Science.gov

Sample records for options objectives instruments

  1. A reliability study of instrument air system design options

    SciTech Connect

    Guey, C.; Skelley, W. ); Gilbert, L.; Anoba, R.; Stutzke, M. )

    1992-01-01

    The existing instrument air system at Turkey Point station uses mobile diesel-driven air compressors. Although these diesel compressors have performed their function well, they represent a maintenance and financial burden requiring engineering review. An engineering evaluation is ongoing to develop several feasible conceptual design options to upgrade the instrument air systems. This phase-1 study was performed to assess the reliability of the various proposed design options. A phase-2 study will be conducted later to determine the core damage frequency for a selected option.

  2. Reading Instruments: Objects, Texts and Museums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Katharine; Frappier, Mélanie; Neswald, Elizabeth; Trim, Henry

    2013-05-01

    Science educators, historians of science and their students often share a curiosity about historical instruments as a tangible link between past and present practices in the sciences. We less often integrate instruments into our research and pedagogy, considering artefact study as the domain of museum specialists. We argue here that scholars and teachers new to material culture can readily use artefacts to reveal rich and complex networks of narratives. We illustrate this point by describing our own lay encounter with an artefact turned over for our analysis during a week-long workshop at the Canada Science and Technology Museum. The text explains how elements as disparate as the military appearance of the instrument, the crest stamped on its body, the manipulation of its telescopes, or a luggage tag revealed the object's scientific and political significance in different national contexts. In this way, the presence of the instrument in the classroom vividly conveyed the nature of geophysics as a field practice and an international science, and illuminated relationships between pure and applied science for early twentieth century geologists. We conclude that artefact study can be an unexpectedly powerful and accessible tool in the study of science, making visible the connections between past and present, laboratory and field, texts and instruments.

  3. Reading Instruments: Objects, Texts and Museums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Katharine; Frappier, Melanie; Neswald, Elizabeth; Trim, Henry

    2013-01-01

    Science educators, historians of science and their students often share a curiosity about historical instruments as a tangible link between past and present practices in the sciences. We less often integrate instruments into our research and pedagogy, considering artefact study as the domain of museum specialists. We argue here that scholars and…

  4. Grazing management options in meeting objectives of grazing experiments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Decisions on which grazing management option to use in grazing experiments can be critical in meeting research objectives and generating information for the scientific community or technologies that meets the needs of forage-based enterprises. It is necessary to have an understanding of animal per...

  5. Planetary Defense: Options for Deflection of Near Earth Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Robert B.; Alexander, Reginald; Bonometti, Joseph; Chapman, Jack; Fincher, Sharon; Hopkins, Randall; Kalkstein, Matthew; Philips, Al; Polsgrove, Tara; Statham, Geoffrey

    2002-01-01

    In FY 2002 a team of engineers and scientists at MSFC conducted a preliminary investigation of the options for deflecting a Near Earth Object (NEO) fiom a collision course with the earth. A general discussion of the current threat facing the earth from NEO s is outlined. A suite of tools were developed to model inbound and outbound trajectories, propulsive options, and assessment of threat. Propulsive options considered included; staged chemical, nuclear ablation and deflagration, mass driver and solar sail concepts. Trajectory tools plotted the outbound course to intercept the NE0 and the deflection requirements to cause the inbound NE0 to miss the earth. Threat assessment tools estimated the number of lives saved over a given time frame by deploying a system capable of deflecting an NE0 of a certain size and velocity. All of these tools were integrated into a routine to find the most effective vehicle for a given mission mass and mission time. Discussion of desired future efforts is given. This work was funded under the Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts activity from NASA HQ.

  6. Near Earth Object (NEO) Mitigation Options Using Exploration Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Robert B.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation considers the use of new launch vehicles in defense against near-Earth objects, building upon expertise in launch vehicle and spacecraft design, astronomy and planetary science and missile defense. This work also seeks to demonstrate the synergy needed between architectures for human/robotic exploration initiatives and planetary defense. Three different mitigation operations were baselined for this study--nuclear standoff explosion, kinetic interceptor, and solar collector--however, these are not the only viable options. The design and predicted performance of each of these methods is discussed and compared. It is determined that the nuclear interceptor option can deflect NEOs of smaller size (100-500 m) with 2 years or more time before impact, and larger NEOs with 5 or more years warning; kinetic interceptors may be effective for deflection of asteroids up to 300-400 m but require 8-10 years warning time; and, solar collectors may be able to deflect NEOs up to 1 km if issues pertaining to long operation can be overcome. Ares I and Ares V vehicles show sufficient performance to enable the development of a near-term categorization and mitigation architecture.

  7. An Analysis of Several Instruments Measuring "Nature of Science" Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doran, Rodney L.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Reported is an investigation of the relationship among three selected instruments based on the responses of a sample of high school students. The instruments were the Nature of Science Scale (NOSS), the Science Support Scale (SSS), and the Test on the Social Aspects of Science (TSAS). All purport to measure "nature of science" objectives. (PEB)

  8. Planetary Defense: Options for Deflection of Near Earth Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, R. B.; Statham, G.; Hopkins, R.; Chapman, J.; White, S.; Bonometti, J.; Alexander, R.; Fincher, S.; Polsgrove, T.; Kalkstein, M.

    2003-01-01

    Several recent near-miss encounters with asteroids and comets have focused attention on the threat of a catastrophic impact with the Earth. This document reviews the historical impact record and current understanding of the number and location of Near Earth Objects (NEO's) to address their impact probability. Various ongoing projects intended to survey and catalog the NEO population are also reviewed. Details are then given of an MSFC-led study, intended to develop and assess various candidate systems for protection of the Earth against NEOs. An existing program, used to model the NE0 threat, was extensively modified and is presented here. Details of various analytical tools, developed to evaluate the performance of proposed technologies for protection against the NEO threat, are also presented. Trajectory tools, developed to model the outbound path a vehicle would take to intercept or rendezvous with a target asteroid or comet, are described. Also, details are given of a tool that was created to model both the un-deflected inbound path of an NE0 as well as the modified, post-deflection, path. The number of possible options available for protection against the NE0 threat was too numerous for them to all be addressed within the study; instead, a representative selection were modeled and evaluated. The major output from this work was a novel process by which the relative effectiveness of different threat mitigation concepts can be evaluated during future, more detailed, studies. In addition, several new or modified mathematical models were developed to analyze various proposed protection systems. A summary of the major lessons learned during this study is presented, as are recommendations for future work. It is hoped that this study will serve to raise the level attention about this very real threat and also demonstrate that successful defense is both possible and practicable, provided appropriate steps are taken.

  9. Near Earth Object (NEO) Mitigation Options Using Exploration Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold William; Baysinger, Mike; Crane, Tracie; Capizzo, Pete; Sutherlin, Steven; Dankanich, John; Woodcock, Gordon; Edlin, George; Rushing, Johnny; Fabisinski, Leo; Jones, David; McKamey, Steve; Thomas, Scott; Maccone, Claudio; Matloff, Greg; Remo, John

    2007-01-01

    This work documents the advancements in MSFC threat modeling and mitigation technology research completed since our last major publication in this field. Most of the work enclosed here are refinements of our work documented in NASA TP-2004-213089. Very long development times from start of funding (10-20 years) can be expected for any mitigation system which suggests that delaying consideration of mitigation technologies could leave the Earth in an unprotected state for a significant period of time. Fortunately there is the potential for strong synergy between architecture requirements for some threat mitigators and crewed deep space exploration. Thus planetary defense has the potential to be integrated into the current U.S. space exploration effort. The number of possible options available for protection against the NEO threat was too numerous for them to all be addressed within the study; instead, a representative selection were modeled and evaluated. A summary of the major lessons learned during this study is presented, as are recommendations for future work.

  10. The SETI Radio Observational Project - Strategy, instrumentation, and objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelson, R. E.; Gulkis, S.; Janssen, M. A.; Kuiper, T. B. H.; Morris, G. A.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes strategies, tradeoffs, instrumentation, and overall objectives for the SETI Radio Observation Project. Novel approaches have been formulated in order to achieve coverage of the desirable frequency and spatial regimes (about 80% of the sky and in the frequency range of 1.4-25 GHz). A mixed strategy has been developed which uses the survey capability of small antennas and the sensitivity of modern maser amplifiers to achieve sensitivities comparable to those reached by previous observers, but with as much as 10,000 times the scope of both the frequency and spatial coverage possible to those experimenters.

  11. The upgraded cold neutron triple-axis spectrometer FLEXX - enhanced capabilities by new instrumental options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habicht, Klaus; Lucía Quintero-Castro, Diana; Toft-Petersen, Rasmus; Kure, Mathias; Mäde, Lucas; Groitl, Felix; Le, Manh Duc

    2015-01-01

    The upgrade of the cold neutron triple axis spectrometer FLEXX, a work-horse instrument for inelastic neutron scattering matching the sample environment capabilities at Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, has been successfully accomplished. Experiments confirmed an order of magnitude gain in flux now allowing for intensity demanding options to be fully exploited at FLEXX. In this article, we describe the layout and design of two newly available FLEXX instrument options in detail. The new Heusler analyzer gives an increase of the detected polarized neutron flux due to its superior focusing properties, significantly improving the feasibility of future polarized and neutron resonance spin echo experiments. The MultiFLEXX option provides simultaneous access to large regions in wavevector and energy space for inelastic excitations thus adding mapping capabilities to the spectrometer.

  12. 77 FR 67042 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Notice of No Objection to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-08

    ... Segregated Futures Customer Accounts on a Gross Basis,'' Release No. 34-67896 (September 20, 2012), 77 FR... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Notice of No Objection to Advance Notice Filing, as Modified by Amendment No. 1 Thereto, Relating to the Margining of Segregated...

  13. Science Objectives of EOS-Aura's Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levelt, P. F.; Veefkind, J. P.; Stammes, P.; Hilsenrath, E.; Bhartia, P. K.; Chance, K. V.; Leppelmeier, G. W.; Maelkki, A.; Bhartia, Pawan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    OMI is a UV/VIS nadir solar backscatter spectrograph, which provides near global coverage in one day with a spatial resolution of 13 x 24 sq km. OMI is a new instrument, with a heritage from the European satellite instruments GOME, GOMOS and SCIAMACHY. OMI's unique capabilities for measuring important trace gases with a small footprint and daily global coverage, in conjunction with the other Aura instruments, will make a major contribution to our understanding of stratospheric and tropospheric chemistry and climate change. OMI will measure solar irradiance and Earth radiances in the wavelength range of 270 to 500 nm with spectral resolution of about 0.5 nm and a spectral sampling of about 2-3 per FWHM. From these observations, total columns of O3, NO2, BrO and SO2 will be derived from the back-scattered solar radiance using differential absorption spectroscopy (DOAS). The TOMS total ozone record will also be continued by employing the well established TOMS algorithm. Because of the high accuracy and spatial resolution of the measurements, a good estimate of tropospheric amounts of ozone and NO2 are expected. Ozone profiles will be derived using the optimal estimation method. The spectral aerosol optical depth will be determined from measurements between 340 and 500 nm. This will provide information on aerosol concentration, aerosol size distribution and aerosol type. This wavelength range makes it possible to retrieve aerosol information over both land and sea. OMI observations will also allow retrievals of cloud coverage and cloud heights. From these products, the UV-B flux at the surface can then be derived with high spatial resolution.

  14. Hubble Space Telescope: Faint object spectrograph instrument handbook. Version 1.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, Holland C. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) has undergone substantial rework since the 1985 FOS Instrument Handbook was published, and we are now more knowledgeable regarding the spacecraft and instrument operations requirements and constraints. The formal system for observation specification has also evolved considerably, as the GTO programs were defined in detail. This supplement to the FOS Instrument Handbook addresses the important aspects of these changes, to facilitate proper selection and specification of FOS observing programs. Since the Handbook was published, the FOS red detector has been replaced twice, first with the best available spare in 1985 (which proved to have a poor, and steadily degrading red response), and later with a newly developed Digicon, which exhibits a high, stable efficiency and a dark-count rate less than half that of its predecessors. Also, the FOS optical train was realigned in 1987-88 to eliminate considerable beam-vignetting losses, and the collimators were both removed and recoated for greater reflectivity. Following the optics and detector rework, the FOS was carefully recalibrated (although only ambient measurements were possible, so the far-UV characteristics could not be re-evaluated directly). The resulting efficiency curves, including improved estimates of the telescope throughput, are shown. A number of changes in the observing-mode specifications and addition of several optional parameters resulted as the Proposal Instructions were honed during the last year. Target-brightness limitations, which have only recently been formulated carefully, are described. Although these restrictions are very conservative, it is imperative that the detector safety be guarded closely, especially during the initial stages of flight operations. Restrictions on the use of the internal calibration lamps and aperture-illumination sources (TA LEDs), also resulting from detector safety considerations, are outlined. Finally, many changes have been made to

  15. How is a trumpet known? The "basic object level" concept and perception of musical instruments.

    PubMed

    Palmer, C F; Jones, R K; Hennessy, B L; Unze, M G; Pick, A D

    1989-01-01

    What are the object properties that serve as a basis for the musical instrument classification system, and how do general and specific experience affect knowledge of these properties? In the first study, the multimodal quality of properties underlying children's and adults' perception was investigated. Subjects listened to solos and identified instruments producing the sounds. Even children who did not have experience with all the instruments correctly identified the family of instruments they were listening to. The hypothesis of the second study, that musical instrument families function as a "basic level" in the instrument taxonomy, was confirmed. Variation in the basic level with varying expertise was documented in the third study with musicians. In the fourth study, children and adults identified the source of sounds from unfamiliar objects, Chinese musical instruments. It is suggested that the concept of affordances may be relevant for understanding the importance for behavior of different levels of abstraction of category systems.

  16. A Many-Objective Analysis of Supply and Demand Management Options for the Thames Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huskova, I.; Matrosov, E.; Kasprzyk, J. R.; Harou, J. J.; Reed, P. M.

    2012-12-01

    In this study we link water basin simulation and many-objective evolutionary optimization to evaluate tradeoffs for the water stressed Thames water supply system in South East England which includes the city of London. We consider both infrastructure additions and demand management options to satisfy the future supply/demand balance, in order to develop management alternatives that can meet a range of fiscal and performance constraints under future supply and demand trajectories. The suite of new infrastructure options includes a new reservoir, water transfers, conjunctive use of groundwater, wastewater reuse and brackish groundwater desalination. Additionally, demand management options include leakage reduction, compulsory metering and the introduction of seasonal tariffs. Infrastructure options are evaluated using quantitative performance measures that minimize costs and energy use while maximizing engineering, social and environmental performance, subject to supply reliability constraints set by the local water utility and the Environment Agency regulator. Pareto approximate trade-off curves show the tradeoffs between engineering, cost, social and environmental performance measures. We use interactive visual analytics to show the performance of solutions across a broad range of performance measures and interrogate the impact of the infrastructure portfolios on the performance measures. Using an optimization—simulation framework enables the consideration of non-linear and rule-based phenomena, which are frequently useful or necessary to accurately describe how real water systems are managed. Results suggest that a diverse portfolio of supply-side and demand side options can aid water management in the UK. The Thames basin is modeled using a generalized computationally efficient open-source water resource simulator, Interactive River-Aquifer Simulation-2010 (IRAS-2010). The IRAS-2010 Thames system model is linked via a C++ wrapper to the Epsilon Dominance

  17. Development of a Conceptual Model and Survey Instrument to Measure Conscientious Objection to Abortion Provision

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Laura Florence; Awoonor-Williams, John Koku; Gerdts, Caitlin; Gil Urbano, Laura; González Vélez, Ana Cristina; Halpern, Jodi; Prata, Ndola; Baffoe, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective Conscientious objection to abortion, clinicians’ refusal to perform legal abortions because of their religious or moral beliefs, has been the subject of increasing debate among bioethicists, policymakers, and public health advocates in recent years. Conscientious objection policies are intended to balance reproductive rights and clinicians’ beliefs. However, in practice, clinician objection can act as a barrier to abortion access–impinging on reproductive rights, and increasing unsafe abortion and related morbidity and mortality. There is little information about conscientious objection from a medical or public health perspective. A quantitative instrument is needed to assess prevalence of conscientious objection and to provide insight on its practice. This paper describes the development of a survey instrument to measure conscientious objection to abortion provision. Methods A literature review, and in-depth formative interviews with stakeholders in Colombia were used to develop a conceptual model of conscientious objection. This model led to the development of a survey, which was piloted, and then administered, in Ghana. Results The model posits three domains of conscientious objection that form the basis for the survey instrument: 1) beliefs about abortion and conscientious objection; 2) actions related to conscientious objection and abortion; and 3) self-identification as a conscientious objector. Conclusions The instrument is intended to be used to assess prevalence among clinicians trained to provide abortions, and to gain insight on how conscientious objection is practiced in a variety of settings. Its results can inform more effective and appropriate strategies to regulate conscientious objection. PMID:27736992

  18. A Many-Objective Optimization of Supply and Demand Management Options for the Thames Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matrosov, Evgenii S.; Huskova, Ivana; Kasprzyk, Joseph R.; Harou, Julien J.; Reed, Patrick M.

    2013-04-01

    In this study we link a water resource management simulator and a many-objective evolutionary optimization algorithm to reveal the trade-offs mapped out by the set of Pareto-optimal water supply portfolios. The approach is applied to a case-study involving the water stressed Thames basin in South East England which includes the city of London. Such a many-objective approach could be used by regulators and stakeholders to supplement current water resource system planning which uses single-objective least-cost optimization. We consider both infrastructure additions and demand management options to produce possible water system portfolios that satisfy the future demand trajectory and meet regulatory performance constraints. Possible infrastructure options explored in the case study include a new reservoir, water transfers, conjunctive use of groundwater, wastewater reuse and brackish groundwater desalination. Demand management options include leakage reduction, the introduction of seasonal tariffs with compulsory metering and efficiency improvements. System performance is evaluated using quantitative performance measures that minimize costs and energy use while maximizing engineering and environmental performance, subject to supply reliability constraints set by the local water utility and the Environment Agency regulator. We use many-objective visual analytics to explore the Pareto approximate trade-off surfaces that show the tradeoffs between engineering, cost, social and environmental performance measures and interactively interrogate the impact of the infrastructure portfolios on the performance measures. Using trusted realistic simulators embedded into global optimzers enables the consideration of non-linear and rule-based physical and management processes that are integral to accurately describing real water systems. The Thames basin is modeled using a generalized computationally efficient open-source water resource simulator, the Interactive River

  19. The use of object-oriented techniques and CORBA in astronomical instrumentation control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dipper, Nigel A.; Blackburn, Colin

    2004-09-01

    Control software for astronomy matches the ever increasing complexity of new large instrumentation projects. In order to speed the development cycle, object-oriented techniques have been used to generate loosely coupled software objects and larger scale components that can be reused in future projects. Such object-oriented systems provide for short development cycles which can respond to changing requirements and allow for extension. The Unified Modeling Language (UML) has been used for the analysis, design and implementation of this software. A distributed system is supported by the use of an object broker such as CORBA. These techniques are being applied to the development of an instrument control system for the UK spectrograph within FMOS (Fiber-fed Multi-Object Spectrograph). This is a second generation instrument for the Subaru Telescope of the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  20. The Objective and Subjective Evaluation of Multichannel Expansion in Wide Dynamic Range Compression Hearing Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plyler, Patrick N.; Lowery, Kristy J.; Hamby, Hilary M.; Trine, Timothy D.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The effects of multichannel expansion on the objective and subjective evaluation of 20 listeners fitted binaurally with 4-channel, digital in-the-ear hearing instruments were investigated. Method: Objective evaluations were conducted in quiet using the Connected Speech Test (CST) and in noise using the Hearing in Noise Test (HINT) at 40,…

  1. An Analysis of Expressed Cognitive Preferences on Forced-Choice, Multiple-Option and Rating Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandelare, John James

    The purposes of this study were to construct a general science cognitive preference test instrument, construct an alternative form of the Marks Cognitive Preference Test: High School Chemistry, and to determine the extent of agreement between the two instruments. The instruments were administered to 448 chemistry students. Two shortened forms of…

  2. Grammatical Gender and Mental Representation of Object: The Case of Musical Instruments.

    PubMed

    Vuksanović, Jasmina; Bjekić, Jovana; Radivojević, Natalija

    2015-08-01

    A body of research shows that grammatical gender, although an arbitrary category, is viewed as the system with its own meaning. However, the question remains to what extent does grammatical gender influence shaping our notions about objects when both verbal and visual information are available. Two experiments were conducted. The results obtained in Experiment 1 have shown that grammatical gender as a linguistic property of the pseudo-nouns used as names for musical instruments significantly affects people's representations about these instruments. The purpose of Experiment 2 was to examine how the representation of musical instruments will be shaped in the presence of both language and visual information. The results indicate that the co-existence of linguistic and visual information results in formation of concepts about selected instruments by all available information from both sources, thus suggesting that grammatical gender influences nonverbal concepts' forming, but has no privileged status in the matter.

  3. Grammatical Gender and Mental Representation of Object: The Case of Musical Instruments.

    PubMed

    Vuksanović, Jasmina; Bjekić, Jovana; Radivojević, Natalija

    2015-08-01

    A body of research shows that grammatical gender, although an arbitrary category, is viewed as the system with its own meaning. However, the question remains to what extent does grammatical gender influence shaping our notions about objects when both verbal and visual information are available. Two experiments were conducted. The results obtained in Experiment 1 have shown that grammatical gender as a linguistic property of the pseudo-nouns used as names for musical instruments significantly affects people's representations about these instruments. The purpose of Experiment 2 was to examine how the representation of musical instruments will be shaped in the presence of both language and visual information. The results indicate that the co-existence of linguistic and visual information results in formation of concepts about selected instruments by all available information from both sources, thus suggesting that grammatical gender influences nonverbal concepts' forming, but has no privileged status in the matter. PMID:24595378

  4. The PanCam instrument for the ExoMars 2018 rover: science objectives and instrument characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coates, A. J.; Griffiths, A. D.; Leff, C. E.; Cousins, C. R.; Jaumann, R.; Schmitz, N.; Josset, J.-L.; Paar, G.; Barnes, D. P.; PanCam Team

    2013-09-01

    The scientific objectives of the ExoMars 2018 rover are designed to answer several key questions in the search for life on Mars. The PanCam instrument will set the geological and morphological context for the mission. Here, we will describe the PanCam scientific objectives in geology, atmospheric science and 3D vision. We will also describe the design of PanCam, which includes a stereo pair of Wide Angle Cameras (WACs), each of which has a filter wheel, and a High Resolution Camera for close up investigations. The cameras are housed in an optical bench and electrical interface is via the PanCam Interface Unit (PIU). We also discuss some results from PanCam testing during field trials.

  5. The PanCam instrument for the ExoMars 2018 rover: science objectives and instrument characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coates, A. J.; Griffiths, A. D.; Leff, C. E.; Cousins, C. R.; Jaumann, R.; Schmitz, N.; Josset, J. L.; Paar, G.; Barnes, D. P.

    2011-10-01

    The scientific objectives of the ExoMars 2018 rover are designed to answer several key questions in the search for life on Mars. The PanCam instrument will set the geological and morphological context for the mission. In this talk we will describe the PanCam scientific objectives in geology, atmospheric science and 3D vision. We will also describe the design of PanCam, which includes a stereo pair of Wide Angle Cameras (WACs), each of which has a filter wheel, and a High Resolution Camera for close up investigations. The cameras are housed in an optical bench and electrical interface is via the PanCam Interface Unit (PIU). We also discuss some results from PanCam testing during field trials.

  6. 78 FR 23116 - Basis Reporting by Securities Brokers and Basis Determination for Debt Instruments and Options...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ... FR 72652) proposed regulations (REG-102988- 11) relating to information reporting by brokers... instruments issued by foreign persons, U.S. Treasury strips and other stripped debt instruments, inflation... premium, market discount, and acquisition premium. Several commenters requested that the final...

  7. Can Reliability of Multiple Component Measuring Instruments Depend on Response Option Presentation Mode?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menold, Natalja; Raykov, Tenko

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the possible dependency of composite reliability on presentation format of the elements of a multi-item measuring instrument. Using empirical data and a recent method for interval estimation of group differences in reliability, we demonstrate that the reliability of an instrument need not be the same when polarity of the…

  8. Orbit Options for an Orion-Class Spacecraft Mission to a Near-Earth Object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shupe, Nathan C.

    Based on the recommendations of the Augustine Commission, President Obama has proposed a vision for U.S. human spaceflight in the post-Shuttle era which includes a manned mission to a Near-Earth Object (NEO). A 2006-2007 study commissioned by the Constellation Program Advanced Projects Office investigated the feasibility of sending a crewed Orion spacecraft to a NEO using different combinations of elements from the latest launch system architecture at that time. The study found a number of suitable mission targets in the database of known NEOs, and predicted that the number of candidate NEOs will continue to increase as more advanced observatories come online and execute more detailed surveys of the NEO population. The objective of this thesis is to pick up where the previous Constellation study left off by considering what orbit options are available for an Orion-class spacecraft upon arrival at a NEO. A model including multiple perturbations (solar radiation pressure, solar gravity, non-spherical mass distribution of the central body) to two-body dynamics is constructed to numerically integrate the motion of a satellite in close proximity to a small body in an elliptical orbit about the Sun. Analytical limits derived elsewhere in the literature for the thresholds on the size of the satellite orbit required to maintain stability in the presence of these perturbing forces are verified by the numerical model. Simulations about NEOs possessing various physical parameters (size, shape, rotation period) are then used to empirically develop general guidelines for establishing orbits of an Orion-class spacecraft about a NEO. It is found that an Orion-class spacecraft can orbit NEOs at any distance greater than the NEO surface height and less than the maximum semi-major axis allowed by the solar radiation pressure perturbation, provided that the ellipticity perturbation is sufficiently weak (this condition is met if the NEO is relatively round and/or has a long rotation

  9. Midcourse space experiment: Introduction to the spacecraft, instruments, and scientific objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mill, John D.; O'Neil, Robert R.; Price, Stephan; Romick, Gerald J.; Uy, O. Manuel; Gaposchkin, E. M.; Light, Glenn C.; Moore, W. Walding, Jr.; Murdock, Thomas L.; Stair, A. T., Jr.

    1994-09-01

    A suite of state-of-the-art sensors, including a cryogenic infrared scanning radiometer and Fourier-transform spectrometer, several visible and ultraviolet imagers and spectrographic imagers, and a set of contamination instruments, are at present being integrated with a highly capable spacecraft for a planned 1994 launch into a polar orbit. The optical sensors cover the spectrum from the far ultraviolet through the longwave infrared (110 nm to 28 micron). The Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) satellite, funded and managed by the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization, will be a long-duration, observatory-style measurement platform that will collect several terabytes of high-quality data on earth, earthlimb, and celestial backgrounds, ICBM-style targets, and resident space objects. While the principal focus of MSX is to collect phenomenology data in support of ballistic missile defense objectives, it will also be capable of collecting well-calibrated data in support of a variety of civilian science objectives in earth and atmospheric remote sensing and astronomy. This paper reviews the mission objectives, describes the spacecraft and the instrumentation, and discusses the planned observations. It also outlines an innovative approach to reducing, analyzing, and archiving the large database that will result from several years of data collection supporting a variety of scientific objectives.

  10. Development and preliminary testing of an instrumented object for force analysis during grasping.

    PubMed

    Romeo, R A; Cordella, F; Zollo, L; Formica, D; Saccomandi, P; Schena, E; Carpino, G; Davalli, A; Sacchetti, R; Guglielmelli, E

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the design and realization of an instrumented object for force analysis during grasping. The object, with spherical shape, has been constructed with three contact areas in order to allow performing a tripod grasp. Force Sensing Resistor (FSR) sensors have been employed for normal force measurements, while an accelerometer has been used for slip detection. An electronic board for data acquisition has been embedded into the object, so that only the cables for power supply exit from it. Validation tests have been carried out for: (i) comparing the force measurements with a ground truth; (ii) assessing the capability of the accelerometer to detect slippage for different roughness values; (iii) evaluating object performance in grasp trials performed by a human subject. PMID:26737835

  11. Standard Reticle Slide To Objectively Evaluate Spatial Resolution and Instrument Performance in Imaging Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zubair, Faizan; Prentice, Boone M; Norris, Jeremy L; Laibinis, Paul E; Caprioli, Richard M

    2016-07-19

    Spatial resolution is a key parameter in imaging mass spectrometry (IMS). Aside from being a primary determinant in overall image quality, spatial resolution has important consequences on the acquisition time of the IMS experiment and the resulting file size. Hardware and software modifications during instrumentation development can dramatically affect the spatial resolution achievable using a given imaging mass spectrometer. As such, an accurate and objective method to determine the working spatial resolution is needed to guide instrument development and ensure quality IMS results. We have used lithographic and self-assembly techniques to fabricate a pattern of crystal violet as a standard reticle slide for assessing spatial resolution in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) IMS experiments. The reticle is used to evaluate spatial resolution under user-defined instrumental conditions. Edgespread analysis measures the beam diameter for a Gaussian profile and line scans measure an "effective" spatial resolution that is a convolution of beam optics and sampling frequency. The patterned crystal violet reticle was also used to diagnose issues with IMS instrumentation such as intermittent losses of pixel data. PMID:27299987

  12. Science objectives and Expected performances of NOMAD, an ExoMars TGO instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, S.; Vandaele, A. C.; Thomas, I.; Daerden, F.; Depiesse, C.; Drummond, R.; Neary, L.; Willame, Y.; Lopez-Moreno, J. J.; Rodriguez-Gomez, J.; Patel, M. R.; Bellucci, G.

    2015-10-01

    NOMAD, the "Nadir and Occultation for MArs Discovery" spectrometer suite is part of the payload of the 2016 ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter Mission. This instrument suite will probe the atmosphere of Mars in the infrared, visible and ultraviolet regions covering 0.2 - 0.65 and 2.2 - 4.3μm. Thanks to its very high spectral resolution and multiple channels and observational modes, NOMAD will be able to detect a wide range of atmospheric trace gases, many of which are important markers of geophysical and/or biogenic activity. We will present the instrument, its science objectives and the performances we expect based on simulations we have done so far.

  13. Applied strategy for options of invasive and non-invasive sensors and instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zhang; Xin, Liu; Scopesi, Fabio; Serra, Giovanni; Sun, Jinwei; Rolfe, Peter

    2008-10-01

    A diverse range of sensors and instruments is available for use in the critical care of acutely ill patients and it is not always straightforward to decide which technologies should be used. Clinicians have their own priorities for the physiological variables that they consider need to be monitored in order to provide optimum medical care. Alongside this, consideration must be given to the choice of available technologies. This choice may be influenced by performance criteria, cost, and ease of use. It is also necessary to consider the physical status of the patients, the measurement instruments and any potential risks for the patients so as to provide the best measurement scheme. This paper explores the use of decision support tools that may be used in critical care situations. The care of ill newborn babies requiring mechanical ventilation is considered as a case study. The choice of invasive and non-invasive techniques for blood gas and pH assessment is evaluated and decision trees and hierarchical clustering are considered as possible decision support methodologies.

  14. Analysis of grasping strategies and function in hemiparetic patients using an instrumented object.

    PubMed

    Jarrassé, Nathanaël; Kühne, Markus; Roach, Nick; Hussain, Asif; Balasubramanian, Sivakumar; Burdet, Etienne; Roby-Brami, Agnès

    2013-06-01

    This paper validates a novel instrumented object, the iBox, dedicated to the analysis of grasping and manipulation. This instrumented box can be grasped and manipulated, is fitted with an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and can sense the force applied on each side and transmits measured force, acceleration and orientation data wirelessly in real time. The iBox also provides simple access to data for analysing human motor control features such as the coordination between grasping and lifting forces and complex manipulation patterns. A set of grasping and manipulation experiments was conducted with 6 hemiparetic patients and 5 healthy control subjects. Measures made of the forces, kinematics and dynamics are developed, which can be used to analyse grasping and contribute to assessment in patients. Quantitative measurements provided by the iBox reveal numerous characteristics of the grasping strategies and function in patients: variations in the completion time, changes in the force distribution on the object and grasping force levels, difficulties to adjust the level of applied forces to the task and to maintain it, along with movement smoothness decrease and pathological tremor.

  15. Multidisciplinary design optimization of vehicle instrument panel based on multi-objective genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ping; Wu, Guangqiang

    2013-03-01

    Typical multidisciplinary design optimization(MDO) has gradually been proposed to balance performances of lightweight, noise, vibration and harshness(NVH) and safety for instrument panel(IP) structure in the automotive development. Nevertheless, plastic constitutive relation of Polypropylene(PP) under different strain rates, has not been taken into consideration in current reliability-based and collaborative IP MDO design. In this paper, based on tensile test under different strain rates, the constitutive relation of Polypropylene material is studied. Impact simulation tests for head and knee bolster are carried out to meet the regulation of FMVSS 201 and FMVSS 208, respectively. NVH analysis is performed to obtain mainly the natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes, while the crashworthiness analysis is employed to examine the crash behavior of IP structure. With the consideration of lightweight, NVH, head and knee bolster impact performance, design of experiment(DOE), response surface model(RSM), and collaborative optimization(CO) are applied to realize the determined and reliability-based optimizations, respectively. Furthermore, based on multi-objective genetic algorithm(MOGA), the optimal Pareto sets are completed to solve the multi-objective optimization(MOO) problem. The proposed research ensures the smoothness of Pareto set, enhances the ability of engineers to make a comprehensive decision about multi-objectives and choose the optimal design, and improves the quality and efficiency of MDO.

  16. Hubble Space Telescope faint object camera instrument handbook (Post-COSTAR), version 5.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nota, A. (Editor); Jedrzejewski, R. (Editor); Greenfield, P. (Editor); Hack, W. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    The faint object camera (FOC) is a long-focal-ratio, photon-counting device capable of taking high-resolution two-dimensional images of the sky up to 14 by 14 arc seconds squared in size with pixel dimensions as small as 0.014 by 0.014 arc seconds squared in the 1150 to 6500 A wavelength range. Its performance approaches that of an ideal imaging system at low light levels. The FOC is the only instrument on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to fully use the spatial resolution capabilities of the optical telescope assembly (OTA) and is one of the European Space Agency's contributions to the HST program.

  17. Recent testing of a micro autonomous positioning system for multi-object instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochrane, W. A.; Atkinson, D. C.; Bailie, T. E. C.; Dickson, C.; Lim, T.; Luo, X.; Montgomery, D. M.; Schnetler, H.; Taylor, W. D.; Wilson, B.

    2012-09-01

    A multiple pick off mirror positioning sub-system has been developed as a solution for the deployment of mirrors within multi-object instrumentation such as the EAGLE instrument in the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). The positioning sub-system is a two wheeled differential steered friction drive robot with a footprint of approximately 20 x 20 mm. Controlled by RF communications there are two versions of the robot that exist. One is powered by a single cell lithium ion battery and the other utilises a power floor system. The robots use two brushless DC motors with 125:1 planetary gear heads for positioning in the coarse drive stages. A unique power floor allows the robots to be positioned at any location in any orientation on the focal plane. The design, linear repeatability tests, metrology and power continuity of the robot will be evaluated and presented in this paper. To gather photons from the objects of interest it is important to position POMs within a sphere of confusion of less than 10 μm, with an angular alignment better than 1 mrad. The robots potential of meeting these requirements will be described through the open-loop repeatability tests conducted with a Faro laser beam tracker. Tests have involved sending the robot step commands and automatically taking continuous measurements every three seconds. Currently the robot is capable of repeatedly travelling 233 mm within 0.307 mm at 5 mm/s. An analysis of the power floors reliability through the continuous monitoring of the voltage across the tracks with a Pico logger will also be presented.

  18. The FIELDS Instrument Suite on MMS: Scientific Objectives, Measurements, and Data Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torbert, R. B.; Russell, C. T.; Magnes, W.; Ergun, R. E.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; LeContel, O.; Vaith, H.; Macri, J.; Myers, S.; Rau, D.; Needell, J.; King, B.; Granoff, M.; Chutter, M.; Dors, I.; Olsson, G.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Eriksson, A.; Kletzing, C. A.; Bounds, S.; Anderson, B.; Baumjohann, W.; Steller, M.; Bromund, K.; Le, Guan; Nakamura, R.; Strangeway, R. J.; Leinweber, H. K.; Tucker, S.; Westfall, J.; Fischer, D.; Plaschke, F.; Porter, J.; Lappalainen, K.

    2016-03-01

    The FIELDS instrumentation suite on the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission provides comprehensive measurements of the full vector magnetic and electric fields in the reconnection regions investigated by MMS, including the dayside magnetopause and the night-side magnetotail acceleration regions out to 25 Re. Six sensors on each of the four MMS spacecraft provide overlapping measurements of these fields with sensitive cross-calibrations both before and after launch. The FIELDS magnetic sensors consist of redundant flux-gate magnetometers (AFG and DFG) over the frequency range from DC to 64 Hz, a search coil magnetometer (SCM) providing AC measurements over the full whistler mode spectrum expected to be seen on MMS, and an Electron Drift Instrument (EDI) that calibrates offsets for the magnetometers. The FIELDS three-axis electric field measurements are provided by two sets of biased double-probe sensors (SDP and ADP) operating in a highly symmetric spacecraft environment to reduce significantly electrostatic errors. These sensors are complemented with the EDI electric measurements that are free from all local spacecraft perturbations. Cross-calibrated vector electric field measurements are thus produced from DC to 100 kHz, well beyond the upper hybrid resonance whose frequency provides an accurate determination of the local electron density. Due to its very large geometric factor, EDI also provides very high time resolution (˜1 ms) ambient electron flux measurements at a few selected energies near 1 keV. This paper provides an overview of the FIELDS suite, its science objectives and measurement requirements, and its performance as verified in calibration and cross-calibration procedures that result in anticipated errors less than 0.1 nT in B and 0.5 mV/m in E. Summaries of data products that result from FIELDS are also described, as well as algorithms for cross-calibration. Details of the design and performance characteristics of AFG/DFG, SCM, ADP, SDP, and EDI

  19. An optical spectrograph design for a new-generation multiple object Doppler instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Bo; Ge, Jian

    2006-06-01

    This paper describes an optical spectrograph design for the W.M. Keck Exoplanet Tracker (ET) multi-object Doppler radial velocity instrument. The Keck ET is currently installed at the Sloan 2.5m telescope (Ge et al. this proceedings), and is capable of simultaneously monitoring 60 stars with high precision for a planet survey. The spectrograph consists of an entrance slit, collimator optics, a Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) grating, camera optics and a 4kx4k CCD camera, and provides a spectral resolution of R =5000, with a 180 mm diameter collimated beam. The collimator and camera optics (300 mm largest diameter) are made of two standard optical grade glasses: BK7 and F2, respectively. The spectrograph is transmissive and optimized for delivering high throughput and high image quality over the entire operation bandwidth: 500-590 nm. The f/4 input beams from the Keck ET interferometer are converted to f/1.5 beams on the detector by this spectrograph, and form 60 stellar fringe spectra.

  20. Methods and apparatus for cleaning objects in a chamber of an optical instrument by generating reactive ions using photon radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Delgado, Gildardo R.; Hollenshead, Jeromy T.; Umstadter, Karl R.; Starodub, Elena; Zhuang, Guorong V.

    2015-10-13

    An optical instrument, including a chamber, an object exposed to an interior of the chamber, a source of low-pressure gas, the gas comprising at least one of low-pressure molecular hydrogen gas, low-pressure molecular oxygen and a low-pressure noble gas, the source of low pressure gas being fluidly coupled to the chamber, a low voltage source electrically coupled between the object and a remaining portion of the instrument that is exposed to the interior of the chamber so as to maintain the object at a low voltage relative to the remaining portion, and an EUV/VUV light source adapted to direct EUV/VUV light through the low pressure gas in the chamber onto the object. In such a system, when the EUV/VUV light source is activated ions of the low-pressure gas are formed and directed to the object. The ions may be ions of Hydrogen, Oxygen or a noble gas.

  1. Many objective optimization and impact assessment of water management options in the Jaguaribe Basin of North East Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurford, A. P.; Huskova, I.; Matrosov, E.; Harou, J. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Jaguaribe river basin in the north east of Brazil lies in the country's driest state, Ceará. Rainfall is concentrated in six months of the year, evapotranspiration can reach 2000 mm per year and a high proportion of the population relies on irrigated agriculture for their subsistence or livelihood. The current water management strategy involves negotiating monthly release rates from each of the basin's three major reservoirs twice a year. The state water management company leads these negotiations with representatives of various water user groups; releases are decided based on the currently stored volume and limited modelling of release scenarios. Presently reservoirs are managed such that municipal demands are guaranteed for 30 months from the date of negotiation. We use multi-objective optimization to search for the pareto-optimal number of months of municipal demand to be guaranteed, and the shape of release rules (based on stored volume). System performance is assessed by comparing flow-duration curves and livelihood factors, such as riparian farm land availability and fishery quality , in addition to the satisfaction of demands in the region supplied by each reservoir. Historical monthly flows are used to simulate the system over 90 years. Results shows the trade-offs between different performance measures and the effects of management option combinations on different water users. A few climate change projections of reservoir inflows are used to assess how a selection of the resulting release rules might perform against the same measures under altered future hydrological conditions. The proposed approach helps planners evaluate the impacts of management options and allows finding balanced stakeholder-backed ways to reduce negative impacts on the environment and the region's vulnerable groups while maintaining overall system performance.

  2. Evaluation of Low-Cost, Objective Instruments for Assessing Physical Activity in 10-11-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Teresa L.; Brusseau, Timothy; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; McClain, James J.; Tudor-Locke, Catrine

    2011-01-01

    This study compared step counts detected by four, low-cost, objective, physical-activity-assessment instruments and evaluated their ability to detect moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) compared to the ActiGraph accelerometer (AG). Thirty-six 10-11-year-old children wore the NL-1000, Yamax Digiwalker SW 200, Omron HJ-151, and Walk4Life…

  3. Formative Assessment of Procedural Skills: Students' Responses to the Objective Structured Clinical Examination and the Integrated Performance Procedural Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nestel, Debra; Kneebone, Roger; Nolan, Carmel; Akhtar, Kash; Darzi, Ara

    2011-01-01

    Assessment of clinical skills is a critical element of undergraduate medical education. We compare a traditional approach to procedural skills assessment--the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) with the Integrated Performance Procedural Instrument (IPPI). In both approaches, students work through "stations" or "scenarios" undertaking…

  4. A new-generation multi-object high throughput Doppler instrument for a planet survey at the SDSS Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Jian; Wan, Xiaoke; Zhao, Bo; Hariharan, Abishek; Mahadevan, Suvrath; van Eyken, Julian; Guo, Pengcheng; McDavitt, Dan; DeWitt, Curtis; Cohen, Roger; Fleming, Scott W.; Kane, Stephen; Crepp, Justin; Shaklan, Stuart

    2006-06-01

    We report the design of a new generation multi-object high throughput Doppler instrument and first light results at the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) telescope. This instrument, capable of simultaneously monitoring 60 stars for planet detection, is called the W.M. Keck Exoplanet Tracker (or Keck ET) thanks to the generous gift from the W.M. Keck Foundation. It is designed for a planet survey around hundreds of thousands of stars with V =8-13 for detecting tens of thousands of planets in 2006-2020. The Doppler precision is between 3-25 m/s depending on the star magnitude. We also report a new planet detected with a prototype single object version ET instrument at the KPNO Coude Feed/2.1 m telescopes. The extrasolar planet, ET-1 (HD 102195b), has a minimum mass of 0.49 Jupiter masses and orbits a V = 8.1 G8V star with a 4.1 day period. The planet was identified using the Coude Feed 0.9 meter telescope in spring 2005. This is the first time an extrasolar planet around a star fainter than V=8 magnitude has been discovered with an under 1 meter size astronomical telescope and Doppler instrument. This planet discovery is possible due to the extremely high throughput of the instrument, 49% measured from the fiber output end to the detector.

  5. Science objectives and Expected performances of NOMAD, an ExoMars TGO instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, Séverine; Carine Vandaele, Ann; Thomas, Ian; Daerden, Frank; Depiesse, Cédric; Drummond, Rachel; Neary, Lori; Willame, Yannick; Lopez-Moreno, José Juan; Rodriguez-Gomez, Julio; Patel, Manish R.; Bellucci, Giancarlo

    2015-04-01

    NOMAD, the "Nadir and Occultation for MArs Discovery" spectrometer suite will be part of the payload of the 2016 ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter Mission. This instrument suite will measure the atmosphere of Mars in the infrared, visible and ultraviolet regions covering 0.2 - 0.65 and 2.2 - 4.3 μm. It is composed of three channels: a solar occultation only channel (SO) operating in the infrared wavelength domain, a second infrared channel capable of doing nadir, but also solar occultation and limb observations (LNO), and an ultraviolet/visible channel (UVIS) that can work in all observation modes. Thanks to its very high spectral resolution and multiple observational modes, NOMAD will be able to detect a wide range of atmospheric trace gases, many of which are important markers of geophysical and/or biogenic activity. While the instrument is being assembled and tested, scientific preparations have begun. ASIMUT-ALVL, a line-by-line radiative transfer code developed at IASB-BIRA, is used to simulate spectra in the infrared range (0.7 ' 4.5 μm) as would be measured by the instrument and under various atmospheric conditions obtained from the IASB-BIRA GCM, GEM-Mars. Random noise has then been added to the simulated spectra to match the real instrument characteristics of each channel: SNRs have been derived using a model that simulates the real instrument (e.g. transmission properties of optical components, expected in-flight instrument temperatures, detector responsivities, etc.). After NOMAD has been calibrated and tested, these values will be amended to match the ground-calibration results. ASIMUT-ALVL has then been used to perform retrievals on the noisy spectra. In order to establish detection limits of trace gas and key isotopologues such as CH4, C2H2, C2H4, C2H6, H2CO, H2S, H2O, HDO, CO, HCl, HCN, N2O, NO2, O3, OCS, SO2, or NH3 we had to define the best spectral ranges (both in the UV and IR) to be studied for each molecule and each observation mode. These results

  6. 46 CFR 67.218 - Optional filing of instruments in portable document format as attachments to electronic mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DOCUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS DOCUMENTATION OF VESSELS Filing and... instrument filing may be obtained from the National Vessel Documentation Center Web site. If the instrument... completed Application for Initial Issue, Exchange, or Replacement Certificate of Documentation, or Return...

  7. Terahertz imaging and tomography as efficient instruments for testing polymer additive manufacturing objects.

    PubMed

    Perraud, J B; Obaton, A F; Bou-Sleiman, J; Recur, B; Balacey, H; Darracq, F; Guillet, J P; Mounaix, P

    2016-05-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) technology is not only used to make 3D objects but also for rapid prototyping. In industry and laboratories, quality controls for these objects are necessary though difficult to implement compared to classical methods of fabrication because the layer-by-layer printing allows for very complex object manufacturing that is unachievable with standard tools. Furthermore, AM can induce unknown or unexpected defects. Consequently, we demonstrate terahertz (THz) imaging as an innovative method for 2D inspection of polymer materials. Moreover, THz tomography may be considered as an alternative to x-ray tomography and cheaper 3D imaging for routine control. This paper proposes an experimental study of 3D polymer objects obtained by additive manufacturing techniques. This approach allows us to characterize defects and to control dimensions by volumetric measurements on 3D data reconstructed by tomography.

  8. Terahertz imaging and tomography as efficient instruments for testing polymer additive manufacturing objects.

    PubMed

    Perraud, J B; Obaton, A F; Bou-Sleiman, J; Recur, B; Balacey, H; Darracq, F; Guillet, J P; Mounaix, P

    2016-05-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) technology is not only used to make 3D objects but also for rapid prototyping. In industry and laboratories, quality controls for these objects are necessary though difficult to implement compared to classical methods of fabrication because the layer-by-layer printing allows for very complex object manufacturing that is unachievable with standard tools. Furthermore, AM can induce unknown or unexpected defects. Consequently, we demonstrate terahertz (THz) imaging as an innovative method for 2D inspection of polymer materials. Moreover, THz tomography may be considered as an alternative to x-ray tomography and cheaper 3D imaging for routine control. This paper proposes an experimental study of 3D polymer objects obtained by additive manufacturing techniques. This approach allows us to characterize defects and to control dimensions by volumetric measurements on 3D data reconstructed by tomography. PMID:27140357

  9. Hubble Space Telescope faint object spectrograph instrument handbook, version 5.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinney, A. L. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    This version of the FOS Instrument Handbook is for the refurbished telescope, which is affected by an increase in throughput, especially for the smaller apertures, a decrease in efficiency due to the extra reflections of the COSTAR optics, and a change in focal length. The improved PSF affects all exposure time calculations due to better aperture throughputs and increases the spectral resolution. The extra reflections of COSTAR decrease the efficiency by 10-20 percent. The change in focal length affects the aperture sizes as projected on the sky. The aperture designations that are already in use both in the exposure logsheets and in the project data base (PDB) have not been changed. Apertures are referred to here by their size, followed by the designation used on the exposure logsheet.

  10. Evaluation Report of the Presidential/Secretarial Objective -- School Management Options Available to Indian People. Research and Evaluation Report Series No. 29.08.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Indian Training and Research Center, Tempe, AZ.

    Presenting evaluations of the Bureau of Indian Affairs' (BIA) implementation of the School Management Option Project, a project designed to further American Indian control of schools and elevated to the status of Presidential/Secretarial Objective (P/SO) in 1974, this report includes separate evaluations by the National Indian Training and…

  11. Grammatical Gender and Mental Representation of Object: The Case of Musical Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuksanovic, Jasmina; Bjekic, Jovana; Radivojevic, Natalija

    2015-01-01

    A body of research shows that grammatical gender, although an arbitrary category, is viewed as the system with its own meaning. However, the question remains to what extent does grammatical gender influence shaping our notions about objects when both verbal and visual information are available. Two experiments were conducted. The results obtained…

  12. Development and Factor Analysis of an Instrument to Measure Preservice Teachers' Perceptions of Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Sami

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a questionnaire to measure student teachers' perception of digital learning objects. The participants included 308 voluntary senior students attending courses in a college of education of a public university in Turkey. The items were extracted to their related factors by the principal axis factoring method.…

  13. MicroCameras and Photometers (MCP) instrument on board TARANIS satellite: scientific objectives, design, characterization results and products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farges, T.; Hébert, P.; Le Mer-Dachard, F.; Cansot, E.; Offroy, M.; Ravel, K.; Gaillac, S.; Sato, M.; Blanc, E.

    2015-12-01

    TARANIS (Tool for the Analysis of Radiations from lightNings and Sprites) is a CNES micro satellite. Its main objective is to study impulsive transfers of energy between the Earth atmosphere and the space environment. It will be sun-synchronous at an altitude of 700 km. It will be launched from late 2017 for at least 2 years. Its payload is composed of several electromagnetic instruments in different wavelengths (from gamma-rays to radio waves including optical). TARANIS instruments are currently in calibration and qualification phase. The purpose of this poster is to present the MicroCameras and Photometers (MCP) scientific objectives and the sensor design, to show the performances of this instrument using the recent characterization, and at last to promote its products. The MicroCameras, developed by Sodern, are dedicated to the spatial description of TLEs and their parent lightning. They are able to differentiate sprite and lightning thanks to two narrow bands ([757-767 nm] and [772-782 nm]) that provide simultaneous pairs of images of an Event. The calibration results will be detailed. Simulation results of the differentiation method will be shown. Photometers, developed by Bertin Technologies, will provide temporal measurements and spectral characteristics of TLEs and lightning. It is a key instrument because of its on-board detection of the TLEs which can trigger the whole payload. Photometers use four spectral bands in the [170-260 nm], [332-342 nm], [757-767 nm] and [600-900 nm] and have the same field of view as cameras. The calibration results will also be detailed. The on-board TLE detection algorithm remote-controlled parameters will be tuned before launch using the electronic board and simulated or real events waveforms. Automatic classification tools are now tested to produce for the Scientific Mission Center some lists of elves, sprites or lightning without TLE following the recent work of Offroy et al. [2015] using ISUAL spectrophotometer data.

  14. A comparative review of governments' views on objectives and policy instruments in the field of population and development.

    PubMed

    1982-01-01

    It is possible to assess population policies through statements and decisions taken by governments as they reflect the views and commitments of political authorities in the field of population and development. Cases in the following African countries are reviewed with focus on objectives and policy instruments: Algeria; Angola; Benin; Botswana; Cape Verde; Central African Republic; Congo; Djibouti; Egypt; Ethiopia; Guinea; Gabon; Gambia; Ghana; Equatorial Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Ivory Coast; Kenya; Lesotho; Liberia; Libyan Arab Jamahiriya; Madagascar; Malawi; Mali; Mauritania; Mauritius; Morocco; Mozambique; Niger; Nigeria; Rwanda; Sao Tome and Principe; Senegal; Seychelles; Sierra Leone; Somalia; Sudan; Swaziland; Togo; Tunisia; Uganda; United Republic of Cameroon; Tanzania; Upper Volta; Zaire; Zambia; and Zimbabwe. The information presented was drawn from the following publications: UN Population Division, "Population Policy Briefs: Current Situation in Developing Countries and Selected Territories," and UNFPA, "Population Programs and Projects," Volume 2, 1980-1981. On the basis of this review the following conclusions are drawn, which could indicate areas in which technical assistance to the Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) member States would be required: among the 50 country members of ECA, 34 countries (68%) have as a development objective the reduction of mortality, and in particular, maternal and child mortality; the 2nd important objective is stabilizing or improving spatial distribution of population, and 44% of the 50 countries have adopted this objective which involves the distribution of population from 1 place to another within a country; the 3rd important objective consists of restricting the migratory flow from rural areas to urban areas; the countries of Botswana, Egypt, Ghana, Kenya, Lesotho, Mauritius, Morocco, Rwanda, Seychelles, Swaziland, and Tunisia adopted the objective of reducing the rate of population growth; 34% of African countries

  15. 46 CFR 67.218 - Optional filing of instruments in portable document format as attachments to electronic mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... format as attachments to electronic mail. 67.218 Section 67.218 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... format as attachments to electronic mail. (a) Any instrument identified as eligible for filing and recording under § 67.200 may be submitted in portable document format (.pdf) as an attachment to...

  16. The PanCam instrument on the 2018 Exomars rover: Scientific objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaumann, Ralf; Coates, Andrew; Hauber, Ernst; Hoffmann, Harald; Schmitz, Nicole; Le Deit, Laetitia; Tirsch, Daniela; Paar, Gerhard; Griffiths, Andrew

    2010-05-01

    The Exomars Panoramic Camera System is an imaging suite of three camera heads to be mounted on the ExoMars rover`s mast, with the boresight 1.8 m above ground. As late as the ExoMars Pasteur Payload Design Review (PDR) in 2009, the PanCam consists of two identical wide angle cameras (WAC) with fixed focal length lenses, and a high resolution camera (HRC) with an automatic focus mechanism, placed adjacent to the right WAC. The WAC stereo pair provides binocular vision for stereoscopic studies as well as 12 filter positions (per camera) for stereoscopic colour imaging and scientific multispectral studies. The stereo baseline of the pair is 500 mm. The two WAC have 22 mm focal length, f/10 lenses that illuminate detectors with 1024 × 1024 pixels. WAC lenses are fixed, with an optimal focus set to 4 m, and a focus ranging from 1.2 m (corresponding to the nearest view of the calibration target on the rover deck) to infinity. The HRC is able to focus between 0.9 m (distance to a drill core on the rover`s sample tray) and infinity. The instantaneous field of views of WAC and HRC are 580 μrad/pixel and 83 μrad/pixel, respectively. The corresponding resolution (in mm/pixel) at a distance of 2 m are 1.2 (WAC) and 0.17 (HRC), at 100 m distance it is 58 (WAC) and 8.3 (HRC). WAC and HRC will be geometrically co-aligned. The main scientific goal of PanCam is the geologic characterisation of the environment in which the rover is operating, providing the context for investigations carried out by the other instruments of the Pasteur payload. PanCam data will serve as a bridge between orbital data (high-resolution images from HRSC, CTX, and HiRISE, and spectrometer data from OMEGA and CRISM) and the data acquired in situ on the Martian surface. The position of HRC on top of the rover`s mast enables the detailed panoramic inspection of surface features over the full horizontal range of 360° even at large distances, an important prerequisite to identify the scientifically most

  17. Hubble Space Telescope: Faint object camera instrument handbook. Version 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paresce, Francesco (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The Faint Object Camera (FOC) is a long focal ratio, photon counting device designed to take high resolution two dimensional images of areas of the sky up to 44 by 44 arcseconds squared in size, with pixel dimensions as small as 0.0007 by 0.0007 arcseconds squared in the 1150 to 6500 A wavelength range. The basic aim of the handbook is to make relevant information about the FOC available to a wide range of astronomers, many of whom may wish to apply for HST observing time. The FOC, as presently configured, is briefly described, and some basic performance parameters are summarized. Also included are detailed performance parameters and instructions on how to derive approximate FOC exposure times for the proposed targets.

  18. Cement augmented anterior reconstruction with short posterior instrumentation: a less invasive surgical option for Kummell's disease with cord compression.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Ho; Kim, Eun Sang; Eoh, Whan

    2011-04-01

    We report the surgical procedure and clinical outcomes of a cement augmented anterior reconstruction with pedicle screw fixation for osteoporotic vertebral collapse with an intravertebral cleft (Kummell's disease). Ten consecutive patients with cord compression were enrolled in this study. The mean number of fused segments was 3.2. Instrumentation and posterolateral bone grafts were performed for one level above and below the collapsed vertebra with the exception of one patient. Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cement was then injected into the intravertebral cleft and posterior decompression was performed when needed. The visual analog scale (VAS) pain score and Frankel grade were used to evaluate the clinical results and radiological parameters were also assessed. The mean VAS score before vertebroplasty was 7.5, which was reduced to 3.2 postoperatively, and was 3.7 at the most recent follow-up. The mean follow-up duration was 12.1 months. Seven (83%) of the eight patients with motor deficits showed an improvement in neurological function by at least 1 Frankel grade. The mean decrease in the kyphosis (Cobb) angle was 12.6° and the wedge angle was 12.1° (p<0.05). However, the angle improvement regressed slightly during follow-up. None of the patients showed vertebral collapse, or loss or leakage of PMMA into the canal. One patient developed wound dehiscence. There was no need for revision or evidence of instrument failure. Based on the preliminary results, we advocate the use of short instrumentation in combination with vertebroplasty with PMMA and posterolateral fusion for Kummell's disease in patients who are elderly or medically compromised. PMID:21315603

  19. Multi-instrument variability study of the classical TeV objects Mrk 421 and Mrk 501

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, N.; Doert, M.; Paneque, D.; de Almeida, U. Barres; Pichel, A.; Tescaro, D.; Benbow, W.

    2012-12-01

    The BL Lac objects Mrk 421 and Mrk 501 are objects of a large multi-year multiinstrument campaign including VLBA, F-GAMMA, GASP-WEBT, Swift, RXTE, Fermi-LAT, MAGIC and VERITAS, among other instruments and collaborations. This extensive radio to TeV gamma-ray dataset provides an unprecedented temporal and energy coverage, which allows for detailed studies of the evolution of their broad-band spectral energy distribution that cannot be achieved on any other BL Lac object. We report on the temporal variability and spectral correlations from the 4.5 months-long campaigns of 2009. We show that Mrk 421 and Mrk 501 have differences in their broad band variability, suggesting different mechanisms for the production of the high-energy emission. In addition, we also report on two events of high activity in very high energies (VHE) of Mrk 501 during May 2009, one of which was not accompanied by enhanced optical/X-ray activity but showed a clear correlation with an increase in the polarized optical flux and a rotation of the polarization vector. This is the first time that such type of flaring activity is observed in a high-synchrotron-peaked BL Lac object.

  20. The Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) CubeSat: instrument characterization techniques, instrument capabilities and solar science objectives.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Christopher; Caspi, Amir; Woods, Thomas N.; Mason, James

    2016-05-01

    The Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) is a 3U CubeSat launched in December 2015 to the International Space Station for deployment in early 2016. MinXSS will utilize a commercial off the shelf (COTS) X-ray spectrometer from Amptek to measure the solar irradiance from 0.5 – 30 keV with a nominal 0.15 keV FWHM spectral resolution at 5.9 keV and a LASP developed X-ray photometer with similar spectral sensitivity. MinXSS design and development has involved over 40 graduate students supervised by professors and professionals at the University of Colorado at Boulder.The majority of previous solar X-ray measurements have been either at high spectral resolution with a narrow bandpass or spectrally integrating (broad band) photometers. MinXSS will conduct unique soft X-ray measurements of moderate spectral resolution over a relatively large energy range to study solar active region evolution, solar flares, and their effects on Earth’s ionosphere. This presentation focuses on the science instrument characterization involving radioactive X-ray sources and the National Institute for Standard and Technology (NIST) Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (SURF). Detector spectral response, spectral resolution, response linearity are discussed as well as future solar science objectives.

  1. The Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) CubeSat: instrument characterization techniques, instrument capabilities and solar science objectives.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Christopher; Caspi, Amir; Woods, Thomas N.; Mason, James

    2016-05-01

    The Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) is a 3U CubeSat launched in December 2015 to the International Space Station for deployment in early 2016. MinXSS will utilize a commercial off the shelf (COTS) X-ray spectrometer from Amptek to measure the solar irradiance from 0.5 - 30 keV with a nominal 0.15 keV FWHM spectral resolution at 5.9 keV and a LASP developed X-ray photometer with similar spectral sensitivity. MinXSS design and development has involved over 40 graduate students supervised by professors and professionals at the University of Colorado at Boulder.The majority of previous solar X-ray measurements have been either at high spectral resolution with a narrow bandpass or spectrally integrating (broad band) photometers. MinXSS will conduct unique soft X-ray measurements of moderate spectral resolution over a relatively large energy range to study solar active region evolution, solar flares, and their effects on Earth’s ionosphere. This presentation focuses on the science instrument characterization involving radioactive X-ray sources and the National Institute for Standard and Technology (NIST) Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (SURF). Detector spectral response, spectral resolution, response linearity are discussed as well as future solar science objectives.

  2. A Model of the Dynamic Error as a Measurement Result of Instruments Defining the Parameters of Moving Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dichev, D.; Koev, H.; Bakalova, T.; Louda, P.

    2014-08-01

    The present paper considers a new model for the formation of the dynamic error inertial component. It is very effective in the analysis and synthesis of measuring instruments positioned on moving objects and measuring their movement parameters. The block diagram developed within this paper is used as a basis for defining the mathematical model. The block diagram is based on the set-theoretic description of the measuring system, its input and output quantities and the process of dynamic error formation. The model reflects the specific nature of the formation of the dynamic error inertial component. In addition, the model submits to the logical interrelation and sequence of the physical processes that form it. The effectiveness, usefulness and advantages of the model proposed are rooted in the wide range of possibilities it provides in relation to the analysis and synthesis of those measuring instruments, the formulation of algorithms and optimization criteria, as well as the development of new intelligent measuring systems with improved accuracy characteristics in dynamic mode.

  3. The Effects of High-Frequency Amplification on the Objective and Subjective Performance of Hearing Instrument Users with Varying Degrees of High-Frequency Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plyler, Patrick N.; Fleck, Erica L.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to determine if amplifying beyond 2 kHz affected the objective and subjective performance of hearing instrument users with varying degrees of mild-to-severe high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss. Method: Twenty participants were fitted binaurally with digital completely-in-the-canal devices with…

  4. Development of the coastal zone color scanner for NIMBUS 7. Volume 1: Mission objectives and instrument description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    An Earth scanning six channel (detector) radiometer using a classical Cassegrain telescope and a Wadsworth type grating spectrometer was launched aboard Nimbus 7 in order to determine the abundance or density of chlorophyll at or near the sea surface in coastal waters. The instrument also measures the sediment or gelbstroffe (yellow stuff) in coastal waters, detects surface vegetation, and measures sea surface temperature. Block diagrams and schematics are presented, design features are discussed and each subsystem of the instrument is described. A mission overview is included.

  5. Students' Expectations from Technology in Mathematical Tasks: Mathematical Relationships between Objects, Instrumental Genesis and Emergent Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laina, Vasiliki; Monaghan, John

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on two students' work on geometry tasks in a dynamic geometry system. It augments prior work on students' instrumental geneses via a consideration of emergent goals that arise in students' work. It offers a way to interpret students' (working with new software) awareness of what software can and cannot do and…

  6. Selection, statistics and photometry of compact galaxies with different instrumental equipment. III - Selection and statistics with objective prism plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, N.

    Tautenburg objective prism plates were compared to previously investigated methods on the basis of photographic sky plates with limiting identification magnitudes of 19.0 m (B). In a test field of 0.8 sq deg, compact galaxies were selected using the objective prism method, and results were compared to those obtained using Tautenburg Schmidt plates and FOA plates. The objective prism method was found superior, and results indicated that the number of starlike compact galaxies is larger than the number found by previously used methods.

  7. The ChemCam Instrument Suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover: Science Objectives and Mast Unit Description

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maurice, S.; Wiens, R.C.; Saccoccio, M.; Barraclough, B.; Gasnault, O.; Forni, O.; Mangold, N.; Baratoux, D.; Bender, S.; Berger, G.; Bernardin, J.; Berthé, M.; Bridges, N.; Blaney, D.; Bouyé, M.; Caïs, P.; Clark, B.; Clegg, S.; Cousin, A.; Cremers, D.; Cros, A.; DeFlores, L.; Derycke, C.; Dingler, B.; Dromart, G.; Dubois, B.; Dupieux, M.; Durand, E.; d'Uston, L.; Fabre, C.; Faure, B.; Gaboriaud, A.; Gharsa, T.; Herkenhoff, K.; Kan, E.; Kirkland, L.; Kouach, D.; Lacour, J.-L.; Langevin, Y.; Lasue, J.; Le Mouélic, S.; Lescure, M.; Lewin, E.; Limonadi, D.; Manhès, G.; Mauchien, P.; McKay, C.; Meslin, P.-Y.; Michel, Y.; Miller, E.; Newsom, Horton E.; Orttner, G.; Paillet, A.; Parès, L.; Parot, Y.; Pérez, R.; Pinet, P.; Poitrasson, F.; Quertier, B.; Sallé, B.; Sotin, C.; Sautter, V.; Séran, H.; Simmonds, J.J.; Sirven, J.-B.; Stiglich, R.; Striebig, N.; Thocaven, J.-J.; Toplis, M.J.; Vaniman, D.

    2012-01-01

    ChemCam is a remote sensing instrument suite on board the "Curiosity" rover (NASA) that uses Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) to provide the elemental composition of soils and rocks at the surface of Mars from a distance of 1.3 to 7 m, and a telescopic imager to return high resolution context and micro-images at distances greater than 1.16 m. We describe five analytical capabilities: rock classification, quantitative composition, depth profiling, context imaging, and passive spectroscopy. They serve as a toolbox to address most of the science questions at Gale crater. ChemCam consists of a Mast-Unit (laser, telescope, camera, and electronics) and a Body-Unit (spectrometers, digital processing unit, and optical demultiplexer), which are connected by an optical fiber and an electrical interface. We then report on the development, integration, and testing of the Mast-Unit, and summarize some key characteristics of ChemCam. This confirmed that nominal or better than nominal performances were achieved for critical parameters, in particular power density (>1 GW/cm2). The analysis spot diameter varies from 350 μm at 2 m to 550 μm at 7 m distance. For remote imaging, the camera field of view is 20 mrad for 1024×1024 pixels. Field tests demonstrated that the resolution (˜90 μrad) made it possible to identify laser shots on a wide variety of images. This is sufficient for visualizing laser shot pits and textures of rocks and soils. An auto-exposure capability optimizes the dynamical range of the images. Dedicated hardware and software focus the telescope, with precision that is appropriate for the LIBS and imaging depths-of-field. The light emitted by the plasma is collected and sent to the Body-Unit via a 6 m optical fiber. The companion to this paper (Wiens et al. this issue) reports on the development of the Body-Unit, on the analysis of the emitted light, and on the good match between instrument performance and science specifications.

  8. Conference Discussion: The Challenges in Multi-Object Spectroscopy Instrument and Survey Design, and in Data Processing and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcells, M.; Skillen, I.

    2016-10-01

    The final session of the conference Multi-Object Spectroscopy in the Next Decade: Big Questions, Large Surveys, and Wide Fields, held in La Palma 2-6 March 2015, was devoted to a discussion of the challenges in designing and operating the next-generation survey spectrographs, and planning and carrying out their massive surveys. The wide-ranging 1.5-hour debate was recorded on video tape, and in this paper we report the edited transcription of the dialog.

  9. Rehabilitation Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... Speech Pathology Occupational Therapy Art Therapy Recreational therapy Neuropsychology Home Care Options Advanced Care Planning Palliative Care ... Speech Pathology Occupational Therapy Art Therapy Recreational therapy Neuropsychology Home Care Options Advanced Care Planning Palliative Care ...

  10. Pricing Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol

    1998-01-01

    Presents results of a recent survey of over 100 public and academic libraries about pricing options from online companies. Most options fall into three categories: pay-as-you-go, fixed-rate, and user-based. Results are discussed separately for public and academic libraries and for consortial discounts. Trends in pricing options preferred by…

  11. Development of a Proxy-Free Objective Assessment Tool of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living in Mild Cognitive Impairment Using Smart Home Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Jekel, Katrin; Damian, Marinella; Storf, Holger; Hausner, Lucrezia; Frölich, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    Background: The assessment of activities of daily living (ADL) is essential for dementia diagnostics. Even in mild cognitive impairment (MCI), subtle deficits in instrumental ADL (IADL) may occur and signal a higher risk of conversion to dementia. Thus, sensitive and reliable ADL assessment tools are important. Smart homes equipped with sensor technology and video cameras may provide a proxy-free assessment tool for the detection of IADL deficits. Objective:The aim of this paper is to investigate the potential of a smart home environment for the assessment of IADL in MCI. Method: The smart home consisted of a two-room flat equipped with activity sensors and video cameras. Participants with either MCI or healthy controls (HC) had to solve a standardized set of six tasks, e.g., meal preparation, telephone use, and finding objects in the flat. Results: MCI participants needed more time (1384 versus 938 seconds, p <  0.001) and scored less total points (48 versus 57 points, p <  0.001) while solving the tasks than HC. Analyzing the subtasks, intergroup differences were observed for making a phone call, operating the television, and retrieving objects. MCI participants showed more searching and task-irrelevant behavior than HC. Task performance was correlated with cognitive status and IADL questionnaires but not with participants’ age. Conclusion: This pilot study showed that smart home technologies offer the chance for an objective and ecologically valid assessment of IADL. It can be analyzed not only whether a task is successfully completed but also how it is completed. Future studies should concentrate on the development of automated detection of IADL deficits. PMID:27031479

  12. Comparison of three instrumental methods for the objective evaluation of radiotherapy induced erythema in breast cancer patients and a study of the effect of skin lotions.

    PubMed

    Nyström, Josefina; Svensk, Ann-Christine; Lindholm-Sethson, Britta; Geladi, Paul; Larson, Johan; Franzén, Lars

    2007-01-01

    A non-blinded three armed study of the effect of Aloe vera, Essex and no lotion on erythema was performed. The erythema is an effect of radiotherapy treatment in breast cancer patients. The study required testing of objective methods for measuring the erythema. The chosen experimental methods were Near Infrared Spectroscopy, Laser Doppler Imaging and Digital Colour Photography. The experimental setup was made in such a way that in parallel with testing the effect of the lotions there was also a test of the sensitivity of the instruments. Fifty women were selected consecutively to participate in the study. They were all subjected to treatment with high-energy electrons (9-20 MeV) after mastectomy, 2 Gy/day to a total dose of 50 Gy. Measurements were performed before the start of radiotherapy and thereafter once a week during the course of treatment. Aloe vera and Essex lotion were applied twice every radiation day in selected sites. The increase in skin redness could be monitored with all techniques with a detection limit of 8 Gy for Digital Colour Photography and Near Infrared Spectroscopy and 18 Gy for Laser Doppler Imaging. In clinical practice our recommendation is to use Digital Colour Photography. No significant median differences were observed between the pairs no lotion-Essex, no lotion-Aloe vera and Essex-Aloe vera for any of the techniques tested.

  13. Options Week

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornscheuer, Joan H.

    1974-01-01

    Urges the practice of providing optional assignments within the framework of any given course in order to sustain student interest in foreign language learning. Specific lesson plans are provided. (LG)

  14. Research Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The GENETI-SCANNER, newest product of Perceptive Scientific Instruments, Inc. (PSI), rapidly scans slides, locates, digitizes, measures and classifies specific objects and events in research and diagnostic applications. Founded by former NASA employees, PSI's primary product line is based on NASA image processing technology. The instruments karyotype - a process employed in analysis and classification of chromosomes - using a video camera mounted on a microscope. Images are digitized, enabling chromosome image enhancement. The system enables karyotyping to be done significantly faster, increasing productivity and lowering costs. Product is no longer being manufactured.

  15. Literature Search and Development of an Evaluation System in Early Childhood Education. III. Part A--Behavioral Objectives. Part B--Evaluation Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Annie L.; And Others

    Behavioral objectives for five-year-old children, based on data from a literature search, and scales, tests, and inventories of preschool development, and their appropriateness, are discussed in the two sections of this report. Part A, Behavioral Objectives, presents a summary of findings from a previous report, Report I, and describes the…

  16. Instrumental requirements for the detection of electron beam-induced object excitations at the single atom level in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kisielowski, C; Specht, P; Gygax, S M; Barton, B; Calderon, H A; Kang, J H; Cieslinski, R

    2015-01-01

    This contribution touches on essential requirements for instrument stability and resolution that allows operating advanced electron microscopes at the edge to technological capabilities. They enable the detection of single atoms and their dynamic behavior on a length scale of picometers in real time. It is understood that the observed atom dynamic is intimately linked to the relaxation and thermalization of electron beam-induced sample excitation. Resulting contrast fluctuations are beam current dependent and largely contribute to a contrast mismatch between experiments and theory if not considered. If explored, they open the possibility to study functional behavior of nanocrystals and single molecules at the atomic level in real time. PMID:25153732

  17. Instrumentation System Diagnoses a Thermocouple

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perotti, Jose; Santiago, Josephine; Mata, Carlos; Vokrot, Peter; Zavala, Carlos; Burns, Bradley

    2008-01-01

    An improved self-validating thermocouple (SVT) instrumentation system not only acquires readings from a thermocouple but is also capable of detecting deterioration and a variety of discrete faults in the thermocouple and its lead wires. Prime examples of detectable discrete faults and deterioration include open- and short-circuit conditions and debonding of the thermocouple junction from the object, the temperature of which one seeks to measure. Debonding is the most common cause of errors in thermocouple measurements, but most prior SVT instrumentation systems have not been capable of detecting debonding. The improved SVT instrumentation system includes power circuitry, a cold-junction compensator, signal-conditioning circuitry, pulse-width-modulation (PWM) thermocouple-excitation circuitry, an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), a digital data processor, and a universal serial bus (USB) interface. The system can operate in any of the following three modes: temperature measurement, thermocouple validation, and bonding/debonding detection. The software running in the processor includes components that implement statistical algorithms to evaluate the state of the thermocouple and the instrumentation system. When the power is first turned on, the user can elect to start a diagnosis/ monitoring sequence, in which the PWM is used to estimate the characteristic times corresponding to the correct configuration. The user also has the option of using previous diagnostic values, which are stored in an electrically erasable, programmable read-only memory so that they are available every time the power is turned on.

  18. Implementation of power barrier option valuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahyani, Agatha C. P.; Sumarti, Novriana

    2015-09-01

    Options are financial instruments that can be utilized to reduce risk in stock investment. Barrier options are one of the major types of options actively used in financial markets where its life period depends on the path of the underlying stock prices. The features of the barrier option can be used to modify other types of options. In this research, the barrier option will be implemented into power option, so it is called power barrier option. This option is an extension of the vanilla barrier options where the Call payoff being considered is defined as P C =max (STβ-Kβ,0 ) , and the Put payoff being considered is defined as P P =max (Kβ-STβ,0 ) . Here β > 0 and β ≠ 1, K is the strike price of the option, and ST is the price of the underlying stock at time maturity T. In this paper, we generate the prices of stock using binomial method which is adjusted to the power option. In the conclusion, the price of American power barrier option is more expensive than the price of European power barrier option.

  19. 78 FR 17868 - Noncompensatory Partnership Options; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-25

    ..., 2013 (78 FR 7997) relating to the tax treatment of noncompensatory options and convertible instruments... value of $33,000 and basis of $24,000 ($30,000 original basis less $6,000 depreciation in Years...

  20. A Procedure for Implementing Detailed Grade Level Analysis by Local Curriculum Objectives Utilizing Standardized Instruments of Measure: A Comprehensive Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuVall, Charles R.; Rueff, Joseph A.

    This document traces the development of the testing and reporting system used in the Elkhart Community Schools (ECS), Indiana, from 1981 through 1985. Performance objectives were established when the program was initiated. Analyses of standardized test results were provided for teachers, principals, and central administrative staff. All school…

  1. 78 FR 35559 - Noncompensatory Partnership Options; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ..., 2013 (78 FR 7997) relating to the tax treatment of noncompensatory options and convertible instruments issued by a partnership. The final regulations generally provide that the exercise of a noncompensatory... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BA53 Noncompensatory Partnership Options; Correction...

  2. Comparison between three option, four option and five option multiple choice question tests for quality parameters: A randomized study

    PubMed Central

    Vegada, Bhavisha; Shukla, Apexa; Khilnani, Ajeetkumar; Charan, Jaykaran; Desai, Chetna

    2016-01-01

    Background: Most of the academic teachers use four or five options per item of multiple choice question (MCQ) test as formative and summative assessment. Optimal number of options in MCQ item is a matter of considerable debate among academic teachers of various educational fields. There is a scarcity of the published literature regarding the optimum number of option in each item of MCQ in the field of medical education. Objectives: To compare three options, four options, and five options MCQs test for the quality parameters – reliability, validity, item analysis, distracter analysis, and time analysis. Materials and Methods: Participants were 3rd semester M.B.B.S. students. Students were divided randomly into three groups. Each group was given one set of MCQ test out of three options, four options, and five option randomly. Following the marking of the multiple choice tests, the participants’ option selections were analyzed and comparisons were conducted of the mean marks, mean time, validity, reliability and facility value, discrimination index, point biserial value, distracter analysis of three different option formats. Results: Students score more (P = 0.000) and took less time (P = 0.009) for the completion of three options as compared to four options and five options groups. Facility value was more (P = 0.004) in three options group as compared to four and five options groups. There was no significant difference between three groups for the validity, reliability, and item discrimination. Nonfunctioning distracters were more in the four and five options group as compared to three option group. Conclusion: Assessment based on three option MCQs is can be preferred over four option and five option MCQs. PMID:27721545

  3. Development of photoacoustic water vapor and total water measuring instrument with a long term objective of becoming part of the IAGOS project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatrai, David; Bors, Noemi; Gulyas, Gabor; Szabo, Gabor; Smit, Herman G. J.; Petzold, Andreas; Bozoki, Zoltan

    2016-04-01

    Airborne hygrometry is one of the key topics in atmospheric and climate research that is why airborne hygrometers are almost always included in aircraft based measurement campaigns (see e.g. MOZAIC and CARIBIC). However for its successful application an airborne hygrometer has to be able to measure humidity in a wide range (1 60000 ppmV) at various total pressures with high accuracy and short response time. In addition, an instrument capable of measuring water vapor and condensed water selectively has considerable added value as the water content of clouds seems to be a very uncertain parameter in climate models. At the University of Szeged, a dual channel, photoacoustic spectroscopy based hygrometer system had been developed, that measures water vapor concentration and total water content simultaneously from the ground level up to cruising altitude [1, 2]. An early version of this system is the core hygrometer of the CARIBIC project. In the past few years efforts were made to improve further the performance and long term reliability of the system [3] while also reducing its size and weight. Most important of the recent achievements is a new data acquisition and control system with more precise control performance [4]. Many of these results have been proved by various laboratory (AquaVIT2a-b) and in-flight (DANCHAR-IFCC, AIRTOSS I-II) measurement campaigns. Based on these results the system received invitation into the IAGOS ESFRI project to become one of its core instruments. The presented work was funded by EUFAR contract no. 227159, by the Hungarian Research and Technology Innovation Fund (OTKA), project no. NN109679 and by the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° 312311. [1] Szakáll, M et.al: Infrared Physics & Technology. 2006. 48, (3) 192-201 [2] Szakáll, M. et.al: Infrared Physics & Technology, 2007. 51, (2) 113-121 [3] Tátrai, D. et.al: Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 33-42, 2015 [4] Tátrai, D. et

  4. Selecting a Reference Object

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jared E.; Carlson, Laura A.; Hill, Patrick L.

    2011-01-01

    One way to describe the location of an object is to relate it to another object. Often there are many nearby objects, each of which could serve as a candidate to be the reference object. A common theoretical assumption is that features that make a given object salient relative to the candidate set are instrumental in determining which is selected.…

  5. Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO): Overview of Science Objectives, Instrument Design, Data Products, and Model Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, T. N.; Eparvier, F. G.; Hock, R.; Jones, A. R.; Woodraska, D.; Judge, D.; Didkovsky, L.; Lean, J.; Mariska, J.; Warren, H.; McMullin, D.; Chamberlin, P.; Berthiaume, G.; Bailey, S.; Fuller-Rowell, T.; Sojka, J.; Tobiska, W. K.; Viereck, R.

    2010-01-01

    The highly variable solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation is the major energy input to the Earth's upper atmosphere, strongly impacting the geospace environment, affecting satellite operations, communications, and navigation. The Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) will measure the solar EUV irradiance from 0.1 to 105 nm with unprecedented spectral resolution (0.1 nm), temporal cadence (ten seconds), and accuracy (20%). EVE includes several irradiance instruments: The Multiple EUV Grating Spectrographs (MEGS)-A is a grazingincidence spectrograph that measures the solar EUV irradiance in the 5 to 37 nm range with 0.1-nm resolution, and the MEGS-B is a normal-incidence, dual-pass spectrograph that measures the solar EUV irradiance in the 35 to 105 nm range with 0.1-nm resolution. To provide MEGS in-flight calibration, the EUV SpectroPhotometer (ESP) measures the solar EUV irradiance in broadbands between 0.1 and 39 nm, and a MEGS-Photometer measures the Sun s bright hydrogen emission at 121.6 nm. The EVE data products include a near real-time space-weather product (Level 0C), which provides the solar EUV irradiance in specific bands and also spectra in 0.1-nm intervals with a cadence of one minute and with a time delay of less than 15 minutes. The EVE higher-level products are Level 2 with the solar EUV irradiance at higher time cadence (0.25 seconds for photometers and ten seconds for spectrographs) and Level 3 with averages of the solar irradiance over a day and over each one-hour period. The EVE team also plans to advance existing models of solar EUV irradiance and to operationally use the EVE measurements in models of Earth s ionosphere and thermosphere. Improved understanding of the evolution of solar flares and extending the various models to incorporate solar flare events are high priorities for the EVE team.

  6. Object Oriented Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ed

    2005-01-01

    We apply the object oriented software engineering (OOSE) design methodology for software objects (SOs) to learning objects (LOs). OOSE extends and refines design principles for authoring dynamic reusable LOs. Our learning object class (LOC) is a template from which individualised LOs can be dynamically created for, or by, students. The properties…

  7. Mars Surface Habitability Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, A. Scott; Simon, Matthew; Smitherman, David; Howard, Robert; Toups, Larry; Hoffman, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on current habitability concepts for an Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) prepared by the NASA Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT). For many years NASA has investigated alternative human Mars missions, examining different mission objectives, trajectories, vehicles, and technologies; the combinations of which have been referred to as reference missions or architectures. At the highest levels, decisions regarding the timing and objectives for a human mission to Mars continue to evolve while at the lowest levels, applicable technologies continue to advance. This results in an on-going need for assessments of alternative system designs such as the habitat, a significant element in any human Mars mission scenario, to provide meaningful design sensitivity characterizations to assist decision-makers regarding timing, objectives, and technologies. As a subset of the Evolvable Mars Campaign activities, the habitability team builds upon results from past studies and recommends options for Mars surface habitability compatible with updated technologies.

  8. Formal risk-transfer mechanisms for allocating uncertain water resources: The case of option contracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez Ramos, Almudena; Garrido, Alberto

    2004-12-01

    Water allocation in Mediterranean basins is characterized by increasingly uncertain availability. Mechanisms that facilitate water transfers and efficient risk sharing are critical for dealing with cyclical water shortages. An option contract can be an appropriate instrument for aiding such exchanges based on specific water rights attributes. Access to certain amounts of water under preestablished conditions could provide the basis for the option contract. The main objective of this paper is to test the hypothesis according to which an option contract may be a viable instrument for achieving efficient sharing of hydrological risks. A dynamic, stochastic, and discrete time model is developed to characterize the contract from the viewpoint of the selling party. The application of this methodology can find the compensating premium, which is computed as a risk premium. The premium ensures adequate compensation for the seller as well as for the additional risk imposed by the contract. The hypothesis is empirically tested by simulating the contract as a partial solution to the problems faced by the urban supply system of Seville (Spain). The other party is an irrigation district. Results show that the option contract would be a viable solution for both parties. For Seville's urban water supply system the option contract provides a more cost-effective alternative water supply than those presently considered by the city's water company. We find that mixed strategies including company's drought plans and option contracts are the most efficient, leading to less severe and less likely water shortages within the city supply system.

  9. Aeronautic instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everling, E; Koppe, H

    1924-01-01

    The development of aeronautic instruments. Vibrations, rapid changes of the conditions of flight and of atmospheric conditions, influence of the air stream all call for particular design and construction of the individual instruments. This is shown by certain examples of individual instruments and of various classes of instruments for measuring pressure, change of altitude, temperature, velocity, inclination and turning or combinations of these.

  10. Gyroscopic Instruments for Instrument Flying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brombacher, W G; Trent, W C

    1938-01-01

    The gyroscopic instruments commonly used in instrument flying in the United States are the turn indicator, the directional gyro, the gyromagnetic compass, the gyroscopic horizon, and the automatic pilot. These instruments are described. Performance data and the method of testing in the laboratory are given for the turn indicator, the directional gyro, and the gyroscopic horizon. Apparatus for driving the instruments is discussed.

  11. Modeling of certain problems in financial mathematics: Spread option pricing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorev, K. P.

    2007-04-01

    The problem of valuating exotic options, namely, the option on the spread between two forward interest rates is considered. The price of the option is derived under the assumption that the dynamics of debt instruments and the interest rates are described by the Heath-Jarrow-Morton model. The parameters of the model are estimated, and the price of the option is numerically computed based on Russian bond market data.

  12. Newer Management Options in Leprosy

    PubMed Central

    Rao, P Narasimha; Jain, Suman

    2013-01-01

    Newer management options are needed for leprosy control even at present, as it is predicted that new cases of leprosy will continue to appear for many more years in future. This article detail newer methods of clinical grading of peripheral nerve involvement (thickening, tenderness and nerve pain which are subjective in nature) and the advances made in the use of Ultrasonography and Colour Doppler as an objective imaging tool for nerves in leprosy. It also briefly discusses the newer drugs and alternative regimens as therapeutic management options which hold promise for leprosy in future. PMID:23372204

  13. Zinc Bromide Waste Solution Treatment Options

    SciTech Connect

    Langston, C.A.

    2001-01-16

    The objective of this effort was to identify treatment options for 20,000 gallons of low-level radioactively contaminated zinc bromide solution currently stored in C-Area. These options will be relevant when the solutions are declared waste.

  14. Breast Cancer: Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer - Treatment Options Request Permissions Print to PDF Breast Cancer - Treatment Options Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... recommendations for ovarian ablation . Hormonal therapy for metastatic breast cancer Hormonal therapies are also commonly used to treat ...

  15. Cordless Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Black & Decker's new cordless lightweight battery powered precision instruments, adapted from NASA's Apollo Lunar Landing program, have been designed to give surgeons optimum freedom and versatility in the operating room. Orthopedic instrument line includes a drill, a driver/reamer and a sagittal saw. All provide up to 20 minutes on a single charge. Power pack is the instrument's handle which is removable for recharging. Microprocessor controlled recharging unit can recharge two power packs together in 30 minutes. Instruments can be gas sterilized, steam-sterilized in an autoclave or immersed for easy cleaning.

  16. SURVEY INSTRUMENT

    DOEpatents

    Borkowski, C J

    1954-01-19

    This pulse-type survey instrument is suitable for readily detecting {alpha} particles in the presence of high {beta} and {gamma} backgrounds. The instruments may also be used to survey for neutrons, {beta} particles and {gamma} rays by employing suitably designed interchangeable probes and selecting an operating potential to correspond to the particular probe.

  17. TANK SPACE OPTIONS REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    WILLIS WL; AHRENDT MR

    2009-08-11

    Since this report was originally issued in 2001, several options proposed for increasing double-shell tank (DST) storage space were implemented or are in the process of implementation. Changes to the single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval schedule, completion of DST space saving options, and the DST space saving options in progress have delayed the projected shortfall of DST storage space from the 2007-2011 to the 2018-2025 timeframe (ORP-11242, River Protection Project System Plan). This report reevaluates options from Rev. 0 and includes evaluations of new options for alleviating projected restrictions on SST waste retrieval beginning in 2018 because of the lack of DST storage space.

  18. Measurement of Object Relations

    PubMed Central

    SMITH, THOMAS E.

    1993-01-01

    Although object relations theories are increasingly prominent in the psychoanalytic and psychotherapeutic literature, efforts to study these phenomena empirically remain in their infancy. Researchers interested in studying intrapsychic processes have nonetheless attempted to assess levels of object relatedness, and several reports have documented both construct and predictive validity. This literature is reviewed, with special emphasis on the difficulties involved in the development of assessment instruments. The author summarizes reliability and validity data on the most widely used instruments in an effort to provide general guidelines for researchers interested in developing strategies for measuring object relations. PMID:22700124

  19. Space options for tropical cyclone hazard mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dicaire, Isabelle; Nakamura, Ryoko; Arikawa, Yoshihisa; Okada, Kazuyuki; Itahashi, Takamasa; Summerer, Leopold

    2015-02-01

    This paper investigates potential space options for mitigating the impact of tropical cyclones on cities and civilians. Ground-based techniques combined with space-based remote sensing instrumentation are presented together with space-borne concepts employing space solar power technology. Two space-borne mitigation options are considered: atmospheric warming based on microwave irradiation and laser-induced cloud seeding based on laser power transfer. Finally technology roadmaps dedicated to the space-borne options are presented, including a detailed discussion on the technological viability and technology readiness level of our proposed systems. Based on these assessments, the space-borne cyclone mitigation options presented in this paper may be established in a quarter of a century.

  20. Instrumentation '79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Surveys the state of commerical development of analytical instrumentation as reflected by the Pittsburgh Conference on Analytical Chemistry and Applied Spectroscopy. Includes optical spectroscopy, liquid chromatography, magnetic spectrometers, and x-ray. (Author/MA)

  1. Astronomical instruments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, R. N.

    Indian astronomers have devised a number of instruments and the most important of these is the armillary sphere. The earliest armillary spheres were very simple instruments. Ptolemy in his Almagest enumerates at least three. The simplest of all was the equinoctial armilla. They had also the solstitial armilla which was a double ring, erected in the plane of the meridian with a rotating inner circle. This was used to measure the solar altitude.

  2. Oceanographic Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Developed under NASA contract, the Fast Repetition Rate (FRR) fluorometer is a computer-controlled instrument for measuring the fluorescence of phytoplankton, microscopic plant forms that provide sustenance for animal life in the oceans. The fluorometer sensor is towed by ship through the water and the resulting printouts are compared with satellite data. The instrument is non-destructive and can be used in situ, providing scientific information on ocean activity and productivity.

  3. In Situ Instruments: Overview of In Situ Instruments for Deployment in Extreme Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, M.; Cardell, G.

    2000-01-01

    This presentation reviews the design and specifications for several instruments for deployment in extreme environments. The instruments are: (1) In Situ Geochronology Instrument, (2) Laser Ablation Sampling Instrument, (3) Micro Hygrometer (4) Micro Lidar, (5) Atmospheric Electron X-Ray Spectrometer and (6) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectrometer. Included in the descriptions are the contact people and the objective of each instrument.

  4. Treatment Options for Narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    Barateau, Lucie; Lopez, Régis; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2016-05-01

    Narcolepsy type 1 and narcolepsy type 2 are central disorders of hypersomnolence. Narcolepsy type 1 is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy and is associated with hypocretin-1 deficiency. On the other hand, in narcolepsy type 2, cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 levels are normal and cataplexy absent. Despite major advances in our understanding of narcolepsy mechanisms, its current management is only symptomatic. Treatment options may vary from a single drug that targets several symptoms, or multiple medications that each treats a specific symptom. In recent years, narcolepsy treatment has changed with the widespread use of modafinil/armodafinil for daytime sleepiness, antidepressants (selective serotonin and dual serotonin and noradrenalin reuptake inhibitors) for cataplexy, and sodium oxybate for both symptoms. Other psychostimulants can also be used, such as methylphenidate, pitolisant and rarely amphetamines, as third-line therapy. Importantly, clinically relevant subjective and objective measures of daytime sleepiness are required to monitor the treatment efficacy and to provide guidance on whether the treatment goals are met. Associated symptoms and comorbid conditions, such as hypnagogic/hypnopompic hallucinations, sleep paralysis, disturbed nighttime sleep, unpleasant dreams, REM- and non REM-related parasomnias, depressive symptoms, overweight/obesity, and obstructive sleep apnea, should also be taken into account and managed, if required. In the near future, the efficacy of new wake-promoting drugs, anticataplectic agents, hypocretin replacement therapy and immunotherapy at the early stages of the disease should also be evaluated. PMID:27155860

  5. Maintenance and supply options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The object of the Maintenance and Supply Option was to develop a high level operational philosophy related to maintenance and supply operations and incorporate these concepts into the Lunar Base Study. Specific products to be generated during this task were three trade studies and a conceptual design of the Logistic Supply Module. The crew size study was performed to evaluate crew sizes from the baseline size of four to a crew size of eight and determine the preferred crew size. The second trade study was to determine the impact of extending surface stay times and recommend a preferred duration of stay time as a function of crew, consumables, and equipment support capabilities. The third trade study was an evaluation of packaging and storage methods to determine the preferred logistics approach to support the lunar base. A modified scenario was developed and served as the basis of the individual trade studies. Assumptions and guidelines were also developed from experience with Apollo programs, Space Shuttle operations, and Space Station studies. With this information, the trade studies were performed and a conceptual design for the Logistic Supply Module was developed.

  6. Approximate option pricing

    SciTech Connect

    Chalasani, P.; Saias, I.; Jha, S.

    1996-04-08

    As increasingly large volumes of sophisticated options (called derivative securities) are traded in world financial markets, determining a fair price for these options has become an important and difficult computational problem. Many valuation codes use the binomial pricing model, in which the stock price is driven by a random walk. In this model, the value of an n-period option on a stock is the expected time-discounted value of the future cash flow on an n-period stock price path. Path-dependent options are particularly difficult to value since the future cash flow depends on the entire stock price path rather than on just the final stock price. Currently such options are approximately priced by Monte carlo methods with error bounds that hold only with high probability and which are reduced by increasing the number of simulation runs. In this paper the authors show that pricing an arbitrary path-dependent option is {number_sign}-P hard. They show that certain types f path-dependent options can be valued exactly in polynomial time. Asian options are path-dependent options that are particularly hard to price, and for these they design deterministic polynomial-time approximate algorithms. They show that the value of a perpetual American put option (which can be computed in constant time) is in many cases a good approximation to the value of an otherwise identical n-period American put option. In contrast to Monte Carlo methods, the algorithms have guaranteed error bounds that are polynormally small (and in some cases exponentially small) in the maturity n. For the error analysis they derive large-deviation results for random walks that may be of independent interest.

  7. Instrumentation at Gemini Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinman, S. J.; Boccas, Maxime; Goodsell, Stephen J.; Gomez, Percy; Murowinski, Rick; Chené, André-Nicolas; Henderson, David

    2014-07-01

    Gemini South's instrument suite has been completely transformed since our last biennial update. We commissioned the Gemini Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics System (GeMS) and its associated Gemini South Adaptive Optics Imager (GSAOI) as well as Flamingos-2, our long-slit and multi-object infrared imager and spectrograph, and the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI). We upgraded the CCDs in GMOS-S, our multi-object optical imager and spectrograph, with the GMOS-N CCD upgrade scheduled for 2015. Our next instrument, the Gemini High-resolution Optical SpecTrograph (GHOST) is in its preliminary design stage and we are making plans for the instrument to follow:Gen4#3.

  8. Music: Instrumental Techniques, Woodwinds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Melvin

    A course in introduction to music emphasizing modes and forms is presented. The approach used is a laboratory approach in which pupils will develop skill in playing wood-wind instruments, sing, listen to, read and compose music with emphasis on identification of elementary concepts of mode and form. Course objectives include: (1) pupil will select…

  9. Music: Instrumental Techniques, Percussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearl, Jesse

    A course in introduction to music emphasizing harmony is presented. The approach used is a laboratory approach in which pupils will develop skill in playing percussion instruments, sing, listen to, read and compose music with emphasis on elementary concepts of harmony. Course objectives include: (1) The student will recognize duple, triple,…

  10. The Origins of Options

    PubMed Central

    Smaldino, Paul E.; Richerson, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Most research on decision making has focused on how human or animal decision makers choose between two or more options, posed in advance by the researchers. The mechanisms by which options are generated for most decisions, however, are not well understood. Models of sequential search have examined the trade-off between continued exploration and choosing one’s current best option, but still cannot explain the processes by which new options are generated. We argue that understanding the origins of options is a crucial but untapped area for decision making research. We explore a number of factors which influence the generation of options, which fall broadly into two categories: psycho-biological and socio-cultural. The former category includes factors such as perceptual biases and associative memory networks. The latter category relies on the incredible human capacity for culture and social learning, which doubtless shape not only our choices but the options available for choice. Our intention is to start a discussion that brings us closer toward understanding the origins of options. PMID:22514515

  11. Instrumented SSH

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Scott; Campbell, Scott

    2009-05-27

    NERSC recently undertook a project to access and analyze Secure Shell (SSH) related data. This includes authentication data such as user names and key fingerprints, interactive session data such as keystrokes and responses, and information about noninteractive sessions such as commands executed and files transferred. Historically, this data has been inaccessible with traditional network monitoring techniques, but with a modification to the SSH daemon, this data can be passed directly to intrusion detection systems for analysis. The instrumented version of SSH is now running on all NERSC production systems. This paper describes the project, details about how SSH was instrumented, and the initial results of putting this in production.

  12. Geoscience instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolff, E. A. (Editor); Mercanti, E. P.

    1974-01-01

    Geoscience instrumentation systems are considered along with questions of geoscience environment, signal processing, data processing, and design problems. Instrument platforms are examined, taking into account ground platforms, airborne platforms, ocean platforms, and space platforms. In situ and laboratory sensors described include acoustic wave sensors, age sensors, atmospheric constituent sensors, biological sensors, cloud particle sensors, electric field sensors, electromagnetic field sensors, precision geodetic sensors, gravity sensors, ground constituent sensors, horizon sensors, humidity sensors, ion and electron sensors, magnetic field sensors, tide sensors, and wind sensors. Remote sensors are discussed, giving attention to sensing techniques, acoustic echo-sounders, gamma ray sensors, optical sensors, radar sensors, and microwave radiometric sensors.

  13. Geotechnical instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, G. E.; Mikkelsen, P. E.; Mayne, P. W.; Frost, D. D.; Dowding, C. H.

    1988-12-01

    The 11 papers in the report deal with the following areas: deformation measurements with inclinometers; dilatometer experience in Washington, D.C., and vicinity; ground vibration monitoring instrumentation and computerized surveillance; instrumentation for tests of piles subjected to axial loading; use of the wave equation by the North Carolina Department of Transportation; NYSDOT's construction control of pile foundations with dynamic pile testing; discussion of procedures for the determination of pile capacity; modern specification of driven pile work; analysis of laterally loaded piles with nonlinear bending behavior; unified design of piles and pile groups, and LTBASE, a computer program for the analysis of laterally loaded piers including base and slope effects.

  14. Weather Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantley, L. Reed, Sr.; Demanche, Edna L.; Klemm, E. Barbara; Kyselka, Will; Phillips, Edwin A.; Pottenger, Francis M.; Yamamoto, Karen N.; Young, Donald B.

    This booklet presents some activities to measure various weather phenomena. Directions for constructing a weather station are included. Instruments including rain gauges, thermometers, wind vanes, wind speed devices, humidity devices, barometers, atmospheric observations, a dustfall jar, sticky-tape can, detection of gases in the air, and pH of…

  15. [The instrument for thermography].

    PubMed

    Hamaguchi, Shinsuke

    2014-07-01

    Thermography is an imaging method using the instrument to detect infrared rays emitted from the body surface, and to plot them as a distribution diagram of the temperature information. Therefore, a thermographic instrument can be assumed to measure the skin temperature of the diseased region. Such an instrument is a useful device for noninvasive and objective assessment of various diseases. Examination using a thermographic instrument can assess the autonomic dysfunction by measuring the skin blood flow involved with the sympathetic innervation. Thermography is useful in assisting the determination of the therapeutic effect. However, autonomic dysfunction should be confirmed correctly with the assessment of thermatome that shows abnormal thermal distribution in the region of the disease. Thermography should make noticeable the difference between the body temperature of abnormal and normal sites, and show the alteration of temperature. Monitoring using thermography is useful to determine the effect of sympathetic nerve block. If a thermographic instrument is used, it is important that examiners should understand the function of the instrument, as well as its advantages and disadvantages. PMID:25098130

  16. Advanced optical instruments technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shao, Mike; Chrisp, Michael; Cheng, Li-Jen; Eng, Sverre; Glavich, Thomas; Goad, Larry; Jones, Bill; Kaarat, Philip; Nein, Max; Robinson, William

    1992-01-01

    The science objectives for proposed NASA missions for the next decades push the state of the art in sensitivity and spatial resolution over a wide range of wavelengths, including the x-ray to the submillimeter. While some of the proposed missions are larger and more sensitive versions of familiar concepts, such as the next generation space telescope, others use concepts, common on the Earth, but new to space, such as optical interferometry, in order to provide spatial resolutions impossible with other concepts. However, despite their architecture, the performance of all of the proposed missions depends critically on the back-end instruments that process the collected energy to produce scientifically interesting outputs. The Advanced Optical Instruments Technology panel was chartered with defining technology development plans that would best improve optical instrument performance for future astrophysics missions. At this workshop the optical instrument was defined as the set of optical components that reimage the light from the telescope onto the detectors to provide information about the spatial, spectral, and polarization properties of the light. This definition was used to distinguish the optical instrument technology issues from those associated with the telescope, which were covered by a separate panel. The panel identified several areas for optical component technology development: diffraction gratings; tunable filters; interferometric beam combiners; optical materials; and fiber optics. The panel also determined that stray light suppression instruments, such as coronagraphs and nulling interferometers, were in need of general development to support future astrophysics needs.

  17. RHIC instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, T. J.; Witkover, R. L.

    1998-12-10

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) consists of two 3.8 km circumference rings utilizing 396 superconducting dipoles and 492 superconducting quadrupoles. Each ring will accelerate approximately 60 bunches of 10{sup 11} protons to 250 GeV, or 10{sup 9} fully stripped gold ions to 100 GeV/nucleon. Commissioning is scheduled for early 1999 with detectors for some of the 6 intersection regions scheduled for initial operation later in the year. The injection line instrumentation includes: 52 beam position monitor (BPM) channels, 56 beam loss monitor (BLM) channels, 5 fast integrating current transformers and 12 video beam profile monitors. The collider ring instrumentation includes: 667 BPM channels, 400 BLM channels, wall current monitors, DC current transformers, ionization profile monitors (IPMs), transverse feedback systems, and resonant Schottky monitors. The use of superconducting magnets affected the beam instrumentation design. The BPM electrodes must function in a cryogenic environment and the BLM system must prevent magnet quenches from either fast or slow losses with widely different rates. RHIC is the first superconducting accelerator to cross transition, requiring close monitoring of beam parameters at this time. High space-charge due to the fully stripped gold ions required the IPM to collect magnetically guided electrons rather than the conventional ions. Since polarized beams will also be accelerated in RHIC, additional constraints were put on the instrumentation. The orbit must be well controlled to minimize depolarizing resonance strengths. Also, the position monitors must accommodate large orbit displacements within the Siberian snakes and spin rotators. The design of the instrumentation will be presented along with results obtained during bench tests, the injection line commissioning, and the first sextant test.

  18. RHIC instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shea, T. J.; Witkover, R. L.

    1998-12-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) consists of two 3.8 km circumference rings utilizing 396 superconducting dipoles and 492 superconducting quadrupoles. Each ring will accelerate approximately 60 bunches of 1011 protons to 250 GeV, or 109 fully stripped gold ions to 100 GeV/nucleon. Commissioning is scheduled for early 1999 with detectors for some of the 6 intersection regions scheduled for initial operation later in the year. The injection line instrumentation includes: 52 beam position monitor (BPM) channels, 56 beam loss monitor (BLM) channels, 5 fast integrating current transformers and 12 video beam profile monitors. The collider ring instrumentation includes: 667 BPM channels, 400 BLM channels, wall current monitors, DC current transformers, ionization profile monitors (IPMs), transverse feedback systems, and resonant Schottky monitors. The use of superconducting magnets affected the beam instrumentation design. The BPM electrodes must function in a cryogenic environment and the BLM system must prevent magnet quenches from either fast or slow losses with widely different rates. RHIC is the first superconducting accelerator to cross transition, requiring close monitoring of beam parameters at this time. High space-charge due to the fully stripped gold ions required the IPM to collect magnetically guided electrons rather than the conventional ions. Since polarized beams will also be accelerated in RHIC, additional constraints were put on the instrumentation. The orbit must be well controlled to minimize depolarizing resonance strengths. Also, the position monitors must accommodate large orbit displacements within the Siberian snakes and spin rotators. The design of the instrumentation will be presented along with results obtained during bench tests, the injection line commissioning, and the first sextant test.

  19. RHIC instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, T.J.; Witkover, R.L.

    1998-12-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) consists of two 3.8 km circumference rings utilizing 396 superconducting dipoles and 492 superconducting quadrupoles. Each ring will accelerate approximately 60 bunches of 10{sup 11} protons to 250 GeV, or 10{sup 9} fully stripped gold ions to 100 GeV/nucleon. Commissioning is scheduled for early 1999 with detectors for some of the 6 intersection regions scheduled for initial operation later in the year. The injection line instrumentation includes: 52 beam position monitor (BPM) channels, 56 beam loss monitor (BLM) channels, 5 fast integrating current transformers and 12 video beam profile monitors. The collider ring instrumentation includes: 667 BPM channels, 400 BLM channels, wall current monitors, DC current transformers, ionization profile monitors (IPMs), transverse feedback systems, and resonant Schottky monitors. The use of superconducting magnets affected the beam instrumentation design. The BPM electrodes must function in a cryogenic environment and the BLM system must prevent magnet quenches from either fast or slow losses with widely different rates. RHIC is the first superconducting accelerator to cross transition, requiring close monitoring of beam parameters at this time. High space-charge due to the fully stripped gold ions required the IPM to collect magnetically guided electrons rather than the conventional ions. Since polarized beams will also be accelerated in RHIC, additional constraints were put on the instrumentation. The orbit must be well controlled to minimize depolarizing resonance strengths. Also, the position monitors must accommodate large orbit displacements within the Siberian snakes and spin rotators. The design of the instrumentation will be presented along with results obtained during bench tests, the injection line commissioning, and the first sextant test. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. Expensing options solves nothing.

    PubMed

    Sahlman, William A

    2002-12-01

    The use of stock options for executive compensation has become a lightning rod for public anger, and it's easy to see why. Many top executives grew hugely rich on the back of the gains they made on their options, profits they've been able to keep even as the value they were supposed to create disappeared. The supposed scam works like this: Current accounting regulations let companies ignore the cost of option grants on their income statements, so they can award valuable option packages without affecting reported earnings. Not charging the cost of the grants supposedly leads to overstated earnings, which purportedly translate into unrealistically high share prices, permitting top executives to realize big gains when they exercise their options. If an accounting anomaly is the problem, then the solution seems obvious: Write off executive share options against the current year's revenues. The trouble is, Sahlman writes, expensing option grants won't give us a more accurate view of earnings, won't add any information not already included in the financial statements, and won't even lead to equal treatment of different forms of executive pay. Far worse, expensing evades the real issue, which is whether compensation (options and other-wise) does what it's supposed to do--namely, help a company recruit, retain, and provide the right people with appropriate performance incentives. Any performance-based compensation system has the potential to encourage cheating. Only ethical management, sensible governance, adequate internal control systems, and comprehensive disclosure will save the investor from disaster. If, Sahlman warns, we pass laws that require the expensing of options, thinking that's fixed the fundamental flaws in corporate America's accounting, we will have missed a golden opportunity to focus on the much more extensive defects in the present system. PMID:12510541

  1. SEATSAT programs option analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luckl, L.

    1976-01-01

    A preliminary analysis of the costs of SEASAT follow-on options is presented. All the options assume the existence of SEASAT-A as currently defined in the SEASAT Economic Assessment. It is assumed that each option will continue through the year 2000 and approach operational system status in the 1983-1986 period, depending upon the sensor package selected. The launch vehicle assumed through 1983 is the Atlas Agena. After 1983, it is assumed SEASAT-A will switch to the use of the Space Shuttle. All cost estimates are 1976 dollars for fiscal year cost accounting, with no inflation rate included.

  2. Advanced sensors and instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calloway, Raymond S.; Zimmerman, Joe E.; Douglas, Kevin R.; Morrison, Rusty

    1990-01-01

    NASA is currently investigating the readiness of Advanced Sensors and Instrumentation to meet the requirements of new initiatives in space. The following technical objectives and technologies are briefly discussed: smart and nonintrusive sensors; onboard signal and data processing; high capacity and rate adaptive data acquisition systems; onboard computing; high capacity and rate onboard storage; efficient onboard data distribution; high capacity telemetry; ground and flight test support instrumentation; power distribution; and workstations, video/lighting. The requirements for high fidelity data (accuracy, frequency, quantity, spatial resolution) in hostile environments will continue to push the technology developers and users to extend the performance of their products and to develop new generations.

  3. Job Improvement by Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westside Community Schools, Omaha, NE.

    This report provides one school district's program for evaluating teachers. The report (1) discusses the philosophy behind the evaluation program, (2) outlines the procedures to be followed, (3) defines the roles of the participants, (4) describes the goals and objectives of the school district, and (5) provides sample instruments used in the…

  4. Porphyria Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... only. For treatment options for Porphyria Cutanea Tarda (PCT) , Congenital Erythropoietic Protoporphyria (CEP) and Hepatoerythropoietic Porphyria (HEP) ... Contact Us About Porphyria AIP VP HCP ADP PCT EPP CEP HEP Diet and Nutrition History of ...

  5. 78 FR 3486 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ... the same time. The financial instruments in a contingent trade may be equities, options, futures... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and... on December 31, 2012, Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated (the ``Exchange'' or...

  6. Nevada Transportatoion Options Study

    SciTech Connect

    P. GEHNER; E.M. WEAVER; L. FOSSUM

    2006-05-25

    This study performs a cost and schedule analysis of three Nevada Transportation options that support waste receipt at the repository. Based on the U.S. Department of Energy preference for rail transportation in Nevada (given in the Final Environmental Impact Statement), it has been assumed that a branch rail line would be constructed to support waste receipt at the repository. However, due to potential funding constraints, it is uncertain when rail will be available. The three Nevada Transportation options have been developed to meet a varying degree of requirements for transportation and to provide cost variations used in meeting the funding constraints given in the Technical Direction Letter guidelines for this study. The options include combinations of legal-weight truck, heavy-haul truck, and rail. Option 1 uses a branch rail line that would support initial waste receipt at the repository in 2010. Rail transportation would be the primary mode, supplemented by legal weight trucks. This option provides the highest level of confidence in cost and schedule, lowest public visibility, greatest public acceptability, lowest public dose, and is the recommended option for support of waste receipt. The completion of rail by 2010 will require spending approximately $800 million prior to 2010. Option 2 uses a phased rail approach to address a constrained funding scenario. To meet funding constraints, Option 2 uses a phased approach to delay high cost activities (final design and construction) until after initial waste receipt in 2010. By doing this, approximately 95 percent of the cost associated with completion of a branch rail line is deferred until after 2010. To support waste receipt until a branch rail line is constructed in Nevada, additional legal-weight truck shipments and heavy-haul truck shipments (on a limited basis for naval spent nuclear fuel) would be used to meet the same initial waste receipt rates as in Option 1. Use of heavy-haul shipments in the absence

  7. Options Study - Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    R. Wigeland; T. Taiwo; M. Todosow; W. Halsey; J. Gehin

    2010-09-01

    The Options Study has been conducted for the purpose of evaluating the potential of alternative integrated nuclear fuel cycle options to favorably address the issues associated with a continuing or expanding use of nuclear power in the United States. The study produced information that can be used to inform decisions identifying potential directions for research and development on such fuel cycle options. An integrated nuclear fuel cycle option is defined in this study as including all aspects of the entire nuclear fuel cycle, from obtaining natural resources for fuel to the ultimate disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) or radioactive wastes. Issues such as nuclear waste management, especially the increasing inventory of used nuclear fuel, the current uncertainty about used fuel disposal, and the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation have contributed to the reluctance to expand the use of nuclear power, even though it is recognized that nuclear power is a safe and reliable method of producing electricity. In this Options Study, current, evolutionary, and revolutionary nuclear energy options were all considered, including the use of uranium and thorium, and both once-through and recycle approaches. Available information has been collected and reviewed in order to evaluate the ability of an option to clearly address the challenges associated with the current implementation and potential expansion of commercial nuclear power in the United States. This Options Study is a comprehensive consideration and review of fuel cycle and technology options, including those for disposal, and is not constrained by any limitations that may be imposed by economics, technical maturity, past policy, or speculated future conditions. This Phase II report is intended to be used in conjunction with the Phase I report, and much information in that report is not repeated here, although some information has been updated to reflect recent developments. The focus in this Options Study was to

  8. LANDSAT instruments characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Y. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Work performed for the LANDSAT instrument characterization task in the areas of absolute radiometry, coherent noise analysis, and between-date smoothing is reported. Absolute radiometric calibration for LANDSAT-5 TM under ambient conditions was performed. The TM Radiometric Algorithms and Performance Program (TRAPP) was modified to create optional midscan data files and to match the TM Image Processing System (TIPS) algorithm for pulse determination. Several data reduction programs were developed, including a linear regression and its plotted result. A fast Fourier transformation study was conducted on the resequenced TM data. Subscenes of homogeneous water within scenes over Pensacola, Florida were used for testing the FFT on the resequenced data. Finally, a gain and pulse height stability study of LANDSAT 5 TM spectral bands was performed.

  9. Love Objects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cusack, Lynne

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the role of "security" or "transition" objects, such as a blanket or stuffed toy, in children's development of self-comfort and autonomy. Notes the influence of parents in the child-object relationship, and discusses children's responses to losing a security object, and the developmental point at which a child will give up such an…

  10. Object crowding.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Julian M; Tjan, Bosco S

    2011-05-25

    Crowding occurs when stimuli in the peripheral fields become harder to identify when flanked by other items. This phenomenon has been demonstrated extensively with simple patterns (e.g., Gabors and letters). Here, we characterize crowding for everyday objects. We presented three-item arrays of objects and letters, arranged radially and tangentially in the lower visual field. Observers identified the central target, and we measured contrast energy thresholds as a function of target-to-flanker spacing. Object crowding was similar to letter crowding in spatial extent but was much weaker. The average elevation in threshold contrast energy was in the order of 1 log unit for objects as compared to 2 log units for letters and silhouette objects. Furthermore, we examined whether the exterior and interior features of an object are differentially affected by crowding. We used a circular aperture to present or exclude the object interior. Critical spacings for these aperture and "donut" objects were similar to those of intact objects. Taken together, these findings suggest that crowding between letters and objects are essentially due to the same mechanism, which affects equally the interior and exterior features of an object. However, for objects defined with varying shades of gray, it is much easier to overcome crowding by increasing contrast.

  11. Citizenship Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Committee on Assessing the Progress of Education, Ann Arbor, MI.

    The general procedures used to develop educational objectives for the National Assessment of Educational Progress are outlined, as are the procedures used to develop citizenship objectives. Ten general objectives are stated: "show concern for the welfare and dignity of others"; "support rights and freedoms of all individuals"; "help maintain law…

  12. Spinal instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Spivak, J M; Balderston, R A

    1994-03-01

    The past decade has seen a dramatic increase in the availability of spinal instrumentation devices, enabling surgeons to treat a variety of spinal disorders with improved results and lower morbidity. In each anatomic region new fixation systems exist. Improvement in fusion rates with supplemental plate fixation following anterior cervical diskectomies and reconstructions has been demonstrated; these devices can now be applied more safely than ever before. Posterior occipitocervical plating to the C-2 pedicle and C3-6 lateral masses can provide stable fixation despite incompetent posterior arch bony structures. Newer, more rigid anterior thoracolumbar instrumentation allows for correction of thoracolumbar and lumbar scoliosis along fewer levels and with better maintenance of lordosis and is also useful following anterior decompression for tumor and trauma. Segmental hook fixation of the posterior thoracolumbar spine has allowed for improved correction of deformity without increased morbidity or the need for postoperative bracing in many cases. Finally, the use of transpedicular screw fixation of the lumbosacral spine allows for excellent segmental fixation without intact posterior elements, including facet joints, and has significantly improved the fusion rate in lumbosacral fusions. PMID:8024965

  13. The hydrogen hybrid option

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.R.

    1993-10-15

    The energy efficiency of various piston engine options for series hybrid automobiles are compared with conventional, battery powered electric, and proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell hybrid automobiles. Gasoline, compressed natural gas (CNG), and hydrogen are considered for these hybrids. The engine and fuel comparisons are done on a basis of equal vehicle weight, drag, and rolling resistance. The relative emissions of these various fueled vehicle options are also presented. It is concluded that a highly optimized, hydrogen fueled, piston engine, series electric hybrid automobile will have efficiency comparable to a similar fuel cell hybrid automobile and will have fewer total emissions than the battery powered vehicle, even without a catalyst.

  14. Fluorosis varied treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, I Anand

    2010-01-01

    Fluorosis has been reported way back in 1901. The treatment options for fluorosis are varied depending upon individual cases. This article comes from Madurai in India where its surrounding towns are fluorosis-prone zones. The purpose of this article is to report various treatment options available for dental fluorosis; this is the first time that complete full mouth rehabilitation for dental fluorosis is being reported. This article also dwells on the need for the dentists to be aware of their local indigenous pathologies to treat it in a better manner. PMID:20582220

  15. Thermal test options

    SciTech Connect

    Koski, J.A.; Keltner, N.R.; Sobolik, K.B.

    1993-02-01

    Shipping containers for radioactive materials must be qualified to meet a thermal accident environment specified in regulations, such at Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71. Aimed primarily at the shipping container design, this report discusses the thermal testing options available for meeting the regulatory requirements, and states the advantages and disadvantages of each approach. The principal options considered are testing with radiant heat, furnaces, and open pool fires. The report also identifies some of the facilities available and current contacts. Finally, the report makes some recommendations on the appropriate use of these different testing methods.

  16. Lighting Options for Homes.

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, W.S.

    1991-04-01

    This report covers many aspects of various lighting options for homes. Types of light sources described include natural light, artificial light, incandescent lamps, fluorescent lamps, and high intensity discharge lamps. A light source selection guide gives the physical characteristics of these, design considerations, and common applications. Color, strategies for efficient lighting, and types of lighting are discussed. There is one section giving tips for various situations in specific rooms. Rooms and types of fixtures are shown on a matrix with watts saved by using the recommended type lighting for that room and room location. A major emphasis of this report is saving energy by utilizing the most suitable, recommended lighting option. (BN)

  17. Instrumentation requirements for the ESF thermomechanical experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Pott, J.; Brechtel, C.E.

    1992-12-31

    In situ thermomechanical experiments are planned as part of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project that require instruments to measure stress and displacement at temperatures that exceed the typical specifications of existing geotechnical instruments. A high degree of instrument reliability will also be required to satisfy the objectives of the experiments, therefore a study was undertaken to identify areas where improvement in instrument performance was required. A preliminary list of instruments required for the experiments was developed, based on existing test planning and analysis. Projected temperature requirements were compared to specifications of existing instruments to identify instrumentation development needs. Different instrument technologies, not currently employed in geotechnical instrumentation, were reviewed to identify potential improvements of existing designs for the high temperature environment. Technologies with strong potentials to improve instrument performance with relatively high reliability include graphite fiber composite materials, fiber optics, and video imagery.

  18. Our Energy Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Paul A.; Witt, Frank C.

    Presented is an analysis of alternatives available to the United States in dealing with energy problems. Options explained and evaluated include coal, solar, hydroelectric, nuclear, geothermal, wind, biomass, and energy conservation. The booklet is part of Project APEC (America's Possible Energy Choices), a nationally validated Title IVc project…

  19. Idaho's Energy Options

    SciTech Connect

    Robert M. Neilson

    2006-03-01

    This report, developed by the Idaho National Laboratory, is provided as an introduction to and an update of the status of technologies for the generation and use of energy. Its purpose is to provide information useful for identifying and evaluating Idaho’s energy options, and for developing and implementing Idaho’s energy direction and policies.

  20. Alternative Education Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Washington, DC.

    This guide deals with various areas of alternative education programs, including current practices and different options available to school and community personnel. Steps are outlined to assess present educational settings, design new programs, select the participants, and implement and evaluate the new program. The first appendix contains…

  1. Career Options in Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belloli, Robert C.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a credit/no credit course which focuses on career options in chemistry. The course (consisting of 15 one-hour seminar-type sessions) includes guest speakers for several sessions and an emphasis (in introductory sessions) on graduate school in chemistry, the chemical industry, resumes, and interviews. Also briefly describes an internship…

  2. The Safety and Decision Making of Instrumented Surgery in Infectious Spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Kyeong Hee; Kang, Dong Ho; Lee, Chul Hee; Hwang, Soo Hyun; Park, In Sung

    2016-01-01

    Objective Infectious spondylitis is mostly managed by appropriate antibiotic treatment options, and some patients may require surgical interventions. However, surgical interventions that use spinal instrumentation to correct the mechanical instability may be associated with the risk of an increase in the recurrence rate. In this study, we investigated whether spinal instrumentation effects on recurrence of infectious spondylitis. Methods The study was conducted as a retrospective study by dividing the subjects into the noninstrumentation surgery and instrumentation surgery groups among a total of 95 patients who had received surgical interventions in infectious spondylitis from 2009 to 2014. The study investigated patient variables such as underlying illness, presumed source of infection, clinical data, laboratory and radiological data, and ultimate outcome, and compared them between the 2 groups. Results In the 95 patients, instrumentation was not used in 21 patients but it was used in 74 patients. When the disease involved ≥3 vertebral bodies, lumbosacral level and epidural part, noninstrumentation surgery was mainly conducted, but when the disease involved the thoracic level and psoas muscle part, instrumentation surgery was mainly conducted. However, there were no differences between the 2 groups in terms of the recurrence rate and the incidence of primary failure. Conclusion The use of instrumentation in treating infectious spondylitis was determined by the level of involvement and part of the infection, but the use of instrumentation did not cause any increases in the recurrence rate and the incidence of primary failure. PMID:27799990

  3. Optical Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Precision Lapping and Optical Co. has developed a wide variety of hollow retroreflector systems for applications involving the entire optical spectrum; they are, according to company literature, cheaper, more accurate, lighter and capable of greater size than solid prisms. Precision Lapping's major customers are aerospace and defense companies, government organizations, R&D and commercial instrument companies. For example, Precision Lapping supplies hollow retroreflectors for the laser fire control system of the Army's Abrams tank, and retroreflectors have been and are being used in a number of space tests relative to the Air Force's Strategic Defense Initiative research program. An example of a customer/user is Chesapeake Laser Systems, producer of the Laser Tracker System CMS-2000, which has applications in SDI research and industrial robotics. Another customer is MDA Scientific, Inc., manufacturer of a line of toxic gas detection systems used to monitor hazardous gases present in oil fields, refineries, offshore platforms, chemical plants, waste storage sites and other locations where gases are released into the environment.

  4. Trusted Objects

    SciTech Connect

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.; PIERSON,LYNDON G.; WITZKE,EDWARD L.

    1999-10-27

    In the world of computers a trusted object is a collection of possibly-sensitive data and programs that can be allowed to reside and execute on a computer, even on an adversary's machine. Beyond the scope of one computer we believe that network-based agents in high-consequence and highly reliable applications will depend on this approach, and that the basis for such objects is what we call ''faithful execution.''

  5. THE ARCADE 2 INSTRUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Singal, J.; Fixsen, D. J.; Kogut, A.; Mirel, P.; Wollack, E.; Levin, S.; Seiffert, M.; Limon, M.; Lubin, P.; Villela, T.; Wuensche, C. A.

    2011-04-01

    The second generation Absolute Radiometer for Cosmology, Astrophysics, and Diffuse Emission (ARCADE 2) instrument is a balloon-borne experiment to measure the radiometric temperature of the cosmic microwave background and Galactic and extragalactic emission at six frequencies from 3 to 90 GHz. ARCADE 2 utilizes a double-nulled design where emission from the sky is compared to that from an external cryogenic full-aperture blackbody calibrator by cryogenic switching radiometers containing internal blackbody reference loads. In order to further minimize sources of systematic error, ARCADE 2 features a cold fully open aperture with all radiometrically active components maintained at near 2.7 K without windows or other warm objects, achieved through a novel thermal design. We discuss the design and performance of the ARCADE 2 instrument in its 2005 and 2006 flights.

  6. Instrumented Pipeline Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Piro; Michael Ream

    2010-07-31

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative agreement between Concurrent Technologies Corporation (CTC) and U.S. Department of Energy to address the need for a for low-cost monitoring and inspection sensor system as identified in the Department of Energy (DOE) National Gas Infrastructure Research & Development (R&D) Delivery Reliability Program Roadmap.. The Instrumented Pipeline Initiative (IPI) achieved the objective by researching technologies for the monitoring of pipeline delivery integrity, through a ubiquitous network of sensors and controllers to detect and diagnose incipient defects, leaks, and failures. This report is organized by tasks as detailed in the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO). The sections all state the objective and approach before detailing results of work.

  7. Novel operative treatment options.

    PubMed

    Ricketts, D N J; Pitts, N B

    2009-01-01

    There are an increasing number of more novel options available for operative intervention. This chapter outlines a series of operative treatment options which are available to the modern clinician to select from once a decision has been made to treat a carious lesion operatively. A series of novel methods of caries removal have been described; including chemomechanical caries removal, air abrasion, sono-abrasion, polymer rotary burs and lasers. There are also novel approaches to ensure complete caries removal and novel approaches for the management of deep caries. A novel question increasingly asked by clinicians is: does all the caries need to be removed? Operative management options here include: therapeutic fissure sealants, ultraconservative caries removal, stepwise excavation and the Hall technique. In conclusion, there is now a growing wealth of evidence that questions the traditional methods of caries removal and restoring the tooth. In parallel, there is a growing movement exploring the merits of therapeutically sealing caries into the tooth. This philosophy is alien to many of today's dentists and, until further randomized controlled trials are carried out in primary care, prudent caution must be exercised with this promising approach. Research is required into techniques which will allow monitoring of sealed caries to detect any rare, but insidious, failures. These novel techniques are an alternative way of managing the later stages of the caries process from a sounder biological basis and have marked potential benefits to patients from treatment, pain and outcome perspectives.

  8. The safeguards options study

    SciTech Connect

    Hakkila, E.A.; Mullen, M.F.; Olinger, C.T.; Stanbro, W.D.; Olsen, A.P.; Roche, C.T.; Rudolph, R.R.; Bieber, A.M.; Lemley, J.; Filby, E.

    1995-04-01

    The Safeguards Options Study was initiated to aid the International Safeguards Division (ISD) of the DOE Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation in developing its programs in enhanced international safeguards. The goal was to provide a technical basis for the ISD program in this area. The Safeguards Options Study has been a cooperative effort among ten organizations. These are Argonne National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mound Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Sandia National Laboratories, and Special Technologies Laboratory. Much of the Motivation for the Safeguards Options Study is the recognition after the Iraq experience that there are deficiencies in the present approach to international safeguards. While under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards at their declared facilities, Iraq was able to develop a significant weapons program without being noticed. This is because negotiated safeguards only applied at declared sites. Even so, their nuclear weapons program clearly conflicted with Iraq`s obligations under the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) as a nonnuclear weapon state.

  9. A Modular Instrumentation System for NASA's Habitat Demonstration Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rojdev, Kristina; Kennedy, Kriss; Yim, Hester; Wagner, Raymond S.; Hong, Todd; Studor, George; Delaune, Paul

    2010-01-01

    module will be reconfigured for a pressurized core module configuration. Each year the HDU configurations will undergo testing at NASA's Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RaTS) in Arizona [1]. As part of this project, a modular instrumentation system is developed to meet the monitoring needs of the HDU subsystems and to integrate with the current command and data handling infrastructure that has been developed for the project. The main objective of this study is to provide for the monitoring needs of the HDU. The requirements necessary to meet this objective are developed by working with the subsystem managers of the HDU to understand their monitoring needs. Additionally, the instrumentation system design leverages knowledge and lessons learned from previous studies, such as the inflatable habitat health monitoring system that was deployed in Antarctica [2], the integrated health monitoring system developed for NASA's Microhab [3], and the JSC Lunar Habitat Wireless Testbed to demonstrate a "standardsbased" approach to a wireless instrumentation system [4]. The HDU also requires flexibility in reconfiguration options, and it is necessary to demonstrate and evaluate a modular approach to an instrumentation system. Thus, the instrumentation system is designed in two parts: the primary system employs a standard WSN configuration, and the secondary system employs a wired USB hub. The WSN design provides for reconfiguration or replacement of sensors due to malfunctions or upgrades by using a wireless node that accepts ten instrument inputs and wirelessly transmits the data to the command and data handling system. The USB hub is necessary for those instruments that operate using a wired USB connection, although the design attempts to limit the amount of sensors that need to be wired connections.

  10. 32 CFR 22.610 - Award instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... administration provisions in 32 CFR part 32, 33, or 34 give the grants officer options for handling the matter. For example, under 32 CFR 32.24(b), the grants officers must choose among possible methods for the... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Award instruments. 22.610 Section...

  11. UFO-a multi-analyser option for IN12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Wolfgang; Rheinstädter, Maikel C.; Raymond, Stephane; Ohl, Michael

    2004-07-01

    The IN12 instrument is operated by FZ Jülich in collaboration with CEA Grenoble as a CRG-B instrument at the Institut Laue Langevin in Grenoble. As a three-axis spectrometer for cold neutrons it is dedicated for high-resolution studies of low-energy excitations. In the past years the instrument has been continuously improved and it has demonstrated its excellent performance for neutron scattering research. To meet further challenges as a state-of-the-art instrument in the next funding period we will propose to upgrade IN12 with a multi-analyser option similar to planned or existing RITA-type instruments. IN12 will then be optionally equipped with an array of individual analyser blades which can be positioned separately in order to map the scattered beam on a user-chosen path in (Q,ω)-space. We refer to this set-up as IN12-UFO (universal focusing option). Both, the feasibility and the scientific case are currently being studied. On the conference we will show details of the planned instrumental set-up and demonstrate its flexibility and multiplex advantages for specific physical applications.

  12. Factors Associated with Evaluation of Contraception Options among University Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Robert J.; Malo, Teri L.; Dodd, Virginia J.; Mayer, Alyssa B.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine attributes assigned by university undergraduates to 12 contraception options, determine if dimensions used to evaluate options differed for women and men, and assess whether these dimensions have changed over time. This study was cross-sectional and involved a written survey. The sample (N = 792) was…

  13. College Student Receptiveness to Various Alcohol Treatment Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epler, Amee J.; Sher, Kenneth J.; Loomis, Tiffany B.; O'Malley, Stephanie S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Heavy episodic drinking remains a significant problem on college campuses. Although most interventions for college students are behavioral, pharmacological treatments, such as naltrexone, could provide additional options. Participants: The authors evaluated receptivity to various alcohol treatment options in a general population of…

  14. MISR Instrument Data Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, David; Garay, Michael; Diner, David; Thompson, Charles; Hall, Jeffrey; Rheingans, Brian; Mazzoni, Dominic

    2008-01-01

    The MISR Interactive eXplorer (MINX) software functions both as a general-purpose tool to visualize Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument data, and as a specialized tool to analyze properties of smoke, dust, and volcanic plumes. It includes high-level options to create map views of MISR orbit locations; scrollable, single-camera RGB (red-greenblue) images of MISR level 1B2 (L1B2) radiance data; and animations of the nine MISR camera images that provide a 3D perspective of the scenes that MISR has acquired. NASA Tech Briefs, September 2008 55 The plume height capability provides an accurate estimate of the injection height of plumes that is needed by air quality and climate modelers. MISR provides global high-quality stereo height information, and this program uses that information to perform detailed height retrievals of aerosol plumes. Users can interactively digitize smoke, dust, or volcanic plumes and automatically retrieve heights and winds, and can also archive MISR albedos and aerosol properties, as well as fire power and brightness temperatures associated with smoke plumes derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. Some of the specialized options in MINX enable the user to do other tasks. Users can display plots of top-of-atmosphere bidirectional reflectance factors (BRFs) versus camera-angle for selected pixels. Images and animations can be saved to disk in various formats. Also, users can apply a geometric registration correction to warp camera images when the standard processing correction is inadequate. It is possible to difference the images of two MISR orbits that share a path (identical ground track), as well as to construct pseudo-color images by assigning different combinations of MISR channels (angle or spectral band) to the RGB display channels. This software is an interactive application written in IDL and compiled into an IDL Virtual Machine (VM) ".sav" file.

  15. Conscientious objection in Italy.

    PubMed

    Minerva, Francesca

    2015-02-01

    The law regulating abortion in Italy gives healthcare practitioners the option to make a conscientious objection to activities that are specific and necessary to an abortive intervention. Conscientious objectors among Italian gynaecologists amount to about 70%. This means that only a few doctors are available to perform abortions, and therefore access to abortion is subject to constraints. In 2012 the International Planned Parenthood Federation European Network (IPPF EN) lodged a complaint against Italy to the European Committee of Social Rights, claiming that the inadequate protection of the right to access abortion implies a violation of the right to health. In this paper I will discuss the Italian situation with respect to conscientious objection to abortion and I will suggest possible solutions to the problem.

  16. Conscientious objection in Italy.

    PubMed

    Minerva, Francesca

    2015-02-01

    The law regulating abortion in Italy gives healthcare practitioners the option to make a conscientious objection to activities that are specific and necessary to an abortive intervention. Conscientious objectors among Italian gynaecologists amount to about 70%. This means that only a few doctors are available to perform abortions, and therefore access to abortion is subject to constraints. In 2012 the International Planned Parenthood Federation European Network (IPPF EN) lodged a complaint against Italy to the European Committee of Social Rights, claiming that the inadequate protection of the right to access abortion implies a violation of the right to health. In this paper I will discuss the Italian situation with respect to conscientious objection to abortion and I will suggest possible solutions to the problem. PMID:24861043

  17. Instrumentation Working Group Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaller, Michelle; Miake-Lye, Richard

    1999-01-01

    The Instrumentation Working Group compiled a summary of measurement techniques applicable to gas turbine engine aerosol precursors and particulates. An assessment was made of the limits, accuracy, applicability, and technology readiness of the various techniques. Despite advances made in emissions characterization of aircraft engines, uncertainties still exist in the mechanisms by which aerosols and particulates are produced in the near-field engine exhaust. To adequately assess current understanding of the formation of sulfuric acid aerosols in the exhaust plumes of gas turbine engines, measurements are required to determine the degree and importance of sulfur oxidation in the turbine and at the engine exit. Ideally, concentrations of all sulfur species would be acquired, with emphasis on SO2 and SO3. Numerous options exist for extractive and non-extractive measurement of SO2 at the engine exit, most of which are well developed. SO2 measurements should be performed first to place an upper bound on the percentage of SO2 oxidation. If extractive and non-extractive techniques indicate that a large amount of the fuel sulfur is not detected as SO2, then efforts are needed to improve techniques for SO3 measurements. Additional work will be required to account for the fuel sulfur in the engine exhaust. Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CI-MS) measurements need to be pursued, although a careful assessment needs to be made of the sampling line impact on the extracted sample composition. Efforts should also be placed on implementing non-intrusive techniques and extending their capabilities by maximizing exhaust coverage for line-of-sight measurements, as well as development of 2-D techniques, where feasible. Recommendations were made to continue engine exit and combustor measurements of particulates. Particulate measurements should include particle size distribution, mass fraction, hydration properties, and volatile fraction. However, methods to ensure that unaltered

  18. Achilles Tendinosis: Treatment Options

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Roberto Gabriel L.

    2015-01-01

    Athletes usually complain of an ongoing or chronic pain over the Achilles tendon, but recently even non-athletes are experiencing the same kind of pain which affects their daily activities. Achilles tendinosis refers to a degenerative process of the tendon without histologic or clinical signs of intratendinous inflammation. Treatment is based on whether to stimulate or prevent neovascularization. Thus, until now, there is no consensus as to the best treatment for this condition. This paper aims to review the common ways of treating this condition from the conservative to the surgical options. PMID:25729512

  19. Adolescent pregnancy options.

    PubMed

    Resnick, M D

    1992-09-01

    The range of pregnancy options available to adolescents each have significant ramifications for future educational and economic achievement. The changing societal context of adolescent pregnancy decision-making are described, and the characteristics of adolescents who choose to terminate their pregnancy, parent their child, or place for adoption are examined. The role of significant others in decision-making and the implications of mandatory parental involvement in pregnancy decision-making is discussed, as well as the roles of schools in promoting the well-being and potential of adolescents considering pregnancy decisions. PMID:1434557

  20. Antiviral options for biodefense.

    PubMed

    Byrd, Chelsea M; Grosenbach, Douglas W; Hruby, Dennis E

    2013-10-01

    A key to biodefense strategies is an assessment of current therapies available as well as the expedited development of new antiviral therapeutic options. Viruses make up the majority of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Category A Priority Pathogens, agents that are considered to pose the greatest risk to public health and national security, and yet there are currently no approved treatments for most of these viral biodefense threats. A review of the Category A viral biothreat agents and strategies for the development of new therapeutics are presented here. PMID:23773331

  1. Treatment options for hyperhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Walling, Hobart W; Swick, Brian L

    2011-10-01

    Hyperhidrosis is a disorder of excessive sweating beyond what is expected for thermoregulatory needs and environmental conditions. Primary hyperhidrosis has an estimated prevalence of nearly 3% and is associated with significant medical and psychosocial consequences. Most cases of hyperhidrosis involve areas of high eccrine density, particularly the axillae, palms, and soles, and less often the craniofacial area. Multiple therapies are available for the treatment of hyperhidrosis. Options include topical medications (most commonly aluminum chloride), iontophoresis, botulinum toxin injections, systemic medications (including glycopyrrolate and clonidine), and surgery (most commonly endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy [ETS]). The purpose of this article is to comprehensively review the literature on the subject, with a focus on new and emerging treatment options. Updated therapeutic algorithms are proposed for each commonly affected anatomic site, with practical procedural guidelines. For axillary and palmoplantar hyperhidrosis, topical treatment is recommended as first-line treatment. For axillary hyperhidrosis, botulinum toxin injections are recommended as second-line treatment, oral medications as third-line treatment, local surgery as fourth-line treatment, and ETS as fifth-line treatment. For palmar and plantar hyperhidrosis, we consider a trial of oral medications (glycopyrrolate 1-2 mg once or twice daily preferred to clonidine 0.1 mg twice daily) as second-line therapy due to the low cost, convenience, and emerging literature supporting their excellent safety and reasonable efficacy. Iontophoresis is considered third-line therapy for palmoplantar hyperhidrosis; efficacy is high although so are the initial levels of cost and inconvenience. Botulinum toxin injections are considered fourth-line treatment for palmoplantar hyperhidrosis; efficacy is high though the treatment remains expensive, must be repeated every 3-6 months, and is associated with pain and

  2. Adolescent pregnancy options.

    PubMed

    Resnick, M D

    1992-09-01

    The range of pregnancy options available to adolescents each have significant ramifications for future educational and economic achievement. The changing societal context of adolescent pregnancy decision-making are described, and the characteristics of adolescents who choose to terminate their pregnancy, parent their child, or place for adoption are examined. The role of significant others in decision-making and the implications of mandatory parental involvement in pregnancy decision-making is discussed, as well as the roles of schools in promoting the well-being and potential of adolescents considering pregnancy decisions.

  3. Impact dynamics instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormck, R. F.

    1986-01-01

    One of the tasks specified in the NASA Langley controlled impact demonstration (CID) work package was to furnish dynamic instrumentation sensors. The types of instrumentation sensors required were accelerometers for aircraft structural loads measurements, seat belt load cells to measure anthropomorphic dummy responses to the aircraft impact, and strain gage bending bridges to measure the aircraft fuselage and wing bending during impact. The objective in the selection of dynamic instrumentation for the CID was to provide 352 of the highest quality transducers and remain within budget allocation. The transducers that were selected for the CID evaluation process were each subjected to rigorous laboratory acceptance tests and to aircraft fuselage section drop tests at the LaRC Impact Dynamics Research Facility. Data compiled from this series of tests showed the selected transducers to be best suited for the CID mission requirement. The transducers installation technique on the airframe proved successful. The transducer quality assurance was guaranteed through rigorous acceptance testing. Data acquired was 97.0%.

  4. Novel preventive treatment options.

    PubMed

    Longbottom, C; Ekstrand, K; Zero, D; Kambara, M

    2009-01-01

    A number of novel preventive treatment options which, as with traditional methods, can be differentiated into 3 categories of prevention (primary, secondary and tertiary), have been and are being currently investigated. Those reviewed are either commercially available or appear relatively close to that point. These include: approximal sealants; fluoride applications, including slow-release devices; measures to help remineralize demineralized tissue, including 3 different methods of delivering amorphous calcium phosphate; measures to help modify the biofilm to reduce the cariogenic challenge, including ozone therapy and probiotics; measures to increase enamel resistance to demineralization, including laser treatment of enamel, and a novel 'hybrid' technique for the treatment of primary molar caries which involves 'overlapping' of secondary and tertiary prevention--the Hall technique. Although many of these techniques show considerable promise and dentists should be aware of these developments and follow their progress, the evidence for each of these novel preventive treatment options is currently insufficient to make widespread recommendations. Changes in dental practice should be explored to see how oral health can be best supported through novel preventive systems. Further research is also required involving double-blind randomized controlled trials in order to bring further benefits of more effective caries control to patients. Implementation in practice should follow promptly as new techniques are shown to be clinically valuable for individual patients.

  5. Traditional preventive treatment options.

    PubMed

    Longbottom, C; Ekstrand, K; Zero, D

    2009-01-01

    Preventive treatment options can be divided into primary, secondary and tertiary prevention techniques, which can involve patient- or professionally applied methods. These include: oral hygiene (instruction), pit and fissure sealants ('temporary' or 'permanent'), fluoride applications (patient- or professionally applied), dietary assessment and advice (modification), other measures to help remineralize demineralized tissue and other measures to help modify the biofilm to reduce the cariogenic challenge. There is a considerable body of strong evidence supporting the use of specific techniques for primary prevention of caries in children, e.g. pit and fissure sealants and topically applied fluorides (including patient-applied fluoride toothpastes and professionally applied fluoride varnishes), but limited strong evidence for these techniques for secondary prevention--i.e. where early to established lesions with ICDAS codes 1-4 (and also the severer lesions coded 5 or 6) are involved--and in relation to adults. This lack of evidence reflects a shortage of high-quality trials in the area, as opposed to a series of good studies showing no effect. Since there is also limited longitudinal evidence supporting conventional operative care, and since controlling the caries process prior to first restoration is the key to breaking the repair cycle and improving care for patients, future research should address the shortcomings in the current level of supporting evidence for the various traditional preventive treatment options.

  6. Mixed waste management options

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, C.B.; Kirner, N.P.

    1991-12-31

    Disposal fees for mixed waste at proposed commercial disposal sites have been estimated to be $15,000 to $40,000 per cubit foot. If such high disposal fees are imposed, generators may be willing to apply extraordinary treatment or regulatory approaches to properly dispose of their mixed waste. This paper explores the feasibility of several waste management scenarios and attempts to answer the question: Can mixed waste be managed out of existence? Existing data on commercially generated mixed waste streams are used to identify the realm of mixed waste known to be generated. Each waste stream is evaluated from both a regulatory and technical perspective in order to convert the waste into a strictly low-level radioactive or a hazardous waste. Alternative regulatory approaches evaluated in this paper include a delisting petition, no migration petition, and a treatability variance. For each waste stream, potentially available treatment options are identified that could lead to these variances. Waste minimization methodology and storage for decay are also considered. Economic feasibility of each option is discussed broadly.

  7. Retrieval options study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    This Retrieval Options Study is part of the systems analysis activities of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation to develop the scientific and technological bases for radioactive waste repositories in various geologic media. The study considers two waste forms, high level waste and spent fuel, and defines various classes of waste retrieval and recovery. A methodology and data base are developed which allow the relative evaluation of retrieval and recovery costs and the following technical criteria: safety; technical feasibility; ease of retrieval; probable intact retrieval time; safeguards; monitoring; criticality; and licensability. A total of 505 repository options are defined and the cost and technical criteria evaluated utilizing a combination of facts and engineering judgments. The repositories evaluated are selected combinations of the following parameters: Geologic Media (salt, granite, basalt, shale); Retrieval Time after Emplacement (5 and 25 years); Emplacement Design (nominal hole, large hole, carbon steel canister, corrosion resistant canister, backfill in hole, nominal sleeves, thick wall sleeves); Emplacement Configuration (single vertical, multiple vertical, single horizontal, multiple horizontal, vaults; Thermal Considerations; (normal design, reduced density, once-through ventilation, recirculated ventilation); Room Backfill; (none, run-of-mine, early, 5 year delay, 25 year delay, decommissioned); and Rate of Retrieval; (same as emplacement, variably slower depending on repository/canister condition).

  8. 17 CFR 34.3 - Hybrid instrument exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... meaning of 12 CFR 204.2 (b)(1), (c)(1) and (e), respectively, offered by an insured depository institution...-of-pocket payments to the issuer during the life of the instrument or at maturity; and (ii) The... the characteristics of a futures contract or a commodity option; and (iii) The instrument does...

  9. 17 CFR 34.3 - Hybrid instrument exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... meaning of 12 CFR 204.2 (b)(1), (c)(1) and (e), respectively, offered by an insured depository institution...-of-pocket payments to the issuer during the life of the instrument or at maturity; and (ii) The... the characteristics of a futures contract or a commodity option; and (iii) The instrument does...

  10. 17 CFR 34.3 - Hybrid instrument exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... meaning of 12 CFR 204.2 (b)(1), (c)(1) and (e), respectively, offered by an insured depository institution...-of-pocket payments to the issuer during the life of the instrument or at maturity; and (ii) The... the characteristics of a futures contract or a commodity option; and (iii) The instrument does...

  11. Soldering instrument safety improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Kosslow, W.J.; Giron, R.W.

    1994-12-31

    It is an object of the present invention to make soldering instruments safer and easier to use. According to one aspect of the present invention, a non-heatsinking, protective shield is provided around the soldering tip of the solder iron. This heat shield covers the iron`s hot tip throughout the soldering process with the exception of the time needed to perform an actual solder connection using the tip. The shield protects the user or nearby personnel from harm when the soldering iron is at elevated temperatures (500{degrees}F to 800{degrees}F).Moreover, the shield is capable of preventing fires which might result if the iron`s tip inadvertently comes into contact with an object that can be easily ignited, e.g. paper. In addition, an air vacuum system is incorporated into the shield to remove the solder smoke.

  12. Geoscience experiments in boreholes: instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Traeger, R.K.

    1984-05-01

    Drilling is the only method available to obtain unambiguous information on processes occurring in the earth's crust. When core and virgin formation fluid samples are available, the geological state of the formation may be defined in the vicinity of the borehole with little ambiguity. Unfortunately, core recovery is expensive and often not complete, and drilling muds contaminate formation fluids. Thus, investigations turn to downhole instrumentation systems to evaluate in situ formation parameters. Some such instruments and the associated interpretative techniques are well developed, especially if they find usage in the evaluation of hydrocarbon reservoirs. Other sytems, particularly those that yield geochemical information are, at best, shallow-hole devices, but they could be engineered for deep-hole applications. Interpretations of logs obtained in igneous and metamorphic systems are not well developed. Finally, measurements away from the immediate vicinity of the borehole are possible but the technology is primitive. In situ instrumentation capabilities and needs for research in boreholes will be reviewed; the review will include details from recent US and European discussions of instrumentation needs. The capability and availability of slim hole logging tools will be summarized. Temperature limitations of the overall logging system will be discussed (current limits are 300/sup 0/C) and options for measurements to 500/sup 0/C will be described.

  13. Strategic Options Development and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, Fran; Eden, Colin

    Strategic Options Development and Analysis (SODA) enables a group or individual to construct a graphical representation of a problematic situation, and thus explore options and their ramifications with respect to a complex system of goals or objectives. In addition the method aims to help groups arrive at a negotiated agreement about how to act to resolve the situation. It is based upon the use of causal mapping - a formally constructed means-ends network - as representation form. Because the picture has been constructed using the natural language of the problem owners it becomes a model of the situation that is ‘owned' by those who define the problem. The use of formalities for the construction of the model makes it amenable to a range of analyses as well as encouraging reflection and a deeper understanding. These analyses can be used in a ‘rough and ready' manner by visual inspection or through the use of specialist causal mapping software (Decision Explorer). Each of the analyses helps a group or individual discover important features of the problem situation, and these features facilitate agreeing agood solution. The SODA process is aimed at helping a group learn about the situation they face before they reach agreements. Most significantly the exploration through the causal map leads to a higher probability of more creative solutions and promotes solutions that are more likely to be implemented because the problem construction process is wider and more likely to include richer social dimensions about the blockages to action and organizational change. The basic theories that inform SODA derive from cognitive psychology and social negotiation, where the model acts as a continuously changing representation of the problematic situation - changing as the views of a person or group shift through learning and exploration. This chapter, jointly written by two leading practitioner academics and the original developers of SODA, Colin Eden and Fran Ackermann

  14. Observatory Science with the NICER X-ray Timing Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remillard, Ronald A.

    2016-04-01

    This presentation is submitted on behalf of the NICER Observatory Science Working Group. NICER will be deployed on the International Space Station later in 2016. The X-ray sensitivity spans 0.2-12 keV, with CCD-like spectral resolution, low background rates, and unprecedented timing accuracy. A Guest Observer (GO) Program has been approved by NASA as one of the proposed Science Enhancement Options, contingent on NICER meeting its Prime Mission Science Objectives. The NICER Science team will observe limited Observatory Science targets (i.e., sources other than neutron stars) in year 1, and GO observations will constitute 50% of the exposures in year 2. Thereafter, NICER will compete for continuation via the NASA Senior Review process. NICER Instrument performance is compared with Missions such as XMM-Newton and RXTE. We briefly highlight the expected themes for Observatory Science relating to accreting black holes on all mass scales, magnetic CVs, active stars, and clusters of galaxies.

  15. Low activated incore instrument

    DOEpatents

    Ekeroth, D.E.

    1994-04-19

    Instrumentation is described for nuclear reactor head-mounted incore instrumentation systems fabricated of low nuclear cross section materials (i.e., zirconium or titanium). The instrumentation emits less radiation than that fabricated of conventional materials. 9 figures.

  16. Low activated incore instrument

    DOEpatents

    Ekeroth, Douglas E.

    1994-01-01

    Instrumentation for nuclear reactor head-mounted incore instrumentation systems fabricated of low nuclear cross section materials (i.e., zirconium or titanium). The instrumentation emits less radiation than that fabricated of conventional materials.

  17. Treatment options for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Portis, A. J.; Mador, D. R.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine current treatment options for benign prostatic hyperplasia with emphasis on randomized, clinical trials and our current management approach. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Benign prostatic hyperplasia remains difficult to define clinically or measure objectively. As a result, research has been fairly weak. With newer treatments, however, more definitive studies have been reported. MAIN FINDINGS: Transurethral resection of the prostate remains the criterion standard for severe disease. Watchful waiting, medical management, or early surgical intervention are all valid options for moderate disease and should be tailored to the characteristics and desires of individual patients. Recent minimally invasive surgical techniques, such as microwave and laser surgery, have not yet achieved the quality of evidence to be generally recommended. CONCLUSIONS: Management of benign prostatic hyperplasia should be individualized to patients' circumstances and personal choices. PMID:9266125

  18. Achalasia: current treatment options.

    PubMed

    Familiari, Pietro; Greco, Santi; Volkanovska, Ance; Gigante, Giovanni; Cali, Anna; Boškoski, Ivo; Costamagna, Guido

    2015-01-01

    Achalasia is a rare esophageal motility disorder, characterized by impaired swallow-induced, lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation and defective esophageal peristalsis. Unfortunately, there are no etiological therapies for achalasia. Patients present with dysphagia, chest pain and regurgitation of undigested food, often leading to weight loss. The currently available treatments have the common aim of relieving symptoms by decreasing the pressure of the LES. This can be achieved with some medications, by inhibiting the cholinergic innervation (botulinum toxin), by stretching (endoscopic dilation) or cutting (surgery) the LES. Recently, other therapeutic options, including per-oral endoscopic myotomy have been developed and are gaining international consensus. The authors report on the benefits and weaknesses of the different therapies and provide an updated approach to the management of achalasia. PMID:26186641

  19. [Treatment options for brachymetatarsia].

    PubMed

    Wingenfeld, C; Arbab, D; Abbara-Czardybon, M

    2013-01-01

    Brachymetatarsia can be congenital, idiopathic or secondary and describes an abnormal shortening of a metatarsal bone. The indications for treatment are not only due to cosmesis. The shortening of a ray changes the biomechanics of the foot and can lead to metatarsalgia. A frequent clinical feature is dorsal dislocation of a toe causing painful shoe conflict and disturbed proprioception. There are three main options for operative correction: lengthening osteotomy, interposition of a tricortical bone and gradual lengthening by callus distraction. While one stage lengthening procedures such as osteotomy and interposition are more appropriate for correction of moderate length deficiencies, the callus distraction method is more suitable for larger elongation. Common to all procedures is a long-term treatment with a high risk of different complications whereby patient compliance can be problematical. PMID:23238881

  20. Peak load management: Potential options

    SciTech Connect

    Englin, J.E.; De Steese, J.G.; Schultz, R.W.; Kellogg, M.A.

    1989-10-01

    This report reviews options that may be alternatives to transmission construction (ATT) applicable both generally and at specific locations in the service area of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). Some of these options have potential as specific alternatives to the Shelton-Fairmount 230-kV Reinforcement Project, which is the focus of this study. A listing of 31 peak load management (PLM) options is included. Estimated costs and normalized hourly load shapes, corresponding to the respective base load and controlled load cases, are considered for 15 of the above options. A summary page is presented for each of these options, grouped with respect to its applicability in the residential, commercial, industrial, and agricultural sectors. The report contains comments on PLM measures for which load shape management characteristics are not yet available. These comments address the potential relevance of the options and the possible difficulty that may be encountered in characterizing their value should be of interest in this investigation. The report also identifies options that could improve the efficiency of the three customer utility distribution systems supplied by the Shelton-Fairmount Reinforcement Project. Potential cogeneration options in the Olympic Peninsula are also discussed. These discussions focus on the options that appear to be most promising on the Olympic Peninsula. Finally, a short list of options is recommended for investigation in the next phase of this study. 9 refs., 24 tabs.

  1. Evaluating musical instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, D. Murray

    2014-04-01

    Scientific measurements of sound generation and radiation by musical instruments are surprisingly hard to correlate with the subtle and complex judgments of instrumental quality made by expert musicians.

  2. 48 CFR 570.401 - Renewal options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Requirements 570.401 Renewal options. (a) Exercise of options. Before exercising an option to renew, follow the... information review. Before exercising an option to renew a lease, review current market information...

  3. 48 CFR 570.401 - Renewal options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Requirements 570.401 Renewal options. (a) Exercise of options. Before exercising an option to renew, follow the... survey. Before exercising an option to renew a lease, review current market information to ensure...

  4. Selected Energy Conservation Options for Homeowners: Options, Expenses and Payoffs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lengyel, Dorothy L.; And Others

    This publication is a check list for homeowners and renters to help them reduce energy costs. The list consists of 126 energy conservation options. These options range from "change clothes instead of adjusting thermostat" and "air conditioners turned off when not home" to "use sink stopper" and "weatherstripping and caulking applied." For each…

  5. IOT Overview: IR Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, E.

    In this instrument review chapter the calibration plans of ESO IR instruments are presented and briefly reviewed focusing, in particular, on the case of ISAAC, which has been the first IR instrument at VLT and whose calibration plan served as prototype for the coming instruments.

  6. Traditional operative treatment options.

    PubMed

    Ricketts, D N J; Pitts, N B

    2009-01-01

    Operative intervention should be avoided, whenever possible, by adopting a preventive approach. Timely management of early caries can lead to arrest and possibly remineralization of the lesion rendering operative intervention unnecessary. The dentist must judge when the tooth tissue has become sufficiently demineralized to allow bacterial ingress leading to irreversible changes in the tissue. Once a decision has been made to restore a tooth, the clinician must decide, from a series of traditional operative treatment options, what materials should be used in the restoration and what preparation will achieve good retention and best preservation of tooth structure. With the development of new adhesive materials and a more conservative approach, a new era of minimally invasive dentistry has dawned. Improvements in the properties of composite materials have made them the choice for coronal aesthetic restorations: for posterior restorations involving load-bearing occlusal surfaces, amalgam is still the most commonly used material in UK dental practice; glass ionomer materials also have a place in minimally invasive dentistry--patterns of use differing in different counties. The numbers of studies investigating minimal caries removal are relatively limited; there are still scope and need for research in this field.

  7. AFCI Options Study

    SciTech Connect

    R. Wigeland; T. Taiwo; M. Todosow; W. Halsey; J. Gehin

    2009-09-01

    This report describes the background and framework for both organizing the discussion and providing information on the potential for nuclear energy R&D to develop alternative nuclear fuel cycles that would address the issues with the current implementations of nuclear power, including nuclear waste disposal, proliferation risk, safety, security, economics, and sustainability. The disposition of used fuel is the cause of many of the concerns, and the possible approaches to used fuel management identify a number of basic technology areas that need to be considered. The basic science in each of the technology areas is discussed, emphasizing what science is currently available, where scientific knowledge may be insufficient, and especially to identify specific areas where transformational discoveries may allow achievement of performance goals not currently attainable. These discussions lead to the wide range of technical options that have been the basis for past and current research and development on advanced nuclear fuel cycles in the United States. The results of this work are then briefly reviewed to show the extent to which such approaches are capable of addressing the issues with nuclear power, the potential for moving further, and the inherent limitations.

  8. Synroc processing options

    SciTech Connect

    Rozsa, R.B.; Hoenig, C.L.

    1981-09-01

    Synroc is a titanate-based ceramic material currently being developed for immobilizing high-level nuclear reactor wastes in solid form. Synroc D is a unique variation of Synroc. It can contain the high-level defense wastes, particularly those in storage at the Savannah River Plant. In this report, we review the early development of the initial Synroc process, discuss modification and other options that simplify it overall, and recommend the future direction of research and development in the processing area. A reference Synroc process is described briefly and contrasted with the Savannah River Laboratory glass-based reference case. Preliminary engineering layouts show Synroc to be a more complex processing operation and, thus, more expensive than the glass-based process. However, we believe that simplifications, which will significantly reduce the cost difference, are possible. Further research and development will continue in the areas of slurry processing, fluidized bed calcination, and mineralization. This last will use sintering, hot uniaxial pressing, or hot isostatic pressing.

  9. Astronomical Instruments in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, Sreeramula Rajeswara

    The earliest astronomical instruments used in India were the gnomon and the water clock. In the early seventh century, Brahmagupta described ten types of instruments, which were adopted by all subsequent writers with minor modifications. Contact with Islamic astronomy in the second millennium AD led to a radical change. Sanskrit texts began to lay emphasis on the importance of observational instruments. Exclusive texts on instruments were composed. Islamic instruments like the astrolabe were adopted and some new types of instruments were developed. Production and use of these traditional instruments continued, along with the cultivation of traditional astronomy, up to the end of the nineteenth century.

  10. Multimodality Instrument for Tissue Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mah, Robert W. (Inventor); Andrews, Russell J. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A system with multimodality instrument for tissue identification includes a computer-controlled motor driven heuristic probe with a multisensory tip is discussed. For neurosurgical applications, the instrument is mounted on a stereotactic frame for the probe to penetrate the brain in a precisely controlled fashion. The resistance of the brain tissue being penetrated is continually monitored by a miniaturized strain gauge attached to the probe tip. Other modality sensors may be mounted near the probe tip to provide real-time tissue characterizations and the ability to detect the proximity of blood vessels, thus eliminating errors normally associated with registration of pre-operative scans, tissue swelling, elastic tissue deformation, human judgement, etc., and rendering surgical procedures safer, more accurate, and efficient. A neural network, program adaptively learns the information on resistance and other characteristic features of normal brain tissue during the surgery and provides near real-time modeling. A fuzzy logic interface to the neural network program incorporates expert medical knowledge in the learning process. Identification of abnormal brain tissue is determined by the detection of change and comparison with previously learned models of abnormal brain tissues. The operation of the instrument is controlled through a user friendly graphical interface. Patient data is presented in a 3D stereographics display. Acoustic feedback of selected information may optionally be provided. Upon detection of the close proximity to blood vessels or abnormal brain tissue, the computer-controlled motor immediately stops probe penetration.

  11. Innovative Technology in Hearing Instruments

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Hearing instrument technology research is almost entirely focused on the projected needs of the consumer market in the developed world. However, two thirds of the world’s population with hearing impairment live in developing countries and this proportion will increase in future, given present demographic trends. In developing regions, amplification and other hearing health needs may differ from those in industrialized nations, for cultural, health, or economic reasons. World Health Organization estimates indicate that at present only a small percentage of individuals in developing countries who are in need of amplification have access to hearing aid provision. New technologies, such as trainable hearing aids, advanced noise reduction algorithms, feedback reduction circuitry, nano coatings for hearing aid components, and innovative power options, may offer considerable potential benefits, both for individuals with hearing impairment in developing countries and for those who provide hearing health care services in these regions. This article considers the possible supporting role of innovative hearing instrument technologies in the provision of affordable hearing health care services in developing countries and highlights the need for research that considers the requirements of the majority of the world population in need of hearing instrument provision. PMID:22068223

  12. Demonstration That Calibration of the Instrument Response to Polarizations Parallel and Perpendicular to the Object Space Projected Slit of an Imaging Spectrometer Enable Measurement of the Atmospheric Absorption Spectrum in Region of the Weak CO2 Band for the Case of Arbitrary Polarization: Implication for the Geocarb Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumer, J. B.; Rairden, R. L.; Polonsky, I. N.; O'Brien, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Tropospheric Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (TIMS) unit rebuilt to operate in a narrow spectral region, approximately 1603 to 1615 nm, of the weak CO2 band as described by Kumer et al. (2013, Proc. SPIE 8867, doi:10.1117/12.2022668) was used to conduct the demonstration. An integrating sphere (IS), linear polarizers and quarter wave plate were used to confirm that the instrument's spectral response to unpolarized light, to 45° linearly polarized light and to circular polarized light are identical. In all these cases the intensity components Ip = Is where Ip is the component parallel to the object space projected slit and Is is perpendicular to the slit. In the circular polarized case Ip = Is in the time averaged sense. The polarizer and IS were used to characterize the ratio Rθ of the instrument response to linearly polarized light at the angle θ relative to parallel from the slit, for increments of θ from 0 to 90°, to that of the unpolarized case. Spectra of diffusely reflected sunlight passed through the polarizer in increments of θ, and divided by the respective Rθ showed identical results, within the noise limit, for solar spectrum multiplied by the atmospheric transmission and convolved by the Instrument Line Shape (ILS). These measurements demonstrate that unknown polarization in the diffusely reflected sunlight on this small spectral range affect only the slow change across the narrow band in spectral response relative to that of unpolarized light and NOT the finely structured / high contrast spectral structure of the CO2 atmospheric absorption that is used to retrieve the atmospheric content of CO2. The latter is one of the geoCARB mission objectives (Kumer et al, 2013). The situation is similar for the other three narrow geoCARB bands; O2 A band 757.9 to 768.6 nm; strong CO2 band 2045.0 to 2085.0 nm; CH4 and CO region 2300.6 to 2345.6 nm. Polonsky et al have repeated the mission simulation study doi:10.5194/amt-7-959-2014 assuming no use of a geo

  13. Identity Options in Russian Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shardakova, Marya; Pavlenko, Aneta

    2004-01-01

    This article introduces a new analytical approach to the study of identity options offered in foreign and second language textbooks. This approach, grounded in poststructuralist theory and critical discourse analysis, is applied to 2 popular beginning Russian textbooks. Two sets of identity options are examined in the study: imagined learners…

  14. A Smorgasbord of Assessment Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Kathy A.

    2010-01-01

    The wealth of assessment options that exists offers teachers and students a "menu" of selections. Just as matching appetite needs with appropriate food selection is fundamental to a successful dining experience, matching assessment options to targeted achievement needs is crucial to an effective assessment experience. The author uses a geometry…

  15. Ideology as instrument.

    PubMed

    Glassman, Michael; Karno, Donna

    2007-12-01

    Comments on the article by J. T. Jost, which argued that the end-of-ideology claims that emerged in the aftermath of World War II were both incorrect and detrimental to the field of political psychology. M. Glassman and D. Karno make three critical points. First, Jost objectified ideology as a grand strategy implemented at the individual level, rather than as an instrument used for a specific purpose in activity. In doing so, he set ideology up as an "object" that guides human behavior rather than as a rational part of human experience. Second, they take issue with the idea that, because somebody acts in a manner that can be categorized as ideological, there actually is such a thing as ideology separate from that event and/or political experience and that psychologists ought to understand the meaning of ideology in order to understand future human activities as outside observers. Third, Jost seems to see this objective ideology as a unidirectional, causal mechanism for activity, a mechanism that assumes individuals act according to ideology, which eclipses the possibility that immediate ideological positions are the residue of purposeful activity. Glassman and Karno suggest that it may be better to take a pluralistic view of ideology in human action. Where ideology does exist, it is as a purposeful instrument--part of a logically based action to meet some ends-in-view--a mixture of immediate goals tied to secondary belief systems (which have been integrated to serve the material purposes of the purveyors of these ideologies). So if we are to understand ideology, we can only understand it through its use in human activity. PMID:18085858

  16. The Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite: Science objectives and instrument description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melnick, G. J.; Dalgarno, A.; Erickson, N. R.; Fazio, G. G.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Harwit, M.; Hollenbach, D. J.; Koch, D. G.; Neufeld, D. A.; Schieder, R.

    1997-01-01

    The submillimeter wave astronomy satellite (SWAS) mission is dedicated to the investigation of star formation and interstellar chemistry. In order to perform the mission, SWAS will survey dense molecular clouds within the Milky Way Galaxy in either the ground state or a low-lying transition of five astrophysically-significant species: H2O, H2(18)O, O2, C I and (13)CO. The observation of these lines will: test theories that predict that these species are dominant coolants of molecular clouds during early stages of their collapse to form stars and planets, and supply information concerning the abundance of species central to the chemical models of dense interstellar gas. The SWAS will use two independent Schottky barrier diode mixers and a 53 x 68 sq cm, off-axis Cassegrain antenna.

  17. Mars Miniature Science Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Soon Sam; Hayati, Samad; Lavery, David; McBrid, Karen

    2006-01-01

    For robotic Mars missions, all the science information is gathered through on-board miniature instruments that have been developed through many years of R&D. Compared to laboratory counterparts, the rover instruments require miniaturization, such as low mass (1-2 kg), low power (> 10 W) and compact (1-2 liter), yet with comparable sensitivity. Since early 1990's, NASA recognized the need for the miniature instruments and launched several instrument R&D programs, e.g., PIDDP (Planetary Instrument Definition and Development). However, until 1998, most of the instrument R&D programs supported only up to a breadboard level (TRL 3, 4) and there is a need to carry such instruments to flight qualifiable status (TU 5, 6) to respond to flight AOs (Announcement of Opportunity). Most of flight AOs have only limited time and financial resources, and can not afford such instrument development processes. To bridge the gap between instrument R&D programs and the flight instrument needs, NASA's Mars Technology Program (MTP) created advanced instrumentation program, Mars Instrument Development Project (MIDP). MIDP candidate instruments are selected through NASA Research Announcement (NRA) process [l]. For example, MIDP 161998-2000) selected and developed 10 instruments, MIDP II (2003-2005) 16 instruments, and MIDP III (2004-2006) II instruments.Working with PIs, JPL has been managing the MIDP tasks since September 1998. All the instruments being developed under MIDP have been selected through a highly competitive NRA process, and employ state-of-the-art technology. So far, four MIDP funded instruments have been selected by two Mars missions (these instruments have further been discussed in this paper).

  18. Million object spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditto, Thomas D.; Ritter, Joseph M.

    2008-07-01

    A new class of astronomical telescope with a primary objective grating (POG) has been studied as an alternative to mirrors. Nineteenth century POG telescopes suffered from low resolution and ambiguity of overlapping spectra as well as background noise. The present design uses a conventional secondary spectrograph to disambiguate all objects while enjoying a very wide instantaneous field-of-view, up to 40°. The POG competes with mirrors, in part, because diffraction gratings provide the very chromatic dispersion that mirrors defeat. The resulting telescope deals effectively with long-standing restrictions on multiple object spectrographs (MOS). The combination of a POG operating in the first-order, coupled to a spectrographic astronomical telescope, isolates spectra from all objects in the free spectral range of the primary. First disclosed as a concept in year 2002, a physical proof-of-principle is now reported. The miniature laboratory model used a 50 mm plane grating primary and was able to disambiguate between objects appearing at angular resolutions of 55 arcseconds and spectral spacings of 0.15 nm. Astronomical performance is a matter of increasing instrument size. A POG configured according to our specifications has no moving parts during observations and is extensible to any length that can be held flat to tolerances approaching float glass. The resulting telescope could record over one million spectra per night of objects in a line of right ascension. The novel MOS does not require pre-imaging to start acquisition of uncharted star fields. Problems are anticipated in calibration and integration time. We propose means to ameliorate them.

  19. NEXT GENERATION MELTER OPTIONEERING STUDY - INTERIM REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    GRAY MF; CALMUS RB; RAMSEY G; LOMAX J; ALLEN H

    2010-10-19

    The next generation melter (NOM) development program includes a down selection process to aid in determining the recommended vitrification technology to implement into the WTP at the first melter change-out which is scheduled for 2025. This optioneering study presents a structured value engineering process to establish and assess evaluation criteria that will be incorporated into the down selection process. This process establishes an evaluation framework that will be used progressively throughout the NGM program, and as such this interim report will be updated on a regular basis. The workshop objectives were achieved. In particular: (1) Consensus was reached with stakeholders and technology providers represented at the workshop regarding the need for a decision making process and the application of the D{sub 2}0 process to NGM option evaluation. (2) A framework was established for applying the decision making process to technology development and evaluation between 2010 and 2013. (3) The criteria for the initial evaluation in 2011 were refined and agreed with stakeholders and technology providers. (4) The technology providers have the guidance required to produce data/information to support the next phase of the evaluation process. In some cases it may be necessary to reflect the data/information requirements and overall approach to the evaluation of technology options against specific criteria within updated Statements of Work for 2010-2011. Access to the WTP engineering data has been identified as being very important for option development and evaluation due to the interface issues for the NGM and surrounding plant. WRPS efforts are ongoing to establish precisely data that is required and how to resolve this Issue. It is intended to apply a similarly structured decision making process to the development and evaluation of LAW NGM options.

  20. Instrumentation Working Group Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaller, Michelle; Miake-Lye, Richard

    1999-01-01

    The Instrumentation Working Group compiled a summary of measurement techniques applicable to gas turbine engine aerosol precursors and particulates. An assessment was made of the limits, accuracy, applicability, and technology readiness of the various techniques. Despite advances made in emissions characterization of aircraft engines, uncertainties still exist in the mechanisms by which aerosols and particulates are produced in the near-field engine exhaust. To adequately assess current understanding of the formation of sulfuric acid aerosols in the exhaust plumes of gas turbine engines, measurements are required to determine the degree and importance of sulfur oxidation in the turbine and at the engine exit. Ideally, concentrations of all sulfur species would be acquired, with emphasis on SO2 and SO3. Numerous options exist for extractive and non-extractive measurement of SO2 at the engine exit, most of which are well developed. SO2 measurements should be performed first to place an upper bound on the percentage of SO2 oxidation. If extractive and non-extractive techniques indicate that a large amount of the fuel sulfur is not detected as SO2, then efforts are needed to improve techniques for SO3 measurements. Additional work will be required to account for the fuel sulfur in the engine exhaust. Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CI-MS) measurements need to be pursued, although a careful assessment needs to be made of the sampling line impact on the extracted sample composition. Efforts should also be placed on implementing non-intrusive techniques and extending their capabilities by maximizing exhaust coverage for line-of-sight measurements, as well as development of 2-D techniques, where feasible. Recommendations were made to continue engine exit and combustor measurements of particulates. Particulate measurements should include particle size distribution, mass fraction, hydration properties, and volatile fraction. However, methods to ensure that unaltered

  1. Clean option: An alternative strategy for Hanford Tank Waste Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Straalsund, J.L.; Swanson, J.L.; Baker, E.G.; Jones, E.O.; Kuhn, W.L. ); Holmes, J.J. )

    1992-12-01

    Plans for remediation of the Hanford underground storage tanks are currently undergoing reevaluation. As part of this process, many options are being considered for the Tank Waste Remediation System (MRS). The clean option'' described here proposes an aggressive waste processing strategy to achieve the three ma or objectives: Greatly reduce the volume of high-level waste (HLW) to lessen demands on geologic repository space; decrease by several orders of magnitude the amount of radioactivity and toxicity now in the waste tanks that will be left permanently onsite as low-level solid waste (LLW); and accomplish the first two objectives without significantly increasing the total amount of waste for disposal. The study discussed here focuses on process chemistry, as it provides the foundation for achieving the clean option objectives. Because demonstrated separation steps have been identified and connected in a way that meets these objectives, the study concludes that the process chemistry rests on a firm technical basis.

  2. Instrumentation at the Anglo-Australian Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barden, Samuel C.

    2004-09-01

    The Anglo-Australian Observatory (AAO) has an instrumentation group for engineering, design, and fabrication that integrates tightly with an energetic group of instrument scientists1 to develop complex astronomical instruments. This instrumentation group puts ideas for innovative technical solutions generated by the instrument scientist group into reality. One demonstration of past achievement is the highly ambitious and successful 2dF instrument that yielded invaluable scientific insight into the cosmological structure of the universe. The more recent successes of the instrumentation group include the OzPoz fiber positioner for the FLAMES facility on the VLT and the award-winning, imaging and multi-object IRIS-2 infrared spectrograph for the AAT. VPH gratings were first put into action in LDSS++ on the AAT and numerous VPH gratings are now in routine use on the 6dF spectrograph for the UKST. Under development are a completely new and unique fiber positioning scheme (Echidna) for use in the FMOS instrument for Subaru; a double-beamed, VPH-based, bench-mounted spectrograph for 2dF; new IR and optical detector controllers; a renovation of the telescope and instrument control systems for the AAT; and a feasibility study for an Echidna-style positioner for the Gemini telescopes. Several other design studies are underway for new instrument technologies using leading edge and innovative concepts in robotics and fibers. The synergy between our scientists and engineers establishes a sound basis for solving the instrumentation challenges facing us.

  3. CICADA, CCD and Instrument Control Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Peter J.; Brooks, Mick; Meatheringham, Stephen J.; Roberts, William H.

    Computerised Instrument Control and Data Acquisition (CICADA) is a software system for control of telescope instruments in a distributed computing environment. It is designed using object-oriented techniques and built with standard computing tools such as RPC, SysV IPC, Posix threads, Tcl, and GUI builders. The system is readily extensible to new instruments and currently supports the Astromed 3200 CCD controller and MSSSO's new tip-tilt system. Work is currently underway to provide support for the SDSU CCD controller and MSSSO's Double Beam Spectrograph. A core set of processes handle common communication and control tasks, while specific instruments are ``bolted'' on using C++ inheritance techniques.

  4. Propulsion Options for the LISA Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardiff, Eric H.; Marr, Gregory C.

    2004-01-01

    The LISA mission is a constellation of three spacecraft operating at 1 AU from the Sun in a position trailing the Earth. After launch, a propulsion module provides the AV necessary to reach this operational orbit, and separates from the spacecraft. A second propulsion system integrated with the spacecraft maintains the operational orbit and reduces nongravitational disturbances on the instruments. Both chemical and electrical propulsion systems were considered for the propulsion module, and this trade is presented to show the possible benefits of an EP system. Several options for the orbit maintenance and disturbance reduction system are also briefly discussed, along with several important requirements that suggest the use of a FEEP thruster system.

  5. High Data Rate Instrument Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schober, Wayne; Lansing, Faiza; Wilson, Keith; Webb, Evan

    1999-01-01

    The High Data Rate Instrument Study was a joint effort between the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The objectives were to assess the characteristics of future high data rate Earth observing science instruments and then to assess the feasibility of developing data processing systems and communications systems required to meet those data rates. Instruments and technology were assessed for technology readiness dates of 2000, 2003, and 2006. The highest data rate instruments are hyperspectral and synthetic aperture radar instruments which are capable of generating 3.2 Gigabits per second (Gbps) and 1.3 Gbps, respectively, with a technology readiness date of 2003. These instruments would require storage of 16.2 Terebits (Tb) of information (RF communications case of two orbits of data) or 40.5 Tb of information (optical communications case of five orbits of data) with a technology readiness date of 2003. Onboard storage capability in 2003 is estimated at 4 Tb; therefore, all the data created cannot be stored without processing or compression. Of the 4 Tb of stored data, RF communications can only send about one third of the data to the ground, while optical communications is estimated at 6.4 Tb across all three technology readiness dates of 2000, 2003, and 2006 which were used in the study. The study includes analysis of the onboard processing and communications technologies at these three dates and potential systems to meet the high data rate requirements. In the 2003 case, 7.8% of the data can be stored and downlinked by RF communications while 10% of the data can be stored and downlinked with optical communications. The study conclusion is that only 1 to 10% of the data generated by high data rate instruments will be sent to the ground from now through 2006 unless revolutionary changes in spacecraft design and operations such as intelligent data extraction are developed.

  6. Evaluating Written Patient Information for Eczema in German: Comparing the Reliability of Two Instruments, DISCERN and EQIP

    PubMed Central

    McCool, Megan E.; Wahl, Josepha; Schlecht, Inga; Apfelbacher, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Patients actively seek information about how to cope with their health problems, but the quality of the information available varies. A number of instruments have been developed to assess the quality of patient information, primarily though in English. Little is known about the reliability of these instruments when applied to patient information in German. The objective of our study was to investigate and compare the reliability of two validated instruments, DISCERN and EQIP, in order to determine which of these instruments is better suited for a further study pertaining to the quality of information available to German patients with eczema. Two independent raters evaluated a random sample of 20 informational brochures in German. All the brochures addressed eczema as a disorder and/or therapy options and care. Intra-rater and inter-rater reliability were assessed by calculating intra-class correlation coefficients, agreement was tested with weighted kappas, and the correlation of the raters’ scores for each instrument was measured with Pearson’s correlation coefficient. DISCERN demonstrated substantial intra- and inter-rater reliability. It also showed slightly better agreement than EQIP. There was a strong correlation of the raters’ scores for both instruments. The findings of this study support the reliability of both DISCERN and EQIP. However, based on the results of the inter-rater reliability, agreement and correlation analyses, we consider DISCERN to be the more precise tool for our project on patient information concerning the treatment and care of eczema. PMID:26440612

  7. Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options

    SciTech Connect

    Roald Wigeland; Temitope Taiwo; Michael Todosow; William Halsey; Jess Gehin

    2010-06-01

    A systematic evaluation has been conducted of the potential for advanced nuclear fuel cycle strategies and options to address the issues ascribed to the use of nuclear power. Issues included nuclear waste management, proliferation risk, safety, security, economics and affordability, and sustainability. The two basic strategies, once-through and recycle, and the range of possibilities within each strategy, are considered for all aspects of the fuel cycle including options for nuclear material irradiation, separations if needed, and disposal. Options range from incremental changes to today’s implementation to revolutionary concepts that would require the development of advanced nuclear technologies.

  8. USED FUEL RAIL SHOCK AND VIBRATION TESTING OPTIONS ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, Steven B.; Best, Ralph E.; Klymyshyn, Nicholas A.; Jensen, Philip J.; Maheras, Steven J.

    2014-09-29

    The objective of the rail shock and vibration tests is to complete the framework needed to quantify loads of fuel assembly components that are necessary to guide materials research and establish a technical basis for review organizations such as the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). A significant body of experimental and numerical modeling data exists to quantify loads and failure limits applicable to normal conditions of transport (NCT) rail transport, but the data are based on assumptions that can only be verified through experimental testing. The test options presented in this report represent possible paths for acquiring the data that are needed to confirm the assumptions of previous work, validate modeling methods that will be needed for evaluating transported fuel on a case-by-case basis, and inform material test campaigns on the anticipated range of fuel loading. The ultimate goal of this testing is to close all of the existing knowledge gaps related to the loading of used fuel under NCT conditions and inform the experiments and analysis program on specific endpoints for their research. The options include tests that would use an actual railcar, surrogate assemblies, and real or simulated rail transportation casks. The railcar carrying the cradle, cask, and surrogate fuel assembly payload would be moved in a train operating over rail track modified or selected to impart shock and vibration forces that occur during normal rail transportation. Computer modeling would be used to help design surrogates that may be needed for a rail cask, a cask’s internal basket, and a transport cradle. The objective of the design of surrogate components would be to provide a test platform that effectively simulates responses to rail shock and vibration loads that would be exhibited by state-of-the-art rail cask, basket, and/or cradle structures. The computer models would also be used to help determine the placement of instrumentation (accelerometers and strain gauges

  9. Woodwind Instrument Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperl, Gary

    1980-01-01

    The author presents a simple maintenance program for woodwind instruments which includes the care of tendon corks, the need for oiling keys, and methods of preventing cracks in woodwind instruments. (KC)

  10. Regional Instrumentation Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromie, William J.

    1980-01-01

    Focuses on the activities of regional instrumentation centers that utilize the state-of-the-art instruments and methodology in basic scientific research. The emphasis is on the centers involved in mass spectroscopy, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, lasers, and accelerators. (SA)

  11. Instrument Modeling and Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horner, Andrew B.; Beauchamp, James W.

    During the 1970s and 1980s, before synthesizers based on direct sampling of musical sounds became popular, replicating musical instruments using frequency modulation (FM) or wavetable synthesis was one of the “holy grails” of music synthesis. Synthesizers such as the Yamaha DX7 allowed users great flexibility in mixing and matching sounds, but were notoriously difficult to coerce into producing sounds like those of a given instrument. Instrument design wizards practiced the mysteries of FM instrument design.

  12. Ultraviolet Instrumentation for the NASA Sub-orbital Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beasley, Matthew N.; Scowen, P.

    2009-01-01

    We present several sub-orbital projects that will provide good science, demonstrate technology suitable to space missions, and provide for the training of students at all levels. We have a pair of sounding rocket payloads that are designed to exploit otherwise inaccessible parameter space (wavelength, imaging resolution, spectral resolution) to answer particular questions about the nature of the local ISM and star formation in both the Milky Way and other nearby galaxies. This payload, currently in fabrication, will take images at 7 arcsecond resolution from 90 - 110 nm and can be configured for an emission line filter (103 nm) within that bandpass. This design is optimized for a very high launch rate. Targets are spread over the sky and refurbishment time between launches is very low. The other payload is to produce high resolution (R > 100,000) spectra of the interstellar medium of lithium-like oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon. In addition to sounding rockets, we present options for new balloon-borne instruments to use the advantages of high altitude pointed observations. The key features are the high resolution due to good intrinsic seeing over a wide field and very low background that allow measurements of low surface brightness objects. Our program will provide excellent scientific return, develop new instrumentation, and has a strong history of training students at the graduate and undergraduate levels.

  13. Computers in Scientific Instrumentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enke, C. G.

    1982-01-01

    Computer applications in scientific instrumentation are traced from early data processing to modern computer-based instruments. Probable pathways toward instruments with increased "intelligence" include, among others, implementation of hierarchical computer networks and microprocessor controllers and the simplification of programing. The…

  14. The Instrumental Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeates, Devin Rodney

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this dissertation is to enable better predictive models by engaging raw experimental data through the Instrumental Model. The Instrumental Model captures the protocols and procedures of experimental data analysis. The approach is formalized by encoding the Instrumental Model in an XML record. Decoupling the raw experimental data from…

  15. FS65 Disposition Option Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wenz, Tracy R.

    2015-09-25

    This report outlines the options for dispositioning the MOX fuel stored in FS65 containers at LANL. Additional discussion regarding the support equipment for loading and unloading the FS65 transport containers is included at the end of the report.

  16. Postmission disposal options for upper stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichler, Peter; Reynolds, Robert C.; Zhang, Jingchang; Bade, Anette; Jackson, A. A.; Johnson, Nicholas L.; McNamara, Roger

    1997-10-01

    NASA Management Instruction (NMI) 1700.8 directs each project office to limit orbital debris generation if this action is cost-effective and consistent with achieving mission objectives. To implement this policy, the NASA Office of Safety and Mission Assurance, the sponsor of NMI 1700.8, tasked NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) to develop the NASA Safety Standard 1740.14: Guidelines and Assessment Procedures for Limiting Orbital Debris, August 1995. To mitigate the accumulation of mass in Earth orbit, NSS 1740.14 addresses the issues of postmission disposal of spacecraft and upper stages. According to the guidelines, these systems in general should be left in an orbit in which, using conservative projections for solar activity, atmospheric drag and gravitational perturbations will limit the lifetime in low Earth orbit (LEO) to no longer than 25 years after completion of mission. Consequently, JSC undertook a series of studies to investigate the most efficient and cost effective options for reducing orbit lifetime. In this paper we present an overview of the various options and give hints for the choice of the option best suited for specific mission types, e.g., depending on initial orbit, existing propulsion systems, existing electrical power level, electrical power and attitude control lifetime, and acceptable maneuver time and mass penalties.

  17. Autonomy, constraining options, and organ sales.

    PubMed

    Taylor, James Stacey

    2002-01-01

    Although there continues to be a chronic shortage of transplant organs the suggestion that we should try to alleviate it through allowing a current market in them continues to be morally condemned, usually on the grounds that such a market would undermine the autonomy of those who would participate in it as vendors. Against this objection Gerald Dworkin has argued that such markets would enhance the autonomy of the vendors through providing them with more options, thus enabling them to exercise a greater degree of control over their bodies. Paul Hughes and T.L. Zutlevics have recently criticized Dworkin's argument, arguing that the option to sell an organ is unusual in that it is an autonomy-undermining "constraining option" whose presence in a person's choice set is likely to undermine her autonomy rather than enhance it. I argue that although Hughes' and Zutlevics' arguments are both innovative and persuasive they are seriously flawed--and that allowing a market in human organs is more likely to enhance vendor autonomy than diminish it. Thus, given that autonomy is the preeminent value in contemporary medical ethics this provides a strong prima facie case for recognizing the moral legitimacy of such markets. PMID:12747360

  18. High temperature geophysical instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Hardee, H.C.

    1988-06-01

    The instrumentation development program was to proceed in parallel with scientific research and was driven by the needs of researchers. The development of these instruments has therefore included numerous geophysical field tests, many of which have resulted in the publication of scientific articles. This paper is a brief summary of some of the major geophysical instruments that have been developed and tested under the High Temperature Geophysics Program. These instruments are briefly described and references are given for further detailed information and for scientific papers that have resulted from the use of these instruments. 9 refs., 14 figs.

  19. Seismic instrumentation of buildings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Çelebi, Mehmet

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on how and why we deploy seismic instruments in and around building structures. The recorded response data from buildings and other instrumented structures can be and are being primarily used to facilitate necessary studies to improve building codes and therefore reduce losses of life and property during damaging earthquakes. Other uses of such data can be in emergency response situations in large urban environments. The report discusses typical instrumentation schemes, existing instrumentation programs, the steps generally followed in instrumenting a structure, selection and type of instruments, installation and maintenance requirements and data retrieval and processing issues. In addition, a summary section on how recorded response data have been utilized is included. The benefits from instrumentation of structural systems are discussed.

  20. Preventing data disasters: helpful tips on data backup and storage options.

    PubMed

    Repasky, Lionel; Heard, Sam

    2010-01-01

    Ask vendors about data backup and recovery options when evaluating electronic health record systems. Weigh different solutions for recovery point objectives and recovery time objectives against your practice owners' risk tolerance as well as the budget.

  1. Present status of aircraft instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1932-01-01

    This report gives a brief description of the present state of development and of the performance characteristics of instruments included in the following group: speed instruments, altitude instruments, navigation instruments, power-plant instruments, oxygen instruments, instruments for aerial photography, fog-flying instruments, general problems, summary of instrument and research problems. The items considered under performance include sensitivity, scale errors, effects of temperature and pressure, effects of acceleration and vibration, time lag, damping, leaks, elastic defects, and friction.

  2. Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission: Robotic Boulder Capture Option Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazanek, Daniel D.; Merrill, Raymond G.; Belbin, Scott P.; Reeves, David M.; Earle, Kevin D.; Naasz, Bo J.; Abell, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently studying an option for the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM) that would capture a multi-ton boulder (typically 2-4 meters in size) from the surface of a large (is approximately 100+ meter) Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) and return it to cislunar space for subsequent human and robotic exploration. This alternative mission approach, designated the Robotic Boulder Capture Option (Option B), has been investigated to determine the mission feasibility and identify potential differences from the initial ARRM concept of capturing an entire small NEA (4-10 meters in size), which has been designated the Small Asteroid Capture Option (Option A). Compared to the initial ARRM concept, Option B allows for centimeter-level characterization over an entire large NEA, the certainty of target NEA composition type, the ability to select the boulder that is captured, numerous opportunities for mission enhancements to support science objectives, additional experience operating at a low-gravity planetary body including extended surface contact, and the ability to demonstrate future planetary defense strategies on a hazardous-size NEA. Option B can leverage precursor missions and existing Agency capabilities to help ensure mission success by targeting wellcharacterized asteroids and can accommodate uncertain programmatic schedules by tailoring the return mass.

  3. Trajectory options for the DART mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atchison, Justin A.; Ozimek, Martin T.; Kantsiper, Brian L.; Cheng, Andrew F.

    2016-06-01

    This study presents interplanetary trajectory options for the Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) spacecraft to reach the near Earth object, Didymos binary system, during its 2022 Earth conjunction. DART represents a component of a joint NASA-ESA mission to study near Earth object kinetic impact deflection. The DART trajectory must satisfy mission objectives for arrival timing, geometry, and lighting while minimizing launch vehicle and spacecraft propellant requirements. Chemical propulsion trajectories are feasible from two candidate launch windows in late 2020 and 2021. The 2020 trajectories are highly perturbed by Earth's orbit, requiring post-launch deep space maneuvers to retarget the Didymos system. Within these windows, opportunities exist for flybys of additional near Earth objects: Orpheus in 2021 or 2007 YJ in 2022. A second impact attempt, in the event that the first impact is unsuccessful, can be added at the expense of a shorter launch window and increased (∼3x) spacecraft ΔV . However, the second impact arrival geometry has poor lighting, high Earth ranges, and would require additional degrees of freedom for solar panel and/or antenna gimbals. A low-thrust spacecraft configuration increases the trajectory flexibility. A solar electric propulsion spacecraft could be affordably launched as a secondary spacecraft in an Earth orbit and spiral out to target the requisite interplanetary departure condition. A sample solar electric trajectory was constructed from an Earth geostationary transfer using a representative 1.5 kW thruster. The trajectory requires 9 months to depart Earth's sphere of influence, after which its interplanetary trajectory includes a flyby of Orpheus and a second Didymos impact attempt. The solar electric spacecraft implementation would impose additional bus design constraints, including large solar arrays that could pose challenges for terminal guidance. On the basis of this study, there are many feasible options for DART to

  4. Multimodality instrument for tissue characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mah, Robert W. (Inventor); Andrews, Russell J. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A system with multimodality instrument for tissue identification includes a computer-controlled motor driven heuristic probe with a multisensory tip. For neurosurgical applications, the instrument is mounted on a stereotactic frame for the probe to penetrate the brain in a precisely controlled fashion. The resistance of the brain tissue being penetrated is continually monitored by a miniaturized strain gauge attached to the probe tip. Other modality sensors may be mounted near the probe tip to provide real-time tissue characterizations and the ability to detect the proximity of blood vessels, thus eliminating errors normally associated with registration of pre-operative scans, tissue swelling, elastic tissue deformation, human judgement, etc., and rendering surgical procedures safer, more accurate, and efficient. A neural network program adaptively learns the information on resistance and other characteristic features of normal brain tissue during the surgery and provides near real-time modeling. A fuzzy logic interface to the neural network program incorporates expert medical knowledge in the learning process. Identification of abnormal brain tissue is determined by the detection of change and comparison with previously learned models of abnormal brain tissues. The operation of the instrument is controlled through a user friendly graphical interface. Patient data is presented in a 3D stereographics display. Acoustic feedback of selected information may optionally be provided. Upon detection of the close proximity to blood vessels or abnormal brain tissue, the computer-controlled motor immediately stops probe penetration. The use of this system will make surgical procedures safer, more accurate, and more efficient. Other applications of this system include the detection, prognosis and treatment of breast cancer, prostate cancer, spinal diseases, and use in general exploratory surgery.

  5. The Clementine instrument complement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucey, Paul G.

    1993-01-01

    The recent successes of the Galileo solid-state imaging (SSI) experiment at the Moon and Gaspra show the utility of multispectral imaging of planetary objects. 'Clementine' is the planetary community's 'code name' for the SDIO (Space Defense Initiative Organization), mission to the Moon and the asteroid Geographos. This mission is designed as a long term stressing test on sensors and space systems developed for SDIO. In the course of this test Clementine will obtain science data using a varied and powerful array of remote sensing instruments which were developed by or for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California. Clementine carries five cameras, one for navigation and four for science experiments. In addition, a laser ranger is included which will serve as a laser altimeter. The Clementine cameras cover a wider range of spatial resolutions and wavelength range than did Galileo and are almost ideally suited to mapping of mafic rock types as are present on the Moon and expected at Geographos. Calibration of the cameras will occur at the sensor calibration laboratory at LLNL. In flight calibrations, using standard stars and other standards should improve the stated accuracies. Signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) include the following noise sources: shot noise, calibration error, digitization noise, readout noise, and frame transfer noise (where applicable). The achieved SNRs are a balance between detector saturation and acceptable image smear. The 'worst' case uses the longest possible integration times.

  6. Making Your Instruments Work for You.

    PubMed

    Valipoor, Shabboo; Pati, Debajyoti

    2016-04-01

    Objective measures are alluring owing to the apparent robustness of data generated. However, there are numerous validity, reliability, cost, and logistics issues that can affect a study involving objective instruments. Using an ongoing study on patient chair design, this article highlights some of the important issues that an investigator must address, including repeatability, sensitivity and specificity, generalizability, integration, installation, budget, outcome, and time.

  7. Musicianship in the Beginning Instrumental Class. Music Brief 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texter, Merry

    Arranged into eight parts, the booklet assists instrumental music teachers in facilitating musicianship in the beginning instrumental class. Part 1 presents a description and rationale for teaching comprehensive musicianship in instrumental programs. Part 2 presents a list of student objectives and teaching strategies for beginning level classes.…

  8. VIRUS instrument enclosures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prochaska, T.; Allen, R.; Mondrik, N.; Rheault, J. P.; Sauseda, M.; Boster, E.; James, M.; Rodriguez-Patino, M.; Torres, G.; Ham, J.; Cook, E.; Baker, D.; DePoy, Darren L.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Hill, G. J.; Perry, D.; Savage, R. D.; Good, J. M.; Vattiat, Brian L.

    2014-08-01

    The Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument will be installed at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope† in the near future. The instrument will be housed in two enclosures that are mounted adjacent to the telescope, via the VIRUS Support Structure (VSS). We have designed the enclosures to support and protect the instrument, to enable servicing of the instrument, and to cool the instrument appropriately while not adversely affecting the dome environment. The system uses simple HVAC air handling techniques in conjunction with thermoelectric and standard glycol heat exchangers to provide efficient heat removal. The enclosures also provide power and data transfer to and from each VIRUS unit, liquid nitrogen cooling to the detectors, and environmental monitoring of the instrument and dome environments. In this paper, we describe the design and fabrication of the VIRUS enclosures and their subsystems.

  9. Lunar Cube Transfer Trajectory Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Dichmann, Donald J.; Clark, Pamela; Haapala, Amanda; Howell, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Numerous Earth-Moon trajectory and lunar orbit options are available for Cubesat missions. Given the limited Cubesat injection infrastructure, transfer trajectories are contingent upon the modification of an initial condition of the injected or deployed orbit. Additionally, these transfers can be restricted by the selection or designs of Cubesat subsystems such as propulsion or communication. Nonetheless, many trajectory options can be considered which have a wide range of transfer durations, fuel requirements, and final destinations. Our investigation of potential trajectories highlights several options including deployment from low Earth orbit (LEO), geostationary transfer orbits (GTO), and higher energy direct lunar transfers and the use of longer duration Earth-Moon dynamical systems. For missions with an intended lunar orbit, much of the design process is spent optimizing a ballistic capture while other science locations such as Sun-Earth libration or heliocentric orbits may simply require a reduced Delta-V imparted at a convenient location along the trajectory.

  10. Lunar Cube Transfer Trajectory Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Dichmann, Donald James; Clark, Pamela E.; Haapala, Amanda; Howell, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Numerous Earth-Moon trajectory and lunar orbit options are available for Cubesat missions. Given the limited Cubesat injection infrastructure, transfer trajectories are contingent upon the modification of an initial condition of the injected or deployed orbit. Additionally, these transfers can be restricted by the selection or designs of Cubesat subsystems such as propulsion or communication. Nonetheless, many trajectory options can b e considered which have a wide range of transfer duration, fuel requirements, and final destinations. Our investigation of potential trajectories highlights several options including deployment from low Earth orbit (LEO) geostationary transfer orbits (GTO) and higher energy direct lunar transfer and the use of longer duration Earth-Moon dynamical systems. For missions with an intended lunar orbit, much of the design process is spent optimizing a ballistic capture while other science locations such as Sun-Earth libration or heliocentric orbits may simply require a reduced Delta-V imparted at a convenient location along the trajectory.

  11. Steam generator waste disposal options

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, H.O.M.

    1994-12-31

    The steam generator waste stream has been examined, and disposal options associated with the decommissioning of the reference pressurized water reactor (PWR) power station have been investigated as described in NUREG/CR-0130. Specifically, the removal and disposal of the steam generators and those activities and associated occupational doses inherent in the activities have been examined. The results of this effort are compared in this paper to more recent data for the reference PWR contained in NUREG/CR-5884, and a determination of the appropriate volumes and activities is made. These data are used to complete projections of steam generator waste volumes and activities generated from light water reactor decommissioning using the DECON decommissioning alternative. Several disposal options for the steam generators are considered and the segmentation, one-piece waste package, and smelting options are detailed.

  12. Shuttle Liquid Fly Back Booster Configuration Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Healy, T. J., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    This paper surveys the basic configuration options available to a Liquid Fly Back Booster (LFBB), integrated with the Space Shuttle system. The background of the development of the LFBB concept is given. The influence of the main booster engine (BME) installations and the Fly Back Engine (FBE) installation on the aerodynamic configurations are also discussed. Limits on the LFBB configuration design space imposed by the existing Shuttle flight and ground elements are also described. The objective of the paper is to put the constrains and design space for an LFBB in perspective. The object of the work is to define LFBB configurations that significantly improve safety, operability, reliability and performance of the Shuttle system and dramatically lower operations costs.

  13. Shuttle Liquid Fly Back Booster Configuration Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Healy, Thomas J., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    This paper surveys the basic configuration options available to a Liquid Fly Back Booster (LFBB), integrated with the Space Shuttle system. The background of the development of the LFBB concept is given. The influence of the main booster engine (BME) installations and the fly back engine (FBE) installation on the aerodynamic configurations are also discussed. Limits on the LFBB configuration design space imposed by the existing Shuttle flight and ground elements are also described. The objective of the paper is to put the constrains and design space for an LFBB in perspective. The object of the work is to define LFBB configurations that significantly improve safety, operability, reliability and performance of the Shuttle system and dramatically lower operations costs.

  14. Wet chemistry instrument prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A wet chemistry instrument prototype for detecting amino acids in planetary soil samples was developed. The importance of amino acids and their condensation products to the development of life forms is explained. The characteristics of the instrument and the tests which were conducted to determine the materials compatibility are described. Diagrams are provided to show the construction of the instrument. Data obtained from the performance tests are reported.

  15. Early object relations into new objects.

    PubMed

    Downey, T W

    2001-01-01

    dramatic change that has hitherto been poorly identified and conceptualized. In child analysis, play is the medium for picking the lock of both arrested maturation and stultified development. Realizing that should permit the child analyst to engage more freely with the child in their own style of play without being overly concerned about the presence or absence of relational dynamic material. Non-dynamic play may not usually be defensive play, though it has often been misinterpreted as such. It may represent activity supporting renewed maturation--practice play in the service of memory, motility, or small or large motor function rather than in the service of the playful, repetitive externalization of threatening introjects. Dynamic play highlights the stagnant or emerging functions of the ego with regard to defense and affect management, which may then be interpreted using the play as key or using words as key to unlock the troubled relationship that is being dramatized. The analyst remains in a non-defensive stance, assigned by the analysand as audience or benign participant. Similarly, in adult analyses some individuals come pre-programmed not so much for interpretation as to discover the analyst as new object. They are in search of near psychobiological maturational closure on an object, already constituted in fantasy, that is respectful, attentive, objective, interested, and sometimes enlightening in their attempts at analytic understanding and developmental homeostasis. This phenomenon is akin to love at first sight, though without the flagrant libidinal romantic element. It occurs as the analytic narrative unfolds and the patient comes to a new sense of self, often around some developmental role or mix of roles, such as spouse, lover, mother, student, sibling, or worker. The point is that playing on the black and white keys of development and maturation leads to the appreciation of a psychoanalytic instrument that is at once more complex and yet easier to get music

  16. Early object relations into new objects.

    PubMed

    Downey, T W

    2001-01-01

    dramatic change that has hitherto been poorly identified and conceptualized. In child analysis, play is the medium for picking the lock of both arrested maturation and stultified development. Realizing that should permit the child analyst to engage more freely with the child in their own style of play without being overly concerned about the presence or absence of relational dynamic material. Non-dynamic play may not usually be defensive play, though it has often been misinterpreted as such. It may represent activity supporting renewed maturation--practice play in the service of memory, motility, or small or large motor function rather than in the service of the playful, repetitive externalization of threatening introjects. Dynamic play highlights the stagnant or emerging functions of the ego with regard to defense and affect management, which may then be interpreted using the play as key or using words as key to unlock the troubled relationship that is being dramatized. The analyst remains in a non-defensive stance, assigned by the analysand as audience or benign participant. Similarly, in adult analyses some individuals come pre-programmed not so much for interpretation as to discover the analyst as new object. They are in search of near psychobiological maturational closure on an object, already constituted in fantasy, that is respectful, attentive, objective, interested, and sometimes enlightening in their attempts at analytic understanding and developmental homeostasis. This phenomenon is akin to love at first sight, though without the flagrant libidinal romantic element. It occurs as the analytic narrative unfolds and the patient comes to a new sense of self, often around some developmental role or mix of roles, such as spouse, lover, mother, student, sibling, or worker. The point is that playing on the black and white keys of development and maturation leads to the appreciation of a psychoanalytic instrument that is at once more complex and yet easier to get music

  17. Space station data system analysis/architecture study. Task 2: Options development, DR-5. Volume 2: Design options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The primary objective of Task 2 is the development of an information base that will support the conduct of trade studies and provide sufficient data to make key design/programmatic decisions. This includes: (1) the establishment of option categories that are most likely to influence Space Station Data System (SSDS) definition; (2) the identification of preferred options in each category; and (3) the characterization of these options with respect to performance attributes, constraints, cost and risk. This volume contains the options development for the design category. This category comprises alternative structures, configurations and techniques that can be used to develop designs that are responsive to the SSDS requirements. The specific areas discussed are software, including data base management and distributed operating systems; system architecture, including fault tolerance and system growth/automation/autonomy and system interfaces; time management; and system security/privacy. Also discussed are space communications and local area networking.

  18. Instrument validation project

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, B.A.; Daymo, E.A.; Geeting, J.G.H.; Zhang, J.

    1996-06-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company Project W-211 is responsible for providing the system capabilities to remove radioactive waste from ten double-shell tanks used to store radioactive wastes on the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The project is also responsible for measuring tank waste slurry properties prior to injection into pipeline systems, including the Replacement of Cross-Site Transfer System. This report summarizes studies of the appropriateness of the instrumentation specified for use in Project W-211. The instruments were evaluated in a test loop with simulated slurries that covered the range of properties specified in the functional design criteria. The results of the study indicate that the compact nature of the baseline Project W-211 loop does not result in reduced instrumental accuracy resulting from poor flow profile development. Of the baseline instrumentation, the Micromotion densimeter, the Moore Industries thermocouple, the Fischer and Porter magnetic flow meter, and the Red Valve Pressure transducer meet the desired instrumental accuracy. An alternate magnetic flow meter (Yokagawa) gave nearly identical results as the baseline fischer and Porter. The Micromotion flow meter did not meet the desired instrument accuracy but could potentially be calibrated so that it would meet the criteria. The Nametre on-line viscometer did not meet the desired instrumental accuracy and is not recommended as a quantitative instrument although it does provide qualitative information. The recommended minimum set of instrumentation necessary to ensure the slurry meets the Project W-058 acceptance criteria is the Micromotion mass flow meter and delta pressure cells.

  19. Instrument performance evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Swinth, K.L.

    1993-03-01

    Deficiencies exist in both the performance and the quality of health physics instruments. Recognizing the implications of such deficiencies for the protection of workers and the public, in the early 1980s the DOE and the NRC encouraged the development of a performance standard and established a program to test a series of instruments against criteria in the standard. The purpose of the testing was to establish the practicality of the criteria in the standard, to determine the performance of a cross section of available instruments, and to establish a testing capability. Over 100 instruments were tested, resulting in a practical standard and an understanding of the deficiencies in available instruments. In parallel with the instrument testing, a value-impact study clearly established the benefits of implementing a formal testing program. An ad hoc committee also met several times to establish recommendations for the voluntary implementation of a testing program based on the studies and the performance standard. For several reasons, a formal program did not materialize. Ongoing tests and studies have supported the development of specific instruments and have helped specific clients understand the performance of their instruments. The purpose of this presentation is to trace the history of instrument testing to date and suggest the benefits of a centralized formal program.

  20. DRAMA: Instrumentation software environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Jeremy; Shortridge, Keith; Farrell, Tony

    2015-07-01

    DRAMA is a fast, distributed environment for writing instrumentation control systems. It allows low level instrumentation software to be controlled from user interfaces running on UNIX, MS Windows or VMS machines in a consistent manner. Such instrumentation tasks can run either on these machines or on real time systems such as VxWorks. DRAMA uses techniques developed by the AAO while using the Starlink-ADAM environment, but is optimized for the requirements of instrumentation control, portability, embedded systems and speed. A special program is provided which allows seamless communication between ADAM and DRAMA tasks.

  1. Space applications instrumentation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minzner, R. A.; Oberholtzer, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    A compendium of resumes of 158 instrument systems or experiments, of particular interest to space applications, is presented. Each resume exists in a standardized format, permitting entries for 26 administrative items and 39 scientific or engineering items. The resumes are organized into forty groups determined by the forty spacecraft with which the instruments are associated. The resumes are followed by six different cross indexes, each organized alphabetically according to one of the following catagories: instrument name, acronym, name of principal investigator, name of organization employing the principal investigator, assigned experiment number, and spacecraft name. The resumes are associated with a computerized instrument resume search and retrieval system.

  2. Design Evolution Study - Aging Options

    SciTech Connect

    P. McDaniel

    2002-04-05

    The purpose of this study is to identify options and issues for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel received for disposal at the Yucca Mountain Mined Geologic Repository. Some early shipments of commercial spent nuclear fuel to the repository may be received with high-heat-output (younger) fuel assemblies that will need to be managed to meet thermal goals for emplacement. The capability to age as much as 40,000 metric tons of heavy metal of commercial spent nuclear he1 would provide more flexibility in the design to manage this younger fuel and to decouple waste receipt and waste emplacement. The following potential aging location options are evaluated: (1) Surface aging at four locations near the North Portal; (2) Subsurface aging in the permanent emplacement drifts; and (3) Subsurface aging in a new subsurface area. The following aging container options are evaluated: (1) Complete Waste Package; (2) Stainless Steel inner liner of the waste package; (3) Dual Purpose Canisters; (4) Multi-Purpose Canisters; and (5) New disposable canister for uncanistered commercial spent nuclear fuel. Each option is compared to a ''Base Case,'' which is the expected normal waste packaging process without aging. A Value Engineering approach is used to score each option against nine technical criteria and rank the options. Open issues with each of the options and suggested future actions are also presented. Costs for aging containers and aging locations are evaluated separately. Capital costs are developed for direct costs and distributable field costs. To the extent practical, unit costs are presented. Indirect costs, operating costs, and total system life cycle costs will be evaluated outside of this study. Three recommendations for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel--subsurface, surface, and combined surface and subsurface are presented for further review in the overall design re-evaluation effort. Options that were evaluated but not recommended are: subsurface aging in a new

  3. 327 Building liquid waste handling options modification project plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, J.E.

    1998-03-28

    This report evaluates the modification options for handling radiological liquid waste (RLW) generated during decontamination and cleanout of the 327 Building. The overall objective of the 327 Facility Stabilization Project is to establish a passively safe and environmentally secure configuration of the 327 Facility. The issue of handling of RLW from the 327 Facility (assuming the 34O Facility is not available to accept the RLW) has been conceptually examined in at least two earlier engineering studies (Parsons 1997a and Hobart l997). Each study identified a similar preferred alternative that included modifying the 327 Facility RLWS handling systems to provide a truck load-out station, either within the confines of the facility or exterior to the facility. The alternatives also maximized the use of existing piping, tanks, instrumentation, controls and other features to minimize costs and physical changes. An issue discussed in each study involved the anticipated volume of the RLW stream. Estimates ranged between 113,550 and 387,500 liters in the earlier studies. During the development of the 324/327 Building Stabilization/Deactivation Project Management Plan, the lower estimate of approximately 113,550 liters was confirmed and has been adopted as the baseline for the 327 Facility RLW stream. The goal of this engineering study is to reevaluate the existing preferred alternative and select a new preferred alternative, if appropriate. Based on the new or confirmed preferred alternative, this study will also provide a conceptual design and cost estimate for required modifications to the 327 Facility to allow removal of RLWS and treatment of the RLW generated during deactivation.

  4. 48 CFR 2917.207 - Exercising options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Exercising options. 2917... AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 2917.207 Exercising options. The contracting officer must use a standardized determination and finding before exercising an option in accordance...

  5. 48 CFR 2917.207 - Exercising options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exercising options. 2917... AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 2917.207 Exercising options. The contracting officer must use a standardized determination and finding before exercising an option in accordance...

  6. 48 CFR 2917.207 - Exercising options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exercising options. 2917... AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 2917.207 Exercising options. The contracting officer must use a standardized determination and finding before exercising an option in accordance...

  7. 48 CFR 2917.207 - Exercising options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exercising options. 2917... AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 2917.207 Exercising options. The contracting officer must use a standardized determination and finding before exercising an option in accordance...

  8. 48 CFR 2917.207 - Exercising options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exercising options. 2917... AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 2917.207 Exercising options. The contracting officer must use a standardized determination and finding before exercising an option in accordance...

  9. Use of influence diagrams in gas transfer system option prioritization

    SciTech Connect

    Heger, A.S.; Garcia, M.D.

    1995-08-01

    A formal decision-analysis methodology was applied to aid the Department of Energy (DOE) in deciding which of several gas transfer system (GTS) options should be selected. The decision objectives for this case study, i.e., risk and cost, were directly derived from the DOE guidelines. Influence diagrams were used to define the structure of the decision problem and clearly delineate the flow if information. A set of performance matrices wee used in conjunction with the influence diagrams to assess and evaluate the degree to which the objectives of the case study were met. These performance measures were extracted from technical models, design and operating data, and professional judgments. The results were aggregated to provide an overall evaluation of the different design options of the gas transfer system. Consequently, the results of this analysis were used as an aid to DOE to select a viable GTS option.

  10. Dual physiological rate measurement instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Tommy G. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    The object of the invention is to provide an instrument for converting a physiological pulse rate into a corresponding linear output voltage. The instrument which accurately measures the rate of an unknown rectangular pulse wave over an extended range of values comprises a phase-locked loop including a phase comparator, a filtering network, and a voltage-controlled oscillator, arranged in cascade. The phase comparator has a first input responsive to the pulse wave and a second input responsive to the output signal of the voltage-controlled oscillator. The comparator provides a signal dependent on the difference in phase and frequency between the signals appearing on the first and second inputs. A high-input impedance amplifier accepts an output from the filtering network and provides an amplified output DC signal to a utilization device for providing a measurement of the rate of the pulse wave.

  11. Venezuelan plant completes instrument upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, H.; Garcia, C.O.

    1996-07-22

    The Lamarliquido LPG plant, offshore Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela, has received a major upgrade to its control system after 25 years of pneumatic instrumentation. The plant is now operating fully remote from a new central control room with a maximum production of 5,500 b/d, expected to go to 6,600 b/d. The phases of the project included installation and integration of four control systems: distributed control system; fire prevention, detection, and control system; refrigeration process turbocompressor control system; and emergency shutdown system. The paper describes the 1960s vintage instrumentation, the modernization objectives and phases, the distributed control system, the fire control system, gas and fire detection, the turbocompressor system, emergency shutdown system, and plant shutdown logic.

  12. Instrument platforms for thin-layer chromatography.

    PubMed

    Bernard-Savary, Pierre; Poole, Colin F

    2015-11-20

    High performance column and thin-layer chromatography are both instrumental techniques but differ in that column chromatography requires a fully integrated instrument platform with high pressure capability while for thin-layer chromatography separate devices are used for each unit operation, usually at or close to atmospheric pressure, and afford higher flexibility supporting on-line or off-line operation. The unit operations of thin-layer chromatography are defined as sample application, development and evaluation with derivatization as an optional step. The diversity of equipment for each operation contributes to the flexibility of analysis by thin-layer chromatography and supports manual, semi-automated or full-automation of the separation process. Instrument platforms are more than a convenience as they affect performance, repeatability, sample detectability, and time management. The current trend in thin-layer chromatography is to make the unit operations independent of the user so that analysts can perform other tasks while each step is performed. In addition, in thin-layer chromatography it is general practice to separate several samples simultaneously, and instrument platforms are required to accommodate this feature. In this article, we review contemporary instrumentation employed in thin-layer chromatography for sample application, development, derivatization, photodocumentation, densitometric evaluation, and hyphenation with spectroscopic detectors with an emphasis on the variety and performance of commercially available systems. Some suggestions for best practices and avoidance of common mistakes are included.

  13. Performance of portable radiation survey instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenhower, E.; Welch, L.; Wiblin, C.

    1993-12-01

    This report examines alleged and documented deficiencies in the performance and the calibration of existing portable radiation survey instruments. This report also examines a limited number of reported overexposures and excessive exposures attributed to instrumentation or calibration problems. The high failure rates in performance testing of a limited number of instruments indicate further testing is needed to demonstrate which instruments are acceptable and for what application. Further, the adequacy of calibration is not demonstrated at this time as many calibrations are performed by nonaccredited calibration laboratories. A review of the regulatory requirements and practices of the NRC and Agreement States regarding the use of existing performance standards such as ANSI N42-17A-1988 and the use of accredited calibration laboratories demonstrates that (1) the regulatory programs do not require compliance with existing industry standards; and (2) instruments are generally not required to be calibrated by accredited laboratories. Options are recommended that might encourage the use of industry performance standards and calibration techniques.

  14. Recent Technical Trend of Instrumentation and Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shida, Katsunori

    Instrumentation and measurements play a very important role for the research and development in the science and engineering fields. Recently the objectives of instrumentation have expanded to not only the industrial and scientific requirement, but also needs in all fields of social life including medical and welfare, environment, and disaster and security, etc. In recent years, intelligent and multifunctional measurements have been also studied in imitating the sensing functions of the human.

  15. Options for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minaya-Rowe, Liliana

    2008-01-01

    Between 69 percent and 90 percent of English language learners (ELLs) in middle and high schools were born in the United States and have been in U.S. schools since kindergarten still have not achieved the academic proficiency to succeed in an all-English mainstream program. Various ELL program options are available for school districts to…

  16. Exploring Higher Education Financing Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nkrumah-Young, Kofi K.; Powell, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Higher education can be financed privately, financed by governments, or shared. Given that the benefits of education accrue to the individual and the state, many governments opt for shared financing. This article examines the underpinnings of different options for financing higher education and develops a model to compare conditions to choices and…

  17. Tool for Ranking Research Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, James N.; Scott, Kelly; Smith, Harold

    2005-01-01

    Tool for Research Enhancement Decision Support (TREDS) is a computer program developed to assist managers in ranking options for research aboard the International Space Station (ISS). It could likely also be adapted to perform similar decision-support functions in industrial and academic settings. TREDS provides a ranking of the options, based on a quantifiable assessment of all the relevant programmatic decision factors of benefit, cost, and risk. The computation of the benefit for each option is based on a figure of merit (FOM) for ISS research capacity that incorporates both quantitative and qualitative inputs. Qualitative inputs are gathered and partly quantified by use of the time-tested analytical hierarchical process and used to set weighting factors in the FOM corresponding to priorities determined by the cognizant decision maker(s). Then by use of algorithms developed specifically for this application, TREDS adjusts the projected benefit for each option on the basis of levels of technical implementation, cost, and schedule risk. Based partly on Excel spreadsheets, TREDS provides screens for entering cost, benefit, and risk information. Drop-down boxes are provided for entry of qualitative information. TREDS produces graphical output in multiple formats that can be tailored by users.

  18. 77 FR 25319 - Commodity Options

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ..., CPOs, Large Traders, ECPs, and ESPs 2. SDs, MSPs, SEFs, and SDRs 3. Entities Eligible To Engage in... Recordkeeping, 76 FR 29818, May 23, 2011 (``Product Definitions NPRM''). The final rule and interpretations that... not applicable. \\7\\ Commodity Options and Agricultural Swaps, 76 FR 6095, Feb. 3, 2011. Note that...

  19. BAA instrument no. 93

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marriott, R. A.

    2006-12-01

    Instrument no. 93 has been in almost continual use for more than a hundred years. Since it left the workshop of its maker, George Calver, it has kept company with several other notable instruments and has been used by many eminent astronomers. It was added to the Association's collection in 1945.

  20. Topics in Chemical Instrumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Galen W., Ed.

    1975-01-01

    Identifies a trend in analytical chemistry toward greater use of instruments and a need for an understanding of the basic principles involved in instrumentation. This need can be fulfilled using homebuilt equipment; examples are provided in the areas of electrolytic conductance and electronic coulometry. (GS)

  1. Clinical immunoassay instrument markets

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-11-01

    The present status and future prospects of the market for clinical immunoassay instruments is discussed. The market shares for the five basic instrument types - nephelometric immunoassay, fluorescence immmunoassay, enzyme immunoassay, luminescence immunoassay, and radioimmunoassay are presented. It is noted that radioimmunoassay hold a major, but decreasing, share of the market.

  2. Affective Involvement Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemlech, Johanna K.

    1970-01-01

    The Affective Involvement Instrument (AII) describes and classifies affective involvement in the process of decision-making as it occurs during classroom activities such as role-playing or group discussions. The thirty-celled instrument behaviorizes the six processes involved in decision-making and combines them with the taxonomic levels of the…

  3. 49 CFR 572.155 - Test conditions and instrumentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... 910420-003 as shown in drawing 921022-000. (g) The pelvis accelerometers shall have the dimensions... mounted as optional instrumentation in the pelvis in triaxial configuration as shown in drawing 921022-000...) Lumbar: (i) Forces—Class 1000; (ii) Moments—Class 600; (5) Pelvis: (i) Accelerations—Class 1000;...

  4. 49 CFR 572.155 - Test conditions and instrumentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... 910420-003 as shown in drawing 921022-000. (g) The pelvis accelerometers shall have the dimensions... mounted as optional instrumentation in the pelvis in triaxial configuration as shown in drawing 921022-000...) Lumbar: (i) Forces—Class 1000; (ii) Moments—Class 600; (5) Pelvis: (i) Accelerations—Class 1000;...

  5. 49 CFR 572.155 - Test conditions and instrumentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... 910420-003 as shown in drawing 921022-000. (g) The pelvis accelerometers shall have the dimensions... mounted as optional instrumentation in the pelvis in triaxial configuration as shown in drawing 921022-000...) Lumbar: (i) Forces—Class 1000; (ii) Moments—Class 600; (5) Pelvis: (i) Accelerations—Class 1000;...

  6. 49 CFR 572.155 - Test conditions and instrumentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... 910420-003 as shown in drawing 921022-000. (g) The pelvis accelerometers shall have the dimensions... mounted as optional instrumentation in the pelvis in triaxial configuration as shown in drawing 921022-000...) Lumbar: (i) Forces—Class 1000; (ii) Moments—Class 600; (5) Pelvis: (i) Accelerations—Class 1000;...

  7. 49 CFR 572.155 - Test conditions and instrumentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... 910420-003 as shown in drawing 921022-000. (g) The pelvis accelerometers shall have the dimensions... mounted as optional instrumentation in the pelvis in triaxial configuration as shown in drawing 921022-000...) Lumbar: (i) Forces—Class 1000; (ii) Moments—Class 600; (5) Pelvis: (i) Accelerations—Class 1000;...

  8. Delayed extraction options with Tip-Edge technique.

    PubMed

    Morein, Sylvan

    2007-01-01

    Three patients are analyzed with multiple diagnostic techniques. The Tip-Edge technique is a combination of the mechanics of Begg and an improvement modification of the Edgewise bracket. It is shown to be advantageous in meeting esthetic objectives. A conservative treatment approach of non-extraction is preferred noting that extraction is an option midway through treatment if necessary.

  9. Aeronautic Instruments. Section II : Altitude Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mears, A H; Henrickson, H B; Brombacher, W G

    1923-01-01

    This report is Section two of a series of reports on aeronautic instruments (Technical Report nos. 125 to 132, inclusive). This section discusses briefly barometric altitude determinations, and describes in detail the principal types of altimeters and barographs used in aeronautics during the recent war. This is followed by a discussion of performance requirements for such instruments and an account of the methods of testing developed by the Bureau of Standards. The report concludes with a brief account of the results of recent investigations. For accurate measurements of altitude, reference must also be made to thermometer readings of atmospheric temperature, since the altitude is not fixed by atmospheric pressure alone. This matter is discussed in connection with barometric altitude determination.

  10. Treatment Options to Manage Wound Biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Curtis E.; Kennedy, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Bioburden is an accepted barrier to chronic wound healing. Defining the significance, phenotype, clinical classification, and treatment guidelines has been historically lacking of evidence and based on paradigms that do not represent the scientific or clinical reality. The Problem Chronic wound bioburden is typically abundant, polymicrobial, and extremely diverse. These microbes naturally adopt biofilm phenotypes, which are quite often viable but not culturable, thereby going undetected. The failures of culture-based detection have led to abandonment of routine bioburden evaluation and aggressive treatment or, worse, to assume bioburden is not a significant barrier. Predictably, treatment regimens to address biofilm phenotypes lagged behind our diagnostic tools and understanding. Basic/Clinical Science Advances Microbial DNA-based diagnostic tools and treatment regimens have emerged, which provide and leverage objective information, resulting in a dramatic impact on outcomes. Relevance to Clinical Care Modern medicine demands decisions based on objective evidence. The diagnostic and treatment protocols reviewed herein empower clinicians to practice modern medicine with regard to bioburden, with DNA level certainty. Conclusion Bioburden is a significant barrier to healing for all chronic wounds. Molecular diagnostics provide the first objective means of assessing wound bioburden. The accuracy and comprehensive data from such diagnostic methodologies provide clinicians with the ability to employ patient-specific treatment options, targeted to each patient's microbial wound census. Based on current outcomes data, the most effective therapeutic options are topical (TPL) antibiofilm agents (ABF) combined with TPL antibiotics (ABX). In specific patients, systemic ABX and selective biocides are also appropriate, but not exclusive of ABF combined with TPL ABX. PMID:24527291

  11. Pawnee Nation Energy Option Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Matlock, M.; Kersey, K.; Riding In, C.

    2009-07-31

    In 2003, the Pawnee Nation leadership identified the need for the tribe to comprehensively address its energy issues. During a strategic energy planning workshop a general framework was laid out and the Pawnee Nation Energy Task Force was created to work toward further development of the tribe’s energy vision. The overarching goals of the “first steps” project were to identify the most appropriate focus for its strategic energy initiatives going forward, and to provide information necessary to take the next steps in pursuit of the “best fit” energy options. Based on the request of Pawnee Nation’s Energy Task Force the research team, consisting Tribal personnel and Summit Blue Consulting, focused on a review of renewable energy resource development potential, funding sources and utility organizational along with energy savings options. Elements of the energy demand forecasting and characterization and demand side options review remained in the scope of work, but were only addressed at a high level. Description of Activities Performed Renewable Energy Resource Development Potential The research team reviewed existing data pertaining to the availability of biomass (focusing on woody biomass, agricultural biomass/bio-energy crops, and methane capture), solar, wind and hydropower resources on the Pawnee-owned lands. Using these data, combined with assumptions about costs and revenue streams, the research team performed preliminary feasibility assessments for each resource category. The research team also reviewed available funding resources and made recommendations to Pawnee Nation highlighting those resources with the greatest potential for financially-viable development, both in the near-term and over a longer time horizon. Energy Efficiency Options While this was not a major focus of the project, the research team highlighted common strategies for reducing energy use in buildings. The team also discussed the benefits of adopting a building energy code and

  12. The DKIST Instrumentation Suite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woeger, Friedrich

    2016-05-01

    The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope with its four meter diameter aperture will be the largest telescope in the world for solar observations when it is commissioned in the year 2019. In order to harness its scientific potential immediately, DKIST will integrate five instruments that each will provide unique functionality to measure properties of the solar atmosphere at unprecedented spatial resolution.In this paper we discuss the unique capabilities in the DKIST instrument suite that consists of the Visible Broadband Imager (VBI), the Visible Spectro-Polarimeter (ViSP), the Visible Tunable Filter (VTF), the Diffraction-Limited Near-Infrared Spectro-Polarimeter (DL-NIRSP), and the Cryogenic Near-Infrared Spectro-Polarimeter (Cryo-NIRSP).In addition, we will explain the facility's approach to supporting high spatial resolution data acquisition with multiple instruments simultaneously by means of the Facility Instrument Distribution Optics. This system of wavelength separating and interchangeable beamsplitters will enable a variety of different ways to optically configure the light beam to the instruments. This approach ensures that the DKIST instruments can use their individual advantages in a multitude of different observing scenarios. The DKIST instrumentation suite will enable crucial new insights into complex physical processes that occur on spatial scales that are smaller than any solar structure observed in the past.

  13. Remote instrument telemaintenance.

    PubMed

    Laugier, A; Allahwerdi, N; Baudin, J; Gaffney, P; Grimson, W; Groth, T; Schilders, L

    1996-07-01

    In the past decade, great technological progress has been made in telemaintenance of mainframe and mini computers. As hardware technology is now available at an acceptable cost, computer aided trouble-shooting can be adapted to laboratory instrumentation in order to significantly improve repair time, avoid instrument downtime by taking advantage of predictive methods, and provide general diagnostic assistance. Depending on the size of the instrument, the telemaintenance facility can be dedicated to a single instrument or alternatively a telemaintenance server can manage multiple distributed small instruments through a Local Area Network. As complex failures can occur, the local diagnosis capabilities may be exceeded and automatic dialing for connection to computerized Remote Maintenance Centers is needed. The main advantages of such a centre, as compared to local diagnosis systems, are the increased access to more information and experience of failures from instrument installations, and consequently the provision of training data updates for Artificial Neural Networks and Knowledge Based Systems in general. When an abnormal situation is detected or anticipated by a diagnosis module, an automatic alert is given to the user, local diagnosis is activated, and for simple solutions, instructions are given to the operator. In the last resort, a human expert can be alerted who, with remote control tools, can attend to the failures. For both local and remote trouble-shooting, the data provided by the instrument and connected workstation is of paramount importance for the efficiency and accuracy of the diagnosis. Equally, the importance of standardization of telemaintenance communication protocols is addressed.

  14. Option Pricing Formulas Based on a Non-Gaussian Stock Price Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borland, Lisa

    2002-08-01

    Options are financial instruments that depend on the underlying stock. We explain their non-Gaussian fluctuations using the nonextensive thermodynamics parameter q. A generalized form of the Black-Scholes (BS) partial differential equation and some closed-form solutions are obtained. The standard BS equation (q=1) which is used by economists to calculate option prices requires multiple values of the stock volatility (known as the volatility smile). Using q=1.5 which well models the empirical distribution of returns, we get a good description of option prices using a single volatility.

  15. Managing hydroclimatological risk to water supply with option contracts and reservoir index insurance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Casey; Carriquiry, Miguel

    2007-11-01

    This paper explores the performance of a system of economic instruments designed to facilitate the reduction of hydroclimatologic variability-induced impacts on stakeholders of shared water supply. The system is composed of bulk water option contracts between urban water suppliers and agricultural users and insurance indexed on reservoir inflows. The insurance is designed to cover the financial needs of the water supplier in situations where the option is likely to be exercised. Insurance provides the irregularly needed funds for exercising the water options. The combined option contract - reservoir index insurance system creates risk sharing between sectors that is currently lacking in many shared water situations. Contracts are designed for a shared agriculture - urban water system in Metro Manila, Philippines, using optimization and Monte Carlo analysis. Observed reservoir inflows are used to simulate contract performance. Results indicate the option - insurance design effectively smooths water supply costs of hydrologic variability for both agriculture and urban water.

  16. Mass spectrometers: instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooks, R. G.; Hoke, S. H., II; Morand, K. L.; Lammert, S. A.

    1992-09-01

    Developments in mass spectrometry instrumentation over the past three years are reviewed. The subject is characterized by an enormous diversity of designs, a high degree of competition between different laboratories working with either different or similar techniques and by extremely rapid progress in improving analytical performance. Instruments can be grouped into genealogical charts based on their physical and conceptual interrelationships. This is illustrated using mass analyzers of different types. The time course of development of particular instrumental concepts is illustrated in terms of the s-curves typical of cell growth. Examples are given of instruments which are at the exponential, linear and mature growth stages. The prime examples used are respectively: (i) hybrid instruments designed to study reactive collisions of ions with surfaces: (ii) the Paul ion trap; and (iii) the triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. In the area of ion/surface collisions, reactive collisions such as hydrogen radical abstraction from the surface by the impinging ion are studied. They are shown to depend upon the chemical nature of the surface through the use of experiments which utilize self-assembled monolayers as surfaces. The internal energy deposited during surface-induced dissociation upon collision with different surfaces in a BEEQ instrument is also discussed. Attention is also given to a second area of emerging instrumentation, namely technology which allows mass spectrometers to be used for on-line monitoring of fluid streams. A summary of recent improvements in the performance of the rapidly developing quadrupole ion trap instrument illustrates this stage of instrument development. Improvements in resolution and mass range and their application to the characterization of biomolecules are described. The interaction of theory with experiment is illustrated through the role of simulations of ion motion in the ion trap. It is emphasized that mature instruments play a

  17. Instrument Attitude Precision Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juang, Jer-Nan

    2004-01-01

    A novel approach is presented in this paper to analyze attitude precision and control for an instrument gimbaled to a spacecraft subject to an internal disturbance caused by a moving component inside the instrument. Nonlinear differential equations of motion for some sample cases are derived and solved analytically to gain insight into the influence of the disturbance on the attitude pointing error. A simple control law is developed to eliminate the instrument pointing error caused by the internal disturbance. Several cases are presented to demonstrate and verify the concept presented in this paper.

  18. Aircraft Speed Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beij, K Hilding

    1933-01-01

    This report presents a concise survey of the measurement of air speed and ground speed on board aircraft. Special attention is paid to the pitot-static air-speed meter which is the standard in the United States for airplanes. Air-speed meters of the rotating vane type are also discussed in considerable detail on account of their value as flight test instruments and as service instruments for airships. Methods of ground-speed measurement are treated briefly, with reference to the more important instruments. A bibliography on air-speed measurement concludes the report.

  19. Writing Instrument Profiles for Mastery of Instrumental Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Daniel; Fernandez, Jorge; Nalliah, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Because of the rapidly changing nature of chemical instrumentation, students must be trained in how to learn and understand new instruments. Toward this end, students are asked to create small instrument manuals, or instrument profiles, for the major pieces of equipment studied during an instrumental analysis course. This writing-intensive process…

  20. Managing Nuclear Waste: Options Considered

    SciTech Connect

    DOE

    2002-05-02

    Starting in the 1950s, U.S. scientists began to research ways to manage highly radioactive materials accumulating at power plants and other sites nationwide. Long-term surface storage of these materials poses significant potential health, safety, and environmental risks. Scientists studied a broad range of options for managing spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The options included leaving it where it is, disposing of it in various ways, and making it safer through advanced technologies. International scientific consensus holds that these materials should eventually be disposed of deep underground in what is called a geologic repository. In a recent special report, the National Academy of Sciences summarized the various studies and emphasized that geologic disposal is ultimately necessary.

  1. Wastewater treatment plant cogeneration options

    SciTech Connect

    Stringfield, J.G.

    1995-12-31

    This paper reviews municipal sewage cogeneration and digester gas utilization options available to wastewater treatment plants, and will focus on utilizing the digester gas in combustion turbines and engine-generator systems. Defining the digestion and gas generation process is crucial to understanding the best gas utilization system. In municipal wastewater treatment plants biosolids (sludge) reduction is accomplished using aerobic or anaerobic digestion. The basic process of treating sewage solids with digestion is not new and has been practiced as far back as the nineteenth century. High energy usage consumed by aerobic blow systems supplying air to the process and the potential ``free`` energy generated by anaerobic digesters sometimes sways designers to select anaerobic over aerobic digestion. The following areas will be covered in this paper: gas utilization and cogeneration; definition of digestion process; sizing the cogeneration system and reviewing the systems components; emissions requirements and options; and capital, and O and M cost analysis.

  2. Emerging Options for Emergency Contraception

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, Atsuko; Hagopian, Laura; Linden, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Emergency post-coital contraception (EC) is an effective method of preventing pregnancy when used appropriately. EC has been available since the 1970s, and its availability and use have become widespread. Options for EC are broad and include the copper intrauterine device (IUD) and emergency contraceptive pills such as levonorgestrel, ulipristal acetate, combined oral contraceptive pills (Yuzpe method), and less commonly, mifepristone. Some options are available over-the-counter, while others require provider prescription or placement. There are no absolute contraindications to the use of emergency contraceptive pills, with the exception of ulipristal acetate and mifepristone. This article reviews the mechanisms of action, efficacy, safety, side effects, clinical considerations, and patient preferences with respect to EC usage. The decision of which regimen to use is influenced by local availability, cost, and patient preference. PMID:24453516

  3. Depleted uranium disposal options evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.; Otis, M.D.

    1994-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, has chartered a study to evaluate alternative management strategies for depleted uranium (DU) currently stored throughout the DOE complex. Historically, DU has been maintained as a strategic resource because of uses for DU metal and potential uses for further enrichment or for uranium oxide as breeder reactor blanket fuel. This study has focused on evaluating the disposal options for DU if it were considered a waste. This report is in no way declaring these DU reserves a ``waste,`` but is intended to provide baseline data for comparison with other management options for use of DU. To PICS considered in this report include: Retrievable disposal; permanent disposal; health hazards; radiation toxicity and chemical toxicity.

  4. Development of the emergency physician job satisfaction measurement instrument.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, S; Streiner, D; Hahn, E; Shannon, S

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a valid and reliable instrument to measure the job satisfaction of physicians practicing emergency medicine. A prospective survey involving four separate stages (an item evaluation and reduction stage, a factor analysis stage, a construct validity stage, and a reliability stage) was distributed in Canada to full-time emergency physicians. Three separate survey instruments were administered (an initial draft instrument with 228 items, a pilot instrument with 142 items, and the final instrument with 79 items). Construct validity of the final instrument was tested by evaluating the correlation between physician scores on the instrument, and scores on two instruments measuring the same construct, and three measuring different but related constructs. A draft instrument with 228 items and six hypothetical domains was tested on 61 physicians. Evaluation for frequency endorsement, redundancy, and homogeneity reduced the item pool to 157. The remaining 157 items were used as a pilot instrument and tested on 223 physicians. Factor analysis eliminated 66 items from the pilot instrument, creating a final instrument with 79 items, 11 factors, and six domains. Cronbach's coefficient alpha for the final instrument domains is 0.81, and all domain-total correlations are greater than 0.4. All correlations between the final instrument and the construct validity instruments were statistically significant (P < .001), but not so high that they appeared to be measuring the same thing. Correlations between instruments measuring the same construct were higher than those measuring related but different constructs. Correlations between the final instrument and the CES-D scale, emotional exhaustion, and depersonalization subscales of the Maslach Burnout Inventory were negative. A test-retest reliability study on 42 physicians showed Pearson's correlation coefficients for individual domains were all greater than 0.7 and greater than 0.8 for the final

  5. Fertility options in transgender people.

    PubMed

    De Roo, Chloë; Tilleman, Kelly; T'Sjoen, Guy; De Sutter, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Hormonal and surgical treatments for transgender people have a devastating effect on the possibility for these patients to reproduce. Additionally, transgender people tend to start sex reassignment treatment at a young age, when reproductive wishes are not yet clearly defined nor fulfilled. The most recent Standards of Care of the World Professional Association for Transgender Health recommend clearly informing patients regarding their future reproductive options prior to initiation of treatment. This review gives an overview of the current knowledge and state-of-the-art techniques in the field of fertility preservation for transgender people. Where genital reconstructive surgery definitely results in sterility, hormone therapy on the other hand also has an important, but partially reversible impact on fertility. The current fertility preservation options for trans men are embryo cryopreservation, oocyte cryopreservation and ovarian tissue cryopreservation. For trans women, sperm cryopreservation, surgical sperm extraction and testicular tissue cryopreservation are possible. Although certain fertility preservation techniques could be applicable in a standardized manner based on clear biological criteria, the technique that eventually will be performed should be the preferred choice of the patient after extended explanation of all possible options.

  6. Low cost instrumentation amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturman, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    Amplifier can be used for many applications requiring high input impedance and common mode rejection, low drift, and gain accuracy on order of one percent. Performance of inexpensive amplifier approaches that of some commercial instrumentation amplifiers in many specifications.

  7. Hetdex: Virus Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hanshin; Hill, G. J.; DePoy, D. L.; Tuttle, S.; Marshall, J. L.; Vattiat, B. L.; Prochaska, T.; Chonis, T. S.; Allen, R.; HETDEX Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The Visible Integral-field-unit Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument is made up of 150+ individually compact and identical spectrographs, each fed by a fiber integral-field unit. The instrument provides integral field spectroscopy at wavelengths between 350nm and 550nm of over 33,600 spatial elements per observation, each 1.8 sq. arcsec on the sky, at R 700. The instrument will be fed by a new wide-field corrector (WFC) of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) with increased science field of view as large as 22arcmin diameter and telescope aperture of 10m. This will enable the HETDEX, a large area blind survey of Lyman-alpha emitting galaxies at redshift z < 3.5. The status of VIRUS instrument construction is summarized.

  8. Cardiovascular instrumentation for spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schappell, R. T.; Polhemus, J. T.; Ganiaris, N. J.

    1976-01-01

    The observation mechanisms dealing with pressure, flow, morphology, temperature, etc. are discussed. The approach taken in the performance of this study was to (1) review ground and space-flight data on cardiovascular function, including earlier related ground-based and space-flight animal studies, Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, and recent bed-rest studies, (2) review cardiovascular measurement parameters required to assess individual performance and physiological alternations during space flight, (3) perform an instrumentation survey including a literature search as well as personal contact with the applicable investigators, (4) assess instrumentation applicability with respect to the established criteria, and (5) recommend future research and development activity. It is concluded that, for the most part, the required instrumentation technology is available but that mission-peculiar criteria will require modifications to adapt the applicable instrumentation to a space-flight configuration.

  9. Fiber Optics Instrumentation Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Patrick Hon Man; Parker, Allen R., Jr.; Richards, W. Lance

    2010-01-01

    This is a general presentation of fiber optics instrumentation development work being conducted at NASA Dryden for the past 10 years and recent achievements in the field of fiber optics strain sensors.

  10. CALIPSO Instrument Operational

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-09-18

    CALIPSO Instrument Operational Thursday, September 11, 2014 The CALIPSO payload is back in data acquisition mode as of Wednesday, September 17, 2014.  CALIPSO data processing has returned to a nominal state, and...

  11. Instrumentation for Materials Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claassen, Richard S.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses how sophisticated instrumentation techniques yield practical results in three typical materials problems: fracture analysis, joining, and compatibility. Describes techniques such as scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and Auger spectroscopy. (MLH)

  12. AIR Instrument Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, I. W.; Wilson, J. W.; Maiden, D. L.; Goldhagen, P.; Shinn, J. L.

    2003-01-01

    The large number of radiation types composing the atmospheric radiation requires a complicated combination of instrument types to fully characterize the environment. A completely satisfactory combination has not as yet been flown and would require a large capital outlay to develop. In that the funds of the current project were limited to essential integration costs, an international collaboration was formed with partners from six countries and fourteen different institutions with their own financial support for their participation. Instruments were chosen to cover sensitivity to all radiation types with enough differential sensitivity to separate individual components. Some instruments were chosen as important to specify the physical field component and other instruments were chosen on the basis that they could be useful in dosimetric evaluation. In the present paper we will discuss the final experimental flight package for the ER-2 flight campaign.

  13. NPP: The Five Instruments

    NASA Video Gallery

    The NPP satellite has 5 instruments on board: VIIRS, CERES, CrIS, ATMS, and OMPS. Each one will deliver a specific set of data helping weather prediction and climate studies. This video is a quick ...

  14. Aeronautic Instruments. Section III : Aircraft Speed Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Franklin L; Stearns, H O

    1923-01-01

    Part 1 contains a discussion and description of the various types of air speed measuring instruments. The authors then give general specifications and performance requirements with the results of tests on air speed indicators at the Bureau of Standards. Part 2 reports methods and laboratory apparatus used at the Bureau of Standards to make static tests. Methods are also given of combining wind tunnel tests with static tests. Consideration is also given to free flight tests. Part 3 discusses the problem of finding suitable methods for the purpose of measuring the speed of aircraft relative to the ground.

  15. VIRUS instrument collimator assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Jennifer L.; DePoy, Darren L.; Prochaska, Travis; Allen, Richard D.; Williams, Patrick; Rheault, Jean-Philippe; Li, Ting; Nagasawa, Daniel Q.; Akers, Christopher; Baker, David; Boster, Emily; Campbell, Caitlin; Cook, Erika; Elder, Alison; Gary, Alex; Glover, Joseph; James, Michael; Martin, Emily; Meador, Will; Mondrik, Nicholas; Rodriguez-Patino, Marisela; Villanueva, Steven; Hill, Gary J.; Tuttle, Sarah; Vattiat, Brian; Lee, Hanshin; Chonis, Taylor S.; Dalton, Gavin B.; Tacon, Mike

    2014-07-01

    The Visual Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument is a baseline array 150 identical fiber fed optical spectrographs designed to support observations for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). The collimator subassemblies of the instrument have been assembled in a production line and are now complete. Here we review the design choices and assembly practices used to produce a suite of identical low-cost spectrographs in a timely fashion using primarily unskilled labor.

  16. Modeling of Musical Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bader, Rolf; Hansen, Uwe

    Signal processing techniques in acoustics address many concerns. Included are such things as wave propagation variables, amplitude considerations, spectral content, wavelength, and phase. Phase is primarily of concern when waves interact with each other, as well as with a medium, and the imposition of boundary conditions leads to normal mode vibrations. Such conditions are prevalent in all musical instruments, and thus relevant signal processing techniques are essential to both understanding and modeling the structure of musical instruments and the sound radiated.

  17. Instrumentation in Arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Barp, Eric A; Erickson, John G; Reese, Eric R

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, arthroscopic procedures of the foot and ankle have seen a significant increase in both indications and popularity. Furthermore, technological advances in video quality, fluid management, and other arthroscopy-specific instruments continue to make arthroscopic procedures more effective with reproducible outcomes. As surgeons continue to use this approach, it is important that they have a complete understanding of the instrumentation available to them, including their indications and limitations. PMID:27599434

  18. Comparing Future Options for Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Brent

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyzes the "value proposition" for government-funded human space flight, a vexing question that persistently dogs efforts to justify its $10(exp 10)/year expense in the U.S. The original Mercury/Gemini/Apollo value proposition is not valid today. Neither was it the value proposition actually promoted by von Braun, which the post-Apollo 80% of human space flight history has persistently attempted to fulfill. Divergent potential objectives for human space flight are captured in four strategic options - Explore Mars; accelerate Space Passenger Travel; enable Space Power for Earth; and Settle the Moon - which are then analyzed for their Purpose, societal Myth, Legacy benefits, core Needs, and result as measured by the number and type of humans they would fly in space. This simple framework is proposed as a way to support productive dialogue with public and other stakeholders, to determine a sustainable value proposition for human space flight.

  19. Analysis of Ares 1 Ascent Navigation Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, Lee; Tao, Yee-Chee; Hall, Robert; Chuang, Jason; Whorton, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The paper documents a collaborative analysis of ascent Navigation options for the Ares 1 launch vehicle by the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and the C. S. Draper Laboratory. The objective of the work was the development of a Navigation concept and supporting requirements which meet the Ares 1 accuracy specification in a manner which is straightforward, reliable, and cost effective. Six primary Navigation architectures were considered. In each case analysis was performed to determine under what conditions the required accuracy at second stage cutoff could be achieved. Those architectures which met the accuracy requirements were then assessed in terms of cost, complexity, and reliability to determine a baseline Navigation approach and the primary supporting requirements.

  20. Medical instrument data exchange.

    PubMed

    Gumudavelli, Suman; McKneely, Paul K; Thongpithoonrat, Pongnarin; Gurkan, D; Chapman, Frank M

    2008-01-01

    Advances in medical devices and health care has been phenomenal during the recent years. Although medical device manufacturers have been improving their instruments, network connection of these instruments still rely on proprietary technologies. Even if the interface has been provided by the manufacturer (e.g., RS-232, USB, or Ethernet coupled with a proprietary API), there is no widely-accepted uniform data model to access data of various bedside instruments. There is a need for a common standard which allows for internetworking with the medical devices from different manufacturers. ISO/IEEE 11073 (X73) is a standard attempting to unify the interfaces of all medical devices. X73 defines a client access mechanism that would be implemented into the communication controllers (residing between an instrument and the network) in order to access/network patient data. On the other hand, MediCAN technology suite has been demonstrated with various medical instruments to achieve interfacing and networking with a similar goal in its open standardization approach. However, it provides a more generic definition for medical data to achieve flexibility for networking and client access mechanisms. In this paper, a comparison between the data model of X73 and MediCAN will be presented to encourage interoperability demonstrations of medical instruments. PMID:19163033

  1. Collaboration between 3- and 4-Year-Olds in Self-Initiated Play on Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Susan

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on a study of collaborative music-making on instruments among 3- and 4-year-old children. An area equipped with musical instruments was provided as a free-choice play option in an early childhood setting and a fixed camera recorded the children's play continuously during a number of visits. From the total 17 h of data five…

  2. Lunar Cube Transfer Trajectory Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David C.; Dichman, Don; Clark, Pamela; Haapala, Amanda; Howell, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    Contingent upon the modification of an initial condition of the injected or deployed orbit. Additionally, these designs can be restricted by the selection of the Cubesat subsystem design such as propulsion or communication. Nonetheless, many trajectory options can be designed with have a wide range of transfer durations, fuel requirements, and final destinations. Our investigation of potential trajectories highlights several design options including deployment into low Earth orbit (LEO), geostationary transfer orbits (GTO), and higher energy direct lunar transfer orbits. In addition to direct transfer options from these initial orbits, we also investigate the use of longer duration Earth-Moon dynamical systems. For missions with an intended lunar orbit, much of the design process is spent optimizing a ballistic capture while other science locations such as Sun-Earth libration or heliocentric orbits may simply require a reduced Delta-V imparted at a convenient location along the trajectory. In this article we examine several design options that meet the above limited deployment and subsystem drivers. We study ways that both impulsive and low-thrust Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) engines can be used to place the Cubesat first into a highly eccentric Earth orbit, enter the Moon's Sphere of Influence, and finally achieve a highly eccentric lunar orbit. We show that such low-thrust transfers are feasible with a realistic micro-thruster model, assuming that the Cubesat can generate sufficient power for the SEP. Two examples are shown here: (1) A Cubestat injected by Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) then employing low thrust; and (2) a CubSat deployed in a GTO, then employing impulsive maneuvers. For the EM-1 injected initial design, we increase the EM-1 targeted lunar flyby distance to reduce the energy of the lunar flyby to match that of a typical lMoon system heteroclinic manifold. Figure 1 presents an option that encompasses the similar dynamics as that of the ARTEMIS

  3. Learning Object Repositories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Rosemary

    2007-01-01

    This chapter looks at the development and nature of learning objects, meta-tagging standards and taxonomies, learning object repositories, learning object repository characteristics, and types of learning object repositories, with type examples. (Contains 1 table.)

  4. The Discrimination of Object Names and Object Sounds in Children with Autism: A Procedure for Teaching Verbal Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eikeseth, Svein; Hayward, Diane W.

    2009-01-01

    We assessed whether 2 preschoolers with autism learned to discriminate between the sounds of musical instruments more rapidly than the spoken names of the instruments. After the children learned the sound-object relations more rapidly than the name-object relations, we then evaluated a prompt-delay procedure for transferring stimulus control from…

  5. Object locating system

    DOEpatents

    Novak, J.L.; Petterson, B.

    1998-06-09

    A sensing system locates an object by sensing the object`s effect on electric fields. The object`s effect on the mutual capacitance of electrode pairs varies according to the distance between the object and the electrodes. A single electrode pair can sense the distance from the object to the electrodes. Multiple electrode pairs can more precisely locate the object in one or more dimensions. 12 figs.

  6. Aeronautic Instruments. Section V : Power Plant Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, G E; Sylvander, R C; Mueller, E F; Wilhelm, R M; Eaton, H N; Warner, John A C

    1923-01-01

    Part 1 gives a general discussion of the uses, principles, construction, and operation of airplane tachometers. Detailed description of all available instruments, both foreign and domestic, are given. Part 2 describes methods of tests and effect of various conditions encountered in airplane flight such as change of temperature, vibration, tilting, and reduced air pressure. Part 3 describes the principal types of distance reading thermometers for aircraft engines, including an explanation of the physical principles involved in the functioning of the instruments and proper filling of the bulbs. Performance requirements and testing methods are given and a discussion of the source of error and results of tests. Part 4 gives methods of tests and calibration, also requirements of gauges of this type for the pressure measurement of the air pressure in gasoline tanks and the engine oil pressure on airplanes. Part 5 describes two types of gasoline gauges, the float type and the pressure type. Methods of testing and calibrating gasoline depth gauges are given. The Schroeder, R. A. E., and the Mark II flowmeters are described.

  7. Mega-precovery and data mining of near-Earth asteroids and other Solar System objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, M.; Vaduvescu, O.; Char, F.; Curelaru, L.; Euronear Team

    2014-07-01

    The vast collection of CCD images and photographic plate archives available from the world-wide archives and telescopes is still insufficiently exploited. Within the EURONEAR project we designed two data mining software with the purpose to search very large collections of archives for images which serendipitously include known asteroids or comets in their field, with the main aims to extend the arc and improve the orbits. In this sense, ''Precovery'' (published in 2008, aiming to search all known NEAs in few archives via IMCCE's SkyBoT server) and ''Mega-Precovery'' (published in 2010, querying the IMCCE's Miriade server) were made available to the community via the EURONEAR website (euronear.imcce.fr). Briefly, Mega-Precovery aims to search one or a few known asteroids or comets in a mega-collection including millions of images from some of the largest observatory archives: ESO (15 instruments served by ESO Archive including VLT), NVO (8 instruments served by U.S. NVO Archive), CADC (11 instruments, including HST and Gemini), plus other important instrument archives: SDSS, CFHTLS, INT-WFC, Subaru-SuprimeCam and AAT-WFI, adding together 39 instruments and 4.3 million images (Mar 2014), and our Mega-Archive is growing. Here we present some of the most important results obtained with our data-mining software and some new planned search options of Mega-Precovery. Particularly, the following capabilities will be added soon: the ING archive (all imaging cameras) will be included and new search options will be made available (such as query by orbital elements and by observations) to be able to target new Solar System objects such as Virtual Impactors, bolides, planetary satellites, TNOs (besides the comets added recently). In order to better characterize the archives, we introduce the ''AOmegaA'' factor (archival etendue) proportional to the AOmega (etendue) and the number of images in an archive. With the aim to enlarge the Mega-Archive database, we invite the

  8. Instrumenting the Intelligence Analysis Process

    SciTech Connect

    Hampson, Ernest; Cowley, Paula J.

    2005-05-02

    The Advanced Research and Development Activity initiated the Novel Intelligence from Massive Data (NIMD) program to develop advanced analytic technologies and methodologies. In order to support this objective, researchers and developers need to understand what analysts do and how they do it. In the past, this knowledge generally was acquired through subjective feedback from analysts. NIMD established the innovative Glass Box Analysis (GBA) Project to instrument a live intelligence mission and unobtrusively capture and objectively study the analysis process. Instrumenting the analysis process requires tailor-made software hooks that grab data from a myriad of disparate application operations and feed into a complex relational database and hierarchical file store to collect, store, retrieve, and distribute analytic data in a manner that maximizes researchers’ understanding. A key to success is determining the correct data to collect and aggregate low-level data into meaningful analytic events. This paper will examine how the GBA team solved some of these challenges, continues to address others, and supports a growing user community in establishing their own GBA environments and/or studying the data generated by GBA analysts working in the Glass Box.

  9. Object locating system

    DOEpatents

    Novak, James L.; Petterson, Ben

    1998-06-09

    A sensing system locates an object by sensing the object's effect on electric fields. The object's effect on the mutual capacitance of electrode pairs varies according to the distance between the object and the electrodes. A single electrode pair can sense the distance from the object to the electrodes. Multiple electrode pairs can more precisely locate the object in one or more dimensions.

  10. How To Control Color Appearance With Instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Margaret E.

    1980-05-01

    Colorimetry, as defined by the International Commission on Illumination, is the measurement of colors, made possible by the properties of the eye and based on a set of conventions. Instrumentation for measuring object color, therefore, must be based on a human observer. The intent is to design an instrument that in effect responds as a person would, so that research development, production control and quality control areas have some means of assessing the acceptability of the appearance of a product. Investigations of a human observer's psychological response to color, and the manner in which visual observations are made, give the instrument designer and manufacturer data necessary to answer two questions: a. How can we put numbers (instrument read-out) on a perception that occurs in the brain of the observer? b. What can we learn from examination of a visual observing situation that will guide us in our design of an instrumental simulation of this situation? Involving as it does our own daily, almost unconscious, practice of making judgments concerning the things we see, the design and manufacture of color measurement instruments is an exceedingly interesting field. The advances being made concurrently today in research concerning human color vision and in optical and electronic technology will make possible increasingly useful instrumentation for quality control of product color.

  11. Advances in Miniaturized Instruments for Genomics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, a lot of demonstrations of the miniaturized instruments were reported for genomic applications. They provided the advantages of miniaturization, automation, sensitivity, and specificity for the development of point-of-care diagnostics. The aim of this paper is to report on recent developments on miniaturized instruments for genomic applications. Based on the mature development of microfabrication, microfluidic systems have been demonstrated for various genomic detections. Since one of the objectives of miniaturized instruments is for the development of point-of-care device, impedimetric detection is found to be a promising technique for this purpose. An in-depth discussion of the impedimetric circuits and systems will be included to provide total consideration of the miniaturized instruments and their potential application towards real-time portable imaging in the “-omics” era. The current excellent demonstrations suggest a solid foundation for the development of practical and widespread point-of-care genomic diagnostic devices. PMID:25114919

  12. Laser light scattering instrument advanced technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, J. F.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this advanced technology development (ATD) project has been to provide sturdy, miniaturized laser light scattering (LLS) instrumentation for use in microgravity experiments. To do this, we assessed user requirements, explored the capabilities of existing and prospective laser light scattering hardware, and both coordinated and participated in the hardware and software advances needed for a flight hardware instrument. We have successfully breadboarded and evaluated an engineering version of a single-angle glove-box instrument which uses solid state detectors and lasers, along with fiber optics, for beam delivery and detection. Additionally, we have provided the specifications and written verification procedures necessary for procuring a miniature multi-angle LLS instrument which will be used by the flight hardware project which resulted from this work and from this project's interaction with the laser light scattering community.

  13. Evaluation of Dairy Effluent Management Options Using Multiple Criteria Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajkowicz, Stefan A.; Wheeler, Sarah A.

    2008-04-01

    This article describes how options for managing dairy effluent on the Lower Murray River in South Australia were evaluated using multiple criteria analysis (MCA). Multiple criteria analysis is a framework for combining multiple environmental, social, and economic objectives in policy decisions. At the time of the study, dairy irrigation in the region was based on flood irrigation which involved returning effluent to the river. The returned water contained nutrients, salts, and microbial contaminants leading to environmental, human health, and tourism impacts. In this study MCA was used to evaluate 11 options against 6 criteria for managing dairy effluent problems. Of the 11 options, the MCA model selected partial rehabilitation of dairy paddocks with the conversion of remaining land to other agriculture. Soon after, the South Australian Government adopted this course of action and is now providing incentives for dairy farmers in the region to upgrade irrigation infrastructure and/or enter alternative industries.

  14. Evaluation of dairy effluent management options using multiple criteria analysis.

    PubMed

    Hajkowicz, Stefan A; Wheeler, Sarah A

    2008-04-01

    This article describes how options for managing dairy effluent on the Lower Murray River in South Australia were evaluated using multiple criteria analysis (MCA). Multiple criteria analysis is a framework for combining multiple environmental, social, and economic objectives in policy decisions. At the time of the study, dairy irrigation in the region was based on flood irrigation which involved returning effluent to the river. The returned water contained nutrients, salts, and microbial contaminants leading to environmental, human health, and tourism impacts. In this study MCA was used to evaluate 11 options against 6 criteria for managing dairy effluent problems. Of the 11 options, the MCA model selected partial rehabilitation of dairy paddocks with the conversion of remaining land to other agriculture. Soon after, the South Australian Government adopted this course of action and is now providing incentives for dairy farmers in the region to upgrade irrigation infrastructure and/or enter alternative industries.

  15. A validation study of a new instrument for low cost bite force measurement.

    PubMed

    Testa, Marco; Di Marco, Anna; Pertusio, Raffaele; Van Roy, Peter; Cattrysse, Erik; Roatta, Silvestro

    2016-10-01

    Quantitative assessment of force in masticatory muscles is not a routine clinical test, probably due to the lack of an "easy-to-use" device. Aim of this study is (1) to present a low cost bite force instrument located in a custom-made housing, designed to guarantee a comfortable and effective bite action, (2) to evaluate its mechanical characteristics, in order to implement it in clinical settings and in experimental setups. Linearity, repeatability and adaptation over time were assessed on a set of four different sensors in bare and housed condition. Application of the housing to the transducer may appreciably alter the transducer's response. Calibration of the housed transducer is thus necessary in order to correctly record real bite force. This solution may represent a low cost and reliable option for biting force measurement and objective assessment of individual force control in the scientific and clinical setting.

  16. Current Comparison of Advanced Fuel Cycle Options

    SciTech Connect

    Steven J. Piet; B. W. Dixon; A. Goldmann; R. N. Hill; J. J. Jacobson; G. E. Matthern; J. D. Smith; A. M. Yacout

    2006-03-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle includes mining, enrichment, nuclear power plants, recycling (if done), and residual waste disposition. The U.S. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) has four program objectives to guide research on how best to glue these pieces together, as follows: waste management, proliferation resistance, energy recovery, and systematic management/economics/safety. We have developed a comprehensive set of metrics to evaluate fuel cycle options against the four program objectives. The current list of metrics is long-term heat, long-term dose, radiotoxicity and weapons usable material. This paper describes the current metrics and initial results from comparisons made using these metrics. The data presented were developed using a combination of “static” calculations and a system dynamic model, DYMOND. In many cases, we examine the same issue both dynamically and statically to determine the robustness of the observations. All analyses are for the U.S. reactor fleet. This work aims to clarify many of the issues being discussed within the AFCI program, including Inert Matrix Fuel (IMF) versus Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel, single-pass versus multi-pass recycling, thermal versus fast reactors, and the value of separating cesium and strontium. The results from a series of dynamic simulations evaluating these options are included in this report. The model interface includes a few “control knobs” for flying or piloting the fuel cycle system into the future. The results from the simulations show that the future is dark (uncertain) and that the system is sluggish with slow time response times to changes (i.e., what types of reactors are built, what types of fuels are used, and the capacity of separation and fabrication plants). Piloting responsibilities are distributed among utilities, government, and regulators, compounding the challenge of making the entire system work and respond to changing circumstances. We identify four approaches that would increase our

  17. Pawnee Nation Energy Option Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Matlock, M.; Kersey, K.; Riding In, C.

    2009-07-21

    Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma Energy Option Analyses In 2003, the Pawnee Nation leadership identified the need for the tribe to comprehensively address its energy issues. During a strategic energy planning workshop a general framework was laid out and the Pawnee Nation Energy Task Force was created to work toward further development of the tribe’s energy vision. The overarching goals of the “first steps” project were to identify the most appropriate focus for its strategic energy initiatives going forward, and to provide information necessary to take the next steps in pursuit of the “best fit” energy options. Description of Activities Performed The research team reviewed existing data pertaining to the availability of biomass (focusing on woody biomass, agricultural biomass/bio-energy crops, and methane capture), solar, wind and hydropower resources on the Pawnee-owned lands. Using these data, combined with assumptions about costs and revenue streams, the research team performed preliminary feasibility assessments for each resource category. The research team also reviewed available funding resources and made recommendations to Pawnee Nation highlighting those resources with the greatest potential for financially-viable development, both in the near-term and over a longer time horizon. Findings and Recommendations Due to a lack of financial incentives for renewable energy, particularly at the state level, combined mediocre renewable energy resources, renewable energy development opportunities are limited for Pawnee Nation. However, near-term potential exists for development of solar hot water at the gym, and an exterior wood-fired boiler system at the tribe’s main administrative building. Pawnee Nation should also explore options for developing LFGTE resources in collaboration with the City of Pawnee. Significant potential may also exist for development of bio-energy resources within the next decade. Pawnee Nation representatives should closely monitor

  18. 38 CFR 8.25 - Options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Options. 8.25 Section 8.25 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Optional Settlements § 8.25 Options. Insurance will be paid in a lump sum only when selected...

  19. Option Fixation: A Cognitive Contributor to Overconfidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieck, Winston R.; Merkle, Edgar C.; Van Zandt, Trisha

    2007-01-01

    The ASC model of choice and confidence in general knowledge proposes that respondents first Assess the familiarity of presented options, and then use the high-familiarity option as a retrieval cue to Search memory for the purposes of Constructing an explanation about why that high-familiarity option is true. The ASC process implies that…

  20. Help Options in CALL: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardenas-Claros, Monica S.; Gruba, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a systematic review of research investigating help options in the different language skills in computer-assisted language learning (CALL). In this review, emerging themes along with is-sues affecting help option research are identified and discussed. We argue that help options in CALL are application resources that do not only seem…

  1. Flexible Work Options within the Organisational System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albion, Majella J.; Chee, Munli

    2006-01-01

    The availability of flexible work options provides an opportunity for individuals to shape their careers in order to optimise their work and life goals. This study takes a systems theory approach to examine how the use of flexible work options influences relationships and interactions in the workplace. The "Flexible Work Options Questionnaire"…

  2. 32 CFR 48.201 - Options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Options. 48.201 Section 48.201 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN RETIRED SERVICEMAN'S FAMILY PROTECTION PLAN Election of Options § 48.201 Options. As provided in § 48.203, a member...

  3. 32 CFR 48.201 - Options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Options. 48.201 Section 48.201 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN RETIRED SERVICEMAN'S FAMILY PROTECTION PLAN Election of Options § 48.201 Options. As provided in § 48.203, a member...

  4. 32 CFR 48.201 - Options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Options. 48.201 Section 48.201 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN RETIRED SERVICEMAN'S FAMILY PROTECTION PLAN Election of Options § 48.201 Options. As provided in § 48.203, a member...

  5. Mobile Spectroscopic Instrumentation in Archaeometry Research.

    PubMed

    Vandenabeele, Peter; Donais, Mary Kate

    2016-01-01

    Mobile instrumentation is of growing importance to archaeometry research. Equipment is utilized in the field or at museums, thus avoiding transportation or risk of damage to valuable artifacts. Many spectroscopic techniques are nondestructive and micro-destructive in nature, which preserves the cultural heritage objects themselves. This review includes over 160 references pertaining to the use of mobile spectroscopy for archaeometry. Following a discussion of terminology related to mobile instrumental methods, results of a literature survey on their applications for cultural heritage objects is presented. Sections devoted to specific techniques are then provided: Raman spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, and less frequently used techniques. The review closes with a discussion of combined instrumental approaches.

  6. [Treatment options for patellar tendinopathy].

    PubMed

    Duthon, V B; Borloz, S; Ziltener, J-L

    2012-07-25

    Patellar tendinopathy is also called jumper's knee because of its high incidence in athletes with jumping or cutting activities as soccer, basketball, volleyball. Many different treatment methods have been described. However, no consensus exists regarding the optimal treatment for this condition. According to the literature, eccentric exercise-based physical therapy should be proposed first because of its strong scientific evidence. Shockwave therapy and injections may be useful but their real efficacy still has to be proven by randomized controlled study. For patients recalcitrant to more conservative options, operative management may be indicated.

  7. Energy Options for the Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, John; Obenschain, Stephen; Conover, David; Bajura, Rita; Greene, David; Brown, Marilyn; Boes, Eldon; McCarthy, Kathyrn; Christian, David; Dean, Stephen; Kulcinski, Gerald; Denholm, P. L.

    2004-06-01

    This paper summarizes the presentations and discussion at the Energy Options for the Future meeting held at the Naval Research Laboratory in March of 2004. The presentations covered the present status and future potential for coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear, wind, solar, geothermal, and biomass energy sources and the effect of measures for energy conservation. The longevity of current major energy sources, means for resolving or mitigating environmental issues, and the role to be played by yet to be deployed sources, like fusion, were major topics of presentation and discussion.

  8. Issues in Shuttle System Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, George

    2004-01-01

    The purose: a) Customer's perspective on Space Shuttle Return to Flight instrumentation; b) Focus on the difficult instrumentation issues; and c) Enable a discussion of new technologies (i.e.- NANO/MEMS/Small Tech) that could enhance Shuttle instrumentation posture. The T-10 Umbilical allows the vehicle instruments to be monitored and recorded prior to each launch and retract during launch.Launch Complex Instrumentation are instruments needed for assessment of Launch Commit Criteria (LCC) Salt-air and launch environments are issues. Instrumentation (Drag-On Instrumentation) can be added as needed to the vehicle for non-flight use. The current Roll-out Fatigue Testing is a primary example.

  9. Applying Real Options for Evaluating Investments in ERP Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagane, Jun; Sekozawa, Teruji

    This paper intends to verify effectiveness of real options approach for evaluating investments in Enterprise Resource Planning systems (ERP) and proves how important it is to disclose shadow options potentially embedded in ERP investment. The net present value (NPV) method is principally adopted to evaluate the value of ERP. However, the NPV method assumes no uncertainties exist in the object. It doesn't satisfy the current business circumstances which are filled with dynamic issues. Since the 1990s the effectiveness of option pricing models for Information System (IS) investment to solve issues in the NPV method has been discussed in the IS literature. This paper presents 3 business cases to review the practical advantages of such techniques for IS investments, especially ERP investments. The first case is EDI development. We evaluate the project by a new approach with lighting one of shadow options, EDI implementation. In the second case we reveal an ERP investment has an “expanding option” in a case of eliminating redundancy. The third case describes an option to contract which is deliberately slotted in ERP development to prepare transferring a manufacturing facility.

  10. Effect of the Range of Response Options on Answers to Biographical Inventory Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirnan, Jean Powell; Edler, Erin; Carpenter, Allison

    2007-01-01

    The range of response options has been shown to influence the answers given in self-report instruments that measure behaviors ranging from television viewing to sexual partners. The current research extends this line of inquiry to 36 quantitative items extracted from a biographical inventory used in personnel selection. A total of 92…

  11. 10.3 High-temperature Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piazza, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes high temperature instrumentation development from 1960-1970, 1980-1990 and 2000-present. The contents include: 1) Background; 2) Objective; 3) Application and Sensor; 4) Attachment Techniques; 5) Evaluation/Characterization Testing; and 6) Future testing.

  12. Nonmetallic Diaphragms for Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, H N; Buckingham, C T

    1925-01-01

    This report, the second of a series of reports relating to the general subject of instrument diaphragms. The first report of the series was published as Technical Report no. 165, "diaphragms for aeronautic instruments," and comprised an outline of historical developments and theoretical principles. The present report relates entirely to nonmetallic diaphragms, the use of which in certain types of pressure elements has been increasing for some time. Little, if any, information has been available to aid the designer of instruments using this form of pressure element. It was to attempt to meet the need for such information that the investigation reported in this paper was undertaken. The report describes the various materials which have been used as nonmetallic diaphragms, discusses the factors which affect the performance of the diaphragms and gives the results of tests made for the purpose of investigating the effect produced by these factors.

  13. Management Options For Reducing The Release Of Antibiotics And Antibiotic Resistance Genes To The Environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: There is growing concern worldwide about the role of polluted soil and water - 77 environments in the development and dissemination of antibiotic resistance. 78 Objective: To identify management options for reducing the spread of antibiotics and 79 antibiotic resist...

  14. The TOPEX satellite option study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The applicability of an existing spacecraft bus and subsystems to the requirements of ocean circulation measurements are assessed. The operational meteorological satellite family TIROS and DMSP are recommended. These programs utilize a common bus to satisfy their Earth observation missions. Note that although the instrument complements were different, the pointing accuracies were different, and, initially, the boosters were different, a high degree of commonality was achieved.

  15. Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Roy

    2011-01-01

    Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation is based on the concept of smart sensor technology for testing with intelligence needed to perform sell-diagnosis of health, and to participate in a hierarchy of health determination at sensor, process, and system levels. A virtual sensor test instrumentation consists of five elements: (1) a common sensor interface, (2) microprocessor, (3) wireless interface, (4) signal conditioning and ADC/DAC (analog-to-digital conversion/ digital-to-analog conversion), and (5) onboard EEPROM (electrically erasable programmable read-only memory) for metadata storage and executable software to create powerful, scalable, reconfigurable, and reliable embedded and distributed test instruments. In order to maximize the efficient data conversion through the smart sensor node, plug-and-play functionality is required to interface with traditional sensors to enhance their identity and capabilities for data processing and communications. Virtual sensor test instrumentation can be accessible wirelessly via a Network Capable Application Processor (NCAP) or a Smart Transducer Interlace Module (STIM) that may be managed under real-time rule engines for mission-critical applications. The transducer senses the physical quantity being measured and converts it into an electrical signal. The signal is fed to an A/D converter, and is ready for use by the processor to execute functional transformation based on the sensor characteristics stored in a Transducer Electronic Data Sheet (TEDS). Virtual sensor test instrumentation is built upon an open-system architecture with standardized protocol modules/stacks to interface with industry standards and commonly used software. One major benefit for deploying the virtual sensor test instrumentation is the ability, through a plug-and-play common interface, to convert raw sensor data in either analog or digital form, to an IEEE 1451 standard-based smart sensor, which has instructions to program sensors for a wide variety of

  16. An Object-Oriented Graphical User Interface for a Reusable Rocket Engine Intelligent Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan S.; Musgrave, Jeffrey L.; Guo, Ten-Huei; Paxson, Daniel E.; Wong, Edmond; Saus, Joseph R.; Merrill, Walter C.

    1994-01-01

    An intelligent control system for reusable rocket engines under development at NASA Lewis Research Center requires a graphical user interface to allow observation of the closed-loop system in operation. The simulation testbed consists of a real-time engine simulation computer, a controls computer, and several auxiliary computers for diagnostics and coordination. The system is set up so that the simulation computer could be replaced by the real engine and the change would be transparent to the control system. Because of the hard real-time requirement of the control computer, putting a graphical user interface on it was not an option. Thus, a separate computer used strictly for the graphical user interface was warranted. An object-oriented LISP-based graphical user interface has been developed on a Texas Instruments Explorer 2+ to indicate the condition of the engine to the observer through plots, animation, interactive graphics, and text.

  17. An object-oriented graphical user interface for a reusable rocket engine intelligent control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litt, Jonathan S.; Musgrave, Jeffrey L.; Guo, Ten-Huei; Paxson, Daniel E.; Wong, Edmond; Saus, Joseph R.; Merrill, Walter C.

    1994-10-01

    An intelligent control system for reusable rocket engines under development at NASA Lewis Research Center requires a graphical user interface to allow observation of the closed-loop system in operation. The simulation testbed consists of a real-time engine simulation computer, a controls computer, and several auxiliary computers for diagnostics and coordination. The system is set up so that the simulation computer could be replaced by the real engine and the change would be transparent to the control system. Because of the hard real-time requirement of the control computer, putting a graphical user interface on it was not an option. Thus, a separate computer used strictly for the graphical user interface was warranted. An object-oriented LISP-based graphical user interface has been developed on a Texas Instruments Explorer 2+ to indicate the condition of the engine to the observer through plots, animation, interactive graphics, and text.

  18. Picturing Objects in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shinskey, Jeanne L.; Jachens, Liza J.

    2014-01-01

    Infants' transfer of information from pictures to objects was tested by familiarizing 9-month-olds (N = 31) with either a color or black-and-white photograph of an object and observing their preferential reaching for the real target object versus a distractor. One condition tested object recognition by keeping both objects visible, and the…

  19. [Therapeutic options for pressure ulcers].

    PubMed

    Damert, H-G; Meyer, F; Altmann, S

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this overview is based on remarks on the pathogenesis of and therapy for pressure ulcers and selected but representative cases to demonstrate current options of plastic coverage. As a consequence of the demographic developments, in particular, with regard to the increasing proportion of older patients as well as the advances in modern medicine, the number of multimorbid, geriatric and bedridden patients and of those with prolonged sickbed periods has been steadily growing. Therefore, partly severe manifestations of pressure ulcers at various exposed body regions can be observed in spite of the best preventive intention of care. While in the early stages rather conservative treatment is adequate, surgical intervention might become important and indispensable for a sufficient treatment in advanced stages. To facilitate basic care and to appropriately treat the infectious focus, the methods and procedures of plastic surgery can become relevant. Although there are several options and approaches existing to sanitise and cover defects of pressure ulcers, which are described within the article based on representative cases, preventive measures can still be considered the best approach.

  20. [Gastroparesis and its treatment options].

    PubMed

    Igaz, Péter; Tulassay, Zsolt

    2008-03-01

    Gastroparesis is a disorder of gastric emptying that occurs in the absence of mechanical obstruction. Its cardinal features include nausea, vomiting, bloating, early satiety and discomfort. Weight loss, dehydration, electrolyte disturbances and malnutrition may develop in severe cases. The majority of cases is idiopathic, long standing diabetes mellitus is responsible for about 25-30% of cases. Diabetic gastroparesis may render glucose control extremely difficult, its treatment represents a major challenge. Besides frequent, small meals and psychological support, several drug options are available, however, their efficacy is limited and only a few randomized studies have been performed to date. Prokinetic agents (erythromycin, domperidone, metoclopramide) and antiemetics (phenothiazines, serotonin antagonists, butyrophenones) are the most wide-spread medicaments. Among the novel, recently developed agents, 5-HT4 serotonin receptor agonists and dopamine D2 receptor antagonists are the most promising. Injection of botulinum toxin into the pyloric sphincter resulted in faster gastric emptying and symptom alleviation in some studies. Gastric electric stimulation appears to be one of the most effective options, both low and high-frequency stimulation may alleviate symptoms. Gastrostomy/jejunostomy and other surgical interventions are considered as "last resort". PMID:18292033

  1. Treatment options for threatened miscarriage.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, N S

    2009-12-01

    Threatened miscarriage, as demonstrated by vaginal bleeding with or without abdominal cramps, is a common complication of pregnancy. It occurs in about 20% of recognised pregnancies. Risk of miscarriage is increased in older women and those with a history of miscarriage. Low serum levels of progesterone or human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) are a risk factor for miscarriage. Other risk factors include heavy bleeding, early gestational age and an empty gestational sac of >15-17 mm diameter. Clinical history and examination, maternal serum biochemistry and ultrasound findings provide valuable information about the prognosis and are important to establish in order to determine potential treatment options. Although bed rest is the most common choice of treatment, there is little evidence of its value. Other options include luteal support with progesterone, dydrogesterone or hCG. There is some evidence from clinical studies indicating that progesterone or dydrogesterone may reduce the rate of miscarriage, although further data from double-blind, randomised-controlled trials are necessary to confirm efficacy. PMID:19945236

  2. Instrumentation in medical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, W.T.

    1995-05-01

    The demand for clinical use of accelerated heavy charged-particle (proton and light-ion) beams for cancer treatment is now burgeoning worldwide. Clinical trials are underway at more than a dozen accelerators. Several hospital-based accelerator facilities dedicated to radiation treatment of human cancer have been constructed, and their number is growing. Many instruments in medical systems have been developed for modifying extracted particle beams for clinical application, monitoring the delivery of the treatment beams, and controlling the treatment processes to ensure patient safety. These in turn demand new developments of instruments in controlling beam extraction, beam tuning, and beam transportation at the medical systems.

  3. Spectroelectrochemical Instrument Measures TOC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kounaves, Sam

    2011-01-01

    A spectroelectrochemical instrument has been developed for measuring the total organic carbon (TOC) content of an aqueous solution. Measurements of TOC are frequently performed in environmental, clinical, and industrial settings. Until now, techniques for performing such measurements have included, various ly, the use of hazardous reagents, ultraviolet light, or ovens, to promote reactions in which the carbon contents are oxidized. The instrument now being developed is intended to be a safer, more economical means of oxidizing organic carbon and determining the TOC levels of aqueous solutions and for providing a low power/mass unit for use in planetary missions.

  4. Animation of MARDI Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image to view the animation

    This animation shows a zoom into the Mars Descent Imager (MARDI) instrument onboard NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. The Phoenix team will soon attempt to use a microphone on the MARDI instrument to capture sounds of Mars.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  5. Interfacing to accelerator instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, T.J.

    1995-12-31

    As the sensory system for an accelerator, the beam instrumentation provides a tremendous amount of diagnostic information. Access to this information can vary from periodic spot checks by operators to high bandwidth data acquisition during studies. In this paper, example applications will illustrate the requirements on interfaces between the control system and the instrumentation hardware. A survey of the major accelerator facilities will identify the most popular interface standards. The impact of developments such as isochronous protocols and embedded digital signal processing will also be discussed.

  6. Ocean Observation Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Airborne Ocean Color Imager (AOCI) was developed by Daedalus Enterprises, Inc. for Ames Research Center under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract as a simulator for an advanced oceanographic satellite instrument. The instrument measures water temperature and detects water color in nine wavelengths. Water color indicates chlorophyll content or phytoplankton. After EOCAP assistance and technical improvements, the AOCI was successfully commercialized by Daedalus Enterprises, Inc. One version provides commercial fishing fleets with information about fish locations, and the other is used for oceanographic research.

  7. Microtechnology for instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Mariella, R.

    1998-01-01

    For the last two decades, the majority of research and development at LLNL in microtechnology has focused on photonics devices and bulk micromachining, including miccroelectro-mechanical systems and associated areas. For the last ten years, we have used these capabilities to address our analytical instrumentation needs. Just as the miniature photonics have enable the fabrication of analytical instruments that are either higher performance, smaller, more portable, or are combinations of these. Examples of these are our portable thermal cyclers for DNA analysis, our hand-held gas chromatograph, our flow-stream-waveguide-based flow cytometer, and our etched-microchannel electrophoresis systems. This presentation will describe these and related developments.

  8. [Hardening of dental instruments].

    PubMed

    Gerasev, G P

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of prolonging the service life of stomatological instruments by the local hardening of their working parts is discussed. Such hardening should be achieved by using hard and wear-resistant materials. The examples of hardening dental elevators and hard-alloy dental drills are given. New trends in the local hardening of instruments are the treatment of their working parts with laser beams, the application of coating on their surface by the gas-detonation method. The results of research work and trials are presented.

  9. Pricing foreign equity option with stochastic volatility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qi; Xu, Weidong

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we propose a general foreign equity option pricing framework that unifies the vast foreign equity option pricing literature and incorporates the stochastic volatility into foreign equity option pricing. Under our framework, the time-changed Lévy processes are used to model the underlying assets price of foreign equity option and the closed form pricing formula is obtained through the use of characteristic function methodology. Numerical tests indicate that stochastic volatility has a dramatic effect on the foreign equity option prices.

  10. 48 CFR 552.217-71 - Notice Regarding Option(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... consider the quality of the Contractor's past performance under this contract in accordance with 48 CFR 517... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Notice Regarding Option(s... Notice Regarding Option(s). As prescribed in 517.208(b), insert the following provision: Notice...

  11. Experimenting with Woodwind Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2007-01-01

    Simple experiments involving musical instruments of the woodwind family can be used to demonstrate the basic physics of vibrating air columns in resonance tubes using nothing more than straightforward measurements and data collection hardware and software. More involved experimentation with the same equipment can provide insight into the effects…

  12. Neutron instrumentation for biology

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, S.A.

    1994-12-31

    In the October 1994 round of proposals at the ILL, the external biology review sub- committee was asked to allocate neutron beam time to a wide range of experiments, on almost half the total number of scheduled neutron instruments: on 3 diffractometers, on 3 small angle scattering instruments, and on some 6 inelastic scattering spectrometers. In the 3.5 years since the temporary reactor shutdown, the ILL`s management structure has been optimized, budgets and staff have been trimmed, the ILL reactor has been re-built, and many of the instruments up-graded, many powerful (mainly Unix) workstations have been introduced, and the neighboring European Synchrotron Radiation Facility has established itself as the leading synchrotron radiation source and has started its official user program. The ILL reactor remains the world`s most intense dedicated neutron source. In this challenging context, it is of interest to review briefly the park of ILL instruments used to study the structure and energetics of small and large biological systems. A brief summary will be made of each class of experiments actually proposed in the latest ILL proposal round.

  13. AC resistance measuring instrument

    DOEpatents

    Hof, P.J.

    1983-10-04

    An auto-ranging AC resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an AC excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance. After the auto-ranging and auto-compensation functions are complete, the microprocessor calculates the resistance of the load from the selected range resistance, the excitation signal, and the load voltage signal, and displays of the measured resistance on a digital display of the instrument. 8 figs.

  14. AC Resistance measuring instrument

    DOEpatents

    Hof, Peter J.

    1983-01-01

    An auto-ranging AC resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an AC excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance. After the auto-ranging and auto-compensation functions are complete, the microprocessor calculates the resistance of the load from the selected range resistance, the excitation signal, and the load voltage signal, and displays of the measured resistance on a digital display of the instrument.

  15. Process Instrumentation. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, A. O., III; Fowler, Malcolm

    This module provides instructional materials that are designed to help teachers train students in job skills for entry-level jobs as instrumentation technicians. This text addresses the basics of troubleshooting control loops, and the transducers, transmitters, signal conditioners, control valves, and controllers that enable process systems to…

  16. Instrument for assaying radiation

    DOEpatents

    Coleman, Jody Rustyn; Farfan, Eduardo B.

    2016-03-22

    An instrument for assaying radiation includes a flat panel detector having a first side opposed to a second side. A collimated aperture covers at least a portion of the first side of the flat panel detector. At least one of a display screen or a radiation shield may cover at least a portion of the second side of the flat panel detector.

  17. Instrumentation Control Technician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document contains 22 units to consider for use in a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of instrumentation control technician. All the units listed will not necessarily apply to every situation or tech prep consortium, nor will all the competencies within each unit be appropriate. Several units appear within each specific…

  18. University Reactor Instrumentation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Vernetson, W.G.

    1992-11-01

    Recognizing that the University Reactor Instrumentation Program was developed in response to widespread needs in the academic community for modernization and improvement of research and training reactors at institutions such as the University of Florida, the items proposed to be supported by this grant over its two year period have been selected as those most likely to reduce foreed outages, to meet regulatory concerns that had been expressed in recent years by Nuclear Regulatory Commission inspectors or to correct other facility problems and limitations. Department of Energy Grant Number DE-FG07-90ER129969 was provided to the University of Florida Training Reactor(UFTR) facility through the US Department of Energy's University Reactor Instrumentation Program. The original proposal submitted in February, 1990 requested support for UFTR facility instrumentation and equipment upgrades for seven items in the amount of $107,530 with $13,800 of this amount to be the subject of cost sharing by the University of Florida and $93,730 requested as support from the Department of Energy. A breakdown of the items requested and total cost for the proposed UFTR facility instrumentation and equipment improvements is presented.

  19. HARMONI instrument control electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gigante, José V.; Rodríguez Ramos, Luis F.; Zins, Gerard; Schnetler, Hermine; Pecontal, Arlette; Herreros, José Miguel; Clarke, Fraser; Bryson, Ian; Thatte, Niranjan

    2014-07-01

    HARMONI is an integral field spectrograph working at visible and near-infrared wavelengths over a range of spatial scales from ground layer corrected to fully diffraction-limited. The instrument has been chosen to be part of the first-light complement at the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). This paper describes the instrument control electronics to be developed at IAC. The large size of the HARMONI instrument, its cryogenic operation, and the fact that it must operate with enhanced reliability is a challenge from the point of view of the control electronics design. The present paper describes a design proposal based on the current instrument requirements and intended to be fully compliant with the ESO E-ELT standards, as well as with the European EMC and safety standards. The modularity of the design and the use of COTS standard hardware will benefit the project in several aspects, as reduced costs, shorter schedule by the use of commercially available components, and improved quality by the use of well proven solutions.

  20. Rain radar instrument definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Nicolas; Chenebault, J.; Suinot, Noel; Mancini, Paolo L.

    1996-12-01

    As a result of a pre-phase a study, founded by ESA, this paper presents the definition of a spaceborne Rain Radar, candidate instrument for earth explorer precipitation mission. Based upon the description of user requirements for such a dedicated mission, a mission analysis defines the most suitable space segment. At system level, a parametric analysis compares pros and cons of instrument concepts associated with rain rate retrieval algorithms in order to select the most performing one. Several trade-off analysis at subsystem level leads then to the definition of the proposed design. In particular, as pulse compression is implemented in order to increase the radar sensitivity, the selected method to achieve a pulse response with a side-lobe level below--60 dB is presented. Antenna is another critical rain radar subsystem and several designs are com pared: direct radiating array, single or dual reflector illuminated by single or dual feed arrays. At least, feasibility of centralized amplification using TWTA is compared with criticality of Tx/Rx modules for distributed amplification. Mass and power budgets of the designed instrument are summarized as well as standard deviations and bias of simulated rain rate retrieval profiles. The feasibility of a compliant rain radar instrument is therefore demonstrated.

  1. Portable dynamic fundus instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Gerald R. (Inventor); Meehan, Richard T. (Inventor); Hunter, Norwood R. (Inventor); Caputo, Michael P. (Inventor); Gibson, C. Robert (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A portable diagnostic image analysis instrument is disclosed for retinal funduscopy in which an eye fundus image is optically processed by a lens system to a charge coupled device (CCD) which produces recordable and viewable output data and is simultaneously viewable on an electronic view finder. The fundus image is processed to develop a representation of the vessel or vessels from the output data.

  2. Instrument for Textbook Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huetteman, Julie Doidge

    An instrument to assist in assessing textbooks was created to provide a concise format for comparison and evaluation. Textbook characteristics were selected to illustrate content and proportion of characteristics of textbooks. Nine textbook characteristics were selected for quantifying the content areas of textbooks: (1) number of pages in the…

  3. UAVSAR Program: Initial Results from New Instrument Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lou, Yunling; Hensley, Scott; Moghaddam, Mahta; Moller, Delwyn; Chapin, Elaine; Chau, Alexandra; Clark, Duane; Hawkins, Brian; Jones, Cathleen; Marks, Phillip; Michel, Thierry; Muellerschoen, Ron; Shimada, Joanne; Zheng, Yang

    2013-01-01

    UAVSAR is an imaging radar instrument suite that serves as NASA's airborne facility instrument to acquire scientific data for Principal Investigators as well as a radar test-bed for new radar observation techniques and radar technology demonstration. Since commencing operational science observations in January 2009, the compact, reconfigurable, pod-based radar has been acquiring L-band fully polarimetric SAR (POLSAR) data with repeat-pass interferometric (RPI) observations underneath NASA Dryden's Gulfstream-III jet to provide measurements for science investigations in solid earth and cryospheric studies, vegetation mapping and land use classification, archaeological research, soil moisture mapping, geology and cold land processes. In the past year, we have made significant upgrades to add new instrument capabilities and new platform options to accommodate the increasing demand for UAVSAR to support scientific campaigns to measure subsurface soil moisture, acquire data in the polar regions, and for algorithm development, verification, and cross-calibration with other airborne/spaceborne instruments.

  4. From object structure to object function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlateva, Stoyanka D.; Vaina, Lucia M.

    1991-03-01

    In this paper we provide a mathematical support for the nature of the shape representation methods useful for the computation of possible functions of an objects as derived from its shape structure. We discuss the concepts of parts and subparts of objects in the framework of axis based shape representation methods and boundary based methods. We propose a new method for obtaining descriptions of parts which based on a theorem from differential geometry (Pogorelov 1974) that any regular surface can be approximated in a finite environment with a given accuracy by a parabolloid of one of the following types - elliptic, hyperbolic and a parabolloid degenerating into a plane or a parabolic cylinder. Based on these considerations we suggest a heuristic for the approximation of convex object parts by a polyhedra, cylinder, ellipsoid or generalized cone with straight axis depending on the presence of plane, parabolic, elliptic subsets in their boundary, and nonconvex object parts by generalized cones with curved axis. This approach allows to obtain a primitive based shape description after the decomposition of the object shape through the more general boundary-based methods. We present examples of decomposing and describing shapes of common objects in terms of their parts, subparts and associated features.

  5. Increased Science Instrumentation Funding Strengthens Mars Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Lee D.; Graff, T. G.

    2012-01-01

    As the strategic knowledge gaps mature for the exploration of Mars, Mars sample return (MSR), and Phobos/Deimos missions, one approach that becomes more probable involves smaller science instrumentation and integrated science suites. Recent technological advances provide the foundation for a significant evolution of instrumentation; however, the funding support is currently too small to fully utilize these advances. We propose that an increase in funding for instrumentation development occur in the near-term so that these foundational technologies can be applied. These instruments would directly address the significant knowledge gaps for humans to Mars orbit, humans to the Martian surface, and humans to Phobos/ Deimos. They would also address the topics covered by the Decadal Survey and the Mars scientific goals, objectives, investigations and priorities as stated by the MEPAG. We argue that an increase of science instrumentation funding would be of great benefit to the Mars program as well as the potential for human exploration of the Mars system. If the total non-Earth-related planetary science instrumentation budget were increased 100% it would not add an appreciable amount to the overall NASA budget and would provide the real potential for future breakthroughs. If such an approach were implemented in the near-term, NASA would benefit greatly in terms of science knowledge of the Mars, Phobos/Deimos system, exploration risk mitigation, technology development, and public interest.

  6. Latest Advancement In Airborne Relative Gravity Instrumentation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, N.

    2011-12-01

    Airborne gravity surveying has been performed with widely varying degrees of success since early experimentation with the Lacoste and Romberg dynamic meter in the 1950s. There are a number of different survey systems currently in operation including relative gravity meters and gradiometers. Airborne gravity is ideally suited to rapid, wide coverage surveying and is not significantly more expensive in more remote and inhospitable terrain which makes airborne measurements one of the few viable options available for cost effective exploration. As improved instrumentation has become available, scientific applications have also been able to take advantage for use in determining sub surface geologic structures, for example under ice sheets in Antarctica, and more recently direct measurement of the geoid to improve the vertical datum in the United States. In 2004, Lacoste and Romberg (now Micro-g Lacoste) decided to build on their success with the newly developed AirSea II dynamic meter and use that system as the basis for a dedicated airborne gravity instrument. Advances in electronics, timing and positioning technology created the opportunity to refine both the hardware and software, and to develop a truly turnkey system that would work well for users with little or no airborne gravity experience as well as those with more extensive experience. The resulting Turnkey Airborne Gravity System (TAGS) was successfully introduced in 2007 and has since been flown in applications from oil, gas and mineral exploration surveys to regional gravity mapping and geoid mapping. The system has been mounted in a variety of airborne platforms including depending on the application of interest. The development experience with the TAGS enabled Micro-g Lacoste to embark on a new project in 2010 to completely redesign the mechanical and electronic components of the system rather than continuing incremental upgrades. Building on the capabilities of the original TAGS, the objectives for the

  7. [Hepatocellular Carcinoma: therapeutic options 2015].

    PubMed

    Schultheiß, Michael; Bettinger, Dominik; Neeff, Hannes P; Brunner, Thomas B; Thimme, Robert

    2015-07-01

    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a common neoplasm, is rising and the prognosis is poor. Many factors have to be taken into account when deciding on the best mode of therapy, like tumor size and number, liver function, sequelae of portal hypertension or other comorbidities. These factors are reflected in the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) classification. Resection, radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and liver transplantation can be seen as curative therapies for the early and localized HCC. For the intermediate state of the HCC, there are other therapeutic modalities in therapy available: transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT, rarer occasions), off label: stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). At the moment, Sorafenib is the only option in treating advanced stages of HCC. Alternative treatment strategies, like e.g. immunological therapies, are being investigated. PMID:26182255

  8. Operational options for green ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherbaz, Salma; Duan, Wenyang

    2012-09-01

    Environmental issues and rising fuel prices necessitate better energy-efficiency in all sectors. The shipping industry is one of the major stakeholders, responsible for 3% of global CO2 emissions, 14%-15% of global NO X emissions, and 16% of global SO X emissions. In addition, continuously rising fuel prices are also an incentive to focus on new ways for better energy-effectiveness. The green ship concept requires exploring and implementing technology on ships to increase energy-efficiency and reduce emissions. Ship operation is an important topic with large potential to increase cost-and-energy-effectiveness. This paper provided a comprehensive review of basic concepts, principles, and potential of operational options for green ships. The key challenges pertaining to ship crew i.e. academic qualifications prior to induction, in-service training and motivation were discussed. The author also deliberated on remedies to these challenges.

  9. Options for Martian propellant production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowler, Warren; French, James; Ramohalli, Kumar

    1991-01-01

    A quantitative evaluation methodology for utilizing in-situ resources on Mars for the production of useful substances. The emphasis is on the chemical processes. Various options considering different feedstock (mostly, carbon dioxide, water, and iron oxides) are carefully examined for the product mix and the energy needs. Oxygen, carbon monoxide, alcohols, and other chemicals are the end products. The chemical processes involve electrolysis, methanation, and variations. It is shown that maximizing the product utility is more important than the production of oxygen, methane, or alcohols. An important factor is the storage of the chemicals produced. The product utility is dependent, to some extent, upon the mission. A combination of the stability, the enthalpy of formation, and the mass fraction of the products is seen to yield a fairly good quantitative feel for the overall utility and maximum mission impact.

  10. Patient-Reported Outcome Measures (PROMS) in patients undergoing heart valve surgery: why should we measure them and which instruments should we use?

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Charlotte; Briffa, Norman

    2016-01-01

    Objective As the population ages, the incidence of heart valve disease (HVD) is increasing. The aim of treatment is to improve prognosis and quality of life. Standard surgical treatment is being superseded by new catheter-based treatments, many of which are as yet unproven. The need for appropriate instruments to measure quality of life in patients receiving treatment for HVD has therefore never been greater. Methods In this prospective observational study, a generic instrument, Euroqol, and a disease-specific one (Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire—MLHFQ) were, for the first time, formally tested before and after surgery in 84 patients with HVD who completed their treatment. Patients were interviewed on the night before surgery and 6–12 weeks after being discharged. Instruments were tested for validity, reliability, responsiveness, sensitivity and interpretability. Results Both Euroqol and MLHFQ registered significant improvements in patients' health. Tests for validity were significantly positive for both Euroqol and MLHFQ. Tests for reliability and responsiveness were very positive for MLHFQ, less so for EQ-5D. There was a moderate ceiling effect in the postoperative Index scores of Euroqol and a moderate floor effect in MLHFQ. Conclusions Both instruments together performed very well in assessing the health of patients undergoing surgical treatment of HVD. As the incidence of HVD increases and therapeutic options increase, measurement of PROMS using these two instruments should become a matter of routine. PMID:27175284

  11. IOT Overview: Optical Multi-Object Spectrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidtobreick, L.; Bagnulo, S.; Jehin, E.; Marconi, G.; O'Brien, K.; Pompei, E.; Saviane, I.

    We give an introduction to the several instruments that ESO operates and which are able to perform optical multi-object spectroscopy. We point out the standard ways of reducing these spectra, the problems that occur, and the way we deal with them. A short introduction is given on how the quality control is performed.

  12. Regionalization of laboratory care: a viable option for the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Steiner, J W; Root, J M

    1990-06-01

    The conversion of the hospital laboratory to a cost center under pressure of prospective payment and fixed reimbursement is increasingly forcing hospitals to consider alternative modes for delivery of laboratory care. Changes in the health care environment, amended statutes and regulations, and, particularly, dramatic developments in laboratory equipment, methodologies, and data processing technology make it advisable and feasible to contemplate the creation of regional laboratory consortia. A fundamental step in this direction is the "commercialization" of the hospital laboratory through a change in focus from being an in-house support program to becoming a regional resource. By the same token, the hospital laboratory can become an effective competitor of independent laboratories and be reconverted to a profit center. Creation of hospital laboratory consortia in a splintered, competitive environment requires a committed entrepreneurial effort and convincing evidence of potential benefits. The sequence of steps needed to achieve regional laboratory integration include concerting the goals and objectives of the interested parties, creating an appropriate committee structure, conducting a feasibility assessment, identifying alternative organizational and operational options, selecting a favorite option viewed by all parties as a win/win proposition, developing a business plan, and determining an implementation action plan. The major disadvantages of regionalization of laboratories are employee displacement, potential leveling of quality standards, and reduced hospital control. The major advantages include elimination of duplicate capital, personnel, and service costs, improved efficiency through test batching, reduced unit costs, increased technical capability through staff, instrument, and systems sharing, disengagement from hospital-imposed limitations, strengthened ability to penetrate the marketplace, freeing of hospital space for more direct patient care

  13. Orthodontic instrument sterilization with microwave irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Yezdani, Arif; Mahalakshmi, Krishnan; Padmavathy, Kesavaram

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the efficiency of microwave sterilization of orthodontic instruments and molar bands immersed in plain distilled water with and without oral rinse, and to ascertain the minimum time of exposure required to sterilize. Materials and Methods: The orthodontic instruments (hinged and nonhinged), molar bands and mouth mirrorsused in the patient 's mouth were selected for the study. The instruments were divided into two groups – Group I with oral rinse-set A (0.01% chlorhexidine gluconate) and set B (0.025% betadine) and Group II (included sets C and D without oral rinse). The instruments of set A, B and C were microwaved at 2,450 MHz, 800 W for 5 min, whereas, set D was microwaved for 10 min at the same above mentioned specifications. The efficacy of sterilization was assessed by stab inoculation of the instruments onto trypticase soya agar plates. The plates were checked for bacterial growth following incubation at 37 °C for 24 h. For sterility control,Geobacillus stearothermophilus (MTCC 1518) was included. Results: No growth was observed in the plates that were inoculated with the microwaved orthodontic instruments of sets A, B and D, whereas scanty bacterial growth was observed in the plates inoculatedwith the microwaved set C instruments. Conclusion: Effective sterilization was achieved when the orthodontic instruments and molar bands were immersed in distilled water without oral rinse and microwaved for 10 min as also for those that were immersed in distilled water with oral rinse and microwaved for 5 min. PMID:26015686

  14. Space station needs, attributes, and architectural options: Brief analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepphird, F. H.

    1983-01-01

    A baseline set of model missions is thoroughly characterized in terms of support requirements, demands on the Space Station, operating regimes, payload properties, and statements of the mission goals and objectives. This baseline is a representative set of mission requirements covering the most likely extent of space station support requirements from which architectural options can be constructed and exercised. The baseline set of 90 missions are assessed collectively and individually in terms of the economic, performance, and social benefits.

  15. Instrumentation for the California Extremely Large Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Keith; McLean, Ian S.

    2003-03-01

    The Phase A study for the California Extremely Large Telescope (CELT) Project has recently been completed. As part of this exercise a working group was set-up to evolve instrumentation strategies matched to the scientific case for the CELT facility. We report here on the proposed initial instrument suite which includes not only massively multiplexed seeing-limited multi-object spectroscopy but also on plans for wide-field adaptive optics fed integral-field spectroscopy and imaging at, or approaching, CELT's diffraction limit.

  16. Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurements (WISM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix A.; Lambert, Kevin M.; Romanofsky, Robert R.; Durham, Tim; Speed, Kerry; Lange, Robert; Olsen, Art; Smith, Brett; Taylor, Robert; Schmidt, Mark; Racette, Paul; Bonds, Quenton; Brucker, Ludovic; Koenig, Lora; Marshall, Hans-Peter; Vanhille, Ken; Borissenko, Anatoly; Tsang, Leung; Tan, Shurun

    2016-01-01

    This presentation discusses current efforts to develop a Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurements (WISM). The objective of the effort are as follows: to advance the utility of a wideband active and passive instrument (8-40 gigahertz) to support the snow science community; improve snow measurements through advanced calibration and expanded frequency of active and passive sensors; demonstrate science utility through airborne retrievals of snow water equivalent (SWE); and advance the technology readiness of broadband current sheet array (CSA) antenna technology for spaceflight applications.

  17. Team X Spacecraft Instrument Database Consolidation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallenstein, Kelly A.

    2005-01-01

    In the past decade, many changes have been made to Team X's process of designing each spacecraft, with the purpose of making the overall procedure more efficient over time. One such improvement is the use of information databases from previous missions, designs, and research. By referring to these databases, members of the design team can locate relevant instrument data and significantly reduce the total time they spend on each design. The files in these databases were stored in several different formats with various levels of accuracy. During the past 2 months, efforts have been made in an attempt to combine and organize these files. The main focus was in the Instruments department, where spacecraft subsystems are designed based on mission measurement requirements. A common database was developed for all instrument parameters using Microsoft Excel to minimize the time and confusion experienced when searching through files stored in several different formats and locations. By making this collection of information more organized, the files within them have become more easily searchable. Additionally, the new Excel database offers the option of importing its contents into a more efficient database management system in the future. This potential for expansion enables the database to grow and acquire more search features as needed.

  18. Observation Instrument of Play Behaviour in a Classroom Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkhout, Louise; Hoekman, Joop; Goorhuis-Brouwer, Sieneke M.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop an instrument to observe the play behaviour of a whole group of children from four to six years of age in a classroom setting on the basis of video recording. The instrument was developed in collaboration with experienced teachers and experts on play. Categories of play were derived from the literature…

  19. Large space telescope, phase A. Volume 4: Scientific instrument package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The design and characteristics of the scientific instrument package for the Large Space Telescope are discussed. The subjects include: (1) general scientific objectives, (2) package system analysis, (3) scientific instrumentation, (4) imaging photoelectric sensors, (5) environmental considerations, and (6) reliability and maintainability.

  20. Instrumentation problems for physicians.

    PubMed

    Turner, G O

    1980-01-01

    The physician has, for whatever reasons, diminished his or her level of involvement on the team dedicated to developing, refining, and evaluating medical technology. As a result, the challenge confronting the physician and the technology development team today is to orchestrate a team structure that will ensure the greatest input and commitment from physicians and other professionals during current and future technology development. The charges of cost escalation and dehumanization in our system of health care delivery will also be discussed, as will the lack of, or confusion about, access to data concerning cost of a given instrument, and fuzzy semantics and perspectives on technology and instrumentation. The author suggests answers to, or means to ameliorate, the problems.

  1. A GC Instrument Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armitage, D. Bruce

    1999-02-01

    This simulator was developed to help students beginning the study of gas chromatographic instruments to understand their operation. It is not meant to teach chromatographic theory. The instrument simulator is divided into 5 sections. One is for sample preparation. Another is used to manage carrier gases and choose a detector and column. The third sets the conditions for either isothermal or programmed temperature operation. A fourth section models manual injections, and the fifth is the autosampler. The operator has a choice among 6 columns of differing diameters and packing polarities and a choice of either isothermal or simple one-stage temperature programming. The simulator can be operated in either single-sample mode or as a 10-sample autosampler. The integrator has two modes of operation, a "dumb" mode in which only the retention time, area of the peak, and percentage area are listed and a "smart" mode that also lists the components' identities. The identities are obtained from a list of names and retention times created by the operator. Without this list only the percentages and areas are listed. The percentages are based on the areas obtained from the chromatogram and not on the actual percentages assigned during sample preparation. The data files for the compounds used in the simulator are ASCII files and can be edited easily to add more compounds than the 11 included with the simulator. A maximum of 10 components can be used in any one sample. Sample mixtures can be made on a percent-by-volume basis, but not by mass of sample per volume of solvent. A maximum of 30 compounds can be present in any one file, but the number of files is limited only by the operating system. (I suggest that not more than 20 compounds be used in any one file, as scrolling through large numbers of compounds is annoying to say the least.) File construction and layout are discussed in detail in the User's Manual. Chromatograms are generated by calculating a retention time based on

  2. KEKB beam instrumentation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arinaga, M.; Flanagan, J.; Hiramatsu, S.; Ieiri, T.; Ikeda, H.; Ishii, H.; Kikutani, E.; Mimashi, T.; Mitsuhashi, T.; Mizuno, H.; Mori, K.; Tejima, M.; Tobiyama, M.

    2003-02-01

    For the stable high-luminosity operation and luminosity increase, the electron and positron storage rings of the KEK B-Factory (KEKB) is equipped with various beam instrumentations, which have been working well since the start of the commissioning in December, 1998. Details and performance of the beam-position monitor system based on the spectrum analysis using DSPs, the turn-by-turn BPM with four-dimensional function available for measurements of the individual bunch position, phase and intensity, the parametric beam-DCCTs designed so as to avoid the magnetic-core-selection problems for the parametric flux modulation, the bunch-by-bunch feedback system indispensable to suppress the strong multibunch instabilities in KEKB, the various optical beam diagnostic systems, such as synchrotron radiation interferometers for precise beam-size measurement, the tune meters, the bunch length monitors and the beam-loss monitors are described. Delicate machine tuning of KEKB is strongly supported by these instrumentations.

  3. Solar radioastronomical instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonze, R.

    Instruments for detecting and recording the radio emissions of the sun are required to cover the entire electromagnetic spectrum, measure intensity and polarization, as well as the region of the emissions, and display high resolution in both space and time. Radioheliographic images of the sun are made from wavelengths outside of the visible, and yield images based on a grid of relative intensities of varying fineness of resolution. Radioelectric isophote contours can be generated using radiotelescopes at specific receptive frequencies, and interferometric techniques permit the employment of multiple paraboloidal receivers to construct a synthetic image of greater resolution than possible with a single antenna. Dynamic radiospectrography is used to examine transitory solar radio emissions where fine structures are produced in frequency bands covering at least an octave. Multichannel radiospectrographic equipment with many receptors tuned to discrete frequencies and regularly adjusted permits coverage of broad frequency bands, with digital control to augment the dynamics of the instruments.

  4. Patient specific instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Lionberger, David R; Crocker, Catherine L; Chen, Vincent

    2014-09-01

    Patient specific instrumentation (PSI) has recently been developed as a replacement for traditional instrumentation in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The study aim was to assess efficiency via the mean total OR time using the PSI versus computer-assisted (CAS) TKAs with accuracy as a secondary endpoint. Sixty patients were randomized to CAS or PSI. A formula was developed to derive a profit ratio (PR) that incorporated costs, revenue, and total OR time. The PSI cases were 1.45 times more profitable than CAS allowing for approximately 3 PSI cases versus 2 CAS cases in one 8 hour OR day. Results from this series show that PSI improves OR efficiency, but does not improve accuracy.

  5. Data acquisition instruments: Psychopharmacology

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, D.S. III

    1998-01-01

    This report contains the results of a Direct Assistance Project performed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., for Dr. K. O. Jobson. The purpose of the project was to perform preliminary analysis of the data acquisition instruments used in the field of psychiatry, with the goal of identifying commonalities of data and strategies for handling and using the data in the most advantageous fashion. Data acquisition instruments from 12 sources were provided by Dr. Jobson. Several commonalities were identified and a potentially useful data strategy is reported here. Analysis of the information collected for utility in performing diagnoses is recommended. In addition, further work is recommended to refine the commonalities into a directly useful computer systems structure.

  6. Radar measurement instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartl, P.

    1983-02-01

    The radar techniques used for Earth observation are reviewed. Range, direction and speed measuring techniques, and the principles of scatterometers, side-looking radar, altimeters and SAR are discussed. The ERS-1 radar package including the active microwave instrumentation and the radar altimeter are described. The analysis of the calibration problems leads to the conclusion that only the test of the system loop as a whole, besides the individual part tests, can provide a calibration in the absolute sense.

  7. Patient-reported outcome measure for neuromyelitis optica: pretesting of preliminary instrument and protocol for further development in accordance with international guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Moore, P; Jackson, C; Mutch, K; Methley, A; Pollard, C; Hamid, S; Jacob, A

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study outlines the development of a patient-reported outcome measure (PROM), an instrument to obtain self-reported health status for neuromyeltis optica (NMO), a disabling neurological condition. Design Development was conducted in accordance with international guidance for PROMs including systematic review of existing literature, item generation guided by qualitative interviews, health-related quality of life conceptual framework and clinical expert panel and cognitive interviews with NMO patients. Setting Participants were identified through a national NMO clinic in a tertiary NHS neurosciences service. Participants 15 individuals with NMO participated in cognitive interviews requiring review and ranking of proposed PROM items and qualitative feedback on content, layout and response options. Results Participants endorsed the draft instrument as reflecting their experience of the condition and as being easy to understand. Rating and ranking of item relevance and importance reduced the draft instrument from 106 to 48 items. Participant feedback on overlapping items eliminated a further 2 items and resulted in a preliminary instrument of 46 items. As a direct result of participant feedback ordering of the 10 domains was revised, a 4 option Likert scale was employed and a 4-week recall period for impact of symptoms was selected. Conclusions A 46-item instrument developed in accordance with international PROM development guidelines through literature review, developed by subject matter experts and refined through pretesting examining content validity provides a preliminary measure for assessing patient-report of health status in NMO. Further evaluation is proposed including sensitivity to clinical change, and international contributions to evaluating the measure are encouraged. PMID:27694484

  8. Instrumentation and diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Nakaishi, C.V.; Bedick, R.C.

    1990-12-01

    This Technology Status Report describes research and accomplishments for the Instrumentation and Diagnostics (I D) Projects within the Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR TD) Program of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). Process understanding and control can be improved through the development of advanced instrumentation and diagnostics. The thrust of the I D Projects is to further develop existing measurement and control techniques for application to advanced coal-based technologies. Project highlights are: an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) instrument has been developed to analyze trace elements in gasification and combustion process streams. An in situ two-color Mie scattering technique with LSS can simultaneously measure the size, velocity, and elemental composition of coal particles during combustion. A high-temperature, fluorescence thermometry technique has accurately measured gas temperatures during field testing in combustion and gasification environments. Expert systems have been developed to improve the control of advanced coal-based processes. Capacitance flowmeters were developed to determine the mass flowrate, solid volume fraction, and particle velocities of coal slurries. 32 refs., 9 figs.

  9. Mandolin Family Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, David J.; Rossing, Thomas D.

    The mandolin family of instruments consists of plucked chordophones, each having eight strings in four double courses. With the exception of the mandobass, the courses are tuned in intervals of fifths, as are the strings in violin family instruments. The soprano member of the family is the mandolin, tuned G3-D4-A4-E5. The alto member of the family is the mandola, tuned C3-G3-D4-A4. The mandola is usually referred to simply as the mandola in the USA, but is called the tenor mandola in Europe. The tenor member of the family is the octave mandolin, tuned G2-D3-A3-E4. It is referred to as the octave mandolin in the USA, and as the octave mandola in Europe. The baritone member of the family is the mandocello, or mandoloncello, tuned C2-G2-D3-A3. A variant of the mandocello not common in the USA is the five-course liuto moderno, or simply liuto, designed for solo repertoire. Its courses are tuned C2-G2-D3-A3-E4. A mandobass was also made by more than one manufacturer during the early twentieth century, though none are manufactured today. They were fretted instruments with single string courses tuned E1-A1-D2-G2. There are currently a few luthiers making piccolo mandolins, tuned C4-G4-D5-A5.

  10. An ice lithography instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Anpan; Chervinsky, John; Branton, Daniel; Golovchenko, J. A.

    2011-06-01

    We describe the design of an instrument that can fully implement a new nanopatterning method called ice lithography, where ice is used as the resist. Water vapor is introduced into a scanning electron microscope (SEM) vacuum chamber above a sample cooled down to 110 K. The vapor condenses, covering the sample with an amorphous layer of ice. To form a lift-off mask, ice is removed by the SEM electron beam (e-beam) guided by an e-beam lithography system. Without breaking vacuum, the sample with the ice mask is then transferred into a metal deposition chamber where metals are deposited by sputtering. The cold sample is then unloaded from the vacuum system and immersed in isopropanol at room temperature. As the ice melts, metal deposited on the ice disperses while the metals deposited on the sample where the ice had been removed by the e-beam remains. The instrument combines a high beam-current thermal field emission SEM fitted with an e-beam lithography system, cryogenic systems, and a high vacuum metal deposition system in a design that optimizes ice lithography for high throughput nanodevice fabrication. The nanoscale capability of the instrument is demonstrated with the fabrication of nanoscale metal lines.

  11. Simulation visualization through dynamic instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Bisset, K.R.

    1998-09-01

    The goal of the instrument composition system is to allow a simulation user to dynamically create instruments as a simulation executes. Instruments can include graphical displays, data collectors, and debugging aides. Instruments are made up of small building blocks which can be easily combined into larger, more complex instruments. Through the sue of an Attribute Server (a distributed publication/subscription mechanism), the actors and instruments in a simulation can interact without direct knowledge of each other. Instead, each actor publishes the attributes which it has available. An instrument subscribes to the attributes in which it is interested, and is notified whenever the value of one of these attribute changes. An instrument can also publish attributes for use by other instruments. Since the Attribute Server is distributed, the publisher of an attribute need not execute on the same machine as the subscriber. This allows CPU intensive data visualization to execute on separate machines from the simulation, minimizing the impact on the simulation.

  12. Automatic Extraction of JPF Options and Documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luks, Wojciech; Tkachuk, Oksana; Buschnell, David

    2011-01-01

    Documenting existing Java PathFinder (JPF) projects or developing new extensions is a challenging task. JPF provides a platform for creating new extensions and relies on key-value properties for their configuration. Keeping track of all possible options and extension mechanisms in JPF can be difficult. This paper presents jpf-autodoc-options, a tool that automatically extracts JPF projects options and other documentation-related information, which can greatly help both JPF users and developers of JPF extensions.

  13. Novel Treatment Options for Fecal Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Adam; Hurley, Jefferson

    2014-01-01

    Fecal incontinence (FI) is a devastating condition affecting a substantial portion of the population. The etiologies of FI are wide ranging, as are the treatment options. When conservative measures fail, often surgical intervention is required. As in any area where a wide range of treatment options exist, there is no one perfect solution. Fortunately, novel treatment options for FI are becoming available, namely, posterior tibial nerve stimulation, magnetic anal sphincter, stem cell transplant, pyloric transplantation, and acupuncture. PMID:25320572

  14. Seeing Objects as Faces Enhances Object Detection.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kohske; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2015-10-01

    The face is a special visual stimulus. Both bottom-up processes for low-level facial features and top-down modulation by face expectations contribute to the advantages of face perception. However, it is hard to dissociate the top-down factors from the bottom-up processes, since facial stimuli mandatorily lead to face awareness. In the present study, using the face pareidolia phenomenon, we demonstrated that face awareness, namely seeing an object as a face, enhances object detection performance. In face pareidolia, some people see a visual stimulus, for example, three dots arranged in V shape, as a face, while others do not. This phenomenon allows us to investigate the effect of face awareness leaving the stimulus per se unchanged. Participants were asked to detect a face target or a triangle target. While target per se was identical between the two tasks, the detection sensitivity was higher when the participants recognized the target as a face. This was the case irrespective of the stimulus eccentricity or the vertical orientation of the stimulus. These results demonstrate that seeing an object as a face facilitates object detection via top-down modulation. The advantages of face perception are, therefore, at least partly, due to face awareness.

  15. Seeing Objects as Faces Enhances Object Detection

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Katsumi

    2015-01-01

    The face is a special visual stimulus. Both bottom-up processes for low-level facial features and top-down modulation by face expectations contribute to the advantages of face perception. However, it is hard to dissociate the top-down factors from the bottom-up processes, since facial stimuli mandatorily lead to face awareness. In the present study, using the face pareidolia phenomenon, we demonstrated that face awareness, namely seeing an object as a face, enhances object detection performance. In face pareidolia, some people see a visual stimulus, for example, three dots arranged in V shape, as a face, while others do not. This phenomenon allows us to investigate the effect of face awareness leaving the stimulus per se unchanged. Participants were asked to detect a face target or a triangle target. While target per se was identical between the two tasks, the detection sensitivity was higher when the participants recognized the target as a face. This was the case irrespective of the stimulus eccentricity or the vertical orientation of the stimulus. These results demonstrate that seeing an object as a face facilitates object detection via top-down modulation. The advantages of face perception are, therefore, at least partly, due to face awareness. PMID:27648219

  16. Seeing Objects as Faces Enhances Object Detection

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Katsumi

    2015-01-01

    The face is a special visual stimulus. Both bottom-up processes for low-level facial features and top-down modulation by face expectations contribute to the advantages of face perception. However, it is hard to dissociate the top-down factors from the bottom-up processes, since facial stimuli mandatorily lead to face awareness. In the present study, using the face pareidolia phenomenon, we demonstrated that face awareness, namely seeing an object as a face, enhances object detection performance. In face pareidolia, some people see a visual stimulus, for example, three dots arranged in V shape, as a face, while others do not. This phenomenon allows us to investigate the effect of face awareness leaving the stimulus per se unchanged. Participants were asked to detect a face target or a triangle target. While target per se was identical between the two tasks, the detection sensitivity was higher when the participants recognized the target as a face. This was the case irrespective of the stimulus eccentricity or the vertical orientation of the stimulus. These results demonstrate that seeing an object as a face facilitates object detection via top-down modulation. The advantages of face perception are, therefore, at least partly, due to face awareness.

  17. Seeing Objects as Faces Enhances Object Detection.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kohske; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2015-10-01

    The face is a special visual stimulus. Both bottom-up processes for low-level facial features and top-down modulation by face expectations contribute to the advantages of face perception. However, it is hard to dissociate the top-down factors from the bottom-up processes, since facial stimuli mandatorily lead to face awareness. In the present study, using the face pareidolia phenomenon, we demonstrated that face awareness, namely seeing an object as a face, enhances object detection performance. In face pareidolia, some people see a visual stimulus, for example, three dots arranged in V shape, as a face, while others do not. This phenomenon allows us to investigate the effect of face awareness leaving the stimulus per se unchanged. Participants were asked to detect a face target or a triangle target. While target per se was identical between the two tasks, the detection sensitivity was higher when the participants recognized the target as a face. This was the case irrespective of the stimulus eccentricity or the vertical orientation of the stimulus. These results demonstrate that seeing an object as a face facilitates object detection via top-down modulation. The advantages of face perception are, therefore, at least partly, due to face awareness. PMID:27648219

  18. Below Regulatory Concern Owners Group: Evaluation of dry active waste monitoring instruments and techniques: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, V.W.; Endres, G.W.R.; Merwin, S.E.; Moeller, M.P.; Robertson, D.E.; Young, J.A.

    1989-03-01

    The disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) is costly, so most nuclear power stations have found or will find that it is cost-effective to dispose of dry active waste (DAW) with activity levels that are Below Regulatory Concern (BRC) at a sanitary landfill or incinerator. It appears that substantial volumes of DAW can be exempted from disposal as LLRW if the maximum exposure to an individual member of the public from BRC waste does not exceed a few mrem per year effective dose equivalent. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has requested that Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories (BNW) evaluate instruments and methods that could be used to measure surface contamination (activity per unit area) and radioactivity concentrations (activity per unit mass or volume) in BRC waste. Instrumentation utilized in a DAW BRC monitoring program must be capable of satisfying performance objectives. This instrumentations must measure bulk concentrations of radioactivity in DAW to assure that annual inventory disposal limits are not exceeded at each disposal site; measure radionuclide concentrations in disposal containers (e.g., bags, boxes, etc.) to assure that maximum allowable concentration limits in the DAW are not exceeded; assure that discrete radioactive particles (DRPs), if present in DAW, do not exceed maximum permissible activity limits; and possess detection capability to allow utilities to set operational limits between the detection limit and the disposal limit at their option. Our evaluations indicate that bag monitors and barrel counters have the necessary sensitivity to meet all of these objectives. 20 refs., 7 figs., 11 tabs.

  19. Feedback options in nonlinear numerical finance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugger, Jens; Mashayekhi, Sima

    2012-09-01

    Feedback options are options where information about the trading of the underlying asset is fed back into the pricing model. This results in nonlinear pricing models. A survey of the literature about feedback options in finance is presented. The pricing model for the full feedback option on an infinite slab is presented and boundary values on a bounded domain are derived. This bounded, nonlinear, 2 dimensional initial-boundary value problem is solved numerically using a number of standard finite difference schemes and the methods incorporated in the symbolic software Maple{trade mark, serif}.

  20. FHR Process Instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, David Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Fluoride salt-cooled High temperature Reactors (FHRs) are entering into early phase engineering development. Initial candidate technologies have been identified to measure all of the required process variables. The purpose of this paper is to describe the proposed measurement techniques in sufficient detail to enable assessment of the proposed instrumentation suite and to support development of the component technologies. This paper builds upon the instrumentation chapter of the recently published FHR technology development roadmap. Locating instruments outside of the intense core radiation and high-temperature fluoride salt environment significantly decreases their environmental tolerance requirements. Under operating conditions, FHR primary coolant salt is a transparent, low-vapor-pressure liquid. Consequently, FHRs can employ standoff optical measurements from above the salt pool to assess in-vessel conditions. For example, the core outlet temperature can be measured by observing the fuel s blackbody emission. Similarly, the intensity of the core s Cerenkov glow indicates the fission power level. Short-lived activation of the primary coolant provides another means for standoff measurements of process variables. The primary coolant flow and neutron flux can be measured using gamma spectroscopy along the primary coolant piping. FHR operation entails a number of process measurements. Reactor thermal power and core reactivity are the most significant variables for process control. Thermal power can be determined by measuring the primary coolant mass flow rate and temperature rise across the core. The leading candidate technologies for primary coolant temperature measurement are Au-Pt thermocouples and Johnson noise thermometry. Clamp-on ultrasonic flow measurement, that includes high-temperature tolerant standoffs, is a potential coolant flow measurement technique. Also, the salt redox condition will be monitored as an indicator of its corrosiveness. Both

  1. Advances in instrumentation for nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Pain, S. D.

    2014-04-15

    The study of the nuclear physics properties which govern energy generation and nucleosynthesis in the astrophysical phenomena we observe in the universe is crucial to understanding how these objects behave and how the chemical history of the universe evolved to its present state. The low cross sections and short nuclear lifetimes involved in many of these reactions make their experimental determination challenging, requiring developments in beams and instrumentation. A selection of developments in nuclear astrophysics instrumentation is discussed, using as examples projects involving the nuclear astrophysics group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These developments will be key to the instrumentation necessary to fully exploit nuclear astrophysics opportunities at the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams which is currently under construction.

  2. Magnetic Surgical Instruments for Robotic Abdominal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Leong, Florence; Garbin, Nicolo; Natali, Christian Di; Mohammadi, Alireza; Thiruchelvam, Dhan; Oetomo, Denny; Valdastri, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    This review looks at the implementation of magnetic-based approaches in surgical instruments for abdominal surgeries. As abdominal surgical techniques advance toward minimizing surgical trauma, surgical instruments are enhanced to support such an objective through the exploration of magnetic-based systems. With this design approach, surgical devices are given the capabilities to be fully inserted intraabdominally to achieve access to all abdominal quadrants, without the conventional rigid link connection with the external unit. The variety of intraabdominal surgical devices are anchored, guided, and actuated by external units, with power and torque transmitted across the abdominal wall through magnetic linkage. This addresses many constraints encountered by conventional laparoscopic tools, such as loss of triangulation, fulcrum effect, and loss/lack of dexterity for surgical tasks. Design requirements of clinical considerations to aid the successful development of magnetic surgical instruments, are also discussed.

  3. Manipulation of a fragile object

    PubMed Central

    Gorniak, Stacey L.; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.; Latash, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated strategies of adjustments in kinetic and kinematic patterns, and in multi-digit synergies during quick vertical transport of an instrumented handle that collapsed when the grasping force exceeded a certain magnitude (quantified with a fragility index). The collapse threshold of the object was set using a novel electromagnetic device. Moving a fragile object is viewed as a task with two constraints on the grip force defined by the slipping and crushing thresholds, respectively. When moving more fragile objects, subjects decreased object peak acceleration, increased movement time, showed a drop in the safety margin (extra force over the slipping threshold), and showed a tendency towards violating the minimum-jerk criterion. Linear regression analysis of grip force against load force has shown tight coupling between the two with a decline in the regression coefficient with increased fragility index. The safety margin was lower in bimanual tasks, compared to unimanual tasks, for both fragile and non-fragile objects. Two novel indices have been introduced and studied, the safety margin due to fragility and the drop-crush index. Both indices showed a decrease with increased object fragility. Changes in the drop-crush index showed that the subjects would rather crush the fragile objects as opposed to dropping them, possibly reflecting the particular experimental procedure. We did not find differences between the performance indices of the dominant and non-dominant hand thus failing to support the recently formulated dominance hypothesis. The synergies stabilizing grip force were quantified at two levels of an assumed two-level control hierarchy using co-variation indices between elemental variables across trials. There were strong synergies at the upper level of the hierarchy (the task is shared between the opposing groups of digits) that weakened with an increase in object fragility. At the lower level (action of an effector is shared among the four

  4. Instrumentation Guidelines for the Advanced National Seismic System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Working Group on Instrumentation, Siting

    2008-01-01

    This document provides guidelines for the seismic-monitoring instrumentation used by long-term earthquake-monitoring stations that will sense ground motion, digitize and store the resulting signals in a local data acquisition unit, and optionally transmit these digital data. These guidelines are derived from specifications and requirements for data needed to address the nation's emergency response, engineering, and scientific needs as identified in U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1188 (1999). Data needs are discussed in terms of national, regional, and urban scales of monitoring in section 3. Functional performance specifications for instrumentation are introduced in section 4.3 and discussed in detail in section 6 in terms of instrument classes and definitions described in section 5. System aspects and testing recommendations are discussed in sections 7 and 8, respectively. Although U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1188 (1999) recommends that the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) include portable instrumentation, performance specifications for this element are not specifically addressed in this document. Nevertheless, these guidelines are largely applicable to portable instrumentation. Volcano monitoring instrumentation is also beyond the scope of this document. Guidance for ANSS structural-response monitoring is discussed briefly herein but details are deferred to the ANSS document by the ANSS Structural Response Monitoring Committee (U.S. Geological Survey, 2005). Aspects of station planning, siting, and installation other than instrumentation are beyond the scope of this document.

  5. Topics in Chemical Instrumentation, Cl. Thermoluminescence: Part II. Instrumentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manche, Emanuel P.

    1979-01-01

    Presents part two on the use of the detection of thermoluminescence as an analytical tool for the chemistry laboratory and allied science. This part discusses instrumentation used and investigates recent developments in instrumentation for thermoluminescence. (HM)

  6. 5 CFR 870.504 - Optional insurance: Election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Optional insurance: Election. 870.504...: Election. (a)(1) Each employee must elect or waive Option A, Option B, and Option C coverage, in a manner... an election or waiver that remains in effect. The 60-day time limit for Option B or Option C...

  7. 5 CFR 870.504 - Optional insurance: Election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Optional insurance: Election. 870.504...: Election. (a)(1) Each employee must elect or waive Option A, Option B, and Option C coverage, in a manner... election or waiver which remains in effect. The 31-day time limit for Option B or Option C begins on...

  8. 5 CFR 870.504 - Optional insurance: Election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Optional insurance: Election. 870.504...: Election. (a)(1) Each employee must elect or waive Option A, Option B, and Option C coverage, in a manner... an election or waiver that remains in effect. The 60-day time limit for Option B or Option C...

  9. [Treatment of a fractured endodontical instrument in the root canal].

    PubMed

    Schipper, M; Peters, L B

    2015-12-01

    A 53-year-old woman with continuing pain coming from a lower first molar was diagnosed with apical periodontitis, with a retained fractured instrument in the root canal. There are a variety of treatment options for dealing with a corpus alienum in a root canal. In this case it was decided to treat the tooth endodontically, and leave the fractured instrument fragment in situ. The selection of this treatment option was made on the basis of knowledge of the original diagnosis and the success rates of the various treatment options as described in the relevant literature, weighed against the possible risks and their effects on the prognosis. This suggested that the use of a dental operating microscope has a positive impact on the success rates of endodontic treatment The prognosis for endodontic treatment when a fractured instrument fragment is left within the root canal, as in this case, is not significantly reduced. The presence of preoperative periapical pathology, however, is a more clinically significant prognostic indicator. PMID:26665200

  10. Indirect reciprocity with optional interactions.

    PubMed

    Ghang, Whan; Nowak, Martin A

    2015-01-21

    Indirect reciprocity is a mechanism for the evolution of cooperation that is relevant for prosocial behavior among humans. Indirect reciprocity means that my behavior towards you also depends on what you have done to others. Indirect reciprocity is associated with the evolution of social intelligence and human language. Most approaches to indirect reciprocity assume obligatory interactions, but here we explore optional interactions. In any one round a game between two players is offered. A cooperator accepts a game unless the reputation of the other player indicates a defector. For a game to take place, both players must accept. In a game between a cooperator and a defector, the reputation of the defector is revealed to all players with probability Q. After a sufficiently large number of rounds the identity of all defectors is known and cooperators are no longer exploited. The crucial condition for evolution of cooperation can be written as hQB>1, where h is the average number of rounds per person and B=(b/c)-1 specifies the benefit-to-cost ratio. We analyze both stochastic and deterministic evolutionary game dynamics. We study two extensions that deal with uncertainty: hesitation and malicious gossip.

  11. Modelling mitigation options to reduce diffuse nitrogen water pollution from agriculture.

    PubMed

    Bouraoui, Fayçal; Grizzetti, Bruna

    2014-01-15

    Agriculture is responsible for large scale water quality degradation and is estimated to contribute around 55% of the nitrogen entering the European Seas. The key policy instrument for protecting inland, transitional and coastal water resources is the Water Framework Directive (WFD). Reducing nutrient losses from agriculture is crucial to the successful implementation of the WFD. There are several mitigation measures that can be implemented to reduce nitrogen losses from agricultural areas to surface and ground waters. For the selection of appropriate measures, models are useful for quantifying the expected impacts and the associated costs. In this article we review some of the models used in Europe to assess the effectiveness of nitrogen mitigation measures, ranging from fertilizer management to the construction of riparian areas and wetlands. We highlight how the complexity of models is correlated with the type of scenarios that can be tested, with conceptual models mostly used to evaluate the impact of reduced fertilizer application, and the physically-based models used to evaluate the timing and location of mitigation options and the response times. We underline the importance of considering the lag time between the implementation of measures and effects on water quality. Models can be effective tools for targeting mitigation measures (identifying critical areas and timing), for evaluating their cost effectiveness, for taking into consideration pollution swapping and considering potential trade-offs in contrasting environmental objectives. Models are also useful for involving stakeholders during the development of catchments mitigation plans, increasing their acceptability. PMID:23998504

  12. Modelling mitigation options to reduce diffuse nitrogen water pollution from agriculture.

    PubMed

    Bouraoui, Fayçal; Grizzetti, Bruna

    2014-01-15

    Agriculture is responsible for large scale water quality degradation and is estimated to contribute around 55% of the nitrogen entering the European Seas. The key policy instrument for protecting inland, transitional and coastal water resources is the Water Framework Directive (WFD). Reducing nutrient losses from agriculture is crucial to the successful implementation of the WFD. There are several mitigation measures that can be implemented to reduce nitrogen losses from agricultural areas to surface and ground waters. For the selection of appropriate measures, models are useful for quantifying the expected impacts and the associated costs. In this article we review some of the models used in Europe to assess the effectiveness of nitrogen mitigation measures, ranging from fertilizer management to the construction of riparian areas and wetlands. We highlight how the complexity of models is correlated with the type of scenarios that can be tested, with conceptual models mostly used to evaluate the impact of reduced fertilizer application, and the physically-based models used to evaluate the timing and location of mitigation options and the response times. We underline the importance of considering the lag time between the implementation of measures and effects on water quality. Models can be effective tools for targeting mitigation measures (identifying critical areas and timing), for evaluating their cost effectiveness, for taking into consideration pollution swapping and considering potential trade-offs in contrasting environmental objectives. Models are also useful for involving stakeholders during the development of catchments mitigation plans, increasing their acceptability.

  13. Objectives and Preparing Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purohit, Anal A.; Bober, Kenneth F.

    1984-01-01

    The concepts behind, and construction of, specific behavioral objectives are examined as steps that are preliminary to evaluating student performance through tests. A taxonomy of educational objectives and guidelines in preparing them are outlined in detail. (MSE)

  14. Some significant records from instrumented structures in California - USGS program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, M.; Safak, E.; Maley, R.

    1989-01-01

    The main objective in seismic instrumentation of structures is to facilitate response studies that lead to improved understanding of the dynamic behavior and the potential for damage to structures under seismic loading. The purpose of this paper is: (1) to review the status of the programs for strong-motion instrumentation of structures in the United States and discuss various procedures and instrumentation schemes designed to best acquire response data from buildings and (2) to discuss preliminary results derived from recorded response data obtained from a well-instrumented structure during the recent Whittier Narrows earthquake of October 1, 1987 (M3 = 5.6).

  15. Visual tracking of da Vinci instruments for laparoscopic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speidel, S.; Kuhn, E.; Bodenstedt, S.; Röhl, S.; Kenngott, H.; Müller-Stich, B.; Dillmann, R.

    2014-03-01

    Intraoperative tracking of laparoscopic instruments is a prerequisite to realize further assistance functions. Since endoscopic images are always available, this sensor input can be used to localize the instruments without special devices or robot kinematics. In this paper, we present an image-based markerless 3D tracking of different da Vinci instruments in near real-time without an explicit model. The method is based on different visual cues to segment the instrument tip, calculates a tip point and uses a multiple object particle filter for tracking. The accuracy and robustness is evaluated with in vivo data.

  16. Instrumentation: Software-Driven Instrumentation: The New Wave.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salit, M. L.; Parsons, M. L.

    1985-01-01

    Software-driven instrumentation makes measurements that demand a computer as an integral part of either control, data acquisition, or data reduction. The structure of such instrumentation, hardware requirements, and software requirements are discussed. Examples of software-driven instrumentation (such as wavelength-modulated continuum source…

  17. [New surgical treatment options for bone tumors].

    PubMed

    Andreou, D; Henrichs, M P; Gosheger, G; Nottrott, M; Streitbürger, A; Hardes, J

    2014-11-01

    Primary bone neoplasms can be classified into benign, locally/aggressive and rarely metastasizing and malignant tumors. Patients with benign tumors usually undergo surgical treatment in cases of local symptoms, mainly consisting of pain or functional deficits due to compression of important anatomical structures, such as nerves or blood vessels. Locally/aggressive and rarely metastasizing tumors exhibit an infiltrative growth pattern, so that surgical treatment is necessary to prevent further destruction of bone leading to local instability. Finally, the surgical treatment of malignant tumors is, with few exceptions, considered to be a prerequisite for long-term survival, either alone or in combination with systemic chemotherapy. Whereas the main objective of surgery in the treatment of benign tumors is relief of local symptoms with a minimum amount of damage to healthy tissue and minimizing the risk of local recurrence while ensuring bone stability in locally aggressive and rarely metastasizing tumors, the primary goal in the operative treatment of bone sarcomas is the resection of the tumor with clear surgical margins followed by defect reconstruction and the preservation of function. This review examines the current developments in the surgical treatment of primary bone neoplasms with respect to the management of the tumors and novel reconstructive options.

  18. Ownership and Object History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Ori; Neary, Karen R.; Defeyter, Margaret A.; Malcolm, Sarah L.

    2011-01-01

    Appropriate behavior in relation to an object often requires judging whether it is owned and, if so, by whom. The authors propose accounts of how people make these judgments. Our central claim is that both judgments often involve making inferences about object history. In judging whether objects are owned, people may assume that artifacts (e.g.,…

  19. Objects in Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    One thing scientists study is how objects move. A famous scientist named Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) spent a lot of time observing objects in motion and came up with three laws that describe how things move. This explanation only deals with the first of his three laws of motion. Newton's First Law of Motion says that moving objects will continue…

  20. Survivability via Control Objectives

    SciTech Connect

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.

    2000-08-11

    Control objectives open an additional front in the survivability battle. A given set of control objectives is valuable if it represents good practices, it is complete (it covers all the necessary areas), and it is auditable. CobiT and BS 7799 are two examples of control objective sets.

  1. Learning Objects and Gerontology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinreich, Donna M.; Tompkins, Catherine J.

    2006-01-01

    Virtual AGE (vAGE) is an asynchronous educational environment that utilizes learning objects focused on gerontology and a learning anytime/anywhere philosophy. This paper discusses the benefits of asynchronous instruction and the process of creating learning objects. Learning objects are "small, reusable chunks of instructional media" Wiley…

  2. On the Crime Object

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akutaev, Rasul M.; Magomedov, Guseyn B.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the research of this problem is caused by the theoretical and practical needs of a specific concept of the crime object as one of the corpus delicti signs essentially the determining and defining its object and objective side, thereby--the nature of socially dangerous act. Besides, being a facultative sign of corpus delicti, the…

  3. The Language of Objection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Francis M.

    2010-01-01

    Whenever the author talks to audiences about transforming school systems, without exception people raise objections. The half dozen most common objections often come in the form of "Yes, nice idea but..." What follows the "but" is the objection. The author learned a technique for responding to these "buts" from family members who work in sales.…

  4. Presentation on Instructional Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naz, Bibi Asia

    2009-01-01

    "Learning can be defined as change in a student's capacity for performance as a result of experience" (Kenneth D. Moore). The intended changes should be specified in instructional objectives. Viewed in this context, an objective can be defined as a clear and unambiguous description of your instructional intent. An objective is not a statement of…

  5. [Behavioral Objectives in English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meade, Richard; And Others

    1970-01-01

    This edition of the "Virginia English Bulletin" is devoted primarily to articles about behavioral objectives and the teaching of English. In "Behavioral Objectives for English?" Richard A. Meade argues that these objectives ought to include the acquisition not only of skills and knowledge but also of understandings, insights, and feelings. He also…

  6. Cooled scientific instrument assembly onboard SPICA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuhara, H.; Nakagawa, T.; Kawakatsu, Y.; Murakami, H.; Kawada, M.; Sugita, H.; Yamawaki, T.; Mitani, S.; Shinozaki, K.; Sato, Y.; Crone, G.; Isaak, K.; Heske, A.

    2012-09-01

    The Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) is a 3.2m cooled (below 6K) telescope mission which covers mid- and far-IR waveband with unprecedented sensitivity. An overview of recent design updates of the Scientific Instrument Assembly (SIA), composed of the telescope assembly and the instrument optical bench equipped with Focal Plane Instruments (FPIs) are presented. The FPI international science and engineering review is on-going to determine the FPI suite onboard SPICA: at present the mandatory instruments and functions to perform the unique science objectives of the SPICA mission are now consolidated. The final decision on the composition of the FPI suite is expected in early 2013. Through the activities in the current pre-project phase, several key technical issues which impact directly on the instruments’ performances and the science requirements and the observing efficiency have been identified, and extensive works are underway both at instrument and spacecraft level to resolve these issues and to enable the confirmation of the SPICA FPI suite.

  7. Global plutonium management: A security option

    SciTech Connect

    Sylvester, K.W.B.

    1998-12-31

    The US surplus plutonium disposition program was created to reduce the proliferation risk posed by the fissile material from thousands of retired nuclear weapons. The Department of Energy has decided to process its Put into a form as secure as Pu in civilian spent fuel. While implementation issues have been considered, a major one (Russian reciprocity) remains unresolved. Russia has made disposition action conditional on extracting the fuel value of its Pu but lacks the infrastructure to do so. Assistance in the construction of the required facilities would conflict with official US policy opposing the development of a Pu fuel cycle. The resulting stagnation provides impetus for a reevaluation of US nonproliferation objectives and Pu disposition options. A strategy for satisfying Russian fuel value concerns and reducing the proliferation risk posed by surplus weapons-grade plutonium (WGPu) is proposed. The effectiveness of material alteration (e.g., isotopic, chemical, etc.{hor_ellipsis}) at reducing the desire, ability and opportunity for proliferation is assessed. Virtually all the security benefits attainable by material processing can be obtained by immobilizing Pu in large unit size/mass monoliths without a radiation barrier. Russia would be allowed to extract the Pu at a future date for use as fuel in a verifiable manner. Remote tracking capability, if proven feasible, would further improve safeguarding capability. As an alternate approach, the US could compensate Russia for its Pu, allowing it to be disposed of or processed elsewhere. A market based method for pricing Pu is proposed. Surplus Pu could represent access to nuclear fuel at a fixed price at a future date. This position can be replicated in the uranium market and priced using derivative theory. The proposed strategy attempts to meet nonproliferation objectives by recognizing technical limitations and satisfying political constraints.

  8. LBL's Pollution Instrumentation Comparability Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, R. D.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Contained are condensed excerpts from the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Survey of Instrumentation for Environmental Monitoring. The survey describes instrumentation used to analyze air and water quality, radiation emissions, and biomedical impacts. (BB)

  9. Precision Instrument and Equipment Repairers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Ian

    2001-01-01

    Explains the job of precision instrument and equipment repairers, who work on cameras, medical equipment, musical instruments, watches and clocks, and industrial measuring devices. Discusses duties, working conditions, employment and earnings, job outlook, and skills and training. (JOW)

  10. ZBLAN Viscosity Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaukler, William

    2001-01-01

    The past year's contribution from Dr. Kaukler's experimental effort consists of these 5 parts: a) Construction and proof-of-concept testing of a novel shearing plate viscometer designed to produce small shear rates and operate at elevated temperatures; b) Preparing nonlinear polymeric materials to serve as standards of nonlinear Theological behavior; c) Measurements and evaluation of above materials for nonlinear rheometric behavior at room temperature using commercial spinning cone and plate viscometers available in the lab; d) Preparing specimens from various forms of pitch for quantitative comparative testing in a Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer, Thermal Mechanical Analyzer; and Archeological Analyzer; e) Arranging to have sets of pitch specimens tested using the various instruments listed above, from different manufacturers, to form a baseline of the viscosity variation with temperature using the different test modes offered by these instruments by compiling the data collected from the various test results. Our focus in this project is the shear thinning behavior of ZBLAN glass over a wide range of temperature. Experimentally, there are no standard techniques to perform such measurements on glasses, particularly at elevated temperatures. Literature reviews to date have shown that shear thinning in certain glasses appears to occur, but no data is available for ZBLAN glass. The best techniques to find shear thinning behavior require the application of very low rates of shear. In addition, because the onset of the thinning behavior occurs at an unknown elevated temperature, the instruments used in this study must provide controlled low rates of shear and do so for temperatures approaching 600 C. In this regard, a novel shearing parallel plate viscometer was designed and a prototype built and tested.

  11. Biomagnetic instrumentation and measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iufer, E. J.

    1978-01-01

    The instruments and techniques of biomagnetic measurement have progressed greatly in the past 15 years and are now of a quality appropriate to clinical applications. The paper reports on recent developments in the design and application of SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device) magnetometers to biomagnetic measurement. The discussion covers biomagnetic field levels, magnetocardiography, magnetic susceptibility plethysmography, ambient noise and sensor types, principles of operation of a SQUID magnetometer, and laboratory techniques. Of the many promising applications of noninvasive biomagnetic measurement, magnetocardiography is the most advanced and the most likely to find clinical application in the near future.

  12. Aerodynamically stabilized instrument platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bland, Geoffrey L. (Inventor); Miles, Ted K. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A suspension apparatus for suspending instrumentation from an airborne platform may include a generally longitudinal boom having a payload end and a tail end. Yaw and pitch stabilizers may be disposed at the tail end of the boom. A mast that may be selectively translatable on the boom may connect the boom to a tether line of the airborne platform. The payload may be attached to the payload end of the boom. The mast may be positioned axially along the boom at the center of gravity of the combination of the payload, boom, pitch stabilizer, and yaw stabilizer.

  13. Diamonds for beam instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Griesmayer, Erich

    2013-04-19

    Diamond is perhaps the most versatile, efficient and radiation tolerant material available for use in beam detectors with a correspondingly wide range of applications in beam instrumentation. Numerous practical applications have demonstrated and exploited the sensitivity of diamond to charged particles, photons and neutrons. In this paper, a brief description of a generic diamond detector is given and the interaction of the CVD diamond detector material with protons, electrons, photons and neutrons is presented. Latest results of the interaction of sCVD diamond with 14 MeV mono-energetic neutrons are shown.

  14. Diaphragms for Aeronautic Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hersey, M D

    1924-01-01

    This investigation was carried out at the request of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics and comprises an outline of historical developments and theoretical principles, together with a discussion of expedients for making the most effective use of existing diaphragms actuated by the hydrostatic pressure form an essential element of a great variety instruments for aeronautic and other technical purposes. The various physical data needed as a foundation for rational methods of diaphragm design have not, however, been available hitherto except in the most fragmentary form.

  15. Data-Driven Objectness.

    PubMed

    Hongwen Kang; Hebert, Martial; Efros, Alexei A; Kanade, Takeo

    2015-01-01

    We propose a data-driven approach to estimate the likelihood that an image segment corresponds to a scene object (its "objectness") by comparing it to a large collection of example object regions. We demonstrate that when the application domain is known, for example, in our case activity of daily living (ADL), we can capture the regularity of the domain specific objects using millions of exemplar object regions. Our approach to estimating the objectness of an image region proceeds in two steps: 1) finding the exemplar regions that are the most similar to the input image segment; 2) calculating the objectness of the image segment by combining segment properties, mutual consistency across the nearest exemplar regions, and the prior probability of each exemplar region. In previous work, parametric objectness models were built from a small number of manually annotated objects regions, instead, our data-driven approach uses 5 million object regions along with their metadata information. Results on multiple data sets demonstrates our data-driven approach compared to the existing model based techniques. We also show the application of our approach in improving the performance of object discovery algorithms. PMID:26353218

  16. 16 CFR 432.4 - Optional disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Optional disclosures. 432.4 Section 432.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES POWER OUTPUT CLAIMS FOR AMPLIFIERS UTILIZED IN HOME ENTERTAINMENT PRODUCTS § 432.4 Optional disclosures. Other operating characteristics...

  17. 16 CFR 432.4 - Optional disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Optional disclosures. 432.4 Section 432.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES POWER OUTPUT CLAIMS FOR AMPLIFIERS UTILIZED IN HOME ENTERTAINMENT PRODUCTS § 432.4 Optional disclosures. Other operating characteristics...

  18. 16 CFR 432.4 - Optional disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Optional disclosures. 432.4 Section 432.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES POWER OUTPUT CLAIMS FOR AMPLIFIERS UTILIZED IN HOME ENTERTAINMENT PRODUCTS § 432.4 Optional disclosures. Other operating characteristics...

  19. 16 CFR 432.4 - Optional disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Optional disclosures. 432.4 Section 432.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES POWER OUTPUT CLAIMS FOR AMPLIFIERS UTILIZED IN HOME ENTERTAINMENT PRODUCTS § 432.4 Optional disclosures. Other operating characteristics...

  20. 16 CFR 432.4 - Optional disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Optional disclosures. 432.4 Section 432.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES POWER OUTPUT CLAIMS FOR AMPLIFIERS UTILIZED IN HOME ENTERTAINMENT PRODUCTS § 432.4 Optional disclosures. Other operating characteristics...

  1. 23 CFR 500.104 - State option.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false State option. 500.104 Section 500.104 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT MANAGEMENT AND MONITORING SYSTEMS Management Systems § 500.104 State option. Except as specified in § 500.105...

  2. 23 CFR 500.104 - State option.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false State option. 500.104 Section 500.104 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT MANAGEMENT AND MONITORING SYSTEMS Management Systems § 500.104 State option. Except as specified in § 500.105...

  3. 23 CFR 500.104 - State option.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false State option. 500.104 Section 500.104 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT MANAGEMENT AND MONITORING SYSTEMS Management Systems § 500.104 State option. Except as specified in § 500.105...

  4. 23 CFR 500.104 - State option.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false State option. 500.104 Section 500.104 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT MANAGEMENT AND MONITORING SYSTEMS Management Systems § 500.104 State option. Except as specified in § 500.105...

  5. 23 CFR 500.104 - State option.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false State option. 500.104 Section 500.104 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT MANAGEMENT AND MONITORING SYSTEMS Management Systems § 500.104 State option. Except as specified in § 500.105...

  6. 32 CFR 211.9 - Mitigation Options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mitigation Options. 211.9 Section 211.9 National... MISSION COMPATIBILITY EVALUATION PROCESS Project Evaluation Procedures § 211.9 Mitigation Options. (a) In discussing mitigation to avoid an unacceptable risk to the national security of the United States, the...

  7. 32 CFR 211.9 - Mitigation Options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mitigation Options. 211.9 Section 211.9 National... MISSION COMPATIBILITY EVALUATION PROCESS Project Evaluation Procedures § 211.9 Mitigation Options. (a) In discussing mitigation to avoid an unacceptable risk to the national security of the United States, the...

  8. 32 CFR 211.9 - Mitigation options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mitigation options. 211.9 Section 211.9 National... MISSION COMPATIBILITY EVALUATION PROCESS Project Evaluation Procedures § 211.9 Mitigation options. (a) In discussing mitigation to avoid an unacceptable risk to the national security of the United States, the...

  9. Mission design options for human Mars missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooster, Paul D.; Braun, Robert D.; Ahn, Jaemyung; Putnam, Zachary R.

    Trajectory options for conjunction-class human Mars missions are examined, including crewed Earth-Mars trajectories with the option for abort to Earth, with the intent of serving as a resource for mission designers. An analysis of the impact of Earth and Mars entry velocities on aeroassist systems is included, and constraints are suggested for interplanetary trajectories based upon aeroassist system capabilities.

  10. Electric retail market options: The customer perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, S.W.; Hillsman, E.L.

    1995-07-01

    This report describes various options that are now available for retail electric customers, or that may become available during the next few years as the electric utility industry restructures. These options include different ways of meeting demand for energy services, different providers of service or points of contact with providers, and different pricing structures for purchased services. Purpose of this document is to examine these options from the customer`s perspective: how might being a retail electric customer in 5--10 years differ from now? Seizing opportunities to reduce cost of electric service is likely to entail working with different service providers; thus, transaction costs are involved. Some of the options considered are speculative. Some transitional options include relocation, customer-built/operated transmission lines, municipalization, self-generation, and long-term contracts with suppliers. All these may change or diminish in a restructured industry. Brokers seem likely to become more common unless restructuring takes the form of mandatory poolcos (wholesale). Some options appear robust, ie, they are likely to become more common regardless of how restructuring is accomplished: increased competition among energy carriers (gas vs electric), real-time pricing, etc. This report identified some of the qualitative differences among the various options. For customers using large amounts of electricity, different alternatives are likely to affect greatly service price, transaction costs, tailoring service to customer preferences, and risks for customer. For retail customers using small amounts of electricity, there may be little difference among the options except service price.

  11. TECHNOLOGICAL OPTIONS FOR ACID RAIN CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses technological options for acid rain control. Compliance with Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 will require careful scrutiny of a number of issues before selecting control options to reduce sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions...

  12. Writing about Clients: Ethical Considerations and Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperry, Len; Pies, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Today, the decision to prepare clinical case material for publication is a decision that cannot be taken lightly. The decision involves reviewing ethical considerations and choosing among various options to safeguard client privacy. Such options include seeking the client's permission, disguising case material, and developing composite case…

  13. A new innovative instrument for space plasma instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torbert, Roy B.

    1993-01-01

    The Faraday Ring Ammeter was the subject of this grant for a new innovative instrument for space plasma instrumentation. This report summarizes our progress in this work. Briefly, we have conducted an intensive series of experiments and trials over three years, testing some five configurations of the instrument to measure currents, resulting in two Ph.D. theses, supported by this grant, and two flight configurations of the instrument. The first flight would have been on a NASA-Air Force collaborative sounding rocket, but was not flown because of instrumental difficulties. The second has been successfully integrated on the NASA Auroral Turbulence payload which is to be launched in February, 1994.

  14. A review of psychological assessment instruments for use in bariatric surgery evaluations.

    PubMed

    Marek, Ryan J; Heinberg, Leslie J; Lavery, Megan; Merrell Rish, Julie; Ashton, Kathleen

    2016-09-01

    Bariatric surgery is a viable treatment option for patients with extreme obesity and associated medical comorbidities; however, optimal surgical outcomes are not universal. Surgical societies, such as the American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery (ASMBS), recommend that patients undergo a presurgical psychological evaluation that includes reviewing patients' medical charts, conducting a comprehensive clinical interview, and employing some form of objective psychometric testing. Despite numerous societies recommending the inclusion of self-report assessments, only about 2/3 of clinics actively use psychological testing-some of which have limited empirical support to justify their use. This review aims to critically evaluate the psychometric properties of self-report measures when used in bariatric surgery settings and provide recommendations to help guide clinicians in selecting instruments to use in bariatric surgery evaluations. Recommended assessment batteries include use of a broadband instrument along with a narrowband eating measure. Suggestions for self-report measures to include in a presurgical psychological evaluation in bariatric surgery settings are also provided. (PsycINFO Database Record

  15. A review of psychological assessment instruments for use in bariatric surgery evaluations.

    PubMed

    Marek, Ryan J; Heinberg, Leslie J; Lavery, Megan; Merrell Rish, Julie; Ashton, Kathleen

    2016-09-01

    Bariatric surgery is a viable treatment option for patients with extreme obesity and associated medical comorbidities; however, optimal surgical outcomes are not universal. Surgical societies, such as the American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery (ASMBS), recommend that patients undergo a presurgical psychological evaluation that includes reviewing patients' medical charts, conducting a comprehensive clinical interview, and employing some form of objective psychometric testing. Despite numerous societies recommending the inclusion of self-report assessments, only about 2/3 of clinics actively use psychological testing-some of which have limited empirical support to justify their use. This review aims to critically evaluate the psychometric properties of self-report measures when used in bariatric surgery settings and provide recommendations to help guide clinicians in selecting instruments to use in bariatric surgery evaluations. Recommended assessment batteries include use of a broadband instrument along with a narrowband eating measure. Suggestions for self-report measures to include in a presurgical psychological evaluation in bariatric surgery settings are also provided. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27537008

  16. Using XML and Java Technologies for Astronomical Instrument Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ames, Troy; Case, Lynne; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Traditionally, instrument command and control systems have been highly specialized, consisting mostly of custom code that is difficult to develop, maintain, and extend. Such solutions are initially very costly and are inflexible to subsequent engineering change requests, increasing software maintenance costs. Instrument description is too tightly coupled with details of implementation. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, under the Instrument Remote Control (IRC) project, is developing a general and highly extensible framework that applies to any kind of instrument that can be controlled by a computer. The software architecture combines the platform independent processing capabilities of Java with the power of the Extensible Markup Language (XML), a human readable and machine understandable way to describe structured data. A key aspect of the object-oriented architecture is that the software is driven by an instrument description, written using the Instrument Markup Language (IML), a dialect of XML. IML is used to describe the command sets and command formats of the instrument, communication mechanisms, format of the data coming from the instrument, and characteristics of the graphical user interface to control and monitor the instrument. The IRC framework allows the users to define a data analysis pipeline which converts data coming out of the instrument. The data can be used in visualizations in order for the user to assess the data in real-time, if necessary. The data analysis pipeline algorithms can be supplied by the user in a variety of forms or programming languages. Although the current integration effort is targeted for the High-resolution Airborne Wideband Camera (HAWC) and the Submillimeter and Far Infrared Experiment (SAFIRE), first-light instruments of the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), the framework is designed to be generic and extensible so that it can be applied to any instrument. Plans are underway to test the framework

  17. Imaging, cutting, and collecting instrument and method

    DOEpatents

    Tench, R.J.; Siekhaus, W.J.; Balooch, M.; Balhorn, R.L.; Allen, M.J.

    1995-10-31

    Instrumentation and techniques are described to image small objects, such as but not limited to individual human chromosomes, with nanometer resolution. This instrument and method are also used to cut-off identified parts of objects, to move around and manipulate the cut-off parts on the substrate on which they are being imaged to predetermined locations on the substrate, and to remove the cut-off parts from the substrate. This is accomplished using an atomic force microscope (AFM) and by modification of the conventional cantilever stylus assembly of an AFM. The plural cantilevers are used with either sharp-tips or knife-edges. In addition, the invention can be utilized for measuring the hardness of materials. 10 figs.

  18. Instruments for monitoring intensive care unit sedation

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco, Genís

    2000-01-01

    Although many promising objective methods (measuring systems) are available, there are no truly validated instruments for monitoring intensive care unit (ICU) sedation. Auditory evoked potentials can be used only for research in patients with a deep level of sedation. Other measuring systems require further development and validation to be useful in the ICU. Continuing research will provide an objective system to improve the monitoring and controlling of this essential treatment for ICU patients. Subjective methods (scoring systems) that are based on clinical observation have proven their usefulness in guiding sedative therapy. The Glasgow Coma Score modified by Cook and Palma (GCSC) achieves good face validity and reliability, which assures its clinical utility for routine practice and research. Other scales, in particular the Ramsay Scale, can be recommended preferably for clinical use. An accurate use of available instruments can improve the sedative treatment that we deliver to our patients. PMID:11094504

  19. Mallet Instruments Challenge Beginning Percussionists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grumley, Fred

    1983-01-01

    Orff mallet instruments should be used in beginning band classes. Adding mallet instruments would expand a beginner's concept of percussion instruments. Just as important, the percussion section would provide a solid melodic and harmonic foundation to assist beginning wind instrumentalists with their insecurities about pitch. (RM)

  20. Spacecraft instrument calibration and stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gille, J. C.; Feldman, P.; Hudson, R.; Lean, J.; Madden, R.; Mcmaster, L.; Mount, G.; Rottman, G.; Simon, P. C.

    1989-01-01

    The following topics are covered: instrument degradation; the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) Experiment; the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS); the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment 1 (SAGE-1) and SAGE-2 instruments; the Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) UV ozone and near infrared airglow instruments; and the Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS).

  1. 30 CFR 90.3 - Part 90 option; notice of eligibility; exercise of option.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Part 90 option; notice of eligibility; exercise... DEVELOPMENT OF PNEUMOCONIOSIS General § 90.3 Part 90 option; notice of eligibility; exercise of option. (a... meter of air. Each of these miners shall be notified in writing of eligibility to exercise the...

  2. 30 CFR 90.3 - Part 90 option; notice of eligibility; exercise of option.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Part 90 option; notice of eligibility; exercise... DEVELOPMENT OF PNEUMOCONIOSIS General § 90.3 Part 90 option; notice of eligibility; exercise of option. (a... meter of air. Each of these miners shall be notified in writing of eligibility to exercise the...

  3. 30 CFR 90.3 - Part 90 option; notice of eligibility; exercise of option.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Part 90 option; notice of eligibility; exercise... DEVELOPMENT OF PNEUMOCONIOSIS General § 90.3 Part 90 option; notice of eligibility; exercise of option. (a... meter of air. Each of these miners shall be notified in writing of eligibility to exercise the...

  4. 30 CFR 90.3 - Part 90 option; notice of eligibility; exercise of option.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Part 90 option; notice of eligibility; exercise... DEVELOPMENT OF PNEUMOCONIOSIS General § 90.3 Part 90 option; notice of eligibility; exercise of option. (a... meter of air. Each of these miners shall be notified in writing of eligibility to exercise the...

  5. 30 CFR 90.3 - Part 90 option; notice of eligibility; exercise of option.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Part 90 option; notice of eligibility; exercise... DEVELOPMENT OF PNEUMOCONIOSIS General § 90.3 Part 90 option; notice of eligibility; exercise of option. (a... meter of air. Each of these miners shall be notified in writing of eligibility to exercise the...

  6. Instrument Remote Control via the Astronomical Instrument Markup Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sall, Ken; Ames, Troy; Warsaw, Craig; Koons, Lisa; Shafer, Richard

    1998-01-01

    The Instrument Remote Control (IRC) project ongoing at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Information Systems Center (ISC) supports NASA's mission by defining an adaptive intranet-based framework that provides robust interactive and distributed control and monitoring of remote instruments. An astronomical IRC architecture that combines the platform-independent processing capabilities of Java with the power of Extensible Markup Language (XML) to express hierarchical data in an equally platform-independent, as well as human readable manner, has been developed. This architecture is implemented using a variety of XML support tools and Application Programming Interfaces (API) written in Java. IRC will enable trusted astronomers from around the world to easily access infrared instruments (e.g., telescopes, cameras, and spectrometers) located in remote, inhospitable environments, such as the South Pole, a high Chilean mountaintop, or an airborne observatory aboard a Boeing 747. Using IRC's frameworks, an astronomer or other scientist can easily define the type of onboard instrument, control the instrument remotely, and return monitoring data all through the intranet. The Astronomical Instrument Markup Language (AIML) is the first implementation of the more general Instrument Markup Language (IML). The key aspects of our approach to instrument description and control applies to many domains, from medical instruments to machine assembly lines. The concepts behind AIML apply equally well to the description and control of instruments in general. IRC enables us to apply our techniques to several instruments, preferably from different observatories.

  7. Exploration Architecture Options - ECLSS, EVA, TCS Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambliss, Joe; Henninger, Don; Lawrence, Carl

    2010-01-01

    Many options for exploration of space have been identified and evaluated since the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) was announced in 2004. Lunar architectures have been identified and addressed in the Lunar Surface Systems team to establish options for how to get to and then inhabit and explore the moon. The Augustine Commission evaluated human space flight for the Obama administration and identified many options for how to conduct human spaceflight in the future. This paper will evaluate the options for exploration of space for the implications of architectures on the Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLSS), ExtraVehicular Activity (EVA) and Thermal Control System (TCS) Systems. The advantages and disadvantages of each architecture and options are presented.

  8. Exploration Architecture Options - ECLSS, EVA, TCS Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambliss, Joe; Henninger, Don; Lawrence, Carl

    2009-01-01

    Many options for exploration of the Moon and Mars have been identified and evaluated since the Vision for Space Exploration VSE was announced in 2004. Lunar architectures have been identified and addressed in the Lunar Surface Systems team to establish options for how to get to and then inhabit and explore the moon. The Augustine Commission evaluated human space flight for the Obama administration and identified many options for how to conduct human spaceflight in the future. This paper will evaluate the options for exploration of the moon and Mars and those of the Augustine human spaceflight commission for the implications of each architecture on the Environmental Control and Life Support, ExtraVehicular Activity and Thermal Control systems. The advantages and disadvantages of each architecture and options are presented.

  9. Healthy option preferences of rural restaurant customers.

    PubMed

    Nothwehr, Faryle; Snetselaar, Linda; Dawson, Jeffrey D; Hradek, Christine; Sepulveda, Marisol

    2010-11-01

    In preparation for an intervention study in three rural Iowa restaurants, 250 customers were surveyed regarding their interest in dietary change, perceptions of the restaurant, and interest in healthy options. Customers were ages 18 to 88, with a mean age of 52, and 53% were women. Most agreed that the restaurant offers healthy meals. Options customers stated they were most likely to order if available included meat that is baked or broiled, whole-wheat bread, fresh fruit or steamed vegetables, and regular salad dressing on the side. They were least interested in low-fat sour cream, low-fat salad dressing, low-fat milk, low-calorie dessert, and holding high-fat ingredients. Women were more likely to indicate interest in healthy options than were men. Interest in several options was also positively associated with age. Increasing the healthy options in restaurants may be especially effective in changing the dietary intake of women and older adults.

  10. The QUIET Instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Bischoff, C.; et al.

    2012-07-01

    The Q/U Imaging ExperimenT (QUIET) is designed to measure polarization in the Cosmic Microwave Background, targeting the imprint of inflationary gravitational waves at large angular scales ({approx}1{sup o}). Between 2008 October and 2010 December, two independent receiver arrays were deployed sequentially on a 1.4m side-fed Dragonian telescope. The polarimeters which form the focal planes use a highly compact design based on High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs) that provides simultaneous measurements of the Stokes parameters Q, U, and I in a single module. The 17-element Q-band polarimeter array, with a central frequency of 43.1 GHz, has the best sensitivity (69 {mu}Ks{sup 1/2}) and the lowest instrumental systematic errors ever achieved in this band, contributing to the tensor-to-scalar ratio at r < 0:1. The 84-element W-band polarimeter array has a sensitivity of 87 {mu}Ks{sup 1/2} at a central frequency of 94.5 GHz. It has the lowest systematic errors to date, contributing at r < 0:01. The two arrays together cover multipoles in the range {ell} {approx} 25 -- 975. These are the largest HEMT-based arrays deployed to date. This article describes the design, calibration, performance of, and sources of systematic error for the instrument.

  11. An Instrumental Innovation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Think of guitars and you think of rock and country music, or the vigorous rhythms of the gypsy flamenco, or perhaps the classical strumming of a Segovia. About the last thing you would associate with guitars is aerospace technology. Yet there is a connection. A whole family of quality guitars is an outgrowth of helicopter rotor research conducted for the military services and NASA by an aerospace contractor. These musical spinoffs, commercially available and rapidly gaining in popularity, are the Ovation guitar line, manufactured by Ovation Instruments, Inc., Bloomfield, Connecticut. Ovation Instruments is a subsidiary of Kaman Corporation, a diversified company originally formed to develop and build helicopters. A helicopter's rotor system, with thousands of moving parts, is highly susceptible to vibration. For rotor efficiency, vibration must be "dampened," or reduced. Like other helicopter builders, Kaman Corporation spent years of research toward that end. The technology thus developed, together with the availability of staff experts in vibration engineering, sparked an idea in the mind of the company's president and founder, Charles H. Karnan. A guitarist of professional caliber, Kaman reasoned that vibration-dampening technology could be turned around to enhance vibration and thereby produce a guitar with superior sound.

  12. SPIRE instrument for FIRST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Matthew J.; Swinyard, Bruce M.; Vigroux, Laurent G.

    2000-07-01

    SPIRE, the Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver, will be a bolometer instrument for ESA's FIRST satellite. Its main scientific goals are deep extragalactic and galactic imaging surveys and spectroscopy of star-forming regions in own and nearby galaxies. The SPIRE detectors are feedhorn- coupled NTD spider-web bolometers. The instrument comprises a three-band imaging photometer covering the 250 - 500 micrometers range, and an imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) covering 200 - 670 micrometers . The photometer has a field of view of 4 X 8 arcminutes which is observed simultaneously at 250, 350 and 500 micrometers with dichroic beam dividers separating the three spectral bands. Its angular resolution is determined by the telescope diffraction limit, with FWHM beam widths of approximately 17, 24 and 35 arcseconds at 250, 350 and 500 micrometers , respectively. An internal beam steering mirror can be used for spatial modulation of the telescope beam, and observations can also be made by scanning the telescope without chopping, providing better sensitivity for source confusion-limited deep surveys. The FTS has a field of view of 2.6 arcminutes and an adjustable spectral resolution of 0.04 - 2 cm-1 ((lambda) /(Delta) (lambda) equals 20 - 1000 at 250 micrometers ). It employs a dual-beam configuration with novel broad-band intensity beam dividers to provide high efficiency and separated output and input ports.

  13. The QUIET Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, T.; Kangaslahti, P.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leitch, E. M.; Wollack, E. J.

    2012-01-01

    The Q/U Imaging ExperimenT (QUIET) is designed to measure polarization in the Cosmic Microwave Background, targeting the imprint of inflationary gravitational waves at large angular scales ( approx 1 deg.) . Between 2008 October and 2010 December, two independent receiver arrays were deployed sequentially on a 1.4 m side-fed Dragonian telescope. The polarimeters which form the focal planes use a highly compact design based on High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs) that provides simultaneous measurements of the Stokes parameters Q, U, and I in a single module. The 17-element Q-band polarimeter array, with a central frequency of 43.1 GHz, has the best sensitivity (69 micro Ks(exp 1/2)) and the lowest instrumental systematic errors ever achieved in this band, contributing to the tensor-to-scalar ratio at r < 0.1. The 84-element W-band polarimeter array has a sensitivity of 87 micro Ks(exp 1/2) at a central frequency of 94.5 GHz. It has the lowest systematic errors to date, contributing at r < 0.01 (QUIET Collaboration 2012) The two arrays together cover multipoles in the range l approximately equals 25-975 . These are the largest HEMT-ba.sed arrays deployed to date. This article describes the design, calibration, performance of, and sources of systematic error for the instrument,

  14. Space science instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzworth, R. H.

    1989-03-01

    This grant was intended to be used for the purchase of high quality laboratory and data analysis instrumentation for the pursuit of space plasma physics research. Two of the first purchases were a 6250 BPI magnetic tape drive and a large, fast disk drive. These improved the satellite data analysis capability greatly and reduced the system backup time. With the big disk drive it became possible to dump entire magnetic tapes to disk for faster, more efficient processing. Several microcomputers improve both personnel computing as well as general connectivity within the group and on campus in general. Other microcomputers function in the laboratory setting by acting as hosts for several instrument interfaces for communication with satellite and balloon payloads as well as laboratory VLF signal processing equipment. Perhaps the single most expensive item purchased was an analog tape drive for reading and writing 16 in. analog magnetic tapes. This analog tape drive is used for the direct processing of FM and directly recorded telemetry data from the balloon and rocket payloads.

  15. Strategy as a portfolio of real options.

    PubMed

    Luehrman, T A

    1998-01-01

    In financial terms, a business strategy is much more like a series of options than like a single projected cash flow. Executing a strategy almost always involves making a sequence of major decisions. Some actions are taken immediately while others are deliberately deferred so that managers can optimize their choices as circumstances evolve. While executives readily grasp the analogy between strategy and real options, until recently the mechanics of option pricing was so complex that few companies found it practical to use when formulating strategy. But advances in both computing power and our understanding of option pricing over the last 20 years now make it feasible to apply real-options thinking to strategic decision making. To analyze a strategy as a portfolio of related real options, this article exploits a framework presented by the author in "Investment Opportunities as Real Options: Getting Started on the Numbers" (HBR July-August 1998). That article explained how to get from discounted-cash-flow value to option value for a typical project; in other words, it was about reaching a number. This article extends that framework, exploring how, once you've worked out the numbers, you can use option pricing to improve decision making about the sequence and timing of a portfolio of strategic investments. Timothy Luehrman shows executives how to plot their strategies in two-dimensional "option space," giving them a way to "draw" a strategy in terms that are neither wholly strategic nor wholly financial, but some of both. Such pictures inject financial discipline and new insight into how a company's future opportunities can be actively cultivated and harvested.

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE REDUCTION ACTIVITIES AND OPTIONS FOR A MANUFACTURER OF WRITING INSTRUMENTS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) funded a project with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy (NJDEPE) to assist in conducting waste minimization assessments at thirty small- to medium-sized businesses in the state of New Jersey. One of th...

  17. 76 FR 72652 - Basis Reporting by Securities Brokers and Basis Determination for Debt Instruments and Options

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ... proposed regulations reflect changes in the law made by the Energy Improvement and Extension Act of 2008... and Extension Act of 2008, Division B of Public Law 110-343 (122 Stat. 3765, 3854 (2008)). The likely... and Extension Act of 2008, Division B of Public Law 110-343 (122 Stat. 3765, 3854 (2008)) (the Act)...

  18. Fetal cardiac interventions: an update of therapeutic options

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Shi-Min

    2014-01-01

    Objective This article aims to present updated therapeutic options for fetal congenital heart diseases. Methods Data source for the present study was based on comprehensive literature retrieval on fetal cardiac interventions in terms of indications, technical approaches and clinical outcomes. Results About 5% of fetal congenital heart diseases are critical and timely intrauterine intervention may alleviate heart function. Candidates for fetal cardiac interventions are limited. These candidates may include critical aortic valve stenosis with evolving hypoplastic left heart syndrome, pulmonary atresia with an intact ventricular septum and evolving hypoplastic right heart syndrome, and hypoplastic left heart syndrome with an intact or highly restrictive atrial septum as well as fetal heart block. The advocated option are prenatal aortic valvuloplasty, pulmonary valvuloplasty, creation of atrial communication and fetal cardiac pacing. Conclusion Fetal cardiac interventions are feasible at midgestation with gradually improved technical success and fetal/postnatal survival due mainly to a well-trained multidisciplinary team, sophisticated equipment and better postnatal care. PMID:25372914

  19. Technology Options for a Fast Spectrum Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    D. M. Wachs; R. W. King; I. Y. Glagolenko; Y. Shatilla

    2006-06-01

    Idaho National Laboratory in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory has evaluated technology options for a new fast spectrum reactor to meet the fast-spectrum irradiation requirements for the USDOE Generation IV (Gen IV) and Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) programs. The US currently has no capability for irradiation testing of large volumes of fuels or materials in a fast-spectrum reactor required to support the development of Gen IV fast reactor systems or to demonstrate actinide burning, a key element of the AFCI program. The technologies evaluated and the process used to select options for a fast irradiation test reactor (FITR) for further evaluation to support these programmatic objectives are outlined in this paper.

  20. Clean option: An alternative strategy for Hanford Tank Waste Remediation. Volume 1, Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Straalsund, J.L.; Swanson, J.L.; Baker, E.G.; Jones, E.O.; Kuhn, W.L.; Holmes, J.J.

    1992-12-01

    Plans for remediation of the Hanford underground storage tanks are currently undergoing reevaluation. As part of this process, many options are being considered for the Tank Waste Remediation System (MRS). The ``clean option`` described here proposes an aggressive waste processing strategy to achieve the three ma or objectives: Greatly reduce the volume of high-level waste (HLW) to lessen demands on geologic repository space; decrease by several orders of magnitude the amount of radioactivity and toxicity now in the waste tanks that will be left permanently onsite as low-level solid waste (LLW); and accomplish the first two objectives without significantly increasing the total amount of waste for disposal. The study discussed here focuses on process chemistry, as it provides the foundation for achieving the clean option objectives. Because demonstrated separation steps have been identified and connected in a way that meets these objectives, the study concludes that the process chemistry rests on a firm technical basis.

  1. Robot Grasps Rotating Object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian H.; Tso, Kam S.; Litwin, Todd E.; Hayati, Samad A.; Bon, Bruce B.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental robotic system semiautomatically grasps rotating object, stops rotation, and pulls object to rest in fixture. Based on combination of advanced techniques for sensing and control, constructed to test concepts for robotic recapture of spinning artificial satellites. Potential terrestrial applications for technology developed with help of system includes tracking and grasping of industrial parts on conveyor belts, tracking of vehicles and animals, and soft grasping of moving objects in general.

  2. Propelling Extended Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humbert, Richard

    2010-01-01

    A force acting on just part of an extended object (either a solid or a volume of a liquid) can cause all of it to move. That motion is due to the transmission of the force through the object by its material. This paper discusses how the force is distributed to all of the object by a gradient of stress or pressure in it, which creates the local…

  3. Moving Object Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A method is provided for controlling two objects relatively moveable with respect to each other. A plurality of receivers are provided for detecting a distinctive microwave signal from each of the objects and measuring the phase thereof with respect to a reference signal. The measured phase signal is used to determine a distance between each of the objects and each of the plurality of receivers. Control signals produced in response to the relative distances are used to control the position of the two objects.

  4. Satellite-instrument system engineering best practices and lessons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schueler, Carl F.

    2009-08-01

    This paper focuses on system engineering development issues driving satellite remote sensing instrumentation cost and schedule. A key best practice is early assessment of mission and instrumentation requirements priorities driving performance trades among major instrumentation measurements: Radiometry, spatial field of view and image quality, and spectral performance. Key lessons include attention to technology availability and applicability to prioritized requirements, care in applying heritage, approaching fixed-price and cost-plus contracts with appropriate attention to risk, and assessing design options with attention to customer preference as well as design performance, and development cost and schedule. A key element of success either in contract competition or execution is team experience. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of success, however, is thorough requirements analysis and flowdown to specifications driving design performance with sufficient parameter margin to allow for mistakes or oversights - the province of system engineering from design inception to development, test and delivery.

  5. Imaging, cutting, and collecting instrument and method

    DOEpatents

    Tench, Robert J.; Siekhaus, Wigbert J.; Balooch, Mehdi; Balhorn, Rodney L.; Allen, Michael J.

    1995-01-01

    Instrumentation and techniques to image small objects, such as but not limited to individual human chromosomes, with nanometer resolution, to cut-off identified parts of such objects, to move around and manipulate such cut-off parts on the substrate on which they are being imaged to predetermined locations on the substrate, and to remove the cut-off parts from the substrate. This is accomplished using an atomic force microscope (AFM) and by modification of the conventional cantilever stylus assembly of an AFM, such that plural cantilevers are used with either sharp-tips or knife-edges thereon. In addition, the invention can be utilized for measuring hardness of materials.

  6. XEUS mission and instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bavdaz, Marcos; Peacock, Anthony J.; Parmar, Arvind N.; Beijersbergen, Marco W.

    2002-01-01

    The X-ray Evolving Universe Spectroscopy mission (XEUS) is an ambitious project under study by the European Space Agency (ESA), which aims to probe the distant hot universe with comparable sensitivity to NGST and ALMA. The effective optical area and angular resolution required to perform this task is 30 m2 effective area and <5 inch angular resolution respectively at 1 keV. The single Wolter-I X-ray telescope having these characteristics will be equipped with large area semiconductor detectors and high-resolution cryogenic imaging spectrometers with 2 eV resolution at 1 keV. A novel approach to mission design has been developed, placing the detector instruments on one dedicated spacecraft and the optics on another. The International Space Station (ISS) with the best ever-available infrastructure in space will be used to expand the mirror diameter from 4.5 m to 10 m, by using the European Robotic Arm on the ISS. The detector spacecraft (DSC) uses solar-electric propulsion to maintain its position while flying in formation with the mirror spacecraft. The detector instruments are protected from straylight and contamination by sophisticated baffles and filters, and employing the Earth as a shield to make the most sensitive low energy X-ray observations of the heavily red-shifted universe. After completion of an initial observation phase lasting 5 years, the mirror spacecraft will be upgraded (basically expanded to a full 10 m diameter mirror) at the ISS, while the DSC is replaced by a new spacecraft with a new suite of detector instruments optimised to the full area XEUS mirror. An industrial feasibility study was successfully completed and identified no major problem area. Current activities focus on a full system level study and the necessary technology developments. XEUS is likely to become a truly global mission, involving many of the partners that have teamed up to build the ISS. Japan is already a major partner int the study of XEUS, with ISAS having its main

  7. Planning the Next Decade of Multi-Object Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcells, M.

    2016-10-01

    We review the science drivers for the next generation of multi-object spectrographs, including Milky Way archaeology, stellar and circumstellar physics, galaxy evolution and cosmology; these new instruments will provide key data needed to reap science from some of the largest facilities on the ground and in space, such as Gaia, LOFAR or LSST. The technology developments and challenges of new instrumentation projects are presented together with an overview of 25 years of development of multi-object spectroscopy instruments on 4-meter and 10-meter class telescopes. We also review the technical challenges that need to be addressed to ensure success for the massive spectroscopic surveys currently planned.

  8. Management options for recycling radioactive scrap metals

    SciTech Connect

    Dehmel, J.C.; MacKinney, J.; Bartlett, J.

    1997-02-01

    The feasibility and advantages of recycling radioactive scrap metals (RSM) have yet to be assessed, given the unique technical, regulatory, safety, and cost-benefit issues that have already been raised by a concerned recycling industry. As is known, this industry has been repeatedly involved with the accidental recycling of radioactive sources and, in some cases, with costly consequences. If recycling were deemed to be a viable option, it might have to be implemented with regulatory monitoring and controls. Its implementation may have to consider various and complex issues and address the requirements and concerns of distinctly different industries. There are three basic options for the recycling of such scraps. They are: (1) recycling through the existing network of metal-scrap dealers and brokers, (2) recycling directly and only with specific steelmills, or (3) recycling through regional processing centers. Under the first option, scrap dealers and brokers would receive material from RSM generators and determine at which steelmills such scraps would be recycled. For the second option, RSM generators would deal directly with selected steelmills under specific agreements. For the third option, generators would ship scraps only to regional centers for processing and shipment to participating steelmills. This paper addresses the potential advantages of each option, identifies the types of arrangements that would need to be secured among all parties, and attempts to assess the receptivity of the recycling industry to each option.

  9. Portable musical instrument amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Christian, David E.

    1990-07-24

    The present invention relates to a musical instrument amplifier which is particularly useful for electric guitars. The amplifier has a rigid body for housing both the electronic system for amplifying and processing signals from the guitar and the system's power supply. An input plug connected to and projecting from the body is electrically coupled to the signal amplifying and processing system. When the plug is inserted into an output jack for an electric guitar, the body is rigidly carried by the guitar, and the guitar is operatively connected to the electrical amplifying and signal processing system without use of a loose interconnection cable. The amplifier is provided with an output jack, into which headphones are plugged to receive amplified signals from the guitar. By eliminating the conventional interconnection cable, the amplifier of the present invention can be used by musicians with increased flexibility and greater freedom of movement.

  10. Reconfigurable laser ranging instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneiter, John

    1994-03-01

    This paper describes the design and operation of a fast, flexible, non-contact, eye-safe laser ranging instrument useful in a variety of industrial metrology situations, such as in-process machining control and part inspection. The system has variable computer-controlled standoff and depth of field, and can obtain 3-D images of surfaces within a range of from 1.5 ft to almost 10 ft from the final optical element. The minimum depth of field is about 3.5 in. at 1.5 ft and about 26 in. at the far range. The largest depth of field for which useful data are available is about 41 in. Resolution, with appropriate averaging, is about one part in 4000 of the depth of field, which implies a best case resolution for this prototype of 0.00075 in. System flexibility is achieved by computer controlled relative positioning of optical components.

  11. NEUTRONIC REACTOR CORE INSTRUMENT

    DOEpatents

    Mims, L.S.

    1961-08-22

    A multi-purpose instrument for measuring neutron flux, coolant flow rate, and coolant temperature in a nuclear reactor is described. The device consists essentially of a hollow thimble containing a heat conducting element protruding from the inner wall, the element containing on its innermost end an amount of fissionsble materinl to function as a heat source when subjected to neutron flux irradiation. Thermocouple type temperature sensing means are placed on the heat conducting element adjacent the fissionable material and at a point spaced therefrom, and at a point on the thimble which is in contact with the coolant fluid. The temperature differentials measured between the thermocouples are determinative of the neutron flux, coolant flow, and temperature being measured. The device may be utilized as a probe or may be incorporated in a reactor core. (AE C)

  12. Instrumented Architectural Simulation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delagi, B. A.; Saraiya, N.; Nishimura, S.; Byrd, G.

    1987-01-01

    Simulation of systems at an architectural level can offer an effective way to study critical design choices if (1) the performance of the simulator is adequate to examine designs executing significant code bodies, not just toy problems or small application fragements, (2) the details of the simulation include the critical details of the design, (3) the view of the design presented by the simulator instrumentation leads to useful insights on the problems with the design, and (4) there is enough flexibility in the simulation system so that the asking of unplanned questions is not suppressed by the weight of the mechanics involved in making changes either in the design or its measurement. A simulation system with these goals is described together with the approach to its implementation. Its application to the study of a particular class of multiprocessor hardware system architectures is illustrated.

  13. Manipulator for hollow objects

    DOEpatents

    Cawley, William E.; Frantz, Charles E.

    1977-01-01

    A device for gripping the interior of a tubular object to pull it out of a body in which it has become stuck includes an expandable rubber tube having a plurality of metal cables lodged in the exterior of the rubber tube so as to protrude slightly therefrom, means for inflating the tube and means for pulling the tube longitudinally of the tubular object.

  14. Bibliographic Instruction Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huston, Mary M.

    The objectives presented define the basic information required of a student operating in the Library System of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. These statements of objectives are intended to provide a tangible framework for all public service personnel in the Undergraduate Library, and their various components can be coordinated to…

  15. Objects in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulrich, Laurel Thatcher

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on the use of artifacts as primary sources within the classroom. Provides examples of this technique, as well as the use of objects from personal family history. Explains how objects can help students learn more about history and society. (CMK)

  16. Eye - foreign object in

    MedlinePlus

    ... to gently flush it out with water or eye drops. If that does not work, try touching a second cotton-tipped swab to the object to remove it. If the object is on the white of the eye, try gently rinsing the eye with water or ...

  17. Images of Axial Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabal, Hector; Cap, Nelly; Trivi, Marcelo

    2011-01-01

    Imaging of three-dimensional objects by lenses and mirrors is sometimes poorly indicated in textbooks and can be incorrectly drawn. We stress a need to clarify the concept of longitudinal magnification, with simulated images illustrating distortions introduced along the optical axis. We consider all possible positions of the object for both a…

  18. 78 FR 37248 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Notice of No Objection to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... 30, 2013) (SR-OCC-2013-04). \\4\\ Securities Exchange Act Release No. 34-69603 (May 17, 2013), 78 FR..., Securities Exchange Act Release No. 34-68080 (October 22, 2012), 77 FR 66219 (November 2, 2012). \\16\\ The... Trading Commission is the Supervisory Agency. See Financial Market Utilities, 77 FR 45907 (Aug. 2,...

  19. 78 FR 63267 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Notice of No Objection to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... Notice Filing To Reflect Enhancements in OCC's System for Theoretical Analysis and Numerical Simulations....C. 78s(b)(1); 17 CFR 240.19b-4. See Release No. 69723 (June 10, 2013), 78 FR 36002 (June 14, 2013... Exchange Act and Rule 19b-4 thereunder. \\3\\ Release No. 69925 (July 3, 2013), 78 FR 41161 (July 9,...

  20. Technoeconomic comparisons of leading hydrogen storage options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpetis, C.

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the main features of the leading options for hydrogen storage and to deliver a basic framework for technoeconomic comparisons. From the utilization point of view, several major areas of hydrogen storage (e.g., for large-scale stationary storage, transient storage, onboard storage for vehicular applications) must be considered separately. In each area, more than one storage option (gaseous, liquid, adsorbed, or adsorbed in solid materials) may be economically beneficial. Typical areas of beneficial use and restrictive features will be shown for each of the different storage options.