Gorman, A; Seabrook, G; Brakken, A; Dubois, M; Marn, C; Wilson, C; Jacobson, D; Liu, Y
Purpose: Small surgical devices and needles are used in many surgical procedures. Conventionally, an x-ray film is taken to identify missing devices/needles if post procedure count is incorrect. There is no data to indicate smallest surgical devices/needles that can be identified with digital radiography (DR), and its optimized acquisition technique. Methods: In this study, the DR equipment used is a Canon RadPro mobile with CXDI-70c wireless DR plate, and the same DR plate on a fixed Siemens Multix unit. Small surgical devices and needles tested include Rubber Shod, Bulldog, Fogarty Hydrogrip, and needles with sizes 3-0 C-T1 through 8-0 BV175-6. They are imaged with PMMA block phantoms with thickness of 2–8 inch, and an abdomen phantom. Various DR techniques are used. Images are reviewed on the portable x-ray acquisition display, a clinical workstation, and a diagnostic workstation. Results: all small surgical devices and needles are visible in portable DR images with 2–8 inch of PMMA. However, when they are imaged with the abdomen phantom plus 2 inch of PMMA, needles smaller than 9.3 mm length can not be visualized at the optimized technique of 81 kV and 16 mAs. There is no significant difference in visualization with various techniques, or between mobile and fixed radiography unit. However, there is noticeable difference in visualizing the smallest needle on a diagnostic reading workstation compared to the acquisition display on a portable x-ray unit. Conclusion: DR images should be reviewed on a diagnostic reading workstation. Using optimized DR techniques, the smallest needle that can be identified on all phantom studies is 9.3 mm. Sample DR images of various small surgical devices/needles available on diagnostic workstation for comparison may improve their identification. Further in vivo study is needed to confirm the optimized digital radiography technique for identification of lost small surgical devices and needles.
Deters, Katherine A.; Brown, Richard S.; Boyd, James W.; Eppard, M. B.; Seaburg, Adam
The size reduction of acoustic transmitters has led to a reduction in the length of incision needed to implant a transmitter. Smaller suture knot profiles and fewer sutures may be adequate for closing an incision used to surgically implant an acoustic microtransmitter. As a result, faster surgery times and reduced tissue trauma could lead to increased survival and decreased infection for implanted fish. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of five suturing techniques on mortality, tag and suture retention, incision openness, ulceration, and redness in juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha implanted with acoustic microtransmitters. Suturing was performed by three surgeons, and study fish were held at two water temperatures (12°C and 17°C). Mortality was low and tag retention was high for all treatments on all examination days (7, 14, 21, and 28 days post-surgery). Because there was surgeon variation in suture retention among treatments, further analyses included only the one surgeon who received feedback training in all suturing techniques. Incision openness and tissue redness did not differ among treatments. The only difference observed among treatments was in tissue ulceration. Incisions closed with a horizontal mattress pattern had more ulceration than other treatments among fish held for 28 days at 17°C. Results from this study suggest that one simple interrupted 1 × 1 × 1 × 1 suture is adequate for closing incisions on fish under most circumstances. However, in dynamic environments, two simple interrupted 1 × 1 × 1 × 1 sutures should provide adequate incision closure. Reducing bias in survival and behavior tagging studies is important when making comparisons to the migrating salmon population. Therefore, by minimizing the effects of tagging on juvenile salmon (reduced tissue trauma and reduced surgery time), researchers can more accurately estimate survival and behavior.
Kampf, G; Kramer, A; Rotter, M; Widmer, A
For more than 110 years hands of surgeons have been treated before a surgical procedure in order to reduce the bacterial density. The kind and duration of treatment, however, has changed significantly over time. Recent scientific evidence suggests a few changes with the aim to optimize both the efficacy and the dermal tolerance. Aim of this article is the presentation and discussion of new insights in surgical hand disinfection. A hand wash should be performed before the first disinfection of a day, ideally at least 10 min before the beginning of the disinfection as it has been shown that a 1 min hand wash significantly increases skin hydration for up to 10 min. The application time may be as short as 1.5 min depending on the type of hand rub. Hands and forearms should be kept wet with the hand rub for the recommended application time in any case. A specific rub-in procedure according to EN 12791 has been found to be suitable in order to avoid untreated skin areas. The alcohol-based hand rub should have a proven excellent dermal tolerance in order to ensure appropriate compliance. Considering these elements in clinical practice can have a significant impact to optimize the high quality of surgical hand disinfection for prevention of surgical site infections.
Kalus, Ram; Dixon Swartz, Jennifer; Metzger, Sarah Cristina
Although immediate breast reconstruction with the insertion of a permanent prosthesis rather than a tissue expander (direct to implant [DTI]) has become gradually more preferred and requested by patients, the technique has yet to be fully embraced by most plastic surgeons, presumably due to concerns of patient safety and perceived higher complication and revision rates, despite not being supported by the literature. The authors review the senior author's protocol for patient selection and surgical technique in DTI reconstructions. A simple device is introduced which adds predictability and control in determining the inset suture line for the acellular dermal matrix and thus the position of the inframammary fold and lateral mammary fold, resulting in improved aesthetic outcomes, reduced complications, and reduced reoperation rates. A retrospective review of our one surgeon experience with 134 DTI breast reconstructions in 77 patients between 2006 and 2015 is presented. The series is further subdivided into 74 reconstructions in 43 patients in whom their reconstruction was performed before the use of a patented 2-dimensional (2-D) template, and 60 reconstructions in 34 patients in whom the template was used. The overall complication rate requiring reoperation in the first 54 reconstructions was 50% versus 15% in the last 84. Failure of the reconstruction, defined by explantation, occurred in 11 of 74 reconstructions (14.9%) before the use of 2-D templates, and in 5 of 60 reconstructions (8.3%) in which templates were used, representing a 44% reduction. The revision rate specifically for implant malposition dropped from 18.6% before the use of templates to 2.9% after the incorporation of templates. Fifty-three reconstructions in 33 patients (40%) had no complications and no reoperations, correctly described as "one and done." Direct to implant reconstruction can be technically more demanding and exacting than 2-stage expander/implant reconstructions. A review of this
Story, R D
Dentists are at risk of acquiring blood-borne infectious diseases by accidental inoculation whilst performing oral surgical procedures. These risks have been well discussed in the literature and by most assessments are considered to be minimal. They are, however, very real to those at risk. One response to these risks is to cease practice although many would see this as an extreme response. Another response is to modify surgical techniques in such a way that surgical procedures become safer without also becoming more complicated.
Teuber, Jörn; Weller, Rene; Kikinis, Ron; Oldhafer, Karl-Jürgen; Lipp, Michael J.; Zachmann, Gabriel
We consider the problem of finding automatically optimal positions of surgical lamps throughout the whole surgical procedure, where we assume that future lamps could be robotized. We propose a two-tiered optimization technique for the real-time autonomous positioning of those robotized surgical lamps. Typically, finding optimal positions for surgical lamps is a multi-dimensional problem with several, in part conflicting, objectives, such as optimal lighting conditions at every point in time while minimizing the movement of the lamps in order to avoid distractions of the surgeon. Consequently, we use multi-objective optimization (MOO) to find optimal positions in real-time during the entire surgery. Due to the conflicting objectives, there is usually not a single optimal solution for such kinds of problems, but a set of solutions that realizes a Pareto-front. When our algorithm selects a solution from this set it additionally has to consider the individual preferences of the surgeon. This is a highly non-trivial task because the relationship between the solution and the parameters is not obvious. We have developed a novel meta-optimization that considers exactly this challenge. It delivers an easy to understand set of presets for the parameters and allows a balance between the lamp movement and lamp obstruction. This metaoptimization can be pre-computed for different kinds of operations and it then used by our online optimization for the selection of the appropriate Pareto solution. Both optimization approaches use data obtained by a depth camera that captures the surgical site but also the environment around the operating table. We have evaluated our algorithms with data recorded during a real open abdominal surgery. It is available for use for scientific purposes. The results show that our meta-optimization produces viable parameter sets for different parts of an intervention even when trained on a small portion of it.
Brass, Patrick; Hellmich, Martin; Ladra, Angelika; Ladra, Jürgen; Wrzosek, Anna
Tracheostomy formation is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures in critically ill intensive care participants requiring long-term mechanical ventilation. Both surgical tracheostomies (STs) and percutaneous tracheostomies (PTs) are used in current surgical practice; but until now, the optimal method of performing tracheostomies in critically ill participants remains unclear. We evaluated the effectiveness and safety of percutaneous techniques compared to surgical techniques commonly used for elective tracheostomy in critically ill participants (adults and children) to assess whether there was a difference in complication rates between the procedures. We also assessed whether the effect varied between different groups of participants or settings (intensive care unit (ICU), operating room), different levels of operator experience, different percutaneous techniques, or whether the percutaneous techniques were carried out with or without bronchoscopic guidance. We searched the following electronic databases: CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL to 28 May 2015. We also searched reference lists of articles, 'grey literature', and dissertations. We handsearched intensive care and anaesthesia journals, abstracts, and proceedings of scientific meetings. We attempted to identify unpublished or ongoing studies by contacting manufacturers and experts in the field, and searching in trial registers. We included randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials (quasi-RCTs) comparing percutaneous techniques (experimental intervention) with surgical techniques (control intervention) used for elective tracheostomy in critically ill participants (adults and children). Three authors independently checked eligibility and extracted data on methodological quality, participant characteristics, intervention details, settings, and outcomes of interest using a standardized form. We then entered data into Review Manager 5, with a double-entry procedure. Of 785 identified
McMasters, Kelly M.; Wong, Sandra L.; Chao, Celia; Woo, Claudine; Tuttle, Todd M.; Noyes, R. Dirk; Carlson, David J.; Laidley, Alison L.; McGlothin, Terre Q.; Ley, Philip B.; Brown, C. Matthew; Glaser, Rebecca L.; Pennington, Robert E.; Turk, Peter S.; Simpson, Diana; Edwards, Michael J.
Objective To determine the optimal experience required to minimize the false-negative rate of sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy for breast cancer. Summary Background Data Before abandoning routine axillary dissection in favor of SLN biopsy for breast cancer, each surgeon and institution must document acceptable SLN identification and false-negative rates. Although some studies have examined the impact of individual surgeon experience on the SLN identification rate, minimal data exist to determine the optimal experience required to minimize the more crucial false-negative rate. Methods Analysis was performed of a large prospective multiinstitutional study involving 226 surgeons. SLN biopsy was performed using blue dye, radioactive colloid, or both. SLN biopsy was performed with completion axillary LN dissection in all patients. The impact of surgeon experience on the SLN identification and false-negative rates was examined. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate independent factors in addition to surgeon experience associated with these outcomes. Results A total of 2,148 patients were enrolled in the study. Improvement in the SLN identification and false-negative rates was found after 20 cases had been performed. Multivariate analysis revealed that patient age, nonpalpable tumors, and injection of blue dye alone for SLN biopsy were independently associated with decreased SLN identification rates, whereas upper outer quadrant tumor location was the only factor associated with an increased false-negative rate. Conclusions Surgeons should perform at least 20 SLN cases with acceptable results before abandoning routine axillary dissection. This study provides a model for surgeon training and experience that may be applicable to the implementation of other new surgical technologies. PMID:11524582
Williams, Daniel H; Karpman, Edward; Lipshultz, Larry I
Varicocele is the most common diagnosis in men presenting to fertility clinics. Traditional indications for correction of varicocele include scrotal pain, testicular atrophy, and infertility without other apparent causes. Adolescent varicocele correction is indicated if pain or testicular growth retardation is present. Following varicocelectomy most studies report improved semen parameters, increased serum testosterone, improvement in functional sperm defects, and the return of motile sperm in selected azoospermic men. However, conflicting data exists on pregnancy and fertility outcomes. Consistent data supporting the effectiveness of repairing subclinical varicoceles is sparse. Most authors generally agree that the primary effect of varicoceles is on testicular temperature. Varicoceles are diagnosed primarily by physical examination. Radiographic assessments are helpful when physical examination is inconclusive or when further objective documentation of a patient's condition is necessary. Several surgical approaches to varicocelectomy exist, each with its own advantages and drawbacks. We prefer the inguinal approach to varicocelectomy, except when there is a history of previous inguinal surgery. In such cases, the subinguinal technique is employed. Routine use of an operating microscope and a micro Doppler probe affords easier identification of vessels and lymphatics. Varicocele remains the most surgically treatable form of male infertility. Knowing the correct techniques of diagnosis and surgical correction ensures the best chance of successful outcomes in terms of post-operative morbidity, improved semen parameters, and pregnancy rates.
The requirements for modern psychosurgery are safety and accuracy. Stereotactic techniques give the geometric accuracy and stimulation gives physiological information, which is important in determining lesion sites or at least lesion symmetry. The process whereby focal brain destruction is produced is ideally by a freezing probe, but equally effectively by coagulation. A number of small lesions is thus required. This at present is unavoidable if side effects are to be obviated. Careful continuing assessment of results is necessary to validate any surgical procedure. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:4618905
Hess, Shane R; Satpathy, Jibanananda; Waligora, Andrew C; Ugwu-Oju, Obinna
A feared complication of temporary surgical drain placement is from the technical error of accidentally suturing the surgical drain into the wound. Postoperative discovery of a tethered drain can frequently necessitate return to the operating room if it cannot be successfully removed with nonoperative techniques. Formal wound exploration increases anesthesia and infection risk as well as cost and is best avoided if possible. We present a minimally invasive surgical technique that can avoid the morbidity associated with a full surgical wound exploration to remove a tethered drain when other nonoperative techniques fail.
The list of surgical procedures of solid organ transplantations appears very interesting and colorful, even with overlap among techniques. Liver transplantation is a life-saving procedure in a majority of cases, the liver can be transplanted as a full or partial graft. The liver graft can be split for two recipients; it can also be reduced for a small recipient if splitting is not indicated. Kidney transplantation is the most common solid organ transplant procedure, the majority of kidney grafts come from brain-dead donors whereas the number of live donor transplants is increasing, also thanks to paired donation and blood group incompatible transplantation methods. The small bowel and multivisceral transplantation are rare procedures; they serve selected patients with short bowel syndrome, some patients with retroperitoneal tumors or with extensive visceral thrombosis. Solid organ transplants are well established treatment methods with good and proven outcomes. A majority of patients can return to a normal life after their transplants.
Bellman, R. (Editor)
The papers collected in this volume were presented at the Symposium on Mathematical Optimization Techniques held in the Santa Monica Civic Auditorium, Santa Monica, California, on October 18-20, 1960. The objective of the symposium was to bring together, for the purpose of mutual education, mathematicians, scientists, and engineers interested in modern optimization techniques. Some 250 persons attended. The techniques discussed included recent developments in linear, integer, convex, and dynamic programming as well as the variational processes surrounding optimal guidance, flight trajectories, statistical decisions, structural configurations, and adaptive control systems. The symposium was sponsored jointly by the University of California, with assistance from the National Science Foundation, the Office of Naval Research, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and The RAND Corporation, through Air Force Project RAND.
Pierce, Todd P; Mease, Samuel J; Issa, Kimona; Festa, Anthony; McInerney, Vincent K; Scillia, Anthony J
Iliotibial (IT) band syndrome is a common cause of lateral knee pain in runners and cyclists. Many can be treated nonoperatively; however, some may require surgical lengthening of their IT band to achieve optimal pain relief and a return to preinjury level of activity. Several studies have been published detailing surgical lengthening procedures and satisfactory outcomes after these procedures. However, it is important to continue to improve on and optimize outcomes. We present our arthroscopic IT band-lengthening procedure.
Vilá y Rico, Jesús; Ojeda Thies, Cristina; Parra Sanchez, Guillermo
Surgical fusion of the subtalar joint is a procedure indicated to alleviate pain of subtalar origin, such as in post-traumatic osteoarthritis, adult-acquired flatfoot deformity, and other disorders. Open subtalar arthrodesis has been performed with predictable results, but concerns exist regarding injury to proprioception and local vascularity due to wide surgical dissection. Minimally invasive techniques try to improve results by avoiding these issues but have a reputation for being technically demanding. We describe the surgical technique for arthroscopic subtalar arthrodesis, which has proved to be a safe and reliable technique in our experience, with consistent improvements in American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society scores. PMID:27073783
Vilá Y Rico, Jesús; Ojeda Thies, Cristina; Parra Sanchez, Guillermo
Surgical fusion of the subtalar joint is a procedure indicated to alleviate pain of subtalar origin, such as in post-traumatic osteoarthritis, adult-acquired flatfoot deformity, and other disorders. Open subtalar arthrodesis has been performed with predictable results, but concerns exist regarding injury to proprioception and local vascularity due to wide surgical dissection. Minimally invasive techniques try to improve results by avoiding these issues but have a reputation for being technically demanding. We describe the surgical technique for arthroscopic subtalar arthrodesis, which has proved to be a safe and reliable technique in our experience, with consistent improvements in American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society scores.
Wilkerson, James A; Rosenwasser, Melvin P
Olecranon fractures are common upper extremity injuries. The vast majority are treated with operative fixation. Many treatment techniques have been described including tension band and plating. This review covers the most commonly used fixation techniques in detail, including pearls and pitfalls with case examples of both successful treatments and potential complications. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Turok, Rebecca L.; Labadie, Robert F.; Wanna, George B.; Dawant, Benoit M.; Noble, Jack H.
Cochlear Implant (CI) surgery is a procedure in which an electrode array is inserted into the cochlea. The electrode array is used to stimulate auditory nerve fibers and restore hearing for people with severe to profound hearing loss. The primary goals when placing the electrode array are to fully insert the array into the cochlea while minimizing trauma to the cochlea. Studying the relationship between surgical outcome and various surgical techniques has been difficult since trauma and electrode placement are generally unknown without histology. Our group has created a CI placement simulator that combines an interactive 3D visualization environment with a haptic-feedback-enabled controller. Surgical techniques and patient anatomy can be varied between simulations so that outcomes can be studied under varied conditions. With this system, we envision that through numerous trials we will be able to statistically analyze how outcomes relate to surgical techniques. As a first test of this system, in this work, we have designed an experiment in which we compare the spatial distribution of forces imparted to the cochlea in the array insertion procedure when using two different but commonly used surgical techniques for cochlear access, called round window and cochleostomy access. Our results suggest that CIs implanted using round window access may cause less trauma to deeper intracochlear structures than cochleostomy techniques. This result is of interest because it challenges traditional thinking in the otological community but might offer an explanation for recent anecdotal evidence that suggests that round window access techniques lead to better outcomes.
Azab, Waleed A; Nasim, Khurram; Najibullah, Mostafa
Lumbar microendoscopic discectomy (MED) is a minimally invasive transmuscular approach that combines standard lumbar microsurgical techniques with endoscopy. MED advantages include reduced tissue trauma, direct visualization of the nerve root and disc disease, and allowing bony decompression in cases with spinal or lateral recess stenosis. Operative charts and videos of patients undergoing MED were retrieved from our database and reviewed. A description of the surgical technique was then formulated. The surgical technique of MED is described and is essentially similar to conventional microdiscectomy. Some modifications are, however, necessary owing to the difference between microscopic and endoscopic views.
Computers transfer data in a number of different ways. Whether through a serial port, a parallel port, over a modem, over an ethernet cable, or internally from a hard disk to memory, some data will be lost. To compensate for that loss, numerous error detection and correction algorithms have been developed. One of the most common error correction codes is the Reed-Solomon code, which is a special subset of BCH (Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem) linear cyclic block codes. In the AURA project, an unmanned aircraft sends the data it collects back to earth so it can be analyzed during flight and possible flight modifications made. To counter possible data corruption during transmission, the data is encoded using a multi-block Reed-Solomon implementation with a possibly shortened final block. In order to maximize the amount of data transmitted, it was necessary to reduce the computation time of a Reed-Solomon encoding to three percent of the processor's time. To achieve such a reduction, many code optimization techniques were employed. This paper outlines the steps taken to reduce the processing time of a Reed-Solomon encoding and the insight into modern optimization techniques gained from the experience.
Pinsach Elías, L; Blasco Casares, F J; Ibarz Servió, L; Valero Milián, J; Areal Calama, J; Bucar Terrades, S; Saladié Roig, J M
Retrospective study made on 140 renal surgical biopsies (RSB) performed throughout the past 4 years in our Unit. The technique's effectiveness and morbidity are emphasized and the surgical technique and type of anaesthesia described. The sample obtained was enough to perform an essay in 100% cases, and a diagnosis was reached in 98.5%. Thirty-nine patients (27.8%) presented complications, 13 (9.2%) of which were directly related to the surgical technique. No case required blood transfusion and no deaths were reported. The type of anaesthesia used was: local plus sedation in 104 (74.2%) cases, rachianaesthesia in 10 (7.1%) and general in 26 (18.5%). The same approach was used in all patients: minimal subcostal lumbotomy, using Wilde's forceps to obtain the samples. It is believed that RSB is a highly effective, low mortality procedure, easy and quick to perform, and suitable for selected patients.
Labrecque, Michel; Dufresne, Caroline; Barone, Mark A; St-Hilaire, Karine
Background A wide variety of surgical techniques are used to perform vasectomy. The purpose of this systematic review was to assess if any surgical techniques to isolate or occlude the vas are associated with better outcomes in terms of occlusive and contraceptive effectiveness, and complications. Methods We searched MEDLINE (1966-June 2003), EMBASE (1980-June 2003), reference lists of retrieved articles, urology textbooks, and our own files looking for studies comparing two or more vasectomy surgical techniques and reporting on effectiveness and complications. From 2,058 titles or abstracts, two independent reviewers identified 224 as potentially relevant. Full reports of 219 articles were retrieved and final selection was made by the same two independent reviewers using the same criteria as for the initial selection. Discrepancies were resolved by involving a third reviewer. Data were extracted and methodological quality of selected studies was assessed by two independent reviewers. Studies were divided in broad categories (isolation, occlusion, and combined isolation and occlusion techniques) and sub-categories of specific surgical techniques performed. Qualitative analyses and syntheses were done. Results Of 31 comparative studies (37 articles), only four were randomized clinical trials, most studies were observational and retrospective. Overall methodological quality was low. From nine studies on vas isolation, there is good evidence that the no-scalpel vasectomy approach decreases the risk of surgical complications, namely hematoma/bleeding and infection, compared with incisional techniques. Five comparative studies including one high quality randomized clinical trial provided good evidence that fascial interposition (FI) increases the occlusive effectiveness of ligation and excision. Results of 11 comparative studies suggest that FI with cautery of the vas lumen provides the highest level of occlusive effectiveness, even when leaving the testicular end open
Çakir, Bariş; Doğan, Teoman; Öreroğlu, Ali Riza; Daniel, Rollin K
Surface aesthetics of the attractive nose are created by certain lines, shadows, and highlights, with specific proportions and breakpoints. Our evaluation of the nasal surface aesthetics is achieved using the concept of geometric polygons as aesthetic subunits, both to define the existing deformity and the aesthetic goals. Surgical techniques have been developed and modified to achieve the desired surface appearance, and those are detailed in this article. The principles of geometric polygons allow the surgeon to analyze the deformities of the nose, to define an operative plan to achieve specific goals, and to select the appropriate operative technique. These aesthetic concepts and surgical techniques were used in 257 consecutive rhinoplasties performed in the past 3 years by the principal author (B.Ç.).
Porrero, José L; Sánchez-Cabezudo, Carlos; Bonachía, Oscar; López-Buenadicha, Adolfo; Sanjuánbenito, Alfonso; Hidalgo, Manuel
The present study was performed by the Spanish Association of surgeons through its abdominal wall and sutures section. The aim was to determine the current situation of inguinofemoral hernias in Spain and was based on an anonymous multicenter study with the participation of various national hospitals. Fifty general surgery departments in distinct surgical centers throughout Spain responded to an anonymous survey in 2000. The survey gathered data on anesthetic features, surgical techniques and complications in the treatment of inguinofemoral hernias. Sixty-six percent of hospital centers had a specific abdominal wall unit and 24% performed laparoscopic hernia surgery. Prosthetic techniques (especially Lichtenstein) were the most frequently used in the treatment of primary inguinal hernia (72%) and recurrent hernia (100%). The most frequently used prosthetic material was polypropylene mesh (76%). Only 28% of the departments surveyed performed anatomic techniques in the repair of primary inguinal hernia (Shouldice and Bassini). The most frequent treatment for femoral hernia was the Lichtenstein "plug" (78%). Sixty-eight percent of the centers surveyed performed regional anesthesia, 18% used general anesthesia and only 14% used local anesthesia with sedation. Severe complications were found in 20% of departments. Clinical postoperative follow-up was performed in 96% of the centers and telephone follow-up was used in 4%. The recurrence rate was 1.2% for primary inguinal hernia, 2.7% for recurrent inguinal hernia and 0.3% for femoral hernia. In Spain the most commonly used surgical technique in the treatment of inguinal hernia is Lichtenstein hernioplasty under spinal anesthesia and with polypropylene prosthesis. The Lichtenstein plug is the most commonly used technique in the treatment of femoral hernia.
Ananthakrishnan, Preya; Balci, Fatih Levent; Crowe, Joseph P.
Adequate surgical margins in breast-conserving surgery for breast cancer have traditionally been viewed as a predictor of local recurrence rates. There is still no consensus on what constitutes an adequate surgical margin, however it is clear that there is a trade-off between widely clear margins and acceptable cosmesis. Preoperative approaches to plan extent of resection with appropriate margins (in the setting of surgery first as well as after neoadjuvant chemotherapy,) include mammography, US, and MRI. Improvements have been made in preoperative lesion localization strategies for surgery, as well as intraoperative specimen assessment, in order to ensure complete removal of imaging findings and facilitate margin clearance. Intraoperative strategies to accurately assess tumor and cavity margins include cavity shave techniques, as well as novel technologies for margin probes. Ablative techniques, including radiofrequency ablation as well as intraoperative radiation, may be used to extend tumor-free margins without resecting additional tissue. Oncoplastic techniques allow for wider resections while maintaining cosmesis and have acceptable local recurrence rates, however often involve surgery on the contralateral breast. As systemic therapy for breast cancer continues to improve, it is unclear what the importance of surgical margins on local control rates will be in the future. PMID:23304479
Wagner, Glenn N.; Cooke, Steven J.; Brown, Richard S.; Deters, Katherine A.
Intracoelomic implantation of transmitters into fish requires making a surgical incision, incision closure, and other surgery related techniques; however, the tools and techniques used in the surgical process vary widely. We review the available literature and focus on tools and techniques used for conducting surgery on juvenile salmonids because of the large amount of research that is conducted on them. The use of sterilized surgical instruments properly selected for a given size of fish will minimize tissue damage and infection rates, and speed the wound healing of fish implanted with transmitters. For the implantation of transmitters into small fish, the optimal surgical methods include making an incision on the ventral midline along the linea alba (for studies under 1 month), protecting the viscera (by lifting the skin with forceps while creating the incision), and using absorbable monofilament suture with a small-swaged-on swaged-on tapered or reverse-cutting needle. Standardizing the implantation techniques to be used in a study involving particular species and age classes of fish will improve survival and transmitter retention while allowing for comparisons to be made among studies and across multiple years. This review should be useful for researchers working on juvenile salmonids and other sizes and species of fish.
Tabassum, A; Walboomers, X F; Wolke, J G C; Meijer, G J; Jansen, J A
During the installation of implants, osteogenic bone particles are translocated along the surface. These particles may contribute to peri-implant bone healing. Based on this phenomenon, it is hypothesized that implants placed with undersized drilling, besides showing higher primary-implant stability, also enhance the amount and osteogenic responses of these bone particles. Biocomp implants were inserted into bicortical fresh-cadaver bone by a press-fit or an undersized surgical technique, and peak-insertion torque values (ITV) were measured. After explantation, the implants were incubated in culture medium up to 24 days. Histology, bone-implant contact (BIC), micro-CT, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and calcium (Ca) measurements were performed. ITV were significantly higher for implants placed with an undersized technique. Moreover, histology, BIC, micro-CT, SEM, and Ca measurements confirmed the presence of more bone-like tissue on implants inserted with an undersized technique. The undersized surgical technique not only results in higher primary-implant stability, but also induces more translocated bone particles, thus having a positive influence on the osteogenic response.
Goldberg, Robert A; Mancini, Ronald; Demer, Joseph L
With a detailed understanding of the pertinent surgical anatomy, the transcaruncular approach provides safe access and excellent exposure of the medial orbit and orbital apex. We herein describe our technique of the transcaruncular approach and delineate the pertinent associated surgical anatomy via dissection, magnetic resonance imaging, and histologic examination. The isolated transcaruncular approach provides exposure of the medial orbital floor from the region of the maxilloethmoidal strut to the orbital roof area superior to the frontoethmoidal suture. When combined with an inferior fornix incision, the transcaruncular approach allows for continuous exposure from the frontozygomatic suture laterally to the frontoethmoidal suture medially. Attention to anatomical details promotes creation of an effective and safe caruncular incision. The conjunctival incision should be ample. The orbital septum should be carefully dissected from the posterior surface of the Horner muscle to minimize fat spillage, and the periosteum should be opened widely at the beginning of surgery.
Padegimas, Eric M.; Warrender, William J.; Jones, Christopher M.; Ilyas, Asif M.
Context Hand injuries are a common emergency department presentation. Metacarpal fractures account for 40% of all hand fractures and can be seen in the setting of low or high energy trauma. The most common injury pattern is a metacarpal neck fracture. In this study, the authors aim to review the surgical indications for metacarpal neck fractures, the fixation options available along with the risk and benefits of each. Evidence Acquisition Literature review of the different treatment modalities for metacarpal neck fractures. Review focuses on surgical indications and the risks and benefits of different operative techniques. Results The indications for surgery are based on the amount of dorsal angulation of the distal fragment. The ulnar digits can tolerate greater angulation as the radial digits more easily lose grip strength. The most widely utilized fixation techniques are pinning with k-wires, dorsal plating, or intramedullary fixation. There is currently no consensus on an optimal fixation technique as surgical management has been found to have a complication rate up to 36%. Plate and screw fixation demonstrated especially high complication rates. Conclusions Metacarpal neck fractures are a common injury in young and active patients that results in substantial missed time from work. While the surgical indications are well-described, there is no consensus on the optimal treatment modality because of high complication rates. Dorsal plating has higher complication rates than closed reduction and percutaneous pinning, but is necessary in comminuted fractures. The lack of an ideal fixation construct suggests that further study of the commonly utilized techniques as well as novel techniques is necessary. PMID:27800460
Pujol, N; Boisrenoult, P; Beaufils, P
Post-traumatic knee stiffness and loss of range of motion is a common complication of injuries to the knee area. The causes of post-traumatic knee stiffness can be divided into flexion contractures, extension contractures, and combined contractures. Post-traumatic stiffness can be due to the presence of dense intra-articular adhesions and/or fibrotic transformation of peri-articular structures. Various open and arthroscopic surgical treatments are possible. A precise diagnosis and understanding of the pathology is mandatory prior to any surgical treatment. Failure is imminent if all pathologies are not addressed correctly. From a general point of view, a flexion contracture is due to posterior adhesions and/or anterior impingement. On the other hand, extension contractures are due to anterior adhesions and/or posterior impingement. This overview will describe the different modern surgical techniques for treating post-traumatic knee stiffness. Any bony impingements must be treated before soft tissue release is performed. Intra-articular stiff knees with a loss of flexion can be treated by an anterior arthroscopic arthrolysis. Extra-articular pathology causing a flexion contracture can be treated by open or endoscopic quadriceps release. Extension contractures can be treated by arthroscopic or open posterior arthrolysis. Postoperative care (analgesia, rehabilitation) is essential to maintaining the range of motion obtained intra-operatively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Tsunezuka, Yoshio; Yachi, T; Waseda, R; Yamamoto, D
The surgical treatment of Pancoast tumors is associated with difficulties related to its anatomical locations. Different surgical approaches have been reported but every approaches have some advantages and disadvantages. We report 2 Pancoast tumors cases with unique surgical approaches and our techniques. Case 1 : A 38-year-old man complained of face edema. The chest computed tomography (CT) revealed an right anterior apical tumor with direct invasion of the 1st and 2nd rib. Preoperative chemotherapy with 2 courses of carboplatin [area under the blood concentration-time curve (AUC) 6, day 1] and paclitaxel (80 mg/m2, day1, 8, 15) and concurrent extracorporeal radiation (70 Gy) was used to treat the adenocarcinoma. The skin incision was performed according to Masaoka's anterior approach, and a proximal median sternotomy communicated with an incision in the 4th intercostal space. The clavicula was freed by the L-shaped incision on the manubrium and the 1st cartilage section according to Grunenwald method to retract the section. Case 2 : A 65-year-old man complained back pain. The chest CT revealed an right superior sulcus tumor, displaced bronchus (B1+B3 tracheal bronchus, B2) and pulmonary arteries anomalies. Combined Shaw-Paulson incision and 4 intercostal lateral thoracotomy was performed to right upper lobectomy and systematic lymph nodes dissection.
Aabakke, Anna J M; Secher, Niels Jørgen; Krebs, Lone
Caesarean section (CS) is a common surgical procedure, and in Denmark 21% of deliveries is by CS. There is an increasing amount of scientific evidence to support the different surgical techniques used at CS. This article reviews the literature regarding CS techniques. There is still a lack of evidence especially about the long-term consequences of the surgical techniques.
Resnik, Randy R
Oral implantology has grown into awidely acceptedand ever expanding discipline. Due to this phenomenon, more and more clinicians are offering dental implant surgery in their respective practices. As the discipline of implantology grows, the prevalence of bone grafting will become more significant. Restoring the lost hard-tissue volume to allow ideal implant placement. is crucial to decrease the Morbidity of implants and the restorations they support. Bone augmentation comprises a wide range of materials, donor sites, and surgical approaches, with new advances arriving at a staggering rate. With all of the materials and varying techniques available today, the practitioner must have a solid understanding of adjunct techniques to increase the success of bone grafting.
Burton, M J; Doree, C
Tonsillectomy is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures. There are several operative methods currently in use, but the superiority of one over another has not been clearly demonstrated. To assess the effectiveness of coblation tonsillectomy compared with other surgical techniques in reducing morbidity. We searched the Cochrane Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders Group Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library Issue 4, 2006), MEDLINE (1966 to 2006) and EMBASE (1974 to 2006). The date of the last search was December 2006. Randomised controlled trials of children and adults undergoing tonsillectomy by means of coblation compared with any other surgical technique for removal of the tonsils. Trials were assessed for methodological quality according to the method outlined in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions 4.2.6. Data were extracted using standardised data extraction forms. Authors were contacted where additional data were required. Nineteen studies were identified with sufficient data for further assessment. Four of these were excluded because intra-capsular tonsillectomy (i.e. tonsillotomy) rather than sub-capsular tonsillectomy was performed, and a further five studies because tonsils rather than participants were randomised. One further study was excluded because, although describing itself as a randomised trial, its participants turned out not to have been randomised to their intervention groups. Nine trials met the inclusion criteria, comparing coblation to other tonsillectomy techniques. All but two studies were of low quality and therefore a meta-analytical approach was not appropriate. In most studies, when considering most outcomes, there was no significant difference between coblation and other tonsillectomy techniques. In terms of postoperative pain and speed and safety of recovery, there is inadequate evidence to determine whether coblation tonsillectomy is
Porras, Antonio R.; Zukic, D.; Equobahrie, A.; Rogers, Gary F.; Linguraru, Marius George
We introduce a quantitative and automated method for personalized cranial shape remodeling via fronto-orbital advancement surgery. This paper builds on an objective method for automatic quantification of malformations caused by metopic craniosynostosis in children and presents a framework for personalized interventional planning. First, skull malformations are objectively quantified using a statistical atlas of normal cranial shapes. Then, we propose a method based on poly-rigid image registration that takes into account both the clinical protocol for fronto-orbital advancement and the physical constraints in the skull to plan the creation of the optimal post-surgical shape. Our automated surgical planning technique aims to minimize cranial malformations. The method was used to calculate the optimal shape for 11 infants with age 3.8±3.0 month old presenting metopic craniosynostosis and cranial malformations. The post-surgical cranial shape provided for each patient presented a significant average malformation reduction of 49% in the frontal cranial bones, and achieved shapes whose malformations were within healthy ranges. To our knowledge, this is the first work that presents an automatic framework for an objective and personalized surgical planning for craniosynostosis treatment. PMID:28149960
Pynnonen, Melissa; Brinkmeier, Jennifer V; Thorne, Marc C; Chong, Lee Yee; Burton, Martin J
Tonsillectomy is a very common operation and is performed using various surgical methods. Coblation is a popular method because it purportedly causes less pain than other surgical methods. However, the superiority of coblation is unproven. To compare the effects of coblation tonsillectomy for chronic tonsillitis or tonsillar hypertrophy with other surgical techniques, both hot and cold, on intraoperative morbidity, postoperative morbidity and procedural cost. The Cochrane ENT Information Specialist searched the ENT Trials Register; Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2017, Issue 3); PubMed; Ovid Embase; CINAHL; Web of Science; ClinicalTrials.gov; ICTRP and additional sources for published and unpublished trials. The date of the search was 20 April 2017. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of children and adults undergoing tonsillectomy with coblation compared with any other surgical technique. This review is limited to trials of extracapsular (traditional) tonsillectomy and excludes trials of intracapsular tonsil removal (tonsillotomy). We used the standard Cochrane methods. Our primary outcomes were: patient-reported pain using a validated pain scale at postoperative days 1, 3 and 7; intraoperative blood loss; primary postoperative bleeding (within 24 hours) and secondary postoperative bleeding (more than 24 hours after surgery). Secondary outcomes were: time until resumption of normal diet, time until resumption of normal activity, duration of surgery and adverse effects including blood transfusion and the need for reoperation. We used GRADE to assess the quality of the evidence for each outcome; this is indicated in italics. We included 29 studies, with a total of 2561 participants. All studies had moderate or high risk of bias. Sixteen studies used an adequate randomisation technique, however the inability to mask the surgical teams and/or provide adequate methods to mitigate the risk of bias put nearly all studies at moderate or high risk of
Rocco, B; Coelho, R F; Albo, G; Patel, V R
Prostate tumours are among the most frequently diagnosed solid tumours in males (a total of 192,280 new cases in the USA in 2009); since the approval of the PSA test by the Food and Drug Administration in 1986, incidence has risen significantly, particularly in the '90s; furthermore the spread of the PSA test has led to an increased frequency of cancer diagnosis at the localised stage. The standard treatment for tumour of the prostate is retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP) which however is not morbidity-free, e.g. intraoperative bleeding, urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction. This is why the interest of the scientific community has turned increasingly to mini-invasive surgical procedures able to achieve the same oncological results as the open procedure, but which also reduce the impact of the treatment on these patients' quality of life. The first step in this direction was laparoscopic prostatectomy described by Schuessler in 1992 and standardised by Gaston in 1997. However, the technical difficulty inherent in this procedure has limited its more widespread use. In May 2000 Binder and Kramer published a report on the first robot-assisted prostatectomy (RARP) using the Da Vinci system (da Vinci TM, Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA). From the original experience, RARP, which exploits the advantages of an enlarged, three-dimensional view and the ability of the instruments to move with 7 degrees of freedom, the technique has spread enormously all over the world. At the time of writing, in the USA, RARP is the most common therapeutic option for the treatment of prostate tumour at localised stage. In the present study we describe the RARP technique proposed by dr. Vipul Patel, head of the Global Robotic Institute (Orlando Fl).
Blanco, C E; Leon, H O; Guthrie, T B
We present a new surgical subperiosteal endoscopic technique for the release of fibrosis of the quadriceps to the femur caused by gunshot injuries, postsurgical scarring, and fractures, that was developed at the Arthroscopy Group at Hospital Hermanos Ameijeiras in Havana, Cuba. The technique used is a proximal endoscopic subperiosteal extension of the usual arthroscopic intra-articular release of adhesions, using periosteal elevators and arthroscopic scissors placed through medial and lateral superior knee portals to release adhesions and bands of scar tissue beneath the quadriceps mechanism. The technique was used in a prospective case series of 26 male patients aged 19 to 22 years between February 1997 and March 1998 who presented with clinically and ultrasonically documented extra-articular fibrosis resulting in ankylosis of the knee in extension. Only patients who had reached a plateau in their aggressive physiotherapy program with no further progression in knee flexion for 3 months were selected. Those with joint instability, motion-limiting articular surface pathology, and muscle or neurologic injury were excluded. All patients had obtained satisfactory results at 2-year follow-up. The extra-articular release gained at final follow-up was between 30 degrees and 90 degrees of flexion in addition to that obtained at the completion of the standard intra-articular release. Complications included 1 case of deep vein thrombosis, 2 cases of scrotal edema, 5 cases of hemarthrosis, and 2 cases of reflex sympathetic dystrophy. We have found this technique useful in obtaining additional flexion and improved function in a difficult class of patients with ankylosis caused by extra-articular fibrosis of the quadriceps to the femur, allowing immediate aggressive rehabilitation and presenting a useful outpatient alternative with fewer and less severe complications than described with the classic open Thompson's quadricepsplasty.
Terra, Bernardo Barcellos; Rodrigues, Leandro Marano; Pádua, David Victoria Hoffmann; Martins, Marcelo Giovanini; Teixeira, João Carlos de Medeiros; De Nadai, Anderson
Sternoclavicular dislocations account for less than 5% of all dislocations of the scapular belt. Most cases of anterior dislocation of the sternoclavicular joint do not present symptoms. However, some patients may develop chronic anterior instability and remain symptomatic, and surgical treatment is indicated in these cases. There is a scarcity of reports in the literature relating to reconstruction using the long palmar tendon in cases of traumatic anterior instability. Although rare, these injuries deserve rapid diagnosis and efficient treatment in order to avoid future complications. The aim of this report was to report on a case of a motocross competitor who developed chronic traumatic anterior instability of the sternoclavicular joint and underwent surgical reconstruction using the autogenous long palmar tendon. The patient was a 33-year-old man with a history of anterior dislocation of the sternoclavicular subsequent to a fall during a maneuver in a motocross competition. Conservative treatment was instituted initially, consisting of use of a functional sling to treat the symptoms for 3 weeks, along with physiotherapeutic rehabilitation for 3 months. We chose to use a modification of the "figure of eight" technique based on the studies by Spencer and Kuhn. A longitudinal incision of approximately 10 cm was made at the level of the sternoclavicular joint. The graft from the ipsilateral long palmar tendon was passed through the orifices in the form of a modified "figure of eight" and its ends were sutured together. The patient was immobilized using an American sling for 4 weeks. After 6 months of follow-up, the patient no longer presented pain or instability when movement of the sternoclavicular joint was required. Minor discomfort and slight prominence of the sternoclavicular joint continued to be present but did not affect the patient's activities. Thus, the patient was able to return to racing 6 months after the operation. Our study presented a case of
Miernik, A; Sievert, K-D; Herrmann, T R W; Netsch, C; Rassweiler, J J; Leyh, H; Westphal, J; Bachmann, A; Häcker, A; Homberg, R; Klein, J-T; Olbert, P J; Schoeb, D S; Gross, A J
Correct positioning of patients during preoperative preparations is essential for success of the intervention to avoid any positioning trauma and to provide the best access to the targeted structures. The appropriate positioning (and optimal performance) means that complications are avoided and also makes an essential contribution to the smooth course of the surgical intervention. A correct position is essential particularly in urology because the organs assigned to the discipline of urology are anatomically mostly difficult to reach. A further important function of the correct positioning technique is the avoidance of injuries to the patient. This article summarizes the most common positioning techniques in urological interventions with special emphasis on the explanation of practical advice, helpful tips and possible complications that can enable even junior surgeons to correctly perform the appropriate positioning technique.
Gonçalves-Ferreira, Antonio; Campos, Alexandre Rainha; Herculano-Carvalho, Manuel; Pimentel, Jose; Bentes, Carla; Peralta, Ana Rita; Morgado, Carlos
The removal of mesial temporal structures, namely amygdalohippocampectomy, is the most efficient surgical procedure for the treatment of epilepsy. However, disconnection of the epileptogenic zones, as in temporal lobotomy or, for different purposes, hemispherotomy, have shown equivalent results with less morbidity. Thus, authors of the present study began performing selective amygdalohippocampotomy in cases of refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) to treat mesial temporal lobe sclerosis (MTLS). The authors conducted a retrospective analysis of all cases of amygdalohippocampotomy collected in a database between November 2007 and March 2011. Since 2007, 21 patients (14 males and 7 females), ages 20-58 years (mean 41 years), all with TLE due to MTLS, were treated with selective ablation of the lateral amygdala plus perihippocampal disconnection (anterior one-half to two-thirds in dominant hemisphere), the left side in 11 cases and the right in 10. In 20 patients the follow-up was 2 or more years (range 24-44 months, average 32 months). Clinical outcome for epilepsy 2 years after surgery (20 patients) was good/very good in 19 patients (95%) with an Engel Class I (15 patients [75%]) or II outcome (4 patients [20%]) and bad in 1 patient (5%) with an Engel Class IV outcome (extratemporal focus and later reoperation). Surgical morbidity included hemiparesis (capsular hypertensive hemorrhage 24 hours after surgery, 1 patient), verbal memory worsening (2 patients), and quadrantanopia (permanent in 2 patients, transient in 1). Late psychiatric depression developed in 3 cases. Operative time was reduced by about 30 minutes (15%) on average with this technique. Amygdalohippocampotomy is as effective as amygdalohippocampectomy to treat MTLS and is a potentially safer, time-saving procedure.
Tropiano, P; Giorgi, H; Faure, A; Blondel, B
Lumbo-sacral (L5-S1) fusion is a widely performed procedure that has become the reference standard treatment for refractory low back pain. L5-S1 is a complex transition zone between the mobile lordotic distal lumbar spine and the fixed sacral region. The goal is to immobilise the lumbo-sacral junction in order to relieve pain originating from this site. Apart from achieving inter-vertebral fusion, the main challenge lies in the preoperative determination of the fixed L5-S1 position that will be optimal for the patient. Many lumbo-sacral fusion techniques are available. Stabilisation can be achieved using various methods. An anterior, posterior, or combined approach may be used. Recently developed minimally invasive techniques are gaining in popularity based on their good clinical outcomes and high fusion rates. The objective of this conference is to resolve the main issues faced by spinal surgeons in their everyday practice.
Kyriazanos, Ioannis D; Manatakis, Dimitrios K; Stamos, Nikolaos; Stoidis, Christos
Wound dehiscence is a serious postoperative complication, with an incidence of 0.5-3% after primary closure of a laparotomy incision, and represents an acute mechanical failure of wound healing. Relatively recently the concept of "intentional open abdomen" was described and both clinical entities share common pathophysiological and clinical pathways ("postoperative open abdominal wall"). Although early reconstruction is the target, a significant proportion of patients will develop adhesions between abdominal viscera and the anterolateral abdominal wall, a condition widely recognized as "frozen abdomen," where delayed wound closure appears as the only realistic alternative. We report our experience with a patient who presented with frozen abdomen after wound dehiscence due to surgical site infection and application of the "Coliseum technique" for its definitive surgical management. This novel technique represents an innovative alternative to abdominal exploration, for cases of "malignant" frozen abdomen due to peritoneal carcinomatosis. Lifting the edges of the surgical wound upwards and suspending them under traction by threads from a retractor positioned above the abdomen facilitates approach to the peritoneal cavity, optimizes exposure of intra-abdominal organs, and prevents operative injury to the innervation and blood supply of abdominal wall musculature, a crucial step for subsequent hernia repair.
Associated acetabular fractures are challenging injuries to manage. The complex surgical approaches and the technical difficulty in achieving anatomical reduction imply that the learning curve to achieve high-quality care of patients with such challenging injuries is extremely steep. This first article in the Journal’s “Safe Surgical Technique” section presents the standard surgical care, in conjunction with intraoperative tips and tricks, for the safe management of all subgroups of associated acetabular fractures. PMID:23414782
Evans, Charity H; Schenarts, Kimberly D
Training competent and professional surgeons efficiently and effectively requires innovation and modernization of educational methods. Today's medical learner is quite adept at using multiple platforms to gain information, providing surgical educators with numerous innovative avenues to promote learning. With the growth of technology, and the restriction of work hours in surgical education, there has been an increase in use of simulation, including virtual reality, robotics, telemedicine, and gaming. The use of simulation has shifted the learning of basic surgical skills to the laboratory, reserving limited time in the operating room for the acquisition of complex surgical skills".
Kota, Siva Krishna; Kota, Sunil Kumar; Meher, Lalit Kumar; Sahoo, Satyajit; Mohapatra, Sudeep; Modi, Kirtikumar Dharmsibhai
Diabetes is an important risk factor for atherosclerosis. The diabetic foot is characterized by the presence of arteriopathy and neuropathy. The vascular damage includes non-occlusive microangiopathy and macroangiopathy. Diabetic foot wounds are responsible for 5–10% of the cases of major or minor amputations. In fact, the risk of amputation of the lower limbs is 15–20% higher in diabetic populations than in the general population. The University of Texas classification is the reference classification for diabetic wounds. It distinguishes non-ischemic wounds from ischemic wounds which are associated with a higher rate of amputation. The first principles of treatment are the control of pain of an eventual infection. When ischemia is diagnosed, restoration of pulsatile blood flow by revascularization may be considered for salvaging the limb. The treatment options are angioplasty with or without stenting and surgical bypass or hybrid procedures combining the two. Distal reconstructions with anastomosis to the leg or pedal arteries have satisfactory limb-salvage rates. Subintimal angioplasty is a more recent endovascular technique. It could be suggested for elderly patients who are believed to be unsuitable candidates for a conventional bypass or angioplasty. The current article would focus on the various revascularization procedures. PMID:24027360
Kuroda, Yoshihiro; Takemura, Tadamasa; Kume, Naoto; Okamoto, Kazuya; Hori, Kenta; Nakao, Megumi; Kuroda, Tomohiro; Yoshihara, Hiroyuki
Recently, simulation platform and libraries are provided from several research groups. However, development of VR-based surgical simulator takes much effort not only for implementing simulation modules but also for setting surgical environment and choosing simulation modules. Surgical manual describes knowledge of manipulations in surgical procedure. In this study, language processing is used to extract anatomical objects and surgical manipulations in a scene from surgical manual. In addition, benchmark and LOD control of simulation modules optimize the simulation. We propose a framework of semi-automatic development of optimized simulator with surgical manuals. In the framework, SVM based machine learning is adapted in extracting surgical information and XML file was made. Simulation programs were created from XML file using a simulation library in different system configurations.
Edge, E. R.; Shieh, C. J.; Powers, W. F.
The application of recently developed function-space Davidon-type techniques to the shuttle ascent trajectory optimization problem is discussed along with an investigation of the recently developed PRAXIS algorithm for parameter optimization. At the outset of this analysis, the major deficiency of the function-space algorithms was their potential storage problems. Since most previous analyses of the methods were with relatively low-dimension problems, no storage problems were encountered. However, in shuttle trajectory optimization, storage is a problem, and this problem was handled efficiently. Topics discussed include: the shuttle ascent model and the development of the particular optimization equations; the function-space algorithms; the operation of the algorithm and typical simulations; variable final-time problem considerations; and a modification of Powell's algorithm.
Lathrop, Robert; Ryan, Thomas; Gaspredes, Jonathan; Woloszko, Jean; Coad, James E.
Surgical vessel sealing systems are widely used to achieve hemostasis and dissection in open surgery and minimally invasive, laparoscopic surgery. This enabling technology was developed about 17 years ago and continues to evolve with new devices and systems achieving improved outcomes. Histopathological assessment of thermally sealed tissues is a valuable tool for refining and comparing performance among surgical vessel sealing systems. Early work in this field typically assessed seal time, burst rate, and failure rate (in-situ). Later work compared histological staining methods with birefringence to assess the extent of thermal damage to tissues adjacent to the device. Understanding the microscopic architecture of a sealed vessel is crucial to optimizing the performance of power delivery algorithms and device design parameters. Manufacturers rely on these techniques to develop new products. A system for histopathological evaluation of vessels and sealing performance was established, to enable the direct assessment of a treatment's tissue effects. The parameters included the commonly used seal time, pressure burst rate and failure rate, as well as extensions of the assessment to include its likelihood to form steam vacuoles, adjacent thermal effect near the device, and extent of thermally affected tissue extruded back into the vessel lumen. This comprehensive assessment method provides an improved means of assessing the quality of a sealed vessel and understanding the exact mechanisms which create an optimally sealed vessel.
Introduction. Surgical tooth extraction is a common procedure in dentistry. However, numerous extraction cases show a high level of difficulty in practice. This difficulty is usually related to inadequate visualization, improper instrumentation, or other factors related to the targeted tooth (e.g., ankyloses or presence of bony undercut). Methods. In this work, the author presents a new technique for surgical tooth extraction based on 3D imaging, computer planning, and a new concept of computer-assisted manufacturing. Results. The outcome of this work is a surgical guide made by 3D printing of plastics and CNC of metals (hybrid outcome). In addition, the conventional surgical cutting tools (surgical burs) are modified with a number of stoppers adjusted to avoid any excessive drilling that could harm bone or other vital structures. Conclusion. The present outcome could provide a minimally invasive technique to overcome the routine complications facing dental surgeons in surgical extraction procedures. PMID:27127510
Dehghani, S N; Ghadrdani, A M
Rumenotomy in cattle is a routine procedure for treatment and diagnostic purposes. A comparative study of different rumenotomy techniques is lacking in the veterinary literature. Four rumenotomy techniques were compared in 20 cattle: skin suture fixation, Weingarth's ring, stay suture, and skin clamp fixation. Results indicated that skin suture fixation was superior to Weingarth's ring and the stay suture techniques. Skin clamp fixation was comparable with skin suturing and required a shorter operative time. Rumenotomy using the stay suture technique was followed by postoperative inflammatory complications, as indicated by significant (P < 0.05) increases in mean body temperature and total white blood cell counts of 39.3, s = 0.56 degrees C and 12.6 x 10(9), s = 1.57 x 10(9)/L, respectively, on day 4. Therefore, rumenotomy using the skin clamp fixation technique could be considered as an alternative to the more commonly used skin suture fixation technique. PMID:8590423
The indications for surgical decompression of abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are not clearly defined, but undoubtedly some patients benefit from it. In patients without recent abdominal incisions, it can be achieved with full-thickness laparostomy (either midline, or transverse subcostal) or through a subcutaneous linea alba fasciotomy. In spite of the improvement in physiological variables and significant decrease in IAP, however, the effects of surgical decompression on organ function and outcome are less clear. Because of the significant morbidity associated with surgical decompression and the management of the ensuing open abdomen, more research is needed to better define the appropriate indications and techniques for surgical intervention. PMID:19366442
A review of the current scientific literature was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of minimally invasive periodontal regenerative surgery in the treatment of periodontal defects. The impact on clinical outcomes, surgical chair-time, side effects and patient morbidity were evaluated. An electronic search of PUBMED database from January 1987 to December 2011 was undertaken on dental journals using the key-word "minimally invasive surgery". Cohort studies, retrospective studies and randomized controlled clinical trials referring to treatment of periodontal defects with at least 6 months of follow-up were selected. Quality assessment of the selected studies was done through the Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy Grading (SORT) System. Ten studies (1 retrospective, 5 cohorts and 4 RCTs) were included. All the studies consistently support the efficacy of minimally invasive surgery in the treatment of periodontal defects in terms of clinical attachment level gain, probing pocket depth reduction and minimal gingival recession. Six studies reporting on side effects and patient morbidity consistently indicate very low levels of pain and discomfort during and after surgery resulting in a reduced intake of pain-killers and very limited interference with daily activities in the post-operative period. Minimally invasive surgery might be considered a true reality in the field of periodontal regeneration. The observed clinical improvements are consistently associated with very limited morbidity to the patient during the surgical procedure as well as in the post-operative period. Minimally invasive surgery, however, cannot be applied at all cases. A stepwise decisional algorithm should support clinicians in choosing the treatment approach.
Peroni, J F; Horner, N T; Robinson, N E; Stick, J A
Six normal, healthy horses age 3-10 years underwent left and right thoracoscopic examination using a rigid telescope. A minimum of 30 days was allowed between procedures. Horses were restrained in stocks and sedated with a continuous detomidine infusion. After surgical preparation of the hemithorax elected for surgery, and administration of local or regional anaesthesia of the surgery sites, thoracoscopy was completed during two 15 min pneumothorax periods. During the procedures, the thoracic structures were viewed using a 57 cm, 10 mm diameter, 30 degrees rigid telescope connected to a digital camcorder to allow computer capture of digital images. The telescope was inserted into the thoracic cavity via 3 different intercostal spaces. The 8th, 10th and 12th intercostal spaces were randomly selected and used among horses. The exploration of each hemithorax started from the dorsal-caudal quadrant continued toward the cranial thorax and was completed by observing the diaphragmatic and caudal pulmonary region. Collapsed lung, aorta, oesophagus and diaphragm were viewed readily in either hemithorax. On exploration of the right hemithorax, the azygos vein, thoracic duct and pulmonary veins were also identified. Horses tolerated thoracoscopy well. Signs of discomfort, such as increased respiratory rate, coughing and decreased level of sedation, were associated with lung collapse in one horse, with pneumothorax on 2 occasions, and when the thorax was approached through the 8th intercostal space. Surgery performed via the 8th intercostal space was hindered by the rigidity of the 8th and 9th ribs, and by the presence of a greater musculature, which did not allow easy cranial and caudal movements of the telescope.
Yonke, Nicole; Leeman, Lawrence M
New data have emerged to support changes in first-trimester abortion practice in regard to antibiotic prophylaxis, cervical ripening, the use of manual vacuum aspiration, and pain management. This article addresses these new recommendations and reviews techniques in performing manual and electric vacuum uterine aspiration procedures before 14 weeks' gestation, including very early abortion (<7 weeks' gestation), technically difficult abortions, management of complications, and postabortal contraception. The information discussed also applies to miscarriage management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Toledo-Pereyra, L H; Rodríguez, F J
Since the original description of the pancreas transplant technique in animals, initially as a pedicle transplant in 1892, free graft in 1913, and then as a vascularized organ in 1927, there have been several changes in the handling of the exocrine secretions, as well as the vascular anastomoses, and the posttransplant function in relation to the immunosuppressive therapy. The surgical technical changes have included the ligature of the duct, the free drainage to the abdominal cavity, the pancreas transplant with a duodenal segment, the chemical occlusion of the duct, and its drainage to the intestine or to the bladder with a duodenal segment. This last technique remains as the standard technique currently used for pancreas transplantation, along with the combined transplant of the kidney. This work reviews the historical aspects, the evolution of the experimental and clinical surgical techniques, and the current results associated with the surgical management of pancreas transplantation.
Lavelle, William; Carl, Allen; Lavelle, Elizabeth Demers
This article summarizes current issues related to invasive and minimally invasive surgical techniques for back pain conditions. It describes pain generators and explains theories about how discs fail. The article discusses techniques for treating painful sciatica, painful motion segments, and spinal stenosis. Problems related to current imaging are also presented. The article concludes with a discussion about physical therapy.
Rodrigues, Ian AS; Shah, Brinda; Goyal, Saurabh
ABSTRACT Aim We present a novel surgical technique for repair of persistent and symptomatic cyclodialysis clefts refractory to conservative or minimally invasive treatment. Background Numerous surgical techniques have been described to close cyclodialysis clefts. The current standard approach involves intraocular repair of cyclodialysis clefts underneath a full-thickness scleral flap. Technique Our technique employs intraoperative use of a direct gonioscope to guide a nonpenetrating surgical repair. Subsequently, a significantly less invasive, nonpenetrating technique utilizing a partial-thickness scleral flap can be performed that reduces potential risks associated with intraocular surgery. The direct gonioscope is also used for confirmation of adequate surgical closure of the cyclodialysis cleft prior to completion of surgery. This technique has been successfully carried out to repair traumatic chronic cyclodialysis clefts associated with hypotony in two patients. There were no significant adverse events as a result of using this technique. Conclusion The novel technique described increases the likelihood of successful and permanent repair of cyclodialysis clefts with resolution of symptoms associated with hypotony, through direct intraoperative visualization of the cleft. Clinical significance Gonioscopically guided nonpenetrating cyclodialysis cleft repair offers significant benefits over previously described techniques. Advantages of our technique include gonioscopic cleft visualization, enabling accurate localization of the area requiring repair, and subsequent confirmation of adequate closure of the cleft. Using a partial-thickness scleral flap is also less invasive and reduces risks associated with treatment of this potentially challenging complication of ocular trauma. How to cite this article Rodrigues IAS, Shah B, Goyal S, Lim S. Gonioscopically Guided Nonpenetrating Cyclodialysis Cleft Repair: A Novel Surgical Technique. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2017
Ioannou, Andreas L.; Kotsakis, Georgios A.; McHale, Michelle G.; Lareau, Donald E.; Hinrichs, James E.; Romanos, Georgios E.
Implant dentistry has been established as a predictable treatment with excellent clinical success to replace missing or nonrestorable teeth. A successful esthetic implant reconstruction is predicated on two fundamental components: the reproduction of the natural tooth characteristics on the implant crown and the establishment of soft tissue housing that will simulate a healthy periodontium. In order for an implant to optimally rehabilitate esthetics, the peri-implant soft tissues must be preserved and/or augmented by means of periodontal surgical procedures. Clinicians who practice implant dentistry should strive to achieve an esthetically successful outcome beyond just osseointegration. Knowledge of a variety of available techniques and proper treatment planning enables the clinician to meet the ever-increasing esthetic demands as requested by patients. The purpose of this paper is to enhance the implant surgeon's rationale and techniques beyond that of simply placing a functional restoration in an edentulous site to a level whereby an implant-supported restoration is placed in reconstructed soft tissue, so the site is indiscernible from a natural tooth. PMID:26124837
Ioannou, Andreas L; Kotsakis, Georgios A; McHale, Michelle G; Lareau, Donald E; Hinrichs, James E; Romanos, Georgios E
Implant dentistry has been established as a predictable treatment with excellent clinical success to replace missing or nonrestorable teeth. A successful esthetic implant reconstruction is predicated on two fundamental components: the reproduction of the natural tooth characteristics on the implant crown and the establishment of soft tissue housing that will simulate a healthy periodontium. In order for an implant to optimally rehabilitate esthetics, the peri-implant soft tissues must be preserved and/or augmented by means of periodontal surgical procedures. Clinicians who practice implant dentistry should strive to achieve an esthetically successful outcome beyond just osseointegration. Knowledge of a variety of available techniques and proper treatment planning enables the clinician to meet the ever-increasing esthetic demands as requested by patients. The purpose of this paper is to enhance the implant surgeon's rationale and techniques beyond that of simply placing a functional restoration in an edentulous site to a level whereby an implant-supported restoration is placed in reconstructed soft tissue, so the site is indiscernible from a natural tooth.
Aoyagi, Satoru; Hata, Hiroo; Homma, Erina; Shimizu, Hiroshi
To preserve oral function and achieve acceptable cosmetic results, intraoperative control of surgical margins with frozen section evaluation may help to determine surgical technique in lip cancer. However, frozen section analysis is usually limited to suspicious areas and has not been systematically performed among surgeons. The accuracy of such analysis for detecting histological surgical margins is highly dependent on the methods used to obtain and analyze the margins. Improving the pathodiagnostic reliability of conventional intraoperative frozen section evaluation is the most important goal of surgical management in our method. We describe the successful use of the "double-blade method" in lip cancer treatment. The technique we describe has the advantage of histologically confirming clear margins in lip cancer. This method appears to be time-saving and easy to apply with existing surgical systems. In addition, this method may be used as an alternative to complete evaluation of lateral surgical margins that is important in planning a suitable surgical reconstruction procedure in lip cancer at many institutions where Mohs micrographic surgery is difficult to perform. © 2014 Japanese Dermatological Association.
Carruthers, Katherine H; Eisemann, Bradley S; Lamp, Susan; Kocak, Ergun
Closed suction drains are indicated in a wide array of postoperative settings, with many distinct drainage systems available to the surgeon. The purpose of this study was to compare the suction gradients achieved using 2 different sizes of suction reservoirs and 2 different techniques for generating negative pressure. Drainage reservoirs of 100 and 400 ml were chosen to evaluate their ability to achieve suction. Suction was established in both sizes of drains by pressing the sides of the reservoir together or by pushing the bottom of the reservoir toward the top. Negative pressures were recorded with the reservoir empty, and after every 10-ml addition of saline. Averages were graphed to illustrate the applied suction over a range of drain volumes. The 100-ml drainage system reached a peak suction of -117.6 mmHg, while the 400-ml drainage system reached only a peak suction of -71.4 mmHg. Both of the maximum suction readings were achieved using the full-squeeze technique. The bottom-pushed-in technique did not result in any sustained measurable levels of suction using either of the reservoir volumes. Smaller drain reservoirs are more successful in generating a high initial suction than larger reservoirs, especially when the volume of fluid in the drain is relatively low. In all sizes of drains, compressing the sides of the reservoir is a far better technique for establishing negative pressure than pressing the bottom of the drain up toward the top.
Davies, Brett W.; Hink, Eric M.; Durairaj, Vikram D.
Surgical access to the inferior orbit can be accomplished through either a transcutaneous or transconjunctival incision. The preferred approach should provide adequate surgical exposure with the fewest adverse effects. The purpose of this article is to review the literature on the transconjunctival incision and to discuss the indications and complications of the approach. The authors also discuss their preferred technique and provide a step-by-step instruction. The transconjunctival approach provides good surgical access with a low incidence of complications and a better aesthetic outcome than transcutaneous approaches. PMID:25136405
Robertson, Jason O.; Lawrance, Christopher P.; Maniar, Hersh S.; Damiano, Ralph J.
The use of surgical lesion sets for the treatment of atrial fibrillation has been increasing, particularly in patients with complicated anatomical substrates and those undergoing concomitant surgery. Preferences in terms of lesion set, surgical approach and ablation technology vary by center. This review discusses both the surgical techniques and the outcomes for the most commonly performed procedures in the context of recent consensus guidelines. The Cox-Maze IV, pulmonary vein isolation, extended left atrial lesion sets, the hybrid approach and ganglionated plexus ablation are each reviewed in an attempt to provide insight into current clinical practice and patient selection PMID:23823731
Davies, Brett W; Hink, Eric M; Durairaj, Vikram D
Surgical access to the inferior orbit can be accomplished through either a transcutaneous or transconjunctival incision. The preferred approach should provide adequate surgical exposure with the fewest adverse effects. The purpose of this article is to review the literature on the transconjunctival incision and to discuss the indications and complications of the approach. The authors also discuss their preferred technique and provide a step-by-step instruction. The transconjunctival approach provides good surgical access with a low incidence of complications and a better aesthetic outcome than transcutaneous approaches.
Kim, Sungmin; Hong, Jaesung; Joung, Sanghyun; Yamada, Atsushi; Matsumoto, Nozomu; Kim, Sun I.; Kim, Young Soo; Hashizume, Makoto
To obtain additional depth and visual information in endoscopic surgery, a dual surgical navigation system using virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) techniques complementarily was developed. A VR environment was constructed in the default 3-D view of the navigation software and an AR environment was developed as a plug-in module. The spatial relationships among the target organ, endoscope, and surgical tools were visualized, and the visual information superimposing invisible organs on the endoscopic images was supplied using the AR environment. Phantom experiments and preliminary clinical application showed promising results for surgical navigation.
Liu, Jeffrey C.; Shah, Jatin P.
The head and neck region poses a challenging arena for oncologic surgery. Diseases and their treatment can affect a myriad of functions, including sight, hearing, taste, smell, breathing, speaking, swallowing, facial expression and appearance. This review discusses several areas where refinements in surgical techniques have led to improved patient outcomes. This includes surgical incisions, neck lymphadenectomy, transoral laser microsurgery, minimally invasive thyroid surgery, and the use of vascularized free flaps for oromandibular reconstruction. PMID:20512941
Liu, Jeffrey C; Shah, Jatin P
The head and neck region poses a challenging arena for oncologic surgery. Diseases and their treatment can affect a myriad of functions, including sight, hearing, taste, smell, breathing, speaking, swallowing, facial expression, and appearance. This review discusses several areas where refinements in surgical techniques have led to improved patient outcomes. This includes surgical incisions, neck lymphadenectomy, transoral laser microsurgery, minimally invasive thyroid surgery, and the use of vascularized free flaps for oromandibular reconstruction.
Al-Otaibi, Faisal; Baeesa, Saleh S.; Parrent, Andrew G.; Girvin, John P.; Steven, David
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common form of medically intractable epilepsy. Advances in electrophysiology and neuroimaging have led to a more precise localization of the epileptogenic zone within the temporal lobe. Resective surgery is the most effective treatment for TLE. Despite the variability in surgical techniques and in the extent of resection, the overall outcomes of different TLE surgeries are similar. Here, we review different surgical interventions for the management of TLE. PMID:22957228
Smyth, Matthew D; Vellimana, Ananth K; Asano, Eishi; Sood, Sandeep
Corpus callosotomy is a palliative surgical procedure for patients with refractory epilepsy. It can be performed through an open approach via a standard craniotomy and the aid of an operating microscope, or alternatively via a mini-craniotomy with endoscope assistance. The extent of callosal disconnection performed varies according to indications and surgeon preference. In this article, we describe both open and endoscopic surgical techniques for anterior and complete corpus callosotomy. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.
Gasperoni, M.; Neri, R.; Carboni, A.; Purpura, V.; Morselli, P.G.; Melandri, D.
Summary The extensive loss of skin in burned patients is a critical clinical condition, and the choice of an effective technique to cover and protect the damaged area has always been a challenge in the surgical field. Despite its wide clinical use, there is little data in the literature on using the Alexander technique to treat severe burns, while several studies have focused on alternative approaches. The present study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the Alexander surgical technique on 117 patients with severe burns. The characteristics of the burned patients, factors related to etiology of burns as well as adverse prognostic factors and their incidence in discharged versus deceased patients were also taken into account. Finally, a comparison is made with an alternative surgical procedure described in the literature. Our results show a satisfactory level of survival for patients with severe burns surgically treated with the Alexander technique, accounting for 63% of all clinical cases reported here. This treatment is also less expensive and more rapid than the alternative approach we compared it with. The Alexander technique is a lifesaving method for the treatment of severe burns that provides a satisfactory chance of survival at lower cost than the alternative surgical procedure examined. PMID:28289363
Andolfi, Ciro; Wiesel, Ory; Fisichella, P Marco
The goal of this article is to illustrate the current minimal invasive approaches to patients with epiphrenic diverticulum in terms of preoperative evaluation, surgical technique, and outcomes. Two techniques will be presented: a laparoscopic and a video-assisted thoracic repair. Indications for each technique will be discussed as well as proper patient selection and management. Current controversies in the treatment of patients with this rare disease will be addressed.
Sorokin, Igor; Feuerstein, Michael A; Feustel, Paul; Kaufman, Ronald P
The background of the study was to examine potential causes for a positive surgical margin (PSM) and develop strategies to improve surgical outcomes. A retrospective review of consecutive partial nephrectomy cases for renal cell carcinoma was performed. We divided the patients into 2 groups. The first group consisted of the first 67 renal tumors in 65 patients that underwent our early surgical technique. The second group consisted of the next 45 renal tumors in 39 patients that underwent the revised surgical technique which included wider resections and robotically controlled ultrasound. Our primary outcome was margin status and secondary outcome was disease recurrence. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine factors that resulted in a PSM. Positive margins were detected in 19 out of 67 (28 %) renal tumors in the early technique group compared to 1 out of 45 (2 %) positive margins in the revised technique group (p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, only technique modification (OR 0.04, p = 0.003) and larger tumor size (OR 0.41, p = 0.01) were significant predictors of a lower rate of PSM. Smaller tumors were more common in robotic assisted partial nephrectomies which had a higher rate of PSM on univariate analysis (OR 3.51, p = 0.04). Only one patient with a PSM experienced a systemic disease recurrence. In our experience, self-assessment and technique modification resulted in a dramatic PSM improvement. Smaller tumors were associated with PSM. It is important for all surgeons to periodically look at their own surgical outcomes and modify their surgical technique accordingly.
Al-Enezi, Ahmad; Al-Khadhari, Sulaiman; Al-Shaiji, Tariq F.
Penile prosthesis surgery plays a vital role in the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED). As far as outcome is concerned, it is one of the most rewarding procedures for both patients and surgeons. We describe our surgical technique for implantation of the three-piece inflatable penile prosthesis and point out the major surgical pitfalls accompanying this procedure and their specific management. The psychological outcome of penile prosthesis surgery is also discussed. Different surgical approaches are available when performing the procedure. A number of procedure-related problems can be encountered and a thorough knowledge of these is of paramount importance. Penile prosthesis surgery has a favorable psychological outcome. Surgery for implantation of an inflatable penile prosthesis is a rewarding procedure, with a high yield of patient satisfaction. Urologists should have thorough understanding of the surgical pitfalls peculiar to this procedure and their management. PMID:22413049
XIMENES, Agláia Moreira Garcia; MELLO, Fernando Salvo Torres; de LIMA-JÚNIOR, Zailton Bezerra; FERREIRA, Cícero Faustino; CAVALCANTI, Amanda Dantas Ferreira; DIAS-FILHO, Adalberto Vieira
Background The choice of surgical technique to approach the appendicular stump depends mostly on skill and personal preference of the surgeon or on the protocol used in the service, and the influence of this choice in hospitalization time is not evaluated. Aim To evaluate the relation between surgical technique and postoperative hospitalization time in patients presenting with acute appendicitis. Methods Retrospective analysis of 180 patients who underwent open appendectomy. These where divided into three groups according to surgical technique: conventional appendectomy (simple ligation of the stump), tobacco pouch suture and Parker-Kerr suture. Data where crossed with hospitalization time (until three days, from four to six days and over seven days). Results A hundred and eighty patients with age from 15 to 85 years where included. From these, 95 underwent conventional technique, had an average hospitalization time of 3,9 days and seven had complications (surgical site infection, seroma, suture dehiscence and evisceration). In 67 patients, tobacco pouch suture was chosen and had average hospitalization time of 3,7 days and two complications (infection and seroma). In 18 Parker-Kerr suture was made, with average hospitalization time of 2,6 days, with no complication. Contingency coefficient between the variables hospitalization time and technique was 0,255 and Cramér's V was 0,186. Conclusion There was tendency to larger hospitalization time and larger number of complications in conventional appendectomy, whereas in patients where Parker-Kerr suture was performed, hospitalization time was significantly smaller. PMID:25184769
Marsden, Alison; Bernstein, Adam; Taylor, Charles; Feinstein, Jeffrey
The coupling of shape optimization to cardiovascular blood flow simulations has potential to improve the design of current surgeries and to eventually allow for optimization of surgical designs for individual patients. This is particularly true in pediatric cardiology, where geometries vary dramatically between patients, and unusual geometries can lead to unfavorable hemodynamic conditions. Interfacing shape optimization to three-dimensional, time-dependent fluid mechanics problems is particularly challenging because of the large computational cost and the difficulty in computing objective function gradients. In this work a derivative-free optimization algorithm is coupled to a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver that has been tailored for cardiovascular applications. The optimization code employs mesh adaptive direct search in conjunction with a Kriging surrogate. This framework is successfully demonstrated on several geometries representative of cardiovascular surgical applications. We will discuss issues of cost function choice for surgical applications, including energy loss and wall shear stress distribution. In particular, we will discuss the creation of new designs for the Fontan procedure, a surgery done in pediatric cardiology to treat single ventricle heart defects.
Onken, Julia; Meyer, Bernhard; Vajkoczy, Peter
OBJECTIVE Cervical artificial disc replacement (C-ADR) is a widely used procedure with low risk at implantation. Few cases have been reported about the surgical techniques of C-ADR revision. The authors describe their surgical experience with the explantation of a Galileo C-ADR. METHODS Revision surgery was performed in a 58-year-old patient. Patient positioning and surgical opening techniques were performed as appropriate for anterior cervical decompression. RESULTS Revision surgery via the initial anterior approach was successful following an atraumatic removal of the implant. Fusion of the C5-6 segment was performed without complications. CONCLUSIONS In general, the authors observed recurrent nerve palsy and malpositioning of the revised implant in C-ADR revision surgery. Problems with implant removal did not occur because the fusion rate was low due to the short time between initial surgery and C-ADR revision surgery. The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/32CUEDquinc .
Whittick, William G.
The undergraduate surgery course of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Universiti Pertanian Malaysia, is described with focus on its experential method of teaching surgical techniques. Also discussed are the benefits of veterinary school cooperation with a large city Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA). (JMD)
Whittick, William G.
The undergraduate surgery course of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Universiti Pertanian Malaysia, is described with focus on its experential method of teaching surgical techniques. Also discussed are the benefits of veterinary school cooperation with a large city Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA). (JMD)
Dickens, Jonathan F; Kilcoyne, Kelly; Kluk, Matthew; Rue, John-Paul
Injuries to the posterolateral corner (PLC) of the knee can lead to profound knee instability, especially when combined with anterior cruciate or posterior cruciate ligament injury. With increased recognition of this injury, as well as improved understanding of the pathoanatomy, surgical treatment of these injuries has evolved in favor of acute treatment including reconstructive techniques to minimize recurrent laxity and allow for early rehabilitation. This article describes the approach to the PLC and the technique for figure of 8 reconstruction.
Kerker, Jordan T; Leo, Andrew J; Sgaglione, Nicholas A
Symptomatic articular cartilage lesions have gained attention and clinical interest in recent years and can be difficult to treat. Historically, various biologic surgical treatment options have yielded inconsistent results because of the inferior biomechanical properties associated with a variable healing response. Improving technology and surgical advances has generated considerable research in cartilage resurfacing and optimizing hyaline tissue restoration. Biologic innovation and tissue engineering in cartilage repair have used matrix scaffolds, autologous and allogenic chondrocytes, cartilage grafts, growth factors, stem cells, and genetic engineering. Numerous evolving technologies and surgical approaches have been introduced into the clinical setting. This review will discuss the basic science, surgical techniques, and clinical outcomes of novel synthetic materials and scaffolds for articular cartilage repair.
Pagni, Giorgio; Rasperini, Giulio
Guided tissue regenerative (GTR) therapies are performed to regenerate the previously lost tooth supporting structure, thus maintaining the aesthetics and masticatory function of the available dentition. Alveolar ridge augmentation procedures (GBR) intend to regain the alveolar bone lost following tooth extraction and/or periodontal disease. Several biomaterials and surgical approaches have been proposed. In this paper we report biomaterials and surgical techniques used for periodontal and bone regenerative procedures. Particular attention will be adopted to highlight the biological basis for the different therapeutic approaches. PMID:23843792
Mirshahi, A; Scharioth, G B
To present a surgical technique for treatment of peripheral anterior synechiae (PAS or goniosynechiae) at the operative field during nonpenetrating glaucoma surgery. After usual preparation of a superficial and a deep scleral flap with externalization of the Schlemm's canal and peeling the juxtacanalicular trabecular meshwork, the goniosynechia is transected by a spatula introduced to the anterior chamber through a paracentesis. A Descemet's window provides full visual control at the peripheral cornea at the basis of the superficial scleral flap. With this surgical technique, selective treatment of goniosynechiae is possible exactly at the area where creation of low outflow resistance is intended by the surgeon during nonpenetrating glaucoma surgery. This technique enables the surgeon to perform nonpenetrating glaucoma surgery even in the presence of peripheral anterior synechiae.
Tahi, Hassan; Chapon, Pascal F.; Hamaoui, Marie; Lee, William E.; Holden, Brien; Parel, Jean-Marie A.
Purpose. To evaluate an innovative surgical technique for phaco-ersatz, a cataract surgery designed to restore accommodation. Techniques for very small capsulorhexis as well as the refilling procedure were developed. This study evaluates the feasibility and reproducibility of the surgical technique. Methods. The right eye of 8 NZW rabbits (~ 2 Kg) were operated following the ARVO Statements for the Use of Animals in Ophthalmic and Vision Research. The surgery is begun by making a small peripheral capsulorhexis of about 1 mm using. The lens content is then removed. The lens is then refilled with a novel in situ polymerizable gel and the corneal incision is closed using one 10/0 Nylon interrupted stitch. Results. The capsulorhexis technique was succesfully performed and reproducible in all animals. The average size of the capsulorhexis opening was 1. 2 mm (+/-0.14). Lens material removal and refilling of the capsular bag with an in situ polymerizable material was also performed in each trial study. Conclusion. This surgical technique seemed feasible and reproducible.
Renzulli, P; Candinas, D
The formation of an intestinal stoma is one of the most frequent operations in visceral surgery. Despite new operative techniques and a more restrictive use of the stoma, the stoma formation remains an often necessary surgical procedure, which results to a dramatic change in the patients' life. The stoma formation and its later closure are associated with a high morbidity. Many complications, such as stoma necrosis, stoma retraction or stoma prolapse, are related to surgical mistakes made during stoma formation. These complications are therefore largely avoidable. The stoma formation needs careful planning together with a professional stoma nursing team. Moreover, it is mandatory that the stoma formation is made with great care and that it meticulously follows the well established surgical principles. A perfectly placed, technically correctly fashioned and easy to care for stoma is essential for a good patients'quality of life.
Ouadi, Abderrahmane; Bentarzi, Hamid; Recioui, Abdelmadjid
The multiobjective design of digital filters using spiral optimization technique is considered in this paper. This new optimization tool is a metaheuristic technique inspired by the dynamics of spirals. It is characterized by its robustness, immunity to local optima trapping, relative fast convergence and ease of implementation. The objectives of filter design include matching some desired frequency response while having minimum linear phase; hence, reducing the time response. The results demonstrate that the proposed problem solving approach blended with the use of the spiral optimization technique produced filters which fulfill the desired characteristics and are of practical use.
Muñoz-Rodriguez, P; Peña-Cuesta, R; Garcia-Cosio, J F; Quiroz-Mercado, H
The main problem with using enucleated animal eyes in surgical training is that they remain fresh for such a short time. We describe a simple technique to preserve them by replacing the aqueous humor and part of the vitreous with another substance. We used 18 eyes of nine dogs (nine for the study and nine as controls), and three substances (2% methylcellulose, silicone oil, and gelatin). The methylcellulose group had the best results (including long-lasting mydriasis), preserving the eyes in which it was used in optimal surgical condition for up to 8 days, twice as long as the eyes in the control group (P less than .005).
Saberi, Nahid; Mahvash, Mohsen; Zenati, Marco
We introduce an intelligent system to optimize a team composition based on the team's historical outcomes and apply this system to compose a surgical team. The system relies on a record of the procedures performed in the past. The optimal team composition is the one with the lowest probability of unfavorable outcome. We use the theory of probability and the inclusion exclusion principle to model the probability of team outcome for a given composition. A probability value is assigned to each person of database and the probability of a team composition is calculated from them. The model allows to determine the probability of all possible team compositions even if there is no recoded procedure for some team compositions. From an analytical perspective, assembling an optimal team is equivalent to minimizing the overlap of team members who have a recurring tendency to be involved with procedures of unfavorable results. A conceptual example shows the accuracy of the proposed system on obtaining the optimal team.
Eddins, Blackberrie; Lediju Bell, Muyinatu A.
This work explores light delivery optimization for a photoacoustic surgical system previously proposed to provide real-time, intraoperative visualization of the internal carotid arteries hidden by bone during minimally invasive neurosurgeries. Monte Carlo simulations were employed to study 3D light propagation in tissue. For a 2.4 mm diameter drill shaft and 2.9 mm spherical drill tip, the optimal fiber distance from the drill shaft was 2 mm, determined from the maximum normalized fluence seen by the artery. A single fiber was insufficient to deliver light to arteries separated by a minimum of 8 mm. Using similar drill geometry and the optimal 2 mm fiber-to-drill shaft distance, Zemax ray tracing simulations were employed to propagate a 950 nm wavelength Gaussian beam through one or more 600 μm core diameter optical fibers, and the resulting optical beam profile was detected on the representative bone surface. For equally spaced fibers, a single merged optical profile formed with 7 or more fibers, determined by thresholding the resulting light profile images at 1/e times the maximum intensity. The corresponding spot size was larger than that of a single fiber transmitting the same input energy, thus reducing the fluence delivered to the sphenoid bone and enabling higher energies within safety limits. A prototype was designed and built based on these optimization parameters. The methodology we used to optimize our light delivery system to surround surgical tools is generalizable to multiple interventional photoacoustic applications.
Hamani, Clement; Lozano, Andres M.; Mazzone, Paolo A.M.; Moro, Elena; Hutchison, William; Silburn, Peter A.; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Alam, Mesbah; Goetz, Laurent; Pereira, Erlick; Rughani, Anand; Thevathasan, Wesley; Aziz, Tipu; Bloem, Bastiaan R.; Brown, Peter; Chabardes, Stephan; Coyne, Terry; Foote, Kelly; Garcia-Rill, Edgar; Hirsch, Etienne C.; Okun, Michael S.; Krauss, Joachim K.
The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) region has received considerable attention in clinical studies as a target for deep brain stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson disease. These studies have yielded variable results with an overall impression of improvement in falls and freezing in many but not all patients treated. We evaluated the available data on the surgical anatomy and terminology of the PPN region in a companion paper. Here we focus on issues concerning surgical technique, imaging, and early side effects of surgery. The aim of this paper was to gain more insight into the reasoning for choosing specific techniques and to discuss short-comings of available studies. Our data demonstrate the wide range in almost all fields which were investigated. There are a number of important challenges to be resolved, such as identification of the optimal target, the choice of the surgical approach to optimize electrode placement, the impact on the outcome of specific surgical techniques, the reliability of intraoperative confirmation of the target, and methodological differences in postoperative validation of the electrode position. There is considerable variability both within and across groups, the overall experience with PPN DBS is still limited, and there is a lack of controlled trials. Despite these challenges, the procedure seems to provide benefit to selected patients and appears to be relatively safe. One important limitation in comparing studies from different centers and analyzing outcomes is the great variability in targeting and surgical techniques, as shown in our paper. The challenges we identified will be of relevance when designing future studies to better address several controversial issues. We hope that the data we accumulated may facilitate the development of surgical protocols for PPN DBS. PMID:27728909
Pierrez, J; Guerci, A; Guerci, O
In cytometric clinical application, it is important to obtain cell suspensions rapidly with as little cytological alteration as possible. A procedure has been achieved to prepare cell suspensions for flow cytometric analysis. The leucoconcentration technique, first described by Herbeuval for cytologic analysis, has been modified to be applied in cytometry. This technique involves Saponin lysis of red cells of peripheral blood or bone marrow samples that have been previously fixed with picric acid alcohol solution. Cells in suspension are not shifted and tinctorial affinity is not modified. Then cells have been stained with Mithramycin. Each parameter defined by Crissman has been analyzed to define the best staining conditions. The availability of Leucoconcentration with Mithramycin-DNA-staining permits determination of cell cycle with a fine resolution.
Zelle, Boris A; Boni, Guilherme
Statically locked, reamed intramedullary nailing remains the standard treatment for displaced tibial shaft fractures. Establishing an appropriate starting point is a crucial part of the surgical procedure. Recently, suprapatellar nailing in the semi-extended position has been suggested as a safe and effective surgical technique. Numerous reduction techiques are available to achieve an anatomic fracture alignment and the treating surgeon should be familiar with these maneuvers. Open reduction techniques should be considered if anatomic fracture alignment cannot be achieved by closed means. Favorable union rates above 90 % can be achieved by both reamed and unreamed intramedullary nailing. Despite favorable union rates, patients continue to have functional long-term impairments. In particular, anterior knee pain remains a common complaint following intramedullary tibial nailing. Malrotation remains a commonly reported complication after tibial nailing. The effect of postoperative tibial malalignment on the clinical and radiographic outcome requires further investigation.
Purpose. To report a modified surgical strategy in the management of intraoperative floppy iris syndrome-associated iris prolapse. Methods. Prolapsed iris is left as is and a new corneal incision near the original wound but at a different site is created. Depending on the location of the original incision and the surgeon's preference, this additional incision can be used as a new port for phacoemulsification tip or can be the new site for the iris to securely prolapse, allowing for the surgery to proceed safely. Results. We present 2 cases of iris prolapse and inadequate pupil dilation in patients with IFIS. Along with our modified technique, additional iris retractors were placed to increase the workspace for the phacoemulsification tip. The cataract surgery was performed successfully without further complications in both cases. Conclusion. This surgical technique could be an adjunct to allow the surgeons to expand the armamentarium for the management of IFIS-associated iris prolapse. PMID:27999697
Gysin, Claudine; Dulguerov, Pavel
A thorough review of the publications on surgical techniques used for tonsillectomy is provided, emphasizing randomized studies and meta-analysis. In the assessment of the data it is important to clearly define and categorize the types of posttonsillectomy bleeding (PTB), as well as the various factors that have been associated with increased PTB. In recent audits of a large number of tonsillectomies, the PTB rates seem to concur: 1% early and 2.5% delayed PTB; 10% anamnestic, 2% objective, and 2% re-operation PTB. Objective PTB rates beyond 10% should require an audit. The bipolar technique seems associated with the least early PTB, while the cold technique is associated with the least delayed PTB. Because of the lack of large well-conducted randomized trials, it is difficult to conclude which technique is the best. With electrocautery techniques, the current power should be adjusted to the minimal level providing hemostasis. Surgical techniques for tonsillectomy that should probably be abandoned include monopolar electrocautery, Coblation, various lasers, and the harmonic scalpel. Vessel-sealing systems might hold promise and deserve further evaluation. Tonsillotomy might be associated with less postoperative pain, but the hemorrhagic advantage in randomized studies is not obvious. Tonsil regrowth rates and efficacy to treat obstruction need also further evaluation.
Amroodi, Morteza Nakhaei; Mahmuudi, Ali; Salariyeh, Mostafa; Amiri, Arash
Background: When non-operative treatment of tennis elbow fails; a surgical procedure can be performed to improve the associated symptoms. Different surgical techniques for treatment of lateral epicondylitis are prescribed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of surgical treatment for tennis elbow based on small incision techniques. Methods: This technique was performed on 24 consecutive patients between June 2011 and July 2013. Outcomes were assessed using the Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE), Nirschl’s staging system and visual analog scale (VAS) for pain and satisfaction criteria. Results: There were 15 female and 9 male patients in the study. The mean duration of symptoms before surgery was 3.7 years. The average duration of follow-up was 34.8 months. The post-operative outcome was good to excellent in most patients. The mean VAS score improved from 7.2 to 3.5 points. The total PRTEE improved from 68.7 to 15.8 points. Conclusion: This procedure provides a low complication rate which is associated with a high rate of patient satisfaction. Therefore, we suggest this option after failed conservative management of tennis elbow. PMID:27847851
Hosein Shokouh-Amiri, M.; Osama Gaber, A.; Bagous, Wagdy A.; Grewal, Hani P.; Hathaway, Donna K.; Vera, Santiago R.; Stratta, Robert J.; Bagous, Trine N.; Kizilisik, Tarik
Objective To examine how the choice of surgical technique influenced perioperative outcomes in liver transplantation. Summary Background Data The standard technique of orthotopic liver transplantation with venovenous bypass (VVB) is commonly used to facilitate hemodynamic stability. However, this traditional procedure is associated with unique complications that can be avoided by using the technique of liver resection without caval excision (the piggyback technique). Methods A prospective comparison of the two procedures was conducted in 90 patients (34 piggyback and 56 with VVB) during a 2.5-year period. Although both groups had similar donor and recipient demographic characteristics, posttransplant outcomes were significantly better for the patients undergoing the piggyback technique. The effect of surgical technique was examined using a stepwise approach that considered its impact on two levels of perioperative and postoperative events. Results The analysis of the first level of perioperative events found that the piggyback procedure resulted in a 50% decrease in the duration of the anhepatic phase. The analysis of the second level of perioperative events found a significant relation between the anhepatic phase and the duration of surgery and between the anhepatic phase and the need for blood replacement. The analysis of the first level of postoperative events found that the intensive care unit stay was significantly related to both the duration of surgery and the need for blood replacement. The intensive care unit stay was in turn related to the second level of postoperative events, namely the length of hospital stay. Finally, total charges were directly related to length of hospital stay. The overall 1-year actuarial patient and graft survival rates were 94% in the piggyback and 96% in the VVB groups, respectively. Conclusions These data demonstrate that surgical choices in complex procedures such as orthotopic liver transplantation trigger a chain of events
Nicolau, A E; Beuran, M; Veste, V; Grecu, Irina; Vasilescu, Cleopatra; Grinţescu, Ioana
Laparoscopic jejunostomy (LJ) represents a new way of enteral nutrition (EN) for surgical malnourished patients. LJ is an alternative form of therapy, with restricted indications to the few cases when classical way for EN (nosogastroenteral tube feeding, PEG/PEJ, surgical gastrostomy), are contraindicated or can not be used, and the patient is unable to eat. This technique is also preferred to the open surgical jejunostomy. The paper describes our LJ technique, indications and contraindications. We used JL in two surgical severely malnourished patients, within 11 and 14 days, before the elective, open, curative operations. In this period the patients where exclusively nourished with special feeding solutions through the LJ catheter. The main pathologic lesions were: extrinsec antral obstruction from a perforated transverse colon carcinoma in the omental pouch, in the first case, and proximal inflammatory stenosis of efferent loop, after gastric resection with Billroth II anastomosis for duodenal ulcer, in the second case. LJ gives the opportunity for the exploration of the whole abdominal cavity, and for the direct imaging of the pathological lesions. With EN being delivered before the open, elective operations, we get an amelioration of serum albumin values, and we have no morbidity related to the LJ or open, curative operation. EN was administrated after open surgery in the same way, and in the first case, during chemotherapy. LJ is an efficient, miniinvasive way for EN, in selected surgical severe malnourished patients with proximal digestive obstructions, especially oncologic ones, the aim being an amelioration of the nutritional status and a reduction of postoperative morbidity. A continuous study on a larger number of cases is imperative necessary.
Ouadi, Abderrahmane; Bentarzi, Hamid; Recioui, Abdelmadjid
The multiobjective design of digital filters using the powerful Taguchi optimization technique is considered in this paper. This relatively new optimization tool has been recently introduced to the field of engineering and is based on orthogonal arrays. It is characterized by its robustness, immunity to local optima trapping, relative fast convergence and ease of implementation. The objectives of filter design include matching some desired frequency response while having minimum linear phase; hence, reducing the time response. The results demonstrate that the proposed problem solving approach blended with the use of the Taguchi optimization technique produced filters that fulfill the desired characteristics and are of practical use.
Kalantar Hormozi, Abdoljalil; Dastgerdi, Vahid; Ghalambor, Abdolazim
Trigonocephaly is one of the most common types of craniosynostosis leading to triangular-shaped head and neurodevelopmental complications. Several surgical techniques have been suggested for its correction, but the newly suggested technique seems to have optimal outcomes compared with the traditional methods. Thus, the authors retrospectively evaluated the outcomes of the simplified horse-shoe technique with previous procedures performed on 169 children severe trigonocephaly during 1996 to 2015 at Mofid Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Demographic data of the patients and the surgical outcomes and complications and the need for reoperation were recorded and scored using the Whitaker system. The male-to-female ratio was 2.75:1. The mean ± standard deviation age of all the patients at the time of surgery was 7.09 ± 7.5, 9.95 ± 7.71, 10.53 ± 6.57, and 10.59 ± 7.96 months for the traditional, horse-shoe, and simplified horse-shoe techniques, respectively. The total reoperation rate was 6.5% (4.7% in the traditional technique, 1.2% in the horse-shoe, and 0.6% in the simplified horse-shoe technique) (P < 0.001). The main reason for reoperation was hardware removal (in the traditional technique). Whitaker scoring showed no patients of class IV in any of the groups and no patients of class III and IV in simplified horse-shoe technique, but the difference in the Whitaker scores among the 3 groups was not statistically significant (P = 1.176). The new surgical technique is easier and simpler with fewer complications than the traditional technique and is suggested to be recommended for surgical treatment in children with trigonocephaly, especially in younger children.
Crawshaw, Alison; Williams, Julia; Woodhouse, Fran
The psychological impact stoma surgery can have on an individual is well documented within the literature (White and Hunt, 1997; Borwell, 2009; Williams, 2005; Brown, 2005). For many years, surgeons have explored and developed innovations in surgical techniques, in particular restorative procedures with a view of preventing permanent stoma formation; ileal anal pouch (IAP) now being the surgical procedure of choice for treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC) and familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). However, high morbidity rates are associated with pouch longevity (Castillo et al 2005; Nessar and Wu, 2012) and once removed can lead to a high-output ileostomy with risks of electrolyte imbalance and malabsorption. This then creates the dilemma of whether the Kock pouch (KP) should be offered as a surgical option. This article offers a historical perspective of the KP and its place in the surgical management of UC and FAP. This article also presents results from a recent audit funded by the Ileostomy Association (IA), highlighting how patients manage their KP and the importance of maintaining bowel control and being free of an incontinent stoma as a means of coming to terms with their condition.
Lawrance, Christopher P.; Henn, Matthew C.; Damiano, Ralph J.
Purpose of review The aim of this review is to focus specifically on the indications, evolution of technique, and results of surgical ablation for atrial fibrillation. Recent findings With the introduction of the Cox-Maze IV procedure utilizing bipolar radiofrequency ablation and cryoablation, long-term studies have demonstrated a significant decrease in aortic cross-clamp times and major complications with a comparable rate of restoration of sinus rhythm. New hybrid approaches utilizing both catheter-based ablation and minimally invasive surgical approaches have been developed, but have not been standardized. Early studies have demonstrated reasonable success rates of hybrid procedures, with advantages that include confirmation of conduction block, decreased surgical morbidity, and possibly reduced morbidity. However, hybrid approaches have the disadvantage of significantly increased operative times. Summary The Cox-Maze IV is currently the gold standard for surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation. New hybrid approaches have potential advantages with promising early results, but a standard lesion set, improvement in operative times, and long-term results still need to be evaluated. PMID:25389650
Schneck, P. B.
Major optimization techniques of compilers are described and grouped into three categories: machine dependent, architecture dependent, and architecture independent. Machine-dependent optimizations tend to be local and are performed upon short spans of generated code by using particular properties of an instruction set to reduce the time or space required by a program. Architecture-dependent optimizations are global and are performed while generating code. These optimizations consider the structure of a computer, but not its detailed instruction set. Architecture independent optimizations are also global but are based on analysis of the program flow graph and the dependencies among statements of source program. A conceptual review of a universal optimizer that performs architecture-independent optimizations at source-code level is also presented.
PUPULIM, Guilherme Luiz Lenzi; IORIS, Rafael Augusto; GAMA, Ricardo Ribeiro; RIBAS, Carmen Australia Paredes Marcondes; MALAFAIA, Osvaldo; GAMA, Mirnaluci
Background: The development of didactic means to create opportunities to permit complete and repetitive viewing of surgical procedures is of great importance nowadays due to the increasing difficulty of doing in vivo training. Thus, audiovisual resources favor the maximization of living resources used in education, and minimize problems arising only with verbalism. Aim: To evaluate the use of digital video as a pedagogical strategy in surgical technique teaching in medical education. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 48 students of the third year of medicine, when studying in the surgical technique discipline. They were divided into two groups with 12 in pairs, both subject to the conventional method of teaching, and one of them also exposed to alternative method (video) showing the technical details. All students did phlebotomy in the experimental laboratory, with evaluation and assistance of the teacher/monitor while running. Finally, they answered a self-administered questionnaire related to teaching method when performing the operation. Results: Most of those who did not watch the video took longer time to execute the procedure, did more questions and needed more faculty assistance. The total exposed to video followed the chronology of implementation and approved the new method; 95.83% felt able to repeat the procedure by themselves, and 62.5% of those students that only had the conventional method reported having regular capacity of technique assimilation. In both groups mentioned having regular difficulty, but those who have not seen the video had more difficulty in performing the technique. Conclusion: The traditional method of teaching associated with the video favored the ability to understand and transmitted safety, particularly because it is activity that requires technical skill. The technique with video visualization motivated and arouse interest, facilitated the understanding and memorization of the steps for procedure implementation, benefiting the
Obara, Hideaki; Kisu, Iori; Kato, Yojiro; Yamada, Yohei; Matsubara, Kentaro; Emoto, Katsura; Adachi, Masataka; Matoba, Yusuke; Umene, Kiyoko; Nogami, Yuya; Banno, Kouji; Tsuchiya, Hideaki; Itagaki, Iori; Kawamoto, Ikuo; Nakagawa, Takahiro; Ishigaki, Hirohito; Itoh, Yasushi; Ogasawara, Kazumasa; Saiki, Yoko; Sato, Shin-ichi; Nakagawa, Kenshi; Shiina, Takashi; Aoki, Daisuke; Kitagawa, Yuko
No study has reported an animal model of uterus transplantation (UTx) using cynomolgus macaques. We aimed to establish a surgical technique of allogeneic UTx assuming the recovery of a uterus from a deceased donor in cynomolgus macaques. Four allogeneic UTxs were performed in female cynomolgus macaques. Donor surgeries comprised en bloc recovery of organs with iliac vessels on both sides, and/or abdominal aorta/vena cava after sufficient perfusion from one femoral artery or external iliac artery. Before perfusion, 150 mL of whole blood was obtained from the donor for subsequent blood transfusion to the recipient. Four uterine grafts were orthotopically transplanted to recipients. End-to-side anastomosis was performed to the iliac vessels on one side in case 1 and iliac vessels on both sides in case 2; aorto-aorto/cavo-caval anastomosis was performed in cases 3 and 4. Arterial blood flow of the uterine grafts was determined by intraoperative indocyanine green (ICG) angiography. ICG angiography results showed sufficient blood flow to all uterine grafts, and anaemia did not progress. Under appropriate immune suppression, all recipients survived for more than 90 days post-transplantation, without any surgical complications. We describe a surgical technique for allogeneic UTx in cynomolgus macaques. PMID:27786258
Riva, Ivano; Roberti, Gloria; Oddone, Francesco; Konstas, Anastasios GP; Quaranta, Luciano
Implantation of Ahmed glaucoma valve is an effective surgical technique to reduce intraocular pressure in patients affected with glaucoma. While in the past, the use of this device was reserved to glaucoma refractory to multiple filtration surgical procedures, up-to-date mounting experience has encouraged its use also as a primary surgery for selected cases. Implantation of Ahmed glaucoma valve can be challenging for the surgeon, especially in patients who already underwent previous multiple surgeries. Several tips have to be acquired by the surgeon, and a long learning curve is always needed. Although the valve mechanism embedded in the Ahmed glaucoma valve decreases the risk of postoperative hypotony-related complications, it does not avoid the need of a careful follow-up. Complications related to this type of surgery include early and late postoperative hypotony, excessive capsule fibrosis around the plate, erosion of the tube or plate edge, and very rarely infection. The aim of this review is to describe surgical technique for Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation and to report related complications. PMID:28255226
Bilbao-Calabuig, R; Llovet-Osuna, F
Presbyopia is the most prevalent refractive error. With a progressive aging population, its surgical correction is an important challenge for the ophthalmology community, as well as the millions of patients who suffer from it, and who are increasingly demanding alternatives to its correction with glasses or contact lenses. A review is presented with a synthesised discussion on the pathophysiological theories of presbyopia and an updated and analytical description of the non-lens involvement surgical techniques used to treat presbyopia. Corneal procedures include various types of corneal implants and photo-ablative techniques that generate a multifocal cornea, or monovision. Scleral procedures exert a traction on supralenticular sclera that supposedly would improve the amplitude of accommodation. None of the techniques are able to completely eliminate the need for near -vision glasses, but many of them manage to improve the refractive status of the patients. More studies with rigorous and standardised methods and longer follow-up are needed to evaluate the changes in the near vision of the patients, in order to corroborate the real and practical usefulness of many of these techniques. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Lee, Hoseok; Lee, Sang Yub; Na, Young Gon; Kim, Sung Kwan; Yi, Jae Hyuck; Lim, Jae Kwang; Lee, So Mi
Meniscus allograft transplantation has been performed over the past 25 years to relieve knee pain and improve knee function in patients with an irreparable meniscus injury. The efficacy and safety of meniscus allograft transplantation have been established in numerous experimental and clinical researches. However, there is a lack of reviews to aid radiologists who are routinely interpreting images and evaluating the outcome of the procedures, and also meniscus allograft transplantation is not widely performed in most hospitals. This review focuses on the indications of the procedure, the different surgical techniques used for meniscus allograft transplantation according to the involvement of the lateral and medial meniscus, and the associated procedures. The postoperative radiological findings and surgical complications of the meniscus allograft transplantation are also described in detail.
Zhang, W B; Yu, Y; Wang, Y; Liu, X J; Mao, C; Guo, C B; Yu, G Y; Peng, X
The maxilla is the most important bony support of the mid-face skeleton and is critical for both esthetics and function. Maxillary defects, resulting from tumor resection, can cause severe functional and cosmetic deformities. Furthermore, maxillary reconstruction presents a great challenge for oral and maxillofacial surgeons. Nowadays, vascularized composite bone flap transfer has been widely used for functional maxillary reconstruction. In the last decade, we have performed a comprehensive research on functional maxillary reconstruction with free fibula flap and reported excellent functional and acceptable esthetic results. However, this experience based clinical procedure still remainssome problems in accuracy and efficiency. In recent years, computer assisted techniques are now widely used in oral and maxillofacial surgery. We have performed a series of study on maxillary reconstruction with computer assisted techniques. The computer assisted techniques used for maxillary reconstruction mainly include: (1) Three dimensional (3D) reconstruction and tumor mapping: providing a 3D view of maxillary tumor and adjacent structures and helping to make the diagnosis of maxillary tumor accurate and objective; (2) Virtual planning: simulating tumor resection and maxillectomy as well as fibula reconstruction on the computer, so that to make an ideal surgical plan; (3) 3D printing: producing a 3D stereo model for prebending individualized titanium mesh and also providing template or cutting guide for the surgery; (4) Surgical navigation: the bridge between virtual plan and real surgery, confirming the virtual plan during the surgery and guarantee the accuracy; (5) Computer assisted analyzing and evaluating: making a quantitative and objective of the final result and evaluating the outcome. We also performed a series of studies to evaluate the application of computer assisted techniques used for maxillary reconstruction, including: (1) 3D tumor mapping technique for accurate
Comba, Fernando; Piuzzi, Nicolás S.; Zanotti, Gerardo; Buttaro, Martín; Piccaluga, Francisco
Calcific tendinitis of the rectus femoris (CTRF) is an under-recognized condition and, because of its self-limiting nature, is usually managed conservatively. Nevertheless, when nonsurgical therapy fails, further invasive alternatives are required. At this point, arthroscopic resection provides a minimally invasive and interesting alternative to open surgery. The aim of this work is to report the surgical technique of endoscopic surgical removal in patients with CTRF at the periarticular region of the hip joint. Endoscopic surgical removal of CTRF was performed without traction following anatomic landmarks for hip arthroscopy portal placement. We used the anterolateral portal and the proximal accessory portal to obtain access to the lesion. A shaver and radiofrequency device are useful tools to depict the calcific lesion while the whole resection is performed with a 5-mm round burr. Intraoperative fluoroscopy control during the entire procedure is essential. Endoscopic treatment of calcific tendinitis of the hip is a valuable technique in the treatment of patients who do not respond to conservative treatment. PMID:26759778
Comba, Fernando; Piuzzi, Nicolás S; Zanotti, Gerardo; Buttaro, Martín; Piccaluga, Francisco
Calcific tendinitis of the rectus femoris (CTRF) is an under-recognized condition and, because of its self-limiting nature, is usually managed conservatively. Nevertheless, when nonsurgical therapy fails, further invasive alternatives are required. At this point, arthroscopic resection provides a minimally invasive and interesting alternative to open surgery. The aim of this work is to report the surgical technique of endoscopic surgical removal in patients with CTRF at the periarticular region of the hip joint. Endoscopic surgical removal of CTRF was performed without traction following anatomic landmarks for hip arthroscopy portal placement. We used the anterolateral portal and the proximal accessory portal to obtain access to the lesion. A shaver and radiofrequency device are useful tools to depict the calcific lesion while the whole resection is performed with a 5-mm round burr. Intraoperative fluoroscopy control during the entire procedure is essential. Endoscopic treatment of calcific tendinitis of the hip is a valuable technique in the treatment of patients who do not respond to conservative treatment.
Castagna, Alessandro; Fontani, Vania; Rinaldi, Salvatore; Mannu, Piero
Purpose To report preliminary results with the tissue optimization (TO) treatment with a radio electric asymmetric conveyer (REAC) in promoting the repair of surgical wounds. Patients and methods Two subjects, a 54-year-old male with a tear bruise on the upper third of the leg and a 19-year-old female with a stab wound to the hand, were treated with 12 REAC-TO treatment sessions. Results In both patients, the wounds showed shorter healing time compared with the time usually required for similar wounds, and good repair quality. Conclusion REAC device with its specific treatment protocols may be an alternative therapy for wound healing. PMID:21931498
Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Pagaldipti, Narayanan S.
This report addresses the development of a multidisciplinary optimization procedure using an efficient semi-analytical sensitivity analysis technique and multilevel decomposition for the design of aerospace vehicles. A semi-analytical sensitivity analysis procedure is developed for calculating computational grid sensitivities and aerodynamic design sensitivities. Accuracy and efficiency of the sensitivity analysis procedure is established through comparison of the results with those obtained using a finite difference technique. The developed sensitivity analysis technique are then used within a multidisciplinary optimization procedure for designing aerospace vehicles. The optimization problem, with the integration of aerodynamics and structures, is decomposed into two levels. Optimization is performed for improved aerodynamic performance at the first level and improved structural performance at the second level. Aerodynamic analysis is performed by solving the three-dimensional parabolized Navier Stokes equations. A nonlinear programming technique and an approximate analysis procedure are used for optimization. The proceduredeveloped is applied to design the wing of a high speed aircraft. Results obtained show significant improvements in the aircraft aerodynamic and structural performance when compared to a reference or baseline configuration. The use of the semi-analytical sensitivity technique provides significant computational savings.
Mainwaring, Richard D; Hanley, Frank L
Peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis is a rare form of congenital heart disease frequently associated with Williams and Alagille syndromes. Patients with this disease typically have systemic level right ventricular pressures secondary to obstruction at the lobar, segmental, and subsegmental branches. The current management of patients with peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis remains somewhat controversial. We have pioneered an entirely surgical approach to the reconstruction of peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis. This approach initially entailed surgical patch augmentation of all major lobar branches and effectively reduced right ventricular pressures by more than half. This was the first report demonstrating an effective approach to the disease. Over the past 5 years, we have gradually evolved the technique to extend the reconstruction's reach to include segmental and subsegmental branch stenoses. An important technical aspect of this approach entails division of the main pulmonary and separation of the branch pulmonary arteries to access the lower lobe branches. Pulmonary artery homograft patches are used to augment hypoplastic pulmonary artery branches. In addition, we perform a Heineke-Mikulicz type ostioplasty for isolated ostial stenoses. The technical details of the surgical approach to peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis are outlined in this article, and can also be used for other complex peripheral pulmonary artery reconstructions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dannenhoffer, John F., III
A new technique for automatically combining grid blocks of a given block-structured grid into logically-rectangular clusters which are 'optimal' is presented. This technique uses the simulated annealing optimization method to reorganize the blocks into an optimum configuration, that is, one which minimizes a user-defined objective function such as the number of clusters or the differential in the sizes of all the clusters. The clusters which result from applying the technique to two different two-dimensional configurations are presented for a variety of objective function definitions. In all cases, the automatically-generated clusters are significantly better than the original clusters. While this new technique can be applied to block-structured grids generated from any source, it is particularly useful for operating on block-structured grids containing many blocks, such as those produced by the emerging automatic block-structured grid generators.
Jansen, Frank Willem
Surgical mesh products and instruments may be used in patients in daily practice, when they have proven to do what they aim to do. This practice can lead to situations in which data on the clinical application of the new technology/instrument is still uncertain, which does not inherently mean that patient safety is at risk; however, it could lead to additional healthcare expenditures. Introducing new technology in healthcare is not simple. There might be pressure from both the commercial arena, as well as from patients, to have the new technique applied, which obliges surgeons to implement these immediately. Nevertheless, the evidence-based background data are sometimes not even available. By means of the recently introduced IDEAL model, therefore, a plea is made to introduce and implement new techniques and technologies in the field of surgery in a way that is safe for the patient.
Chovanec, Z; Veverková, L; Votava, M; Svoboda, J; Peštál, A; Doležel, J; Jedlička, V; Veselý, M; Wechsler, J; Čapov, I
The wound is a damage of tissue. The process of healing is influenced by many systemic and local factors. The most crucial and the most discussed local factor of wound healing is infection. Surgical site infection in the wound is caused by micro-organisms. This information is known for many years, however the conditions leading to an infection occurrence have not been sufficiently described yet. Correct sampling technique, correct storage, transportation, evaluation, and valid interpretation of these data are very important in clinical practice. There are many methods for microbiological sampling, but the best one has not been yet identified and validated. We aim to discuss the problem with the focus on the imprint technique.
Kara-Junior, Newton; Parede, Tais Renata Ribeira; Santhiago, Marcony Rodrigues; Santiago, Marcony Rodrigues; Espindola, Rodrigo França; Mazurek, Maysa Godoy Gomes; Carvalho, Regina de Souza
To compare postoperative social costs of two cataract surgical techniques, phacoemulsification (PHACO) and extracapsular extraction (ECCE). Prospective randomized intervention study including 205 patients, of which 101 underwent PHACO and 104 ECCE in the public service, in the city of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, in 2002. The socioeconomic impact of these surgical procedures was assessed based on postoperative costs for patients, employers and social security. Comparisons between the two groups studied were performed using the chi-square test or Mann-Whitney test, when appropriate. A 5% significance level was set. Hospital and eyeglasses costs for PHACO were lower than for ECCE patients, with a mean difference of US$ 16.74. Costs to employers related to medical leave for the first 15 days of absence and costs of caregivers in the form of absence from work to attend postoperative follow-up visits were on average US$ 0.18 lower in PHACO compared to ECCE group. The estimated Social Security expenditure per patient undergoing surgery was US$ 6.57 and US$ 51.15 in PHACO and ECCE groups, respectively. The average saving with PHACO compared to ECCE technique was US$ 61.50 for employers, patients, caregivers and Social Security.
Chen, Yue-bing; Ding, Xian-fan; Luo, Chong; Yu, Shi-cheng; Yu, Yan-lan; Chen, Bi-de; Zhang, Zhi-gen; Li, Gong-hui
Objective: To introduce a novel surgical technique for correction of adult congenital webbed penis. Methods: From March 2010 to December 2011, 12 patients (age range: 14–23 years old) were diagnosed as having a webbed penis and underwent a new surgical procedure designed by us. Results: All cases were treated successfully without severe complication. The operation time ranged from 20 min to 1 h. The average bleeding volume was less than 50 ml. All patients achieved satisfactory cosmetic results after surgery. The penile curvature disappeared in all cases and all patients remained well after 1 to 3 months of follow-up. Conclusions: Adult webbed penis with complaints of discomfort or psychological pressure due to a poor profile should be indicators for surgery. Good corrective surgery should expose the glans and coronal sulcus, match the penile skin length to the penile shaft length dorsally and ventrally, and provide a normal penoscrotal junction. Our new technique is a safe and effective method for the correction of adult webbed penis, which produces satisfactory results. PMID:22949367
Martínez-Martínez, F; García-Hortelano, S; García-Paños, J P; Moreno-Fernández, J M; Martín-Ferrero, M Á
In trapeziometacarpal osteoarthritis (or rhizarthrosis), there is great controversy over the surgical technique to choose: simple trapeziectomy, resection-interposition arthroplasty, interposition arthroplasty suspension-or arthroplasty with implant or prosthesis. These latter 2 are the most used without consensus in the literature on the technique to choose and without sufficient comparative studies. The objective is to compare the 2 techniques most used today: suspension-interposition arthroplasty and arthroplasty with prosthesis. A prospective study was conducted on 15 patients diagnosed with grade 2-3 rhizarthrosis treated with interposition arthroplasty-suspension (group 1) and 15 with prosthesis (group 2) showing clinical outcomes, advantages and disadvantages of each. The study variables were the visual analogue scale (VAS), the DASH questionnaire, the grip strength, the strength of end to end and end-lateral clamp, the joint balance adduction-abduction and preemption-retropositioning, and the opposition. The 2 groups are from 2 different hospitals operated on by a hand surgeon from the Hand Unit. The follow-up time for all patients included in the study was 12 months. The VAS, DASH and grip strength at 12 months did not show significant differences. As regards the strength of end to end and end-lateral clamp, group 2 showed the highest values in all follow-up periods with statistically significant differences. Patient selection and surgical experience is essential, given the satisfactory results of both techniques. Arthroplasty prosthesis is reserved for grades 2 and 3, middle-aged patients, good trapezium architecture, and experienced surgeons. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Al-Hadidi, Nour; Griffith, James L; Al-Jamal, Mohammed S; Hamzavi, Iltefat
Vitiligo is an acquired skin disorder characterized by the destruction of melanocytes resulting in achromic macules and patches involving the affected skin. Multiple methods of treatments have emerged to manage vitiligo, including medical and surgical techniques. Among the surgical techniques described in the management of vitiligo are minipunch grafting, split-thickness skin grafting, hair follicle transplantation, suction blister grafting, and cultured and non-cultured autologous melanocyte transplantation. However, prior to grafting optimal recipient-site preparation is needed for graft survival and successful repigmentation outcomes. Similarly, post-operative care of the recipient site is vital to yielding a viable graft irrespective of the transplantation technique employed. This article reviews the multiple methods employed to prepare the recipient site in vitiligo surgeries and the post-surgical conditions which optimize graft viability. A pubmed search was conducted utilizing the key words listed below.
Al-Hadidi, Nour; Griffith, James L; Al-Jamal, Mohammed S; Hamzavi, Iltefat
Vitiligo is an acquired skin disorder characterized by the destruction of melanocytes resulting in achromic macules and patches involving the affected skin. Multiple methods of treatments have emerged to manage vitiligo, including medical and surgical techniques. Among the surgical techniques described in the management of vitiligo are minipunch grafting, split-thickness skin grafting, hair follicle transplantation, suction blister grafting, and cultured and non-cultured autologous melanocyte transplantation. However, prior to grafting optimal recipient-site preparation is needed for graft survival and successful repigmentation outcomes. Similarly, post-operative care of the recipient site is vital to yielding a viable graft irrespective of the transplantation technique employed. This article reviews the multiple methods employed to prepare the recipient site in vitiligo surgeries and the post-surgical conditions which optimize graft viability. A pubmed search was conducted utilizing the key words listed below. PMID:26157306
Avila-Alvarez, Alejandro; Serantes Lourido, Marta; Barriga Bujan, Rebeca; Blanco Rodriguez, Carolina; Portela-Torron, Francisco; Bautista-Hernandez, Victor
Surgical closure of patent ductus arteriosus in premature neonates is an aggressive technique and is not free of complications. A study was designed with the aim of describing our experience with a less invasive technique, the extra-pleural approach via a posterior minithoracotomy, and to compare the results with the classic transpleural approach. A retrospective cohort study was conducted on premature neonates on whom surgical closure of the ductus was performed during a ten-year period (March 2005 to March 2015). A comparison was made of the acute complications, the outcomes on discharge, and follow-up, between the extra-pleural approach and the classic transpleural approach. The study included 48 patients, 30 in the classical approach and 18 in the extra-pleural group. The demographic and pre-operative characteristics were similar in both groups. No differences were found between the 2 groups in the incidence of acute post-operative complications (56.6 vs. 44.4%), on the dependence on oxygen at 36 weeks (33.3 vs. 55.5%), or in hospital mortality (10 vs. 16.6%). As regards the short-term progress, the extra-pleural group required fewer days until the withdrawal of supplementary oxygen (36.3 vs. 28.9) and until hospital discharge (67.5 vs. 53.2), although only the time until extubation achieved a statistically significant difference (11.5 vs. 2.7, P=.03). The extra-plural approach by posterior minithoracotomy for the surgical closure of ductus in the premature infant is viable and could bring some clinical benefits in the short-term. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Henrique, Luis; Antunes, Jose; Carvalho, Joao S.
The design of musical instruments is still mostly based on empirical knowledge and costly experimentation. One interesting improvement is the shape optimization of resonating components, given a number of constraints (allowed parameter ranges, shape smoothness, etc.), so that vibrations occur at specified modal frequencies. Each admissible geometrical configuration generates an error between computed eigenfrequencies and the target set. Typically, error surfaces present many local minima, corresponding to suboptimal designs. This difficulty can be overcome using global optimization techniques, such as simulated annealing. However these methods are greedy, concerning the number of function evaluations required. Thus, the computational effort can be unacceptable if complex problems, such as bell optimization, are tackled. Those issues are addressed in this paper, and a method for improving optimization procedures is proposed. Instead of using the local geometric parameters as searched variables, the system geometry is modeled in terms of truncated series of orthogonal space-funcitons, and optimization is performed on their amplitude coefficients. Fourier series and orthogonal polynomials are typical such functions. This technique reduces considerably the number of searched variables, and has a potential for significant computational savings in complex problems. It is illustrated by optimizing the shapes of both current and uncommon marimba bars.
Rao, S. S.
The multiobjective programming techniques are important in the design of complex structural systems whose quality depends generally on a number of different and often conflicting objective functions which cannot be combined into a single design objective. The applicability of multiobjective optimization techniques is studied with reference to simple design problems. Specifically, the parameter optimization of a cantilever beam with a tip mass and a three-degree-of-freedom vabration isolation system and the trajectory optimization of a cantilever beam are considered. The solutions of these multicriteria design problems are attempted by using global criterion, utility function, game theory, goal programming, goal attainment, bounded objective function, and lexicographic methods. It has been observed that the game theory approach required the maximum computational effort, but it yielded better optimum solutions with proper balance of the various objective functions in all the cases.
Vercellotti, Tomaso; Podesta, Andrea
Eight patients with malocclusions were treated with a new orthodontic-surgical technique that reduces the duration of treatment compared to conventional techniques. The monocortical tooth dislocation and ligament distraction (MTDLD) technique combines two different dental movements that work separately but simultaneously on opposite root surfaces. On the root surface corresponding to the direction of movement, vertical and horizontal microsurgical corticotomies are performed around each tooth root with a piezosurgical microsaw to eliminate cortical bone resistance. The immediate application of strong biomechanical forces produces rapid dislocation of the root and the cortical bone together. On the root surface opposite the direction of movement, the force of dislocation produces rapid distraction of ligament fibers. During the osteogenic process that follows, application of normal orthodontic biomechanics achieves the final tooth movement. All eight patients underwent periodontal and radiologic examinations for more than 1 year after treatment. No periodontal defects were observed in any of the patients, including one with a severe malocclusion and a thin periodontal tissue biotype. Compared to traditional orthodontic therapy, the average treatment time with the MTDLD technique in the mandible and maxilla was reduced by 60% and 70%, respectively.
Ljunggren, Monika Kozak; Elizondo, Rodolfo A.; Edin, Joel; Olsen, David; Merrett, Kimberley; Lee, Chyan-Jang; Salerud, Göran; Polarek, James; Fagerholm, Per; Griffith, May
Purpose Our aim was to determine the effect of a surgical technique on biomaterial implant performance, specifically graft retention. Methods Twelve mini pigs were implanted with cell-free, 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC)/N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) cross-linked recombinant human collagen type III (RHCIII) hydrogels as substitutes for donor corneal allografts using overlying sutures with or without human amniotic membrane (HAM) versus interrupted sutures with HAM. The effects of the retention method were compared as well as the effects of collagen concentration (13.7% to 15% RHCIII). Results All implanted corneas showed initial haze that cleared with time, resulting in corneas with optical clarity matching those of untreated controls. Biochemical analysis showed that by 12 months post operation, the initial RHCIII implants had been completely remodeled, as type I collagen, was the major collagenous protein detected, whereas no RHCIII could be detected. Histological analysis showed all implanted corneas exhibited regeneration of epithelial and stromal layers as well as nerves, along with touch sensitivity and tear production. Most neovascularization was seen in corneas stabilized by interrupted sutures. Conclusions This showed that the surgical technique used does have a significant effect on the overall performance of corneal implants, overlying sutures caused less vascularization than interrupted sutures. Translational Relevance Understanding the significance of the suturing technique can aid the selection of the most appropriate procedure when implanting artificial corneal substitutes. The same degree of regeneration, despite a higher collagen content indicates that future material development can progress toward stronger, more resistant implants. PMID:24749003
Nelson, Carl A; Miller, David J; Oleynikov, Dmitry
As modular systems come into the forefront of robotic telesurgery, streamlining the process of selecting surgical tools becomes an important consideration. This paper presents a method for optimal queuing of tools in modular surgical tool systems, based on patterns in tool-use sequences, in order to minimize time spent changing tools. The solution approach is to model the set of tools as a graph, with tool-change frequency expressed as edge weights in the graph, and to solve the Traveling Salesman Problem for the graph. In a set of simulations, this method has shown superior performance at optimizing tool arrangements for streamlining surgical procedures.
Herzfeld, U.C.; Merriam, D.F.
Two optimization techniques ta predict a spatial variable from any number of related spatial variables are presented. The applicability of the two different methods for petroleum-resource assessment is tested in a mature oil province of the Midcontinent (USA). The information on petroleum productivity, usually not directly accessible, is related indirectly to geological, geophysical, petrographical, and other observable data. This paper presents two approaches based on construction of a multivariate spatial model from the available data to determine a relationship for prediction. In the first approach, the variables are combined into a spatial model by an algebraic map-comparison/integration technique. Optimal weights for the map comparison function are determined by the Nelder-Mead downhill simplex algorithm in multidimensions. Geologic knowledge is necessary to provide a first guess of weights to start the automatization, because the solution is not unique. In the second approach, active set optimization for linear prediction of the target under positivity constraints is applied. Here, the procedure seems to select one variable from each data type (structure, isopachous, and petrophysical) eliminating data redundancy. Automating the determination of optimum combinations of different variables by applying optimization techniques is a valuable extension of the algebraic map-comparison/integration approach to analyzing spatial data. Because of the capability of handling multivariate data sets and partial retention of geographical information, the approaches can be useful in mineral-resource exploration. ?? 1995 International Association for Mathematical Geology.
Gangură, AG; Palade, RŞ
Abstract Within five years, between 2006 and 2011, a total of 368 incisional hernias have been operated in the Surgery Clinic 1, University Emergency Hospital Bucharest. The study followed the morphological and biological parameters, associated pathology, tactics and surgical technique used and postoperative morbidity. The average age of patients was 61.75 years, female sex was predominant (81.25%), and incisional hernias were large and giant in a percentage of 73.37%. Locations were predominantly median (83.42%). Recurrent incisional hernias and multiple relapsed hernias represented 25.54%. Associated pathology was dominated by obesity (51,09%) and cardiovascular disease (37,77%). We have used both methods of tissue procedures (22.83%), and the prosthetic procedures (77.17%). Prosthetic techniques, retro muscle fitting mesh in the rectus abdominis muscle sheath (Rives-Stoppa technique), fitting ov er the fascia and tissue replacement techniques were performed. Immediate postoperative morbidity was represented by seroma (14.13%), prolonged postoperative ileus (8.69%), prolonged hematic drainage (6.52%), and hematoma (1.9%). Late postoperative morbidity was given by granulomas (5.7%) and recurrence of incisional hernias (4.34%). Good and very good results were obtained in the 89.96% of the operated cases. PMID:25408770
Coulthard, Paul; Bailey, Edmund; Esposito, Marco; Furness, Susan; Renton, Tara F; Worthington, Helen V
The surgical removal of mandibular wisdom teeth is one of the most common operations undertaken in oral and maxillofacial surgery. The most common indication for surgery is infection about a partially erupted tooth that is impacted against bone or soft tissues. Other indications include unrestorable caries, pulpal and periapical pathology, fracture of the tooth and cyst development, amongst others. Most commonly the benefits of surgical removal of a wisdom tooth include alleviation of the symptoms and signs of pericoronitis and its potential consequences. However, surgery is frequently associated with postoperative pain, swelling and trismus. Less commonly complications include infection, including dry socket, trigeminal nerve injuries and rarely fracture of the mandible. To compare the relative benefits and risks of different techniques for undertaking various aspects or stages of the surgical extraction of mandibular wisdom teeth. We searched the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (to 21 March 2014), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2014, Issue 1), MEDLINE (OVID) (1946 to 21 March 2014) and EMBASE (OVID) (1980 to 21 March 2014). We searched ClinicalTrials.gov and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials. There were no restrictions regarding language or date of publication in the electronic searches. RCTs comparing surgical techniques for removal of mandibular wisdom teeth. Two review authors conducted assessment of relevance, risk of bias and data extraction. Study authors were contacted for additional information. RRs were used for dichotomous data and MDs for continuous data, unless the event rate was very low and Peto ORs were used. The pairing of the split-mouth studies was taken into account in the analysis for both dichotomous and continuous outcomes, and parallel group and split-mouth studies were combined using the generic inverse variance method. Random-effects models were used provided there were more than three
Coomber, Ross; Porteous, Matthew; Hubble, Matthew J W; Parker, Martyn J
When treating a hip fracture with a total hip replacement (THR) the surgical technique may differ in a number of aspects in comparison to elective arthroplasty. The hip fracture patient is more likely to have poor bone stock secondary to osteoporosis, be older, have a greater number of co-morbidities, and have had limited peri-operative work-up. These factors lead to a higher risk of complications, morbidity and perioperative mortality. Consideration should be made to performing the THR in a laminar flow theatre, by a surgeon experienced in total hip arthroplasty, using an anterolateral approach, cementing the implant in place, using a large head size and with repair of the joint capsule. Combined Ortho-geriatric care is recommended with similar post-operative rehabilitation to elective THR patients but with less expectation of short length of stay and consideration for fracture prevention measures. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Kong, Bong Young; Baek, Goo Hyun; Gong, Hyun Sik
A strong association has been reported between keloid formation after syndactyly reconstruction and primary digital enlargement, and methotrexate (MTX) treatment has been shown to produce promising results in a few reported cases. However, detailed surgical technique for revision of keloid formation after syndactyly division has not been well described, and there is still no standard treatment protocol regarding use of MTX in such cases. In this paper, we describe the technical details of keloid excision and full thickness skin grafting followed by MTX medication for the treatment of massive keloid formation after syndactyly division. We also describe a case of unsuccessful use of MTX, and our experience of its prophylactic use for a patient with syndactyly with primary digital enlargement.
Brown, P. M.; Shaw, G. W. (Principal Investigator)
The grouped optimal aggregation technique produces minimum variance, unbiased estimates of acreage and production for countries, zones (states), or any designated collection of acreage strata. It uses yield predictions, historical acreage information, and direct acreage estimate from satellite data. The acreage strata are grouped in such a way that the ratio model over historical acreage provides a smaller variance than if the model were applied to each individual stratum. An optimal weighting matrix based on historical acreages, provides the link between incomplete direct acreage estimates and the total, current acreage estimate.
Taverna, Ettore; Sansone, Valerio; Battistella, Ferdinando
A description of a new technique for arthroscopic treatment of minimally displaced greater tuberosity fractures of the humerus and associated soft tissue lesions is presented. This kind of fracture is usually treated nonsurgically. However, recent evidence suggests that even a small amount of superior displacement may produce shoulder dysfunction and require a perfect surgical reduction and fixation. Moreover, any displaced fracture of the greater tuberosity presents a high rate of associated and largely undetected soft tissue lesions. To avoid underestimating accompanying soft tissue pathology, arthroscopic assessment before open treatment of greater tuberosity fractures has been suggested. In 2 earlier case reports, we described the use of an arthroscope not only to diagnose and treat a rotator cuff tear and a Bankart lesion associated with a minimally displaced greater tuberosity fracture but also to arthroscopically reduce and treat the fracture. With advancements in arthroscopy and equipment, we refined and systematized the original arthroscopic technique that we have routinely used since 1997. This article presents the new technique.
Reinard, Kevin; Basheer, Azam; Jones, Lamont; Standring, Robert; Lee, Ian; Rock, Jack
Modern microsurgical techniques enable en bloc resection of complex skull base tumors. Anterior cranial base surgery, particularly, has been associated with a high rate of postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, meningitis, intracranial abscess, and pneumocephalus. We introduce simple modifications to already existing surgical strategies designed to minimize the incidence of postoperative CSF leak and associated morbidity and mortality. Medical records from 1995 to 2013 were reviewed in accordance with the Institutional Review Board. We identified 21 patients who underwent operations for repair of large anterior skull base defects following removal of sinonasal or intracranial pathology using standard craniofacial procedures. Patient charts were screened for CSF leak, meningitis, or intracranial abscess formation. A total of 15 male and 6 female patients with an age range of 26-89 years were included. All patients were managed with the same operative technique for reconstruction of the frontal dura and skull base defect. Spinal drainage was used intraoperatively in all cases but the lumbar drain was removed at the end of each case in all patients. Only one patient required re-operation for repair of persistent CSF leak. None of the patients developed meningitis or intracranial abscess. There were no perioperative mortalities. Median follow-up was 10 months. The layered reconstruction of large anterior cranial fossa defects resulted in postoperative CSF leak in only 5% of the patients and represents a simple and effective closure option for skull base surgeons.
Reinard, Kevin; Basheer, Azam; Jones, Lamont; Standring, Robert; Lee, Ian; Rock, Jack
Background: Modern microsurgical techniques enable en bloc resection of complex skull base tumors. Anterior cranial base surgery, particularly, has been associated with a high rate of postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, meningitis, intracranial abscess, and pneumocephalus. We introduce simple modifications to already existing surgical strategies designed to minimize the incidence of postoperative CSF leak and associated morbidity and mortality. Methods: Medical records from 1995 to 2013 were reviewed in accordance with the Institutional Review Board. We identified 21 patients who underwent operations for repair of large anterior skull base defects following removal of sinonasal or intracranial pathology using standard craniofacial procedures. Patient charts were screened for CSF leak, meningitis, or intracranial abscess formation. Results: A total of 15 male and 6 female patients with an age range of 26–89 years were included. All patients were managed with the same operative technique for reconstruction of the frontal dura and skull base defect. Spinal drainage was used intraoperatively in all cases but the lumbar drain was removed at the end of each case in all patients. Only one patient required re-operation for repair of persistent CSF leak. None of the patients developed meningitis or intracranial abscess. There were no perioperative mortalities. Median follow-up was 10 months. Conclusion: The layered reconstruction of large anterior cranial fossa defects resulted in postoperative CSF leak in only 5% of the patients and represents a simple and effective closure option for skull base surgeons. PMID:25722926
Geiger, James D; Hirschl, Ronald B
The pace of medical innovation continues to increase. The deployment of new technologies in surgery creates many ethical challenges including how to determine safety of the technology, what is the timing and process for deployment of a new technology, how are patients informed before undergoing a new technology or technique, how are the outcomes of a new technology evaluated and how are the responsibilities of individual patients and society at large balanced. Ethical considerations relevant to the implementation of ECMO and robotic surgery are explored to further discussion of how we can optimize the delicate balance between innovation and regulation.
Albino, Frank P; Seidel, Rachel; Brown, Benjamin J; Crone, Charles G
Background Knee disarticulations (KD) are most commonly employed following trauma or tumor resection but represent less than 2% of all lower extremity amputations performed in the United States annually. KDs provide enhanced proprioception, a long lever arm, preservation of adductor muscle insertion, decreased metabolic cost of ambulation, and an end weight-bearing stump. The role for KDs in the setting of arterial insufficiency or overwhelming infection is less clear. The purpose of this study is to describe technique modifications and report surgical outcomes following KDs at a high-volume Limb Salvage Center. Methods A retrospective study of medical records for all patients who underwent a through-knee amputation performed by the senior author (C.E.A.) between 2004 and 2012 was completed. Medical records were reviewed to collect demographic, operative, and postoperative information for each of the patients identified. Results Between 2004 and 2012, 46 through-knee amputations for 41 patients were performed. The mean patient age was 68 and indications for surgery included infection (56%), arterial thrombosis (35%), and trauma (9%). Postoperative complications included superficial cellulitis (13%), soft tissue infection (4%), and flap ischemia (4%) necessitating one case of surgical debridement (4%) and four trans-femoral amputations (9%). 9 (22%) patients went on to ambulate. Postoperative ambulation was greatest in the traumatic cohort and for patients less than 50 years of age, P<0.05. Alternatively, diabetes mellitus and infection reduced the likelihood of postoperative ambulation, P<0.01. Conclusions Knee disarticulations are a safe and effective alternative to other lower extremity amputations when clinically feasible. For patient unlikely to ambulate, a through-knee amputation maximizes ease of transfers, promotes mobility by providing a counterbalance, and eliminates the potential for knee flexion contracture with subsequent skin breakdown. PMID:25276650
Ishii, Eiichi; Shimizu, Akira; Takahashi, Mikiko; Terasaki, Mika; Kunugi, Shinobu; Nagasaka, Shinya; Terasaki, Yasuhiro; Ohashi, Ryuji; Masuda, Yukinari; Fukuda, Yuh
Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) in rats is technically feasible and useful for the assessment of clinical liver transplantation and analysis of inflammatory liver diseases. OLT in rats was pioneered by Lee et al. in 1973 using hand-suture techniques of all vessels. This model has not been widely used due to the long operative time and technical demand. The cuff method was introduced by Kamada in 1979, and today, the Kamada technique is the one most commonly used worldwide. However, this technique does not include hepatic artery reconstruction, although this procedure is routinely performed in clinical transplantation. Nevertheless, several techniques for hepatic artery reconstruction in rat OLT have been reported recently, and our group also developed a simple splint technique from recipient right renal artery to donor celiac axis bearing the hepatic artery. In the present article, we describe the Kamada technique, as a standard surgical method for rat OLT. In addition, we also describe our splint technique for hepatic artery reconstruction. Then, we compare the features of Kamada technique and our splint technique for hepatic artery reconstruction and all other surgical techniques currently in use for rat OLT. The widespread use of the rat OLT model should help to provide full assessment of transplant immunology and the mechanism and treatment of inflammatory liver diseases.
Zainuddin, Ahmad Anwar; Mansor, Ahmad Fairuzabadi Mohd; Rahim, Rosminazuin Ab; Nordin, Anis Nurashikin
Electrochemical biosensors show great promise for point-of-care applications due to their low cost, portability and compatibility with microfluidics. The miniature size of these sensors provides advantages in terms of sensitivity, specificity and allows them to be mass produced in arrays. The most reliable fabrication technique for these sensors is lithography followed by metal deposition using sputtering or chemical vapor deposition techniques. This technique which is usually done in the cleanroom requires expensive masking followed by deposition. Recently, cheaper printing techniques such as screen-printing and ink-jet printing have become popular due to its low cost, ease of fabrication and mask-less method. In this paper, two different printing techniques namely inkjet and screen printing are demonstrated for an electrochemical biosensor. For ink-jet printing technique, optimization of key printing parameters, such as pulse voltages, drop spacing and waveform setting, in-house temperature and cure annealing for obtaining the high quality droplets, are discussed. These factors are compared with screen-printing parameters such as mesh size, emulsion thickness, minimum spacing of lines and curing times. The reliability and reproducibility of the sensors are evaluated using scotch tape test, resistivity and profile-meter measurements. It was found that inkjet printing is superior because it is mask-less, has minimum resolution of 100 µm compared to 200 µm for screen printing and higher reproducibility rate of 90% compared to 78% for screen printing.
Neurosurgeons have been trying to reduce surgical invasiveness by applying minimally invasive keyhole approaches. Therefore, this paper clarifies the detailed surgical technique, its limitations, proper indications, and contraindications for a superciliary keyhole approach as a minimally invasive modification of a pterional approach. Successful superciliary keyhole surgery for unruptured aneurysms requires an understanding of the limitations and the use of special surgical techniques. Essentially, this means the effective selection of surgical indications, usage of the appropriate surgical instruments with a tubular shaft, and refined surgical techniques, including straightforward access to the aneurysm, clean surgical dissection, and the application of clips with an appropriate configuration. A superciliary keyhole approach allows unruptured anterior circulation aneurysms to be clipped safely, rapidly, and less invasively on the basis of appropriate surgical indications. PMID:25535512
Kamath, Atul F
For young, active patients with healthy hip cartilage, pelvic osteotomy is a surgical option in to address hip pain and to improve mechanical loading conditions related to dysplasia. Hip dysplasia may lead to arthrosis at an early age due to poor coverage of the femoral head and abnormal loading of the joint articulation. In patients with symptomatic dysplasia and closed triradiate cartilage (generally over age 10), including adolescents and young adults (generally up to around age 40), the Bernese periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) is a durable technique for addressing underlying structural deformity. The PAO involves a modified Smith-Petersen approach. Advantages of the Bernese osteotomy include preservation of the weight-bearing posterior column of the hemi-pelvis, preservation of the acetabular blood supply, maintenance of the hip abductor musculature, and the ability to effect powerful deformity correction about an ideal center of rotation. There is an increasing body of evidence that preservation of the native hip can be improved through pelvic osteotomy. In contrast to hip osteotomy and joint preservation, the role of total hip arthroplasty in young, active patients with correctable hip deformity remains controversial. Moreover, the durability of hip replacement in young patients is inherently limited. Pelvic osteotomy should be considered the preferred method to address correctable structural deformity of the hip in the young, active patient with developmental dysplasia. The Bernese PAO is technically demanding, yet offers reproducible results with good long-term survivorship in carefully selected patients with preserved cartilage and the ability to meet the demands of rehabilitation.
Alessimi, Abdullah; Adam, Emilie; Haber, Georges-Pascal; Badet, Lionel; Codas, Ricardo; Fehri, Hakim Fassi; Martin, Xavier; Crouzet, Sébastien
Purpose: We present the findings of 50 patients undergoing pure trans-umbilical laparo-endoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) living donor nephrectomy (LDN), between February 2010 and May 2014. Materials and Methods: Laparo-endoscopic single-site surgery LDN was performed through an umbilical incision. Different trocars were used, namely Gelpoint (Applied Mιdical, Rancho Santa Margarita, CA) SILS port (Covidien, Hamilton, Bermuda), R-port (Olympus Surgical, Orangeburg, NY) and standard trocars, inserted through the same skin incision but using separate fascial punctures. The standard laparoscopic technique was employed. The kidney was pre-entrapped in a retrieval bag and extracted trans-umbilically. Data were collected prospectively including questionnaires containing patient reported oral pain medication duration and time to recovery. Results: LESS LDN was successful in all patients. Mean warm ischemia time was 6.2 min (3–15), mean procedure time was 233.2 min (172–300), and hospitalization stay was 3.94 days (3–7) with a visual analogue pain score at discharge of 1.32 (0–3). No intraoperative complications occurred. The mean time of oral pain medication was 8.72 days (1–20) and final scar length was 4.06 cm (3–5). Each allograft was functional. Conclusion: Although challenging, trans-umbilical LESS LDN seems to be feasible and safe. Hence, LESS has the potential to improve cosmetic results and decrease morbidity. PMID:26229326
Algarni, Khaled D; Suri, Rakesh M; Daly, Richard C
Robotic-assisted mitral valve repair represents the least invasive surgical approach currently available for anatomical mitral valve repair in patients with myxomatous mitral valve disease. Standard mitral valve repair techniques utilized during conventional sternotomy/right thoracotomy are exactly replicated with the robotic instrumentation through 1-2 cm port-like incisions with superior 3D visualization. This is performed on cardiopulmonary bypass by peripheral cannulation of the femoral vessels/right internal jugular vein. The ascending aorta is occluded with a transthoracic aortic cross-clamp. Antegrade cardioplegia is delivered centrally into the aortic root through a cardioplegia vent catheter. By replicating conventional mitral valve repair done via an open sternotomy approach, the quality of mitral valve repair is ensured while providing the patients with advantages of less invasive surgery including shorter hospital stay, rapid recovery and return to normal activities, less blood transfusion, superior cosmesis and complete elimination of sternotomy-related morbidities such as deep sternal wound infection and sternal dehiscence. We reviewed the first consecutive 200 patients undergoing robotic mitral valve repair at Mayo Clinic Rochester between 24 January 2008 and 28 January 2011. Successful mitral valve repair was completed in all patients. There were no early (30-day) deaths. One patient suffered a stroke (0.5%). One patient required reoperation for bleeding (0.5%). Two patients (1%) required reoperation for recurrent mitral regurgitation. Twelve patients (6%) required transfusion of allogeneic blood products. We have noted a significant reduction in operative times and resource utilization over time.
Neubauer, Marcus; Oleskiewicz, Robert
This paper describes piezoelectric switching techniques for vibration damping. The dynamical behaviour of a piezoceramics connected to a switching LR shunt and the dissipated energy are obtained using a fundamental piezoelectric model. All calculations are performed in a normalized way and highlight the influence of the electromechanical coupling coefficient of the piezoceramics and the shunt parameters. For the first time, a precise result for the dynamics of a shunted piezoceramics is derived. The analytic results are used to determine the optimal switching sequence and external branch parameters in order to maximize the damping performance. The results are validated by measurements of a clamped beam.
Watson, Robert Anthony
Quantifying the algorithmic information content of hand motion patterns during a surgical task enables the comparison of different groups, novice and expert. Previously, we have shown that the information content/complexity of hand motion patterns during the surgical skill/subtask of knot tying reduces with increased expertise (J Surg Educ 2012;69:306-310). We therefore hypothesized that the information content/complexity of motion patterns would also reduce with expertise during a more complex surgical task of a bench model venous anastomosis. A custom inertial measurement unit was used to record 6-degrees of freedom hand motion from the right hand during a low-fidelity bench model venous anastomosis. Data were obtained from 2 groups as follows: novice (surgical residents, postgraduate year 1 and 2) and expert (attending surgeons). Each data set from the surgical task was processed into a symbolic time series from which the algorithmic entropy measure Lempel-Ziv complexity was calculated. A Student t test was used to test whether the 2 groups were sampled from the same population when using this metric, applying a P value of 0.05 to reject the null hypothesis. The expert surgeons had more complex patterns of motion compared with novice surgeons during this surgical task. This was statistically significant using the Lempel-Ziv complexity metric (P = 0.01). The hypothesis that increased surgical experience would reduce the complexity of hand motion patterns was not found to be true during this surgical task, and the opposite was found to be true. An alternative hypothesis that would combine the previous finding of a reduction in complexity of a subtask with this study's finding of increasing complexity of the whole task with increasing surgical expertise could be due to a hierarchy of pattern structure: experts use simpler subtask motifs in more complex and denser patterns.
Many important applications can be formalized as constrained optimization tasks. For example, we are studying the engineering domain of two-dimensional (2-D) structural design. In this task, the goal is to design a structure of minimum weight that bears a set of loads. A solution to a design problem in which there is a single load (L) and two stationary support points (S1 and S2) consists of four members, E1, E2, E3, and E4 that connect the load to the support points is discussed. In principle, optimal solutions to problems of this kind can be found by numerical optimization techniques. However, in practice [Vanderplaats, 1984] these methods are slow and they can produce different local solutions whose quality (ratio to the global optimum) varies with the choice of starting points. Hence, their applicability to real-world problems is severely restricted. To overcome these limitations, we propose to augment numerical optimization by first performing a symbolic compilation stage to produce: (a) objective functions that are faster to evaluate and that depend less on the choice of the starting point and (b) selection rules that associate problem instances to a set of recommended solutions. These goals are accomplished by successive specializations of the problem class and of the associated objective functions. In the end, this process reduces the problem to a collection of independent functions that are fast to evaluate, that can be differentiated symbolically, and that represent smaller regions of the overall search space. However, the specialization process can produce a large number of sub-problems. This is overcome by deriving inductively selection rules which associate problems to small sets of specialized independent sub-problems. Each set of candidate solutions is chosen to minimize a cost function which expresses the tradeoff between the quality of the solution that can be obtained from the sub-problem and the time it takes to produce it. The overall solution
Kamath, Atul F
For young, active patients with healthy hip cartilage, pelvic osteotomy is a surgical option in to address hip pain and to improve mechanical loading conditions related to dysplasia. Hip dysplasia may lead to arthrosis at an early age due to poor coverage of the femoral head and abnormal loading of the joint articulation. In patients with symptomatic dysplasia and closed triradiate cartilage (generally over age 10), including adolescents and young adults (generally up to around age 40), the Bernese periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) is a durable technique for addressing underlying structural deformity. The PAO involves a modified Smith-Petersen approach. Advantages of the Bernese osteotomy include preservation of the weight-bearing posterior column of the hemi-pelvis, preservation of the acetabular blood supply, maintenance of the hip abductor musculature, and the ability to effect powerful deformity correction about an ideal center of rotation. There is an increasing body of evidence that preservation of the native hip can be improved through pelvic osteotomy. In contrast to hip osteotomy and joint preservation, the role of total hip arthroplasty in young, active patients with correctable hip deformity remains controversial. Moreover, the durability of hip replacement in young patients is inherently limited. Pelvic osteotomy should be considered the preferred method to address correctable structural deformity of the hip in the young, active patient with developmental dysplasia. The Bernese PAO is technically demanding, yet offers reproducible results with good long-term survivorship in carefully selected patients with preserved cartilage and the ability to meet the demands of rehabilitation. PMID:27190755
and veterans in the field of cache power management. It will help graduate students, CAD tool developers and designers in understanding the need of energy efficiency in modern computing systems. Further, it will be useful for researchers in gaining insights into algorithms and techniques for micro-architectural and system-level energy optimization using dynamic cache reconfiguration. We sincerely believe that the ``food for thought'' presented in this book will inspire the readers to develop even better ideas for designing ``green'' processors of tomorrow.
Adhyapak, Srilakshmi M; Menon, Prahlad G; Rao Parachuri, V
Several issues that are inherent in the surgical techniques of surgical ventricular restoration (SVR) need specialized devices or techniques to overcome them, which may not always result in optimal outcomes. We used a non-invasive novel in silico modelling technique to study left ventricular (LV) morphology and function before and after SVR. The cardiac magnetic resonance imaging derived actual pre- and postoperative endocardial morphology and function was compared with the in silico analysis of the same. Cardiac magnetic resonance steady state free precession (SSFP) cine images were employed to segment endocardial surface contours over the cardiac cycle. Using the principle of Hausdorff distance to examine phase-to-phase regional endocardial displacement, dyskinetic/akinetic areas were identified at the instant of peak basal contraction velocity. Using a three-dimensional (3D) surface clipping tool, the maximally scarred, dyskinetic or akinetic LV antero-apical areas were virtually resected and a new apex was created. A virtual rectangular patch was created upon the clipped surface LV model by 3D Delaunay triangulation. Presurgical endocardial mechanical function quantified from cine cardiac magnetic resonance, using a technique of spherical harmonics (SPHARM) surface parameterization, was applied onto the virtually clipped and patched LV surface model. Finally, the in silico model of post-SVR LV shape was analysed for quantification of regional left ventricular volumes (RLVVs) and function. This was tested in 2 patients with post-myocardial infarction antero-apical LV aneuryms. Left ventricular mechanical dysynchrony was evaluated by RLVV analysis of pre-SVR, in silico post-SVR and actual post-SVR LV endocardial surface data. Following exclusion of the scarred areas, the virtual resected LV model demonstrated significantly lesser areas of akinesia. The decreases in regional LV volumes in the in silico modelling were significant and comparable with the actual
Shyy, Wei; Papila, Nilay; Vaidyanathan, Raj; Tucker, Kevin; Griffin, Lisa; Dorney, Dan; Huber, Frank; Tran, Ken; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)
This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of global optimization techniques for fluid flow and propulsion devices. Details are given on the need, characteristics, and techniques for global optimization. The techniques include response surface methodology (RSM), neural networks and back-propagation neural networks, design of experiments, face centered composite design (FCCD), orthogonal arrays, outlier analysis, and design optimization.
Mutaf, Mehmet; Temel, Metin; Koç, Mustafa Nihat
Background We present a clinical experience with a new local flap procedure, namely the triangular closure technique, for reconstruction of sacrococcygeal skin defects resulting from excision of the pilonidal sinus. Material/Methods In this technique, the defect is surgically converted to a triangle in shape. Then, the triangular defect is closed by transposition of 2 skin flaps designed in an unequal z-plasty manner. Over 6 years, this technique has been used for closure of defects of chronic pilonidal sinus disease in 27 patients (6 females, 21 males). The size of the defect ranged between 3.5 cm and 12 cm in dimension. Results A tension-free defect closure was obtained in all patients. All flaps except one healed with no complications. A mean follow-up of 3.62±1.77 months revealed aesthetically and functionally acceptable results with the obliteration of the natal cleft in all patients. No recurrence was observed in the follow-up period. Conclusions The triangular closure technique was found to be a useful technique for the treatment of pilonidal sinus with favorable results regarding the time before return to work. PMID:28238003
Molina-Garcia, Javier; Ponomaryov, Volodymyr I.; Reyes-Reyes, Rogelio; Cruz-Ramos, Clara
In this paper, a novel approach for halftone images is proposed and implemented for images that are obtained by the Dot Diffusion (DD) method. Designed technique is based on an optimization of the so-called class matrix used in DD algorithm and it consists of generation new versions of class matrix, which has no baron and near-baron in order to minimize inconsistencies during the distribution of the error. Proposed class matrix has different properties and each is designed for two different applications: applications where the inverse-halftoning is necessary, and applications where this method is not required. The proposed method has been implemented in GPU (NVIDIA GeForce GTX 750 Ti), multicore processors (AMD FX(tm)-6300 Six-Core Processor and in Intel core i5-4200U), using CUDA and OpenCV over a PC with linux. Experimental results have shown that novel framework generates a good quality of the halftone images and the inverse halftone images obtained. The simulation results using parallel architectures have demonstrated the efficiency of the novel technique when it is implemented in real-time processing.
Rangwalla, I. J.; Korn, D. J.; Nablo, S. V.
The design of an "inert gas" distribution system in an electron processor must satisfy a number of requirements. The first of these is the elimination or control of beam produced ozone and NO x which can be transported from the process zone by the product into the work area. Since the tolerable levels for O 3 in occupied areas around the processor are <0.1 ppm, good control techniques are required involving either recombination of the O 3 in the beam heated process zone, or exhausting and dilution of the gas at the processor exit. The second requirement of the inerting system is to provide a suitable environment for completing efficient, free radical initiated addition polymerization. In this case, the competition between radical loss through de-excitation and that from O 2 quenching must be understood. This group has used gas chromatographic analysis of electron cured coatings to study the trade-offs of delivered dose, dose rate and O 2 concentrations in the process zone to determine the tolerable ranges of parameter excursions can be determined for production quality control purposes. These techniques are described for an ink:coating system on paperboard, where a broad range of process parameters have been studied (D, Ġ, O 2. It is then shown how the technique is used to optimize the use of higher purity (10-100 ppm O 2) nitrogen gas for inerting, in combination with lower purity (2-20, 000 ppm O 2) non-cryogenically produced gas, as from a membrane or pressure swing adsorption generators.
Dalbayrak, Sedat; Yaman, Onur; Yılmaz, Mesut
Context: Treatment of Hangman's fractures is still controversial. Hangman's fractures Type II and IIA are usually treated with surgical procedures. Aim: This study aims at describing the Neurospinal Academy (NSA) technique as an attempt to achieve an approximation of the fracture line to the axis body, which may be used for Type II and IIA patients with severe displacement and angulation. Settings and Design: NSA technique both pars or pedicle screws are placed bicortically to ensure that anterior surface of C2 vertebral body will be crossed 1-2 mm. A rod is prepared in suitable length and curve to connect the two screws. For placing the rod, sufficient amount of bone is resected from the C2 spinous process. C2 vertebral body is pulled back by means of the screws that crossed the anterior surface of C2 vertebral body. Materials and Methods: Hangman II and IIA patient are treated with NSA technique. Result: Angulated and tilted C2 vertebral body was pulled back and approximated to posterior elements. Conclusions: In Hangman's fractures Type II and IIA with severe vertebral body and pedicle displacement, NSA technique is an effective and reliable treatment alternative for the approximation of posterior elements to the C2 vertebral body, which is tilted, angulated, and dislocated. PMID:24744563
Dalbayrak, Sedat; Yaman, Onur; Yılmaz, Mesut
Treatment of Hangman's fractures is still controversial. Hangman's fractures Type II and IIA are usually treated with surgical procedures. This study aims at describing the Neurospinal Academy (NSA) technique as an attempt to achieve an approximation of the fracture line to the axis body, which may be used for Type II and IIA patients with severe displacement and angulation. NSA technique both pars or pedicle screws are placed bicortically to ensure that anterior surface of C2 vertebral body will be crossed 1-2 mm. A rod is prepared in suitable length and curve to connect the two screws. For placing the rod, sufficient amount of bone is resected from the C2 spinous process. C2 vertebral body is pulled back by means of the screws that crossed the anterior surface of C2 vertebral body. Hangman II and IIA patient are treated with NSA technique. Angulated and tilted C2 vertebral body was pulled back and approximated to posterior elements. In Hangman's fractures Type II and IIA with severe vertebral body and pedicle displacement, NSA technique is an effective and reliable treatment alternative for the approximation of posterior elements to the C2 vertebral body, which is tilted, angulated, and dislocated.
Lumpkin, S M; Bishop, S G; Bennett, S
Surgical excision has been the accepted treatment of laryngeal polypoid degeneration, or chronic polypoid corditis. We report on 29 women with polypoid degeneration who received one of three surgical treatments: vocal fold stripping, carbon dioxide laser obliteration, or the Hirano technique. The duration of postoperative dysphonia was longest with the laser removal and shortest with the Hirano technique. A combination of vocal hygiene management and the Hirano technique of removal provided the most efficacious treatment.
Schaff, D.P.; Bokelmann, G.H.R.; Ellsworth, W.L.; Zanzerkia, E.; Waldhauser, F.; Beroza, G.C.
Earthquake location using relative arrival time measurements can lead to dramatically reduced location errors and a view of fault-zone processes with unprecedented detail. There are two principal reasons why this approach reduces location errors. The first is that the use of differenced arrival times to solve for the vector separation of earthquakes removes from the earthquake location problem much of the error due to unmodeled velocity structure. The second reason, on which we focus in this article, is that waveform cross correlation can substantially reduce measurement error. While cross correlation has long been used to determine relative arrival times with subsample precision, we extend correlation measurements to less similar waveforms, and we introduce a general quantitative means to assess when correlation data provide an improvement over catalog phase picks. We apply the technique to local earthquake data from the Calaveras Fault in northern California. Tests for an example streak of 243 earthquakes demonstrate that relative arrival times with normalized cross correlation coefficients as low as ???70%, interevent separation distances as large as to 2 km, and magnitudes up to 3.5 as recorded on the Northern California Seismic Network are more precise than relative arrival times determined from catalog phase data. Also discussed are improvements made to the correlation technique itself. We find that for large time offsets, our implementation of time-domain cross correlation is often more robust and that it recovers more observations than the cross spectral approach. Longer time windows give better results than shorter ones. Finally, we explain how thresholds and empirical weighting functions may be derived to optimize the location procedure for any given region of interest, taking advantage of the respective strengths of diverse correlation and catalog phase data on different length scales.
McHugh, S M; Hill, A D K; Humphreys, H
Approximately five percent of patients who undergo surgery develop surgical site infections (SSIs) which are associated with an extra seven days as an inpatient and with increased postoperative mortality. The competence and technique of the surgeon is considered important in preventing SSI. We have reviewed the evidence on different aspects of surgical technique and its role in preventing SSI. The most recent guidelines from the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence in the UK recommend avoiding diathermy for skin incision even though this reduces incision time and blood loss, both associated with lower infection rates. Studies comparing different closure techniques, i.e. continuous versus interrupted sutures, have not found a statistically significant difference in the SSI rate, but using continuous sutures is quicker. For contaminated wounds, the surgical site should be left open for four days to allow for treatment of local infection before subsequent healing by primary intention. Surgical drains should be placed through separate incisions, closed suction drains are preferable to open drains, and all drains should be removed as soon as possible. There are relatively few large studies on the impact of surgical techniques on SSI rates. Larger multicentre prospective studies are required to define what aspects of surgical technique impact on SSI, to better inform surgical practice and support education programmes for surgical trainees. Copyright © 2011 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Palmes, Daniel; Brüwer, Matthias; Bader, Franz G; Betzler, Michael; Becker, Heinz; Bruch, Hans-Peter; Büchler, Markus; Buhr, Heinz; Ghadimi, Beta Michael; Hopt, Ulrich T; Konopke, Ralf; Ott, Katja; Post, Stefan; Ritz, Jörg-Peter; Ronellenfitsch, Ulrich; Saeger, Hans-Detlev; Senninger, Norbert
Correct diagnosis, surgical treatment, and perioperative management of patients with esophageal carcinoma remain crucial for prognosis within multimodal treatment procedures. This study aims to achieve a consensus regarding current management strategies in esophageal cancer by questioning a panel of experts from the German Advanced Surgical Treatment Study (GAST) group, comprised of 9 centers specialized in esophageal surgery, with a combined total of >220 esophagectomies per year. The Delphi method, a systematic and interactive, evidence-based approach, was used to obtain consensus statements from the GAST group regarding ambiguities and disparities in diagnosis, patient selection, surgical technique, and perioperative management of patients with esophageal carcinoma. After four rounds of surveys, agreement was measured by Likert scales and defined as full (100% agreement), near (≥66.6% agreement), or no consensus (<66.6% agreement). Full or near consensus was obtained for essential aspects of esophageal cancer staging, proper surgical technique, perioperative management and indication for primary surgery, and neoadjuvant treatment or palliative treatment. No consensus was achieved regarding acceptability of minimally invasive technique and postoperative nutrition after esophagectomy. The GAST consensus statement represents a position paper for treatment of patients with esophageal carcinoma which both contributes to the development of clinical treatment guidelines and outlines topics in need of further clinical studies.
Cherubino, Mario; Pellegatta, Igor; Frigo, Claudia; Scamoni, Stefano; Taibi, Dominic; Maggiulli, Francesca; Valdatta, Luigi
Polythelia is a rare congenital malformation that occurs in 1–2% of the population. Intra-areolar polythelia is the presence of one or more supernumerary nipples located within the areola. This is extremely rare. This article presents 3 cases of intra-areolar polythelia treated at our Department. These cases did not present other associated malformation. Surgical correction was performed for psychological and cosmetic reasons using advancement flaps. The aesthetic and functional results were satisfactory.
Thiéry, G; Coulet, O; Adam, S; Lari, N
Insufficient maxillar bone crest does not allow dental implant placement. The sinus lift technique with an autogenous bone graft compensates this deficiency. This technique is performed in two steps: iliac autogenous bone harvesting and sinus graft. After describing the possible complications, the various approaches of this technique are presented. This pre-implant surgery must be performed by experienced surgeons.
Al-Motowa, Saeed; Al-Harby, Mosa
A 40-year-old male presented with bilateral ectasia, contact lens intolerance, and astigmatism >10 D in both eyes. The patient had end-stage pellucid marginal degeneration that warranted surgical treatment. We present a unique surgical technique to stabilize the cornea, minimize astigmatism, improve vision and corneal status, and avoid penetrating keratoplasty. PMID:27994396
López Sosa, Francisco H; Valentín-Guerrero, Santiago; Miranda-López, Eduardo
Proximal femoral osteotomy with the technique described by Merle D'AubignC and Valliant was used in the treatment of adult patients with osteoarthritis or idiopathic avascular necrosis. Dr. Antonio Flores applied this technique to children with subluxation and acetabular dysplasia, identified with exaggerated anteversion and valgus of the proximal femur. He reported correction of the deformity in 75% of patients. The purpose of this paper is to describe the technique, its indications and complications.
Rosson, Gedge D; Dellon, A Lee
Entrapment of the superficial peroneal nerve is an uncommon entrapment that occurs in sports trauma or fracture and dislocation as the nerve comes under pressure between the underlying muscles and the overlying fascia. Although the superficial peroneal nerve traditionally is depicted as being in the lateral compartment, we have found it in the anterior compartment in some patients. We hypothesized that patients with entrapment of the superficial peroneal nerve were more likely to have this anatomic variant than the normal population and that surgical decompression of both compartments would improve clinical outcome versus the historic surgical approach of decompressing just the lateral compartment. We retrospectively reviewed the location of the superficial peroneal nerve in a consecutive series of 35 limbs in 31 patients with entrapment of the superficial peroneal nerve. The results showed that the location of the superficial peroneal nerve was not different from the reported normal variation. However, the location of the superficial peroneal nerve in the anterior compartment in 47% of the patients in this series suggests that surgeons must explore the anterior and the lateral compartments in each patient with entrapment or neuroma of the superficial peroneal nerve. Therapeutic study, Level IV (case series-no, or historical, control group). See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Lee, Dong-Geun; Lee, Sun-Ho; Park, Se-Jun; Kim, Eun-Sang; Chung, Sung-Soo; Lee, Chong-Suh; Eoh, Whan
A retrospective case series. To compare the surgical outcomes of open-door and French-door cervical laminoplasty for decompressing multilevel cervical spinal cord compressions. Cervical laminoplasty is an effective method for decompressing multilevel cervical spinal cord compressions. Laminoplasty is usually classified as an open-door or French-door technique, but it is still unclear whether laminoplasty affects cervical alignment and clinical outcomes. Fifty-one patients underwent cervical laminoplasty over a 2-year period for cervical spondylotic myelopathy, ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament, or for a mixed-type condition. The following criteria were evaluated and compared retrospectively for open-door laminoplasty (group A) and French-door laminoplasty (group B): Nurick grades, Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scores, neck disability index, and visual analog scale scores for axial neck pain and radiating pain. During radiologic evaluations, changes in cervical lordotic angles and range of motion were measured at C2-C7. Postoperatively, radiating pain improved significantly in both groups (P<0.05), but axial neck pain was more severe in both groups at last follow-up than preoperatively (P>0.05). Mean neurological improvement was 12.5% according to Nurick grades and 28% according to JOA scores in all study subjects. In particular, the mean Nurick grades showed significant improvement in group A (P<0.05), and the recovery rate was higher in group A than in group B according to Nurick grades (23.5% vs. 6.3%; P<0.05) and JOA scores (44.4% vs. 13%; P<0.05). In contrast, radiologically, cervical lordotic angle and range of motion were more significantly decreased in group B (P<0.05). Although open-door and French-door laminoplasty techniques were found to be effective for treating cervical compressive myelopathy, the open-door technique seems to be superior with respect to clinical and radiologic outcomes.
Camarda, Lawrence; Giambartino, Sebastian; Lauria, Michele; Saporito, Michele; Triolo, Vito; D’Arienzo, Michele
Summary Background The purpose of the present study was to compare the operative time for graft preparation using different techniques for graft suturing. Material and methods Flexor profundus tendons were harvested from fresh pig hind-leg trotters. Three different suture techniques were investigated: the Krackow stitch (K), the Whipstitch (W), and the Modified Finger-Trap suture (MFT). Tendons were sutured starting at 10 mm from the distal free end of the tendon. The suture configurations of the Krackow stitch and Whipstitch were completed with five suture throws. According to the MFT technique, the suture was wrapped five times around the tendon over a distance of 30 mm. The time required to perform a complete suture on each tendon was measured. Five independent examiners of different levels of training measured the time required for graft preparation during 3 separate occasions to determine intraobserver repeatability and interobserver reproducibility. Results The mean time required for graft preparation following the Krackow technique was 69.1 seconds ± 18.3 SD (range 31.8–120). The Whipstitch technique took an average of 59.9 seconds ± 21.2 SD (range 27–93). The MFT suture required a mean of 29.3 seconds ± 11.4 SD for completing the suture (range 21.6–33). In all examiners the time required to complete the MFT suture was significantly less than the other suture techniques (p < 0.05). Intraobserver intraclass correlation coefficients for each examiner ranged from 0.72 to 0.83. Conclusion Low graft preparation time is required to complete a MFT suture in a porcine tendon model. Further, time required for graft preparation using the MFT was shorter than other suturing techniques such as the Krackow and Whipstitch techniques. Clinical relevance The MFT suture could be used for graft set-up with the main advantage of reducing the time required in comparison with other suture techniques. PMID:27900298
Scolaro, John Alan; Lackman, Richard D
Management of metastatic long bone fractures requires identification of the lesion and the use of sound fracture fixation principles to relieve pain and restore function. The treating surgeon must understand the principles of pathologic fracture fixation before initiating treatment. Because these fractures occur in the context of a progressive systemic disease, management typically involves a multidisciplinary approach. When considering surgical stabilization of these fractures, the abnormal (or absent) healing environment associated with diseased bone and the overall condition of the patient must be taken into account. The goal of surgery is to obtain a rigid mechanical construct, which allows for early mobility and weight bearing. This can be achieved using internal fixation with polymethyl methacrylate cement or segmental resection and joint reconstruction. Prosthetic joint arthroplasty is a more reliable means of fracture management when insufficient bone is present for fixation. Prophylactic stabilization of impending pathologic fractures can reduce the morbidity associated with metastatic lesions.
Meek, R M; Greidanus, Nelson V; Garbuz, Donald S; Masri, Bassam A; Duncan, Clive P
The extended trochanteric osteotomy is appropriate for a number of surgical indications. It facilitates removal of well-fixed cement mantles with a loose or well-fixed stem and of extensively porous-coated or tapered cementless stems. This exposure is particularly valuable in the presence of varus remodeling of the proximal femur, permitting correction of proximal femoral deformity and reducing the risk of fracture of the greater trochanter. It is also indicated in the removal of a well-fixed cemented stem that is complicated by infection, where it is vital to extract all foreign material for successful eradication of the infection. In addition, when the osteotomy is required for femoral exposure, it enhances acetabular exposure to allow even the most complex reconstruction. Also, as the soft-tissue attachments to the bone fragment are preserved in this approach, abductor muscle tension can be adjusted.
The BJN reported on a paper given by the superintendent of the General Hospital, Kingston, Ontario. It seems that there were three key discoveries in the history of surgery, which of course are still relevant today. The first was Ambrose Pare, who was responsible for introducing the ligature and replacing the 'red hot knife and cautery'. Ligature is the term given to the length of thread or other material, which was used in the surgical process of tying off a duct or a blood vessel to stop bleeding. Cautery or cauterization was the application of a heated instrument, such as a knife, in those days to destroy tissues to stop bleeding and promote healing. Cauterization has been largely replaced by electrocoagulation, which is the use of a high-frequency electric current to seal blood vessels by heat and thus stop bleeding.
ROSA, Roberto Maranhão; CAIADO, Rafael Coelho; REIS, Paulo Roberto de Melo; LACERDA, Elisângela de Paula Silveira; SUGITA, Denis Masashi; MRUÉ, Fátima
Background The number of malignancies increased alarmingly. Surgery constitutes one of the most efficient therapeutic modalities for the treatment of solid tumors. The neoplastic implant in surgical wound is a complication whose percentage of occurrence reported in the literature is variable, but sets with high morbidity and therapeutic difficulties. Protecting the wound is one of the recommended principles of oncologic surgery. Aim To evaluate the influence of wound protection in the development of tumor implantation. Methods Sarcoma 180 tumor cells were used, with intraperitoneal inoculation in Swiss mice. After the establishment of neoplastic ascites, animals were randomized into two groups of 10, each group consisting of five males and five females. In both groups, laparotomy and manipulation of intra-abdominal organs was performed. In a group laparotomy was performed using the protection of the abdominal wound and the other group without it. On the 9th postoperative day macroscopic evaluation of the operative scar was performed, which was later removed for microscopic evaluation. Results There was microscopic infiltration of tumor cells in the wound of all animals. However, the group that held the protection, infiltration was less intense when compared to the group without it. The infiltration was also more severe in females than in males of the same group. Conclusion Tumor infiltration into the wound was more intense in the group in which the protection of the surgical site was not performed, and in females when compared to males of the same group. PMID:25861061
NISHIMI, ALEXANDRE YUKIO; ARBEX, DEMETRIO SIMÃO; MARTINS, DIOGO LUCAS CAMPOS; GUSMÃO, CARLOS VINICIUS BUARQUE DE; BONGIOVANNI, ROBERTO RANGEL; PASCARELLI, LUCIANO
ABSTRACT Objective: To determine whether training on shoulder and elbow surgery influences the orthopedist surgeons' preferred technique to address acute acromioclavicular joint dislocation (ACD). Methods: A survey was conducted with shoulder and elbow specialists and general orthopedists on their preferred technique to address acute ACD. Results: Thirty specialists and forty-five general orthopedists joined the study. Most specialists preferred the endobutton technique, while most general orthopedists preferred the modified Phemister procedure for coracoclavicular ligament repair using anchors. We found no difference between specialists and general orthopedists in the number of tunnels used to repair the coracoclavicular ligament; preferred method for wire insertion through the clavicular tunnels; buried versus unburied Kirschner wire insertion for acromioclavicular temporary fixation; and time for its removal; and regarding the suture thread used for deltotrapezoidal fascia closure. Conclusion: Training on shoulder and elbow surgery influences the surgeons' preferred technique to address acute ACD. Level of Evidence V, Expert Opinion. PMID:28149190
Elham, Ali; van Tooren, Michel J. L.
A quasi-three-dimensional aerodynamic solver is integrated with a semi-analytical structural weight estimation method inside a multidisciplinary design optimization framework to design and optimize a winglet for a passenger aircraft. The winglet is optimized for minimum drag and minimum structural weight. The Pareto front between those two objective functions is found applying a genetic algorithm. The aircraft minimum take-off weight and the aircraft minimum direct operating cost are used to select the best winglets among those on the Pareto front.
Konda, Vani Ja; Dalal, Kunal
Esophageal adenocarcinoma and its precursor, Barrett's esophagus, are rapidly rising in incidence. This review serves to highlight the role of pharmacologic, endoscopic, and surgical intervention in the management of Barrett's esophagus, which requires acid suppression and endoscopic assessment. Treatment with a proton pump inhibitor may decrease acid exposure and delay the progression to dysplasia. Patients who require aspirin for cardioprotection or other indications may also benefit in terms of a protective effect against the development of esophageal cancer. However, without other indications, aspirin is not indicated solely to prevent cancer. A careful endoscopic examination should include assessment of any visible lesions in a Barrett's segment. An expert gastrointestinal pathologist should confirm neoplasia in the setting of Barrett's esophagus. For those patients with high-grade dysplasia or intramucosal carcinoma, careful consideration of endoscopic therapy or surgical therapy must be given. All visible lesions in the setting of dysplasia should be targeted with focal endoscopic mucosal resection for both accurate histopathologic diagnosis and treatment. The remainder of the Barrett's epithelium should be eradicated to address all synchronous and metachronous lesions. This may be done by tissue acquiring or nontissue acquiring means. Radiofrequency ablation has a positive benefit-risk profile for flat Barrett's esophagus. At this time, endoscopic therapy is not indicated for nondysplastic Barrett's esophagus. Esophagectomy is still reserved for selected cases with evidence of lymph node metastasis, unsuccessful endoscopic therapy, or with high-risk features of high-grade dysplasia or intramucosal carcinoma.
Zahraee, Ali Hassan; Szewczyk, Jerome; Morel, Guillaume
Hand-held surgical robots are manipulators with dexterous effectors to be used by surgeons in minimally invasive surgery and especially in laparoscopy. Mechanical manipulators for laparoscopy have appeared on the markets in recent years with various interfaces and dexterities. 2 examples are RealHand and Laparo-Angle. The question of which interface and control mode is the best has not been answered yet. Also, the effector kinematics has not been studied much. We have made a simulator to study the robot's interface, control mode and kinematics to design a hand-held surgical robot for laparoscopic surgery. We asked test subjects to use the simulator and try to make sutures in a virtual environment. Users opinion is that a joystick as interface is easier to use, compared to a jointed interface translating hand's orientation to that of the effector. It appears that a 6 DOF effector coupled to the shaft is necessary and dexterous enough to make sutures in different angles.
Choi, Hyunseok; Cho, Byunghyun; Masamune, Ken; Hashizume, Makoto; Hong, Jaesung
Depth perception is a major issue in augmented reality (AR)-based surgical navigation. We propose an AR and virtual reality (VR) switchable visualization system with distance information, and evaluate its performance in a surgical navigation set-up. To improve depth perception, seamless switching from AR to VR was implemented. In addition, the minimum distance between the tip of the surgical tool and the nearest organ was provided in real time. To evaluate the proposed techniques, five physicians and 20 non-medical volunteers participated in experiments. Targeting error, time taken, and numbers of collisions were measured in simulation experiments. There was a statistically significant difference between a simple AR technique and the proposed technique. We confirmed that depth perception in AR could be improved by the proposed seamless switching between AR and VR, and providing an indication of the minimum distance also facilitated the surgical tasks. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Monte Carlo Simulation...................................................................................23 Mathematical Frame Work to Optimize CID...System............................................24 Summary of Previous Mathematical Frame Work for ATR.............................24...Mathematical Frame Work for CID Simulation ..............................................27 How CID Modeling is Currently Performed in Combat Models
Gelsomino, Sandro; La Meir, Mark; Van Breugel, Henrica N A M; Renzulli, Attilio; Rostagno, Carlo; Lorusso, Roberto; Parise, Orlando; Lozekoot, Pieter W J; Klop, Idserd D G; Kumar, Narendra; Lucà, Fabiana; Matteucci, Francesco; Serraino, Filiberto; Santè, Pasquale; Caciolli, Sabina; Vizzardi, Enrico; De Jong, Monique; Crijns, Harry J G M; Gensini, Gian Franco; Maessen, Jos G
To assess the results and impact of lesion set and surgical technique on long-term success of surgical ablation during mitral surgery. The patient population consisted of 685 subjects with persistent and long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) undergoing cardiac surgery for mitral valve disease as the primary indication and concomitant ablation between January 2003 and January 2012 at three institutions. One hundred and sixty-six underwent unipolar (24.2%), 371 (54.2%) bipolar, and 148 (21.6%) had combined ablation. Median follow-up was 58.4 months (interquartile range 43.3-67.9). To appropriately account for death, a competing risk model was employed to identify predictors of cumulative incidence of recurrent AF among lesion set and surgical techniques. Eight-year freedom from recurrent arrhythmia without antiarrhythmic drugs was 0.60 ± 0.02. Success rate was higher using bipolar radiofrequency (RF) (P < 0.001), after performing mitral isthmus line (P = 0.003) and following the biatrial technique (P < 0.001). Competing risk regression revealed that use of unipolar RF [sub-hazard ratio (SHR) 2.41 (1.52-3.43), P < 0.001], combined unipolar/bipolar ablation [SHR 1.93 (0.89-2.57), P = 0.003] and the absence of right atrial ablation [SHR 2.79 (1.27-3.48), P < 0.001] were predictors of cumulative incidence of long-term recurrence. Our experience suggests that the use of bipolar clamp improves long-term results in surgical treatment of AF and that right-sided ablation should be routinely added. Randomized studies are necessary to confirm our findings. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: email@example.com.
Yokoyama, Yuhei; Chen, Fengshi; Aoyama, Akihiro; Sato, Toshihiko; Date, Hiroshi
Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has been widely used, but surgical resections of superior sulcus tumours remain challenging because of their anatomical location. For such cases, less-invasive procedures, such as the anterior transcervical-thoracic and transmanubrial approaches, have been widely performed because of their excellent visualization of the subclavian vessels. Recently, a combined operative technique with an anterior surgical approach and VATS for anterior superior sulcus tumours has been introduced. Herein, we report three cases of anterior superior sulcus tumours successfully resected by surgical approaches combined with a VATS-based lobectomy. In all cases, operability was confirmed by VATS, and upper lobectomies with hilar and mediastinal lymph node dissections were performed. Subsequently, dissections of the anterior inlet of the tumours were performed using the transmanubrial approach in two patients and the anterior trans-cervical-thoracic approach in one patient. Both approaches provided excellent access to the anterior inlet of the tumour and exposure of the subclavian vessels, resulting in radical resection of the tumour with concomitant resection of the surrounding anatomical structures, including the chest wall and vessels. In conclusion, VATS lobectomy combined with the anterior surgical approach might be an excellent procedure for the resection of anterior superior sulcus tumours.
Devishree; Gujjari, Sheela Kumar; Shubhashini, P V
The frenum is a mucous membrane fold that attaches the lip and the cheek to the alveolar mucosa, the gingiva, and the underlying periosteum. The frena may jeopardize the gingival health when they are attached too closely to the gingival margin, either due to an interference in the plaque control or due to a muscle pull. In addition to this, the maxillary frenum may present aesthetic problems or compromise the orthodontic result in the midline diastema cases, thus causing a recurrence after the treatment. The management of such an aberrant frenum is accomplished by performing a frenectomy.The present article is a compilation of a brief overview about the frenum, with a focus on the indications, contraindications, advantages and the disadvantages of various frenectomy techniques, like Miller's technique, V-Y plasty, Z-plasty and frenectomy by using electrocautery. A series of clinical cases of frenectomy which were approached by various techniques have also been reported.
Devishree; Gujjari, Sheela Kumar; Shubhashini, P.V.
The frenum is a mucous membrane fold that attaches the lip and the cheek to the alveolar mucosa, the gingiva, and the underlying periosteum. The frena may jeopardize the gingival health when they are attached too closely to the gingival margin, either due to an interference in the plaque control or due to a muscle pull. In addition to this, the maxillary frenum may present aesthetic problems or compromise the orthodontic result in the midline diastema cases, thus causing a recurrence after the treatment. The management of such an aberrant frenum is accomplished by performing a frenectomy. The present article is a compilation of a brief overview about the frenum, with a focus on the indications, contraindications, advantages and the disadvantages of various frenectomy techniques, like Miller's technique, V-Y plasty, Z-plasty and frenectomy by using electrocautery. A series of clinical cases of frenectomy which were approached by various techniques have also been reported. PMID:23285469
Computerized simulation model of a launch vehicle/ground support equipment system optimizes assembly, checkout, and operation of the system. The model is used to determine performance parameters in three phases or modes - /1/ systems optimization techniques, /2/ operation analysis methodology, and /3/ systems effectiveness analysis technique.
Kazemi, Hamed; Rappel, James K; Poston, Timothy; Hai Lim, Beng; Burdet, Etienne; Leong Teo, Chee
Advantages of virtual-reality simulators surgical skill assessment and training include more training time, no risk to patient, repeatable difficulty level, reliable feedback, without the resource demands, and ethical issues of animal-based training. We tested this for a key subtask and showed a strong link between skill in the simulator and in reality. Suturing performance was assessed for four groups of participants, including experienced surgeons and naive subjects, on a custom-made virtual-reality simulator. Each subject tried the experiment 30 times using five different types of needles to perform a standardized suture placement task. Traditional metrics of performance as well as new metrics enabled by our system were proposed, and the data indicate difference between trained and untrained performance. In all traditional parameters such as time, number of attempts, and motion quantity, the medical surgeons outperformed the other three groups, though differences were not significant. However, motion smoothness, penetration and exit angles, tear size areas, and orientation change were statistically significant in the trained group when compared with untrained group. This suggests that these parameters can be used in virtual microsurgery training.
Roster, Brent; Kreulen, Christopher; Giza, Eric
Arthrodesis of the subtalar joint can be performed via both open and arthroscopic techniques. Both groups of procedures have their own relative indications and contraindications, as well as complications. Good results have been reported for both general procedures, although some studies suggest superiority with arthroscopic subtalar arthrodesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Willis, E. A., Jr.
A class of successive-improvement optimization methods in which directions of descent are defined in the state space along each trial trajectory are considered. The given problem is first decomposed into two discrete levels by imposing mesh points. Level 1 consists of running optimal subarcs between each successive pair of mesh points. For normal systems, these optimal two-point boundary value problems can be solved by following a routine prescription if the mesh spacing is sufficiently close. A spacing criterion is given. Under appropriate conditions, the criterion value depends only on the coordinates of the mesh points, and its gradient with respect to those coordinates may be defined by interpreting the adjoint variables as partial derivatives of the criterion value function. In level 2, the gradient data is used to generate improvement steps or search directions in the state space which satisfy the boundary values and constraints of the given problem.
Wu, S. C.; Melbourne, W. G.
A formula is derived to optimally combine dual-frequency GPS (Global Positioning System) pseudorange and carrier phase data streams into a single equivalent data stream, reducing the data volume and computing time in the filtering process for parameter estimation by a factor of four. The resulting single data stream is that of carrier phase measurements with both data noise and bias uncertainty strictly defined. With this analytical formula the single stream of equivalent GPS measurements can be efficiently formed by simple numerical calculations without any degradation in data strength. The formulation for the optimally combined GPS data and their covariances are given in closed form. Carrier phase ambiguity resolution, when feasible, is improved due to the preservation of the full data strength with the optimal data combining process.
Hatzichristodoulou, Georgios; Osmonov, Daniar; Kübler, Hubert; Hellstrom, Wayne J G; Yafi, Faysal A
Peyronie's disease (PD) is a benign fibrotic disorder of the tunica albuginea of the penis, which can cause penile pain, curvature, shortening, erectile dysfunction, and psychological distress. Surgery is indicated when penile curvature prevents satisfactory sexual intercourse. Plaque incision or excision with grafting has been suggested as an option in patients with a penile curvature greater than 60°, a shortened penis, and/or an hourglass or complex deformity. To provide an overview of recent studies reporting outcomes of grafting techniques and to report advances in the development of new grafting materials for PD surgery. A literature review was performed through PubMed from 2011 through 2016 regarding grafting techniques for PD. Key words used for the search were grafting techniques, grafts, graft materials, Peyronie's disease, surgical outcomes, and surgical therapy. To report on novel and promising graft materials for PD and to discuss surgical techniques, outcomes, and limitations. Discussed outcomes include postoperative penile straightening, shortening, erectile function, glans sensation, and patient satisfaction. Various surgical techniques and grafting materials can be used for the coverage of the tunica albuginea defect after partial plaque excision or incision. Autologous and non-autologous grafts have been used in this setting. A major advantage of the available "off-the-shelf" grafts is that they do not require donor site harvesting, thus decreasing morbidity and operative time. Tissue-engineered grafts represent the future, but more research is needed to further improve surgical handling and postoperative outcomes. Patients opting for grafting techniques should have sufficient erectile rigidity preoperatively. Surgeon experience, careful patient selection, patient preference, and type of penile deformity affect the choice of graft and surgical approach used. Hatzichristodoulou G, Osmonov D, Kübler H, et al. Contemporary Review of Grafting
Dore, Mariela; Junco, Paloma Triana; Andres, Ane M; Sánchez-Galán, Alba; Amesty, Maria Virginia; Ramos, Esther; Prieto, Gerardo; Hernandez, Francisco; Lopez Santamaria, Manuel
Intestinal failure (IF) requires a multidisciplinary management based on nutritional support, surgical and medical rehabilitation, and transplantation. The aim of this study is to review our experience with surgical rehabilitation techniques (SRTs: enteroplasty, Bianchi, Serial Transverse Enteroplasty Procedure [STEP]) in patients with short bowel syndrome (SBS) and poor prognosis due to complex abdominal pathology. We performed a single-center retrospective study of patients with IF evaluated for intestinal transplantation in the Intestinal Rehabilitation Unit who underwent an SRT. Nonparametric tests were used for statistical analysis.A total of 205 patients (107 males/98 females) with mean age of 25 ± 7 months were assessed for IF. A total of 433 laparotomies were performed on 130 patients including intestinal resection, enteroplasties, adhesiolysis, and transit reconstruction. SRT were performed in 22 patients: 12 enteroplasties, 8 STEPs, and 4 Bianchi procedures. All patients were parenteral nutrition (PN) dependent with different stages of liver disease: mild (13), moderate (5), and severe (4). The adaptation rate for patients who underwent enteroplasty, STEP, and Bianchi were 70, 63, and 25%, respectively, although the techniques are not comparable. Overall, intestinal adaptation was achieved in nine (41%) patients, and four (18%) patients showed significant reduction of PN needs. One child did not respond to SRT and did not meet transplantation criteria. The remaining eight (36%) patients were included on the waiting list for transplant: four were transplanted, two are still on the waiting list, and two died. Better outcomes were observed in milder cases of liver disease (mild 77%, moderate 40%, severe 25%) (p < 0.05). Conversely, a trend toward a poorer outcome was observed in cases with ultrashort bowel (p > 0.05). One patient required reoperation after a Bianchi procedure due to intestinal ischemia and six needed further re-STEP or adhesiolysis
Despite advances in science and technology, the success rate for the treatment of displaced intracapsular femoral neck fractures in high-energy injuries remains disappointing. The blood supply system in the femoral head of humans does not favor recovery from these fractures. Once these fractures occur, osteonecrosis and nonunion rates may be as high as 30%, even if the newest technique is used. There are some surgical techniques used to supplement internal fixation to reestablish the blood supply in the femoral head, but none have been evidently successful. After analysis of related studies, the author concludes that immediate surgical treatment using improved techniques incorporating the principles of biomechanics can improve the success rate of treatment of these fractures. Using these principles, the fracture site can achieve sufficient stability. Consequently, the blood supply in the femoral head and neck can be reestablished earlier and loss of reduction of fragments during treatment can be minimized. Thus, the chance of full recovery from these complicated fractures can be maximized. In this study, the biomechanical characteristics of these fractures and the principles associated with the surgical techniques used for treating them are reviewed and clarified. Finally, a surgical technique which is ideal from the author's viewpoint is presented. The author believes that the recommended surgical technique may become the best method for treating these complicated fractures.
Trinavarat, Adisak; Atchaneeyasakul, La-ongsri
To compare the incidence and characteristics of patients with endophthalmitis after extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) to those after phacoemulsification Records of patients receiving intravitreal antibiotic injection to treat endophthalmitis after cataract surgery between Jan 2001 and Dec 2004 were reviewed. Demographic data and other characteristics including associated diseases, details of cataract surgical procedure and intraoperative complication, onset of endophthalmitis after cataract surgery, presenting symptoms and signs of endophthalmitis, how endophthalmitis was managed, causative organisms, duration of hospitalization and results of treatment were collected. This information was compared between those of endophthalmitis patients after ECCE and those after phacoemulsification. There were 5 cases who developed endophthalmitis after ECCE and 31 cases after phacoemulsification. The incidence was 0.365% after ECCE and 0.279% after phacoemulsification (p = 0.589). Visual acuity (VA) before cataract surgery in ECCE group was worse than the phacoemulsification group (median VA: counting fingers vs 6/36, p = 0.001). Median onset of endophthalmitis was 8 days after ECCE and 6 days after phacoemulsification. Presenting symptoms and signs were similar. Causative agents were identified in 4 (80%) and 14 (45%) cases in the ECCE and phacoemulsification groups respectively. Gram-positive bacteria were the major cause of infection in both groups. Endophthalmitis caused by citrobacter sp. in ECCE group and enterococcus or streptococcus sps. the phacoemulsification in the group ended up with enucleation or no light perception. The present study has not demonstrated an apparent difference between endophthalmitis after ECCE and those after phacoemulsification. Endophthalmitis after either procedure can be managed as the same condition.
Lausada, Natalia R; Gondolesi, G E; Ortiz, E; Dreizzen, E; Raimondi, J C
The orthotopic rat liver transplant model is a widely used technique in transplantation research. It has many advantages over other animal transplant models because of its availability and low cost. However, it must be emphasized that success with the rat model requires thorough training. The aim of this paper is to describe the microsurgical technique involved in 60 rat liver transplants and to discuss the complications and their treatments. Forty-nine liver transplants were performed at the Experimental Laboratory of the University Hospital, Ontario, Canada (ELUH) and 11 were performed at the Laboratorio de Trasplante de Organos de la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas de La Plata, Buenos Aires. Argentina (LTO). Among the transplants performed at the ELUH, the observed complications were haemorrhage (n = 4), pneumothorax (n = 1), anastomotic failure (n = 15), bile leak (n = 3), and bile duct necrosis (n = 9). The remaining 17 rats at the ELUH were healthy at day 7 after surgery. Animal survival immediately postop, at 24 hours postop and at 7 days postop was achieved with the 9th, 20th and 21st transplants respectively. At the LTO, 3 rats died as a result of anaesthetic complications. Seven-day animal survival was achieved with the 11th transplant. We beleive that the description of the orthotopic rat liver transplantation technique, as well as the discussion regarding complications and their management, can be useful for researchers interested in performing liver transplantation in rats.
Parisier, S C; Chute, P M; Popp, A L; Hanson, M B
Early cochlear implantation to treat prelingually deafened children has been shown to improve speech perception and overall performance. The current age limit for implantation is 24 months in accordance with US Food and Drug Administration guidelines, but it is believed that earlier implantation is possible and may result in better performance. Implantation in children younger than 36 months, however, is complicated by the altered anatomy of the temporal bone in this young age group. We have developed specific modifications in the cochlear implantation technique for this young age group. This technique was used in implantation for 17 children younger than 36 months. The ages ranged from 16 to 36 months and averaged 30 months. All patients except one had complete electrode insertion without complication. The technique of cochlear implantation must be modified not only for differences in anatomy in these young children but also for the expected continued growth of the temporal bone and related structures. Cochlear implantation can be safely performed on children as young as 16 months.
Nelson, Philip; Young, Henry N.; Knobloch, Mary Jo
Abstract Introduction Improper inhaler technique is a common problem affecting asthma control and healthcare costs. Telephonic asthma management can increase access to care while reducing costs and hospitalizations. However, no reliable method has been established for telephonically evaluating and correcting inhaler technique. Objective The purpose of this study was to pilot test a method for assessing and correcting patient inhaler technique via telephone. Methods Participants (n=30) were adults with asthma using metered-dose inhalers (MDIs) and diskus inhalers. A pharmacist was located in one room and communicated via telephone with a participant in another room. The pharmacist telephonically assessed and taught inhaler technique. Participants were video-recorded, and videos were later examined by a second pharmacist to visually evaluate inhaler technique. Participants were assigned pre- and posteducation inhaler technique scores for the telephonic and video assessments. Scores were based on summated scales for MDI (0–9) and diskus (0–11) inhalers. Paired samples t-tests were used to compare telephone and video assessments. Results Findings indicated a significant difference between the telephone and video assessments of MDI technique (p<0.05); however, no difference was found for the diskus inhaler. Comparing pre- and posteducation inhaler technique for MDI and diskus, mean scores significantly improved from 5.7 to 7.8 (p<0.05) and from 8.5 to 10.4 (p<0.05), respectively. Conclusions The telephonic method was able to improve and detect some deficiencies in patients' inhaler technique. However, modifications and further investigation will more clearly determine the role and value of such a telephonic intervention. PMID:21943162
Bosshardt, Donald I.; Lichtenstein, Larry; Palumbo, George; Zaporowski, Mark P.
In the context of a theoretical model of expected profit maximization, this paper shows how historic institutional data can be used to assist enrollment managers in determining the level of financial aid for students with varying demographic and quality characteristics. Optimal tuition pricing in conjunction with empirical estimation of…
Joaquim, Andrei F; Ghizoni, Enrico; Rubino, Pablo A; Anderle, Diogo V; Tedeschi, Helder; Rhoton, Albert L; de Oliveira, Evandro
The use of lateral mass atlas screws is an important technique to achieve fusion and stability at the craniocervical region affected by different pathologies (degenerative, traumatic, inflammatory, neoplastic, or congenital). This paper describes the anatomy and techniques necessary for proper insertion of posterior C1 lateral mass screws, using anatomic dissection and intraoperative pictures. Knowledge of the anatomy and the surgical technique of insertion of C1 lateral mass screws are of paramount importance to have good surgical results. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nowacki, Maciej; Nazarewski, Łukasz; Tyloch, Dominik; Pokrywczyńska, Marta; Pietkun, Katarzyna; Jundziłł, Arkadiusz; Tyloch, Janusz; Habib, Samy L.; Drewa, Tomasz
On the 60th anniversary of the first successfully performed renal transplantation, we summarize the historical, current and potential future status of kidney transplantation. We discuss three different aspects with a potential significant influence on kidney transplantation progress: the development of surgical techniques, the influence of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering, and changes in immunosuppression. We evaluate the standard open surgical procedures with modern techniques and compare them to less invasive videoscopic as well as robotic techniques. The role of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine as a potential method for future kidney regeneration or replacement and the interesting search for novel solutions in the field of immunosuppression will be discussed. After 60 years since the first successfully performed kidney transplantation, we can conclude that the greatest achievements are associated with the development of surgical techniques and with planned systemic immunosuppression. PMID:27695507
Marchie, Anthony; Kumar, Arun; Catre, Melanio
We report a modified surgical technique for reconstruction of coracoclavicular and acromioclavicular ligaments after acute dislocation of acromioclavicular joint using suture anchors. We have repaired 3 consecutive type III acromioclavicular dislocations with good results. This technique is simple and safe and allows anatomical reconstruction of the ligaments in acute dislocations. PMID:20671868
Mehrotra, Sanjay; Papp, Dávid
An optimization based method is proposed to generate moment matching scenarios for numerical integration and its use in stochastic programming. The main advantage of the method is its flexibility: it can generate scenarios matching any prescribed set of moments of the underlying distribution rather than matching all moments up to a certain order, and the distribution can be defined over an arbitrary set. This allows for a reduction in the number of scenarios and allows the scenarios to be better tailored to the problem at hand. The method is based on a semi-infinite linear programming formulation of the problem thatmore » is shown to be solvable with polynomial iteration complexity. A practical column generation method is implemented. The column generation subproblems are polynomial optimization problems; however, they need not be solved to optimality. It is found that the columns in the column generation approach can be efficiently generated by random sampling. The number of scenarios generated matches a lower bound of Tchakaloff's. The rate of convergence of the approximation error is established for continuous integrands, and an improved bound is given for smooth integrands. Extensive numerical experiments are presented in which variants of the proposed method are compared to Monte Carlo and quasi-Monte Carlo methods on both numerical integration problems and stochastic optimization problems. The benefits of being able to match any prescribed set of moments, rather than all moments up to a certain order, is also demonstrated using optimization problems with 100-dimensional random vectors. Here, empirical results show that the proposed approach outperforms Monte Carlo and quasi-Monte Carlo based approaches on the tested problems.« less
Mehrotra, Sanjay; Papp, Dávid
An optimization based method is proposed to generate moment matching scenarios for numerical integration and its use in stochastic programming. The main advantage of the method is its flexibility: it can generate scenarios matching any prescribed set of moments of the underlying distribution rather than matching all moments up to a certain order, and the distribution can be defined over an arbitrary set. This allows for a reduction in the number of scenarios and allows the scenarios to be better tailored to the problem at hand. The method is based on a semi-infinite linear programming formulation of the problem that is shown to be solvable with polynomial iteration complexity. A practical column generation method is implemented. The column generation subproblems are polynomial optimization problems; however, they need not be solved to optimality. It is found that the columns in the column generation approach can be efficiently generated by random sampling. The number of scenarios generated matches a lower bound of Tchakaloff's. The rate of convergence of the approximation error is established for continuous integrands, and an improved bound is given for smooth integrands. Extensive numerical experiments are presented in which variants of the proposed method are compared to Monte Carlo and quasi-Monte Carlo methods on both numerical integration problems and stochastic optimization problems. The benefits of being able to match any prescribed set of moments, rather than all moments up to a certain order, is also demonstrated using optimization problems with 100-dimensional random vectors. Here, empirical results show that the proposed approach outperforms Monte Carlo and quasi-Monte Carlo based approaches on the tested problems.
Wakasa, Satoru; Shingu, Yasushige; Kubota, Suguru; Minamida, Taro; Iijima, Makoto; Naito, Yuji; Ooka, Tomonori; Tachibana, Tsuyoshi; Matsui, Yoshiro
In this study, we assessed mid-term results of surgical ventricular restoration (SVR) for dilated cardiomyopathy. The study subjects were 107 patients who underwent SVR for both ischemic (ischemic cardiomyopathy:ICM, n=57) and non-ischemic (dilated cardiomyopathy:DCM, n=50) dilated cardiomyopathy. In 49(86%)patients ICM was associated with New York heart Association(NYHA) class III or more. Preoperative left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and left ventricular end-diastolic dimension(LVDd)were 22±6% and 67±9 mm, respectively. Hospital mortality was 14% and 5-year mortality was 40%. In contrast, 46( 92%) of the DCM patients presented with NYHA class III or more. Preoperative LVEF and LVDd were 20±6% and 74±9 mm, respectively. Hospital mortality was 28% and 5-year mortality was 63%. For NYHA class III or less, however, 5-year mortality rates were 23% and 39% in those with ICM and DCM, respectively. For those with NYHA functional class III or less, SVR was associated with a satisfactory survival rate and is recommended. For those with severe heart failure, however, ventricular assist devices or heart transplantation may have to be indicated.
Valdivieso, Roger F; Hueber, Pierre-Alain; Zorn, Kevin C
The introduction of the "da Vinci Robotic Surgical System" (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) has been an important step towards a minimally invasive approach to radical prostatectomy. Technologic peculiarities, such as three-dimensional vision, wristed instrumentation with seven degrees of freedom of motion, lack of tremor, a 10x-magnification and a comfortable seated position for the surgeon has added value to the procedure for the surgeon and the patient. In this article, we describe the 9 step surgical technique for robot assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) that is currently used in our institution (University of Montreal Hospital Center (CHUM) - Hopital St-Luc). We use the four-arm da Vinci Surgical System. Our experience with RARP is now over 250 cases with the senior surgeon having performed over 1200 RARPs and we have continually refined our technique to improve patient outcomes.
Hörer, Tal M; Skoog, Per; Quell, Robin; Nilsson, Kristofer F; Larzon, Thomas; Souza, Domingos R
The radiocephalic arteriovenous fistula (RC-AVF) has significant failure rates due to occlusions and failure to mature. The size and quality of the veins are considerable limiting factors for the procedure. The aim of this pilot study was to describe the No-Touch technique (NTT) to create RC-AVF and present the results up to 1 year of follow-up. Thirty-one consecutive patients who were referred for surgery for a RC-AVF were included (17 men, mean age 63 years, range 35-84) and operated by NTT where the vein and artery were dissected with a tissue cushion around it. Twenty-two patients had small veins or arteries (≤2 mm), 12 patients had a small cephalic vein (≤2 mm), and the mean distal cephalic vein diameter was 2.4 mm (range 1.0-4.1 mm). Technical surgical success and immediate patency were obtained in all patients. Clinical success was achieved in 23 of the 27 (85%) patients who required hemodialysis. The proportion of primary patency at 30 days and 6 months was 84% and 64%, respectively. Secondary patency at 30 days and 6 months was 97% and 83%, respectively. At 1-year follow-up, primary patency was 54% and secondary patency was 80%. There was no major difference in patency due to preoperative vein diameter. The results of this study indicate that NTT can be used for primary radio-cephalic fistula surgery with very good results. This method offers the potential to create a RC-AVF in patients who are not usually considered appropriate for a distal arm fistula due to a small cephalic vein.
Li, Wenjun; Goldstein, Daniel R.; Bribriesco, Alejandro C.; Nava, Ruben G.; Spahn, Jessica H.; Wang, Xingan; Gelman, Andrew E.; Krupnick, Alexander S.
Microsurgical cuff techniques for orthotopic vascularized murine lung transplantation have allowed for the design of studies that examine mechanisms contributing to the high failure rate of pulmonary grafts. Here, we provide a detailed technical description of orthotopic lung retransplantation in mice, which we have thus far performed in 144 animals. The total time of the retransplantation procedure is approximately 55 minutes, 20 minutes for donor harvest and 35 minutes for the implantation, with a success rate exceeding 95%. The mouse lung retransplantation model represents a novel and powerful tool to examine how cells that reside in or infiltrate pulmonary grafts shape immune responses. PMID:23825768
Atz, Andrew M.; Hawkins, John A.; Lu, Minmin; Cohen, Meryl S.; Colan, Steven D.; Jaggers, James; Lacro, Ronald V.; McCrindle, Brian W.; Margossian, Renee; Mosca, Ralph S.; Sleeper, Lynn A.; Minich, L. LuAnn
Objectives We sought to evaluate contemporary results after repair of a complete atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD) and to determine factors associated with suboptimal outcomes. Methods Demographic, procedural, and outcome data were obtained within 1 and 6 months after repair of complete AVSD in 120 children in a multicenter observational study from 6/04-2/06. Results Median age at surgery was 3.7 months (range, 9 days-1.1 years). Type of surgical repair was single patch (18%), double patch (72%), and single atrial septal defect patch with primary ventricular septal defect closure (10%). Residual septal defects and degree of left atrioventricular valve regurgitation (LAVVR) did not differ by repair type. Median days of intensive care stay were 4, ventilation 2, and total hospitalization 8; all were independent of the presence of Trisomy 21 (80% of cohort). Hospital mortality was 3/120 (2.5%); overall 6 month mortality was 5/120 (4%). The presence of associated anomalies and younger age at surgery were independently associated with longer hospital stay. Age at repair was not associated with residual VSD or ≥moderate LAVVR at 6 months. Moderate or greater LAVVR occurred in 22% at 6 months; the strongest predictor for this was moderate or greater LAVVR at 1 month, (odds ratio 6.9, 95% CI 2.2, 21.7), P<0.001. Conclusions Outcomes following repair of complete AVSD did not differ by repair type or presence of Trisomy 21. Earlier age at surgery was associated with increased resource utilization but had no association with incidence of residual VSD or significant LAVVR. PMID:21163497
Gonzalez, Tyler; Chien, Bonnie; Ghorbanhoseini, Mohammad; Kwon, John Y.
Wound complications following ankle fracture surgery are a major concern. Through the use of minimally invasive surgical techniques some of these complications can be mitigated. Recent investigations have reported on percutaneous fixation of distal fibula fractures demonstrating similar radiographic and functional outcomes to traditional open approaches. The purpose of this manuscript is to describe in detail the minimally invasive surgical approach for distal fibula fractures. PMID:28271086
Griner, Devan; Sutphin, Daniel; Sargent, Larry A
Basal cell nevus syndrome (aka Gorlin syndrome, Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, and fifth phacomatosis) is a rare but well-described autosomal dominant condition with variable penetrance. We present a female patient who has been successfully treated using local surgical excision and diligent skin surveillance for more than 4 decades, demonstrating that simple local incision is an efficacious and reasonable surgical alternative that may circumvent the specialization and expense of Mohs technique.
Wainstein, Alberto JA; Drummond-Lage, Ana P; Kansaon, Milhem JM; Bretas, Gustavo O; Almeida, Rodrigo F; Gloria, Ana LF; Figueiredo, Ana RP
Background The purpose of this report is to examine the viability and safety of preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and radio guided sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy for conjunctival melanoma, and to identify the best technique to perform this procedure. Methods Three patients diagnosed with malignant melanoma of the conjunctiva underwent lymphoscintigraphy and SLN biopsy using a dual technique comprising isosulfan blue dye and technetium Tc 99m sulfur colloid. Each patient was anesthetized and the conjunctival melanoma was excised. SLNs were localized by a gamma probe, identified according to radioactivity and sentinel blue printing, and dissected, along with drainage of the associated lymphatic basins. The SLNs were evaluated by a pathologist using hematoxylin-eosin staining following serial sectioning and immunohistochemistry using a triple melanoma cocktail (S-100, Melan-A, and HMB-45 antigens). Results Two SLNs were stained in the jugular chain during preoperative lymphoscintigraphy in the first patient, two SLNs were identified in the preauricular and submandibular areas in the second patient, and two SLNs were identified in the submandibular and parotid areas in the third patient. All lymph nodes identified by lymphoscintigraphy were dissected and identified at surgery with 100% accuracy in all three patients. All SLNs were histologically and immunohistochemically negative. Patients had good cosmetic and functional results, and maintained their visual acuity and ocular motility. Conclusion Patients with conjunctival melanoma can undergo preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and SLN biopsy safely using radioactive technetium and isosulfan blue dye. PMID:25565762
Muzumdar, Dattatraya; Patil, Manoj; Goel, Atul; Ravat, Sangeeta; Sawant, Nina; Shah, Urvashi
Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy is one of the commonest indications for epilepsy surgery. Presurgical evaluation for drug resistant epilepsy and identification of appropriate candidates for surgery is essential for optimal seizure freedom. The anatomy of mesial temporal lobe is complex and needs to be understood in the context of the advanced imaging, ictal and interictal Video_EEG monitoring, neuropsychology and psychiatric considerations. The completeness of disconnection of epileptogenic neural networks is paramount and is correlated with the extent of resection of the mesial temporal structures. In the Indian subcontinent, a standard but extended anterior temporal lobectomy is a viable option in view of the diverse socioeconomic, cultural and pathological considerations. The maximum utilization of epilepsy surgery services in this region is also a challenge. There is a need for regional comprehensive epilepsy care teams in a tertiary care academic hospital to form centers of excellence catering to a large population. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bilhan, H; Geckili, O; Mumcu, E; Bozdag, E; Sünbüloğlu, E; Kutay, O
Achievement of primary stability during surgical placement of dental implants is one of the most important factors for successful osseointegration depending on various anatomical, surgical and implant-related factors. Resonance frequency analysis (RFA) has been shown as a non-invasive and objective technique for measuring the stability of implants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of some surgical and implant-related factors in enhancing primary stability and to estimate a correlation between RFA and insertion torque (IT) in proximal regions of cow ribs representing cancellous bone. Fifteen implant beds were prepared in the most proximal region of six fresh cow ribs. Ninety implants with three different shapes and two different diameters were placed with two different surgical techniques, and the primary stability was compared using RFA and IT. Significantly higher RFA and IT values were achieved when under-dimensioned drilling was used as the surgical method (P<0·01); significantly higher IT values were obtained with the use of wider implants (P<0·01) and partially conical Astra Tech implants showed the highest IT values (P<0·01). When all the implants were considered, significant correlations between the IT and RFA values were noted (%40·6, P<0·05). Partially conical implants with a wide diameter to be placed with the modified surgical technique proposed appear to be useful in enhancing the primary stability in cancellous bone.
Succo, G; Berrone, M; Battiston, B; Tos, P; Goia, F; Appendino, P; Crosetti, E
At present, mandibular reconstruction with a fibular free flap is the gold standard for functional and esthetic rehabilitation after oncological surgery. The purpose of this study was to describe the computer-assisted mandibular reconstruction procedure adopting the customized solution Synthes ProPlan CMF. The study reports five consecutive patients with benign or malignant disease requiring mandibular reconstruction using a microvascular fibular free flap, pre-operative virtual planning, construction of cutting guides and customized laser pre-bent titanium plates. The surgical technique is discussed in a step-by-step fashion. The average post-operative hospital stay was 18 ± 3 days. Ischemia time was recorded in all five cases, with an average of 75 ± 8 min. No problems were encountered in any surgical step and there were no major complications. Excellent precision of cutting guides and a good fit of pre-bent plates were found on both the mandible and fibula. There was excellent precision in bone to bone contact and position between mandible and fibula graft. Measurement data from the pre-operative and post-operative CT scans were compared. The average difference (Δ) between programed segment lengths and CT control segment lengths was 0.098 ± 0.077 cm. Microsurgical mandibular reconstruction using a virtual surgical planning yields significantly shorter ischemia times and allows more precise osteotomies. The technology is becoming increasingly recognized for its ability to optimize surgical outcomes and minimize operating time. Considering that the extent of resection can be wider than predicted, this results in safer modeling of the fibula only after frozen sections have demonstrated the radicality of resection.
Jayaram, Hari; Becker, Silke; Eastlake, Karen; Jones, Megan F; Charteris, David G; Limb, G Astrid
To describe an optimized surgical technique for feline vitrectomy which reduces bleeding and aids posterior gel clearance in order to facilitate stem cell delivery to the inner retina using cellular scaffolds. Three-port pars plana vitrectomies were performed in six-specific pathogen-free domestic cats using an optimized surgical technique to improve access and minimize severe intraoperative bleeding. The surgical procedure was successfully completed in all six animals. Lens sparing vitrectomy resulted in peripheral lens touch in one of three animals but without cataract formation. Transient bleeding from sclerotomies, which was readily controlled, was seen in two of the six animals. No cases of vitreous hemorrhage, severe postoperative inflammation, retinal detachment, or endophthalmitis were observed during postoperative follow-up. Three-port pars plana vitrectomy can be performed successfully in the cat in a safe and controlled manner when the appropriate precautions are taken to minimize the risk of developing intraoperative hemorrhage. This technique may facilitate the use of feline models of inner retinal degeneration for the development of stem cell transplantation techniques using cellular scaffolds. © 2014 The Authors Veterinary Ophthalmology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.
Jayaram, Hari; Becker, Silke; Eastlake, Karen; Jones, Megan F; Charteris, David G; Limb, G Astrid
Objective To describe an optimized surgical technique for feline vitrectomy which reduces bleeding and aids posterior gel clearance in order to facilitate stem cell delivery to the inner retina using cellular scaffolds. Procedures Three-port pars plana vitrectomies were performed in six-specific pathogen-free domestic cats using an optimized surgical technique to improve access and minimize severe intraoperative bleeding. Results The surgical procedure was successfully completed in all six animals. Lens sparing vitrectomy resulted in peripheral lens touch in one of three animals but without cataract formation. Transient bleeding from sclerotomies, which was readily controlled, was seen in two of the six animals. No cases of vitreous hemorrhage, severe postoperative inflammation, retinal detachment, or endophthalmitis were observed during postoperative follow-up. Conclusions Three-port pars plana vitrectomy can be performed successfully in the cat in a safe and controlled manner when the appropriate precautions are taken to minimize the risk of developing intraoperative hemorrhage. This technique may facilitate the use of feline models of inner retinal degeneration for the development of stem cell transplantation techniques using cellular scaffolds. PMID:24661435
Khadaroo, Rachel G; Padwal, Raj S; Wagg, Adrian S; Clement, Fiona; Warkentin, Lindsey M; Holroyd-Leduc, Jayna
It is estimated that seniors (≥65 years old) account for >50% of acute inpatient hospital days and are presenting for surgical evaluation of acute illness in increasing numbers. Unfortunately, conventional acute care models rarely take into account needs of the elderly population. The failure to consider these special needs have resulted in poor outcomes, longer lengths of hospital stay and have likely increased the need for institutional care. Acute Care for the Elderly models on medical wards have demonstrated decreased cost, length of hospital stay, readmissions and improved cognition, function and patient/staff satisfaction. We hypothesize that specific Elder-friendly Approaches to the Surgical Environment (EASE) interventions will similarly improve health outcomes in a cost-effective manner. Prospective, before-after study with a concurrent control group. Four cohorts of 140 consecutively-screened older patients (≥65 years old) will be enrolled (560 patients in total). The EASE interventions involves co-locating all older surgical patients on a single unit, involving an interdisciplinary care team (including a geriatric specialist) in the development of individual care plans, implementing evidence-informed elder-friendly practices, use of a reconditioning program, and optimizing discharge planning. Subjects will be followed via chart review for their hospital stay, and will then complete in-person or telephone interviews at 6 weeks and 6 months after discharge. Measured outcomes include clinical (postoperative major in-hospital complication or death [primary composite outcome]; death or readmission within 30-days of initial discharge; length of hospital stay), humanistic (quality of life; functional, cognitive, and nutritional status) and economic (health care resource utilization and costs) endpoints. Within-site mean change scores will be computed for the composite primary outcome and the overall covariate-adjusted between-site pre-post difference will
Hettrich, Carolyn M; Crawford, Dennis; Rodeo, Scott A
The goal of all cartilage replacement techniques is the reformation of mature organized hyaline cartilage. However, currently cartilage repair techniques lead principally to production of fibrocartilage, which has material properties that are inferior to hyaline cartilage. Cell-based therapies such as autologous chondrocyte implantation hold promise for cartilage regeneration; however, these techniques still do not predictably result in hyaline cartilage formation. The newest, "third-generation techniques" have been developed to address the limitations of earlier techniques. These new procedures use 3 novel approaches: chondro-inductive or chondro-conductive matrix; use of allogeneic cells, both of which may allow a single-stage surgical approach; and techniques to mechanically condition the developing tissue before surgical application to improve the material properties and maturation of the implant. However, at this time there is very limited clinical data available on the nature and outcomes of these procedures.
Usmanova, T É
The results of 95 patients treatment with benign brest gland tumours (BBGT) were studied. For improve the results of treatment the introduction of surgical techniques that reduce the invasiveness of operations were applied. The performance of preoperative ultrasound (US) marking BB GT, cosmetically non-traumatic incisions, US dissector, combined cosmetic suture applay for the glandular tissue after sectoral resection of brest gland contribute to improving the results of surgical treatment, which is confirmed by the auspicious course of the early postoperative period.
Jeong, Jinyoung; Bryan, Jason; Iannotti, Joseph P
Replicating the normal anatomy of the shoulder is an important principle in the design of prosthetic devices and the development of surgical techniques. In this study, we used a three-dimensional surgical simulation to compare the abilities of an adjustable neck-shaft angle prosthesis and a fixed neck-shaft angle prosthesis to restore the normal geometry of the proximal part of the humerus. A total of 2058 cadaveric humeri were measured to define the normal distribution of neck-shaft angles. Thirty-six humeri were selected to represent a wide variation in neck-shaft angles, and computed tomographic scans with three-dimensional reconstruction were made of these specimens. With use of a three-dimensional computer surgical simulator, the humeral head was then cut at the anatomic neck to replicate a normal neck-shaft angle and version or it was cut at a fixed 135 degrees angle with anatomic version. The anatomy of an adjustable-angle prosthesis and that of a fixed-angle prosthesis of the same design were both compared with native humeral anatomy in three dimensions. The average neck-shaft angle of the 2058 humeri was 134.7 degrees (range, 115 degrees to 148 degrees), and the angle was between 130 degrees and 140 degrees in 77.84% of the humeri. In the setting of a high varus or valgus neck-shaft angle, an adjustable-angle prosthesis allowed optimal reconstruction when the humeral head was cut along the anatomic neck and allowed a standard and consistent surgical technique with use of anatomic landmarks. A fixed-angle prosthesis also replicated the anatomic center of rotation, tuberosity-head height, and head volume if the surgical procedure was altered to adapt to variations in humeral anatomy. There was no significant difference in anatomic parameters between the two types of prostheses, except that in all cases the head thickness was decreased when a fixed-135 degrees-angle prosthesis was used in a humerus with a high valgus or high varus neck-shaft angle, resulting
Sun, Jingyuan; Yan, Zhiyuan; Du, Zhijiang
Surgical robot with a remote center-of-motion (RCM) plays an important role in minimally invasive surgery (MIS) field. To make the mechanism has high flexibility and meet the demand of movements during processing of operation, an optimized RCM mechanism is proposed in this paper. Then, the kinematic performance and workspace are analyzed. Finally, a new optimization objective function is built by using the condition number index and the workspace index.
Sadrizadeh, Ali; Haghi, Seyed Ziaollah; Masuom, Seyed Hossein Fattahi; Bagheri, Reza; Dalouee, Marziyeh Nouri
Purpose: A hydatid cyst is the most common lung parasitic disease and is endemic in Iran. A hydatid cyst is more common in the right lung and lower lobes. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess surgical treatment of pulmonary hydatid cysts and whether the location of cyst affects surgical technique approaches. Materials and Methods: This study was performed on 87 patients with a pulmonary hydatid cyst who were referred to Qaem Hospital from 2010 to 2012. Selection of surgical technique was according to size, location, and the number of cysts. Patients were divided into two groups: (1) surgery with preserving lung parenchyma and (2) lobectomy. Afterward, the relationship between the location of cyst and surgical technique approaches was evaluated. Data was analyzed by Chi-square and Fisher exact tests. Results: In this study, no significant relation was found between the size (P = 0.682) and number (P = 0.344) of cysts and lobectomy necessity. But, there was a significant relation between the occurrence of cyst in middle lobe and lobectomy necessity (P = 0.016). Conclusions: According to the results, type of surgical technique does not depend on the size and number of cysts, but it may be related to the location of the cyst and the ratio of lung destruction. PMID:25378844
Oberli, H; Frigg, R; Schenk, R
External Fixation-Technique: The advantages of external over internal fixation are as follows: a) endosteal and periosteal blood supply is undisturbed, b) "low-tech" equipment may be used, c) secondary adjustments are possible and d) easy implant removal. These benefits however are outweighed by the main disadvantages of long term external fixation i.e. pin complications and delayed union of fractures. Better understanding of postoperative management and careful application of screws of improved design will lead to better results. Today's standard applications of external fixation for tibial fractures is a unilateral fixator, using Schanz screws. The pin-bone interface is the most critical site of all external fixation. By avoiding heat necrosis (low temperature drilling) and preventing micro motion at the pin-bone interface (by applying bending- or more recently radial-preload), pin complications such as infection and loosening can be reduced. Two Schanz screws are inserted into each main fragment and are connected with one short tube per fragment. The fracture is then reduced by using these tubes as handles. After reduction a third tube connects the first two by means of two tube-to-tube clamps. This type of fixation will easily allow for three dimensional secondary corrections of alignment. Approximately three weeks following the injury some motion at the fracture site will stimulate callus formation. This can be achieved by destabilisation, dynamisation or "active stimulation" of the fracture site . Pinless fixator: The pinless external fixator holds the fragments firmly with pointed clamps that penetrate about one millimeter into cortical bone without entering and contaminating the medullary canal.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Günaydın, Rıza Önder; Aygenc, Erdinc; Karakullukcu, Selma; Fidan, Fatih; Celikkanat, Serdar
The objective of this study is to compare the nasal packing and the transseptal suturing techniques regarding the extubation difficulty evaluation scores, follow-up times in post-anaesthesia care unit (PACU), pain scores, and postoperative complications. Two hundred patients who underwent septoplasty from January 2009 to October 2009 were randomly assigned either to have nasal packs (n: 100) or transeptal sutures (n: 100). In the transseptal suture group, extubation was easier and PACU follow-up times were shorter, when compared to the nasal packing group (p < 0.001). Patients with nasal packing had significantly higher pain scores (p < 0.001). Minor bleeding was significantly higher in the transseptal group with seven cases, compared to the nasal packing group without any bleeding cases (p = 0.014). There were two patients who had postoperative major bleeding, and two patients who had septal hematoma in the transseptal suture group. One patient with nasal packing had postoperative infection. Septal perforation was not seen in any of the cases. While patients in both groups experienced postoperative crusting, patients in the transseptal suture group also complained about foreign body sensation. Extubation was more comfortable; post-anaesthesia monitorization duration was shorter, and postoperative pain was less, but minor bleeding was seen more with transseptal sutures. There was no significant difference in terms of major bleeding, hematoma, infection or perforation. Foreign body sensation was the main cause of postoperative discomfort in the transseptal suture group. Transseptal suturing might be a significantly comfortable, cost-effective and reliable alternative to nasal packing.
Park, Jae-Yong; Koo, Bon Seok
Despite an excellent prognosis, cervical lymph node (LN) metastases are common in patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). The presence of metastasis is associated with an increased risk of locoregional recurrence, which significantly impairs quality of life and may decrease survival. Therefore, it has been an important determinant of the extent of lateral LN dissection in the initial treatment of PTC patients with lateral cervical metastasis. However, the optimal extent of therapeutic lateral neck dissection (ND) remains controversial. Optimizing the surgical extent of LN dissection is fundamental for balancing the surgical morbidity and oncological benefits of ND in PTC patients with lateral neck metastasis. We reviewed the currently available literature regarding the optimal extent of lateral LN dissection in PTC patients with lateral neck metastasis. Even in cases with suspicion of metastatic LN at the single lateral level or isolated metastatic lateral LN, the application of ND including all sublevels from IIa and IIb to Va and Vb may be overtreatment, due to the surgical morbidity. When there is no suspicion of LN metastasis at levels II and V, or when multilevel aggressive neck metastasis is not found, sublevel IIb and Va dissection may not be necessary in PTC patients with lateral neck metastasis. Thus consideration of the individualized optimal surgical extent of lateral ND is important when treating PTC patients with lateral cervical metastasis.
Wang, Chenglong; Gui, Lai
Summary: In this article, the authors present a practical surgical technique using the anatomical character of the inferior alveolar nerve to fully expose the mental nerve (MN) in narrowing genioplasty. During the procedure, a rectangular mandibular outer cortex adjacent to the mental foramen is removed before the osteotomy. The objective is to avoid the injury of the MN from the reciprocating saw or bur and offer abundant space for the surgical operation. The technique has a minimal learning curve and will be useful to plastic surgeons to minimize unintentional cutting or pulling injury to the MN in narrowing genioplasty. PMID:26893979
Cassetta, M; Pandolfi, S; Giansanti, M
Accelerating orthodontic tooth movement is a topical issue. Despite the different techniques described in the literature, the corticotomy is the only effective and safe means of accelerating orthodontic tooth movement. Although effective, the corticotomy presents significant postoperative discomfort. The aggressive nature of these particular methods, related to the elevation of mucoperiosteal flaps and to the length of the surgery, has resulted in reluctance to proceed with this technique among both patients and the dental community. To overcome the disadvantages of the corticotomy, this technical note describes an innovative, minimally invasive, flapless procedure combining piezoelectric surgical cortical micro-incisions with the use of a 3D Printed CAD/CAM surgical guide.
Saito, Masaaki; Iida, Tomohiro
To prevent indocyanine green (ICG) toxicity during macular hole repair, a surgical technique was designed in which the hole is protected by a viscoelastic material before injecting ICG to stain the internal limiting membrane. The area covered by the viscoelastic material was not stained by ICG. The internal limiting membrane was peeled without difficulty by taking advantage of the ICG stain outlining it. After surgery, all holes closed and the postoperative outcomes were favorable. Only a small amount of residual ICG remained in the macular area. This surgical technique does not interfere with internal limiting membrane peeling and reduces the residual ICG postoperatively.
Benoit, Laurent; Cheynel, Nicolas; Ortega-Deballon, Pablo; Giacomo, Giovanni Di; Chauffert, Bruno; Rat, Patrick
Exposure of the surgical team to toxic drugs during hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) remains a matter of great concern. In closed-abdomen HIPEC operating room staffs are not exposed to drugs, but the distribution of the heated liquid within the abdomen is not optimal. In open-abdomen HIPEC, the opposite is true. Even though the open-abdomen method is potentially more effective, it has not become a standard procedure because of the risk of exposure of members of the team to drugs. We present a new technique (closed HIPEC with open abdomen) which ensures protection against potentially contaminating exposure to liquids, vapours and aerosols, and allows permanent access to the whole abdominal cavity. Its principle is to extend the abdominal surgical wound upwards with a sort of “glove-box”. The cutaneous edges of the laparotomy are stapled to a latex «wall expander». The expander is draped over a special L-section metal frame placed above the abdomen. A transparent cover containing a « hand-access » port like those used in laparoscopic surgery is fixed inside the frame. In 10 patients, this device proved to be hermetic both for liquids and vapours. Intra-abdominal temperature was maintained between 42 and 43°C during most of the procedure. The whole abdominal cavity was accessible to the surgeon allowing optimal exposure of all peritoneal surfaces. This technique allows optimal HIPEC while limiting the potential toxic effects for the surgical, medical and paramedical teams. PMID:17929098
Hill, S. A.
This report presents a technique to model viscoelastic material properties with a function of the form of the Prony series. Generally, the method employed to determine the function constants requires assuming values for the exponential constants of the function and then resolving the remaining constants through linear least-squares techniques. The technique presented here allows all the constants to be analytically determined through optimization techniques. This technique is employed in a computer program named PRONY and makes use of commercially available optimization tool developed by VMA Engineering, Inc. The PRONY program was utilized to compare the technique against previously determined models for solid rocket motor TP-H1148 propellant and V747-75 Viton fluoroelastomer. In both cases, the optimization technique generated functions that modeled the test data with at least an order of magnitude better correlation. This technique has demonstrated the capability to use small or large data sets and to use data sets that have uniformly or nonuniformly spaced data pairs. The reduction of experimental data to accurate mathematical models is a vital part of most scientific and engineering research. This technique of regression through optimization can be applied to other mathematical models that are difficult to fit to experimental data through traditional regression techniques.
Krishnapriya, V; Sriram, CH; Reddy, Maheshwar KR
ABSTRACT Surgical derotation is a method of placing a rotated tooth in normal alignment in a dental arch; surgically, immediately and permanently. It is a potentially convenient and cost-effective treatment modality as compared to conventional orthodontic procedure for rotated maxillary incisor with open apex. Here is a presentation of a severely rotated maxillary left permanent central incisor in a nine and half years old girl, with a radiographic evidence of immature root apex which was surgically derotated, orthodontically retroclined and intruded to its normal position. Postsurgical clinical and radiographic evaluation was done for a period of one and half years to confirm the vitality and continued physiological root formation of the affected tooth. How to cite this article: Dutta B, Krishnapriya V, Sriram CH, Reddy MKR. Surgical Derotation Technique: A Novel Approach in the Management of Rotated Immature Permanent Incisor. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(3):220-223. PMID:26604541
Benassi, Filippo; Manca, Tullio; Ramelli, Andrea; Vezzani, Antonella; Nicolini, Francesco; Romano, Giorgio; Ricci, Matteo; Carino, Davide; Di Chicco, Maria Vincenza; Gherli, Tiziano
Background The aim of our study is to compare the classical surgical tracheostomy (TT) technique with a modified surgical technique designed and created by the cardiothoracic surgery staff of our department to reduce surgical trauma and postoperative complications. This modified technique combines features of percutaneous TT and surgical TT avoiding the use of specialized tools, which are required in percutaneous TT. Methods From October 2008 to March 2014 we performed 67 tracheostomies using this New Modified Surgical Technique (NMST) and 56 TT with the Classical Surgical Technique (CST). We collected data about the early clinical complications, deaths TT-related, deaths due to other complications and the presence of late TT’s complications were performed by a telephone follow-up. SPSS software (IMB version 21) was used for the statistical analysis. Categorical data were treated with chi-square test and continuous data were treated with t-test for independent samples. Results NMST group had a significant lower number of early complications (P=0.005) compared to CST group (5 vs. 15). In-hospital mortality was significantly higher in CST group (18 deaths vs. 4 in NMST group, P=0.001) but we registered only one case of TT-related mortality in CST group (P=0.280). We did not note other differences between the two groups regarding short or mid-long term complications. Conclusions In our experience the NMST demonstrated to be easily safe and reproducible with an amount of early, mid- and long-term complications similar to the CST; furthermore the aesthetic results of the procedure appear similar to those of percutaneous TT. PMID:28149558
Sergeyev, Yaroslav D.; Kvasov, Dmitri E.; Mukhametzhanov, Marat S.; De Franco, Angela
Univariate box-constrained Lipschitz global optimization problems are considered in this contribution. Geometric and information statistical approaches are presented. The novel powerful local tuning and local improvement techniques are described in the contribution as well as the traditional ways to estimate the Lipschitz constant. The advantages of the presented local tuning and local improvement techniques are demonstrated using the operational characteristics approach for comparing deterministic global optimization algorithms on the class of 100 widely used test functions.
Gateño, J; Teichgraeber, J F; Aguilar, E
If distraction osteogenesis is to reach its full potential and achieve the level of accuracy that is possible with orthognathic surgery, its outcomes need to be as predictable. To this end, the authors developed a planning process for distraction osteogenesis similar to that used in orthognathic surgery. However, the success of the planning process depends on the authors' ability to execute the plan at the time of surgery. As a result, the authors needed to develop a surgical technique that would enable them to precisely install the distractor as indicated in the presurgical plan. The surgical technique presented in this article was developed for this purpose. The authors used this technique in seven patients (four boys and three girls; age range, 4 to 10 years). Four patients presented with unilateral deformities, and three patients presented with bilateral deformities. The follow-up period in this group of patients ranged from 12 to 33 months. The purpose of the technique is to replicate the position of the distractor on the mandible as determined by the presurgical plan. To this purpose, a custom drill guide and a surgical template have been developed. Both of these are used following the principles of triangulation to establish the pin position and orientation of the distractor. In the authors' hands, the use of this surgical technique has resulted in outcomes close to those predicted by the planning process.
Roblee, Richard D; Bolding, Scotty L; Landers, Jason M
Restorative-driven interdisciplinary therapy frequently requires orthodontic therapy to optimally address the underlying dentofacial problems. Limitations in traditional orthodontic techniques and the length of requisite treatment times often create barriers to providers and patients' willingness to accept orthodontics as part of the overall treatment plan. Two main types of surgically facilitated orthodontic therapy (SFOT), each with its own indications and protocols, are becoming popular. They can expand significantly the limitations of orthodontics and greatly shorten treatment times. The first uses corticotomies to cause bone demineralization through a regional acceleratory phenomenon (RAP) that "supercharges" dentoalveolar tooth movement. The second type of SFOT involves single- or multiple-tooth osteotomies combined with the principles of distraction osteogenesis to rapidly grow hard and soft tissues, thereby enabling changes in alveoloskeletal relationships. With these SFOT procedures, an interdisciplinary team can modify predictably the dentoalveolar complex so the teeth, alveolar bone, and skeletal components are addressed properly to maximize ideal functional and esthetic relationships, while greatly reducing treatment time and increasing stability of the result.
Young, J. W.
An analytic investigation has been made of procedures for effecting recovery from equilibrium spin conditions for three assumed aircraft configurations. Three approaches which utilize conventional aerodynamic controls are investigated. Included are a constant control recovery mode, optimal recoveries, and a suboptimal control logic patterned after optimal recovery results. The optimal and suboptimal techniques are shown to yield a significant improvement in recovery performance over that attained by using a constant control recovery procedure.
Stocker, F. R.
Techniques for reducing vector data plotting time are studied. The choice of tolerances in optimization and the application of optimization to plots produced on real time interactive display devices are discussed. All results are developed relative to plotting packages and support hardware so that results are useful in real world situations.
Sanford, Robert A; Merchant, Thomas E; Zwienenberg-Lee, Marike; Kun, Larry E; Boop, Frederick A
Childhood cerebellopontine angle (CPA) ependymoma is an uncommon anatomical variant of posterior fossa ependymoma. In infants and young children, the tumor often goes undetected until it causes hydrocephalus. As CPA ependymomas grow, they distort the anatomy and encase cranial nerves and vessels, thereby making resection a formidable surgical challenge. The purpose of this paper is to describe the surgical technique used to achieve gross total resection (GTR) of CPA ependymomas and demonstrate improved survival in these patients. Surgical techniques used for GTR in 45 patients with CPA ependymoma treated from 1997 to 2008 are described. Results of those procedures are compared with data from 11 patients who previously underwent surgical resection (1985-1995). We achieved GTR in 43 (95.6%) patients and near-total resection in two (4.4%); the probability of progression-free survival was 53.8%, and that of overall survival was 64%. Our novel surgical techniques greatly improve central nervous system function and survival among pediatric patients with CPA ependymoma.
Kassahun, Yohannes; Yu, Bingbin; Tibebu, Abraham Temesgen; Stoyanov, Danail; Giannarou, Stamatia; Metzen, Jan Hendrik; Vander Poorten, Emmanuel
Advances in technology and computing play an increasingly important role in the evolution of modern surgical techniques and paradigms. This article reviews the current role of machine learning (ML) techniques in the context of surgery with a focus on surgical robotics (SR). Also, we provide a perspective on the future possibilities for enhancing the effectiveness of procedures by integrating ML in the operating room. The review is focused on ML techniques directly applied to surgery, surgical robotics, surgical training and assessment. The widespread use of ML methods in diagnosis and medical image computing is beyond the scope of the review. Searches were performed on PubMed and IEEE Explore using combinations of keywords: ML, surgery, robotics, surgical and medical robotics, skill learning, skill analysis and learning to perceive. Studies making use of ML methods in the context of surgery are increasingly being reported. In particular, there is an increasing interest in using ML for developing tools to understand and model surgical skill and competence or to extract surgical workflow. Many researchers begin to integrate this understanding into the control of recent surgical robots and devices. ML is an expanding field. It is popular as it allows efficient processing of vast amounts of data for interpreting and real-time decision making. Already widely used in imaging and diagnosis, it is believed that ML will also play an important role in surgery and interventional treatments. In particular, ML could become a game changer into the conception of cognitive surgical robots. Such robots endowed with cognitive skills would assist the surgical team also on a cognitive level, such as possibly lowering the mental load of the team. For example, ML could help extracting surgical skill, learned through demonstration by human experts, and could transfer this to robotic skills. Such intelligent surgical assistance would significantly surpass the state of the art in surgical
Cottom, James M; Maker, Jared M
Plantar fasciitis is one the most common pathologies seen by foot and ankle surgeons. When nonoperative therapy fails, surgical intervention is warranted. Various surgical procedures are available for the treatment of recalcitrant plantar fasciitis. The most common surgical management typically consists of open versus endoscopic plantar fascia release. The documented comorbidities associated with the release of the plantar fascia include lateral column overload and metatarsalgia. We present a new technique for this painful condition that is minimally invasive, allows visualization of the plantar fascia, and maintains the integrity of this fascia. Our hypothesis was that the use of endoscopic debridement of the plantar fascia would provide a minimally invasive technique with acceptable patient outcomes.
Di Chiacchio, Nilton G; Fonseca Noriega, Leandro; Ocampo-Garza, Jorge; Di Chiacchio, Nilton
Digital mucous cysts or myxoid cysts are relatively common, benign pseudocysts of the digits typically located at the distal interphalangeal joints or in the proximal nail fold. There are several therapeutic modalities for its treatment ranging from conservative to surgical procedures; however, there is no consensus about the best approach. We describe a surgical technique based on the excision of the digital mucous cyst and reconstruction using a self-grafting from the overlying skin lesion. The use of the cyst's overlying skin as a partial cutaneous graft followed by a long-term Brown's dressing, in this case, provided a satisfactory functional and esthetic result. This technique is a new option for the reconstruction of digital mucous cyst defects that decreases the surgical time and avoids a graft removal of healthy skin and consequently a new scar. © 2017 The International Society of Dermatology.
Rogers, Robert M; Taylor, Richard H
The competent gynecologic surgeon has a sure, working knowledge of the anatomy in the field of pelvic dissection and is expert in the techniques and in the millimeter by millimeter progression of surgical dissections. When operating in the pelvis, the surgeon always asks several questions. The first is, “In what anatomic area am I dissecting?” This question defines the anatomy to be dissected out. The second is,“What dissection techniques will I use here?” The measured steps of surgical dissection give the surgeon the confidence to proceed with the operation, while safeguarding the integrity of the surrounding anatomic structures. With less blood loss and less trauma to the tissues and anatomic structures, the surgeon may expect a better surgical outcome for the patient.
Lum, Mitchell J H; Rosen, Jacob; Sinanan, Mika N; Hannaford, Blake
With a focus on design methodology for developing a compact and lightweight minimally invasive surgery (MIS) robot manipulator, the goal of this study is progress toward a next-generation surgical robot system that will help surgeons deliver healthcare more effectively. Based on an extensive database of in-vivo surgical measurements, the workspace requirements were clearly defined. The pivot point constraint in MIS makes the spherical manipulator a natural candidate. An experimental evaluation process helped to more clearly understand the application and limitations of the spherical mechanism as an MIS robot manipulator. The best configuration consists of two serial manipulators in order to avoid collision problems. A complete kinematic analysis and optimization incorporating the requirements for MIS was performed to find the optimal link lengths of the manipulator. The results show that for the serial spherical 2-link manipulator used to guide the surgical tool, the optimal link lengths (angles) are (60 degrees, 50 degrees). A prototype 6-DOF surgical robot has been developed and will be the subject of further study.
Guilmette, Josée; Langlois, Isabelle; Hélie, Pierre; de Oliveira El Warrak, Alexander
The objective of this study was to compare 2 surgical approaches (scrotal or abdominal) for castration of guinea pigs and to investigate post-operative infection rates with either technique. Forty-eight guinea pigs were castrated by scrotal or abdominal technique after being randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups (n = 24). Individuals were either castrated by an experienced exotic animal surgeon (n = 12) or by an experienced small animal surgeon (n = 12). Surgical wounds were evaluated daily before euthanasia for histological evaluation 2 wks after surgery. Post-operative infection rate was significantly higher in the scrotal group than in the abdominal group, with a higher rate for the experienced small animal surgeon. Castration of guinea pigs with the abdominal technique is significantly faster and has a significantly lower post-operative infection rate than the scrotal technique. PMID:26424914
Rubin, Guy; Orbach, Hagay; Chezar, Avi; Rozen, Nimrod
Distal radial physeal fractures with volar displacement are rare. Several methods of operative treatment include volar plate without inserting distal screws, percutaneous technique using two anterior skin incisions and reversed Kapandji technique with pins introduced through a posterior approach and locked at the anterior cortex of the fracture. We report three cases along with a literature review of the surgical techniques described in the past and a novel surgical technique for this uncommon fracture termed "Volar Kapandji". All patients had anatomic reduction at the last follow-up radiography, and all patients had a full range of motion and VAS 0 at the last follow-up. No complications were recorded. This case study presents the minimally invasive option for treating rare cases of physeal distal radius fractures with volar displacement. V.
Guevara-Villarreal, Dante A.
Ocular penetrating injury with Intraocular Foreign Body (IOFB) is a common form of ocular injury. Several techniques to remove IOFB have been reported by different authors. The aim of this publication is to review different timing and surgical techniques related to the extraction of IOFB. Material and Methods. A PubMed search on “Extraction of Intraocular Foreign Body,” “Timing for Surgery Intraocular Foreign Body,” and “Surgical Technique Intraocular Foreign Body” was made. Results. Potential advantages of immediate and delayed IOFB removal have been reported with different results. Several techniques to remove IOFB have been reported by different authors with good results. Conclusion. The most important factor at the time to perform IOFB extraction is the experience of the surgeon. PMID:28025619
Mamede, João; Castro Adeodato, Sandro; Aquino Leal, Rafael
Four-corner fusion has been shown to be a reliable option of treatment of wrist arthritis, but there is no consensus about which implant and surgical procedure should be used in the arthrodesis. The present study aimed to describe a surgical technique using 2 crossed screws as implants, inserted in a retrograde manner, and to demonstrate preliminary results of the use of the technique. A retrospective study was conducted using medical records and imaging tests (radiographs and computed tomography) of all 15 patients who underwent a standardized 4-corner fusion technique, between December 2011 and July 2015, in the Department of Hand Surgery of Instituto Nacional de Traumatologia e Ortopedia (INTO), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We collected data on the following variables: fusion rate, time to fusion, and percentage of patients who had any complications or needed another surgical procedure on the same wrist. All but one patient achieved fusion of arthrodesis. The average time to union was 5.54 months (SD = 3.84). Only the patient who developed nonunion of the 4-corner fusion required another surgery on the same wrist. The procedure described in this study demonstrated a low complication rate and high fusion rate, and can therefore be considered a reliable surgical technique for 4-corner fusion.
Background The history of surgical reconstruction of the left ventricle after an anterior myocardial infarction shows an evolution of techniques which tend to a more and more physiologic restoration of ventricular shape and volume, with increasing attention to the orientation of myocardial fibers. Methods We set a new surgical procedure for endoventricular patch reconstruction technique with the aim to rebuild a physiologic shape and volume of the left ventricle caring about realignment of myocardial fibers orientation. Peculiarities of this reconstruction are the shape of the patch (reduction of minor axis compared with currently used oval-shaped patch) and the asymmetrical way of suturing it inside the ventricle. Results We present a detailed description of operative steps of this procedure, and we add some relevant surgical hints to clarify its peculiarities. Most of the patients operated on with this technique showed the original renewal of apical rotation and left ventricular torsion as specific index of the restoration of physiologic fiber orientation: we report an exemplary case of at-sight recovery of apical rotation in the operating room. Conclusion This technique can represent a reproducible new way to realign myocardial fibers in a near-normal setting, improving the physiological restoration of ischemically injured left ventricle. It could be also the basis to reconsider surgical treatment for heart failure. PMID:19549296
Foyatier, J L; Delay, E; Comparin, J P; Latarjet, J; Masson, C L
Repair of all forms of alopecia is one of the principal applications of scalp expansion. The authors have inserted 400 expansion prostheses, including 20 in the scalp. The surgical technique, choice of material and various types of flaps are described and illustrated by clinical cases of extensive alopecia.
Okuda, Kotaro; Ishihara, Sho; Fujita, Yasuko; Yamamoto, Noriko; Kishimoto, Mitsuo; Konishi, Eiichi; Kato, Yo; Yanagisawa, Akio
The technique for examining surgical resection margins described in the Japanese Classification of Gastric Carcinoma is based on the examination of continuous infiltration by the primary tumor, and discontinuous lesions such as multiple cancers are not examined. However, examining lesions-particularly cancers-at the resection margins is important for the prevention of cancers in the remaining stomach that result from cancer remnants (remnant gastric cancer). The clinical usefulness of a simple pathological examination technique for detecting cancer located at the surgical margin of the stomach was studied. A specimen 5-8 mm wide was resected from the surgical cut margin along the entire circumference of the stomach. When the pathological margin was positive for cancer, the surgical margin was also examined, and cases that were positive for cancer were regarded as marginally positive. Of the 1,498 patients with early gastric cancer who were examined using this method, 17 (1.1 %) were marginally positive for multiple cancers, and 8 of these 17 patients (57 %) had microcancers <5 mm in diameter. This method is simple and useful for detecting cancer involving the surgical margin, which occurs at a rate of 1.1 %, making it possible to prevent remnant gastric cancer by reoperation.
Dubé, Olivier; Dubé, David; Chaouki, Jamal; Bertrand, François
The radioactive particle tracking (RPT) technique is a non-intrusive experimental velocimetry and tomography technique extensively applied to the study of hydrodynamics in a great variety of systems. In this technique, arrays of scintillation detector are used to track the motion of a single radioactive tracer particle emitting isotropic γ-rays. This work describes and applies an optimization strategy developed to find an optimal set of positions for the scintillation detectors used in the RPT technique. This strategy employs the overall resolution of the detectors as the objective function and a mesh adaptive direct search (MADS) algorithm to solve the optimization problem. More precisely, NOMAD, a C++ implementation of the MADS algorithm is used. First, the optimization strategy is validated using simple cases with known optimal detector configurations. Next, it is applied to a three-dimensional axisymmetric system (i.e. a vertical cylinder, which could represent a fluidized bed, bubble column, riser or else). The results obtained using the optimization strategy are in agreement with what was previously recommended by Roy et al. (2002) for a similar system. Finally, the optimization strategy is used for a system consisting of a partially filled cylindrical tumbler. The application of insights gained by the optimization strategy is shown to lead to a significant reduction in the error made when reconstructing the position of a tracer particle. The results of this work show that the optimization strategy developed is sensitive to both the type of objective function used and the experimental conditions. The limitations and drawbacks of the optimization strategy are also discussed.
Gani, Johan; Chee, Justin
Purpose To present a novel modification of surgical technique to treat female urethral stricture (FUS) by a vaginal-sparing ventral buccal mucosal urethroplasty. Recurrent FUS represents an uncommon, though difficult clinical scenario to manage definitively. A variety of surgical techniques have been described to date, yet a lack of consensus on the optimal procedure persists. Materials and Methods We present a 51-year-old female with urethral stricture involving the entire urethra. Suspected etiology was iatrogenic from cystoscopy 17 years prior. Since then, the patient had undergone at least 25 formal urethral dilations and periods of self-dilation. In lithotomy position, the urethra was dilated to accommodate forceps, and ventral urethrotomy carried out sharply, exposing a bed of periurethral tissue. Buccal mucosa was harvested, and a ventral inlay technique facilitated by a nasal speculum, was used to place the graft from the proximal urethra/bladder neck to urethral meatus without a vaginal incision. Graft was sutured into place, and urethral Foley catheter inserted. Results The vaginal-sparing ventral buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty was deemed successful as of last follow-up. Flexible cystoscopy demonstrated patency of the repair at 6 months. At 10 months of follow-up, the patient was voiding well, with no urinary incontinence. No further interventions have been required. Conclusions This case describes a novel modification of surgical technique for performing buccal mucosal urethroplasty for FUS. By avoiding incision of the vaginal mucosa, benefits may include reduced: morbidity, urinary incontinence, and wound complications including urethro-vaginal fistula. PMID:27437540
Lim, Geok Hoon; Tan, Hui Fuan
Mastectomy is commonly performed for breast cancer. However, a dog ear may arise at the lateral aspect of the mastectomy scar. This dog ear is not only unsightly but can also be a source of discomfort. While various surgical techniques have been reported to tackle this lateral dog ear, there is no standardized technique. We hence conduct the first systematic review of these surgical techniques with the aim of comparing the merits and limitations of each technique. A systematic literature search using the search terms "mastectomy scar", "mastectomy dog ear", "mastectomy lateral fold" and "mastectomy cosmesis" was performed. All relevant articles written in English and involving human subjects were included. There were 2503 potentially relevant articles but only 12 articles met the inclusion criteria. The 'fish-shaped' incision or Y closure and its variations were the most commonly described techniques. Other techniques include the 'tear-drop' incision, 'L' scar technique etc. 'Fish-shaped' incision or Y closure is safe and provides good exposure to the axilla but its limitations are that of an additional scar and risk of skin necrosis at the apex of the Y incision. The other techniques attempt to eliminate the lateral dog ear while avoiding the complications associated with the 'fish-shaped' incision or Y closure. Various surgical techniques to tackle lateral dog ear of the mastectomy scar have been described, each with its own merits and limitations. 'Fish-shaped' incision or Y closure is the most commonly described technique that has been prospectively assessed and was concluded to be safe. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tibbs, Sheila Marie; Moss, Jacqueline
This quality improvement project was a 300-day descriptive preintervention and postintervention comparison consisting of a convenience sample of 18 gynecology surgical team members. We administered the Team Strategies & Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety (TeamSTEPPS®) Teamwork Perception Questionnaire to measure the perception of teamwork. In addition, we collected data regarding rates of compliance (ie, huddle, time out) and measurable surgical procedure times. Results showed a statistically significant increase in the number of team members present for each procedure, 2.34 μ before compared with 2.61 μ after (P = .038), and in the final time-out (FTO) compliance as a result of a clarification of the definition of FTO, 1.05 μ before compared with 1.18 μ after (P = .004). Additionally, there was improvement in staff members' perception of teamwork. The implementation of team training, protocols, and algorithms can enhance surgical optimization, communication, and work relationships.
Aslan, Serhat; Buduneli, Nurcan; Cortellini, Pierpaolo
Primary wound closure and uneventful early wound stability over the biomaterials are the most critical elements of successful periodontal regeneration. Yet the surgical elevation of the interdental papilla to access deep and wide intrabony defects entails an impairment of the papillary blood supply that can result in difficult healing due to a lack of primary closure in the early healing period. This negative event might complicate the healing process, favoring bacterial contamination. A novel modified tunnel surgical technique designed to maintain the integrity of the interdental papilla is presented in this article, with the aim of providing an optimal environment for wound healing in regenerative procedures. Entire papilla preservation is described and applied in three different cases, in association with the use of a combination of bone substitutes and enamel matrix derivative for periodontal regeneration. The entire papilla preservation technique was successfully applied to the three selected cases, resulting in an uneventful postsurgical period and a substantial defect fill over the 8-month follow-up. This tunnel-like technique can be recommended for further research to support the success identified in this case series.
Saremi, AboTaleb; Bahrami, Homa; Feizy, Fariba
Hysterectomy is the most common surgical procedure in gynecology, not only in cases of malignancies but also in many benign cases. Many uterine preservation techniques have been introduced as alternatives to hysterectomy. We aimed to propose a new uterine surgical procedure. In this paper, we compare the utility of this new technique to the limitations of current procedures. Uterine fundectomy may be considered as a subtotal hysterectomy. In this new technique, the uterine fundus including all pathologic tissue is cut as a reverse trapezoid by monopolar cautery. The upper side of the trapezoid, which includes the whole uterine fundus, is removed, but the fallopian tubes and cornual segment are preserved. A small uterine cavity remains, as well as the endometrial tissue lining it. Patient recruitment for this study began in April 2017 and is expected to end approximately 12 months later. Assessment of the primary outcomes is expected to take place in April 2018. Uterine preservation is particularly critical in developing new surgical approaches that can lead to a positive impact on patient satisfaction. This protocol outlines the first attempt to prospectively test surgical fundectomy in candidates for hysterectomy for benign indications.
Mozzati, Marco; Mortellaro, Carmen; Arata, Valentina; Gallesio, Giorgia; Previgliano, Valter
When the residual bone crest cannot allow the placement of standard implants, the treatment for complete arch rehabilitation of severely atrophic maxillae can be performed with 4 zygomatic implants (ZIs) and immediate function with predictable results in terms of aesthetics, function, and comfort for the patient. However, even if ZIs' rehabilitations showed a good success rate, this surgery is difficult and need a skillful operator. Complications in this kind of rehabilitation are not uncommon; the main difficulties can be related to the reduced surgical visibility and instrument control in a critical anatomic area. All the surgical protocols described in the literature used drilling techniques. Furthermore, the use of ultrasonic instruments in implant surgery compared with drilling instruments have shown advantages in many aspects of surgical procedures, tissues management, enhancement of control, surgical visualization, and healing. The aim of this study was to report on the preliminary experience using ultrasound technique for ZIs surgery in terms of safety and technical improvement. Ten consecutive patients with severely atrophic maxilla have been treated with 4 ZIs and immediate complete arch acrylic resin provisional prostheses. The patients were followed up from 30 to 32 months evaluating implant success, prosthetic success, and patient satisfaction with a questionnaire. No implants were lost during the study period, with a 100% implant and prosthetic success rate. Within the limitations of this preliminary study, these data indicate that ultrasonic implant site preparation for ZIs can be a good alternative to the drilling technique and an improvement for the surgeon.
Verbeek, Diederik O; Hickerson, Lindsay E; Warner, Stephen J; Helfet, David L; Lorich, Dean G
Patella fractures can be challenging to treat particularly in the presence of inferior pole comminution. In this video we present a novel surgical technique for the treatment of patella fractures using a small fragment low profile mesh plate. Key points are the surgical exposure with direct visualization of the articular reduction, the preparation of the mesh plate to accommodate patellar anatomy and the augmentation of the construct using Krackow sutures to address inferior pole comminution. Low profile mesh plating allows for multiplanar fixation of patella fractures while avoiding implant and fixation problems related to tension band fixation. Our early experience with this technique is encouraging and it appears that this technique is useful for the treatment of the majority of patella fractures.
Jordana, M Isabel Canut; Formigó, Daniel Pérez; González, Rodrigo Abreu; Reus, Jeroni Nadal
Aims We report the case of a myopic patient who, after intraocular lens transplant in the posterior chamber, suffered elevated intraocular pressure due to pigment dispersion, with recurrent episodes of blurred vision. The patient was treated with a new surgical technique that can avoid potential iridolenticular contact. Methods Complete ophthalmologic examination and optical coherence tomography (OCT) of the anterior segment were performed. Results Contact between the pigmentary epithelium and the iris with an intraocular lens was revealed by utrasound biomicroscopy and OCT. In this case, Nd:YAG laser iridotomy and laser iridoplasty were not effective for iridolenticular separation and control of the pigment dispersion. We propose a new technique: stitches on the surface of the iris to obtain good iridolenticular separation and good intraocular pressure control. Conclusion Stitches on the iris surface should be considered as optional therapy in pigmentary glaucoma secondary to intraocular lens implantation. This surgical technique can avoid potential iridolenticular contacts more definitively. PMID:21151331
Fu, Sue J.; Ho, Vanessa P.; Ginsberg, Jennifer; Perry, Yaron; Delaney, Conor P.; Linden, Philip A.
Background. Minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) techniques offer similar oncological and surgical outcomes to open methods. The effects of MIE on hospital costs are not well documented. Methods. We reviewed the electronic records of patients who underwent esophagectomy at a single academic institution between January 2012 and December 2014. Esophagectomy techniques were grouped into open, hybrid, MIE, and transhiatal (THE) esophagectomy. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the impact of surgery on total hospital cost after esophagectomy. Results. 80 patients were identified: 11 THE, 11 open, 41 hybrid, and 17 MIE. Median total cost of the hospitalization was $31,375 and was similar between surgical technique groups. MIE was associated with higher intraoperative costs, but not total hospital cost. Multivariable analysis revealed that the presence of a complication, increased age, American Society of Anesthesiologists class IV (ASA4), and preoperative coronary artery disease (CAD) were associated with significantly increased cost. Conclusions. Despite the association of MIE with higher operation costs, the total hospital cost was not different between surgical technique groups. Postoperative complications and severe preoperative comorbidities are significant drivers of hospital cost associated with esophagectomy. Surgeons should choose technique based on clinical factors, rather than cost implications. PMID:28053785
Miao, Jinwei; Fleury, Aimee C; Kushnir, Christina L; Silver, David F; Naik, Raj; Spirtos, Nick M
To evaluate surgically related quality outcomes during the learning curve for board-certified or board-eligible gynecologic oncologists developing "new-to-them" surgical techniques. The study design was a retrospective review of patients with endometrial cancer clinically limited to the uterus and/or cervix undergoing TLH-BSO or TAH-BSO, aortic and pelvic lymphadenectomy(APLNDx), peritoneal washings with/without omentectomy from May 1996 to April /2006. A "senior" surgeon taught three board-certified or board-eligible gynecologic oncologists a "new-to-them" technique to perform both TLH-BSO and TAH-BSO with APLNDx using argon beam coagulation and endoscopic staplers in patients with early-stage endometrial cancer. The main outcome measures were: a) length of surgery; b) surgical measures, e.g. lymph node count; and c) peri-operative morbidity. A comparison of outcomes with the "senior" surgeon was undertaken. The learning curve characteristics were analyzed by ANOVA and curve estimate analysis. The mean operative times associated with learning a new technique to perform TLH-BSO with APLNDx and TAH-BSO with APLNDx were 155.39+/-26.32 and 102.28+/-34.22 min, respectively, with significant improvement after 20 cases (150.27+/-26.68 vs. 172.30+/-22.28, p=0.030) and 30 cases (93.30+/-24.97 vs. 124.63+/-29.73, p=0.030), respectively. Intra- and peri-operative morbidity and lymph node count were unaffected by experience. While mean operative times decreased, outcome measures of surgical quality were not adversely affected during the learning curve for post-fellowship training while acquiring "new-to-them" surgical techniques. This study emphasizes the need for "senior" surgical supervision during the initial training period. The results of this study are likely transferable to fellowship-trained gynecologic oncologists learning other "new-to-them" surgical techniques and procedures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vida, Vladimiro L; Guariento, Alvise; Zucchetta, Fabio; Padalino, Massimo; Castaldi, Biagio; Milanesi, Ornella; Stellin, Giovanni
During the last decade interest in preserving pulmonary valve (PV) function has stimulated a few surgeons to apply valve-sparing techniques in repairing tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), with the aim of preserving long-term right ventricular function. Since June 2007, we embarked upon a program for preserving PV function in selected patients during TOF repair. More recently, the introduction of more complex PV plasty techniques allowed us to further extend the applicability of PV preservation techniques. We believe that preservation of PV function during early repair of TOF, by combining different intraoperative surgical maneuvers, can be extended to almost all patients with classic TOF.
Uchida, Naomichi; Takasaki, Taiichi; Takahashi, Shinya; Sueda, Taijiro
In patients with vasculo-Behçet's disease, endovascular stent graft is a reasonable treatment from the viewpoint of prevention of an anastomotic pseudo-aneurysm. We report a case of total arch replacement combined with open stent grafting technique to the downstream aorta and graft inclusion into sino-tubular junction as sutureless surgical techniques for an arch aneurysm in a 42-year-old woman with Behçet's disease. Postoperative computed tomography (CT) showed that the aortic aneurysm had completely disappeared in 11 months after the operation. Open stent grafting technique was effective to prevent anastomotic pseudo-aneurysm formation.
Yadav, Supriya; Joyce, Robin; Sharma, Akash Kumar; Sharma, Himani; Sharma, Niti Nipun; Varghese, Soney; Akhtar, Jamil
Micro/nano-fluidic MEMS biosensors are the devices that detects the biomolecules. The emerging micro/nano-fluidic devices provide high throughput and high repeatability with very low response time and reduced device cost as compared to traditional devices. This article presents the experimental details for process sequence optimization of digital microfluidics (DMF) using "electrowetting-on-dielectric" (EWOD). Stress free thick film deposition of silicon dioxide using PECVD and subsequent process for EWOD techniques have been optimized in this work.
Wong, Weng Kee; Chen, Ray-Bing; Huang, Chien-Chih; Wang, Weichung
Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is a meta-heuristic algorithm that has been shown to be successful in solving a wide variety of real and complicated optimization problems in engineering and computer science. This paper introduces a projection based PSO technique, named ProjPSO, to efficiently find different types of optimal designs, or nearly optimal designs, for mixture models with and without constraints on the components, and also for related models, like the log contrast models. We also compare the modified PSO performance with Fedorov's algorithm, a popular algorithm used to generate optimal designs, Cocktail algorithm, and the recent algorithm proposed by . PMID:26091237
Prasad, B.; Magee, C. L.
The work that has been done in the last decade or so in the application of optimization techniques to vehicle design is discussed. Much of the work reviewed deals with the design of body or suspension (chassis) components for reduced weight. Also reviewed are studies dealing with system optimization problems for improved functional performance, such as ride or handling. In reviewing the work on the use of optimization techniques, one notes the transition from the rare mention of the methods in the 70's to an increased effort in the early 80's. Efficient and convenient optimization and analysis tools still need to be developed so that they can be regularly applied in the early design stage of the vehicle development cycle to be most effective. Based on the reported applications, an attempt is made to assess the potential for automotive application of optimization techniques. The major issue involved remains the creation of quantifiable means of analysis to be used in vehicle design. The conventional process of vehicle design still contains much experience-based input because it has not yet proven possible to quantify all important constraints. This restraint on the part of the analysis will continue to be a major limiting factor in application of optimization to vehicle design.
The surgeon's limited ability to accurately delineate the tumor margin during surgical interventions is one key challenge in clinical management of cancer. New methods for guiding tumor resection decisions are needed. Numerous studies have shown that tissue autofluorescence properties have the potential to asses biochemical features associates with distinct pathologies in tissue and to distinguish various cancers from normal tissues. However, despite these promising reports, autofluorescence techniques were sparsely adopted in clinical settings. Moreover, when adopted they were primarily used for pre-operative diagnosis rather than guiding interventions. To address this need, we have researched and engineered instrumentation that utilizes label-free fluorescence lifetime contrast to characterize tissue biochemical features in vivo in patients and methodologies conducive to real-time (few seconds) diagnosis of tissue pathologies during surgical procedures. This presentation overviews clinically-compatible multispectral fluorescence lifetime imaging techniques developed in our laboratory and their ability to operate as stand-alone tools, integrated in a biopsy needle and in conjunction with the da Vinci surgical robot. We present pre-clinical and clinical studies in patients that demonstrate the potential of these techniques for intraoperative assessment of brain tumors and head and neck cancer. Current results demonstrate that intrinsic fluorescence signals can provide useful contrast for delineation distinct types of tissues including tumors intraoperatively. Challenges and solutions in the clinical implementation of these techniques are discussed.
Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Rajadas, John N.
A multidisciplinary design optimization procedure which couples formal multiobjectives based techniques and complex analysis procedures (such as computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes) developed. The procedure has been demonstrated on a specific high speed flow application involving aerodynamics and acoustics (sonic boom minimization). In order to account for multiple design objectives arising from complex performance requirements, multiobjective formulation techniques are used to formulate the optimization problem. Techniques to enhance the existing Kreisselmeier-Steinhauser (K-S) function multiobjective formulation approach have been developed. The K-S function procedure used in the proposed work transforms a constrained multiple objective functions problem into an unconstrained problem which then is solved using the Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (BFGS) algorithm. Weight factors are introduced during the transformation process to each objective function. This enhanced procedure will provide the designer the capability to emphasize specific design objectives during the optimization process. The demonstration of the procedure utilizes a computational Fluid dynamics (CFD) code which solves the three-dimensional parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) equations for the flow field along with an appropriate sonic boom evaluation procedure thus introducing both aerodynamic performance as well as sonic boom as the design objectives to be optimized simultaneously. Sensitivity analysis is performed using a discrete differentiation approach. An approximation technique has been used within the optimizer to improve the overall computational efficiency of the procedure in order to make it suitable for design applications in an industrial setting.
Rodriguez-Lecompte, J C; Romero-Perez, G A; Ramirez-Yañez, G; Ask, K; Gauldie, J
The role of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β₁) in the onset of bone marrow fibrosis has been confirmed in some animal models. To further understand the genetic expression of some myeloproliferative disorders affecting marrow stem cells, however, it is necessary to develop a specific and reliable procedure to deliver modified adenoviral vectors into the bone marrow cavity. The aim of this paper is to report a surgical technique designed to deliver an adenoviral vector-mediated gene expressing TGF-β₁ into the bone marrow of rat femurs. Forty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were used in the study. Rat femurs were exposed and the compact and trabecular bones at the proximal head removed. An intrabone marrow injection of a mutated TGF-β₁ adenoviral vector, a null adenoviral vector, or PBS was delivered into the bone. Three groups were accounted (n = 14 per group): fibrogenic and positive and negative controls. The quality of the surgical entrance was assessed by means of computerized tomography and histological changes were assessed by histochemistry. The concentration of TGF-β₁ in the bone marrow was determined by ELISA. The surgical technique was conducted under ideal timing (approx. 10 min) and no surgical or postsurgical complications were observed. Computerized tomography revealed no changes in the bone tissue and a clean entrance was delimited through the bone to the bone marrow. HE and Masson's trichrome staining indicated highly fibrotic areas in the profibrotic group and bone marrow lavage reported a significantly higher concentration of TGF-β₁ (p < 0.05) in that same group. The present study confirmed that the proposed surgical technique is an effective method to deliver adenoviral vectors into the femoral bone marrow to investigate the physiopathology of bone marrow fibrosis in rats. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Sankhla, Suresh K.; Jayashankar, Narayan; Khan, Ghulam M.
Objective: Surgical treatment of retrochiasmatic craniopharyngioma still remains a challenge. While complete removal of the tumor with preservation of the vital neurovascular structures is often the goal of the treatment, there is no optimal surgical approach available to achieve this goal. Transcranial and transsphenoidal microsurgical approaches, commonly used in the past, have considerable technical limitations. The extended endonasal endoscopic surgical route, obtained by removal of tuberculum sellae and planum sphenoidale, offers direct midline access to the retrochiasmatic space and provides excellent visualization of the undersurface of the optic chiasm. In this report, we describe the technical details of the extended endoscopic approach, and review our results using this approach in the surgical management of retrochiasmatic craniopharyngiomas. Methods: Fifteen children, including 9 girls and 6 boys, aged 8 to 15 years underwent surgery using extended endoscopic transsphenoidal approach between 2008 and 2014. Nine patients had a surgical procedure done previously and presented with recurrence of symptoms and regrowth of their residual tumors. Results: A gross total or near total excision was achieved in 10 (66.7%) patients, subtotal resection in 4 (26.7%), and partial removal in 1 (6.7%) patient. Postoperatively, headache improved in 93.3%, vision recovered in 77.3%, and the hormonal levels stabilised in 66.6%. Three patients (20%) developed postoperative CSF leaks which were managed conservatively. Three (20%) patients with diabetes insipidus and 2 (13.3%) with panhypopituitarism required long-term hormonal replacement therapy. Conclusions: Our early experience suggests that the extended endonasal endoscopic approach is a reasonable option for removal of the retrochiasmal craniopharyngiomas. Compared to other surgical approaches, it provides better opportunities for greater tumor removal and visual improvement without any increase in risks. PMID:26962333
Noack, T; Mohr, F-W
Mitral valve (MV) disease is one of the most common heart valve diseases. The surgical and interventional treatment for MV disease requires a multidisciplinary approach. For primary mitral valve regurgitation (MVR) surgical MV repair is the treatment of choice, which can be performed with an excellent outcome and long-term survival in reference centers. The surgical technique used for MV repair depends on the pathological mechanism, the morphological dimensions of the MV, the operative risk and the expertise of the cardiac surgeon. The surgical and interventional treatment of secondary MVVR is the subject of on-going discussions. In patients with moderate secondary MVR undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, concomitant MV repair should be performed. In the presence of severe secondary MR with risk factors for failure of MV repair, patients should consider having MV replacement. In the rare cases of patients presenting with mitral valve stenosis (MVS) MV repair can be considered in young patients and who are most often treated with MV replacement. The choice between biological or mechanical MV replacement depends on the pathophysiology, the comorbidities, the amount of anticoagulation necessary and the age of the patient. New percutaneous techniques for MV replacement offer new treatment options for reoperation in high-risk patients.
With the introduction of the superficial quad technique, there has been a recent revival of interest in the quadriceps tendon as a graft choice for medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction. The superficial quad technique has many anatomic advantages because the length, breadth, and thickness of the graft are similar to those of the native MPFL; moreover, the graft provides a continuous patellar attachment at the superior half of the medial border of the patella. The technique requires neither a patellar bony procedure nor patellar hardware. Biomechanically, the mean strength and stiffness of the graft are very similar to those of the native MPFL. The anatomic and biomechanical advantages depend on correct identification of the anatomic superficial lamina of the quadriceps tendon; hence the correct harvesting technique for the superficial lamina is crucial. Various sub-techniques for harvesting the quadriceps graft have emerged recently, such as superficial strip, pedicled, or partial graft harvesting; these can create confusion for surgeons. Additional confusion related to the preparation and fixation of the graft should also be addressed to avoid any potential complications. A step-by-step video of the superficial quad technique is presented, covering the exact dissection of the graft material and its preparation, delivery, and fixation.
Hata, T; Fujiwara, K; Furukawa, H; Tsushima, Y; Yoshitaka, H; Kuinose, M; Minami, H; Ishida, A; Tamura, K; Totsugawa, T; Kanemitsu, H; Ozawa, M
Recent reports have shown that aortic valve replacement in elderly patients over 65 years with atherosclerotic aortic stenosis and a small aortic annulus is possible by using a small sized bioprosthesis (Carpentier-Edwards pericardial valve). Here we present out surgical technique. Firstly, the native calcified aortic valve was removed completely to gain total exposure of the surrounding aortic root and sinus of Valsalva like Bentall procedure. Secondly, a small sized bioprosthesis was implanted with intermittent noneverting mattress 2-0 sutures with spaghetti and small polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) felt. Aortic annulus is the dilated by inserting Hegar dilator sizing from 25 to 27 mm. Therefore, aortic valve replacement for small aortic annulus in intra- or supra-annular position should be easily accomplished. Good surgical results and hemodynamic state were achieved in 25 consecutive cases using this technique.
Puthezhath, Kishore; Puthur, Dominic K
Different techniques have been described for surgical exposure of the shoulder and proximal humerus. However, the neurovascular and muscular anatomy in the proximity of the humerus precludes the use of a "safe" extensive approach. We here present a new technique for extensive exposure of the proximal humerus and shoulder for wide resection of tumors. By reflecting the deltoid with its origin as an osteomyocutaneous flap downwards and backwards, the entire shoulder, including the rotator cuff and proximal humerus, are exposed with minimal damage to the blood supply and function of the deltoid muscle. This approach, which is a logical combination of anterior, transacromial and deltoid splitting approaches, was used in 17 patients, 11 achieving satisfactory functional results. Our new surgical approach reduces intraoperative damage to the blood supply of the deltoid and results in better function of the shoulder postoperatively because both the powerful intermediate muscle fibers of the deltoid and its acromial origin remain intact.
Gilbert, Lindsey M; Sgro, Mario P; Modlin, Deah L; Wheat, Nathaniel J; Kallman, Mary J
These studies, ranging in duration from 3 to 8months, evaluated the patency and longevity of the intravenous (IV) self-administration surgical model in male Sprague Dawley rats. Surgeries were categorized and assessed based on the number of catheter and/or skin button repairs required per animal across four separate self-administration studies. Design improvements in skin button types and changes in surgical procedures were chronologically tracked and assessed. Animals were evaluated under a self-administration paradigm in which they were trained to respond for a food reward under a fixed ratio schedule (FR5 or FR10). Animals were then surgically prepared with a femoral catheter and skin button port. Following recovery, animals were returned to food-maintained responding for at least 5 sessions and subsequently trained to respond for injections of a reinforcing drug. Once drug training criteria was established, the effects of vehicle or varying doses of test articles were evaluated. Animals were tested in operant chambers one hour each day 5days a week and the length of each study was recorded. Differences in the number of repairs per study as well as the total number of repairs were tabulated. Study length was directly correlated to the mean number of repairs occurring per study, with study length increasing as the total number of repairs increased. The majority of repairs were skin button-related issues. Multiple combinations of skin button types and surgical techniques were implemented across time to evaluate model efficiency and decrease overall cycle time per study. Initial combinations produced a greater number of repairs on a per study basis. However, the skin button type and surgical technique combination that resulted in the fewest number of total repairs used a lateral incision with a dorsal biopsy punch. The combination of improvements in skin button type and surgical techniques drastically decreased the number of surgical repairs required per study
Gizzo, Salvatore; Saccardi, Carlo; Patrelli, Tito Silvio; Di Gangi, Stefania; Breda, Elisa; Fagherazzi, Simone; Noventa, Marco; D'Antona, Donato; Nardelli, Giovanni Battista
To investigate the most appropriate surgical technique for optimizing hemostasis and preservation of subsequent fertility after postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). Systematic review of the literature. Not applicable. None. Review of MEDLINE, EMBASE, ScienceDirect, and the Cochrane Library. Comparison of the effectiveness of conservative surgical techniques, separately or together, with respect to success rate (ability to stop bleeding and preserve the uterus), fertility rate (subsequent pregnancies or the return of regular menstrual cycles), complication rate of the procedure, and the outcomes of subsequent pregnancies in terms of type of delivery and eventual delivery complications. Compressive sutures and vessel embolization may be considered life-saving procedures by achieving the best hemostatic efficacy. Data on restoration of menses and pregnancy rates after these procedures are limited by short-term follow-up and by the paucity of studies, especially for vascular ligation. Pelvic vessel embolization and compressive sutures are associated with high rates of restoration of regular menses and successive pregnancies, even if the former is burdened by an increased rate of placental disorders and fetal growth restriction and the latter by an increased risk of cesarean deliveries and PPH recurrence. Randomized trials would be desirable to define the best management of PPH. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Minto, Bruno W; Rodrigues, Lisiane C; Steagall, Paulo V M; Monteiro, Eduardo R; Brandão, Claudia V S
There are few studies reporting pain and postoperative analgesia associated with mastectomy in dogs. The aim of this study was to evaluate postoperative pain after unilateral mastectomy using two different surgical techniques in the dog. Twenty female dogs were assigned (n=10/group) to undergo unilateral mastectomy using either the combination of sharp and blunt dissection (SBD) or the modified SBD (mSBD) technique, in which the mammary chain is separated from the abdominal wall entirely by blunt (hand and finger) dissection except for a small area cranial to the first gland, in a prospective, randomized, clinical trial. All dogs were premedicated with intramuscular acepromazine (0.05 mg/kg) and morphine (0.3 mg/kg). Anesthesia was induced with intravenous ketamine (5 mg/kg) and diazepam (0.25 mg/kg), and maintained with isoflurane. Subcutaneous meloxicam (0.2 mg/kg) was administered before surgery. Postoperative pain was evaluated according to the University of Melbourne pain scale (UMPS) by an observer who was blinded to the surgical technique.. Rescue analgesia was provided by the administration of intramuscular morphine (0.5 mg/kg) if pain scores were >14 according to the UMPS. Data were analyzed using t-tests and ANOVA (P>0.05). There were no significant differences between the groups for age, weight, extubation time, and duration of surgery and anesthesia (P>0.05). There were no significant differences for postoperative pain scores between groups. Rescue analgesia was required in one dog in each group. The two surgical techniques produced similar surgical times, incidence of perioperative complications and postoperative pain. Multimodal analgesia is recommended for treatment of postoperative pain in dogs undergoing unilateral mastectomy.
Duncker, G; Eckardt, C
We present a new surgical technique for use in the triple procedure. After trephining the cornea, we sutured a temporary keratoprosthesis made of silicone rubber into the corneal bed. The prosthesis provided a clear view with excellent depth of focus. By creating an artificial anterior chamber, the operative procedure resembled a normal extracapsular cataract extraction procedure. The keratoprosthesis made complete aspiration of all cortical material easier.
MANCINI, FEDERICO; BERNARDI, GABRIELE; DE LUNA, VINCENZO; TUDISCO, COSIMO
Rupture or avulsion of the distal triceps tendon is one of the least common tendon injuries. The most common clinical presentation of the injury is avulsion from the olecranon. The diagnosis of acute triceps tendon rupture may be missed and this can result in prolonged disability. We report the case of a 42-year-old man with isolated triceps rupture treated by an open surgical repair technique involving the use of bone suture anchors. PMID:28217662
Hechtman, Keith S.; Zvijac, John E.; Popkin, Charles A.; Zych, Gregory A.; Botto-van Bemden, Angie
Background: Multiple surgical procedures exist for the treatment of osteitis pubis: curettage of the symphysis joint, wedge resection, complete resection of the joint, placement of extraperitoneal retropubic synthetic mesh, and arthrodesis of the joint. However, a paucity of literature has reported long-term successful outcomes with the aforementioned approaches. Patients treated operatively have reported recalcitrant pain resulting from iatrogenic instability. The article presents the results of a conservative operative technique that avoids disruption of adjacent ligaments. Hypothesis: Preserving the adjacent ligamentous structures will allow competitive athletes to return to competition and activities of daily living free of iatrogenic pelvic instability and pain. Study Design: Case series. Methods: Four competitive athletes (2 professional and 2 collegiate football players) diagnosed with osteitis pubis were treated conservatively for a minimum of 6 months. Patients underwent surgical intervention upon failure to respond to nonoperative management. The degenerative tissue was resected, allowing only bleeding cancellous bone to remain while preserving the adjacent ligaments. An arthroscope was used to assist in curettage, allowing the debridement to be performed through a small incision in the anterior capsule. Results: The symptoms of all 4 patients resolved, and they returned to competitive athletics. This ligament-sparing technique provided a solid, stable repair and pain relief. Conclusion: This surgical technique preserves the adjacent ligamentous structures and allows competitive athletes to return to competition and activities of daily living free of pain and void of pelvic instability. Clinical Relevance: This technique is a surgical treatment option for athletes with osteitis pubis who fail conservative treatment. PMID:23015940
Buser, Daniel; Martin, William; Belser, Urs C
The placement of dental implants in the anterior maxilla is a challenge for clinicians because of patients' exacting esthetic demands and difficult pre-existing anatomy. This article presents anatomic and surgical considerations for these demanding indications for implant therapy. First, potential causes of esthetic implant failures are reviewed, discussing anatomic factors such as horizontal or vertical bone deficiencies and iatrogenic factors such as improper implant selection or the malpositioning of dental implants for an esthetic implant restoration. Furthermore, aspects of preoperative analysis are described in various clinical situations, followed by recommendations for the surgical procedures in single-tooth gaps and in extended edentulous spaces with multiple missing teeth. An ideal implant position in all 3 dimensions is required. These mesiodistal, apicocoronal, and orofacial dimensions are well described, defining "comfort" and "danger" zones for proper implant position in the anterior maxilla. During surgery, the emphasis is on proper implant selection to avoid oversized implants, careful and low-trauma soft tissue handling, and implant placement in a proper position using either a periodontal probe or a prefabricated surgical guide. If missing, the facial bone wall is augmented using a proper surgical technique, such as guided bone regeneration with barrier membranes and appropriate bone grafts and/or bone substitutes. Finally, precise wound closure using a submerged or a semi-submerged healing modality is recommended. Following a healing period of between 6 and 12 weeks, a reopening procedure is recommended with a punch technique to initiate the restorative phase of therapy.
da Silva, Robson Rocha; Matos, Marcos Almeida; Pimentel, Maurício; Martins, Bruno Jacomeli; Oliveira, Rafael Valadares
Varus supracondylar osteotomy of the femur is the established procedure for treating painful knees that present lateral arthrosis and valgus deformity. In descriptions of the conventional surgical techniques, there are divergences regarding the location, access route, correction level, fixation type and area for synthesis insertion. This is most evident in cases of severe valgus with angles greater than 30° and distal femoral deformation, in association with hypoplasia of the lateral condyle. The authors describe a new surgical technique for distal femoral osteotomy, based on anatomical and geometrical criteria, which was developed in their clinic for treating severe valgus cases, and they present one of the cases treated. In the new technique, the wedge to be surgically resected has an oblique direction and the format of an isosceles triangle. This new proposal thus seeks to resolve problems that have been presented in such cases, through enabling valgus correction without causing any new deformity of the distal femur. Good cortical bone contact is promoted, and application of a stable synthesis system is made easier. However, the age limits for such patients and the degree of knee arthrosis that might contraindicate this procedure remain unknown. Hence, a larger sample and longer follow-up for operated cases are required. PMID:27042630
Han, Dong-Seok; Jang, Hoon; Youn, Chang-Shik; Yuk, Seung-Mo
Until recently, no single, universally accepted surgical method has existed for all types of concealed penis repairs. We describe a new surgical technique for repairing concealed penis by using an advanced musculocutaneous scrotal flap. From January 2010 to June 2014, we evaluated 12 patients (12-40 years old) with concealed penises who were surgically treated with an advanced musculocutaneous scrotal flap technique after degloving through a ventral approach. All the patients were scheduled for regular follow-up at 6, 12, and 24 weeks postoperatively. The satisfaction grade for penile size, morphology, and voiding status were evaluated using a questionnaire preoperatively and at all of the follow-ups. Information regarding complications was obtained during the postoperative hospital stay and at all follow-ups. The patients' satisfaction grades, which included the penile size, morphology, and voiding status, improved postoperatively compared to those preoperatively. All patients had penile lymphedema postoperatively; however, this disappeared within 6 weeks. There were no complications such as skin necrosis and contracture, voiding difficulty, or erectile dysfunction. Our advanced musculocutaneous scrotal flap technique for concealed penis repair is technically easy and safe. In addition, it provides a good cosmetic appearance, functional outcomes and excellent postoperative satisfaction grades. Lastly, it seems applicable in any type of concealed penis, including cases in which the ventral skin defect is difficult to cover.
Jielile, Jiasharete; Sabirhazi, Gulnur; Chen, Jiangtao; Aldyarhan, Kayrat; Zheyiken, Jangannuer; Zhao, Qin; Bai, Jingping
This prospective study was performed to investigate the contribution of early kinesiotherapy, the active exercise and movement of the ankle and knee joints, following a novel surgical technique for reconstruction of the acutely ruptured Achilles tendon and the underlying mechanisms involved. One hundred and seven patients with an acute Achilles tendon rupture received postoperative early kinesiotherapy treatment following the novel ``Pa-bone'' surgical technique. Clinical outcomes were evaluated using the Achilles tendon rupture score, a score for measuring outcomes related to symptoms and physical activity, and bilateral ultrasonographic examination of the Achilles tendon. Range-of-motion recovery equal to the intact side averaged 7~weeks. Double-legged heel rises and sustained single-leg heel rise exercises were possible at an average of 1~week and 60± 2 days, respectively. All patients could perform single-leg heel rise of the injured foot for 60± 23 seconds at an average of 12 weeks. No rerupture was observed. In addition, ultrasonographic examination revealed that the cross-sectional areas of the ruptured tendon were significantly larger than those of the healthy side. Overall reconstruction of the Achilles tendon was obtained for most of the patients. Postoperative early kinesiotherapy treatment following Pa-bone surgical technique resulted in excellent clinical outcomes and contributed to the overall reconstruction of the Achilles tendon.
Altibi, Ahmed M. A.; Qarajeh, Raed A. H.; Belsuzarri, Telmo A. B.; Maani, Walid; Kanaan, Tareq M. A.
Background: Hydatid disease is a life-threatening parasitic infestation caused by Echinococcus granulosus. Infection with E. granulosus typically results in the formation of hydatid cysts in the liver, lungs, kidney, and spleen. Primary intracranial hydatid cyst disease is extremely rare. Here, we are reporting an unusual case of Echinococcus, where the only identifiable lesion was a hydatid cyst in the brain without liver or lung involvement. We are also providing a description for the surgical technique used to remove the cyst, highlighting the possible surgical pitfalls. Case Description: The patient is a 13-year-old male with a history of progressive headache for 1 month. Intracranial hydatid cyst was suspected based on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings. The cyst was delivered without rupture using hydrostatic dissection (Dowling's technique), and pathological analysis confirmed the diagnosis. Postoperatively, the patient showed marked neurological improvement and all signs and symptoms resolved. Conclusion: Intracranial hydatid cyst is very rare. Nevertheless, it should always be considered as a differential diagnosis in cerebral cystic lesions, especially in children. The surgical technique used to remove the cyst appears to be safe. However, several precautions must be applied intraoperatively to avoid the catastrophe of cyst rupture. PMID:27999716
Ng, Christopher S; Ulchaker, James C; Kursh, Elroy D
To evaluate the impact of improvements in surgical technique and patient selection on overall outcomes of interstitial laser coagulation (ILC) of the prostate and to describe our treatment algorithm. During a 4-year period, 66 men with bothersome lower urinary-tract symptoms underwent ILC of the prostate using the Indigo 830e Diode Laser System (Ethicon Endo-Surgery). Patients were assessed preoperatively and followed prospectively. Parameters included American Urological Association Symptoms Index, Quality of Life Scale, Problems Due to Symptoms Score, postvoiding residual volume, maximum flow rate, number of treatment punctures, and adverse events. One-year follow-up data were compared with baseline data using the Wilcoxon signed rank test or Fisher's exact test. Patients were stratified into those treated during the first 2 years (group 1) and those treated in the latest 2 years (group 2), corresponding to changes in surgical technique and patient selection. Maximum flow rates improved by 47% and 85% in groups 1 and 2, respectively, at 12 months postoperatively compared with baseline (P = 0.04)l. The mean number of punctures differed significantly, with 6.4 in group 1 and 8.4 in group 2 (P = 0.03). Subjective measures were significantly improved from baseline in both groups and did not differ between groups. The incidence of adverse events was similar in the two groups. Improvements in surgical technique and patient selection described herein corresponded to significantly higher maximum flow rates without an increase in adverse events.
Bonitz, R P; Hanna, M K
Congenital penoscrotal webbing (PSW) is a condition that leads to penile shortening and is a common cause of delayed circumcision. While various techniques for PSW repair have been described, no comparative studies are currently available. The goal of this study was to validate and critique three commonly utilized techniques for PSW repair. A retrospective chart review was performed on all patients who underwent repair for PSW, with or without concomitant surgical procedure, by a single surgeon (MKH) over a 7-year period. Inclusion criteria were: aged <5 years, diagnosis of PSW, documented surgical approach undertaken to correct the PSW, and follow-up for a minimum of 6 months. A total of 196 patients aged 6 months-3.4 years (average 7.8 months) were included, and underwent three different types of procedure: Heineke-Mikulicz (HM) scrotoplasty, VY scrotoplasty or Z scrotoplasty. Out of 196 patients, 10 (6.7%) had complications, with four (2.7%) requiring surgical revision or correction. Two patients had excision of 'dog-ear' skin tags, one required excision of a suture tract, and the fourth required revision of skin contraction after HM repair with Z scrotoplasty. Congenital penoscrotal webbing is a common condition that often requires pediatric urology consultation. Although it is felt that the severity of the defect may not impact on the operative technique for repair of PSW, data comparing these techniques is lacking. This single-surgeon series highlighted that amongst the patients who underwent one of the three described techniques (HM, VY or Z scrotoplasty), there were no significant postoperative differences in complications or parent satisfaction. Although the ease of the HM repair for minor webbing is acknowledged, Z scrotoplasty is the authors' preference for repair given its ability to address the most severe webbing. In this comparison of three surgical techniques for the correction of PSW, it was demonstrated that each choice is safe, with no option
Chen, C Y; Calhoun, K E; Masetti, R; Anderson, B O
Using oncoplastic surgical techniques for breast preservation, breast surgeons can achieve widened surgical margins at the same time that the shape and appearance of the breast is preserved and sometimes rejuvenated. Oncoplastic surgical resection is designed to follow the cancer's contour, which generally follows the segmental anatomy of the breast, which has been well understood since the mid 19th century because of pioneering anatomic studies performed by Sir Astley Paston Cooper. The quadrantectomy, developed by Veronesi and colleagues in the 1970's, follows these same anatomic principles of wide segmental resection. The more surgically narrow lumpectomy as popularized in the U.S. uses a smaller, scoop-like non-anatomic resection of cancer. With negative surgical margins, the lumpectomy is equivalent to the quadrantectomy in achieving the goals of breast conservation as measured by local recurrence and survival. However, the lumpectomy is less versatile for resection of larger cancers, and can be more prone to creating suboptimal cosmetic defects. Cancers with large in situ components can be particularly problematic for resection with the standard lumpectomy, when they extend both centrally toward the nipple and peripherally to distal terminal ductulo-lobular units, which typically occur in a pie-shaped segmental distribution. Ductal segments, each of which ultimately drains to a single major lactiferous sinus at the nipple, vary in size and depth in the breast. Breast surgeons should carefully evaluate the cancer distribution and extent in the breast before operation. A combination of imaging methods (mammography with magnification views, ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging [MRI], or all) may yield the best estimates of overall tumor extent. Multiple bracketing wires afford the greater help to complete surgical excision. Those tumors with segmental spreading are best excised by oncoplastic resections according to their distribution.
Becher-Deichsel, Anja; Aurich, Jörg E; Schrammel, Nadine; Dupré, Gilles
The objective of the study was to describe the feasibility of a glove port technique for laparoscopic-assisted surgical treatment of canine pyometra. In this retrospective case series, a total of 10 female dogs (median age 7 years, range 5.5-10.5 years; median weight 37.0 kg, range 12.9-64.0 kg) with pyometra were included. A multiaccess port was created from a surgical glove attached to an Alexis wound retractor and placed in the ventral midline between the middle and caudal third of the distance between umbilicus and pubic rim. A vessel sealing device was used for transection of the ovarian pedicle. The port size was selected on the basis of maximum uterine diameter determined by ultrasound. Median incision length was 5.0 cm (range 3.1-7.7 cm) for a maximum uterine diameter of 4.0 cm (range 2.0-7.0 cm). Median surgical time was 57 minutes (range 48-65 minutes). No case had to be converted to open celiotomy. Complications included one case of minor, self-limiting splenic trauma by the endoscope. In eight dogs, the distended uterine horns endangered safe access to the ovarian pedicle, and the vessel sealing device was inserted through a second cannula placed periumbilically. Extension of the original incision was necessary to exteriorize organs in two dogs. All dogs recovered quickly and were discharged either on the day of surgery or 1 day thereafter. In conclusion, a surgical glove port technique in combination with an Alexis wound retractor is feasible for surgical laparoscopic treatment of canine pyometra up to a diameter of 7 cm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Rajadas, John Narayan; Pagaldipti, Naryanan S.
A discrete, semi-analytical sensitivity analysis procedure has been developed for calculating aerodynamic design sensitivities. The sensitivities of the flow variables and the grid coordinates are numerically calculated using direct differentiation of the respective discretized governing equations. The sensitivity analysis techniques are adapted within a parabolized Navier Stokes equations solver. Aerodynamic design sensitivities for high speed wing-body configurations are calculated using the semi-analytical sensitivity analysis procedures. Representative results obtained compare well with those obtained using the finite difference approach and establish the computational efficiency and accuracy of the semi-analytical procedures. Multidisciplinary design optimization procedures have been developed for aerospace applications namely, gas turbine blades and high speed wing-body configurations. In complex applications, the coupled optimization problems are decomposed into sublevels using multilevel decomposition techniques. In cases with multiple objective functions, formal multiobjective formulation such as the Kreisselmeier-Steinhauser function approach and the modified global criteria approach have been used. Nonlinear programming techniques for continuous design variables and a hybrid optimization technique, based on a simulated annealing algorithm, for discrete design variables have been used for solving the optimization problems. The optimization procedure for gas turbine blades improves the aerodynamic and heat transfer characteristics of the blades. The two-dimensional, blade-to-blade aerodynamic analysis is performed using a panel code. The blade heat transfer analysis is performed using an in-house developed finite element procedure. The optimization procedure yields blade shapes with significantly improved velocity and temperature distributions. The multidisciplinary design optimization procedures for high speed wing-body configurations simultaneously
Bollier, Matthew; Shea, Kevin
Purpose There is no consensus in the literature regarding the optimal surgical treatment of symptomatic partial rotator cuff tears. We attempted to determine the optimal surgical treatment for partial articular-sided rotator cuff tears through a systematic review of appropriate studies. Methods Medline®, PubMed, Ovid, and the cochrane register of controlled trials were searched for all studies published between January 1991 to March 2010 that used the key words “shoulder”, “partial rotator cuff tear”, “PASTA”, “articularsided rotator cuff tear”, “incomplete rotator cuff tear”, “arthroscopic” and “repair”. Inclusion criteria were studies (Level I to IV) that reported clinical outcomes in patients who had arthroscopic evaluation and arthroscopic or mini-open treatment of a symptomatic partial articular-sided rotator cuff tear. One of three surgical treatments was used: debridement with or without acromioplasty; transtendon arthroscopic repair; or tear completion with repair. Exclusion criteria included studies with over 50% overhead throwers or athletes, studies that involved an open approach to the rotator cuff without arthroscopy, and data presented in technical notes or review papers. Data abstracted from the studies included patient demographics, tear characteristics, surgical procedure(s), and clinical outcomes. Results Of 588 studies involving partial rotator cuff tears, 14 studies were identified which met our inclusion and exclusion criteria. All studies were Level IV retrospective case-series studies. Seven studies reported outcomes after rotator cuff debridement. Tear completion and repair was performed in three studies. Transtendon repair of a partial articular-sided rotator cuff tear was performed in three studies. Although different outcome measures were used, each study reported subjective and objective improvement postoperatively. One study compared outcomes in patients who underwent arthroscopic debridement versus another
Bickell, Michael; Beilan, Jonathan; Wallen, Jared; Wiegand, Lucas; Carrion, Rafael
This article reviews the most up-to-date surgical treatment options for the reconstructive management of patients with penile, urethral, and scrotal cancer. Each organ system is examined individually. Techniques and discussion for penile cancer reconstruction include Mohs surgery, glans resurfacing, partial and total glansectomy, and phalloplasty. Included in the penile cancer reconstruction section is the use of penile prosthesis in phalloplasty patients after penectomy, tissue engineering in phallic regeneration, and penile transplantation. Reconstruction following treatment of primary urethral carcinoma and current techniques for scrotal cancer reconstruction using split-thickness skin grafts and flaps are described.
Oonsivilai, Anant; Marungsri, Boonruang
An application of the intelligent search technique to find optimal parameters of power system stabilizer (PSS) considering proportional-integral-derivative controller (PID) for a single-machine infinite-bus system is presented. Also, an efficient intelligent search technique, adaptive particle swarm optimization (APSO), is engaged to express usefulness of the intelligent search techniques in tuning of the PID—PSS parameters. Improve damping frequency of system is optimized by minimizing an objective function with adaptive particle swarm optimization. At the same operating point, the PID—PSS parameters are also tuned by the Ziegler-Nichols method. The performance of proposed controller compared to the conventional Ziegler-Nichols PID tuning controller. The results reveal superior effectiveness of the proposed APSO based PID controller.
Dorcaratto, Dimitri; Martínez-Vilalta, Miquel; Parés, David
Faecal incontinence is a high prevalence disease in the general population. This pathology is commonly under-estimated and causes a great impact on clinical status and on the quality of life of affected patients. The prevalence of faecal incontinence in several studies has been estimated between 2% and 15% of the general population. The prevalence increases if we study selected populations, such as elderly people. The main cause of faecal incontinence is obstetric anal sphincter damage. In the past years, the presence of incontinence due to sphincter lesions, especially the obstetric ones, was an absolute indication of anterior anal sphincter repair. Actually, after knowing the long term follow up results of this technique, as well as the evolving knowledge on faecal incontinence and the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic techniques, this technique might be selected for cases with large sphincter defects. However there is limited information in the current literature on indications, surgical technique and results of anterior sphincter repair. The aim of this review is to analyse scientific evidence on current indications, surgical technique features and results of anterior sphincter repair as a therapy for faecal incontinence, also giving our point of view on controversial issues. A bibliography search was undertaken using Medline database including articles published from January 1985 to January 2009. Copyright 2009 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Toquart, A; Graillon, T; Mansouri, N; Adetchessi, T; Blondel, B; Fuentes, S
Spinal metastasis are getting more frequent. This raises the question of pain and neurological complications, which worsen the functional and survival prognosis of this oncological population patients. The surgical treatment must be the most complete as possible: to decompress and stabilize without delaying the management of the oncological disease. Minimal invasive surgery techniques are by definition, less harmful on musculocutaneous plan than opened ones, with a comparable efficiency demonstrated in degenerative and traumatic surgery. So they seem to be applicable and appropriate to this patient population. We detailed different minimal invasive techniques proposed in the management of spinal metastasis. For this, we used our experience developed in degenerative and traumatic pathologies, and we also referred to many authors, establishing a literature review thanks to Pubmed, Embase. Thirty eight articles were selected and allowed us to describe different techniques: percutaneous methods such as vertebro-/kyphoplasty and osteosynthesis, as well as mini-opened surgery, through a posterior or anterior way. We propose a surgical approach using these minimal invasive techniques, first according to the predominant symptom (pain or neurologic failure), then characteristics of the lesions (number, topography, type…) and the deformity degree. Whatever the technique, the main goal is to stabilize and decompress, in order to maintain a good quality of life for these fragile patients, without delaying the medical management of the oncological disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Pagella, Fabio; Pusateri, Alessandro; Matti, Elina; Avato, Irene; Zaccari, Dario; Emanuelli, Enzo; Volo, Tiziana; Cazzador, Diego; Citraro, Leonardo; Ricci, Giampiero; Tomacelli, Giovanni Leo
The maxillary sinus is the most common site of sinonasal inverted papilloma. Endoscopic sinus surgery, in particular endoscopic medial maxillectomy, is currently the gold standard for treatment of maxillary sinus papilloma. Although a common technique, complications such as stenosis of the lacrimal pathway and consequent development of epiphora are still possible. To avoid these problems, we propose a modification of this surgical technique that preserves the head of the inferior turbinate and the nasolacrimal duct. A retrospective analysis was performed on patients treated for maxillary inverted papilloma in three tertiary medical centres between 2006 and 2014. Pedicle-oriented endoscopic surgery principles were applied and, in select cases where the tumour pedicle was located on the anterior wall, a modified endoscopic medial maxillectomy was carried out as described in this paper. From 2006 to 2014 a total of 84 patients were treated. A standard endoscopic medial maxillectomy was performed in 55 patients (65.4%), while the remaining 29 (34.6%) had a modified technique performed. Three recurrences (3/84; 3.6%) were observed after a minimum follow-up of 24 months. A new surgical approach for select cases of maxillary sinus inverted papilloma is proposed in this paper. In this technique, the endoscopic medial maxillectomy was performed while preserving the head of the inferior turbinate and the nasolacrimal duct ("TuNa-saving"). This technique allowed for good visualization of the maxillary sinus, good oncological control and a reduction in the rate of complications.
Zhou, Guo-Sheng; Song, Lai-Jun
This study aims to investigate the influence of different surgical timing on outcome of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and to explore the surgical techniques for ruptured intracranial aneurysms. The clinical data were from 327 cases. 304 cases of the surgical group were further assigned to early surgery (89 cases), intermediate surgery(164 cases) and delayed surgery(51 cases) according to the surgical timing. The other 23 cases were the nonsurgical group. The ultimate outcome of all cases was graded according to the Glasgow Outcome Scale. After the cases of the no-surgical group were re-assigned to different surgical subgroups according to the rebleeding time, the ultimate outcome was graded once more. There was no significant difference among the 3 groups' pre-operative clinical data. After re-assigning the cases of no-surgical group to the different surgical subgroups, there was no significant difference among the 3 groups' preooperative clinical data, while the ultimate outcome grades of early surgery (3.6 ± 1.8) and intermediate surgery (3.5 ± 2.2) were superior to that of delayed surgery (2.9 ± 2.8). This retrospective study has demonstrated that early surgery can not only prevent re-rupture of aneurysm to decrease mortality rate but also improve the ultimate outcome.
Ganry, L; Hersant, B; Quilichini, J; Leyder, P; Meningaud, J P
Tridimensional (3D) surgical modelling is a necessary step to create 3D-printed surgical tools, and expensive professional software is generally needed. Open-source software are functional, reliable, updated, may be downloaded for free and used to produce 3D models. Few surgical teams have used free solutions for mastering 3D surgical modelling for reconstructive surgery with osseous free flaps. We described an Open-source software 3D surgical modelling protocol to perform a fast and nearly free mandibular reconstruction with microvascular fibula free flap and its surgical guides, with no need for engineering support. Four successive specialised Open-source software were used to perform our 3D modelling: OsiriX(®), Meshlab(®), Netfabb(®) and Blender(®). Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) data on patient skull and fibula, obtained with a computerised tomography (CT) scan, were needed. The 3D modelling of the reconstructed mandible and its surgical guides were created. This new strategy may improve surgical management in Oral and Craniomaxillofacial surgery. Further clinical studies are needed to demonstrate the feasibility, reproducibility, transfer of know how and benefits of this technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
McCormick, J D; Valdez, R; Rakestraw, P C; Varner, D D; Blanchard, T L; Cavinder, C A; Sudderth, A K; Kiser, A; Love, C C
Management decisions on unilateral orchiectomy are often influenced by the potential for post operative return to successful breeding. The effects of 2 surgical methods (first intention [FI] vs. second intention [SI] incision healing) for unilateral orchiectomy on resulting semen quality and scrotal temperature were evaluated. To evaluate the effects of 2 surgical unilateral orchiectomy techniques on scrotal healing, size of the remaining testis and post operative sperm quality. Unilateral orchiectomy was performed on mature Miniature Horse stallions. Semen was collected prior to and up to 60 days after, unilateral orchiectomy. Semen parameters, scrotal and body temperatures, testis volume and days to incision healing were evaluated. There was no effect of treatment or time on percent total sperm motility. Total sperm numbers were higher (P < 0.05) 60 days after unilateral orchiectomy compared with 14 and 30 days. Percent viable sperm were higher (P < 0.05) 30 and 60 days compared with pre- and 14 day post unilateral orchiectomy. Scrotal temperatures were lower after unilateral orchiectomy compared with preoperative values ( < or = 0.003). Higher scrotal temperatures were recorded in Group IF, as compared with Group IS, during recoveryfrom anaesthesia and at 1 and 2 h after surgery (P = 0.02). Mean time to incision healing was less in Group II (10.0 days) than in Group II (21.5 days; P = 0.05). In this study, total sperm motility was maintained and size of the remaining testis, total sperm numbers and percent viable sperm increased after unilateral orchiectomy. Incision healing time was shorter in Group II; however, surgical technique did not have an effect on semen quality at 30 and 60 days post unilateral orchiectomy. These data suggest that surgical technique for unilateral orchiectomy may not dramatically influence function of the remaining testis.
Arriaza, Rafael; Gayoso, Raquel; López-Vidriero, Emilio; Aizpurúa, Jesús; Agrasar, Carlos
Chronic Achilles tendon tears could hinder patients and represent a challenge to surgeons. Although many different surgical techniques have been proposed for reconstruction of a neglected Achilles tendon rupture, there is no clear evidence to support one technique over the others, but the use of a technique that could allow for an "anatomical" reconstructions seems desirable. The present paper describes a new anatomic Achilles tendon reconstruction for chronic tears, using a quadriceps tendon autograft as graft source, with PRP injected into the graft and the neighbor tissue, and fixation in a bone trough with a simple small fragments screw. Autologous quadriceps tendon graft seems an excellent option, although -surprisingly- has received little attention until now. Autologous Quadriceps tendon graft (in bone-tendon configuration) is a simple technique that could allow surgeons to reconstruct tissue defects in the Achilles tendon with non-expensive hardware.
Junqueira, Marina Azevedo; Cunha, Nayara Nery Oliveira; Costa e Silva, Lidiane Lucas; Araújo, Leandro Borges; Moretti, Ana Beatriz Silveira; Couto Filho, Carlos Eduardo Gomes; Sakai, Vivien Thiemy
This paper reports a series of clinical cases of ankyloglossia in children, which were approached by different techniques: frenotomy and frenectomy with the use of one hemostat, two hemostats, a groove director or laser. Information on the indications, contraindications, advantages and disadvantages of the techniques was also presented. Children diagnosed with ankyloglossia were subjected to different surgical procedures. The choice of the techniques was based on the age of the patient, length of the frenulum and availability of the instruments and equipment. All the techniques presented are successful for the treatment of ankyloglossia and require a skilled professional. Laser may be considered a simple and safe alternative for children while reducing the amount of local anesthetics needed, the bleeding and the chances of infection, swelling and discomfort.
JUNQUEIRA, Marina Azevedo; CUNHA, Nayara Nery Oliveira; SILVA, Lidiane Lucas Costa e; ARAÚJO, Leandro Borges; MORETTI, Ana Beatriz Silveira; COUTO FILHO, Carlos Eduardo Gomes; SAKAI, Vivien Thiemy
This paper reports a series of clinical cases of ankyloglossia in children, which were approached by different techniques: frenotomy and frenectomy with the use of one hemostat, two hemostats, a groove director or laser. Information on the indications, contraindications, advantages and disadvantages of the techniques was also presented. Children diagnosed with ankyloglossia were subjected to different surgical procedures. The choice of the techniques was based on the age of the patient, length of the frenulum and availability of the instruments and equipment. All the techniques presented are successful for the treatment of ankyloglossia and require a skilled professional. Laser may be considered a simple and safe alternative for children while reducing the amount of local anesthetics needed, the bleeding and the chances of infection, swelling and discomfort. PMID:25025566
Fu, Chunming; Xu, Yadong; Jiang, Chao; Han, Xu; Huang, Zhiliang
Most of the current evolutionary algorithms for constrained optimization algorithm are low computational efficiency. In order to improve efficiency, an improved differential evolution with shrinking space technique and adaptive trade-off model, named ATMDE, is proposed to solve constrained optimization problems. The proposed ATMDE algorithm employs an improved differential evolution as the search optimizer to generate new offspring individuals into evolutionary population. For the constraints, the adaptive trade-off model as one of the most important constraint-handling techniques is employed to select better individuals to retain into the next population, which could effectively handle multiple constraints. Then the shrinking space technique is designed to shrink the search region according to feedback information in order to improve computational efficiency without losing accuracy. The improved DE algorithm introduces three different mutant strategies to generate different offspring into evolutionary population. Moreover, a new mutant strategy called "DE/rand/best/1" is constructed to generate new individuals according to the feasibility proportion of current population. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by a suite of benchmark functions and practical engineering problems. This research presents a constrained evolutionary algorithm with high efficiency and accuracy for constrained optimization problems.
Martínez-Sanz, Elena; Casado-Gómez, Inmaculada; Martín, Concepción; López-Gordillo, Yamila; González, Pablo; Rodríguez-Bobada, Cruz; Paradas, Irene; González-Meli, Beatriz; Maldonado, Estela; Maestro, Carmen; Prados, Juan Carlos; Martínez-Álvarez, Concepción
In humans, cleft palate (CP) is one of the most common malformations. Although surgeons use palatoplasty to close CP defects in children, its consequences for subsequent facial growth have prompted investigations into other novel surgical alternatives. The animal models of CP used to evaluate new surgical treatments are frequently obtained by creating surgically induced clefts in adult dogs. This procedure has been ethically criticized due to its severity and questionable value as an animal model for human CP. Dogs born with a congenital CP would be much better for this purpose, provided they developed CP at a sufficient rate and could be fed. Up until now, feeding these pups carried the risk of aspiration pneumonia, while impeding normal suckling and chewing, and thus compromising orofacial growth. We developed a technique for feeding dog pups with CP from birth to the time of surgery using two old Spanish pointer dog pups bearing a complete CP. This dog strain develops CP in 15-20% of the offspring spontaneously. Custom-made feeding teats and palatal prostheses adapted to the pups' palates were made from thermoplastic plates. This feeding technique allowed lactation, eating and drinking in the pups with CP, with only sporadic rhinitis. To determine whether the use of this palatal prosthesis interferes with palatal growth, the palates of three littermate German shorthaired pointer pups without CP, either wearing or not wearing (controls) the prosthesis, were measured. The results showed that the permanent use of this prosthesis does not impede palatal growth in the pups.
Buac, Suzana; Schadde, Erik; Schnitzbauer, Andreas A.; Vogt, Kelly; Hernandez-Alejandro, Roberto
Background ALPPS was developed to induce accelerated future liver remnant (FLR) hypertrophy in order to increase hepatic tumour resectability and reduce the risk of post-operative liver failure. While early studies demonstrated concerning complication rates, others reported favourable results. This inconsistency may be due to variability in surgical indications and technique. Methods A web-based survey was sent to surgeons participating in the International ALPPS Registry in September of 2014. Questions addressed surgeon demographics and training, surgical indications and technique, and clinical management approaches. Results Fifty six out of 85 surgeons from 78 centers responded (66%) and half (n = 30) had training in liver transplantation. Forty seven (84%) did not reserve ALPPS solely for colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) and 30 (54%) would perform ALPPS for an FLR over 30%. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for CRLM was recommended by 37 (66%) respondents. Surgical approaches varied considerably, with 30% not preserving outflow to the middle hepatic vein and 39% believing it necessary to skeletonize the hepatoduodenal ligament. Twenty five (45%) surgeons have observed segment 4 necrosis. Conclusion There is considerable variability in how ALPPS is performed internationally. This heterogeneity in practice patterns may explain the current incongruity in published outcomes, and highlights the need for standardization. PMID:27154808
van Hooidonk, R. J.; Huber, M.
Thermally induced coral bleaching is a global threat to coral reef health. Methodologies, e.g. the Degree Heating Week technique, have been developed to predict bleaching induced by thermal stress by utilizing remotely sensed sea surface temperature (SST) observations. These techniques can be used as a management tool for Marine Protected Areas (MPA). Predictions are valuable to decision makers and stakeholders on weekly to monthly time scales and can be employed to build public awareness and support for mitigation. The bleaching problem is only expected to worsen because global warming poses a major threat to coral reef health. Indeed, predictive bleaching methods combined with climate model output have been used to forecast the global demise of coral reef ecosystems within coming decades due to climate change. Accuracy of these predictive techniques has not been quantitatively characterized despite the critical role they play. Assessments have typically been limited, qualitative or anecdotal, or more frequently they are simply unpublished. Quantitative accuracy assessment, using well established methods and skill scores often used in meteorology and medical sciences, will enable objective optimization of existing predictive techniques. To accomplish this, we will use existing remotely sensed data sets of sea surface temperature (AVHRR and TMI), and predictive values from techniques such as the Degree Heating Week method. We will compare these predictive values with observations of coral reef health and calculate applicable skill scores (Peirce Skill Score, Hit Rate and False Alarm Rate). We will (a) quantitatively evaluate the accuracy of existing coral reef bleaching predictive methods against state-of- the-art reef health databases, and (b) present a technique that will objectively optimize the predictive method for any given location. We will illustrate this optimization technique for reefs located in Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands.
Jürgens, I; Matheu, A; Castilla, M
To evaluate the incidence and course of ocular hypertension after cataract surgery using two different viscoelastics and three different surgical techniques. Thirty-six patients who had undergone extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE), 22 who had undergone phacoemulsification (PHACO), and 16 who had undergone manual nucleofragmentation (MNF) were randomized to receive either a low-viscosity viscoelastic (LVV) or a high-viscosity viscoelastic (HVV) intraoperatively. Post-operative evaluation included anamnesis, intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement, and slit-lamp examination at 3, 6, 24, and 72 hours and 7 days. The incidence of increased IOP over baseline after cataract surgery was 74.3%. The study of both viscoelastics revealed a trend for higher IOP during the first 24 hours for patients who received HVV (P < .05). Greater differences were observed when comparing surgical techniques. Small-incision techniques showed higher mean postoperative IOPs, and more severe hypertensions (PHACO 5/22 [22.7%] and MNF 2/16 [12.5%] vs ECCE 3/36 [8.3%]) (P < .05). Ocular hypertension is a frequent postoperative complication. It is slightly more common when using HVV. Small-incision techniques show higher mean postoperative IOPs and more severe hypertensions.
Leon, H O; Blanco, C E; Guthrie, T B
We present a simple surgical technique created by the authors to address degenerative chondral lesions of the knee and its application in a limited prospective case series. The technique assumes the concept of beneficial epiphyseal changes caused by disruption of the subchondral bone in improving symptoms, as with drilling, microfracture, periarticular osteotomy, and other invasive procedures. Minimally invasive selective osteotomy (MISO) is an expansion of the arthroscopic treatment of the knee, specifically targeting symptomatic lesions with minimal additional trauma and cost, while avoiding disruption of the articular surface of the subchondral bone. The technique involves a mimimal access approach with selective saw cuts placed with a 1-cm oscillating blade parallel to the joint surface 1 to 1.5 cm deep to identified lesions. The technique does not address malalignment but can address lesions not addressed by classic osteotomies and, as such, may be combined with other corrective alignment procedures as necessary. We present the results of MISO of the knee in a case series of 62 outpatients carried out at the Orthopaedic Division of the Clinical and Surgical Hermanos Ameijeiras Hospital in Havana, Cuba. At 2-year follow-up, there was improvement of symptoms without significant complications.
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Zhu, Lei; Yang, Yan; Haker, Steven; Tannenbaum, Allen
Image morphing, or image interpolation in the time domain, deals with the metamorphosis of one image into another. In this paper, a new class of image morphing algorithms is proposed based on the theory of optimal mass transport. The L(2) mass moving energy functional is modified by adding an intensity penalizing term, in order to reduce the undesired double exposure effect. It is an intensity-based approach and, thus, is parameter free. The optimal warping function is computed using an iterative gradient descent approach. This proposed morphing method is also extended to doubly connected domains using a harmonic parameterization technique, along with finite-element methods.
Zhu, Lei; Yang, Yan; Haker, Steven; Tannenbaum, Allen
Image morphing, or image interpolation in the time domain, deals with the metamorphosis of one image into another. In this paper, a new class of image morphing algorithms is proposed based on the theory of optimal mass transport. The L2 mass moving energy functional is modified by adding an intensity penalizing term, in order to reduce the undesired double exposure effect. It is an intensity-based approach and, thus, is parameter free. The optimal warping function is computed using an iterative gradient descent approach. This proposed morphing method is also extended to doubly connected domains using a harmonic parameterization technique, along with finite-element methods. PMID:17547128
Halic, Tansel; Sankaranarayanan, Ganesh; De, Suvranu
Background In actual surgery, smoke and bleeding due to cautery processes, provide important visual cues to the surgeon which have been proposed as factors in surgical skill assessment. While several virtual reality (VR)-based surgical simulators have incorporated effects of bleeding and smoke generation, they are not realistic due to the requirement of real time performance. To be interactive, visual update must be performed at least 30 Hz and haptic (touch) information must be refreshed at 1 kHz. Simulation of smoke and bleeding is, therefore, either ignored or simulated using highly simplified techniques since other computationally intensive processes compete for the available CPU resources. Methods In this work, we develop a novel low-cost method to generate realistic bleeding and smoke in VR-based surgical simulators which outsources the computations to the graphical processing unit (GPU), thus freeing up the CPU for other time-critical tasks. This method is independent of the complexity of the organ models in the virtual environment. User studies were performed using 20 subjects to determine the visual quality of the simulations compared to real surgical videos. Results The smoke and bleeding simulation were implemented as part of a Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding (LAGB) simulator. For the bleeding simulation, the original implementation using the shader did not incur in noticeable overhead. However, for smoke generation, an I/O (Input/Output) bottleneck was observed and two different methods were developed to overcome this limitation. Based on our benchmark results, a buffered approach performed better than a pipelined approach and could support up to 15 video streams in real time. Human subject studies showed that the visual realism of the simulations were as good as in real surgery (median rating of 4 on a 5-point Likert scale). Conclusions Based on the performance results and subject study, both bleeding and smoke simulations were concluded to be
Wang, Mao-Qiang; Liu, Feng-Yong; Duan, Feng
We present a case with hepatic myelopathy (HM) due to a surgical splenorenal shunt that was successfully treated by endovascular interventional techniques. A 39-year-old man presented with progressive spastic paraparesis of his lower limbs 14 mo after a splenorenal shunt. A portal venogram identified a widened patent splenorenal shunt. We used an occlusion balloon catheter initially to occlude the shunt. Further monitoring of the patient revealed a decrease in his serum ammonia level and an improvement in leg strength. We then used an Amplatzer vascular plug (AVP) to enable closure of the shunt. During the follow up period of 7 mo, the patient experienced significant clinical improvement and normalization of blood ammonia, without any complications. Occlusion of a surgically created splenorenal shunt with AVP represents an alternative therapy to surgery or coil embolization that can help to relieve shunt-induced HM symptoms.
Reinisch, Lou; West, Courtney; Rivas, Mike; Patil, Yash; Ossoff, Robert H.
As part of our computer assisted surgical techniques (CAST) program, we use computers to assist in the guidance of surgical lasers. The computer helps to create laser incisions with minimal widths, a reduction of collateral thermal damage, and regulates the rate of tissue ablation. Previous studies have compared laser incisions under manual control to incisions made with the CAST system. These studies were carried out with healthy animals. In this study, we compare the manual and CAST laser incisions on rats with induced diabetes. The diabetic rats have impaired wound healing and make a better model for our wound healing studies. Cutaneous incisions were made on the dorsal pelt using a carbon dioxide laser. The incisions were sutured and allowed to heal for 3, 7, 14, and 21 days. Wounds were analyzed histologically and with tensiometry. We have found definite advantages to the CAST program.
Yoshitomi, Hideyuki; Kato, Atsushi; Shimizu, Hiroaki; Ohtsuka, Masayuki; Furukawa, Katsunori; Takayashiki, Tsukasa; Kuboki, Satoshi; Takano, Shigetsugu; Okamura, Daiki; Suzuki, Daisuke; Sakai, Nozomu; Kagawa, Shingo; Miyazaki, Masaru
Surgical resection is the only hope for cure in patients with pancreatic cancer. To improve the resectability and achieve better prognosis of this lethal disease, extended resection for pancreatic cancer has been applied. We have performed portal vein resection aggressively for pancreatic cancer with portal vein invasion. We also established a method of portal vein reconstruction using the left renal vein graft for tumors widely extended to the portal vein. Our data show similar survival between patients with portal vein obstruction and those without invasion. We also show that portal vein reconstruction using the left renal vein graft can be performed safely without severe liver damage. With video, we introduce our surgical technique for portal vein resection and reconstruction, especially focusing on the usage of the left renal vein graft, providing several tips for a safe and successful procedure. © 2014 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.
Zhang, W B; Yu, Y; Wang, Y; Liu, X J; Mao, C; Guo, C B; Yu, G Y; Peng, X
The maxilla is the most important bony support of the mid-face skeleton and is critical for both esthetics and function. Maxillary defects, resulting from tumor resection, can cause severe functional and cosmetic deformities. Furthermore, maxillary reconstruction presents a great challenge for oral and maxillofacial surgeons. Nowadays, vascularized composite bone flap transfer has been widely used for functional maxillary reconstruction. In the last decade, we have performed a comprehensive research on functional maxillary reconstruction with free fibula flap and reported excellent functional and acceptable esthetic results. However, this experience based clinical procedure still remainssome problems in accuracy and efficiency. In recent years, computer assisted techniques are now widely used in oral and maxillofacial surgery. We have performed a series of study on maxillary reconstruction with computer assisted techniques. The computer assisted techniques used for maxillary reconstruction mainly include: (1) Three dimensional (3D) reconstruction and tumor mapping: providing a 3D view of maxillary tumor and adjacent structures and helping to make the diagnosis of maxillary tumor accurate and objective; (2) Virtual planning: simulating tumor resection and maxillectomy as well as fibula reconstruction on the computer, so that to make an ideal surgical plan; (3) 3D printing: producing a 3D stereo model for prebending individualized titanium mesh and also providing template or cutting guide for the surgery; (4) Surgical navigation: the bridge between virtual plan and real surgery, confirming the virtual plan during the surgery and guarantee the accuracy; (5) Computer assisted analyzing and evaluating: making a quantitative and objective of the final result and evaluating the outcome. We also performed a series of studies to evaluate the application of computer assisted techniques used for maxillary reconstruction, including: (1) 3D tumor mapping technique for accurate
Salamone, Giuseppe; Tutino, Roberta; Atzeni, Jenny; Licari, Leo; Falco, Nicola; Orlando, Giuseppina; Gulotta, Gaspare
Liver hydatidosis is a focal benign parasitic disease that still cause high rate of morbidity particularly in the Mediterranean area. A retrospective study comparing conservative and radical techniques in a General and Urgent Surgery operative unit was carried out in order to find signs of its surgical treatment. A total of 50 patients, 24 men and 26 women, who experienced a surgical treatment from 2000 to 2011, participated, and through the Fisher's Exact Test characteristics of the cysts, post-operative complications and relapse were compared. As a result, 29 patients undertook conservative surgery, while 21 radical surgery. There was a relationship between characteristics of the cysts and the technique chosen, (p<0.001). Likewise, whenever the diameter was smaller than 10cm or localized in the left lobe a radical technique was used. Conversely, a conservative technique was used when the diameter was bigger than 10 cm or they were localized in the right lobe or complicated by intra-biliary or intra-peritoneal rupture as well as in contiguity with major vascular and biliary structures. In this regard, while the post-operative morbidity was related to the conservative techniques (p<0.004), the relapses tended to not be related to any techniques in our case (p<0.14). In conclusion, in a non hepato-bilio-pancreatic center a radical surgery including liver resection is suggested for left lobe's cysts, while a conservative technique tends to be more effective for right lobe's cysts mainly if complex. Consequently, patients with complicated presentation could explain why conservative treatment causes higher rate of morbidity.
Vetter, Thomas R; Kain, Zeev N
Several federal agencies have recently noted that the United States is in the midst of an unprecedented "opioid epidemic," with an increasing number of opioid-related overdoses and deaths. Providers currently face 3 population-level, public health challenges in providing optimal perioperative pain care: (1) the continued lack of overall improvement in the excessive incidence of inadequately treated postoperative pain, (2) minimizing or preventing postoperative opioid-related side effects, and (3) addressing current opioid prescribing patterns, and the accompanying problematic surge in prescription opioid diversion, misuse, abuse, addiction, and overdose. In the Perioperative Surgical Home model, anesthesiologists and other pain medicine specialists are uniquely qualified and positioned to develop, implement, and coordinate a comprehensive perioperative analgesic plan, which begins with the formal preoperative patient assessment and continues throughout the postdischarge, convalescence period. The scope and practice of pain management within the Perioperative Surgical Home should thus (a) expand to include routine preoperative patient-level pain-risk stratification (including the chronic use of opioid and nonopioid analgesics), (b) address the multitude of biopsychosocial factors that contribute to interpatient pain variability, and (c) extend and be well coordinated across all 4 phases of the surgical pain experience (preoperative, intraoperative, postoperative, and postdischarge). Specifically, safe and effective perioperative pain management should include a plan of care that is tailored to the individual patient's underlying disease(s), presence of a chronic pain condition and preoperative use of opioids, and the specific surgical procedure- with evidence-based, multimodal analgesic regimens being applied in the vast majority of cases. An iteratively evolutionary component of an existing institutional Perioperative Surgical Home program can be an integrated
Hill, Scott A.
MULTIVAR is a FORTRAN 77 computer program that fits one of the members of a set of six multivariable mathematical models (five of which are nonlinear) to a multivariable set of data. The inputs to MULTIVAR include the data for the independent and dependent variables plus the user s choice of one of the models, one of the three optimization engines, and convergence criteria. By use of the chosen optimization engine, MULTIVAR finds values for the parameters of the chosen model so as to minimize the sum of squares of the residuals. One of the optimization engines implements a routine, developed in 1982, that utilizes the Broydon-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (BFGS) variable-metric method for unconstrained minimization in conjunction with a one-dimensional search technique that finds the minimum of an unconstrained function by polynomial interpolation and extrapolation without first finding bounds on the solution. The second optimization engine is a faster and more robust commercially available code, denoted Design Optimization Tool, that also uses the BFGS method. The third optimization engine is a robust and relatively fast routine that implements the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm.
Liu, Xing; He, Da-wei; Hua, Yi; Zhang, De-ying; Wei, Guang-hui
WHAT'S KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT? AND WHAT DOES THE STUDY ADD?: Surgical correction of the congenital completely buried penis (CCBP) is a difficult challenge and there is no unanimous consensus about the surgical 'gold standard' and patient eligibility for surgery. In the present study, dysgenetic fundiform ligaments were found to be attached to the distal or middle shaft of the penis. This abnormality can be successfully corrected by releasing the fundiform ligament and mobilising the scrotal skin to cover the length of the penile shaft. The study shows that the paucity and traction of the penile skin and an abnormal fundiform ligament are important anatomical defects in CCBP. Dorsal curve and severe shortage of penile skin in erectile conditions are the main indications for surgical correction. To present our experience of anatomical findings for congenital completely buried penis (CCBP), which has no unanimous consensus regarding the 'gold standard' for surgical correction and patient eligibility, by providing our surgical technique and illustrations. Between February 2006 and February 2011, 22 children with a median (range) age of 4.2 (2.5-5.8) years, with CCBP underwent surgical correction by one surgeon. Toilet training and photographs of morning erections by parents were advised before surgery. The abnormal anatomical structure of buried penis during the operation was observed. The technique consisted of the release of the fundiform ligament, fixation of the subcutaneous penile skin at the base of the degloved penis, penoscrotal Z-plasty and mobilisation of the penile and scrotal skin to cover the penile shaft. In reflex erectile conditions, CCBP presents varying degrees of dorsal curve and shortage of penile skin. Dysgenetic fundiform ligaments were found to be attached to the distal or middle shaft of the penis in all patients. All wounds healed well and the cosmetic outcome was good at 6-month follow-up after the repair. The appearance of the dorsal curve in
Iglesias, M; Butrón, P; Santander-Flores, S; Ricaño-Enciso, D; Negrete-Najar, J P; Pérez-Monzó, M F; González-Chávez, A; González-Chávez, M; de Rienzo-Madero, B; Hamdan-Pérez, N
For patients with severe hand deformities due to rheumatoid arthritis, we propose an allotransplantation of an osteomyotendinose structure (OMTS), preserving the recipient's skin and sensory nerves. Our objective was to develop the surgical technique in a 10 cadavers, five as donors and five as recipients. The donor's hand was 10% to 15% smaller than the recipient's. Dissections were performed by two surgical teams under magnification. In the donor, the OMTS was procured at the distal third of the forearm, maintaining the integrity of the arterial system, with its concomitant veins and motor branches of the median and ulnar nerves, leaving the skin envelope. In the recipient, the OMTS was removed, taking care to preserve the cutaneous cover with the digital arteries in continuity with the superficial palmar arch and radial and ulnar arteries. Also, the digital nerves were maintained in the skin flap, in continuity with the median and ulnar nerves. Their motor branches were divided after emergence from the main nerves. The superficial dorsal veins and radial nerve were kept adhered to the cutaneous cover. Then, the donor OMTS was placed within the recipient cutaneous flap; all the anatomic structures were repaired. The average surgical time was 780 minutes. Methylene blue was present in the digital arteries. There were no difficulties in the anatomic repair. The surgical technique is quite laborious, especially the dissection of the recipient interdigital spaces. Due to the requirement for arterial system integrity, the cutaneous flap must be viable. Also, the allotransplanted OMTS has all necessary conditions to obtain good tissue perfusion for subsequent function. Procurement without skin permits a greater opportunity to find donors, and greater social and personal acceptance by the recipient.
Lovasić, Franjo; Petković, Marija; Belac-Lovasić, Ingrid; Mustać, Elvira; Uravić, Miljenko; Zelić, Marko
The "round block" surgical technique in the treatment of a female patient with multiple, multicentric fibroadenomas in both breasts is presented. The advantages of this technique for patients with multicentric benign breast lesions are minimal postoperative scar and a favourable aesthetic result. Breast dimensions and the areolar diameter were measured in 203 subjects of Primorsko-Goranska county during examination in the Out-Patient Hospital for Breast Diseases, including the operated patient. Smaller breast dimensions and a larger areolar diameter provide an easier access to any part of the breast due to a smaller distance between the incision and a fibroadenoma and a larger circumference of circular periareolar incision, thus facilitating the surgery. The analysis of average, maximum and minimum values measured shows that the "round block" technique can be performed in all cases of multiple and multicentric fibroadenomas regardless of breast size, areolar diameter and the location of fibroadenoma in the breast.
Khairnar, Mayur; Pawar, Babita; Khairnar, Darshana
Ankyloglossia or "tongue-tie" is a congenital anomaly caused by tight lingual frenulum that abnormally connects the tongue base to the floor of the mouth. Ankyloglossia can results in difficulty during speech and deglutition. This case series presents a novel surgical technique in the management of ankyloglossia in using presuturing technique in which different sets of sutures are given on lingual frenum before severing it. This results in reduced opening of the wound, minimal bleeding, pain and discomfort. Two male patients with severe ankyloglossia had been managed with this technique and after 2 years of follow-up of these cases showed satisfactory protrusive and lateral movement of the tongue with minimal scarring and discomfort.
Khairnar, Mayur; Pawar, Babita; Khairnar, Darshana
Ankyloglossia or “tongue-tie” is a congenital anomaly caused by tight lingual frenulum that abnormally connects the tongue base to the floor of the mouth. Ankyloglossia can results in difficulty during speech and deglutition. This case series presents a novel surgical technique in the management of ankyloglossia in using presuturing technique in which different sets of sutures are given on lingual frenum before severing it. This results in reduced opening of the wound, minimal bleeding, pain and discomfort. Two male patients with severe ankyloglossia had been managed with this technique and after 2 years of follow-up of these cases showed satisfactory protrusive and lateral movement of the tongue with minimal scarring and discomfort. PMID:25598942
Flores, Leandro Pretto
The study aims to demonstrate the techniques employed in surgery of the brachial plexus that are associated to evidence-based improvement of the functional outcome of these patients. A retrospective study of one hundred cases of traumatic brachial plexus injuries. Comparison between the postoperative outcomes associated to some different surgical techniques was demonstrated. The technique of proximal nerve roots grafting was associated to good results in about 70% of the cases. Significantly better outcomes were associated to the Oberlin's procedure and the Sansak's procedure, while the improvement of outcomes associated to phrenic to musculocutaneous nerve and the accessory to suprascapular nerve transfer did not reach statistical significance. Reinnervation of the hand was observed in less than 30% of the cases. Brachial plexus surgery renders satisfactory results for reinnervation of the proximal musculature of the upper limb, however the same good outcomes are not usually associated to the reinnervation of the hand.
Hwang, Chyi; Guo, Tong-Yi; Sheih, Leang-San
An optimal Routh approximant of a single-input single-output dynamic system is a reduced-order transfer function of which the denominator is obtained by the Routh approximation method while the numerator is determined by minimizing a time-response integral-squared-error (ISE) criterion. In this paper, a new elegant approach is presented for obtaining the optimal Routh approximants for linear time-invariant continuous-time systems. The approach is based on the Routh canonical expansion, which is a finite-term orthogonal series of rational basis functions, and minimization of the ISE criterion. A procedure for combining the above approach with the bilinear transformation is also presented in order to obtain the optimal bilinear Routh approximants of linear time-invariant discrete-time systems. The proposed technique is simple in formulation and is amenable to practical implementation.
Ensuring that surgical cancer patients obtain optimal rehabilitation care (defined here as all care provided post-operatively following cancer surgery) can be challenging because of the fragmented nature of the U.S. healthcare delivery and payment systems. In the managed care environment, surgical cancer patients' access to rehabilitation care is likely to vary by type of health insurance plan, by setting, by type of provider, and by whether care is provided in-network or out-of-network. The author of this article, who negotiates managed care contracts for the Roswell Park Cancer Institute (RPCI), gives examples of strategies used with some success by RPCI to collaborate with local payers to ensure that surgical cancer patients get optimal rehabilitation care, especially as they make the transition from hospital to outpatient care. She suggests that further collaborations of healthcare providers, payers, consumers, and policymakers are needed to help ensure optimal rehabilitation care for surgical cancer patients.
Fabozzi, Massimiliano; Cirillo, Pia; Corcione, Francesco
This work is a topic highlight on the surgical treatment of the right colon pathologies, focusing on the literature state of art and comparing the open surgery to the different laparoscopic and robotic procedures. Different laparoscopic procedures have been described for the treatment of right colon tumors: Totally laparoscopic right colectomy, laparoscopic assisted right colectomy, laparoscopic facilitated right colectomy, hand-assisted right colectomy, single incision laparoscopic surgery colectomy, robotic right colectomy. Two main characteristics of these techniques are the different type of anastomosis: Intracorporeal (for totally laparoscopic right colectomy, single incision laparoscopic surgery colectomy, laparoscopic assisted right colectomy and robotic technique) or extracorporeal (for laparoscopic assisted right colectomy, laparoscopic facilitated right colectomy, hand-assisted right colectomy and open right colectomy) and the different incision (suprapubic, median or transverse on the right side of abdomen). The different laparoscopic techniques meet the same oncological criteria of radicalism as the open surgery for the right colon. The totally laparoscopic right colectomy with intracorporeal anastomosis and even more the single incision laparoscopic surgery colectomy, remain a technical challenge due to the complexity of procedures (especially for the single incision laparoscopic surgery colectomy) and the particular right colon vascular anatomy but they seem to have some theoretical advantages compared to the other laparoscopic and open procedures. Data reported in literature while confirming the advantages of laparoscopic approach, do not allow to solve controversies about which is the best laparoscopic technique (Intracorporeal vs Extracorporeal Anastomosis) to treat the right colon cancer. However, the laparoscopic techniques with intracorporeal anastomosis for the right colon seem to show some theoretical advantages (functional, technical
Fabozzi, Massimiliano; Cirillo, Pia; Corcione, Francesco
This work is a topic highlight on the surgical treatment of the right colon pathologies, focusing on the literature state of art and comparing the open surgery to the different laparoscopic and robotic procedures. Different laparoscopic procedures have been described for the treatment of right colon tumors: Totally laparoscopic right colectomy, laparoscopic assisted right colectomy, laparoscopic facilitated right colectomy, hand-assisted right colectomy, single incision laparoscopic surgery colectomy, robotic right colectomy. Two main characteristics of these techniques are the different type of anastomosis: Intracorporeal (for totally laparoscopic right colectomy, single incision laparoscopic surgery colectomy, laparoscopic assisted right colectomy and robotic technique) or extracorporeal (for laparoscopic assisted right colectomy, laparoscopic facilitated right colectomy, hand-assisted right colectomy and open right colectomy) and the different incision (suprapubic, median or transverse on the right side of abdomen). The different laparoscopic techniques meet the same oncological criteria of radicalism as the open surgery for the right colon. The totally laparoscopic right colectomy with intracorporeal anastomosis and even more the single incision laparoscopic surgery colectomy, remain a technical challenge due to the complexity of procedures (especially for the single incision laparoscopic surgery colectomy) and the particular right colon vascular anatomy but they seem to have some theoretical advantages compared to the other laparoscopic and open procedures. Data reported in literature while confirming the advantages of laparoscopic approach, do not allow to solve controversies about which is the best laparoscopic technique (Intracorporeal vs Extracorporeal Anastomosis) to treat the right colon cancer. However, the laparoscopic techniques with intracorporeal anastomosis for the right colon seem to show some theoretical advantages (functional, technical
Reyes, Ashley; Turkyilmaz, Ilser; Prihoda, Thomas J
Surgical guides aid in accurately placing dental implants to achieve a predictable restorative outcome. Which surgical guide fabrication technique results in the most accurately fitting surgical guide is unknown. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the internal fit of dental implant surgical guides on dentate and edentulous ridges by using implant surgical guides fabricated from conventional and computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) techniques. Eighty surgical guides were fabricated from conventional and CAD/CAM techniques; half were designed from Kennedy Class 2 (K2) casts, and half were designed from Kennedy Class 3 (K3) casts. Conventional surgical guides were fabricated from acrylic resin. The CAD/CAM surgical guides were scanned by using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) or an optical scan (OS). The guides were printed with stereolithography (SL) or 3-dimensional digital printing (3DP). All surgical guides were cemented to their respective design casts, sectioned, and measured at standardized locations. A 2-way ANOVA and the post hoc Fisher least square difference t test was performed (α=.05). The 2-way ANOVA indicated that the difference between surgical guide groups and Kennedy class was statistically significant (P<.05) and the interaction between groups and Kennedy class was statistically significant (P<.05). The OS/3DP CAD/CAM guide was the best-fitting cast for the K2 cast group, and the conventional guide was the best-fitting guide for the K3 group. Conventionally fabricated and OS surgical guides have greater accuracy of fit than CBCT scanned surgical guides. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Varghese, Roy; Saheed, Sanni; Ravi, Amrutha K; Sherrif, Ejaz Ahmed; Agarwal, Ravi; Kothandam, Sivakumar
Background: Conventional methods of closure of ventricular septal defects involve placement of sutures 4-5 mm from the posterior inferior margin. This study compares the conventional method with an alternative technique wherein sutures are placed along the edge of the defect thereby “excluding” the conduction system and the tensor apparatus of the tricuspid valve from the suture line. Materials and Methods: Between January 2013 and January 2016, 409 consecutive patients were retrospectively reviewed and divided into two matched groups. Group A (n = 174) underwent closure using the alternative technique and Group B (n = 235) with the conventional technique. Patients with isolated ventricular septal defects (VSDs) (n = 136) were separately analyzed as were infants within this subset. Results: Immediate postoperative results were similar with no statistically significant differences in either group in terms of incidence of residual defects or postoperative tricuspid regurgitation. There was however a significantly increased incidence of post operative complete heart block (CHB) among patients in the conventional group (P = 0.02). Incidence of temporary heart block that reverted to sinus rhythm was also more in the conventional method group (Group B) (P = 0.03) as was right bundle branch block (P ≤ 0.05) in all the subsets of patients analyzed. Conclusion: Surgical closure of VSDs can be accomplished by placing sutures along the margins or away with comparable results. The incidence of CHB, however, seems to be less when the “excluding” technique is employed. PMID:27625520
Kim, Jeong Sook; Lee, In Ok; Eoh, Kyung Jin; Chung, Young Shin; Lee, Inha; Lee, Jung-Yun; Nam, Eun Ji; Kim, Sunghoon; Kim, Young Tae; Kim, Sang Wun
This study aimed to introduce a method to remove huge ovarian tumors (≥15 cm) intact with single-port laparoscopic surgery (SPLS) using SW Kim's technique and to compare the surgical outcomes with those of laparotomy. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed for patients who underwent either SPLS (n=21) with SW Kim's technique using a specially designed 30×30-cm(2)-sized 3XL LapBag or laparotomy (n=22) for a huge ovarian tumor from December 2008 to May 2016. Perioperative surgical outcomes were compared. In 19/21 (90.5%) patients, SPLS was successfully performed without any tumor spillage or conversion to multi-port laparoscopy or laparotomy. There was no significant difference in patient characteristics, including tumor diameter and total operation time, between both groups. The postoperative hospital stay was significantly shorter for the SPLS group than for the laparotomy group (median, 2 [1 to 5] vs. 4 [3 to 17] days; P<0.001). The number of postoperative general diet build-up days was also significantly shorter for the SPLS group (median, 1 [1 to 4] vs. 3 [2 to 16] days; P<0.001). Immediate post-operative pain score was lower in the SPLS group (median, 2.0 [0 to 8] vs. 4.0 [0 to 8]; P=0.045). Patient-controlled anesthesia was used less in the SPLS group (61.9% vs. 100%). SPLS was successful in removing most large ovarian tumors without rupture and showed quicker recovery and less immediate post-operative pain in comparison to laparotomy. SPLS using SW Kim's technique could be a feasible solution to removing huge ovarian tumors.
Kim, Jeong Sook; Lee, In Ok; Eoh, Kyung Jin; Chung, Young Shin; Lee, Inha; Lee, Jung-Yun; Nam, Eun Ji; Kim, Sunghoon; Kim, Young Tae
Objective This study aimed to introduce a method to remove huge ovarian tumors (≥15 cm) intact with single-port laparoscopic surgery (SPLS) using SW Kim's technique and to compare the surgical outcomes with those of laparotomy. Methods Medical records were retrospectively reviewed for patients who underwent either SPLS (n=21) with SW Kim's technique using a specially designed 30×30-cm2-sized 3XL LapBag or laparotomy (n=22) for a huge ovarian tumor from December 2008 to May 2016. Perioperative surgical outcomes were compared. Results In 19/21 (90.5%) patients, SPLS was successfully performed without any tumor spillage or conversion to multi-port laparoscopy or laparotomy. There was no significant difference in patient characteristics, including tumor diameter and total operation time, between both groups. The postoperative hospital stay was significantly shorter for the SPLS group than for the laparotomy group (median, 2 [1 to 5] vs. 4 [3 to 17] days; P<0.001). The number of postoperative general diet build-up days was also significantly shorter for the SPLS group (median, 1 [1 to 4] vs. 3 [2 to 16] days; P<0.001). Immediate post-operative pain score was lower in the SPLS group (median, 2.0 [0 to 8] vs. 4.0 [0 to 8]; P=0.045). Patient-controlled anesthesia was used less in the SPLS group (61.9% vs. 100%). Conclusion SPLS was successful in removing most large ovarian tumors without rupture and showed quicker recovery and less immediate post-operative pain in comparison to laparotomy. SPLS using SW Kim's technique could be a feasible solution to removing huge ovarian tumors. PMID:28344959
Carroll, Patricia B; Defaria, Werviston; Gandia, Carlos; Berho, Mariana; Misiakos, Evangelos; Tzakis, Andreas G
The creation of successful vascular anastomoses is of primary importance in many surgical fields. Numerous attempts to automate this process have been made. These techniques have slowly gained acceptance, but their use is still limited. This report details feasibility testing of a new prototype stapler that automates the rollover sleeve technique for venous vascular anastomoses. Male and female mongrel dogs (n=7) (25-32 kg) were used. A segment of the right (n=5) or left (n=2) iliac vein was harvested for interposition grafts after the contra lateral side was transected. In each dog, two end-to-end venous anastomoses at the interposition grafts were performed. The standard anastomosis employed continuous mattress sutures. The experimental anastomosis was performed with a new prototype surgical stapler. The stapled anastomosis was proximal and the sutured was distal. In all experiments, it was possible to perform the experimental anastomosis with the stapler. Complications included two small leaks, one due to misfiring of a single pin in one experimental site. These leaks required suture reinforcement. One dog died of hemorrhage due to a slipped suture at the vein harvest site. One vein had thrombus seen at the sutured site although no technical abnormalities at either of the anastomoses could be found. After two weeks, grafts were inspected grossly and histologically. Healing appeared normal. There was a trend for less inflammatory cells infiltrating stapled sites; however, this was not statistically significant. The experiments demonstrate that this device can automate the rollover sleeve technique for venous anastomoses.
Lörincz, Balazs B; Langwieder, Felix; Möckelmann, Nikolaus; Sehner, Susanne; Knecht, Rainald
The nodal yield of neck dissections is an independent prognostic factor in several types of head and neck cancer. The authors aimed to determine whether the applied dissection technique has a significant impact on nodal yield. This is a single-institution, prospective study with internal control group (level of evidence: 2A). Data of 150 patients undergoing 223 neck dissections between February 2011 and March 2013 have been collected in a comprehensive cancer centre. Eighty-two patients underwent neck dissection with unwrapping the cervical fascia from lateral to medial, while 68 patients were operated without specifically unwrapping the fascia, in a caudal to cranial fashion. The standardised, horizontal neck dissection technique along the fascial planes resulted in a significantly higher nodal count in Levels I, II, III and IV, as well as in terms of overall nodal yield (mean: n = 22.53) than that of the vertical dissection applied in the control group (mean: n = 15.00). This is the first publication showing a direct correlation between neck dissection nodal yield and surgical technique. Therefore, it is paramount to optimise the applied surgical concept to maximise the oncological benefit.
Tanriover, Necmettin; Sanus, Galip Zihni; Ulu, Mustafa Onur; Tanriverdi, Taner; Akar, Ziya; Rubino, Pablo A; Rhoton, Albert L
The purpose of this study was to call attention to the subtemporal approach directed through the petrous apex to the IAM. We studied the microsurgical anatomy of the middle floor to delineate a reliable angle between the GSPN and the IAM to precisely localize and expose the IAM from above. A new technique for the elevation of middle fossa floor in an anterior-to-posterior direction has also been examined in cadaveric dissections and performed in surgery. The microsurgical anatomy of the middle fossa floor was studied in 10 adult cadaveric heads (20 sides) after meatal drilling on the middle fossa. Five latex-injected specimens were dissected in a stepwise manner to further define the microsurgical anatomy of the middle fossa approach. The middle fossa approach is illustrated in a patient for the decompression of the facial nerve to demonstrate the surgical technique and limitations of bone removal. Elevation of middle fossa dura in an anterior-to-posterior direction leads to early identification of the GSPN, where the nerve passes under V3. The most reliable and easily appreciated angle to be used in localizing the IAM is between the IAM and the long axis of the GSPN, which is approximately 61 degrees . Beginning drilling the meatus medially at the petrous ridge is safer than beginning laterally, where the facial and vestibulocochlear nerves become more superficial. The cochlea anteromedially, vestibule posterolaterally, and superior semicircular canal posteriorly significantly limit the bone removal at the lateral part of the IAM. The surgical technique for the middle fossa approach which includes an anterior-to-posterior elevation of middle fossa dura starting from the foramen ovale and uses the angle between the IAM and the long axis of the GSPN to localize the meatus from above may be an alternative to previously proposed surgical methods.
Anchieta, M V M; Salles, F A; Cassaro, B D; Quaresma, M M; Santos, B F O
Presentation of a new cranioplasty technique employing a combination of two technologies: rapid prototyping and surgical navigation. This technique allows the reconstruction of the skull cap after the resection of a bone tumor in a single surgical time. The neurosurgeon plans the craniotomy previously on the EximiusMed software, compatible with the Eximius Surgical Navigator, both from the company Artis Tecnologia (Brazil). The navigator imports the planning and guides the surgeon during the craniotomy. The simulation of the bone fault allows the virtual reconstruction of the skull cap and the production of a personalized modelling mold using the Magics-Materialise (Belgium)-software. The mold and a replica of the bone fault are made by rapid prototyping by the company Artis Tecnologia (Brazil) and shipped under sterile conditions to the surgical center. The PMMA prosthesis is produced during the surgical act with the help of a hand press. The total time necessary for the planning and production of the modelling mold is four days. The precision of the mold is submillimetric and accurately reproduces the virtual reconstruction of the prosthesis. The production of the prosthesis during surgery takes until twenty minutes depending on the type of PMMA used. The modelling mold avoids contraction and dissipates the heat generated by the material's exothermic reaction in the polymerization phase. The craniectomy is performed with precision over the drawing made with the help of the Eximius Surgical Navigator, according to the planned measurements. The replica of the bone fault serves to evaluate the adaptation of the prosthesis as a support for the perforations and the placement of screws and fixation plates, as per the surgeon's discretion. This technique allows the adequate oncologic treatment associated with a satisfactory aesthetic result, with precision, in a single surgical time, reducing time and costs.
Malempati, Chaitu S; Metzler, Adam V; Johnson, Darren L
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptures are some of the most common sports-related injuries. Treatment of these injuries with ACL reconstruction has evolved over the last several decades. Anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstruction offers an accurate and reproducible method to reproduce native knee anatomy, restore knee kinematics, and ultimately restore function and decrease long-term degenerative effects. The importance of adequate arthroscopic visualization and a thorough understanding of the native anatomic ACL landmarks are discussed in this article. Furthermore, surgical technique, pearls, pitfalls, potential complications, rehabilitation, and outcomes are reviewed.
Barg, Alexej; Knupp, Markus; Henninger, Heath B; Zwicky, Lukas; Hintermann, Beat
Total ankle replacement (TAR) has become a valuable treatment option in patients with end-stage ankle osteoarthritis. One popular 3-component system, the HINTEGRA TAR, is an unconstrained system that provides inversion-eversion stability. More natural biomechanics of the replaced ankle may be expected when anatomic considerations drive prosthesis design. The HINTEGRA prosthesis includes 2 anatomically contoured metal components and a polyethylene insert, providing axial rotation and physiologic flexion-extension mobility. This article describes the HINTEGRA TAR design and surgical technique. Use of the prosthesis for complex hindfoot reconstruction in patients with an osteoarthritic, varus, or valgus ankle deformity is described.
Garg, A K; Morales, M J
In the event of moderate to severe mandibular bone resorption posterior to the mental foramen, repositioning of the inferior alveolar nerve provides a greater amount of available bone for implant placement and reduces the risk of nerve injury. While neural paresthesia may initially occur, this altered sensation generally resolves spontaneously. Alveolar nerve repositioning may be possible in cases in which other procedures cannot be performed due to the extent of atrophy of the posterior mandibular alveolar crest. This article presents the surgical technique to achieve this objective.
Scully, William F.; Wilson, David J.; Arrington, Edward D.
The objective of this article is to review the surgical technique for quadriceps tendon graft harvest while highlighting an additional technical note that has not been previously emphasized. The quadriceps tendon typically inserts eccentrically on the superior pole of the patella. By shifting the soft-tissue harvest to a location just off the medial edge of the tendon, the adjoining patellar bone plug will be centered on the superior pole of the patella, reducing the risk of an iatrogenic patellar fracture. PMID:24400194
Angelini, L C; Leite, V M; Faloppa, F
The Madelung deformity, a congenital alteration of growth in the distal radial epiphysis, becomes evident during adolescence, producing serious esthetic and functional disturbances. From 1982 to 1991, 15 patients ranging from 16 to 23 years old, suffering from Madelung deformity were operated by the Sauvé-Kapandji surgical technique (a pseudarthrosis is created on the ulna and an arthrodesis on the distal radio ulnar joint). The esthetic appearance and grip strength were improved. Pain was eliminated and the incidence of complications was very low.
Nord, P G
Callus distraction, or distraction osteogenesis as the method also is called, is a new surgical technique which makes it possible to create new bone by bone elongation. The method was originally used in orthopedic surgery to extend long bones but has subsequently proved useful for extending the mandible as well as other bones in the facial skeleton. By callus distraction, it is now possible to treat severe jaw anomalies and also to treat bone defects in the jaws without bone transplantation. This article describes the biological background to the method and the basic principles that must be observed for successful results. The treatment of four patients illustrates the method.
Background The CORONIS Trial was a 2×2×2×2×2 non-regular, fractional, factorial trial of five pairs of alternative caesarean section surgical techniques on a range of short-term outcomes, the primary outcome being a composite of maternal death or infectious morbidity. The consequences of different surgical techniques on longer term outcomes have not been well assessed in previous studies. Such outcomes include those related to subsequent pregnancy: mode of delivery; abnormal placentation (e.g. accreta); postpartum hysterectomy, as well as longer term pelvic problems: pain, urinary problems, infertility. The Coronis Follow-up Study aims to measure and compare the incidence of these outcomes between the randomised groups at around three years after women participated in the CORONIS Trial. Methods/Design This study will assess the following null hypotheses: In women who underwent delivery by caesarean section, no differences will be detected with respect to a range of long-term outcomes when comparing the following five pairs of alternative surgical techniques evaluated in the CORONIS Trial: 1. Blunt versus sharp abdominal entry 2. Exteriorisation of the uterus for repair versus intra-abdominal repair 3. Single versus double layer closure of the uterus 4. Closure versus non-closure of the peritoneum (pelvic and parietal) 5. Chromic catgut versus Polyglactin-910 for uterine repair The outcomes will include (1) women’s health: pelvic pain; dysmenorrhoea; deep dyspareunia; urinary symptoms; laparoscopy; hysterectomy; tubal/ovarian surgery; abdominal hernias; bowel obstruction; infertility; death. (2) Outcomes of subsequent pregnancies: inter-pregnancy interval; pregnancy outcome; gestation at delivery; mode of delivery; pregnancy complications; surgery during or following delivery. Discussion The results of this follow-up study will have importance for all pregnant women and for health professionals who provide care for pregnant women. Although the results will
Vilá Mollinedo, Luis Gustavo; Jaime Uribe, Andrés; Aceves Chimal, José Luis; Martínez-Rubio, Roberto Pablo; Hernández-Romero, Karen Patricia
Anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery, or ALCAPA syndrome, is a rare congenital cardiac disease that can cause myocardial infarction, heart failure and even death in paediatric patients. Only few untreated patients survive until adult age. Here we present the case of a 33-year-old female patient with paroxysmal tachycardia, syncope and mild exertional dyspnoea. She was diagnosed with ALCAPA syndrome and underwent surgical correction with an alternative technique of left main coronary artery extension to the aorta. PMID:27547381
Shores, Jaimie T; Higgins, James P; Lee, W P Andrew
Vascularized composite allotransplantation, also known as "Reconstructive Transplantation" is becoming more commonplace worldwide. Hand and upper extremity transplantation make up the majority of clinical vascularized composite allotransplantation cases performed so far. As success with reconstructive transplantation becomes more common, more challenging examples of limb loss are being addressed, including above-elbow, or "supracondylar" upper extremity transplants. Although very few of these cases have been performed worldwide, the authors' experience includes the only 2 cases performed in the United States at the time of this report. This article will discuss indications, challenges, surgical technique, expected outcomes, and alternative technologies for treatment of limb loss above the elbow.
Maizlin, Ilan I; Shroyer, Michelle C; Yu, David C; Martin, Colin A; Chen, Mike K; Russell, Robert T
Robotic technology has transformed both practice and education in many adult surgical specialties; no standardized training guidelines in pediatric surgery currently exist. The purpose of our study was to assess the prevalence of robotic procedures and extent of robotic surgery education in US pediatric surgery fellowships. A deidentified survey measured utilization of the robot, perception on the utility of the robot, and its incorporation in training among the program directors of Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) pediatric surgery fellowships in the United States. Forty-one of the 47 fellowship programs (87%) responded to the survey. While 67% of respondents indicated the presence of a robot in their facility, only 26% reported its utilizing in their surgical practice. Among programs not utilizing the robot, most common reasons provided were lack of clear supportive evidence, increased intraoperative time, and incompatibility of instrument size to pediatric patients. While 58% of program directors believe that there is a future role for robotic surgery in children, only 18% indicated that robotic training should play a part in pediatric surgery education. Consequently, while over 66% of survey respondents received training in robot-assisted surgical technique, only 29% of fellows receive robot-assisted training during their fellowship. A majority of fellowships have access to a robot, but few utilize the technology in their current practice or as part of training. Further investigation is required into both the technology's potential benefits in the pediatric population and its role in pediatric surgery training.
Jasiewicz, Barbara; Potaczek, Tomasz; Kacki, Wojciech; Tesiorowski, Maciej; Lipik, Ewa
Accessory navicular bones might cause not only cosmetic problems but also be a reason of discomfort and pain. In case of inefficient conservative treatment symptomatic accessory naviculars are treated surgically. Presentation of results of simple excision of symptomatic accessory navicular. Material consists of 22 patients (34 feet), 17 women and 5 men, treated surgically between 1992 and 2006. Mean age at surgery was 14.1 years (9-22 years). Accessory navicular type I was present in 5 feet (14.7%), type II in 17 (50%) and type III-in 12 (35.3%). Main symptom was localized pain on the medial arch of the foot, in the height of navicular bone. Surgery consisted of simple accessory navicular excision and if needed partial resection of navicular bone. The mean follow-up period was 5.6 years (1-13 years). We analyzed: intensity of pain (VAS score system), daily and sport activity. Subjective results were analyzed using a questionnaire. The questionnaire was returned from 21 patients: 9 patients had total pain relief, 11 considerable and one patient had persistent pain. Mean VAS results before surgery was 5.9 and 1.7 after surgery. Only one patient required analgesics occasionally. Complications were present in two patients (6.1%). All active patients returned to their sport activities. Surgical treatment of symptomatic accessory navicular by simple excision technique gives satisfying results, surgery is minimally traumatic and risk of complications low.
Deprés-Tremblay, Gabrielle; Chevrier, Anik; Snow, Martyn; Hurtig, Mark B; Rodeo, Scott; Buschmann, Michael D
Rotator cuff tears are the most common musculoskeletal injury occurring in the shoulder. Current surgical repair fails to heal in 20% to 95% of patients, depending on age, size of the tear, smoking, time of repair, tendon quality, muscle quality, healing response, and surgical treatments. These problems are worsened by the limited healing potential of injured tendons attributed to the presence of degenerative changes and relatively poor vascularity of the cuff tendons. Development of new techniques to treat rotator cuff tears requires testing in animal models to assess safety and efficacy before clinical testing. Hence, it is important to evaluate appropriate animal models for rotator cuff research with degeneration of tendons, muscular atrophy, and fatty infiltration similar to humans. This report reviews current clinical treatments and preclinical approaches for rotator cuff tear repair. The review will focus on current clinical surgical treatments, new repair strategies under clinical and preclinical development, and will also describe different animal models available for rotator cuff research. These findings and future directions for rotator cuff tear repair will be discussed. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Playing video games in childhood may help achieve advanced laparoscopic skills later in life. The virtual operating room will soon become a reality, as "doctor games 2.0" will doubtlessly begin to incorporate virtual laparoscopic techniques. To teach surgical skills to schoolchildren in order to attract them to urology as a professional choice later in life. As part of EAU Urology Week 2010, 108 school children aged 15-19 attended a seminar with lectures and simulators (laparoscopy, TUR, cystoscopy, and suture sets) at the 62nd Congress of the German Society of Urology in Düsseldorf. A Pub-Med and Google Scholar search was also performed in order to review the beneficial effects of early virtual surgical training. MeSh terms used were "video games," "children," and "surgical skills." Searches were performed without restriction for a certain period of time. In terms of publicity for urology, EAU Urology Week, and the German Society of Urology, the event was immensely successful. Regarding the literature search, four relevant publications were found involving children. An additional three articles evaluated the usefulness of video gaming in medical students and residents. Making use of virtual reality to attract and educate a new generation of urologists is an important step in designing the future of urology.
Noble, Jack H.; Labadie, Robert F.; Wanna, George B.; Dawant, Benoit M.
It is widely believed that major factors in achieving atraumatic insertion of the electrode array into the cochlea in cochlear implant (CI) surgery include amount of tissue resection, selection of the entry point, and angle of insertion. Our group is interested in developing an image guidance (IG) system for electrode insertion if IG can improve outcomes. Thus, in this work we conducted the first study evaluating whether IG could aid atraumatic electrode insertion. To do this, we measured the performance of experienced surgeons when tasked to perform cochleostomy resection and to select CI insertion trajectories in virtual 3D surgical field-of-view simulation software. This software, which simulates views through the surgical microscope, was designed to allow a user to manually perform cochleostomy resection and to select a preferred insertion trajectory in one of two modes: (a) where the traditional approach is simulated and sub-surface anatomy is not visible; and (b) where an IG approach is simulated and the surgical view is augmented with rendering of subsurface intra-cochlear structures. We used this software to compare two surgeons' performance in selecting insertion trajectories with and without IG. Our results show that when using virtual IG, both surgeons could choose insertion trajectories with less variability, select higher quality insertion trajectories, and create the cochleostomy with substantially less tissue resection. These results suggest that IG could indeed aid performance of atraumatic cochlear implantation techniques.
Forshaw, Kristy; Carey, Mariko; Robinson, Sancha; Kerridge, Ross; Proietto, Anthony; Sanson-Fisher, Rob
With population growth and aging, it is expected that the demand for surgical services will increase. However, increased complexity of procedures, time pressures on staff, and the demand for a patient-centered approach continue to challenge a system characterized by finite health care resources. Suboptimal care is reported in each phase of surgical care, from the time of consent to discharge and long-term follow-up. Novel strategies are thus needed to address these challenges to produce effective and sustainable improvements in surgical care across the care pathway. The eHealth programs represent a potential strategy for improving the quality of care delivered across various phases of care, thereby improving patient outcomes. This discussion paper describes (1) the key functions of eHealth programs including information gathering, transfer, and exchange; (2) examples of eHealth programs in overcoming challenges to optimal surgical care across the care pathway; and (3) the potential challenges and future directions for implementing eHealth programs in this setting. The eHealth programs are a promising alternative for collecting patient-reported outcome data, providing access to credible health information and strategies to enable patients to take an active role in their own health care, and promote efficient communication between patients and health care providers. However, additional rigorous intervention studies examining the needs of potential role of eHealth programs in augmenting patients’ preparation and recovery from surgery, and subsequent impact on patient outcomes and processes of care are needed to advance the field. Furthermore, evidence for the benefits of eHealth programs in supporting carers and strategies to maximize engagement from end users are needed. PMID:26330206
Hyams, Elias S; Mullins, Jeffrey K; Pierorazio, Phillip M; Partin, Alan W; Allaf, Mohamad E; Matlaga, Brian R
Our present understanding of the effect of robotic surgery and surgical volume on the cost of radical prostatectomy (RP) is limited. Given the increasing pressures placed on healthcare resource utilization, such determinations of healthcare value are becoming increasingly important. Therefore, we performed a study to define the effect of robotic technology and surgical volume on the cost of RP. The state of Maryland mandates that all acute-care hospitals report encounter-level and hospital discharge data to the Health Service Cost Review Commission (HSCRC). The HSCRC was queried for men undergoing RP between 2008 and 2011 (the period during which robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy [RALRP] was coded separately). High-volume hospitals were defined as >60 cases per year, and high-volume surgeons were defined as >40 cases per year. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to evaluate whether robotic technique and high surgical volume impacted the cost of RP. There were 1499 patients who underwent RALRP and 2565 who underwent radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) during the study period. The total cost for RALRP was higher than for RRP ($14,000 vs 10,100; P<0.001) based primarily on operating room charges and supply charges. Multivariate regression demonstrated that RALRP was associated with a significantly higher cost (β coeff 4.1; P<0.001), even within high-volume hospitals (β coeff 3.3; P<0.001). High-volume surgeons and high-volume hospitals, however, were associated with a significantly lower cost for RP overall. High surgeon volume was associated with lower cost for RALRP and RRP, while high institutional volume was associated with lower cost for RALRP only. High surgical volume was associated with lower cost of RP. Even at high surgical volume, however, the cost of RALRP still exceeded that of RRP. As robotic surgery has come to dominate the healthcare marketplace, strategies to increase the role of high-volume providers may be needed to
Chen, Hua-Biao; Wan, Qi; Xu, Qi-Feng; Chen, Yi; Bai, Bo
Correlating symptoms and physical examination findings with surgical levels based on common imaging results is not reliable. In patients who have no concordance between radiological and clinical symptoms, the surgical levels determined by conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neurogenic examination (NE) may lead to a more extensive surgery and significant complications. We aimed to confirm that whether the use of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and paraspinal mapping (PM) techniques can further prevent the occurrence of false positives with conventional MRI, distinguish which are clinically relevant from levels of cauda equina and/or nerve root lesions based on MRI, and determine and reduce the decompression levels of lumbar spinal stenosis than MRI + NE, while ensuring or improving surgical outcomes. We compared the data between patients who underwent MRI + (PM or DTI) and patients who underwent conventional MRI + NE to determine levels of decompression for the treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis. Outcome measures were assessed at 2 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months postoperatively. One hundred fourteen patients (59 in the control group, 54 in the experimental group) underwent decompression. The levels of decompression determined by MRI + (PM or DTI) in the experimental group were significantly less than that determined by MRI + NE in the control group (p = 0.000). The surgical time, blood loss, and surgical transfusion were significantly less in the experimental group (p = 0.001, p = 0.011, p = 0.001, respectively). There were no differences in improvement of the visual analog scale back and leg pain (VAS-BP, VAS-LP) scores and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores at 2 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months after operation between the experimental and control groups. MRI + (PM or DTI) showed clear benefits in determining decompression levels of lumbar spinal stenosis than MRI + NE. In patients with lumbar spinal
Wilson, Jeffrey D.
A traveling-wave tube (TWT) is an electron beam device that is used to amplify electromagnetic communication waves at radio and microwave frequencies. TWT s are critical components in deep-space probes, geosynchronous communication satellites, and high-power radar systems. Power efficiency is of paramount importance for TWT s employed in deep-space probes and communications satellites. Consequently, increasing the power efficiency of TWT s has been the primary goal of the TWT group at the NASA Lewis Research Center over the last 25 years. An in-house effort produced a technique (ref. 1) to design TWT's for optimized power efficiency. This technique is based on simulated annealing, which has an advantage over conventional optimization techniques in that it enables the best possible solution to be obtained (ref. 2). A simulated annealing algorithm was created and integrated into the NASA TWT computer model (ref. 3). The new technique almost doubled the computed conversion power efficiency of a TWT from 7.1 to 13.5 percent (ref. 1).
Mirilas, Petros; Mentessidou, Anastasia
Microsurgical varicocelectomy has become the gold standard in adults because of low recurrence and postoperative hydrocele rates; it is increasingly applied in children and adolescents. This review aims to provide the surgeon with the necessary surgical anatomy of the spermatic cord and with a step-by-step, anatomically justified description of technique, toward clearer comprehension and improved application. The anatomic compartments of the spermatic cord are delineated by the external and internal spermatic fasciae. Venous drainage of testis-epididymis is accomplished by the internal spermatic, deferential, and external spermatic (cremasteric) veins. All 3 anastomose at the caudal pole of testis, and then via gubernacular veins with the posterior scrotal veins. Another anastomosis exists between a cremasteric branch and anterior scrotal veins, which gives the external pudendal vein. Subinguinal approach offers access to varicose spermatic veins and collaterals. Use of surgical microscope offers identification of small veins, preservation of arteries, lymphatics, and nerves, and appreciation of spermatic cord fasciae, which permits the development of two surgical planes. In the surgical plane of internal spermatic vessels, internal spermatic veins are ligated, whereas the testicular artery and innervation, as well as lymphatics, are preserved. In the plane of cremasteric vessels and vas, cremasteric veins are ligated, whereas the cremasteric artery, vas deferens and its vasculature, lymphatics, and the genital branch of genitofemoral nerve are preserved. Delivery of the testis to ligate gubernacular veins is at the discretion of the surgeon. Finally, venous return is effected by deferential and scrotal veins, or, when gubernacular veins are ligated, by deferential veins only.
We combined an epidemic model with an objective function to minimize the weighted sum of people with excess weight and the cost of a medication and surgical intervention in the population. The epidemic model is consisted of ordinary differential equations to describe three subpopulation groups based on weight. We introduced an intervention using medication and surgery to deal with excess weight. An objective function is constructed taking into consideration the cost of the intervention as well as the weight distribution of the population. Using empirical data, we show that fixed participation rate reduces the size of obese population but increases the size for overweight. An optimal participation rate exists and decreases with respect to time. Both theoretical analysis and empirical example confirm the existence of an optimal participation rate, u*. Under u*, the weighted sum of overweight (S) and obese (O) population as well as the cost of the program is minimized. This article highlights the existence of an optimal participation rate that minimizes the number of people with excess weight and the cost of the intervention. The time-varying optimal participation rate could contribute to designing future public health interventions of excess weight.
STANCU, BOGDAN; BETEG, FLORIN; MIRONIUC, AUREL; MUSTE, AUREL; GHERMAN, CLAUDIA
Introduction The aim of this prospective study was to assess the efficacy of a vascular surgery course (2008–2012), and to verify the viability and the feasibility of vascular anastomoses. Material and method The vascular surgical techniques performed simultaneously on pigs were: enlargement prosthetic angioplasty, abdominal aortic interposition graft and aortoiliac bypass. The endpoints of the study were the surgical skills and the technical quality, assessed on a scale ranging from 1 (satisfactory) to 3 (very good) for our participants. Results A significant improvement in vascular surgical skills tasks was observed during the study years and we also found a significant statistical association between the quality of the suture and the surgical technique used (Kendall coefficient=0.71, p=0.001<0.05). Conclusions Our course contributed to the improvement of the technical vascular surgical skills of the operator teams, reproducing in vivo, in pigs, the intraoperative environment of human patients. PMID:26528071
Stancu, Bogdan; Beteg, Florin; Mironiuc, Aurel; Muste, Aurel; Gherman, Claudia
The aim of this prospective study was to assess the efficacy of a vascular surgery course (2008-2012), and to verify the viability and the feasibility of vascular anastomoses. The vascular surgical techniques performed simultaneously on pigs were: enlargement prosthetic angioplasty, abdominal aortic interposition graft and aortoiliac bypass. The endpoints of the study were the surgical skills and the technical quality, assessed on a scale ranging from 1 (satisfactory) to 3 (very good) for our participants. A significant improvement in vascular surgical skills tasks was observed during the study years and we also found a significant statistical association between the quality of the suture and the surgical technique used (Kendall coefficient=0.71, p=0.001<0.05). Our course contributed to the improvement of the technical vascular surgical skills of the operator teams, reproducing in vivo, in pigs, the intraoperative environment of human patients.
Katz, Michael G; Swain, JaBaris D; White, Jennifer D; Low, David; Stedman, Hansell; Bridges, Charles R
Vector-mediated cardiac gene therapy holds tremendous promise as a translatable platform technology for treating many cardiovascular diseases. The ideal technique is one that is efficient and practical, allowing for global cardiac gene expression, while minimizing collateral expression in other organs. Here we survey the available in vivo vector-mediated cardiac gene delivery methods--including transcutaneous, intravascular, intramuscular, and cardiopulmonary bypass techniques--with consideration of the relative merits and deficiencies of each. Review of available techniques suggests that an optimal method for vector-mediated gene delivery to the large animal myocardium would ideally employ retrograde and/or anterograde transcoronary gene delivery,extended vector residence time in the coronary circulation, an increased myocardial transcapillary gradient using physical methods, increased endothelial permeability with pharmacological agents, minimal collateral gene expression by isolation of the cardiac circulation from the systemic, and have low immunogenicity.
Aravelli, Aparna; Rao, Singiresu S.
The central chilled water plant is one of the major power-consuming units of a building. Even small reductions in power consumption could achieve significant energy conservation. Hence, optimization of a chiller plant is necessary for energy savings without compromising the comfort level of the end user. The present work deals with identifying the system parameters and developing a novel formulation for a chiller plant and its optimization using a hybrid optimization technique. The optimization model formulation is based on finding an optimal mix of equipment and operating parameters in the chiller plant for minimum electrical power consumption. It takes into account the performance characteristics of the chillers, cooling towers and pumps, and optimizes the energy consumed based on the required loads and the ambient atmospheric conditions. Sequential quadratic programming combined with the modified branch and bound method was used to develop the hybrid optimization algorithm. A case study is presented for a typical chiller plant. The results indicate that the present optimization method could be a potential method of making energy savings.
Henry, Gerard D; Mahle, Paul; Caso, Jorge; Eisenhart, Elizabeth; Carrion, Rafael; Kramer, Andrew
Historically, early surgical treatment for erectile dysfunction involved the placement of rigid devices outside of the corpora cavernosa. However, this practice resulted in high rates of erosion and infection. Today, most urologists in the United States place an inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) with an infection-retardant coating inside the corpora cavernosa. In addition to changes in the type of implant used, surgical techniques have evolved greatly in recent years, resulting in reduced operating times, lower infection rates, and improved outcomes. This review of surgical techniques and approaches provides step-by-step guidance from pre- to postoperative patient care within the scope of uncomplicated IPP cases. The published literature is reviewed for important contributions to penile prosthesis surgical techniques. Penoscrotal IPP surgical techniques that have improved outcomes and advanced the field of prosthetic urology for the treatment of medically refractive erectile dysfunction are presented. A review of outcome analyses demonstrates that both the design and techniques of penile prostheses placement have advanced in terms of less postoperative pain, swelling, hematomas, and mechanical failures, with improved patient satisfaction and device survival rates. Penoscrotal implantation of an IPP has improved both in terms of surgeon ease in placement and patient satisfaction. Henry GD, Mahle P, Caso J, Eisenhart E, Carrion R, and Kramer A. Surgical techniques in penoscrotal implantation of an inflatable penile prosthesis: A guide to increasing patient satisfaction and surgeon ease. Sex Med Rev 2015;3:36-47. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rahyussalim, Ahmad Jabir; Situmeang, Adrian; Safri, Ahmad Yanuar; Fadhly, Zulfa Indah K.
Intradural intramedullary mixed type hemangioma is a rare histotype of primary spinal cord tumors, though it can carry a severe clinical burden leading to limb dysfunction or motor and sensory disturbances. Timely intervention with radical resection is the hallmark of treatment but achieving it is not an easy task even for experienced neurosurgeons. We herein present an exemplificative case presenting with sudden paraplegia in which total resection was achieved under intraoperative neurophysiology monitoring. A thorough discussion on the operative technique and the role of neuromonitoring in allowing a safe surgical management of primary spinal cord tumors is presented. PMID:26839729
Gfrerer, Lisa; Maman, Daniel Y; Tessler, Oren; Austen, William G
Low efficacy, significant side effects, and refractory patients often limit the medical treatment of migraine headache. However, new surgical options have emerged. Dr. Bahman Guyuron and others report response rates between 68 and 95 percent after surgical deactivation of migraine trigger sites in select patients. In an effort to replicate and expand migraine trigger-site deactivation surgery as a treatment option, the authors' group and others have developed nonendoscopic algorithms. The exclusion of endoscopic techniques may be useful for surgeons with little experience or limited access to the endoscope and in patients with challenging anatomy. Forty-three consecutive trigger deactivation procedures in 35 patients were performed. Preoperative and 12-month postoperative migraine questionnaires and patient charts were reviewed. Response to surgery in terms of migraine symptom relief and adverse events were evaluated. The overall positive response rate was 90.7 percent. Total elimination of migraine headaches was reported in 51.3 percent of those with a positive response, greater than 80 percent resolution of symptoms was reported in 20.5 percent, and 28.2 percent had resolution between 50 and 80 percent. No significant effect was reported following 9.3 percent of procedures. There were no major adverse events. Nonendoscopic trigger deactivation is a safe and effective treatment in select migraine headache patients. Although surgical techniques and understanding of the mechanisms of relief are evolving, results continue to be promising. This series confirms that excellent results can be attained without the endoscope. The authors continue to study these patients prospectively to improve patient selection and refine the protocol. Therapeutic, IV.
Shepherd, J P; Brickley, M
All surgical procedures are characterised by a sequence of steps and instrument changes. Although surgical efficiency and training in operative technique closely relate to this process, few studies have attempted to analyse it quantitatively. Because efficiency is particularly important in day surgery and lower third molar removal is a high-volume procedure, the need for which is responsible for particularly long waiting-lists in almost all UK health regions, this operation was selected for evaluation. A series of 80 consecutive procedures, carried out for 43 day-stay patients under general anaesthesia by seven junior staff (senior house officers and registrars: 39 procedures) and four senior staff (senior registrars and consultants: 41 procedures) were analysed. Median operating time for procedures which required retraction of periosteum was 9.5 min (range 2.7-23.3 min). Where these steps were necessary, median time for incision was 25 s (range 10-90 s); for retraction of periosteum, 79 s (range 5-340 s); for bone removal, 118 s (range 10-380 s); for tooth excision, 131 s (range 10-900 s); for debridement, 74 s (range 5-270 s); and for suture, 144 s (range 25-320 s). Junior surgeons could be differentiated from senior surgeons on the basis of omission, repetition and duration of these steps. Juniors omitted retraction of periosteum in 10% of procedures (seniors 23%) and suture in 13% (seniors 32%). Juniors repeated steps in 47% of operations; seniors, 14%. Junior surgeons took significantly more time than senior surgeons for incision, bone removal and tooth excision. No significant differences between junior and senior surgeons were found in relation to the incidence of altered lingual and labial sensation at 7 days. It was concluded that activity analysis may be a useful measure of the effectiveness of surgical training and the efficiency of operative technique.
Lifshitz, Tova; Levy, Jaime; Kratz, Assaf; Belfair, Nadav; Tsumi, Erez
We report the surgical technique and outcome of planned posterior assisted levitation (P-PAL) in four cases of subluxated cataract. P-PAL was planned as the preferred approach in all cases. A spatula was inserted via the pars plana, the whole lens was lifted to the anterior chamber and then removed through a scleral tunnel incision. Anterior chamber intraocular lenses were implanted in all cases. All four eyes had severe subluxation of the crystalline lenses with marked phacodonesis. Two eyes had history of blunt trauma, and the other two eyes had severe pseudoexfoliation with spontaneous lens subluxation. Follow-up ranged from 1 to 2 years in three cases. The postoperative visual acuity was 20/80 or better. No intraoperative complications were observed. In conclusion, the P-PAL technique was successfully performed during cataract surgery in four eyes with severe subluxated cataracts. There were no complications over the long-term follow-up. PMID:23202402
McIntyre, Benjamin C; Lobb, David; Navarro, Fernando; Nottingham, James
The omental flap is a well described pedicled flap for surgical reconstruction of multiple body locations. As a laparoscopically harvested free flap, the omentum offers a minimally invasive solution to many reconstructive problems including extremity and head and neck wounds. This video article highlights the operative technique involved in flap harvest and inset for a cranial defect. An illustrative case involving a 23-year-old female's traumatic scalp degloving injury that was resurfaced by free omental flap and split-thickness skin graft is presented. This patient had stable long-term wound coverage for a very severe injury. Through video media we demonstrate that the laparoscopically harvested free omental flap is a minimally invasive, 2-team operation that provides soft tissue coverage of severe, remote wounds. This video demonstrates a safe operative technique and nuances specific to laparoscopic harvest of this flap.
Lifshitz, Tova; Levy, Jaime; Kratz, Assaf; Belfair, Nadav; Tsumi, Erez
We report the surgical technique and outcome of planned posterior assisted levitation (P-PAL) in four cases of subluxated cataract. P-PAL was planned as the preferred approach in all cases. A spatula was inserted via the pars plana, the whole lens was lifted to the anterior chamber and then removed through a scleral tunnel incision. Anterior chamber intraocular lenses were implanted in all cases. All four eyes had severe subluxation of the crystalline lenses with marked phacodonesis. Two eyes had history of blunt trauma, and the other two eyes had severe pseudoexfoliation with spontaneous lens subluxation. Follow-up ranged from 1 to 2 years in three cases. The postoperative visual acuity was 20/80 or better. No intraoperative complications were observed. In conclusion, the P-PAL technique was successfully performed during cataract surgery in four eyes with severe subluxated cataracts. There were no complications over the long-term follow-up.
Ginger, Van Anh T; Kobashi, Kathleen C
Posterior colporrhaphy has been the most common surgical technique for the repair of posterior compartment defects. Traditional posterior colporrhaphy involves plication of the levator ani, which may result in dyspareunia related to narrowing of the introitus. Current posterior compartment repairs either plicate the midline fascia or repair the specific site of fascial weakness. Despite insubstantial data, the use of grafts to reinforce posterior repairs has gained popularity. Grafts such as allografts, xenografts, and synthetic meshes have been used to reinforce the posterior wall. Complications include infection and erosion, as well as recurrence of prolapse. Minimally invasive techniques have been developed to recreate the apical support of the vaginal vault and repair the posterior prolapse. Properly conducted randomized prospective trials are needed to adequately assess these new approaches.
Torricelli, Fabio C; Marchini, Giovanni S; Pedro, Renato N; Monga, Manoj
The surgical management of urinary stone disease developed substantially over the past decades and advanced minimally invasive techniques have been successfully introduced into clinical practice. Retrograde ureteroscopy and ureterorrenoscopy have become the first-line option for treatment of ureteral and renal stones worldwide with high success rates allied with a low morbidity profile. In this review, we will discuss some key points in ureteroscopy for stone disease, such as the access to upper urinary tract, including balloon and catheter dilation; how to choose and use some disposable devices (hydrophilic versus PTFE guide wires, ureteral catheters, and laser fiber setting); and lastly present and compare different techniques for kidney or ureteral stone treatment (dusting versus basketing).
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of PSA block injection with infiltration technique regarding local anesthesia for surgical extraction of upper third molar. Material and Methods: A prospective, intra individual, single-blind randomized controlled trial was designed to study the severity of pain during injection and after surgical extraction of the bilaterally and symmetrically similar upper third molar in a total of 53 patients, in addition to evaluating the need to repeat the injection and requirement of post operative anti-inflammatory tablets. Result: Although the average pain score for all studied times in PSA side was lower than the average pain score in infiltration technique, repeated statistical measures demonstrated that no significant pain reduction occurred in the two techniques. Conclusion: The both tested methods have the same statistic equivalence for the surgical extraction of maxillary third molars. Key words:Surgical extraction, maxillary third molars, PSA block, infiltration. PMID:24596629
Barnett, Timothy P.; O'Leary, John Mark; Dixon, Padraic M.
Objective To describe a novel surgical technique for correcting postoperative ventral glottic stenosis (cicatrix or web formation) and the outcome in 2 Thoroughbred racehorses. Study Design Retrospective case report. Animals Thoroughbreds diagnosed with ventral glottic stenosis (n=2). Methods Horses presenting with iatrogenic ventral glottic stenosis and resultant exercise intolerance and abnormal exercise‐related noise were anesthetized and a midline sagittal skin incision was made over the ventral larynx and between the sternohyoideus muscles overlying the cricothyroid notch. The cricothyroid ligament, attached laryngeal cicatrix, and overlying mucosa were sagittally sectioned at the dorsal aspect of the cicatrix on the left side. The laryngeal mucosa, cicatrix, and underlying cricothyroid ligament immediately rostral and caudal to the cicatrix were sectioned in a medial (axial) direction as far as the right side of the cricothyroid notch. After resection of the majority of the attached cicatrix tissue, the residual mucosal flap (attached to the right side of the larynx) was reflected ventrally and sutured to the attachment of the cricothyroid ligament on the right side of the cricothyroid notch, creating an intact mucosal layer on the right side of the ventral larynx. Results Both horses had good intralaryngeal wound healing with minimal redevelopment of ventral glottic stenosis at 5 and 9 months postoperatively and were successfully returned to racing with complete absence of abnormal respiratory noise. Conclusion The unique laryngeal anatomy of horses, with a cartilage‐free ventral laryngeal area (cricothyroid notch), allowed the use of this novel surgical technique to successfully treat ventral glottic stenosis. PMID:27013024
Iliotibial band friction syndrome is an overuse injury caused by repetitive friction of the iliotibial band across the lateral femoral epicondyle. It has been reported to afflict long-distance runners, cyclists and military personnel. Initial treatments include rest, anti-inflammatory medication, modalities (ice or heat), stretching, physical therapy, and possibly a corticosteroid injection. If the conservative treatment is unsuccessful, surgery has been advocated. This report describes a new surgical technique to release the pressure on the lateral femoral epicondyle in a patient who failed the nonoperative efforts. The surgery was performed with the knee held in 30 degrees of flexion and consisted of multiple 2 mm long incisions across the fiber of the iliotibial band covering the lateral femoral epicondyle. There were six incisions, each of which was 4 mm apart. The incisions were spontaneously enlarged and changed to several punctured wounds (mesh appearance) by the tension of iliotibial band, resulted in relaxing the tight iliotibial band over the lateral femoral epicondyle. At the final follow-up 2 years after surgery the patient was pain free and could resume his previous occupational activities. The surgical result of the present technique is encouraging.
Marais, Hendrik J; Hendrickson, Dean A; Stetter, Mark; Zuba, Jeffery R; Penning, Mark; Siegal-Willott, Jess; Hardy, Christine
Several small, enclosed reserves in southern Africa are experiencing significant elephant population growth, which has resulted in associated environmental damage and changes in biodiversity. Although several techniques exist to control elephant populations, e.g., culling, relocation, and immunocontraception, the technique of laparoscopic vasectomy of free-ranging bull elephants was investigated. Bilateral vasectomies were performed in 45 elephants. Of these elephants, one died within 24 hr of recovery and two had complications during surgery but recovered uneventfully. Histologic examination confirmed the resected tissue as ductus deferens in all the bulls. Most animals recovered uneventfully and showed no abnormal behavior after surgery. Complications recorded included incisional dehiscence, 1 full-thickness and 2 partial-thickness lacerations of the large intestine, and initial sling-associated complications, for example, deep radial nerve paresis. One bull was found dead 6 weeks after surgery without showing any prior abnormal signs. Vasectomy in free-ranging African bull elephants may be effectively performed in their normal environment. The surgical procedure can be used as a realistic population management tool in free-ranging elephants without major anesthetic, surgical, or postoperative complications.
Evora, Paulo Roberto Barbosa; Tubino, Paulo Victor Alves; Gali, Luis Gustavo; Alves Junior, Lafaiete; Ferreira, Cesar Augusto; Bassetto, Solange; Menardi, Antônio Carlos; Rodrigues, Alfredo José; Vicente, Walter Vilella de Andrade
Objective To present a surgical variant technique to repair left ventricular aneurysms. Methods After anesthesia, cardiopulmonary bypass, and myocardial protection with hyperkalemic tepic blood cardioplegia: 1) The left ventricle is opened through the infarct and an endocardial encircling suture is placed at the transitional zone between the scarred and normal tissue; 2) Next, the scar tissue is circumferentially plicated with deep stitches using the same suture thread, taking care to eliminate the entire septal scar; 3) Then, a second encircling suture is placed, completing the occlusion of the aneurysm, and; 4) Finally, the remaining scar tissue is oversewn with an invaginating suture, to ensure hemostasis. Myocardium revascularization is performed after correction of the left ventricle aneurysm. The same surgeon performed all the operations. Results Regarding the post-surgical outcome 4 patients (40%) had surgery 8 eight years ago, 2 patients (20%) were operated on over 6 years ago, and 1 patient (10%) was operated on more than 5 years ago. Three patients (30%) were in functional class I, class II in 2 patients (20%) and 2 patients (20%) with severe comorbidities remains in class III of the NYHA. There were three deaths (at four days, 15 days and eight months) in septuagenarians with acute myocardial infarction, diabetes and pulmonary emphysema. Conclusion The technique is easy to perform, safe and it can be an option for the correction of left ventricle aneurysms. PMID:25714220
Carrara, Cleide Felício Carvalho; Ambrosio, Eloá Cristina Passucci; Mello, Bianca Zeponi Fernandes; Jorge, Paula Karine; Soares, Simone; Machado, Maria Aparecida Andrade Moreira; Oliveira, Thais Marchini
Background: Individuals with cleft lip and palate have many anatomic and functional alterations compromising esthetics, hearing, speech, occlusion, and development/craniofacial growth. The rehabilitative treatment of these patients is very challenging and starts at birth aiming at the best treatment for all functional demands. This study aimed to evaluate the dimensional alterations of the dental arches of neonates with cleft lip and palate after two different primary surgical techniques. Materials and Methods: The sample comprised 114 digital models of children aged from 3 to 36 months, with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate divided into two groups. Two different phases were evaluated: precheiloplasty and 1 year after palatoplasty. The evaluation was performed through the digital models of each child obtained by scanning digitalization (3D Scanner). Dental arches measurements were accomplished through Appliance Designer software. The following measurements were assessed: dental arch area, anterior amplitude of the cleft, total length of dental arch, intercanine distance, and intertuberosity distance. t-test was applied to compare differences between groups. Results: No statistically significant differences were observed between groups at precheiloplasty phase. At 1 year after palatoplasty, the groups differed in the total length of dental arch (P = 0.002), with greater values for Group I. Conclusion: This study suggests that the results of the different surgical techniques may alter the growth and development of the dental arches of neonates with cleft lip and palate. PMID:28299266
ShanYong, Zhang; Liu, Huan; Yang, Chi; Zhang, XiaoHu; Abdelrehem, Ahmed; Zheng, JiSi; Jiao, ZiXian; Chen, MinJie; Qiu, YaTing
To present three modified techniques of total alloplastic temporomandibular joint replacement (TMJ TJR) and to evaluate the outcomes regarding prosthesis stability and heterotopic bone formation. A total of 15 patients (19 joints), treated with the Biomet stock prosthesis from May 2006 to May 2013, were retrospectively analyzed. Surgical procedures were performed with the following three modifications: bone grafting of the glenoid fossa; salvage of TMJ discs; and harvesting of retro-mandibular subcutaneous fats. The glenoid fossa depth was measured preoperatively by Surgicase 5.0 software. All patients were evaluated by radiographic examination and surgical observation. The fossa was grafted with an autogenous bone in 15 joints (78.9%). In 4 joints (21.1%), only bone repair was performed. Radiographic evaluation revealed a good integration between the autogenous and host bones. All patients showed postoperative occlusal stability. In 5 joints (26.3%), the discs were salvaged. Both bleeding and operation time were reduced. Fat grafts were harvested in 17 joints (89.5%), in which there were no abnormalities in the periprosthetic bone structure. In 2 joints (10.5%), with no fat grafting, heterotopic bone formation was found. The modified techniques of TJR help to improve prostheses stability, reducing heterotopic bone formation and avoiding additional scars. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dayer, Romain; Ceroni, Dimitri; Lascombes, Pierre
Untreated growing patients with congenital scoliosis and fused ribs will develop finally thoracic insufficiency syndrome. The technique of expansion thoracoplasty with implantation of a vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib (VEPTR) was introduced initially to treat these children. This article attempts to provide an overview of the surgical technique of opening-wedge thoracostomy and VEPTR instrumentation in children with congenital thoracic scoliosis and fused ribs. Our modification of the surgical approach using a posterior midline incision rather than the modified thoracotomy incision initially described could potentially help to diminish wound dehiscence and secondary infection, while preserving a more acceptable esthetic appearance of the back. Vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib-based treatments should be undertaken only with a good knowledge of its numerous specific complications. Every aspect of the treatment should be oriented to minimize these complications. At the same time it should be kept in mind that the ultimate step of this long-term fusionless treatment strategy will be a technically demanding spine fusion.
Kreeft, Davey; Arkenbout, Ewout Aart; Henselmans, Paulus Wilhelmus Johannes; van Furth, Wouter R.; Breedveld, Paul
A clear visualization of the operative field is of critical importance in endoscopic surgery. During surgery the endoscope lens can get fouled by body fluids (eg, blood), ground substance, rinsing fluid, bone dust, or smoke plumes, resulting in visual impairment. As a result, surgeons spend part of the procedure on intermittent cleaning of the endoscope lens. Current cleaning methods that rely on manual wiping or a lens irrigation system are still far from ideal, leading to longer procedure times, dirtying of the surgical site, and reduced visual acuity, potentially reducing patient safety. With the goal of finding a solution to these issues, a literature review was conducted to identify and categorize existing techniques capable of achieving optically clean surfaces, and to show which techniques can potentially be implemented in surgical practice. The review found that the most promising method for achieving surface cleanliness consists of a hybrid solution, namely, that of a hydrophilic or hydrophobic coating on the endoscope lens and the use of the existing lens irrigation system. PMID:28511635
Lyutenski, Stefan; Schwab, Burkard; Lenarz, Thomas; Salcher, Rolf; Majdani, Omid
The objective of the study was to examine the impact of the surgical wound closure technique as protection of the obliterated tympanomastoid cavity on the revision surgery rate after subtotal petrosectomy (SP). This is a retrospective case series conducted in a tertiary care referral center. 199 patients (212 ears) with recurrent chronic otitis media underwent SP followed by tympanomastoid obliteration with abdominal fat at a single tertiary referral center between 2005 and 2015. 124 SP were carried out without (group A), 74 with temporalis muscle flap (group B) and 14 with reinforcing material like polydioxanone foil or bovine pericardium or allogenic fascia lata (group C) for wound closure. The evaluated follow-up was either until the scheduled device implantation or 6 months postoperatively. We assessed the rate of postoperative wound healing disorder with revision surgery according to the surgical technique for closure of the obliterated cleft. Revision surgery due to impaired wound healing was necessary in 16 % of the total cases (group A: 18.5 %, group B: 10.8 %, group C: 21.4 %). Further analysis concerning the dehiscent area in both sites (retroauricular and blind sac of the external auditory canal) was conducted and discussed. There was no significant difference observed in the rate of revision surgery between the three groups. The wound healing process after SP is determined by many factors and cannot be significantly influenced solely by reinforcing tissue like the temporalis muscle flap or supporting materials.
Liu, Guang-Jiu; Zhang, Shao-Xiang; Qiu, Ming-Guo; Tan, Li-Wen; Li, Qi-Yu; Li, Kai
Performing surgeries on the craniocervical junction presents a technical challenge for operating surgeons. Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and surgical simulation have improved the efficacy and success rate of surgeries. The aim of this study was to create a 3D, digitized visible model of the craniocervical junction region to help realize accurate simulation of craniocervical surgery on a graphic workstation. Transverse sectional anatomy data for the study were chosen from the first Chinese visible human. Manual axial segmentation of the skull base, cervical spine, cerebellum, vertebral artery, internal carotid artery, sigmoid sinus, internal jugular vein, brain stem, and spinal cord were carried out by using Photoshop software. The segmented structures were reconstructed in 3 dimensions with surface and volume rendering to accurately display 3D models spatially. In contrast to conventional 3D reconstruction techniques that are based on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) inputs and provide mostly osseous details, this technique can help to illustrate the surrounding soft tissue structure and provide a realistic surgical simulation. The reconstructed 3D model was successfully used in simulating complex procedures in the virtual environment, including the transoral approach, bone drillings, and clivus resection.
Garcia Júnior, José Carlos; Paccola, Ana Maria Ferreira; Tonoli, Cristiane; Zabeu, José Luis Amin; Garcia, Jesely Pereira Myrrha
To describe a specific surgical technique for arthroscopic decompression of the suprascapular nerve (SSN) and evaluate its preliminary results. Methods: Ten shoulders of nine patients were operated using a technique with portals differing from the already-known techniques, which did not use traction and made use of materials available within the public healthcare system. Results: Among the ten shoulders of nine patients, eight were right shoulders and two were left shoulders. The mean age was 69.5 years. The UCLA score increased from 11.7 to 26.1 points over the postoperative follow-up of 16.6 months. The SF-36 questionnaire score was 122.9 and the raw pain scale value was 88%. Conclusion: Arthroscopic decompression of the SSN in accordance with the described technique is reproducible and less traumatic than the open techniques. The patients achieved improvements in many of the parameters evaluated, particularly with regard to pain. Arthroscopic decompression of the SSN may be a therapeutic option for pathological compression of the SSN. PMID:27027028
Cohen, Michael S; Ha, Austin Y; Kitsko, Dennis J; Chi, David H
As data continue to emerge demonstrating improved hearing outcomes associated with younger age at time of cochlear implantation, more children aged 12 months or younger are undergoing this procedure. Drilling a well to house the cochlear implant receiver/stimulator (R/S) may carry an increased risk in this group of patients as the calvarium is thin and drilling an adequate well may require exposure of the underlying dura. Our group has employed a technique in this age group which involves securing the R/S in a subperiosteal pocket without creating a bony well. We report our experience with six infants 12 months of age or younger undergoing cochlear implantation with the subperiosteal pocket technique. Cases were identified by searching an IRB approved research registry. Charts were reviewed for demographics, surgical technique, and clinical outcomes. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Six patients 12 months of age or younger underwent cochlear implantation over a one year period. Simultaneous bilateral implantation was performed in all cases, for a total of 12 implanted ears. The average age at time of implantation was 9.8 months (SD 2.1 months). There were no postoperative wound complications. No evidence of device migration was noted in any patient as of the most recent follow-up appointment. There was one device hard failure at 32 months. Average length of follow-up was 28.4 months (SD 13.8 months). No wound complications or device migrations occurred in 12 cochlear implantations in six children aged 12 months or younger. Advantages of this technique include no risk to the dura in this location, smaller incisions, and shorter surgical time. A potential disadvantage is the increased device profile from the lack of a well. New thinner implant designs may minimize this concern. Further prospective study is justified to confirm our initial experience in this small group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ma, Zhi-Gui; Yang, Chi; Xie, Qian-Yang; Xi, Qian-Yang; Ye, Zhou-Xi; Ye, Zhou-Xie; Zhang, Shan-Yong; Abdelrehem, Ahmed
To introduce grafting fixed with the periosteum (dumpling technique) as an alternative surgical technique for augmented corticotomy-assisted orthodontics in the lower anterior region and evaluate the preliminary outcomes. Eleven patients (9 women, 2 men; mean age, 21.4 yr) with a thin alveolus or alveolar defect in the lower anterior region by clinical and radiographic examination underwent an augmented corticotomy using the new dumpling technique. Cone-beam computerized tomography was used to evaluate morphologic changes of the lower anterior ridge before treatment (T0) and 1 week (T1) and 6 months (T2) after the bone-augmentation procedure. Repeated-measures analysis of variance with Bonferroni multiple-comparison test was used to compare variables at each time point. No severe postsurgical complications occurred in any patient. The mean alveolar bone thickness of the labial plate increased from T0 to T1 (P < .001) and decreased from T1 to T2 (P < .001). However, compared with T0, there was still a significant increase in horizontal bone thickness at T2 (P < .05). The vertical alveolar bone level increased from T0 to T1 (P < .001) and was maintained from T1 to T2 (P > .05). No significant differences were found in root length of the lower anterior teeth at these 3 time points (P > .05). In this preliminary study, the dumpling technique for augmented corticotomy-assisted surgical orthodontics showed alveolar bone augmentation by increasing the vertical alveolar height and the horizontal bone thickness in the labial aspect of the anterior mandibular area. However, long-term follow-up is necessary. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pippi Salle, J L; Sayed, S; Salle, A; Bagli, D; Farhat, W; Koyle, M; Lorenzo, A J
The optimal treatment of proximal hypospadias remains controversial. Several techniques have been described, but the best approach remains unsettled. To evaluate and compare the complication rates of proximal hypospadias with and without ventral curvature (VC), according to three different surgical techniques: tubularized incised plate (TIP) uretroplasty, dorsal inlay graft TIP (DIG), and staged preputial repair (SR). It was hypothesized that SR performs better than TIP and DIG for proximal hypospadias. Single-center, retrospective chart review of all patients with primary proximal hypospadias reconstructed between 2003 and 2013. The DIG was selectively employed in cases with narrow urethral plate (UP) and deficient spongiosum. Extensive urethral plate (UP) mobilization (UPM), dorsal plication (DP) and/or deep transverse incisions of tunica albuginea (DTITA) were selectively performed when attempting to spare transecting the UP. Division of UP and SR was favored in cases with severe VC (>50°), which was often concurrently managed with DTITA if intrinsic curvature was present. For SR, tubularization of the graft was performed 6 months later. A total of 140 patients were included. Tubularized incised plate (TIP), DIG, and SR techniques were performed in 57, 23, and 60 patients, respectively. The TIP and DIG techniques achieved similar success rates, although DIG was performed in cases of narrow and spongiosum-deficient plates. Reoperation rates with TIP and DIG techniques was 52.6% and 52.1% (NS). Urethro-cutaneous fistulas were seen in 31.5% and 13% of TIP and DIG techniques, respectively. Staged repair accomplished better results than both TIP and DIG techniques, despite being performed in the most unfavorable cases (reoperation rate 28%). After technical modifications, the DIG technique achieved similar outcomes of SR. Proximal hypospadias remains challenging, regardless of the technique utilized for its repair. Urethro-cutaneous fistulas were more commonly seen
Patra, Shashi B.
Alternative generation technologies such as fuel cells, micro-turbines, solar etc. have been the focus of active research in the past decade. These energy sources are small and modular. Because of these advantages, these sources can be deployed effectively at or near locations where they are actually needed, i.e. in the distribution network. This is in contrast to the traditional electricity generation which has been "centralized" in nature. The new technologies can be deployed in a "distributed" manner. Therefore, they are also known as Distributed Energy Resources (DER). It is expected that the use of DER, will grow significantly in the future. Hence, it is prudent to interconnect the energy resources in a meshed or grid-like structure, so as to exploit the reliability and economic benefits of distributed deployment. These grids, which are smaller in scale but similar to the electric transmission grid, are known as "microgrids". This dissertation presents rational methods of building microgrids optimized for cost and subject to system-wide and locational reliability guarantees. The first method is based on dynamic programming and consists of determining the optimal interconnection between microsources and load points, given their locations and the rights of way for possible interconnections. The second method is based on particle swarm optimization. This dissertation describes the formulation of the optimization problem and the solution methods. The applicability of the techniques is demonstrated in two possible situations---design of a microgrid from scratch and expansion of an existing distribution system.
Krämer, Andreas; Hülsmann, Marco; Köddermann, Thorsten; Reith, Dirk
In this work, different global optimization techniques are assessed for the automated development of molecular force fields, as used in molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations. The quest of finding suitable force field parameters is treated as a mathematical minimization problem. Intricate problem characteristics such as extremely costly and even abortive simulations, noisy simulation results, and especially multiple local minima naturally lead to the use of sophisticated global optimization algorithms. Five diverse algorithms (pure random search, recursive random search, CMA-ES, differential evolution, and taboo search) are compared to our own tailor-made solution named CoSMoS. CoSMoS is an automated workflow. It models the parameters' influence on the simulation observables to detect a globally optimal set of parameters. It is shown how and why this approach is superior to other algorithms. Applied to suitable test functions and simulations for phosgene, CoSMoS effectively reduces the number of required simulations and real time for the optimization task.
Wadenya, Rose; Fulcher, Megan; Grunwald, Tal; Nussbaum, Burton; Grunwald, Zvi
Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a rare and debilitating genetic disorder of skeletal malformations and progressive heterotopic ossification. Flare-ups are episodic, with bone formation in skeletal muscle and connective tissue leading to ankylosis of major joints of the axial and appendicular skeleton. This report outlines the management of a patient with FOP who had ankylosis of the temporomandibular joint and progressive ossification of the neck structures. The patient underwent two different surgical and anesthetic procedures within a 10-year period to manage his oral pain. The authors compare the surgical techniques, osteotomy versus the more conservative buccal approach, anesthesia techniques, and conventional intubation versus sedated fiberoptic intubation. This report emphasizes the importance of a less invasive surgical technique and an appropriate anesthetic management that reduces the risks, cost, and morbidity associated with routine surgical management of patients with FOP.
Koskela, Timo; Vatjus-Anttila, Jarkko
3D Internet technologies are becoming essential enablers in many application areas including games, education, collaboration, navigation and social networking. The use of 3D Internet applications with mobile devices provides location-independent access and richer use context, but also performance issues. Therefore, one of the important challenges facing 3D Internet applications is the deployment of 3D graphics on mobile devices. In this article, we present an extensive survey on optimization techniques for 3D graphics deployment on mobile devices and qualitatively analyze the applicability of each technique from the standpoints of visual quality, performance and energy consumption. The analysis focuses on optimization techniques related to data-driven 3D graphics deployment, because it supports off-line use, multi-user interaction, user-created 3D graphics and creation of arbitrary 3D graphics. The outcome of the analysis facilitates the development and deployment of 3D Internet applications on mobile devices and provides guidelines for future research.
Hinojosa, Carlos A; Ortiz-Lopez, Laura J; Anaya-Ayala, Javier E; Orozco-Sevilla, Vicente; Nunez-Salgado, Ana E
Carotid body tumors (CBTs) are rare neoplasms. Complete surgical resection is the curative therapy and is considered the therapeutic gold standard. This study compared the retrocarotid dissection (RCD) technique with the standard caudocranial dissection (SCCD) technique in operative time, blood loss, vascular or nerve injuries, and hospital stay. A retrospective review was conducted of patients with CBTs who underwent surgical treatment with the RCD technique at the National Institute of Medical Sciences and Nutrition "Salvador Zubirán" in Mexico City from July 2007 to January 2013. This cohort was compared with an historical cohort treated with standard SCCD from 1995 to 2007 at the same institution. A total of 68 procedures (41 SCCD, 27 RCD) were performed in 68 patients (91% women) with a mean age of 54 years (standard deviation [SD], 15 years). According to the Shamblin classification, 6 CBTs were type I (9%), 35 were type II (51%), and 27 were type III (40%). Comparative analysis identified mean blood loss of 480 mL (SD, 380 mL) in the RCD group and 690 mL (SD, 680 mL) for the SCCD cohort (P < .31). The mean procedural time was 172 minutes (SD, 60 minutes) for the RCD group and 260 minutes (SD, 100 minutes) for the SCCD group (P < .001). Hospital stay was significantly shorter for the RCD group with an average of 5 days (SD, 2 days) compared with 9 days (SD, 6 days) for the SCCD cohort (P < .0001). Cranial nerve deficit occurred in 17 patients, consisting of six transient nerve palsies in the RCD cohort and 11 in the SCCD group. Postoperative cerebrovascular accidents occurred in three patients in the SCCD cohort, with none observed in the RCD group. This translates into a rate of 22% of postoperative neurologic complications for the RCD cohort and 34% in the SCCD group (P < .08). Significant differences in intraoperative vascular injuries were not observed. The RCD technique is a safe and viable option for the surgical resection of CBTs. In our experience
Donohoo, Brad Kyoshi
Mobile smartphones and other portable battery operated embedded systems (PDAs, tablets) are pervasive computing devices that have emerged in recent years as essential instruments for communication, business, and social interactions. While performance, capabilities, and design are all important considerations when purchasing a mobile device, a long battery lifetime is one of the most desirable attributes. Battery technology and capacity has improved over the years, but it still cannot keep pace with the power consumption demands of today's mobile devices. This key limiter has led to a strong research emphasis on extending battery lifetime by minimizing energy consumption, primarily using software optimizations. This thesis presents two strategies that attempt to optimize mobile device energy consumption with negligible impact on user perception and quality of service (QoS). The first strategy proposes an application and user interaction aware middleware framework that takes advantage of user idle time between interaction events of the foreground application to optimize CPU and screen backlight energy consumption. The framework dynamically classifies mobile device applications based on their received interaction patterns, then invokes a number of different power management algorithms to adjust processor frequency and screen backlight levels accordingly. The second strategy proposes the usage of machine learning techniques to learn a user's mobile device usage pattern pertaining to spatiotemporal and device contexts, and then predict energy-optimal data and location interface configurations. By learning where and when a mobile device user uses certain power-hungry interfaces (3G, WiFi, and GPS), the techniques, which include variants of linear discriminant analysis, linear logistic regression, non-linear logistic regression, and k-nearest neighbor, are able to dynamically turn off unnecessary interfaces at runtime in order to save energy.
Chen, Biao; Smith, Andrew P.; Jing, Zhenxue; Ingal, Elena
Single Mo target, Mo / Rh, or Mo / W bi-track targets with corresponding Mo and Rh filters have provided optimal target / filter combinations for traditional screen / film systems. In the advent of full-field digital mammography, similar target / filter combinations were adopted directly for digital imaging systems with direct and indirect conversion based detectors. To reduce the average glandular dose while maintaining the clinical image quality of FFDMs, alternative target / filter combinations have been investigated extensively to take advantages of the digital detectors with high dynamic range, high detection dose efficiency, and low noise level. This paper reports the development of a digital FFDM system that is equipped with single tungsten target and rhodium and silver filters. A mathematical model was constructed to quantitatively simulate x-ray spectra, breast compositions, contrast objects, x-ray scatter distribution, grid performance, and characteristics of a-Se flat panel detector. Computer simulations were performed to select kV/filter for different breast thickness and breast compositions through maximizing the contrast object detection dose efficiency. A set of phantom experiments were employed to optimize the x-ray techniques within the constraints of exposure time and required dose levels. A 50-micrometer rhodium filter was applied for thin and average breasts and a 50-micrometer silver filter for thicker breasts. To meet our design requirements and EUREF protocol specifications, we finely adjusted x-ray techniques for 0.45, 0.75, 1.0, 1.35 mGy dose modes with regards to ACR phantom scoring and PMMA phantom SNR/CNR performance, respectively. The optimal x-ray techniques significantly reduce average glandular dose while maintaining imaging performance.
DETERMINE THE METHOD VF SCHEDULING SURGERY TO OPTIMIZE UTILIZATION OF SURGICAL RESOURCES AT LANDSTUHL ARMY REGIONAL MEDICAL CENTER 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR...GROUP Health Care, Surgery Scheduling 19, ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) This study was conducted to determine...the optimum method of scheduling surgery to make maximum use of the surgical facilities at Landstuhl Army Regional Medical Center. Current scheduling
Thirupathi Kannan, Balaji; Krishnasamy, Krishnaveni; Pradeep Kumar Kenny, S.
A new fuzzy based thresholding method for medical images especially cervical cytology images having blob and mosaic structures is proposed in this paper. Many existing thresholding algorithms may segment either blob or mosaic images but there aren't any single algorithm that can do both. In this paper, an input cervical cytology image is binarized, preprocessed and the pixel value with minimum Fuzzy Gaussian Index is identified as an optimal threshold value and used for segmentation. The proposed technique is tested on various cervical cytology images having blob or mosaic structures, compared with various existing algorithms and proved better than the existing algorithms.
Thirupathi Kannan, Balaji; Krishnasamy, Krishnaveni; Pradeep Kumar Kenny, S.
A new fuzzy based thresholding method for medical images especially cervical cytology images having blob and mosaic structures is proposed in this paper. Many existing thresholding algorithms may segment either blob or mosaic images but there aren't any single algorithm that can do both. In this paper, an input cervical cytology image is binarized, preprocessed and the pixel value with minimum Fuzzy Gaussian Index is identified as an optimal threshold value and used for segmentation. The proposed technique is tested on various cervical cytology images having blob or mosaic structures, compared with various existing algorithms and proved better than the existing algorithms.
Newlin, Heather E; Indelicato, Daniel J; Abbitt, Patricia; Marshall, Julia; Wymer, David; Grobmyer, Stephen; Haigh, Linda; Copeland, Edward; Morris, Christopher G; Mendenhall, Nancy P
Scarring in the tumor bed may mask or mimic local recurrence of tumor on surveillance mammography. Type of surgical closure technique used during lumpectomy may impact the pattern or density of scar tissue apparent in the tumor bed on mammography. This study sought to determine whether surgical closure type affects tumor-bed scar formation and impacts interpretation of surveillance mammography in women treated with breast-conserving therapy for early-stage breast cancer. One hundred women who received breast-conserving therapy were selected; 99 of them had 2-year post-treatment mammograms for the treated breast. Craniocaudal and mediolateral oblique views were reviewed by 3 subspecialty radiologists who routinely read mammograms. The mammograms were scored on 5-point scales for overall breast density and scarring within the tumor bed. The analyses did not demonstrate greater scarring or density in breast status post superficial closure compared with breast status post full-thickness closure, or vice versa (P > 0.05 for scarring and density). There were no detectable differences between the 2 closure techniques either within the data from individual reviewers, within the composite data for the entire group of reviewers, or in instances where 2 of 3 reviewers agreed (P > 0.05). There was significant interobserver variability in scoring among the mammographers for both scarring (P = 0.001) and density (P < 0.0001). Based on our study of the 2-year post-treatment mammograms, there was no evidence that closure technique impacts degree of scarring in the tumor bed. However, striking interobserver variability in scoring density and scarring was noted.
Davidson, Jennifer L.
It has been well established that the Air Force Armament Technical Laboratory (AFATL) image algebra is capable of expressing all linear transformations . The embedding of the linear algebra in the image algebra makes this possible. In this paper we show a relation of the image algebra to another algebraic system called the minimax algebra. This system is used extensively in economics and operations research, but until now has not been investigated for applications to image processing. The relationship is exploited to develop new optimization methods for a class of non-linear image processing transforms. In particular, a general decomposition technique for templates in this non-linear domain is presented. Template decomposition techniques are an important tool in mapping algorithms efficiently to both sequential and massively parallel architectures.
Katz, Michael G.; Swain, JaBaris D.; White, Jennifer D.; Low, David; Stedman, Hansell
Abstract Vector-mediated cardiac gene therapy holds tremendous promise as a translatable platform technology for treating many cardiovascular diseases. The ideal technique is one that is efficient and practical, allowing for global cardiac gene expression, while minimizing collateral expression in other organs. Here we survey the available in vivo vector-mediated cardiac gene delivery methods—including transcutaneous, intravascular, intramuscular, and cardiopulmonary bypass techniques—with consideration of the relative merits and deficiencies of each. Review of available techniques suggests that an optimal method for vector-mediated gene delivery to the large animal myocardium would ideally employ retrograde and/or anterograde transcoronary gene delivery,extended vector residence time in the coronary circulation, an increased myocardial transcapillary gradient using physical methods, increased endothelial permeability with pharmacological agents, minimal collateral gene expression by isolation of the cardiac circulation from the systemic, and have low immunogenicity. PMID:19947886
Zhiqing, Geng; Haiyong, Wang; Nanjian, Wu
This paper proposes a novel noise optimization technique. The technique gives analytical formulae for the noise performance of inductively degenerated CMOS low noise amplifier (LNA) circuits with an ideal gate inductor for a fixed bias voltage and nonideal gate inductor for a fixed power dissipation, respectively, by mathematical analysis and reasonable approximation methods. LNA circuits with required noise figure can be designed effectively and rapidly just by using hand calculations of the proposed formulae. We design a 1.8 GHz LNA in a TSMC 0.25 μm CMOS process. The measured results show a noise figure of 1.6 dB with a forward gain of 14.4 dB at a power consumption of 5 mW, demonstrating that the designed LNA circuits can achieve low noise figure levels at low power dissipation.
Mccarthy, Thomas R.; Chattopadhyay, Aditi
A multidisciplinary optimization procedure is developed for the design of high speed proprotors. The objectives are to simultaneously maximize the propulsive efficiency in high speed cruise without sacrificing the rotor figure of merit in hover. Since the problem involves multiple design objectives, multiobjective function formulation techniques are used. A derailed two-celled isotropic box beam is used to model the load carrying member within the rotor blade. Constraints are imposed on rotor blade aeroelastic stability in cruise, the first natural frequency in hover and total blade weight. Both aerodynamic and structural design variables are used. The results obtained using both techniques are compared to the reference rotor and show significant aerodynamic performance improvements without sacrificing dynamic and aeroelastic stability requirements.
Eslami, Sohrab; Fischer, Gregory S; Song, Sang-Eun; Tokuda, Junichi; Hata, Nobuhiko; Tempany, Clare M; Iordachita, Iulian
This paper undertakes the modular design and development of a minimally invasive surgical manipulator for MRI-guided transperineal prostate interventions. Severe constraints for the MRI-compatibility to hold the minimum artifact on the image quality and dimensions restraint of the bore scanner shadow the design procedure. Regarding the constructive design, the manipulator kinematics has been optimized and the effective analytical needle workspace is developed and followed by proposing the workflow for the manual needle insertion. A study of the finite element analysis is established and utilized to improve the mechanism weaknesses under some inevitable external forces to ensure the minimum structure deformation. The procedure for attaching a sterile plastic drape on the robot manipulator is discussed. The introduced robotic manipulator herein is aimed for the clinically prostate biopsy and brachytherapy applications.
Eslami, Sohrab; Fischer, Gregory S.; Song, Sang-Eun; Tokuda, Junichi; Hata, Nobuhiko; Tempany, Clare M.; Iordachita, Iulian
This paper undertakes the modular design and development of a minimally invasive surgical manipulator for MRI-guided transperineal prostate interventions. Severe constraints for the MRI-compatibility to hold the minimum artifact on the image quality and dimensions restraint of the bore scanner shadow the design procedure. Regarding the constructive design, the manipulator kinematics has been optimized and the effective analytical needle workspace is developed and followed by proposing the workflow for the manual needle insertion. A study of the finite element analysis is established and utilized to improve the mechanism weaknesses under some inevitable external forces to ensure the minimum structure deformation. The procedure for attaching a sterile plastic drape on the robot manipulator is discussed. The introduced robotic manipulator herein is aimed for the clinically prostate biopsy and brachytherapy applications. PMID:24683502
Benis, Szabolcs; Goubau, Jean F; Mermuys, Koen; Van Hoonacker, Petrus; Berghs, Bart; Kerckhove, Diederick; Vanmierlo, Bert
Background Ulnocarpal abutment is a common condition following distal radius fractures. There are different surgical methods of treatment for this pathology: open and arthroscopic wafer procedure or an ulnar shortening osteotomy. We describe an oblique metaphyseal shortening osteotomy of the distal ulna using two cannulated headless compression screws. We report the results of 10 patients treated with this method. Materials and Methods Out of 17 patients, 10 could be reviewed retrospectively for this study. Patient-rated outcomes were measured using the VAS (visual analogue scale) for pain, PRWHE (patient-rated wrist and hand evaluation) survey, and Quick-DASH (disability of arm, shoulder and hand) survey for functional outcomes. At the review we measured the range of motion (ROM) of the wrist (extension and flexion, ulnar and radial deviation, pronation and supination). Grip strength, pronation, and supination strength of the forearm was measured using a calibrated hydraulic dynamometer. ROM and strength of the affected wrist was compared with ROM and strength of the unaffected wrist. Surgical Procedure Oblique long metaphyseal osteotomy of the distal ulna (from proximal-ulnar to distal-radial), fixed with two cannulated headless compression screws. Results The average postoperative VAS score for pain was 23.71 (standard deviation [SD] of 30.41). The average postoperative PRWHE score was 32.55 (SD of 26.28). The average postoperative Quick-DASH score was 28.65 (SD of 27.21). The majority of patients had a comparable ROM and strength between the operated side and the non-operated side. Conclusion This surgical technique has the advantage of reducing the amount of hardware and to decrease the potential hinder caused by it on medium term. Moreover, the incision remains smaller, and the anatomic metaphyseal localization of the osteotomy potentially allows a better and rapid healing.
Vass, Gabor; Mohos, Gabor; Bere, Zsofia; Ivan, Laszlo; Varga, Janos; Piffko, Jozsef; Rovo, Laszlo
Nasal deformity associated with cleft lip and palate is a highly challenging reconstructive problem in rhinoplasty. In the literature, several operative solutions and evaluation methods have been described, however these do not offer a standard procedure for the surgeon. Our aim was to standardize our surgical technique-as much as the uniqueness of each case allowed it-based on the most frequent deformities we had faced; and to evaluate our results via a postoperative patient satisfaction questionnaire. Between 2012 and 2014 12 consecutive patients with combined cleft lip and palate deformities underwent secondary nasal and septal correction surgery with the same method by the same surgeon. The indications of surgery were, on one hand, difficult nasal breathing and altered nasal function (tendency for chronic rhinosinusitis) and on the other hand the aesthetic look of the nose. No exclusion criteria were stated. In our follow-up study we evaluated our results by using a modified Rhinoplasty Outcome Evaluation (ROE) questionnaire: patients answered the same four questions pre- and postoperatively. Data were statistically analyzed by t-test. Based on the questionnaire, all patients experienced improvement of nasal breathing function, improved appearance of the nose and less stigmatization from the society. According to the t-test, all scores of the four questions improved significantly in the postoperative 4-6 months, compared with the preoperative scores. In our opinion with our standardized surgical steps satisfactory aesthetic and functional results can be achieved. We think the modified ROE questionnaire is an adequate and simple method for the evaluation of our surgical results.
Simone, Giuseppe; Papalia, Rocco; Misuraca, Leonardo; Tuderti, Gabriele; Minisola, Francesco; Ferriero, Mariaconsiglia; Vallati, Giulio; Guaglianone, Salvatore; Gallucci, Michele
Robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) with intracorporeal neobladder reconstruction is a challenging procedure. The need for surgical skills and the long operative times have led to concern about its reproducibility. To illustrate our technique for RARC and totally intracorporeal orthotopic Padua ileal bladder. From August 2012 to February 2014, 45 patients underwent this technique at a single tertiary referral centre. RARC, extended pelvic lymph node dissection, and intracorporeal partly stapled neobladder. Surgical steps are demonstrated in the accompanying video. Demographics, clinical, and pathological data were collected. Perioperative, 2-yr oncologic and 2-yr functional outcomes were reported. Intraoperative transfusion or conversion to open surgery was not necessary in any case and intracorporeal neobladder was successfully performed in all 45 patients. Median operative time was 305min (interquartile range [IQR]: 282-345). Median estimated blood loss was 210ml (IQR: 50-250). Median hospital stay was 9 d (IQR: 7-12). The overall incidence of perioperative, 30-d and 180-d complications were 44.4%, 57.8%, and 77.8%, respectively, while severe complications occurred in17.8%, 17.8%, and 35.5%, respectively. Two-yr daytime and night-time continence rates were 73.3% and 55.5%, respectively. Two-yr disease free survival, cancer specific survival, and overall survival rates were 72.5%, 82.3%, and 82.4%, respectively. The small sample size and high caseload of the centre might affect the reproducibility of these results. Our experience supports the feasibility of totally intracorporeal neobladder following RARC. Operative times and perioperative complication rates are likely to be reduced with increasing experience. We report the outcomes of our first 45 consecutive patients who underwent robot-assisted radical cystectomy with intracorporeal neobladders. Perioperative, oncologic, and functional outcomes support this technique as a feasible and safe surgical option
McLean, K J; Dahlen, C R; Borowicz, P P; Reynolds, L P; Crosswhite, M R; Neville, B W; Walden, S D; Caton, J S
We hypothesized that a standing flank ovariohysterectomy procedure could be developed in beef heifers that would provide high quality tissues for addressing critical questions during early pregnancy, while concomitantly keeping livestock stewardship a high priority. To test the hypothesis, we: 1) developed a standing flank ovariohysterectomy procedure for use in beef heifers, and 2) implemented this procedure in a cohort of heifers up to d 50 of pregnancy for tissue collections, documentation of post-surgical recovery, and assessment of feedlot finishing performance. Ovariectomy and cesarean section protocols are well established in research and veterinary medicine and were used as starting points for procedural development. Crossbred Angus heifers ( = 46; ∼ 15 mo of age; BW = 362.3 ± 34.7 kg) were used to develop this new surgical tissue collection technique. Heifers were subjected to the 5-d CO-Synch + CIDR estrous synchronization protocol so ovariohysterectomy occurred at d 16, 22, 28, 34, 40, and 50 of gestation. Key aspects of the standing flank ovariohysterectomy technique included 1) use of local anesthetic for a standing flank incision, 2) locate the uterine and ovarian arteries via blind palpation and ligate them through the broad ligament via an improved clinch knot, 3) cut the ovaries and uterus free from the broad ligament, 4) ligate the cervix and uterine branch of the vaginal artery, and 5) cut through the cervix and remove the reproductive tract. Surgical times, from skin incision to placement of the last suture, were influenced ( = 0.04) by stage of gestation. In pregnant heifers, time decreased from d 22 (120.0 ± 12.0 min) of gestation to d 40 (79.5 ± 12.0 min) of gestation; then increased at d 50 (90.5 ± 14.7 min) of gestation. Using this procedure, we obtained uterine, placental, and embryo/fetal tissues that had experienced limited hypoxia, little or no trauma, and thus were excellent quality for scientific study. All heifers recovered
Spivak, Hadar; Azran, Carmil; Spectre, Galia; Lidermann, Galina; Blumenfeld, Orit
The degree, prevalence, and risk factors linked to sleeve gastrectomy (SG) postoperative hemorrhage (POH) have not been fully defined. An analysis was conducted on a prospectively collected database of 394 consecutive primary SGs performed in a single practice from January 2014 to December 2015. (1) acute POH, defined by red blood cell (RBC) transfusion and/or re-exploration; (2) subclinical POH, defined by postoperative hemoglobin drop (HgbD) >one standard deviation above mean. Variables tested included three surgical techniques: normal stapling (n = 137), "tight" stapling, (n = 142) and oversewing, (n = 115); age; gender; body mass index (BMI); co-morbidities; and elevated postoperative systolic blood pressure. Acute POH occurred in 11/394 patients (2.8%) and subclinical POH (HgbD > 2.2 g/dL) was detected in 27/312 (7.7%) of patients with available HgbD data. Acute POH patients had a mean HgbD of 5.43 ± 1.40 g/dl (p < 0.001) reflecting approximately 38.6% ± 10.0% of total blood volume. No difference in prevalence of POH was observed for the different surgical techniques. Compared with non-bleeders (n = 312), acute and subclinical POH patients (n = 38) had 52.6 vs. 27.2% prevalence type-2 diabetes (T2D) and 60.5 vs. 40.1% prevalence of dyslipidemia and higher mean preoperative hemoglobin 14.3 ± 11 vs.13.5 ± 1.2 (p < 0.05 for all). On regression analysis, only T2D (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.2-5.6) and higher level of preoperative hemoglobin (OR 1.7; 95% CI 1.3-2.4) were independent risk factors for POH. In this study, acute and subclinical POH were primarily linked to T2D and not to surgical techniques. Special consideration is recommended for patients with T2D undergoing SG.
This thesis combines two ubiquitous trends in the VLSI design world--the move towards designing at higher levels of design abstraction, and the increasing importance of power consumption as a design metric. Power estimation and optimization tools are becoming an increasingly important part of design flows, driven by a variety of requirements such as prolonging battery life in portable computing and communication devices, thermal considerations and system cooling and packaging costs, reliability issues (e.g. electromigration, ground bounce, and I-R drops in the power network), and environmental concerns. This thesis presents a suite of techniques to automatically perform power analysis and optimization for designs at the architecture or register-transfer, and behavior or algorithm levels of the design hierarchy. High-level synthesis refers to the process of synthesizing, from an abstract behavioral description, a register-transfer implementation that satisfies the desired constraints. High-level synthesis tools typically perform one or more of the following tasks: transformations, module selection, clock selection, scheduling, and resource allocation and assignment (also called resource sharing or hardware sharing). High-level synthesis techniques for minimizing the area, maximizing the performance, and enhancing the testability of the synthesized designs have been investigated. This thesis presents high-level synthesis techniques that minimize power consumption in the synthesized data paths. This thesis investigates the effects of resource sharing on the power consumption in the data path, provides techniques to efficiently estimate power consumption during resource sharing, and resource sharing algorithms to minimize power consumption. The RTL circuit that is obtained from the high-level synthesis process can be further optimized for power by applying power-reducing RTL transformations. This thesis presents macro-modeling and estimation techniques for switching
Möller, Mecker G; Lugo-Baruqui, Jose Alejandro; Milikowski, Clara; Salgado, Christopher J
Extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD) is an adenocarcinoma of the apocrine glands with unknown exact prevalence and obscure etiology. It has been divided into primary EMPD and secondary EMPD, in which an internal malignancy is usually associated. Treatment for primary EMPD usually consists of wide lesion excision with negative margins. Multiple methods have been proposed to obtain free-margin status of the disease. These include visible border lesion excision, punch biopsies, and micrographic and frozen-section surgery, with different results but still high recurrence rates. The investigators propose a method consisting of a staged contoured marginal excision using "en face" permanent pathologic analysis preceding the steps of central excision of the lesion and the final reconstruction of the surgical defect. Advantages of this method include adequate margin control allowing final reconstruction and tissue preservation, while minimizing patient discomfort. The staged contoured marginal and central excision technique offers a new alternative to the armamentarium for surgical oncologists for the management of EMPD in which margin control is imperative for control of recurrence rates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
De Sousa Fontes, Aderito; Sandrea Jiménez, Minaret; Chacaltana Ayerve, Rosa R
The microdebrider is a surgical tool which has been used successfully in many endoscopic surgical procedures in otolaryngology. In this study, we analysed our experience using this powered instrument in the resection of obstructive nasal septum deviations. This was a longitudinal, prospective, descriptive study conducted between January and June 2007 on 141 patients who consulted for chronic nasal obstruction caused by a septal deviation or deformity and underwent powered endoscopic septoplasty (PES). The mean age was 39.9 years (15-63 years); 60.28% were male (n=85) The change in nasal symptom severity decreased after surgery from 6.12 (preoperative) to 2.01 (postoperative). Patients undergoing PES had a significant reduction of nasal symptoms in the pre- and postoperative period, which was statistically significant (P<.05). There were no statistically significant differences between the results at the 2 nd week, 6th week and 5th year after surgery. The 100% of patients were satisfied with the results of surgery and no patient answered "No" to the question added to compare patient satisfaction after surgery. Minor complications in the postoperative period were present in 4.96% of the cases. Powered endoscopic septoplasty allows accurate, conservative repair of obstructive nasal septum deviations, with fewer complications and better functional results. In our experience, this technique offered significant perioperative advantages with high postoperative patient satisfaction in terms of reducing the severity of nasal symptoms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Sedlack, Jeffrey D
Surgeons have been slow to incorporate industrial reliability techniques. Process control methods were applied to surgeon waiting time between cases, and to length of stay (LOS) after colon surgery. Waiting times between surgeries were evaluated by auditing the operating room records of a single hospital over a 1-month period. The medical records of 628 patients undergoing colon surgery over a 5-year period were reviewed. The average surgeon wait time between cases was 53 min, and the busiest surgeon spent 291/2 hr in 1 month waiting between surgeries. Process control charting demonstrated poor overall control of the room turnover process. Average LOS after colon resection also demonstrated very poor control. Mean LOS was 10 days. Weibull's conditional analysis revealed a conditional LOS of 9.83 days. Serious process management problems were identified in both analyses. These process issues are both expensive and adversely affect the quality of service offered by the institution. Process control mechanisms were suggested or implemented to improve these surgical processes. Industrial reliability and quality management tools can easily and effectively identify process control problems that occur on surgical services.
Zanotti, Gerardo; Comba, Fernando; Genovesi, Eduardo; Buttaro, Martin; Piccaluga, Francisco
Aim: We purposed to describe the surgical technique and preliminary outcomes of combined arthroscopic and periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) for the treatment of non-arthritic hip dysplasia. Methods: Between May and August 2015, 4 patients (3 female, 1 male) with an average age of 29 years old (range; 22-33) had undergone one-stage hip arthroscopy and periacetabular osteotomy. Primary symptom was pain associated with instability. Upon radiographic examination, mean lateral center-edge angle of Wiberg was 12° (range; 7°-18°). Intra-articular findings were computed and primary outomes were as follows: radiographic angular correction; time to healing after pelvis osteotomy and functional results according to Merle D’Aubigné Score. Results: Minimum follow-up was 6 months whereas maximum was 9 months. Mean surgical time was 98 minutes for hip arthroscopy and 132 minutes for the osteotomy. In all cases, a lesion of the antero-superior labrum and the chondro-labral junction was found and repaired. After correction, overall postoperative center-edge angle was 29° (range; 25°-35°). Bone healing was certified in all cases at 6 months postoperatively. Overall Merle D’Aubigné Score was 17/18 points. Conclusion: Combined treatment of non-arthritic hip dysplasia with hip arthroscopy and PAO obtained good clinical and radiological outcomes. Former arthroscopy enables the diagnosis of cartilage lesions and intra-articular pathology as well as it aids in proceeding or not to an open correction.
Billingham, M J; Basterfield, S J
The laparoscopic treatment of pediatric populations remains controversial. This review was conducted to compare the clinical and cost effectiveness of laparoscopic and open surgical approaches for a variety of surgical indications in pediatric populations. A computerized comprehensive search supplemented by a manual review of the literature was performed for all peer-reviewed publications comparing laparoscopic and open appendectomy, fundoplication and hernia repair cohorts. Outcomes of interest were length of stay (LOS), operating room (OR) time, complication rates and total hospital costs; aggregation of outcome rates was performed with the Mantel-Haenszel method. A total of 24 articles were identified that met the search and inclusion criteria. LOS was found to be significantly reduced in favor of the laparoscopic approach, with a weighted mean difference of -1.44 days, although the OR time was significantly increased, with a weighted mean difference of +12.8 min. Laparoscopic intervention was associated with a significantly reduced complication rate compared to the open approach (10.6 vs. 15.6%). Total hospital costs of the laparoscopic approaches were found to be insignificantly increased compared to the open techniques. This review further supports the use of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) in pediatric populations, demonstrating that the three types laparoscopic procedures reviewed resulted in better patient outcomes compared to open procedures, in the form of reduced LOS and overall complication rates. Increased utilization of this approach may prove beneficial to pediatric patients.
Benyoucef, Fatima; Makan, Abdelhadi; El Ghmari, Abderrahman; Ouatmane, Aziz
This paper introduces an optimized evaporation technique for leachate treatment. For this purpose and in order to study the feasibility and measure the effectiveness of the forced evaporation, three cuboidal steel tubs were designed and implemented. The first control-tub was installed at the ground level to monitor natural evaporation. Similarly, the second and the third tub, models under investigation, were installed respectively at the ground level (equipped-tub 1) and out of the ground level (equipped-tub 2), and provided with special equipment to accelerate the evaporation process. The obtained results showed that the evaporation rate at the equipped-tubs was much accelerated with respect to the control-tub. It was accelerated five times in the winter period, where the evaporation rate was increased from a value of 0.37 mm/day to reach a value of 1.50 mm/day. In the summer period, the evaporation rate was accelerated more than three times and it increased from a value of 3.06 mm/day to reach a value of 10.25 mm/day. Overall, the optimized evaporation technique can be applied effectively either under electric or solar energy supply, and will accelerate the evaporation rate from three to five times whatever the season temperature.
Finsterle, S.; Pruess, K.
The T2VOC computer model for simulating the transport of organic chemical contaminants in non-isothermal multiphase systems has been coupled to the ITOUGH2 code which solves parameter optimization problems. This allows one to use linear programming and simulated annealing techniques to solve groundwater management problems, i.e. the optimization of operations for multiphase aquifer remediation. A cost function has to be defined, containing the actual and hypothetical expenses of a cleanup operation which depend - directly or indirectly - on the state variables calculated by T2VOC. Subsequently, the code iteratively determines a remediation strategy (e.g. pumping schedule) which minimizes, for instance, pumping and energy costs, the time for cleanup, and residual contamination. We discuss an illustrative sample problem to discuss potential applications of the code. The study shows that the techniques developed for estimating model parameters can be successfully applied to the solution of remediation management problems. The resulting optimum pumping scheme depends, however, on the formulation of the remediation goals and the relative weighting between individual terms of the cost function.
Colling, Kristin P; Glover, James K; Statz, Catherine A; Geller, Melissa A; Beilman, Greg J
Hysterectomy is one of the most common procedures performed in the United States. New techniques utilizing laparoscopic and robotic technology are becoming increasingly common. It is unknown if these minimally invasive surgical techniques alter the risk of surgical site infections (SSI). We performed a retrospective review of all patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy at our institution between January 2011 and June 2013. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth edition (ICD-9) codes and chart review were used to identify patients undergoing hysterectomy by open, laparoscopic, or robotic approach and to identify patients who developed SSI subsequently. Chi-square and analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests were used to identify univariate risk factors and logistic regression was used to perform multivariable analysis. During this time period, 986 patients were identified who had undergone abdominal hysterectomy, with 433 receiving open technique (44%), 116 laparoscopic (12%), 407 robotic (41%), and 30 cases that were converted from minimally invasive to open (3%). Patients undergoing laparoscopic-assisted hysterectomy were significantly younger and had lower body mass index (BMI) and American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) scores than those undergoing open or robotic hysterectomy. There were no significant differences between patients undergoing open versus robotic hysterectomy. The post-operative hospital stay was significantly longer for open procedures compared with those using laparoscopic or robotic techniques (5.1, 1.7, and 1.6 d, respectively; p<0.0001). The overall rate of SSI after all hysterectomy procedures was 4.2%. More SSI occurred in open cases (6.5%) than laparoscopic (0%) or robotic (2.2%) (p<0.0001). Cases converted to open also had an increased rate of SSI (13.3%). In both univariate and multivariable analyses, open technique, wound class of III/IV, age greater than 75 y, and morbid obesity were all associated with increased risk of
Swearengen, J R; Kittell, C L; Davis, J A; Raslear, T G; Beblo, D A; Colleton, C A
A bilateral cochleotomized surgical rat model, needed for a study involving microwave effects, was developed, standardized, and assessed for reproducibility. After a review of the literature concerning attempts and approaches with various species, a technique involving an approach through the external auditory canal was chosen and modified. Using a stereomicroscope, a cutaneous incision in the intertragic notch was made and extended medially along the ventral aspect of the external auditory canal to the depth of the external auditory meatus. The tympanic membrane was ruptured and the malleus removed with splinter forceps, allowing visualization of the cochlea. The lateral wall of the cochlea was penetrated with a 0.024-in. wire gauge drill bit and endolymph was suctioned from the cochlea. A 5-mm piece of 3-O silk suture, inserted into the cochlear opening, maintained patency. Appraisal of the reliability and standardization of the procedure was performed utilizing startleometry. Histology assessed completeness of the procedure and any evidence of cochlear infection.
Oblak, Michelle L; Boston, Sarah E
To describe the surgical technique for ischiectomy in the dog and to report the procedure in a case. Case report. An 11-year-old spayed female mixed breed dog with chondrosarcoma of the ischium. The dog presented for hindlimb lameness and evaluation after a radiographic finding of a lytic lesion confined to the left ischium. Following staging and confirmation of stage 1 disease, an ischiectomy with preservation of the hindlimb was performed. The dog recovered from surgery and was initially moderately lame on the hindlimb. Over time, the dog regained satisfactory hindlimb use and was alive >500 days postoperative with no evidence of local recurrence or metastatic disease. Ischiectomy with hindlimb preservation is a technically straight-forward procedure and in this case, resulted in good hindlimb function postoperatively. The procedure should be considered for the treatment of dogs with bone tumors confined to the ischium. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.
Kania, Romain; Kania, Romain; Hammami, Hassene; Vérillaud, Benjamin; Blancal, Jean-Philippe; Sauvaget, Elisabeth; Tran, Hugo; Leclerc, Nicolas; Altabaa, Khaled; Herman, Philippe; Pons, Yoann
The objectives of this study were first to show principles of the minimally invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy (MIVAT), based on a video highlighting critical steps, and second to discuss tips and pearls to assist surgical teams that would like to start using this technique. Based on a video, we described tips and pearls of a MIVAT. MIVAT includes 5 main steps: (1) skin incision and identification of the common carotid artery, (2) dissection and ligation of the upper pedicle, (3) identification of the inferior laryngeal nerve and parathyroid glands, (4) isthmectomy and lobe extraction, and (5) closure. Coordination between the surgeon and the 2 assistants is of paramount importance for the performance of MIVAT. Appropriate material is also required. The magnification and tissue contrast emphasizes the identification of the vessels, the superior and inferior laryngeal nerves, and parathyroid glands, on a large-view screen.
Rosson, Gedge D; Magarakis, Michael; Shridharani, Sachin M; Stapleton, Sahael M; Jacobs, Lisa K; Manahan, Michele A; Flores, Jaime I
The oncologic management of breast cancer has evolved over the past several decades from radical mastectomy to modern-day preservation of chest and breast structures. The increased rate of mastectomies over recent years made breast reconstruction an integral part of the breast cancer management. Plastic surgery now offers patients a wide variety of reconstruction options from primary closure of the skin flaps to performance of microvascular and autologous tissue transplantation. Well-coordinated partnerships between surgical oncologists, plastic surgeons, and patients address concerns of tumor control, cosmesis, and patients' wishes. The gamut of breast reconstruction options is reviewed, particularly noting state-of-the-art techniques, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of various timing modalities.
Smith, Kathryn E.; Dupont, Kenneth M.; Safranski, David L.; Blair, Jeremy; Buratti, Dawn; Zeetser, Vladimir; Callahan, Ryan; Lin, Jason; Gall, Ken
Three-dimensional (3-D) printing offers many potential advantages in designing and manufacturing plating systems for foot and ankle procedures that involve small, geometrically complex bony anatomy. Here, we describe the design and clinical use of a Ti-6Al-4V ELI bone plate (FastForward™ Bone Tether Plate, MedShape, Inc., Atlanta, GA) manufactured through 3-D printing processes. The plate protects the second metatarsal when tethering suture tape between the first and second metatarsals and is a part of a new procedure that corrects hallux valgus (bunion) deformities without relying on doing an osteotomy or fusion procedure. The surgical technique and two clinical cases describing the use of this procedure with the 3-D printed bone plate are presented within. PMID:28337049
Nyame, Yaw A.; Babbar, Paurush; Aboumohamed, Ahmed A.; Mori, Ryan L.; Flechner, Stuart M.; Modlin, Charles S.
Renal transplantation has profound improvements in mortality, morbidity, and overall quality of life compared to renal replacement therapy. This report aims to illustrate the use of ex-vivo partial nephrectomy in a patient with a renal angiomyolipoma prior to living donor transplantation. The surgical outcomes of the donor nephrectomy and recipient transplantation are reported with 2 years of follow-up. Both the donor and recipient are healthy and without any significant comorbidities. In conclusion, urologic techniques such as partial nephrectomy can be used to expand the living donor pool in carefully selected and well informed transplant recipients. Our experience demonstrated a safe and positive outcome for both the recipient and donor, and is consistent with other reported outcomes in the literature. PMID:28216945
Shojaiefard, Abolfazl; Esmaeilzadeh, Majid; Ghafouri, Ali; Mehrabi, Arianeb
Common bile duct stones (CBDSs) may occur in up to 3%-14.7% of all patients for whom cholecystectomy is preformed. Patients presenting with CBDS have symptoms including: biliary colic, jaundice, cholangitis, pancreatitis or may be asymptomatic. It is important to distinguish between primary and secondary stones, because the treatment approach varies. Stones found before, during, and after cholecystectomy had also differing treatments. Different methods have been used for the treatment of CBDS but the suitable therapy depends on conditions such as patient' satisfaction, number and size of stones, and the surgeons experience in laparoscopy. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with or without endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy, laparoscopic CBD exploration (transcystic or transcholedochal), or laparotomy with CBD exploration (by T-tube, C-tube insertion, or primary closure) are the most commonly used methods managing CBDS. We will review the pathophysiology of CBDS, diagnosis, and different techniques of treatment with especial focus on the various surgical modalities.
Shojaiefard, Abolfazl; Esmaeilzadeh, Majid; Ghafouri, Ali; Mehrabi, Arianeb
Common bile duct stones (CBDSs) may occur in up to 3%–14.7% of all patients for whom cholecystectomy is preformed. Patients presenting with CBDS have symptoms including: biliary colic, jaundice, cholangitis, pancreatitis or may be asymptomatic. It is important to distinguish between primary and secondary stones, because the treatment approach varies. Stones found before, during, and after cholecystectomy had also differing treatments. Different methods have been used for the treatment of CBDS but the suitable therapy depends on conditions such as patient' satisfaction, number and size of stones, and the surgeons experience in laparoscopy. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with or without endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy, laparoscopic CBD exploration (transcystic or transcholedochal), or laparotomy with CBD exploration (by T-tube, C-tube insertion, or primary closure) are the most commonly used methods managing CBDS. We will review the pathophysiology of CBDS, diagnosis, and different techniques of treatment with especial focus on the various surgical modalities. PMID:19672460
Sagebiel, Tara L; Faria, Silvana C; Balachandran, Aparna; Butler, Charles E; Garvey, Patrick B; Bhosale, Priya R
This article will describe and illustrate the relevant anatomy and surgical techniques used in pelvic reconstruction using regional pedicled thigh flaps, which is often necessary in oncologic surgeries. Examples of normal postoperative imaging and common complications that can accompany pelvic reconstruction with anterolateral, gracilis myocutaneous, and posterior thigh fasciocutaneous flaps will be provided. Pelvic reconstruction using regional pedicled thigh flaps is often needed with extirpative oncologic surgeries to eliminate dead space, provide pelvic organ support, restore form and function, and introduce vascularized tissue to promote wound healing. Radiologists need to be aware of the normal postoperative appearance of these flaps so that the flaps are not mistaken for residual or recurrent disease and so that residual or recurrent disease can be identified and treated.
Garret, J; Houdré, H; Cievet-Bonfils, M; Godenèche, Arnaud; Duparc, Fabrice; Roussignol, Xavier
Open reduction and internal fixation of complex proximal humeral fracture represents a surgical challenge. The main objective of this procedure is to anatomically reduce the tuberosities. We propose a standardized and reproducible technique that we apply to all complex displaced 3- and 4-part fractures of patients under 50 years. We use an antero-lateral trans-deltoid approach; the humeral head and the tuberosities are reduced under fluoroscopic control. The tuberosities are stabilized with an inter-tuberosity osteosuture, and we then introduce a thin and straight intra-medullary nail (Telegraph IV FH Orthopedics) at the hinge point of the humeral head. The osteosynthesis of the tuberosities is completed by 3- or 4-self-stable divergent screws in the nail. A dynamic distal locking stabilizes the humeral shaft in rotation and facilitates consolidation thanks to micro movements. The removal of the nail with an arthroscopic shoulder arthrolysis in case of stiffness is possible secondarily.
Eddelman, Daniel; Wewel, Joshua; Wiet, R. Mark; Metman, Leo V.; Sani, Sepehr
Background: Patients with previously implanted cranial devices pose a special challenge in deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery. We report the implantation of bilateral DBS leads in a patient with a cochlear implant. Technical nuances and long-term interdevice functionality are presented. Case Description: A 70-year-old patient with advancing Parkinson's disease and a previously placed cochlear implant for sensorineural hearing loss was referred for placement of bilateral DBS in the subthalamic nucleus (STN). Prior to DBS, the patient underwent surgical removal of the subgaleal cochlear magnet, followed by stereotactic MRI, frame placement, stereotactic computed tomography (CT), and merging of imaging studies. This technique allowed for successful computational merging, MRI-guided targeting, and lead implantation with acceptable accuracy. Formal testing and programming of both the devices were successful without electrical interference. Conclusion: Successful DBS implantation with high resolution MRI-guided targeting is technically feasible in patients with previously implanted cochlear implants by following proper precautions. PMID:28480109
Eddelman, Daniel; Wewel, Joshua; Wiet, R Mark; Metman, Leo V; Sani, Sepehr
Patients with previously implanted cranial devices pose a special challenge in deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery. We report the implantation of bilateral DBS leads in a patient with a cochlear implant. Technical nuances and long-term interdevice functionality are presented. A 70-year-old patient with advancing Parkinson's disease and a previously placed cochlear implant for sensorineural hearing loss was referred for placement of bilateral DBS in the subthalamic nucleus (STN). Prior to DBS, the patient underwent surgical removal of the subgaleal cochlear magnet, followed by stereotactic MRI, frame placement, stereotactic computed tomography (CT), and merging of imaging studies. This technique allowed for successful computational merging, MRI-guided targeting, and lead implantation with acceptable accuracy. Formal testing and programming of both the devices were successful without electrical interference. Successful DBS implantation with high resolution MRI-guided targeting is technically feasible in patients with previously implanted cochlear implants by following proper precautions.
Ritschl, P; Machacek, F; Strehn, L; Kloiber, J
The patella replacement in revision surgery is a challenge especially in cases of unsufficient bone stock. Depending on the extent of the bone defect, the following videos demonstrate different approaches: Video 1: bone sparing removal of the patella implant: onlay-type patella implants. Video 2: complete cortical bone rim of the patella, residual thickness between 6 to 10 mm: biconvex patella implant. Video 3 and 4: small defects of the cortical bone rim of the patella, residual thickness 1 to 5 mm (patella shell): gull-wing osteotomy, patella bone grafting techniques. Video 5: partial necrosis/defect of the patella shell with incomplete cortical bone rim: porous tantalum patella prosthesis. On account of the various surgical options for different bone defects of the patella, patellectomy and pure patelloplasty should be avoided to prevent functional shortcomings.
Azimaee, Parisa; Jafari Jozani, Mohammad; Maddahi, Yaser; Zareinia, Kourosh; Sutherland, Garnette
Knowledge of forces, exerted on the brain tissue during the performance of neurosurgical tasks, is critical for quality assurance, case rehearsal, and training purposes. Quantifying the interaction forces has been made possible by developing SmartForceps, a bipolar forceps retrofitted by a set of strain gauges. The forces are estimated using voltages read from strain gauges. We therefore need to quantify the force-voltage relationship to estimate the interaction forces during microsurgery. This problem has been addressed in the literature by following the physical and deterministic properties of the force-sensing strain gauges without obtaining the precision associated with each estimate. In this paper, we employ a probabilistic methodology by using a nonparametric Bootstrap approach to obtain both point and interval estimates of the applied forces at the tool tips, while the precision associated with each estimate is provided. To show proof-of-concept, the Bootstrap technique is employed to estimate unknown forces, and construct necessary confidence intervals using observed voltages in data sets that are measured from the performance of surgical tasks on a cadaveric brain. Results indicate that the Bootstrap technique is capable of estimating tool-tissue interaction forces with acceptable level of accuracy compared to the linear regression technique under the normality assumption.
Singh, Gurpreet; Kohli, Pavneet Singh; Bagaria, Dinesh
We present a new approach for BCS which we have named as the Lateral Oncoplastic Breast Surgery (LOBS) approach. Patients with biopsy proven breast cancer or phyllodes tumors in the outer quadrants of the breast were selected. The patients were operated in the lateral position using the principles of a Level 1 oncoplastic technique. 106 patients (93 breast cancer; 13 phyllodes tumor) were operated using this technique. For patients with breast cancer the mean tumor size was 2.7 cms. 3 patients had a positive margin. The mean tumor size for phyllodes tumors was 6.7 cms. Surgical site infections (15 patients), marginal skin necrosis (2 patients) and superficial NAC necrosis (1 patient) were observed. Although the mean follow up was only 355.8 days there were no early detected recurrences. LOBS is a new approach for BCS which offers distinct advantages. The short term results, both oncological and aesthetic, are encouraging. A new approach for performing oncoplastic breast conserving surgery (BCS) is described and the short term results of our first 106 cases are presented. Advantages of this approach over conventional techniques are reviewed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wang, Xiao Jian; Chang, Feng; Su, Yunxing; Chen, Bin; Song, Jie-Fu; Wei, Xiao-Chun; Wei, Lei
The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of using Ilizarov invasive distraction technique combined with limited surgical operations in the treatment of post-traumatic talipes equinovarus in children. Eighteen cases of post-traumatic deformed feet in 15 patients who received the treatment of Ilizarov frame application, limited soft-tissue release or osteotomy were selected in this study. After removal of the frame, an ankle-foot orthosis was used continuously for another 6-12 months. Pre- and post-operatively, the International Clubfoot Study Group (ICFSG) score was employed to evaluate the gait and range of motion of the ankle joint. Radiographical assessment was also conducted. Patients were followed up for 22 (17-32) months. Ilizarov frame was applied for a mean duration of 5.5 (4-9) months. When it was removed, the gait was improved significantly in all the patients. The correction time was 6-8 weeks for patients who underwent soft-tissue release and 8-12 weeks for those with bone osteotomy. At the last follow-up assessment, the differences between pre- and post-operative plantar-flexion angle, dorsiflexion, motion of ankle joint and talocalcaneal angle were significant (all P < 0.05). The observed complications included wire-hole infection in one foot, toe contracture in one, residual deformity in three, recurrence of deformity in two and spastic ischaemia in one foot. Our findings suggest that Ilizarov technique combined with limited surgical operation can be considered as an efficient and successful method for correction of post-traumatic talipes equinovarus in children. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.
Guneri, Cagri; Kirac, Mustafa; Biri, Hasan
A 42-year-old man with a history of recurrent urethral stenosis, recurrent urinary tract infection and macroscopic hematuria has referred to our clinic. He underwent several internal urethrotomies and currently using clean intermittent self-catheterization. During the internal urethrotomy, we noted a large posterior urethral diverticulum (UD) between verumontanum and bladder neck. His obstructive symptoms were resolved after the catheter removal. But perineal discomfort, urgency and dysuria were prolonged about 3-4 weeks. Urinalysis and urine culture confirmed recurrent urinary tract infections. Due to this conditions and symptoms, we planned a surgical approach which was planned as transperitoneal robotic-assisted laparoscopic approach. This technique is still applied for the diverticulectomy of the bladder. In addition to this we utilized the cystoscopy equipments for assistance. During this process, cystoscope was placed in the UD to help the identification of UD from adjacent tissues like seminal vesicles by its movement and translumination. Operating time was 185 min. On the post-operative third day he was discharged. Foley catheter was removed after 2 weeks. Urination was quite satisfactory. His perineal discomfort was resolved. The pathology report confirmed epidermoid (tailgut) cyst of the prostate. Urethrogram showed no radiologic signs of UD after 4 weeks. Irritative and obstructive symptoms were completely resolved after 3 months. No urinary incontinence, erectile dysfunction or retrograde ejaculation was noted. While posterior UD is an extremely rare situation, surgical treatment of posterior UD remains uncertain. To our knowledge, no above-mentioned cystoscopy assisted robotic technique for the treatment was described in the literature.
Bakutra, Gaurav; Shankarapillai, Rajesh; Mathur, Lalit; Manohar, Balaji
Introduction: There are various treatment modalities to remove the black patches of melanin pigmentation. The aim of the study is to clinically compare the diode laser ablation and surgical stripping technique for gingival depigmentation and to evaluate their effect on the histological changes in melanocyte activity. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 sites of 20 patients with bilateral melanin hyperpigmentation were treated with the surgical stripping and diode laser ablation technique. Change in Hedin index score, change in area of pigmentation using image analyzing software, pain perception, patient preference of treatment were recorded. All 40 sites were selected for immunohistochemical analysis using HMB-45 immunohistochemical marker. Results: At 12 months post-operative visit, in all sites, repigmentation was observed with different grades of Hedin index. Paired t-test, analysis of variance, and Chi-square tests were used for statistical analysis. Repigmentation in surgical stripping is significantly lesser compared to laser ablation. Lesser numbers of melanocytes were found on immunohistological examination at 12 months postoperatively. Comparison for patient preference and pain indices give statistically significant values for diode laser techniques. Conclusion: Gingival hyperpigmentation is effectively managed by diode laser ablation technique and surgical stripping method. In this study, surgical stripping technique found to be better compared to diode laser ablation. PMID:28539864
Shadid, Rola Muhammed; Sadaqah, Nasrin Rushdi; Othman, Sahar Abdo
Background. A number of surgical techniques for implant site preparation have been advocated to enhance the implant of primary and secondary stability. However, there is insufficient scientific evidence to support the association between the surgical technique and implant stability. Purpose. This review aimed to investigate the influence of different surgical techniques including the undersized drilling, the osteotome, the piezosurgery, the flapless procedure, and the bone stimulation by low-level laser therapy on the primary and/or secondary stability of dental implants. Materials and methods. A search of PubMed, Cochrane Library, and grey literature was performed. The inclusion criteria comprised observational clinical studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) conducted in patients who received dental implants for rehabilitation, studies that evaluated the association between the surgical technique and the implant primary and/or secondary stability. The articles selected were carefully read and classified as low, moderate, and high methodological quality and data of interest were tabulated. Results. Eight clinical studies were included then they were classified as moderate or high methodological quality and control of bias. Conclusions. There is a weak evidence suggesting that any of previously mentioned surgical techniques could influence the primary and/or secondary implant stability. PMID:25126094
Bakutra, Gaurav; Shankarapillai, Rajesh; Mathur, Lalit; Manohar, Balaji
There are various treatment modalities to remove the black patches of melanin pigmentation. The aim of the study is to clinically compare the diode laser ablation and surgical stripping technique for gingival depigmentation and to evaluate their effect on the histological changes in melanocyte activity. A total of 40 sites of 20 patients with bilateral melanin hyperpigmentation were treated with the surgical stripping and diode laser ablation technique. Change in Hedin index score, change in area of pigmentation using image analyzing software, pain perception, patient preference of treatment were recorded. All 40 sites were selected for immunohistochemical analysis using HMB-45 immunohistochemical marker. At 12 months post-operative visit, in all sites, repigmentation was observed with different grades of Hedin index. Paired t-test, analysis of variance, and Chi-square tests were used for statistical analysis. Repigmentation in surgical stripping is significantly lesser compared to laser ablation. Lesser numbers of melanocytes were found on immunohistological examination at 12 months postoperatively. Comparison for patient preference and pain indices give statistically significant values for diode laser techniques. Gingival hyperpigmentation is effectively managed by diode laser ablation technique and surgical stripping method. In this study, surgical stripping technique found to be better compared to diode laser ablation.
Mitchell, M; Rane, V; Fairley, C K; Whiley, D M; Bradshaw, C S; Bissessor, M; Chen, M Y
Culture is insensitive for the detection of pharyngeal gonorrhoea but isolation is pivotal to antimicrobial resistance surveillance. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether recommendations provided to clinicians (doctors and nurses) on pharyngeal swabbing technique could improve gonorrhoea detection rates and to determine which aspects of swabbing technique are important for optimal isolation. This study was undertaken at the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, Australia. Detection rates among clinicians for pharyngeal gonorrhoea were compared before (June 2006-May 2009) and after (June 2009-June 2012) recommendations on swabbing technique were provided. Associations between detection rates and reported swabbing technique obtained via a clinician questionnaire were examined. The overall yield from testing before and after provision of the recommendations among 28 clinicians was 1.6% (134/8586) and 1.8% (264/15,046) respectively (p=0.17). Significantly higher detection rates were seen following the recommendations among clinicians who reported a change in their swabbing technique in response to the recommendations (2.1% vs. 1.5%; p=0.004), swabbing a larger surface area (2.0% vs. 1.5%; p=0.02), applying more swab pressure (2.5% vs. 1.5%; p<0.001) and a change in the anatomical sites they swabbed (2.2% vs. 1.5%; p=0.002). The predominant change in sites swabbed was an increase in swabbing of the oropharynx: from a median of 0% to 80% of the time. More thorough swabbing improves the isolation of pharyngeal gonorrhoea using culture. Clinicians should receive training to ensure swabbing is performed with sufficient pressure and that it covers an adequate area that includes the oropharynx.
Jiang, Shan; Su, Zhiliang; Wang, Xingji; Liu, Sha; Yu, Yan
The precision of orientation to target placement during invasive therapy is mainly influenced by tool-tissue interaction. In this study, we aim to investigate a transparent Poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogel as tissue-equivalent material which is used in accurate surgical insertion research. The PVA hydrogel with specified formula was prepared by means of physical and chemical crosslink. The effects of chemical composition and synthesis technique on the biomechanical property, density and micro-structure morphology of PVA materials have been investigated in detail. It can be concluded that when PVA concentration is 8 g/dl, the NaCl concentration is 4 wt.%, with mix water/DMSO solvent, prepared under 7 freeze/thaw cycles, the material has the most similar properties with kidney tissue. Experimental results demonstrate that this tissue-equivalent material could be used in the ex vivo insertion accuracy test for robot-assisted percutaneous intervention and surgical training in minimally invasive surgery (MIS). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Stilo, Francesco; Mirenda, Francesco; Mandolfino, Tommaso; La Spada, Michele; D'Alfonso, Mario; Carmignani, Amedeo; De Caridi, Giovanni; Benedetto, Filippo; Spinelli, Francesco
The purpose of this study was to assess which modalities offered the best timing in the treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms associated with other abdominal surgical diseases. From January 1984 to December 2002, 372 patients underwent surgery for abdominal aortic aneurysms, 350 men (94%) and 22 women (6%), mean age 72 years. Of these 10% were operated on urgently. The traditional open technique was used in 307 patients, and the endovascular method in the remaining 65 cases. In 40 patients (11%) we observed other associated abdominal diseases which were treated during the same operation in 34 cases (85%). We had three deaths in the 34 cases treated in the same operation (9%). In the remaining cases no perioperative mortality was registered. There were no cases of prosthesis infection. The mean hospital stay was 9 days. Simultaneous treatment appears, on the one hand, to carry an increased operative risk and increased mortality and, on the other, to present the advantage of having to perform only one surgical procedure. The advent of the endovascular method allows us to postpone the treatment of the associated disease without increasing the technical difficulty of the second operation.
Jackson, Monique; Tétreault, Patrice; Allard, Paul; Begon, Mickaël
There is a high incidence of retear following surgical repair of rotator cuff tears. Postoperative shoulder immobilization is commonly prescribed to protect the repair; but there is no consensus on the best immobilization postures. A generic musculoskeletal model of the shoulder was used to simulate postoperative immobilization of full thickness rotator cuff tears involving the supraspinatus only and the supraspinatus concomitantly with the infraspinatus or subscapularis. Optimal immobilization postures, which simultaneously minimized the stresses in the repaired tendons and the angle of humerus elevation, were obtained. For isolated supraspinatus tears, elevation of the humerus in planes close to the scapular plane was suggested. When the infraspinatus was also involved, planes posterior to the scapular plane were suggested; while, if the subscapularis was also involved, planes anterior to the scapular plane and internal rotation were suggested. The required thoracohumeral elevation angles ranged from 58° to 109°, depending on the tear length and the muscles involved. The optimal postures reduced the stresses in the repaired tendons by between 29% and 90%. Prescription of immobilization posture for a patient should be based on the conditions of the tear repaired. Appropriate choice of immobilization posture will reduce the stress in the repair, and as such has the potential to reduce retear rates. Copyright © 2013 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Jones, R. T.; Hague, D. S.
Multivariable optimization techniques are applied to a particular class of minimum weight structural design problems: the design of an axially loaded, pressurized, stiffened cylinder. Minimum weight designs are obtained by a variety of search algorithms: first- and second-order, elemental perturbation, and randomized techniques. An exterior penalty function approach to constrained minimization is employed. Some comparisons are made with solutions obtained by an interior penalty function procedure. In general, it would appear that an interior penalty function approach may not be as well suited to the class of design problems considered as the exterior penalty function approach. It is also shown that a combination of search algorithms will tend to arrive at an extremal design in a more reliable manner than a single algorithm. The effect of incorporating realistic geometrical constraints on stiffener cross-sections is investigated. A limited comparison is made between minimum weight cylinders designed on the basis of a linear stability analysis and cylinders designed on the basis of empirical buckling data. Finally, a technique for locating more than one extremal is demonstrated.
Parker, Martyn J; Handoll, Helen H G
Many different surgical techniques have been described for the internal fixation of extracapsular hip fractures. To compare different aspects of surgical technique used in operations for internal fixation of extracapsular hip fractures in adults. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register (January 2008), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2008, Issue 1), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Current Controlled Trials, orthopaedic journals, conference proceedings and reference lists of articles. Date of last search was January 2008. No language restriction was applied. All randomised and quasi-randomised trials investigating operative techniques used in operations for the treatment of extracapsular hip fractures in adults. Two review authors independently selected trials, assessed trial quality and extracted data. Wherever appropriate, data were pooled. Predominantly older people with trochanteric fractures were treated in the 11 included trials.One trial (65 participants undergoing fixation with a fixed nail-plate) found no statistically significant differences between osteotomy versus anatomical reduction. Four trials, involving 465 participants undergoing fixation with a sliding hip screw (SHS), compared osteotomy versus anatomical reduction. Osteotomy was associated with an increased operative blood loss and length of surgery. There were no statistically significant differences for mortality, morbidity or measures of anatomical deformity.Two trials (138 participants) compared SHS fixation of a trochanteric hip fracture augmented with cement against a standard fixation. There were no reoperations even for the four cases of fixation failure in the cement group. The cement group had significantly better quality of life scores at six months. One trial (200 participants) comparing compression versus no compression of a trochanteric fracture in conjunction with SHS fixation found no significant
Geiselhart, Karl A.
A method for conceptual aircraft design that incorporates the optimization of major engine design variables for a variety of cycle types was developed. The methodology should improve the lengthy screening process currently involved in selecting an appropriate engine cycle for a given application or mission. The new capability will allow environmental concerns such as airport noise and emissions to be addressed early in the design process. The ability to rapidly perform optimization and parametric variations using both engine cycle and aircraft design variables, and to see the impact on the aircraft, should provide insight and guidance for more detailed studies. A brief description of the aircraft performance and mission analysis program and the engine cycle analysis program that were used is given. A new method of predicting propulsion system weight and dimensions using thermodynamic cycle data, preliminary design, and semi-empirical techniques is introduced. Propulsion system performance and weights data generated by the program are compared with industry data and data generated using well established codes. The ability of the optimization techniques to locate an optimum is demonstrated and some of the problems that had to be solved to accomplish this are illustrated. Results from the application of the program to the analysis of three supersonic transport concepts installed with mixed flow turbofans are presented. The results from the application to a Mach 2.4, 5000 n.mi. transport indicate that the optimum bypass ratio is near 0.45 with less than 1 percent variation in minimum gross weight for bypass ratios ranging from 0.3 to 0.6. In the final application of the program, a low sonic boom fix a takeoff gross weight concept that would fly at Mach 2.0 overwater and at Mach 1.6 overland is compared with a baseline concept of the same takeoff gross weight that would fly Mach 2.4 overwater and subsonically overland. The results indicate that for the design mission
Ghijselings, Stijn G M; Driesen, Ronald; Simon, Jean-Pierre; Corten, Kristoff
The direct anterior approach (DAA) is becoming more popular as the standard surgical approach for primary total hip arthroplasty. However, it has been associated with an increased incidence of intraoperative femoral fractures in particular during the learning curve. Distal extension of the approach may be needed in case of intraoperative complications. The aim of the present study is to describe the distal extension of the DAA using the femoral interbundle technique. A stepwise approach based on a cadaveric study to extend the DAA distally is presented. The interval between the neurovascular bundles running to the vastus lateralis is used to gain access to the femur. Clinical and electromyography results of 5 patients undergoing a revision of the femoral component through an extended anterior approach are reported. In 2 cases, the proximal bundle was exposed whereas in 3 cases the interval between the proximal and distal bundle was developed and cerclage wires were applied around the isthmus of the femur. All fractures had healed at 6 months of follow-up. Four cases had a normal electromyography, and 1 case demonstrated a neuropraxia of a branch to the vastus lateralis. All cases had a 5/5 extension power of the quadriceps muscle clinically. The interbundle technique is an alternative way to gain additional exposure of the femur during the DAA and is based on precise knowledge of the periarticular neurovascular structures. This approach can be helpful to safely deal with intraoperative complications such as fractures requiring proximal femoral cerclage wiring during the anterior approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chaushu, S; Becker, A; Zeltser, R; Vasker, N; Chaushu, G
This study assessed patient perceptions of immediate post-operative recovery after the surgical exposure of impacted maxillary teeth with an open-eruption technique. Thirty patients (24 females and six males) underwent surgical exposure of 39 impacted maxillary teeth using this technique. After surgery the patients were contacted by telephone daily for 7 days, to complete a health-related quality of life (HRQOL) questionnaire, which assessed their perception of recovery in four main areas: pain, oral function, general activity, and other symptoms. Severe pain was reported by 30 per cent of the patients in the first post-operative day (POD 1), which declined to 6.7 per cent by POD 6. Consumption of analgesics declined gradually over the post-operative days (POD 1: 80 per cent, POD 7: 20 per cent). Difficulty in eating required 5 days to reach minimal levels; enjoying everyday food, 2.5 days; school attendance, limitations in daily routine, swallowing, and speech, 2 days each; swelling, bad taste/smell, 1.5 days each; within 1 day all other measures attained minimal levels. The need for bone removal during the exposure resulted in delayed recovery with regard to the ability to eat. In general, females reported delayed recovery for pain. The present data may serve as basic guidelines against which future studies which assess post-operative management of patients after surgical exposure of impacted teeth by an open-eruption technique may be compared.
Kim, Hyung Suk; Lee, Byung Ki; Jung, Jin-Woo; Lee, Jung Keun; Byun, Seok-Soo; Lee, Sang Eun; Jeong, Chang Wook
Double-J stent insertion has been generally performed during laparoscopic upper urinary tract (UUT) surgical procedures to prevent transient urinary tract obstruction and postoperative flank pain from ureteral edema and blood clots. Several restrictive conditions that make this procedure difficult and time consuming, however, include the coiled distal ends of the flexible Double-J stent and the limited bending angle of the laparoscopic instruments. To overcome these limitations, we devised a Double-J stent insertion method using the new J-tube technique. Between July 2011 and May 2013, Double-J stents were inserted using the J-tube technique in 33 patients who underwent a laparoscopic UUT surgical procedure by a single surgeon. The mean stent placement time was 4.8±2.7 minutes, and there were no intraoperative complications. In conclusion, the J-tube technique is a safe and time-saving method for Double-J stent insertion during laparoscopic surgical procedures.
Jeong, Junemoe; Ko, Jonghyeok; Lim, Hyunjoo; Kweon, Oh‐Kyeong
Objective To develop and describe a laparoscopic retroperitoneal access technique, investigate working space establishment, and describe the surgical anatomy in the retroperitoneal space as an initial step for clinical application of retroperitoneal laparoscopy in dogs. Study Design Cadaveric and experimental study. Animals Cadaveric (n=8) and healthy (n=6) adult dogs. Methods The retroperitoneal access technique was developed in 3 cadavers based on the human technique and transperitoneal observation. Its application and working space establishment with carbon dioxide (CO2) insufflation alone was evaluated in 5 cadavers by observing with a transperitoneal telescope and in 6 live dogs by repeated computed tomography (CT) scans at pressure of 0, 5, 10, and 15 mmHg. Recordings of retroperitoneoscopy as well as working space volume and linear dimensions measured on CT images were analyzed. Results Retroperitoneal access and working space establishment with CO2 insufflation alone were successfully performed in all 6 live dogs. The only complication observed was in 1 dog that developed subclinical pneumomediastinum. As pressure increased, working space was established from the ipsilateral to the contralateral side, and peritoneal tearing eventually developed. Working space volume increased significantly from 5 mmHg and linear dimensions increased significantly from 0 to 10 mmHg. With pneumo‐retroperitoneum above 5 mmHg, retroperitoneal organs, including kidneys and adrenal glands, were easily visualized. Conclusion The retroperitoneal access technique and working space establishment with CO2 insufflation starting with 5 mmHg and increasing to 10 mmHg provided adequate working space and visualization of retroperitoneal organs, which may allow direct access for retroperitoneal laparoscopy in dogs. PMID:27731512
Rai, Survendra Kumar R; Mancarella, Cristina; Goel, Atul H
Ideal tumor resection requires brain/spinal cord tumor interface separation in perfect and precise surgical planes within a few micrometers for radical tumor resection and maximum normal tissue preservation. Despite the availability of several dissection techniques, the search for additional alternatives and an ideal technique continues. We evaluated the feasibility and advantages of dissection using a No. 15-blade scalpel in special brain tumor surgery situations. We developed a leaf model wherein its outer layer is progressively dissected from its inner skeleton using a scalpel. An additional model used was a tomato wherein its skin was peeled off its pulp using the same technique. We developed an inexpensive leaf model. A scalpel knife was used in a microneurosurgical setting, and the leaf's outer layer is peeled off. The technique is then used in an operating room setup where surgery on extra-axial tumors like meningiomas and intra-axial brain and spinal cord tumors is done. A No. 15 scalpel was used for dissection between the layers of the Peltophorum pterocarpum leaf model. This dissection method was compared with other neurosurgical dissecting tools. We dissected 120-μm thick leaves into 2 layers with removal of an 18- to 55-μm thick layer. Leaving behind a transparent layer was possible using a No. 15 blade scalpel. Similarly, it was possible to preserve a 35- to 40-μm thick arachnoid layer that separated a meningioma from the underlying brain parenchyma. A scalpel with a sharp edge could be used to perform precise and fine dissection. The scalpel deserves to occupy a place of pride as a dissecting tool in neurosurgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jeong, Junemoe; Ko, Jonghyeok; Lim, Hyunjoo; Kweon, Oh-Kyeong; Kim, Wan Hee
To develop and describe a laparoscopic retroperitoneal access technique, investigate working space establishment, and describe the surgical anatomy in the retroperitoneal space as an initial step for clinical application of retroperitoneal laparoscopy in dogs. Cadaveric and experimental study. Cadaveric (n=8) and healthy (n=6) adult dogs. The retroperitoneal access technique was developed in 3 cadavers based on the human technique and transperitoneal observation. Its application and working space establishment with carbon dioxide (CO2 ) insufflation alone was evaluated in 5 cadavers by observing with a transperitoneal telescope and in 6 live dogs by repeated computed tomography (CT) scans at pressure of 0, 5, 10, and 15 mmHg. Recordings of retroperitoneoscopy as well as working space volume and linear dimensions measured on CT images were analyzed. Retroperitoneal access and working space establishment with CO2 insufflation alone were successfully performed in all 6 live dogs. The only complication observed was in 1 dog that developed subclinical pneumomediastinum. As pressure increased, working space was established from the ipsilateral to the contralateral side, and peritoneal tearing eventually developed. Working space volume increased significantly from 5 mmHg and linear dimensions increased significantly from 0 to 10 mmHg. With pneumo-retroperitoneum above 5 mmHg, retroperitoneal organs, including kidneys and adrenal glands, were easily visualized. The retroperitoneal access technique and working space establishment with CO2 insufflation starting with 5 mmHg and increasing to 10 mmHg provided adequate working space and visualization of retroperitoneal organs, which may allow direct access for retroperitoneal laparoscopy in dogs. © 2016 The Authors. Veterinary Surgery published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., on behalf of The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.
Rao, S. S.
The design of vibration isolation systems is considered using multicriteria optimization techniques. The integrated values of the square of the force transmitted to the main mass and the square of the relative displacement between the main mass and the base are taken as the performance indices. The design of a three degrees-of-freedom isolation system with an exponentially decaying type of base disturbance is considered for illustration. Numerical results are obtained using the global criterion, utility function, bounded objective, lexicographic, goal programming, goal attainment and game theory methods. It is found that the game theory approach is superior in finding a better optimum solution with proper balance of the various objective functions.
Steier, C.; Madur, A.; Nishimura, H.; Robin, D.; Sannibale, F.; Sun, C.; Wan, W.; Yang, L.
An upgrade project is under way to further improve the brightness of the Advanced Light Source at Berkeley Lab by reducing its horizontal emittance from 6.3 to 2.2 nm (effective emittance in the straights from 6.4 to 2.5 nm). This will result in a brightness increase by a factor of three for bend magnet beamlines and at least a factor of two for insertion device beamlines and will keep the ALS competitive with newer sources. This paper presents an overview of the upgrade project with emphasis on the nonlinear beam dynamics simulations. It also discusses in a more general way the techniques used at LBNL for finding optimum lattices (e.g. the ones with maximum brightness) and optimizing the particle dynamics, thereby increasing beam lifetime and stability.
Y, Rong A.; Y, Su; R, Lahdelma
Polygeneration means simultaneous production of two or more energy products in a single integrated process. Polygeneration is an energy-efficient technology and plays an important role in transition into future low-carbon energy systems. It can find wide applications in utilities, different types of industrial sectors and building sectors. This paper mainly focus on polygeneration applications in building sectors. The scales of polygeneration systems in building sectors range from the micro-level for a single home building to the large- level for residential districts. Also the development of polygeneration microgrid is related to building applications. The paper aims at giving a comprehensive review for optimization techniques for designing, synthesizing and operating different types of polygeneration systems for building applications.
Global health and neoliberalism are becoming increasingly intertwined as organizations utilize markets and profit motives to solve the traditional problems of poverty and population health. I use field work conducted over 14 months in a global health technology company to explore how the promise of neoliberalism re-envisions humanitarian efforts. In this company's vaccine refrigerator project, staff members expect their investors and their market to allow them to achieve scale and develop accountability to their users in developing countries. However, the translation of neoliberal techniques to the global health sphere falls short of the ideal, as profits are meager and purchasing power remains with donor organizations. The continued optimism in market principles amidst such a non-ideal market reveals the tenacious ideological commitment to neoliberalism in these global health projects.
It is increasingly recognized that hospital operation is an intricate system with limited resources and many interacting sources of both positive and negative feedback. The purpose of this study is to design a surgical delivery process in a county hospital in the U.S where patient flow through a surgical ward is optimized. The system simulation modeling is used to address questions of capacity planning, throughput management and interacting resources which constitute the constantly changing complexity that characterizes designing a contemporary surgical delivery process in a hospital. The steps in building a system simulation model is demonstrated using an example of building a county hospital in a small city in the US. It is used to illustrate a modular system simulation modeling of patient surgery process flows. The system simulation model development will enable planners and designers how they can build in overall efficiencies in a healthcare facility through optimal bed capacity for peak patient flow of emergency and routine patients.
Hiley, Michael J; Jackson, Monique I; Yeadon, Maurice R
In vaulting a gymnast must generate sufficient linear and angular momentum during the approach and table contact to complete the rotational requirements in the post-flight phase. This study investigated the optimization of table touchdown conditions and table contact technique for the maximization of rotation potential for forwards rotating vaults. A planar seven-segment torque-driven computer simulation model of the contact phase in vaulting was evaluated by varying joint torque activation time histories to match three performances of a handspring double somersault vault by an elite gymnast. The closest matching simulation was used as a starting point to maximize post-flight rotation potential (the product of angular momentum and flight time) for a forwards rotating vault. It was found that the maximized rotation potential was sufficient to produce a handspring double piked somersault vault. The corresponding optimal touchdown configuration exhibited hip flexion in contrast to the hyperextended configuration required for maximal height. Increasing touchdown velocity and angular momentum lead to additional post-flight rotation potential. By increasing the horizontal velocity at table touchdown, within limits obtained from recorded performances, the handspring double somersault tucked with one and a half twists, and the handspring triple somersault tucked became theoretically possible.
Ryu, Won Hyung A; Mostafa, Ahmed E; Dharampal, Navjit; Sharlin, Ehud; Kopp, Gail; Jacobs, W Bradley; Hurlbert, R John; Chan, Sonny; Sutherland, Garnette R
Simulation-based education has made its entry into surgical residency training, particularly as an adjunct to hands-on clinical experience. However, one of the ongoing challenges to wide adoption is the capacity of simulators to incorporate educational features required for effective learning. The aim of this study was to identify strengths and limitations of spine simulators to characterize design elements that are essential in enhancing resident education. We performed a mixed qualitative and quantitative cohort study with a focused survey and interviews of stakeholders in spine surgery pertaining to their experiences on 3 spine simulators. Ten participants were recruited spanning all levels of training and expertise until qualitative analysis reached saturation of themes. Participants were asked to perform lumbar pedicle screw insertion on 3 simulators. Afterward, a 10-item survey was administrated and a focused interview was conducted to explore topics pertaining to the design features of the simulators. Overall impressions of the simulators were positive with regards to their educational benefit, but our qualitative analysis revealed differing strengths and limitations. Main design strengths of the computer-based simulators were incorporation of procedural guidance and provision of performance feedback. The synthetic model excelled in achieving more realistic haptic feedback and incorporating use of actual surgical tools. Stakeholders from trainees to experts acknowledge the growing role of simulation-based education in spine surgery. However, different simulation modalities have varying design elements that augment learning in distinct ways. Characterization of these design characteristics will allow for standardization of simulation curricula in spinal surgery, optimizing educational benefit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shiao, An-Suey; Kuo, Chin-Lung; Cheng, Hsiu-Lien; Wang, Mao-Che; Chu, Chia-Huei
The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of clinical factors on the outcomes of otosclerosis surgery and support patients' access to evidence-based information in pre-operative counseling to optimize their choices. A total of 109 ears in 93 patients undergoing stapes surgery in a tertiary referral center were included. Variables with a potential impact on hearing outcomes were recorded, with an emphasis on factors that were readily available pre-operatively. Hearing success was defined as a post-operative air-bone gap ≤10 dB. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors independently contributing to the prediction of hearing success. The mean follow-up period was 18.0 months. Univariate and multivariate analyses indicated that none of the pre-operative factors (piston type, age, sex, affected side, tinnitus, vertigo, and pre-operative hearing thresholds) affected hearing success significantly (all p > 0.05). In conclusion, self-crimping Nitinol piston provides comparable hearing outcomes with conventional manual-crimping prostheses. However, Nitinol piston offers a technical simplification of a surgical procedure and an easier surgical choice for patients. In addition, age is not a detriment to hearing gain and instead might result in better use of hearing aids in older adults, thus facilitating social hearing recovery. Finally, hearing success does not depend on the extent of pre-operative hearing loss. Hence, patients with poor cochlear function should not be considered poor candidates for surgery. The predictive model has established recommendations for otologists for better case selection, and factors that are readily available pre-operatively may inform patients more explicitly about expected post-operative audiometric results.
Tibor, Lisa; Chan, Priscilla H; Funahashi, Tadashi T; Wyatt, Ronald; Maletis, Gregory B; Inacio, Maria C S
The surgical technique for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction has evolved as a result of improved understanding of ligament biomechanics, anatomy, device development, and failed reconstructions. Studies on surgical technique preferences have been limited to surgeon surveys, which are subject to selection and recall bias. The purpose of this study was to evaluate ACL reconstruction surgical technique and yearly revision rate trends in a community-based setting. A population-based epidemiological study was conducted using data on primary ACL reconstruction procedures registered in an ACL reconstruction registry from 2007 to 2014. Changes in the incidence rates of different types of femoral tunnel drilling methods, different types of grafts and graft fixation, and revisions were studied. Adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRRs) are provided. Of the 21,686 ACL reconstructions studied, 72.4% were performed by sports medicine fellowship-trained surgeons. The incidence rate of femoral tunnel drilling via a tibial tunnel decreased at an adjusted rate of 26% per year (IRR = 0.74, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.71 to 0.78), from 56.4% to 17.6% during the study period. The incidence rate of medial portal drilling increased from 41.3% to 65.1% at an adjusted rate of 11% per year (IRR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.09 to 1.13), and the incidence rate of drilling through a lateral approach increased from 2.3% to 17.3% at an adjusted rate of 53% per year (IRR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.39 to 1.67). There was no change in the use of hamstring autograft, bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft, or tibial tendon allograft. Use of first-generation bioabsorbable femoral and tibial fixation decreased for all graft types. For soft-tissue grafts, usage of suspensory metal femoral fixation increased 12% to 13% per year (IRR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.09 to 1.15 for tibial tendon grafts; IRR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.10 to 1.15 for hamstring grafts). For bone-patellar tendon-bone autografts, the use of femoral
Lukšic, Bruno; Juric, Ivo; Boschi, Vladimir; Pogorelic, Zenon; Bekavac, Josip
Our aim was to determine the effectiveness of a new surgical technique for olecranon fractures using a tension plate (TP) designed by the operating surgeon. We included patients with olecranon fractures treated between September 2010 and August 2013 in our study. Treatment involved a new implant and operative technique, which combined the most favourable characteristics of 2 frequently used methods, tension band wiring and plate osteosynthesis, while eliminating their shortcomings. The new method was based on the newly constructed implant. Twenty patients participated in our study. We obtained the following functional results with our TP: median flexion 147.5° (interquartile range [IQR] 130°- 155°), median extension 135°/deficit 10° (IQR 135°-145°), median pronation 90° (IQR 81.3°-90°), median supination 90° (IQR 80°-90°). Implant-related complications were noted in 1 patient, and implants were removed in 3 patients. The mean functional Mayo elbow performance score was 94.8 (range 65-100). The removal of the implant was considerably less frequent in patients operated using the new method and implant than in patients operated using conventional methods at our institution (p < 0.001). Mean duration of follow-up was 8 months. Our TP for the treatment of olecranon fractures is safe and effective. Functional results are very good, with significantly decreased postoperative inconveniences and need to remove the implant. Less osteosynthetic material was used for TP construction, but stability was preserved.
Rao, Biyyam M; Kamal, Tamer T; Vafaye, John; Taylor, Lee
Avulsion of the abductors from the hip can be an infrequent but debilitating complication after total hip arthroplasty performed through a trans-gluteal approach. This can result in intractable pain, limp, Trendelenberg lurch and instability of the hip. There have been various methods described for repairing or reconstruction of this abductor muscle complex including direct trans-osseous repair, muscle transfers, muscle and tendon sling, bone tendon allograft reconstruction and endoscopic repair techniques. In a prospective study at our institution we evaluated the results of a surgical technique in 12 patients using a trans-osseous repair of gluteus medius and minimus insertions augmented by a Graft Jacket allograft acellular human dermal matrix (Graft Jacket; Wright Medical Technology, Arlington, TN) over the anterior and anterolateral aspects of the greater trochanter. Diagnosis of hip abductor avulsions was made by evaluation of the history of presenting complaint, clinical examination and confirmed by ultrasound or MRI scans. Evaluation of results included pain scoring, gait evaluation, Trendelenberg test, and the Harris hip score. There was a significant improvement in pain (VAS mean values 8.25 to 2.33; p value < 0.0001), limp and gait along with abductor strength. The Trendelenberg test became negative in all but one. At the mean follow up of 22 months Harris hip scores improved from 34.05 to 81.26 (p value <0.0001). Overall this procedure appears to be safe and associated with high patient satisfaction, without the morbidity of any tendon or muscle transfers.
Peng, Hanwei; Wang, Steven J; Yang, Xihong; Guo, Haipeng; Liu, Muyuan
To evaluate the surgical outcomes associated with infrahyoid myocutaneous flaps used in the reconstruction of medium-sized defects following head and neck cancer resection, as well as to discuss a novel technique modification. Case series with chart review. University cancer hospital. A total of 20 patients with oral or hypopharyngeal carcinoma who underwent infrahyoid myocutaneous flap reconstruction between June 2005 and December 2011 were retrospectively studied. A novel technical modification of flap harvest, preservation of the cranial portion of the anterior jugular vein, was attempted in 15 flaps and was successful in 13 flaps. Functional evaluation was performed in all patients 3 to 6 months after the operation or postoperative radiation. Total flap necrosis, marginal skin paddle necrosis, and total skin paddle loss were observed in 1, 2, and 1 patient(s), respectively. Pharyngocutaneous fistula without flap problem occurred in 1 patient. No flap complications occurred in 13 cases where the cranial portion of the anterior jugular vein was successfully preserved. Functional results were excellent in 16 patients, good in 3 patients, and fair in 1 patient. The infrahyoid myocutaneous flap is a reliable and convenient technique that can serve as an alternative to free flaps in the reconstruction of medium-sized defects of the oral cavity or hypopharynx. Preservation of the cranial portion of the anterior jugular vein is a novel technical modification of harvesting this flap, which may result in better venous return of the skin paddle and reduce skin paddle necrosis.
D'Alessandro, Elisa; Guidotti, Jacopo M; Mansouri, Kaweh; Mermoud, André
Glaucoma drainage devices have traditionally been reserved for patients with refractory glaucoma. However, these devices are prone to various sight-threatening complications. To prevent hypotony after placement of the Baerveldt tube, surgeons traditionally tie the tube with an absorbable suture until encapsulation occurs around the plate. We hypothesized that combining the XEN tube, placing it in the anterior chamber and connecting it to the Baerveldt tube posteriorly, outside the anterior chamber, would minimize 2 main potentially blinding complications: hypotony and corneal disease. To describe a new surgical technique for refractory glaucoma, combining both the Baerveldt and the XEN tubes in the same surgery. The Baerveldt implant was positioned in the superotemporal quadrant and sutured to the sclera. A scleral flap was executed extending from the anterior margin of the plate for the entire length of the tube to the limbus. The Baerveldt tube was correctly positioned by removing a deeper scleral flap. The XEN tube was then inserted ab externo and inserted into the Baerveldt tube's lumen. The newly formed double tube was then sutured and covered by the first scleral flap and usual suturing of the conjunctiva was performed. This technique is simple and potentially increases the safety of refractory glaucoma surgeries.
Wang, Rong; Cheng, Nan; Xiao, Cang-Song; Wu, Yang; Sai, Xiao-Yong; Gong, Zhi-Yun; Wang, Yao; Gao, Chang-Qing
Background: The optimal timing of surgical revascularization for patients presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and impaired left ventricular function is not well established. This study aimed to examine the timing of surgical revascularization after STEMI in patients with ischemic heart disease and left ventricular dysfunction (LVD) by comparing early and late results. Methods: From January 2003 to December 2013, there were 2276 patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in our institution. Two hundred and sixty-four (223 male, 41 females) patients with a history of STEMI and LVD were divided into early revascularization (ER, <3 weeks), mid-term revascularization (MR, 3 weeks to 3 months), and late revascularization (LR, >3 months) groups according to the time interval from STEMI to CABG. Mortality and complication rates were compared among the groups by Fisher's exact test. Cox regression analyses were performed to examine the effect of the time interval of surgery on long-term survival. Results: No significant differences in 30-day mortality, long-term survival, freedom from all-cause death, and rehospitalization for heart failure existed among the groups (P > 0.05). More patients in the ER group (12.90%) had low cardiac output syndrome than those in the MR (2.89%) and LR (3.05%) groups (P = 0.035). The mean follow-up times were 46.72 ± 30.65, 48.70 ± 32.74, and 43.75 ± 32.43 months, respectively (P = 0.716). Cox regression analyses showed a severe preoperative condition (odds ratio = 7.13, 95% confidence interval 2.05–24.74, P = 0.002) rather than the time interval of CABG (P > 0.05) after myocardial infarction was a risk factor of long-term survival. Conclusions: Surgical revascularization for patients with STEMI and LVD can be performed at different times after STEMI with comparable operative mortality and long-term survival. However, ER (<3 weeks) has a higher incidence of postoperative low cardiac
Hayashi, Keiko; Kosaka, Yoshimasa; Sengoku, Norihiko; Enomoto, Takumo; Kajita, Sabine; Kuranami, Masaru; Watanabe, Masahiko
Patient 1 was a 63-year-old woman whose chief complaint was a mass in the left breast. Physical examination revealed an inverted left nipple, a very large mass on the anterior aspect of the sternum, and erythema. Because the tumor had directly invaded the sternum, T4cN3M0, stage IIIC breast cancer was diagnosed. The patient preoperatively received chemotherapy with 6 courses of FEC100 (5-fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide) and 5 courses of nanoparticle albumin -bound paclitaxel (260 mg/m2), which enabled a partial response. Patient 2 was an 83-year-old woman whose chief complaint was a mass in the upper internal and external quadrants of the right breast measuring 20×15 cm and erythema. The mass was accompanied by enlarged right axillary lymph nodes(T4bN1M0, stage IIIB breast cancer). Both patients underwent core needle biopsy of the skin and breast masses. They were both diagnosed with invasive, lobular, triple-negative breast cancer (estrogen receptor negative, progesterone receptor negative, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 negative). The surgical resection line was drawn to include the extensive skin invasion, and mastectomy and axillary dissection were performed. Skin grafting was scheduled but the retromammary space on the healthy side was dissected to the anterior border of the latissimus dorsi muscle, and the skin of the healthy side was used to cover the defect on the affected side. Consequently, the pendulous breast on the healthy side was elevated. This surgical technique provided an excellent aesthetic outcome without any skin problems, because autologous skin was used to fill the defect. Radiotherapy could subsequently be administered as scheduled. This procedure may be useful for elderly patients.
El-Karamany, Tarek M.; Al-Adl, Ahmed M.; Abdel-Baky, Shabieb A.; Abdel-Azeem, Abdallah F.; Zaazaa, Mohamed A.
Objective To describe the surgical technique and report the early outcomes of a ‘minimum-incision’ endoscopically assisted transvesical prostatectomy (MEATP) for managing benign prostatic obstruction secondary to a large (>80 g) prostate. Patients and methods In a prospective feasibility trial, 60 men with large benign prostates underwent MEATP. The baseline and postoperative evaluation included the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), a measurement of maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax), and the postvoid residual (PVR) urine volume. The adenoma was enucleated digitally through a 3-cm suprapubic skin incision, and haemostasis was completed with endoscopic coagulation of the prostatic fossa. Perioperative complications were recorded and stratified according to the modified Clavien–Dindo score. Results The mean (SD, range) prostate weight estimated by ultrasonography was 102.9 (15.4, 80–160) g, the operative duration was 52 (8, 40–65) min, the haemoglobin loss was 2.1 (1, 0.4–5) g/dL, the catheterisation time was 5.2 (1.3, 4–9) days, and the hospital stay was 6.2 (1.4, 5–10) days. There were 21 complications recorded in 16 (27%) patients, and most (86%) were of grades 1 and 2. The most frequent complications were bleeding requiring a blood transfusion (8%), and prolonged drainage (5%). There was a significant improvement at 3 months after surgery in the IPSS (8.6 vs. 21.6, P < 0.001), Qmax (19.5 vs. 7.7, P < 0.001), and PVR (15.8 vs. 83.9 mL, P < 0.001). Conclusion MEATP is feasible, safe and effective. Comparative studies and long-term data are required to determine its role in the surgical treatment of large-volume BPH. PMID:26019954
Schramme, M; Hunter, S; Campbell, N; Blikslager, A; Smith, R
Tendon injuries are common in all athletic activities in both humans and horses. Research of treatment modalities for this disease has typically been performed on a model of collagenase-induced tendonitis. This model has several disadvantages. Our hypothesis was that a reproducible core lesion could be created surgically in superficial digital flexor tendons (SDFT), which could then be evaluated consistently using ultrasonography. Four horses free of forelimb lameness were used in this study. Each horse underwent general anaesthesia and a synovial resector was used to create a core lesion in the SDFT of each forelimb. Sonographic examination was conducted weekly using 2 cm intervals between a section 7 and 25 cm distal to the accessory carpal bone. At two, four, eight, and 12 weeks after injury, a horse was euthanatized. Histopathological evaluation of the SDFT was performed at the same levels as the sonographic examination. Only mild clinical signs of tendonitis were observed. Ultrasonographic core lesions were 10-16 cm long and had a mean maximum cross-sectional area (CSA) of 18.25 +/- 5.91% occurring at 17-23 cm distal to the accessory carpal bone, and a mean volume of 1.86 +/- 0.26 cm(3). Mean duration taken to achieve maximum lesion CSA and lesion volume was 35 +/- 7 days. Histologically, the lesions were characterised by mild inflammation followed by fibroplasia. The reported surgical technique resulted in core lesions that were consistent in size and location, were readily evaluated with ultrasonography, and showed similarities with the ultrasonographic and histological progression of naturally occurring tendonitis lesions.
Akdemir, S; Gurocak, S; Konac, E; Ure, I; Onen, H I; Gonul, I I; Sozen, S; Menevse, A
We aimed to investigate the impact of various varicocelectomy techniques and/or L-carnitine as an adjunct treatment, following the emergence of oxidative stress, on the expression levels of SCF/c-kit signalling pathways in spermatogenesis. Forty-two rats were divided into seven groups: group 1 (G1) control; group 2 (G2) sham; group 3 (G3) varicocele; group 4 (G4) varicocele + varicocelectomy with testicular nonartery sparing; group 5 (G5) same as G4 but with artery sparing; group 6 (G6) same as G4 but with L-carnitine and group 7 (G7) same as G5 with L-carnitine. mRNA expression levels of SCF and c-kit were measured quantitatively using real-time polymerase chain reaction. CASP-3 activity at protein level was determined, and histological evaluation was performed. mRNA expression level of SCF increased in G6 as compared to control group (3.52-folds change; P = 0.035), whereas mRNA expression level of c-kit gene remained the same. We found that in the left testis of G6 group, mRNA expression level of SCF increased 2.2-folds in comparison with the right testis (P < 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences in the CASP-3 protein expression levels between the control and other groups. When Cosentino Score analyses of immunostaining were conducted, we observed no significant differences among groups. Spermatogenic failure could be primarily due to a sertoli cell dysfunction. Although surgical treatment has been the best option for management of varicocele, auxiliary agents like L-carnitine may be considered as supportive treatment regimes in addition to conventional surgical treatments.
Schulz-Drost, Stefan; Oppel, Pascal; Grupp, Sina; Schmitt, Sonja; Carbon, Roman Th; Mauerer, Andreas; Hennig, Friedrich F; Buder, Thomas
Different ways to stabilize a sternal fracture are described in literature. Respecting different mechanisms of trauma such as the direct impact to the anterior chest wall or the flexion-compression injury of the trunk, there is a need to retain each sternal fragment in the correct position while neutralizing shearing forces to the sternum. Anterior sternal plating provides the best stability and is therefore increasingly used in most cases. However, many surgeons are reluctant to perform sternal osteosynthesis due to possible complications such as difficulties in preoperative planning, severe injuries to mediastinal organs, or failure of the performed method. This manuscript describes one possible safe way to stabilize different types of sternal fractures in a step by step guidance for anterior sternal plating using low profile locking titanium plates. Before surgical treatment, a detailed survey of the patient and a three dimensional reconstructed computed tomography is taken out to get detailed information of the fracture's morphology. The surgical approach is usually a midline incision. Its position can be described by measuring the distance from upper sternal edge to the fracture and its length can be approximated by the summation of 60 mm for the basis incision, the thickness of presternal soft tissue and the greatest distance between the fragments in case of multiple fractures. Performing subperiosteal dissection along the sternum while reducing the fracture, using depth limited drilling, and fixing the plates prevents injuries to mediastinal organs and vessels. Transverse fractures and oblique fractures at the corpus sterni are plated longitudinally, whereas oblique fractures of manubrium, sternocostal separation and any longitudinally fracture needs to be stabilized by a transverse plate from rib to sternum to rib. Usually the high convenience of a patient is seen during follow up as well as a precise reconstruction of the sternal morphology.
Schulz-Drost, Stefan; Oppel, Pascal; Grupp, Sina; Schmitt, Sonja; Carbon, Roman Th.; Mauerer, Andreas; Hennig, Friedrich F.; Buder, Thomas
Different ways to stabilize a sternal fracture are described in literature. Respecting different mechanisms of trauma such as the direct impact to the anterior chest wall or the flexion-compression injury of the trunk, there is a need to retain each sternal fragment in the correct position while neutralizing shearing forces to the sternum. Anterior sternal plating provides the best stability and is therefore increasingly used in most cases. However, many surgeons are reluctant to perform sternal osteosynthesis due to possible complications such as difficulties in preoperative planning, severe injuries to mediastinal organs, or failure of the performed method. This manuscript describes one possible safe way to stabilize different types of sternal fractures in a step by step guidance for anterior sternal plating using low profile locking titanium plates. Before surgical treatment, a detailed survey of the patient and a three dimensional reconstructed computed tomography is taken out to get detailed information of the fracture’s morphology. The surgical approach is usually a midline incision. Its position can be described by measuring the distance from upper sternal edge to the fracture and its length can be approximated by the summation of 60 mm for the basis incision, the thickness of presternal soft tissue and the greatest distance between the fragments in case of multiple fractures. Performing subperiosteal dissection along the sternum while reducing the fracture, using depth limited drilling, and fixing the plates prevents injuries to mediastinal organs and vessels. Transverse fractures and oblique fractures at the corpus sterni are plated longitudinally, whereas oblique fractures of manubrium, sternocostal separation and any longitudinally fracture needs to be stabilized by a transverse plate from rib to sternum to rib. Usually the high convenience of a patient is seen during follow up as well as a precise reconstruction of the sternal morphology. PMID
Koprivanac, Marijan; Kelava, Marta; Alansari, Shehab; Javadikasgari, Hoda; Tappuni, Bassman; Mick, Stephanie; Marc, Gillinov A; Suri, Rakesh; Mihaljevic, Tomislav
Given the increasing age of the US population and the accompanying rise in cardiovascular disease, we expect to see an increasing number of patients affected by degenerative mitral valve disease in a more complex patient population. Therefore, increasing the overall rate of mitral valve repair will become even more important than it is today, and the capability to provide a universally and uniformly accepted quality of repair will have important medical, economic, and societal implications. This article will describe preoperative and intraoperative considerations and the currently practiced mitral valve repair approaches and techniques. The aim of the article is to present our contemporary approach to mitral valve repair in the hope that it can be adopted at other institutions that may have low repair rates. Adoption of simple and reproducible mitral valve repair techniques is of paramount importance if we as a profession are to accomplish overall higher rates of mitral valve repair with optimal outcomes.
Kelava, Marta; Alansari, Shehab; Javadikasgari, Hoda; Tappuni, Bassman; Mick, Stephanie; Marc, Gillinov A.; Suri, Rakesh; Mihaljevic, Tomislav
Given the increasing age of the US population and the accompanying rise in cardiovascular disease, we expect to see an increasing number of patients affected by degenerative mitral valve disease in a more complex patient population. Therefore, increasing the overall rate of mitral valve repair will become even more important than it is today, and the capability to provide a universally and uniformly accepted quality of repair will have important medical, economic, and societal implications. This article will describe preoperative and intraoperative considerations and the currently practiced mitral valve repair approaches and techniques. The aim of the article is to present our contemporary approach to mitral valve repair in the hope that it can be adopted at other institutions that may have low repair rates. Adoption of simple and reproducible mitral valve repair techniques is of paramount importance if we as a profession are to accomplish overall higher rates of mitral valve repair with optimal outcomes. PMID:28203540
Magdalena, M L; Solé, A; Blanco, V; Rodrigo, J P
There is no consensus on the optimal technique to decrease post-tonsillectomy morbidity. Histopathological analysis can estimate collateral tissue damage. This study compared histological findings for tonsils removed by cold or electrocautery dissection and their relationship with post-operative complications. Two adult out-patient groups were included in the study: 37 who underwent cold dissection and 37 who underwent electrocautery dissection. Histological analysis was used to assess tissue damage. Tissue damage was significantly higher in the electrocautery dissection group (p = 0.002), as were the number of emergency department visits (p = 0.01) and the need for supplemental analgesia (p = 0.013). Patients in the cold dissection group experienced less pain (p = 0.001) and fewer secondary haemorrhage episodes. Cold dissection produces less tissue damage, which is associated with lower incidence of complications. This study suggests that cold dissection is the technique of choice for tonsillectomy.
Cardiac surgery patients often develop a restrictive pulmonary impairment and gas exchange abnormalities in the early postoperative period. Chest physiotherapy is routinely prescribed in order to reduce or prevent these complications. Besides early mobilization, positioning and shoulder girdle exercises, various breathing exercises have been implemented as a major component of postoperative care. A variety of deep breathing maneuvres are recommended to the spontaneously breathing patient to reduce atelectasis and to improve lung function in the early postoperative period. Different breathing exercises are recommended in different parts of the world, and there is no consensus about the most effective breathing technique after cardiac surgery. Arbitrary instructions are given, and recommendations on performance and duration vary between hospitals. Deep breathing exercises are a major part of this therapy, but scientific evidence for the efficacy has been lacking until recently, and there is a lack of trials describing how postoperative breathing exercises actually should be performed. The purpose of this review is to provide a brief overview of postoperative breathing exercises for patients undergoing cardiac surgery via sternotomy, and to discuss and suggest an optimal technique for the performance of deep breathing exercises.
Capriglione, Luiz Guilherme Achcar; Barchiki, Fabiane; Ottoboni, Gabriel Sales; Miyague, Nelson Itiro; Suss, Paula Hansen; Rebelatto, Carmen Lúcia Kuniyoshi; Pimpão, Cláudia Turra; Senegaglia, Alexandra Cristina; Brofman, Paulo Roberto
Objective To perform a comparative assessment of two surgical techniques that are used creating an acute myocardial infarc by occluding the left anterior descending coronary artery in order to generate rats with a left ventricular ejection fraction of less than 40%. Methods The study was completely randomized and comprised 89 halothane-anaesthetised rats, which were divided into three groups. The control group (SHAM) comprised fourteen rats, whose left anterior descending coronary artery was not occluded. Group 1 (G1): comprised by 35 endotracheally intubated and mechanically ventilated rats, whose left anterior descending coronary artery was occluded. Group 2 (G2): comprised 40 rats being manually ventilated using a nasal respirator whose left anterior descending coronary artery was occluded. Other differences between the two techniques include the method of performing the thoracotomy and removing the pericardium in order to expose the heart, and the use of different methods and suture types for closing the thorax. Seven days after surgery, the cardiac function of all surviving rats was determined by echocardiography. Results No rats SHAM group had progressed to death or had left ventricular ejection fraction less than 40%. Nine of the 16 surviving G1 rats (56.3%) and six of the 20 surviving G2 rats (30%) had a left ventricular ejection fraction of less than 40%. Conclusion The results indicate a tendency of the technique used in G1 to be better than in G2. This improvement is probably due to the greater duration of the open thorax, which reduces the pressure over time from the surgeon, allowing occlusion of left anterior descending coronary artery with higher accuracy. PMID:25714202
Venosta, Dominik; Sun, Yi; Matthews, Felix; Kruse, Astrid L; Lanzer, Martin; Gander, Thomas; Grätz, Klaus W; Lübbers, Heinz-Theo
Surgical navigation requires precise registration of the pre-operative image dataset to the patient in the operation theatre. Different marker-based and marker-free registration techniques are available, each of them with advantages and disadvantages regarding precision and clinical handling. In this model study, the precision of two dental splint techniques for marker-based registration is analyzed. A synthetic full-size human skull was registered with its cone beam computed tomography dataset using (a) a dentally-mounted "rapid" occlusal splint with five titanium screws directly attached to the splint, (b) an "extender", a dentally-mounted occlusal splint with similar fiducials fixed to an extension of the splint. The target registration error was measured for 170 landmarks distributed over the viscero- and neurocranium in 10 repeats per splint type using the Vector Vision2 (BrainLAB AG, Heimstetten, Germany) navigation system. Statistical and graphical evaluations were performed per anatomical region. In the periorbital region, the rapid splint, with an average deviation of 1.50 mm (SD = 0.439) showed greater accuracy than the extender with 1.76 mm (SD = 0.525). The viscerocranial results for both splints were similar (extender 1.84 mm, SD = 0.559, rapid occlusal splint 1.86 mm, SD = 0.686). In the cranial vault region, registration with the extender (2.33 mm, SD = 0.685) proved to be more precise than with the rapid splint (2.86 mm, SD = 0.929). Due to the more compact dimension of the rapid occlusal splint, errors close to the splint were smaller compared to the extender technique. The advantage of greater distances between the registration fiducials on the extender is particularly important in areas such as the orbital roof, the cranial vault, and the lateral skull base. Copyright © 2013 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mishra, Amit; Jain, Anil; Hinduja, Manish; Wadhawa, Vivek; Patel, Ramesh; Vaidhya, Nikunj; Rodricks, Dayesh; Patel, Hardik
Objective: Transposition of the great arteries is a common congenital heart disease. Arterial switch is the gold standard operation for this complex heart disease. Arterial switch operation in the presence of intramural coronary artery is surgically the most demanding even for the most experienced hands. We are presenting our experience with a modified technique for intramural coronary arteries in arterial switch operation. Methods: This prospective study involves 450 patients undergoing arterial switch operation at our institute from April 2006 to December 2013 (7.6 years). Eighteen patients underwent arterial switch operation with intramural coronary