, A. W.; Chan, Y-D.; Mertens, S.; Poon, A. W. P.; Arnquist, I. J.; Hoppe, E. W.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Orrell, J. L.; Avignone, F. T.; Baldenegro-Barrera, C. X.; Bertrand, F. E.; and others

    2015-08-17

    The MAJORANA Collaboration is constructing the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, an ultra-low background, 40- kg modular HPGe detector array to search for neutrinoless double beta decay in {sup 76}Ge. In view of the next generation of tonne-scale Ge-based 0νβ β-decay searches that will probe the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region, a major goal of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 count/tonne/year in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. The background rejection techniques to be applied to the data include cuts based on data reduction, pulse shape analysis, event coincidences, and time correlations. The Point Contact design of the DEMONSTRATOR’s germanium detectors allows for significant reduction of gamma background.

  3. Optimizing rejection readouts in a corneal allograft transplantation model

    PubMed Central

    Hildebrand, Antonia; Böhringer, Daniel; Betancor, Paola Kammrath; Schlunck, Günther; Reinhard, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the feasibility of anterior segment spectral domain optic coherence tomography (ASOCT) as rejection readout in a keratoplasty mouse model and to compare ASOCT against the current standard (i.e., a clinical score system). Furthermore, to compare both approaches with respect to intra- and inter-individual observer variability and to calculate a critical point that distinguishes between rejection and non-rejection in ASOCT analysis. Methods Allogeneic penetrating keratoplasties (PKs) were performed using C3H/He donor mice and BALB/c recipient mice; syngeneic transplantations served as controls using BALB/c donors and recipients. Corneal graft rejection was determined with a clinical score. ASOCT was used to determine the central thickness of the corneal grafts in the same animals. The rejection status was corroborated with histopathological examination. Results The median survival time (MST) of the corneal allografts in the wild-type BALB/c mice was 12 days. Allogeneic transplantation led to a 100% rejection rate, whereas signs of rejection after syngeneic transplantation appeared in up to 20% of the mice. Central corneal thickness (CCT) determination via customized software revealed a direct correlation with the clinical score. Receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis confirmed CCT as a valid surrogate for rejection. Calculation of the area under the curve (AUC) revealed a value of 0.88 with an optimal cut-off at 267 pixels. Conclusions An increase in the CCT during acute allogeneic corneal graft rejection significantly correlated with the clinical surrogate parameter “corneal opacity.” ASOCT not only generates source data, but also analysis of the ASOCT data shows lower readout variability and fewer interpreter variations than the clinical score commonly used to define the time point of graft rejection in mice. PMID:27777504

  4. Solar background rejection by a pressure-broadened atomic resonance filter operating at a Fraunhofer wavelength.

    PubMed

    Gelbwachs, J A; Tabat, M D

    1989-02-15

    We have calculated the solar background rejection of the Mg atomic resonance filter operating at the b(1) Fraunhofer wavelength (518.4 nm) as a function of the pressure-broadened filter linewidth. For pressure broadening induced by the noble gases the solar background rejection decreases from 93% at a 0.002-nm bandwidth to 82-84% at a 0.02-nm bandwidth. Solar background rejection was insensitive to buffer gas and was optimum for the noble gas with the smallest shift-to-broadening ratio.

  5. Physiologic Responses to Racial Rejection Images among Young Adults from African-American Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiang, Lisa; Blumenthal, Terry D.; Carlson, Erika N.; Lawson, Yolanda N.; Shell, J. Clark

    2009-01-01

    Physiologic reactivity to racially rejecting images was assessed in 35 young adults (10 males, 25 female) from African-American backgrounds using the startle probe paradigm. In a laboratory setting, participants viewed 16 images depicting racial rejection, racial acceptance, nonracial negative, and nonracial positive themes. While viewing these…

  6. Compton Imaging Capabilities of AGATA for Background Rejection

    SciTech Connect

    Doncel, M.; Quintana, B.; Recchia, F.; Farnea, E.; Gadea, A.

    2010-04-26

    In this work we present the results of the test performed at the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL) aiming to characterize the capabilities of the AGATA detectors to discriminate between different gamma source locations. AGATA detectors are position sensitive to the interaction points through Pulse Shape Analysis allowing location of the gamma sources by using Compton imaging algorithm. The final goal is to increase the array sensitivity reducing the background originated outside the AGATA target.

  7. Rejection of Alpha Surface Background in Non-scintillating Bolometric Detectors: The ABSuRD Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biassoni, M.; Brofferio, C.; Bucci, C.; Canonica, L.; di Vacri, M. L.; Gorla, P.; Pavan, M.; Yeh, M.

    2016-08-01

    Due to their excellent energy resolution values and the vast choice of possible materials, bolometric detectors are currently widely used in the physics of rare events. A limiting aspect for bolometers rises from their inability to discriminate among radiation types or surface from bulk events. It has been demonstrated that the main limitation to sensitivity for purely bolometric detectors is represented by surface alpha contaminations, causing a continuous background that cannot be discriminated. A new scintillation-based technique for the rejection of surface alpha background in non-scintillating bolometric experiments is proposed in this work. The idea is to combine a scintillating and a high sensitivity photon detector with a non-scintillating absorber. We present results showing the possibility to reject events due to alpha decay at or nearby the surface of the crystal.

  8. Pulse-shape analysis for gamma background rejection in thermal neutron radiation using CVD diamond detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavrigin, P.; Finocchiaro, P.; Griesmayer, E.; Jericha, E.; Pappalardo, A.; Weiss, C.

    2015-09-01

    A novel technique for the rejection of gamma background from charged-particle spectra was demonstrated using a CVD diamond detector with a 6Li neutron converter installed at a thermal neutron beamline of the TRIGA research reactor at the Atominstitut (Vienna University of Technology). Spectra of the alpha particles and tritons of 6Li(n,T)4He thermal neutron capture reaction were separated from the gamma background by a new algorithm based on pulse-shape analysis. The thermal neutron capture in 6Li is already used for neutron flux monitoring, but the ability to remove gamma background allows using a CVD diamond detector for thermal neutron counting. The pulse-shape analysis can equally be applied to all cases where the charged products of an interaction are absorbed in the diamond and to other background particles that fully traverse the detector.

  9. Optimization of background subtraction for image enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venetsky, Larry; Boczar, Ross; Lee-Own, Robert

    2013-05-01

    Analysis of foreground objects in scenery via image processing often involves a background subtraction process. This process aims to improve blob (connected component) content in the image. Quality blob content is often needed for defining regions of interest for object recognition and tracking. Three techniques are examined which optimize the background to be subtracted - genetic algorithm, an analytic solution based on convex optimization, and a related application of the CVX solver toolbox. These techniques are applied to a set of images and the results are compared. Additionally, a possible implementation architecture that uses multiple optimization techniques with subsequent arbitration to produce the best background subtraction is considered.

  10. Pulse shape discrimination for background rejection in germanium gamma-ray detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feffer, P. T.; Smith, D. M.; Campbell, R. D.; Primbsch, J. H.; Lin, R. P.

    1989-01-01

    A pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) technique is developed to reject the beta-decay background resulting from activation of Ge gamma-ray detectors by cosmic-ray secondaries. These beta decays are a major source of background at 0.2-2 MeV energies in well shielded Ge detector systems. The technique exploits the difference between the detected current pulse shapes of single- and multiple-site energy depositions within the detector: beta decays are primarily single-site events, while photons at these energies typically Compton scatter before being photoelectrically absorbed to produce multiple-site events. Depending upon the amount of background due to sources other than beta decay, PSD can more than double the detector sensitivity.

  11. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search and Background Rejection with Event Position Information

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Gensheng

    2005-01-01

    Evidence from observational cosmology and astrophysics indicates that about one third of the universe is matter, but that the known baryonic matter only contributes to the universe at 4%. A large fraction of the universe is cold and non-baryonic matter, which has important role in the universe structure formation and its evolution. The leading candidate for the non-baryonic dark matter is Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), which naturally occurs in the supersymmetry theory in particle physics. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment is searching for evidence of a WIMP interaction off an atomic nucleus in crystals of Ge and Si by measuring simultaneously the phonon energy and ionization energy of the interaction in the CDMS detectors. The WIMP interaction energy is from a few keV to tens of keV with a rate less than 0.1 events/kg/day. To reach the goal of WIMP detection, the CDMS experiment has been conducted in the Soudan mine with an active muon veto and multistage passive background shields. The CDMS detectors have a low energy threshold and background rejection capabilities based on ionization yield. However, betas from contamination and other radioactive sources produce surface interactions, which have low ionization yield, comparable to that of bulk nuclear interactions. The low-ionization surface electron recoils must be removed in the WIMP search data analysis. An emphasis of this thesis is on developing the method of the surface-interaction rejection using location information of the interactions, phonon energy distributions and phonon timing parameters. The result of the CDMS Soudan run118 92.3 live day WIMP search data analysis is presented, and represents the most sensitive search yet performed.

  12. Human energy - optimal control of disturbance rejection during constrained standing.

    PubMed

    Mihelj, M; Munih, M; Ponikvar, M

    2003-01-01

    An optimal control system that enables a subject to stand without hand support in the sagittal plane was designed. The subject was considered as a double inverted pendulum structure with a voluntarily controlled degree of freedom in the upper trunk and artificially controlled degree of freedom in the ankle joints. The control system design was based on a minimization of cost function that estimated the effort of the ankle joint muscles through observation of the ground reaction force position relative to the ankle joint axis. By maintaining the centre of pressure close to the ankle joint axis the objective of the upright stance is fulfilled with minimal ankle muscle energy cost. The performance of the developed controller was evaluated in a simulation-based study. The results were compared with the responses of an unimpaired subject to different disturbances in the sagittal plane. The proposed cost function was shown to produce a reasonable approximation of human natural behaviour. PMID:12936049

  13. Human energy - optimal control of disturbance rejection during constrained standing.

    PubMed

    Mihelj, M; Munih, M; Ponikvar, M

    2003-01-01

    An optimal control system that enables a subject to stand without hand support in the sagittal plane was designed. The subject was considered as a double inverted pendulum structure with a voluntarily controlled degree of freedom in the upper trunk and artificially controlled degree of freedom in the ankle joints. The control system design was based on a minimization of cost function that estimated the effort of the ankle joint muscles through observation of the ground reaction force position relative to the ankle joint axis. By maintaining the centre of pressure close to the ankle joint axis the objective of the upright stance is fulfilled with minimal ankle muscle energy cost. The performance of the developed controller was evaluated in a simulation-based study. The results were compared with the responses of an unimpaired subject to different disturbances in the sagittal plane. The proposed cost function was shown to produce a reasonable approximation of human natural behaviour.

  14. Asymptotically optimal data analysis for rejecting local realism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanbao; Glancy, Scott; Knill, Emanuel

    2011-12-01

    Reliable experimental demonstrations of violations of local realism are highly desirable for fundamental tests of quantum mechanics. One can quantify the violation witnessed by an experiment in terms of a statistical p value, which can be defined as the maximum probability according to local realism of a violation at least as high as that witnessed. Thus, high violation corresponds to small p value. We propose a prediction-based-ratio (PBR) analysis protocol whose p values are valid even if the prepared quantum state varies arbitrarily and local realistic models can depend on previous measurement settings and outcomes. It is therefore not subject to the memory loophole [J. Barrett , Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.66.042111 66, 042111 (2002)]. If the prepared state does not vary in time, the p values are asymptotically optimal. For comparison, we consider protocols derived from the number of standard deviations of violation of a Bell inequality and from martingale theory [R. Gill, e-print arXiv:quant-ph/0110137]. We find that the p values of the former can be too small and are therefore not statistically valid, while those derived from the latter are suboptimal. PBR p values do not require a predetermined Bell inequality and can be used to compare results from different tests of local realism independent of experimental details.

  15. Asymptotically optimal data analysis for rejecting local realism

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yanbao; Glancy, Scott; Knill, Emanuel

    2011-12-15

    Reliable experimental demonstrations of violations of local realism are highly desirable for fundamental tests of quantum mechanics. One can quantify the violation witnessed by an experiment in terms of a statistical p value, which can be defined as the maximum probability according to local realism of a violation at least as high as that witnessed. Thus, high violation corresponds to small p value. We propose a prediction-based-ratio (PBR) analysis protocol whose p values are valid even if the prepared quantum state varies arbitrarily and local realistic models can depend on previous measurement settings and outcomes. It is therefore not subject to the memory loophole [J. Barrett et al., Phys. Rev. A 66, 042111 (2002)]. If the prepared state does not vary in time, the p values are asymptotically optimal. For comparison, we consider protocols derived from the number of standard deviations of violation of a Bell inequality and from martingale theory [R. Gill, e-print arXiv:quant-ph/0110137]. We find that the p values of the former can be too small and are therefore not statistically valid, while those derived from the latter are suboptimal. PBR p values do not require a predetermined Bell inequality and can be used to compare results from different tests of local realism independent of experimental details.

  16. Improved background rejection in neutrinoless double beta decay experiments using a magnetic field in a high pressure xenon TPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renner, J.; Cervera, A.; Hernando, J. A.; Imzaylov, A.; Monrabal, F.; Muñoz, J.; Nygren, D.; Gomez-Cadenas, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate that the application of an external magnetic field could lead to an improved background rejection in neutrinoless double-beta (0νββ) decay experiments using a high-pressure xenon (HPXe) TPC. HPXe chambers are capable of imaging electron tracks, a feature that enhances the separation between signal events (the two electrons emitted in the 0νββ decay of 136Xe) and background events, arising chiefly from single electrons of kinetic energy compatible with the end-point of the 0νββ decay (0Qββ). Applying an external magnetic field of sufficiently high intensity (in the range of 0.5-1 Tesla for operating pressures in the range of 5-15 atmospheres) causes the electrons to produce helical tracks. Assuming the tracks can be properly reconstructed, the sign of the curvature can be determined at several points along these tracks, and such information can be used to separate signal (0νββ) events containing two electrons producing a track with two different directions of curvature from background (single-electron) events producing a track that should spiral in a single direction. Due to electron multiple scattering, this strategy is not perfectly efficient on an event-by-event basis, but a statistical estimator can be constructed which can be used to reject background events by one order of magnitude at a moderate cost (about 30%) in signal efficiency. Combining this estimator with the excellent energy resolution and topological signature identification characteristic of the HPXe TPC, it is possible to reach a background rate of less than one count per ton-year of exposure. Such a low background rate is an essential feature of the next generation of 0νββ experiments, aiming to fully explore the inverse hierarchy of neutrino masses.

  17. Optimal decision rule with class-selective rejection and performance constraints.

    PubMed

    Grall-Maës, Edith; Beauseroy, Pierre

    2009-11-01

    The problem of defining a decision rule which takes into account performance constraints and class-selective rejection is formalized in a general framework. In the proposed formulation, the problem is defined using three kinds of criteria. The first is the cost to be minimized, which defines the objective function, the second are the decision options, determined by the admissible assignment classes or subsets of classes, and the third are the performance constraints. The optimal decision rule within the statistical decision theory framework is obtained by solving the stated optimization problem. Two examples are provided to illustrate the formulation and the decision rule is obtained.

  18. Acoustic studies for alpha background rejection in dark matter bubble chamber detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bou-Cabo, M.; Felis, I.; Ardid, M.; Collaboration: COUPP Collaboration

    2013-08-08

    COUPP (Chicagoland Observatory for Underground Particle Physics) is an experiment with bubble chambers able to detect dark matter directly either with Spin-Dependent or with Spin-Independent interactions. The target material is a superheated liquid (usually CF3I) that can be bubble nucleated due to nuclear recoils produced by elastic collisions of dark matter particles. The bubble growth inside the chamber is accompanied with an acoustic signature. The acoustic technique has been successfully used to have a good alpha discrimination (about 99%). In this paper, we present different studies and results related with the characterization of the acoustic properties of the detector and the different phenomena involved in the acoustic measurements of the bubble growth, such as sound generation, sound transmission and optimization of piezoelectric transducers.

  19. Topology optimization of 3D compliant actuators by a sequential element rejection and admission method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansola, R.; Veguería, E.; Alonso, C.; Querin, O. M.

    2016-03-01

    This work presents a sequential element rejection and admission (SERA) method for optimum topology design of three dimensional compliant actuators. The proposed procedure has been successfully applied to several topology optimization problems, but most investigations for compliant devices design have been focused on planar systems. This investigation aims to progress on this line, where a generalization of the method for three dimensional topology optimization is explored. The methodology described in this work is useful for the synthesis of high performance flexure based micro and nano manipulation applications demanding for both sensing and control of motion and force trajectories. In this case the goal of the topology optimization problem is to design an actuator that transfers work from the input point to the output port in a structurally efficient way. Here we will use the classical formulation where the displacement performed on a work piece modelled by a spring is maximized. The technique implemented works with two separate criteria for the rejection and admission of elements to efficiently achieve the optimum design and overcomes problems encountered by other evolutionary methods when dealing with compliant mechanisms design. The use of the algorithm is demonstrated through several numerical examples.

  20. The faint limit of the Hubble Space Telescope faint object spectrograph and rejection of the cosmic-ray background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tytler, David; Davis, Christopher

    1995-01-01

    The faintest object which can be observed with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) is set by the detector cosmic-ray background and not by object flux. We use data from Beaver and Lyons to show that 48% of the background counts are from cosmic rays which each generate a near instantaneous burst of two or more counts. Setting the FOS threshold parameter REJLIM = 1, which rejects all frames with more than one count increases the ratio of signal-to-dark counts (S/D) by a factor of 1.94, regardless of the frame time or the object signal, because half of the dark counts which arrive in single counts (from either cosmic-ray bursts or thermal dark current photoemission) are rejected at the same rate as the object signal. But the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR proportional to S/square root of S + D) increases by at most a factor of 1.35, and for realistic parameters and taking into account dead time, we expect a gain in SNR of only 1.18. If a diode has failed and now emits noise, no data at all will be recorded. The chance of this occurring is approximately = 10% , and for this reason we do not recommend the use of REJLIM. The two-point correlation function of dark counts per pixel has strong peaks every four pixels, caused by the action of quarter-stepping on the counts from large bursts. The counts from such bursts spread over at least 80-100 diodes, and we show that such bursts can be rejected during data reduction if the data are recorded in RAPID mode with individual exposures of about 35 seconds. The SNR of the spectrum can also be improved by weighting each exposure by its SNR (a function ofthe mean dark count rate at that time), since dark varies by a factor of 2 around an orbit. These two procedures together increase the SNR by a factor of 1.1.3 (a 28% gain in exposure time) in regions of a spectrum where the object is much fainter than the background. We find that the Ly-alpha and O I sky emission lines give at most 4 (counts

  1. Optimal disturbance rejection for PI controller with constraints on relative delay margin.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li; Li, Donghai; Lee, Kwang Y

    2016-07-01

    Performance optimization with robustness constraints is frequently encountered in process control. Motivated by the analytical difficulties in dealing with the conventional robustness index, e.g., maximum sensitivity, we introduce the relative delay margin as a good alternative, which gives much simpler robust analysis. This point is illustrated by designing an optimal PI controller for the first-order-plus-dead-time (FOPDT) model. It is first shown that the PI controller parameters can be analytically derived in terms of a new pair of parameters, i.e., the phase margin and gain crossover frequency. The stability region of PI controller is subsequently obtained with a much simpler procedure than the existing approaches. It is further shown that a certain relative delay margin can represent the robustness level well and the contour can be sketched with a simpler procedure than the one using maximum sensitivity index. With constraints on the relative delay margin, an optimal disturbance rejection problem is then formulated and analytically solved. Simulation results show that the performance of the proposed methodology is better than that of other PI tuning rules. In this paper, the relative delay margin is shown as a promising robustness measure to the analysis and design of other advanced controllers. PMID:27038886

  2. Simplified analysis and optimization of space base and space shuttle heat rejection systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wulff, W.

    1972-01-01

    A simplified radiator system analysis was performed to predict steady state radiator system performance. The system performance was found to be describable in terms of five non-dimensional system parameters. The governing differential equations are integrated numerically to yield the enthalpy rejection for the coolant fluid. The simplified analysis was extended to produce the derivatives of the coolant exit temperature with respect to the governing system parameters. A procedure was developed to find the optimum set of system parameters which yields the lowest possible coolant exit temperature for either a given projected area or a given total mass. The process can be inverted to yield either the minimum area or the minimum mass, together with the optimum geometry, for a specified heat rejection rate.

  3. Background rejection capabilities of a Compton imaging telescope setup with a DSSD Ge planar detector and AGATA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doncel, M.; Quintana, B.; Gadea, A.; Recchia, F.; Farnea, E.

    2011-08-01

    In this work, we show the first Monte Carlo results about the performance of the Ge array which we propose for the DESPEC experiment at FAIR, when the background algorithm developed for AGATA is applied. The main objective of our study is to characterize the capabilities of the γ-spectroscopy system, made up of AGATA detectors in a semi-spherical distribution covering a 1π solid angle and a set of planar Ge detectors in a daisy configuration, to discriminate between γ sources placed at different locations.

  4. Measurement of θ 13 in Double Chooz using neutron captures on hydrogen with novel background rejection techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Y.; Appel, S.; Abrahão, T.; Almazan, H.; Alt, C.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Barriere, J. C.; Baussan, E.; Bekman, I.; Bergevin, M.; Bezerra, T. J. C.; Bezrukov, L.; Blucher, E.; Brugière, T.; Buck, C.; Busenitz, J.; Cabrera, A.; Camilleri, L.; Carr, R.; Cerrada, M.; Chauveau, E.; Chimenti, P.; Collin, A. P.; Conrad, J. M.; Crespo-Anadón, J. I.; Crum, K.; Cucoanes, A. S.; Damon, E.; Dawson, J. V.; Dhooghe, J.; Dietrich, D.; Djurcic, Z.; Dracos, M.; Etenko, A.; Fallot, M.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Felde, J.; Fernandes, S. M.; Fischer, V.; Franco, D.; Franke, M.; Furuta, H.; Gil-Botella, I.; Giot, L.; Göger-Neff, M.; Gomez, H.; Gonzalez, L. F. G.; Goodenough, L.; Goodman, M. C.; Haag, N.; Hara, T.; Haser, J.; Hellwig, D.; Hofmann, M.; Horton-Smith, G. A.; Hourlier, A.; Ishitsuka, M.; Jochum, J.; Jollet, C.; Kaether, F.; Kalousis, L. N.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Kaneda, M.; Kaplan, D. M.; Kawasaki, T.; Kemp, E.; de Kerret, H.; Kryn, D.; Kuze, M.; Lachenmaier, T.; Lane, C. E.; Lasserre, T.; Letourneau, A.; Lhuillier, D.; Lima, H. P.; Lindner, M.; López-Castaño, J. M.; LoSecco, J. M.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lucht, S.; Maeda, J.; Mariani, C.; Maricic, J.; Martino, J.; Matsubara, T.; Mention, G.; Meregaglia, A.; Miletic, T.; Milincic, R.; Minotti, A.; Nagasaka, Y.; Navas-Nicolás, D.; Novella, P.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Onillon, A.; Osborn, A.; Palomares, C.; Pepe, I. M.; Perasso, S.; Porta, A.; Pronost, G.; Reichenbacher, J.; Reinhold, B.; Röhling, M.; Roncin, R.; Rybolt, B.; Sakamoto, Y.; Santorelli, R.; Schilithz, A. C.; Schönert, S.; Schoppmann, S.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Sharankova, R.; Shrestha, D.; Sibille, V.; Sinev, V.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smith, E.; Soiron, M.; Spitz, J.; Stahl, A.; Stancu, I.; Stokes, L. F. F.; Strait, M.; Suekane, F.; Sukhotin, S.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Sun, Y.; Svoboda, R.; Terao, K.; Tonazzo, A.; Thi, H. H. Trinh; Valdiviesso, G.; Vassilopoulos, N.; Veyssiere, C.; Vivier, M.; Wagner, S.; Walsh, N.; Watanabe, H.; Wiebusch, C.; Wurm, M.; Yang, G.; Yermia, F.; Zimmer, V.

    2016-01-01

    The Double Chooz collaboration presents a measurement of the neutrino mixing angle θ 13 using reactor overline{νe} observed via the inverse beta decay reaction in which the neutron is captured on hydrogen. This measurement is based on 462.72 live days data, approximately twice as much data as in the previous such analysis, collected with a detector positioned at an average distance of 1050 m from two reactor cores. Several novel techniques have been developed to achieve significant reductions of the backgrounds and systematic uncertainties. Accidental coincidences, the dominant background in this analysis, are suppressed by more than an order of magnitude with respect to our previous publication by a multi-variate analysis. These improvements demonstrate the capability of precise measurement of reactor overline{νe} without gadolinium loading. Spectral distortions from the overline{νe} reactor flux predictions previously reported with the neutron capture on gadolinium events are confirmed in the independent data sample presented here. A value of sin2 2 θ 13 = 0.095 - 0.039 + 0.038 (stat+syst) is obtained from a fit to the observed event rate as a function of the reactor power, a method insensitive to the energy spectrum shape. A simultaneous fit of the hydrogen capture events and of the gadolinium capture events yields a measurement of sin2 2 θ 13 = 0 .088 ± 0 .033(stat+syst). [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  5. Measurement of θ 13 in Double Chooz using neutron captures on hydrogen with novel background rejection techniques

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Abe, Y.; Appel, S.; Abrahão, T.; Almazan, H.; Alt, C.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Barriere, J. C.; Baussan, E.; Bekman, I.; Bergevin, M.; et al

    2016-01-27

    We observed a measurement of the Double Chooz collaboration and the neutrino mixing angle θ13 using reactormore » $$\\bar{v}$$e via the inverse beta decay reaction in which the neutron is captured on hydrogen. Our measurement is based on 462.72 live days data, approximately twice as much data as in the previous such analysis, collected with a detector positioned at an average distance of 1050 m from two reactor cores. Several novel techniques have been developed to achieve significant reductions of the backgrounds and systematic uncertainties. Accidental coincidences, the dominant background in this analysis, are suppressed by more than an order of magnitude with respect to our previous publication by a multi-variate analysis. Furthermore, these improvements demonstrate the capability of precise measurement of reactor $$\\bar{v}$$e without gadolinium loading. Spectral distortions from the $$\\bar{v}$$e reactor flux predictions previously reported with the neutron capture on gadolinium events are confirmed in the independent data sample presented here. A value of sin2 2θ13= 0.0950.039+0.038 (stat+syst) is obtained from a fit to the observed event rate as a function of the reactor power, a method insensitive to the energy spectrum shape. A simultaneous fit of the hydrogen capture events and of the gadolinium capture events yields a measurement of sin2 2θ13 = 0.088 ± 0.033(stat+syst).« less

  6. Bayesian signal processing of pulse shapes for background rejection in the Majorana Demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanks, Benjamin; Majorana Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The Majorana Demonstrator uses high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors in the p-type point contact (PPC) geometry to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay (0 νββ) in 76Ge. Due to the unique electric potential created within the PPC geometry, the detailed pulse shape depends on the number of energy depositions contained within a given event. Pulse shape analysis (PSA) techniques can be used to estimate the number of separate depositions which combine to form a single pulse. This information can be used to discriminate between 0 νββ candidate events, which deposit energy at a single detector site, and gamma ray background, which can scatter and deposit energy in multiple locations. The problem of determining whether a pulse is single- or multi-site is well suited to Bayesian classifiers. Once trained via supervised machine learning, these algorithms can perform nonlinear cuts against multi-site events using the estimated probability function as a discriminator. The Bayesian approach can also be naturally extended to incorporate a model of the physical process responsible for signal generation within the detector. Presented here is an overview of the Bayesian classifier developed for use on the Demonstrator. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, the Particle Astrophysics Program of the National Science Foundation, and the Sanford Underground Research Facility.

  7. Computational and experimental platform for understanding and optimizing water flux and salt rejection in nanoporous membranes.

    SciTech Connect

    Rempe, Susan B.

    2010-09-01

    Affordable clean water is both a global and a national security issue as lack of it can cause death, disease, and international tension. Furthermore, efficient water filtration reduces the demand for energy, another national issue. The best current solution to clean water lies in reverse osmosis (RO) membranes that remove salts from water with applied pressure, but widely used polymeric membrane technology is energy intensive and produces water depleted in useful electrolytes. Furthermore incremental improvements, based on engineering solutions rather than new materials, have yielded only modest gains in performance over the last 25 years. We have pursued a creative and innovative new approach to membrane design and development for cheap desalination membranes by approaching the problem at the molecular level of pore design. Our inspiration comes from natural biological channels, which permit faster water transport than current reverse osmosis membranes and selectively pass healthy ions. Aiming for an order-of-magnitude improvement over mature polymer technology carries significant inherent risks. The success of our fundamental research effort lies in our exploiting, extending, and integrating recent advances by our team in theory, modeling, nano-fabrication and platform development. A combined theoretical and experimental platform has been developed to understand the interplay between water flux and ion rejection in precisely-defined nano-channels. Our innovative functionalization of solid state nanoporous membranes with organic protein-mimetic polymers achieves 3-fold improvement in water flux over commercial RO membranes and has yielded a pending patent and industrial interest. Our success has generated useful contributions to energy storage, nanoscience, and membrane technology research and development important for national health and prosperity.

  8. Optimal Background Estimators in Single-Molecule FRET Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Preus, Søren; Hildebrandt, Lasse L; Birkedal, Victoria

    2016-09-20

    Single-molecule total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy constitutes an umbrella of powerful tools that facilitate direct observation of the biophysical properties, population heterogeneities, and interactions of single biomolecules without the need for ensemble synchronization. Due to the low signal/noise ratio in single-molecule TIRF microscopy experiments, it is important to determine the local background intensity, especially when the fluorescence intensity of the molecule is used quantitatively. Here we compare and evaluate the performance of different aperture-based background estimators used particularly in single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer. We introduce the general concept of multiaperture signatures and use this technique to demonstrate how the choice of background can affect the measured fluorescence signal considerably. A new, to our knowledge, and simple background estimator is proposed, called the local statistical percentile (LSP). We show that the LSP background estimator performs as well as current background estimators at low molecular densities and significantly better in regions of high molecular densities. The LSP background estimator is thus suited for single-particle TIRF microscopy of dense biological samples in which the intensity itself is an observable of the technique. PMID:27653486

  9. Optimal Background Estimators in Single-Molecule FRET Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Preus, Søren; Hildebrandt, Lasse L; Birkedal, Victoria

    2016-09-20

    Single-molecule total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy constitutes an umbrella of powerful tools that facilitate direct observation of the biophysical properties, population heterogeneities, and interactions of single biomolecules without the need for ensemble synchronization. Due to the low signal/noise ratio in single-molecule TIRF microscopy experiments, it is important to determine the local background intensity, especially when the fluorescence intensity of the molecule is used quantitatively. Here we compare and evaluate the performance of different aperture-based background estimators used particularly in single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer. We introduce the general concept of multiaperture signatures and use this technique to demonstrate how the choice of background can affect the measured fluorescence signal considerably. A new, to our knowledge, and simple background estimator is proposed, called the local statistical percentile (LSP). We show that the LSP background estimator performs as well as current background estimators at low molecular densities and significantly better in regions of high molecular densities. The LSP background estimator is thus suited for single-particle TIRF microscopy of dense biological samples in which the intensity itself is an observable of the technique.

  10. Normalizing Rejection.

    PubMed

    Conn, Vicki S; Zerwic, Julie; Jefferson, Urmeka; Anderson, Cindy M; Killion, Cheryl M; Smith, Carol E; Cohen, Marlene Z; Fahrenwald, Nancy L; Herrick, Linda; Topp, Robert; Benefield, Lazelle E; Loya, Julio

    2016-02-01

    Getting turned down for grant funding or having a manuscript rejected is an uncomfortable but not unusual occurrence during the course of a nurse researcher's professional life. Rejection can evoke an emotional response akin to the grieving process that can slow or even undermine productivity. Only by "normalizing" rejection, that is, by accepting it as an integral part of the scientific process, can researchers more quickly overcome negative emotions and instead use rejection to refine and advance their scientific programs. This article provides practical advice for coming to emotional terms with rejection and delineates methods for working constructively to address reviewer comments. PMID:26041785

  11. Multi-channel lock-in amplifier assisted femtosecond time-resolved fluorescence non-collinear optical parametric amplification spectroscopy with efficient rejection of superfluorescence background

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Pengcheng; Wang, Zhuan; Dang, Wei; Weng, Yuxiang

    2015-12-15

    Superfluorescence appears as an intense background in femtosecond time-resolved fluorescence noncollinear optical parametric amplification spectroscopy, which severely interferes the reliable acquisition of the time-resolved fluorescence spectra especially for an optically dilute sample. Superfluorescence originates from the optical amplification of the vacuum quantum noise, which would be inevitably concomitant with the amplified fluorescence photons during the optical parametric amplification process. Here, we report the development of a femtosecond time-resolved fluorescence non-collinear optical parametric amplification spectrometer assisted with a 32-channel lock-in amplifier for efficient rejection of the superfluorescence background. With this spectrometer, the superfluorescence background signal can be significantly reduced to 1/300–1/100 when the seeding fluorescence is modulated. An integrated 32-bundle optical fiber is used as a linear array light receiver connected to 32 photodiodes in one-to-one mode, and the photodiodes are further coupled to a home-built 32-channel synchronous digital lock-in amplifier. As an implementation, time-resolved fluorescence spectra for rhodamine 6G dye in ethanol solution at an optically dilute concentration of 10{sup −5}M excited at 510 nm with an excitation intensity of 70 nJ/pulse have been successfully recorded, and the detection limit at a pump intensity of 60 μJ/pulse was determined as about 13 photons/pulse. Concentration dependent redshift starting at 30 ps after the excitation in time-resolved fluorescence spectra of this dye has also been observed, which can be attributed to the formation of the excimer at a higher concentration, while the blueshift in the earlier time within 10 ps is attributed to the solvation process.

  12. Multi-channel lock-in amplifier assisted femtosecond time-resolved fluorescence non-collinear optical parametric amplification spectroscopy with efficient rejection of superfluorescence background.

    PubMed

    Mao, Pengcheng; Wang, Zhuan; Dang, Wei; Weng, Yuxiang

    2015-12-01

    Superfluorescence appears as an intense background in femtosecond time-resolved fluorescence noncollinear optical parametric amplification spectroscopy, which severely interferes the reliable acquisition of the time-resolved fluorescence spectra especially for an optically dilute sample. Superfluorescence originates from the optical amplification of the vacuum quantum noise, which would be inevitably concomitant with the amplified fluorescence photons during the optical parametric amplification process. Here, we report the development of a femtosecond time-resolved fluorescence non-collinear optical parametric amplification spectrometer assisted with a 32-channel lock-in amplifier for efficient rejection of the superfluorescence background. With this spectrometer, the superfluorescence background signal can be significantly reduced to 1/300-1/100 when the seeding fluorescence is modulated. An integrated 32-bundle optical fiber is used as a linear array light receiver connected to 32 photodiodes in one-to-one mode, and the photodiodes are further coupled to a home-built 32-channel synchronous digital lock-in amplifier. As an implementation, time-resolved fluorescence spectra for rhodamine 6G dye in ethanol solution at an optically dilute concentration of 10(-5)M excited at 510 nm with an excitation intensity of 70 nJ/pulse have been successfully recorded, and the detection limit at a pump intensity of 60 μJ/pulse was determined as about 13 photons/pulse. Concentration dependent redshift starting at 30 ps after the excitation in time-resolved fluorescence spectra of this dye has also been observed, which can be attributed to the formation of the excimer at a higher concentration, while the blueshift in the earlier time within 10 ps is attributed to the solvation process. PMID:26724012

  13. Optimization of two-phase thermophilic anaerobic digestion of biowaste for hydrogen and methane production through reject water recirculation.

    PubMed

    Cavinato, C; Bolzonella, D; Fatone, F; Cecchi, F; Pavan, P

    2011-09-01

    The optimization of a two-phase thermophilic anaerobic process treating biowaste for hydrogen and methane production was carried out at pilot scale using two stirred reactors (CSTRs) and without any physical/chemical pre-treatment of inoculum. During the experiment the hydrogen production at low hydraulic retention time (3d) was tested, both with and without reject water recirculation and at two organic loading rate (16 and 21 kgTVS/m3 d). The better yields were obtained with recirculation where the pH reached an optimal value (5.5) thanks to the buffering capacity of the recycle stream. The specific gas production of the first reactor was 51 l/kgVS(fed) and H2 content in biogas 37%. The mixture of gas obtained from the two reactors met the standards for the biohythane mix only when lower loading rate were applied to the first reactor, with a composition of 6.7% H2, 40.1% CO2 and 52.3% CH4 the overall SGP being 0.78 m3/kgVS(fed).

  14. Control design methods for floating wind turbines for optimal disturbance rejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemmer, Frank; Schlipf, David; Cheng, Po Wen

    2016-09-01

    An analysis of the floating wind turbine as a multi-input-multi-output system investigating the effect of the control inputs on the system outputs is shown. These effects are compared to the ones of the disturbances from wind and waves in order to give insights for the selection of the control layout. The frequencies with the largest impact on the outputs due to limited effect of the controlled variables are identified. Finally, an optimal controller is designed as a benchmark and compared to a conventional PI-controller using only the rotor speed as input. Here, the previously found system properties, especially the difficulties to damp responses to wave excitation, are confirmed and verified through a spectral analysis with realistic environmental conditions. This comparison also assesses the quality of the employed simplified linear simulation model compared to the nonlinear model and shows that such an efficient frequency-domain evaluation for control design is feasible.

  15. Rejection episodes.

    PubMed

    Koyama, H; Cecka, J M

    1992-01-01

    Based upon analyses of 40,671 kidney transplants reported to the UNOS Scientific Renal Transplant Registry between October 1987 and August 1992: 1. Twenty-four percent of the 21,923 recipients of first cadaver grafts experienced one or more rejection episodes during their transplant hospitalization, 52% during the first 6 months. At 12 months, only 40% of patients remained rejection-free. Patients who experienced any rejection during the first 6 months had a 72% 1-year graft survival rate compared with 95% for those who remained rejection-free (p < 0.001). 2. Recipients of transplants from living donors had a significantly lower incidence of rejection episodes. There was a clear effect of histocompatibility in comparing the incidence of rejection in HLA-identical sibling transplants (8% at discharge and 32% at 1 year) with that in 1-haplotype disparate transplants (22% at discharge and 52% at 1 year, p < 0.01 at each time point). Rejections were reported for 25% of transplants from other living donors at discharge and for 56% at 1 year, similar to the figures for cadaver transplants. 3. Histocompatibility also influenced the incidence of rejection in first cadaver-donor transplants. Only 15% of recipients of 0-HLA-A,B mismatched kidneys had rejection episodes reported at discharge, compared with 26% of those who received kidneys completely mismatched for HLA-A,B antigens (p < 0.01). At 1 year, 56% of HLA-A,B matched patients remained rejection-free, whereas only 35% of those mismatched for 4 antigens had no reported rejection through the first year (p < 0.01). Considering HLA-DR antigen mismatches, 19% of the 0-antigen mismatched group had rejection episodes at discharge, versus 28% for those with 2 HLA-DR mismatches (p < 0.01), and at 1 year, the percentage who were rejection-free decreased from 48% to 40% and 34% with 0, 1, and 2 HLA-DR mismatches, respectively. 4. The incidence of rejection episodes decreased as the recipient's age increased. Patients under age

  16. Rejected applications

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To review membership application materials (especially rejected applications) to the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) during its formative years (1947–1953). Methods: Detailed study of materials in the AAN Historical Collection. Results: The author identified 73 rejected applications. Rejected applicants (71 male, 2 female) lived in 25 states. The largest number was for the Associate membership category (49). These were individuals “in related fields who have made and are making contributions to the field of neurology.” By contrast, few applicants to Active membership or Fellowship status were rejected. The largest numbers of rejectees were neuropsychiatrists (19), neurosurgeons (16), and psychiatrists (14). Conclusion: The AAN, established in the late 1940s, was a small and politically vulnerable organization. A defining feature of the fledgling society was its inclusiveness; its membership was less restrictive than that of the older American Neurological Association. At the same time, the society needed to preserve its core as a neurologic society rather than one of psychiatry or neurosurgery. Hence, the balance between inclusiveness and exclusive identity was a difficult one to maintain. The Associate membership category, more than any other, was at the heart of this issue of self-definition. Associate members were largely practitioners of psychiatry or neurosurgery. Their membership was a source of consternation and was to be carefully been held in check during these critical formative years. PMID:24944256

  17. Optimal strategies for gravitational wave stochastic background searches in pulsar timing data

    SciTech Connect

    Anholm, Melissa; Creighton, Jolien D. E.; Price, Larry R.; Siemens, Xavier; Ballmer, Stefan

    2009-04-15

    A low frequency stochastic background of gravitational waves may be detected by pulsar timing experiments in the next 5 to 10 yr. Using methods developed to analyze interferometric gravitational wave data, in this paper we lay out the optimal techniques to detect a background of gravitational waves using a pulsar timing array. We show that for pulsar distances and gravitational wave frequencies typical of pulsar timing experiments, neglecting the effect of the metric perturbation at the pulsar does not result in a significant deviation from optimality. We discuss methods for setting upper limits using the optimal statistic, show how to construct skymaps using the pulsar timing array, and consider several issues associated with realistic analysis of pulsar timing data.

  18. Construction of an optimal background profile for the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation using semidefinite programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fantuzzi, G.; Wynn, A.

    2015-01-01

    A method to construct systematically an optimal background profile for the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation is developed by formulating the classical problem as an optimisation problem. In particular, we show that the infinite-dimensional problem can be rewritten as a finite-dimensional convex semidefinite problem, which is solved to construct a background profile and to obtain an upper bound on the energy of the solution ‖ u ‖ that applies to the infinite-dimensional PDE. The results are compared to existing analytical results, and support the fact that lim sup t → ∞ ‖ u ‖ ≤ O (L 3 / 2) is the optimal estimate achievable with the background profile method and a quadratic Lyapunov function.

  19. A study on the background error covariance for reduced-rank retrospective optimal interpolation with WRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.

    2015-12-01

    This study presents the investigation of the background error covariance for reduced-rank retrospective optimal interpolation (reduced-rank ROI). Retrospective optimal interpolation (ROI) algorithm which assimilates observations over the analysis window for variance-minimum estimate of an atmospheric state at the initial time of the analysis window is suggested in Song et al. (2009). The assimilation window of ROI is gradually increased. Song and Lim (2011) suggested reduced-rank ROI improved by incorporating eigen-decomposition and covariance inflation. In this study, the background error covariance for reduced-rank ROI algorithm is investigated with Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF). Reduced-rank ROI is applied by incorporating eigen-decomposition of background error covariance from ensemble. The structure of the background error covariance is investigated from each eigenvectors. The data assimilation experiments with reduced-rank ROI are based on Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSE). A regularly dense network, a regularly sparse network, and irregularly realistic network are used for observation networks. It is assumed that all observations are located at the model grid points. Analysis error with reduced-rank ROI decreases significantly. Vertical profiles of background error and analysis error shows overall analysis error reduction.

  20. Optimization of the SiD concept in the presence of ILC backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strube, Jan; Markiewicz, Thomas; Milke, Christopher; Schuetz, Anne; Schumm, Bruce; Stanitzki, Marcel

    2016-03-01

    The International Linear Collider is a high-energy e+e- machine, planned to be built in Japan in the next decade. Its physics program features precision measurements of the top and Electroweak sectors and a discovery potential of Physics beyond the Standard Model complementary to that of the LHC. We present studies of machine-related background processes in the context of detector optimization. For each of the dominant background processes, we will present its main signature in the detector, impact on physics measurements, and strategies for mitigation in detector design and reconstruction algorithms. The studies are based on a detailed simulation of the SiD detector concept.

  1. Optimization of low-background alpha spectrometers for analysis of thick samples.

    PubMed

    Misiaszek, M; Pelczar, K; Wójcik, M; Zuzel, G; Laubenstein, M

    2013-11-01

    Results of alpha spectrometric measurements performed deep underground and above ground with and without active veto show that the underground measurement of thick samples is the most sensitive method due to significant reduction of the muon-induced background. In addition, the polonium diffusion requires for some samples an appropriate selection of an energy region in the registered spectrum. On the basis of computer simulations the best counting conditions are selected for a thick lead sample in order to optimize the detection limit.

  2. Optimized background reduction in low-level gamma-ray spectrometry at a surface laboratory.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, S; García-León, M; García-Tenorio, R

    2006-09-01

    The background of a coaxial Ge detector placed at a surface laboratory has been reduced by means of a background reduction setup consisting of a passive shield of low-activity lead, a simple radon suppression system and an active shield with a plastic scintillation plate. In particular, we have devoted our efforts to in-depth optimization of each parameter associated with different anticoincidence setups and to their subsequent intercomparison. The overall performance of the active shield was improved by using the optimum time parameters for each setup. The final objective is to decrease the cosmic-ray background and, by this way, to reduce the detection limits of gamma-ray spectrometers at conventional laboratories, and consequently make them competitive for different measurements like (210)Pb dating.

  3. Spectral anomaly methods for aerial detection using KUT nuisance rejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detwiler, R. S.; Pfund, D. M.; Myjak, M. J.; Kulisek, J. A.; Seifert, C. E.

    2015-06-01

    This work discusses the application and optimization of a spectral anomaly method for the real-time detection of gamma radiation sources from an aerial helicopter platform. Aerial detection presents several key challenges over ground-based detection. For one, larger and more rapid background fluctuations are typical due to higher speeds, larger field of view, and geographically induced background changes. As well, the possible large altitude or stand-off distance variations cause significant steps in background count rate as well as spectral changes due to increased gamma-ray scatter with detection at higher altitudes. The work here details the adaptation and optimization of the PNNL-developed algorithm Nuisance-Rejecting Spectral Comparison Ratios for Anomaly Detection (NSCRAD), a spectral anomaly method previously developed for ground-based applications, for an aerial platform. The algorithm has been optimized for two multi-detector systems; a NaI(Tl)-detector-based system and a CsI detector array. The optimization here details the adaptation of the spectral windows for a particular set of target sources to aerial detection and the tailoring for the specific detectors. As well, the methodology and results for background rejection methods optimized for the aerial gamma-ray detection using Potassium, Uranium and Thorium (KUT) nuisance rejection are shown. Results indicate that use of a realistic KUT nuisance rejection may eliminate metric rises due to background magnitude and spectral steps encountered in aerial detection due to altitude changes and geographically induced steps such as at land-water interfaces.

  4. The GLAST Background Model

    SciTech Connect

    Ormes, J.F.; Atwood, W.; Burnett, T.; Grove, E.; Longo, F.; McEnery, J.; Mizuno, T.; Ritz, S.; /NASA, Goddard

    2007-10-17

    In order to estimate the ability of the GLAST/LAT to reject unwanted background of charged particles, optimize the on-board processing, size the required telemetry and optimize the GLAST orbit, we developed a detailed model of the background particles that would affect the LAT. In addition to the well-known components of the cosmic radiation, we included splash and reentrant components of protons, electrons (e+ and e-) from 10 MeV and beyond as well as the albedo gamma rays produced by cosmic ray interactions with the atmosphere. We made estimates of the irreducible background components produced by positrons and hadrons interacting in the multilayered micrometeorite shield and spacecraft surrounding the LAT and note that because the orbital debris has increased, the shielding required and hence the background are larger than were present in EGRET. Improvements to the model are currently being made to include the east-west effect.

  5. Background optimization for the neutron time-of-flight spectrometer NEAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günther, G.; Russina, M.

    2016-08-01

    The neutron time-of-flight spectrometer NEAT at BER II is currently undergoing a major upgrade where an important aspect is the prevention of parasitic scattering to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio. Here, we discuss the impact of shielding to suppress parasitic scattering from two identified sources of background: the sample environment and detector tubes. By means of Monte Carlo simulations and a modification of the analytical model of Copley et al. [Copley and Cook, 1994], the visibility functions of instrument parts are computed for different shielding configurations. According to three selection criteria, namely suppression of background, transmission and detection limit, the parameters of an oscillating radial collimator are optimized for NEAT's default setup. Moreover, different configurations of detector shielding are discussed to prevent cross-talk within the radial detector system.

  6. [Selection of back-ground electrolyte in capillary zone electrophoresis by triangle and tetrahedron optimization methods].

    PubMed

    Sun, Guoxiang; Song, Wenjing; Lin, Ting

    2008-03-01

    The triangle and tetrahedron optimization methods were developed for the selection of back-ground electrolyte (BGE) in capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). Chromatographic fingerprint index F and chromatographic fingerprint relative index F(r) were used as the objective functions for the evaluation, and the extract of Saussurea involucrate by water was used as the sample. The BGE was composed of borax, boric acid, dibasic sodium phosphate and sodium dihydrogen phosphate solution with different concentrations using triangle and tetrahedron optimization methods. Re-optimization was carried out by adding organic modifier to the BGE and adjusting the pH value. In triangle method, when 50 mmol/L borax-150 mmol/L sodium dihydrogen phosphate (containing 3% acetonitrile) (1 : 1, v/v) was used as BGE, the isolation was considered to be satisfactory. In tetrahedron method, the best BGE was 50 mmol/L borax-150 mmol/L sodium dihydrogen phosphate-200 mmol/L boric acid (1 : 1 : 2, v/v/v; adjusting the pH value to 8.55 by 0.1 mol/L sodium hydroxide). There were 28 peaks and 25 peaks under the different conditions respectively. The results showed that the methods could be applied to the selection of BGE in CZE of the extract of traditional Chinese medicine by water or ethanol.

  7. Optimal cosmic microwave background map-making in the presence of cross-correlated noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gasperis, G.; Buzzelli, A.; Cabella, P.; de Bernardis, P.; Vittorio, N.

    2016-08-01

    Aims: We present an extension of the ROMA map-making algorithm for the generation of optimal cosmic microwave background polarization maps. The new code allows for a possible cross-correlated noise component among the detectors of a CMB experiment. A promising application is the forthcoming LSPE balloon-borne experiment, which is devoted to the accurate observation of CMB polarization at large angular scales. Methods: We generalized the noise covariance matrix in time domain to account for all the off-diagonal terms due to the detector cross-talk. Hence, we performed preliminary forecasts of the LSPE-SWIPE instrument. Results: We found that considering the noise cross-correlation among the detectors results in a more realistic estimate of the angular power spectra. In particular, the extended ROMA algorithm has provided a considerable reduction of the spectra error bars. We expect that this improvement could be crucial in constraining the B-mode polarization at the largest scales.

  8. DIPS organic rankine cycle heat rejection system

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, R.

    1987-01-01

    The paper presents the results of an optimization study performed on the heat rejection system for a space based ORC power system using an isotope heat source. The radiator sizing depends on the heat rejection temperature, radiator configuration, and radiator properties such as the fin effectiveness, emissivity, and absorptivity. The optimization analysis to evaluate the effect of each of these parameters on the system weight and area is presented.

  9. Optimization of signal versus background in liquid xenon detectors used for dark matter direct detection experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Arcangelo, Francesca D.

    2010-02-01

    The discovery of cosmic acceleration twelve years ago implies that our universe is dominated by dark energy, which is either a tiny cosmological constant or a mysterious fluid with large negative pressure, or that Einstein's successful theory of gravity needs to be modified at large scales/low energies. Since then, independent evidence of a number of cosmological probes has firmly established the picture of a universe where dark energy (or the effective contribution from a modification of gravity) makes up about 72% of the total energy density. Whichever of the options mentioned above will turn out to be the right one, a satisfying explanation for cosmic acceleration will likely lead to important new insights in fundamental physics. The question of the physics behind cosmic acceleration is thus one of the most intriguing open questions in modern physics. In this thesis, we calculate current constraints on dark energy and study how to optimally use the cosmological tools at our disposal to learn about its nature. We will first present constraints from a host of recent data on the dark energy sound speed and equation of state for different dark energy models including early dark energy. We then study the observational properties of purely kinetic k-essence models and show how they can in principle be straightforwardly distinguished from quintessence models by their equation of state behavior. We next consider a large, representative set of dark energy and modified gravity models and show that they can be divided into a small set of observationally distinct classes. We also find that all non-early dark energy models we consider can be modeled extremely well by a simple linear equation of state form. We will then go on to discuss a number of alternative, model independent parametrizations of dark energy properties. Among other things, we find that principal component analysis is not as model-independent as one would like it to be and that assuming a fixed value for the

  10. Common-mode rejection in Martin-Puplett spectrometers for astronomical observations at millimeter wavelengths.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, Giuseppe; de Bernardis, Paolo; Masi, Silvia; Schillaci, Alessandro

    2015-11-01

    The Martin-Puplett interferometer (MPI) is a differential Fourier transform spectrometer that measures the difference between spectral brightness at two input ports. This unique feature makes the MPI an optimal zero instrument, able to detect small brightness gradients embedded in a large common background. In this paper, we experimentally investigate the common-mode rejection achievable in the MPI at millimeter wavelengths, and discuss the use of the instrument to measure the spectrum of cosmic microwave background anisotropy.

  11. Development of optimized detector/spectrophotometer technology for low background space astronomy missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, B.

    1985-01-01

    This program was directed towards a better understanding of some of the important factors in the performance of infrared detector arrays at low background conditions appropriate for space astronomy. The arrays were manufactured by Aerojet Electrosystems Corporation, Azusa. Two arrays, both bismuth doped silicon, were investigated: an AMCID 32x32 Engineering mosiac Si:Bi accumulation mode charge injection device detector array and a metal oxide semiconductor/field effect transistor (MOS-FET) switched array of 16x32 pixels.

  12. Optimizing the Kinematics, Backgrounds and Technology for a Next Generation Qpweak Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlini, Roger; Qweak Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    The recent Qweakp measurement at JLab was optimized to deliver the highest possible precision within the constraints of the available beam time, energies, polarized beam current, target technology, beam quality and kinematic requirements for the suppression of theoretical uncertainties. Applying what we have learned towards maximizing the figure-of-merit of a possible more precise next generation measurement suggests focusing on decreasing the beam energy (and Q2), but only enough to sufficiently suppress theoretical correction uncertainties, while still keeping the scattering asymmetry as high as possible. This insures that the running time remains reasonable and demands on helicity correlated beam properties stay within practical limits. Of equal importance is to remain sufficiently high in electron beam energy (400 MeV to 600 MeV) that proven technologies can be employed for the most critical ancillary measurements - such as precision laser backscattering beam polarimetry. The above conditions seem at least technically feasible if given the availability of a lower energy electron beam, sufficient running time and polarized beam current while still allowing the use of much of the previous generation Qweak instrumentation and methodology.

  13. Detection of foreign matter in transfusion solution based on Gaussian background modeling and an optimized BP neural network.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fuqiang; Su, Zhen; Chai, Xinghua; Chen, Lipeng

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method to detect and identify foreign matter mixed in a plastic bottle filled with transfusion solution. A spin-stop mechanism and mixed illumination style are applied to obtain high contrast images between moving foreign matter and a static transfusion background. The Gaussian mixture model is used to model the complex background of the transfusion image and to extract moving objects. A set of features of moving objects are extracted and selected by the ReliefF algorithm, and optimal feature vectors are fed into the back propagation (BP) neural network to distinguish between foreign matter and bubbles. The mind evolutionary algorithm (MEA) is applied to optimize the connection weights and thresholds of the BP neural network to obtain a higher classification accuracy and faster convergence rate. Experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively detect visible foreign matter in 250-mL transfusion bottles. The misdetection rate and false alarm rate are low, and the detection accuracy and detection speed are satisfactory. PMID:25347581

  14. "Science" Rejects Postmodernism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Pierre, Elizabeth Adams

    2002-01-01

    The National Research Council report, "Scientific Research in Education," claims to present an inclusive view of sciences in responding to federal attempts to legislate educational research. This article asserts that it narrowly defines science as positivism and methodology as quantitative, rejecting postmodernism and omitting other theories. Uses…

  15. Image rejects in general direct digital radiography

    PubMed Central

    Rosanowsky, Tine Blomberg; Jensen, Camilla; Wah, Kenneth Hong Ching

    2015-01-01

    Background The number of rejected images is an indicator of image quality and unnecessary imaging at a radiology department. Image reject analysis was frequent in the film era, but comparably few and small studies have been published after converting to digital radiography. One reason may be a belief that rejects have been eliminated with digitalization. Purpose To measure the extension of deleted images in direct digital radiography (DR), in order to assess the rates of rejects and unnecessary imaging and to analyze reasons for deletions, in order to improve the radiological services. Material and Methods All exposed images at two direct digital laboratories at a hospital in Norway were reviewed in January 2014. Type of examination, number of exposed images, and number of deleted images were registered. Each deleted image was analyzed separately and the reason for deleting the image was recorded. Results Out of 5417 exposed images, 596 were deleted, giving a deletion rate of 11%. A total of 51.3% were deleted due to positioning errors and 31.0% due to error in centering. The examinations with the highest percentage of deleted images were the knee, hip, and ankle, 20.6%, 18.5%, and 13.8% respectively. Conclusion The reject rate is at least as high as the deletion rate and is comparable with previous film-based imaging systems. The reasons for rejection are quite different in digital systems. This falsifies the hypothesis that digitalization would eliminates rejects. A deleted image does not contribute to diagnostics, and therefore is an unnecessary image. Hence, the high rates of deleted images have implications for management, training, education, as well as for quality. PMID:26500784

  16. The Application of Auto-Disturbance Rejection Control Optimized by Least Squares Support Vector Machines Method and Time-Frequency Representation in Voltage Source Converter-High Voltage Direct Current System.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying-Pei; Liang, Hai-Ping; Gao, Zhong-Ke

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the performance of voltage source converter-high voltage direct current (VSC-HVDC) system, we propose an improved auto-disturbance rejection control (ADRC) method based on least squares support vector machines (LSSVM) in the rectifier side. Firstly, we deduce the high frequency transient mathematical model of VSC-HVDC system. Then we investigate the ADRC and LSSVM principles. We ignore the tracking differentiator in the ADRC controller aiming to improve the system dynamic response speed. On this basis, we derive the mathematical model of ADRC controller optimized by LSSVM for direct current voltage loop. Finally we carry out simulations to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of our proposed control method. In addition, we employ the time-frequency representation methods, i.e., Wigner-Ville distribution (WVD) and adaptive optimal kernel (AOK) time-frequency representation, to demonstrate our proposed method performs better than the traditional method from the perspective of energy distribution in time and frequency plane.

  17. The Application of Auto-Disturbance Rejection Control Optimized by Least Squares Support Vector Machines Method and Time-Frequency Representation in Voltage Source Converter-High Voltage Direct Current System

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Zhong-Ke

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the performance of voltage source converter-high voltage direct current (VSC-HVDC) system, we propose an improved auto-disturbance rejection control (ADRC) method based on least squares support vector machines (LSSVM) in the rectifier side. Firstly, we deduce the high frequency transient mathematical model of VSC-HVDC system. Then we investigate the ADRC and LSSVM principles. We ignore the tracking differentiator in the ADRC controller aiming to improve the system dynamic response speed. On this basis, we derive the mathematical model of ADRC controller optimized by LSSVM for direct current voltage loop. Finally we carry out simulations to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of our proposed control method. In addition, we employ the time-frequency representation methods, i.e., Wigner-Ville distribution (WVD) and adaptive optimal kernel (AOK) time-frequency representation, to demonstrate our proposed method performs better than the traditional method from the perspective of energy distribution in time and frequency plane. PMID:26098556

  18. Soothing the Sting of Rejection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Joan Daniels

    1990-01-01

    Preventing rejection of a student by his/her peers and helping the child to cope with such rejection are ever-present challenges for teachers. Suggestions are given by teachers who have successfully dealt with students who were rejected by classmates. (IAH)

  19. Separation of sodium chloride from the evaporated residue of the reverse osmosis reject generated in the leather industry--optimization by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Boopathy, R; Sekaran, G

    2014-08-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate is being evaporated by solar/thermal evaporators to meet zero liquid discharge standards. The resulted evaporated residue (ER) is contaminated with both organic and inorganic mixture of salts. The generation of ER is exceedingly huge in the leather industry, which is being collected and stored under the shelter to avoid groundwater contamination by the leachate. In the present investigation, a novel process for the separation of sodium chloride from ER was developed, to reduce the environmental impact on RO concentrate discharge. The sodium chloride was selectively separated by the reactive precipitation method using hydrogen chloride gas. The selected process variables were optimized for maximum yield ofNaCl from the ER (optimum conditions were pH, 8.0; temperature, 35 degrees C; concentration of ER, 600 g/L and HCl purging time, 3 min). The recovered NaCl purity was verified using a cyclic voltagramm.

  20. Graft rejection in pediatric penetrating keratoplasty: Clinical features and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kusumesh, Rakhi; Vanathi, Murugesan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Early presentation of rejection facilitates early initiation of treatment which can favor a reversible rejection and better outcome. We analyzed the incidence, clinical features including rejection-treatment period and outcomes following graft rejection in our series of pediatric corneal graft. Materials and Methods: Case records of pediatric penetrating keratoplasty (PK) were reviewed retrospectively, and parameters noted demographic profile, indication of surgery, surgery-rejection period, rejection-treatment interval, graft outcome, and complications. Results: PK was performed in 66 eyes of 66 children <12 years, with an average follow-up of 21.12 ± 11.36 months (range 4-48 month). The median age at the time of surgery was 4.0 years (range 2 months to 12 years). Most of the children belonged to rural background. Scarring after keratitis (22, 33.4%) was the most common indication. Graft rejection occurred in eight eyes (12.12%) (acquired nontraumatic - 3, congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy [CHED] - 2, nonCHED - 1, congenital glaucoma - 1, regraft - 1). The mean surgery-rejection period was 10.5 ± 7.3 months and mean rejection-treatment interval was 10.9 ± 7.02 days. Conclusion: This study showed irreversible graft rejection was the leading cause of graft failure of pediatric PK. Though, the incidence (12.1%) of graft rejection in current study was not high, but the percentage of reversal (25%) was one of the lowest in literature because of delayed presentation and longer interval between corneal graft rejection and treatment. In addition, categorization of the type of graft rejection was very difficult and cumbersome in pediatric patients. PMID:25709272

  1. Heat rejection system

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Gregory C.; Tokarz, Richard D.; Parry, Jr., Harvey L.; Braun, Daniel J.

    1980-01-01

    A cooling system for rejecting waste heat consists of a cooling tower incorporating a plurality of coolant tubes provided with cooling fins and each having a plurality of cooling channels therein, means for directing a heat exchange fluid from the power plant through less than the total number of cooling channels to cool the heat exchange fluid under normal ambient temperature conditions, means for directing water through the remaining cooling channels whenever the ambient temperature rises above the temperature at which dry cooling of the heat exchange fluid is sufficient and means for cooling the water.

  2. Escaping from Rejection

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Raymond J.; Platt, Jeffrey L.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Those engaged in clinical transplantation and transplantation immunology have always taken as a central objective the elucidation of means to prevent graft rejection by the recipient immune system. Conceptually, such mechanisms stem from the concept of Paul Ehrlich that all organisms can selectively avoid autotoxicity; i.e. they exhibit horror autotoxicus. Some mechanisms of horror autotoxicus now understood. T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes recognize foreign antigens but not some auto-antigens. Clonal deletion generates lacunae in what is otherwise a virtually limitless potential to recognize antigens. We call this mechanism structural tolerance. Where imperfections in structural tolerance allow self-recognition, the full activation of lymphocytes and generation of effector activity depends on delivery of accessory signals generated by infection and/or injury. The absence of accessory signals prevents or even suppresses immunological responses. We call this dichotomy of responsiveness conditional tolerance. When, despite structural and conditional tolerance, effector activity perturbs autologous cells, metabolism changes in ways that protect against injury. We use the term accommodation to refer to this acquired protection against injury. Structural and conditional tolerance and accommodation overlap in such a way that potentially toxic products can be generated to control microorganisms and neutralize toxins without overly damaging adjacent cells. The central challenge in transplantation, then, should be the orchestration of structural and conditional tolerance and accommodation in such a way that toxic products can still be generated for defense while preserving graft function and survival. Since the earliest days of transplantation, immunobiologists have sought means by which to prevent recognition and rejection of foreign tissue. The goal of these strategies is the retention of recipient immune function while selectively avoiding graft injury. While

  3. Emotional responses to interpersonal rejection

    PubMed Central

    Leary, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    A great deal of human emotion arises in response to real, anticipated, remembered, or imagined rejection by other people. Because acceptance by other people improved evolutionary fitness, human beings developed biopsychological mechanisms to apprise them of threats to acceptance and belonging, along with emotional systems to deal with threats to acceptance. This article examines seven emotions that often arise when people perceive that their relational value to other people is low or in potential jeopardy, including hurt feelings, jealousy, loneliness, shame, guilt, social anxiety, and embarrassment. Other emotions, such as sadness and anger, may occur during rejection episodes, but are reactions to features of the situation other than low relational value. The article discusses the evolutionary functions of rejection-related emotions, neuroscience evidence regarding the brain regions that mediate reactions to rejection, and behavioral research from social, developmental, and clinical psychology regarding psychological and behavioral concomitants of interpersonal rejection. PMID:26869844

  4. Emotional responses to interpersonal rejection.

    PubMed

    Leary, Mark R

    2015-12-01

    A great deal of human emotion arises in response to real, anticipated, remembered, or imagined rejection by other people. Because acceptance by other people improved evolutionary fitness, human beings developed biopsychological mechanisms to apprise them of threats to acceptance and belonging, along with emotional systems to deal with threats to acceptance. This article examines seven emotions that often arise when people perceive that their relational value to other people is low or in potential jeopardy, including hurt feelings, jealousy, loneliness, shame, guilt, social anxiety, and embarrassment. Other emotions, such as sadness and anger, may occur during rejection episodes, but are reactions to features of the situation other than low relational value. The article discusses the evolutionary functions of rejection-related emotions, neuroscience evidence regarding the brain regions that mediate reactions to rejection, and behavioral research from social, developmental, and clinical psychology regarding psychological and behavioral concomitants of interpersonal rejection.

  5. Preventing T cell rejection of pig xenografts.

    PubMed

    Higginbotham, Laura; Ford, Mandy L; Newell, Kenneth A; Adams, Andrew B

    2015-11-01

    Xenotransplantation is a potential solution to the limited supply of donor organs. While early barriers to xenograft acceptance, such as hyperacute rejection, are now largely avoided through genetic engineering, the next frontier in successful xenograft survival will require prevention of T cell-mediated rejection. Most successful immunosuppressive regimens in xenotransplantation utilize T cell depletion with antibody therapy. Additionally, the use of T cell costimulatory blockade - specifically blockade of the CD40-CD154 pathway - shows promise with several reports of long-term xenograft survival. Additional therapies, such as transgenic expression of T cell coinhibitory molecules or transfer of immunomodulatory cells to promote tolerance, may be necessary to achieve reliable long-term xenograft acceptance. Further studies in pre-clinical models are essential in order to optimize these regimens prior to trials in patients.

  6. Private Information and Insurance Rejections

    PubMed Central

    Hendren, Nathaniel

    2013-01-01

    Across a wide set of non-group insurance markets, applicants are rejected based on observable, often high-risk, characteristics. This paper argues that private information, held by the potential applicant pool, explains rejections. I formulate this argument by developing and testing a model in which agents may have private information about their risk. I first derive a new no-trade result that theoretically explains how private information could cause rejections. I then develop a new empirical methodology to test whether this no-trade condition can explain rejections. The methodology uses subjective probability elicitations as noisy measures of agents beliefs. I apply this approach to three non-group markets: long-term care, disability, and life insurance. Consistent with the predictions of the theory, in all three settings I find significant amounts of private information held by those who would be rejected; I find generally more private information for those who would be rejected relative to those who can purchase insurance; and I show it is enough private information to explain a complete absence of trade for those who would be rejected. The results suggest private information prevents the existence of large segments of these three major insurance markets. PMID:24187381

  7. Private Information and Insurance Rejections.

    PubMed

    Hendren, Nathaniel

    2013-09-01

    Across a wide set of non-group insurance markets, applicants are rejected based on observable, often high-risk, characteristics. This paper argues that private information, held by the potential applicant pool, explains rejections. I formulate this argument by developing and testing a model in which agents may have private information about their risk. I first derive a new no-trade result that theoretically explains how private information could cause rejections. I then develop a new empirical methodology to test whether this no-trade condition can explain rejections. The methodology uses subjective probability elicitations as noisy measures of agents beliefs. I apply this approach to three non-group markets: long-term care, disability, and life insurance. Consistent with the predictions of the theory, in all three settings I find significant amounts of private information held by those who would be rejected; I find generally more private information for those who would be rejected relative to those who can purchase insurance; and I show it is enough private information to explain a complete absence of trade for those who would be rejected. The results suggest private information prevents the existence of large segments of these three major insurance markets.

  8. Optimization of a muon collider interaction region with respect to detector backgrounds and the heat load to the cryogenic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Johnstone, C.J.; Mokhov, N.V.

    1996-10-16

    In a 2 X 2 TeV {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} Collider almost 15 MW of power is deposited in the machine and detector components due to the unavoidable {mu}{r_arrow}{ital e{nu}{nu}{anti {nu}}} decays. The resulting heat load to the cryogenic systems and the background levels in the collider detectors significantly exceed those in any existing or designed hadron and {ital e}{sup +}{ital e}{sup -} colliders. This paper shows that by carefully designing the final focus system, by embedding shielding and by taking other protective measures the heat load and backgrounds can be mitigated by several orders of magnitude.

  9. Do Scientists Really Reject God?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Eugenie C.

    1998-01-01

    Suggests that the title of the recent Larson and Witham article in the journal Nature, "Leading Scientists Still Reject God", is premature and without reliable data upon which to base it. (Author/CCM)

  10. Organ transplant tissue rejection: detection and staging by fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacAulay, Calum E.; Whitehead, Peter D.; McManus, Bruce; Zeng, Haishan; Wilson-McManus, Janet; MacKinnon, Nick; Morgan, David C.; Dong, Chunming; Gerla, Paul; Kenyon, Jennifer

    1998-07-01

    Patients receiving heart or other organ transplants usually require some level of anti-rejection drug therapy, most commonly cyclosporine. The rejection status of the organ must be monitored to determine the optimal anti-rejection drug therapy. The current method for monitoring post-transplant rejection status of heart transplant patients consists of taking biopsies from the right ventricle. In this work we have developed a system employing optical and signal-processing techniques that will allow a cardiologist to measure spectral changes associated with tissue rejection using an optical catheter probe. The system employs time gated illumination and detection systems to deal with the dynamic signal acquisition problems associated with in vivo measurements of a beating heart. Spectral data processing software evaluates and processes the data to produce a simple numerical score. Results of measurements made on 100 excised transplanted isograft and allograft rat hearts have demonstrated the ability of the system to detect the presence of rejection and to accurately correlate the spectroscopic results with the ISHLT (International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation) stage of rejection determined by histopathology. In vivo measurements using a pig transplant model are now in process.

  11. ENDOTHELIAL CELLS IN ALLOGRAFT REJECTION

    PubMed Central

    Al-Lamki, Rafia S.; Bradley, John R.; Pober, Jordan S.

    2008-01-01

    In organ transplantation, blood borne cells and macromolecules (e.g. antibodies) of the host immune system are brought into direct contact with the endothelial cell (EC) lining of graft vessels. In this location, graft ECs play several roles in allograft rejection, including the initiation of rejection responses by presentation of alloantigen to circulating T cells; the development of inflammation and thrombosis; and as targets of injury and agents of repair. PMID:19034000

  12. Membrane rejection of nitrogen compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S.; Lueptow, R. M.

    2001-01-01

    Rejection characteristics of nitrogen compounds were examined for reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, and low-pressure reverse osmosis membranes. The rejection of nitrogen compounds is explained by integrating experimental results with calculations using the extended Nernst-Planck model coupled with a steric hindrance model. The molecular weight and chemical structure of nitrogen compounds appear to be less important in determining rejection than electrostatic properties. The rejection is greatest when the Donnan potential exceeds 0.05 V or when the ratio of the solute radius to the pore radius is greater than 0.8. The transport of solute in the pore is dominated by diffusion, although convective transport is significant for organic nitrogen compounds. Electromigration contributes negligibly to the overall solute transport in the membrane. Urea, a small organic compound, has lower rejection than ionic compounds such as ammonium, nitrate, and nitrite, indicating the critical role of electrostatic interaction in rejection. This suggests that better treatment efficiency for organic nitrogen compounds can be obtained after ammonification of urea.

  13. Background Reduction in Cryogenic Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Daniel A.

    2005-09-08

    This paper discusses the background reduction and rejection strategy of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment. Recent measurements of background levels from CDMS II at Soudan are presented, along with estimates for future improvements in sensitivity expected for a proposed SuperCDMS experiment at SNOLAB.

  14. Background reduction in cryogenic detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Daniel A.; /Fermilab

    2005-04-01

    This paper discusses the background reduction and rejection strategy of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment. Recent measurements of background levels from CDMS II at Soudan are presented, along with estimates for future improvements in sensitivity expected for a proposed SuperCDMS experiment at SNOLAB.

  15. Monte-Carlo simulation of noise in hard X-ray Transmission Crystal Spectrometers: identification of contributors to the background noise and shielding optimization.

    PubMed

    Thfoin, I; Reverdin, C; Hulin, S; Szabo, C I; Bastiani-Ceccotti, S; Batani, D; Brambrink, E; Koenig, M; Duval, A; Leboeuf, X; Lecherbourg, L; Rossé, B; Morace, A; Santos, J J; Vaisseau, X; Fourment, C; Giuffrida, L; Nakatsutsumi, M

    2014-11-01

    Transmission crystal spectrometers (TCS) are used on many laser facilities to record hard X-ray spectra. During experiments, signal recorded on imaging plates is often degraded by a background noise. Monte-Carlo simulations made with the code GEANT4 show that this background noise is mainly generated by diffusion of MeV electrons and very hard X-rays. An experiment, carried out at LULI2000, confirmed that the use of magnets in front of the diagnostic, that bent the electron trajectories, reduces significantly this background. The new spectrometer SPECTIX (Spectromètre PETAL à Cristal en TransmIssion X), built for the LMJ/PETAL facility, will include this optimized shielding. PMID:25430191

  16. Development and application of a channelized Hotelling observer for DBT optimization on structured background test images with mass simulating targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Dimitar; Michielsen, Koen; Cockmartin, Lesley; Zhang, Gouzhi; Young, Kenneth; Marshall, Nicholas; Bosmans, Hilde

    2016-03-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a 3D mammography technique that promises better visualization of low contrast lesions than conventional 2D mammography. A wide range of parameters influence the diagnostic information in DBT images and a systematic means of DBT system optimization is needed. The gold standard for image quality assessment is to perform a human observer experiment with experienced readers. Using human observers for optimization is time consuming and not feasible for the large parameter space of DBT. Our goal was to develop a model observer (MO) that can predict human reading performance for standard detection tasks of target objects within a structured phantom and subsequently apply it in a first comparative study. The phantom consists of an acrylic semi-cylindrical container with acrylic spheres of different sizes and the remaining space filled with water. Three types of lesions were included: 3D printed spiculated and non-spiculated mass lesions along with calcification groups. The images of the two mass lesion types were reconstructed with 3 different reconstruction methods (FBP, FBP with SRSAR, MLTRpr) and read by human readers. A Channelized Hotelling model observer was created for the non-spiculated lesion detection task using five Laguerre-Gauss channels, tuned for better performance. For the non-spiculated mass lesions a linear relation between the MO and human observer results was found, with correlation coefficients of 0.956 for standard FBP, 0.998 for FBP with SRSAR and 0.940 for MLTRpr. Both the MO and human observer percentage correct results for the spiculated masses were close to 100%, and showed no difference from each other for every reconstruction algorithm.

  17. Limits, discovery and cut optimization for a Poisson process with uncertainty in background and signal efficiency: TRolke 2.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundberg, J.; Conrad, J.; Rolke, W.; Lopez, A.

    2010-03-01

    A C++ class was written for the calculation of frequentist confidence intervals using the profile likelihood method. Seven combinations of Binomial, Gaussian, Poissonian and Binomial uncertainties are implemented. The package provides routines for the calculation of upper and lower limits, sensitivity and related properties. It also supports hypothesis tests which take uncertainties into account. It can be used in compiled C++ code, in Python or interactively via the ROOT analysis framework. Program summaryProgram title: TRolke version 2.0 Catalogue identifier: AEFT_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEFT_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: MIT license No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3431 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 21 789 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: ISO C++. Computer: Unix, GNU/Linux, Mac. Operating system: Linux 2.6 (Scientific Linux 4 and 5, Ubuntu 8.10), Darwin 9.0 (Mac-OS X 10.5.8). RAM:˜20 MB Classification: 14.13. External routines: ROOT ( http://root.cern.ch/drupal/) Nature of problem: The problem is to calculate a frequentist confidence interval on the parameter of a Poisson process with statistical or systematic uncertainties in signal efficiency or background. Solution method: Profile likelihood method, Analytical Running time:<10 seconds per extracted limit.

  18. A Zero-Reject System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Jo Anne

    The handbook describes the Project FIND Zero-Reject Model for identifying and serving handicapped children in Texas's Gregory-Portland Independent School District. A Flow Chart of the system is provided, and the following components are discussed (sample subtopics in parentheses): needs assessment, staffing patterns (responsibilities of directors,…

  19. Augmented orbiter heat rejection study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hixon, C. W.

    1981-01-01

    Spacecraft radiator concepts are presented that relieve attitude restrictions required by the shuttle orbiter space radiator for baseline and extended capability STS missions. Cost effective heat rejection kits are considered which add additional capability in the form of attached spacelab radiators or a deployable radiator module.

  20. Active rejection of persistent disturbances in flexible space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, Cheng-Neng; Jayasuriya, Suhada; Parlos, Alexander G.; Sunkel, John W.

    1990-01-01

    A dynamic compensator for active rejection of persistent disturbances in flexible space structures is designed on the principle of the H(infinity)-optimization of the sensitivity transfer function matrix. A general state space solution is formulated to the multiinput multioutput H(infinity)-optimal control problem, allowing the use of the H(infinity)-optimal synthesis algorithm for the state-space models of space structures that result from model order reduction. Disturbances encountered in flexible space structures, such as shuttle docking, are investigated using the high-mode and the reduced-order models of a cantilevered two-bay truss, demonstrating the applicability of the H(infinity)-optimal approach.

  1. Solar Rejection Filter for Large Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, Hamid; Lesh, James

    2009-01-01

    To reject solar radiation photons at the front aperture for large telescopes, a mosaic of large transmission mode filters is placed in front of the telescope or at the aperture of the dome. Filtering options for effective rejection of sunlight include a smaller filter down-path near the focus of the telescope, and a large-diameter filter located in the front of the main aperture. Two types of large filters are viable: reflectance mode and transmittance mode. In the case of reflectance mode, a dielectric coating on a suitable substrate (e.g. a low-thermal-expansion glass) is arranged to reflect only a single, narrow wavelength and to efficiently transmit all other wavelengths. These coatings are commonly referred to as notch filter. In this case, the large mirror located in front of the telescope aperture reflects the received (signal and background) light into the telescope. In the case of transmittance mode, a dielectric coating on a suitable substrate (glass, sapphire, clear plastic, membrane, and the like) is arranged to transmit only a single wavelength and to reject all other wavelengths (visible and near IR) of light. The substrate of the large filter will determine its mass. At first glance, a large optical filter with a diameter of up to 10 m, located in front of the main aperture, would require a significant thickness to avoid sagging. However, a segmented filter supported by a structurally rugged grid can support smaller filters. The obscuration introduced by the grid is minimal because the total area can be made insignificant. This configuration can be detrimental to a diffraction- limited telescope due to diffraction effects at the edges of each sub-panel. However, no discernable degradation would result for a 20 diffraction-limit telescope (a photon bucket). Even the small amount of sagging in each subpanel should have minimal effect in the performance of a non-diffraction limited telescope because the part has no appreciable optical power. If the

  2. Fluoride transport due to injection of reject water from RO process into the ground water through downstream bore well.

    PubMed

    Babu, C Anand; Agarwal, Sourabh; Sujish, D; Rajan, K K

    2011-10-01

    Fluoride removal using Reverse Osmosis has appreciable amount of fluorine in the reject stream. Disposal of reject water to surface water further contaminates the water body. It is required to dispose of this reject into the environment with minimal pollution. So a study on disposal of fluoride contaminated reject inside the ground water through bore well is done through theoretical modelling using COMSOL multiphysics software. It has been established that the rise in fluoride concentration in ground water due to injection of fluoride contaminated reject through bore well depends on the injection rate of reject inside the bore well and not on the initial background concentration of fluoride in the ground water. It has been found that for reject injection rate of 30 m3/day the rise in fluoride concentration in ground water with respect to initial background concentration of fluoride is less than 10% at a distance above 600m from the injection source after 100 years. PMID:23505817

  3. Alloreactive CD8 T Cell Primed/Memory Responses and Accelerated Graft Rejection in B Cell-Deficient Sensitized Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Haofeng; Shen, Xiu-da; Gao, Feng; Busuttil, Ronald W.; Zhai, Yuan; Kupiec-Weglinski, Jerzy W.

    2013-01-01

    Background The sensitized patients can develop an accelerated form of graft rejection mediated by humoral and/or T cell-mediated responses, which are resistant to currently used immunosuppression. Methods&Results In our model of fulminant cardiac allograft rejection in sensitized hosts, groups of wild-type (WT) and B cell-deficient (BKO) mice (B6) were challenged with skin grafts (B/c). Alloreactive CD8 T effector (Teff) activation and T memory (Tmem) differentiation during a 60-day follow-up period were reduced in the absence of B cell help. The expression of IL-2Rα, IL-7Rα, and IL-15Rα, which support/program CD8 Teff/Tmem expansion, differentiation, and survival, were selectively decreased in BKO hosts. Unlike in WT, in vivo cytotoxic activity analysis of alloreactive Tmem recall response has revealed decreased donor-type (B/c) but not third-party (C3H) cell lysis in sensitized B cell-deficient hosts. However, such impaired allo-Ag specific Tmem recall function was insufficient to markedly prolong cardiac allograft survival in sensitized BKO recipients. Indeed, despite quantitative and statistically significant differences between both animal groups, the biological impact of decreased CD8 Teff/Tmem activation and function in the sensitization phase was marginal. Indeed, cardiac allografts underwent fulminant rejection in sensitized BKO, albeit with somewhat delayed kinetics. Interestingly, unlike in naïve counterparts, the rejection cascade remained CD154 blockade-resistant, evidenced by comparable kinetics, and intra-graft cytokine gene profiles in MR1 mAb-treated sensitized WT and BKO hosts. Conclusion Although B cells were important for optimal alloreactive CD8 Teff/Tmem function in the sensitization phase, the fulminant rejection of cardiac allografts was B cell-independent, and CD154 blockade-resistant, as in WT hosts. PMID:21427633

  4. 7 CFR 58.136 - Rejected milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rejected milk. 58.136 Section 58.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Milk § 58.136 Rejected milk. A plant shall reject specific milk from a producer if the milk fails...

  5. 7 CFR 58.136 - Rejected milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rejected milk. 58.136 Section 58.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Milk § 58.136 Rejected milk. A plant shall reject specific milk from a producer if the milk fails...

  6. 7 CFR 58.136 - Rejected milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rejected milk. 58.136 Section 58.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Milk § 58.136 Rejected milk. A plant shall reject specific milk from a producer if the milk fails...

  7. 7 CFR 58.136 - Rejected milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rejected milk. 58.136 Section 58.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Milk § 58.136 Rejected milk. A plant shall reject specific milk from a producer if the milk fails...

  8. 7 CFR 58.136 - Rejected milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rejected milk. 58.136 Section 58.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Milk § 58.136 Rejected milk. A plant shall reject specific milk from a producer if the milk fails...

  9. Peer Group Rejection and Children's Outgroup Prejudice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesdale, Drew; Durkin, Kevin; Maass, Anne; Kiesner, Jeff; Griffiths, Judith; Daly, Josh; McKenzie, David

    2010-01-01

    Two simulation studies examined the effect of peer group rejection on 7 and 9 year old children's outgroup prejudice. In Study 1, children (n = 88) pretended that they were accepted or rejected by their assigned group, prior to competing with a lower status outgroup. Results indicated that rejected versus accepted children showed increased…

  10. Social Causes and Consequences of Rejection Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London, Bonita; Downey, Geraldine; Bonica, Cheryl; Paltin, Iris

    2007-01-01

    Predictions from the Rejection Sensitivity (RS) model concerning the social causes and consequences of RS were examined in a longitudinal study of 150 middle school students. Peer nominations of rejection, self-report measures of anxious and angry rejection expectations, and social anxiety, social withdrawal, and loneliness were assessed at two…

  11. Enhancing Signal Output and Avoiding BOD/Toxicity Combined Shock Interference by Operating a Microbial Fuel Cell Sensor with an Optimized Background Concentration of Organic Matter

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yong; Liang, Peng; Liu, Panpan; Bian, Yanhong; Miao, Bo; Sun, Xueliang; Zhang, Helan; Huang, Xia

    2016-01-01

    In the monitoring of pollutants in an aquatic environment, it is important to preserve water quality safety. Among the available analysis methods, the microbial fuel cell (MFC) sensor has recently been used as a sustainable and on-line electrochemical microbial biosensor for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and toxicity, respectively. However, the effect of the background organic matter concentration on toxicity monitoring when using an MFC sensor is not clear and there is no effective strategy available to avoid the signal interference by the combined shock of BOD and toxicity. Thus, the signal interference by the combined shock of BOD and toxicity was systematically studied in this experiment. The background organic matter concentration was optimized in this study and it should be fixed at a high level of oversaturation for maximizing the signal output when the current change (ΔI) is selected to correlate with the concentration of a toxic agent. When the inhibition ratio (IR) is selected, on the other hand, it should be fixed as low as possible near the detection limit for maximizing the signal output. At least two MFC sensors operated with high and low organic matter concentrations and a response chart generated from pre-experiment data were both required to make qualitative distinctions of the four types of combined shock caused by a sudden change in BOD and toxicity. PMID:27563887

  12. Enhancing Signal Output and Avoiding BOD/Toxicity Combined Shock Interference by Operating a Microbial Fuel Cell Sensor with an Optimized Background Concentration of Organic Matter.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yong; Liang, Peng; Liu, Panpan; Bian, Yanhong; Miao, Bo; Sun, Xueliang; Zhang, Helan; Huang, Xia

    2016-01-01

    In the monitoring of pollutants in an aquatic environment, it is important to preserve water quality safety. Among the available analysis methods, the microbial fuel cell (MFC) sensor has recently been used as a sustainable and on-line electrochemical microbial biosensor for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and toxicity, respectively. However, the effect of the background organic matter concentration on toxicity monitoring when using an MFC sensor is not clear and there is no effective strategy available to avoid the signal interference by the combined shock of BOD and toxicity. Thus, the signal interference by the combined shock of BOD and toxicity was systematically studied in this experiment. The background organic matter concentration was optimized in this study and it should be fixed at a high level of oversaturation for maximizing the signal output when the current change (ΔI) is selected to correlate with the concentration of a toxic agent. When the inhibition ratio (IR) is selected, on the other hand, it should be fixed as low as possible near the detection limit for maximizing the signal output. At least two MFC sensors operated with high and low organic matter concentrations and a response chart generated from pre-experiment data were both required to make qualitative distinctions of the four types of combined shock caused by a sudden change in BOD and toxicity.

  13. Enhancing Signal Output and Avoiding BOD/Toxicity Combined Shock Interference by Operating a Microbial Fuel Cell Sensor with an Optimized Background Concentration of Organic Matter.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yong; Liang, Peng; Liu, Panpan; Bian, Yanhong; Miao, Bo; Sun, Xueliang; Zhang, Helan; Huang, Xia

    2016-01-01

    In the monitoring of pollutants in an aquatic environment, it is important to preserve water quality safety. Among the available analysis methods, the microbial fuel cell (MFC) sensor has recently been used as a sustainable and on-line electrochemical microbial biosensor for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and toxicity, respectively. However, the effect of the background organic matter concentration on toxicity monitoring when using an MFC sensor is not clear and there is no effective strategy available to avoid the signal interference by the combined shock of BOD and toxicity. Thus, the signal interference by the combined shock of BOD and toxicity was systematically studied in this experiment. The background organic matter concentration was optimized in this study and it should be fixed at a high level of oversaturation for maximizing the signal output when the current change (ΔI) is selected to correlate with the concentration of a toxic agent. When the inhibition ratio (IR) is selected, on the other hand, it should be fixed as low as possible near the detection limit for maximizing the signal output. At least two MFC sensors operated with high and low organic matter concentrations and a response chart generated from pre-experiment data were both required to make qualitative distinctions of the four types of combined shock caused by a sudden change in BOD and toxicity. PMID:27563887

  14. Collimator optimization in myocardial perfusion SPECT using the ideal observer and realistic background variability for lesion detection and joint detection and localization tasks.

    PubMed

    Ghaly, Michael; Du, Yong; Links, Jonathan M; Frey, Eric C

    2016-03-01

    In SPECT imaging, collimators are a major factor limiting image quality and largely determine the noise and resolution of SPECT images. In this paper, we seek the collimator with the optimal tradeoff between image noise and resolution with respect to performance on two tasks related to myocardial perfusion SPECT: perfusion defect detection and joint detection and localization. We used the Ideal Observer (IO) operating on realistic background-known-statistically (BKS) and signal-known-exactly (SKE) data. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and localization ROC (LROC) curves (AUCd, AUCd+l), respectively, were used as the figures of merit for both tasks. We used a previously developed population of 54 phantoms based on the eXtended Cardiac Torso Phantom (XCAT) that included variations in gender, body size, heart size and subcutaneous adipose tissue level. For each phantom, organ uptakes were varied randomly based on distributions observed in patient data. We simulated perfusion defects at six different locations with extents and severities of 10% and 25%, respectively, which represented challenging but clinically relevant defects. The extent and severity are, respectively, the perfusion defect's fraction of the myocardial volume and reduction of uptake relative to the normal myocardium. Projection data were generated using an analytical projector that modeled attenuation, scatter, and collimator-detector response effects, a 9% energy resolution at 140 keV, and a 4 mm full-width at half maximum (FWHM) intrinsic spatial resolution. We investigated a family of eight parallel-hole collimators that spanned a large range of sensitivity-resolution tradeoffs. For each collimator and defect location, the IO test statistics were computed using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method for an ensemble of 540 pairs of defect-present and -absent images that included the aforementioned anatomical and uptake variability. Sets of test statistics were computed

  15. Collimator optimization in myocardial perfusion SPECT using the ideal observer and realistic background variability for lesion detection and joint detection and localization tasks.

    PubMed

    Ghaly, Michael; Du, Yong; Links, Jonathan M; Frey, Eric C

    2016-03-01

    In SPECT imaging, collimators are a major factor limiting image quality and largely determine the noise and resolution of SPECT images. In this paper, we seek the collimator with the optimal tradeoff between image noise and resolution with respect to performance on two tasks related to myocardial perfusion SPECT: perfusion defect detection and joint detection and localization. We used the Ideal Observer (IO) operating on realistic background-known-statistically (BKS) and signal-known-exactly (SKE) data. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and localization ROC (LROC) curves (AUCd, AUCd+l), respectively, were used as the figures of merit for both tasks. We used a previously developed population of 54 phantoms based on the eXtended Cardiac Torso Phantom (XCAT) that included variations in gender, body size, heart size and subcutaneous adipose tissue level. For each phantom, organ uptakes were varied randomly based on distributions observed in patient data. We simulated perfusion defects at six different locations with extents and severities of 10% and 25%, respectively, which represented challenging but clinically relevant defects. The extent and severity are, respectively, the perfusion defect's fraction of the myocardial volume and reduction of uptake relative to the normal myocardium. Projection data were generated using an analytical projector that modeled attenuation, scatter, and collimator-detector response effects, a 9% energy resolution at 140 keV, and a 4 mm full-width at half maximum (FWHM) intrinsic spatial resolution. We investigated a family of eight parallel-hole collimators that spanned a large range of sensitivity-resolution tradeoffs. For each collimator and defect location, the IO test statistics were computed using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method for an ensemble of 540 pairs of defect-present and -absent images that included the aforementioned anatomical and uptake variability. Sets of test statistics were computed

  16. Collimator optimization in myocardial perfusion SPECT using the ideal observer and realistic background variability for lesion detection and joint detection and localization tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaly, Michael; Du, Yong; Links, Jonathan M.; Frey, Eric C.

    2016-03-01

    In SPECT imaging, collimators are a major factor limiting image quality and largely determine the noise and resolution of SPECT images. In this paper, we seek the collimator with the optimal tradeoff between image noise and resolution with respect to performance on two tasks related to myocardial perfusion SPECT: perfusion defect detection and joint detection and localization. We used the Ideal Observer (IO) operating on realistic background-known-statistically (BKS) and signal-known-exactly (SKE) data. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and localization ROC (LROC) curves (AUCd, AUCd+l), respectively, were used as the figures of merit for both tasks. We used a previously developed population of 54 phantoms based on the eXtended Cardiac Torso Phantom (XCAT) that included variations in gender, body size, heart size and subcutaneous adipose tissue level. For each phantom, organ uptakes were varied randomly based on distributions observed in patient data. We simulated perfusion defects at six different locations with extents and severities of 10% and 25%, respectively, which represented challenging but clinically relevant defects. The extent and severity are, respectively, the perfusion defect’s fraction of the myocardial volume and reduction of uptake relative to the normal myocardium. Projection data were generated using an analytical projector that modeled attenuation, scatter, and collimator-detector response effects, a 9% energy resolution at 140 keV, and a 4 mm full-width at half maximum (FWHM) intrinsic spatial resolution. We investigated a family of eight parallel-hole collimators that spanned a large range of sensitivity-resolution tradeoffs. For each collimator and defect location, the IO test statistics were computed using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method for an ensemble of 540 pairs of defect-present and -absent images that included the aforementioned anatomical and uptake variability. Sets of test statistics were

  17. Centered CW interference rejection using spread spectrum techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholtz, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed for the rejection of CW interference by spread spectrum techniques. When this interference is known to be exactly at the carrier frequency of the spread spectrum signal, this information can be used to design optimal IF filtering prior to despreading. The application of this approach to the pilot beam receiver of the Solar Power Satellite is considered as an example.

  18. Extended Active Disturbance Rejection Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Zhiqiang (Inventor); Tian, Gang (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Multiple designs, systems, methods and processes for controlling a system or plant using an extended active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) based controller are presented. The extended ADRC controller accepts sensor information from the plant. The sensor information is used in conjunction with an extended state observer in combination with a predictor that estimates and predicts the current state of the plant and a co-joined estimate of the system disturbances and system dynamics. The extended state observer estimates and predictions are used in conjunction with a control law that generates an input to the system based in part on the extended state observer estimates and predictions as well as a desired trajectory for the plant to follow.

  19. Extended Active Disturbance Rejection Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Zhiqiang (Inventor); Tian, Gang (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Multiple designs, systems, methods and processes for controlling a system or plant using an extended active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) based controller are presented. The extended ADRC controller accepts sensor information from the plant. The sensor information is used in conjunction with an extended state observer in combination with a predictor that estimates and predicts the current state of the plant and a co-joined estimate of the system disturbances and system dynamics. The extended state observer estimates and predictions are used in conjunction with a control law that generates an input to the system based in part on the extended state observer estimates and predictions as well as a desired trajectory for the plant to follow.

  20. Extended active disturbance rejection controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Zhiqiang (Inventor); Tian, Gang (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Multiple designs, systems, methods and processes for controlling a system or plant using an extended active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) based controller are presented. The extended ADRC controller accepts sensor information from the plant. The sensor information is used in conjunction with an extended state observer in combination with a predictor that estimates and predicts the current state of the plant and a co-joined estimate of the system disturbances and system dynamics. The extended state observer estimates and predictions are used in conjunction with a control law that generates an input to the system based in part on the extended state observer estimates and predictions as well as a desired trajectory for the plant to follow.

  1. Background considerations for SuperCDMS

    SciTech Connect

    Cooley, J.; Collaboration: SuperCDMS Collaboration

    2013-08-08

    Rejection and protection from background is a key issue for the next generation SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment that will have a cross-section sensitivity of better than 8 × 10{sup −46} cm{sup 2} for spin-independent WIMP-nucleon interactions. This paper presents the details of the methods used to reject electromagnetic backgrounds using the new iZIP detectors that are currently operated in the Soudan Underground Laboratory, MN and the methods the collaboration is investigating to protect against neutron background in the next generation SuperCDMS experiment.

  2. Optimism

    PubMed Central

    Carver, Charles S.; Scheier, Michael F.; Segerstrom, Suzanne C.

    2010-01-01

    Optimism is an individual difference variable that reflects the extent to which people hold generalized favorable expectancies for their future. Higher levels of optimism have been related prospectively to better subjective well-being in times of adversity or difficulty (i.e., controlling for previous well-being). Consistent with such findings, optimism has been linked to higher levels of engagement coping and lower levels of avoidance, or disengagement, coping. There is evidence that optimism is associated with taking proactive steps to protect one's health, whereas pessimism is associated with health-damaging behaviors. Consistent with such findings, optimism is also related to indicators of better physical health. The energetic, task-focused approach that optimists take to goals also relates to benefits in the socioeconomic world. Some evidence suggests that optimism relates to more persistence in educational efforts and to higher later income. Optimists also appear to fare better than pessimists in relationships. Although there are instances in which optimism fails to convey an advantage, and instances in which it may convey a disadvantage, those instances are relatively rare. In sum, the behavioral patterns of optimists appear to provide models of living for others to learn from. PMID:20170998

  3. 21 CFR 1230.47 - Rejected containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rejected containers. 1230.47 Section 1230.47 Food... FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Imports § 1230.47 Rejected containers. (a) In all cases where the containers... notification to the importer that the containers must be exported under customs supervision within 3...

  4. Who Doesn't Reject the Rejectee?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cockriel, Irwin W.; Fox, Randy J.

    1976-01-01

    This article reports on the utility of sociometrics for the teacher, particularly in determining who will not reject a generally rejected classmate. A study on teachers' ability to predict such students indicated teachers were not very good at predicting either rejectees, or accepting students. Implications and suggestions are discussed. (NG)

  5. An adaptive algorithm for noise rejection.

    PubMed

    Lovelace, D E; Knoebel, S B

    1978-01-01

    An adaptive algorithm for the rejection of noise artifact in 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic recordings is described. The algorithm is based on increased amplitude distortion or increased frequency of fluctuations associated with an episode of noise artifact. The results of application of the noise rejection algorithm on a high noise population of test tapes are discussed.

  6. Image rejects/retakes--radiographic challenges.

    PubMed

    Waaler, D; Hofmann, B

    2010-01-01

    A general held position among radiological personnel prior to digitalisation was that the problem of image rejects/retakes should more or less vanish. However, rejects/retakes still impose several challenges within radiographic imaging; they occupy unnecessary resources, expose patients to unnecessary ionizing radiation and may also indicate suboptimal quality management. The latter is the main objective of this paper, which is based on a survey of international papers published both for screen/film and digital technology. The digital revolution in imaging seems to have reduced the percentage of image rejects/retakes from 10-15 to 3-5 %. The major contribution to the decrease appears to be the dramatic reduction of incorrect exposures. At the same time, rejects/retakes due to lack of operator competence (positioning, etc.) are almost unchanged, or perhaps slightly increased (due to lack of proper technical competence, incorrect organ coding, etc.). However, the causes of rejects/retakes are in many cases defined and reported with reference to radiographers' subjective evaluations. Thus, unless radiographers share common views on image quality and acceptance criteria, objective measurements and assessments of reject/retake rates are challenging tasks. Interestingly, none of the investigated papers employs image quality parameters such as 'too much noise' as categories for rejects/retakes. Surprisingly, no reject/retake analysis seems yet to have been conducted for direct digital radiography departments. An increased percentage of rejects/retakes is related to 'digital skills' of radiographers and therefore points to areas for extended education and training. Furthermore, there is a need to investigate the inter-subjectivity of radiographers' perception of, and attitude towards, both technical and clinical image quality criteria. Finally, there may be a need to validate whether reject/retake rate analysis is such an effective quality indicator as has been asserted

  7. Self-excitation in Francis runner during load rejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moisan, É.; Giacobbi, D.-B.; Gagnon, M.; Léonard, F.

    2014-03-01

    Typically, transients such as load rejection generate only a few high vibration cycles in Francis runners. However, in the cases presented in this study, a sustained vibration around a natural frequency was observed on three (3) homologous Francis runners of different sizes during such events. The first two (2) runners were equipped with strain gauges on the blades and displacement sensors positioned circumferentially in the bottom ring and head cover around the runner labyrinth seals. The third runner was monitored only with displacement sensors on non-rotating components. The data from the first two (2) runners provided a better understanding of the parameters influencing the appearance of the high amplitude vibrations and allowed the implementation of a test plan to circumvent the phenomenon during commissioning of the third runner. Based on the measured data, the distributor's closing parameters were optimized to eliminate the vibration observed during load rejection on most of the operating range and reduce it significantly at full load.

  8. Cosmic-Ray Rejection by Linear Filtering of Single Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhoads, James E.

    2000-05-01

    We present a convolution-based algorithm for finding cosmic rays in single well-sampled astronomical images. The spatial filter used is the point-spread function (approximated by a Gaussian) minus a scaled delta function, and cosmic rays are identified by thresholding the filtered image. This filter searches for features with significant power at spatial frequencies too high for legitimate objects. Noise properties of the filtered image are readily calculated, which allows us to compute the probability of rejecting a pixel not contaminated by a cosmic ray (the false alarm probability). We demonstrate that the false alarm probability for a pixel containing object flux will never exceed the corresponding probability for a blank-sky pixel, provided we choose the convolution kernel appropriately. This allows confident rejection of cosmic rays superposed on real objects. Identification of multiple-pixel cosmic-ray hits can be enhanced by running the algorithm iteratively, replacing flagged pixels with the background level at each iteration.

  9. Effect of nifedipine on renal transplant rejection.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, M L; Dennis, M J; Beckingham, I J; Smith, S J

    1993-10-01

    The effect of early nifedipine therapy on acute renal allograft rejection was studied in 170 adult cadaveric transplant recipients. Acute rejection occurring in the first 3 months after transplantation was diagnosed by Tru-cut biopsy and the severity of each rejection episode assessed histologically. The incidence of acute rejection was significantly lower in patients treated with nifedipine (29 of 80; 36 per cent) than in controls (52 of 90; 58 per cent) (P < 0.01) and there was a higher proportion of histologically mild rejection episodes in the former group (P < 0.01). Multivariate analysis confirmed that nifedipine exerted a significant independent effect on the incidence of early acute rejection. Other factors identified in the multivariate model as influencing rejection were human leucocyte antigen (HLA) matching at the DR locus, blood level of cyclosporin during the first week, HLA matching at the B locus, donor age and donor sex. The 1-year graft survival rate was 88.6 per cent in patients given nifedipine and 63.8 per cent in controls (P < 0.02). These data suggest that nifedipine therapy has a useful role in human renal transplantation.

  10. Rejection of pharmaceuticals by forward osmosis membranes.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xue; Shan, Junhong; Wang, Can; Wei, Jing; Tang, Chuyang Y

    2012-08-15

    Rejection of four pharmaceutical compounds, carbamazepine, diclofenac, ibuprofen and naproxen, by forward osmosis (FO) membranes was investigated in this study. For the first time, the rejection efficiency of the pharmaceutical compounds was compared between commercial cellulose triacetate (CTA) based membranes and thin film composite (TFC) polyamide based membranes. The rejection behavior was related to membrane interfacial properties, physicochemical characteristics of the pharmaceutical molecules and feed solution pH. TFC polyamide membranes exhibited excellent overall performance, with high water flux, excellent pH stability and great rejection of all pharmaceuticals investigated (>94%). For commercial CTA based FO membranes, hydrophobic interaction between the compounds and membranes exhibited strong influence on their rejection under acidic conditions. The pharmaceuticals rejection was well correlated to their hydrophobicity (log D). Under alkaline conditions, both electrostatic repulsion and size exclusion contributed to the removal of deprotonated molecules. The pharmaceuticals rejection by CTA-HW membrane at pH 8 followed the order: diclofenac (99%)>carbamazepine (95%)>ibuprofen (93%) ≈ naproxen (93%). These results can be important for FO membrane synthesis, modification and their application in water purification. PMID:22640821

  11. Pericytes, microvasular dysfunction, and chronic rejection.

    PubMed

    Kloc, Malgorzata; Kubiak, Jacek Z; Li, Xian C; Ghobrial, Rafik M

    2015-04-01

    Chronic rejection of transplanted organs remains the main obstacle in the long-term success of organ transplantation. Thus, there is a persistent quest for development of antichronic rejection therapies and identification of novel molecular and cellular targets. One of the potential targets is the pericytes, the mural cells of microvessels, which regulate microvascular permeability, development, and maturation by controlling endothelial cell functions and regulating tissue fibrosis and inflammatory response. In this review, we discuss the potential of targeting pericytes in the development of microvasular dysfunction and the molecular pathways involved in regulation of pericyte activities for antichronic rejection intervention.

  12. Pericytes, microvasular dysfunction and chronic rejection

    PubMed Central

    Kloc, Malgorzata; Kubiak, Jacek Z.; Li, Xian C.; Ghobrial, Rafik M.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic rejection of transplanted organs remains the main obstacle in the long-term success of organ transplantation. Thus, there is a persistent quest for development of anti-chronic rejection therapies and identification of novel molecular and cellular targets. One of the potential targets is the pericytes, the mural cells of microvessels, which regulate microvascular permeability, development and maturation by controlling endothelial cell functions and regulating tissue fibrosis and inflammatory response. In this review we discuss the potential of targeting pericytes in development of microvasular dysfunction and the molecular pathways involved in regulation of pericyte activities for anti-chronic rejection intervention. PMID:25793439

  13. Nerve Regeneration in Rat Limb Allografts: Evaluation of Acute Rejection Rescue

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Ying; MacEwan, Matthew R.; Hunter, Daniel A.; Farber, Scott; Newton, Piyaraj; Tung, Thomas H.; Mackinnon, Susan E.; Johnson, Philip J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Successful nerve regeneration is critical to the functional success of composite tissue allografts (CTA). The present study was designed to characterize the effect of acute rejection on nerve regeneration and functional recovery in the setting of orthotopic limb transplantation. Methods A rat orthotopic limb transplantation model was used to evaluate the effects of acute rejection on nerve regeneration and motor recovery. Continuous administration of FK506 (Full suppression), administration of FK506 for the first 8 of 12 weeks (Late rejection), or delayed administration of FK506 / dexamethasone following noticeable rejection (Early rejection) was used to preclude or induce rejection following limb transplantation. Twelve weeks postoperatively, nerve regeneration was assessed via histomorphometric analysis of explanted sciatic nerve, and motor recovery was assessed via evoked muscle force measurement in extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle. Results A single episode of acute rejection that occurs immediately or late after reconstruction does not significantly alter the number of regenerating axonal fibers. Acute rejection occurring late after reconstruction adversely affects EDL muscle function in CTA. Conclusion Collected data reinforces that adequate immunosuppressant administration in cases of allogeneic limb transplantation ensures levels of nerve regeneration and motor functional recovery equivalent to that of syngeneic transplants. Prompt rescue following acute rejection was further demonstrated not to significantly affect nerve regeneration and functional recovery post-operatively. However, instances of acute rejection that occur late after reconstruction affect graft function. In total, the present study begins to characterize the effect of immunosuppression regimens on nerve regeneration and motor recovery in the setting of CTA. PMID:23542267

  14. Interpersonal rejection as a determinant of anger and aggression.

    PubMed

    Leary, Mark R; Twenge, Jean M; Quinlivan, Erin

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on the relationship between interpersonal rejection and aggression. Four bodies of research are summarized: laboratory experiments that manipulate rejection, rejection among adults in everyday life, rejection in childhood, and individual differences that may moderate the relationship. The theoretical mechanisms behind the effect are then explored. Possible explanations for why rejection leads to anger and aggression include: rejection as a source of pain, rejection as a source of frustration, rejection as a threat to self-esteem, mood improvement following aggression, aggression as social influence, aggression as a means of reestablishing control, retribution, disinhibition, and loss of self-control. PMID:16768650

  15. Perturbations in the Urinary Exosome in Transplant Rejection

    SciTech Connect

    Sigdel, Tara K.; NG, Yolanda; Lee, Sangho; Nicora, Carrie D.; Qian, Weijun; Smith, Richard D.; Camp, David G.; Sarwal, Minnie M.

    2015-01-05

    Background: Urine exosomes, vesicles exocytosed into urine by all renal epithelial cell types, occur under normal physiologic and disease states. Exosome contents may mirror disease-specific proteome perturbations in kidney injury. Analysis methodologies for the exosomal fraction of the urinary proteome were developed and for comparing the urinary exosomal fraction versus unfractionated proteome for biomarker discovery. Methods: Urine exosomes were isolated by centrifugal filtration from mid-stream, second morning void, urine samples collected from kidney transplant recipients with and without biopsy matched acute rejection. The proteomes of unfractionated whole urine (Uw) and urine exosomes (Uexo) underwent mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics analysis. The proteome data were analyzed for significant differential protein abundances in acute rejection (AR). Results: Identifications of 1018 and 349 proteins, Uw and Uexo fractions, respectively, demonstrated a 279 protein overlap between the two urinary compartments with 25%(70) of overlapping proteins unique to Uexoand represented membrane bound proteins (p=9.31e-7). Of 349 urine exosomal proteins identified in transplant patients 220 were not previously identified in the normal urine exosomal fraction. Uexo proteins (11), functioning in the inflammatory / stress response, were more abundant in patients with biopsy-confirmed acute rejection, 3 of which were exclusive to Uexo. Uexo AR-specific biomarkers (8) were also detected in Uw, but since they were observed at significantly lower abundances in Uw, they were not significant for AR in Uw. Conclusions: A rapid urinary exosome isolation method and quantitative measurement of enriched Uexo proteins was applied. Urine proteins specific to the exosomal fraction were detected either in unfractionated urine (at low abundances) or by Uexo fraction analysis. Perturbed proteins in the exosomal compartment of urine collected from kidney transplant patients were

  16. Mouse kidney transplantation: models of allograft rejection.

    PubMed

    Tse, George H; Hesketh, Emily E; Clay, Michael; Borthwick, Gary; Hughes, Jeremy; Marson, Lorna P

    2014-01-01

    Rejection of the transplanted kidney in humans is still a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The mouse model of renal transplantation closely replicates both the technical and pathological processes that occur in human renal transplantation. Although mouse models of allogeneic rejection in organs other than the kidney exist, and are more technically feasible, there is evidence that different organs elicit disparate rejection modes and dynamics, for instance the time course of rejection in cardiac and renal allograft differs significantly in certain strain combinations. This model is an attractive tool for many reasons despite its technical challenges. As inbred mouse strain haplotypes are well characterized it is possible to choose donor and recipient combinations to model acute allograft rejection by transplanting across MHC class I and II loci. Conversely by transplanting between strains with similar haplotypes a chronic process can be elicited were the allograft kidney develops interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy. We have modified the surgical technique to reduce operating time and improve ease of surgery, however a learning curve still needs to be overcome in order to faithfully replicate the model. This study will provide key points in the surgical procedure and aid the process of establishing this technique.

  17. Mouse Kidney Transplantation: Models of Allograft Rejection

    PubMed Central

    Clay, Michael; Borthwick, Gary; Hughes, Jeremy; Marson, Lorna P.

    2014-01-01

    Rejection of the transplanted kidney in humans is still a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The mouse model of renal transplantation closely replicates both the technical and pathological processes that occur in human renal transplantation. Although mouse models of allogeneic rejection in organs other than the kidney exist, and are more technically feasible, there is evidence that different organs elicit disparate rejection modes and dynamics, for instance the time course of rejection in cardiac and renal allograft differs significantly in certain strain combinations. This model is an attractive tool for many reasons despite its technical challenges. As inbred mouse strain haplotypes are well characterized it is possible to choose donor and recipient combinations to model acute allograft rejection by transplanting across MHC class I and II loci. Conversely by transplanting between strains with similar haplotypes a chronic process can be elicited were the allograft kidney develops interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy. We have modified the surgical technique to reduce operating time and improve ease of surgery, however a learning curve still needs to be overcome in order to faithfully replicate the model. This study will provide key points in the surgical procedure and aid the process of establishing this technique. PMID:25350513

  18. Rejection of pharmaceuticals by nanofiltration (NF) membranes: Effect of fouling on rejection behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahlangu, T. O.; Msagati, T. A. M.; Hoek, E. M. V.; Verliefde, A. R. D.; Mamba, B. B.

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of membrane fouling by sodium alginate, latex and a combination of alginate + latex on the rejection behaviour of salts and organics. Sodium chloride and caffeine were selected to represent salts and organics, respectively. The effects of the presence of calcium chloride on the fouling behaviour and rejection of solutes were investigated. The results revealed that the salt rejection by virgin membranes was 47% while that of caffeine was 85%. Fouling by alginate, latex and combined alginate-latex resulted in flux decline of 25%, 37% and 17%, respectively. The addition of Ca2+ aggravated fouling and resulted in further flux decline to 37%. Fouling decreased salt rejection, an observation that was further aggravated by the addition on Ca2+. However, it was also observed that fouling with alginate and calcium and with latex and calcium minimised salt rejection by 30% and 31%, respectively. This reduction in salt rejection was attributed to the decrease in permeate flux (since rejection is a function of flux). There was a slight increase in caffeine rejection when the membrane was fouled with latex particles. Moreover, the presence of foulants on the membrane resulted in a decrease in the surface charge of the membrane. The results of this study have shown that the NF 270 membrane can be used to treat water samples contaminated with caffeine and other organic compounds that have physicochemical properties similar to those of caffeine.

  19. Solar dynamic space power system heat rejection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, A. W.; Gustafson, E.; Mclallin, K. L.

    1986-01-01

    A radiator system concept is described that meets the heat rejection requirements of the NASA Space Station solar dynamic power modules. The heat pipe radiator is a high-reliability, high-performance approach that is capable of erection in space and is maintainable on orbit. Results are present of trade studies that compare the radiator system area and weight estimates for candidate advanced high performance heat pipes. The results indicate the advantages of the dual-slot heat pipe radiator for high temperature applications as well as its weight-reduction potential over the range of temperatures to be encountered in the solar dynamic heat rejection systems.

  20. The Lived Experience of Psoriasis Patients from Social Stigma and Rejection: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Ghorbanibirgani, Alireza; Fallahi-Khoshknab, Masoud; Zarea, Kourosh; Abedi, Heidarali

    2016-01-01

    Background Psoriasis is a common, chronic skin disease that causes challenges such as stigma and labeling from both the community and individuals due to its effects on appearance. Objectives The objective of this study was to describe and explain the social stigma and rejection experienced by patients with psoriasis. Patients and Methods The present research is a qualitative study with a hermeneutic phenomenological approach conducted among psoriasis patients referring to the dermatology clinic and ward of Imam Khomeini hospital in Ahvaz, Iran between June and December 2014. In this study, 15 patients with psoriasis were selected by purposeful sampling, and they were asked to express their experience of stigma and rejection. The data were collected through in-depth semi-structured interviews, and Diekelmann and colleagues’ method was used for data analysis. Results After analysis of interviews, four themes were extracted: lack of social support, unrealistic and inappropriate labeling, rejection and isolation, and feeling of absurdity and futility. These can be indicative of the patients’ experience from social stigma and rejection phenomena. Conclusions Patients’ experiences of stigma and rejection phenomena indicated that all aspects of their lives are affected. Moreover, these findings highlight the significance of stigma and rejection concepts in providing better care to these patients. PMID:27656290

  1. The Lived Experience of Psoriasis Patients from Social Stigma and Rejection: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Ghorbanibirgani, Alireza; Fallahi-Khoshknab, Masoud; Zarea, Kourosh; Abedi, Heidarali

    2016-01-01

    Background Psoriasis is a common, chronic skin disease that causes challenges such as stigma and labeling from both the community and individuals due to its effects on appearance. Objectives The objective of this study was to describe and explain the social stigma and rejection experienced by patients with psoriasis. Patients and Methods The present research is a qualitative study with a hermeneutic phenomenological approach conducted among psoriasis patients referring to the dermatology clinic and ward of Imam Khomeini hospital in Ahvaz, Iran between June and December 2014. In this study, 15 patients with psoriasis were selected by purposeful sampling, and they were asked to express their experience of stigma and rejection. The data were collected through in-depth semi-structured interviews, and Diekelmann and colleagues’ method was used for data analysis. Results After analysis of interviews, four themes were extracted: lack of social support, unrealistic and inappropriate labeling, rejection and isolation, and feeling of absurdity and futility. These can be indicative of the patients’ experience from social stigma and rejection phenomena. Conclusions Patients’ experiences of stigma and rejection phenomena indicated that all aspects of their lives are affected. Moreover, these findings highlight the significance of stigma and rejection concepts in providing better care to these patients.

  2. Examining Social Acceptance & Rejection. FPG Snapshot #44

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FPG Child Development Institute, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This FPG Snapshot summarizes the findings of a study, published in the November 2006 issue of the "Journal of Educational Psychology," that examined whether children with disabilities are accepted or rejected by their classmates in inclusive classrooms. Specifically, the study examined two sets of related questions: (1) Are individual children…

  3. Development of enhanced sulfur rejection processes

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T.; Richardson, P.E.

    1996-03-01

    Research at Virginia Tech led to the development of two complementary concepts for improving the removal of inorganic sulfur from many eastern U.S. coals. These concepts are referred to as Electrochemically Enhanced Sulfur Rejection (EESR) and Polymer Enhanced Sulfur Rejection (PESR) processes. The EESR process uses electrochemical techniques to suppress the formation of hydrophobic oxidation products believed to be responsible for the floatability of coal pyrite. The PESR process uses polymeric reagents that react with pyrite and convert floatable middlings, i.e., composite particles composed of pyrite with coal inclusions, into hydrophilic particles. These new pyritic-sulfur rejection processes do not require significant modifications to existing coal preparation facilities, thereby enhancing their adoptability by the coal industry. It is believed that these processes can be used simultaneously to maximize the rejection of both well-liberated pyrite and composite coal-pyrite particles. The project was initiated on October 1, 1992 and all technical work has been completed. This report is based on the research carried out under Tasks 2-7 described in the project proposal. These tasks include Characterization, Electrochemical Studies, In Situ Monitoring of Reagent Adsorption on Pyrite, Bench Scale Testing of the EESR Process, Bench Scale Testing of the PESR Process, and Modeling and Simulation.

  4. Development of enhanced sulfur rejection processes

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.; Adel, G.; Richardson, P.E.

    1993-03-23

    Research at Virginia Tech led to two complementary concepts for improving the removal of inorganic sulfur from much of the Eastern US coals. One controls the surface properties of coal pyrite (FeS[sub 2]) by electrochemical-.potential control, referred to as the Electrochemically Enhanced Sulfur Rejection (EESR) Process: The second controls the flotation of middlings, i.e., particles composed of pyrite with coal inclusions by using polymeric reagents to react with pyrite and convert the middlings to hydrophilic particles, and is termed the Polymer Enhanced Sulfur Rejection (PESR) Process. These new concepts are based on recent research establishing the two main reasons why flotation fails to remove more than about 50% of the pyritic sulfur from coal: superficial oxidization of liberated pyrite to form polysulfide oxidation products so that a part of the liberated pyrite floats with the coal; and hydrophobic coal inclusions in the middlings dominating their flotation so that the middlings also float with the coal. These new pyritic-sulfur rejection processes do not require significant modifications of existing coal preparation facilities, enhancing their adoptability by the coal industry. It is believed that they can be used simultaneously to achieve both free pyrite and locked pyrite rejection.

  5. Guidelines for proposals to conserve or reject

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The scientific journal Taxon is the medium for the publication of proposals to conserve or reject scientific names of plants based on the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN). The first formal guidelines for the preparation of such proposals appeared in 1994; these were updated in 200...

  6. Automatic Rejection Of Multimode Laser Pulses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tratt, David M.; Menzies, Robert T.; Esproles, Carlos

    1991-01-01

    Characteristic modulation detected, enabling rejection of multimode signals. Monitoring circuit senses multiple longitudinal mode oscillation of transversely excited, atmospheric-pressure (TEA) CO2 laser. Facility developed for inclusion into coherent detection laser radar (LIDAR) system. However, circuit described of use in any experiment where desireable to record data only when laser operates in single longitudinal mode.

  7. Is the bitter rejection response always adaptive?

    PubMed

    Glendinning, J I

    1994-12-01

    The bitter rejection response consists of a suite of withdrawal reflexes and negative affective responses. It is generally assumed to have evolved as a way to facilitate avoidance of foods that are poisonous because they usually taste bitter to humans. Using previously published studies, the present paper examines the relationship between bitterness and toxicity in mammals, and then assesses the ecological costs and benefits of the bitter rejection response in carnivorous, omnivorous, and herbivorous (grazing and browsing) mammals. If the bitter rejection response accurately predicts the potential toxicity of foods, then one would expect the threshold for the response to be lower for highly toxic compounds than for nontoxic compounds. The data revealed no such relationship. Bitter taste thresholds varied independently of toxicity thresholds, indicating that the bitter rejection response is just as likely to be elicited by a harmless bitter food as it is by a harmful one. Thus, it is not necessarily in an animal's best interest to have an extremely high or low bitter threshold. Based on this observation, it was hypothesized that the adaptiveness of the bitter rejection response depends upon the relative occurrence of bitter and potentially toxic compounds in an animal's diet. Animals with a relatively high occurrence of bitter and potentially toxic compounds in their diet (e.g., browsing herbivores) were predicted to have evolved a high bitter taste threshold and tolerance to dietary poisons. Such an adaptation would be necessary because a browser cannot "afford" to reject all foods that are bitter and potentially toxic without unduly restricting its dietary options. At the other extreme, animals that rarely encounter bitter and potentially toxic compounds in their diet (e.g., carnivores) were predicted to have evolved a low bitter threshold. Carnivores could "afford" to utilize such a stringent rejection mechanism because foods containing bitter and potentially

  8. Is the bitter rejection response always adaptive?

    PubMed

    Glendinning, J I

    1994-12-01

    The bitter rejection response consists of a suite of withdrawal reflexes and negative affective responses. It is generally assumed to have evolved as a way to facilitate avoidance of foods that are poisonous because they usually taste bitter to humans. Using previously published studies, the present paper examines the relationship between bitterness and toxicity in mammals, and then assesses the ecological costs and benefits of the bitter rejection response in carnivorous, omnivorous, and herbivorous (grazing and browsing) mammals. If the bitter rejection response accurately predicts the potential toxicity of foods, then one would expect the threshold for the response to be lower for highly toxic compounds than for nontoxic compounds. The data revealed no such relationship. Bitter taste thresholds varied independently of toxicity thresholds, indicating that the bitter rejection response is just as likely to be elicited by a harmless bitter food as it is by a harmful one. Thus, it is not necessarily in an animal's best interest to have an extremely high or low bitter threshold. Based on this observation, it was hypothesized that the adaptiveness of the bitter rejection response depends upon the relative occurrence of bitter and potentially toxic compounds in an animal's diet. Animals with a relatively high occurrence of bitter and potentially toxic compounds in their diet (e.g., browsing herbivores) were predicted to have evolved a high bitter taste threshold and tolerance to dietary poisons. Such an adaptation would be necessary because a browser cannot "afford" to reject all foods that are bitter and potentially toxic without unduly restricting its dietary options. At the other extreme, animals that rarely encounter bitter and potentially toxic compounds in their diet (e.g., carnivores) were predicted to have evolved a low bitter threshold. Carnivores could "afford" to utilize such a stringent rejection mechanism because foods containing bitter and potentially

  9. Materialistic Values among Chinese Adolescents: Effects of Parental Rejection and Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Xinyuan; Kou, Yu; Yang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Background: Materialistic values among today's adolescents have been a concern around the world, yet few studies concerning Chinese adolescents' materialistic values have been conducted. Additionally, the joint effects of parental rejection and self-esteem on materialistic values remain unclear. Objective: We examined materialistic…

  10. A novel robust disturbance rejection anti-windup framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guang; Herrmann, Guido; Stoten, David P.; Tu, Jiaying; Turner, Matthew C.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we propose a novel anti-windup (AW) framework for coping with input saturation in the disturbance rejection problem of stable plant systems. This framework is based on the one developed by Weston and Postlethwaite (W&P) (Weston, P.F., and Postlethwaite, I. (2000), 'Linear Conditioning for Systems Containing Saturating Actuators', Automatica, 36, 1347-1354). The new AW-design improves the disturbance rejection performance over the design framework usually suggested for the coprime-factorisation based W&P-approach. Performance improvement is achieved by explicitly incorporating a transfer function, which represents the effect of the disturbance on the nonlinear loop, into the AW compensator synthesis. An extra degree of freedom is exploited for the coprime factorisation, resulting in an implicitly computed multivariable algebraic loop for the AW-implementation. Suggestions are made to overcome the algebraic loop problem via explicit computation. Furthermore, paralleling the results of former work (Turner, M.C., Herrmann, G., and Postlethwaite, I. (2007), 'Incorporating Robustness Requirements into Antiwindup Design', IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, 52, 1842-1855), the additive plant uncertainty is incorporated into the AW compensator synthesis, by using a novel augmentation for the disturbance rejection problem. In this new framework, it is shown that the internal model control (IMC) scheme is optimally robust, as was the case in Turner, Herrmann, and Postlethwaite (2007) and Zheng and Morari (Zheng, A., and Morari, M. (1994), 'Anti-windup using Internal Model Control', International Journal of Control, 60, 1015-1024). The new AW approach is applied to the control of dynamically substructured systems (DSS) subject to external excitation signals and actuator limits. The benefit of this approach is demonstrated in the simulations for a small-scale building mass damper DSS and a quasi-motorcycle DSS.

  11. Changes in Self-Definition Impede Recovery From Rejection.

    PubMed

    Howe, Lauren C; Dweck, Carol S

    2016-01-01

    Previous research highlights how adept people are at emotional recovery after rejection, but less research has examined factors that can prevent full recovery. In five studies, we investigate how changing one's self-definition in response to rejection causes more lasting damage. We demonstrate that people who endorse an entity theory of personality (i.e., personality cannot be changed) report alterations in their self-definitions when reflecting on past rejections (Studies 1, 2, and 3) or imagining novel rejection experiences (Studies 4 and 5). Further, these changes in self-definition hinder post-rejection recovery, causing individuals to feel haunted by their past, that is, to fear the recurrence of rejection and to experience lingering negative affect from the rejection. Thus, beliefs that prompt people to tie experiences of rejection to self-definition cause rejection's impact to linger. PMID:26498977

  12. Changes in Self-Definition Impede Recovery From Rejection.

    PubMed

    Howe, Lauren C; Dweck, Carol S

    2016-01-01

    Previous research highlights how adept people are at emotional recovery after rejection, but less research has examined factors that can prevent full recovery. In five studies, we investigate how changing one's self-definition in response to rejection causes more lasting damage. We demonstrate that people who endorse an entity theory of personality (i.e., personality cannot be changed) report alterations in their self-definitions when reflecting on past rejections (Studies 1, 2, and 3) or imagining novel rejection experiences (Studies 4 and 5). Further, these changes in self-definition hinder post-rejection recovery, causing individuals to feel haunted by their past, that is, to fear the recurrence of rejection and to experience lingering negative affect from the rejection. Thus, beliefs that prompt people to tie experiences of rejection to self-definition cause rejection's impact to linger.

  13. Heat Rejection Concepts for Brayton Power Conversion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siamidis, John; Mason, Lee; Beach, Duane; Yuko, James

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes potential heat rejection design concepts for closed Brayton cycle (CBC) power conversion systems. Brayton conversion systems are currently under study by NASA for Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) applications. The Heat Rejection Subsystem (HRS) must dissipate waste heat generated by the power conversion system due to inefficiencies in the thermal-to-electric conversion process. Space Brayton conversion system designs tend to optimize at efficiencies of about 20 to 25 percent with radiator temperatures in the 400 to 600 K range. A notional HRS was developed for a 100 kWe-class Brayton power system that uses a pumped sodium-potassium (NaK) heat transport loop coupled to a water heat pipe radiator. The radiator panels employ a sandwich construction consisting of regularly-spaced circular heat pipes contained within two composite facesheets. Heat transfer from the NaK fluid to the heat pipes is accomplished by inserting the evaporator sections into the NaK duct channel. The paper evaluates various design parameters including heat pipe diameter, heat pipe spacing, and facesheet thickness. Parameters were varied to compare design options on the basis of NaK pump pressure rise and required power, heat pipe unit power and radial flux, radiator panel areal mass, and overall HRS mass.

  14. Heat Rejection Concepts for Lunar Fission Surface Power Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siamidis, John

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes potential heat rejection design concepts for lunar surface Brayton power conversion systems. Brayton conversion systems are currently under study by NASA for surface power applications. Surface reactors may be used for the moon to power human outposts enabling extended stays and closed loop life support. The Brayton Heat Rejection System (HRS) must dissipate waste heat generated by the power conversion system due to inefficiencies in the thermal-to-electric conversion process. Space Brayton conversion system designs tend to optimize at efficiencies of about 20 to 25 percent with radiator temperatures in the 400 K to 600 K range. A notional HRS was developed for a 100 kWe-class Brayton power system that uses a pumped water heat transport loop coupled to a water heat pipe radiator. The radiator panels employ a tube and fin construction consisting of regularly-spaced circular heat pipes contained within two composite facesheets. The water heat pipes interface to the coolant through curved sections partially contained within the cooling loop. The paper evaluates various design parameters including radiator panel orientation, coolant flow path, and facesheet thickness. Parameters were varied to compare design options on the basis of H2O pump pressure rise and required power, heat pipe unit power and radial flux, radiator area, radiator panel areal mass, and overall HRS mass.

  15. Rejection Sensitivity Moderates the Impact of Rejection on Self-Concept Clarity

    PubMed Central

    Ayduk, Özlem; Gyurak, Anett; Luerssen, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Self-concept clarity (SCC) refers to the extent to which self-knowledge is clearly and confidently defined, internally consistent, and temporally stable. Research shows that SCC can be undermined by failures in valued goal domains. Because preventing rejection is an important self-relevant goal for people high in rejection sensitivity (RS), it is hypothesized here that failures to attain this goal would cause them to experience diminished SCC. Study 1, an experimental study, showed that high-RS people’s SCC was undermined following rejection but not following an aversive experience unrelated to rejection. Study 2, a daily diary study of couples in relationships, used occurrence of partner conflicts to operationalize rejection. Replicating the findings in Study 1, having a conflict on any given diary day predicted a greater reduction in the SCC of high- compared to low-RS people on the following day. The implications for understanding the conditions under which rejection negatively affects the self-concept are discussed. PMID:19713567

  16. Multimodal physiological sensor for motion artefact rejection.

    PubMed

    Goverdovsky, Valentin; Looney, David; Kidmose, Preben; Mandic, Danilo P

    2014-01-01

    This work introduces a novel physiological sensor, which combines electrical and mechanical modalities in a co-located arrangement, to reject motion-induced artefacts. The mechanically sensitive element consists of an electret condenser microphone containing a light diaphragm, allowing it to detect local mechanical displacements and disregard large-scale whole body movements. The electrically sensitive element comprises a highly flexible membrane, conductive on one side and insulating on the other. It covers the sound hole of the microphone, thereby forming an isolated pocket of air between the membrane and the diaphragm. The co-located arrangement of the modalities allows the microphone to sense mechanical disturbances directly through the electrode, thus providing an accurate proxy to artefacts caused by relative motion between the skin and the electrode. This proxy is used to reject such artefacts in the electrical physiological signals, enabling enhanced recording quality in wearable health applications.

  17. Autophagy in allografts rejection: A new direction?

    PubMed

    Sun, Hukui; Cheng, Dayan; Ma, Yuanyuan; Wang, Huaiquan; Liang, Ting; Hou, Guihua

    2016-03-18

    Despite the introduction of new and effective immunosuppressive drugs, acute cellular graft rejection is still a major risk for graft survival. Modulating the dosage of immunosuppressive drugs is not a good choice for all patients, new rejection mechanisms discovery are crucial to limit the inflammatory process and preserve the function of the transplant. Autophagy, a fundamental cellular process, can be detected in all subsets of lymphocytes and freshly isolated naive T lymphocytes. It is required for the homeostasis and function of T lymphocytes, which lead to cell survival or cell death depending on the context. T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation and costimulator signals induce strong autophagy, and autophagy deficient T cells leads to rampant apoptosis upon TCR stimulation. Autophagy has been proved to be activated during ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury and associated with grafts dysfunction. Furthermore, Autophagy has also emerged as a key mechanism in orchestrating innate and adaptive immune response to self-antigens, which relates with negative selection and Foxp3(+) Treg induction. Although, the role of autophagy in allograft rejection is unknown, current data suggest that autophagy indeed sweeps across both in the graft organs and recipients lymphocytes after transplantation. This review presents the rationale for the hypothesis that targeting the autophagy pathway could be beneficial in promoting graft survival after transplantation. PMID:26876576

  18. Autophagy in allografts rejection: A new direction?

    PubMed

    Sun, Hukui; Cheng, Dayan; Ma, Yuanyuan; Wang, Huaiquan; Liang, Ting; Hou, Guihua

    2016-03-18

    Despite the introduction of new and effective immunosuppressive drugs, acute cellular graft rejection is still a major risk for graft survival. Modulating the dosage of immunosuppressive drugs is not a good choice for all patients, new rejection mechanisms discovery are crucial to limit the inflammatory process and preserve the function of the transplant. Autophagy, a fundamental cellular process, can be detected in all subsets of lymphocytes and freshly isolated naive T lymphocytes. It is required for the homeostasis and function of T lymphocytes, which lead to cell survival or cell death depending on the context. T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation and costimulator signals induce strong autophagy, and autophagy deficient T cells leads to rampant apoptosis upon TCR stimulation. Autophagy has been proved to be activated during ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury and associated with grafts dysfunction. Furthermore, Autophagy has also emerged as a key mechanism in orchestrating innate and adaptive immune response to self-antigens, which relates with negative selection and Foxp3(+) Treg induction. Although, the role of autophagy in allograft rejection is unknown, current data suggest that autophagy indeed sweeps across both in the graft organs and recipients lymphocytes after transplantation. This review presents the rationale for the hypothesis that targeting the autophagy pathway could be beneficial in promoting graft survival after transplantation.

  19. Active disturbance rejection controller for chemical reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Both, Roxana; Dulf, Eva H.; Muresan, Cristina I.

    2015-03-10

    In the petrochemical industry, the synthesis of 2 ethyl-hexanol-oxo-alcohols (plasticizers alcohol) is of high importance, being achieved through hydrogenation of 2 ethyl-hexenal inside catalytic trickle bed three-phase reactors. For this type of processes the use of advanced control strategies is suitable due to their nonlinear behavior and extreme sensitivity to load changes and other disturbances. Due to the complexity of the mathematical model an approach was to use a simple linear model of the process in combination with an advanced control algorithm which takes into account the model uncertainties, the disturbances and command signal limitations like robust control. However the resulting controller is complex, involving cost effective hardware. This paper proposes a simple integer-order control scheme using a linear model of the process, based on active disturbance rejection method. By treating the model dynamics as a common disturbance and actively rejecting it, active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) can achieve the desired response. Simulation results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  20. Long-lasting corneal endothelial graft rejection successfully reversed after dexamethasone intravitreal implant.

    PubMed

    Giannaccare, Giuseppe; Fresina, Michela; Pazzaglia, Alberto; Versura, Piera

    2016-01-01

    Graft rejection is the most significant complication corneal transplantation and the leading indication for overall corneal transplantation. Corticosteroid therapy represents the mainstay of graft rejection treatment; however, the optimal route of administration of corticosteroid remains uncertain. We report herein for the first time the multimodal imaging of a case of long-lasting corneal endothelial graft rejection successfully reversed 3 months after dexamethasone intravitreal implant. A 29-year-old Asian female presented with a long-lasting corneal endothelial graft rejection in her left phakic eye. She underwent penetrating keratoplasty for advanced keratoconus 24 months before presentation. Hourly dexamethasone eyedrops, daily intravenous methylprednisolone, and one parabulbar injection of methylprednisolone acetate were administered during the 5 days of hospitalization. However, the clinical picture remained approximately unchanged despite therapy. By mutual agreement, we opted for the off-label injection of dexamethasone 0.7 mg intravitreal implant in order to provide therapeutic concentrations of steroid for a period of ~6 months. No other concomitant therapies were prescribed to the patient. Visual acuity measurement, slit lamp biomicroscopy, anterior segment photography, confocal microscopy, anterior segment optical coherence tomography, laser cell flare meter, intraocular pressure measurement, and ophthalmoscopy were performed monthly for the first postoperative 6 months. Three months after injection, both clinical and subclinical signs of rejection disappeared with a full recovery of visual acuity to 20/30 as before the episode. Currently, at the 12-month follow-up visit, the clinical picture remains stable without any sign of rejection, recurrence, or graft failure. Dexamethasone intravitreal implant seems to be a new potential effective treatment for corneal graft rejection, particularly in case of poor compliance or lack of response to conventional

  1. Long-lasting corneal endothelial graft rejection successfully reversed after dexamethasone intravitreal implant

    PubMed Central

    Giannaccare, Giuseppe; Fresina, Michela; Pazzaglia, Alberto; Versura, Piera

    2016-01-01

    Graft rejection is the most significant complication corneal transplantation and the leading indication for overall corneal transplantation. Corticosteroid therapy represents the mainstay of graft rejection treatment; however, the optimal route of administration of corticosteroid remains uncertain. We report herein for the first time the multimodal imaging of a case of long-lasting corneal endothelial graft rejection successfully reversed 3 months after dexamethasone intravitreal implant. A 29-year-old Asian female presented with a long-lasting corneal endothelial graft rejection in her left phakic eye. She underwent penetrating keratoplasty for advanced keratoconus 24 months before presentation. Hourly dexamethasone eyedrops, daily intravenous methylprednisolone, and one parabulbar injection of methylprednisolone acetate were administered during the 5 days of hospitalization. However, the clinical picture remained approximately unchanged despite therapy. By mutual agreement, we opted for the off-label injection of dexamethasone 0.7 mg intravitreal implant in order to provide therapeutic concentrations of steroid for a period of ~6 months. No other concomitant therapies were prescribed to the patient. Visual acuity measurement, slit lamp biomicroscopy, anterior segment photography, confocal microscopy, anterior segment optical coherence tomography, laser cell flare meter, intraocular pressure measurement, and ophthalmoscopy were performed monthly for the first postoperative 6 months. Three months after injection, both clinical and subclinical signs of rejection disappeared with a full recovery of visual acuity to 20/30 as before the episode. Currently, at the 12-month follow-up visit, the clinical picture remains stable without any sign of rejection, recurrence, or graft failure. Dexamethasone intravitreal implant seems to be a new potential effective treatment for corneal graft rejection, particularly in case of poor compliance or lack of response to conventional

  2. MONITORING WASTE HEAT REJECTION TO THE ENVIRONMENT VIA REMOTE SENSING

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, A

    2009-01-13

    Nuclear power plants typically use waste heat rejection systems such as cooling lakes and natural draft cooling towers. These systems are designed to reduce cooling water temperatures sufficiently to allow full power operation even during adverse meteorological conditions. After the power plant is operational, the performance of the cooling system is assessed. These assessments usually rely on measured temperatures of the cooling water after it has lost heat to the environment and is being pumped back into the power plant (cooling water inlet temperature). If the cooling system performance is not perceived to be optimal, the utility will collect additional data to determine why. This paper discusses the use of thermal imagery collected from aircraft and satellites combined with numerical simulation to better understand the dynamics and thermodynamics of nuclear power plant waste heat dissipation systems. The ANS meeting presentation will discuss analyses of several power plant cooling systems based on a combination of remote sensing data and hydrodynamic modeling.

  3. Heterosexual Rejection and Mate Choice: A Sociometer Perspective.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Liu, Shen; Li, Yue; Ruan, Lu-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies about the effects of social rejection on individuals' social behaviors have produced mixed results and tend to study mating behaviors from a static point of view. However, mate selection in essence is a dynamic process, and therefore sociometer theory opens up a new perspective for studying mating and its underlying practices. Based on this theory and using self-perceived mate value in the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mate choice as a mediating role, this current study examined the effects of heterosexual rejection on mate choice in two experiments. Results showed that heterosexual rejection significantly reduced self-perceived mate value, expectation, and behavioral tendencies, while heterosexual acceptance indistinctively increased these measures. Self-perceived mate value did not serve as a mediator in the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mate expectation, but it mediated the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mating behavior tendencies toward potential objects. Moreover, individuals evaded both rejection and irrelevant people when suffering from rejection.

  4. 43 CFR 3141.6-6 - Rejection of bid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.6-6 Rejection of bid. If the high bid is rejected for failure by the...

  5. 43 CFR 3141.6-6 - Rejection of bid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.6-6 Rejection of bid. If the high bid is rejected for failure by the...

  6. 43 CFR 3141.6-6 - Rejection of bid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.6-6 Rejection of bid. If the high bid is rejected for failure by the...

  7. 43 CFR 3141.6-6 - Rejection of bid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.6-6 Rejection of bid. If the high bid is rejected for failure by the...

  8. Heat Shock Protein 90α Is a Potential Serological Biomarker of Acute Rejection after Renal Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Maehana, Takeshi; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Kitamura, Hiroshi; Fukuzawa, Nobuyuki; Ishida, Hideki; Harada, Hiroshi; Tanabe, Kazunari; Masumori, Naoya

    2016-01-01

    Background Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), a molecular chaperone associated with the activation of client proteins, was recently reported to play an important role in immunologic reactions. To date, the role of HSP90 in solid organ transplantations has remained unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between serum HSP90α levels and acute allograft rejection after organ and tissue transplantation using serum samples from kidney allograft recipients, an in vitro antibody-mediated rejection model, and a murine skin transplantation. Results Serum HSP90α levels were significantly higher in kidney recipients at the time of acute rejection (AR) than in those with no evidence of rejection. In most cases with AR, serum HSP90 decreased to baseline after the treatment. On the other hand, serum HSP90α was not elevated as much in patients with chronic rejection, calcineurin inhibitor nephrotoxicity, or BK virus nephropathy as in AR patients. In vitro study showed that HSP90α concentration in the supernatant was significantly higher in the supernatant of human aortic endothelial cells cocultured with specific anti-HLA IgG under complement attack than in that of cells cocultured with nonspecific IgG. In mice receiving skin transplantation, serum HSP90α was elevated when the first graft was rejected and the level further increased during more severe rejection of the second graft. Conclusions The results suggest that HSP90α is released into the serum by cell damage due to AR in organ and tissue transplantation, and it is potentially a new biomarker to help detect AR in kidney recipients. PMID:27631127

  9. The Role of Conspiracist Ideation and Worldviews in Predicting Rejection of Science

    PubMed Central

    Lewandowsky, Stephan; Gignac, Gilles E.; Oberauer, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Background Among American Conservatives, but not Liberals, trust in science has been declining since the 1970's. Climate science has become particularly polarized, with Conservatives being more likely than Liberals to reject the notion that greenhouse gas emissions are warming the globe. Conversely, opposition to genetically-modified (GM) foods and vaccinations is often ascribed to the political Left although reliable data are lacking. There are also growing indications that rejection of science is suffused by conspiracist ideation, that is the general tendency to endorse conspiracy theories including the specific beliefs that inconvenient scientific findings constitute a “hoax.” Methodology/Principal findings We conducted a propensity weighted internet-panel survey of the U.S. population and show that conservatism and free-market worldview strongly predict rejection of climate science, in contrast to their weaker and opposing effects on acceptance of vaccinations. The two worldview variables do not predict opposition to GM. Conspiracist ideation, by contrast, predicts rejection of all three scientific propositions, albeit to greatly varying extents. Greater endorsement of a diverse set of conspiracy theories predicts opposition to GM foods, vaccinations, and climate science. Conclusions Free-market worldviews are an important predictor of the rejection of scientific findings that have potential regulatory implications, such as climate science, but not necessarily of other scientific issues. Conspiracist ideation, by contrast, is associated with the rejection of all scientific propositions tested. We highlight the manifold cognitive reasons why conspiracist ideation would stand in opposition to the scientific method. The involvement of conspiracist ideation in the rejection of science has implications for science communicators. PMID:24098391

  10. Background investigation in EDELWEISS-III

    SciTech Connect

    Scorza, Silvia

    2015-08-17

    Protection from and rejection of backgrounds is a key issue for the EDELWEISS-III direct dark matter detection experiment which aims at exploring the 10{sup −9} pb cross-section region for spin-independent WIMP-nucleon interaction. The detector is located in the low radioactivity environment of the Modane Underground Laboratory and consists of 36 advanced FID germanium detectors operating at 18 mK in a dilution refrigerator in order to identify eventual rare nuclear recoils induced by elastic scattering of WIMPs from our Galactic halo. I will discuss the background and the methods of rejecting it with the FID detectors. Detector performances and the first analysis of data acquired in a long-term campaign will be presented as well. The FID detector technology is not limited to EDELWEISS-III but can further be employed in the next generation of cryogenic detector experiments.

  11. Children's Coping with "In Vivo" Peer Rejection: An Experimental Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reijntjes, Albert; Stegge, Hedy; Terwogt, Mark Meerum; Kamphuis, Jan Henk; Telch, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    We examined children's behavioral coping in response to an "in vivo" peer rejection manipulation. Participants (N = 186) ranging between 10 and 13 years of age, played a computer game based on the television show "Survivor" and were randomized to either peer rejection (i.e., being voted out of the game) or non-rejection control. During a five-min.…

  12. Paying To Belong: When Does Rejection Trigger Ingratiation?

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Canyas, Rainer; Downey, Geraldine; Reddy, Kavita S.; Rodriguez, Sylvia; Cavanaugh, Timothy J.; Pelayo, Rosemary

    2010-01-01

    Societies and social scientists have long held the belief that exclusion induces ingratiation and conformity, an idea in contradiction with robust empirical evidence linking rejection with hostility and aggression. The classic literatures on ingratiation and conformity help resolve this contradiction by identifying circumstances under which rejection may trigger efforts to ingratiate. Jointly, findings from these literatures suggest that when people are given an opportunity to impress their rejecters, ingratiation is likely after rejection experiences that are harsh and that occur in important situations that threaten the individual’s self-definition. Four studies tested the hypothesis that people high in rejection sensitivity, and therefore dispositionally concerned about rejection, will utilize opportunities to ingratiate after harsh rejection in situations that are self-defining. In three studies of situations that are particularly self-defining for men, rejection predicted ingratiation among men (but not women) who were high in rejection sensitivity. In a fourth study, harsh rejection in a situation particularly self-defining for women predicted ingratiation among highly rejection-sensitive women (but not men). These findings help identify the specific circumstances under which people are willing to act in socially desirable ways toward those who have rejected them harshly. PMID:20649367

  13. Noninvasive detection of graft rejection by in vivo (19) F MRI in the early stage.

    PubMed

    Flögel, U; Su, S; Kreideweiss, I; Ding, Z; Galbarz, L; Fu, J; Jacoby, C; Witzke, O; Schrader, J

    2011-02-01

    Diagnosis of transplant rejection requires tissue biopsy and entails risks. Here, we describe a new (19) F MRI approach for noninvasive visualization of organ rejection via the macrophage host response. For this, we employed biochemically inert emulsified perfluorocarbons (PFCs), known to be preferentially phagocytized by monocytes and macrophages. Isografts from C57BL/6 or allografts from C57B10.A mice were heterotopically transplanted into C57BL/6 recipients. PFCs were applied intravenously followed by (1) H/(19) F MRI at 9.4 T 24 h after injection. (1) H images showed a similar position and anatomy of the graft in the abdomen for both cases. However, corresponding (19) F signals were only observed in allogenic tissue. (1) H/(19) F MRI enabled us to detect the initial immune response not later than 3 days after surgery, when conventional parameters did not reveal any signs of rejection. In allografts, the observed (19) F signal strongly increased with time and correlated with the extent of rejection. In separate experiments, rapamycin was used to demonstrate the ability of (19) F MRI to monitor immunosuppressive therapy. Thus, PFCs can serve as positive contrast agent for the early detection of transplant rejection by (19) F MRI with high spatial resolution and an excellent degree of specificity due to lack of any (19) F background. PMID:21214858

  14. The challenge to detect heart transplant rejection and transplant vasculopathy non-invasively - a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Usta, Engin; Burgstahler, Christof; Aebert, Hermann; Schroeder, Stephen; Helber, Uwe; Kopp, Andreas F; Ziemer, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    Background Cardiac allograft rejection and vasculopathy are the main factors limiting long-term survival after heart transplantation. In this pilot study we investigated whether non-invasive methods are beneficial to detect cardiac allograft rejection (Grade 0-3 R) and cardiac allograft vasculopathy. Thus we compared multi-slice computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging with invasive methods like coronary angiography and left endomyocardial biopsy. Methods 10 asymptomatic long-term survivors after heart transplantation (8 male, 2 female, mean age 52.1 ± 12 years, 73 ± 11 months after transplantation) were included. In a blinded fashion, coronary angiography and multi-slice computed tomography and ventricular endomyocardial biopsy and magnetic resonance imaging were compared against each other. Results Cardiac allograft vasculopathy and atherosclerosis were correctly detected by multi-slice computed tomography and coronary angiography with positive correlation (r = 1). Late contrast enchancement found by magnetic resonance imaging correlated positively (r = 0.92, r2 = 0.85, p < 0.05) with the histological diagnosis of transplant rejection revealed by myocardial biopsy. None of the examined endomyocardial specimen revealed cardiac allograft rejection greater than Grade 1 R. Conclusion A combined non-invasive approach using multi-slice computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging may help to assess cardiac allograft vasculopathy and cardiac allograft rejection after heart transplantation before applying more invasive methods. PMID:19682394

  15. Noninvasive detection of graft rejection by in vivo (19) F MRI in the early stage.

    PubMed

    Flögel, U; Su, S; Kreideweiss, I; Ding, Z; Galbarz, L; Fu, J; Jacoby, C; Witzke, O; Schrader, J

    2011-02-01

    Diagnosis of transplant rejection requires tissue biopsy and entails risks. Here, we describe a new (19) F MRI approach for noninvasive visualization of organ rejection via the macrophage host response. For this, we employed biochemically inert emulsified perfluorocarbons (PFCs), known to be preferentially phagocytized by monocytes and macrophages. Isografts from C57BL/6 or allografts from C57B10.A mice were heterotopically transplanted into C57BL/6 recipients. PFCs were applied intravenously followed by (1) H/(19) F MRI at 9.4 T 24 h after injection. (1) H images showed a similar position and anatomy of the graft in the abdomen for both cases. However, corresponding (19) F signals were only observed in allogenic tissue. (1) H/(19) F MRI enabled us to detect the initial immune response not later than 3 days after surgery, when conventional parameters did not reveal any signs of rejection. In allografts, the observed (19) F signal strongly increased with time and correlated with the extent of rejection. In separate experiments, rapamycin was used to demonstrate the ability of (19) F MRI to monitor immunosuppressive therapy. Thus, PFCs can serve as positive contrast agent for the early detection of transplant rejection by (19) F MRI with high spatial resolution and an excellent degree of specificity due to lack of any (19) F background.

  16. Development of CDMS-II Surface Event Rejection Techniques and Their Extensions to Lower Energy Thresholds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofer, Thomas James

    2014-10-01

    The CDMS-II phase of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search, a dark matter direct-detection experiment, was operated at the Soudan Underground Laboratory from 2003 to 2008. The full payload consisted of 30 ZIP detectors, totaling approximately 1.1 kg of Si and 4.8 kg of Ge, operated at temperatures of 50 mK. The ZIP detectors read out both ionization and phonon pulses from scatters within the crystals; channel segmentation and analysis of pulse timing parameters allowed effective fiducialization of the crystal volumes and background rejection sufficient to set world-leading limits at the times of their publications. A full re-analysis of the CDMS-II data was motivated by an improvement in the event reconstruction algorithms which improved the resolution of ionization energy and timing information. The Ge data were re-analyzed using three distinct background-rejection techniques; the Si data from runs 125--128 were analyzed for the first time using the most successful of the techniques from the Ge re-analysis. The results of these analyses prompted a novel "mid-threshold" analysis, wherein energy thresholds were lowered but background rejection using phonon timing information was still maintained. This technique proved to have significant discrimination power, maintaining adequate signal acceptance and minimizing background leakage. The primary background for CDMS-II analyses comes from surface events, whose poor ionization collection make them difficult to distinguish from true nuclear recoil events. The novel detector technology of SuperCDMS, the successor to CDMS-II, uses interleaved electrodes to achieve full ionization collection for events occurring at the top and bottom detector surfaces. This, along with dual-sided ionization and phonon instrumentation, allows for excellent fiducialization and relegates the surface-event rejection techniques of CDMS-II to a secondary level of background discrimination. Current and future SuperCDMS results hold great promise for

  17. Monitoring of kidney and simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation rejection by release of donor-specific, soluble HLA class I.

    PubMed

    DeVito-Haynes, L D; Jankowska-Gan, E; Sollinger, H W; Knechtle, S J; Burlingham, W J

    1994-07-01

    Using an HLA-A2-specific ELISA we monitored daily pretransplantation and posttransplantation sera from five kidney and eight simultaneous pancreas-kidney HLA-A2-negative recipients of HLA-A2-positive transplants during hospitalization. We found that, unlike liver transplants, neither kidney nor simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplants continuously secreted donor HLA proteins. However, three of four rejection episodes in kidney recipients and seven of seven rejection episodes in simultaneous pancreas-kidney recipients were accompanied by elevated serum levels of donor sHLA-A2 (> 5 ng/ml). In only one kidney patient was there a release of donor antigen without evidence of rejection, but in the simultaneous pancreas-kidney group most patients had at least one time point of detectable sHLA-A2 without strong evidence of kidney rejection. While total sHLA levels were also elevated during rejection, the rise in donor-specific sHLA was more dramatic when compared to pretransplantation background levels. We hypothesized that the release of donor sHLA class I proteins by transplanted organs might be a systemic indication of rejection in both pancreas and kidney allografts. The detection of donor sHLA in recipient sera could be an important noninvasive monitor of rejection, especially in the pancreas, which is currently difficult to monitor as a single-organ transplant. PMID:7960963

  18. Why Goethe rejected Newton's theory of light.

    PubMed

    Treisman, M

    1996-01-01

    Observations that he himself had made persuaded Goethe to reject Newton's theory of light and to put forward an alternative theory of the colour phenomena seen with a prism. Duck has argued that Goethe's attack on Newton's theory rested on valid experimental observations that appeared to present a difficulty for Newton's theory but to support his own views on colour. Duck has also proposed that these observations may be accounted for as an instance of the Bezold-Brücke phenomenon. It is argued here that this explanation is invalid and that two other features of colour processing can explain Goethe's observations.

  19. Confidence and rejection in automatic speech recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colton, Larry Don

    Automatic speech recognition (ASR) is performed imperfectly by computers. For some designated part (e.g., word or phrase) of the ASR output, rejection is deciding (yes or no) whether it is correct, and confidence is the probability (0.0 to 1.0) of it being correct. This thesis presents new methods of rejecting errors and estimating confidence for telephone speech. These are also called word or utterance verification and can be used in wordspotting or voice-response systems. Open-set or out-of-vocabulary situations are a primary focus. Language models are not considered. In vocabulary-dependent rejection all words in the target vocabulary are known in advance and a strategy can be developed for confirming each word. A word-specific artificial neural network (ANN) is shown to discriminate well, and scores from such ANNs are shown on a closed-set recognition task to reorder the N-best hypothesis list (N=3) for improved recognition performance. Segment-based duration and perceptual linear prediction (PLP) features are shown to perform well for such ANNs. The majority of the thesis concerns vocabulary- and task-independent confidence and rejection based on phonetic word models. These can be computed for words even when no training examples of those words have been seen. New techniques are developed using phoneme ranks instead of probabilities in each frame. These are shown to perform as well as the best other methods examined despite the data reduction involved. Certain new weighted averaging schemes are studied but found to give no performance benefit. Hierarchical averaging is shown to improve performance significantly: frame scores combine to make segment (phoneme state) scores, which combine to make phoneme scores, which combine to make word scores. Use of intermediate syllable scores is shown to not affect performance. Normalizing frame scores by an average of the top probabilities in each frame is shown to improve performance significantly. Perplexity of the wrong

  20. [Diagnosis of rejection in a transplanted liver].

    PubMed

    Sticová, Eva; Honsová, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in immunosupressive therapy rejection remains the most common complication of liver transplantation in both the early and the late post-transplant period. Unlike other solid organs, liver graft rejection has some specific characteristics likely attributable to the unique immunobiologic properties and the remarkable regenerative capabilities of liver parenchyma. Acute cellular rejection is the most frequent type of the rejection episode in the liver allograft, whereas chronic (ductopenic) rejection and humoral rejection are uncommon. Since the clinical findings are not entirely characteristic, histopathological evaluation of liver biopsy remains the gold standard in the diagnosis of rejection. However, the close cooperation between the pathologist and the clinician is essential for the correct interpretation of morphologic changes.

  1. States Must Reject National Education Standards while There Is Still Time. Backgrounder, No. 2680

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Lindsey M.

    2012-01-01

    For four and a half decades, the federal role in education has been growing. Costly in terms of taxpayer dollars spent and local control of education lost, this expanding federal control has failed to improve outcomes for America's children. National standards will further expand Washington's role--and will remove parents from decisions about the…

  2. What I see when I think it's about me: people low in rejection-sensitivity downplay cues of rejection in self-relevant interpersonal situations.

    PubMed

    Romero-Canyas, Rainer; Downey, Geraldine

    2013-02-01

    Gauging one's impression on a potential mate is challenging. There is a need to make reasonably accurate inferences from subtle, dynamic facial expressions and to maintain motivation to connect despite the risk of rejection. The interpersonal optimism of people low in rejection sensitivity (RS), people who confidently expect acceptance rather than anxiously expect rejection, as do their high RS counterparts, suggests that they may strategically underestimate social threat cues when inferring the impression they have made on others. To test this hypothesis, participants viewed the videotaped reactions of individuals said to have read the participant's own or someone else's biographical sketch in an online dating context, and then estimated the emotions of the targets. Estimates of negativity were unrelated to RS when participants believed the videos captured the reactions to someone else's biographical sketch. However, to the extent that participants were low in RS, they made lower estimates of negativity when they believed the videos showed reactions to their biographical sketch compared to when they believed the videos captured the reactions to someone else's biographical sketch. The tracking accuracy of participants estimating negativity was unrelated to RS under either condition, but increased with trait empathy. RS was unrelated to estimates of positivity. Supporting functional perspectives on interpersonal perception, results show that interpersonal optimism shapes impressions of others' reactions to the self in ways that can foster relationship initiation. PMID:22985341

  3. Reasons why doctors choose or reject careers in general practice: national surveys

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Trevor; Goldacre, Raph; Smith, Fay; Goldacre, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Background Less than one-third of newly qualified doctors in the UK want a career in general practice. The English Department of Health expects that half of all newly qualified doctors will become GPs. Aim To report on the reasons why doctors choose or reject careers in general practice, comparing intending GPs with doctors who chose hospital careers. Design and setting Questionnaire surveys in all UK medical graduates in selected qualification years. Method Questions about specialty career intentions and motivations, put to the qualifiers of 1993, 1996, 1999, 2000, 2002, 2005, 2008, and 2009, 1 year after qualification, and at longer time intervals thereafter. Results ‘Enthusiasm for and commitment to the specialty’ was a very important determinant of choice for intending doctors, regardless of chosen specialty. ‘Hours and working conditions’ were a strong influence for intending GPs (cited as having had ‘a great deal’ of influence by 75% of intending GPs in the first year after qualification), much more so than for doctors who wanted a hospital career (cited by 30%). Relatively few doctors had actually considered general practice seriously but then rejected it; 78% of the doctors who rejected general practice gave ‘job content’ as their reason, compared with 32% of doctors who rejected other specialties. Conclusion The shortfall of doctors wanting a career in general practice is not accounted for by doctors considering and rejecting it. Many do not consider it at all. There are very distinctive factors that influence choice for, and rejection of, general practice. PMID:23211266

  4. Background reduction in the SNO+ experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segui, L.

    2015-08-01

    SNO+ is a large multi-purpose liquid scintillator experiment, which first aim is to detect the neutrinoless double beta decay of 130Te. It is placed at SNOLAB, at 6000 m.w.e. and it is based on the SNO infrastructure. SNO+ will contain approximately 780 tonnes of liquid scintillator, loaded with 130Te inside an acrylic vessel (AV) with an external volume of ultra pure water to reduce the external backgrounds. Light produced in the scintillator by the interaction of particles will be detected with about 9,000 photomultiplier's. For the neutrinoless double beta decay phase, due to its the extremely low rate expected, the control, knowledge and reduction of the background is essential. Moreover, it will also benefit other phases of the experiment focused on the study of solar neutrinos, nucleon decay, geoneutrinos and supernovae. In order to reduce the internal background level, a novel purification technique for tellurium loaded scintillators has been developed by the collaboration that reduces the U/Th concentration and several cosmic-activated isotopes by at least a factor 102 -103 in a single pass. In addition, different rejection techniques have been developed for the remaining internal backgrounds based on Monte-Carlo simulations. In this work, the scintillator purification technique and the levels obtained with it will be discussed. Furthermore, an overview of the different backgrounds for the double-beta phase will be presented, highlighting some of the techniques developed to reject the remained decays based on their expected timing differences.

  5. Risk factors for rejection for morphological reasons of heart valves for transplantation.

    PubMed

    van Wijk, Marja J; van den Bogaerdt, Antoon; Bokhorst, Arlinke G

    2013-03-01

    The study aim was to identify risk factors for morphological rejection of aortic and pulmonary valves for transplantation that could be used to optimize donor selection. The files of all Dutch heart valve donors, donating in a 2.5 years period, whose hearts were processed at Heart Valve Bank Rotterdam, were reviewed for all factors that could be relevant for valve rejection and related to outcome of morphological assessment of the valves. Valves were retrieved from 813 deceased Dutch donors, 24.1% also donating organs. For 797 aortic and 767 pulmonary valves, who met retrieval criteria, morphological assessment was done. 69.5% of aortic and 37.5% of pulmonary valves were considered unsuitable for transplantation at morphological assessment. Backward stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis, showed age, cardiac cause of death, cerebrovascular accident as cause of death or in medical history, and number of cardiovascular risk factors in a donor to be independent risk factors for morphological rejection of aortic valves. Age, sex, weight >100 kg and ruptured aortic aneurysm as cause of death were independent risk factors for morphological rejection of pulmonary valves. Being an organ donor was an independent predictor of morphological approval of aortic and pulmonary valves, while hypertension was an independent predictor for morphological approval of aortic valves. Thus, independent factors were identified that are associated with morphological rejection of aortic and pulmonary valves for transplantation, and that could be used to optimize donor selection by preventing unnecessary retrievals, limiting costs, while improving yield per donor with minimal compromise for availability.

  6. Swing-Leg Trajectory of Running Guinea Fowl Suggests Task-Level Priority of Force Regulation Rather than Disturbance Rejection

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Yvonne; Vejdani, Hamid R.; Birn-Jeffery, Aleksandra V.; Hubicki, Christian M.; Hurst, Jonathan W.; Daley, Monica A.

    2014-01-01

    To achieve robust and stable legged locomotion in uneven terrain, animals must effectively coordinate limb swing and stance phases, which involve distinct yet coupled dynamics. Recent theoretical studies have highlighted the critical influence of swing-leg trajectory on stability, disturbance rejection, leg loading and economy of walking and running. Yet, simulations suggest that not all these factors can be simultaneously optimized. A potential trade-off arises between the optimal swing-leg trajectory for disturbance rejection (to maintain steady gait) versus regulation of leg loading (for injury avoidance and economy). Here we investigate how running guinea fowl manage this potential trade-off by comparing experimental data to predictions of hypothesis-based simulations of running over a terrain drop perturbation. We use a simple model to predict swing-leg trajectory and running dynamics. In simulations, we generate optimized swing-leg trajectories based upon specific hypotheses for task-level control priorities. We optimized swing trajectories to achieve i) constant peak force, ii) constant axial impulse, or iii) perfect disturbance rejection (steady gait) in the stance following a terrain drop. We compare simulation predictions to experimental data on guinea fowl running over a visible step down. Swing and stance dynamics of running guinea fowl closely match simulations optimized to regulate leg loading (priorities i and ii), and do not match the simulations optimized for disturbance rejection (priority iii). The simulations reinforce previous findings that swing-leg trajectory targeting disturbance rejection demands large increases in stance leg force following a terrain drop. Guinea fowl negotiate a downward step using unsteady dynamics with forward acceleration, and recover to steady gait in subsequent steps. Our results suggest that guinea fowl use swing-leg trajectory consistent with priority for load regulation, and not for steadiness of gait. Swing

  7. Interference rejection techniques in spread spectrum communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milstein, Laurence B.

    1988-06-01

    It is argued that the ability of a spread-spectrum system to withstand interference, both intentional and unintentional, is probably its greatest asset. Any spread spectrum receiver can only suppress a given amount of interference; if the level of interference becomes too great, the system will not function properly. Even under these latter circumstances, however, other techniques, which enhance the performance of the system over and above the performance improvement that comes automatically to systems simply from using spread spectrum, are available for use. These techniques typically involve some type of additional signal processing and are examined here. Two general types of narrowband interference suppression schemes are discussed and an overview is presented for several other techniques. The two classes of rejection schemes emphasized are (1) those based on least-mean-square estimation techniques, and (2) those based on transform-domain processing structures.

  8. Girls' use of defense mechanisms following peer rejection.

    PubMed

    Sandstrom, Marlene J; Cramer, Phebe

    2003-08-01

    This study explores the relation between girls' social adjustment and their use of defense mechanisms. We recruited girls representing four sociometric status classifications (rejected, neglected, average, and popular), and assessed their use of defense mechanisms both before and after encountering a peer rejection experience in the laboratory. We hypothesized that increasing degrees of social maladjustment would be associated with higher levels of defense use, particularly after encountering a rejection experience. Our results supported these hypotheses. There was a significant negative relationship between social adjustment and defense use, both prior to and immediately following the rejection experience. Categorical analyses revealed that rejected and neglected girls used more defenses following the rejection experience than did popular and average girls.

  9. Total lymphoid irradiation for treatment of intractable cardiac allograft rejection

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, S.A.; Strober, S.; Hoppe, R.T.; Stinson, E.B. )

    1991-03-01

    The ability of postoperative total lymphoid irradiation to reverse otherwise intractable cardiac allograft rejection was examined in a group of 10 patients in whom conventional rejection therapy (including pulsed steroids and monoclonal or polyclonal anti-T-cell antibody therapy) had failed to provide sustained freedom from rejection. Follow-up periods range from 73 to 1119 days since the start of total lymphoid irradiation. No patient died or sustained serious morbidity because of the irradiation. Three patients have had no further rejection (follow-up periods, 105 to 365 days). Two patients died--one in cardiogenic shock during the course of total lymphoid irradiation, the other with recurrent rejection caused by noncompliance with his medical regimen. Total lymphoid irradiation appears to be a safe and a moderately effective immunosuppressive modality for 'salvage' therapy of cardiac allograft rejection unresponsive to conventional therapy.

  10. Monte Carlo Simulations of Background Spectra in Integral Imager Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, T. W.; Colborn, B. L.; Dietz, K. L.; Ramsey, B. D.; Weisskopf, M. C.

    1998-01-01

    Predictions of the expected gamma-ray backgrounds in the ISGRI (CdTe) and PiCsIT (Csl) detectors on INTEGRAL due to cosmic-ray interactions and the diffuse gamma-ray background have been made using a coupled set of Monte Carlo radiation transport codes (HETC, FLUKA, EGS4, and MORSE) and a detailed, 3-D mass model of the spacecraft and detector assemblies. The simulations include both the prompt background component from induced hadronic and electromagnetic cascades and the delayed component due to emissions from induced radioactivity. Background spectra have been obtained with and without the use of active (BGO) shielding and charged particle rejection to evaluate the effectiveness of anticoincidence counting on background rejection.

  11. Enhanced IMC design of load disturbance rejection for integrating and unstable processes with slow dynamics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Gao, Furong

    2011-04-01

    In view of the deficiencies in existing internal model control (IMC)-based methods for load disturbance rejection for integrating and unstable processes with slow dynamics, a modified IMC-based controller design is proposed to deal with step- or ramp-type load disturbance that is often encountered in engineering practices. By classifying the ways through which such load disturbance enters into the process, analytical controller formulae are correspondingly developed, based on a two-degree-of-freedom (2DOF) control structure that allows for separate optimization of load disturbance rejection from setpoint tracking. An obvious merit is that there is only a single adjustable parameter in the proposed controller, which in essence corresponds to the time constant of the closed-loop transfer function for load disturbance rejection, and can be monotonically tuned to meet a good trade-off between disturbance rejection performance and closed-loop robust stability. At the same time, robust tuning constraints are given to accommodate process uncertainties in practice. Illustrative examples from the recent literature are used to show effectiveness and merits of the proposed method for different cases of load disturbance.

  12. WILLIAM SEAL REJECTING AN INCOMPLETE OR IMPROPERLY SET BEARDSLEY AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WILLIAM SEAL REJECTING AN INCOMPLETE OR IMPROPERLY SET BEARDSLEY AND PIPER ROTOMOLD CORMATIC CORE. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Core Making, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  13. 100-Gbit/s PDM-QPSK coherent receiver with wide dynamic range and excellent common-mode rejection ratio.

    PubMed

    Murata, Koichi; Saida, Takashi; Sano, Kimikazu; Ogawa, Ikuo; Fukuyama, Hiroyuki; Kasahara, Ryoichi; Muramoto, Yoshifumi; Nosaka, Hideyuki; Tsunashima, Satoshi; Mizuno, Takayuki; Tanobe, Hiromasa; Hattori, Kuninori; Yoshimatsu, Toshihide; Kawakami, Hiroto; Yoshida, Eiji

    2011-12-12

    We report the design and fabrication of a hybrid-integration-type coherent receiver. We optimize the receiver building blocks, and achieve a -25-dB common-mode rejection ratio and a 20-dB signal input power dynamic range.

  14. Peer Rejection and Friendships in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Contributions to Long-Term Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mrug, Sylvie; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Hoza, Betsy; Gerdes, Alyson C.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Hechtman, Lily; Arnold, L. Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Even after evidence-based treatment, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with poor long-term outcomes. These outcomes may be partly explained by difficulties in peer functioning, which are common among children with ADHD and which do not respond optimally to standard ADHD treatments. We examined whether peer rejection and…

  15. The PGR Catalog of Objects Rejected from the PG Survey (``PG Rejects'')

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, R. A.; Green, R. F.; Stark, M. A.

    2005-12-01

    The Palomar-Green (PG) survey for ultraviolet-excess objects generated many candidate UV-excess objects that ultimately were not included in the final PG catalog (Green, Schmidt & Liebert 1986). These candidates were chosen based on their preliminary photographic U-B color, but low-resolution classification spectra showed zero-redshift K-line or G-band absorption or other indicators that the objects were ``cool'', so they were ultimately rejected. Nevertheless, among these ``PG Rejects'' are interesting individual objects, including a DAZB white dwarf, some composite spectrum binaries, and numerous metal-poor sdF/sdG subdwarfs. While the PG Rejects do not comprise a statistically complete sample, it is estimated that several percent, i.e., dozens, of the 1125 PGR objects will be of individual interest as examples of rare classes of stars. Most of the objects have not been studied before. We introduce the forthcoming master catalog of ``PGR'' objects, which will make this finding list available to a wider audience. We discuss some of the interesting objects found so far in the catalog, and present aggregate data to summarize some properties of the PGR stars. Supported in part by NASA grants.

  16. Acute Cardiac Rejection Requires Directly Cytotoxic CD4 T cells: A Parallel Pathway between Fas and Perforin1

    PubMed Central

    Grazia, Todd J.; Plenter, Robert J.; Weber, Sarah M.; Lepper, Helen M.; Victorino, Francisco; Zamora, Martin R.; Pietra, Biagio A.; Gill, Ronald G.

    2009-01-01

    Background CD4 T cells can suffice as effector cells to mediate primary acute cardiac allograft rejection. While CD4 T cells can readily kill appropriate target cells in vitro, the corresponding role of such cytolytic activity for mediating allograft rejection in vivo is unknown. Therefore, we determined whether the cytolytic effector molecules perforin and/or FasL (CD95L) were necessary for CD4 T cell-mediated rejection in vivo. Methods Wild type C3H(H-2k) or Fas (CD95)-deficient C3Hlpr (H-2k) hearts were transplanted into immune-deficient C57B6rag−/− (H-2b) mice. Recipients then were reconstituted with naïve purified CD4 T cells from either wild-type, perforin (pfp)-deficient, or FasL (gld)-deficient T cell donors. Results In vitro, alloreactive CD4 T cells were competent to lyse donor MHC class II+ target cells, largely by a Fas-dependent mechanism. In vivo, the individual disruption of either donor Fas expression (lpr) or CD4 T cell-derived perforin had no signifcant impact on acute rejection. However, FasL-deficient (gld) CD4 T cells demonstrated delayed allograft rejection. Importantly, the simultaneous removal of both donor Fas expression and CD4 T cell perforin completely abrograted acute rejection, despite the persistence of CD4 T cells within the graft. Conclusions Results demonstrate that the direct rejection of cardiac allografts by CD4 effector T cells requires the alternative contribution of graft Fas expression and T cell perforin expression. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that cytolytic activity by CD4 T cells can play an obligate role for primary acute allograft rejection in vivo. PMID:20061916

  17. 48 CFR 1514.404 - Rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Rejection of bids. 1514.404 Section 1514.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 1514.404 Rejection of bids....

  18. Peer Rejection in Preschool: Foregrounding Children’s Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tay-Lim, Joanna; Gan, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Existing studies on peer rejection are predominantly quantitative in nature and do not adequately engage children’s voices and provide a comprehensive view of the peer rejection phenomenon. There are also limited studies at the preschool level, especially in the Singapore context. This study addresses these limitations by presenting insights into…

  19. 18 CFR 50.8 - Acceptance/rejection of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ELECTRIC TRANSMISSION FACILITIES § 50.8 Acceptance/rejection of applications. (a) Applications will be... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acceptance/rejection of applications. 50.8 Section 50.8 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY...

  20. 18 CFR 50.8 - Acceptance/rejection of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ELECTRIC TRANSMISSION FACILITIES § 50.8 Acceptance/rejection of applications. (a) Applications will be... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acceptance/rejection of applications. 50.8 Section 50.8 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY...

  1. 37 CFR 1.113 - Final rejection or action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Applicant and Further Consideration § 1.113 Final rejection or action. (a) On the second or any subsequent... in the case of rejection of any claim (§ 41.31 of this title), or to amendment as specified in §...

  2. 37 CFR 1.113 - Final rejection or action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Applicant and Further Consideration § 1.113 Final rejection or action. (a) On the second or any subsequent... in the case of rejection of any claim (§ 41.31 of this title), or to amendment as specified in §...

  3. 37 CFR 1.113 - Final rejection or action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Applicant and Further Consideration § 1.113 Final rejection or action. (a) On the second or any subsequent... in the case of rejection of any claim (§ 41.31 of this title), or to amendment as specified in §...

  4. 48 CFR 14.404-2 - Rejection of individual bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rejection of individual... of individual bids. (a) Any bid that fails to conform to the essential requirements of the invitation... total price of the bid, but the prices for individual line items as well. (g) Any bid may be rejected...

  5. 48 CFR 814.404-2 - Rejection of individual bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rejection of individual... Rejection of individual bids. (a) When a contracting officer finds a bid that is being considered for an... nonresponsive an individual bid that is not in compliance with the Government's bid acceptance time,...

  6. Preadolescent Friendship and Peer Rejection as Predictors of Adult Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagwell, Catherine L.; Newcomb, Andrew F.; Bukowski, William M.

    1998-01-01

    Compared adjustment of 30 young adults who had a stable, reciprocal best friend in fifth grade and 30 who did not. Found that lower peer rejection uniquely predicted overall life status adjustment. Friended preadolescents had higher general self-worth in adulthood, even after controlling for perceived preadolescence competence. Peer rejection and…

  7. Heterosexual Rejection and Mate Choice: A Sociometer Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lin; Liu, Shen; Li, Yue; Ruan, Lu-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies about the effects of social rejection on individuals' social behaviors have produced mixed results and tend to study mating behaviors from a static point of view. However, mate selection in essence is a dynamic process, and therefore sociometer theory opens up a new perspective for studying mating and its underlying practices. Based on this theory and using self-perceived mate value in the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mate choice as a mediating role, this current study examined the effects of heterosexual rejection on mate choice in two experiments. Results showed that heterosexual rejection significantly reduced self-perceived mate value, expectation, and behavioral tendencies, while heterosexual acceptance indistinctively increased these measures. Self-perceived mate value did not serve as a mediator in the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mate expectation, but it mediated the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mating behavior tendencies toward potential objects. Moreover, individuals evaded both rejection and irrelevant people when suffering from rejection. PMID:26648898

  8. Process Demands of Rejection Mechanisms of Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odegard, Timothy N.; Koen, Joshua D.; Gama, Jorge M.

    2008-01-01

    A surge of research has been conducted to examine memory editing mechanisms that help distinguish accurate from inaccurate memories. In the present experiment, the authors examined the ability of participants to use novelty detection, recollection rejection, and plausibility judgments to reject lures presented on a recognition memory test.…

  9. Rejection Sensitivity in Late Adolescence: Social and Emotional Sequelae

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marston, Emily G.; Hare, Amanda; Allen, Joseph P.

    2010-01-01

    This study used longitudinal, multireporter data, in a community sample, to examine the role of rejection sensitivity in late adolescents' social and emotional development. Rejection sensitivity was linked to a relative increase in adolescent depressive and anxiety symptoms over a 3-year period, even after accounting for teens' baseline level of…

  10. 25 CFR 163.18 - Acceptance and rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acceptance and rejection of bids. 163.18 Section 163.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.18 Acceptance and rejection of bids. (a) The high bid received...

  11. 25 CFR 163.18 - Acceptance and rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acceptance and rejection of bids. 163.18 Section 163.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.18 Acceptance and rejection of bids. (a) The high bid received...

  12. 25 CFR 163.18 - Acceptance and rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acceptance and rejection of bids. 163.18 Section 163.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.18 Acceptance and rejection of bids. (a) The high bid received...

  13. 25 CFR 163.18 - Acceptance and rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Acceptance and rejection of bids. 163.18 Section 163.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.18 Acceptance and rejection of bids. (a) The high bid received...

  14. 25 CFR 163.18 - Acceptance and rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acceptance and rejection of bids. 163.18 Section 163.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.18 Acceptance and rejection of bids. (a) The high bid received...

  15. Aggressive and Nonaggressive Rejected Students: An Analysis of Their Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Estefania Estevez; Olaizola, Juan Herrero; Ferrer, Belen Martinez; Ochoa, Gonzalo Musitu

    2006-01-01

    The present study aimed to analyze differences between aggressive and nonaggressive rejected students in four sets of variables: personal, family, school, and social. Participants in the study were 843 Spanish adolescents ranging in age from 11 to 16 years old, of whom 47% were boys. Results indicated that these two subgroups of rejected students…

  16. 7 CFR 70.35 - Rejection of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF POULTRY PRODUCTS AND RABBIT PRODUCTS Grading of Poultry Products and Rabbit Products Application for Grading Service § 70.35 Rejection of application. (a) Any application for grading service may be rejected by...

  17. 48 CFR 2919.505 - Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rejecting Small Business... LABOR SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS AND SMALL DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS CONCERNS Set-Asides for Small Business 2919.505 Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations. When the...

  18. 48 CFR 2919.505 - Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rejecting Small Business... LABOR SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS AND SMALL DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS CONCERNS Set-Asides for Small Business 2919.505 Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations. When the...

  19. Continuous improvement in nitrogen rejection unit design

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, J.V.; Maloney, J.J.

    1997-12-31

    The design and fabrication of Nitrogen Rejection Units (NRU) has advanced considerably over the past 15 years. Improvements have been made in all aspects of producing an NRU plant and cold box. This paper presents the primary areas involved that have seen these improvements. (1) Process design: the two-column process has been superseded by an approach which utilizes multiple flash drums and one column. This leads to a smaller and lower cost cold box. With low nitrogen content feeds, the prefractionater recovers half the methane as a high pressure residue gas and reduces the cold box size. (2) Mechanical Design: improved software enables the design process to be more accurate, eliminate piping and equipment interferences, reduce the size of the box and save design time. (3) Manufacturing: the interfacing of the 3D software design tools and the manufacturing process enables the shop floor personnel to reduce the manufacturing time by 10%. All of these individual improvements have reduced the real cost of an NRU substantially over the past 15 years.

  20. South African court rejects country's new constitution.

    PubMed

    1996-09-20

    Fundamental principles designed to ensure that South Africa's new constitution upholds a wide range of individual rights and freedoms and establishes a responsive government with a balanced separation of powers, including recognition of the role of traditional tribal leadership, were adopted into the current interim constitution shortly before the 1994 free elections which brought Nelson Mandela and the African National Congress to power. In a judgement issued on September 6, 1996, South Africa's Constitutional Court rejected the country's new draft constitution, arguing that it failed to meet the standards of nine of the 34 principles established at the Kempton Park negotiations. The Constitutional Assembly is comprised of a joint meeting of the National Assembly and Senate. One of the court's major objections to the constitution concerned the proposed structure of rule, which was seen to give inadequate power to South Africa's nine provinces as compared with the national government. However, the bill of rights was almost entirely upheld. The bill would create a favorable environment for legalized abortion and guarantee a universal right of access to health care, including reproductive health services

  1. Similarity principle and rejection of Gibbs paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shu-Kun

    2000-03-01

    Gibbs Paradox says that entropy of mixing or assembling decreases discotinuously with the increase in the property similarity. After the rejection of the Gibbs paradox statement (see papers cited at website http://www.mdpi.org/lin/), the similarity principle has been developed: If all the other conditions remain constant, the higher the similarity among the components is, the higher value of entropy of the mixing, the assembling or the chemical bond formation process will be, the more spontaneous the mixing, the assembling or the chemical bond formation process will be, and the more stable the mixture, the assemblage or the chemical bond will be. The similarity principle is very useful. If one wants to mix substances, increase the similarity (of relevant properties); if one plans to separate the substances as phases, reduce their similarity! Then, the desirable processes of mixing or separation will happen spontaneously. Normally by changing temperature ( similarity is related to Boltzmann factor) and pressure, one can control the similarity and in turn, direct the process towards the desired direction. Higher temperature and pressure leads to higher similarity. This theory is important in understanding molecular recognition, self-organization, molecular assembling and molecular replication.

  2. Comparison of Speech Perception in Background Noise with Acceptance of Background Noise in Aided and Unaided Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nabelek, Anna K.; Tampas, Joanna W.; Burchfield, Samuel B.

    2004-01-01

    l, speech perception in noiseBackground noise is a significant factor influencing hearing-aid satisfaction and is a major reason for rejection of hearing aids. Attempts have been made by previous researchers to relate the use of hearing aids to speech perception in noise (SPIN), with an expectation of improved speech perception followed by an…

  3. Imaging-based diagnosis of acute renal allograft rejection

    PubMed Central

    Thölking, Gerold; Schuette-Nuetgen, Katharina; Kentrup, Dominik; Pawelski, Helga; Reuter, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Kidney transplantation is the best available treatment for patients with end stage renal disease. Despite the introduction of effective immunosuppressant drugs, episodes of acute allograft rejection still endanger graft survival. Since efficient treatment of acute rejection is available, rapid diagnosis of this reversible graft injury is essential. For diagnosis of rejection, invasive core needle biopsy of the graft is the “gold-standard”. However, biopsy carries the risk of significant graft injury and is not immediately feasible in patients taking anticoagulants. Therefore, a non-invasive tool assessing the whole organ for specific and fast detection of acute allograft rejection is desirable. We herein review current imaging-based state of the art approaches for non-invasive diagnostics of acute renal transplant rejection. We especially focus on new positron emission tomography-based as well as targeted ultrasound-based methods. PMID:27011915

  4. Rejection Sensitivity and Adolescents’ Perceptions of Romantic Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Norona, Jerika C.; Salvatore, Joseph F.; Welsh, Deborah P.; Darling, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Rejection sensitivity – the tendency to expect, perceive, and overreact to rejection by others – is linked with individuals’ expectations that their romantic partners’ behaviors have negative intent, even if, perhaps, such behaviors could be considered neutral when observed by another. The aim of the present study was to test this proposition, derived from rejection sensitivity theory, using a Video-Recall Procedure with adolescent couples in the US (N = 386 adolescents, 50% girls). We examined whether adolescents who were more sensitive to rejection perceived their romantic partners’ behaviors as more conflictual than when viewed by trained, third-party observers. Findings suggest that, at the micro-analytic level, higher rejection sensitivity is associated with adolescents’ heightened perception of their romantic partners as conflictual when compared to observers, who more often coded the same behaviors as neutral rather than conflictual. Implications for adolescent mental health and well-being are discussed. PMID:25282535

  5. A rejection method for selection of scattered states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, William S.

    1994-05-01

    A rejection method is presented that sidesteps much of the labor necessary in the usual techniques for choosing a scattered state after an electron-phonon collision with full band structure. The phonon wave number is chosen randomly, then tested to see if the resultant collision will satisfy energy conservation to within some accuracy. If not, the collision is rejected, and if so, then the wave number is adjusted in order to enforce energy conservation more precisely. The price one pays is in a high rejection rate. If the cost of a rejection is small, however, this rejection rate can be tolerated. This method will not compete with analytical models (near valley minima), but may outperform the more usual techniques. Accuracies of a few percent are practical. Simulations were preformed with the first conduction band of gallium arsenide.

  6. Solar dynamic heat rejection technology. Task 1: System concept development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gustafson, Eric; Carlson, Albert W.

    1987-01-01

    The results are presented of a concept development study of heat rejection systems for Space Station solar dynamic power systems. The heat rejection concepts are based on recent developments in high thermal transport capacity heat pipe radiators. The thermal performance and weights of each of the heat rejection subsystems is addressed in detail, and critical technologies which require development tests and evaluation for successful demonstration are assessed and identified. Baseline and several alternate heat rejection system configurations and optimum designs are developed for both Brayton and Rankine cycles. The thermal performance, mass properties, assembly requirements, reliability, maintenance requirements and life cycle cost are determined for each configuration. A specific design was then selected for each configuration which represents an optimum design for that configuration. The final recommendations of heat rejection system configuration for either the Brayton or Rankine cycles depend on the priorities established for the evaluation criteria.

  7. The role of egg-nest contrast in the rejection of brood parasitic eggs.

    PubMed

    Aidala, Zachary; Croston, Rebecca; Schwartz, Jessica; Tong, Lainga; Hauber, Mark E

    2015-04-15

    Hosts of avian brood parasites can avoid the reproductive costs of raising genetically unrelated offspring by rejecting parasitic eggs. The perceptual cues and controls mediating parasitic egg discrimination and ejection are well studied: hosts are thought to use differences in egg color, brightness, maculation, size and shape to discriminate between their own and foreign eggs. Most theories of brood parasitism implicitly assume that the primary criteria to which hosts attend when discriminating eggs are differences between the eggs themselves. However, this assumption is confounded by the degree to which chromatic and achromatic characteristics of the nest lining co-vary with egg coloration, so that egg-nest contrast per se might be the recognition cue driving parasitic egg detection. Here, we systematically tested whether and how egg-nest contrast itself contributes to foreign egg discrimination. In an artificial parasitism experiment, we independently manipulated egg color and nest lining color of the egg-ejector American robin (Turdus migratorius), a host of the obligate brood parasitic brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater). We hypothesized that the degree of contrast between foreign eggs and the nest background would affect host egg rejection behavior. We predicted that experimentally decreasing egg-nest chromatic and achromatic contrast (i.e. rendering parasitic eggs more cryptic against the nest lining) would decrease rejection rates, while increasing egg-nest contrast would increase rejection rates. In contrast to our predictions, egg-nest contrast was not a significant predictor of egg ejection patterns. Instead, egg color significantly predicted responses to parasitism. We conclude that egg-egg differences are the primary drivers of egg rejection in this system. Future studies should test for the effects of egg-nest contrast per se in predicting parasitic egg recognition in other host-parasite systems, including those hosts building enclosed nests and

  8. Background model for the Majorana Demonstrator

    SciTech Connect

    Cuesta, C.; Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, E.; Avignone, III, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Y -D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Combs, D. C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Doe, P. J.; Efremenko, Yu.; Egorov, V.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Fast, J. E.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, F. M.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guiseppe, V.; Gusev, K.; Hallin, A.; Hazama, R.; Hegai, A.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Kochetov, O.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Leon, J.; Leviner, L. E.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, J.; MacMullin, S.; Martin, R. D.; Meijer, S.; Mertens, S.; Nomachi, M.; Orrell, J. L.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, N. R.; Phillips, D. G.; Poon, W. W. P.; Pushkin, K.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, A. G.; Shanks, B.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, K. K.; Snyder, N.; Suriano, A. M.; Thompson, J.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A. R.; Yu, C. -H.; Yumatov, V.

    2015-01-01

    The Majorana Collaboration is constructing a system containing 40 kg of HPGe detectors to demonstrate the feasibility and potential of a future tonne-scale experiment capable of probing the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region. To realize this, a major goal of the Majorana Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 cnt/(ROI-t-y) in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. This goal is pursued through a combination of a significant reduction of radioactive impurities in construction materials with analytical methods for background rejection, for example using powerful pulse shape analysis techniques profiting from the p-type point contact HPGe detectors technology. The effectiveness of these methods is assessed using simulations of the different background components whose purity levels are constrained from radioassay measurements.

  9. Background model for the Majorana Demonstrator

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cuesta, C.; Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, E.; Avignone, III, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Byram, D.; et al

    2015-01-01

    The Majorana Collaboration is constructing a system containing 40 kg of HPGe detectors to demonstrate the feasibility and potential of a future tonne-scale experiment capable of probing the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region. To realize this, a major goal of the Majorana Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 cnt/(ROI-t-y) in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. This goal is pursued through a combination of a significant reduction of radioactive impurities in construction materials with analytical methods for background rejection, for example usingmore » powerful pulse shape analysis techniques profiting from the p-type point contact HPGe detectors technology. The effectiveness of these methods is assessed using simulations of the different background components whose purity levels are constrained from radioassay measurements.« less

  10. Rejection of micropollutants by clean and fouled forward osmosis membrane.

    PubMed

    Valladares Linares, Rodrigo; Yangali-Quintanilla, Victor; Li, Zhenyu; Amy, Gary

    2011-12-15

    As forward osmosis (FO) gains attention as an efficient technology to improve wastewater reclamation processes, it is fundamental to determine the influence of fouling in the rejection of emerging contaminants (micropollutants). This study focuses on the rejection of 13 selected micropollutants, spiked in a secondary wastewater effluent, by a FO membrane, using Red Sea water as draw solution (DS), differentiating the effects on the rejection caused by a clean and fouled membrane. The resulting effluent was then desalinated at low pressure with a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane, to produce a high quality permeate and determine the rejection with a coupled forward osmosis - low pressure reverse osmosis (FO-LPRO) system. When considering only FO with a clean membrane, the rejection of the hydrophilic neutral compounds was between 48.6% and 84.7%, for the hydrophobic neutrals the rejection ranged from 40.0% to 87.5%, and for the ionic compounds the rejections were between 92.9% and 96.5%. With a fouled membrane, the rejections were between 44.6% and 95.2%, 48.7%-91.5% and 96.9%-98.6%, respectively. These results suggest that, except for the hydrophilic neutral compounds, the rejection of the micropollutants is increased by the presence of a fouling layer, possibly due to the higher hydrophilicity of the FO fouled membrane compared to the clean one, the increased adsorption capacity of hydrophilic compounds and reduced mass transport capacity, membrane swelling, and the higher negative charge of the membrane surface, related to the foulants composition, mainly NOM acids (carboxylic radicals) and polysaccharides or polysaccharide-like substances. However, when coupled with RO, the rejections in both cases increased above 96%. The coupled FO-LPRO system was an effective double barrier against the selected micropollutants. PMID:22055122

  11. Rejection of micropollutants by clean and fouled forward osmosis membrane.

    PubMed

    Valladares Linares, Rodrigo; Yangali-Quintanilla, Victor; Li, Zhenyu; Amy, Gary

    2011-12-15

    As forward osmosis (FO) gains attention as an efficient technology to improve wastewater reclamation processes, it is fundamental to determine the influence of fouling in the rejection of emerging contaminants (micropollutants). This study focuses on the rejection of 13 selected micropollutants, spiked in a secondary wastewater effluent, by a FO membrane, using Red Sea water as draw solution (DS), differentiating the effects on the rejection caused by a clean and fouled membrane. The resulting effluent was then desalinated at low pressure with a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane, to produce a high quality permeate and determine the rejection with a coupled forward osmosis - low pressure reverse osmosis (FO-LPRO) system. When considering only FO with a clean membrane, the rejection of the hydrophilic neutral compounds was between 48.6% and 84.7%, for the hydrophobic neutrals the rejection ranged from 40.0% to 87.5%, and for the ionic compounds the rejections were between 92.9% and 96.5%. With a fouled membrane, the rejections were between 44.6% and 95.2%, 48.7%-91.5% and 96.9%-98.6%, respectively. These results suggest that, except for the hydrophilic neutral compounds, the rejection of the micropollutants is increased by the presence of a fouling layer, possibly due to the higher hydrophilicity of the FO fouled membrane compared to the clean one, the increased adsorption capacity of hydrophilic compounds and reduced mass transport capacity, membrane swelling, and the higher negative charge of the membrane surface, related to the foulants composition, mainly NOM acids (carboxylic radicals) and polysaccharides or polysaccharide-like substances. However, when coupled with RO, the rejections in both cases increased above 96%. The coupled FO-LPRO system was an effective double barrier against the selected micropollutants.

  12. Nature of hyperacute (accelerated second set) rejection in dog renal allografts and effects of heparin on rejection process.

    PubMed

    Amery, A H; Pegrum, G D; Risdon, R A; Williams, G

    1973-02-24

    Renal allografts were exchanged between unrelated mongrel dogs after previous sensitization with skin and kidney grafts from the same donors. Rapid rejection of the renal allografts was associated with the accumulation of platelets and leucocytes in the peritubular and glomerular capillaries but fibrin deposition was not demonstrated.Heparin infusion delayed but did not prevent the rejection process.

  13. Rejected by Peers--Attracted to Antisocial Media Content: Rejection-Based Anger Impairs Moral Judgment among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plaisier, Xanthe S.; Konijn, Elly A.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is an important developmental stage during which both peers and the media have a strong influence. Both peer rejection and the use of morally adverse media are associated with negative developmental outcomes. This study examines processes by which peer rejection might drive adolescents to select antisocial media content by tying…

  14. Trait rejection sensitivity is associated with vigilance and defensive response rather than detection of social rejection cues

    PubMed Central

    Kawamoto, Taishi; Nittono, Hiroshi; Ura, Mitsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Prior studies suggest that psychological difficulties arise from higher trait Rejection Sensitivity (RS)—heightened vigilance and differential detection of social rejection cues and defensive response to. On the other hand, from an evolutionary perspective, rapid and efficient detection of social rejection cues can be considered beneficial. We conducted a survey and an electrophysiological experiment to reconcile this seeming contradiction. We compared the effects of RS and Rejection Detection Capability (RDC) on perceived interpersonal experiences (Study 1) and on neurocognitive processes in response to cues of social rejection (disgusted faces; Study 2). We found that RS and RDC were not significantly related, although RS was positively related to perceived social rejection experiences and RDC was positively related to perceived social inclusion experiences. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) revealed that higher RS was related to cognitive avoidance (i.e., P1) and heightened motivated attention (i.e., late positive potential: LPP), but not to facial expression encoding (i.e., N170) toward disgusted faces. On the other hand, higher RDC was related to heightened N170 amplitude, but not to P1 and LPP amplitudes. These findings imply that sensitivity to rejection is apparently distinct from the ability to detect social rejection cues and instead reflects intense vigilance and defensive response to those cues. We discussed an alternative explanation of the relationship between RS and RDC from a signal detection perspective. PMID:26483750

  15. Fabrication of Silicon Backshorts with Improved Out-of-Band Rejection for Waveguide-Coupled Superconducting Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowe, Erik J.; Bennett, Charles L.; Chuss, David T.; Denis, Kevin L.; Eimer, Joseph; Lourie, Nathan; Marriage, Tobias; Moseley, Samuel H.; Rostem, Karwan; Stevenson, Thomas R.; Towner, Deborah; U-yen, Kongpop; Wollack, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is a ground-based instrument that will measure the polarization of the cosmic microqave background to search for gravitational waves form a posited epoch of inflation early in the universe's history. This measurement will require integration of superconducting transition-edge sensors with microwave waveguide inputs with good conrol of systematic errors, such as unwanted coupling to stray signals at frequencies outside of a precisely defined microwave band. To address these needs we will present work on the fabrication of silicon quarter-wave backshorts for the CLASS 40GHz focal plane. The 40GHz backshort consists of three degeneratively doped silicon wafers. Two spacer wafers are micromachined with through wafer vins to provide a 2.0mm long square waveguide. The third wafer acts as the backshort cap. The three wafers are bonded at the wafer level by Au-Au thermal compression bonding then aligned and flip chip bonded to the CLASS detector at the chip level. The micromachining techniques used have been optimized to create high aspect ratio waveguides, silicon pillars, and relief trenches with the goal of providing improved out of band signal rejection. We will discuss the fabrication of integrated CLASS superconducting detectors with silicon quarter wave backshorts and present current measurement results.

  16. Development of CDMS-II Surface Event Rejection Techniques and Their Extensions to Lower Energy Thresholds

    SciTech Connect

    Hofer, Thomas James

    2014-12-01

    The CDMS-II phase of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search, a dark matter direct-detection experiment, was operated at the Soudan Underground Laboratory from 2003 to 2008. The full payload consisted of 30 ZIP detectors, totaling approximately 1.1 kg of Si and 4.8 kg of Ge, operated at temperatures of 50 mK. The ZIP detectors read out both ionization and phonon pulses from scatters within the crystals; channel segmentation and analysis of pulse timing parameters allowed e ective ducialization of the crystal volumes and background rejection su cient to set world-leading limits at the times of their publications. A full re-analysis of the CDMS-II data was motivated by an improvement in the event reconstruction algorithms which improved the resolution of ionization energy and timing information. The Ge data were re-analyzed using three distinct background-rejection techniques; the Si data from runs 125 - 128 were analyzed for the rst time using the most successful of the techniques from the Ge re-analysis. The results of these analyses prompted a novel \\mid-threshold" analysis, wherein energy thresholds were lowered but background rejection using phonon timing information was still maintained. This technique proved to have signi cant discrimination power, maintaining adequate signal acceptance and minimizing background leakage. The primary background for CDMS-II analyses comes from surface events, whose poor ionization collection make them di cult to distinguish from true nuclear recoil events. The novel detector technology of SuperCDMS, the successor to CDMS-II, uses interleaved electrodes to achieve full ionization collection for events occurring at the top and bottom detector surfaces. This, along with dual-sided ionization and phonon instrumentation, allows for excellent ducialization and relegates the surface-event rejection techniques of CDMS-II to a secondary level of background discrimination. Current and future SuperCDMS results hold great promise for mid- to low

  17. Separate neural representations for physical pain and social rejection.

    PubMed

    Woo, Choong-Wan; Koban, Leonie; Kross, Ethan; Lindquist, Martin A; Banich, Marie T; Ruzic, Luka; Andrews-Hanna, Jessica R; Wager, Tor D

    2014-01-01

    Current theories suggest that physical pain and social rejection share common neural mechanisms, largely by virtue of overlapping functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activity. Here we challenge this notion by identifying distinct multivariate fMRI patterns unique to pain and rejection. Sixty participants experience painful heat and warmth and view photos of ex-partners and friends on separate trials. FMRI pattern classifiers discriminate pain and rejection from their respective control conditions in out-of-sample individuals with 92% and 80% accuracy. The rejection classifier performs at chance on pain, and vice versa. Pain- and rejection-related representations are uncorrelated within regions thought to encode pain affect (for example, dorsal anterior cingulate) and show distinct functional connectivity with other regions in a separate resting-state data set (N = 91). These findings demonstrate that separate representations underlie pain and rejection despite common fMRI activity at the gross anatomical level. Rather than co-opting pain circuitry, rejection involves distinct affective representations in humans. PMID:25400102

  18. Spontaneous restoration of transplantation tolerance after acute rejection.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michelle L; Daniels, Melvin D; Wang, Tongmin; Chen, Jianjun; Young, James; Xu, Jing; Wang, Ying; Yin, Dengping; Vu, Vinh; Husain, Aliya N; Alegre, Maria-Luisa; Chong, Anita S

    2015-01-01

    Transplantation is a cure for end-stage organ failure but, in the absence of pharmacological immunosuppression, allogeneic organs are acutely rejected. Such rejection invariably results in allosensitization and accelerated rejection of secondary donor-matched grafts. Transplantation tolerance can be induced in animals and a subset of humans, and enables long-term acceptance of allografts without maintenance immunosuppression. However, graft rejection can occur long after a state of transplantation tolerance has been acquired. When such an allograft is rejected, it has been assumed that the same rules of allosensitization apply as to non-tolerant hosts and that immunological tolerance is permanently lost. Using a mouse model of cardiac transplantation, we show that when Listeria monocytogenes infection precipitates acute rejection, thus abrogating transplantation tolerance, the donor-specific tolerant state re-emerges, allowing spontaneous acceptance of a donor-matched second transplant. These data demonstrate a setting in which the memory of allograft tolerance dominates over the memory of transplant rejection.

  19. Separate neural representations for physical pain and social rejection

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Choong-Wan; Koban, Leonie; Kross, Ethan; Lindquist, Martin A.; Banich, Marie T.; Ruzic, Luka; Andrews-Hanna, Jessica R.; Wager, Tor D.

    2014-01-01

    Current theories suggest that physical pain and social rejection share common neural mechanisms, largely by virtue of overlapping functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activity. Here we challenge this notion by identifying distinct multivariate fMRI patterns unique to pain and rejection. Sixty participants experience painful heat and warmth and view photos of ex-partners and friends on separate trials. FMRI pattern classifiers discriminate pain and rejection from their respective control conditions in out-of-sample individuals with 92% and 80% accuracy. The rejection classifier performs at chance on pain, and vice versa. Pain-and rejection-related representations are uncorrelated within regions thought to encode pain affect (for example, dorsal anterior cingulate) and show distinct functional connectivity with other regions in a separate resting-state data set (N = 91). These findings demonstrate that separate representations underlie pain and rejection despite common fMRI activity at the gross anatomical level. Rather than co-opting pain circuitry, rejection involves distinct affective representations in humans. PMID:25400102

  20. Lunar Dust on Heat Rejection System Surfaces: Problems and Prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.; Jaworske, Donald A.

    2007-01-01

    Heat rejection from power systems will be necessary for human and robotic activity on the lunar surface. Functional operation of such heat rejection systems is at risk of degradation as a consequence of dust accumulation. The Apollo astronauts encountered marked degradation of performance in heat rejection systems for the lunar roving vehicle, science packages, and other components. Although ground testing of dust mitigation concepts in support of the Apollo mission identified mitigation tools, the brush concept adopted by the Apollo astronauts proved essentially ineffective. A better understanding of the issues associated with the impact of lunar dust on the functional performance of heat rejection systems and its removal is needed as planning gets underway for human and robotic missions to the Moon. Renewed emphasis must also be placed on ground testing of pristine and dust-covered heat rejection system surfaces to quantify degradation and address mitigation concepts. This paper presents a review of the degradation in performance of heat rejection systems encountered on the lunar surface to-date, and will discuss current activities underway to evaluate the durability of candidate heat rejection system surfaces and current dust mitigation concepts.

  1. Separate neural representations for physical pain and social rejection.

    PubMed

    Woo, Choong-Wan; Koban, Leonie; Kross, Ethan; Lindquist, Martin A; Banich, Marie T; Ruzic, Luka; Andrews-Hanna, Jessica R; Wager, Tor D

    2014-01-01

    Current theories suggest that physical pain and social rejection share common neural mechanisms, largely by virtue of overlapping functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activity. Here we challenge this notion by identifying distinct multivariate fMRI patterns unique to pain and rejection. Sixty participants experience painful heat and warmth and view photos of ex-partners and friends on separate trials. FMRI pattern classifiers discriminate pain and rejection from their respective control conditions in out-of-sample individuals with 92% and 80% accuracy. The rejection classifier performs at chance on pain, and vice versa. Pain- and rejection-related representations are uncorrelated within regions thought to encode pain affect (for example, dorsal anterior cingulate) and show distinct functional connectivity with other regions in a separate resting-state data set (N = 91). These findings demonstrate that separate representations underlie pain and rejection despite common fMRI activity at the gross anatomical level. Rather than co-opting pain circuitry, rejection involves distinct affective representations in humans.

  2. Efficacy of Anti-Interleukin-2 Receptor Antibody (Daclizumab) in Reducing the Incidence of Acute Rejection After Renal Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Saghafi, Hossein; Rahbar, Khosrow; Nobakht Haghighi, Ali; Qoreishi, Mohammad; Safdari, Farshad

    2012-01-01

    Background Acute rejection remains a major problem in renal transplantation and represents one of the most important causes of chronic allograft dysfunction and late graft loss. Daclizumab is a genetically engineered human IgG1 monoclonal antibody that binds specifically to the α chain of the interleukin-2 receptor, and may thus reduce the risk of rejection after renal transplantation. Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the effect of daclizumab induction therapy combined with a triple immunosuppressive protocol including prednisolone,cyclosporine microemulsion (CsA), and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), in reducing the incidence of acute rejection in recipients of living unrelated donor kidneys. Patients and Methods In this historical cohort study, 43 adult recipients of their first kidney allograft received daclizumab (three 1 mg/kg doses administered every 2 weeks) with triple immunosuppressive therapy (steroids, CsA, and MMF). This group was compared to 43 first-time graft recipients who received maintenance triple immunosuppressive therapy comprising steroids, CsA, and MMF. The end point was the incidence of biopsy confirmed acute rejection within 6 months after transplantation. Results At 6 months, 5 (11.6%) of the patients in the daclizumab group had biopsy-proven rejections, as compared to 14 (32.5%) in the control group (P = 0.017). The sex and the age of recipients had no impact on the incidence of acute rejection episodes in the two groups. Conclusions Adding interleukin-2 receptor antibody (daclizumab) to maintenance triple immunosuppressive therapy (prednisolone, CsA, and MMF) reduces the incidence of acute rejection episodes at 6 months in first-time transplant recipients of living unrelated donor. PMID:23573470

  3. Suicide Screening for Prisoners: An Ethical Critique of Research Rejection.

    PubMed

    Guinn, David; Burgermeister, Diane M

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective review of medical records was proposed to examine mental health staff compliance with documentation of a suicide assessment tool according to institutional policy on suicide screening within a U.S. correctional facility. A shift in focus was necessary when the proposed study was rejected by the institutional review board. Reasons for the rejection included low perceived benefit versus greater risk to the correctional facility and the need for prisoner informed consent, albeit the design was a retrospective medical record review. Because of this rejection, ethical issues in the prevention of suicide in prisons were examined with implications for the forensic nurse leading quality improvement initiatives.

  4. A computational assessment of the permeability and salt rejection of carbon nanotube membranes and their application to water desalination.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Michael; Corry, Ben

    2016-02-13

    Membranes made from nanomaterials such as nanotubes and graphene have been suggested to have a range of applications in water filtration and desalination, but determining their suitability for these purposes requires an accurate assessment of the properties of these novel materials. In this study, we use molecular dynamics simulations to determine the permeability and salt rejection capabilities for membranes incorporating carbon nanotubes (CNTs) at a range of pore sizes, pressures and concentrations. We include the influence of osmotic gradients and concentration build up and simulate at realistic pressures to improve the reliability of estimated membrane transport properties. We find that salt rejection is highly dependent on the applied hydrostatic pressure, meaning high rejection can be achieved with wider tubes than previously thought; while membrane permeability depends on salt concentration. The ideal size of the CNTs for desalination applications yielding high permeability and high salt rejection is found to be around 1.1 nm diameter. While there are limited energy gains to be achieved in using ultra-permeable CNT membranes in desalination by reverse osmosis, such membranes may allow for smaller plants to be built as is required when size or weight must be minimized. There are diminishing returns in further increasing membrane permeability, so efforts should focus on the fabrication of membranes containing narrow or functionalized CNTs that yield the desired rejection or selection properties rather than trying to optimize pore densities.

  5. A computational assessment of the permeability and salt rejection of carbon nanotube membranes and their application to water desalination.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Michael; Corry, Ben

    2016-02-13

    Membranes made from nanomaterials such as nanotubes and graphene have been suggested to have a range of applications in water filtration and desalination, but determining their suitability for these purposes requires an accurate assessment of the properties of these novel materials. In this study, we use molecular dynamics simulations to determine the permeability and salt rejection capabilities for membranes incorporating carbon nanotubes (CNTs) at a range of pore sizes, pressures and concentrations. We include the influence of osmotic gradients and concentration build up and simulate at realistic pressures to improve the reliability of estimated membrane transport properties. We find that salt rejection is highly dependent on the applied hydrostatic pressure, meaning high rejection can be achieved with wider tubes than previously thought; while membrane permeability depends on salt concentration. The ideal size of the CNTs for desalination applications yielding high permeability and high salt rejection is found to be around 1.1 nm diameter. While there are limited energy gains to be achieved in using ultra-permeable CNT membranes in desalination by reverse osmosis, such membranes may allow for smaller plants to be built as is required when size or weight must be minimized. There are diminishing returns in further increasing membrane permeability, so efforts should focus on the fabrication of membranes containing narrow or functionalized CNTs that yield the desired rejection or selection properties rather than trying to optimize pore densities. PMID:26712639

  6. A computational assessment of the permeability and salt rejection of carbon nanotube membranes and their application to water desalination

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Michael; Corry, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Membranes made from nanomaterials such as nanotubes and graphene have been suggested to have a range of applications in water filtration and desalination, but determining their suitability for these purposes requires an accurate assessment of the properties of these novel materials. In this study, we use molecular dynamics simulations to determine the permeability and salt rejection capabilities for membranes incorporating carbon nanotubes (CNTs) at a range of pore sizes, pressures and concentrations. We include the influence of osmotic gradients and concentration build up and simulate at realistic pressures to improve the reliability of estimated membrane transport properties. We find that salt rejection is highly dependent on the applied hydrostatic pressure, meaning high rejection can be achieved with wider tubes than previously thought; while membrane permeability depends on salt concentration. The ideal size of the CNTs for desalination applications yielding high permeability and high salt rejection is found to be around 1.1 nm diameter. While there are limited energy gains to be achieved in using ultra-permeable CNT membranes in desalination by reverse osmosis, such membranes may allow for smaller plants to be built as is required when size or weight must be minimized. There are diminishing returns in further increasing membrane permeability, so efforts should focus on the fabrication of membranes containing narrow or functionalized CNTs that yield the desired rejection or selection properties rather than trying to optimize pore densities. PMID:26712639

  7. Background reduction in the SNO+ experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Segui, L.

    2015-08-17

    SNO+ is a large multi-purpose liquid scintillator experiment, which first aim is to detect the neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 130}Te. It is placed at SNOLAB, at 6000 m.w.e. and it is based on the SNO infrastructure. SNO+ will contain approximately 780 tonnes of liquid scintillator, loaded with {sup 130}Te inside an acrylic vessel (AV) with an external volume of ultra pure water to reduce the external backgrounds. Light produced in the scintillator by the interaction of particles will be detected with about 9,000 photomultiplier’s. For the neutrinoless double beta decay phase, due to its the extremely low rate expected, the control, knowledge and reduction of the background is essential. Moreover, it will also benefit other phases of the experiment focused on the study of solar neutrinos, nucleon decay, geoneutrinos and supernovae. In order to reduce the internal background level, a novel purification technique for tellurium loaded scintillators has been developed by the collaboration that reduces the U/Th concentration and several cosmic-activated isotopes by at least a factor 10{sup 2} -10{sup 3} in a single pass. In addition, different rejection techniques have been developed for the remaining internal backgrounds based on Monte-Carlo simulations. In this work, the scintillator purification technique and the levels obtained with it will be discussed. Furthermore, an overview of the different backgrounds for the double-beta phase will be presented, highlighting some of the techniques developed to reject the remained decays based on their expected timing differences.

  8. Stress, rejection, and hormones: Cortisol and progesterone reactivity to laboratory speech and rejection tasks in women and men

    PubMed Central

    Gaffey, Allison E.; Wirth, Michelle M.

    2014-01-01

    Stress and social rejection have important impacts on health. Among the mechanisms implicated are hormonal systems such as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which produces cortisol in humans. Current research employs speech stressors and social rejection stressors to understand hormonal responses in a laboratory setting. However, it is not clear whether social rejection stressors elicit hormonal reactivity. In addition to cortisol, progesterone has been highlighted as a potential stress- and affiliation-related hormone in humans. In the present study, 131 participants (70 men and 61 women) were randomly assigned to be exposed to one of four conditions: standardized speech stressor; speech control; social rejection task; or a control (inclusion) version of the social rejection task. Saliva samples were collected throughout the study to measure cortisol and progesterone. As hypothesized, we found the expected increase in cortisol in the speech stressor, and we also found that the social rejection task did not increase cortisol, underscoring the divergence between unpleasant experiences and HPA axis activity. However, we did not find evidence for progesterone increase either during the speech- or social rejection tasks. Compared with past studies on progesterone and stress in humans, the present findings present a mixed picture. Future work is needed to delineate the contexts and types of manipulations which lead to progesterone increases in humans. PMID:25580228

  9. Mouse NK cell–mediated rejection of bone marrow allografts exhibits patterns consistent with Ly49 subset licensing

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Kai; Alvarez, Maite; Ames, Erik; Barao, Isabel; Chen, Mingyi; Longo, Dan L.; Redelman, Doug

    2012-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells can mediate the rejection of bone marrow allografts and exist as subsets based on expression of inhibitory/activating receptors that can bind MHC. In vitro data have shown that NK subsets bearing Ly49 receptors for self-MHC class I have intrinsically higher effector function, supporting the hypothesis that NK cells undergo a host MHC-dependent functional education. These subsets also play a role in bone marrow cell (BMC) allograft rejection. Thus far, little in vivo evidence for this preferential licensing across mouse strains with different MHC haplotypes has been shown. We assessed the intrinsic response potential of the different Ly49+ subsets in BMC rejection by using β2-microglobulin deficient (β2m−/−) mice as donors. Using congenic and allogeneic mice as recipients and depleting the different Ly49 subsets, we found that NK subsets bearing Ly49s, which bind “self-MHC” were found to be the dominant subset responsible for β2m−/− BMC rejection. This provides in vivo evidence for host MHC class I–dependent functional education. Interestingly, all H2d strain mice regardless of background were able to resist significantly greater amounts of β2m−/−, but not wild-type BMC than H2b mice, providing evidence that the rheostat hypothesis regarding Ly49 affinities for MHC and NK-cell function impacts BMC rejection capability. PMID:22184406

  10. Life skills profile of patients with schizophrenia and its correlation to a feeling of rejection among key family carers

    PubMed Central

    Manickam, L.S.S; Chandran, R. Satheesh

    2005-01-01

    Background: The behaviour of patients with schizophrenia is of great concern to key family carers. Life skills profile (LSP) is the measure that has considerable importance in assessing the functioning of people with schizophrenia in the community. Aim: To assess the sociodemographic correlates of LSP, and to find the correlation between LSP and the rejection response of key family carers. Methods: The LSP of 48 patients with chronic schizophrenia (29 men and 19 women) was assessed. The rejection responses of key family carers (28 men and 20 women) were evaluated using the Patient Rejection Scale. Results: The LSP did not significantly differ on the variables of gender, income level or attendance of day-care centre. However, there were differences between patients from urban and rural areas. A new dimension of family harmony, added as a subscale to LSP, also did not show any significant difference on the above variables. The rejection responses of key family carers were found to be significantly related to the LSP of the patients and, among the subscales, family harmony and communication were positively related to rejection. Conclusion: Though family interventions have been found to have positive implications on relapse and social functioning of patients with schizophrenia, a model of a family intervention programme for families of patients with schizophrenia needs to be developed. PMID:20711289

  11. Perceived mother and father acceptance-rejection predict four unique aspects of child adjustment across nine countries

    PubMed Central

    Putnick, Diane L.; Bornstein, Marc H.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Malone, Patrick S.; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T.; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Alampay, Liane Peña; Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Oburu, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background It is generally believed that parental rejection of children leads to child maladaptation. However, the specific effects of perceived parental acceptance-rejection on diverse domains of child adjustment and development have been incompletely documented, and whether these effects hold across diverse populations and for mothers and fathers are still open questions. Methods This study assessed children's perceptions of mother and father acceptance-rejection in 1247 families from China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States as antecedent predictors of later internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, school performance, prosocial behavior, and social competence. Results Higher perceived parental rejection predicted increases in internalizing and externalizing behavior problems and decreases in school performance and prosocial behavior across three years controlling for within-wave relations, stability across waves, and parental age, education, and social desirability bias. Patterns of relations were similar across mothers and fathers and, with a few exceptions, all 9 countries. Conclusions Children's perceptions of maternal and paternal acceptance-rejection have small but nearly universal effects on multiple aspects of their adjustment and development regardless of the family's country of origin. PMID:25492267

  12. Stem Cells Transplanted in Monkeys without Anti-Rejection Drugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160989.html Stem Cells Transplanted in Monkeys Without Anti-Rejection Drugs Scientists say goal is to create banks of stem cells that could be used for any human patient ...

  13. 7 CFR 56.24 - Rejection of application

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF SHELL EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Application for Grading Service § 56.24 Rejection of application (a)...

  14. Outside advantage: can social rejection fuel creative thought?

    PubMed

    Kim, Sharon H; Vincent, Lynne C; Goncalo, Jack A

    2013-08-01

    Eminently creative people working in fields as disparate as physics and literature refer to the experience of social rejection as fuel for creativity. Yet, the evidence of this relationship is anecdotal, and the psychological process that might explain it is as yet unknown. We theorize that the experience of social rejection may indeed stimulate creativity but only for individuals with an independent self-concept. In 3 studies, we show that individuals who hold an independent self-concept performed more creatively after social rejection relative to inclusion. We also show that this boost in creativity is mediated by a differentiation mind-set, or salient feelings of being different from others. Future research might investigate how the self-concept--for example, various cultural orientations-may shape responses to social rejection by mitigating some of the negative consequences of exclusion and potentially even motivating creative exploration. PMID:22889163

  15. Emotional responses to rejection of gestures of intergroup reconciliation.

    PubMed

    Harth, Nicole Syringa; Hornsey, Matthew J; Barlow, Fiona Kate

    2011-06-01

    Four experiments examine the emotional and attitudinal consequences of victim group rejection of a gesture of reconciliation from a transgressor group. Participants were reminded about an ingroup transgression and were told that their ingroup provided an apology (Studies 1 and 4) or an offer of repair (Studies 2 and 3). The authors varied whether the victim group rejected or accepted these gestures. As predicted, rejection resulted in greater anger and lower levels of satisfaction directed toward the victim group. Victim group response had little systematic effect on anxiety or shame, however. Appraisals of the response as illegitimate mediated the effects of victim group response (Studies 3 and 4). Furthermore, Study 4 showed that the emotional backlash toward victim groups who reject an offer of reconciliation leads to heightened racism and reduced intentions to financially compensate victim groups. Implications for how groups reconcile in the face of historical transgressions are discussed.

  16. Rotating reverse osmosis: a dynamic model for flux and rejection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S.; Lueptow, R. M.

    2001-01-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) is a compact process for the removal of ionic and organic pollutants from contaminated water. However, flux decline and rejection deterioration due to concentration polarization and membrane fouling hinders the application of RO technology. In this study, a rotating cylindrical RO membrane is theoretically investigated as a novel method to reduce polarization and fouling. A dynamic model based on RO membrane transport incorporating concentration polarization is used to predict the performance of rotating RO system. Operating parameters such as rotational speed and transmembrane pressure play an important role in determining the flux and rejection in rotating RO. For a given geometry, a rotational speed sufficient to generate Taylor vortices in the annulus is essential to maintain high flux as well as high rejection. The flux and rejection were calculated for wide range of operating pressures and rotational speeds. c 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Liquid droplet radiators for heat rejection in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattick, A. T.; Hertzberg, A.

    1980-01-01

    A radiator for heat rejection in space is described which utilizes a stream of liquid droplets to radiate waste heat. The large surface area per mass makes the liquid droplet radiator at least an order of magnitude lighter than tube and fin radiators. Generation and collection of the droplets, as well as heat transfer to the liquid, can be achieved with modest extensions of conventional technology. Low vapor pressure liquids are available which cover a radiating temperature range 250-1000 K with negligible evaporation losses. The droplet radiator may be employed for a wide range of heat rejection applications in space. Three applications - heat rejection for a high temperature Rankine cycle, cooling of photovoltaic cells, and low temperature heat rejection for refrigeration in space illustrate the versatility of the radiator.

  18. Recovery and recycling of uranium from rejected coated particles for compact high temperature reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pai, Rajesh V.; Mollick, P. K.; Kumar, Ashok; Banerjee, J.; Radhakrishna, J.; Chakravartty, J. K.

    2016-05-01

    UO2 microspheres prepared by internal gelation technique were coated with pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide using CVD technique. The particles which were not meeting the specifications were rejected. The rejected/failed UO2 based coated particles prepared by CVD technique was used for oxidation and recovery and recycling. The oxidation behaviour of sintered UO2 microspheres coated with different layers of carbon and SiC was studied by thermal techniques to develop a method for recycling and recovery of uranium from the failed/rejected coated particles. It was observed that the complete removal of outer carbon from the spheres is difficult. The crushing of microspheres enabled easier accessibility of oxygen and oxidation of carbon and uranium at 800-1000 °C. With the optimized process of multiple crushing using die & plunger and sieving the broken coated layers, we could recycle around fifty percent of the UO2 microspheres which could be directly recoated. The rest of the particles were recycled using a wet recycling method.

  19. A constrained ICA approach for real-time cardiac artifact rejection in magnetoencephalography.

    PubMed

    Breuer, Lukas; Dammers, Jürgen; Roberts, Timothy P L; Shah, N Jon

    2014-02-01

    Recently, magnetoencephalography (MEG)-based real-time brain computing interfaces (BCI) have been developed to enable novel and promising methods of neuroscience research and therapy. Artifact rejection prior to source localization largely enhances the localization accuracy. However, many BCI approaches neglect real-time artifact removal due to its time consuming processing. With cardiac artifact rejection for real-time analysis (CARTA), we introduce a novel algorithm capable of real-time cardiac artifact (CA) rejection. The method is based on constrained independent component analysis (ICA), where a priori information of the underlying source signal is used to optimize and accelerate signal decomposition. In CARTA, this is performed by estimating the subject's individual density distribution of the cardiac activity, which leads to a subject-specific signal decomposition algorithm. We show that the new method is capable of effectively reducing CAs within one iteration and a time delay of 1 ms. In contrast, Infomax and Extended Infomax ICA converged not until seven iterations, while FastICA needs at least ten iterations. CARTA was tested and applied to data from three different but most common MEG systems (4-D-Neuroimaging, VSM MedTech Inc., and Elekta Neuromag). Therefore, the new method contributes to reliable signal analysis utilizing BCI approaches.

  20. Changes in attractiveness of elected, rejected, and precluded alternatives: a comparison of happy and unhappy individuals.

    PubMed

    Lyubomirsky, S; Ross, L

    1999-06-01

    In 3 studies the authors compared the responses of self-rated happy and unhappy students in situations involving choice. In Study 1, high school seniors evaluated colleges after applying for admission and then later after making their selections. Happy students tended to be more satisfied than unhappy ones with the colleges they ultimately chose and those they ultimately rejected, and they more sharply devalued the colleges that rejected them. Studies 2 and 3 dealt with postdecisional consequences of less consequential decisions about fancy desserts. In Study 2, unhappy participants sharply derogated the desserts they rejected or were denied, relative to those selected by or for them, whereas happy participants showed no such derogation. These group differences, moreover, proved to be largely independent of self-esteem and optimism. The design of Study 3 helped explicate underlying mechanisms by inducing both groups to distract themselves or to self-reflect. Doing so eliminated all group differences. Implications of the results for the link between cognitive processes and hedonic consequences are discussed. PMID:10402682

  1. Fate of manuscripts rejected for publication in the AJR.

    PubMed

    Chew, F S

    1991-03-01

    The fate of rejected manuscripts that were originally submitted to the American Journal of Roentgenology (AJR) during the first 5 months of 1986 was investigated to learn whether, when, and where they had been published. AJR, a peer-reviewed journal of diagnostic radiology with a circulation of over 21,000, annually publishes about 500 papers and receives over 11,500 citations. MEDLINE searches conducted 45 to 54 months after the dates of rejection by AJR located 162 (64%) published papers out of a consecutive series of 254 manuscripts rejected by AJR, including 69% of the rejected major papers and 62% of the rejected case reports. The papers had been published in 30 different radiologic and 27 different nonradiologic journals. Most of these journals published fewer papers, had smaller circulations, and had lower impact factors (a ratio of citations received to papers published) than AJR does. The mean time lapse between rejection by AJR and publication in other journals was 15 months. The delay in publication was greater for papers published in nonradiologic and foreign journals than for papers published in radiologic and American journals. The results of this study indicate that rejection of a manuscript by a peer-reviewed journal such as AJR delays but by no means precludes publication. At least 82% of the major papers and 70% of the case reports that are submitted to AJR are eventually published, either in AJR or elsewhere. Because a scientific paper represents not only many hours of writing and manuscript preparation but also a great investment of research time and resources, authors are reluctant to abandon rejected manuscripts. In the majority of cases, submission to other journals gains acceptance and publication. PMID:1899764

  2. Building Background Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuman, Susan B.; Kaefer, Tanya; Pinkham, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    This article make a case for the importance of background knowledge in children's comprehension. It suggests that differences in background knowledge may account for differences in understanding text for low- and middle-income children. It then describes strategies for building background knowledge in the age of common core standards.

  3. Use of [18F]FDG PET to Monitor The Development of Cardiac Allograft Rejection

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Kevin P.; Dearling, Jason L. J.; Seto, Tatsuichiro; Dunning, Patricia; Fahey, Frederic; Packard, Alan B.; Briscoe, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Positron Emission Tomography (PET) has the potential to be a specific, sensitive and quantitative diagnostic test for transplant rejection. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated 18F-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) and 13N-labeled ammonia ([13N]NH3) small animal PET imaging in a well-established murine cardiac rejection model. Methods Heterotopic transplants were performed using minor MHC mismatched B6.C-H2bm12 donor hearts in C57BL/6(H-2b) recipients. C57BL/6 donor hearts into C57BL/6 recipients served as isograft controls. [18F]FDG PET imaging was performed weekly between post-transplant days 7 and 42 and the percent injected dose was computed for each graft. [13N]NH3 imaging was performed to evaluate myocardial perfusion. Results There was a significant increase in [18F]FDG uptake in allografts from day 14 to day 21 (1.6% to 5.2%; P<0.001) and uptake in allografts was significantly increased on post-transplant days 21 (5.2% vs. 0.9%; P=0.005) and 28 (4.8% vs. 0.9%; P=0.006) compared to isograft controls. Furthermore, [18F]FDG uptake correlated with an increase in rejection within allografts between days 14 and 28 post-transplant. Finally, the uptake of [13N]NH3 was significantly lower relative to the native heart in allografts with chronic vasculopathy compared to isograft controls on day 28 (P=0.01). Conclusions PET imaging with [18F]FDG can be used following transplantation to monitor the evolution of rejection. In addition, decreased uptake of [13N]NH3 in rejecting allografts may be reflective of decreased myocardial blood flow. These data suggest that combined [18F]FDG and [13N]NH3 PET imaging could be used as a non-invasive, quantitative technique for serial monitoring of allograft rejection and has potential application in human transplant recipients. PMID:25675207

  4. Antitumor vaccines, immunotherapy and the immunological constant of rejection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ena; Monaco, Alessandro; Monsurró, Vladia; Sabatino, Marianna; Pos, Zoltan; Uccellini, Lorenzo; Wang, Jeanne; Worschech, Andrea; Stroncek, David F; Marincola, Francesco M

    2009-05-01

    Anticancer vaccines have not matched the clinical expectations projected from their ability to induce consistently systemic anticancer T-cell responses. Thus, a dichotomy is observed between the immunological and clinical endpoints of anticancer immunization. Anticancer vaccines have clearly demonstrated that highly specific T-cell responses can be induced that can recognize autologous cancer antigens in patients with cancer. This ability is an outstanding achievement of modern biotechnology, yielding one of the most specific types of potential anticancer reagents. However, systemic, vaccine-induced anticancer responses exemplify a broader immunological paradox: cytotoxic T-cells can coexist within the same organism with their target cells not only in the context of cancer, but also in the context of chronic infections, well-controlled allo-transplant reactions and autoimmunity. According to this view, anticancer immune responses are a facet of a tissue-specific autoimmune phenomenon specific for cancer tissue that may or may not result in the successful immune-destruction of target cells, depending on an assortment of genetic factors related to the background of the host or evolving phenotypes of a heterogeneous cancer environment. This feature article summarizes the current understanding of the mechanisms leading to tumor rejection in humans as well as in experimental models, in the context of the broader immunological phenomenon leading to tissue-specific destruction. Anticancer vaccines that may not induce clinically significant anticancer responses independently could function as a unique tool to enhance the specificity of the response of the host against cancer, provided that strategies are implemented to amplify the immune reaction initiated by vaccine-induced antibodies and/or T-cells.

  5. Perturbations in the Urinary Exosome in Transplant Rejection

    PubMed Central

    Sigdel, Tara K.; Ng, Yolanda W.; Lee, Sangho; Nicora, Carrie D.; Qian, Wei-Jun; Smith, Richard D.; Camp, David G.; Sarwal, Minnie M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Urine exosomes are small vesicles exocytosed into the urine by all renal epithelial cell types under normal physiologic and disease states. Urine exosomal proteins may mirror disease specific proteome perturbations in kidney injury. Analysis methodologies for the exosomal fraction of the urinary proteome were developed for comparing the urinary exosomal fraction versus unfractionated proteome for biomarker discovery. Methods: Urine exosomes were isolated by centrifugal filtration of urine samples collected from kidney transplant patients with and without acute rejection (AR), which were biopsy matched. The proteomes of unfractionated whole urine (Uw) and urine exosomes (Ue) underwent mass spectroscopy-based quantitative proteomics analysis. The proteome data were analyzed for significant differential protein abundances in AR. Results: A total of 1018 proteins were identified in Uw and 349 proteins in Ue. Two hundred seventy-nine overlapped between the two urinary compartments and 70 proteins were unique to the Ue compartment. Of 349 exosomal proteins identified from transplant patients, 220 had not been previously identified in the normal Ue fraction. Eleven Ue proteins, functionally involved in an inflammatory and stress response, were more abundant in urine samples from patients with AR, three of which are exclusive to the Ue fraction. Ue AR-specific biomarkers (1) were also detected in Uw, but since they were observed at significantly lower abundances in Uw, they were not significant for AR in Uw. Conclusion: A rapid urinary exosome isolation method and quantitative measurement of enriched Ue proteins was applied. Perturbed proteins in the exosomal compartment of urine collected from kidney transplant patients were specific to inflammatory responses, and were not observed in the Ue fraction from normal healthy subjects. Ue-specific protein alterations in renal disease provide potential mechanistic insights and offer a unique panel of sensitive

  6. Rejection or selection: influence of framing in investment decisions.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Pi-Yueh; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2010-02-01

    According to prospect theory, reflection effects result in preferences for risk-averse choices in gain situations and risk-seeking choices in loss situations. However, relevant literature in regard to decision making has suggested that positive information receives more weight in a selection task, whereas negative information receives more weight in a rejection task. The present study examined whether the nature of a decision task (selection vs rejection) would moderate the reflection effects. Undergraduates (47 men, 49 women; M age = 20.5 yr., SD = 1.1), selected according to specific screening criteria, participated in an experimental study. Typical reflection effects were observed in both selection and rejection task conditions. More importantly, negative information (i.e., the information about probable loss in risky choice of gain situations and the information about certain loss in cautious choice of loss situations) provided in the context of a rejection task received more weight and resulted in more frequent endorsements of the cautious choice in gain situations and of the risky choice in loss situations. Hence, the findings suggest that a decision context characterized by rejection may expand the reflection effects and thereby provide important information about situations in which investment decisions occur in a context characterized by rejection. PMID:20402451

  7. B cells mediate chronic allograft rejection independently of antibody production.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qiang; Ng, Yue-Harn; Singh, Tripti; Jiang, Ke; Sheriff, Khaleefathullah A; Ippolito, Renee; Zahalka, Salwa; Li, Qi; Randhawa, Parmjeet; Hoffman, Rosemary A; Ramaswami, Balathiripurasundari; Lund, Frances E; Chalasani, Geetha

    2014-03-01

    Chronic rejection is the primary cause of long-term failure of transplanted organs and is often viewed as an antibody-dependent process. Chronic rejection, however, is also observed in mice and humans with no detectable circulating alloantibodies, suggesting that antibody-independent pathways may also contribute to pathogenesis of transplant rejection. Here, we have provided direct evidence that chronic rejection of vascularized heart allografts occurs in the complete absence of antibodies, but requires the presence of B cells. Mice that were deficient for antibodies but not B cells experienced the same chronic allograft vasculopathy (CAV), which is a pathognomonic feature of chronic rejection, as WT mice; however, mice that were deficient for both B cells and antibodies were protected from CAV. B cells contributed to CAV by supporting splenic lymphoid architecture, T cell cytokine production, and infiltration of T cells into graft vessels. In chimeric mice, in which B cells were present but could not present antigen, both T cell responses and CAV were markedly reduced. These findings establish that chronic rejection can occur in the complete absence of antibodies and that B cells contribute to this process by supporting T cell responses through antigen presentation and maintenance of lymphoid architecture.

  8. Diagnostic criteria of antibody-mediated rejection in kidney transplants.

    PubMed

    Mosquera Reboredo, J M; Vázquez Martul, E

    2011-01-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of anti-donor antibody-mediated rejection or humoral rejection (ABMR) is one of the main discussions at the moment in kidney transplantation. The search for histopathological markers that help us to diagnose ABMR has been more problematic, in contrast to the histological expression of cellular or tubulointerstitial rejection. Although the relationship between post-transplant anti-donor antibodies and the allograft's prognosis has been a topic of discussion for a long time, led in the main by P.Terasaki, it was not until the beginning of 1990s when P. Halloran studied the humoral mechanisms of rejection in greater depth. Feutch described the importance of C4d deposits as a marker that shows a humoral mechanism of allograft rejection in 1993. As a result of many studies carried out, the Banff consensus group established some diagnostic histopathological criteria of acute (ABMR) in 2003. These have been modified slightly in later meetings of the group. Furthermore, in 2005 this same working group looked at the physiopathological mechanisms causing chronic allograft failure in more detail and established the criteria defining chronic humoral rejection. In this review, we are trying to update any useful histopathological criteria for diagnosing acute and chronic ABMR.

  9. [Aggression homicide and rejection homicide: a communicative classification of homicide].

    PubMed

    Mitterauerl, Bernhard; Griebnitz, Ernst; Rothuber, Helfried

    2006-01-01

    Based on a 10-year sample of homicides (n = 50), the hypothesis was tested that it is possible to differentiate between aggression and rejection homicide. The aggression homicide results from the offender/victim relationship, which is no longer accepted for some reason. In contrast, in the rejection homicide the offender radically strives for a goal which can only be reached if the victim is eliminated. Based on forensic-psychiatric expert opinions (n = 50), the case analyses yielded 31 aggression homicides and 18 rejection homicides, one case could not be classified. Aggression homicides differed significantly from the rejection homicides with regard to their main motives. Hate in quarrel (n = 8), violent occupation of the victim (n = 7), delusions (n = 5), revenge (n = 3), self-defence (n = 2), and jealousy (n = 1) characterized the aggression homicides, whereas rejection homicides were dominated by economic motives (n = 14). Two offenders intended to get rid of the victim and one offender wanted to rescue a third person. From a forensic-psychiatric point of view, the pertinent statistical data (social data, diagnosis, criminal responsibility) are reported and the significance of the differentiation between aggression homicide and rejection homicide for medico-legal or criminological case profiling and for the prognosis of the risk potential is discussed.

  10. Influence of biofouling on pharmaceuticals rejection in NF membrane filtration.

    PubMed

    Botton, Sabrina; Verliefde, Arne R D; Quach, Nhut T; Cornelissen, Emile R

    2012-11-15

    The effects of biomass attachment and growth on the surface characteristics and organic micropollutants rejection performance of nanofiltration membranes were investigated in a pilot installation. Biomass growth was induced by dosing of a readily biodegradable carbon source resulting in the formation of a biofouling in the investigated membrane elements. Surface properties and rejection behaviour of a biofouled and virgin membrane were investigated and compared in terms of surface charge, surface energy and hydrophobicity. The last two were accomplished by performing contact angle measurements on fully hydrated membrane surfaces, in order to mimic the operating conditions of a membrane in contact with water. Compared to a virgin membrane, deposition and growth of biofilm did slightly alter the surface charge, which became more negative, and resulted in a higher hydrophilicity of the membrane surface. In addition, the presence of the negatively charged biofilm induced accumulation of positively charged pharmaceuticals within the biomass layer, which probably also hindered back diffusion. This caused a reduction in rejection efficiency of positively charged solutes but did not alter rejection of neutral and negatively charged pharmaceuticals. Pharmaceuticals rejection was found to positively correlate with the specific free energy of interaction between virgin or biofouled membranes and pharmaceuticals dissolved in the water phase. The rejection values obtained with both virgin and biofouled membranes were compared and found in good agreement with the predictions calculated with a solute transport model earlier developed for high pressure filtration processes. PMID:22960036

  11. Solar rejection for an orbiting telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rehnberg, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    The present work discusses some of the constraints that the optical designer must deal with in optimizing spaceborne sensors that must look at or near the sun. Analytical techniques are described for predicting the effects of stray radiation from sources such as mirror scatter, baffle scatter, diffraction, and ghost images. In addition, the paper describes a sensor design that has been flown on the Apollo Telescope Mount (Skylab) to aid astronauts in locating solar flares. In addition to keeping stray radiation to a minimum, the design had to be nondegradable by the direct solar heat load.

  12. Myoglobinuria masquerading as acute rejection in a renal allograft recipient with recurrent post transplant diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Pallav; Sharma, Amit; Khullar, Dinesh

    2014-08-01

    Rhabdomyolysis contributes to 7-10% of total AKI cases. Myoglobinuria as a cause of acute renal allograft dysfunction is extremely uncommon. Renal allograft recipient on cyclosporine or tacrolimus can develop myoglobinuria in presence of other precipitating factors. Present case describes an interesting report of myoglobinuria in a patient with post transplant diabetic nephropathy mimicking acute graft rejection. Clinically myoglobinuria presenting as renal allograft dysfunction is diagnosis of exclusion and renal biopsy is extremely important in making a correct diagnosis and planning optimal management in such cases.

  13. A computational algorithm for a disturbance rejection problem in structural acoustics

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, E.

    1994-12-31

    We consider a disturbance rejection problem for an optimal control problem arising in structural acoustics. The solution to the control problem with unbounded control action involves the solution to an algebraic Riccati equation as well as an associated linear, nonhomogeneous differential equation. The goal is to construct a numerical algorithm based on the FEM for the computations of solutions to associated matrix algebraic Riccati equations. The Riccati-based feedback control will be used to minimize the effect of the disturbance for a given performance index.

  14. Simulation and verification of the cosmogenic background at the shallow depth GIOVE detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakenmüller, J.; Maneschg, W.; Heusser, G.

    2016-05-01

    The GIOVE (Germanium Inner Outer VEto) detector setup is a low level Germanium spectrometer for material screening with elaborated shield located at the shallow depth underground laboratory of the Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik in Heidelberg. It is equipped with a double active muon veto with a total muon rejection efficiency of ~99% and there are also passive layers to moderate and capture neutrons. With this setup an integral count rate is achieved comparable to detectors far deeper underground. The detector and shield geometry has been implemented into a Monte Carlo simulation, using the simulation framework MaGe based on Geant4. The Monte Carlo simulation is employed to determine sample efficiencies for γ ray screening measurements as well as to reproduce the remaining detector background from cosmic ray muon-induced secondaries. In terms of the background modeling of the unvetoed γ ray spectrum an excellent agreement better than 10% in the integral count rate in (40, 2700) keV as well as for the 511 keV line has been found. However, concerning the expected number of neutrons at the diode, the simulation outcome lays 40-80% below the measurement results. Being able to reproduce the detector background in the simulation, the simulation can be used to further optimize the shield design.

  15. Background simulations for the wide field imager aboard the ATHENA X-ray Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauf, Steffen; Kuster, Markus; Hoffmann, Dieter H. H.; Lang, Philipp-Michael; Neff, Stephan; Pia, Maria Grazia; Strüder, Lothar

    2012-09-01

    The ATHENA X-ray observatory was a European Space Agency project for a L-class mission. ATHENA was to be based upon a simplified IXO design with the number of instruments and the focal length of the Wolter optics being reduced. One of the two instruments, the Wide Field Imager (WFI) was to be a DePFET based focal plane pixel detector, allowing for high time and spatial resolution spectroscopy in the energy-range between 0.1 and 15 keV. In order to fulfill the mission goals a high sensitivity is essential, especially to study faint and extended sources. Thus a detailed understanding of the detector background induced by cosmic ray particles is crucial. During the mission design generally extensive Monte-Carlo simulations are used to estimate the detector background in order to optimize shielding components and software rejection algorithms. The Geant4 toolkit1,2 is frequently the tool of choice for this purpose. Alongside validation of the simulation environment with XMM-Newton EPIC-pn and Space Shuttle STS-53 data we present estimates for the ATHENA WFI cosmic ray induced background including long-term activation, which demonstrate that DEPFET-technology based detectors are able to achieve the required sensitivity.

  16. Apoptotic tubular cell death during acute renal allograft rejection.

    PubMed

    Wever, P C; Aten, J; Rentenaar, R J; Hack, C E; Koopman, G; Weening, J J; ten Berge, I J

    1998-01-01

    Tubular cells are important targets during acute renal allograft rejection and induction of apoptosis might be a mechanism of tubular cell destruction. Susceptibility to induction of apoptosis is regulated by the homologous Bcl-2 and Bax proteins. Expression of Bcl-2 and Bax is regulated by p53, which down-regulates expression of Bcl-2, while simultaneously up-regulating expression of Bax. We studied apoptotic tubular cell death in 10 renal allograft biopsies from transplant recipients with acute rejection by in situ end-labelling and the DNA-binding fluorochrome propidium iodide. Tubular expression of p53, Bcl-2 and Bax was studies by immunohistochemistry. Five renal allograft biopsies from transplant recipients with uncomplicated clinical course and histologically normal renal tissue present in nephrectomy specimens from 4 patients with renal adenocarcinoma served as control specimens. Apoptotic cells and apoptotic bodies were detected in tubular epithelia and tubular lumina in 9 out of 10 acute rejection biopsies. In control renal tissue, apoptotic cells were detected in 1 biopsy only. Compared to control renal tissue, acute renal allograft rejection was, furthermore, associated with a shift in the ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax in favour of Bax in tubular epithelia and increased expression of p53 in tubular nuclei. These observations demonstrate that apoptosis contributes in part to tubular cell destruction during acute renal allograft rejection. In accordance, the shift in the ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax in favour of Bax indicates increased susceptibility of tubular epithelia to induction of apoptosis. The expression of p53 in tubular nuclei during acute renal allograft rejection indicates the presence of damaged DNA, which can be important in initiation of part of the observed apoptosis. These findings elucidate part of the mechanisms controlling apoptotic tubular cell death during acute renal allograft rejection.

  17. MDMA decreases the effects of simulated social rejection.

    PubMed

    Frye, Charles G; Wardle, Margaret C; Norman, Greg J; de Wit, Harriet

    2014-02-01

    3-4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) increases self-reported positive social feelings and decreases the ability to detect social threat in faces, but its effects on experiences of social acceptance and rejection have not been determined. We examined how an acute dose of MDMA affects subjective and autonomic responses to simulated social acceptance and rejection. We predicted that MDMA would decrease subjective responses to rejection. On an exploratory basis, we also examined the effect of MDMA on respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a measure of parasympathetic cardiac control often thought to index social engagement and emotional regulation. Over three sessions, healthy adult volunteers with previous MDMA experience (N=36) received capsules containing placebo, 0.75 or 1.5 mg/kg of MDMA under counter-balanced double-blind conditions. During expected peak drug effect, participants played two rounds of a virtual social simulation task called "Cyberball" during which they experienced acceptance in one round and rejection in the other. During the task we also obtained electrocardiograms (ECGs), from which we calculated RSA. After each round, participants answered questionnaires about their mood and self-esteem. As predicted, MDMA decreased the effect of simulated social rejection on self-reported mood and self-esteem and decreased perceived intensity of rejection, measured as the percent of ball tosses participants reported receiving. Consistent with its sympathomimetic properties, MDMA decreased RSA as compared to placebo. Our finding that MDMA decreases perceptions of rejection in simulated social situations extends previous results indicating that MDMA reduces perception of social threat in faces. Together these findings suggest a cognitive mechanism by which MDMA might produce pro-social behavior and feelings and how the drug might function as an adjunct to psychotherapy. These phenomena merit further study in non-simulated social environments.

  18. Cosmic microwave background images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herranz, D.; Vielva, P.

    2010-01-01

    Cosmology concerns itself with the fundamental questions about the formation, structure, and evolution of the Universe as a whole. Cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation is one of the foremost pillars of physical cosmology. Joint analyses of CMB and other astronomical observations are able to determine with ever increasing precision the value of the fundamental cosmological parameters and to provide us with valuable insight about the dynamics of the Universe in evolution. The CMB radiation is a relic of the hot and dense first moments of the Universe: a extraordinarily homogeneous and isotropic blackbody radiation, which shows small temperature anisotropies that are the key for understanding the conditions of the primitive Universe, testing cosmological models and probing fundamental physics at the very dawn of time. CMB observations are obtained by imaging of the sky at microwave wavelengths. However, the CMB signal is mixed with other astrophysical signals of both Galactic and extragalactic origin. To properly exploit the cosmological information contained in CMB images, they must be cleansed of these other astrophysical emissions first. Blind source separation (BSS) has been a very active field in the last few years. Conversely, the term "compact sources" is often used in the CMB literature referring to spatially bounded, small features in the images, such as galaxies and galaxy clusters. Compact sources and diffuse sources are usually treated separately in CMB image processing. We devote this tutorial to the case of compact sources. Many of the compact source-detection techniques that are widespread inmost fields of astronomy are not easily applicable to CMB images. In this tutorial, we present an overview of the fundamentals of compact object detection theory keeping in mind at every moment these particularities. Throughout the article, we briefly consider Bayesian object detection, model selection, optimal linear filtering, nonlinear filtering, and

  19. Analog neural nonderivative optimizers.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, M M; Zak, S H

    1998-01-01

    Continuous-time neural networks for solving convex nonlinear unconstrained programming problems without using gradient information of the objective function are proposed and analyzed. Thus, the proposed networks are nonderivative optimizers. First, networks for optimizing objective functions of one variable are discussed. Then, an existing one-dimensional optimizer is analyzed, and a new line search optimizer is proposed. It is shown that the proposed optimizer network is robust in the sense that it has disturbance rejection property. The network can be implemented easily in hardware using standard circuit elements. The one-dimensional net is used as a building block in multidimensional networks for optimizing objective functions of several variables. The multidimensional nets implement a continuous version of the coordinate descent method.

  20. The Cosmic Background Explorer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulkis, Samuel; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Outlines the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) mission to measure celestial radiation. Describes the instruments used and experiments involving differential microwave radiometers, and a far infrared absolute spectrophotometer. (YP)

  1. The composition of the microbiota modulates allograft rejection.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yuk Man; Chen, Luqiu; Wang, Ying; Stefka, Andrew T; Molinero, Luciana L; Theriault, Betty; Aquino-Michaels, Keston; Sivan, Ayelet S; Nagler, Cathryn R; Gajewski, Thomas F; Chong, Anita S; Bartman, Caroline; Alegre, Maria-Luisa

    2016-07-01

    Transplantation is the only cure for end-stage organ failure, but without immunosuppression, T cells rapidly reject allografts. While genetic disparities between donor and recipient are major determinants of the kinetics of transplant rejection, little is known about the contribution of environmental factors. Because colonized organs have worse transplant outcome than sterile organs, we tested the influence of host and donor microbiota on skin transplant rejection. Compared with untreated conventional mice, pretreatment of donors and recipients with broad-spectrum antibiotics (Abx) or use of germ-free (GF) donors and recipients resulted in prolonged survival of minor antigen-mismatched skin grafts. Increased graft survival correlated with reduced type I IFN signaling in antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and decreased priming of alloreactive T cells. Colonization of GF mice with fecal material from untreated conventional mice, but not from Abx-pretreated mice, enhanced the ability of APCs to prime alloreactive T cells and accelerated graft rejection, suggesting that alloimmunity is modulated by the composition of microbiota rather than the quantity of bacteria. Abx pretreatment of conventional mice also delayed rejection of major antigen-mismatched skin and MHC class II-mismatched cardiac allografts. This study demonstrates that Abx pretreatment prolongs graft survival, suggesting that targeting microbial constituents is a potential therapeutic strategy for enhancing graft acceptance.

  2. The composition of the microbiota modulates allograft rejection

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Yuk Man; Chen, Luqiu; Wang, Ying; Stefka, Andrew T.; Molinero, Luciana L.; Theriault, Betty; Aquino-Michaels, Keston; Sivan, Ayelet S.; Nagler, Cathryn R.; Gajewski, Thomas F.; Chong, Anita S.; Bartman, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Transplantation is the only cure for end-stage organ failure, but without immunosuppression, T cells rapidly reject allografts. While genetic disparities between donor and recipient are major determinants of the kinetics of transplant rejection, little is known about the contribution of environmental factors. Because colonized organs have worse transplant outcome than sterile organs, we tested the influence of host and donor microbiota on skin transplant rejection. Compared with untreated conventional mice, pretreatment of donors and recipients with broad-spectrum antibiotics (Abx) or use of germ-free (GF) donors and recipients resulted in prolonged survival of minor antigen–mismatched skin grafts. Increased graft survival correlated with reduced type I IFN signaling in antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and decreased priming of alloreactive T cells. Colonization of GF mice with fecal material from untreated conventional mice, but not from Abx-pretreated mice, enhanced the ability of APCs to prime alloreactive T cells and accelerated graft rejection, suggesting that alloimmunity is modulated by the composition of microbiota rather than the quantity of bacteria. Abx pretreatment of conventional mice also delayed rejection of major antigen–mismatched skin and MHC class II–mismatched cardiac allografts. This study demonstrates that Abx pretreatment prolongs graft survival, suggesting that targeting microbial constituents is a potential therapeutic strategy for enhancing graft acceptance. PMID:27322054

  3. Sexual Education In Malaysia: Accepted Or Rejected?

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Mutalip, Siti Syairah; Mohamed, Ruzianisra

    2012-01-01

    Background: Introduction to sexual education in schools was suggested by the Malaysian government as one of the effort taken in the aim to reduce the sexual-related social problems among Malaysian teenagers nowadays. This study was proposed in the aim to determine the rate of acceptance among adolescents on the implementation of sexual education in schools. Methods: This study was conducted using questionnaires distributed to 152 pre-degree students in Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Kampus Puncak Alam, Selangor, Malaysia. Obtained data were statistically analyzed. Results: Almost half (49.3%) of the respondents agreed that sexual education might help to overcome the social illness among school teenagers. Besides, a large number (77.6%) of respondents also agreed that this module should be incorporated with other core subjects compare to the feedback received on the implementation of this module on its own (28.9%). Conclusion: These results have provided some insight towards the perception of sexual education among the teenagers. Since most of the respondents agreed with this idea, so it might be a sign that the implementation of sexual education is almost accepted by the adolescents. PMID:23113207

  4. Correlators in nontrivial backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Mello Koch, Robert de; Ives, Norman; Stephanou, Michael

    2009-01-15

    Operators in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory with an R-charge of O(N{sup 2}) are dual to backgrounds which are asymtotically AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5}. In this article we develop efficient techniques that allow the computation of correlation functions in these backgrounds. We find that (i) contractions between fields in the string words and fields in the operator creating the background are the field theory accounting of the new geometry, (ii) correlation functions of probes in these backgrounds are given by the free field theory contractions but with rescaled propagators and (iii) in these backgrounds there are no open string excitations with their special end point interactions; we have only closed string excitations.

  5. 40 CFR 205.57-7 - Acceptance and rejection of batch sequence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acceptance and rejection of batch....57-7 Acceptance and rejection of batch sequence. (a) The manufacturer will continue to inspect consecutive batches until the batch sequence is accepted or rejected based upon the number of rejected...

  6. 40 CFR 205.57-7 - Acceptance and rejection of batch sequence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Acceptance and rejection of batch....57-7 Acceptance and rejection of batch sequence. (a) The manufacturer will continue to inspect consecutive batches until the batch sequence is accepted or rejected based upon the number of rejected...

  7. 40 CFR 205.57-7 - Acceptance and rejection of batch sequence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acceptance and rejection of batch....57-7 Acceptance and rejection of batch sequence. (a) The manufacturer will continue to inspect consecutive batches until the batch sequence is accepted or rejected based upon the number of rejected...

  8. 40 CFR 205.57-7 - Acceptance and rejection of batch sequence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acceptance and rejection of batch....57-7 Acceptance and rejection of batch sequence. (a) The manufacturer will continue to inspect consecutive batches until the batch sequence is accepted or rejected based upon the number of rejected...

  9. Relational Victimization and Rejection Sensitivity: The Long-Term Impact of Social Hurt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellin, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    The Rejection Sensitivity Model is used to examine the social antecedents to expectations of rejection among adults. College students (N = 314) completed measures of relational victimization and rejection sensitivity. Results indicate that relational victimization is significantly related to rejection sensitivity for women. Implications for…

  10. Demonstration of An Image Rejection Mixer for High Frequency Applications (26-36 GHz)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bankston, Cheryl D.; Carlstrom, John E.

    1999-01-01

    A new high frequency image-rejection mixer was successfully tested in a 26-36 GHz band receiver. This paper briefly describes the motivation for implementation of an image rejection mixer in a receiver system, the basic operation of an image rejection mixer, and the development and testing of an image rejection mixer for a high frequency, cryogenic receiver system.

  11. Data augmentation for models based on rejection sampling

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Vinayak; Lin, Lizhen; Dunson, David B.

    2016-01-01

    We present a data augmentation scheme to perform Markov chain Monte Carlo inference for models where data generation involves a rejection sampling algorithm. Our idea is a simple scheme to instantiate the rejected proposals preceding each data point. The resulting joint probability over observed and rejected variables can be much simpler than the marginal distribution over the observed variables, which often involves intractable integrals. We consider three problems: modelling flow-cytometry measurements subject to truncation; the Bayesian analysis of the matrix Langevin distribution on the Stiefel manifold; and Bayesian inference for a nonparametric Gaussian process density model. The latter two are instances of doubly-intractable Markov chain Monte Carlo problems, where evaluating the likelihood is intractable. Our experiments demonstrate superior performance over state-of-the-art sampling algorithms for such problems. PMID:27279660

  12. Allograft rejection in cattle with bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency.

    PubMed

    Müller, K E; Rutten, V P; Becker, C K; Hoek, A; Bernadina, W E; Wentink, G H; Figdor, C G

    1995-09-01

    In the present investigation cell-mediated immunity in animals with bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) was studied by means of skin transplantation experiments. Autograft and allograft behaviour in animals with BLAD was compared with the behaviour of simultaneously transplanted autografts and allografts in healthy controls. Allograft survival time was prolonged in three BLAD cattle (28, 30, and 72 days) compared to six healthy controls (12-14 days). When transplantations were repeated on one animal with BLAD using skin grafts from the same donor, accelerated rejection was observed (allograft survival time decreased from 72 days at primary to 35 days at secondary and to 21 days at tertiary transplantation), suggesting the development of immunological memory. Graft-infiltrating lymphocytes that were obtained from allograft biopsies during the period of rejection, were shown to be from recipient origin (beta 2-integrin negative). Our findings demonstrate that, although prolonged allograft survival is observed in cattle with BLAD, skin allografts are ultimately rejected. PMID:8533316

  13. Self-contained heat rejection module for future spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, M. L.; Williams, J. L.; Baskett, J. D.; Leach, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    This paper discusses development of a Self-Contained Heat Rejection Module (SHRM) which can be used on a wide variety of future spacecraft launched by the space shuttle orbiter. The SHRM contains radiators which are deployed by a scissor-mechanism and the flow equipment including pumps, accumulator, by-pass valves, and controllers necessary to reject heat from those radiators. Heat transfer between SHRM and the parent vehicle is effected by a contact heat exchanger. This device provides heat transfer between two separate flow loops through a mechanical connection. This approach reduces the time required to attach the SHRM to the payload, and increases the reliability of the SHRM flow loop since breaking into the fluid system in the field is not required. The SHRM concept also includes a refrigeration system to increase heat rejection capacity in adverse environments, or to provide for a lower return temperature, down to -23 C.

  14. Thermal control systems for low-temperature heat rejection on a lunar base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, K. R.; Gottmann, Matthias

    1992-01-01

    One of the important issues in the lunar base architecture is the design of a Thermal Control System (TCS) to reject the low temperature heat from the base. The TCS ensures that the base and all components inside are maintained within the operating temperature range. A significant portion of the total mass of the TCS is due to the radiator. Shading the radiation from the sun and the hot lunar soil could decrease the radiator operating temperature significantly. Heat pumps have been in use for terrestrial applications. To optimize the mass of the heat pump augmented TCS, all promising options have to be evaluated and compared. Careful attention is given to optimizing system operating parameters, working fluids, and component masses. The systems are modeled for full load operation.

  15. Graft rejection by cytolytic T cells. Specificity of the effector mechanism in the rejection of allogeneic marrow

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, H.; Gress, R.E. )

    1990-02-01

    Cellular effector mechanisms of allograft rejection remain incompletely described. Characterizing the rejection of foreign-marrow allografts rather than solid-organ grafts has the advantage that the cellular composition of the marrow graft, as a single cell suspension, can be altered to include cellular components with differing antigen expression. Rejection of marrow grafts is sensitive to lethal doses of radiation in the mouse but resistant to sublethal levels of radiation. In an effort to identify cells mediating host resistance, lymphocytes were isolated and cloned from spleens of mice 7 days after sublethal TBI (650 cGy) and inoculation with allogeneic marrow. All clones isolated were cytolytic with specificity for MHC encoded gene products of the allogeneic marrow donor. When cloned cells were transferred in vivo into lethally irradiated (1025 cGy) recipients unable to reject allogeneic marrow, results utilizing splenic 125IUdR uptake indicated that these MHC-specific cytotoxic clones could suppress marrow proliferation. In order to characterize the effector mechanism and the ability of the clones to affect final engraftment, double donor chimeras were constructed so that 2 target cell populations differing at the MHC from each other and from the host were present in the same marrow allograft. Results directly demonstrated an ability of CTL of host MHC type to mediate graft rejection and characterized the effector mechanism as one with specificity for MHC gene products.

  16. Rejected! Cognitions of rejection and intergroup anxiety as mediators of the impact of cross-group friendships on prejudice.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Fiona Kate; Louis, Winnifred R; Hewstone, Miles

    2009-09-01

    In a sample of White Australians (N=273), cross-group friendship with Aboriginal Australians was associated with reduced cognitions of rejection and intergroup anxiety, and these variables fully mediated the effect of cross-group friendship on conversational avoidance of sensitive intergroup topics, active avoidance of the outgroup, and old-fashioned prejudice. The novel mediator proposed here, cognitions of rejection, predicted intergroup anxiety, and also predicted the three outcome variables via intergroup anxiety. Over and above its indirect effects via anxiety, cognitions of rejection directly predicted both conversational and active avoidance, suggesting that whilst the cognitive and affective mediators are linked, they predict intergroup outcomes in different ways. The results demonstrate the beneficial impact of cross group friendship in reducing prejudice and avoidance by diminishing cognitions of rejection and intergroup anxiety. We also highlight that individuals without cross-group friends may perceive the outgroup as rejecting, feel anxious about cross-group interaction, and desire both conversational and physical avoidance of the outgroup.

  17. A Longitudinal Study of Rejecting and Autonomy-Restrictive Parenting, Rejection Sensitivity, and Socioemotional Symptoms in Early Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Susan L; Gembeck, Melanie J Zimmer; Rudolph, Julia; Nesdale, Drew

    2015-08-01

    Rejection sensitivity (RS) has been defined as the tendency to readily perceive and overreact to interpersonal rejection. The primary aim of this study was to test key propositions of RS theory, namely that rejecting experiences in relationships with parents are antecedents of early adolescents' future RS and symptomatology. We also expanded this to consider autonomy-restrictive parenting, given the importance of autonomy in early adolescence. Participants were 601 early adolescents (age 9 to 13 years old, 51% boys) from three schools in Australia. Students completed questionnaires at school about parent and peer relationships, RS, loneliness, social anxiety, and depression at two times with a 14-month lag between assessments. Parents also reported on adolescents' difficulties at Time 1 (T1). It was anticipated that more experience of parental rejection, coercion, and psychological control would be associated with adolescents' escalating RS and symptoms over time, even after accounting for peer victimisation, and that RS would mediate associations between parenting and symptoms. Structural equation modelling supported these hypotheses. Parent coercion was associated with adolescents' increasing symptoms of social anxiety and RS over time, and parent psychological control was associated with increasing depressive symptoms over time. Indirect effects via RS were also found, with parent rejection and psychological control linked to higher T1 RS, which was then associated with increasing loneliness and RS. Lastly, in a separate model, peer victimisation and RS, but not parenting practices, were positively associated with concurrent parent reports of adolescents' difficulties.

  18. BATF inhibition prevent acute allograft rejection after cardiac transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bo; He, Fan; Dai, Chen; Tan, Rumeng; Ma, Dongxia; Wang, Zhimin; Zhang, Bo; Feng, Jincheng; Wei, Lai; Zhu, Hua; Chen, Zhishui

    2016-01-01

    Acute allograft rejection is a serious and life-threatening complication of organ transplantation. Th17 cells induced inflammation has been described to play an important role in allograft rejection. Since there is a plenty of evidence indicating that transcriptional factor BATF regulates the differentiation of Th17 and follicular T helper cells both in vitro and in vivo, we investigated whether is BATF involved in acute rejection and allograft survival by injecting lentivirus containing BATF shRNA through tail vein before the cardiac transplantation operation. We found that the allograft survival time of the mice treated with BATF shRNA was significantly prolonged compared with that of negative shRNA treated group and the control group. Further pathological analysis revealed that the BATF shRNA treatment group had significantly lower rejection degree than the negative shRNA group, while there was no significant difference between the negative shRNA group and the control group. Furthermore, flow cytometry analysis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay were used to determine the proportion of T helper cells, the expression of specific transcription factor and the inflammatory cytokines respectively. Data showed that BATF regulated Th17 and Treg responses during allograft rejection. And BATF inhibition led to reduction of the expression level of Rorγ-t and enhancement of the Foxp-3. In addition, cytokines IL-17A and IL-4 were found decreased. This may indicate BATF as a novel therapy target for treatment of acute allograft rejection. PMID:27648151

  19. BATF inhibition prevent acute allograft rejection after cardiac transplantation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo; He, Fan; Dai, Chen; Tan, Rumeng; Ma, Dongxia; Wang, Zhimin; Zhang, Bo; Feng, Jincheng; Wei, Lai; Zhu, Hua; Chen, Zhishui

    2016-01-01

    Acute allograft rejection is a serious and life-threatening complication of organ transplantation. Th17 cells induced inflammation has been described to play an important role in allograft rejection. Since there is a plenty of evidence indicating that transcriptional factor BATF regulates the differentiation of Th17 and follicular T helper cells both in vitro and in vivo, we investigated whether is BATF involved in acute rejection and allograft survival by injecting lentivirus containing BATF shRNA through tail vein before the cardiac transplantation operation. We found that the allograft survival time of the mice treated with BATF shRNA was significantly prolonged compared with that of negative shRNA treated group and the control group. Further pathological analysis revealed that the BATF shRNA treatment group had significantly lower rejection degree than the negative shRNA group, while there was no significant difference between the negative shRNA group and the control group. Furthermore, flow cytometry analysis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay were used to determine the proportion of T helper cells, the expression of specific transcription factor and the inflammatory cytokines respectively. Data showed that BATF regulated Th17 and Treg responses during allograft rejection. And BATF inhibition led to reduction of the expression level of Rorγ-t and enhancement of the Foxp-3. In addition, cytokines IL-17A and IL-4 were found decreased. This may indicate BATF as a novel therapy target for treatment of acute allograft rejection. PMID:27648151

  20. BATF inhibition prevent acute allograft rejection after cardiac transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bo; He, Fan; Dai, Chen; Tan, Rumeng; Ma, Dongxia; Wang, Zhimin; Zhang, Bo; Feng, Jincheng; Wei, Lai; Zhu, Hua; Chen, Zhishui

    2016-01-01

    Acute allograft rejection is a serious and life-threatening complication of organ transplantation. Th17 cells induced inflammation has been described to play an important role in allograft rejection. Since there is a plenty of evidence indicating that transcriptional factor BATF regulates the differentiation of Th17 and follicular T helper cells both in vitro and in vivo, we investigated whether is BATF involved in acute rejection and allograft survival by injecting lentivirus containing BATF shRNA through tail vein before the cardiac transplantation operation. We found that the allograft survival time of the mice treated with BATF shRNA was significantly prolonged compared with that of negative shRNA treated group and the control group. Further pathological analysis revealed that the BATF shRNA treatment group had significantly lower rejection degree than the negative shRNA group, while there was no significant difference between the negative shRNA group and the control group. Furthermore, flow cytometry analysis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay were used to determine the proportion of T helper cells, the expression of specific transcription factor and the inflammatory cytokines respectively. Data showed that BATF regulated Th17 and Treg responses during allograft rejection. And BATF inhibition led to reduction of the expression level of Rorγ-t and enhancement of the Foxp-3. In addition, cytokines IL-17A and IL-4 were found decreased. This may indicate BATF as a novel therapy target for treatment of acute allograft rejection.

  1. Inertial-space disturbance rejection for space-based manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Kevin; Desrochers, Alan A.

    1993-01-01

    The implementation of a disturbance rejection controller for a 6-DOF PUMA manipulator mounted on a 3-DOF platform was described. A control algorithm is designed to track the desired position and attitude of the end-effector in inertial space, subject to unknown disturbances in the platform axes. Experimental results are presented for step, sinusoidal, and random disturbances in the platform rotational axis and in the neighborhood of kinematic singularities. Robotic manipulators were proposed as a means of reducing the amount of extra vehicular activity time required for space station assembly and maintenance. The proposed scenario involves a robotic manipulator attached to some mobile platform, such as a spacecraft, satellite, or the space station itself. Disturbances in the platform position and attitude may prevent the manipulator from successfully completing the task. The possibility of using the manipulator to compensate for platform disturbances was explored. The problem of controlling a robotic manipulator on a mobile platform has received considerable attention in the past few years. Joshi and Desrochers designed a nonlinear feedback control law to carry out tasks (with respect to the robot base frame) in the presence of roll, pitch and yaw disturbances in the platform axes. Dubowsky, Vance, and Torres proposed a time-optimal planning algorithm for a robotic manipulator mounted on a spacecraft, subject to saturation limits in the attitude control reaction jets. Papadopoulos and Dubowsky developed a general framework for analyzing the control of free-floating space manipulator systems. Most recently, Torres and Dubowsky have presented a technique called the enhanced disturbance map to find manipulator trajectories that reduce the effect of disturbances in the spacecraft position and attitude. One common assumption in the literature is that the disturbance signal is exactly known. If this is the case, then the end-effector location can be calculated without

  2. Updates on antibody-mediated rejection in intestinal transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Guo-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) has increasingly emerged as an important cause of allograft loss after intestinal transplantation (ITx). Compelling evidence indicates that donor-specific antibodies can mediate and promote acute and chronic rejection after ITx. However, diagnostic criteria for ABMR after ITx have not been established yet and the mechanisms of antibody-mediated graft injury are not well-known. Effective approaches to prevent and treat ABMR are required to improve long-term outcomes of intestine recipients. Clearly, ABMR after ITx has become an important area for research and clinical investigation. PMID:27683635

  3. Method and apparatus for analog pulse pile-up rejection

    SciTech Connect

    De Geronimo, Gianluigi

    2014-11-18

    A method and apparatus for pulse pile-up rejection are disclosed. The apparatus comprises a delay value application constituent configured to receive a threshold-crossing time value, and provide an adjustable value according to a delay value and the threshold-crossing time value; and a comparison constituent configured to receive a peak-occurrence time value and the adjustable value, compare the peak-occurrence time value with the adjustable value, indicate pulse acceptance if the peak-occurrence time value is less than or equal to the adjustable value, and indicate pulse rejection if the peak-occurrence time value is greater than the adjustable value.

  4. Updates on antibody-mediated rejection in intestinal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guo-Sheng

    2016-09-24

    Antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) has increasingly emerged as an important cause of allograft loss after intestinal transplantation (ITx). Compelling evidence indicates that donor-specific antibodies can mediate and promote acute and chronic rejection after ITx. However, diagnostic criteria for ABMR after ITx have not been established yet and the mechanisms of antibody-mediated graft injury are not well-known. Effective approaches to prevent and treat ABMR are required to improve long-term outcomes of intestine recipients. Clearly, ABMR after ITx has become an important area for research and clinical investigation. PMID:27683635

  5. Method and apparatus for analog pulse pile-up rejection

    SciTech Connect

    De Geronimo, Gianluigi

    2013-12-31

    A method and apparatus for pulse pile-up rejection are disclosed. The apparatus comprises a delay value application constituent configured to receive a threshold-crossing time value, and provide an adjustable value according to a delay value and the threshold-crossing time value; and a comparison constituent configured to receive a peak-occurrence time value and the adjustable value, compare the peak-occurrence time value with the adjustable value, indicate pulse acceptance if the peak-occurrence time value is less than or equal to the adjustable value, and indicate pulse rejection if the peak-occurrence time value is greater than the adjustable value.

  6. Solar dynamic organic Rankine cycle heat rejection system simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havens, V. N.; Ragaller, D. R.; Namkoong, D.

    1987-01-01

    The use of a rotary fluid management device (RFMD) and shear flow condenser for two-phase fluid management in microgravity organic Rankine cycle (ORC) applications is examined. A prototype of the proposed Space Station ORC heat rejection system was constructed to evaluate the performance of the inventory control method. The design and operation of the RFMD, shear flow condenser, and inventory control fluid accumulator are described. A schematic diagram of the ORC, RFMD, and condenser, and a functional diagram of the heat rejection system for the ORC are presented.

  7. Updates on antibody-mediated rejection in intestinal transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Guo-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) has increasingly emerged as an important cause of allograft loss after intestinal transplantation (ITx). Compelling evidence indicates that donor-specific antibodies can mediate and promote acute and chronic rejection after ITx. However, diagnostic criteria for ABMR after ITx have not been established yet and the mechanisms of antibody-mediated graft injury are not well-known. Effective approaches to prevent and treat ABMR are required to improve long-term outcomes of intestine recipients. Clearly, ABMR after ITx has become an important area for research and clinical investigation.

  8. Learning biases underlying individual differences in sensitivity to social rejection

    PubMed Central

    Olsson, Andreas; Carmona, Susanna; Downey, Geraldine; Bolger, Niall; Ochsner, Kevin N.

    2014-01-01

    People vary greatly in their dispositions to anxiously expect, readily perceive, and strongly react to social rejection (rejection sensitivity, RS) with implications for social functioning and health. Here, we examined how RS influences learning about social threat. Using a classical fear conditioning task, we established that high as compared to low (HRS vs. LRS) individuals displayed a resistance to extinction of the conditioned response to angry faces, but not to neutral faces or non-social stimuli. Our findings suggest that RS biases the flexible updating of acquired expectations for threat, which helps to explain how RS operates as a self-fulfilling prophecy. PMID:23914767

  9. Solar dynamic organic Rankine cycle heat rejection system simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havens, V. N.; Ragaller, D. R.; Namkoong, D.

    The use of a rotary fluid management device (RFMD) and shear flow condenser for two-phase fluid management in microgravity organic Rankine cycle (ORC) applications is examined. A prototype of the proposed Space Station ORC heat rejection system was constructed to evaluate the performance of the inventory control method. The design and operation of the RFMD, shear flow condenser, and inventory control fluid accumulator are described. A schematic diagram of the ORC, RFMD, and condenser, and a functional diagram of the heat rejection system for the ORC are presented.

  10. Thermal control systems for low-temperature heat rejection on a lunar base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, K. R.; Gottmann, Matthias

    1992-01-01

    In this report, Rankine-cycle heat pumps and absorption heat pumps (ammonia-water and lithium bromide-water) have been analyzed and optimized for a lunar base cooling load of 100 kW. For the Rankine cycle, a search of several commonly used commercial refrigerants provided R11 and R717 as possible working fluids. Hence, the Rankine-cycle analysis has been performed for both R11 and R717. Two different configurations were considered for the system--one in which the heat pump is directly connected to the rejection loop and another in which a heat exchanger connects the heat pump to the rejection loop. For a marginal increase in mass, the decoupling of the rejection loop and the radiator from the heat pump provides greater reliability of the system and better control. Hence, the decoupled system is the configuration of choice. The optimal TCS mass for a 100 kW cooling load at 270 K was 5940 kg at a radiator temperature of 362 K. R11 was the working fluid in the heat pump, and R717 was the transport fluid in the rejection loop. Two TCS's based on an absorption-cycle heat pump were considered, one with an ammonia-water mixture and the other with a lithium bromide-water mixture as the working fluid. A complete cycle analysis was performed for these systems. The system components were approximated as heat exchangers with no internal pressure drop for the mass estimate. This simple approach underpredicts the mass of the systems, but is a good 'optimistic' first approximation to the TCS mass in the absence of reliable component mass data. The mass estimates of the two systems reveal that, in spite of this optimistic estimate, the absorption heat pumps are not competitive with the Rankine-cycle heat pumps. Future work at the systems level will involve similar analyses for the Brayton- and Stirling-cycle heat pumps. The analyses will also consider the operation of the pump under partial-load conditions. On the component level, a capillary evaporator will be designed, built

  11. Evaluation of lexicon size variations on a verification and rejection system based on SVM, for accurate and robust recognition of handwritten words

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricquebourg, Yann; Coüasnon, Bertrand; Guichard, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    The transcription of handwritten words remains a still challenging and difficult task. When processing full pages, approaches are limited by the trade-off between automatic recognition errors and the tedious aspect of human user verification. In this article, we present our investigations to improve the capabilities of an automatic recognizer, so as to be able to reject unknown words (not to take wrong decisions) while correctly rejecting (i.e. to recognize as much as possible from the lexicon of known words). This is the active research topic of developing a verification system that optimize the trade-off between performance and reliability. To minimize the recognition errors, a verification system is usually used to accept or reject the hypotheses produced by an existing recognition system. Thus, we re-use our novel verification architecture1 here: the recognition hypotheses are re-scored by a set of support vector machines, and validated by a verification mechanism based on multiple rejection thresholds. In order to tune these (class-dependent) rejection thresholds, an algorithm based on dynamic programming has been proposed which focus on maximizing the recognition rate for a given error rate. Experiments have been carried out on the RIMES database in three steps. The first two showed that this approach results in a performance superior or equal to other state-of-the-art rejection methods. We focus here on the third one showing that this verification system also greatly improves results of keywords extraction in a set of handwritten words, with a strong robustness to lexicon size variations (21 lexicons have been tested from 167 entries up to 5,600 entries) which is particularly relevant to our application context cooperating with humans, and only made possible thanks to the rejection ability of this proposed system. The proposed verification system, compared to a HMM with simple rejection, improves on average the recognition rate by 57% (resp. 33% and 21%) for

  12. Optical design of the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment for NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M. S.; Evans, D. C.; Moseley, H.; Ludwig, U. W.

    1982-01-01

    The conceptual design for a ten-band absolute filter photometer (the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment) to operate at 2 K and measure galactic and extragalactic infrared radiation in the 1 to 300-micron range and polarization in the 1 to 3.5-micron range is presented, as part of the NASA Cosmic Background Explorer. The telescope optical design, a Gregorian design incorporating bafffles and shades to provide high stray-light rejection, is described. Pupil nonuniformity in the detector-assembly optical design has been limited. It is determined that detector sensitiity requirements can be met, and that the problem of radiation-induced responsivity variations can be solved by minimizing detector-assembly size, providing for in situ thermal annealing, and allowing for frequent detector calibration. Limitations on mirror performance are to be met by fabricating mirrors and structure from the same aluminum 6061 ingot.

  13. Peer Rejection Cues Induce Cardiac Slowing after Transition into Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunther Moor, Bregtje; Bos, Marieke G. N.; Crone, Eveline A.; van der Molen, Maurits W.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined developmental and gender differences in sensitivity to peer rejection across the transition into adolescence by examining beat-by-beat heart rate responses. Children between the ages of 8 and 14 years were presented with unfamiliar faces of age-matched peers and were asked to predict whether they would be liked by the…

  14. Rejected Manuscripts in Publishers' Archives: Legal Rights and Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamburger, Susan

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on an analysis of how various archival repositories deal with rejected manuscripts in publishers' archives as part of existing collections and as potential donations, and includes suggestions for ways to provide access while maintaining the author's legal rights. Viewpoints from the journal editor, author, archivist, and…

  15. Bone marrow-derived T lymphocytes responsible for allograft rejection

    SciTech Connect

    Senjanovic, M.; Marusic, M.

    1984-08-01

    Lethally irradiated mice reconstituted with syngeneic bone marrow cells were grafted with allogeneic skin grafts 6-7 weeks after irradiation and reconstitution. Mice with intact thymuses rejected the grafts whereas the mice thymectomized before irradiation and reconstitution did not. Thymectomized irradiated mice (TIR mice) reconstituted with bone marrow cells from donors immune to the allografts rejected the grafts. Bone marrow cells from immunized donors, pretreated with Thy 1.2 antibody and C', did not confer immunity to TIR recipients. To determine the number of T lymphocytes necessary for the transfer of immunity by bone marrow cells from immunized donors, thymectomized irradiated mice were reconstituted with nonimmune bone marrow cells treated with Thy 1.2 antibody and C' and with various numbers of splenic T lymphocytes from nonimmune and immune donors. Allogeneic skin graft rejection was obtained with 10(6) nonimmune or 10(4) immune T cells. The effect of immune T cells was specific: i.e., immune T cells accelerated only rejection of the relevant skin grafts whereas against a third-party skin grafts acted as normal T lymphocytes.

  16. Role of anti-vimentin antibodies in allograft rejection.

    PubMed

    Rose, Marlene L

    2013-11-01

    Production of anti-vimentin antibodies (AVA) after solid organ transplantation are common. Although classically thought to be expressed mainly within the cytosol, recent evidence demonstrates that extracellular or cell surface expression of vimentin is not unusual. This review examines the evidence to assess whether AVA contribute to allograft pathology. Clinical studies suggest that AVA are associated with cardiac allograft vasculopathy in heart transplant recipients. Studies in non-human primates confirm that production of AVA after renal and heart transplantation are not inhibited by Cyclosporine. Experimental studies have demonstrated that mice pre-immunised with vimentin undergo accelerated acute rejection and vascular intimal occlusion of cardiac allografts. Adoptive transfer of hyperimmune sera containing AVA into B-cell-knock-out mice caused accelerated rejection of allografted hearts, this is clear evidence that antibodies to vimentin accelerate rejection. AVA act in concert with the alloimmune response and AVA do not damage syngeneic or native heart allografts. Confocal microscopy of allografted organs in vimentin immunised mice shows extensive expression of vimentin on endothelial cells, apoptotic leukocytes and platelet/leukocyte conjugates, co-localising with C4d. One explanation for the ability of AVA to accelerate rejection would be fixation of complement within the graft and subsequent pro-inflammatory effects; there may also be interactions with platelets within the vasculature.

  17. Compact filtering monopole patch antenna with dual-band rejection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun-Woong; Choi, Dong-You

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a compact ultra-wideband patch antenna with dual-band rejection is proposed. The proposed antenna filters 3.3-3.8 GHz WiMAX and 5.15-5.85 GHz WLAN by respectively rejecting these bands through a C-shaped slit and a λg/4 resonator. The λg/4 resonator is positioned as a pair, centered around the microstrip line, and a C-type slit is inserted into an elliptical patch. The impedance bandwidth of the proposed antenna is 2.9-9.3 GHz, which satisfies the bandwidth for ultra-wideband communication systems. Further, the proposed antenna provides dual-band rejection at two bands: 3.2-3.85 and 4.7-6.03 GHz. The radiation pattern of the antenna is omnidirectional, and antenna gain is maintained constantly while showing -8.4 and -1.5 dBi at the two rejected bands, respectively. PMID:27386331

  18. Solar collector apparatus having increased energy rejection during stagnation

    DOEpatents

    Moore, S.W.

    1981-01-16

    An active solar collector having increased energy rejection during stagnation is disclosed. The collector's glazing is brought into substantial contact with absorber during stagnation to increase re-emittance and thereby to maintan lower temperatures when the collector is not in operation.

  19. Solar collector apparatus having increased energy rejection during stagnation

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Stanley W.

    1983-07-12

    The disclosure relates to an active solar collector having increased energy rejection during stagnation. The collector's glazing is brought into substantial contact with absorber during stagnation to increase re-emittance and thereby to maintain lower temperatures when the collector is not in operation.

  20. Project Zero Reject Manual: Strategies in Child Find.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliam, Deborah F. Carpenter; And Others

    The report describes Project Zero Reject, a cooperative effort between the Dallas (TX) Independent School District and the Dallas County Mental Health Mental Retardation Center to locate handicapped children not receiving educational services and to develop a computerized information system for planning regarding these children. Awareness efforts…

  1. 7 CFR 1956.84 - Approval or rejection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) DEBT SETTLEMENT Debt Settlement-Farm Loan Programs and Multi-Family... is rejected will be notified of appeal rights pursuant to 7 CFR part 11....

  2. Compact filtering monopole patch antenna with dual-band rejection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun-Woong; Choi, Dong-You

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a compact ultra-wideband patch antenna with dual-band rejection is proposed. The proposed antenna filters 3.3-3.8 GHz WiMAX and 5.15-5.85 GHz WLAN by respectively rejecting these bands through a C-shaped slit and a λg/4 resonator. The λg/4 resonator is positioned as a pair, centered around the microstrip line, and a C-type slit is inserted into an elliptical patch. The impedance bandwidth of the proposed antenna is 2.9-9.3 GHz, which satisfies the bandwidth for ultra-wideband communication systems. Further, the proposed antenna provides dual-band rejection at two bands: 3.2-3.85 and 4.7-6.03 GHz. The radiation pattern of the antenna is omnidirectional, and antenna gain is maintained constantly while showing -8.4 and -1.5 dBi at the two rejected bands, respectively.

  3. Characteristics of Rejection Letters and Their Effects on Job Applicants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jablin, Fredric M.; Krone, Kathleen

    1984-01-01

    Describes the structural and content characteristics of actual employment rejection letters (sent following job screening interviews) and analyzes their impact on applicants' feelings about themselves and about the letters. Concludes that few of the letter characteristics affected applicants' feelings about themselves, but that a number were…

  4. Examining Appearance-Based Rejection Sensitivity during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker, Julie C.; Thomas, Katelyn K.; Spencer, Sarah V.; Park, Lora E.

    2013-01-01

    The present study of 150 adolescents ("M" age = 13.05 years) examined the associations between appearance-based rejection sensitivity (Appearance-RS) and psychological adjustment during early adolescence, and evaluated three types of other-gender peer experiences (other-gender friendship, peer acceptance, and romantic relationships) as…

  5. Chlorine-resistant composite membranes with high organic rejection

    DOEpatents

    McCray, Scott B.; Friesen, Dwayne T.; Barss, Robert P.; Nelson, Leslie D.

    1996-01-01

    A method for making a chlorine-resistant composite polyamide membrane having high organic rejection, the essential step of which comprises treating a conventional composite membrane with an acyl halide. The novel membrane is especially suitable for the treatment of water containing chlorine or lower molecular weight organic compounds.

  6. Addressing Issues of Peer Rejection in Child-Centered Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Mona W.

    1996-01-01

    Notes that children ignored or rebuffed by their peers may be denied access to learning opportunities involving peer interaction. Describes how the sociometric dynamics in one classroom affected three children. Suggests implementations to minimize negative impact of peer rejection including identifying sociometric patterns, and then utilizing…

  7. Maternal Predictors of Rejecting Parenting and Early Adolescent Antisocial Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Shaw, Daniel S.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined relations among maternal psychological resources, rejecting parenting, and early adolescent antisocial behavior in a sample of 231 low-income mothers and their sons with longitudinal assessments from age 18 months to 12 years. The maternal resources examined were age at first birth, aggressive personality, and empathy.…

  8. 14 CFR 29.62 - Rejected takeoff: Category A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 29.62 Rejected takeoff: Category A... critical engine failure is recognized and the rotorcraft is landed and brought to a complete stop on the... until the rotorcraft is on the ground. Secondary controls located on the primary control may not be...

  9. 14 CFR 29.62 - Rejected takeoff: Category A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 29.62 Rejected takeoff: Category A... critical engine failure is recognized and the rotorcraft is landed and brought to a complete stop on the... until the rotorcraft is on the ground. Secondary controls located on the primary control may not be...

  10. 7 CFR 58.12 - When application may be rejected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) GRADING AND INSPECTION... Governing the Inspection and Grading Services of Manufactured or Processed Dairy Products Inspection Or Grading Service § 58.12 When application may be rejected. An application for inspection or grading...

  11. Heat Rejection from a Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Radiator Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, D. A.; Gibson, M. A.; Hervol, D. S.

    2012-01-01

    A titanium-water heat pipe radiator having an innovative proprietary evaporator configuration was evaluated in a large vacuum chamber equipped with liquid nitrogen cooled cold walls. The radiator was manufactured by Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT), Lancaster, PA, and delivered as part of a Small Business Innovative Research effort. The radiator panel consisted of five titanium-water heat pipes operating as thermosyphons, sandwiched between two polymer matrix composite face sheets. The five variable conductance heat pipes were purposely charged with a small amount of non-condensable gas to control heat flow through the condenser. Heat rejection was evaluated over a wide range of inlet water temperature and flow conditions, and heat rejection was calculated in real-time utilizing a data acquisition system programmed with the Stefan-Boltzmann equation. Thermography through an infra-red transparent window identified heat flow across the panel. Under nominal operation, a maximum heat rejection value of over 2200 Watts was identified. The thermal vacuum evaluation of heat rejection provided critical information on understanding the radiator s performance, and in steady state and transient scenarios provided useful information for validating current thermal models in support of the Fission Power Systems Project.

  12. The effects of rejection sensitivity on reactive and proactive aggression.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Nicky; Harper, Brit

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to use a pure measure of aggression to clarify whether rejection sensitive children exhibit higher levels of aggressive behavior than those who are not as rejection sensitive and to examine whether the components of rejection sensitivity (RS) vary according to the types of aggression. A total of 287 Australian primary school students aged between 9 and 12 completed self-report measures of RS and aggression. As expected, RS and its components, angry and anxious expectations of rejection, were linked to generalized aggression (GA) in adolescents, with angry expectations being more strongly associated with GA and in particular, proactive aggression. As expected, RS predicted reactive aggression better than it did proactive aggression and a three-way interaction was found whereby the relationship between the type of RS and aggression differed as a function of the type of aggression. The present study offers new evidence to support the theory that RS is predictive of aggressive behavior in children and clarifies some confusion about the attributional affect and processes behind this behavior. The findings both support and extend existing research in the areas of RS and aggression. PMID:23090847

  13. Experiences of Familial Acceptance–Rejection Among Transwomen of Color

    PubMed Central

    Koken, Juline A.; Bimbi, David S.; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2010-01-01

    Because of the stigma associated with transgenderism, many transwomen (biological males who identify as female or transgender) experience rejection or abuse at the hands of their parents and primary caregivers as children and adolescents. The Parental Acceptance–Rejection (PAR) theory indicates that a child's experience of rejection may have a significant impact on their adult lives. The purpose of this study was to conduct a qualitative analysis of adult transwomen of color's experiences with caregivers, guided by PAR theory. Twenty transwomen of color completed semi-structured interviews exploring the reaction of their parents and primary caregivers to their gender. While many participants reported that at least one parent or close family member responded with warmth and acceptance, the majority confronted hostility and aggression; reports of neglect and undifferentiated rejection were also common. Many transwomen were forced out of their homes as adolescents or chose to leave, increasing their risk of homelessness, poverty, and associated negative sequelae. Future research is needed to explore how families come to terms with having a transgender child and how best to promote acceptance of such children. PMID:20001144

  14. Rejecting Admission Offers to a Selective Math and Science School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Brent M.

    2014-01-01

    An exploratory study of applicants who rejected admission to the Texas Academy of Mathematics and Science (TAMS) is described in this article. TAMS is a residential early college entry program at the University of North Texas in Denton. Up to 600 mathematically talented sophomores apply to TAMS each year and among the 200 selectees, a predictable…

  15. Blocking MHC class II on human endothelium mitigates acute rejection

    PubMed Central

    Abrahimi, Parwiz; Qin, Lingfeng; Chang, William G.; Bothwell, Alfred L.M.; Tellides, George; Saltzman, W. Mark; Pober, Jordan S.

    2016-01-01

    Acute allograft rejection is mediated by host CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) targeting graft class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. In experimental rodent models, rejection requires differentiation of naive CD8+ T cells into alloreactive CTL within secondary lymphoid organs, whereas in humans, CTL may alternatively develop within the graft from circulating CD8+ effector memory T cells (TEM) that recognize class I MHC molecules on graft endothelial cells (EC). This latter pathway is poorly understood. Here, we show that host CD4+ TEM, activated by EC class II MHC molecules, provide critical help for this process. First, blocking HLA-DR on EC lining human artery grafts in immunodeficient mice reduces CD8+ CTL development within and acute rejection of the artery by adoptively transferred allogeneic human lymphocytes. Second, siRNA knockdown or CRISPR/Cas9 ablation of class II MHC molecules on EC prevents CD4+ TEM from helping CD8+ TEM to develop into CTL in vitro. Finally, implanted synthetic microvessels, formed from CRISPR/Cas9-modified EC lacking class II MHC molecules, are significantly protected from CD8+ T cell–mediated destruction in vivo. We conclude that human CD8+ TEM–mediated rejection targeting graft EC class I MHC molecules requires help from CD4+ TEM cells activated by recognition of class II MHC molecules. PMID:26900601

  16. 45 CFR 1180.36 - Rejection of an application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rejection of an application. 1180.36 Section 1180.36 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES GRANTS REGULATIONS General...

  17. Fate of Manuscripts Rejected From the Red Journal

    SciTech Connect

    Holliday, Emma B.; Yang, George; Jagsi, Reshma; Hoffman, Karen E.; Bennett, Katherine Egan; Grace, Calley; Zietman, Anthony L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate characteristics associated with higher rates of acceptance for original manuscripts submitted for publication to the International Journal of Radiation Oncology • Biology • Physics (IJROBP) and describe the fate of rejected manuscripts. Methods and Materials: Manuscripts submitted to the IJROBP from May 1, 2010, to August 31, 2010, and May 1, 2012, to August 31, 2012, were evaluated for author demographics and acceptance status. A PubMed search was performed for each IJROBP-rejected manuscript to ascertain whether the manuscript was ultimately published elsewhere. The Impact Factor of the accepting journal and the number of citations of the published manuscript were also collected. Results: Of the 500 included manuscripts, 172 (34.4%) were accepted and 328 (65.6%) were rejected. There was no significant difference in acceptance rates according to gender or degree of the submitting author, but there were significant differences seen based on the submitting author's country, rank, and h-index. On multivariate analysis, earlier year submitted (P<.0001) and higher author h-index (P=.006) remained significantly associated with acceptance into the IJROBP. Two hundred thirty-five IJROBP-rejected manuscripts (71.7%) were ultimately published in a PubMed-listed journal as of July 2014. There were no significant differences in any submitting author characteristics. Journals accepting IJROBP-rejected manuscripts had a lower median [interquartile range] 2013 impact factor compared with the IJROBP (2.45 [1.53-3.71] vs 4.176). The IJROBP-rejected manuscripts ultimately published elsewhere had a lower median [interquartile range] number of citations (1 [0-4] vs 6 [2-11]; P<.001), which persisted on multivariate analysis. Conclusions: The acceptance rate for manuscripts submitted to the IJROBP is approximately one-third, and approximately 70% of rejected manuscripts are ultimately published in other PubMed-listed journals, but these ultimate

  18. Background suppression in the Edelweiss-III experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Navick, X.-F. [CEA Collaboration: EDELWEISS Collaboration

    2013-08-08

    In dark matter WIMP searches the neutron shielding plays a crucial role in attenuating neutron flux and hence, suppressing nuclear recoil event rate - one of the key background mimicking WIMP interactions. The transition from EDELWEISS-II to EDELWEISS-III with 40 detectors with increased mass and improved background rejection has required the modification of the neutron shielding. In this paper we describe the new neutron shielding design and give an estimate of the expected neutron rate in comparison with the previous stage of the experiment.

  19. Vicarious Group-Based Rejection: Creating a Potentially Dangerous Mix of Humiliation, Powerlessness, and Anger

    PubMed Central

    Veldhuis, Tinka M.; Gordijn, Ernestine H.; Veenstra, René; Lindenberg, Siegwart

    2014-01-01

    Rejection can convey that one is seen as inferior and not worth bothering with. Is it possible for people to feel vicariously rejected in this sense and have reactions that are similar to those following personal rejection, such as feeling humiliated, powerless, and angry? A study on personal rejection was followed by two main studies on vicarious group-based rejection. It was found that merely observing rejection of ingroup members can trigger feelings of humiliation that are equally intense as those experienced in response to personal rejection. Moreover, given that the rejection is explicit, vicariously experienced feelings of humiliation can be accompanied by powerlessness and anger. Potentially, this combination of emotions could be an important source of offensive action against rejecters. PMID:24759901

  20. The Cosmic Background Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulkis, Samuel; Lubin, Philip M.; Meyer, Stephan S.; Silverberg, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer (CBE), NASA's cosmological satellite which will observe a radiative relic of the big bang, is discussed. The major questions connected to the big bang theory which may be clarified using the CBE are reviewed. The satellite instruments and experiments are described, including the Differential Microwave Radiometer, which measures the difference between microwave radiation emitted from two points on the sky, the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer, which compares the spectrum of radiation from the sky at wavelengths from 100 microns to one cm with that from an internal blackbody, and the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment, which searches for the radiation from the earliest generation of stars.

  1. The cosmic microwave background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, Joseph

    1991-01-01

    Recent limits on spectral distortions and angular anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background are reviewed. The various backgrounds are described, and the theoretical implications are assessed. Constraints on inflationary cosmology dominated by cold dark matter (CDM) and on open cosmological models dominated by baryonic dark matter (BDM), with, respectively, primordial random phase scale-invariant curvature fluctuations or non-gaussian isocurvature fluctuations are described. More exotic theories are addressed, and I conclude with the 'bottom line': what theorists expect experimentalists to be measuring within the next two to three years without having to abandon their most cherished theories.

  2. Background Model for the Majorana Demonstrator

    SciTech Connect

    Cuesta, C.; Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, Estanislao; Avignone, Frank T.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, Matthew; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Combs, Dustin C.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Doe, Peter J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Fast, James E.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Gusev, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Hegai, A.; Henning, Reyco; Hoppe, Eric W.; Howard, Stanley; Howe, M. A.; Keeter, K.; Kidd, M. F.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Laferriere, Brian D.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Leviner, L.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, J.; MacMullin, S.; Martin, R. D.; Meijer, S. J.; Mertens, S.; Nomachi, Masaharu; Orrell, John L.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, Nicole R.; Phillips, D.; Poon, Alan; Pushkin, K.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, Alexis G.; Shanks, B.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Snyder, N.; Suriano, Anne-Marie; Thompson, J.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, Werner; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, Sergey; Vetter, Kai; Vorren, Kris R.; White, Brandon R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir

    2015-06-01

    The Majorana Collaboration is constructing a prototype system containing 40 kg of HPGe detectors to demonstrate the feasibility and potential of a future tonne-scale experiment to search for neutrinoless double-beta (0v BB) decay in 76Ge. In view of the requirement that the next generation of tonne-scale Ge-based 0vBB-decay experiment be capable of probing the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region, a major goal of theMajorana Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 cnt/(ROI-t-y) in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. This goal is pursued through a combination of a significant reduction of radioactive impurities in construction materials with analytical methods for background rejection, for example using powerful pulse shape analysis techniques profiting from the p-type point contact HPGe detectors technology. The effectiveness of these methods is assessed using Geant4 simulations of the different background components whose purity levels are constrained from radioassay measurements.

  3. Factors associated with the rejection of active euthanasia: a survey among the general public in Austria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In recent decades, the general public has become increasingly receptive toward a legislation that allows active voluntary euthanasia (AVE). The purpose of this study was to survey the current attitude towards AVE within the Austrian population and to identify explanatory factors in the areas of socio-demographics, personal experiences with care, and ideological orientation. A further objective was to examine differences depending on the type of problem formulation (abstract vs. situational) for the purpose of measuring attitude. Methods A representative cross-sectional study was conducted across the Austrian population. Data were acquired from 1,000 individuals aged 16 years and over based on telephone interviews (CATI). For the purpose of measuring attitude toward AVE, two different problem formulations (abstract vs. situational) were juxtaposed. Results The abstract question about active voluntary euthanasia was answered negatively by 28.8%, while 71.2% opted in favour of AVE or were undecided. Regression analyses showed rejection of AVE was positively correlated with number of adults and children in the household, experience with care of seriously ill persons, a conservative worldview, and level of education. Mean or high family income was associated with lower levels of rejection. No independent correlations were found for variables such as sex, age, political orientation, self-rated health, and experiences with care of terminally ill patients. Correlation for the situational problem formulation was weaker and included fewer predictors than for the abstract question. Conclusions Our results suggest that factors relating to an individual’s interpersonal living situation and his/her cognitive convictions might be important determinants of the attitude toward AVE. If and to the extent that personal care experience plays a role, it is rather associated with rejection than with acceptance of AVE. PMID:23826902

  4. 21 CFR 111.170 - What requirements apply to rejected components, packaging, and labels, and to rejected products...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process Control... or Labeling as a Dietary Supplement § 111.170 What requirements apply to rejected components... a dietary supplement (and for distribution rather than for return to the supplier), that is...

  5. 21 CFR 111.170 - What requirements apply to rejected components, packaging, and labels, and to rejected products...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process Control... or Labeling as a Dietary Supplement § 111.170 What requirements apply to rejected components... a dietary supplement (and for distribution rather than for return to the supplier), that is...

  6. 21 CFR 111.170 - What requirements apply to rejected components, packaging, and labels, and to rejected products...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process Control... or Labeling as a Dietary Supplement § 111.170 What requirements apply to rejected components... a dietary supplement (and for distribution rather than for return to the supplier), that is...

  7. 21 CFR 111.170 - What requirements apply to rejected components, packaging, and labels, and to rejected products...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process Control... or Labeling as a Dietary Supplement § 111.170 What requirements apply to rejected components... a dietary supplement (and for distribution rather than for return to the supplier), that is...

  8. 21 CFR 111.170 - What requirements apply to rejected components, packaging, and labels, and to rejected products...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process Control... or Labeling as a Dietary Supplement § 111.170 What requirements apply to rejected components... a dietary supplement (and for distribution rather than for return to the supplier), that is...

  9. Agreement in Mother and Father Acceptance-Rejection, Warmth, and Hostility/Rejection/Neglect of Children across Nine Countries

    PubMed Central

    Putnick, Diane L.; Bornstein, Marc H.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura; Gurdal, Sevtap; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T.; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat; Uribe Tirado, Liliana Maria; Zelli, Arnaldo; Alampay, Liane Peña; Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia

    2011-01-01

    We assessed whether mothers’ and fathers’ self-reports of acceptance-rejection, warmth, and hostility/rejection/neglect (HRN) of their pre-adolescent children differ cross-nationally and relative to the gender of the parent and child in 10 communities in 9 countries, including China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States (N = 998 families). Mothers and fathers in all countries reported a high degree of acceptance and warmth, and a low degree of HRN, but countries also varied. Mothers reported greater acceptance of children than fathers in China, Italy, Sweden, and the United States, and these effects were accounted for by greater self-reported warmth in mothers than fathers in China, Italy, the Philippines, Sweden, and Thailand and less HRN in mothers than fathers in Sweden. Fathers reported greater warmth than mothers in Kenya. Mother and father acceptance-rejection were moderately correlated. Relative levels of mother and father acceptance and rejection appear to be country specific. PMID:23024576

  10. Plasma cell-rich acute rejection of the renal allograft: A distinctive morphologic form of acute rejection?

    PubMed

    Gupta, R; Sharma, A; Mahanta, P J; Agarwal, S K; Dinda, A K

    2012-05-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the clinicopathologic features of plasma cell-rich acute rejection (PCAR) of renal allograft and comparing them with acute cellular rejection (ACR), non-plasma cell-rich type. During a 2-year period, eight renal allograft biopsies were diagnosed as PCAR (plasma cells >10% of interstitial infiltrate). For comparison, 14 biopsies with ACR were included in the study. Detailed pretransplant data, serum creatinine at presentation, and other clinical features of all these cases were noted. Renal biopsy slides were reviewed and relevant immunohistochemistry performed for characterization of plasma cell infiltrate. The age range and duration of transplantation to diagnosis of acute rejection were comparable in both the groups. Histologically, the proportion of interstitial plasma cells, mean interstitial inflammation, and tubulitis score were higher in the PCAR group compared with cases with ACR. A significant difference was found in the outcome at last follow-up, being worse in patients with PCAR. This study shows that PCAR portends a poor outcome compared with ACR, with comparable Banff grade of rejection. Due to its rarity and recent description, nephrologists and renal pathologists need to be aware of this entity.

  11. Clinical and pathological features of kidney transplant patients with concurrent polyomavirus nephropathy and rejection-associated endarteritis

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Stephanie M; Chon, W James; Kim, Lisa; Chang, Anthony; Meehan, Shane M

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To describe the clinicopathologic features of concurrent polyomavirus nephropathy (PVN) and endarteritis due to rejection in renal allografts. METHODS: We searched our electronic records database for cases with transplant kidney biopsies demonstrating features of both PVN and acute rejection (AR). PVN was defined by the presence of typical viral cytopathic effect on routine sections and positive polyomavirus SV40 large-T antigen immunohistochemistry. AR was identified by endarteritis (v1 by Banff criteria). All cases were subjected to chart review in order to determine clinical presentation, treatment course and outcomes. Outcomes were recorded with a length of follow-up of at least one year or time to nephrectomy. RESULTS: Of 94 renal allograft recipients who developed PVN over an 11-year period at our institution, we identified 7 (7.4%) with viral cytopathic changes, SV40 large T antigen staining, and endarteritis in the same biopsy specimen, indicative of concurrent PVN and AR. Four arose after reduction of immunosuppression (IS) (for treatment of PVN in 3 and tuberculosis in 1), and 3 patients had no decrease of IS before developing simultaneous concurrent disease. Treatment consisted of reduced oral IS and leflunomide for PVN, and anti-rejection therapy. Three of 4 patients who developed endarteritis in the setting of reduced IS lost their grafts to rejection. All 3 patients with simultaneous PVN and endarteritis cleared viremia and were stable at 1 year of follow up. Patients with endarteritis and PVN arising in a background of reduced IS had more severe rejection and poorer outcome. CONCLUSION: Concurrent PVN and endarteritis may be more frequent than is currently appreciated and may occur with or without prior reduction of IS. PMID:26722657

  12. A Comparative Analysis of Bronchial Stricture Following Lung Transplantation in Recipients With and Without Early Acute Rejection

    PubMed Central

    Castleberry, Anthony W.; Worni, Mathias; Kuchibhatla, Maragatha; Lin, Shu S.; Snyder, Laurie D.; Shofer, Scott L.; Palmer, Scott M.; Pietrobon, Ricardo S.; Davis, R. Duane; Hartwig, Matthew G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Risk factors and outcomes of bronchial stricture following lung transplantation are not well defined. An association between acute rejection and development of stricture has been suggested in small case series. We evaluated this relationship using a large, national registry. Methods All lung transplants between 04/1994 and 12/2008 per the United Network for Organ Sharing database were analyzed. Generalized linear models were used to determine the association between early rejection and development of stricture after adjusting for potential confounders. The association of stricture with postoperative lung function and overall survival was also evaluated. Results 9,335 patients were included for analysis. The incidence of stricture was 11.5% (=1,077/9,335) with no significant change in incidence during the study period (p=0.13). Early rejection was associated with a significantly greater incidence of stricture [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.22 - 1.61; p<0.0001]. Male gender, restrictive lung disease, and pre-transplant requirement for hospitalization were also associated with stricture. Those who developed stricture had and a lower postoperative peak percent predicted forced expiratory volume at one second (median 74% vs. 86% for bilateral transplants only, p<0.0001), shorter unadjusted survival (median 6.09 vs. 6.82 years, p<0.001) and increased risk of death after adjusting for potential confounders (adjusted hazard ratio 1.13, CI 1.03 - 1.23, p=0.007). Conclusions Early rejection is associated with an increased incidence of stricture. Recipients with stricture demonstrate worse postoperative lung function and survival. Prospective studies may be warranted to further assess causality and the potential for coordinated rejection and stricture surveillance strategies to improve postoperative outcomes. PMID:23870829

  13. Berkeley Low Background Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Smith, A. R.; Poon, A. W. P.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.

    2015-08-17

    The Berkeley Low Background Facility (BLBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background laboratory on the surface at LBNL and at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products; active screening via neutron activation analysis for U,Th, and K as well as a variety of stable isotopes; and neutron flux/beam characterization measurements through the use of monitors. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities will be presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be described including an overview of the recently installed counting system at SURF (recently relocated from Oroville, CA in 2014), the installation of a second underground counting station at SURF in 2015, and future plans. The BLBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.

  14. Nonthermal cosmic neutrino background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mu-Chun; Ratz, Michael; Trautner, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    We point out that, for Dirac neutrinos, in addition to the standard thermal cosmic neutrino background (C ν B ), there could also exist a nonthermal neutrino background with comparable number density. As the right-handed components are essentially decoupled from the thermal bath of standard model particles, relic neutrinos with a nonthermal distribution may exist until today. The relic density of the nonthermal (nt) background can be constrained by the usual observational bounds on the effective number of massless degrees of freedom Neff and can be as large as nν nt≲0.5 nγ. In particular, Neff can be larger than 3.046 in the absence of any exotic states. Nonthermal relic neutrinos constitute an irreducible contribution to the detection of the C ν B and, hence, may be discovered by future experiments such as PTOLEMY. We also present a scenario of chaotic inflation in which a nonthermal background can naturally be generated by inflationary preheating. The nonthermal relic neutrinos, thus, may constitute a novel window into the very early Universe.

  15. School Law: Background Checks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Splitt, David A.

    1988-01-01

    In an Oklahoma case, the district court ruled that the school district had failed to investigate the background of a teacher convicted of a second sexual abuse charge. School districts should examine personnel polices and practices, and the school lawyer should review state laws, regulations, and court cases. (MLF)

  16. Foregrounding the Background.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Bruce

    1998-01-01

    Argues that when introductory activities to the classics begin with background information, it can upstage or confine the life of the story, and shows little faith in the students as readers or in the literature itself. Suggests sometimes letting the literature begin, and then helping students make sense of it. Discusses examples from "To Kill a…

  17. China: Background Notes Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reams, Joanne Reppert

    Concise background information on the People's Republic of China is provided. The publication begins with a profile of the country, outlining the people, geography, economy, and membership in international organizations. The bulk of the document then discusses in more detail China's people, geography, history, government, education, economy, and…

  18. Thermal background noise limitations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulkis, S.

    1982-01-01

    Modern detection systems are increasingly limited in sensitivity by the background thermal photons which enter the receiving system. Expressions for the fluctuations of detected thermal radiation are derived. Incoherent and heterodyne detection processes are considered. References to the subject of photon detection statistics are given.

  19. Small infrared target detection by region-adaptive clutter rejection for sea-based infrared search and track.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungho; Lee, Joohyoung

    2014-07-22

    This paper presents a region-adaptive clutter rejection method for small target detection in sea-based infrared search and track. In the real world, clutter normally generates many false detections that impede the deployment of such detection systems. Incoming targets (missiles, boats, etc.) can be located in the sky, horizon and sea regions, which have different types of clutters, such as clouds, a horizontal line and sea-glint. The characteristics of regional clutter were analyzed after the geometrical analysis-based region segmentation. The false detections caused by cloud clutter were removed by the spatial attribute-based classification. Those by the horizontal line were removed using the heterogeneous background removal filter. False alarms by sun-glint were rejected using the temporal consistency filter, which is the most difficult part. The experimental results of the various cluttered background sequences show that the proposed region adaptive clutter rejection method produces fewer false alarms than that of the mean subtraction filter (MSF) with an acceptable degradation detection rate.

  20. Small Infrared Target Detection by Region-Adaptive Clutter Rejection for Sea-Based Infrared Search and Track

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sungho; Lee, Joohyoung

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a region-adaptive clutter rejection method for small target detection in sea-based infrared search and track. In the real world, clutter normally generates many false detections that impede the deployment of such detection systems. Incoming targets (missiles, boats, etc.) can be located in the sky, horizon and sea regions, which have different types of clutters, such as clouds, a horizontal line and sea-glint. The characteristics of regional clutter were analyzed after the geometrical analysis-based region segmentation. The false detections caused by cloud clutter were removed by the spatial attribute-based classification. Those by the horizontal line were removed using the heterogeneous background removal filter. False alarms by sun-glint were rejected using the temporal consistency filter, which is the most difficult part. The experimental results of the various cluttered background sequences show that the proposed region adaptive clutter rejection method produces fewer false alarms than that of the mean subtraction filter (MSF) with an acceptable degradation detection rate. PMID:25054633

  1. Protection against hyperacute xenograft rejection of transgenic rat hearts expressing human decay accelerating factor (DAF) transplanted into primates.

    PubMed Central

    Charreau, B.; Ménoret, S.; Tesson, L.; Azimzadeh, A.; Audet, M.; Wolf, P.; Marquet, R.; Verbakel, C.; Ijzermans, J.; Cowan, P.; Pearse, M.; d'Apice, A.; Soulillou, J. P.; Anegon, I.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Production of transgenic pigs for multiple transgenes is part of a potential strategy to prevent immunological events involved in xenograft rejection. Use of a genetically engineerable rodent as a donor in primates could allow testing in vivo of the effects of different transgenes on controlling xenograft rejection. As a first step in the development of a donor containing multiple transgenes, transgenic rats for human decay-accelerating factor (DAF) were used as heart donors to test their resistance against complement (C)-mediated rejection by non-human primates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Transgenic rats were generated by using a construct containing the human DAF cDNA under the transcriptional control of the endothelial cell (EC)-specific human ICAM-2 promoter. DAF expression was evaluated by immunohistology and by FACS analysis of purified ECs. Resistance of transgenic hearts against C-mediated damage was evaluated by ex vivo perfusion with human serum and by transplantation into cynomolgus monkeys. RESULTS: Immunohistological analysis of DAF expression in several organs from two transgenic lines showed uniform expression on the endothelium of all blood vessels. ECs purified from transgenic hearts showed 50% DAF expression compared to human ECs and >70% reduction of C-dependent cell lysis compared to control rat ECs. Hemizygous transgenic hearts perfused with human serum showed normal function for >60 min vs. 11. 2 +/- 1.7 min in controls. Hemi- or homozygous transgenic hearts transplanted into cynomolgus monkeys showed longer survival (15.2 +/- 7 min and >4.5 hr, respectively) than controls (5.5 +/- 1.4 min). In contrast to hyperacutely rejected control hearts, rejected homozygous DAF hearts showed signs of acute vascular rejection (AVR) characterized by edema, hemorrhage, and an intense PMN infiltration. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that endothelial-specific DAF expression increased heart transplant survival in a rat-to-primate model of

  2. Auto-validating von Neumann rejection sampling from small phylogenetic tree spaces

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background In phylogenetic inference one is interested in obtaining samples from the posterior distribution over the tree space on the basis of some observed DNA sequence data. One of the simplest sampling methods is the rejection sampler due to von Neumann. Here we introduce an auto-validating version of the rejection sampler, via interval analysis, to rigorously draw samples from posterior distributions over small phylogenetic tree spaces. Results The posterior samples from the auto-validating sampler are used to rigorously (i) estimate posterior probabilities for different rooted topologies based on mitochondrial DNA from human, chimpanzee and gorilla, (ii) conduct a non-parametric test of rate variation between protein-coding and tRNA-coding sites from three primates and (iii) obtain a posterior estimate of the human-neanderthal divergence time. Conclusion This solves the open problem of rigorously drawing independent and identically distributed samples from the posterior distribution over rooted and unrooted small tree spaces (3 or 4 taxa) based on any multiply-aligned sequence data. PMID:19128477

  3. Acute Rejection in Renal Transplant Patients of a Hospital in Bogota, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    García, P.; Huerfano, M; Rodríguez, M; Caicedo, A; Berrío, F; Gonzalez, C

    2016-01-01

    Background: Renal transplantation is the best treatment for end stage renal disease. Acute graft rejection is one of the main complications and may influence graft survival. Objective: To determine the incidence and features of acute cellular rejection (ACR) episodes confirmed by biopsy. Methods: We studied a cohort of 175 patients who underwent renal transplantation between 2004 and 2012 to determine the cumulative incidence of ACR confirmed by biopsy and to identify the associated risk factors using multivariate analysis. Results: The one-year patient survival was 96.6%; the graft survival was 93.7%. The incidence of ACR within one year was 14.3%, of which 46% were observed within 6 months following transplantation. The most frequently observed ACR type was 1B according to the Banff classification system (42%). A relationship between ACR and receipt of a kidney from expanded criteria donors was observed, both in univariate and adjusted multiple log-binomial regression analyses, but only 6.3% of patients received extended criteria donor kidneys. No other relationships between variables were found. Conclusion: ACR frequency in this study was similar to that of other cohorts reported previously. We need a bigger sample of renal transplants from expanded criteria donors, PRA and DSA test to support the results. PMID:27721962

  4. Diffuse UV Background Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conn Henry, Richard; Murthy, J.

    2012-01-01

    The diffuse UV sky is expected to glow with significant amounts of starlight that is scattered from the interstellar dust. The albedo and scattering pattern of the dust in the ultraviolet are both well established, and are both fairly independent of wavelength from 912 Å to 3000 Å. We present 1943 Voyager spectra of the diffuse cosmic background radiation from 500 Å to 1200 Å, and we compare their brightnesses, and their distribution on the sky, to those observed (Murthy et al., ApJ 724, 1389, 2010) from the GALEX mission at longer wavelengths (1530 Å). Significant differences appear, suggesting that background radiation components in addition to dust-scattered starlight may be present in both spectral regions.

  5. The cosmic microwave background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    Recent observational and theoretical investigations of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) are reviewed. Particular attention is given to spectral distortions and CMBR temperature anisotropies at large, intermediate, and small angular scales. The implications of the observations for inflationary cosmological models with curvature fluctuation are explored, and it is shown that the limits determined for intermediate-scale CMBR anisotropy almost rule out a baryon-dominated cosmology.

  6. Executive Summary: Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Background information on, and the objectives of, the NASA Global Biology Research Program are given. The following issues were addressed: (1) geographic distribution of wetland parameters, (2) the processes of wetland material fluxes, and (3) the relation of local fluxes with global processes. Wetland inventorying and categorizing, gas-phase exchanges with the atmosphere, material exchange with the aquatic environment, and material storage in wetland sediments were identified as topics requiring further research.

  7. Modified active disturbance rejection control for time-delay systems.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shen; Gao, Zhiqiang

    2014-07-01

    Industrial processes are typically nonlinear, time-varying and uncertain, to which active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) has been shown to be an effective solution. The control design becomes even more challenging in the presence of time delay. In this paper, a novel modification of ADRC is proposed so that good disturbance rejection is achieved while maintaining system stability. The proposed design is shown to be more effective than the standard ADRC design for time-delay systems and is also a unified solution for stable, critical stable and unstable systems with time delay. Simulation and test results show the effectiveness and practicality of the proposed design. Linear matrix inequality (LMI) based stability analysis is provided as well.

  8. Rejection of false saturation data in optical pulse-oximeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalise, Lorenzo; Marchionni, Paolo; Carnielli, Virgilio

    2010-04-01

    Pulse oximetry (PO) is a non-invasive medical device used for monitoring of the arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) and in particular of haemoglobin oxygenation in blood. Oxygen saturation is commonly used in any setting where the patient blood oxygen saturation is unstable, including Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). The main factor affecting PO's output data is the presence of voluntary or involuntary motion artifacts or imperfect skin-sensor contact. Various methods have been employed to reject motion artifact but have met with little success. The aim of the present work is to propose a novel measurement procedure for real-time monitoring and validation of the oxygen saturation data as measured in standard pulse oxymeter. The procedure should be able to individuate and reject erroneous saturation data due to incorrect transducer-skin contact or motion artifact. In the case of short sequences of rejected SpO2 data (time duration< 8s), we report on an algorithm able to substitute the sequence of rejected data with the "most-probable" (rescued) SpO2 data. In total we have analyzed 14 patient for a total of 310 hr, 43 min and 15s, equivalent to a total number of samples of 1118595. For our study, we were interested to download heart rate measured with the ECG (HRECG), the heart rate as measured by the pulse oximeter (HRSAT) and the SpO2 value. In order to remove the erroneous SpO2 values reported in the rough data in coincidence of motion artifact (top, right), we have implemented a specific algorithm which provides at the output a new sequence of SpO2 data (validated SpO2 data). With the aim to "rescue" SpO2 value rejected by the previously presented algorithm, we have implemented an algorithm able to provide the "most-probable" SpO2 values in the case of single rejected values or in the case of short sequences of invalidated data (< 8 s). From these data it is possible to observe how in the 6.8% of the observation time the SpO2 data measured by the pulse oximeter

  9. Heat pipe radiator. [for spacecraft waste heat rejection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swerdling, B.; Alario, J.

    1973-01-01

    A 15,000 watt spacecraft waste heat rejection system utilizing heat pipe radiator panels was investigated. Of the several concepts initially identified, a series system was selected for more in-depth analysis. As a demonstration of system feasibility, a nominal 500 watt radiator panel was designed, built and tested. The panel, which is a module of the 15,000 watt system, consists of a variable conductance heat pipe (VCHP) header, and six isothermalizer heat pipes attached to a radiating fin. The thermal load to the VCHP is supplied by a Freon-21 liquid loop via an integral heat exchanger. Descriptions of the results of the system studies and details of the radiator design are included along with the test results for both the heat pipe components and the assembled radiator panel. These results support the feasibility of using heat pipes in a spacecraft waste heat rejection system.

  10. Rejection sensitivity and disruption of attention by social threat cues

    PubMed Central

    Berenson, Kathy R.; Gyurak, Anett; Ayduk, Özlem; Downey, Geraldine; Garner, Matthew J.; Mogg, Karin; Bradley, Brendan P.; Pine, Daniel S.

    2009-01-01

    Two studies tested the hypothesis that Rejection Sensitivity (RS) increases vulnerability to disruption of attention by social threat cues, as would be consistent with prior evidence that it motivates individuals to prioritize detecting and managing potential rejection at a cost to other personal and interpersonal goals. In Study 1, RS predicted disruption of ongoing goal-directed attention by social threat but not negative words in an Emotional Stroop task. In Study 2, RS predicted attentional avoidance of threatening but not pleasant faces in a Visual Probe task. Threat-avoidant attention was also associated with features of borderline personality disorder. This research extends understanding of processes by which RS contributes to a self-perpetuating cycle of interpersonal problems and distress. PMID:20160869

  11. On the centrality of disturbance rejection in automatic control.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhiqiang

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, it is shown that the problem of automatic control is, in essence, that of disturbance rejection, with the notion of disturbance generalized to symbolize the uncertainties, both internal and external to the plant. A novel, unifying concept of disturbance rejector is proposed to compliment the traditional notion of controller. The new controller-rejector pair is shown to be a powerful organizing principle in the realm of automatic control, leading to a Copernican moment where the model-centric design philosophy is replaced by the one that is control-centric in the following sense: the controller is designed for a canonical model and is fixed; the difference between the plant and the canonical model is deemed as disturbance and rejected. PMID:24135203

  12. Composite disturbance rejection control based on generalized extended state observer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanjun; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Lu; Su, Jianbo

    2016-07-01

    Traditional extended state observer (ESO) design method does not focus on analysis of system reconstruction strategy. The prior information of the controlled system cannot be used for ESO implementation to improve the control accuracy. In this paper, composite disturbance rejection control strategy is proposed based on generalized ESO. First, the disturbance rejection performance of traditional ESO is analyzed to show the essence of the reconstruction strategy. Then, the system is reconstructed based on the equivalent disturbance model. The generalized ESO is proposed based on the reconstructed model, while convergence of the proposed ESO is analyzed along with the outer loop feedback controller. Simulation results on a second order mechanical system show that the proposed generalized ESO can deal with the external disturbance with known model successfully. Experiment of attitude tracking task on an aircraft is also carried out to show the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:27129764

  13. Vibroacoustic Analysis of Large Heat Rejection Radiators for Future Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larko, Jeffrey M.; McNelis, Mark E.; Hughes, William O.

    2006-01-01

    Spacecraft structures such as antennas, solar arrays and radiator panels significantly respond to high acoustic levels seen at lift-off. Some future spacecraft may utilize nuclear electric propulsion that require large radiator panels to reject waste heat. A vibroacoustic assessment was performed for two different radiator panel designs. Results from the analysis of the two designs using different analytical approaches are presented and discussed.

  14. Reverse osmosis membrane of high urea rejection properties. [water purification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. C.; Wydeven, T. J. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Polymeric membranes suitable for use in reverse osmosis water purification because of their high urea and salt rejection properties are prepared by generating a plasma of an unsaturated hydrocarbon monomer and nitrogen gas from an electrical source. A polymeric membrane is formed by depositing a polymer of the unsaturated monomer from the plasma onto a substrate, so that nitrogen from the nitrogen gas is incorporated within the polymer in a chemically combined form.

  15. [Chronic rejection: Differences and similarities in various solid organ transplants].

    PubMed

    Suhling, H; Gottlieb, J; Bara, C; Taubert, R; Jäckel, E; Schiffer, M; Bräsen, J H

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, chronic rejections after transplantation of the lungs, heart, liver, and kidney are described. Chronic allograft dysfunction (CAD) plays an important role in all of these transplantations and has a significant influence on patient survival. The pathophysiological reasons for CAD varies greatly in the various organs.Chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) is the most important determinant of survival and quality of life after lung transplantation. Diagnosis is based on lung function, especially forced expiratory flow in 1 s (FEV1) decline. Prevention, early detection, and rapid treatment are extremely important. Azithromycin and extracorporeal photopheresis are commonly used for treatment because they usually positively influence the progression of lung remodeling.The expression for chronic rejection of the heart is cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV). Immunological and nonimmunological factors are important for its development. Due to limited therapeutic options, prevention is of utmost importance (administration of mTOR inhibitors and minimizing cardiovascular risk factors).The mid- and long-term survival rates after liver transplantation have hardly changed in recent decades, which is an indication of the difficulty in diagnosing chronic graft dysfunction. Chronic ductopenic rejection accounts for a small proportion of late graft dysfunction. Idiopathic posttransplant hepatitis and de novo autoimmune hepatitis are important in addition to recurrence of the underlying disease that led to transplantation.Chronic allograft nephropathy is the result of severe rejection which cumulates in increasing fibrosis with remodeling. The earliest possible diagnosis and therapy is currently the only option. Diagnosis is based on evidence of donor-specific antibodies and histological findings.

  16. Experimental demonstrations of organic Rankine cycle waste heat rejection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bland, Timothy J.; Lacey, P. Douglas

    Two phase fluid management is an important factor in the successful design of organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power conversion systems for space applications. The evolution of the heat rejection system approach from a jet condenser, through a rotary jet condenser, to a rotary fluid management device (RFMD) with a surface condenser has been described in a previous paper. Some of the test programs that were used to prove the validity of the selected approach are described.

  17. [Characteristics of seasonal drought and its adaptation in southern China under the background of global climate change. VI. Optimized layout of cropping system for preventing and avoiding drought disaster].

    PubMed

    Sui, Yue; Huang, Wan-Hua; Yang, Xiao-Guang; Li, Mao-Song

    2013-11-01

    Southern China is an important agricultural planting region of China, but the seasonal drought severely impacted the regional agricultural production. Based on the 1981-2007 meteorological data from 13 typical meteorological stations in the seasonal drought areas in southern China and the data of related crops growth period and yield, three precipitation year types (drought year, normal year, and wet year) were classified based on the yearly precipitation, and by using five indices (coupling degree of water requirement and precipitation during crop water critical stages, meteorological crop yield, output value per unit area, and water use efficiency and precipitation during whole growth period), the comprehensive benefit of all possible cropping patterns in each typical region was evaluated, and the optimal cropping patterns in the different regions of southern China in different precipitation years were obtained. In the semi-arid region, the optimal cropping patterns in dry year included potato-maize-sweet potato and winter wheat-rice-sweet potato. In the semi-humid region and during dry year, winter wheat-rice-sweet potato was the best choice, and rape seed-rice-sweet potato was the second one. In the warm and humid region (the typical region where seasonal drought happened), the best cropping pattern in Jiangnan area in different precipitation years was potato-double cropping rice, and the suitable patterns in southwest area were the triple cropping systems with drought-resistant crops, such as winter wheat-rice-sweet potato, winter wheat-maize-sweet potato, and potato-double cropping rice. From the aspect of maximally utilizing water and heat resources, triple cropping would be the best choice, with the rice and upland crop rotation as the main and with the rice arranged in pairs in wet year.

  18. Polarimetric Imaging of the Cosmic Ultraviolet Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordsieck, K. H.; Bershady, M. A.; Harris, W.

    1999-05-01

    The nature of (and even the existence of) the ultraviolet cosmic background is controversial, because of the uncertain contribution of light from bright UV stars scattered by dust within our Galaxy (the UV Diffuse Galactic Light, or "DGL"). Because the DGL consists of light scattered at large angles from a small number of stars, it should be highly polarized, while most proposed sources of extragalactic UV background would be unpolarized, providing a potential way of disentangling the two components. We will discuss such an experiment: an existing sounding rocket payload, the Wide-Field Imaging Survey Polarimeter ("WISP"), and a proposed payload, the Cosmic Ultraviolet Polarimetric Imaging Device ("CUPID"), which would have 20 times the sensitivity of WISP. WISP, a 20 cm off-axis Schmidt telescope with a stressed CaF2 waveplate and a Brewster-angle polarizer, has a 2x4 degree field of view with 1 arcmin resolution at 1700 Ang. The first DGL target for WISP is the "Sandage Region" near M81/M82, an area observed (with different results) by both the UC Berkeley and the JHU UVX UV background experiments. It has known visible-wavelength and IRAS-wavelength "cirrus" which has been identified with DGL. WISP should be able to measure the polarization of any UV cirrus and establish the presence of an unpolarized background. Preliminary data from this target may be available, depending on the actual launch time. CUPID, a 50 cm Paul Baker telescope using reflective filter coatings, should have adequate precision to perform a pixel-by-pixel separation of polarized UV cirrus from any unpolarized background, and its very much improved stray light rejection should allow an accurate zero-point for this putative extragalactic background. Thus the detailed structure of the cosmic background from 15 arcsec to degrees will be determined. We will discuss how such a measurement may be used to confirm or eliminate several possible sources of UV cosmic background. WISP is supported by

  19. Dynamic positioning system based on active disturbance rejection technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Zhengling; Guo, Chen; Fan, Yunsheng

    2015-08-01

    A dynamically positioned vessel, by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and the certifying class societies (DNV, ABS, LR, etc.), is defined as a vessel that maintains its position and heading (fixed location or pre-determined track) exclusively by means of active thrusters. The development of control technology promotes the upgrading of dynamic positioning (DP) systems. Today there are two different DP systems solutions available on the market: DP system based on PID regulator and that based on model-based control. Both systems have limited disturbance rejection capability due to their design principle. In this paper, a new DP system solution is proposed based on Active Disturbance Rejection Control (ADRC) technology. This technology is composed of Tracking-Differentiator (TD), Extended State Observer (ESO) and Nonlinear Feedback Combination. On one hand, both TD and ESO can act as filters and can be used in place of conventional filters; on the other hand, the total disturbance of the system can be estimated and compensated by ESO, which therefore enhances the system's disturbance rejection capability. This technology's advantages over other methods lie in two aspects: 1) This method itself can not only achieve control objectives but also filter noisy measurements without other specialized filters; 2) This method offers a new useful approach to suppress the ocean disturbance. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  20. Detection of cardiac allograft rejection using radionuclide techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Addonizio, L.J. )

    1990-09-01

    The results of the investigations in the search for a radionuclide technique to detect rejection have, thus far, not found any method that can be applied clinically. Functional studies are not sensitive enough, unless further work on the quantitative volume changes shows consistent correlation. Routine myocardial imaging agents such as {sup 67}Ga, {sup 99}TcPP, or the perfusion agent, {sup 201}Tl are clearly not specific enough to detect rejection until the grafts are nearly lost. Radiolabeled lymphocyte studies show promise, in that lymphocytes are intimately involved in the rejection process. However, there needs to be further research to determine if the specificity of the technique can isolate those patients who require treatment. The data involving labeled antimyosin antibody fragments indicate that they can specifically detect myocyte necrosis that occurs on the microscopic level. However, it may also be too sensitive a technique for transplanted hearts, which are so immunologically active at baseline to determine when treatment is necessary.30 references.

  1. Optical axis jitter rejection for double overlapped adaptive optics systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Qi; Luo, Xi; Li, Xinyang

    2016-04-01

    Optical axis jitters, or vibrations, which arise from wind shaking and structural oscillations of optical platforms, etc., cause a deleterious impact on the performance of adaptive optics systems. When conventional integrators are utilized to reject such high frequency and narrow-band disturbance, the benefits are quite small despite their acceptable capabilities to reject atmospheric turbulence. In our case, two suits of complete adaptive optics systems called double overlapped adaptive optics systems (DOAOS) are used to counteract both optical jitters and atmospheric turbulence. A novel algorithm aiming to remove vibrations is proposed by resorting to combine the Smith predictor and notch filer. With the help of loop shaping method, the algorithm will lead to an effective and stable controller, which makes the characteristics of error transfer function close to notch filters. On the basis of the spectral analysis of observed data, the peak frequency and bandwidth of vibrations can be identified in advance. Afterwards, the number of notch filters and their parameters will be determined using coordination descending method. The relationship between controller parameters and filtering features is discussed, and the robustness of the controller against varying parameters of the control object is investigated. Preliminary experiments are carried out to validate the proposed algorithms. The overall control performance of DOAOS is simulated. Results show that time delays are a limit of the performance, but the algorithm can be successfully implemented on our systems, which indicate that it has a great potential to reject jitters.

  2. Biliary epithelial senescence and plasticity in acute cellular rejection.

    PubMed

    Brain, J G; Robertson, H; Thompson, E; Humphreys, E H; Gardner, A; Booth, T A; Jones, D E J; Afford, S C; von Zglinicki, T; Burt, A D; Kirby, J A

    2013-07-01

    Biliary epithelial cells (BEC) are important targets in some liver diseases, including acute allograft rejection. Although some injured BEC die, many can survive in function compromised states of senescence or phenotypic de-differentiation. This study was performed to examine changes in the phenotype of BEC during acute liver allograft rejection and the mechanism driving these changes. Liver allograft sections showed a positive correlation (p < 0.0013) between increasing T cell mediated acute rejection and the number of BEC expressing the senescence marker p21(WAF1/Cip) or the mesenchymal marker S100A4. This was modeled in vitro by examination of primary or immortalized BEC after acute oxidative stress. During the first 48 h, the expression of p21(WAF1/Cip) was increased transiently before returning to baseline. After this time BEC showed increased expression of mesenchymal proteins with a decrease in epithelial markers. Analysis of TGF-β expression at mRNA and protein levels also showed a rapid increase in TGF-β2 (p < 0.006) following oxidative stress. The epithelial de-differentiation observed in vitro was abrogated by pharmacological blockade of the ALK-5 component of the TGF-β receptor. These data suggest that stress induced production of TGF-β2 by BEC can modify liver allograft function by enhancing the de-differentiation of local epithelial cells.

  3. Thermal control systems for low-temperature heat rejection on a lunar base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, K. R.; Gottmann, Matthias; Nanjundan, Ashok

    1993-01-01

    One of the important issues in the design of a lunar base is the thermal control system (TCS) used to reject low-temperature heat from the base. The TCS ensures that the base and the components inside are maintained within an acceptable temperature range. The temperature of the lunar surface peaks at 400 K during the 336-hour lunar day. Under these circumstances, direct dissipation of waste heat from the lunar base using passive radiators would be impractical. Thermal control systems based on thermal storage, shaded radiators, and heat pumps have been proposed. Based on proven technology, innovation, realistic complexity, reliability, and near-term applicability, a heat pump-based TCS was selected as a candidate for early missions. In this report, Rankine-cycle heat pumps and absorption heat pumps (ammonia water and lithium bromide-water) have been analyzed and optimized for a lunar base cooling load of 100 kW.

  4. A Compact 5.5 GHz Band-Rejected UWB Antenna Using Complementary Split Ring Resonators

    PubMed Central

    Islam, M. M.; Faruque, M. R. I.; Islam, M. T.

    2014-01-01

    A band-removal property employing microwave frequencies using complementary split ring resonators (CSRRs) is applied to design a compact UWB antenna wishing for the rejection of some frequency band, which is meanwhile exercised by the existing wireless applications. The reported antenna comprises optimization of a circular radiating patch, in which slotted complementary SRRs are implanted. It is printed on low dielectric FR4 substrate material fed by a partial ground plane and a microstrip line. Validated results exhibit that the reported antenna shows a wide bandwidth covering from 3.45 to more than 12 GHz, with a compact dimension of 22 × 26 mm2, and VSWR < 2, observing band elimination of 5.5 GHz WLAN band. PMID:24971379

  5. A compact 5.5 GHz band-rejected UWB antenna using complementary split ring resonators.

    PubMed

    Islam, M M; Faruque, M R I; Islam, M T

    2014-01-01

    A band-removal property employing microwave frequencies using complementary split ring resonators (CSRRs) is applied to design a compact UWB antenna wishing for the rejection of some frequency band, which is meanwhile exercised by the existing wireless applications. The reported antenna comprises optimization of a circular radiating patch, in which slotted complementary SRRs are implanted. It is printed on low dielectric FR4 substrate material fed by a partial ground plane and a microstrip line. Validated results exhibit that the reported antenna shows a wide bandwidth covering from 3.45 to more than 12 GHz, with a compact dimension of 22 × 26 mm(2), and VSWR < 2, observing band elimination of 5.5 GHz WLAN band. PMID:24971379

  6. Demonstration of surface electron rejection with interleaved germanium detectors for dark matter searches

    SciTech Connect

    Agnese, R.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Saab, T.; Welliver, B.; Anderson, A. J.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Hertel, S. A.; McCarthy, K. A.; Basu Thakur, R.; Bauer, D. A.; Holmgren, D.; Hsu, L.; Loer, B.; Schmitt, R.; Borgland, A.; Brandt, D.; Brink, P. L.; Do Couto E Silva, E.; Godfrey, G. L.; Hasi, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory Collaboration: The SuperCDMS Collaboration; and others

    2013-10-14

    The SuperCDMS experiment in the Soudan Underground Laboratory searches for dark matter with a 9-kg array of cryogenic germanium detectors. Symmetric sensors on opposite sides measure both charge and phonons from each particle interaction, providing excellent discrimination between electron and nuclear recoils, and between surface and interior events. Surface event rejection capabilities were tested with two {sup 210}Pb sources producing ∼130 beta decays/hr. In ∼800 live hours, no events leaked into the 8–115 keV signal region, giving upper limit leakage fraction 1.7 × 10{sup −5} at 90% C.L., corresponding to < 0.6 surface event background in the future 200-kg SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment.

  7. Demonstration of Surface Electron Rejection with Interleaved Germanium Detectors for Dark Matter Searches

    SciTech Connect

    Agnese, R.; Anderson, A. J.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Basu Thakur, R.; Bauer, D. A.; Borgland, A.; Brandt, D.; Brink, P. L.; Bunker, R.; Cabrera, B.; Caldwell, D. O.; Cerdeno, D. G.; Chagani, H.; Cherry, M.; Cooley, J.; Cornell, B.; Crewdson, C. H.; Cushman, Priscilla B.; Daal, M.; Di Stefano, P. C.; Do Couto E Silva, E.; Doughty, T.; Esteban, L.; Fallows, S.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Fox, J.; Fritts, M.; Godfrey, G. L.; Golwala, S. R.; Hall, Jeter C.; Harris, H. R.; Hasi, J.; Hertel, S. A.; Hines, B. A.; Hofer, T.; Holmgren, D.; Hsu, L.; Huber, M. E.; Jastram, A.; Kamaev, O.; Kara, B.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kenany, S.; Kennedy, A.; Kenney, C. J.; Kiveni, M.; Koch, K.; Loer, B.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Mahapatra, R.; Mandic, V.; Martinez, C.; McCarthy, K. A.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Moffatt, R. A.; Moore, D. C.; Nadeau, P.; Nelson, R. H.; Novak, L.; Page, K.; Partridge, R.; Pepin, M.; Phipps, A.; Prasad, K.; Pyle, M.; Qiu, H.; Radpour, R.; Rau, W.; Redl, P.; Reisetter, A.; Resch, R. W.; Ricci, Y.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Sander, J.; Schmitt, R.; Schneck, K.; Schnee, Richard; Scorza, S.; Seitz, D.; Serfass, B.; Shank, B.; Speller, D.; Tomada, A.; Villano, A. N.; Welliver, B.; Wright, D. H.; Yellin, S.; Yen, J. J.; Young, B. A.; Zhang, J.

    2013-10-17

    The SuperCDMS experiment in the Soudan Underground Laboratory searches for dark matter with a 9-kg array of cryogenic germanium detectors. Symmetric sensors on opposite sides measure both charge and phonons from each particle interaction, providing excellent discrimination between electron and nuclear recoils, and between surface and interior events. Furthermore, surface event rejection capabilities were tested with two 210Pb sources producing ~130 beta decays/hr. We found that in ~800 live hours, no events leaked into the 8–115 keV signal region, giving upper limit leakage fraction 1.7 x 10-5 at 90% C.L., corresponding to<0.6 surface event background in the future 200-kg SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment.

  8. Condemning violence without rejecting sexism? Exploring how young men understand intimate partner violence in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Goicolea, Isabel; Öhman, Ann; Salazar Torres, Mariano; Morrás, Ione; Edin, Kerstin

    2012-01-01

    Background This study aims to explore young men’s understanding of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Ecuador, examining similarities and differences between how ordinary and activist young men conceptualize IPV against women. Methods We conducted individual interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs) with 35 young men – five FGDs and five interviews with ordinary young men, and 11 interviews with activists – and analysed the data generated using qualitative content analysis. Results Among the ordinary young men the theme ‘too much gender equality leads to IPV’ emerged, while among the activists the theme ‘gender inequality is the root of IPV’. Although both groups in our study rejected IPV, their positions differed, and we claim that this is relevant. While activists considered IPV as rooted in gender inequality, ordinary young men understood it as a response to the conflicts generated by increasing gender equality and women’s attempts to gain autonomy. PMID:22723767

  9. Analysis of Convair 990 rejected-takeoff accident with emphasis on decision making, training and procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batthauer, Byron E.

    1987-01-01

    This paper analyzes a NASA Convair 990 (CV-990) accident with emphasis on rejected-takeoff (RTO) decision making, training, procedures, and accident statistics. The NASA Aircraft Accident Investigation Board was somewhat perplexed that an aircraft could be destroyed as a result of blown tires during the takeoff roll. To provide a better understanding of tire failure RTO's, The Board obtained accident reports, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) studies, and other pertinent information related to the elements of this accident. This material enhanced the analysis process and convinced the Accident Board that high-speed RTO's in transport aircraft should be given more emphasis during pilot training. Pilots should be made aware of various RTO situations and statistics with emphasis on failed-tire RTO's. This background information could enhance the split-second decision-making process that is required prior to initiating an RTO.

  10. Background Characterization Techniques For Pattern Recognition Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noah, Meg A.; Noah, Paul V.; Schroeder, John W.; Kessler, Bernard V.; Chernick, Julian A.

    1989-08-01

    The Department of Defense has a requirement to investigate technologies for the detection of air and ground vehicles in a clutter environment. The use of autonomous systems using infrared, visible, and millimeter wave detectors has the potential to meet DOD's needs. In general, however, the hard-ware technology (large detector arrays with high sensitivity) has outpaced the development of processing techniques and software. In a complex background scene the "problem" is as much one of clutter rejection as it is target detection. The work described in this paper has investigated a new, and innovative, methodology for background clutter characterization, target detection and target identification. The approach uses multivariate statistical analysis to evaluate a set of image metrics applied to infrared cloud imagery and terrain clutter scenes. The techniques are applied to two distinct problems: the characterization of atmospheric water vapor cloud scenes for the Navy's Infrared Search and Track (IRST) applications to support the Infrared Modeling Measurement and Analysis Program (IRAMMP); and the detection of ground vehicles for the Army's Autonomous Homing Munitions (AHM) problems. This work was sponsored under two separate Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) programs by the Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), White Oak MD, and the Army Material Systems Analysis Activity at Aberdeen Proving Ground MD. The software described in this paper will be available from the respective contract technical representatives.

  11. 40 CFR 204.57-7 - Acceptance and rejection of batch sequence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acceptance and rejection of batch... § 204.57-7 Acceptance and rejection of batch sequence. (a) The manufacturer will continue to inspect consecutive batches until the batch sequence is accepted or rejected. The batch sequence will be accepted...

  12. 40 CFR 204.57-7 - Acceptance and rejection of batch sequence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acceptance and rejection of batch... § 204.57-7 Acceptance and rejection of batch sequence. (a) The manufacturer will continue to inspect consecutive batches until the batch sequence is accepted or rejected. The batch sequence will be accepted...

  13. 40 CFR 204.57-7 - Acceptance and rejection of batch sequence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acceptance and rejection of batch... § 204.57-7 Acceptance and rejection of batch sequence. (a) The manufacturer will continue to inspect consecutive batches until the batch sequence is accepted or rejected. The batch sequence will be accepted...

  14. 40 CFR 205.57-6 - Acceptance and rejection of batches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acceptance and rejection of batches... Acceptance and rejection of batches. (a) The batch from which a batch sample is selected will be accepted or rejected based upon the number of failing vehicles in the batch sample. A sufficient number of test...

  15. 40 CFR 205.57-6 - Acceptance and rejection of batches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Acceptance and rejection of batches... Acceptance and rejection of batches. (a) The batch from which a batch sample is selected will be accepted or rejected based upon the number of failing vehicles in the batch sample. A sufficient number of test...

  16. 40 CFR 204.57-7 - Acceptance and rejection of batch sequence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acceptance and rejection of batch... § 204.57-7 Acceptance and rejection of batch sequence. (a) The manufacturer will continue to inspect consecutive batches until the batch sequence is accepted or rejected. The batch sequence will be accepted...

  17. 40 CFR 205.57-6 - Acceptance and rejection of batches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acceptance and rejection of batches... Acceptance and rejection of batches. (a) The batch from which a batch sample is selected will be accepted or rejected based upon the number of failing vehicles in the batch sample. A sufficient number of test...

  18. 40 CFR 204.57-7 - Acceptance and rejection of batch sequence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Acceptance and rejection of batch... § 204.57-7 Acceptance and rejection of batch sequence. (a) The manufacturer will continue to inspect consecutive batches until the batch sequence is accepted or rejected. The batch sequence will be accepted...

  19. 40 CFR 205.57-6 - Acceptance and rejection of batches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acceptance and rejection of batches... Acceptance and rejection of batches. (a) The batch from which a batch sample is selected will be accepted or rejected based upon the number of failing vehicles in the batch sample. A sufficient number of test...

  20. Interactions between Rejection Sensitivity and Supportive Relationships in the Prediction of Adolescents' Internalizing Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Kristina L.; Bowker, Julie C.; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Laursen, Brett; Duchene, Melissa S.

    2010-01-01

    Rejection sensitivity, the tendency to anxiously or angrily expect rejection, is associated with internalizing difficulties during childhood and adolescence. The primary goal of the present study was to examine whether supportive parent-child relationships and friendships moderate associations that link angry and anxious rejection sensitivity to…

  1. Peer-Social Attributions and Self-Efficacy of Peer-Rejected Preadolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toner, Mark A.; Munro, Don

    1996-01-01

    Examined whether peer-rejected preadolescents differ from nonrejected groups (average, popular, neglected) in their explanations for peer-social events and their perceived control of outcomes. Found that rejected children were inclined to forego credit for acceptance, to ascribe rejection to persistent factors, and to perceive lower control of…

  2. 41 CFR 102-38.210 - What happens when bids have been rejected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... have been rejected? 102-38.210 Section 102-38.210 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... OF PERSONAL PROPERTY Bids Acceptance of Bids § 102-38.210 What happens when bids have been rejected? You may re-offer items for which all bids have been rejected at the same sale, if possible, or...

  3. Extension of the Rejection Sensitivity Construct to the Interpersonal Functioning of Gay Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pachankis, John E.; Goldfried, Marvin R.; Ramrattan, Melissa E.

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of recent evidence suggesting that gay men are particularly likely to fear interpersonal rejection, the authors set out to extend the "rejection sensitivity" construct to the mental health concerns of gay men. After establishing a reliable and valid measure of the gay-related rejection sensitivity construct, the authors use this to…

  4. 47 CFR 1.773 - Petitions for suspension or rejection of new tariff filings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Petitions for suspension or rejection of new... Petitions for suspension or rejection of new tariff filings. (a) Petition—(1) Content. Petitions seeking investigation, suspension, or rejection of a new or revised tariff filing or any provision thereof shall...

  5. 47 CFR 1.773 - Petitions for suspension or rejection of new tariff filings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Petitions for suspension or rejection of new... Petitions for suspension or rejection of new tariff filings. (a) Petition—(1) Content. Petitions seeking investigation, suspension, or rejection of a new or revised tariff filing or any provision thereof shall...

  6. The neural correlates of correctly rejecting lures during memory retrieval: the role of item relatedness.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Caitlin R; Dennis, Nancy A

    2015-06-01

    Successful memory retrieval is predicated not only on recognizing old information, but also on correctly rejecting new information (lures) in order to avoid false memories. Correctly rejecting lures is more difficult when they are perceptually or semantically related to information presented at study as compared to when lures are distinct from previously studied information. This behavioral difference suggests that the cognitive and neural basis of correct rejections differs with respect to the relatedness between lures and studied items. The present study sought to identify neural activity that aids in suppressing false memories by examining the network of brain regions underlying correct rejection of related and unrelated lures. Results showed neural overlap in the right hippocampus and anterior parahippocampal gyrus associated with both related and unrelated correct rejections, indicating that some neural regions support correctly rejecting lures regardless of their semantic/perceptual characteristics. Direct comparisons between related and unrelated correct rejections showed that unrelated correct rejections were associated with greater activity in bilateral middle and inferior temporal cortices, regions that have been associated with categorical processing and semantic labels. Related correct rejections showed greater activation in visual and lateral prefrontal cortices, which have been associated with perceptual processing and retrieval monitoring. Thus, while related and unrelated correct rejections show some common neural correlates, related correct rejections are driven by greater perceptual processing whereas unrelated correct rejections show greater reliance on salient categorical cues to support quick and accurate memory decisions. PMID:25862563

  7. Background level care.

    PubMed

    Pitts, N B

    2009-01-01

    The framework enabled by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System to allow appropriate, patient-centred caries management includes a frequently encountered scenario in which a comprehensive assessment of the teeth and the patient reveals no lesions in need of active preventive or operative care. The issue addressed here is: what background care is appropriate for patients attending a dental practice for routine caries care who, at present, appear to have no active or progressing caries lesions? It is proposed that, in addition to the use of criteria for lesion extent, treatment planning systems should also express the results of lesion assessments in terms of background level care (BLC), preventive treatment options and operative treatment options. The specific treatment options recommended for specific lesions and patients will depend upon a variety of other factors, including lesion activity, monitoring lesion behaviour over time and a range of other prognostic factors. Over recent decades, there has been comparatively little focus on appropriate BLC in a general practice setting. There are a range of issues around the need to support caries prevention and health maintenance from a behavioural and patient-focussed perspective. Even if a patient is deemed to be at low risk of future caries at a particular examination, there is a need for maintenance care. Intrinsic issues which need to be managed for both patients and their caries lesions in this patient group are: (1) the possibility of a change in caries risk status and (2) the impact of incorrect lesion assessments/diagnoses.

  8. The Backgrounds Data Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, W. A.; Gursky, H.; Heckathorn, H. M.; Lucke, R. L.; Berg, S. L.; Dombrowski, E. G.; Kessel, R. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization has created data centers for midcourse, plumes, and backgrounds phenomenologies. The Backgrounds Data Center (BDC) has been designated as the prime archive for data collected by SDIO programs. The BDC maintains a Summary Catalog that contains 'metadata,' that is, information about data, such as when the data were obtained, what the spectral range of the data is, and what region of the Earth or sky was observed. Queries to this catalog result in a listing of all data sets (from all experiments in the Summary Catalog) that satisfy the specified criteria. Thus, the user can identify different experiments that made similar observations and order them from the BDC for analysis. On-site users can use the Science Analysis Facility (SAFE for this purpose. For some programs, the BDC maintains a Program Catalog, which can classify data in as many ways as desired (rather than just by position, time, and spectral range as in the Summary Catalog). For example, data sets could be tagged with such diverse parameters as solar illumination angle, signal level, or the value of a particular spectral ratio, as long as these quantities can be read from the digital record or calculated from it by the ingest program. All unclassified catalogs and unclassified data will be remotely accessible.

  9. Backgrounds Data Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, William A.; Gursky, Herbert; Heckathorn, Harry M.; Lucke, Bob L.; Dorland, Bryan N.; Kessel, R. A.; Berg, S. L.; Dombrowski, E. G.

    1994-09-01

    The Backgrounds Data Center (BDC) is the designated archive for backgrounds data collected by Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) programs, some of which include ultraviolet sensors. Currently, the BDC holds ultraviolet data from the IBSS, UVPI, UVLIM, and FUVCAM sensors. The BDC will also be the prime archive for Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) data and is prepared to negotiate with program managers to handle other datasets. The purpose of the BDC is to make data accessible to users and to assist them in analyzing it. The BDC maintains the Science Catalog Information Exchange System (SCIES) allowing remote users to log in, read or post notices about current programs, search the catalogs for datasets of interest, and submit orders for data. On-site facilities are also available for the analysis of data, and consist of VMS and UNIX workstations with access to software analysis packages such as IDL, IRAF, and Khoros. Either on-site or remotely, users can employ the BDC-developed graphical user interface called the Visual Interface for Space and Terrestrial Analysis (VISTA) to generate catalog queries and to display and analyze data. SCIES and VISTA permit nearly complete access to BDC services and capabilities without the need to be physically present at the data center.

  10. Cosmic microwave background theory.

    PubMed

    Bond, J R

    1998-01-01

    A long-standing goal of theorists has been to constrain cosmological parameters that define the structure formation theory from cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy experiments and large-scale structure (LSS) observations. The status and future promise of this enterprise is described. Current band-powers in -space are consistent with a DeltaT flat in frequency and broadly follow inflation-based expectations. That the levels are approximately (10(-5))2 provides strong support for the gravitational instability theory, while the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) constraints on energy injection rule out cosmic explosions as a dominant source of LSS. Band-powers at 100 suggest that the universe could not have re-ionized too early. To get the LSS of Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE)-normalized fluctuations right provides encouraging support that the initial fluctuation spectrum was not far off the scale invariant form that inflation models prefer: e.g., for tilted Lambda cold dark matter sequences of fixed 13-Gyr age (with the Hubble constant H0 marginalized), ns = 1.17 +/- 0.3 for Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) only; 1.15 +/- 0.08 for DMR plus the SK95 experiment; 1.00 +/- 0.04 for DMR plus all smaller angle experiments; 1.00 +/- 0.05 when LSS constraints are included as well. The CMB alone currently gives weak constraints on Lambda and moderate constraints on Omegatot, but theoretical forecasts of future long duration balloon and satellite experiments are shown which predict percent-level accuracy among a large fraction of the 10+ parameters characterizing the cosmic structure formation theory, at least if it is an inflation variant.

  11. Ultraviolet Background Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, R. C.; Murthy, J.

    1993-12-01

    The UVX experiment was carried on the Space Shuttle Columbia between 1986 January 12 and 19 (STS-61C). Several ultraviolet spectrometers were used to obtain measurements of the diffuse ultraviolet background at 8 locations in the sky. We have reanalysed the UVX measurements of the surface brightness of the diffuse ultraviolet background above b = 40 using the dust-scattering model of Onaka & Kodaira (1991), which explicitly takes into account the variation of the source function with galactic longitude. The range of allowed values of interstellar grain albedoJa, and scattering asymmetry parameter g, is considerably expanded over those of a previous analysis. The new chi square probability contours come close to, but do not include, the values of a and g found for the interstellar grains by Witt et al. (1992) using the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT) on the Astro mission. If we hypothesize in additon to the dust-scattered light an extragalactic component, of 300 1 100 photons cm-2 s-1 sr-1 A-1, attenuated by a cosecant b law, the new reduction of the UVX data gives complete consistency with the Witt et al. determination of the optical parameters of the grains in the ultraviolet. This work was supported by United States Air Force Contract F19628-93-K-0004, and by National Aeronautics and Space Administration grant NASA NAG5-619. We are grateful for the encouragement of Dr. Stephan Price, and we thank Dr. L. Danly for information. Onaka, T., & Kodaira, K. 1991, ApJ, 379, 532 Witt, A. N., Petersohn, J. K., Bohlin, R. C., O'Connell, R. W., Roberts, M. S., Smith, A. M., & Stecher, T. P. 1992, ApJ, 395, L5

  12. Relationship between acceptance of background noise and hearing aid use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabelek, Anna K.; Burchfield, Samuel B.; Webster, Joanna D.

    2003-04-01

    Background noise produces complaints among hearing-aid users, however speech-perception-in-noise does not predict hearing-aid use. It is possible that hearing-aid users are complaining about the presence of background noise and not about speech perception. To test this possibility, acceptance of background noise is being investigated as a predictor of hearing-aid use. Acceptance of background noise is determined by having subjects select their most comfortable listening level (MCL) for a story. Next, speech-babble is added and the subjects select the maximum background noise level (BNL) which is acceptable while listening to and following the story. The difference between the MCL and the BNL is the acceptable noise level (ANL), all in dB. ANLs are being compared with hearing-aid use, subjective impressions of benefit (APHAB), speech perception in background noise (SPIN) scores, and audiometric data. Individuals who accept higher levels of background noise are more successful users than individuals who accept less background noise. Mean ANLs are 7.3 dB for full-time users (N=21), 12.6 dB for part-time users (N=44), and 13.8 dB for rejecters (N=17). ANLs are not related to APHAB, SPIN, or audiometric data. Results for about 120 subjects will be reported. [Work supported by NIDCD (NIH) RO1 DC 05018.

  13. Preliminary evaluation and comparison of atmospheric turbulence rejection performance for infinite and receding horizon control in adaptive optics systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konnik, Mikhail V.; De Dona, Jose

    2014-07-01

    Model-based optimal control such as Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) control has been attracting considerable attention for adaptive optics systems. The ability of LQG to handle the complex dynamics of deformable mirrors and its relatively simple implementation makes LQG attractive for large adaptive optics systems. However, LQG has its own share of drawbacks, such as suboptimal handling of constraints on actuators movements and possible numerical problems in case of fast sampling rate discretization of the corresponding matrices. Unlike LQG, the Receding Horizon Control (RHC) technique provides control signals for a deformable mirror that are optimal within the prescribed constraints. This is achieved by reformulating the control problem as an online optimization problem that is solved at each sampling instance. In the unconstrained case, RHC produces the same control signals as LQG. However, when the control signals reach the constraints of actuator's allowable movement in a deformable mirror, RHC finds the control signals that are optimal within those constraints, rather than just clipping the unconstrained optimum as commonly done in LQG control. The article discusses the consequences of high-gain LQG control operation in the case when the constraints on the actuator's movement are reached. It is shown that clipping / saturating the control signals is not only suboptimal, but may be hazardous for the surface of a deformable mirror. The results of numerical simulations indicate that high-gain LQG control can lead to abrupt changes and spikes in the control signal when saturation occurs. The article further discusses a possible link between high-gain LQG and the waffle mode in the closed-loop operation of astronomical adaptive optics systems. Performance evaluation of Receding Horizon Control in terms of atmospheric disturbance rejection and a comparison with Linear Quadratic Gaussian control are performed. The results of the numerical simulations suggest that the

  14. Beneficiation of limestone plant rejects for value addition.

    PubMed

    Jena, M S; Sahu, P; Dash, P; Mohanty, J K

    2013-11-15

    Investigations were carried out on lime stone rejects (-1mm) generated at a lime stone washing plant in southern India. These rejects contain 12.09% CaO, 2.95% MgO, 10.73% Al2O3, 4.99% Fe2O3, 43.05% SiO2 and 24.92% LOI. Mineralogical studies including SEM-EDAX, XRD, FTIR and TGA were conducted to confirm relative distribution of minerals in the flotation feed and products. These studies revealed that feed sample consists of quartz and calcite as the major minerals with minor amounts of montmorillonite and dolomite whereas flotation concentrate dominantly consists of calcite, and tailings mostly of quartz and montmorillonite. A commercial grade sodium silicate, oleic acid and MIBC were used as depressant, collector and frother respectively in flotation studies. The effects of different operating parameters were evaluated for both conventional and column flotation. Two stage conventional cell flotation results indicate that a cleaner concentrate of 42.50% lime (CaO) content could be obtained at a yield of 15.65%. The lime (CaO) content of the concentrate was further enhanced up to 44.23% at 20.73% yield using single stage column flotation. The column flotation is more efficient in comparison to the conventional cell for treating this sample. A process flowsheet was developed to treat these rejects based on the studies carried out. This process can minimize the waste generation and the concentrate generated during this process can be directly utilized in the Indian cement industries. PMID:24035797

  15. Correlation filter for target detection and noise and clutter rejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goo, Gee-In

    1996-03-01

    This study was motivated by the infrared search and tracking (IRST) project. The investigation seeks to develop a technique that could detect the presence of a moving target in a cloud cluttered environment. Particularly, the signals, noise and clutters are unknown to the system. Thus, the correlation technique for image processing was developed, demonstrating its ability to detect moving targets of one pixel in size such as missiles and planes. A real-time image processor using this correlation technique was implemented. A Panoramic Imaging System, a 512 by 480 image processor at 30 frames per second was demonstrated. The demonstrated imaging system was operating at 120 mops (million operations per second) using an assembly- line processor architecture. The successful investigation of the correlation technique for image processing led to the developments of a correlation filter and the inspiration to develop the generalized filter. From the investigation, the author found that the Kalman filter, the Weiner filter and the correlation filter are special cases of a generalized filter. These filters can be related through a cost function in the constrained gain matrix of a generalized filter. However, in developing the correlation filter and the real-time imager, the correlation filter was observed to be a very effective noise and clutter rejecter and yet a very powerful detector. The filter was successfully applied to detection of pixel sized targets in noisy and cluttered IR images. Also it has been successfully applied to detection of intruders in cluttered, trees and bushes, video and IR images in security systems. This paper presents the derivation of the correlation filter for detection and estimation of unknown signals in unknown noise. Several noise rejection and cluttered rejection examples are presented.

  16. New Monolithic High Solar Rejection EUV Transmission Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury-Frenette, Karl; Renotte, Etienne; Lenaerts, C.; Rossi, Laurence; Jacques, Lionel; Halain, Jean-Philippe; Rochus, Pierre

    A new high solar rejection transmission filter for the extreme UV has been developed for the Solar Orbiter Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUI). To provide enhanced resilience to high thermal load, a monolithic architecture approach has been taken in order to limit the thermal contact resistance between the filtering sub-micron thin film, its supporting mesh, and holding frame. Some aspects of the manufacturing process involving thin film deposition and photolithography will be presented along with optical performance and space environmental test results. New avenues for improving the thermo-optical properties of the filter will also be discussed.

  17. Motivated Rejection of (Climate) Science: Causes, Tools, and Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowsky, S.

    2015-12-01

    Although the relevant scientific community long ago settled on the conclusion that human economic activities are causing climate change through the emission of greenhouse gases, a small but vocal number of dissenters remains unconvinced by the evidence. I examine the cognitive and motivational factors that underlie the rejection of scientific evidence, and I illustrate the techniques by which contrarians seek to shape public debate and mislead the public. I also suggest that contrarian activities have seeped into the scientific community and have arguably altered the interpretation of the risks posed by climate change.

  18. TRC (Texas Railroad Commission) rejects gas storage project financing plans

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-11

    TRC has rejected Valero Transmission Co.'s plan to finance a 5 billion cu ft underground storage facility already under construction in Wharton County, TX. The fee application, dismissed without prejudice to Valero's filing another application, would have added $0.015/1000 cu ft for the first nine years of operation before dropping to $0.014/1000 cu ft in the tenth year. The TRC commissioners decided that the costs underlying this proposed fee schedule were too speculative to be passed on to pipeline customers.

  19. ANALYSIS AND REJECTION SAMPLING OF WRIGHT-FISHER DIFFUSION BRIDGES

    PubMed Central

    Schraiber, Joshua G.; Griffiths, Robert C.; Evans, Steven N.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the properties of a Wright-Fisher diffusion process started from frequency x at time 0 and conditioned to be at frequency y at time T. Such a process is called a bridge. Bridges arise naturally in the analysis of selection acting on standing variation and in the inference of selection from allele frequency time series. We establish a number of results about the distribution of neutral Wright-Fisher bridges and develop a novel rejection sampling scheme for bridges under selection that we use to study their behavior. PMID:24001410

  20. Design and Modeling of a Variable Heat Rejection Radiator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Jennifer R.; Birur, Gajanana C.; Ganapathi, Gani B.; Sunada, Eric T.; Berisford, Daniel F.; Stephan, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Variable Heat Rejection Radiator technology needed for future NASA human rated & robotic missions Primary objective is to enable a single loop architecture for human-rated missions (1) Radiators are typically sized for maximum heat load in the warmest continuous environment resulting in a large panel area (2) Large radiator area results in fluid being susceptible to freezing at low load in cold environment and typically results in a two-loop system (3) Dual loop architecture is approximately 18% heavier than single loop architecture (based on Orion thermal control system mass) (4) Single loop architecture requires adaptability to varying environments and heat loads

  1. Inertial-space disturbance rejection for robotic manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Kevin

    1992-01-01

    The disturbance rejection control problem for a 6-DOF (degree of freedom) PUMA manipulator mounted on a 3-DOF platform is investigated. A control algorithm is designed to track the desired position and attitude of the end-effector in inertial space, subject to unknown disturbances in the platform axes. Conditions for the stability of the closed-loop system are derived. The performance of the controller is compared for step, sinusoidal, and random disturbances in the platform rotational axis and in the neighborhood of kinematic singularities.

  2. Disturbance Rejection Based Test Rocket Control System Design and Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, H.; Zhang, S.; Li, T.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a novel design and validation for the three-channel attitude controller of a STT test rocket based on the extended state observer approach. The uniform second order integral-chain state space model is firstly established for the control variable of the angle of attack, angle of sideslip and roll angle. Combined with the pole placement, the extended state observer is applied to the disturbance rejection design of the attitude controller. Through numerical and hardware-in-the-loop simulation with uncertainties considered, the effectiveness and robustness of the controller are illustrated and verified. Finally, the performance of the controller is validated by flight-test with satisfactory results.

  3. Thermal storage for industrial process and reject heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duscha, R. A.; Masica, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Industrial production uses about 40 percent of the total energy consumed in the United States. The major share of this is derived from fossil fuel. Potential savings of scarce fuel is possible through the use of thermal energy storage (TES) of reject or process heat for subsequent use. Three especially significant industries where high temperature TES appears attractive - paper and pulp, iron and steel, and cement are discussed. Potential annual fuel savings, with large scale implementation of near-term TES systems for these three industries, is nearly 9,000,000 bbl of oil.

  4. Thermal storage for industrial process and reject heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duscha, R. A.; Masica, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Industrial production uses about 40% of the total energy consumed in the United States. The major share of this is derived from fossil fuel. Potential savings of scarce fuel is possible through the use of thermal energy storage (TES) of reject or process heat for subsequent use. Results of study contracts awarded by the Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by the NASA Lewis Research Center have identified three especially significant industries where high temperature TES appears attractive - paper and pulp, iron and steel, and cement. Potential annual fuel savings with large scale implementation of near-term TES systems for these three industries is nearly 9 million bbl of oil.

  5. PD1-Expressing T Cell Subsets Modify the Rejection Risk in Renal Transplant Patients

    PubMed Central

    Pike, Rebecca; Thomas, Niclas; Workman, Sarita; Ambrose, Lyn; Guzman, David; Sivakumaran, Shivajanani; Johnson, Margaret; Thorburn, Douglas; Harber, Mark; Chain, Benny; Stauss, Hans J.

    2016-01-01

    We tested whether multi-parameter immune phenotyping before or after renal ­transplantation can predict the risk of rejection episodes. Blood samples collected before and weekly for 3 months after transplantation were analyzed by multi-parameter flow cytometry to define 52 T cell and 13 innate lymphocyte subsets in each sample, producing more than 11,000 data points that defined the immune status of the 28 patients included in this study. Principle component analysis suggested that the patients with histologically confirmed rejection episodes segregated from those without rejection. Protein death 1 (PD-1)-expressing subpopulations of regulatory and conventional T cells had the greatest influence on the principal component segregation. We constructed a statistical tool to predict rejection using a support vector machine algorithm. The algorithm correctly identified 7 out of 9 patients with rejection, and 14 out of 17 patients without rejection. The immune profile before transplantation was most accurate in determining the risk of rejection, while changes of immune parameters after transplantation were less accurate in discriminating rejection from non-rejection. The data indicate that pretransplant immune subset analysis has the potential to identify patients at risk of developing rejection episodes, and suggests that the proportion of PD1-expressing T cell subsets may be a key indicator of rejection risk. PMID:27148254

  6. An approach of reducing the background induced by neutrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, C.; Gu, Y.; Sun, Y.; Ma, Y.; Dai, C.; Fan, Z.

    1985-01-01

    The background induced by interactions of neutrons with detector material (and shield material) is difficult to be rejected. It is one of the most important factors to affect the sensitivity of a balloon-borne gamma-ray astronomical telescope. The main component of neutron flux at the major detector of the telescope is incident neutrons, that consists of atmospheric neutrons and neutrons locally produced in the balloon platform. Therefore, shielding the detector from incident neutrons is a possible way to reduce the background. NaI (T1) crystal is very widely used in gamma-ray astronomical telescopes. Through balloon-borne experiment it is shown that up 6 LiF shield is effective to reduce the background in NaI crystal.

  7. Genetical background of intelligence.

    PubMed

    Junkiert-Czarnecka, Anna; Haus, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Intelligence as an ability to reason, think abstractly and adapt effectively to the environment is a subject of research in the field of psychology, neurobiology, and in the last twenty years genetics as well. Genetical testing of twins carried out from XX century indicated heritebility of intelligence, therefore confirmed an influence of genetic factor on cognitive processes. Studies on genetic background of intelligence focus on dopaminergic (DRD2, DRD4, COMT, SLC6A3, DAT1, CCKAR) and adrenergic system (ADRB2, CHRM2) genes as well as, neutrofins (BDNF) and oxidative stress genes (LTF, PRNP). Positive effect of investigated gene polymorphism was indicated by variation c.957C>T DRD2 gene (if in polymorphic site is thymine), polymorphism c.472G>A COMT gene (presence of adenine) and also gene ADRB2 c.46A->G (guanine), CHRM2 (thymine in place c.1890A>T) and BDNF (guanine in place c.472G>A) Obtained results indicate that intelligence is a feature dependent not only on genetic but also an environmental factor. PMID:27333929

  8. The cosmic background explorer

    SciTech Connect

    Gulkis, G. ); Lubin, P.M. ); Meyer, S.S. ); Silverberg, R.F.

    1990-01-01

    Late last year the National Aeronautics and Space Administration launched its first satellite dedicated to the study of phenomena related to the origins of the universe. The satellite, called the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE), carries three complementary detectors that will make fundamental measurements of the celestial radiation. Part of that radiation is believed to have originated in processes that occurred at the very dawn of the universe. By measuring the remnant radiation at wavelengths from one micrometer to one centimeter across the entire sky, scientists hope to be able to solve many mysteries regarding the origin and evolution of the early universe. Unfortunately, these radiative relics of the early universe are weak and veiled by local astrophysical and terrestrial sources of radiation. The wavelengths of the various cosmic components may also overlap, thereby making the understanding of the diffuse celestial radiation a challenge. Nevertheless, the COBE instruments, with their full-sky coverage, high sensitivity to a wide range of wavelengths and freedom from interference from the earth's atmosphere, will constitute for astrophysicists an observatory of unprecedented sensitivity and scope. The interesting cosmic signals will then be separated from one another and from noncosmic radiation sources by a comprehensive analysis of the data.

  9. Biological aerosol background characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blatny, Janet; Fountain, Augustus W., III

    2011-05-01

    To provide useful information during military operations, or as part of other security situations, a biological aerosol detector has to respond within seconds or minutes to an attack by virulent biological agents, and with low false alarms. Within this time frame, measuring virulence of a known microorganism is extremely difficult, especially if the microorganism is of unknown antigenic or nucleic acid properties. Measuring "live" characteristics of an organism directly is not generally an option, yet only viable organisms are potentially infectious. Fluorescence based instruments have been designed to optically determine if aerosol particles have viability characteristics. Still, such commercially available biological aerosol detection equipment needs to be improved for their use in military and civil applications. Air has an endogenous population of microorganisms that may interfere with alarm software technologies. To design robust algorithms, a comprehensive knowledge of the airborne biological background content is essential. For this reason, there is a need to study ambient live bacterial populations in as many locations as possible. Doing so will permit collection of data to define diverse biological characteristics that in turn can be used to fine tune alarm algorithms. To avoid false alarms, improving software technologies for biological detectors is a crucial feature requiring considerations of various parameters that can be applied to suppress alarm triggers. This NATO Task Group will aim for developing reference methods for monitoring biological aerosol characteristics to improve alarm algorithms for biological detection. Additionally, they will focus on developing reference standard methodology for monitoring biological aerosol characteristics to reduce false alarm rates.

  10. Sugar or spice: Using I3 metatheory to understand how and why glucose reduces rejection-related aggression.

    PubMed

    Pfundmair, Michaela; DeWall, C Nathan; Fries, Veronika; Geiger, Babette; Krämer, Tanya; Krug, Sebastian; Frey, Dieter; Aydin, Nilüfer

    2015-01-01

    Social rejection can increase aggression, especially among people high in rejection sensitivity. Rejection impairs self-control, and deficits in self-control often result in aggression. A dose of glucose can counteract the effect of situational factors that undermine self-control. But no research has integrated these literatures to understand why rejection increases aggression, and how to reduce it. Using the I(3) model of aggression, we proposed that aggression would be highest under conditions of high instigation (rejection), high impellance (high rejection sensitivity), and low inhibition (drinking a beverage sweetened with a sugar substitute instead of glucose). As predicted, aggression was highest among participants who experienced social rejection, were high in rejection sensitivity, and drank a placebo beverage. A dose of glucose reduced aggression, especially among rejected people high in rejection sensitivity. These findings point to the importance of self-control in understanding why social rejection increases aggression, and how to prevent it.

  11. Rejection as a call to arms: inter-racial hostility and support for political action as outcomes of race-based rejection in majority and minority groups.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Fiona Kate; Sibley, Chris G; Hornsey, Matthew J

    2012-03-01

    Both majority and minority group members fear race-based rejection, and respond by disparaging the groups that they expect will reject them. It is not clear, however, how this process differs in minority and majority groups. Using large representative samples of White (N= 4,618) and Māori (N= 1,163) New Zealanders, we found that perceptions of race-based rejection predicted outgroup negativity in both groups, but in different ways and for different reasons. For White (but not Māori) New Zealanders, increased intergroup anxiety partially mediated the relationship between cognitions of rejection and outgroup negativity. Māori who expected to be rejected on the basis of their race reported increased ethnic identification and, in part through this, increased support for political action benefiting their own group. This finding supports collective-action models of social change in historically disadvantaged minority groups.

  12. Design of polyelectrolyte multilayer membranes for ion rejection and wastewater effluent treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanyal, Oishi

    Polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) membranes present a special class of nanostructured membranes which have potential applications in a variety of water treatment operations. These membranes are fabricated by the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of alternately charged polyelectrolytes on commercial membrane surfaces. A large variety of polyelectrolytes and their varied deposition conditions (pH, number of bilayers etc.) allow very fine tuning of the membrane performance in terms of permeability and rejection. The first part of this thesis is about the application of PEM membranes to the removal of perchlorate ion from water. Being a monovalent ion, it is most effectively removed by a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane. However, these membranes inherently have very low fluxes which lead to high pressure requirements. In our work, we modified the surface of a nanofiltration (NF) membrane by the LbL assembly of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes. The appropriate tuning of the LbL conditions led to the development of a membrane with significantly higher flux than RO membranes but with equivalent perchlorate rejection. This was one of the best trade-offs offered by PEM membranes for monovalent ion rejection as has been reported in literature so far. While PEM membranes have mostly shown great potential in ion-rejection studies, they have seldom been tested for real wastewater effluents. The second part of this thesis, therefore, deals with evaluating the applicability of PEM membranes to treating an electrocoagulation (EC)-treated high strength wastewater. Two types of very commonly used polyelectrolyte combinations were tried out -- one of which was an ionically crosslinked system and the other one was covalently crosslinked. Both the types of PEM membranes showed a high level of COD reduction from the feed stream with higher fluxes than commercial RO membranes. One major challenge in using membranes for wastewater treatment is their fouling propensity. Like many other

  13. Salt rejection and water transport through boron nitride nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Hilder, Tamsyn A; Gordon, Daniel; Chung, Shin-Ho

    2009-10-01

    Nanotube-based water-purification devices have the potential to transform the field of desalination and demineralization through their ability to remove salts and heavy metals without significantly affecting the fast flow of water molecules. Boron nitride nanotubes have shown superior water flow properties compared to carbon nanotubes, and are thus expected to provide a more efficient water purification device. Using molecular dynamics simulations it is shown that a (5, 5) boron nitride nanotube embedded in a silicon nitride membrane can, in principle, obtain 100% salt rejection at concentrations as high as 1 M owing to a high energy barrier while still allowing water molecules to flow at a rate as high as 10.7 water molecules per nanosecond (or 0.9268 L m(-2) h(-1)). Furthermore, ions continue to be rejected under the influence of high hydrostatic pressures up to 612 MPa. When the nanotube radius is increased to 4.14 A the tube becomes cation-selective, and at 5.52 A the tube becomes anion-selective. PMID:19582727

  14. Shotgun Proteomics Identifies Proteins Specific for Acute Renal Transplant Rejection

    SciTech Connect

    Sigdel, Tara K.; Kaushal, Amit; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Norbeck, Angela D.; Qian, Weijun; Xiao, Wenzhong; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Sarwal, Minnie M.

    2010-01-04

    Acute rejection (AR) remains the primary risk factor for renal transplant outcome; development of non-invasive diagnostic biomarkers for AR is an unmet need. We used shotgun proteomics using LC-MS/MS and ELISA to analyze a set of 92 urine samples, from patients with AR, stable grafts (STA), proteinuria (NS), and healthy controls (HC). A total of 1446 urinary proteins were identified along with a number of NS specific, renal transplantation specific and AR specific proteins. Relative abundance of identified urinary proteins was measured by protein-level spectral counts adopting a weighted fold-change statistic, assigning increased weight for more frequently observed proteins. We have identified alterations in a number of specific urinary proteins in AR, primarily relating to MHC antigens, the complement cascade and extra-cellular matrix proteins. A subset of proteins (UMOD, SERPINF1 and CD44), have been further cross-validated by ELISA in an independent set of urine samples, for significant differences in the abundance of these urinary proteins in AR. This label-free, semi-quantitative approach for sampling the urinary proteome in normal and disease states provides a robust and sensitive method for detection of urinary proteins for serial, non-invasive clinical monitoring for graft rejection after

  15. Rejection and indirect revascularization of glycerin-preserved tracheal implant.

    PubMed

    Saueressig, Maurício G; Moreschi, Alexandre H; Barbosa, Gilberto V; Edelweiss, Maria I A; de Souza, Felipe H; Savegnago, Fabrício L; de Macedo Neto, Amarílio V

    2003-09-01

    The objective of the following study was to evaluate antigenicity, malacia and revascularization in glycerin-preserved canine tracheal allografts. Trachea with six cartilage rings (2.4 to 3.1 cm) were distributed in three study groups: autograft (21), allograft (18) and glycerin-preserved (22). We implanted two segments from different groups in the greater omentum of dogs. After 28 days, latex was injected in the canine aorta before the segments were harvested. We evaluated number of sectors with functional vessels, number of vessels dyed in the submucosa, acute arteritis score, incidence of acute rejection, cartilage lesion score, and malacia. The autograft group had a larger number of dyed vessels than the glycerin-preserved group. The autograft group also had a higher average number of quadrants with functional vessels than the allograft group and the glycerin-preserved group. The allograft group had a higher mean score for acute arteritis than the autograft group and more acute rejection than the glycerin-preserved group. The cartilage lesion score did not show any significant difference between groups. Malacia was not observed in any tracheal segment. Overall, the glycerin-preserved tracheal implant had low antigenicity and good rigidity, but showed incomplete revascularization.

  16. Heat pipe heat rejection system. [for electrical batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroliczek, E. J.

    1976-01-01

    A prototype of a battery heat rejection system was developed which uses heat pipes for more efficient heat removal and for temperature control of the cells. The package consists of five thermal mock-ups of 100 amp-hr prismatic cells. Highly conductive spacers fabricated from honeycomb panels into which heat pipes are embedded transport the heat generated by the cells to the edge of the battery. From there it can be either rejected directly to a cold plate or the heat flow can be controlled by means of two variable conductance heat pipes. The thermal resistance between the interior of the cells and the directly attached cold plate was measured to be 0.08 F/Watt for the 5-cell battery. Compared to a conductive aluminum spacer of equal weight the honeycomb/heat pipe spacer has approximately one-fifth of the thermal resistance. In addition, the honeycomb/heat pipe spacer virtually eliminates temperature gradients along the cells.

  17. Role of complement and NK cells in antibody mediated rejection.

    PubMed

    Akiyoshi, Takurin; Hirohashi, Tsutomu; Alessandrini, Alessandro; Chase, Catherine M; Farkash, Evan A; Neal Smith, R; Madsen, Joren C; Russell, Paul S; Colvin, Robert B

    2012-12-01

    Despite extensive research on T cells and potent immunosuppressive regimens that target cellular mediated rejection, few regimens have been proved to be effective on antibody-mediated rejection (AMR), particularly in the chronic setting. C4d deposition in the graft has been proved to be a useful marker for AMR; however, there is an imperfect association between C4d and AMR. While complement has been considered as the main player in acute AMR, the effector mechanisms in chronic AMR are still debated. Recent studies support the role of NK cells and direct effects of antibody on endothelium cells in a mechanism suggesting the presence of a complement-independent pathway. Here, we review the history, currently available systems and progress in experimental animal research. Although there are consistent findings from human and animal research, transposing the experimental results from rodent to human has been hampered by the differences in endothelial functions between species. We briefly describe the findings from patients and compare them with results from animals, to propose a combined perspective.

  18. Salt rejection and water transport through boron nitride nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Hilder, Tamsyn A; Gordon, Daniel; Chung, Shin-Ho

    2009-10-01

    Nanotube-based water-purification devices have the potential to transform the field of desalination and demineralization through their ability to remove salts and heavy metals without significantly affecting the fast flow of water molecules. Boron nitride nanotubes have shown superior water flow properties compared to carbon nanotubes, and are thus expected to provide a more efficient water purification device. Using molecular dynamics simulations it is shown that a (5, 5) boron nitride nanotube embedded in a silicon nitride membrane can, in principle, obtain 100% salt rejection at concentrations as high as 1 M owing to a high energy barrier while still allowing water molecules to flow at a rate as high as 10.7 water molecules per nanosecond (or 0.9268 L m(-2) h(-1)). Furthermore, ions continue to be rejected under the influence of high hydrostatic pressures up to 612 MPa. When the nanotube radius is increased to 4.14 A the tube becomes cation-selective, and at 5.52 A the tube becomes anion-selective.

  19. Automatic misclassification rejection for LDA classifier using ROC curves.

    PubMed

    Menon, Radhika; Di Caterina, Gaetano; Lakany, Heba; Petropoulakis, Lykourgos; Conway, Bernard A; Soraghan, John J

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a technique to improve the performance of an LDA classifier by determining if the predicted classification output is a misclassification and thereby rejecting it. This is achieved by automatically computing a class specific threshold with the help of ROC curves. If the posterior probability of a prediction is below the threshold, the classification result is discarded. This method of minimizing false positives is beneficial in the control of electromyography (EMG) based upper-limb prosthetic devices. It is hypothesized that a unique EMG pattern is associated with a specific hand gesture. In reality, however, EMG signals are difficult to distinguish, particularly in the case of multiple finger motions, and hence classifiers are trained to recognize a set of individual gestures. However, it is imperative that misclassifications be avoided because they result in unwanted prosthetic arm motions which are detrimental to device controllability. This warrants the need for the proposed technique wherein a misclassified gesture prediction is rejected resulting in no motion of the prosthetic arm. The technique was tested using surface EMG data recorded from thirteen amputees performing seven hand gestures. Results show the number of misclassifications was effectively reduced, particularly in cases with low original classification accuracy.

  20. fMRI artefact rejection and sleep scoring toolbox.

    PubMed

    Leclercq, Yves; Schrouff, Jessica; Noirhomme, Quentin; Maquet, Pierre; Phillips, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    We started writing the "fMRI artefact rejection and sleep scoring toolbox", or "FAST", to process our sleep EEG-fMRI data, that is, the simultaneous recording of electroencephalographic and functional magnetic resonance imaging data acquired while a subject is asleep. FAST tackles three crucial issues typical of this kind of data: (1) data manipulation (viewing, comparing, chunking, etc.) of long continuous M/EEG recordings, (2) rejection of the fMRI-induced artefact in the EEG signal, and (3) manual sleep-scoring of the M/EEG recording. Currently, the toolbox can efficiently deal with these issues via a GUI, SPM8 batching system or hand-written script. The tools developed are, of course, also useful for other EEG applications, for example, involving simultaneous EEG-fMRI acquisition, continuous EEG eye-balling, and manipulation. Even though the toolbox was originally devised for EEG data, it will also gracefully handle MEG data without any problem. "FAST" is developed in Matlab as an add-on toolbox for SPM8 and, therefore, internally uses its SPM8-meeg data format. "FAST" is available for free, under the

  1. Nationalism and patriotism: national identification and out-group rejection.

    PubMed

    Mummendey, A; Klink, A; Brown, R

    2001-06-01

    It is argued that the differentiation between nationalism and patriotism proposed in the literature can be seen as analogous to judgments based on different types of comparisons: intergroup comparisons with other nations are associated with intergroup behaviour that corresponds to nationalism, whereas temporal or standard comparisons are linked with behaviour that corresponds to patriotism. Four studies (N = 103, 107, 96 and 105) conducted in Germany and Britain examined the hypothesis that national identification and in-group evaluation only show a reliable relationship with out-group rejection under an intergroup comparison orientation. Participants were primed with either an intergroup comparison, a temporal comparison or no explicit comparison orientation. A subsequent questionnaire assessed in-group (own country) identification, in-group evaluation (i.e. national pride) and rejection of national out-groups. Across all four studies, both in-group identification and in-group evaluation show a stronger correlation with out-group derogation if participants were primed with an intergroup comparison orientation compared to temporal and control conditions. Results are discussed with regard to nationalism and patriotism as well as Hinkle and Brown's (1990) model on relational vs. autonomous orientations.

  2. Rejection and indirect revascularization of glycerin-preserved tracheal implant.

    PubMed

    Saueressig, Maurício G; Moreschi, Alexandre H; Barbosa, Gilberto V; Edelweiss, Maria I A; de Souza, Felipe H; Savegnago, Fabrício L; de Macedo Neto, Amarílio V

    2003-09-01

    The objective of the following study was to evaluate antigenicity, malacia and revascularization in glycerin-preserved canine tracheal allografts. Trachea with six cartilage rings (2.4 to 3.1 cm) were distributed in three study groups: autograft (21), allograft (18) and glycerin-preserved (22). We implanted two segments from different groups in the greater omentum of dogs. After 28 days, latex was injected in the canine aorta before the segments were harvested. We evaluated number of sectors with functional vessels, number of vessels dyed in the submucosa, acute arteritis score, incidence of acute rejection, cartilage lesion score, and malacia. The autograft group had a larger number of dyed vessels than the glycerin-preserved group. The autograft group also had a higher average number of quadrants with functional vessels than the allograft group and the glycerin-preserved group. The allograft group had a higher mean score for acute arteritis than the autograft group and more acute rejection than the glycerin-preserved group. The cartilage lesion score did not show any significant difference between groups. Malacia was not observed in any tracheal segment. Overall, the glycerin-preserved tracheal implant had low antigenicity and good rigidity, but showed incomplete revascularization. PMID:14514556

  3. Implementation and Rejection of Industrial Steam System Energy Efficiency Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Therkelesen, Peter; McKane, Aimee

    2013-05-01

    Steam systems consume approximately one third of energy applied at U.S. industrial facilities. To reduce energy consumption, steam system energy assessments have been conducted on a wide range of industry types over the course of five years through the Energy Savings Assessment (ESA) program administered by the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE). ESA energy assessments result in energy efficiency measure recommendations that are given potential energy and energy cost savings and potential implementation cost values. Saving and cost metrics that measure the impact recommended measures will have at facilities, described as percentages of facility baseline energy and energy cost, are developed from ESA data and used in analyses. Developed savings and cost metrics are examined along with implementation and rejection rates of recommended steam system energy efficiency measures. Based on analyses, implementation of steam system energy efficiency measures is driven primarily by cost metrics: payback period and measure implementation cost as a percentage of facility baseline energy cost (implementation cost percentage). Stated reasons for rejecting recommended measures are primarily based upon economic concerns. Additionally, implementation rates of measures are not only functions of savings and cost metrics, but time as well.

  4. Aire deficiency promotes TRP-1-specific immune rejection of melanoma.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Meng-Lei; Nagavalli, Anil; Su, Maureen A

    2013-04-01

    The thymic transcription factor autoimmune regulator (Aire) prevents autoimmunity in part by promoting expression of tissue-specific self-antigens, which include many cancer antigens. For example, AIRE-deficient patients are predisposed to vitiligo, an autoimmune disease of melanocytes that is often triggered by efficacious immunotherapies against melanoma. Therefore, we hypothesized that Aire deficiency in mice may elevate immune responses to cancer and provide insights into how such responses might be triggered. In this study, we show that Aire deficiency decreases thymic expression of TRP-1 (TYRP1), which is a self-antigen in melanocytes and a cancer antigen in melanomas. Aire deficiency resulted in defective negative selection of TRP-1-specific T cells without affecting thymic numbers of regulatory T cells. Aire-deficient mice displayed elevated T-cell immune responses that were associated with suppression of melanoma outgrowth. Furthermore, transplantation of Aire-deficient thymic stroma was sufficient to confer more effective immune rejection of melanoma in an otherwise Aire wild-type host. Together, our work showed how Aire deficiency can enhance immune responses against melanoma and how manipulating TRP-1-specific T-cell negative selection may offer a logical strategy to enhance immune rejection of melanoma.

  5. Background sources in optical communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, V. A.

    1983-01-01

    The characterization and measurement of background radiation relevant to optical communications system performance is addressed. The necessary optical receiver parameters are described, and radiometric concepts required for the calculation of collected background power are developed. The most important components of optical background power are discussed, and their contribution to the total collected background power in various communications scenarios is examined.

  6. Combining test statistics and models in bootstrapped model rejection: it is a balancing act

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Model rejections lie at the heart of systems biology, since they provide conclusive statements: that the corresponding mechanistic assumptions do not serve as valid explanations for the experimental data. Rejections are usually done using e.g. the chi-square test (χ2) or the Durbin-Watson test (DW). Analytical formulas for the corresponding distributions rely on assumptions that typically are not fulfilled. This problem is partly alleviated by the usage of bootstrapping, a computationally heavy approach to calculate an empirical distribution. Bootstrapping also allows for a natural extension to estimation of joint distributions, but this feature has so far been little exploited. Results We herein show that simplistic combinations of bootstrapped tests, like the max or min of the individual p-values, give inconsistent, i.e. overly conservative or liberal, results. A new two-dimensional (2D) approach based on parametric bootstrapping, on the other hand, is found both consistent and with a higher power than the individual tests, when tested on static and dynamic examples where the truth is known. In the same examples, the most superior test is a 2D χ2vsχ2, where the second χ2-value comes from an additional help model, and its ability to describe bootstraps from the tested model. This superiority is lost if the help model is too simple, or too flexible. If a useful help model is found, the most powerful approach is the bootstrapped log-likelihood ratio (LHR). We show that this is because the LHR is one-dimensional, because the second dimension comes at a cost, and because LHR has retained most of the crucial information in the 2D distribution. These approaches statistically resolve a previously published rejection example for the first time. Conclusions We have shown how to, and how not to, combine tests in a bootstrap setting, when the combination is advantageous, and when it is advantageous to include a second model. These results also provide a deeper

  7. Refrigeration Playbook. Heat Reclaim; Optimizing Heat Rejection and Refrigeration Heat Reclaim for Supermarket Energy Conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Reis, Chuck; Nelson, Eric; Armer, James; Johnson, Tim; Hirsch, Adam; Doebber, Ian

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this playbook and accompanying spreadsheets is to generalize the detailed CBP analysis and to put tools in the hands of experienced refrigeration designers to evaluate multiple applications of refrigeration waste heat reclaim across the United States. Supermarkets with large portfolios of similar buildings can use these tools to assess the impact of large-scale implementation of heat reclaim systems. In addition, the playbook provides best practices for implementing heat reclaim systems to achieve the best long-term performance possible. It includes guidance on operations and maintenance as well as measurement and verification.

  8. Split radiator design for heat rejection optimization for a waste heat recovery system

    DOEpatents

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

    2016-10-18

    A cooling system provides improved heat recovery by providing a split core radiator for both engine cooling and condenser cooling for a Rankine cycle (RC). The cooling system includes a radiator having a first cooling core portion and a second cooling core portion. An engine cooling loop is fluidly connected the second cooling core portion. A condenser of an RC has a cooling loop fluidly connected to the first cooling core portion. A valve is provided between the engine cooling loop and the condenser cooling loop adjustably control the flow of coolant in the condenser cooling loop into the engine cooling loop. The cooling system includes a controller communicatively coupled to the valve and adapted to determine a load requirement for the internal combustion engine and adjust the valve in accordance with the engine load requirement.

  9. Relational victimization, loneliness and depressive symptoms: indirect associations via self and peer reports of rejection sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Trevaskis, Sarah; Nesdale, Drew; Downey, Geraldine A

    2014-04-01

    Theory suggests that aversive social experiences generate emotional maladjustment because they prompt the development of a hypersensitivity to perceiving and overreacting to rejection. The primary aim of this study was to test hypothesized direct and indirect (via rejection sensitivity) links of overt/relational victimization and friendship conflict with early adolescents' loneliness and depressive symptoms. Participants were 366 Australian early adolescents age 10-14 years (50.5 % girls). Using both a self-report and peer-report measure of rejection sensitivity, no difference was found when comparing the significant correlations of each measure with loneliness and depressive symptoms. Tests of direct and indirect associations with structural equation modeling showed that adolescents higher in relational victimization reported more loneliness and depressive symptoms and part of this association was by way of their greater self-reports of rejection sensitivity and their peers' identification that they were higher in rejection sensitivity. Additionally, relational victimization was the only unique correlate of emotional maladjustment, and adolescents who reported more overt victimization were identified by their peers as higher in rejection sensitivity. Finally, gender and rejection sensitivity were tested as moderators. No gender moderation was found, but friendship conflict was associated more strongly with emotional maladjustment for adolescents low, rather than high, in rejection sensitivity. These findings identify relational victimization as particularly salient for emotional maladjustment both directly and indirectly via links with elevated rejection sensitivity. They show how rejection sensitivity and aversive experiences may contribute independently and jointly to emotional maladjustment for both boys and girls.

  10. Extension of the rejection sensitivity construct to the interpersonal functioning of gay men.

    PubMed

    Pachankis, John E; Goldfried, Marvin R; Ramrattan, Melissa E

    2008-04-01

    On the basis of recent evidence suggesting that gay men are particularly likely to fear interpersonal rejection, the authors set out to extend the rejection sensitivity construct to the mental health concerns of gay men. After establishing a reliable and valid measure of the gay-related rejection sensitivity construct, the authors use this to test the mediating effect of internalized homophobia on the relationship between parental rejection of one's sexual orientation and sensitivity to future gay-related rejection. The present data support this mediational model and also establish rejection sensitivity's unique contribution to unassertive interpersonal behavior in the context of internalized homophobia and parental rejection. The authors conclude that gay-related rejection sensitivity is a useful construct for clinicians working with gay men given the impact that past gay-related rejection can have on their gay clients' present cognitive-affective-behavioral functioning. The authors discuss the possibility of revising rejection-prone schemas in clinical work with gay men. Future research is necessary to further examine the internal processing and interpersonal functioning of gay men by using existing constructs (or modifications of them) that are likely to be particularly relevant to the unique concerns of this population. PMID:18377126

  11. A common rejection module (CRM) for acute rejection across multiple organs identifies novel therapeutics for organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Purvesh; Roedder, Silke; Kimura, Naoyuki; De Vusser, Katrien; Morgan, Alexander A; Gong, Yongquan; Fischbein, Michael P; Robbins, Robert C; Naesens, Maarten; Butte, Atul J; Sarwal, Minnie M

    2013-10-21

    Using meta-analysis of eight independent transplant datasets (236 graft biopsy samples) from four organs, we identified a common rejection module (CRM) consisting of 11 genes that were significantly overexpressed in acute rejection (AR) across all transplanted organs. The CRM genes could diagnose AR with high specificity and sensitivity in three additional independent cohorts (794 samples). In another two independent cohorts (151 renal transplant biopsies), the CRM genes correlated with the extent of graft injury and predicted future injury to a graft using protocol biopsies. Inferred drug mechanisms from the literature suggested that two FDA-approved drugs (atorvastatin and dasatinib), approved for nontransplant indications, could regulate specific CRM genes and reduce the number of graft-infiltrating cells during AR. We treated mice with HLA-mismatched mouse cardiac transplant with atorvastatin and dasatinib and showed reduction of the CRM genes, significant reduction of graft-infiltrating cells, and extended graft survival. We further validated the beneficial effect of atorvastatin on graft survival by retrospective analysis of electronic medical records of a single-center cohort of 2,515 renal transplant patients followed for up to 22 yr. In conclusion, we identified a CRM in transplantation that provides new opportunities for diagnosis, drug repositioning, and rational drug design.

  12. The efficiency of reading around learned backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckstein, Miguel P.; Pham, Binh T.; Abbey, Craig K.; Zhang, Yani

    2006-03-01

    Most metrics of medical image quality typically treat all variability components of the background as a Gaussian noise process. This includes task based model observers (non-prewhitening matched filter without and with an eye filter, NPW and NPWE; Hotelling and Channelized Hotelling) as well as Fourier metrics of medical image quality based on the noise power spectra. However, many investigators have observed that unlike many of the models/metrics, physicians often can discount signal-looking structures that are part of the normal anatomic background. This process has been referred to as reading around the background or noise. The purpose of this paper is to develop an experimental framework to systematically study the ability of human observers to read around learned backgrounds and compare their ability to that of an optimal ideal observer which has knowledge of the background. We measured human localization performance of one of twelve targets in the presence of a fixed background consisting of randomly placed Gaussians with random contrasts and sizes, and white noise. Performance was compared to a condition in which the test images contained only white noise but with higher contrast. Human performance was compared to standard model observers that treat the background as a Gaussian noise process (NPW, NPWE and Hotelling), a Fourier-based prewhitening matched filter, and an ideal observer. The Hotelling, NPW, NPWE models as well as the Fourier-based prewhitening matched filter predicted higher performance for the white noise test images than the background plus white noise. In contrast, ideal and human performance was higher for the background plus white noise condition. Furthermore, human performance exceeded that of the NPW, NPWE and Hotelling models and reached an efficiency of 19% relative to the ideal observer. Our results demonstrate that for some types of images human signal localization performance is consistent with use of knowledge about the high order

  13. What Protects Rejected Adolescents from Also Being Bullied by Their Peers? The Moderating Role of Peer-Valued Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knack, Jennifer M.; Tsar, Vasilinka; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Hymel, Shelley; McDougall, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents rejected by peers are often targets of bullying. However, peer rejection is not a sure path to victimization. We examined whether characteristics valued by peers (i.e., attractiveness, wealth, academic, and athletic ability) moderated the relationship between peer rejection and victimization. We predicted rejected adolescents high on…

  14. Independent component analysis for underwater lidar clutter rejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illig, David W.; Jemison, William D.; Mullen, Linda J.

    2016-05-01

    This work demonstrates a new statistical approach towards backscatter "clutter" rejection for continuous-wave underwater lidar systems: independent component analysis. Independent component analysis is a statistical signal processing technique which can separate a return of interest from clutter in a statistical domain. After highlighting the statistical processing concepts, we demonstrate that underwater lidar target and backscatter returns have very different distributions, facilitating their separation in a statistical domain. Example profiles are provided showing the results of this separation, and ranging experiment results are presented. In the ranging experiment, performance is compared to a more conventional frequency-domain filtering approach. Target tracking is maintained to 14.5 attenuation lengths in the laboratory test tank environment, a 2.5 attenuation length improvement over the baseline.

  15. Air-core grid for scattered x-ray rejection

    DOEpatents

    Logan, C.M.; Lane, S.M.

    1995-10-03

    The invention is directed to a grid used in x-ray imaging applications to block scattered radiation while allowing the desired imaging radiation to pass through, and to process for making the grid. The grid is composed of glass containing lead oxide, and eliminates the spacer material used in prior known grids, and is therefore, an air-core grid. The glass is arranged in a pattern so that a large fraction of the area is open allowing the imaging radiation to pass through. A small pore size is used and the grid has a thickness chosen to provide high scatter rejection. For example, the grid may be produced with a 200 {micro}m pore size, 80% open area, and 4 mm thickness. 2 figs.

  16. [Immunosuppressives to prevent rejection reactions after allogeneic corneal transplantation].

    PubMed

    Lapp, T; Maier, P; Birnbaum, F; Schlunck, G; Reinhard, T

    2014-03-01

    In order to prevent rejection of an allogeneic corneal transplant after perforating (high risk) keratoplasty, active agents from different classes of pharmacological substances are used, as with solid organ transplantation. In addition to glucocorticoids, antiproliferative agents, small molecule inhibitors and antibodies, those belonging to the group of macrolides with their many derivatives represent an interesting class of substances in this context. As a supplement to cyclosporin A (CSA) the most successful macrolide in transplantation medicine, animal experiments are currently being carried out to test newer macrolide derivatives, such as sanglifehrin A (SFA). This overview describes the classes of drugs and modes of action of currently administered standard medications in the clinical routine and new developments are presented.

  17. Study of a heat rejection system using capillary pumping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, L. G.; Wanous, D. J.; Clausen, O. W.

    1971-01-01

    Results of an analytical study investigating the application of capillary pumping to the heat rejection loop of an advanced Rankine cycle power conversion system are presented. The feasibility of the concept of capillary pumping as an alternate to electromagnetic pumping is analytically demonstrated. Capillary pumping is shown to provide a potential for weight and electrical power saving and reliability through the use of redundant systems. A screen wick pump design with arterial feed lines was analytically developed. Advantages of this design are high thermodynamic and hydrodynamic efficiency, which provide a lightweight easily packaged system. Operational problems were identified which must be solved for successful application of capillary pumping. The most important are the development of start up and shutdown procedures, and development of a means of keeping noncondensibles from the system and of earth-bound testing procedures.

  18. Heat-rejection design for large concentrating solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, E. P.

    1980-01-01

    This paper considers the effect of heat rejection devices (radiators) on the performance and cost of large concentrating solar arrays for space application. Overall array characteristics are derived from the weight, cost, and performance of four major components; namely primary structure, optics/secondary structure, radiator, and solar panel. An ideal concentrator analysis is used to establish general cost and performance trends independent of specific array design. Both passive and heat-pipe radiation are evaluated, with an incremental cost-of-power approach used in the evaluation. Passive radiators are found to be more cost effective with silicon than with gallium arsenide (GaAs) arrays. Representative concentrating arrays have been evaluated for both near-term and advanced solar cell technology. Minimum cost of power is achieved at geometric concentration ratios in the range 2 to 6.

  19. Micro and Nanoparticle Drug Delivery Systems for Preventing Allotransplant Rejection

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, James D.; Acharya, Abhinav P.; Little, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of advances in transplant immunology, tissue damage caused by acute allograft rejection remains the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in the transplant recipient. Moreover, the long-term sequelae of lifelong immunosuppression leaves patients at risk for developing a host of other deleterious conditions. Controlled drug delivery using micro- and nanoparticles (MNPs) is an effective way to deliver higher local doses of a given drug to specific tissues and cells while mitigating systemic effects. Herein, we review several descriptions of MNP immunotherapies aimed at prolonging allograft survival. We also discuss developments in the field of biomimetic drug delivery that use MNP constructs to induce and recruit our bodies' own suppressive immune cells. Finally, we comment on the regulatory pathway associated with these drug delivery systems. Collectively, it is our hope the studies described in this review will help to usher in a new era of immunotherapy in organ transplantation. PMID:25937032

  20. Air-core grid for scattered x-ray rejection

    DOEpatents

    Logan, Clinton M.; Lane, Stephen M.

    1995-01-01

    The invention is directed to a grid used in x-ray imaging applications to block scattered radiation while allowing the desired imaging radiation to pass through, and to process for making the grid. The grid is composed of glass containing lead oxide, and eliminates the spacer material used in prior known grids, and is therefore, an air-core grid. The glass is arranged in a pattern so that a large fraction of the area is open allowing the imaging radiation to pass through. A small pore size is used and the grid has a thickness chosen to provide high scatter rejection. For example, the grid may be produced with a 200 .mu.m pore size, 80% open area, and 4 mm thickness.

  1. Plant data comparisons for Comanche Peak 50% load rejection transient

    SciTech Connect

    Boatwright, W.J.; Choe, W.G.; Hiltbrand, D.W.; Devore, C.V.

    1994-12-31

    The RETRAN-02 codes is used for the transient and accident analysis. Benchmarks have been performed in order to qualify the Comanche Pear Steam electric station (CPSES) RETRAN-02 model, particularly the protection and control systems , reactivity feedback, noding, and primary-to-secondary heat transfer modeling. The 50% load rejection test was performed as part of the initial start-up test sequence for CPSES-1. The results of this analysis demonstrate that the RETRAN-02 model of CPSES-1 allows for quite good predictions of (1) the primary-to-secondary heat transfer rate; (2) the core power response, including the reactivity feedback effects due to changes in moderator and fuel temperatures and control rod position; and (3) the rod control model, which correctly simulates actual plant response in which the control rods are inserted and withdrawn in response to temperature and power error signals.

  2. Life cycle cost assessment of future low heat rejection engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, D. R.

    1986-01-01

    The Adiabatic Diesel Engine Component Development (ADECD) represents a project which has the objective to accelerate the development of highway truck engines with advanced technology aimed at reduced fuel consumption. The project comprises three steps, including the synthesis of a number of engine candidate designs, the coupling of each with a number of systems for utilizing exhaust gas energy, and the evaluation of each combination in terms of desirability. Particular attention is given to the employed evaluation method and the development of this method. The objective of Life Cycle Cost (LCC) evaluation in the ADECD program was to select the best from among 42 different low heat rejection engine (LHRE)/exhaust energy recovery system configurations. The LCC model is discussed along with a maintenance cost model, the evaluation strategy, the selection of parameter ranges, and a full factorial analysis.

  3. The Complement System and Antibody-Mediated Transplant Rejection.

    PubMed

    Stites, Erik; Le Quintrec, Moglie; Thurman, Joshua M

    2015-12-15

    Complement activation is an important cause of tissue injury in patients with Ab-mediated rejection (AMR) of transplanted organs. Complement activation triggers a strong inflammatory response, and it also generates tissue-bound and soluble fragments that are clinically useful markers of inflammation. The detection of complement proteins deposited within transplanted tissues has become an indispensible biomarker of AMR, and several assays have recently been developed to measure complement activation by Abs reactive to specific donor HLA expressed within the transplant. Complement inhibitors have entered clinical use and have shown efficacy for the treatment of AMR. New methods of detecting complement activation within transplanted organs will improve our ability to diagnose and monitor AMR, and they will also help guide the use of complement inhibitory drugs.

  4. The Complement System and Antibody-Mediated Transplant Rejection.

    PubMed

    Stites, Erik; Le Quintrec, Moglie; Thurman, Joshua M

    2015-12-15

    Complement activation is an important cause of tissue injury in patients with Ab-mediated rejection (AMR) of transplanted organs. Complement activation triggers a strong inflammatory response, and it also generates tissue-bound and soluble fragments that are clinically useful markers of inflammation. The detection of complement proteins deposited within transplanted tissues has become an indispensible biomarker of AMR, and several assays have recently been developed to measure complement activation by Abs reactive to specific donor HLA expressed within the transplant. Complement inhibitors have entered clinical use and have shown efficacy for the treatment of AMR. New methods of detecting complement activation within transplanted organs will improve our ability to diagnose and monitor AMR, and they will also help guide the use of complement inhibitory drugs. PMID:26637661

  5. Rats rapidly reject diets deficient in essential amino acids.

    PubMed

    Koehnle, Thomas J; Russell, Matthew C; Gietzen, Dorothy W

    2003-07-01

    Omnivores must obtain diets balanced with respect to amino acids to support growth and protein synthesis. The standard paradigm used to study behavioral responses to amino acid deficiency combines deficient diets with dietary novelty. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of amino acid deficiency on the first meal of rats without the confounding effects of novelty. We report on a series of five studies of feeding behavior in rats. Rats were fed low protein diets for 5-7 d and then exposed to diets with and without essential amino acids. Rats consistently demonstrated recognition of essential amino acid deficiency within the first meal by a significant reduction in first meal duration, rejecting the deficient diets after just 12-16 min exposure. This is the first report of a rapid effect of amino acid-deficient diets without the confounding effects of dietary novelty.

  6. Noninvasive detection of human cardiac transplant rejection with indium-111 antimyosin (Fab) imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Frist, W.; Yasuda, T.; Segall, G.; Khaw, B.A.; Strauss, H.W.; Gold, H.; Stinson, E.; Oyer, P.; Baldwin, J.; Billingham, M.

    1987-11-01

    Diagnosis of rejection after cardiac transplantation is currently made by right ventricular endomyocardial biopsy. To evaluate antimyosin imaging as a noninvasive means of detecting human cardiac rejection, the Fab fragment of murine monoclonal antimyosin antibodies was labeled with indium-111 and given intravenously to 18 patients (age 45 +/- 12 years) in 20 studies 7 days to 9 years after transplantation. Endomyocardial biopsy specimens were obtained at the time of each imaging study. Eight patients had positive scans confirmed by biopsy as rejection, and eight patients had negative scans and no evidence of rejection on biopsy. Discordance was observed in four studies, two with positive scans and no rejection on biopsy and two with negative scans and positive biopsy. The sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy of the technique were each 80%. Imaging with radiolabeled antimyosin antibody Fab fragments may be of value in the noninvasive identification of rejection in the cardiac transplant recipient.

  7. Mouse model of alloimmune-induced vascular rejection and transplant arteriosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Enns, Winnie; von Rossum, Anna; Choy, Jonathan

    2015-05-17

    Vascular rejection that leads to transplant arteriosclerosis (TA) is the leading representation of chronic heart transplant failure. In TA, the immune system of the recipient causes damage of the arterial wall and dysfunction of endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells. This triggers a pathological repair response that is characterized by intimal thickening and luminal occlusion. Understanding the mechanisms by which the immune system causes vasculature rejection and TA may inform the development of novel ways to manage graft failure. Here, we describe a mouse aortic interposition model that can be used to study the pathogenic mechanisms of vascular rejection and TA. The model involves grafting of an aortic segment from a donor animal into an allogeneic recipient. Rejection of the artery segment involves alloimmune reactions and results in arterial changes that resemble vascular rejection. The basic technical approach we describe can be used with different mouse strains and targeted interventions to answer specific questions related to vascular rejection and TA.

  8. Reactions to Discrimination, Stigmatization, Ostracism, and Other Forms of Interpersonal Rejection

    PubMed Central

    Richman, Laura Smart; Leary, Mark R.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a new model that provides a framework for understanding people’s reactions to threats to social acceptance and belonging as they occur in the context of diverse phenomena such as rejection, discrimination, ostracism, betrayal, and stigmatization. People’s immediate reactions are quite similar across different forms of rejection in terms of negative affect and lowered self-esteem. However, following these immediate responses, people’s reactions are influenced by construals of the rejection experience that predict 3 distinct motives for prosocial, antisocial, and socially avoidant behavioral responses. The authors describe the relational, contextual, and dispositional factors that affect which motives determine people’s reactions to a rejection experience and the ways in which these 3 motives may work at cross-purposes. The multimotive model accounts for the myriad ways in which responses to rejection unfold over time and offers a basis for the next generation of research on interpersonal rejection. PMID:19348546

  9. Proteomics for rejection diagnosis in renal transplant patients: Where are we now?

    PubMed Central

    Gwinner, Wilfried; Metzger, Jochen; Husi, Holger; Marx, David

    2016-01-01

    Rejection is one of the key factors that determine the long-term allograft function and survival in renal transplant patients. Reliable and timely diagnosis is important to treat rejection as early as possible. Allograft biopsies are not suitable for continuous monitoring of rejection. Thus, there is an unmet need for non-invasive methods to diagnose acute and chronic rejection. Proteomics in urine and blood samples has been explored for this purpose in 29 studies conducted since 2003. This review describes the different proteomic approaches and summarizes the results from the studies that examined proteomics for the rejection diagnoses. The potential limitations and open questions in establishing proteomic markers for rejection are discussed, including ongoing trials and future challenges to this topic. PMID:27011903

  10. Adaptive filtering for ECG rejection from surface EMG recordings.

    PubMed

    Marque, C; Bisch, C; Dantas, R; Elayoubi, S; Brosse, V; Pérot, C

    2005-06-01

    Surface electromyograms (EMG) of back muscles are often corrupted by electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. This noise in the EMG signals does not allow to appreciate correctly the spectral content of the EMG signals and to follow its evolution during, for example, a fatigue process. Several methods have been proposed to reject the ECG noise from EMG recordings, but seldom taking into account the eventual changes in ECG characteristics during the experiment. In this paper we propose an adaptive filtering algorithm specifically developed for the rejection of the electrocardiogram corrupting surface electromyograms (SEMG). The first step of the study was to choose the ECG electrode position in order to record the ECG with a shape similar to that found in the noised SEMGs. Then, the efficiency of different algorithms were tested on 28 erector spinae SEMG recordings. The best algorithm belongs to the fast recursive least square family (FRLS). More precisely, the best results were obtained with the simplified formulation of a FRLS algorithm. As an application of the adaptive filtering, the paper compares the evolutions of spectral parameters of noised or denoised (after adaptive filtering) surface EMGs recorded on erector spinae muscles during a trunk extension. The fatigue test was analyzed on 16 EMG recordings. After adaptive filtering, mean initial values of energy and of mean power frequency (MPF) were significantly lower and higher respectively. The differences corresponded to the removal of the ECG components. Furthermore, classical fatigue criteria (increase in energy and decrease in MPF values over time during the fatigue test) were better observed on the denoised EMGs. The mean values of the slopes of the energy-time and MPF-time linear relationships differed significantly when established before and after adaptive filtering. These results account for the efficacy of the adaptive filtering method proposed here to denoise electrophysiological signals.

  11. Generation of suppressive blood cells for control of allograft rejection.

    PubMed

    Kleist, Christian; Sandra-Petrescu, Flavius; Jiga, Lucian; Dittmar, Laura; Mohr, Elisabeth; Greil, Johann; Mier, Walter; Becker, Luis E; Lang, Peter; Opelz, Gerhard; Terness, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Our previous studies in rats showed that incubation of monocytic dendritic cells (DCs) with the chemotherapeutic drug mitomycin C (MMC) renders the cells immunosuppressive. Donor-derived MMC-DCs injected into the recipient prior to transplantation prolonged heart allograft survival. Although the generation of DCs is labour-intensive and time-consuming, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) can be easily harvested. In the present study, we analyse under which conditions DCs can be replaced by PBMCs and examine their mode of action. When injected into rats, MMC-incubated donor PBMCs (MICs) strongly prolonged heart allograft survival. Removal of monocytes from PBMCs completely abrogated their suppressive effect, indicating that monocytes are the active cell population. Suppression of rejection was donor-specific. The injected MICs migrated into peripheral lymphoid organs and led to an increased number of regulatory T-cells (Tregs) expressing cluster of differentiation (CD) markers CD4 and CD25 and forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3). Tolerance could be transferred to syngeneic recipients with blood or spleen cells. Depletion of Tregs from tolerogenic cells abrogated their suppressive effect, arguing for mediation of immunosuppression by CD4⁺CD25⁺FoxP3⁺ Tregs. Donor-derived MICs also prolonged kidney allograft survival in pigs. MICs generated from donor monocytes were applied for the first time in humans in a patient suffering from therapy-resistant rejection of a haploidentical stem cell transplant. We describe, in the present paper, a simple method for in vitro generation of suppressor blood cells for potential use in clinical organ transplantation. Although the case report does not allow us to draw any conclusion about their therapeutic effectiveness, it shows that MICs can be easily generated and applied in humans.

  12. Adult stem cell plasticity: will engineered tissues be rejected?

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Te-Chao; Alison, Malcolm R; Wright, Nicholas A; Poulsom, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The dogma that adult tissue-specific stem cells remain committed to supporting only their own tissue has been challenged; a new hypothesis, that adult stem cells demonstrate plasticity in their repertoires, is being tested. This is important because it seems possible that haematopoietic stem cells, for example, could be exploited to generate and perhaps deliver cell-based therapies deep within existing nonhaematopoietic organs. Much of the evidence for plasticity derives from histological studies of tissues from patients or animals that have received grafts of cells or whole organs, from a donor bearing (or lacking) a definitive marker. Detection in the recipient of appropriately differentiated cells bearing the donor marker is indicative of a switch in phenotype of a stem cell or a member of a transit amplifying population or of a differentiated cell. In this review, we discuss evidence for these changes occurring but do not consider the molecular basis of cell commitment. In general, the extent of engraftment is low but may be increased if tissues are damaged. In model systems of liver regeneration, the repeated application of a selection pressure increases levels of engraftment considerably; how this occurs is unclear. Cell fusion plays a part in regeneration and remodelling of the liver, skeletal muscle and even regions of the brain. Genetic disease may be amenable to some forms of cell therapy, yet immune rejection will present challenges. Graft-vs.-host disease will continue to present problems, although this may be avoided if the cells were derived from the recipient or they were tolerized. Despite great expectations for cellular therapies, there are indications that attempts to replace missing proteins could be confounded simply by the development of specific immunity that rejects the new phenotype. PMID:15255965

  13. Rejection Thresholds in Chocolate Milk: Evidence for Segmentation.

    PubMed

    Harwood, Meriel L; Ziegler, Gregory R; Hayes, John E

    2012-10-01

    Bitterness is generally considered a negative attribute in food, yet many individuals enjoy some bitterness in products like coffee or chocolate. In chocolate, bitterness arises from naturally occurring alkaloids and phenolics found in cacao. Fermentation and roasting help develop typical chocolate flavor and reduce the intense bitterness of raw cacao by modifying these bitter compounds. As it becomes increasingly common to fortify chocolate with `raw' cacao to increase the amount of healthful phytonutrients, it is important to identify the point at which the concentration of bitter compounds becomes objectionable, even to those who enjoy some bitterness. Classical threshold methods focus on the presence or absence of a sensation rather than acceptability or hedonics. A new alternative, the rejection threshold, was recently described in the literature. Here, we sought to quantify and compare differences in Rejection Thresholds (RjT) and Detection Thresholds (DT) in chocolate milk spiked with a food safe bitterant (sucrose octaacetate). In experiment 1, a series of paired preference tests was used to estimate the RjT for bitterness in chocolate milk. In a new group of participants (experiment 2), we determined the RjT and DT using the forced choice ascending method of limits. In both studies, participants were segmented on the basis of self-declared preference for milk or dark solid chocolate. Based on sigmoid fits of the indifference-preference function, the RjT was ~2.3 times higher for those preferring dark chocolate than the RjT for those preferring milk chocolate in both experiments. In contrast, the DT for both groups was functionally identical, suggesting that differential effects of bitterness on liking of chocolate products are not based on the ability to detect bitterness in these products.

  14. Is Duplex-Ultrasound a useful tool in defining rejection episodes in composite tissue allograft transplants?

    PubMed

    Loizides, Alexander; Kronberger, Irmgard-Elisabeth; Plaikner, Michaela; Gruber, Hannes

    2015-12-01

    Immunologic reactions in transplanted organs are in more or less all allograft patients detectable: clear parameters exist as e.g. in renal transplants where the clearance power reduces by rejection. On the contrary, in composite tissue allografts clear and objective indicators stating a rejection episode lack. We present the case of a hand-transplanted subject with signs of acute transplant rejection diagnosed by means of Duplex Ultrasound and confirmed by biopsy.

  15. Rejection sensitivity mediates the relationship between social anxiety and body dysmorphic concerns.

    PubMed

    Fang, Angela; Asnaani, Anu; Gutner, Cassidy; Cook, Courtney; Wilhelm, Sabine; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2011-10-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the role of rejection sensitivity in the relationship between social anxiety and body dysmorphic concerns. To test our hypothesis that rejection sensitivity mediates the link between social anxiety and body dysmorphic concerns, we administered self-report questionnaires to 209 student volunteers. Consistent with our prediction, rejection sensitivity partially mediated the relationship between social anxiety symptoms and body dysmorphic concerns. The implications of the overlap between these constructs are discussed.

  16. Beam induced backgrounds: CDF experience

    SciTech Connect

    Tesarek, R.J.; /Fermilab

    2008-05-01

    We summarize the experiences of the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) experiment in the presence of backgrounds originating from the counter circulating beams in the Fermilab Tevatron. These backgrounds are measured and their sources identified. Finally, we outline the strategies employed to reduce the effects of these backgrounds on the experiment.

  17. Egg rejection behavior in a population exposed to parasitism: Village Weavers on Hispaniola

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cruz, A.; Prather, J.W.; Wiley, J.W.; Weaver, P.F.

    2008-01-01

    In contrast to African Village Weavers (Ploceus cucullatus) that are parasitized by Diederik Cuckoos (Chrysococcyx caprius), introduced weavers on Hispaniola existed without parasitism for at least 2 centuries until the arrival of the Shiny Cowbird (Molothrus bonariensis) in the 1970s. Cruz and Wiley (1989) found that Hispaniolan weavers had a lower rejection rate of foreign eggs than African populations. Subsequently, Robert and Sorci (1999) and Lahti (2005, 2006) found that acceptance of dissimilar eggs is not characteristic of the species throughout its Hispaniolan range. In 1999-2002, we studied egg rejection in Hispaniolan weavers on a broad regional scale. Rejection increased as experimental eggs became increasingly different from the host eggs. Rejection rates for mimetic eggs, different color eggs, different-spotting eggs, and cowbird eggs was 23.2%, 33.3%, 61.5%, and 85.3%, respectively, with higher rejection of cowbird eggs in areas where cowbirds were observed. Although rejection is likely to have a genetic component, the differences could be due to phenotypic plasticity. Plasticity in egg rejection may be expected, given the potential cost of rejection and the spatiotemporal distribution of cowbirds. Thus, egg rejection has not necessarily decreased in Hispaniolan weavers, but it may act in a plastic manner, increasing where cowbirds are present. ?? The Author 2008. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology. All rights reserved.

  18. Parental alignments and rejection: an empirical study of alienation in children of divorce.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Janet R

    2003-01-01

    This study of family relationships after divorce examined the frequency and extent of child-parent alignments and correlates of children's rejection of a parent, these being basic components of the controversial idea of "parental alienation syndrome." The sample consisted of 215 children from the family courts and general community two to three years after parental separation. The findings indicate that children's attitudes toward their parents range from positive to negative, with relatively few being extremely aligned or rejecting. Rejection of a parent has multiple determinants, with both the aligned and rejected parents contributing to the problem, in addition to vulnerabilities within children themselves.

  19. Acute rejection in low-toxicity regimens: clinical impact and risk factors in the Symphony study.

    PubMed

    Frei, Ulrich; Daloze, Pierre; Vítko, Stefan; Klempnauer, Jürgen; Reyes-Acevedo, Rafael; Titiz, Izzet; Fricke, Lutz; Bernasconi, Corrado; Ekberg, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    The Symphony study assessed whether mycophenolate mofetil (MMF)-based regimens containing reduced doses of adjunct immunosuppressants could reduce toxicity while maintaining efficacy. Here, we examined the impact of acute rejection and associated risk factors. The incidence of biopsy-proven acute rejection in the low-dose tacrolimus group was approximately half that of the standard-dose cyclosporine and low-dose cyclosporine groups, and a third of that in the low-dose sirolimus group. The low-dose cyclosporine group had more severe rejection episodes (≥grade II) compared with other groups. Acute rejection was associated with a 10 mL/min glomerular filtration rate (GFR) reduction and a 5.3% absolute increase in graft loss at 12 months. Overall, the highest GFR was found in both rejecters and non-rejecters receiving low-dose tacrolimus, both in an intent-to-treat analysis and in patients successfully treated according to the protocol. In Cox regression models, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) mismatches and expanded criteria donors increased the acute rejection risk, while recipient age, living related donor, and MMF dose were associated with a reduced risk. Acute rejection was associated with worse outcome but did not entirely explain the differences among the treatment groups. The 2 g MMF plus low-dose tacrolimus combination appears to be the most efficient of all regimens examined regardless of acute rejection.

  20. 7 CFR 54.1013 - When an application may be rejected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEATS, PREPARED MEATS, AND MEAT PRODUCTS (GRADING, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) Regulations..., and shall explain the reason(s) for the rejection. If such notification is made verbally,...

  1. Incidence, risk factors, and outcome of chronic rejection during antiviral therapy for posttransplant recurrent hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Inmaculada; Ulloa, Esperanza; Colina, Francisco; Abradelo, Manuel; Jiménez, Carlos; Gimeno, Alberto; Meneu, Juan Carlos; Lumbreras, Carlos; Solís-Herruzo, José Antonio; Moreno, Enrique

    2009-08-01

    Antiviral therapy for recurrent hepatitis C in liver transplantation has been associated with the development of chronic rejection. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence, evolution, and risk factors associated with the development of chronic rejection during posttransplant hepatitis C virus antiviral therapy. Seventy-nine patients with posttransplant recurrent hepatitis C who were treated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin were prospectively followed. Liver biopsy was performed before antiviral therapy was initiated and when liver tests worsened during therapy. Pretransplant and posttransplant factors were analyzed as potential risk factors for the development of chronic rejection. Seven of 79 patients (9%) developed chronic rejection during antiviral therapy. The mean time from the start of treatment to the development of chronic rejection was 5.8 months (3-12 months). An analysis of factors associated with the development of chronic rejection showed that the use of cyclosporine as immunosuppression therapy (6 of 19 patients who received cyclosporine developed chronic rejection in comparison with only 1 of 57 patients who received tacrolimus; P = 0.0013), achievement of sustained virological response (P = 0.043), and ribavirin discontinuation (P = 0.027) were associated with the development of chronic rejection. In conclusion, the development of chronic rejection during posttransplant pegylated interferon and ribavirin therapy is a severe complication. The use of cyclosporine, ribavirin discontinuation, and viral infection elimination seem to be associated with the development of this complication. Liver Transpl 15:948-955, 2009. (c) 2009 AASLD.

  2. Gay-Related Rejection Sensitivity as a Risk Factor for Condomless Sex.

    PubMed

    Wang, Katie; Pachankis, John E

    2016-04-01

    Gay-related rejection sensitivity has been linked to numerous adverse health outcomes, but its relationship to condomless sex remains unexamined. The present study investigated the role of gay-related rejection sensitivity as a predictor of condomless sex. Gay and bisexual men completed questionnaires measuring rejection sensitivity and condom use self-efficacy as well as a timeline followback interview regarding past 90-day sexual behaviors. Gay-related rejection sensitivity was positively associated with the number of condomless anal sex acts with casual partners, and condom use self-efficacy mediated this association. These findings have important implications for effective HIV prevention efforts among this at-risk population.

  3. Affect of parental rejection on negative attention-seeking class room behaviors.

    PubMed

    Peretti, P O; Clark, D; Johnson, P

    1983-07-01

    Of concern to teachers are students displaying classroom behaviors which are disruptive in attaining pupil success in learning and teacher success in teaching. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of parental rejection on negative attention-seeking classroom behaviors. It was also conducted to find out what particular parent might be more rejecting toward the respondents, and, what specific negative attention-seeking behaviors might be overtly demonstrated in the classroom by sex of subject. Results indicated a significant influence of parental rejection on negative attention-seeking classroom behaviors, the father as a more rejecting parent, and differences in observed behaviors by sex of subject.

  4. AFFECT OF PARENTAL REJECTION ON NEGATIVE ATTENTION-SEEKING CLASS ROOM BEHAVIORS

    PubMed Central

    Peretti, Peter O.; Clark, Denise; Johnson, Pat

    1983-01-01

    SUMMARY Of concern to teachers are students displaying classroom behaviors which are disruptive in attaining pupil success in learning and teacher success in teaching. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of parental rejection on negative attention-seeking classroom behaviors. It was also conducted to find out what particular parent might be more rejecting toward the respondents, and, what specific negative attention-seeking behaviors might be overtly demonstrated in the classroom by sex of subject. Results indicated a significant influence of parental rejection on negative attention-seeking classroom behaviors, the father as a more rejecting parent, and differences in observed behaviors by sex of subject. PMID:21847284

  5. [Lymphoid neogenesis and lymphangiogenesis: two newcomers in the pathophysiology of chronic rejection].

    PubMed

    Attuil-Audenis, Valérie; Duthey, Aurélie; Patey, Natacha; Gautreau, Chantal; McGregor, Brigitte; Morelon, Emmanuel; Michel, Jean-Baptiste; Nicoletti, Antonino; Thaunat, Olivier

    2009-04-01

    Chronic rejection is one of the main causes of late allograft failure and no therapy is currently available to prevent efficiently its development. Improving the comprehension of the mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of chronic rejection is a mandatory step to propose innovative therapies that would prolong grafts' survival. Using the rat aortic interposition model of chronic vascular rejection, we have demonstrated that the intragraft inflammatory infiltrate progressively organized itself into a functional ectopic lymphoid tissue (tertiary lymphoid organ) supporting the local synthesis of alloantibody. Thus, during chronic rejection the graft is at the same time the target and the site of elaboration of the humoral allo-immune response. This hypothesis has been confirmed in the clinical setting by the analysis of human grafts (kidneys, hearts and lungs) removed for terminal failure due to chronic rejection. This lymphoid neogenesis process, previously identified in other chronic inflammatory diseases, occurs with a strikingly high frequency in chronically rejected grafts, suggesting that an additional mechanism synergizes to initiate the development of tertiary lymphoid organs during chronic rejection. We propose that the defective lymphatic drainage of chronically rejected organs triggers lymphoid neogenesis and we discuss the complex crosstalk between lymphoid neogenesis and lymphangiogenesis that takes place during chronic rejection.

  6. Radon induced surface contaminations in low background experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Pattavina, L.

    2013-08-08

    In neutrinoless double-beta decay and dark matter searches, one of the main issues is to increase the experimental sensitivity through careful material selection and production, minimizing the background contributions. In order to achieve the required, extremely low, counting rates, very stringent requirements must be fulfilled in terms of bulk material radiopurity. As the experimental sensitivity increases, the bulk impurities in the detector components decrease, and surface contaminations start to play an increasingly significant role In fully active detectors, like cryogenic particle detectors, surface contaminations are a critical issue (as shown by the CUORICINO experiment). {sup 222}Rn is by far the most intense source of airborne radioactivity, and if a radio-pure material is exposed to environment where the Radon concentration is not minimized, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po contaminations can occur. The mechanisms and the dynamics of Radon-induced surface contaminations are reviewed, and specific solutions to prevent and to reject the induced background are presented.

  7. Reliable detection of predator cues in afferent spike trains of a katydid under high background noise levels

    PubMed Central

    Hartbauer, Manfred; Radspieler, Gerald; Römer, Heiner

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Katydid receivers face the problem of detecting behaviourally relevant predatory cues from echolocating bats in the same frequency domain as their own conspecific mating signals. We therefore tested the hypothesis that katydids are able to detect the presence of insectivorous bats in spike discharges at early stages of nervous processing in the auditory pathway by using the temporal details characteristic for responses to echolocation sequences. Spike activity was recorded from an identified nerve cell (omega neuron) under both laboratory and field conditions. In the laboratory, the preparation was stimulated with sequences of bat calls at different repetition rates typical for the guild of insectivorous bats, in the presence of background noise. The omega cell fired brief high-frequency bursts of action potentials in response to each bat sound pulse. Repetition rates of 18 and 24 Hz of these pulses resulted in a suppression of activity resulting from background noise, thus facilitating the detection of bat calls. The spike activity typical for responses to bat echolocation contrasts to responses to background noise, producing different distributions of inter-spike intervals. This allowed development of a ‘neuronal bat detector’ algorithm, optimized to detect responses to bats in afferent spike trains. The algorithm was applied to more than 24 hours of outdoor omega-recordings performed either at a rainforest clearing with high bat activity or in rainforest understory, where bat activity was low. In 95% of cases, the algorithm detected a bat reliably, even under high background noise, and correctly rejected responses when an electronic bat detector showed no response. PMID:20709932

  8. Background issues for defensive interceptors

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1991-03-01

    Mean nuclear backgrounds are large, but are arguably amenable to frame-to-frame subtraction. Striated backgrounds on the sensors for defensive interceptors could, however, cause clutter leak-through, which could make detection and track difficult. Nominal motions and backgrounds give signal to clutter ratios too low to be useful. Clutter leakage due to line-of-sight drift can be reduced by stabilizing the line of sight around the background clutter itself. Current interceptors have detector arrays large enough for operation independent of nuclear backgrounds in their fields of view. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Time-of-flight neutron rejection to improve prompt gamma imaging for proton range verification: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Biegun, Aleksandra K; Seravalli, Enrica; Lopes, Patrícia Cambraia; Rinaldi, Ilaria; Pinto, Marco; Oxley, David C; Dendooven, Peter; Verhaegen, Frank; Parodi, Katia; Crespo, Paulo; Schaart, Dennis R

    2012-10-21

    Therapeutic proton and heavier ion beams generate prompt gamma photons that may escape from the patient. In principle, this allows for real-time, in situ monitoring of the treatment delivery, in particular, the hadron range within the patient, by imaging the emitted prompt gamma rays. Unfortunately, the neutrons simultaneously created with the prompt photons create a background that may obscure the prompt gamma signal. To enhance the accuracy of proton dose verification by prompt gamma imaging, we therefore propose a time-of-flight (TOF) technique to reject this neutron background, involving a shifting time window to account for the propagation of the protons through the patient. Time-resolved Monte Carlo simulations of the generation and transport of prompt gamma photons and neutrons upon irradiation of a PMMA phantom with 100, 150 and 200 MeV protons were performed using Geant4 (version 9.2.p02) and MCNPX (version 2.7.D). The influence of angular collimation and TOF selection on the prompt gamma and neutron longitudinal profiles is studied. Furthermore, the implications of the proton beam microstructure (characterized by the proton bunch width and repetition period) are investigated. The application of a shifting TOF window having a width of ΔTOF(z) = 1.0 ns appears to reduce the neutron background by more than 99%. Subsequent application of an energy threshold does not appear to sharpen the distal falloff of the prompt gamma profile but reduces the tail that is observed beyond the proton range. Investigations of the influence of the beam time structure show that TOF rejection of the neutron background is expected to be effective for typical therapeutic proton cyclotrons.

  10. Social class and academic achievement in college: the interplay of rejection sensitivity and entity beliefs.

    PubMed

    Rheinschmidt, Michelle L; Mendoza-Denton, Rodolfo

    2014-07-01

    Undergraduates, especially those from lower income backgrounds, may perceive their social class background as different or disadvantaged relative to that of peers and worry about negative social treatment. We hypothesized that concerns about discrimination based on one's social class (i.e., class-based rejection sensitivity or RS-class) would be damaging to undergraduates' achievement outcomes particularly among entity theorists, who perceive their personal characteristics as fixed. We reasoned that a perceived capacity for personal growth and change, characteristic of incremental theorists, would make the pursuit of a college degree and upward mobility seem more worthwhile and attainable. We found evidence across 3 studies that dispositionally held and experimentally primed entity (vs. incremental) beliefs predicted college academic performance as a function of RS-class. Studies 1a and 1b documented that high levels of both entity beliefs and RS-class predicted lower self-reported and official grades, respectively, among undergraduates from socioeconomically diverse backgrounds. In Study 2, high entity beliefs and RS-class at matriculation predicted decreased year-end official grades among lower class Latino students. Study 3 established the causal relationship of entity (vs. incremental) beliefs on academic test performance as a function of RS-class. We observed worse test performance with higher RS-class levels following an entity (vs. incremental) prime, an effect driven by lower income students. Findings from a 4th study suggest that entity theorists with RS-class concerns tend to believe less in upward mobility and, following academic setbacks, are prone to personal attributions of failure, as well as hopelessness. Implications for education and intervention are discussed.

  11. The role of the graft endothelium in transplant rejection: evidence that endothelial activation may serve as a clinical marker for the development of chronic rejection.

    PubMed

    Denton, M D; Davis, S F; Baum, M A; Melter, M; Reinders, M E; Exeni, A; Samsonov, D V; Fang, J; Ganz, P; Briscoe, D M

    2000-11-01

    In this review, we discuss the role of the allograft endothelium in the recruitment and activation of leukocytes during acute and chronic rejection. We discuss associations among endothelial activation responses, the expression of adhesion molecules, chemokines and chemokine receptors, and rejection; and we propose that endothelial vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) may be used as a surrogate marker of acute rejection and allograft vasculopathy. In addition, we describe potential mechanistic interpretations of persistent endothelial cell (EC) expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules in allorecognition. The graft endothelium may provide an antigen-specific signal to transmigrating, previously activated, T cells and may induce B7 expression on locally transmigrating leukocytes to promote costimulation. Taken together, these functions of the EC provide it with a potent regulatory role in rejection and in the maintenance of T-cell activation via the direct and/or the indirect pathways of allorecognition.

  12. Granzyme expression in fine-needle aspirates from liver allografts is increased during acute rejection.

    PubMed

    Kuijf, M L; Kwekkeboom, Jaap; Kuijpers, Marianne A; Willems, Marc; Zondervan, Pieter E; Niesters, Hubert G M; Hop, Wim C J; Hack, C Erik; Paavonen, Timo; Höckerstedt, Krister; Tilanus, Hugo W; Lautenschlager, Irmeli; Metselaar, Herold J; Kuijf, Mark M L

    2002-10-01

    We investigated whether determination in fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) specimens of cells expressing granzymes (Grs) and Fas ligand would provide a reliable, easy, and quantitative measure of rejection activity in the transplanted liver. Retrospectively, 13 FNAB specimens obtained during clinical acute rejection, 10 FNAB specimens obtained during subclinical rejection, 12 FNAB specimens obtained during cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, and 26 FNAB specimens obtained in the absence of rejection or infection were included on the study. Cytospin preparations of FNAB and peripheral-blood specimens were immunocytochemically stained for Fas-ligand and Gr, and increments in the liver were calculated by subtracting frequencies of positive cells in blood from those in FNAB specimens. Only sporadically Fas ligand-expressing, but many Gr-expressing, cells were detected in FNAB specimens. Increments in Gr-positive (Gr(+)) cells were significantly greater in FNAB specimens obtained during clinical rejection (median, 70 Gr(+) cells; range, 0 to 312 Gr(+) cells; P = .006) and tended to be greater in FNAB specimens obtained during subclinical rejection (median, 62 Gr(+) cells; range, 5 to 113 Gr(+) cells; P = .09) compared with those obtained in the absence of rejection (median, 16 Gr(+) cells; range, 0 to 103 Gr(+) cells). Increments obtained during clinical or subclinical rejection did not differ from those obtained during CMV infection (median, 27 Gr(+) cells; range, 6 to 212 Gr(+) cells). With the exclusion of specimens obtained during CMV infection, the sensitivity of Gr determination in FNAB specimens for the diagnosis of acute rejection (either clinical or subclinical) was 70%, and specificity, 69%. In FNAB specimens obtained during clinical and subclinical acute rejection episodes after liver transplantation, increased numbers of Gr-expressing cells were present; in the absence of CMV infection, their quantification provides a measure for rejection activity with

  13. Medicare Part D Claims Rejections for Nursing Home Residents, 2006 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, David G.; Keohane, Laura M.; Mitchell, Susan L.; Zarowitz, Barbara J.; Huskamp, Haiden A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Much has been written about trends in Medicare Part D formulary design and consumers’ choice of plans, but little is known about the magnitude of claims rejections or their clinical and administrative implications. Our objective was to study the overall rate at which Part D claims are rejected, whether these rates differ across plans, drugs, and medication classes, and how these rejection rates and reasons have evolved over time. Study Design and Methods We performed descriptive analyses of data on paid and rejected Part D claims submitted by 1 large national long-term care pharmacy from 2006 to 2010. In each of the 5 study years, data included approximately 450,000 Medicare beneficiaries living in long-term care settings with approximately 4 million Part D drug claims. Claims rejection rates and reasons for rejection are tabulated for each study year at the plan, drug, and class levels. Results Nearly 1 in 6 drug claims was rejected during the first 5 years of the Medicare Part D program, and this rate has increased over time. Rejection rates and reasons for rejection varied substantially across drug products and Part D plans. Moreover, the reasons for denials evolved over our study period. Coverage has become less of a factor in claims rejections than it was initially and other formulary tools such as drug utilization review, quantity-related coverage limits, and prior authorization are increasingly used to deny claims. Conclusions Examining claims rejection rates can provide important supplemental information to assess plans’ generosity of coverage and to identify potential areas of concern. PMID:23145808

  14. Greater positive schizotypy relates to reduced N100 activity during rejection scenes.

    PubMed

    Premkumar, Preethi; Onwumere, Juliana; Wilson, Daniel; Sumich, Alexander; Castro, Antonio; Kumari, Veena; Kuipers, Elizabeth

    2014-08-01

    Social anxiety due to rejection sensitivity (RS) exacerbates psychosis-like experiences in the general population. While reduced dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) activity during social rejection in high schizotypy has suggested self-distancing from rejection, earlier stages of mental processing such as feature encoding could also contribute to psychosis-like experiences. This study aimed to determine the stage of mental processing of social rejection that relates to positive schizotypy. Forty-one healthy participants were assessed for schizotypy and RS. Event-related potential amplitudes (ERPs) were measured at frontal, temporal and parieto-occipital sites and their cortical sources (dACC, temporal pole and lingual gyrus) at early (N100) and late (P300 and late slow wave, LSW) timeframes during rejection, acceptance and neutral scenes. ERPs were compared between social interaction types. Correlations were performed between positive schizotypy (defined as the presence of perceptual aberrations, hallucinatory experiences and magical thinking), RS and ERPs during rejection. Amplitude was greater during rejection than acceptance or neutral conditions at the dACC-P300, parieto-occipital-P300, dACC-LSW and frontal-LSW. RS correlated positively with positive schizotypy. Reduced dACC N100 activity during rejection correlated with greater positive schizotypy and RS. Reduced dACC N100 activity and greater RS independently predicted positive schizotypy. An N100 deficit that indicates reduced feature encoding of rejection scenes increases with greater positive schizotypy and RS. Higher RS shows that a greater tendency to misattribute ambiguous social situations as rejecting also increases with positive schizotypy. These two processes, namely primary bottom-up sensory processing and secondary misattribution of rejection, combine to increase psychosis-like experiences. PMID:25010933

  15. Neural processing of social rejection: the role of schizotypal personality traits.

    PubMed

    Premkumar, Preethi; Ettinger, Ulrich; Inchley-Mort, Sophie; Sumich, Alexander; Williams, Steven C R; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Kumari, Veena

    2012-03-01

    A fear of being rejected can cause perceptions of more insecurity and stress in close relationships. Healthy individuals activate the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) when experiencing social rejection, while those who are vulnerable to depression deactivate the dACC presumably to downregulate salience of rejection cues and minimize distress. Schizotypal individuals, characterized by unusual perceptual experiences and/or odd beliefs, are more rejection sensitive than normal. We tested the hypothesis, for the first time, that individuals with high schizotypy also have an altered dACC response to rejection stimuli. Twenty-six healthy individuals, 14 with low schizotypy (LS) and 12 with high schizotypy (HS), viewed depictions of rejection and acceptance and neutral scenes while undergoing functional MRI. Activation maps in LS and HS groups during each image type were compared using SPM5, and their relation to participant mood and subjective ratings of the images was examined. During rejection relative to neutral scenes, LS activated and HS deactivated the bilateral dACC, right superior frontal gyrus, and left ventral prefrontal cortex. Across both groups, a temporo-occipito-parieto-cerebellar network was active during rejection, and a left fronto-parietal network during acceptance, relative to neutral scenes, and the bilateral lingual gyrus during rejection relative to acceptance scenes. Our finding of dACC-dorso-ventral PFC activation in LS, but deactivation in HS individuals when perceiving social rejection scenes suggests that HS individuals attach less salience to and distance themselves from such stimuli. This may enable them to cope with their higher-than-normal sensitivity to rejection. PMID:21425394

  16. Diffuse Cosmic Infrared Background Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwek, Eli

    2002-01-01

    The diffuse cosmic infrared background (CIB) consists of the cumulative radiant energy released in the processes of structure formation that have occurred since the decoupling of matter and radiation following the Big Bang. In this lecture I will review the observational data that provided the first detections and limits on the CIB, and the theoretical studies explaining the origin of this background. Finally, I will also discuss the relevance of this background to the universe as seen in high energy gamma-rays.

  17. High temperature tribology for piston ring and cylinder liner in advanced low heat rejection engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kamo, L.S.; Kleyman, A.S.; Bryzik, W.; Mekari, M.

    1996-12-31

    High temperature tribology research efforts being pursued at Adiabatics are directed in the area of post treatment densified plasma sprayed coatings. Previous work has yielded good results for laboratory bench tests using no liquid lubrication. The process infiltrates a thermal sprayed coating layer with Chrome Oxide and Phosphate Glass compounds which serve to enhance the mechanical bond of a thermal sprayed layer, while improving its internal integrity, and sealing off open porosity. It has been applied to over 150 different wear combinations. Of these tests, Iron Oxide based coatings versus Molybdenum alloy materials provide the best results. Testing in a modified Low Heat Rejection (LHR) single cylinder diesel engine proved this wear combination superior to the state of the art materials available today. These data show improvement over past research efforts directed at developing solid lubricants, but they do not achieve goals set for operation in future advanced military LHR diesel powerplants. Through involvement with the support of the US Army Tank Automotive Research Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) the authors have predetermined a goal of attaining bench test friction coefficients of {mu}{sub f} < 0.10, and material wear rates {le}1.0 mg/hr, at a temperature of 540 C. The research efforts discussed in this paper, focus on optimizing material friction and wear combinations and their interaction with liquid lubricants to generate boundary lubrication effects noted in previous studies and their correlation to advanced diesel engine design.

  18. High permeability and salt rejection reverse osmosis by a zeolite nano-membrane.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yilun; Chen, Xi

    2013-05-14

    The possibility of employing a zeolite nano-membrane for seawater desalination is studied using comprehensive molecular dynamics simulations. Two types of zeolite with different wetting properties, the hydrophilic FAU and hydrophobic MFI, are used as the reverse osmosis (RO) membrane. Both can reach nearly 100% rejection of salt ions, and when the membrane thickness is smaller than 3.5 nm, the permeability is about 2 × 10(-9) m Pa(-1) s(-1), which is two orders of magnitude higher than that of the commercial state-of-the-art RO membrane. The relation between the permeability and thickness of the zeolite membrane is studied through the pressure drop-flux dependence. The pressure drop is linearly dependent on the thickness of the zeolite membrane. As the thickness approaches nanoscale, the end effect of water molecules entering the zeolite membrane has apparent influence on the pressure drop. For the FAU membrane the hydrophilicity can assist the water molecules entering the nanopore with reduced pressure drop, while for the hydrophobic MFI zeolite additional pressure drop arises from the capillary resistance. In order to sustain the pressure drop during desalination, the nanoscale zeolite membrane should be placed on a porous substrate and the ratio of the thickness of the nano-membrane to the radius of the supporting pore in the substrate should be properly optimized.

  19. Active disturbance rejection control for output force creep characteristics of ionic polymer metal composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Yan; Chen, Yang; Sun, Zhiyong; Hao, Lina; Dong, Jie

    2014-07-01

    Ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs) are a type of electroactive polymer (EAP) that can be used as both sensors and actuators. An IPMC has enormous potential application in the field of biomimetic robotics, medical devices, and so on. However, an IPMC actuator has a great number of disadvantages, such as creep and time-variation, making it vulnerable to external disturbances. In addition, the complex actuation mechanism makes it difficult to model and the demand of the control algorithm is laborious to implement. In this paper, we obtain a creep model of the IPMC by means of model identification based on the method of creep operator linear superposition. Although the mathematical model is not approximate to the IPMC accurate model, it is accurate enough to be used in MATLAB to prove the control algorithm. A controller based on the active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) method is designed to solve the drawbacks previously given. Because the ADRC controller is separate from the mathematical model of the controlled plant, the control algorithm has the ability to complete disturbance estimation and compensation. Some factors, such as all external disturbances, uncertainty factors, the inaccuracy of the identification model and different kinds of IPMCs, have little effect on controlling the output block force of the IPMC. Furthermore, we use the particle swarm optimization algorithm to adjust ADRC parameters so that the IPMC actuator can approach the desired block force with unknown external disturbances. Simulations and experimental examples validate the effectiveness of the ADRC controller.

  20. Cogging force rejection method of linear motor based on internal model principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Chen, Zhenyu; Yang, Tianbo

    2015-02-01

    The cogging force disturbance of linear motor is one of the main factors affecting the positioning accuracy of ultraprecision moving platform. And this drawback could not be completely overcome by improving the design of motor body, such as location modification of permanent magnet array, or optimization design of the shape of teeth-slot. So the active compensation algorithms become prevalent in cogging force rejection area. This paper proposed a control structure based on internal mode principle to attenuate the cogging force of linear motor which deteriorated the accuracy of position, and this structure could make tracking and anti-disturbing performance of close-loop designed respectively. In the first place, the cogging force was seen as the intrinsic property of linear motor and its model constituting controlled object with motor ontology model was obtained by data driven recursive identification method. Then, a control structure was designed to accommodate tracking and anti-interference ability separately by using internal model principle. Finally, the proposed method was verified in a long stroke moving platform driven by linear motor. The experiment results show that, by employing this control strategy, the positioning error caused by cogging force was decreased by 70%.

  1. Host genotype and age have no effect on rejection of parasitic eggs.

    PubMed

    Procházka, Petr; Konvičková-Patzenhauerová, Hana; Požgayová, Milica; Trnka, Alfréd; Jelínek, Václav; Honza, Marcel

    2014-05-01

    Egg rejection belongs to a widely used host tactic to prevent the costs incurred by avian brood parasitism. However, the genetic basis of this behaviour and the effect of host age on the probability of rejecting the parasitic egg remain largely unknown. Here, we used a set of 15 polymorphic microsatellite loci, including a previously detected candidate locus (Ase64), to link genotypes of female great reed warblers (Acrocephalus arundinaceus), a known rejecter, with their egg rejection responses in two host populations. We also tested whether host female age, as a measure of the experience with own eggs, plays a role in rejection of common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) eggs. We failed to find any consistent association of egg rejection responses with host female genotypes or age. It seems that host decisions on egg rejection show high levels of phenotypic plasticity and are likely to depend on the spatiotemporal variation in the parasitism pressure. Future studies exploring the repeatability of host responses towards parasitic eggs and the role of host individual experience with parasitic eggs would greatly improve our understanding of the variations in host behaviours considering the persistence of brood parasitism in host populations with rejecter phenotypes. PMID:24718778

  2. Mental Health in Marriage: The Roles of Need for Affiliation, Sensitivity to Rejection, and Other Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffitt, Paul F.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reports on the associations between personality factors and spouse mental health, happiness, and communication. Lower Affiliative Drive and higher Sensitivity to Rejection emerge as being associated in wives with increased psychological morbidity. Wives had higher levels of both Need for Affiliation and Sensitivity to Rejection than husbands,…

  3. 40 CFR 204.57-6 - Acceptance and rejection of batches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acceptance and rejection of batches... Acceptance and rejection of batches. (a) A failing compressor is one whose measured sound level is in excess of the applicable noise emission standard. (b) The batch from which a batch sample is selected...

  4. 40 CFR 204.57-6 - Acceptance and rejection of batches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acceptance and rejection of batches... Acceptance and rejection of batches. (a) A failing compressor is one whose measured sound level is in excess of the applicable noise emission standard. (b) The batch from which a batch sample is selected...

  5. 40 CFR 204.57-6 - Acceptance and rejection of batches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acceptance and rejection of batches... Acceptance and rejection of batches. (a) A failing compressor is one whose measured sound level is in excess of the applicable noise emission standard. (b) The batch from which a batch sample is selected...

  6. 40 CFR 204.57-6 - Acceptance and rejection of batches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Acceptance and rejection of batches... Acceptance and rejection of batches. (a) A failing compressor is one whose measured sound level is in excess of the applicable noise emission standard. (b) The batch from which a batch sample is selected...

  7. 40 CFR 204.57-6 - Acceptance and rejection of batches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acceptance and rejection of batches... Acceptance and rejection of batches. (a) A failing compressor is one whose measured sound level is in excess of the applicable noise emission standard. (b) The batch from which a batch sample is selected...

  8. Effects of age and MAOA genotype on the neural processing of social rejection.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, C L; Roiser, J P; Tan, G C Y; Viding, E; Wood, N W; Blakemore, S-J

    2010-08-01

    Adolescents are often sensitive to peer rejection, a factor that might contribute to the risk of affective disorder in this age group. Previous studies suggest a significant overlap among socioaffective brain regions involved in the response to social rejection, regions continuing to develop functionally during adolescence and regions influenced by monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) polymorphism. The current study investigated whether the neural response to social rejection is functionally immature in adolescents compared with adults, and whether these responses are modulated by MAOA genotype. Blood-oxygen-level-dependent response was measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging during a rejection-themed emotional Stroop task in 19 adolescents (aged 14-16) and 16 adults (aged 23-28) genotyped for MAOA polymorphism. Similar numbers of MAOA-L and MAOA-H carriers were recruited to maximize power to detect genotype effects. Main effects of rejection stimuli (relative to neutral and acceptance control stimuli) were seen in predicted socioaffective brain regions. Adolescents did not show the adult pattern of modulation by rejection stimuli in the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, suggesting continued functional maturation of this regulatory region during adolescence. Age and genotype interacted in the left amygdala, in which the predicted effect of genotype on responses to rejection stimuli was seen in the adults, but not in the adolescents. The data suggest continued functional development of the circuitry underlying the processing of social rejection between adolescence and adulthood, and show that the effects of MAOA genotype on neural responses may vary with age.

  9. Social Prominence and the Heterogeneity of Rejected Status in Late Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Thomas W.; Hall, Cristin M.; Leung, Man-Chi; Estell, David B.; Brooks, Debra

    2011-01-01

    The heterogeneity of peer rejection was examined as a function of social prominence in fifth grade classrooms. From an overall sample of 3,891 (1,931 girls) students, 721 youth (424 boys) were identified with rejected status. Social prominence was determined from the aggregation of peer nominations for "leader", "athletic", "cool", and "popular".…

  10. 21 CFR 111.370 - What requirements apply to rejected dietary supplements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process Control... disposition any dietary supplement that is rejected and unsuitable for use in manufacturing, packaging, or... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What requirements apply to rejected...

  11. 21 CFR 111.370 - What requirements apply to rejected dietary supplements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process Control... disposition any dietary supplement that is rejected and unsuitable for use in manufacturing, packaging, or... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What requirements apply to rejected...

  12. 21 CFR 111.370 - What requirements apply to rejected dietary supplements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process Control... disposition any dietary supplement that is rejected and unsuitable for use in manufacturing, packaging, or... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What requirements apply to rejected...

  13. 21 CFR 111.370 - What requirements apply to rejected dietary supplements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process Control... disposition any dietary supplement that is rejected and unsuitable for use in manufacturing, packaging, or... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What requirements apply to rejected...

  14. 21 CFR 111.370 - What requirements apply to rejected dietary supplements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process Control... disposition any dietary supplement that is rejected and unsuitable for use in manufacturing, packaging, or... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What requirements apply to rejected...

  15. Resilient Adolescent Adjustment among Girls: Buffers of Childhood Peer Rejection and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2006-01-01

    Examined a risk-resilience model of peer rejection and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a 5-year longitudinal study of 209 ethnically and socioeconomically diverse girls aged 6-13 at baseline and 11-18 at follow-up. Risk factors were childhood ADHD diagnosis and peer rejection; hypothesized protective factors were childhood…

  16. Rejected Youth in Residential Treatment: Social Affiliation and Peer Group Configuration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, Kathryn E.; DuPaul, George J.; Handwerk, Michael L.

    2003-01-01

    A study examined social relationships of 105 middle school children attending a residential facility and identified as rejected. The majority affiliated within a peer cluster and were well integrated within the broader social network. Students who affiliated in peer clusters with rejected students tended to be similar in sociometric status.…

  17. Relationship of perceived maternal acceptance-rejection in childhood and social support networks of pregnant adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sherman, B R; Donovan, B R

    1991-01-01

    In a sample of 53 at-risk pregnant adolescents, the relationship between their perceptions of maternal acceptance-rejection in childhood and the nature of their social supports was examined. Perception of acceptance-rejection was significantly correlated with both frequency of interaction with social network members and expectations of their future support. Implications for public health strategies are discussed.

  18. 40 CFR 86.322-79 - NDIR CO2 rejection ratio check.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Record the CO2 calibration gas concentration in ppm. (d) Record the analyzers' response (AR) in ppm to... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NDIR CO2 rejection ratio check. 86.322....322-79 NDIR CO2 rejection ratio check. (a) Zero and span the analyzer on the lowest range that will...

  19. 75 FR 35019 - Hampshire Paper Company; Notice Rejecting Application, Waiving Regulations, and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Hampshire Paper Company; Notice Rejecting Application, Waiving Regulations, and Soliciting Applications June 15, 2010. On June 2, 2010, Hampshire Paper Company (Hampshire Paper... filed and is hereby rejected.\\1\\ \\1\\ Hampshire Paper was issued a major license for the project on...

  20. A Multivariate Model for the Study of Parental Acceptance-Rejection and Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohner, Ronald P.; Rohner, Evelyn C.

    This paper proposes a multivariate strategy for the study of parental acceptance-rejection and child abuse and describes a research study on parental rejection and child abuse which illustrates the advantages of using a multivariate, (rather than a simple-model) approach. The multivariate model is a combination of three simple models used to study…